Course Syllabus OBLIGATIONS AND CONTRACTS Jay L. Batongbacal 2nd Semester SY 2011-2012.

MW 830-11am The basic text is Tolentino, Arturo. Commentaries and Jurisprudence on the Civil Code of the Philippines. Any edition will do. Unless otherwise indicated, numbers below refer to articles of the New Civil Code. Students are required to read the all commentaries corresponding to the provisions indicated. Students are strongly advised to read all cases in the original. The schedule of assignments over the course the semester is laid out in the table at the end of these instructions. Such assignments are to be followed strictly unless otherwise instructed by the professor. More than ample allowance has been made for possible holidays, calamities, absences, or other contingencies. Where the syllabus points to an unfamiliar technical word, phrase, classification, or language, students are expected to exercise due diligence and determine their meaning. Electronic devices of any kind or any printed material are NOT permitted to be used during class hours. Electronic devices shall be turned OFF, and printed materials (codals and cases) shall be kept HIDDEN. They may be taken out only upon instruction. Only handwritten notes are permitted. During recitation, students may glance at notes, but shall NOT read them. Every violation of this rule merits one failing mark for recitation. Students shall have ready at all times, at least 2 sheets of yellow intermediate pad paper for quizzes. Each quiz is equivalent to one recitation. Although attendance is not checked, if a student called for recitation turns out to be absent, s/he shall be given one failing mark for recitation. The final grade shall have only two components: recitations/quizzes and the final exam.

PART 1: OBLIGATIONS  In General o Nature  Definition – 1156  Sources – 1157-61, 2142, 2176-7, 2180, RPC 218-9, RoC Rule 111  CASES o Barredo v. Garcia, 73 Phil 607 (1942) o Mendoza v. Arrieta, 91 SCRA 113 (1979) o PSBA v. CA, 205 SCRA 729 (1992) o Amadora v. CA, 160 SCRA 315 (1988)

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Transmissibility - 1178

Possible Classifications  By enforceability  Civil, natural – 1423-9 o CASES  Villaroel v. Estrada, 71 Phil 140 (1940)  Fisher v. Robb, 69 Phil 101 (1939)          By number of parties: sole I unilateral, joint I bilateral (separate, solidary), collective By nature of parties' undertaking: unilateral, reciprocal By presence of conditions: unconditional/pure, conditional (period, prestation, event, penal clause) By variability of obligation: definitive, alternative By divisibility of obligation: divisible, indivisible By relationship: principal, accessory By nature of action to enforce: real, personal By object of the prestation: simple, multiple, conjunctive, distributive, alternative, facultative By nature of object: generic, specific

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Breach  Concept/Distinction  Standard of care/diligence – 1163, 1173 o CASES  De Guia v. Manila Electric Co, 40 Phil 706 (1920)  US v. Barias, 23 Phil 434 (1912)  Sarmiento v. Sps. Cabrido, 401 SCRA 122 (2003)  Crisostomo v. CA, 409 SCRA 528 (2003)  Types of Breach o Substantial o Casual  CASES  Song Fo v. Hawaiian Philippines, 47 Phil 821 (1925)  Velarde v. CA, 361 SCRA 56 (2001)

Modes  Fraud (dolo): 1171 o CASES

 Woodhouse v. Halili, 93 Phil 526 (1953)  Geraldez v. CA, 230 SCRA 329 (1994) Negligence (culpa): 1171-73, 2201.2 o CASES  Gutierrez v. Gutierrez, 56 Phil 177 (1932)  Vasquez v. Borja, 74 Phil 560 (1944) Delay (mora) o In unilateral obligations  Mora solvendi: 1169  CASES o Cetus Development Corp. v. CA, 176 SCRA 72 (1989) o Santos Ventura Hocorna Foundation v. Santos, GR 153004, 04 Nov 2004 o Vasquez v. Ayala Corp., GR 149734, 19 Nov 2004 o Abella v. Francisco, 55 Phil 447 (1931)  Mora accipiendi  CASES o Vda. de Villaruel v. Manila Motor Co., 104 Phil 926 (1958) o Tengco v. CA, GR 49852, 19 Oct 1989  Compensatio morae  CASES o Central Bank v. CA, 139 SCRA 46 (1985) o In reciprocal obligations: 1159, 1192 Contravention of tenor of obligation o CASES  Chavez v. Gonzales, 32 SCRA 547 (1970)  Telefast v. Castro, 158 SCRA 445 (1988)  Arrieta v. NARIC, 10 SCRA 79 (1964)  Magat v. Medialdea, GR L-37120, 20 Apr 1983

