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Book 81 (Supplement 1)

Fluency in Functional English
(Part- I)
KevNair

Unifying the world thro' fluent English ...

TM

~TM

Adult Faculties
World's

TM

1st

& oldest fluency course

/~

...

S1

Book 81 (Supplement 1)

Fluency in Functional English
(Part- I)
KevNair

Unifying the world thro' fluent English ...

TM

~TM

Adult Faculties
World's

TM

1st

& oldest fluency course

/~

...

FLUENCY IN FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH - Part I (Used as Supplement 1 in Fluentzy: The Fluency Development Course). Copyright © 1982 K. E. V. Nair,@ KevNair. First published 1982. 2002. ' This edition 2001. Reprinted.2001,

The right of K. E. V. Nair @ KevNair to be identified as the author of this book has been asserted by him.in accordance with the Copyright Act, 1957. All rights reserved worldwide. No part of this book shall be copied or reproduced or transmitted in any form or manner whatever, or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, except in the case of brief quotations or as allowed by the Copyright Act 1957. This book shall not be used for any purpose other than for self-study by the person to whom this is supplied by the Adult Faculties Council. All quotations from this book shall credit Mr. KevNair. Any person who buys this book as part of Fluentzy: The Fluency Development Course or otherwise, or acquires it in any other way, shall not circulate it. Any violation of these terms and conditions will invite civil and criminal proceedings and will be prosecuted to the fullest extent of the law. Published in India by Mrs. Uma V. Nair, Adult Faculties Council, DP Lane, Elamakkara PO, Kochi-682 026, Kerala. Printed in India by Ayodhya Printers Ltd., Elamakkara Kochi-682 026, Kerala. Adult Faculties Council's websites: -- www.fluentzy.com. - www.fluentenglish.com. Phone: (91)(0484) 538449,536361 Fax: (91)(0484) 53636l. E-mail: info@fluentzy.com. PO,

3

Contents
Functional English, 5
1. Expressing ability, 7 2. Expressing inability, 7
3. Asking

26. Arranging to meet sb, 16 27. Attracting attention, 28. Making bookings, 17 29. Breaking the ice, 17 30. Buying things, 17 8 31. Expressing capability, 18 32. Expressing incapability, 33. Expressing certainty, 18 ,34. Expressing uncertainty, 10 10 10 19 35. Asking about certainty and uncertainty, ·19 36. Changing the topic, 19 37. Checking up, 20 38. Asking for clarifications, 39. Making a complaint,
T

16

about ability or

inability, 8 4. Accepting sth*, 8
S..Expressing

admiration, sb**, 9

6. Admitting sth, 8 7. Admonishing 8. Advising sb, 9 9. Asking for advice, 10 10. Expressing agreement, 11. Expressing disagreement, 12. Agreeing reluctantly, 14. Asking whether sb agrees or not, 11 15. Expressing anger, 11 16. Expressing annoyance, 17. Apologizing, 12 12 13. Disagreeing tactfully, 11

18

21

;n

40. Complaining about people's behaviour, 22 41. Complimenting sb,22 42. Answering a compliment, 23 43. Inviting compliments comments, 23 45. Congratulating 46. Contradicting sb, 23 sb, 24 and 23

18. Accepting an apology, 13 19. Rejecting an apology, 13 20. Making appointments, 21. Expressing appreciation, 22. Expressing approval, 14 13 14

44. Expressing condolences,

23. Expressing approval in a reserved or qualified way, 15 24. Expressing disapproval, 25. Expressing disapproval tactful way, 16
* 'sth'

15 in a

47. Trying to convince sb ofsth,24 48. Correcting sb or sth, 24 49. Criticizing sb or sth, 25

= something.

,~*'sb'

= somebody.

4

50. Denying sth, 25 51. Describing sb, 25 52. Describing a house, 26 53. Asking about sb's description, 54. Directing sb to a place, 28 55. Expressing disappointment, 56. Expressing doubt, 30 57. Making friendly enquiries, 58. Expressing fear, 31 59. Forgiving sb, 31 60. Saying goodbye, 31 61. Expressing gratitude, 32 62. Greeting people you already know, 32 30 29 27

General functional English practice, 33
Group Group Group Group 1, 35 2,36 3, 38 4, 40

Functional English Questions for practice, 41 Group Group Group Group 1,41 2, 42 3,44 4,46

5

Functional English
One of the chief reasons why people want to learn a foreign language is this: They want to be able to "do things" in that language. That is, they want to "agree or disagree with someone", "accept or reject an offer", "deny something", "express likes/dislikes", "offer food and drink", "compliment someone" and do a lot of things like these. In other words, they want to use that language and perform a number of "everyday communicative functions". Functions like these are everyday functions, because you'll have to perform these functions whenever you deal with people. In fact, you'll have to perform each of these functions not once, but several times, every day. If you want to become good at performing these everyday functions in a particular language, keep this in mind: Every modern language has a certain set of word groups that would help a speaker perform a certain set of functions. And when you want to perform a particular function in that language, you'll have to utter one or more of the word groups that are normally used in that language to perform that function. For example, if you want to "express your gratitude" in English, you'll have to use an expression like "Thank you", "That's very kind of you", "I can't thank you enough" etc. Through this Supplement and the next, I'm going to introduce you to all the important functions 'you'll have to perform every day in English. Under each function-heading, I'll also give you a collection of word groups that would help you perform that function. What you must do is this: You must utter each of the word groups several times - ALOUD. In that way, you must get your ears and organs of speech used to these word groups. While uttering each word group, take a look at the function-heading (under which it comes) and remind yourself what function it helps you to perform. This is very important. While doing your practice with each word group, keep reminding yourself (silently) that it helps you perform a particular function. For example, while uttering the word group "I do wish you'll be more careful" during your practice sessions, remind yourself that it helps Y9U perform the function "Forgiving someone". In that way, that particular function and that particular word group would get associated in your mind. And your mind gets conditioned to recalling that word group automatically, whenever you use English to perform that function. .

6

Now remember this: It's not as though one particular word group can be used only to perform one particular function. No. That's not so. Often, you can use a particular word group to perform more than one function. for example, take the word group "Thank you very much". You.can use this word group to perform the function "Expressing gratitude" as well as the function 'Accepting an invitation". So there's no strict one-to-one correspondence between word groups and functions. That is, we can't say that a particular word group is used only to express a particular function or that a particular function can only be expressed by a particular word group. At the same time, bear in mind that certain word groups are used more often to express certain functions than to express certain other functions. In fact, most word groups can normally be used only to express one or two functions. I've classified the word groups you're going to get by taking these realities into accoun~. And remember this: When you say something to a person, he's aware of the conversational situation in which you say it. And this awareness of the conversational situation would easily help him understand what function you intend a particular word group to perform when you utter it. . So when you practice uttering the word groups aloud, don't let your aim be to reproduce by heart a list of word groups that would help you perform a particular function. That is, you don't have to learn to list the word groups by heart and to say that such-and-such a word group listed undersuch-and-such a function-heading would help you perform such-and-such a function. No, that's not necessary at all and won't be of much help. All you need to do is to associate in your mind each of the word groups listed under a function-heading with that function - because nobody ever says anything in real life by first recalling the names of the functions they want to perform from moment to moment and then by recalling word groups that'd be appropriate to fulfill those functions. No - nobody does that! In fact, once you complete your practice with the functional word groups, you can safely forget about the names of the functions that those word groups perform. Actually, the function-names are not important outside the practice sessions. So let me stress one thing: When you practice uttering each word group aloud, you must keep reminding yourself what specific function that particular word group helps you to perform. I want you to do this, because the name of a particular function-heading would form a common basis for relating in your mind a set of word groups together (that is, to one another) as well as to a particular function. Of course,

