HARD TO FIND INFORMATION ABOUT DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

(Contains Hard to Find I, II, III, IV, and V with index)

Volume 1

September 18, 2006

Jim Burke distjimb@aol.com jburke@quanta-technology.com 109 Dorchester Pines Court Cary, NC 27511 © Jim Burke

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Table of Contents
I. II. PREFACE.................................................................................................................................................. 6 SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS AND PROTECTION....................................................................... 7 A. INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................... 7 B. FAULT LEVELS ...................................................................................................................................... 7 C. LOW IMPEDANCE FAULTS .................................................................................................................... 8 D. HIGH IMPEDANCE FAULTS ................................................................................................................... 8 E. SURFACE CURRENT LEVELS ................................................................................................................. 9 F. RECLOSING AND INRUSH ....................................................................................................................... 9 G. COLD LOAD PICKUP ........................................................................................................................... 10 H. CALCULATION OF FAULT CURRENT .................................................................................................. 11 I. RULES FOR APPLICATION OF FUSES ................................................................................................... 12 J. CAPACITOR FUSING ............................................................................................................................ 13 K. CONDUCTOR BURNDOWN ................................................................................................................... 14 L. DEVICE NUMBERS .............................................................................................................................. 15 M. PROTECTION ABBREVIATIONS ........................................................................................................... 16 N. SIMPLE COORDINATION RULES ......................................................................................................... 17 O. LIGHTNING CHARACTERISTICS ......................................................................................................... 18 P. ARC IMPEDENCE ................................................................................................................................. 19 III. TRANSFORMERS................................................................................................................................. 20 A. B. C. D. IV. SATURATION CURVE ........................................................................................................................... 20 INSULATION LEVELS ........................................................................................................................... 20 Δ-Y TRANSFORMER BANKS ................................................................................................................ 21 TRANSFORMER LOADING ................................................................................................................... 21

INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS ..................................................................................................... 23 A. TWO TYPES ......................................................................................................................................... 23 B. ACCURACY .......................................................................................................................................... 23 C. POTENTIAL TRANSFORMERS .............................................................................................................. 23 D. CURRENT TRANSFORMER .................................................................................................................. 24 E. H-CLASS .............................................................................................................................................. 24 F. CURRENT TRANSFORMER FACTS ....................................................................................................... 24 G. GLOSSARY OF TRANSDUCER TERMS.................................................................................................. 26

V. VI.

RULES OF THUMB FOR UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED LOADS ................................................ 28 CONDUCTORS AND CABLES ........................................................................................................... 29 A. CONDUCTOR CURRENT RATING ........................................................................................................ 29 B. FACTS ON DISTRIBUTION CABLE........................................................................................................ 29 C. IMPEDANCE OF CABLE........................................................................................................................ 30

VII. VIII. IX.

DSG – GENERAL REQUIREMENTS................................................................................................. 31 DANGEROUS LEVELS OF CURRENT ............................................................................................. 32 CAPACITOR FORMULAS .................................................................................................................. 33

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....................... 53 INDICE DEFINITIONS ................................................................................................................................... 56 LOADING ............................................................................................................... 4.................................... RELIABILITY DATA................................................................................................................................. 53 1.................. XVIII......................... 7........................................................................................................ 63 DECIBELS ............... 38 C.................................................................................... XXIV.......................................................................................................... 49 Hard to Find ........................................................................... XXI............................. 55 MODERN PHYSICS ... D.................................... 4........................................................................ 5........................................................................................................................................................... 55 INTERRUPTION SURVEY .................................................................... 36 XI.................................................................................................................................................... XV........................................... 60 XXIII................................................................................................................................ B............................................................................ XIX............................................................................................................................................... 59 EMERGENCY RATINGS OF EQUIPMENT .................................. INTRODUCTION ............ 50 CONTENTS ........................................................................................................... 54 VOLTAGE SAGS .................................................................................. EUROPEAN PRACTICES ................................................................ 59 AMPACITY OF OVERHEAD CONDUCTORS.... 38 B................................. XVI............................................ POWER QUALITY ORGANIZATIONS............................................................................................................................................................ PRIMARY ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 38 A......................................... SAGS ............................ 51 RELIABILITY.................................................. ELECTRICITY RATES ................................. 53 EFFECT OF MAJOR EVENTS ............... 6...... 3........Part II XVII..................... 35 A.............................................................................................................. 65 4 .......... 42 A.............................................................. 35 RELAYS ...................... TRANSFORMER LOADING BASICS ........................................ 36 GENERAL..............X........ XX....................................... 35 EARTH FAULT PROTECTION .............. POWER QUALITY DATA .............................................. 57 1.................................................................................................. TYPICAL EQUIPMENT FAILURE RATES ............................. XXII.............................................. 58 DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMERS ............................... 42 XIV...................................................................................................................... 5............ 53 PRIMARY OUTAGE RATES .............. 2........................................................ 3....................................................................................................................... 60 MISCELLANEOUS LOADING INFORMATION .............................................................................. 57 EXAMPLES OF SUBSTATION TRANSFORMER LOADING LIMITS .. GENERAL.................. C......................................................................................... 40 COSTS .... 38 XII............................................................................................................... 44 INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL STUFF ....................... MOMENTARIES ................... 50 DISTRIBUTED RESOURCES................ 2........................................... 55 LOADING ................................................ XIII......................................................... 45 MAXWELL’S EQUATIONS ................................... COMPUTER JARGON 101 ....................................................................................... 6...............................................

.……………………………..83 XXXXII.....................................…………………………………………......... MAINTENANCE OF EQUIPMENT.....................…................................... WINDPOWER UPDATE………………………………………………………………………........... BPL and other miscellaneous topics…page 103) INDEX…………..............................…………………………………………................... COST OF SECTIONALIZING EQUIPMENT .........……………………………………………................80 XXXVIII...............Part III XXXIII...................77 .......................... APPLICATION OF CAPACITORS........................ FAULT IMPEDANCE…………………………………………………………………………...........…………………………….………………………………........................XXXV...........……………………………………….........................................………………………..............116 Burke Bio………………………………………………………………….................... 73 Hard to Find .....……....……………………..... 66 CUSTOM POWER DEVICES ......... XXVI.. COST OF POOR POWER QUALITY……………………………………………………………82 XXXX.............. LIGHTNING DAMAGE SURVEY……………………………………………………………….......………..............119 5 ..............................................……........................... 72 XXXII..79 XXXVII........................ STRAY VOLTAGE.XXV................................... EXPLANATION OF VOLTAGE RATINGS……………………………………………………86 Hard to Find – Part IV XXXXIII...................... 67 XXVII....... AIRLINE CABIN ANNOUNCEMENTS……………...... 71 LINE CHARGING CURRENT......82 XXXXI.... POWER QUALITY REVISITED…………….... INFORMATION ON GROUNDING………………….......92 XXXXVI......76 XXXIV........................88 XXXXIV.. XXXI..... RELIABILITY TRENDS…………….................. XXX........................ SUBSTATION VOLTAGE REGULATION…………………………………………….........90 XXXXV................ COST OF POWER INTERRUPTIONS ..................... 68 XXVIII......... OVERCURRENT RULES ....................…................ FAULTS AND INRUSH CURRENTS........................……………………………....... LOAD SURVEY RESULTS………………………………………………………………………...... 70 MAJOR EVENTS......... WAYS WE SCARE OURSELVES………………………………………………………………81 XXXIX.………………97 Hard to Find – Part V (Grounding.................. 69 XXIX.....................78 XXXVI.....................

For whatever. There have been many suggestions and much help from so many distribution engineers that it is impossible to thank all of you. if not impossible. Much of them are hard. to find in any reference book. etc) and finally the less serious sections like “Ways We Scare Ourselves” and “ Airline Cabin Announcements”. I hope they are as useful to you as they have been to me. A large percentage of them could also be classified as personal opinion so they should be used carefully. taped them to my computer. I have pinned them to my wall. this document has taken on a life of its own. copied them for my students. Jim Burke – 8/05 6 . stuffed them in my wallet and alas. Over the many years. Preface There have been little tidbits of information I have accumulated over the past 40 years that have helped me understand and analyze distribution systems.I. From the new topics such as “stray voltage” and “grounding” to the many surveys we’ve all done together (lightning. loading. this has been a lot of fun to work on.

for the same load density. i. Short circuit levels at the substation are dependent on voltage level and substation size. Areas served by a given voltage are proportional to the voltage itself indicating that. Lines can be as short as a mile or two and as long as 20 or 30 miles. B.000 amperes.8 kV Feeder Breaker Peak Load = 600 Amps Three Phase. The average short circuit level at a distribution substation has been shown. 4-Wire. Introduction The distribution system shown below illustrates many of the features of a distribution system making it unique. however. A summary of findings on faults and their effects is as follows: 138 kV Distribution Substation Transformer ISC = 10. Feeder load current levels can be as high as 600 amperes but rarely exceed about 400 amperes with many never exceeding a couple of hundred amperes. System Characteristics and Protection A. Zf is high. A high impedance fault is considered to be a fault that has a high Z due to the contact of the conductor to the earth..e. A typical lateral load current is probably 50 amperes or less even during cold load pickup conditions. to be about 10.II. Underground laterals are generally designed for 200 amperes of loading but rarely approach even half that value. a bolted fault at the end of a feeder is still classified as a low impedance fault. lines are generally 10 miles or less. The voltage level of a distribution system can be anywhere from about 5 kV to as high as 35 kV with the most common voltages in the 15 kV class. Typically. By this definition.000 A 13. Multigrounded Fuse Cutout S Normally Open Tie Switch Distribution Transformers Single Phase Sectionalizer 4-15 Holmes/Transformer Fixed Capacitor Bank Three Phase Recloser R Switched Capacitor Bank (=600 kVAR) Faulted Circuit Indicator FCI FCI Normally Open Tie Underground Lateral Normally Open Tie Pothead Elbow Disconnect 7 . a 35 kV system can serve considerably longer lines. Fault Levels There are two types of faults. by survey. low impedance and high impedance.

do not contact the neutral and do not arc to the neutral. As can be seen. If one considers the fact that an 8 foot ground rod sunk into the earth more often than not results in an impedance of 100 ohms or greater. illustrates that most surface areas whether wet or dry do not conduct well. DISTANCE 10000 Fault Current in Amps Bolted Fault 1000 Z Fault = 2 Ohms 100 0 5 10 15 20 DISTANCE IN MILES (FROM SUBSTATION) Figure 2. e. What can be concluded is that fault impedance does not significantly affect faulted circuit indicator performance since low level faults are not greatly altered.g. Faults able to be detected by normal protective devices are all low impedance faults. These faults are such that the calculated value of fault current assuming a "bolted fault” and the actual are very similar. Figure 2. This implies that the phase conductor either contacts the neutral wire or that the arc to the neutral conductor has a very low impedance. then it is not hard to visualize the fact that a conductor simply lying on a surface cannot be expected to have a low impedance. They are not detectable by any conventional means and are not to be considered at all in the evaluation of FCIs and most other protective devices. per study data. generally less than 100 amperes due to the impedance between the phase conductor and the surface on which the conductor falls. i. 300 amperes at the end of a long feeder. These faults. An EPRI study performed by the author over 10 years ago indicated that the maximum fault impedance for a detectable fault was 2 ohms or less. 8 . shown below. Typical distribution system C. Most detectable faults. called high impedance faults.e. 2 ohms of fault impedance considerably decreases the level of fault current for close in faults but has little effect for faults some distance away. High Impedance Faults High impedance faults are faults that are low in value.. indicates that 2 ohms of fault impedance influences the level of fault current depending on location of the fault.. Low impedance faults D. Low Impedance Faults Low impedance faults or bolted faults can be either very high in current magnitude (10. do indeed show that fault impedance is close to 0 ohms. FAULT LEVEL vs.Figure 1. shown below.000 amperes or above) or fairly low. Figure 3.

"Fast" Operations (Contacts Closed) "Time Delay" Operations (Contacts Closed) Fault Current DRY GRASS WET GRASS Load Current (Contacts Closed) 2 Sec 2 Sec 2 Sec Recloser Lockout (Contacts Open) Fault Initiated Time Reclosing Intervals (Contacts Open) Line Recloser Isc 30 Cycles 5 Seconds 15 Seconds 30 Seconds Dead Time Current vs. Typical reclosing cycles for breakers and reclosers are different and are shown below in Figure 4. Reclosing sequences REINFORCED CONCRETE E. CONCRETE OR DRY SAND WET SOD 60 40 20 0 WET SAND DRY SOD Type of Figure 3. Time Feeder Breaker Reclosing Figure 4. Reclosing and Inrush On most systems where most faults are temporary. High impedance fault current levels F. the concept of reclosing and the resulting inrush currents are a fact of life.Current Level in Amperes 80 DRY ASPHALT . Surface Current Levels 9 .

e. the fuse is overloaded. Figure 6.These reclosing sequences produce inrush primarily resulting from the connected transformer kVA. Relay operation during cold load pickup is generally the result of a trip of the instantaneous unit and probably results from high inrush. i.U. Magnitudes of inrush current 1) 2) 3) Inrush – lasting a few cycles Motor starting – lasting a few seconds Loss of diversity – lasting many minutes. shown below. an FCI operation would not appear to be the result of loss of diversity but rather the high inrush currents. Cold Load Pickup Cold load pickup. This inrush current is high and can approach the actual fault current level in many instances.. Figure 5 shows the relative magnitude of these currents. Since inrush occurs during all energization and not just as a result of cold load pickup. These curves are normally considered to be composed of the following three components: 30 P. What keeps most protective devices from operating is that the duration of the inrush is generally short and as a consequence will not melt a fuse or operate a time delay relay. it can be concluded that cold load pickup is not a major factor in the application of FCls. Likewise. This condition is rare on most laterals. When a lateral fuse misoperates. is often maligned as the cause of many protective device misoperations. illustrates several cold load pickup curves developed by various sources. G. of Full Load 25 20 15 10 5 0 Transformers Laterals Location Feeders Figure 5. 10 . it is probably not the result of this loss of diversity. occurring as the result of a permanent fault and long outage.

Cold-load inrush current characteristics for distribution circuits H.5 factor).Figure 6. Calculation of Fault Current Line Faults Line-to-neutral fault = % Ε 3 • 2• Ζl Where Zℓ is the line impedance and 2Zℓ is the loop impedance assuming the impedance of the phase conductor and the neutral conductor are equal (some people use a 1. Line-to-Line Faults = Ε 2Ζl Transformer Faults Line-to-neutral or three phase = Ε 3 • ΖΤ Line-to-Line = Ε 2( Ζ Τ + Ζ l ) where 2 Ζ l = RL + Χ 2 L ZT = Z T % • 10 • E 2 kVA 11 .

Rules for Application of Fuses 1) Cold load pickup after 15 minute outage.primary fuse rating is 10 to 14 times continuous when secondary breaker is used. 9) 12 .1 sec.not as great a problem today because loads are higher and hence conductors are larger.the expulsion and CLF are usually coordinated such that 2 the minimum melt I t of the expulsion fuse is equal to or less than that of the back up CLF.75% of minimum melt Two expulsion fuses cannot be coordinated if the available fault current is great enough to indicate an interruption of less than . all electric 300% for 5 minutes 2) 3) "Damage" curve .primary fuse rated 2 to 3 times. Self protected . “T” .weak link is selected to be about 2 1/2 times the continuous when no secondary breaker is used (which means that minimum melt is in the area of 4 to 6 times rating).8 cycles.I.12 times for . Current limiting fuses should be used if a single parallel group exceeds 300 KVAR. 200% for. The fuse should also clear within 300 seconds for the minimum short circuit current.01 sec. Capacitor protection: • • • The fuse should be rated for 165% of the normal capacitor current. 25 times for . Self protected .one which will successfully clear any current from its rated maximum interrupting current down to the current that will cause melting of the fusible element in one hour.SLOW and "K” . Conventional . a current limiting fuse must be used.FAST Current limiting fuses can be coordinated in the sub-cycle region.5 seconds 140% for 5 seconds after 4 hrs. If current exceeds the maximum case rupture point. • • • 8) Conductor burn down . Back-Up current limiting . General Purpose current limiting . 4) 5) 6) 7) Transformer • • • • Inrush .2 to 3 times continuous. General purpose .

Capacitor Fusing 1) Purpose of fusing: a. The minimum sparkover allowed for a gapped arrester is 1.L. Inrush .5 x 1. Energy stored in inductance = ½ Li 2 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) The maximum voltage produced by a C.1 times the fuse rated maximum voltage. can limit energy by as much as 60 to 1. the inrush current is always less than the short-circuit value at the bank location. fuse typically will not exceed 3. The capacitor bank may be connected in a floating wye to limit short-circuit current to less than 5000 amperes.65 x arrester rating. (25K-FAST). b. 3) Tests have shown that expulsion fuse links will not satisfactorily protect against violent rupture where the fault current through the capacitor is greater than 5000 amperes. which may be at the 10 second time period on the minimum melting time-current curve. The continuous-current capability of the fuse should be at least 165 percent of the normal capacitor-bank (for delta and floating wye banks the factor may be reduced to 150 percent if necessary). e. Weak link .414 = 2. d.in oil is limited to between 1500 and 3500 amperes. The total clearing characteristics of the fuse link must be coordinated with the capacitor “case bursting” curves.” 17) 18) 19) J. General practice is to keep the minimum sparkover of a gapped arrester at about 2. 4) 5) 13 . Weak link . c.one which will successfully clear any current from its rated maximum interrupting down to the rated minimum interrupting current. b. Lightning minimum fuse (12T-SLOW).approximately 1/4 cycle operation.10) Back up . CLF .for a single bank. MOVs do not have a problem with CLF “kick voltages. 2) to isolate faulted bank from system to protect against bursting to give indication to allow manual switching (fuse control) to isolate faulted capacitor from bank Recommended rating: a.in cutout is limited to 6000 to 15000 asymmetrical.1 times arrester rating.

b. Zone 2 . Hazardous zone – unsafe for most applications. a high available short circuit exceeds the expulsion or non-vented fuse rating. tree branches failing on lines. Expulsion fuses offer the following advantages: a. because fuse links of the same rating. anchor the arc at one 14 .suitable for locations which have been chosen after careful consideration of possible consequences associated with violent case ruptures. a current limiting fuse is needed to limit the high energy discharge from adjacent parallel capacitors effectively. they are inexpensive and easily replaced. the inrush current is always much greater than for a single bank. The fuse link rating should be such that it melts in one second at not over 220 amperes and in . b. Insulated conductors.for parallel banks. Short circuit current in an open wye bank is limited to approximately 3 times normal current. The case will often rupture with sufficient violence to damage adjacent units. 14) 15) K. b. but of different types and makes have a wide variation in the melting time at 300 seconds and at high currents. 9) The fuse link rating should be such that the link will melt in 300 seconds at 240 to 350 percent of normal load current. a. 7) 8) Current limiting fuses are used where: a. which are used less and less. Current limiting fuses can be used for delta or grounded wye banks provided there is sufficient short circuit current to melt the fuse within ½ cycle. offers a positive indication of operation. However. Conductor Burndown Conductor burndown is a function of (1) conductor size (2) whether the wire is bare or covered (3) the magnitude of the fault current (4) climatic conditions such as wind and (5) the duration of the fault current. a non-venting fuse is needed in an enclosure. extensive outages and hazards to life and property still occur as the result of primary lines being burned down by flashover.suitable for locations where case rupture/or fluid leakage would present no hazard.6) Inrush . Zone 1 . If burndown is less of a problem today than in years past it must be attributed to the trend of using heavier conductors and a lesser use of covered conductors. c.015 seconds at not over 1700 amperes. etc. The fuse rating must be chosen through the use of melting time-current characteristics curves. c. 10) 11) 12) 13) Manufacturers normally recommend that the group fuse size be limited by the 50% probability curve or the upper boundary of Zone 1. Safe zone – usually greater damage than a slight swelling.

the arc may travel away and clear itself. according to the functions they perform. however. with appropriate suffix letters (when necessary). Arc damage curves are given as arc is extended by traveling along the phase wire. These numbers are based on a system which has been adopted as standard for automatic switchgear by the American Standards Association.point and thus are the most susceptible to being burned down. the neutral wire is burned down. Device Numbers The devices in the switching equipment are referred to by numbers. Limbs of soft spongy wood are more likely to burn clear than hard wood. the motoring action of the current flux of an arc always tends to propel the arc along the line away from the power source until the arc elongates sufficiently to automatically extinguish itself. Figure 7 shows the burndown characteristics of several weatherproof conductors. except on multigrounded neutral circuits. Burndown characteristics of several weatherproof conductors L. Figure 7. With bare conductors. are apt to burn the lines down unless the fault is cleared quickly enough. it is extinguished but may be reestablished across the original path. With tree branches falling on bare conductors. which cause a flashover. However one-half inch diameter branches of any wood. Generally. 15 . However. the arc will stop traveling and may cause line burndown. the arc will generally re-establish itself at the original point and continue this procedure until the line burns down or the branch falls off the line. if the arc encounters some insulated object.