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Remedies for Breach  Available actions  Performance: 1165 o Obligation to Give  Specific performance  To deliver o Specific/determinate thing: 1244, 1170, 1165.1, 1176 o generic thing: 1246  To preserve: 1163  To deliver all its accessions: 1166, 1164 o interest: 1176  Exception: Usury: 1175 , 1413  PD 858  PD 1685  Central Bank Circular 416  Monetary Board Circular 905  CASES  Eastern Shipping Lines v. CA, 234 SCRA 781 (1994)

Cristina Garments v. CA, 304 SCRA 356 (1999)  Keng Hua Products v. CA, 286 SCRA 257 (1998)  Security Bank v. RTC Makati, 263 SCRA 453 (1996)  Almeda v. CA, 256 SCRA 292 (1996)  First Metro Investment v. Estate of Del Sol, 420 Phil 902 (2001)  To deliver all its accessories: 1166  Substituted performance: 1165.3 o Obligation to Do: 1167  CASES  Chavez v. Gonzales, 32 SCRA 547 (1970)  Tanguling v. CA, 266 SCRA 78 (1997) o Obligation Not to Do: 1168  Damages: 1170 o Unilateral obligations: 1171 o Reciprocal obligations: 1192  Rescission: 1191-92 o CASES  Song Fo v. Hawaiian Philippines, 47 Phil 821 (1925)  Boysaw v. Interphil Promotions, 148 SCRA 365 (1987)  U.P. v. de los Angeles, 35 SCRA 365 (1970)  De Erquiaga v. CA, 178 SCRA 1 (1989)  Angeles v. Calasanz, 135 SCRA 323 (1985)  Ong v. CA, 310 SCRA 1 (1999)  Visayan Sawmill v. CA, 219 SCRA 3 78 (1993)  Deiparine v. CA, 221 SCRA 503 (1993)  Iringan v. CA, 366 SCRA41 (2001)  Vda. de Mistica v. Sps. Naguiat, 418 SCRA 73 (2003) o See also: 1786, 1788, 1484-86, RA 6552  Subsidiary Remedies o Accion Subrogatoria: 1177, 772 o Accion Pauliana: 1177, 1381  CASES  Khe Hong Seng v. CA, 355 SCRA 701 (2001)  Siguan v. Lim, 318 SCRA 725 ( 1999) o Others: 1652, 1729,1608,1893  Extinguishment of Liability: 1174 o CASES  Juan Nakpil & Sons v. CA, 144 SCRA 597 (1986)  Republic v. Luzon Stevedoring, 21 SCRA 279 (1967)  Dioquino v. Laureano, 33 SCRA 65 (1970)  Yobido v. CA, 281 SCRA 1 (1997)  Austria v. CA, 39 SCRA 527 (1971)  NPC v. CA, GRL-47379, 161 SCRA334 (1988)  Bacolod-Murcia Milling v. CA, 182 SCRA 24 (1990)  Philcomsat v. Globe Telecom, 429 SCRA 153 (2004) o Exceptions: 1174, cf. 1165, 552, 1942, 1979, 2001 , 2147 o Effect of loss/deterioration/improvement of thing subject of obligation: 1189, 1194, 566-71