7
this exercise may also help you to easily and readily recall appropri-

ate word groups -- function-wise at the right time - when you have a real conversation. But the point is, that's not the reason why I want you to do this exercise. Let's now move on to the functions themselves. You'll find these functions covered by two Supplements in this course: Supplement 1 and Supplement 2. You should first take a look at the tables of contents on pages 3 and 4 of these Supplements. Each table gives a list of the functions covered by each of the Supplements. These tables give you a bird's eye view of the communicative functions that you'll have to perform every day, and of the word groups and patterns of word groups that English-speaking people often use in order to perform those functions. But when you have to locate a negative function-heading like "Expressing inability", "Expressing disagreement", "Expressing disapproval", "Expressing uncertainty" etc, don't look for them in the places for "inability", "disagreement", "disapproval", "uncertainty", etc. Instead, look for them in the places for the positive words "ability", "agreement", "approval", "certainty", etc. And to make it still easier for you to locate a particular function, the key-word in the name of each function has been printed in italics. Here we go for the word groups that help you express each function. 1. Expressing ability • He can drive. • I can drive a car, but not a lorry. • The door was stuck, but he was able to open it. • When I was your age, I could run a mile in 5 minutes ... He's better able to do it than her. • He's quite an expert at this sort of work. • She knows how to swim. • He finished the work on his own without help from anyone else. • He has ability, but he is lazy.• She's capable of passing the exam if she tries harder. • He's a good painter. • He's a good carpenter. • Will you be able to come to the meeting tomorrow? • She's good at guessing things. • I wouldn't put it past him to do a thing like that. • You can do much better, I'm sure. • He has the ability to make decisions. • She can speak Spanish fluently. • You're capable of doing better, you know.

2. Expressing inability
• He cannot do it without help. • She can't speak Telugu very well. • He couldn't understand a thing she said .• I'm sorry, I won't be able to come. • I couldn't answer her questions. • He

8 won't be able to type so fast. 0 She's incapable of behaving rudely to anyone. I wasn't able to pass the driving test the first time. 0 He's incapable of hard work. 0 He's incapable of telling a lie. 0 He's unable to help her. 0 I can't swim as far as you. 0 I tried to-move it, but I couldn't .• I want to come, but I'm unable to. • I've never been any good at repairing things.
0

3. Asking about ability or inability
o Can you swim across the river? Can you drive a car? • Can you ride a bike? Can you type? Is she able to understand the instructions? • Were you able to solve the problem? • Can't you explain it more simply? • Isn't he able to read or write? • Is he unable to walk without crutches?
0 0 0

4. Accepting sth (= something)
[See Function (Fn). no.18Accepting an apology, Accepting help, Fn.no.85 Accepting an invitation, Accepting an offer of food or drink, and Fn.no.149 Accepting a request. See also Fn.no.lO Expressing Fn.no.67 Fn.no.lOO Agreeing to/ agreement].

5. Expressing admiration
(See also Fn.no.21 Expressing appreciation, Fn.no.22 Expressing approval, and Fn.no.41 Complimenting sb).
o That's the most magnificent performance I've ever seen! You don't say! You mean you made it? 0 Look at the building. Isn't it beautiful? • I just adore this colour. 0 I've never seen anything like it! • You're the prettiest girl I've ever seen! Oh, that's marvellous! • Ah, really wonderful! It's really wonderful! It's really something! • Isn't that fantastic! • It's quite extraordinary, really! • Oh, that's lovely! • What a grand view! 0 Well, I never! That's incredible! • Really fantastic! 0 It's absolutely splendid! • That's quite fantastic! • This dress looks really stunning on you. o Terrific! 0 What glorious roses! • Ah, super! • Oh, smashing! o Oh, lovely! • My! • Oh, it's the most impressive speech I've ever heard! • I've never met anyone so attractive.
0 0 0 0

6. Admitting sth
• Yes, it's possible. • I'm sorry. It was a mistake on my part. 0 Well, perhaps I should have handled it with some more care .• I've been wrong about that. • It was my mistake entirely. • I think it was wrong of us not to invite them. • Well, perhaps I

9 may have been a little careless about it. • I guess I didn't have the nerve. • Well, it could be true. • No one is to blame but myself .• Yes, OK, it looks as though I've slipped up. • Look, I'm not able to do this - I find it too difficult. • I've made a mistake in inviting them. • I don't know much Tamil. • Yes, all right. • I admit that I was absent-minded .• He may be able to do it. Yes. • So what if I broke the vase? It wasn't intentional, you know .• I'm sorry. You're quite right about it .• It was my fault entirely .• This was all my own fault, really. • What I said was quite wrong. I know .• Well, perhaps we ought to have been a bit more careful. • I'm entirely to blame forit. • Oh dear, I seem to have made a mistake. • There's something in what he says. • I made the mistake of trusting him with money .• I had a part in that decision, too. I admit that.

7. Admonishing sb (= somebody)
(See also Fn.no.168 Warning sb) . • Don't repeat the same mistake again. • Don't try to harass me - I'm warning you. • You'll be more careful in future, won't you? • Don't give me any more cause for complaint .• There'll be serious consequences if you try to cheat us again .• I think you're making a mistake. • I don't think that was very wise. • Let me warn you: Don't interfere in my affairs in future. • Be more careful in future. • Next time, I won't forgive this kind of behaviour. • You had better watch out! • You had better not make another mistake. • Don't all talk together. • I wouldn't do such a thing again, if I were you. • Just be more considerate in future. • If you do this again, I'll come down hard on you.

8. Advising sb
• You'd better explain everything to her. • You'd better not do it . • If I were you, I'd leave now. • You ought to call the police .• Wait till the proper time. • If you want to pass the exam, you must work harder .• You should meet him today .• The best thing to do would be to send him a letter .• If I were you, I'd sack him right now. • If you play your radio here, you'll have everyone complaining. • I think you shouldn't put it off any longer .• It's quicker to travel by train. • Take it from me, it's no use waiting for them .• Why don't you let him have his way? • You really should go and see the Eiffel Tower while you're in Paris. • If you take my advice, you'll turn a deaf ear to his complaints .• Don't you think you ought to send them some

10 money? • You should see a doctor about that cough. • Try something else .• You really must read that book. It's wonderful. • In your place, I'd wait for some time .• If you feel ill, don't take any exercise .• I think it'd be b-est if you returned it to them .• You really ought to work harder .• I wouldn't quarrel with him, if I were you .• I wouldn't do it. • You ought to consult a doctor before it gets worse .• You'd better be quick or you'll miss the flight. • You should stop smoking.

9. Asking for advice
What do you think I should do? • I'm sorry to worry you with my problems, but I really do need some advice. • What should I do? • What do you advice me to do? • When should they start from here? • I'm thinking of resigning ...• I'd like to ask your advice .• Would you remain silent, if you were me? • I can't make up my mind whether to go or not ...• Can you tell me what I should do? • Could you give me a bit of advice? • Do you think I must give up without a fight? • I have no idea how to go about doing it ...• How should I dress? • How do you think can I persuade him to do it? • Should I travel by bus or by taxi?
8

10. Expressing agreement.
(See Fn.no.106 Agreeing with. an opinion, Fn.no.149 Agreeing to/ Accepting a request, Fn.no.lS6 Agreeing with a suggestion, and Fn.no.12 Agreeing reluctantly. See also Fn.noAAccepting sth).