TRANSFER DEVICE is a manually operated device which transfers the control circuit to modify the plan of operation of the switching equipment or of some of the devices.Auxiliary Relay 1) To denote the location of the main device in the circuit or the type of circuit in which the device is used or with which it is associated. GROUND PROTECTIVE RELAY is one which functions on failure of the insulation of a machine. the following are used: N – Neutral SI . DIFFERENTIAL CURRENT RELAY is a fault-detecting relay which functions on a differential current of a given percentage or amount. A-C OVERCURRENT RELAY (inverse time) is one which functions when the current in an a-c circuit exceeds a given value. A-C POWER DIRECTIONAL OR A-C POWER DIRECTIONAL OVERCURRENT RELAY is one which functions on a desired value of power flow in a given direction or on a desired value of overcurrent with a-c power flow in a given direction. A-C CIRCUIT BREAKER is one whose principal function is usually to interrupt short-circuit or fault currents.Auxiliary Relay YY . not applied to devices 51N and 67N connected in the residual or secondary neutral circuit of current transformers. however. PHASE-ANGLE MEASURING RELAY is one which functions at a predetermined phase angle between voltage and current. Protection Abbreviations CS -Control Switch X .Device No. A-C UNDERVOLTAGE RELAY is one which functions on a given value of single-phase a-c under voltage. This function is. 43 50 51 52 64 67 78 87 M.Seal-in 16 . BUS-TIE CIRCUIT BREAKER serves to connect buses or bus sections together. or otherwise identify its application in the circuit or equipment.Auxiliary Relay Z .Auxiliary Relay Y . SHORT-CIRCUIT SELECTIVE RELAY is one which function instantaneously on an excessive value of current. transformer or other apparatus to ground. 11 24 27 Function and Definition CONTROL POWER TRANSFORMER is a transformer which serves as the source of a-c control power for operating a-c devices.

4) To indicate special features.Restraining coil TC . These auxiliary switches are designated as follows: “a" .closed when main device is in de-energized or non-operated position.2) To denote parts of the main device (except auxiliary contacts as covered under below).Low set unit of relay OC . N. characteristics. the following are used: H .High set unit of relay L . one letter or combination of letters has only one meaning on individual equipment.closed when main device is in energized or operated position "b” . the conditions when the contacts operate. “Burke 2X rule” 17 . Simple Coordination Rules 3Ø Main Time Overcurrent Pickup 2x Load 2x Load (Minimum) 1Ø Lateral 2x Full Load (Minimum) 2x Full Load (Minimum) Figure 8.Trip coil 3) To denote parts of the main device such as auxiliary contacts (except limit-switch contacts covered under 3 above) which move as part of the main device and are not actuated by external means. the following are used: AERHRMTDCTDDOTDOAutomatic Electrically Reset Hand Rest Manual Time-delay Closing Time-delay Dropping Out Time-delay Opening To prevent any possible conflict.Operating coil RC . or are made operative or placed in the circuit. or some other distinctive abbreviation is used. Any other words beginning with the same letter are written out in full each time.

220.000 to 15.000 amperes Minimum . measured to date – I% of records at least 5% of records at least 10% of records at least 50% of records at least approx. O.000 amps 40.1 per mile per year with keraunic levels between 30 and 65.9% Col.55% ..500 amps 7) Percent of distribution arresters receiving lightning currents at least as high as in Col. The patented (just kidding) Burke 2X Rule states that when in doubt pick a device of twice the rating of what it is you're trying to protect as shown in Figure 8.4% . 4 Discharge Circuits 1. you will generally get into trouble.4% Col.000 amps 18 .000 amps 5. Once exception to this rule is the fusing of capacitors where minimum size fusing is important to prevent case rupture.approximately 95% are negative Annual variability (Empire State Building) a. Minimum 50 21 3 5) Direct strokes to T line . Lightning Characteristics 1) Stroke currents a. c. you might want to go higher than this.12% Col. For various reasons.6% .000 amps 10. etc. 2) 3) 4) Maximum .e. Table 2 Col.500 amps 6. 4.200 amperes Average-10. This rule picks the minimum value you should normally consider and is generally as good as any of the much more complicated approaches you might see. Average c. 3 Rural Circuits 45% 12% 6% 2. 40. 2 Semi-urban Circuits 35% 7% 3.000 amperes Rise times – 1 to 100 microseconds Lightning polarity .000 amps 10. which is usually OK.000 amps 22. Maximum number of hits b.000 amps 1. To go lower.000 amps 20.5% .There are few things more confusing in distribution engineering than trying to find out rules of overcurrent coordination. b. 6) Lightning discharge currents in distribution arresters on primary distribution lines (composite of urban and rural) Max. i. 1 Urban Circuits 20% 1. what size fuse to pick or where to set a relay.

range Max. Zarc = Assume: IF = 500 amperes = I Arc length = 2 ft. a commonly accepted value for currents between 70 and 20. Arc Impedence While arcs are quite variable.1 per year 6 per year 12 operations. recorded Max. Zarc = 440 • 2/5000 = . P. essentially independent of current magnitude.176 ohms ∴ Arc impedance is pretty small. number of successive operations of one arrester during one multiple lightning stroke .000 amperes has been an arc drop of 440V per foot.5 to 1.8) Number of distribution arrester operations per year (excluding repeated operations on multiple strokes). 440 l / I l = length of arc (in feet) I = current 19 . Average on different systems .

0 26 34 40 88 110 145 1.9 75 95 125 27 35 70 24 30 60 75 95 150 34.0 1.5 kV 10 60 kV (Rms) 10 21 kV (Rms) 6 20 kV (Crest) 30 60 8.III.0 3.2 x 50 Wave kV 10 19 kV 36 69 Microseconds 1.2 5.6 1. Insulation Levels The following table gives the American standard test levels for insulation of distribution transformers.5 46.0 70 95 140 175 290 400 3.0 25.2 x 50 Wave) Chopped Wave Insulation Class and Nominal Bushing Rating kV 1. Table 3 Windings Impulse Tests (1.0 69.0 3.0 Bushings Bushing Withstand Voltages Lowfrequency Dielectric Tests Minimum Time to Flashover Full Wave 60-cycle Oneminute Dry 60-cycle 10second Wet Impulse 1. Saturation Curve Figure 9 B.0 150 250 350 95 120 175 95 120 175 200 250 350 20 .66 15.8 1. Transformers A.

• • • 21 .C. Oil overflow or excessive pressure could result. Peak short duration loading should never exceed 200%. The temperature of top oil should not exceed 110C for those with a 65C average winding rise. etc. Δ-Y transformer banks D. The temperature of top oil should never exceed 100 degrees C for power transformers with a 55 degree average winding rise insulation system. Exceeding these temperature could result in free bubbles that could weaken dielectric strength. • • Insulation life of the transformer is where it loses 50% of its tensile strength. A transformer may continue beyond its predicted life if it is not disturbed by short circuit forces. Hot spot should not exceed 150C for 55C systems and 180C for 65C systems. Transformer Loading When the transformer is overloaded. the high temperature decreases the mechanical strength and increases the brittleness of the fibrous insulation. Even though the insulation strength of the unit may not be seriously decreased. Δ-Y Transformer Banks The following is a review of fault current magnitudes for various secondary faults on a Δ-Y transformer bank connection: Figure 10. transformer failure rate increases due to this mechanical brittleness.

a 2. In the event of an emergency. Percent Daily Load for Normal Life Expectancy with 30°C Cooling Air Table 4 • Duration of Peak load Hours 0.• Standards recommend that the transformer should be operated for normal life expectancy.5% loss of life per day for a transformer may be acceptable.5 1 2 4 8 Self-cooled with % load before peak of: 50% 189 158 137 119 108 70% 178 149 132 117 107 90% 164 139 124 113 106 22 .

Potential Transformers IN OU RCF= True Ratio Marked Ratio (RCF generally >1) Burden is measured in VA ∴ VA = E2 Zb Assume: 10:1 R X 10V . the higher the burden. the greater the error) C.1 10 = 1.9v Zb True Ratio = 10 .1 ⇒ RCF = 11.IV.9 = 11.11 Marked Ratio = 10 1 = 10 23 . Instrument Transformers A. I and f) 3) Burden (in general. Two Types 1) Potential (Usually 120v secondary) 2) Current (5 amps secondary at rated primary current) B. Accuracy 3 factors will influence accuracy: 1) Design and construction of transducer 2) Circuit conditions (V.

2) 3) 24 . Current Transformer Facts 1) Bushing CTs tend to be accurate more on high currents (due to large core and less saturation) than other types. if ever.002 X 5 secondary primary = 600 X 1.003 = 120. 10H200 ⇒ 10% error @ 200V ∴ 20 (5 amp sec) = 100 amps ⇒ Zb = 200/100 = 2Ω ⇒ 5 amps to 100 amps has ≤ 10% error if Zb = 4Ω OR If Zb = 4Ω 200V/4Ω = 50 amp (10 times normal) H-class – constant magnitude error (variable %) L-class – constant % error (variable magnitude) Example: True Ratio = Marked Ratio X RCF Assume Marked is 600/5 or 120:1 at rated amps and 2 ohms 1. H-Class Vs is fixed Is varies Nearly constant ratio error in % Burdens are in series e.2 X 1.2 @ 20% amps True = 600 X .Voltage at secondary is low and must be compensated by 11% to get the actual primary voltage using the marked ratio. chart 5 amp 2Ω @ 100% amps True = 120 X 1.36 (Marked was 120) F.002 and 1. At low currents. Rarely. Current Transformer True Ratio = Marked Ratio X RCF True Ratio ∴RCF = Marked Ratio E.003 are from manuf.002 = 601. D. is it necessary to determine the phase-angle error.g. BCT's are less accurate due to their larger exciting currents.

6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) d. for which the secondary leakage reactance is so small that it may be assumed to be zero. Method assumes CT is supplying 20 times its rated secondary current to its burden. then the applicable classification is 10L200. The curve of rms terminal voltage versus rms secondary current is approximately the secondary-excitation curve for the test frequency. Burden (max) . c. f. or other. CT's with completely distributed secondary leakage. e. CT burden decreases as secondary current increases. "Ratio correction factor” is defined as that factor by which the marked ratio of a current transformer must be multiplied to obtain the true ratio. The reactance of a tapped coil varies as the square of the coil turns. These curves are considered standard application data. The CT is classified on the basis of the maximum rms value of voltage that it can maintain at its secondary terminals without its ratio error exceeding a specified amount. 10H800 means the ratio error is l0% at 20 times rated voltage with a maximum secondary voltage of 800 and high internal secondary impedance.4) 5) Accuracy calculations need to be made only for three-phase and single-phase to ground faults. For the same voltage and error classifications. the impedance approaches the dc resistance. because of saturation in the magnetic circuits of relays and other devices. "H" stands for high internal secondary impedance. b.maximum specified voltage/20 x rated sec. g. ASA Accuracy Classification: a. i. "L" stands for low internal secondary impedance (bushing type). the H transformer is better than the L for currents up to 20 times rated. At high saturation. The secondary-excitation-curve method of accuracy determination does not lend itself to general use except for bushing-type. 25 . Impedance varies as the square of the pickup current. the better the CT. and the resistance varies approximately as the turns. It is usually sufficiently accurate to add series burden impedance arithmetically. h. A given l200/5 busing CT with 240 secondary turns is classified as l0L400: if a 120-turn completely distributed tap is used. The higher the number after the letter. Burden impedance are always connected in wye.

are used whenever the line voltage exceeds 480 volts or whatever lower voltage may be established by the user as a safe voltage limit.B-0. associated with one end of each winding.3 accuracy class means the maximum error will not exceed 0. 1. 12. B-0. @ 0.9. ratio is 200:5 or 40: 1.85 pf. May be W. 7200:120 or 60:1. Example . and Y. Rated Burden .5.A.ratio of primary to secondary current.B-0. @ 0. Transformer Ratio (TR) . ratio is 4:1. 1Opf.T. For 200:5 C.T.3 at BO. @ 0.total ratio of current and voltage transformers. Voltage Transformer Ratio . depending on construction (including hardware). M is 35 V.5 V. For current transformer rated 200:5. @ 0.normally designated for current transformers and is the factor by which the rated primary current is multiplied to obtain the maximum allowable primary current without exceeding temperature rise standards and accuracy requirements.5.A.the relative polarity of the primary and secondary windings of a current transformer is indicated by polarity marks (usually white circles).3 at W.5.5.if a 400:5 CT has a TRF of 4. Y is 75 V. 0. For example. X.A. Glossary of Transducer Terms Voltage Transformers .20 pf. Y. M. leads and other connected devices without causing an error greater than the stated accuracy classification. Current Transformer .the load which may be imposed on the transformer secondaries by associated meter coils. Continuous Thermal Rating Factor (TRF) . Weatherability . Rated Insulation Class . 5. while the potential transformer might be 0.1.70pf. They are usually rated on a basis of 120 volts secondary voltage and used to reduce primary voltage to usable levels for transformer-rated meters.G.A.ratio of primary to secondary voltage. and B-0.2. Associated Engineering Company has transformers rated for 600 volts through 138 kV. Current Transformer Ratio . Current Transformer Burdens . When 26 . The number used to indicate accuracy is the maximum allowable error of the transformer for specified burdens. X is 25 V.B0.3% at stated burdens. the CT will continuously accept 400 x 4 or 1600 primary amperes with 5 x 4 or 20 amperes from the secondary.or B-1.A. The thermal burden rating of a voltage transformer shall be specified in terms of the maximum burden in volt-amperes that the transformer can carry at rated secondary voltage without exceeding a given temperature rise.0. 5.8. Polarity .accuracy of an instrument transformer at specified burdens.usually rated on a basis of 5 amperes secondary current and used to reduce primary current to usable levels for transformer-rated meters and to insulate and isolate meters from high voltage circuits. M. TR = 40 x 4 = 160..Corresponding volt-ampere values are 2. For voltage transformer rated 480:120. Voltage Transformer Burdens .85pf and Z is 200 V.0. X.normally expressed in ohms impedance such as B0. 22. Accuracy Classification . and 45. @0. and 480:120 P.denotes the nominal (line-to-line) voltage of the circuit on which it should be used. The complete expression for a current transformer accuracy classification might be 0.2.transformers are rated as indoor or outdoor.normally expressed as volt-amperes at a designated power factor. or Z where W is 12.

Hazardous Open-Circulating . This may be done automatically with a by-pass in the socket or by a test switch for A-base meters. Therefore. a current in phase with it leaves the polarity end of the secondary winding. 27 . the secondary terminals should always be short circuited before a meter is removed from service.operation of CTs with the secondary winding open can result in a high voltage across the secondary terminals which may be dangerous to personnel or equipment.current enters at the polarity end of the primary winding. Representation of primary marks on wiring diagrams are shown as black squares.

Equivalent losses "Place all the load at 1/3 the distance to obtain the same losses as an evenly distributed load."2/3 rule" 2/3 L 2/3 kVAR Figure 11.V. Optimum capacitor placement "Optimum placement of capacitors at 2/3 the distance of the line." 3) Voltage drop . Equivalent voltage drop "Place 100% of load at 1/2 point on the feeder to obtain the same voltage drop as the voltage at the end of the feeder for a uniform distribution load." 2) Losses ."1/2 rule" 1/2 L 100% Load Figure 13." 28 . Three very helpful rules assuming a uniformly distributed load are as follows: 1) Capacitor placement ."1/3 rule” 1/3 L 100% Load Figure 12. sizing the bank to meet 2/3 of the feeder VAR needs. Rules of Thumb for Uniformly Distributed Loads It is very helpful to be able to perform a quick sanity check of system conditions "usually in your head" to develop a "feel" for whether there might be a problem.

30% use fiber optics in the underground system for telephone. Conductors and Cables A.VI. SCADA. TRXLPE and EPR use is increasing. Facts on Distribution Cable 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Cable replacement occurs usually after 2 or 3 failures. HMWPE and non-jacketed XLPE have bad records. followed by the use of the semi-conducting jacket. Jacketed EPR has good record. followed by a thumper by itself then an FCI. video. Most common method to find fault is radar with a thumper. Most utilities use an insulating jacket type. Conductor Current Rating Table 5 Wire Size 6 4 2 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 336 397 565 795 Amps 55 75 105 145 170 200 240 330 370 480 620 B. 6) 7) 8) 9) 29 . Conduit is on the rise but most cable is direct buried. computer-tocomputer. etc. About 60% of all cable is still going in direct buried.

211 ohm/mile (12kV.122 + j . 1000 KCM) Impedance of the lateral feed is: 1) 2) 3) 4) . Impedance of Cable Impedance of the main feeder is: 1) 2) .C.119 + j .238 ohm/mile (34kV. #4. 4/0. 1000 KCM) . 1∅) 1.607 + j .502 + j . 4/0. 3∅) .175 ohms/mile (12kV.445 + j . #4.552 ohms/mile (12kV.500 + j . 1∅) Table 6 30 .190 ohms/mile (35kV.595 ohms/mile (34kV. 3∅) 1.

85 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 31 .2% at the dedicated transformer.< 5% Hz and removed in < . Frequency .< 5% . DSG – General Requirements 1) Voltage .Customer shall not cause voltage excursions. Flicker .sum of squares Faults . Any voltage excursions must be disconnected within 1 second.VII.≥ .Remove DSG in < 1 second for utility fault Power factor .2 seconds Harmonics .

Effect of Current on Humans 32 .VIII. Dangerous Levels of Current Figure 14.

b.IX. Xc = Xc = Xc = 106 (2πf)C 2653 C at 60HZ (1μF = 2653 Ω) KV2 x 103 KVAR 4) Capacitance – C a. Capacitor Formulas Nomenclature: C = Capacitance in μF V = Voltage A = Current K = 1000 Capacitors connected in parallel: CTotal = C1 + C2 + C3 + . b.Capacitors connected in series: 1) 2) CTotal = CTotal = C1 x C2 C1 + C2 1 + 1 C1 C2 1 + 1 C3 + -- For two capacitors in series For more than two capacitors in series 3) Reactance – Xc (Capacitive) a. b. KVAR = KVAR = (2πf)C (KV)2 103 103 (KV)2 Xc 33 . b. C= C= 106 (2πf) Xc KVAR x 103 (2πf)(KV)2 5) Capacitive Kilovars a.

Power Factor = Tan θ KVAR KW Cos θ KW KVA 34 .6) Miscellaneous a.

2 kV 12.5 kV 24. 120/240V. European / US Voltage Levels Secondary Europe 380Y/220V. 3-Phase.S. 416Y/240V. European Practices A.Very inverse CDG 14 . 4-Wire & 1Ø.5 kV 69 kV 115 kV 138 kV 230 kV 34.K.Time multiplier setting (similar to time dial) CTU .9 kV 13. 4-Wire U.Earth fault relay set between 1 % and 16 % of rated current CDG 11 . 3Ø.47 kV United States Figure 15.Standard overcurrent relay CDG 13 .Extremely inverse relay CTU 12 . Relays TMS . European Secondary B. 208Y/120V.Definite time relay 35 . Primary European EHV 400 kV 500 kV 765 kV HV 36 kV to 300 kV Distribution System Generator MV 33 kV 22 kV 11 kV 380/222V 416/240V 120/240V 208/120V 345 kV 500 kV 765 kV 34.8 kV 13. 3-Wire Figure 16.X. 3Ø. 4-Wire U.

120/240 1-phase transformers heavily overloaded – 25 kVA typical. General Autoreclosure on overhead is normal Use normally open loop most of the time Even on a 3-wire system there may be some unbalance due to capacitors which must be considered when setting the earth relay Conventional relays will not operate for unearthed systems For ungrounded systems: current and voltage unbalance must exceed a predetermined amount phase angle must occur within a specified range (makes capacitor application difficult) I (fault) is highly influenced by the capacitance of the network Maximum fault levels allowed are: Table 7 KV 33 22 11 kA 25 20 20 11-kV system is mostly radial and underground 33-kV system is looped and mostly underground Most 4l5-volt transformers are l00 kVA or less and about 50% loaded Table 8 . 4-wire (UK) Less load per home than U. per transformer No overload Fuses are current limiting 100 to 200 dwellings per transformer 36 . 4 homes/transformer fairly typical Higher load density Fuses are typically expulsion Europe 380 Wye/220. 3-phase.S.S. 4-wire secondary feeds.Distribution System Design Comparison U. 4-wire. 3-phase xfrms >> $ 1-phase Residential units in 300-500 kVA range 5 to 10 radial. Earth Fault Protection Based on the premise that all loads are 3 phase and balance Considers the effect of line capacitance mismatch Uses residual current D.C. 416 Wye/240.