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Extinguishment of Obligations  Payment or performance, 1231.1  Definition, 1232  How made o Ways, 1233, 1248-1250 o No substitution, 1244, 1246 o Costs/ expenses, 1247  CASES  Arrieta v. NARIC, 10 SCRA 79 (1964)  Kalalo v. Luz, 34 SCRA 377 (1940)  St. Paul Fire and Marine Insurance v. Macondray, 70 SCRA 122 (1976)  Papa v. A.V. Valencia, 284 SCRA 643 (1998)  PAL v. CA, 181 SCRA557 (1990) o By whom  Debtor  3rd person, 1236-39, 1427 o To whom  Creditor, 1240-41  3rd person, 1241-42 o Where made, 1251 o Application, 1252-54  CASES  Reparations Commission v. Universal Deep Sea Fishing, 83 SCRA 764 (1978)  Paculdo v. Regalado, 345 SCRA 134 (2000) o Invalid payment, 1243 o Other forms of payment  Cession, 1255  Dation in payment, 1245  CASES o DBP v. CA, GR 118342, 05 Jan 1998 o Filinvest Credit Corp. v. Philippine Acetylene, 111 SCRA 421 (1982)  Tender of payment and consignation  Requisites, 1256-57  How made, 1258  Effect of withdrawal, 1260-61  Effect of valid consignation, 1259-60  CASES  De Guzman v. CA, 137 SCRA 730 (1985)  TLG International Continental Enterprising Inc. v. Flores, 47 SCRA 437 (1972)  McLaughlin v CA, 144 SCRA 693 (1986)  Soco v. Militante, 123 SCRA 160 (1983)  Sotto v. Mijares, 28 SCRA 17 (1969)  Meat Packing Corp. v. Sandiganbayan, 359 SCRA 409 (2001)  Pabugais v. Sahijwani, 423 SCRA 596 (2004)  Loss of thing due/Impossibility of performance, 1231.2  Loss of thing due (obligation to give) o Obligation to deliver a determinate thing, 1262, 1268-69 o Obligation to deliver a generic thing, 1263 o Partial loss, 1264

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o Presumptions, 1265, 1165 Impossibility of performance (obligation to do), 1266-67 CASES o Occena v. CA, 73 SCRA 637 (1976) o Naga Telephone Co. v. CA, 230 SCRA 351 (1994) o PNCC v. CA, 272 SCRA 183 (1997)

Condonation or remission of the debt, 1231.3  Characteristics, 1270 o CASE: Yam v. CA, GR 104726, 11 Feb 1999  Creditor's renunciation of action, 1271-72, 1274  Effect, 1273 Confusion or merger of rights of the creditor (1231.4)  Requisites, 1275 o Effects on guarantors, 1276 o Effects on obligation, 1277 Compensation (1231.5)  Concept. 1278, 1286, 1289-90  Requisites, 1279, 1287-88, 1282-84 o CASES  Gan Tion v. CA, 28 SCRA 235 (1969)  Silahis Marketing v. lAC, 180 SCRA 29 (1989)  BPI v. Reyes, 255 SCRA 571 (1996)  PNB v. Sapphire Shipping, 259 SCRA 174 (1996)  Mirasol v. CA, 351 SCRA 44 (2001)  Kinds, 1281  3rd persons' interests o Guarantor (of the debt), 1280 o Assignee (of the credit), 1285 Novation (1231.6)  Concept, 1291-92 o Changing their object or principal conditions (objective novation), 1292  CASES  Miller v. CA, 38 SCRA 642 (1971)  Dormitorio v. Fernandez, 72 SCRA 388 (1976)  Magdalena Estate v. Rodriguez, 18 SCRA 967 (1966)  Reyes v. Secretary of Justice, 264 SCRA 3 5 ( 1996)  Conchingyan v. RB Surety and Insurance, 151 SCRA 339 (1987)  Broadway Centrum Condominium Corp v. Tropical Hut, GR 79642, 05 Jul 1993  California Bus Lines v. State Investment, GR 14 79 50, 11 Dec 2003 o Substituting the person of the debtor (subjective novation), 129395  CASES  Garcia v. Llamas, 417 SCRA 292 (2003)  Quinto v. People, GR 126715, 14 Apr 1999

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Subrogating a 3rd person in rights of the creditor (subrogation), 1303  Legal, 1300, 1303  CASE: Astro Electronics Corp v. Philippine Export and Foreign Loan Guarantee Corp., GR 136729,23 Sep 2003  Conventional, 1300-01  CASE: Licaros v. Gatmaitan, GR 142838, 09 Aug 2001 Effects, 1296-99, 1304

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Others (1231, p. 2)  Annulment  Rescission  Fulfillment of a resolutory condition  Prescription