11.:Expressing disagreement
(See Fn.no.108 Disagreeing with an opinion, Fn.no.1S0 Refusing a request, Pn.no.IS7 Disagreeing with a suggestion, and Fn.no.13 Disagreeing tactfully, See also Fn. no.142 Rejecting sth).

12. Agreeing reluctantly
• Perhaps you may have a point there .• Well, I suppose so. • Yes, I suppose so. • Well, maybe. • Yes, as far as I know. • No, I suppose not .• Yes, you could be right. • Yes, you may be right about that. • Well, you know, it's a bit difficult, but I'll try. • Oh well, I'll give it a try. • Well, I suppose you're right.· I don't know much myself, but I could try .• Well yes, I'll do it, if you like, • Perhaps you're right about it. • Well, I'll try, but I can't promise anything. • Well, maybe you're right about that.

11

13. Disagreeing tactfully
• Yes, OK, but I should've thought that he was a hard worker. • Yes, but don't you agree that he's the best player we have? • I'm . not sure I agree with you. • I'm afraid I disagree with you. I think he's a very good typist .• Well, yes, but don't forget that it's only a rough estimate .• I don't think I'd go as far as that .• Oh, I wouldn't say that exactly. After all, he's only a beginner, isn't he? • Well, you have a point, but he didn't do it deliberately. • I think you may be partly right, but nobody could have expected such a thing to happen. • True, but how about all the good things he has done? • Yes, but wouldn't you say that he was absolutely sincere? • Yes, but take the case of Manish. Didn't he also do the same thing? • Yes, but what about yesterday? • I know, but did the figures tally? • I'm not really sure you're quite right, you know .• You're probably right, but is he telling the truth? • Perhaps, but don't you think it was a bit odd? • Yes, you're quite right, of course, but how can we convince him of it? • Don't you think that's a bit extreme, actually? • Yes, but the point is, it's not a valuable item .• Do you think so? Actually, I found the book a bit difficult to understand .• Yes, that's OK as far as it goes, but couldn't he have sent her a telegram at least? • I don't think I'd say that about him. • That's quite true, but they couldn't help it, could they? • Yes, many of them were not co-operative, but some of them were really helpful, don't you think? • I see what you mean, but wasn't it very kind of him to help us yesterday?

14. Asking whether sb agrees or not
• Do you agree? • Don't you agree? • Don't you think? • How about it?· Don't you think so? • OK? • All right? • I don't think we're going to agree on this, are we? • Wouldn't you agree?
Note: All question-tags ("is it", "isn't it", "does it?", "doesn't it?", "has it", "hasn't it?", etc) help you ask someone whether they agree with what you're saying or not. (We'll take up question-tags for detailed study in a later Lesson).

15. Expressing anger
(See also Fn.no. 138 Rebuking sb) . • How dare you speak to me like that? • What's all this nonsense about? • Who do you think you are? • What the helldo you mean? • Look, this is getting us nowhere. • Oh, stop complaining - you make me sick. • Where on earth have you

12
been? e What a nuisance! • I think there's very little point in my telling you all this! • Who the hell is that at the front door? • What on earth is happening there? • That's a ridiculous suggestion .• Stop shouting your head off. • What's all the fuss about? • I hate the whole rotten system. • Are you suggesting that I should have apologized? • Wherever did you put it? • I put trust in you, but you failed me .• I don't give a damn what you think of me. • Has it occurred to you that he. could be telling the truth? • How dare you! • You mind your own business. • That damn cat! I'd like to wring its neck. • Well, really! • What the hell do you want? • Damn that stupid salesman! • Get on with your work, can't you? • Don't waste my time .• I'll be damned if I agree! • I've got a bone to pick with you! • You thought I wouldn't find It out? • There's no way we're going to agree, is there? • What a rotten nasty trick! • What incompetence! • Are you trying to make a fool of me? • Oh, no! • I haven't got time for this nonsense .• I don't care what it is. • It's none of your business. • Did it never occur to you that they were waiting for you? • I'm tired of hearing about this stupid car .• I've come to the end of my patience. • Don't try any nonsense with me. • Oh ... leave it out .• Leave me alone, will you? • Don't fuss .• But this is ridiculous! • Go to hell. • How could you have been so silly? • I knew it! • What impertinence! • What nonsense! • Whenever are you going to be sensible? • He spent all weekend working on his rotten car. • These figures make a nonsense of your estimates. • That isn't my fault, is it? • A fat lot you'll ever save! • Good God! Do you expect me to bring it you? • The things I do are my business, not yours .• I'm talking to you .• Damn you! • Damn! I've left my key behind .• Are you accusing me? • Is that all you've got to say? • Look, let's just leave it, shall we? • Varma, whatever happened? • But this is ridiculous! • Oh, hell! I've forgotten my money! • She's always boasting about her family. He's always complaining about something .• She's always telling lies .• Never heard of such a nonsense! • Your mind is filled with nonsense! • I've put up with a lot, but I won't put up with this.
0

16. Expressing annoyance
(See Fn.no.1S Expressing anger, and Fn.no.138 Rebuking sb).

17. Apologizing
• Sorry, I'm not ready yet. • Look, I really must apologize for what I've done. • I'm sorry you've had to wait so long .• I'm

13 sorry - I really am. • I'm very sorry that this has happened. • I didn't mean it .• I am sorry if I worried you. • Sorry, I haven't finished it yet. • Sorry about that. I hope you don't mind. • I'm afraid I've botched it up. I'm awfully sorry. • I hope I'm not disturbing you .• I'm terribly sorry. This is all entirely my own fault. • How stupid of me! I wasn't thinking .• Sorry, Anil! Will you forgive me? • I'm sorry. It was only meant as a joke. • I'm sorry I'm late. • Sorry, I got held up. • Sorry, I can't find it anywhere. • Please forgive me for all this confusion. • I do beg your pardon. • I'm sorry I'm a little late for my appointment. • I'd like to apologize for all that .• I can't begin to say how sorry I'm about it .• Julie, I seem to have done something I have to apologize for.• 1 really am sorry about it, • Please excuse me. for it .• I'm so very sorry for saying all that .• I'm sorry, we've really let you down, and there's no excuse .• Oh, you must forgive me. I had no idea .• I have to leave early. I hope you'll excuse me .• Look, I didn't mean to upset you.

18. Accepting an apology
(See also Fn.no.S9 Forgivingsb) . • Not at all .• Please don't worry .• Forget it. I don't want you to feel bad about it. • That's all right. • That's perfectly all right .• It's OK. • It doesn't matter, but don't let it happen again, will you? • Don't worry about it. Anyone can make a mistake .• Oh well, I suppose it's all right .• It doesn't matter this time, but don't repeat it.

19. Rejecting an apology
• It's no use apologizing now. You should have done it earlier. • It's too late to apologize now .• What's the use of saying 'sorry'? Look at the damage done to my car. • It's easy to say 'sorry', but how are you going to compensate me for my lost opportunity? • You walk in an hour late, and all you can say is "I'm sorry" .• I'm afraid saying 'sorry' just isn't enough. You'll have to do something about it .• It's all very well to say you're sorry, but what are you to do about it?