132 kV 33 kV Zig-Zag Resistance Grounded No Fuses Clearing Time 5-8 Cycles Distance (sometimes) and Overcurrent Zone 1-5-8 Cycles Zone 2-30-33 33 kV 11 kV Uniground Figure 17. 33 kV/11 kV Distribution 37 .

Momentaries Typical number of customer momentaries caused by the utility system ≈ 5 Typical number of customer momentaries for all causes ≈ 10 B.XI.1 IEEE Flicker Task Force IEEE 1100 Emerald Book National Electric Code IEEE 142 Green Book Wiring and Grounding/Powering Sensitive Equipment Transients OEEEA NSI C62 IEEE 1250 Distribution Power Quality Working Group IEEE 1409 Custom Power Task Force Guides and standards on surge protection Guide on equipment sensitive to momentary voltage variations Developing guidelines for application of power electronics technologies for power quality improvement on the distribution system Distribution Systems/Custom Power Solution 38 . and Flicker ANSI C84. Power Quality Organizations Committee/Standard Activity Characterizing Power Quality/Power Quality Indices/General Power Quality Power Quality Standards coordinating committee SCC-22 IEEE 1159 Monitoring Power Quality IEEE 141 Red Book IEEE 241 Gray Book Coordinates all power quality standards activities A number of task forces addressing different aspects of power quality monitoring requirements and definitions General guidelines for industrial commercial power systems General guidelines for commercial power systems Harmonics IEEE P519A Filter Design Task Force Task Force on Harmonic Limits for Single Phase Equipment Developing application guide for applying harmonic limits Guidelines for harmonic filter design Developing guidelines for applying harmonic limits at the equipment level Industrial and commercial Power system Reliability Evaluating compatibility of power systems for industrial process controllers Voltage rating for power systems and equipment Developing a coordinated approach for characterizing flicker Guidelines for powering and grounding sensitive equipment Safety requirements for wiring and grounding Industrial and commercial Power System grounding Voltage Sags/Momentary Interruptions IEEE 493 Gold Book IEEE 1346 Steady State Regulation. Power Quality Data A.9 PU of nominal C. Sags Typical number of customer sags caused by the utility system ≈ 50 Typical number of customer sags for all causes ≈ 350 *Voltage below . Unbalance.

8 pu 0.5 cycles – 3 sec 30 cycles – 3 sec 30 cycles – 3 sec 3 sec – 1 min 3 sec – 1 min 3 sec – 1 min Longer 1 minute Longer 1 minute Longer 1 minute Steady state Steady state Steady state Steady state Steady state Steady state Intermittent Less than 10 sec Typical Voltage Magnitude na 0.05 – 2% 0 – 20% 0 – 20% NA 0 – 1% 0.4 pu Less than 0.1 – 1.1 pu 0.1 – 1.9 pu 1.1 – 0.9 pu 1.1 – 0.1 pu 0.5 – 30 cycles 0.D.1 – 7% NA Voltage Fluctuations Power Frequency Variations 39 .2 pu .1 – 1.4 pu 0.1 – 1.0 pu 0.9 pu 1.9 pu 1.5 – 30 cycles .5 – 2% .8 pu Less than 0. Categories and Typical Characteristics of Power System Disturbances Table 9 Categories Transients Short Duration Variations Impulsive Oscillatory Instantaneous Sag Instantaneous Swell Momentary Interruption Momentary Sag Momentary Swell Temporary Interruption Temporary Sag Temporary Swell Long Duration Variations Sustained Interruption Undervoltage Overvoltage Voltage Imbalance Waveform Distortion DC Offset Harmonics Inter-harmonics Notching Noise Typical Duration nsec to msec 3 msec .8 – 0.1 – 0.

Western Mass.130 $0. Duquesne Light Co.0899 $0.Feb.146 $0.152 $0.1761 $0.125 $0.1058 $0.XII.135 $0.148 $0.1482 $0. United Illuminating Co. – Kauai Div.1067 $0.136 $0.1328 $0. Electricity Rates Table 10 For Medium Size Commercial and Industrial Utility A B C D E F G Commercial $/kWh Industrial $/kWh $0.1279 $0.137 $0. Electric Co.131 $0. Commonwealth Electric Co.0998 $0.124 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners 40 .1039 $0.'91 . Nantucket Electric Co.0732 $0.1690 Table 11 $0.1672 $0. *For monthly residential sales of 500 kWh. Orange & Rockland Utilities Inc. Cost $/kWh* National Rank Long Island Lighting Co. Philadelphia Electric Co. Hawaii Electric Co.0720 $0.156 $0. Consolidated Edison Co.'92 Company State Avg. Pennsylvania Power Co.0950 Twelve Most Expensive Companies Investor-Owned Electric Utilities Dec. Citizens Utilities Co.137 $0. Source: New York Pennsylvania Pennsylvania Pennsylvania New York Massachusetts Hawaii Massachusetts Massachusetts New York Hawaii Connecticut $0.

055 $0. Source: Idaho Washington Washington Oregon Idaho Kentucky Oregon Washington Dist.'91 . Portland General Elec. Washington Water Power Co. Pacific Power & Light Co.043 $0.053 $0.Feb.047 $0.051 $0.052 $0. Minnesota Power & Light Co. Kingsport Power Co. Pacific Power & Light Co. Cost $/kWh* National Rank Washington Water Power Co.054 $0. Kentucky Utilities Co.056 191 192 189 188 187 186 185 184 183 182 181 180 *For monthly residential sales of 500 kWh.044 $0.041 $0. National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners 41 .047 $0. Minnesota Oregon Tennessee $0.Table 12 Twelve Least Expensive Companies Investor-Owned Electric Utilities Dec. Puget Sound Power & Light Co. Potomac Electric Power Co. Idaho Power Co. Co. of Col. Idaho Power Co.054 $0.'92 Company State Avg.

350 $40.5 kV (loop feed) $3119 $3931 $4725 $5728 $ 9/kVAR $ 5.357 $25.574 $20. misc. Costs A.377 $28. Three Phase Padmounts 12.034 $21.841 $2552 $2986 $3591 $4972 34. material and transformer. General 1) Annual system capacity: Generation: Transmission: Distribution: Total: 2) Cost of capacitors (installed) Substations: Line: Padmounted: 3) Transformers (installed) a.XIII.515 34.450 $11. 42 . Single phase padmounts (installed) 12.718 $13. but no primary or secondary cable. pads.5 kV (loop feed) 25 kVA 50 kVA 75 kVA 100 kVA b.608 $21.605 $15.584 $11.5 kV (loop feed) 75 kVA 150 300 500 750 1000 1500 2500 $ 7.5/kVAR $ 21/kVAR $ 704/kW $ 99/kW $ 666/kW $1469/kW NOTE: Above costs include necessary cable terminations.749 $ 9.5 kV (loop feed) $10.824 $50.

040. 20/37.960.$111 each 43 . e.026.822 $ 20.000 $3. D.$180/ft. 5 feeder substation 230-13. c.000 $4.3∅ switch Replace .000 $1.B. 5 feeder substation $3. 3∅ . 4 feeder substation 35-12. conduit Install transformer Change out transformer Install . 27/45 MVA.348.2 kV. 12/16/20 MVA. Lateral. labor.5 kV. Cable (approximate) • • • • • • • • Mainline. 115-13. 5 feeder substation 230-34.2kV. 7) Elbows (installed) . 60/112 MVA. 1∅ .000 5) Miscellaneous costs: a. 60/112 MVA.871 $ 11.3∅ switch Install .050.698 $ 2.000 $5. b.3 MVA. 2 feeder substation 115-35kV. b.367 6) Cost of replacing cable: a. and material) a.4) Substation costs (includes land. conduit Mainline.5 kV.203 $ 11.$360/ft. d.1∅ fuse switch $ 90/ft $ 38/ft $ 63/ft $ 2.

three-phase. padmounted Transformers. three-phase.2%/yr .XIV. padmounted Primary splices.06%/yr .18 interruptions/yr. subsurface Switches. subsurface Switches.01%/yr . rubber molded Elbows: Rubber molded. air.02%/yr 44 .4 min/yr.4%/yr 0.12%/yr 0. loadbreak Rubber molded. CAIDI . padmounted Transformers.06%/yr .96 min/yr. 600 amp Typical values for customer based indices are: • • • SAIDI .1.12%/yr 0. oil. non-loadbreak Tees.3%/yr 0.1%/yr 0.81. single phase. single phase. padmounted Fuse cabinet. Reliability Data Table 13 Failure Rate Data Component Primary Cable (polyethylene) Secondary Cable (polyethylene) Transformers.62%/yr 0. Failure Rate 6/100 mi-yr (conductor miles) 10/100 mi-yr (circuit miles) 0. SAIFI . single phase. padmounted Fuse cabinet.

Motors a.0 0. equipments and problems that the utility distribution engineer generally has a hard time finding. The purpose of this section is to address some of the more commonly encountered terminology.0 pf KVA I HP 1. Major Categories of Motors Alternating Current Types Three-Phase Induction Synchronous Single-Phase Induction-Run. Electromagnetic Field Permanent Magnet Field Series Field Only KVA/Hp Conversions (at full load) Induction 1 .100 Hp Induction 101 .1000 Hp Induction > 1000 Hp Synchronous 0.95 0. Split Phase Start Shaded-Pole Universal (Commutator) Repulsion Direct Current Types Shunt-Characteristic: Shunt-Characteristic: Series-Characteristic: Compound Wound b.0 0. Industrial and Commercial Stuff Introduction Utility engineers have historically needed to know a lot about their own system and very little about their customers system and loads.9 pf Synchronous 1. Capacitor Start Induction-Run.9 0.8 pf Synchronous 0. Competitive times and the emphasis on power quality have forced the utility engineer to venture to the "other side of the meter" to address the power related concerns and problems of specific industrial processes and components.XV.8 45 .9 1.

The series motor is identical in construction to the shunt motor except the field is connected in series with the armature.c. If load decreases.In this motor the field current is independent of the armature having been diverted (shunted) through its own separate winding.Typical speed versus load characteristics of various dc motors 46 . Torque and power however are higher.A compound motor carries both a series field and a shunt field. so flux is high and torque is high. At startup. Increasing the field current actually causes the motor to slow down. The diagram shown below illustrates the basic characteristics of these motors: Figure 18 . Series and Compound • Shunt . • Compound . the shunt field remains the same but the series field increases. low speed applications such as the starter motor of a car or the motors used for electric locomotives. Series motors are for high torque. At no load it looks like a shunt motor. The shunt field is always stronger.Shunt. Reduced-voltage Starters Table 14 Reduced-Voltage Starter Type Autotransformer – 50% tap Autotransformer – 65% tap Autotransformer – 80% tap Wye-delta Part-Winding Primary Resistor – 80% tap Primary Resistor – 65% tap Line Current As % Of Full-Voltage Starting 30% 47% 69% 33% 70% 80% 65% d. As load increases. • Series . Characteristics of Motors DC Motors • Advantage of DC Motor is that the torque-speed characteristic can be varied over a wide range and still have high efficiency • 3 Basic Types . armature current is high. speed goes up.

and fans that have variable-torque requirements Six basic types: • DC drive with DC motor • Voltage-source inverter with induction motor • Slip-energy recovery system with wound-rotor motor • Current-source inverter with induction motor • Load-commutated inverter with synchronous motor • Cycloconverter drive for either a synchronous or an induction motor The figure. Adjustable-Speed Drives • • • Adjustable speed drives have the advantage of being both efficient and reliable Used for compressors. A synchronous motor is identical to a generator of the same rating. 47 . Control of the inverter serves to regulate current and frequency. shown below. Its advantage to the industrial user is its higher efficiency and low cost in large sizes Biggest disadvantage is added complications of motor starting. is a one line diagram for a typical current-source inverter. rather than voltage and frequency as with the voltage-source inverter. The current-source inverter has a phase controlled rectifier that provides a DC input to a six-step inverter. rugged and easy to maintain) Essentially constant speed from 0 to full load Not easily adapted to speed control Parts: Stationary stator Revolving rotor (slip ring at end) Conventional 3 phase winding Squirrel-cage windings (copper bars shorted at end) The characteristics of the induction motor are illustrated below: Figure 19 Synchronous Motors • • • • • The most obvious characteristic of a synchronous motor is its strict synchronism with the power line frequency. The reactor provides some filtering.Induction Motors • • • • Most frequently used in industry (simple. pumps. e. Synchronous motors are only selected for applications with relatively infrequent starts since starting is more difficult and usually requires the use of induction (squirrel cage) motor.

Figure 20 – Typical current-source inverter (A) and one with a 12-pulse power conversion unit (B) required by larger motors 48 .

Maxwell’s Equations When in doubt. right!!!!!!!!) So here goes: Gauss’ law for electric fields ∫∫ E • dA = ε Q 0 Gauss’ law for magnetic fields ∫∫ B • d A = 0 Generalized Ampere’s law ∫ B • ds = μ I + μ ε 0 0 0 d E • dA dt ∫∫s Faraday’s law ∫ E • ds = d B • dA dt ∫∫s Got that!!!!!!!! 49 .XVI. you can always go back and derive whatever you need to know using Maxwell’s equations (that's what my professor told me …….

I hope they are some use to you. I decided to write Part II to address issues I’m seeing as a result of deregulation. They are simply things that I see from time to time that keep cropping up and I forget where the reference material I found on that topic might be. As usual. I only write what I believe and try very hard to make it correct. a note to the “New Engineer”: Computer programs are useful but understanding stuff is a lot better!!!!! XVIII. many of the topics are completely unrelated and it is questionable if they have anything to do with the major theme. as well as useful Finally. Introduction Since Part I was a huge success.Hard to Find…. Some of the topics covered are: • • • • • Distributed Resources Reliability Modern Physics Communications Custom Power • • • • • Maintenance Decibels Computer Jargon 101 Equipment Loading Cost of Interruption . I have tried to find good sources for the majority of this material.Part II XVII. So. Contents Part II is meant to supplement the original document. some things in this document are not guaranteed. Personally. Part II addresses some old issues (that needed some updating) and some new issues (that have become important in this de-regulated environment). Part I is the “blue collar” stuff that makes the traditional distribution engineer impossible to replace. I put them here!!!! As usual. Anyway.

5% of full rated output • Must disconnect in 10 cycles for potential “islanding” situation. . efficiency. • DR Efficiencies • Gas fired combined cycle – 60% • Microturbines – 20% to 40% • Fuel Cells – 35% to 55% (derate by 50% after 4000 hours) • Aero-derivative Gas Turbines 40% • Reciprocating Engines – 45% Technical Specifications • Disconnect from utility: • Within 6 cycles if voltage falls below 50% • Within 2 seconds if voltage exceeds 1. Most fuel cells require an external reforming device to produce hydrogen for the stack. • Aeroderivative Gas Turbines offer efficiencies of more than 40% and are proven and reliable. The larger units approach 40%.Not a serious option • Wind . Fuel cells need to be derated by 50% after less than a year (4000 hours). reliable.XIX. used by Caterpillar to showed reductions in pollution of as much as 50%. • PV .done fairly well but suffers from low capacity and mechanical problems.37 per unit • Within 6 cycles if frequency if frequency raises above 60. Water injection. low cost and proven. Some models push efficiencies of 45%. quiet operation. Distributed Resources • Interesting Points • Fuel cells need to be replaced every 5 years • Gas fire combined cycle plants have efficiencies approaching 60% • Niche markets for DG may approach 5% of new capacity • Microturbines range from 25 kW to approximately 50 kW.000 rpm. Availability is considered good at 98% (This translates into about 7 days out of service per year compared to most US customers seeing only 2 hours out per year).3 Hz or falls below 59. Some spin at 96. • Fuel cells benefit from modularity. They lose efficiency due to size and the need to compress gas. Efficiency of the direct fuel cell is about 50 to 55% while with a reformer is about 35% to 40%. The early models operated for about 2000 hours before being pulled from service. • Reciprocating Engines – Durable.Microturbine efficiency is about 20 to 30%. and low pollution. Emissions are a concern but solvable.3 Hz • Inverter should not inject dc current in excess of 0. • 51 .

installed) Solar panels Batteries Backup Generator Inverter UPS Motor/Generator SMES Capacitor Flywheel Microturbines Reciprocating Engine $2000 per peak kW $3500 per kW $62.Hard to Find….000 per kW $600 per kW $100 per kW $300 per kW $600 per kW $1500 per kW $400 per kW $250 per kW $50 per kW $300 per kW $600 per kW $500 per kW Examine your DG options closely. Mistakes could be costly!! .Part II • DR Costs Wind Systems Fuel Cells Solar (home.

5 1. Effect of Major Events Major Event Included YEAR SAIDI SAIFI MAIFI 1990 202 2.6 1991 360 2. Primary Outage Rates 0.35 0.8 1.6 1997 560 2.8 1.3 1996 168 1.7 1.005 .5 1993 161 1.1 2.6 1.8 2.4 0.2 .2 149 1.4 147 1.0066 .9 1.8 2.005 .8 1.15 0.25 0.7 1.4 140 1.4 1.1 145 1.05 0 Lightning Tree Equip.6 1.6 1.3 1995 187 2.4 143 1.5 150 1.03 . Typical Equipment Failure Rates Cable Primary Cable Secondary Switch (Loop) Elbow Splice Fuse (transformer) Circuit Breaker Bus Station Transformer Overhead Line Distribution Transformer Lateral Cable .2 166 1.7 1.7 1992 225 1.3 0.1 0.7 1.22 .0068 .4 151 1.05 . Other Total Frequency 5 kV 15 kV 25 kV Cause 3.45 0.3 1.XX.9 1.02 .0067 .7 53 .8 1998 230 2.4 2 Major Events Excluded SAIDI SAIFI MAIFI 145 1.4 1994 153 1.11 .2 0. Reliability 1.

suburban and rural). the definition is: CAIDI = Σ customer interruption durations total number of customers interruptions MAIFI e = ∑ ID N e i NT To calculate the index. and is designed to provide information about the average time the customers are interrupted.). Typical values seen by utilities in the United States are: SAIDI 110 min/yr min/yr SAIFI 1. CAIDI represents the average time required to restore service to the average customer per sustained interruption. other than interruptions. etc. lightning. In words. The system average interruptions frequency index is designed to give information about the average frequency of sustained interruptions per customer over a predefined area.4. and load density (urban. that cause sensitive loads to misoperate. This index is commonly referred to as Customer Minutes of Interruption or Customer Hours. system design (radical.). use the following equation: SAIDI (system average interruption total number of customer Interruptions total number of customers Values of these indices vary widely depending on many factors. This index is very similar to SAIFI. looped. wind. the definition is: Total number of customer MAIFI E = momentary interruption events Total number of customers served SAIDI = ∑r N i i NT To calculate the index. the definition is: SAIFI = served To calculate the index. the momentary average interruption event frequency index. use the following equation: (Typical value for MAIFI is 6 interruptions per year). (MAIFI) is an index to record momentary outages caused by successful reclosing operations of the feeder breaker or line recloser. use the following equation: CAIDI (customer average interruption Some utilities are already measuring indices to reflect system disturbances. Indice Definitions SAIFI [system average interruption frequency index (sustained interruptions)]. but it tracks the average frequency of momentary interruption events. including climate (snow. primary selective. secondary network. use the following equation: duration index). In words. CAIDI = 54 ∑r N ∑N i i i = SAIDI SAIFI . etc. In words. One of these. In words. the definition is: Σ customer interruption durations SAIDI = total number of customers served To calculate the index.4 int/yr CAIDI 79 SAIFI = ∑N NT i duration index).