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Kinds of Obligations under NCC   Pure obligations , 1179 Conditional obligations, 1181-92  Definition, 1181, 1193 o CASES  Gaite v. Fonacier, 2 SCRA 830 (1961)  Gonzales v. Heirs of Thomas, 314 SCRA 585 (1999)  When effective/demandable, 1181-82, 1185-86  Effects when condition fulfilled, 1187  Types of conditions o As to effect  Suspensive (condition precedent), 1188-89  CASES o Gonzales v. Heirs of Thomas, 314 SCRA585 (1999) o Coronel v. CA, 253 SCRA 15 (1996)  Resolutory (condition subsequent), 1189-90  CASES o Parks v. Province of Tarlac, 49 Phil 142 (1927) o Central Philippines University v. CA, 246 SCRA 511 (1995) o Quijada v. CA, 299 SCRA 695 (1998) o As to cause/origin  Potestative, 1180, 1182, 1197  CASE: Lim v. CA, 191 SCRA 156 (1990)  Casual  CASE: Naga Telephone v. CA, 230 SCRA 351 (1990)  Mixed  CASES o Osmena v. Rama, 14 Phil 99 (1909) o Hermosa v. Longora, 93 Phil 971 (1953) o Taylor v. Uy Tieng Piao, 43 Phil 873 (1922)

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o As to possibility  Impossible conditions, 1183  CASE: Roman Catholic Archbishop of Manila v. CA, 198 SCRA 300 (1991) o As to mode  Positive, 1184  Negative, 1185 When obligation ineffective o When condition is not fulfilled, 1184 o When condition is void ab initio, 1182-83 o Rescission of reciprocal obligations, 1191-92, 1189 Events pending happening of condition o Protective action, 1188 o Loss, deterioration, improvement of the thing, 1190, 1189 o Prevention of fulfillment of the condition by obligor, 1189  CASES  Taylor v. Uy Tieng Piao, 43 Phil 873 (1922)  Herrera v. Leviste, GR 55744, 28 Feb 1985

Smith Bell v. Sotelo Matti, 44 Phil 875 (1922) Rustan Pulp and Paper v. IAC, 214 SCRA 665 (1992) Romero v. CA, 250 SCRA 223 (1995)

Obligations with a Period (1193-98)  In General o Definition, 1193, 1197 o For whose benefit, 1196, 1198  CASES  Lachica v. Araneta, 47 OG No. 11, 5699, 04 Aug 1949  Ponce de Leon v. Syjuco, 90 Phil 311 (1951)  Buce v. CA, 332 SCRA 151 (2000) o Kinds of period  Effect: suspensive, resolutory  Expression: express, implied  Definiteness: definite, indefinite  Source: voluntary, legal, judicial  Types o With a suspensive period (ex die), 1193 o With a resolutory period (in diem), 1193  When courts may fix the duration, 1197 o CASES  Araneta v. Philippine Sugar Estate Development Co., 20 SCRA 330 (1967)  Central Philippine University v. CA, 246 SCRA 511 (1998)  Incidents before arrival of period o Loss, deterioration, or improvement of thing, 1194, 1189 o Payment in advance, 1195, 1197 Alternative Obligations (1199-1206)  Kinds o Simple alternative, 1199 o Facultative, 1206

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Right to choose o In general, 1200-01, 1205 o Loss of right to choose, 1200, 1202-03 Loss/Impossibility o Liability for loss of thing/impossibility of performance, 1205 o Creditor's right to indemnity for damages, 1204

Joint and Solidary Obligations (1207-22)  Joint obligations o General rule, 1207 o Presumption, 1208 o In case indivisible, 1209  Solidary obligations o When solidary, 1207 o Kinds  Source  Legal, 1915, 1945,2194,RPC 119  Conventional  Real  Parties: active, passive, mixed  Uniformity  Uniform  Varied, 1211  CASES  Ynchausti v. Yulo, 34 Phil 978 (1916)  Lafarge Cement Phil. v. Continental Cement, 443 SCRA 522 (2004) o Solidary creditors' options  Can be done, 1212, 1216  Cannot be done, 1212-13 o Solidary debtors' options  Pay any one of the solidary creditors, 1214  Avail of defenses, 1222  CASES o Ynchausti v. Yulo, 34 Phil 978 (1916) o Alipio v. CA, 341 SCRA 441 (2000) o Extinguishment of solidary obligation (1215) o Change in obligation, 1215, 1219 o Payment, 1217-20 o Loss/impossibility, 1221  CASES  Jauclan v. Querol, 38 Phil 718 (1918)  RFC v. CA, O.G. No. 6, 2457  Quisumbing v. CA, 189 SCRA 325 (1990)  Inciong v. CA, 257 SCRA 578 (1996) Divisible/Indivisible Obligations (1223 -1225)  Object not material, 1223  How determined, 1225  Right to damages, 1224  Partial invalidation, 1183 Obligations with a Penal Clause (1226-30)  Kinds of penal clause o Effect: subsidiary, complementary