20. Making appointments
(See also Fn.no.26 Arranging to meet sb). • I'd like to make an appointment to see the Managing Director, please .• I'd like to make an appointment with Mr. Bhaskar, please .• How soon could I have an appointment? • Would

14 Sunday evening be all right? • Five o'clock? Is there any chance of making it slightly earlier? • Is there any other time I could come tomorrow? • Can you give me an appointment on Thursday? • Next week would suit me best .• Is there any other time I could come tomorrow? • Could we arrange day after tomorrow, then? • Could I possibly come on Friday? • I'm sorry; I can't come then. • Can I come earlier in the evening? • Can I come later in the morning? • Will Thursday or Friday suit you best? • I'd like to come in the morning, please. • Could I come on Saturday afternoon? • Could you manage Friday? • Can you make it 12 o'clock then, or would 3 o'clock be more convenient? • Tuesday will suit me best. • I'd like to make an appointment to see Dr. Narayan, please. • Yes, afternoon would do very well. • What about Thursday at 8.30? • Can you fit me in nearer the end of the day today? • Which day of this week will be more convenient for you?

21. Expressing appreciation
(See Fn.no.S Expressing admiration, Fn.no.22 Expressing approval and Fn.no.41 Complimenting sb) . • It's very good .• I like that .• Splendid! • Great! • Wonderful! • Marvellous! • It's very nice .• First rate .• She has a pleasant voice .• It's the best film I've seen for a long time .• It was most impressive .• That's an excellent idea .• These stripes make your shirt look smart. • I think it was first rate.> I haven't tasted fish like that for a long time .• However did you do that? • Oh, you mustn't miss this film. • It looks quite nice, doesn't it? • I like the way you do your hair, .Laila. • I think itwas superb . • You certainly know how to draw. • The style of the dress is very good for you. • It's not bad at all. • It's a good thing you reminded me.

22. Expressing approval
(See Fn.no.S Expressing admiration, Fn.no.21 Expressing appreciation and Fn.no.41 Complimenting sb. See also Fn.no.1S2 Expressing satisfaction). • I'm very happy about that. • Fine! • Great! • Very good! • Well done! • Excellent! • Right! • I'm happy with his work .• It's very good indeed! • I'm happy about the whole idea .• I think he is quite right in saying that. • Good thing for you. • I'm glad of the chance .• This soup tastes very nice. • Quite right! • I rather like your friend. • This shirt looks well on you .• That's

15
fine! • 1 quite like your shirt .• What you did was right .• I think it's a good idea. • I don't think I've ever seen anything quite so good .• I'm very glad you said that. • I very much approve of the idea. • I'm in favour of that. • I do like your dress ... That was magnificent. • What you said was right. • I think they were quite right to reject it .• I have no objections. • He played brilliantly, didn't he? • I think it is a good thing that he has decided to do it. • I love the way you dress .• That's a lovely dress you have on. • He's quite an interesting person. • It's really nice .• Oh, it's delicious. You cook very well. • What a marvellous movie! • These are rather pretty. .• You handled the situation very well. • It's very pretty. • He's a warm and friendly person .• She's a very well-behaved girl.

23. Expressing approval in a reserved or qualified way
• Not bad, really. • It's all right, I suppose. Only, it's a bit bright . • Most of it was good, but some parts were rather dull. • It isn't too good. • It'll do for a start. • It was quite good on the whole . • It's not bad at all, really. • It wasn't a bad film, was it? • I think it would've been better if it hadn't been so sweet. I've seen worse. • It's quite good, really, but it's a bit loose for you, I think. • He may be very clever, but he can't do anything practical. • Parts of it are OK, but on the whole, there's much that you can do to improve it. • They look fairly good.
0

.

24. Expressing disapproval
• I didn't think much of that movie. • It's absolutely dreadful. • I think you behaved very badly towards· them ..• It isn't up to much. • You shouldn't say that. • I'm afraid I didn't like that. • You shouldn't have done it. • It's entirely your fault. • I don't like it, I'm afraid .• It's all very well for you to criticize, but it doesn't help the situation. • I didn't enjoy it at all. • It's a pity you didn't bring it. • I didn't find it interesting. • I can't say I like it .• These people are really the limit! .. That's a bit old, isn't it? • I can't bear it. • I didn't think the play was much good .• I can't stand the sight of that fellow .• What an awful day! • I'm not in favour of that. • Good God! You look a mess! 8 I'd hoped you would've done better than this. • I don't think that's wise .• No one seems to give a damn about anything. It's not very nice. • Why on earth did you do that? It was a bit boring. • Your hair looks a wreck, Mallika. • I thought the party
G M

16 was dreadful. • It's much smaller than I thought .• Oh, the food was terrible .• It doesn't taste very nice .• I didn't think much of it, actually. • I don't think you should've gone there .• It's quite terrible .• I don't think that's advisable .• He complains too much. • This colour doesn't suit you. • What dreadful weather! • I wish you hadn't said that .• He has made a poor job of it .• I don't think it's a good idea, actually. • It's absolutely disgusting. • You shouldn't have gone there. • It wasn't very good, really. • Her sari looks shabby. • I don't like the way he speaks to me .• I was very disappointed by it, actually. • You look a fright! • Damned politicians. They're all the same. • Surely you're not going out looking like that? • That's very faded, isn't it? • It's no good .• I've never seen such a mess .• What's so awful is the way he speaks to me .• It doesn't sound like a very good idea to me .• Terrible film, wasn't it? • It isn't good' enough .• I'm not sure I like that colour .• It has a disgusting smell. • It doesn't really suit you, you know.

25. Expressing disapproval in a tactful way
• I think you should've explained it to them personally .• It would've been better if you had refused it .• Don't you think it would've been better if you'd brought him along? • Does it look a bit too small for you? • Did you have to be so tough with them? • Does it look a little faded? • Was it really necessary to look into all these things? • Do you think the other one would have been better? • Why did you do a thing like that?
I

26. Arranging to meet sb
(See also Fn.no.Zf) Making appointments) . • Meet me in front of the Library at about 4.00 .• I'll meet you at 6 o'clock by the office .• Shall we meet at the station? • I'll pick you up at the station. • I'll collect you from there in half an hour .• OK, 6 o'clock in the book shop, then. • OK, we'll meet for lunch, then. • I'll pick you up at about 6.00. • I'll come and meet you at the station .• Shall we make it 6.00 outside the church? • If it's okay with you, I'll come at about 8 .• I'll meet you at the bus stop next to the Town Hall.

I

27. Attracting attention
(See also Fn.no.120 Pointing things out).
Note: Pay special attention to the words before the first bracket.

17 • Hang on a second (, I think I know his name) .• Half a minute (, let me finish this) .• Excuse me (, is there a hotel near here?) • Just a second (, where did you say he's from?) • Half a second(, I'll soon be ready) .• Now listen to what I'm going to say.• Look (, if there's something you want to tell me, why don't you come back later?) • Listen (, Hasina's been promoted) .• Just a minute (, how much did you pay for this?) • Bear in mind that all this happened at night. • Wait a minute (, I think you've got it all wrong). • Now remember this .• I beg your pardon (, I didn't hear you). • Now this is how it all began. • Shyam (, there's a call for you). • Have a look at this photo .• Sorry to bother you (, but there's something I want to show you). • Hey, Seema! (What are you doing here?). • Hey you (, come here!)
Note: 'Hey you' is a rude and impolite form of addressing someone. Avoid it.