• Transformers should be operated for normal life expectancy. 110.5% loss of life per day may be acceptable in the event of an emergency. Interruption Survey • • • • • • 65% report information to regulators 37% calculate MAIFI 83% feel indices should be calculated separately from generation and transmission 76% feel that scheduled interruptions should be calculated separately 70% have major event classifications 94% use computer programs to generate reliability indicies 7. Voltage Sags SARFI %V = ∑N NT Typical values of SARFI: i SARFI 90 – 50 SARFI 70 – 20 SARFI 50 – 10 SARFI 10 – 5 Typical number of sags for all causes = 350 Typical number of momentaries for all causes = 10 where %V = rms voltage threshold 140. 120. 50.5. especially transformers: • Insulation life of a transformer is when it loses 50% of its insulation strength. The following are some important considerations when overloading equipment. 55 . 10 N i = number of customers experiencing rms < % V for variation i (rms > % V for % V > 100) N T = Total number of system customers 6. 70. • A 2. • Hot spot should never exceed 180C for 65C systems due to the possibility of free bubbles that could weaken insulation strength. 90. • The temperature of top oil should never exceed 110C for transformers having a 65C average winding rise. Under normal conditions. hot spot should not exceed 130C. • Peak short duration loading should never exceed 200%. 80. Loading Increased loading of equipment will take life out of the equipment and could ultimately contribute to equipment failure.

Modern Physics Too often. There are 6: • Up Quark • Down Quark • Charmed Quark • Strange Quark • Top Quark • Bottom • Quark • • 56 .000 years – Atoms form – Background radiation (COBE) • Forces – There are now considered to be 3 forces which are as follows: • Gravity • Strong (color) • Electro-weak Color Charge – The so called “color force” does not fall off with distance and is as follows: • Red • Blue • Green Quarks – Quarks are the fundamental particles (called fermions) of nature.????????? • 10^-43 seconds – Quantum Gravity • 10^-12 seconds – Quantum Soup • 10^-16 seconds – Protons and Neutrons form • 1 minute – Helium formed • 5 minutes – Helium complete • 500. So I’ve included a few tidbits so you can impress your friends with your range of knowledge. distribution engineers are told they’re behind the times. You never know when you might need the following: • Big Bang – The progression of the “Big Bang” is considered to be as follows: • 0 to 10^-43 seconds .XXI.

The ability of the transformer to carry more than nameplate rating under certain conditions without exceeding 95C is basically due to the fact that top oil temperature does not instantaneously follow changes in transformer load due to thermal storage. was taken from sources with excellent reputation. On the other hand. it won’t fail until after retirement. Obviously. The material that follows. Transformer Loading Basics • All modern transformers have insulation systems designed for operation at 65C average winding temperature and 80C hottest-spot winding rise over ambient in an average ambient of 30C. Use it with caution! 1. it won’t fail this year either. In fact. An average loss of life of 1% per year (or 5% in any emergency) incurred during emergency operations is considered reasonable. Loading Probably no area of distribution engineering causes more confusion then does loading. The temperature of the top oil should not exceed 100C. This means: • 65C average winding rise + 30C ambient = 95C average winding temperature • 80C hottest spot rise + 30C ambient = 110C hottest spot (OLD system: 55C winding rise + 30C ambient = 85C average winding temperature • 65C hotttest spot + 30C ambient = 95C hottest spot) • • • • • • • • • Notice that 95C is the average winding temperature for the new insulation system and the hottest spot for the old. A source of immense confusion for many of us. The firm capacity is usually the load that the substation can carry with one supply line or one transformer out of service.Part II XXII. The maximum hot-spot temperature should not exceed 150C for a 55C rise transformer or 180C for a 65C rise transformer.5 hour loading should not exceed 200% The conditions of 30C ambient temperature and 100% load factor establish the basis of transformer ratings. however. . top oil temperature is always less than hottest spot.Hard to Find…. Most companies do not allow normal daily peaks to exceed the permissible load for normal life expectancy. Heck! “Save a Buck and Get a Promotion”. Peak . Reading the standards does not seem to help much since everyone appears to have their own interpretation. Manufacturers of equipment are very conservative since they really never know how the user will actually put the product to use so they must expect the worst. many users seem to take the approach that since it didn’t fail last year with traditional overloading values. The author of this document is not a psychology major and frankly has no idea of what the thinking was when much of the following was produced.

400 27.800 26. 2.000 30.500 12000/16000/ 20000 – OA/FA/FOA 20000 – FOA 27.500 Peak Load for Normal Life Expectancy 10C Ambient 30C Ambient 24.25% 1.0% 28.800 23.700 58 .• • “Emergency 24 Hour Firm Capacity” usually means a loss of life of 1% but is sometimes as much as 5% or 6%. • Use transformer thermal relays to drop certain loads.700 OA/FA 27. The following measures can be used for emergency conditions lasting more than 24 hours: • Portable fans • Water spray • Interconnect cooling equipment of FOA units.200 Emergency Peak Load with 24Hour Loss of Life 0. Annual 0.800 32.OA 30. Examples of Substation Transformer Loading Limits The following is an example of maximum temperature limits via the IEEE for a 65C rise transformer: Top Oil Temperature Hotspot Temperature IEEE Normal Life Expectancy 105C 120C This next example shows the loading practice of various utilities for substation transformers: Normal Condtions Top Oil Hotspot Emergency Top Oil Hot Spot Utility A 95 125 110 140 Utility B 110 130 110 140 Utility C 95 120 110 140 Utility D 95 110 110 130 Utility E 95 120 110 140 Utility F 110 140 110 140 Utility G 110 120 110 140 What happens when the hotspot is raised from 125C to 130C? This is shown as follows: Maximum Hotspot 125 130 % Loss of Life.200 23.5372 An example of the effect of load cycle (3 hour peak with 70% pre-load for 13 hours and 45% load for 8 hours) and ambient on transformer capability via the ANSI guide is shown below: Transformer Type 20000 .700 29.200 23.000 15000/2000 – 28.3366 0.500 26.700 29.

I listed some conservative ratings for conductors per the manufacturer. Ampacity of Overhead Conductors In part 1 of the Hard-to-Find. Some utilities try to never exceed the loading of the transformer nameplate. particularly those using TLM. An example of one utilities practice is as follows: KVA 25 50 75 100 Padmounted Install Range Removal Point 0-40 55 41-69 88 70-105 122 106-139 139 Submersible Install Range Removal Point 0-34 42 35-64 79 65-112 112 113-141 141 4. greatly overload smaller distribution transformers with no apparent increase in failure rates. Distribution Transformers The loading of distribution transformers varies more widely than substation units.The following is the effect on transformer ratings for various limits of top oil temperature: Normal Rating New Rating Emergency Rating MVA 50 55 59 Top Oil Temperature 95C 105C 110C 3. The table below shows the rating of conductors via a typical utility: Conductor Size 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 267 336 397 ACSR Normal Emergency 319 365 420 479 612 711 791 331 379 435 496 641 745 830 All Aluminum Normal Emergency 318 369 528 497 576 671 747 334 388 450 523 606 705 786 59 . Others.

5% investment savings and a 12% increase in transformer loading.5% of power transformer thermal life is used up after 15 years. only 2. Transformer Loading • Distribution transformer life is in excess of 5 times present guide levels • Distribution guide shows that life expectancy is about 500. • Thermal expansion of conductors. Commercial and Industrial Transformer Loading Transformer Load Limit Load Factor % 0-64 130% 65-74 125% 75-100 120% b. insulation materials. and ultimate dielectric failure.000 hours for 100C hottest-spot operation. Same insulation system. • Application of transformers in excess of normal loading can cause: • Evolution of free gas from insulation of winding and lead conductors. 60 . Use at your own risk: Station Transformer Current Transformer Breakers Reactors Disconnects Regulators 140% 125% 110% 140% 110% 150% 6. • Operation at high temperatures will cause reduced mechanical strength of both conductor and structural insulation. loss of oil.5. • Evolution of free gas from insulation adjacent to metallic structural parts linked by magnetic flux produced by winding or lead currents may also reduce dielectric strength. • Pressure build-up in bushings for currents above rating could result in leaking gaskets. • Using present loading guides.000 hours for a power transformer. Emergency Ratings of Equipment The following are some typical 2 hour overload ratings of various substation equipment. compared to 200. • Results of one analysis showed that the transition from acceptable to unacceptable risk (approximately an order of magnitude) was accompanied (by this utility) by only a 8. Demand Factor Lights – 50% Air Conditioning – 70% Major Appliances – 40% c. or structural parts at high temperature may result in permanent deformations that could contribute to mechanical or dielectric failures. Miscellaneous Loading Information The following is some miscellaneous loading information and thoughts from a number of actual utilities: a.

hottest spot rise.• • • • • • • • • • • Increased resistance in the contacts of tap changers can result from a build-up of oil decomposition products in a very localized high temperature region. leaving insulation temperature as the controlling parameter.55 years.spot – 200C • Short time (. Suggested limits of loading for distribution transformers are: • Top-oil – 120C • Hottest . total loss. the moisture and oxygen contributions to insulation deterioration can be minimized. • Oil expansion could become greater that the holding capacity of the tank.5 hour) – 300% Suggested limits for power transformers are: • Top-oil – 100C • Hottest-spot – 180C • Maximum loading – 200% Overload limits for coordination of bushings with transformers is: • Ambient air – 40C maximum • Transformer top-oil – 110C maximum • Maximum current – 2 times bushing rating • Bushing insulation hottest-spot – 150C maximum Current rating for the LTC are: • Temperature rise limit of 20C for any current carrying contact in oil when carrying 1. • Ambient temperatures • Initial continuous load • Peak load durations and the specified daily percent loss of life • Repetitive 24 hour load cycle if desired Maximum permitted loading is 200% for power transformer and 300% for a distribution transformer. Long term emergency loading defines a condition wherein a power transformer is so loaded that its hottest-spot temperature is in the temperature range of 120C to 140C. moisture content. weight of tank and fittings. • Reactors and current transformers are also at risk. gallons of oil. The principle gases found dissolved in the mineral oil of a transformer are: • Nitrogen: from external atmosphere or from gas blanket over the free surface of the oil • Oxygen: from external atmosphere • Water: from moisture absorbed in cellulose insulation or from decomposition of the cellulose • Carbon dioxide: from thermal decomposition of cellulose insulation • 61 . Distribution and power transformer model tests indicate that the normal life expectancy at a continuous hottest-spot temperature of 110C is 20. and oxygen content. top-oil rise. Aging or deterioration of insulation is a time function of temperature.2 times the maximum rated current of the LTC • Capable of 40 breaking operations at twice rate current and KVA Planned loading beyond nameplate rating defines a condition wherein a transformer is so loaded that its hottest-spot temperature is in the temperature range of 120C to 130C. With modern oil preservation systems. Input into a transformer loading program should be: • Transformer characteristics (loss ratio.

• 62 . partial discharge.5% moisture content should not be operated above nameplate for a hottest spot of 120C.• Carbon monoxide: from thermal decomposition of cellulose insulation • Other Gases: may be present in very small amounts (e. aging. These are very important in any analysis of transformers. A more effective method is to remove the oil and heat the insulation under vacuum.. acetylene) as a result of oil or insulation decomposition by overheated metal. Transformer insulation with 3.9% at temperature of 50C to 75C. Bubbles can form at 140C which enhance the chances of partial discharge and the eventual breakdown of the insulation as they rise to the top of the insulation. which may be in the process of failing. arcing.g. Moisture affects insulation strength. losses and the mechanical strength of the insulation. Tests have shown that the use of circulated oil for the drying process takes some time. especially if it’s an older transformer. etc. it is important to know the moisture content of the insulation. Bubbles evolve fast so temperature is important to bubbles formation but not time at that temperature. For a processing time of 70 hours the moisture content of the test transformers was reduced from 2% to 1. If a transformer is to be overloaded. power factor. Apparently only surface moisture was affected.

IEEE. NIST. Almost all are digital. 26. 14. 17. 20. 30. 21. Asynchronous Transmission means each device must be set to transmit and receive data at a given speed. 4800. Selecting is the method used by a host computer to ask a terminal if it is ready to receive data. 29. 6. Satellite bandwidth can be up to many Mbps. 15. 11. 4. 24. ECSA. A PBX acts like a mini-central office. The PBX. This type of transmission is also known as start-stop transmission because it uses start and stop bits. Synchronous Transmission normally involves large blocks of characters.544 Mbps an carries approximately 24 channels. 5. as in packet switching networks.. The organizations which have the most impact on data communications are: ANSI. It is the most advanced customerpremises equipment telecommunications solution.XXIII. DDS is AT&T’s Dataphone Digital Services which provides digital circuits for data transmission speeds of 2400. Computer Jargon 101 There’s a lot of new terminology out there for the distribution engineer to assimilate these days. 16. known as a data rate. 7. 32. EIA. 2. It is an EIA standard defining exactly how ones and zeros will be transmitted. 31. 18. or until another device is ready to receive it. 63 . data rates can exceed a trillion bits per second. 9600. A Front End Processor can perform: Error detection Code conversion Protocol conversion Data conversion Parallel/Series conversion Historical logging Statistical logging Security Measures: Secure transmission facility Passwords Historical and Statistical Logging Closed user group Firewalls Encryption and decryption Secret keys 3. 28. 25. 56 kbps and 64 kbps. 19. T-1 carrier service transmits at 1. ISO RS-232-C is one of the most common interfaces for data communications in use today. is a private business exchange. 23. and special sync characters which are used to adjust to the transmitters exact speed. 13. usually over a significant distance and using electronic equipment for transmission. 1. 22. Baseband is a single data signal transmitted directly on a wire. usually until it has been properly sequenced. Polling is the method used by a host computer or front end processor to ask a terminal if it has data to send. Broadband transmits data using a carrier signal. 9. 8. This section outlines some of the terms and concepts we see with the emphasis these days on data and voice communications. 10. ISDN is the Integrated Services Digital Network For Fiber Optic cable. 27. as in front-end processors. Buffering is holding data temporarily. Telecommunications is defined as the exchange of information. 12.

Bridges are used to connect two or more networks that use similar data communications. defining precise rules and methods for communications and ensuring harmonious communications among them.33. users can access programs on servers attached to a LAN when a common database or resource is important. 37. Client/Server . and sent through the packet switching network to the destination. campus or complex. 36.rather than running all applications on a single mainframe. In Packet Switching Networks. 34. A Local Area Network is a privately owned data communications system that provides reliable. Bridges are used to extend LAN’s beyond its usual distance limitation. the data is separated into packets or blocks. Gateways connect networks using different communications methods. switched connections between devices in a single building. 35. high speed. 64 . Communications architectures and protocols enable devices to communicate in an orderly manner. Routers interconnect LAN’s and do not require all users to have unique addresses (as do bridges). 38. 39.

9 Decibels 10 11 12 13 14 15 20 30 40 Power Change 10.5 3.8 20.6 100 1000 10000 = lowest sound that can be heard = whisper = human voice = loud radio = ear discomfort 65 .25 1.XXIV.15 4.0 5.3 7.6 15.1 31.58 2.0 25.0 2. Decibels Here’s some interesting information on decibels: Decibels 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 db 30 db 70 db 100 db 120 db Power Change 1.0 6.0 12.

Faults and Inrush Currents The following are some observations of the author based on many years of monitoring. And max.XXV. 79% of all faults involve only one phase Most faults occur with 5% of peak voltage so offset is minimal Average DC offset was 1.3 per unit and average time constant was 3 cycles Cold Load Pickup looks like inrush.1 with a time constant of 2.81 milliseconds Inrush • Inrush average was 2500 amps. 66 . The following statistics are real and based on actual measurements: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Voltage unbalance is generally less than 1% Harmonics at the substation are generally less than 1 or 2% 40% of faults occur in adverse weather Average line-to-ground fault current was 1530 amps. was 5700 amps.000 amp^2 sec. Faults generally lasted 10 cycles with 2 seconds the maximum Essentially there is no fault impedance (see HtoF #1) Voltage rise during a fault was about 4% at the substation and 35% on the feeder Average fuse I^2*t was 227.000 amp^2 sec What you calculate is what you get. with the highest being 800. • Peak offset was 5.

Static Var Compensator (SVC) – This device uses capacitors. the SSB can prevent excessive fault currents from developing and improve PQ. Though not widely used. Medium-Voltage Sub-Cycle Transfer Switch (SSTS) – This device provides power quality to customers that are served radially and have access to an alternative power source. The device supplies the elements missing from the waveform in less than one cycle. In combination with other electronic devices. • • • 67 . Custom Power Devices Custom Power Devices are devices rated above 600 volts that are used to increase power quality. Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) – The DVR system is a series-connected power electronic device that restores voltage quality delivered to a customer when the line-side voltage deviates. Solid-State Breaker (SSB) – This is a fast acting sub-cycle breaker which instantaneously operates to clear an electrical fault from the power system. primarily sags. an inductor. Switching between the preferred and alternative source is done wthin 0ne-sixteenth of a second. It shields customers from voltage sags and surge problems cause by sudden load changes on the system. these devices are available to the industry to reduce the impact of distribution disturbances. Constant power factor and constant line voltage are possible using the device.XXVI. A few of these devices are described as follows: • • Distribution Static Compensator (DSTATCOM) – The DSTATCOM is a power electronic device that responds in less than a cycle. and a set of solid-state switches to provide power factor correction or voltage regulation.

60 $240.20 $15. Cost of Power Interruptions The cost of an interruption is probably one of the most difficult to assess.40 $15. the costs are much lower.10 $37.80 $5.70 68 .70 $0. when the cost of correction of the problem is determined to be the customer’s responsibility.10 $36.30 $20.30 $6. On the one hand.60 $1. when the perception is that the utility will pay the costs from commercial and industrial customers are always high via survey data. The following are some of these survey costs. On the other hand.XXVII. Use with caution: Type of Industrial /Commercial Electrical Products Crude Petroleum Machinery Paper Products Logging Printing and Publishing Primary Textiles Transportation Textile Automotive General Merchandise Household Furniture Personal Services Entertainment Cost per peak KW $7.20 $34.70 $6.90 $26.

XXVIII.000 69 .000 $40. Cost of Sectionalizing Equipment The following are some approximate costs of equipment used for sectionalizing: • • • • • • Fuse Cutout Gang Operated Switch Disconnect Switch OCR DA Load Break DA Recloser $1300 $5500 $2500 $9000 $33.

XXIX. Maintenance of Equipment
Some of the diagnostic and assessment techniques used for utility equipment is as follows:

TRANSFORMERS Overall dielectric – DGA, onlineVHF/UHF PD

SWITCHGEAR Drive – contact position, constant velocity, vibrational analysis, trip-coil current

Tap Changer – dynamic resistance, drive power Bushing – loss angle, capacitance Core – no load losses Paper - furfural analysis

Secondary System – trip-coil current Overall Dielectric – online PD, vacuum leak testing

CABLE PD Techniques – 0.1 Hz off-line detection and localization, online VHF detection, single/double sided localization in point to point cables and branched networks Diel Spectrosocopy – loss angle, capacitance

GENERATORS Stator/Rotor Windings – insulator resistance, conductor resistance ,polarization index, loss angle, capacitance P”D measurement, high voltage tests, video endoscopy

Transformer Lifetime from furfural analysis: • • • • • Lifetime primarily determined by mechanical condition of paper insulation Degree of polymerization (DP) measure for mechanical strength DP decreases from about 1200 (new) to 250 (end of life) DP determined from correlation with product of furfural and CO-concentrations Decay curve from accelerated aging study Lifetime time prediction from (series) of DP values

70

XXX.

Major Events

In the area of reliability indicies some utilities are allowed to exclude major events (storms, etc.). The concern in the industry is what constitutes a major event. There are many definitions. The two most popular are: • 10% of the system is out of service for usually 24 hours • Exclusion of events outside 3 sigma. This definition is based on Chebyshevs Inequality (you needed to know that right!). Anyway, outages a utility may have during the year have a probability distribution. This concept basically says that events not within 3 standard deviations of the mean can be excluded. For reference, approximately 56% of events are within 1 standard deviation, 75% are within 2 standard deviations and 89% are within 3 standard deviations. So this would mean approximately 10% could be excluded.