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o Source: conventional, legal o Purpose: punitive, reparatory Purpose of penal clause o Ancillary obligation, 1227 o Substitute for damages, 1226, 1228  CASES  Makati Development Corp v. Empire Insurance Co., 20 SCRA 557 (1967)  Tan v. CA, 367 SCRA 571 (2001)  Country Bankers Insurance v. CA, GR 85161, 09 Sept 1991 When penalty enforceable, 1226-27 Reduction of penalty by the judge, 1229 Nullification of penalty, 1230 PART II: CONTRACTS

Concept o Definition, 1305  CASE  GSIS v. CA, 228 SCRA 183 (1993) Kinds  By name  Nominate  lnnominate, 1307 o CASE  Dizon v. Gaborro, 83 SCRA 688 (1978)  By perfection  Consensual, 1315  Real, 1316  By subject matter: things, services  By relationship to other contracts: preparatory, principal, accessory  By nature of the vinculum produced: unilateral, bilateral, reciprocal  By cause: onerous, gratuitous Essential Requisites, 1318  Consent of contracting parties  Consent o Definition, 1319  Offer, 1321, 1323-26  Acceptance, 1320, 1322  CASES  Rosenstock v. Burke, 46 Phil 217 (1924)  Malbarosa v. CA, 402 SCRA 168 (2003)  Sanchez v. Rigos, 45 SCRA 368 (1972)  Adelfa Properties v. CA, 240 SCRA 565 (1995)  Jardine Davies v. CA, GR 389 Phil 204 (2000)  State of contracting parties  Who cannot give consent, 1327-29 o Vitiated consent, 1328, 1330,  State of drunkenness, 13 28  During a hypnotic spell, 1328  Mistake, 1330-34  CASES

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Asiain v. Jalandoni, 45 Phil296 (1923) Theis v. CA, GR 126013, 12 Feb 1997 Heirs of William Sevilla, et al v. Sevilla, 402 SCRA 503 (2003) o Dumasug v. Modelo, 34 Phil252 (1916) o Hemedes v. CA, 316 SCRA 34 7 (1999) o Katipunan v. Katipunan, 375 SCRA 200 (2002) Violence, 1330, 1335-36  CASE o Martinez v. HSBC, 15 Phil 252 (1910) Intimidation, 1330, 1335-36 Undue influence, 1330, 1337 Fraud, 1330, 1344  Active fraud, 1338, 1340-43 o CASES  Songco v. Sellner, 3 7 SCRA 254 (1917)  Azurraga v. Gay, 52 Phil 599 (1928)  Laureta Trinidad v. IAC, 204 SCRA 524 (1991)  Mercado & Mercado v. Espiritu, 37 Phil 215 (1917)  Braganza v. Villa Abrille, 105 SCRA 456 (1959)  Passive fraud, 1332, 1339 o CASES  Tuason v. Marquez, 45 Phil 381 (1923)  Rural Bank of Sta. Maria v. CA, 314 SCRA 255 (1999)

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Object certain, 1347-49  CASES o Bias v. Santos, 1 SCRA 899 (1961) o Tanedo v. CA, 252 SCRA 80 (1996) Cause of the obligation, 1350-55  CASES o Liguez v. CA, 102 Phil 577 (1957) o Carantes v. CA, 76 SCRA 524 (1977) o Sps. Buenaventura et al v. CA, 416 SCRA 263 (2003)

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In General    Contracting parties, 1308, 1312, 1317  CASE o Gutierrez Hermanos v. Orense, 28 Phil571 (1914) Perfection, 1315-16 Privity of contracts, 1309-14  CASES o Florentino v. Encarnacion, 79 SCRA 192 ( 1977) o Coquia v. Fieldmen's Insurance Co., 26 SCRA 178 (1968) o Constantino v. Espiritu, 39 SCRA 206 (1971 ) o Integrated Packaging Corp. v. CA, 333 SCRA 171 (2000)