28. Making bookings
• I'd like to reserve two seats on the coach to Baroda tomorrow. • I'd like to book my car in for a service, please. • Do you think I need to book a seat? • How many days in advance do I have to book? • Is the first-show fully booked? • Are there any second class seats available? • I'd like to book three seats for Tuesday the 6th, please. • What price are tickets, please? • Do you have any seats for the evening? • Have you got any seats for Saturday evening? • Are any seats available for the matinee? • I'd like to book two seats for the first-show today, please. • Is Sunday completely booked up? • Oh, that's a pity; Well, thank you, anyway. • I'll be there on the 14th. Can you book a hotel room for me? • Book five seats on the Bangalore Express. • We have booked a seat for you on the Chennai flight. • Then book two seats for us on that bus.

29. Breaking the ice
(See Fn.no.103 Opening a conversation with a stranger).

30. Buying things
• How much is that? • How much does that sell for? • How much are these oranges?· Give me a kilo of apples. Pick out big ones, please. • Excuse me. I'd like a shirt for myself. • A packet of cigarettes, please .• I'd like a kilo apples. They must have no spoiled spots in them. • I'd like to see some belts, please. • Let me see what you have in handkerchiefs. • Give me a tube of

18 toothpaste. • I don't suppose you have anything cheaper? • Can I have a lO-rupee postal order please? • Which of these do you think are better? • I'm looking for a radio. • I think I will take this one. • Have you got a bigger size? • What's the price of this washing machine? • Well, I'll take half a dozen of those, please. • Oh, it's more expensive, is it? • Have you got a different style? • These are small. Have you any that are slightly larger'? • Let me see some pens, please. • Twenty 50-paise stamps, please .• I want some one-rupee stamps. Give me 29, please. • Are they my size? • Have you got a lighter colour? • What kind of material is this? • Have you got a looser style? Have you got this one in any other colours? e You sell them by the kilo or by the dozen? • Do you have something like this in some other material except cotton? • That's 10 rupees, isn't it? • How do you sell these apples? e How much are they? • How are the potatoes today? I'd like a kilo. Be sure they're small and solid. • Can I have ten envelopes please? • This is too big. Do you have a smaller size? • I think I cangive you the right money. • Three hundred rupees? • That's more than I care to spend. • Will you wrap it up, please? • This one is cheaper, isn't it? • Have you got any checked shirts? • A bottle of shampoo, please. • No. I don't need anything else ..• Have you got a different style? • Nothing else, thank you. " Four hundred rupees is a little expensive. • I believe that's about all. • Do you take credit cards? • I'll leave it, thank you .• I'll take it, thank you .• How much do lowe you for everything? • I want some lemons. How do you sell them? • Pick me out a few small ones, please .• I guess that's about all.
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31. Expressing capability
(See Fn.no.l Expressing ability).

32. Expressing incapability
(See Fn.no.2 Expressing inability).

33. Expressing' certainty
• I'm sure he's right ... Without doubt, he's one of the best . players we have. • They'll come, I'm sure of it .• It's quite certain he was trying to fool you .• I'm convinced that we can't trust him. • They'll be here in time, I'm sure. • I'm sure he's done the right thing. • I know what he's going to do .• I'm absolutely sure that she comes from Australia. • There's no doubt that he comes from a rich family. • They must have left by

19
now. • I'm certain that he's the one who did it. • It's clear that she knows him .• There's no doubt about it in my mind. • Obviously, he is against the proposal. • There was no mistaking him .• Arun will only start tomorrow, I'm certain about that. • We were at fault. I have no doubt about it. • I'm quite positive that they had met earlier .• He's innocent. I'm convinced of it. • I certainly believe that he was in the wrong. • I feel quite sure that it was Susan .• He doesn't stand a chance of winning .• I don't doubt that he wanted to help her .• It's impossible that he could have seen her there.

34. Expressing uncertainty
(See also Fn.no.S6 Expressing doubt and Fn.no.75 Expressing indecision) . • I'm just not sure .• I don't think so. • I'm not sure about it .• I can't make up my mind .• I can't decide if I should invite them. e I don't think you're right. • I haven't a clue. • I'm not sure whether he knows it .• Do you think I should call him? • I'm in two minds whether to accept it or not .• I don't believe him .• Perhaps the answer is to leave it to chance. • I don't know whether to do it or not .• Oh, I feel in such a muddle. ·Oh, I must say I find that very odd. • He can't have known about it. • I can't decide what to do .• I don't believe that he can do it .• He can't do it, I think. • If only I knew what to do. • I can't decide whether to take it back to the shop or not. • I can't believe it, I really can't .• I don't believe this is true. • Tell me a way out .• I'm in two minds about doing it.

35. Asking about certainty and uncertainty
• Do you think he'll come?" How do you know? • Are you quite sure? • Are you absolutely certain it was Amjad? • Do you believe that he did it? • So you're quite sure, are you? • Are you sure that he's her brother? • You couldn't have been mistaken, could you? • Are you absolutely sure? • Was it, really? • Do you think so? • How sure are you? • Do you suppose that he's right?

36. Changing the topic
(See also Fn.no.83 Introducing a conversational topic).
Note: Pay special attention to the words in italics.

• Oh, that reminds me. Has he given you the key of the house? • Now then, where has Ravi gone? • Have you closed the door?

20 Right, pull that chair and sit down. • Talking of money, has Tom paid back the bank loan? • Now listen! I have a plan.v Right, what time is it now? • Okay then, are we all ready to go? • Oh by the way, tomorrow is a holiday, isn't it? • All right then, I'll see you tomorrow. • Right then, do we still have time to go for a film? • Now, let me think. • Speaking of marriage, did you know Rahul is going to marry Madhu? • Now, who'd like some more porridge? • Now then, are we all ready to go? • He'll easily find another job. Incidentally, where's his brother now? • Right then, what was I saying? • All right then, let's remove this from here .. • Well now, are there any questions?

37. Checking up (facts, agreement, understanding, etc.)
• Are you quite certain? • Is it true what he said? • They mustn't go 'there, must they? • So that made her cry, did it? • ... That must be why he said 'no'. Do you get my drift? • There is no door there. Is that right? • Do you understand what I mean? • So that's Meena? • I assume you're not a vegetarian, Ravi? • He mustn't come to know you're here, do you see what I mean? • He's satisfied with that, isn't he? • So that's the switch I must press, is it? • The train leaves at ten, doesn't it? • So you're quite sure, are you? • I'd like to make sure the train is not late . •. You mean he's a reasonable man at heart? • Their rate is a bit too high, what do you think? • They'll bring it with them, won't they? • This date is right? • Isn't that your friend over there? • You don't want it, do you? • Do you get me? • Do you get it? • Are you saying that Tuesday would suit you better? • We shouldn't have done it, don't you agree? • Let me just check I've got it right. First, I must ... then, I must ...• We can't pay cash, can we? • It sounds like you're saying you don't like it, right? • Did you say 'crux'? • That's a Honda, isn't it? • Can I check that with you, please? You want me to buy 'x', 'y', and 'z' - right? • This isn't the best place to talk about it, do you know what I mean? • You haven't begun doing it,have you? • Let me understand this. First you make an entry in the Day Book. Then you make an entry in this Ledger. Right? • Are you sure? • So you're saying you won't be able to do anything about it? • I take it that you agree. All right? • Let me just check I've understood it right. First, we must ... • We'll share the expenses, do you agree? • She hasn't seen you, has she? • You went there to take a look?