71

XXXI. Line Charging Current
I’m asked about once a year how much capacitance a line has. Always have trouble finding an answer so I’m putting it here. Charging KVA (3 phase) can be approxiated by the formula: Charging KVA = 2.05 (kV)^2/Z, where Z is the characteristic impedance of the line. Some approximations, which may be helpful, are as follows:

kV 15 25 35 115 230 500

Overhead (kVAR) 1 3 6 66 265 1,250

Underground (kVAR) 10 30 60 660 2,650 12,500

72

Some expulsion fuses can handle 100% continuous and some 150%.35 c. There is an auxiliary tube that usually comes with the fuse that aids in low current interruption. the fuse holder should be replaced. 3@10sec.2 to 38kV and X/R between 8 and 15).7 b. 23.8 to 169kV and X/R between 15 and 25) A Distribution Fuse is applied farther out on the system (5. A slant rated cutout can withstand the full line-to-line voltage whereas a cutout with a single voltage rating could not withstand the higher line-to-line voltage. A K factor of 1 (now used in the standards) means the interrupting current is constant for any operating voltage. 6.73 (N) Where N is the ratio of Vprimary/Vsecondary ( Multiply the high side device current points by the appropriate factor) K Factor for Load Side Fuses a. A recloser can handle any degree of asymmetrical current. The sequence is determined by the standard. Unsymmetrical Transformer Connections ( delta/wye): Multiplying Factor Fault Type Three-phase N Phase-to-phase .87 (N) Phase-to-Ground 1. Many companies set ground minimum trip at maximum load level and phase trip at 2 times load level. A breaker is subject to derating. 3. 9. 20. 2 fast-2 delayed and dead time of 10 seconds = 1. 2 fast operations and dead time 1 to 2 seconds = 1. 12. 12@0. 22. wye. 19. Type “T” is a slow fuse link with a speed ratio of melt time-current characteristics from 10 to 13. 14. 15. Operation of sequence coordination requires that the 4. The fuse tube (in cutout) determines the interrupting capability of the fuse.35 K Factor for Source Side Fuses a. A Power Fuse is applied close to the substation ( 2.XXXII. 24. 10. 17. 18. A sectionalizer is a self-contained circuit-opening device that automatically isolates a faulted portion of a distribution line from the source only after the line has been deenergized by an upline primary protective device. 73 .000 amperes for the 560 amp coil and 6000 amperes for the 100 amp coil. 2. Overcurrent Rules 1. Type “K” is a fast fuse link with a speed ratio of melting time-current characteristics from 6 to 8. A breaker is subject to an S factor de-rating. 7. Sometimes these factor go as high as 3. A recloser is rated on the maximum current it can interrupt. 8. Some of the larger fuses use the 600 second point. or delta systems as long as the lineto-neutral voltage of the system is lower than the smaller number and the line-to-line voltage is lower than the higher number. 2 fast-2 delayed and dead time of 2 seconds = 1.5 so check Sequence Coodination – Achievement of true “trip coordination” between an upline electronic recloser and a downline recloser.1 minimum melt current to the 300 second minimum melt current. 21. Slant ratings can be used on grounded wye. Hydraulically controlled reclosers are limited to about 10. A recloser is capable of its full interrupting rating for a complete four-operation sequence. This current generally remains constant throughout the operating voltage range.1 (speed is the ratio of the 0. 13. is made possible through a feature known as “sequence” coordination.01. 25. 11. 16. After about 10 fuse link operations. Transformer fusing – 25@0. 5.1.

you must add approximately 0.37 1A-3B is a necessary when sectionalizers are used downstream from the recloser. To obtain the interrupting time. Tank rupture curves may be probable or definite in nature. c.87 .65 b. 34.5 . you usually get a control response curve and a clearing curve.35 factor may result in nuisance fuse operations. through the range of fault currents within the reach of the upline recloser: Assume a fault beyond the downline recloser that exceeds the minimum trip setting of both reclosers. d. However. b. Sectionalizer actuating current should be <80% of backup device trip current.87 1. On the new electronic reclosers.045 sec to the curve (check…they’re different) e. Definite indicates there is effectively no chance of capacitor tank rupture with the proper 0% probability curve. Response curves are the response of the sensing device and does not include arc extinction. Clearing time is measured from fault initiation to power arc extinction.3 + j0. 30. Maximum is 10% higher.25 + j2.98 + j2. even though only one of them has actually tripped. A back-up current limiting fuse with a designation like “12K” means that the fuse will coordinate with a K link rated 12 amperes or less. 35. such that both controls are at their second operation. The 1.35 1. The downline recloser trips and clears before the upline recloser has a chance to trip. 32. Zl-g = (2Z1 + Z0)/3 The “ 75% Rule” considers TCC tolerances.29 +j0.25 + j2.61 . pre-loading and pre-damage. Capacitor Fusing: a. d.3 + j0. Recloser Time Current Characteristics a. Sequence coordination is active only on the programmed fast operations of the upline recloser. sequence coordination maintains the downline recloser as the faster device. Pre-damage only uses 90%. Some curves are average. Probable means there is a probability chance of not achieving coordination. Highest recloser continuous ratings are 800 and 1200 amperes. 28. In effect. The sequence coordination feature then advances its control through its fast operation. 27.31 + j0.41 . Zpositive . T links are generally used up to about 25 amperes and K link above that to reduce nuisance fuse operations from lightning and in Line Impedance – Typical values for line impedance (350kcm) on a per mile basis are as follows: Cable UG Spacer Tree Wire Armless Open 31. sequence coordination repeats the procedure. Should the fault persist. upline electronic recloser be programmed with “fast curves” whose control response time is slower that the clearing time of the downline recloser fast operation. Some curves show max. and a second fast trip occur.3 + j0.98 + j2. Case rupture is not as big a problem as years ago due to all film designs. the upline control does see the fault and the subsequent cutoff of fault current. c. Interrupting ratings of cutouts are approximately 7 kA to 10 kA symmetrical. 29.66 Z0 1. clearing time. The response time of the recloser is sometimes the only curve given.265 . f. 33. Some utilities use 1.41 . 74 .18 + j0. ambient temperature.26. Vacuum reclosers have interrupting ratings as high as 10 to 20kA.

56. 38. 50. 47. Sectionalizers have momentarr ratings for 1 second and 10 seconds. 57. Fuses melt at about 200% of rating. 41. Sectionalizer counts should normally be one count less than the operations to lockout of the breaker or recloser Sectionalizer memory time must be > than cumulative trip and reclose time. 62. and pre-damage. 55. 58. ambient temperature. 46. 52.3 amp detector threshold Minimum time delay = 80 ms Reset time approximately 25 seconds Minimum duration of current impulse approximately 1 to 3 cycles. 60. The PCD has the following relays: 27 – Undervoltage 32 – Directional Power 46 – Negative Sequence 50 – Instantaneous 51 – Inverse Time 59 – Overvoltage 67 – Directional Overcurrent 79 – Reclosing 81 . 40. 48.000 amp @ 1 second 2500 amp @ 10 second 0. 49. 44. 65.000 amp momentary 4. 43. 45. 63. 64.36. 42. 39. 59. Long time curves are 10 times the normal The PCD2000 incorporates a 32 bit microprocessor and a 16 bit microprocessor. Characteristics of Chance Sectionalizers include: 100 amp continuous 160 amp actuating 2 counts 12. 37. 53. 25% Rule for fuses includes pre-load. 51. K Factor can mean a “voltage range” factor or a “shift factor” caused by the recloser heating up the fuse. Short time curves are 20% of the normal curve ( in time). 54.Frequency 75 . 61.

so be careful. Electrode diameter does not significantly affect ground rod resistance…but depth does! Space ground rods at least 10 feet apart to get maximum effectiveness. I guess the conclusion you can draw from this is “If you have a low resistance brain and like to play with 110 volts in the shower. Substation Ground resistance should be less than about 5 ohms.5. It depends!! If you put electrodes across your head with 110 volts across them you will draw about 1100 milliamperes (apparently not much in there to cause resistance). resistivity is specified in ohm-meters. Having a lower resistance does not mean the substation is safer.g. If you’re wet this could go up to about 100 mA. ANSI/IEEE 80-1986). none of this is guaranteed! NESC (IEEE C2-1997) requires: Neutral must be continuous Does not allow earth as a sole conductor Does not require specific grounding resistance for multigrounded systems Multi-grounded systems achieve their performance by having many grounds Requires that surge arrester conductors be at least #6 copper or #4 aluminum Requires grounds at transformers and customer meters A good approximation for a 10 foot ground rod is that the resistance in ohms equals the ground resistivity in ohm-meters divided by 3. Being wet decreases contact resistance by a factor of about 10. The resistance between opposite faces of a cube of soil (e. Over half the world uses a non-effectively grounded system and it works. There is no simple relationship between the resistance 76 . For an 8 foot ground rod. One final thing…as usual. 1 meter on a side) is its resistivity. We lean against trees that touch high voltage wires all the time and nobody dies.1 amps. in those operating instructions. you deserve to die”. The current that kills is about . not to take your toaster in the shower. As a great philosopher once said. Butt Plate resistance is generally greater than 5 times more than that of a ground rod. Here are some interesting bits of wisdom that might help you out in trying to make sense of so many conflicting you hear. Normally. This in itself should make you question whether good grounding is an absolute requirement for performance. Hard to Find Information on Grounding I’m not sure anyone really understands grounding. There are a number of things in life that are simply not going to be crystal clear in my lifetime and this is one of them. This is probably the reason why they tell you. you will probably draw less than 1 mA. If you put the same voltage between your hand and your foot. “Don’t let knowledge interfere with your education”. Soil resistivity is the resistance of a certain volume of soil. Substation grounding is more dependent on the design of the ground mat (see IEEE Guide for Safety-AC Substation Grounding’’. There is an explanation for this.Jim Burke – 12/10/04 XXXIII. Very high currents actually have less chance of killing you. divide by 2.

change the resistivity of soil by a factor of about 40. Temperature changes between 68 degrees and 14 degrees F. For a multigrounded system a fault about 2 miles from the substation produces the highest overvoltage on the unfaulted phases of about 135%. Reduction of participation in standards activities 3. To measure ground resistance for an 8 foot ground rod.5 to 2 volts) can cause significant behavioral change in cows Good Grounding is Important for: . Reliability Trends Talk is cheap! I’ve heard a lot about how utilities are trying to improve reliability but nothing as to how this can be accomplished in lieu of the following: 1.middle conductor is at 45 feet). When doing soil resistivity measurements (4-Point Measurement). The depth of the resistivity measurement is equivalent the distance between electrodes. Moisture Content in the soil dramatically affects soil resistivity. the distance between electrodes should be 20 times the electrode depth. Ground rod resistance does not significantly affect fault current levels Fault levels should be calculated with 0 ohms fault impedance Shield wires need low ground resistances and arresters do not. One of the problems of ungrounded systems was that as the systems grew.Fault levels XXXIV.of the substation grounding as a whole and the maximum shock current a person might be exposed to. Elimination of experienced engineers 2. Decaying infrastructure 77 . th 20 ground rods produce a ground rod resistance about 1/10 of a single ground rod Magnitude of swells depends on system grounding Delta systems have good characteristics and they are not grounded Current split between the earth and the neutral conductor during faults is about 50/50 A broken conductor can create an overvoltage of about 1. Severe Stray Voltages exist at about 7 volts. Soil with no water has 2 million times as much resistivity as soil with 30% moisture content.Level of swells Good Grounding does not significantly affect: .Lightning surge dissipation . 1 to 2 milliamperes (about 0. Length is more important than width for a ground rod The resistance of an 8 foot ground rod for one utility varied between 40 ohms and 1150 ohms. faults were no longer self clearing due to the large capacitive currents.8 per unit during a line-toground fault High impedance faults almost always have a fault impedance above 100 ohms. the distance to the furthest test electrode should be about 72 feet (3 point test…. Loss of control over generation and transmission 4.Line protection using arresters .

9. 6. Question: What is your typical (average) feeder loading in amperes? What is your typical peak load (not emergency) that will occur on a fairly regular basis? Utility 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 Average 191 200 300 200 350 200 200 100 100 500 250-300 400 150 200 67 100 250 200 400 150 300 192 530 300 200 300 100 300 200 100 300 200 400 240 200 200 100 300 200 Peak 175-225 318 300 300 550 320 600 800 300 150 400 700 512 300 450 102 200 350 300 600-700 200 450 338 373 840 500 400 400 200 400 400 250 350 450 400 500 420 350 350 400 320 78 . Purchase of products on price Elimination of R&D Overloading of equipment Severe reduction of budgets and manpower Loss of control over day-to-day activities “Not in My Backyard” politics XXXV. 7. 8.5. Load Survey Results I get into more discussions on what is a typical loading on utility feeders do we did a little survey. 10.

you can find various forms of damage. Lightning Damage Survey . Some of the damage may be caused by the lightning stroke (the spectacular stuff) and some may be caused by fault current during the flashover.lose transformers…we have very. we have been to the location and found nothing but ashes with the conductor still hanging with the hardware still attached” 11. “ The higher voltage systems tend to sustain the most damage.Lightning blows off arrester grounds of most porcelain type…blows lots of tap fuses….hole was blown out the side of the pole near the top…. “ Poles split out at the top. “ Manufacturer comments: We see one or two switches come back every year with what appears to be direct lightning damage…occasionally we see damage to the controlalthough not as often as you might thing because of the grounding design of the overall system” 8.not sure whether damage is from lightning or follow current…steam splits the pole” 4.damage similar to a tree except not all the way down…. most of the time resulting in the PTPIN barely hanging from the pole or completely blown off the pole. I have listed the comments I received (paraphrased in some instances) as shown below: 1.. “ I saw one instance where the top of the pole was shattered. overhead conductor pitting and underground cable failures (usually a few days after the lightning storm” 79 . when farmers are burning off their wheat fields and the pole catches fire. In any case. I suspect sometimes it’s difficult. “ Pole explodes like a hotdog in a microwave. Also.pole top blown to pieces – mostly at the power or communication levels (suspected due to quick release of energy from the moisture in the pole): and charred paths down the pole surface to ground with poles relatively intact” 10.Most of our pole fires are associated with tracking due to an insulator breaking down” 2.this type of damage may not show up for a couple of days when changes in humidity creates blinking lights” 12. with wood fragments and various pieces scattered up to fifty feet away” 9. After a lightning storm. “Most of the time the damage we have seen from lightning hitting a pole it that the pole splinters into many pieces…. insulator damage is apparent…. “ We have experienced pole fires.” 6. to tell the difference. “Concrete poles with neutral in static position…. All new poles are treated with penta. we rarely have a problem at 2400 volts…. In some cases. if not impossible.hole was not large enough to cause structural damage” 5. one third of the exposed distance.shatters pole 30-40 feet or more…new poles are more often damaged than old ones because they are still wet from treatment…rarely see pole fires due to lightning” 3. but we have CCa and creosote.. “ We see damage such as pole mounted transformers blowing their lid off…internal damage to mid line reclosers…” 7. “Burnt or charred pole tops (evidence of fires that may have burnt itself out). I’ll let you decide.* About 30% of these values come from co-ops which tend to have lower load levels XXXVI. in due time the leakage over to the pole causes the pole to smolder and burn. The only difference is that when lightning hits and there is a flashover. very few pole fires. “Splitting from the top to the neutral position.. “ Poles split with large chunk blown out...

XXXVII. Substation Voltage Regulation Introduction The following are some of the comments I got back (25 utilities responded) on regulation practices in substations. Why choose LTC over bus voltage Regulators and vice versa? • Single phase control gives better balance and reliability • Do not like to install LTC in single ended substations due to the difficulty in getting the transformer out of service to do maintenance on the LTC • Do not use LTC above 24. I appreciate the response: 1.9kV • Regulators (1 phase) allow us to balance better • Easier to have spare using 1 phase regulator • Connectivity and communication is easier with 1 phase units • Don’t like having regulation in the transformer (LTC) due to reliability concerns • LTC better because it is one device and has less chance of failure than 3 devices • Land area is less for LTC • Use both…criteria of choice is based on load. GE. A number of responses thought they were no longer made. • Some utilities only purchase single phase units • Many utilities don’t purchase any regulators • Regulators have high failure rate 2. I’ve had to abbreviate most of them. Delta Star.prefer single phase regulators • More expensive to maintain LTC • New transformer 20 MVA or higher use LTC • Fail 1 transformer per year due to LTC problem (this is a large utility) • Do not believe being able to bypass single phase regulator is an advantage • Education is easier for single phase regulators • Use regulators on 10 MVA and below and LTC on larger units • Don’t like the idea of LTC since it can make the transformer unuseable • Our choice based on cost • Regulators help us because our feeder loads have different characteristics 3.. A lot of good points. Pennsylvania Transformer. Philosophy of regulation for each feeder? • Regulators allow us to balance feeder voltages • Individual regulators see less total contact activity • Choice based on load level • Regulators give us more capacity capabiity 80 . Who builds 3 phase regulators? • Very few of respondents could answer this one • Virginia Transformer. and Siemens(most mentioned) appear to still be making these units.

tin. and switched and fixed capacitors out on the line We have short and long lines. He argued for population control. the earth is becoming too cold. we are going into an ice age. The Club of Rome (a global think tank) predicted a work population of 14 billion in the year 2030 with no end in sight. Individual circuit regulators give more flexibility. We have one station that is bus regulated. we regulate by circuit.Paul Ehrlich. oil. overstressed and sleepless. Here’s some others: • Saccharin • Cyclamates • Swine flu • Endocrine disrupters • Deodorants • Electric razors • Florescent lights • Computer terminals • Road rage • Killer bees • Cell phones 81 . the Club of Rome predicted that we would exhaust our supplies of gold. some of which are very applicable to the utility industry and its defensive posture. We are going to freeze. 10 years later. Ways We Scare Ourselves Michael Crichton. “In the 1970’s the world will undergo famines – hundreds of millions of people are going to stave to death” . 6. global warming will be so bad we’ll have palm trees in Montana – 1982 3. lead and natural gas by the year 1993. of Jurassic Park fame. We are going to sizzle.• • • • • • • • • • LTC can make voltage problems worse for some phases and feeders We use both Easier to maintain feeder regulators with minimal impact to our customers Whichever cost less to give us good regulation Regulators allow better control to control peak loads On rural feeders some lines are much longer than others so individual control works better In general. mercury. 7. By the end of the century. Here are some of the scares the American public have let get out of control: 1. The health threats posed by power lines lasted more than a decade and according to one expert cost the nation $25 billion before many studies determined it to be false. Any responsible scientist knows this. 5. Now we expect that world population to peak at 9 billion and then decline. 4. the same magnetic fields formerly feared as carcinogenic now are welcomed (magnetic therapy). XXXVIII. zinc. – 1972 2. About 5 of our 170 circuits are from LTC banks Our mobiles do not have regulation so LTC is a problem when we have it We regulate individual feeders as necessary with a combination of line regulators.(who has a medical degree) has some interesting comments recently. In 1960 we predicted that the use of computers would replace work and we’d have trouble finding things to do with all our leisure time. copper. Americans were regarded as overworked. In 1972. Ironically.

Windpower Update At a meeting I attended earlier this year.5 times more than the total U.S.• Y2K “ I’ve seen a heap of trouble in my life.500 c. doctors are approximately 9.459 $74. and most of it never came to pass” – Mark Twain If you really want to scare yourself unnecessarily. The number of gun owners in the US is 80. Cost of Poor Power Quality A study by a major US utility produced the following table regarding the cost of poor power to an Industrial Customer: Disturbance Voltage Sags Momentary Outage 1 Hour Outage – notice 1 Hour Outage – no notice 4 Hour Outage Cost per Event $7. of Human Services) Then think about this: a. generating capacity” Not sure where that puts the electric car? XXXX.000 b.973 $39.835 Annual Frequency 22. but almost everyone has at least one doctor XXXIX.9 2/4 1.000 b.1 1. The number of accidental deaths per gun owner is .000 c. “Think About This”: a.0000188 Statistically.000 times more dangerous than gun owners FACT: Not everyone has a gun. Accidental deaths caused by physicians per year is 120. Accidental deaths per physician is 0.1 Here’s a thought: “ the power of the cars and trucks sold in the US in 2003 is 2.171 (per Dept. I jotted down the following comments made with regard to windpower: • Big PQ issue for windpower is voltage flicker • Need about 30 mph wind to get full kW • About a 30% capacity factor is considered OK • GE is a big player and owns about half the market • 6 Gigwatts are now installed • Some units have a load factor under 5% • A lot of these installations are really hobbies • Iowa has the most number of windturbines for schools • Cost is between $1000 and $5000 per kW 82 .694 $11.027 $22.000.1 1. The number of physicians in the United States is 700. The number of accidental gun deaths per year (all age groups) is 1.