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Daywalt v. La Corporacion de los Padres Agustinos Recoletos, 39 Phil 587(1919) So Ping Bun v. CA, 314 SCRA 751 (1999) Manila Railroad Co. v. La Compania Transatlantica, 83 Phil875 (1918) DKC Holdings Corp. v. CA, 329 SCRA 666 (2000)

Form of contract, 1356-58  CASE o Hernaez v. De los Angeles, 27 SCRA 127 6 ( 1969) Stipulations  Freedom of contract, 1306,1490-91,1782,1799,2088, 2130, Family Code 87 o CASES  Gabriel v. Monte de Piedad, 71 Phil 497 (1941)  Pakistan International Airlines v. Ople, 190 SCRA 90 (1990)  Cui v. Arellano, 2 SCRA 205 (1961)  Arroyo v. Berwin, 36 Phil 386 (1917)  Filipinas Compania de Seguros v. Mandanas, 17 SCRA 391 (1966)  Bustamante v. Rosel, 319 SCRA 413 (1999)  Interpretation o Plain meaning, 1370 o Evident intention, 1370-71 o Stipulations with different possible meanings, 1375 o Interpretation of terms, 1372-73, 1376-77 o Settlement of doubts, 1374, 1378 o Application of the Rules of Court, 13 79 o CASES  Borromeo v. CA, 47 SCRA 65 (1972)  Kasilag v. Rodriguez, 69 Phil 217 (1939)  Simulation of contracts, 1345-46 o CASES  Rodriguez v. Rodriguez, 28 SCRA 229 (1914)  Suntay v. CA, 251 SCRA 430 (1995)  Blanco v. Quasha, 318 SCRA373 (1999) Reformation  Requisites, 1359, 1365, 1368 o CASES  Garcia v. Bisaya, 97 Phil 609 (1955)  Beutir v. Leande, 330 SCRA 591 (2000)  When not allowed, 1365, 1367  Concurrence of grounds, 13 61 -62  3rd party fault, 1364  Applicable law, 1350, 1369 o CASES  Atilano v. Atilano, 28 SCRA 2232 (1969)  Carrantes v. CA, 76 SCRA 524 (1977)  Sarming et al v. Dy et al, 383 SCRA 131 (2002)

Defective Contracts

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Rescissible Contracts  Nature, 1383-85  When rescissible, 13 80-82, 13 86-87  CASES o Oria v. Mcmicking, 21 Phil 24 3 (1912) o Siguan v. Lim et al, 318 SCRA 725 (1999) o Suntay v. CA, 251 SCRA 430 (1995) o Universal Food Corp. v. CA, 33 SCRA 1 (1970)  When available, 1385, 1388  Prescription, 1389 Voidable Contracts  Nature, 1390  Parties, 1397, 1402  CASES o Singsong v. Isabela Sawmill, 88 SCRA 623 (1979) o Caldwallader & Co. v. Smith, Bell & Co., 7 Phil 461 (1907) o Velarde v. CA, 361 SCRA 56 (2001)  Ratification, 1392-96  CASE o Uy Soo Lim v. Tan Unchuan, 38 Phil 552 (1918)  Effect of loss of thing due, 1400-01  Effect of annulment, 1398-99  Prescription, 1391 Unenforceable Contracts  Nature, 1317  When unenforceable, 1403, 1405  CASES o Carbonnel v. Poncio, 103 Phil 655 (1958) o PNB v. Philippine Vegetable Oil Co., 49 Phil 857 (1927) o Limketkai Sons Milling Inc. v. CA, 261 SCRA 464 (1995) o Swedish Match v. CA, 441 SCRA 1 (2004)  Who may bring action, 1408  Ratification, 1317, 1407  Form, 1406 Void/Inexistent Contracts  Nature, 1409-10, 1420  When void/inexistent, 1345-46, 1490-91 , 1378, 1409, 1422, 1782, FC 87  Remedies, 1413-16  CASES o Liguez v. CA, 102 Phil 577 (1957) o Rellosa v. Gaw Cheen Hum, 93 Phil 827 (1953) o PNB v. Lui She, 21 SCRA 52 (1967) o Frenzel v. Catitu, 406 SCRA 55 (2003)  Who may bring action/defense, 1411-12, 1421 ,  CASES o Ubarra v. Mapalad, AM MT J 91-622 ( 1993) o Modina v. CA, 317 SCRA 606 (1999)  Contracts imbued with public interest, 1417-19

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