21
Note: All question-tags help you check up facts, agreements up question-tags for detailed study in another lesson). etc. (We'll take

38. Asking for clarifications
(See Fn.no.37 Checking up, Fn.no.S6 Expressing doubt, Fn.no.77 Asking for information).

39. Making a complaint
• I bought this radio from you only last week. It doesn't work. It doesn't even make a sound. I'd like a replacement, please. • The potatoes you sold me are full of spoiled spots. I don't want them. Pick me out a few unspoiled ones, please. • I have a complaint to make. It's about the TV I bought from you yesterday. It's not working. I can't get a picture at all. • I bought this shirt from you yesterday. When I got home, I saw it had a hole in the collar. I'd like to exchange it for another one. • I'm sorry to trouble you, but this clock doesn't work. I bought it from you last week. • These oranges are green - I want ripe ones - firm and ripe. • I'm not interested in getting it repaired. I want a refund on it. • These trousers are too tight across the seat. Can you change them, please? • These trousers have a big tear in one leg. • There seems to be something wrong with this camera. I've been using the flash, but all the pictures it takes are completely dark. • I bought these shoes from you two days back. They're defective. • This shirt is too tight for me. Can you let it out a little? • I bought this switch from you yesterday. I'mafraid it's faulty. Can I have another, please? • These trousers don't fit. They're much too loose round the waist. • I bought this briefcase from you last week. When I lifted it today, the handle came off in my hand. I'd like a refund, please. • I'm not satisfied with this mixer. It shakes whenever it works. And it makes a lot of noise. • These lemons are soft and no good. I want firm, unspoiled ones. • I bought this dress from you. It's too small for me. Could I have a larger size? • You delivered a new washing machine yesterday. It doesn't work. • These apples look green. I want ripe ones, please. • These apples are bruised. Can you change them please? • I bought these scissors here. They aren't sharp enough. I want you to replace them .• I bought these shoes here yesterday. I've only worn them once. One heel is already loose.• I got this dress stitched here. The waist is too tight. Can you let it out a bit? • Do you remember me buying this tin of milk powder from you yesterday? When I opened it at home, I saw it was mouldy. • This fan doesn't work. I'd like you

22 to do something about it .• I bought this shirt from you yesterday. The seams down its side split the first time I put it on. • I've got a bit of a problem with my radio .• There are some spots on this sleeve .• I bought these pants from you last night. In the daylight, the colour looks awful. Could I have a lighter colour, please? • My TV set has broken down again. Can you send a mechanic quickly? .

40. Complaining

about people's behaviour

• Will you please stop making so much noise? • You shouldn't have said that. That's what hurts me most. • Will you stop teasing me? • This is really going_too far. I'm sorry; but this has got to stop. • I've just about had enough! Now stop it! • How come you're in such a bad mood today? • That's really going a bit too far.• I'm sorry to have to say this, but you're making fun of me, and I want you to stop doing that. • You have absolutely no right to behave like that .• That's your radio, isn't it? Will you please turn the volume down a bit, please? • You don't have to be rude. I only asked you a simple question .• What do you think you're doing? • I feel bad about what you said now. • If you don't stop smoking, I'll have to complain to the conductor. • Have you gone off your head? • Must you always shout at her like this? • This is really too much! • Would you mind making less noise? • Stop shouting! I've had enough of this .• Why don't you stop using such foul language? • How can you ignore me like this - after everything I have done for you? • What are you so angry about? • What gives you the right to behave like that?

41. Complimenting sb
(See also Fn.no.S Expressing admiration, Fn.no.21 Expressing appreciation, and Fn.no.22 Expressing approval). • How nice you look! • You have a beautiful voice. '. You look lovely. • You look very nice today. • I like your sari. The colours ate terrific. • You finished it in record time. That's great! • You always dress very nicely. • That dress really suits you. • Your shoes look nice .• How could you do it so quickly? • What a nice shirt! • That's a splendid idea, Imran. • You've got a brilliant mind .• This sari really suits you .• You can't have been married 2S years. You look so young. • You put a lot of extra effort into your work this weekend, Rupa. Otherwise, we wouldn't have been able to meet the deadline. • You have a

23 really nice way of putting things ... You look lovely with your hair short .• That colour does suit you ... You're always so beautifully dressed, Mira. That shirt really looks nice on you. • How could you figure out a solution so easily'? • I love you in this sari.
0

42. Answering a compliment
• Thanks, I'm glad you like it. • Thank you. • Really? I'm not sure about it, actually. • Thank you. I think it looks nice on me, too. • Nice of you to say so. • It's nice, isn't it?

43. Inviting compliments

and comments

• See this dress? • How does it look? • What do you think of my hair style? • Do you think so? What's it about my hairstyle that's bad? • Look at this antique vase. Don't you think it's beautiful? • How about its shape? • Do you like my new sari? • What's it about my sari that makes me look good? • I think this shirt suits me, Don't you? e I don't understand: What's it about my shirt that makes me look bad?

44. Expressing condolences
(See Fn.no:161 Expressing sympathy). • I heard what happened. My deepest sympathy, Atul. .. I'm very sorry to hear your father has died. • George, my deepest sympathy on your sad loss ... I heard about your tragic loss. I'm extremely sorry. • I hear your grandmother has died. I'm sorry. • Please accept my condolences. • I'm very sorry to hear about your uncle. He was such a good man.

45. Congratulating

sb

• Congratulations, Paul! • Many, many congratulations! • Congratulations! Your essay has won first prize. • I'm so glad! " My heartiest congratulations! • I'm so happy for you! • I hear you've had a baby. Congratulations! • Ido think you're a lucky man .• Hey, you've got that job? Congratulations. • Wen done! • Let me offer you my congratulations. • I think you deserve it! • I was delighted to hear about it .• Splendid! You must be very pleased. • I couldn't have been more pleased! $ I congratulate you. You've done a fine job, Deepak! • That was excellent. Congratulations! • I'm so pleased for you! ~ I was thrilled to hear about your new job .• You deserve all the luck in the world!

24

46. Contradicting sb
(See Fn.no.SO Denying sth).

47. Trying to convince sb of sth
(See also Fn.no.1l3 Trying to persuade sb). • Yes, really. It's quite true. • I tell you, it's a fact .• Don't you feel that he could have been mistaken? • I am absolutely certain. • I saw him just now, really. • You see, the service there is excellent. • I tell you, it's true .• But surely you must agree that this is not a normal case. • He's innocent, I can assure you . • It must be true .• It's here in black and white .• Honestly; it's quite true .• I can guarantee that you'll have a good time .• But don't you agree that he was away at that time? • This is the best price we can get - there's no doubt about it. • Isn't it possible that he doesn't know anything about it? • Look, I saw it myself. • I tell you, it's certain .• But can't you see that he's interested in the idea? • That's all I know, honestly .• But you must admit that he did all he could. e I have made doubly sure that there are no mistakes .• I saw it with my own eyes.