There is very little description of the data shown in this figure except for the following: “The assumed 40-ohms fault resistance used in this investigation. Lincks. CONCRETE OR DRY SAND WET SOD 60 40 20 0 WET SAND DRY SOD Typ e o f S urface Figure 1 – High Impedance Faults DRY GRASS WET GRASS REINFORCED CONCRETE 83 . shown below. McKinley. proved to be more than ample for determining minimum fault currents and might have been reduced to 30 ohms”. and J.• • Rural Electrics are greatly encouraged by the government to install windpower Some put DG in to avoid going to court (interesting) XXXXI. The origin of the use of the fault impedance value of 40 ohms (or 30. Leh. It is especially impressive considering the monitoring capability at the time the data was taken. or 20) is apparently the result of an AIEE paper entitled “Overcurrent Investigation on a Rural Distribution System” written in 1949 by G. as almost an afterthought. Fault Impedance Back to one of my favorite issues!!!!!! (see part I). This is an excellent paper describing measurements taken during the years 1944 to 1947. D. It is interesting that the paper describes many aspects of overcurrent protection and actually adds the figure. Current Level in Amperes 80 DRY ASPHALT . W. Edge.

The authors of the paper indicated that use of 40 ohms “proved more than ample…. This would result in a huge error since the high impedance fault levels are around 50 amperes or less and load currents could be considerably higher. EPRI and consultants. The subject paper and discussion provide insight into how the values that the industry now uses for fault impedance had their origin. some points that should be made with respect to the above: 1. many tests on downed conductors performed by utilities. 3. There are. If the recorders only triggered on a fault event. however. The results have been consistent at all voltage levels.and might have been reduced to 30 ohms”. indicating the use of 40 ohms impedance provides virtually no level of protection for high impedance faults. manufacturers. A summary of some of these findings is shown below: Texas A&M (EPRI) Surface Dry asphalt Concrete (non-reinforced) Dry sand Wet sand Dry sod Fault Current 0 0 0 15 20 84 . There is no indication that load currents were subtracted out of the calculation. There have been many. universities. Load levels may not have been subtracted from the calculation.Aspects of Overcurrent Protection – Data from 1949 AIEE Paper The authors also state that they wouldn’t expect fault impedance to vary with system voltage level. No tests have shown anything to the contrary. All data in the past 30 years indicates that use of 40 ohms would be extremely inadequate and values around 200 ohms or more would be needed to have any significant effect. Maximum fault levels for bolted faults in this study were on the order of 500 amperes or less with the vast majority being less than 200 amperes (almost 40 ohms of impedance for a bolted fault).Figure 2 . 2. it might not have been able to record pre-fault load data with recorders of this vintage.

suggests that the use of 10. in the past 40 years.47 kV system). which represents the past 25 years of research. 30 or 40 ohms has virtually no value in helping detect high impedance faults. All the data that could be found.8 kV system or 90 ohms on a !2. supports use of these values and there is no evidence that fault impedance varies depending on primary distribution voltage level or distance from the substation. 85 . 20. Fault impedances of 200 ohms or more would have to be used to simulate average fault levels caused by most high impedance faults.Dry grass Wet sod Wet grass Concrete (reinforced) 25 40 50 75 PTI Surface Type Old Gravel Grass Dirt/Sand Concrete Old Gravel Reinforced Concrete Old Gravel Fault Current in RMS amps. 80 amperes of fault current is approximately equal to 100 ohms of fault impedance on a 13. 5-25 55-65 8-12 28-36 2-15 30-80 5-12 High Impedance fault current levels are very low and almost always should be represented by an impedance of 80 ohms or more (e. No research the author is aware of.g.

75 .0 The formula to calculate voltage unbalance is %Unb = 100 X (Max.95 . deviation from Average V (Average Voltage) 86 .XXXXII. Explanation of Voltage Ratings I always have trouble remembering this material. A little hard to read…sorry! Voltage Unbalance seems to confuse many.90 .99 1. Here are some things to keep in mind: Voltage Derating for polyphase equipment % Voltage Unbalance 5 4 3 2 1 0 Derating Factor .82 .

Standard Nominal Voltages are as follows: Three Wire 2400 4160 4800 6900 13800 23000 34500 Four Wire 4160Y/2400 8320Y/4800 12000Y/6930 12470Y/7200 13200Y/7970 13800Y/7970 20780Y/12000 22860Y/13200 24940Y/14400 34500Y/19920 (bold indicates preferred voltage levels) 87 .

As such. TOV – Temporary Overvoltages are commonly referred to as stray voltages which they are not. Contact voltage is not “stray voltage” although it is sometimes misapplied in this context. #1). c. They are not easily mitigated and are not considered dangerous or lethal (unless. The term “stray voltage” is taking on a life of its own and becoming all things to all people. capacitor application and power quality standards that I thought I’d add a few pages on these subjects. XXXXIII.Jim Burke Introduction – I have so many requests lately on the subjects of stray voltage. In the context of the last 40 years. b. This voltage is dangerous and can result in death. of course. Contact Voltage – We normally use the term contact voltage to address the condition where the “hot” lead (120 volts or more) contacts the outside shell of something like a streetlight. Stray Voltage – the term as generally defined by utility engineers refers to the voltage imposed on the distribution primary neutral due in large part to return currents (unbalanced loads). Stray Voltage Introduction Stray Voltage has always been a term related to steady state voltages between the neutral and ground that caused problems for dairy farms and swimming pools. TOV’s are 60 Hz overvoltages that occur on the unfaulted phases of a 4-wire multigrounded system during a fault (see Fig. Temporary overvoltages can be a consideration for voltage sensitive equipment such as surge arresters. The following are terms interchanged with the term “stray voltage” which are incorrect and causing a lot of the present confusion: a. the voltage is associated with problems in dairy farms and generally the voltages do not exceed about 8 volts. you consider the 9 volt battery in your radio a threat to your life). stray voltages were not lethal. 88 .

is located 10 miles from the substation and as we can see. Figure #2 – Division of Current for Various Neutral Conductor Sizes 89 . Figure #2 shows the percentage of current in the neutral for various sizes of wire. since cows are sensitive to stray voltage. which may affect production. However. The path of unbalanced current flow on a distribution system is not obvious.25 1. in this case. Over the years the greatest interest in stray voltage has been in the area of dairy farming.) 1.Maximum L-N Voltage (p. Near the middle of the feeder there is very little exchange of current.1 1 10 100 1000 G round Footing Resistance (ohm s) 4 gpm 8gpm Figure #1 – Impact of Grounding on TOV Problems in Identifying Stray Voltage Causes Stray voltage (neutral-to-earth) is caused by voltage drop and ground currents that could have their origin either on the utility system or the customer premises itself. The fault.45 1. One thing that greatly complicates an accurate model is that the loads are distributed making the flow of current between the neutral and earth very complex.15 1. which means that in this area the stray voltage problem should be less.4 1.2 1. Swimming pools with plastic liners have also become an issue.35 1. most of the current at the fault location (could be load as well) is in the neutral. we start to see a shift in current near the substation which indicates higher stray voltages in the vicinity of the substation. The problem can be very difficult to analyze since the return path of the unbalanced currents is complex and system changes to mitigate the problem can often cause the opposite effect.3 1.u.

it is interesting to note that if the substation ground is good (1 ohm) things get worse in some areas and better in others. when a flight attendant announced. In the areas with the highest stray voltage. we've reached cruising altitude and will be turning down the cabin lights. Here are some real examples that have been heard or reported: 1. On a Southwest flight (SW has no assigned seating. the stewardess said. people we're not picking out furniture here. This is for your comfort and to enhance the appearance of your flight attendants. If you're 90 . "Please be sure to take all of your belongings. you just sit where you want) passengers were apparently having a hard time choosing. Figure #4 – Effect of Pole Grounds on Stray Voltage XXXXIV." 3. There are 2 interesting things to point out. Figure #3 – Effect of Substation Grounding on Stray Voltage Figure #4 shows the effect of changing the system pole ground rod resistances from 5 ohms to 50 ohms. find a seat and get in it!" 2. the benefit of improving grounding is questionable. On a Continental Flight with a very "senior" flight attendant crew. First. "People. but not as much as one might think. stray voltages are reduced. as it also is at the end of the feeder. On landing.Figures #3 and #4 (not related to the example above) illustrate the typical effect of unbalance current flow on stray voltage. Also. Airline Cabin Announcements: All too rarely. the pilot said. Figure #3 shows that the stray voltage level at substation is high. airline attendants make an effort to make the in flight "safety lecture" and announcements a bit more entertaining. As can be seen. "Ladies and gentlemen. the stray voltages near the substation are opposite to those at the end of line (current reversal) and voltages in the middle of the feeder are relatively low.

"Thank you for flying Delta Business Express. "There may be 50 ways to leave your lover." 9. and remember. and. "Please take care when opening the overhead compartments because. insert the metal tab into the buckle. and I know what y'all are thinking. masks will descend from the ceiling. make sure to gather all of your belongings. Anything left behind will be distributed evenly among the flight attendants. sure as hell everything has shifted. An airline pilot wrote that on this particular flight he had hammered his ship into the 91 . and. As the plane landed and was coming to a stop at Ronald Reagan. If you are traveling with more than one small child. big fella. 4. please make sure it's something we'd like to have. more than Southwest Airlines. or your money. It works just like every other seat belt. After an extremely hard landing. and pull tight." 15." 17. the Captain was really having to fight it. a flight attendant on a Northwest flight announced. none of them are on this flight!" 14. in the event of an emergency water landing. it wasn't the pilot's fault. Texas. WHOA!" 7. grab the mask. From a Southwest Airlines employee: "Welcome aboard Southwest Flight 245 to Tampa. "Weather at our destination is 50 degrees with some broken clouds. Heard on Southwest Airlines just after a very hard landing in Salt Lake City the flight attendant came on the intercom and said." 8." 10. To operate your seat belt. secure your mask before assisting with theirs. Overheard on an American Airlines flight into Amarillo. pick your favorite.. after a landing like that. it wasn't the flight attendant's fault. Stop screaming. it was the asphalt. the Flight Attendant said. but there are only 4 ways out of this airplane" 5. if you don't know how to operate one. welcome to Amarillo. but we'll try to have them fixed before we arrive. and pull it over your face." 6. If you have a small child traveling with you." 12. "In the event of a sudden loss of cabin pressure. Please remain in your seats with your seat belts fastened while the Captain taxis what's left of our airplane to the gate!" 16. We hope you enjoyed giving us the business as much as we enjoyed taking you for a ride. nobody loves you. "As you exit the plane. a lone voice came over the loudspeaker: "Whoa. please paddle to shore and take them with our compliments." 11. I'm here to tell you it wasn't the airline's fault. Unfortunately. Thank you.going to leave anything. "That was quite a bump. "Your seat cushions can be used for flotation. And from the pilot during his welcome message: "Delta Airlines is pleased to have some of the best flight attendants in the industry. "Ladies and Gentlemen. Another flight attendant's comment on a less than perfect landing: "We ask you to please remain seated as Captain Kangaroo bounces us to the terminal. on a particularly windy and bumpy day: During the final approach. Please do not leave children or spouses. After a particularly rough landing during thunderstorms in Memphis. you probably shouldn't be out in public unsupervised." 13.

PLC’s. the smoking section on this airplane is on the wing and if you can light 'em. however. Crash and the Crew have brought the aircraft to a screeching halt against the gate. no one has successfully been able to come up with a definition of what constitutes good power quality. Heard on a Southwest Airline flight. has taken place. took on an entirely new meaning about 20 years ago resulting from concerns with sensitive loads such as computers. we should have a smooth and uneventful flight. OH. And. do you mind if I ask you a question?" "Why. in light of his bad landing. The airline had a policy which required the first officer to stand at the door while the Passengers exited. standardization. please remain in your seats until Capt. MY GOD!" Silence followed. the attendant came on with. once the tire smoke has cleared and the warning bells are silenced. digital clocks and VCR’s. "That's nothing. we hope you'll think of US Airways. the captain came back on the intercom and said. Much has been done in terms of measurement. smile. After it reached a comfortable cruising altitude. While there is no agreed upon definition for good power quality. 92 . You should see the front of my pants!" A passenger in Coach yelled.." He said that. this is your captain speaking. nonstop from New York to Los Angeles. and give them a "Thanks for flying our airline. She said. Now sit back and relax. A plane was taking off from Kennedy Airport." 20. You should see the back of mine XXXXV. we'll open the door and you can pick your way through the wreckage to the terminal. interruptions. like beauty. and mitigation that this paper will attempt to summarize in a meaningful fashion. Power Quality Revisited Background Utility companies have always made major efforts to provide reliable power with good characteristics. After a real crusher of a landing in Phoenix. thinking that someone would have a smart comment. voltage flicker. the flight attendant accidentally spilled a cup of hot coffee in my lap. "Ladies and gentlemen. surveys. seems to be in the eye of the beholder. the next time you get the insane urge to go blasting through the skies in a pressurized metal tube. Power quality." said the pilot. you can smoke 'em. Ma'am. "Ladies and Gentlemen.runway really hard. "Ladies and Gentlemen. "Ladies and gentlemen. much work in the areas of harmonics.. the captain made an announcement over the intercom. no. And. "Did we land. "What is it?" The little old lady said. The weather ahead is good and. I am so sorry if I scared you earlier. therefore." 19. The purpose of this section is to update the reader on the status of all these areas that comprise the term “power quality”. Finally everyone had gotten off except for a little old lady walking with a cane. Part of a flight attendant's arrival announcement: "We'd like to thank you folks for flying with us today. he had a hard time looking the passengers in the eye. In these 20 plus years. Welcome to Flight Number 293. etc. The term “power quality”. if you wish to smoke. or were we shot down?" 18. While I was talking to you. "Sir." 21. and after a few minutes. surges.

For many of them (especially those without electrical backgrounds). definition of some of these disturbances is as follows: Figure 5-Typical Voltage Disturbances Sags – Sags are voltages between 90% and 10% of system nominal voltage. arc furnaces. A sustained interruption is defined as loss of power for more than 5 minutes. These loads can inject harmonic currents into the utility system and in severe cases cause problems for surrounding customers. Figure shown below. The industry defines momentary interruptions as those lasting 5 minutes or less. Harmonics – Harmonics are considered steady state events. they are the result of non. Instead.Definitions Over the years. the number one problem with discussions between utility engineers and customers has been in the area of definitions. where the 60 Hz waveform of voltage and/or current becomes distorted. Swells – Swells are phase to ground power frequency voltages between 110% and 140% that are the result of having a line-to-ground fault on an adjacent phase. Industrial engineers tend to refer to power disturbances as dips. dimmer switches. or even voltage flicker. They generally are caused by large loads starting or system faults.Surges are transient overvoltages that usually last less than a few milliseconds. Surges .linear loads. Harmonics are not normally caused by the utility system itself. Interruptions – Interruptions are a complete loss of voltage to one or more customers. a blip could encompass anything from a momentary interruption to a sag. They are typically the result of lightning and equipment switching. The duration of the swell is dependent on how fast the system fault is cleared by the protection scheme. It should be noted that the utility 93 . non-IEEE. such as computers. blips or flicker. illustrates some of the more common power disturbance that are considered power quality problems that could result in mis-operation of sensitive equipment. etc. A brief. Generally faults on the customers systems and on the utility system cause sags much deeper than those on events such as motor starting.

weather conditions. A study published in 1994 by EPRI/CEA indicated that new electronic and compact florescent lighting may be more or less prone to flicker that the standard incandescent. Harmonics – “ ANSI/IEEE Std 519. It is. however. good to know how you generally compare. Reliability – Reliability for most utilities means. the primary indices being used by most utilities are SAIDI (average amount of time a customer would expect to be without service). Guidelines and Statistics One of the problems a utility has in assessing their power quality is finding information to compare how they are doing with others. The IEEE has established a task group whose purpose is to establish guidelines with respect to the measurement and effect of voltage sags. These indices will no doubt have to address such items as the magnitude and duration of the sag as well as the number of phases involved. Sags – There are no utility guidelines for sags. Overview of Industry Standards and Activities The following is a list of the status of some of the significant PES industry activities in many of the utility distribution power quality areas: Reliability – “ IEEE Guide for Electric Power Distribution Reliability Indices . Industry Surveys. The purpose of this section is to provide data from a number of sources in the area of power quality that may prove helpful in any assessment of this nature. “sustained interruptions”. Information on the magnitude of swells for different types of system grounding can be found in the “ IEEE Guide for the Application of Neutral Grounding in Electrical Utility Systems.The magnitude of a swell is largely a function of the system grounding. The group is presently addressing the steps necessary to develop sag indices. Voltage Flicker (not shown) – Voltage Flicker is a repetitious variation in the luminance of a light source. The group has also been at the forefront of performing surveys to help utilities benchmark their systems. This group has proposed the adoption of the IEC Flicker Standards with some minor commentary to reflect the difference in secondary voltage level. Work in this area has not really taken place for the past 10 years. IEEE Recommended Practices and Requirements for Harmonic Control in Power Systems”. Voltage Flicker – Most utilities continue to use the General Electric Flicker Curve. It should be noted that survey data in these areas is flawed since 94 . made flickering lamps more visible. The IEEE is sponsoring a Task Group on Voltage Flicker. and hence it may be impossible to come up with performance standards in most of these areas. While there are many indices in use today. and waveform distortion goals for the system designer are established. Part IVDistribution”. The purpose of this document is to establish goals for the design of electrical systems that include both linear and nonlinear loads. Voltage flicker can be seen with very small changes in voltage and is an annoyance to humans and not considered to be a problem for most sensitive loads. The purpose of this guide is to foster a uniformity of terms and definitions among utilities as well as to establish consistent reporting practices and calculation methodology. SAIFI (average number of times a customer would expect to see an interruption of more than 5 minutes). Swells . We all recognize that utilities are vastly different when compared on the basis of load density.P1366”. originally published in 1921. and CAIDI (average duration of an interruption). Lamp dimming practices too. etc. interruptions of power to one or more customers lasting more than 5 minutes.industry defines reliability indices on the basis of momentary and sustained interruption parameters only. animals. the change in voltage and the type (and rating) of the light source.e. i. This document addresses the steady state limitations and sets a level of harmonic quality that should be provided at the point of common coupling. The voltage and current waveforms that may exist throughout the system are described. The visibility of this fluctuation is a function of the repetition rate.

To help insure that critical levels of harmonics do not become a future problem. 60 Number of Incidents 50 40 30 20 10 0 SARFI90 SARFI70 SARFI Value SARFI50 18 10 50 Figure 1 – Typical Number of Sags per Year (SARFI) Harmonics – Harmonics are produced by nonlinear loads on the utility power system such as static power converters. Likewise. some monitoring studies have been performed to give customers some idea of what to expect. To date. transformers overheating. below. if a customer saw 75 sags below 90% of voltage. Utilities using sophisticated computer systems to track outages accurately tend to have higher interruption times than those that don’t. if a customer saw 20 severe sags below 70% of nominal voltage. that would be reported as SARFI90. it is only within the past 20 years that the utility industry has voiced any major concerns. The index used in most of these studies is SARFI. computers. SARFI represents the average number of specified rms variation measurement events that occurred over the assessment period per customer served. While harmonics have always been a major concern for industrial and commercial customers with nonlinear loads.utilities vary in how accurate their interruption numbers actually are. it is rare that a utility system sees an ambient level of harmonics that will cause serious concern. Harmonics can result in such concerns as resonance. For example. etc. and saturated magnetic devices. 300 Minutes per Year 250 200 150 100 50 0 Q1 Q2 Quartile Q3 Q4 95 67 121 245 Figure 6 – Average Time Without Service (SAIDI) Sags – While sags are not reported to utility commissions. that would be reported as SARFI70. It has even been suggested that most of the utilities in the first quartile (best) are able to do so because they do not keep accurate records. Some typical SARFI values are shown in Figure 1 below. This concern is based on the growing use of these harmonic producing devices and their cumulative effect on the operation of the power system and connected customers. sensitive equipment misoperation. Some typical outage numbers (SAIDI) are shown in Figure. the industry has come up with a recommended practice for harmonic control 95 .

referred to as IEEE 519. The voltage limits recommended (simplified) in this document are outline in Table 1.

Table 1 – Voltage Distortion Limits Voltage at PCC (point of common coupling) 69 kV and below 69.001kV to 161kV 161.001 and above Total THD % (total harmonic distortion) 5.0 2.5 1.5

Nonlinear loads produce harmonic currents, which in turn can distort the voltage. How much the voltage is distorted is a function of the source impedance (high short circuit areas have low source impedance and vice versa). Since these loads can be evaluated in terms of current distortion prior to their actual installation, these current levels can be used (injected into a load flow) to produce voltage distortions which can be evaluated based on the parameters shown in Table 1. The industry has come up with limits for current distortion based on system short circuit level. If the system short circuit level is high (source impedance low), a higher level of harmonic current is allowed since it will have less effect on voltage distortion. Table 2, shown below, is a simplified version these limits.