48. Correcting sb or sth
• I went there on Tuesday - I mean, Wednesday. • No, there's nothing to worry about .• That's not right, do it like this. • No, it's a black one - not a blue one. • Next week, I won't be here - that is, from Tuesday. • No, that isn't true. • No. He gave no reason .• That's not the proper way to eat noodles .• No, nobody knows it, really. • A square board? Are you sure? I should've thought it was a rectangular one .• No, to the right not to the left. • I'll be with you in about 15 minutes - no, you'd better make that 30 minutes .• No, that's not the one. • I heard no such thing .• No, not exactly. • That's the wrong way to hold the bat. • He said nothing of the sort. • No, not like that, actually .• I never said any such thing .• In front of the Town Hall, you mean. • I don't think so. • No, that isn't correct. • Mind you, he's no fool. • No, it's the third one. • That isn't the right one. • Don't get me wrong - I am not against the plan .• No, before the cross-roads, in fact. • His uncle? His father, you mean? • I saw them - at least, I think I saw them .• No, in fact, I've never seen him. • Wasn't it bigger than that? • That's wrong, really. ·

25 49. Criticizing sb or sth
(See Fn.no.24 Expressing disapproval, Fn.no.lS1 sarcasm). Expressing

50.Denying sth
• That's not what I said, There's nothing in these rumours .• I'm quite sure I'd never have told you to do it. I hate to contradict you, but I think you're wrong. She definitely hasn't met me. • No. 0 I'm afraid that's not what really happened. 0 Surely not .• But I did not do that. 0 No, I didn't. o No, you haven't told me. o That's not what I intended, actually. • I hate to contradict you, but I didn't say that. • I think you're mistaken. He wasn't there, really. Never. No, there isn't any milk left .• No. I'm afraid you haven't. Don't be so ridiculous! I hardly know her. o What you're saying is absolutely wrong. I certainly did not. • No, they couldn't. Actually; I don't think they are .• I didn't tell you to do it. Nobody answered the phone. • That's not true .• I do mind, but not too much. He didn't do it, actually. • Don't be so silly! • There's no sugar left. I never saw her at all. o No, she hasn't .• No, I really don't mind driving. I'm quite sure I never asked you to do it. Surely you don't believe that I said such a thing? 0 That's a lie. 0 Well, actually I didn't meet them. • I don't think they have.> I said nothing of the sort. • Are you sure? I had the impression the staff all speak good English. That's absolutely ridiculous .• Excuse me, but that isn't so. • No that's not what I meant .• He isn't resigning .• That isn't true.
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

51.Describing

sb

• He's a man of powerful build, with a severe face .• He's a muscular and broad-shouldered man .• She's slender and has long, dark hair. She's not very tall. He's of average build. • He's dressed in jeans and a shirt with sleeves rolled up. 0 He's a tall, powerfully-built man, barrel-chested, and muscular. e She has a pleasant, frank look. He's rather fat .• He was dressed in uniform. • He's a nice-looking young boy in blue jeans, active and alert. He was wearing trousers and a white shirt. • She's a tall business-like woman of about 35. She has a good-natured face and has a friendly, charming manner. 0 His hair is closecropped. 0 He has deep-set eyes. 0 She's altogether a little showy. • She's very pleasing and graceful in appearance .• He's dressed in a black shirt and must be just over thirty. 0 He's quite
0 0 0 0 0

26 tall. • Her eyes were alert and greedy. • She has a charming smile and engaging manner .• He's not particularly goodlooking .• He's ten or twenty kilos overweight .• He's a short man in the early fifties, with a bald head. • She's dressed very quietly .• Her eyes were wide and dark. • He looked very young, about 17. • He's fairly tall with short, black hair and bushy eyebrows .• He's of medium height, neither fat nor thin, and clean shaven .• He's about 35 years old, with dashing good looks. • She's very simply and neatly dressed. • She's seventeen, tall and slender, with searching eyes .• She has long, black hair. • His stomach is flat. • She has big, dark eyes. • He has a cheerful manner .• He's a man of about 40, tall and goodlooking .• He's a tall, elderly man with grey hair and of healthy appearance. • She's very slim and is in the late thirties .• He's a large, dark man of more than 50, with a high forehead .• His nose is long and thin. • She has a slender waist. • He's an elderly man with a pleasant face .• His mouth turns down slightly at the corners .. • She's very attractive .• He's a shrewdfaced man in his early fifties .• She has a supple, well-curved figure .• She's a pretty girl of about 20, with fair hair. • She's dressed in a light blue sari.> His hair is.combed straight back from his forehead .• He's well-built and has a stern face .• She's trim and efficient-looking .• He has a blue shirt on .• She's a trim girl in the early twenties. • She's tall and quite thin. • He's a slim, tall, grey-haired man, with a gentle manner .• He's quite tall, about 6 feet, and slightly stoop-shouldered. • He's a stout man, bold and self-assured .• He always dresses well. • He seems a little overweight .• He's rather thin. • She's not particularly good-looking. • He's a stout, middle-aged, individual with a face that's determined .• She's a chunky woman with pale complexion.

52. Describing a house
• There are six rooms in that house, not including the kitchen and three bathrooms. • His house has an entrance hall, two bedrooms, a kitchen and a bath .•. From the hall, a door opens into another room. • That house has a sloping roof. • His house has a flat roof. • On the right, there are two windows looking , out on the garden. • The room has a large window on the left .• At right, front, there is a swinging door leading to the sitting room. • A door on the left leads to the stairs. ~ This room to the left is a bedroom. • In the rear, there's a door to the dining room. • A door on the left leads into a long corridor. • The

27 house faces the main road. • That house has three big bedrooms and one small one. • The floor is of white tiles .• The room opens at the back upon a wide porch. • This room is a little small, but there is room for a bed and a table. • From the corridor, doors open to three bedrooms .• In the middle of the left wall, there's a window .• The living room is fairly large. • The back door opens into a verandah. • There is a window on the right, looking out on the street .• Her flat is on the third floor .• The downstairs bedroom is fairly large. • There's a bathroom at the end of the corridor. • He lives in a two-storeyhouse .• That's a big house with a glass porch. • You have good cross-ventilation. • There's a door on the right leading into the backyard .• There are two windows to the left of the main door . • On the left, there's a doorway leading into a large bedroom .• This is the kitchen. • The living room walls are papered with wallpaper having a beautiful design..> It's a big house. It has seven rooms. • There's a door leading out on to a balcony .• His bedroom is on the first floor .• In the rear wall, right, is the stairway to the upstairs rooms. • This is the bathroom to the right. • The doors are painted white .• On the right, at the end of the room, there's a small door leading to the bathroom. • His house is a single-storey-building. • His house has two double bedrooms .• Next to the kitchen, there's a pantry. • The walls of all the bedrooms are tiled. • There's a lift, so you won't get tired of climbing stairs. • Beyond the living room, you have the dining room .• A medium-priced carpet covers the floor. • You can see the sea from the balcony. • This is another bedroom. It's a fairly good size, and you have windows on two sides. • In the rear wall, there is a doorway leading into the dining hall. • You have three bedrooms, don't you? That's a five-storeyed block of flats .• On the wall, left, there's a photograph. • The rooms are spacious and well-proportioned. • The kitchen is a full-sized one .• A staircase goes up from the dining room .• He lives in a flat of a better sort .• That's, an old brick house with a tiled roof. • Part of the house is used as his office. • She lives in a groundfloor flat .• The walls are papered in a red and green design. • From there, you have a good view of the river. • There are two bedrooms on the ground floor .• There's plenty of room for a small family here.
0

53. Asking about sb's description
• What sort of build is he? • Could you describe him for me? • What's your brother like? • How does she dress? • Is he good-

28 looking? • Does she have a good complexion? • What does Tina look like? e Does he walk with a stoop? e Does he walk with a bad limp? • What colour is her sari? e How was she dressed? • Does she have long hair? • How tall is she? • Tell me what she looks like .• How old is he?