Table 2 – Current Distortion Limits (120V to 69kV) Isc/Iload <20 20-50 50-100 100-1000 >1000 Total Demand Distortion (TDD) 5.0 8.0 12.0 15.0 20.0

Flicker – Voltage flicker is the amplitude modulation of the fundamental frequency voltage waveform by one or more frequencies (typically less than 30 Hz). These modulations, which can be quite small, can cause visible brightening and dimming of connected lights. Voltage flicker is primarily a visual perception problem and not a cause of equipment malfunction. For the past 80 years the industry has almost universally employed the so-called “GE Flicker Curve” shown in Figure . Until recently, there were no generally accepted standards for voltage flicker measurements. There is an international standard now in place, which allows flicker to be measured and evaluated on a common basis.

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Figure 7 – GE Flicker Curve (1921) Surges – Surges normally refer to voltage transients resulting from lightning and switching. These surges can have a high enough voltage level to cause insulation to break down resulting in failure of the equipment. Surges are very common since they can be the result of simply turning on a light switch (current chopping e=L*di/dt). Surges per a study performed some time ago and found in C62.41 are shown in Figure .
Events per Residence per Year 25 20 15 10 5 0 350-500 500-1000 1000-1500 1500-2000 Surge Voltage Range

Figure 8 – Typical Surges in Residence

XXXXVI. Application of Capacitors

Introduction The application of capacitors has become commonplace in the United States. There was a time when the application of capacitors on a wide scale basis was unusual because losses didn’t cost that much and regulators handled the voltage drop quite well.

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Things have changed. Losses are a major concern. Voltage quality, due to more sensitive loads, is an issue. Finally, in today’s world of cutting costs, capacitors are seen as the cheap way to reduce losses and get more watts out of what’s already there. The purpose of this section is to very briefly review some of the considerations distribution engineers might address in the application of capacitors. Benefits of Capacitors The proper application of capacitors serves to reduce the system current and raise the system voltage. This accomplishes 3 benefits: 1. Reduces loading of thermally limited equipment. 2. Reduces system voltage drop 3. Reduces system losses The application of capacitors benefits the entire system and the value of these benefits for the entire system should be considered when considering how many capacitors should be installed. It should not be overlooked that kilovars flowing through the system cause reactive as well as real losses. This means that when a certain quantity of kilovars is required at the load, more than that will be required at the source of the kvars. Typical Placement Studies Most utilities try to apply capacitors “optimally”. Years ago, when voltage levels were low and wire sizes were smaller, an “optimal placement study” might mean placement of the capacitor banks to obtain a reasonable voltage profile. Today, optimum placement normally means place to minimize losses at the lowest cost. Placement Studies are normally performed in one of two ways: Place capacitors until optimum power factor is reached (point where the cost of adding bank exceeds value of losses reduction and equipment utilization benefits). • Place capacitors until a predetermined power factor is met. This number is sometimes quite arbitrary. Optimal placement would be easy if the load didn’t change. The problem with placement studies is that loads change during the day, week, month and most schemes have to deal with all these changes as best they can. Shown below, is a plot of a scheme that was not optimized for the summer peaking period. As can be seen in figure 9, the var needs change dramatically over a fairly brief period of time. The challenge to the distribution engineer is to pick the correct size of the banks to be used, the placement of these banks and minimize the cost. •
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-4.00 HOUR/DATE

Figure 9 – Plot of MW and MVARS Shown in figure 10 are typical placement scenarios for a feeder having 10 nodes (in this case the nodes were 10 miles apart). As can be seen, the plot shows optimum placement of both the

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It is expensive since it requires both CT’s and PT’s. it is generally used as an over-ride for emergency voltage conditions.VAR control is effective for minimizing losses and can differentiate between summer and winter peaks.00% 80. 99 .Voltage is relatively inexpensive and works well when voltage varies with load. 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 1-2 2-3 2-3 3-4 4-5 5-6 5-7 7-8 7-9 Optimum Capacitor Location 910 KVAR Switched Fixed Figure 10 – Optimal Placement One method which helps assess how much of the needs can be satisfied with fixed banks is the use of a cumulative loading curve as shown in Figure 11. 120. It does require a current transformer which adds to the expense.00% Percent of Peak Load Figure 11 – Cummulative Loading Curve Control of Switched Banks The control of a switched capacitor bank is very dependent on things like cost. .00% 100.fixed and switched banks.00% 40. On short feeders where voltage drop is not great this method is difficult to coordinate. etc. On modern systems. type of load. This placement was determined using a computer optimization runs at various load levels. .00% 0. the load is virtually always at 50% or greater.00% 40.00% 100. It is very difficult to set VAR controlled capacitors optimally when multiple switched banks are used. As can be seen.Current control responds to loading well.00% 60.00% 20. voltage concerns both on the distribution and subtransmission system. This curve is also valuable for setting stages of the controls.00% Percent of Time 80. amount of acceptable complexity.00% 20. Major problem with current control is that it cannot differentiate between low power factor loads like air conditioners (summer) and high power factor loads(winter)like resistive heating. climatic conditions.00% 0.00% 60. There are several types of control in use today: • Voltage • Current • VAR • Temperature • Time • Power Factor • Automation • Combinations of the above Some of the advantages and disadvantages of each of these controls is briefly described as follows: .

The problem is this: if we assume a 30/40/50 MVA transformer at 14% impedance and loaded to 130%. Some of the benefits of automating the banks are greater flexibility. in today’s environment can be significant. The fuse must have a continuous current rating of 135% of rated current of the bank and clear in 5 minutes for reasonable coordination. Time is also simple and inexpensive. low power factor load could switch the banks in unnecessarily (the opposite could also be true). In their effort in the late 90’s to reduce cost. • Delta or ungrounded wye offer the greatest possibility of neutral inversion or a resonant condition when one or two conductors on the source side of the bank are open. ungrounded banks are most common. Effect of Grounding There are a number of ways to ground capacitor banks. • Grounded wye banks are generally easy to clear since there is adequate ground current. holidays. Capacitor Protection A. A summary of considerations in this area is as follows: • A three phase capacitor may be connected in delta. To reduce some of their concern for their growing short circuit levels they purchase a transformer with a higher than normal impedance. One consideration with this type of control is a low power level. this transformer will have over 15 MVARs of losses. On the other hand. ungrounded banks have the currents limited to 300 percent of normal phase current by the impedance of the other two legs. they decide to load these transformers according to the loading guides instead of the more conservative approach of the past since transformers rarely fail due to overload. better VAR support for transmission. delta connected banks are usually used except at system locations where fault current is excessive. At 100% of rating the losses are about 10 MVAR. The more modern voltage controllers avoid most of the concerns associated with the older mechanical units and have had good success in some areas. A grounded wye bank on an ungrounded system creates a ground source that may interfere with sensitive relaying as well as contribute to overvoltages during ground faults on these ungrounded systems. While grounded wye banks are normally used. 100 .- - - - Temperature is simple and inexpensive. It is sometimes difficult to satisfy both conditions. “Utility X purchases a transformer back in 1970 with a triple rating (OA/FA/FOA). Automation of capacitor controls is showing very strong promise and customer acceptance since the costs of these schemes is coming down and the benefits. wye-ungrounded or wye-grounded. It seems to work very well in many areas of the country where air conditioning load dominates peak conditions. control schemes are simpler. and it is easier to detect failed banks. It can consequently be a problem to locate these banks on the load side of a switch or fuse. That’s a big bank in the world of distribution. VAR Requirements of Substation Transformers One the more recent concerns for vars is the increasing need to compensate for reactive losses in the substation transformer. This problem has sort of snuck up on some utilities due to the following scenario. It does not sense abnormal loads and can often get out of sync due to extended power outages. One drawback is that it does not recognize holidays or weekends and for this reason usually requires some sort of voltage override. there are sometimes reasons why this connection may not be optimum. Power Factor is similar in application to VAR control. To summarize: − For delta or ungrounded systems. • Grounded wye banks are usually used on 4 wire multi-grounded systems only. etc. Combinations of the above are commonplace especially where voltage is used as an override for emergency conditions.

18 p. The failed capacitor and fuse must be able to absorb or hold off this energy with a low probability of case rupture of the capacitor unit. adjustable speed drives).Pre-insertion resistors reduce surges by about 40% for energization of the substation bank. On delta systems they are always ungrounded and on 4-wire systems they are either grounded or ungrounded.19 joules per kVAR. we rarely encounter switching transients on distribution systems which can cause utility equipment failure. . Digital calculations of transient overvoltages are shown below. . B. Series Capacitors Series capacitors were used some years ago when systems were lower voltage. The available energy is compared with the rating of the fuse and capacitor unit.Energization of a 15 MVAR substation bank = 2. series capacitors obtained somewhat of a poor reputation (some say undeserved) for causing system problems. wire was smaller and power factor was low (uncorrected). . The conditions that can create problems on distribution systems normally occur at the higher voltage levels while switching large capacitor banks or long distances of cable. 4-wire systems. Modern systems generally do not see as much benefit from series capacitors since system power factors are generally higher. some of which are addressed below. for an actual 34.65 p.0 p.u. However. Over the years.g. Ungrounded banks should be used on the load side of switches.Energization of Feeder Cable = 2.u. . While even low level capacitor switching transients have been known to cause misoperation of customer equipment (e. Where fault current is excessive. Large Motor Load Figure 12 – Series Capacitor Application 101 . This is one of criteria for selecting a current limiting fuse for high energy applications (large banks) as opposed to an expulsion fuse. Series capacitors were used to instantly respond to load changes resulting in voltage flicker. . Capacitor Switching Most textbooks on distribution engineering (including my own ) cover the mechanism by which capacitors can cause overvoltages as a result of either energization. the energy stored in its series group of capacitors is available to dump into the combination of the failed capacitor and fuse.− − For grounded. or de-energization with restrike. The available energy is about 3.u. In substations the banks are almost always wye-connected. ungrounded banks are used.u.5kV underground system having a very large 15 MVAR capacitor bank at the substation. Fusing When a capacitor bank fails.Cable De-energization (no restrike) = 1.De-energization of 15 MVAR substation bank with re-strike >3 p. there have been a number of modern applications where series capacitors have proven very effective and without the possible problems due in some part to modern series capacitor design. grounded banks are used in most locations.

• KVAR in series caps is generally less than half that for a shunt bank with the same voltage effect. • Operating problems with series capacitors include: o Subsynchronous resonance of a motor during starting – can usually be avoided with a resistor in parallel with the capacitor. The gap is usually set at twice the rating of the capacitor. o Ferroresonance of a transformer . The total steady state current plus transient current should not exceed 1.Some of the collective “application wisdom”. voltage. is as follows: • Applicable to radial load circuits supplying loads of about 70 to 95 percent lagging power factor.5 times rating. Sometimes just shorting the capacitor during starting works (gap may go over anyway due to the half frequency impedance of the capacitor). the benefits are low. they must be able to carry temporarily. o Hunting of motors 102 . A resistor shunting also works. This is generally automatically cured by the parallel gap. therefore it is necessary to use capacitors with continuous current ratings equal to 50 per cent of the maximum current that may flow during a fault. the starting current of the largest motor plus other loads. • Standard capacitor units can withstand about 200 percent of their rated working voltage for brief periods without damage to the dielectric. shunt are usually better and above that. • The rating of the series capacitor (kilovars. Below that. • The current rating of the capacitor bank equals that of the circuit since they must carry rated circuit current continuously. It is usually more cost efficient to use protective devices across the bank. with regard to series capacitors. and current) for a radial feeder depends on the desired voltage regulation.High magnetizing inrush of transformer may create a resonant condition. In addition. and the amount of resistance and reactance in the feeder relative to each other and the circuit rating. the load power factor.

systems and vice versa. there are times when good grounds are not important and may even be detrimental. It will be shown that while good grounding is usually preferred. Some of the grounding areas covered are: • Classes of distribution system grounding • Arrester application • Effect on swells • Stray voltage • Line protection • Capacitor grounding • Overcurrent protection • Number of grounds per mile • Etc. Questions being asked are: • Is good grounding really necessary? • Does poor grounding have advantages? • What is the best grounding? • When is grounding important? And when is it not? The purpose of this section is to attempt to answer some of these questions. In an industry where utilities are combining practices. complicated by the fact that European utilities are purchasing U. the confusion has been compounded.S. Fig.Pros and Cons of Good Grounding NTRODUCTION Distribution neutral grounding is probably one of the most confusing subjects faced by the utility distribution engineer. Typical 4-Wire Multigrounded System 103 . 1.

CLASSES OF SYSTEM GROUNDING There are many ways to ground a distribution system primary. bushing.S. A grounding transformer may be used to establish a grounded system. like a delta system. Ungrounded Systems Ungrounded system have the secondary windings of the distribution substation transformer connected either ungrounded delta or ungrounded wye. since only one cable. as is common in Europe. Grounded Systems Grounded systems are usually derived from a distribution substation transformer with wye-connected secondary windings with a neutral point of the windings solidly grounded or connected to ground through a non-interrupting. and produces less EMF. such as equipment tanks and guy wires. The major advantage of an ungrounded system. The neutral conductor of the distribution circuits may be connected to earth at frequent intervals (multigrounded). especially for underground. Several types of grounded systems are as follows: • Four-Wire Multigrounded Systems: This system is by far the most popular in the U. The distribution feeders are three-wire. and has the advantage of being easy to protect for most overcurrent fault conditions. and to interconnect it with a secondary neutral conductor or grounded conductor. This is also a disadvantage in that overcurrent protection for this type of fault is difficult if not impossible to detect. but the system is grounded through the connections of the substation transformer or grounding transformer. gives a brief overview of some of the advantages and disadvantages of the various system grounding practices in use today. Distribution systems are classified as either grounded or ungrounded. In some situations. is that a single line to ground fault will not result in high levels of fault current sufficient to disrupt service beyond the fault itself. The following section. with the former connection being more common. This paper will deal primarily with the effects of grounding on a 4-wire multigrounded system since it predominates in this country.S. however. It is also preferred since a large portion of the loads in the U. current-limiting device such as a resistor or reactor. The neutral conductor associated with the primary feeders of multi-grounded neutral distribution systems is connected to earth at intervals specified by national or local codes. The circuits associated with grounded distribution systems generally have a neutral conductor connected to the supply grounding point. switch. or it may be fully insulated and have no other earth connection except at the source (unigrounded). In three-wire unigrounded systems. are single phase and can be connected between the phase wire and the neutral conductor. it is impossible to say which is the “best”. three-phase and two-wire single-phase circuits. the same neutral conductor is used for both the primary and secondary systems. The following is a general description of the major types: A. a neutral conductor is not run with each circuit. The delta system also gives better phase balancing. While there are advantages and disadvantages of each type of grounding. It is much cheaper for single phase service. B. 104 . It is also common practice to bond this neutral conductor to surge-arrester ground leads and to all noncurrent-carrying parts. lower energy into a fault.

reduce EMF.S. It can consequently be a problem to locate these banks on the load side of a switch or fuse. ungrounded banks are most common. A disadvantage of this system is that it creates higher voltage swells than the multigrounded system. It is used sparingly in the U. B. it is difficult to coordinate series overcurrent devices (similar to problems with a delta system). Overvoltages (Swells) 105 . EFFECT OF GROUNDING A. Because line-to-ground current levels are generally low using this system. It also can use lower rated arresters and BIL. Capacitor Banks There are a number of ways to ground capacitor banks. but is only grounded at the source. A grounded wye bank on an ungrounded system creates a ground source that may interfere with sensitive relaying as well as contribute to overvoltages during ground faults on these ungrounded systems. It is sometimes difficult to satisfy both conditions. wye-ungrounded or wye-grounded. a multigrounded wire and an isolated neutral.. see faults farther out of the substation. It also produces less EMF.S. It has several advantages over the fourwire multigrounded system in that it has the ability to detect high impedance faults. On delta systems they are always ungrounded and on 4-wire systems they are either grounded or ungrounded. Ungrounded banks should be used on the load side of switches. − In substations the banks are almost always wye-connected. Three-Wire Unigrounded Systems: These systems are popular in Europe. The primary advantage of this system is that greater ground relaying sensitivity can be obtained in comparision to the multi-grounded system. allowing for much greater sensitivity to ground fault detection. The fuse must have a continuous current rating of 135% of rated current of the bank and clear in 5 minutes for reasonable coordination. To summarize: − For delta or ungrounded systems. delta connected banks are usually used except at system locations where fault current is excessive. A summary of considerations in this area is as follows: • A three phase capacitor may be connected in delta. Where fault current is excessive ungrounded banks are used. − For grounded.• • • fuse. On the other hand. • Grounded wye banks are usually used on 4 wire multi-grounded systems only. With the predominance of 3 phase loading in Europe. needs to be used as compared to a delta system which needs almost twice as much equipment. While grounded wye banks are normally used. there are sometimes reasons why this connection may not be optimum. • Grounded wye banks are generally easy to clear since there is adequate ground current. Five-Wire Distribution System: This is a new system which utilizes three phase wires. the system tends to be much more balanced than a system found in the U. Four-Wire Unigrounded Systems: This system uses 4 wires. and reduce stray voltages. grounded banks are used in most locations. etc. 4-wire systems. ungrounded banks have the currents limited to 300 percent of normal phase current by the impedance of the other two legs. • Delta or ungrounded wye offer the greatest possibility of neutral inversion or a resonant condition when one or two conductors on the source side of the bank are open.

5 miles from the substation can cause swell of up to 1.1 5 1 . Studies show that for typical conditions approximately 50% of the return current flows in the earth and the other 50% in the neutral. • • C.4 1 .5. that poor grounding forces more current in the neutral and thereby reduces the EMF.0. Some grounding considerations regarding the magnitude of swells are as follows: 1 .5 per unit if a broken neutral exists. 2. The current flowing in the ground creates most of the magnetic field associated with EMF. Current in the neutral tends to reduce this field. it is necessary to have a ground footing resistance of less than 1 ohm for a typical 4-wire system. A footing resistance of 25 ohms produces overvoltages (near the end of the line) of about 1.3 1 . and 3.) 1 . there will be a reduction of about 2% with a footing resistance of 25 ohms. Substation grounding impedance of 0. The duration of these overvoltages is dependent on the protection practices used by the utility. whereas good grounds do not affect the voltage much. A case can be made. This is especially true since there are many equipment grounds on the system. The size of the neutral conductor appreciably reduces swells. Swells can result in power quality problems as well as failure of arresters.u. Faults beyond 5 miles produce swells that are virtually identical.Swells are steady state overvoltages caused by faults on adjacent phases.2 1 . Soil Resistivity and Ground Rod Spacing: Studies run by the authors show that if an arbitrary swell limit of 20% is desired (this is the value used for arrester application by many utilities).0.3 5 1 . Measurements taken by one of the authors on actual systems shows ground impedance to be far less of a factor than what many studies show. 1. Even faults at only 1. Effect of Footing Resistance and Ground Rod Spacing • Effect of Footing Resistance. EMF Unbalanced load current flows in the ground and the neutral wire. This indicates that the neutral is more important than the grounding.4 5 Maximum L-N Voltage (p. Augmenting the number of grounds per mile does not have a significant effect on reducing swells.33 per unit for a broken neutral on any part of the system. Broken Neutrals: Neutrals play a major role in the effectiveness of the grounding system.2 5 1 .31 per unit for the same system. If the number of grounds is increased to 8 per mile. You be the judge.1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 G r o u n d F o o tin g R e s is ta n c e (o h m s ) 4 g p m 8 g p m Fig. The results of this study also showed that the use of the standard 4 grounds per mile is not sufficient to keep these overvoltages (swells) down to the desired level (see figure 2). virtually no change occurred in the magnitude of the swells. Using a ground footing resistance of 25 ohms does reduce overvoltages for faults within about 5 miles of the substation as compared to 100 ohms. 2.0 showed little difference in their effect on swells caused by faults out on the feeder. When soil resistivity was changed from 100 ohm-m to 1000 ohm-m. 106 . Studies show that fault 10 miles from the substation can cause swells of 1. Substation Grounding: Substation grounding has little effect on swells.

Fault magnitudes farther from the substation are not seriously affected by footing impedance. Studies show that where arresters are put on every phase and every tower or pole. Fault Levels Studies show that ground rod footing resistance does slightly affect fault current levels for close in faults but has little effect for faults more than 4 or 5 miles from the substation. it can also be the result of a poor utility return path (earth and neutral wire). For a direct strike to a distribution line. It can hence be argued that footing resistance is not important in the area of overcurrent protection. Reducing the ground footing resistance near the customer many times proves ineffective for this reason. value of footing resistance. etc. Arrester Grounding Arrester grounding is not as critical as most engineers believe. Figure #3. Utility caused stray voltage is the result of the return current (or unbalanced 3-phase current) returning via the neutral wire and the ground and producing a voltage which is passed to the customer premises via the distribution transformer connection. since the shield wire intercepts most of the energy (At transmission voltage level. As can be seen. This along with the added energy in multiple strokes and continuing current suggest that direct hits will cause MOV failures most of the time. a shield wire used in conjunction with the arrester is recommended if more complete protection is desired. As spacing of arresters is increased. is a plot of “actual” measure faults.D. F. even with several arresters sharing the energy in a lightning flash. the problem is more affected by the magnitude of the return current and the size of the neutral conductor. Since close in fault magnitudes are almost always sufficient to operate protection properly. there is very little difference. number for grounds.). grounding does have a relatively minor influence. an arrester will be subject to energies in excess of 5 kJ/kV of MCOV more than 50% of the time. footing resistance in this area is not an issue. the 107 . Fig. Stray Voltage While most cases of stray voltage are the result of on-site” generated problems.2 kJ/kV of MCOV. shown below. Most heavy duty distribution class arresters can only absorb about 2. ground resistance between 0 and 250 ohms had little effect on flashover rates. On a distribution line. size of the neutral. The problem with arresters used for direct stroke protection is that they will most likely fail anyway due to energy of the stroke. faults calculated with 25 ohms neutral ground rod impedance and faults with no ground rod impedance (symmetrical components). While good ground footing resistances near the affected customer are important. Ten percent of first strokes are likely to subject an arrester to greater than 12 kJ/kV of MCOV. It depends. The flow of current in these paths is complex and depends on many factors (distance from substation. 3 Comparison of Fault Calculations E.

simulations on a standard distribution system design indicated that with a ground resistance of 0 ohms. For example. 108 . Using a shield wire. over 82% of the direct hits would cause the line to flashover. It can be argued that poor arrester grounding may help the arrester survive since the arrester closest to the lightning hit does not absorb all the energy and shares it with adjacent arresters. A sampling of about 50 feeders with static wire protection and a significant percentage of poles without static grounds (>15%) revealed a dramatic difference in performance (>50% reduction in lightning related flashovers) when grounds were added to these poles. Shield Wires Ground resistance is very important when using a shield wire as is the spacing of the grounds. essentially no flashovers could be expected. A shield wire can be very beneficial if very low ground resistances can be achieved. % F lashover for A rresters Percent Flashovers per Strike 6 4 2 0 0 25 100 250 500 1000 2000 G ro u n d R esistan ce Fig. 4 Effect of Resistance on Arresters G. If the ground impedance was increase to 25 ohms. about 22% of the hits would cause a flashover and with a ground footing impedance of 100 ohms.problem is less serious due to the much higher BIL levels of the structures and large energy capability of the arresters). Field tests by one of the authors have proven this to be true. it is essential to put grounds on every span to achieve good protection.

who errs and comes short again and again. we decrease reliability. it may not be possible to make this approach work. 5 Effect of Resistance on Shield Wires The Man In the Arena It’s not the critic who counts. it is usually possible to save the fuse). whose face is marred by dust and sweat and blood. this works pretty well. who. The purpose of this scheme is solely and entirely to minimize momentary interruptions. Fuse Blow Survey Results Historically. and spends himself in a worthy cause. one of the primary purposes of reclosing. and who. on overhead systems. not the man who points out how the strong man stumbled. It has been well known that in high fault current areas (above approximately 4kA depending on fuse size and type). at best. if he fails. The credit belongs to the man who is actually in the arena. There are now essentially 3 approaches that utilities use: 1. Theodore Roosevelt Tidbits a. Fuse Save – This approach makes the attempt to minimize customer interruption time (reduce SAIDI) by attempting to open the breaker or recloser faster than it takes to melt the fuse. 3. so that his place shall never be with those cold and timid souls who know neither victory nor defeat. Fuse Save vs. The downside of the “Fuse Blow” concept is that it increases SAIDI. This scheme is very successful in high short circuit areas where a “fuse save” approach didn’t work anyway.Percent Flahovers per Strike % Flashover for Shield Wire 100 50 0 0 25 100 250 500 1000 Ground Resistance Fig. in an effort to address power quality issues (momentaries).e. This saves the fuse and allows a simple momentary interruption…a blink. at the worst. i. or where the doer of deeds could have done them better. Fuse Blow – The approach here is eliminate the fast trip of the breaker or recloser and have the fuse operate for all permanent and temporary faults. We have seen the industry reassess their overcurrent coordination practices. at least fails which daring greatly. In high short circuit areas. it was impossible to save the fuse since the fuse was simply too fast (. For most systems. knows in the end the triumph of high achievement. Both – Many utilities use both schemes for a variety of reasons: • Fuse Blow for high short circuit current areas and Fuse Save where it will work.5 cycles) and hence could not be saved even by the fastest breaker or recloser (after you get about a mile or 2 from the substation. • Fuse Save on overhead and Fuse Blow on underground taps 109 . who know the great enthusiasms. in an effort to increase power quality (momentaries). was to save the fuse during temporary fault conditions. 2. who strives valiantly.

etc. • A large number of utilities block their instantaneous trip in high fault current areas and install a recloser out on the feeder where “fuse saving” can be successful. • The vast majority of utilities use a “Fuse Save” philosophy. • This is an informal. if they can. • There are a number of instances where results were received from more than one recipient from the same company. when it works. unfunded survey. • Utilities going to a “Fuse Blow” approach appeared to be cognizant of the fact that they were converting temporary faults into permanent interruptions and thereby greatly increasing the frequency of interruptions (by a factor of 4) for faults on overhead lateral taps. Although there has been a lot of discussion on this in the industry. b. and do not consider momentary operations more important than interruptions. These utilities indicate that momentary operations are their primary concern.This category is the number of utilities that are presently using a fuse save philosophy at least on some portion of their system Survey Observations: • Most of the utilities adopting the “Fuse Blow” philosophy are from the northeast area of the United States. and have relatively high short circuit levels. • Most of the utilities. Fuse Save on some circuits and Fuse Blow on others depending on customer desires • Etc. type of customer. there was no attempt to consolidate those results. Most seemed to recognize that this approach will reduce system reliability (SAIDI). etc.Fuse Save on rural and Fuse Blow on urban Fuse Save on stormy days and Fuse Blow on nice days. it was unclear as to what utilities were actually doing these days. due to mergers. try to save the fuse on overhead lines.. The following informal survey addressed the status of the industry to date: Number of Utilities Reporting 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 78 54 • • • Fuse Save Fuse Blow Both 24 17 Total Save Fusing Philosophy * Total Save .) and choose the philosophy that’s best for the individual situation. indicating the “Both” category. Slant Rated Cutouts 110 . • A surprising number of utilities reported that they do the best they can to tailor their philosophy to the conditions (short circuit levels. They indicated both because they either had very high short circuit areas (fuse operates anyway) or a large portion of underground taps (no temporary faults). • Some of the utilities listed in the “Fuse Blow” category do not actually have their entire systems implemented with this scheme although it is their chosen philosophy. Since so many companies today operate with totally different practices.

has a lot of hydro.42 as being 7. Much of the world depends on nuclear. Two cutouts in series.Ever been confused about slant ratings? Join the crowd! Slant rated cutouts are referenced by ANSI C37.8/15kV for example. Energy Outlook Wind • Leading technology in terms of growth • Approximately 2. shown below. and the line-to-line voltage is lower that the higher number. The rating implies that one cutout will interrupt the full rating when the lower number 7. 15/27kV or 27/38kV. I would suggest that much of the push to DG is a step backward. wye or delta systems as long as the line-to-neutral voltage of the system is lower than the smaller number. 7. One cutout may be required to perform the interruption by itself. is applied during a line to ground fault. The chart below makes you wonder whether we’re smarter than the rest of the world or quite the opposite when it comes to generation. two cutouts in series may not share in the interruption and. it looked like the industry would go totally nuclear since it was cleaner and less expense (pre-lawyers…. will share the applied voltage and. thus.15kV. A slant rated cutout can withstand the full line-to-line voltage whereas a cutout with a single voltage rating could not withstand the higher line-to-line voltage.000 MW per year being installed • Tax incentives remain main drivers Photovoltaics • Still twice as expensive as normal grid power • Growth is dependent on government support Biomass • Niche opportunity • Market uncertain Low-Impact Hydro • Significant untapped potential. Are “renewables” real or just a hobby? You decide! 111 . Canada. can be used on grounded wye.8kV. Slant rating 7. If there is a line-to-line fault of a low current magnitude. the applied voltage.8kV. market is small absent major changes to the permitting and licensing process Geothermal • Dependent on government subsidy Nuclear When I started in the business (1965). 15kV. using less nuclear then us. interrupt the higher voltage rating. the only country. c.I guess).S. thus.8/15 kV. but U. such as with a line-to-line fault.

459 $74.S.The power of the 16. A statistical BIL is the 10% probability value for the standard test wave.835 e. generating capacity.Nuclear Generation 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 % Nuclear c.2X50 microsecond voltage wave. Air 180 Wood 100 Fiberglass 150 d. Electric Cars .6 million cars and light trucks sold in the United States in 2003 adds up to 2. Normally the CFO and BIL are within a few percent of each other.5 times the total U. CFO for some components is: Kv/ft. Critical Flashover – The critical flashover voltage (CFO) of self-restoring insulation (meaning no damage after the flashover) is the voltage where the insulation has a 50% probability of flashing over from a standard 1.973 $39.027 $22.694 $11. So much for electric cars! Li th ua ni Fr a an Be ce lg iu Uk m ra i Sw n e Sw ed itz en er la nd So J a ut pa Un h K n ite o re d St a at e Ca s na da 112 . Cost of Poor Power Quality – Here are some neat numbers (large Industrial Loads) for you PQ types: Disturbance Voltage Sags Momentary Outage 1 Hour Outage with Notice 1 Hour Outage without Notice 4 Hour Outage Cost per Event $7.

f. Lightning – A direct hit to a distribution line is difficult to protect for whether you use a shield wire, lightning arresters or both. The success of lightning arresters and higher insulation levels is probably due to their ability to mitigate induce hits (strokes to surrounding trees, buildings, etc. Induced voltages have been measured up to 300 kV. Strokes hitting 60 feet away induce about 5.25 kV per kA and those 400 feet away about 2.23 kV/kA. Lightning strokes can be as high as 100 kA or even more. More typical is about 30 kA. Shield wires do not work well if the ground rod resistance is high (about 10 ohms or more). g. Surge (Characteristic) Impedance - A transmission line can be represented by a whole series of small series inductors and shunt capacitors connected in an infinitely long line. The inductance and capacitance values per unit of line, depend on the size of the conductors and the spacing between them. The smaller the spacing between the two conductors, and the greater the diameter, the higher the capacitance and the greater lower the inductance. Each series inductor acts to limit the rate at which current can charge the following shunt capacitor, and in doing so establishes a very important property of a transmission line, its surge impedance. When the voltage is applied to the sending end of a line, the voltage at any point on the line actually consists of two voltages, one voltage traveling from the sending end of the line toward the receiving end, the other traveling from the receiving end back to the sending end. The former will be designated as E+, the latter E-. Each of these voltages is accompanied by the corresponding current, I+ and I-, respectively. The ratio of either voltage to its corresponding current at any point in the line is a constant Z0, which is independent of the line length but is a function of the series resistance, the series inductance, the shunt conductance, and the shunt capacitance of the line per unit length. This constant is the characteristic impedance of the line and can be expressed as;

E I

+

+

= −E

I

=

Z0

⎛ R + j ωL ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ = ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ G + j ωC ⎠

Where; R = resistance in ohms per unit length L = inductance in henrys per unit length G = shunt conductance in mhos per unit length C = shunt capacitance in farads per unit length And = 2 π f, where f is the frequency in cycles per second In actual practice at high frequencies, such as lightning, the quantities jwL and jwC are so large in comparison with R and G that the latter can be neglected and the characteristic impedance expressed simply as

Z0 =

L C

Typically the surge impedance of lines up to 230 kV is relatively constant (regardless of wire diameter) at about 400 ohms. h. Ungrounded Systems • One of the problems with ungrounded systems was that as systems grew, faults were no longer self clearing due to large capacitive currents • Ungrounded systems recorded higher transient overvoltages • An ungrounded system “in a sense” is capacitive grounded • On an ungrounded system, a line-to-ground fault causes 3 times the capacitive current

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A resonant grounded system is one in which the capacitive current is tuned or neutralized by a reactor (ground fault neutralizer or Peterson coil) Ground Fault Neutralizer Current/mi. of Single Phase Amps kV 23 .145 34.5 .200 46 .260 69 .390

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i. Broadband over Power Lines (BPL) BPL is the delivery of broadband Internet signals using the power lines already connected to homes and businesses. The frequency range of the signal is normally between 1.7 and 80 megahertz. BPL has gone by other names including power line carrier (PLC) and ripple control. PLC proved to be a problem because the high frequency signal was severely attenuated or even blocked by voltage regulators, circuit reclosers, transformers and shunt capacitors. The ripple control applications proved to be limited by low data rates and was used primarily for oneway applications such as meter reading. The advent of spread spectrum technology, developed first by the military, made BPL technologically feasible.

BPL uses a form of spread spectrum called “orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), which has the benefits of high spectral efficiency, resiliency to RF interference, and low multi-path distortion. The BPL OFDM typically uses and unlicensed spectrum between 1 megahertz and 100 megahertz. The FCC requires that these signals not cause interference with other users and accept any and all interference from other users.

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It is estimated that over 75 utilities have pilot projects in the area of BPL. Some of the pros and cons of BPL are: PROS: • Uses existing power lines where cable might not be present • It works • Can interface with many types of electrical equipment CONS • Interference concerns with amateur radio operators, short wave emergency communication, fire departments and police, etc. • Problems are sometimes difficult to track down and solve • Possibility of multiple lawsuits due to interference concerns • Cost (requires economics of scale to be attractive) • Competing technologies • Rural areas may not be economically feasible Alternatives to BPL include:

• • • • • • •

DSL Cable TV WiFi and Wimax Mesh Networks Wireless Internet Service Providers FiberSatellite Technology Improvements

Jim Burke 109 Dorchester Pines Court Cary, NC 27511 distjimb@aol.com

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....14 Conductor current rating…. 97-102 Capacitor formulas…..63 Conductor burndown…..INDEX Arc impedance……19 Arrester grounding….32 Custom power…. 51.....29 Conductors….29 Coordination rules….29 Capacitance Line Charging….82..83 116 ..10 Commercial….24 Current-dangerous levels….17.11 Fault Currents…....33 Capacitor grounding…...66 Fault data….31 Electricity Rates….107 BIL……20 BPL……. 114 Cable facts……29 Cable impedance…..66 Fault Impedance….114 Broadband…... 73 Cost of Poor PQ….112 Current transformers….72 Capacitor Application….65 Device numbers ….40 EMF…. 112 Cost of Power Interruptions….15 Distributed Generation…. 111 DSG Info…..111 European Practices….42 Critical Flashover….105 Characteristic Impedance…...68 Cost of poor power….31.72 Cold load pickup….68 Cost of sectionalizing equipment…...113 Charging current….97-102 Capacitor application….69 Costs of equipment…..82 Cost of interruptions….67 Decibels…....51 DSG Requirements….30 Cables…....35 Fault calculations….45 Computer Jargon….106 Energy….

57-60 Loading survey….9 Reliability….....78 Low impedance faults….12 Grounding information…. 92 Power Quality Costs…..81.9 117 .....45 Inrush currents…..69 Shield wires…..33 Sags….109 Fuse Save Survey…. blow”….38. 53-55.. 66 Instrument transformers…..82.110 Stray Voltage…... 77 Rules of Thumb…...111 Overcurrent Protection Rules….72 Load Survey…..81...16 Quarks……56 Rates for Electricity…....12 Fuse Blow Survey….. 13 Fusing Rules…..23 Power Quality….68 Jokes….18 Lightning damage survey…..7 Fuse “save vs.88-90 Substation Voltage Regulation….71 Reliability Data….73-75 Potential transformers…..71 Maxwell’s Equations….8 Maintenance…..79 Line Charging….49 Modern Physics…..78 Loading – 57-62 Loading of Equipment……21.44....8. 112 Power Quality Data……38-40 Protective device abbreviations….55 Saturation curves……20 Sectionalizing Equipment Costs…..23 Interruption Cost….53 Reliability “major events”….56 Nuclear….Fault levels….80 Surface current levels…. 114 Impedance of Faults….83-86 Humor….109 Fuse application….108 Slant Ratings…... 103-109 Grounding.70 Major Event….74 Impedances of Lines…..76..83 Impedances of Cables…. 90. 114 Lightning characteristics….9..9... Pros and Cons – 103-109 High Impedance Faults ..40 Ratings...109 Fusing Capacitors….74 Industrial Data…. 90.28 Safety…. Voltage – 86 Reclosing….

.86 Wind….113 Survey Load….... Lightning Damage…...20 Uniformly Distributed Loads….109 Survey. 57-62 Transformer Saturation…..80 Symmetrical Component Values….28 Voltage ratings…..20 Transformers….80 Voltage Standards….78 Survey on Fuses…. Voltage Regulation….26 Transformer Loading….Surge Impedance…..79 Survey..82..86 Voltage Regulation…...80 Voltage regulation survey….74 Transducer terms….21.. 111 118 .

1965 MSIA – Union College – 1969 . He is recognized throughout the world as an expert in distribution protection.Thesis: “Reliability and Availability Analysis of Direct Buried Distribution Systems” PSEC – GE (Schenectady) . Burke began his career in the utility business with the General Electric Company in 1965 training and taking courses in generation.000 Volt Electrified Railroad Microprocessor Recorder Riser Pole Arrester using Metal Oxide Five Wire Distribution System Digital Simulation of MOV’s for Distribution Systems managed numerous projects including the EPRI Distribution Fault Study. of Notre Dame . he accepted a position as a field application engineer in Los Angeles responsible for transmission and distribution system analyses. he joined ABB. design. overvoltage protection. overcurrent and overvoltage protection. and railroad electrification for customers all over the world. overcurrent protection. the static overcurrent relay and distribution substation automation. In the area of railroad electrification he was the project manager of the EPRI manual on "Railroad Electrification on Utility Systems" as well as project manager of system studies for the 25 to 60 Hz conversion of the Northeast Corridor. He was project manager for the industries first: • • • • • He also 50. In 1969. and numerous lightning and power quality monitoring studies. He has taught numerous courses. reliability. the Power Vac Switchgear. all over the world. consulting in all areas of distribution as well as software engineering. the successful use of MOV line protection for the 115kV line and many others in the areas of power quality. capacitor application. He is author of two revisions to the chapter on Distribution Engineering in the "Standard Handbook for Electrical Engineering. state-of-the-art grounding studies. now in its 12th printing. planning. he was manager of distribution engineering. Until his departure in 1997.1969 PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES IEEE Past Chair: • Distribution Subcommittee • Distribution Neutral Grounding • Overvoltage Protection of DG’s • Switching and Overcurrent Protection • Voltage Quality • Test Code for Faulted Circuit Indicators.com 119 . the development of the first digital fault recorder.Jim Burke EXPERIENCE Mr. (PTI) where he continued to be involved with virtually all distribution engineering issues.Univ. In 1971 he joined GE's Power Distribution Engineering Operation in New York where he was responsible for distribution substations." EDUCATION BSEE . Burke accepted a position at Power Technologies Inc. for thousands of engineers in virtually all areas of distribution engineering. he is Chair of the Distribution Awards Group and member of many other IEEE groups. ACHIEVEMENTS & HONORS IEEE Awards Fellow (1992) Standards Medallion (1992) 4 Prize Papers The 1996 Award for “Excellence in Power Distribution Engineering” Distinguished Lecturer in PQ & Reliability 2005 Recipient of “Herman Halperin Transmission and Distribution Award” distjimb@aol. etc. During this period he was involved with the development of the MOV "riser pole" arrester. During this period he was responsible for the EPRI distribution fault study. Burke joined Quanta Technology in 2006 as an Executive Advisor after 41 years in the industry. grounding. transmission and distribution as part of GE's Advanced Utility Engineering Program. • Testing of Distribution 3 Phase Submersible Switches Presently. as well as generation planning studies for General Electric's customer utilities in the Southwestern states. Mr. power quality and reliability. based Fault He has authored and co-authored over 100 technical papers (4 prize papers) addressing all these areas. He is the author of the book “Power Distribution Engineering: Fundamentals & Applications”. In 1997. In 1978 Mr.

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