54. Directing sb to a place
• This road goes straight to Andheri. It's about 5 miles .• His shop is over there on the left, next to the book shop. • It's on the other side of the road. • Stay on this road for a kilometre, then tum right .• That's Augustus Road .• This office is quite easy to find, • It's just opposite the post office over there. • Walk down this road as far as the Post Office, and tum left into Convent Road. • Our house is the third on the left .• Go down here, and it's the second on the right .• It's near the Jewellery Junction. • Take the Rajaji Road, and tum right at the first roundabout. • Follow the road round to the left, and you'll see the book shop on the right .• When you reach the supermarket, tum sharp left. • The first turning on the right is Park Lane .• Take the first turning to the left after passing the police station. • The road you want is called College Road. • You should take the first right after the cross-roads. • It's an old building somewhere along the road. Turn right there on to the main road. • Turn right off the main road. • Don't tum off there - stay on this road for two kilometres. • Get off the bus when you see a great big building .• Then tum left, got it? • Go east along that road as far as the Police Station. Then tum left. • When you've got to the Baker's Junction, turn right. • It's about a mile past the church .• Carry straight on as far as the cross-roads with the traffic lights. • Follow this road until you come to the traffic lights .• When you come to the police station, turn left. Then you'll be in Brigade Road. • The road turns off for Ooty there. When you've passed the traffic lights, come to the next junction. • This place is bit further down at the end of the road .• It's the tallest building in the road, so it's easy to find. • His office is straight down the hall, the fourth room to the right .• At the second cross-roads, you turn left and go as far as the Town Hall. • It's not very far, actually. • Turn left at the end of the street. Then you'll be in Bakshi Road .• Turn right at the cross-roads, understand? • It's a good two miles to the station .• It's on the way to the church. • Indira Nagar is north of Balaji Nagar. • Turn right outside this building, and walk to the end of the road, and it's on the right, next to the garage. • It's a few yards up on
$

a

29
the left .• Go down that turning there, and you'll see his office on the left. • Keep straight on until you come to the third crossroads .• Take the No.IO bus. • Go down the road till you come to the post office .• When you get to the Penta Complex, turn left .• You're quite welcome to come with me. I can show you exactly where it is. • Cross the bridge and take the second turning on the right .• Take bus nO.IO to Jhansi Street. It's only three stops from here. • Take the second left after the Post Office, do you understand? • It's over there in the corner. • You can't miss it, there's a drugstore on the corner. • It should take you about 10 minutes to get there. • It's a bit further on the left . • It's just over a mile from here .• Get off the bus at the roundabout .• It's at the junction of Bank Road and Town Hall Road .• It's quite a way. I'd take a bus if I were you .• Cross that road, then go on down the footpath till you come to the traffic lights. • It must be along here somewhere. • This road joins the main road at the Hospital Junction. Turn left there. • Go straight ahead for a kilometre - don't turn off the footpath till you come to the traffic lights.

55. Expressing disappointment
• Oh no, what a shame! • That's a pity .• How disappointing! • I had hoped that I'd be able to meet him. • Oh, dear! What fools we were! • It was an absolute waste of money .• It's a great shame .• I was so looking forward to meeting them. • I'd so hoped that I'd get selected this time. • Things always go wrong. • It's a little bit disappointing, isn't it? • Oh, no! • Oh, that's a nuisance! a It's very upsetting that this has happened. • Oh, damn! • Oh dear! I've spilt the milk. • Oh well, never mind. • That's a great pity. • Oh no, what a letdown! • Oh, it was all unnecessary. • If only I had known! • It's just my hard luck that he changed his mind at the last minute .• Oh, I was so looking forward to meeting him .• It wasn't as good as I thought it was going to be .• I'm sorry to hear that .• Oh no, that's the second time! • It's most unfortunate .• What's the point of giving a party now? • I wish that someone had let me know .• I've never been so disappointed in my life. • Oh well, it can't be helped, I suppose .• But what good will it do? • I'm very sorry to hear that. It meant so much to me .• I'm disappointed in him. I thought he could do better • Unfortunately, I couldn't reach there in time. • When I think of it! • Well, there's nothing we can do about it, I suppose. • Oh, no! Not again!
0

30

56. Expressing doubt
(See also Fn.no.34 Expressing uncertainty and Fn.no.75 Expressing indecision). • I'm not sure .• I'm not certain .• Oh, I don't know .• I think he's the man, but I can't be certain. • I find this hard to believe. • That means he didn't actually meet her? • He may call on us on his way there .• Why was that, then? • That can't be true .• That seems unlikely; you know .• Surely; you could have explained it to him? • I'm not sure whether he's telling the truth. • You did hear him say that, didn't you? • Perhaps. • It's not clear to me why he did such a thing. • Are you absolutely sure he has left? • I doubt if he'll reach there in time. • That's odd. I thought they were supposed to be good at it.· It's a bit odd that he hasn't written to us so far .• Why did he close, the door? • I wonder .• Come off it! • This can't be the shop .• You did see him there, didn't you? • That's difficult to believe. You couldn't have given it to anyone? Perhaps he'll come - I'm not sure. Maybe, she was waiting for us .• I can't believe that. • You're joking. • I don't understand why he didn't speak to her. o Go on with you! • You must be dreaming. I wonder if that's right. • I suppose it's all right to wear this dress .• I doubt whether she knew .• Could you not have given it to her? 0 Are you sure of that? 0 I don't see that it makes much difference, do you? 0 It sounded like her. 0 Are you telling me he isn't going to come? 0 I doubt if we shall get there by 10. 0 That seems a bit strange. • What was the reason? • Is it really size 38? Amith? You must have got the wrong name .• I can't believe there's any truth in that. Are you sure that's true? That's strange. I never received it .• How do you mean? • I doubt him. I don't think he's telling the truth
0 0 0 0 0 0 0

57. Making friendly enquiries
o Where have you been lately? • What are you doing these days? How are you getting on at work? • How's the family? • Has your headache gone yet? 0 I haven't seen you for quite a while .• How are you settling down in the new place? What have you been doing since we last met? I see you've got a new scooter ... • How are you enjoying your new job? • I hear you've got a new car. • Is Julia all right? 0 Do you cook your meals yourself? • Did you have a good flight? m Do you have any idea what happened to Jack? • How was Goa? • How are you getting along these days? 0 Have you got any children? • How's your
0 0

31 business going, Ajai? • What is your new job' like? • I'm a 'Gemini'. What sign are you? 'Virgo'? • Tell me about your work. • How is he getting on at school? • You live in the city or on the outskirts? • Where has Tina been this past week? • What are you studying there? • I heard Veena's father is laid up in bed. • Did you have a good outing? • I heard your mother had been ill quite recently. How's she now? e .How long have you been living there? • What's your brother doing nowadays? • How are you finding life as a nurse? • How are you enjoying your stay in Bangalore? • Did you have a nice journey? • I hear Susan has had a baby. ..• What's in that bag? • I thought you were in Baroda. • Tell me what you've done. • Do you play any sports? • Where did you buy this sari? • Did you have a good time in Kochi? • How are your parents? • Did everything go off all right? • Neetha speaks about you often .• How are you settling down at your new job? • Did you enjoy the film? • I understand Praveen has gone abroad again? • Do you like your new place? • It's a town, isn't it? • What's new? • Are you going to make a career in teaching? • Whereabouts do you live? e What's Pune like as a place? • I haven't seen your father for a long time. How is he? • Have you gained some weight, Harry? • What exactly does your new job involve? • What do you do, Mr. Barua? Are you in the textile business? • I hope all is well with you .• , Where was it you went to school? • What's Suman doing now? • What does his work consist of exactly? • What sort of holiday did you have?

58. Expressing fear
(See Fn.no.173 Expressing worry or fear).

59. Forgiving sb
(See also Fn.no.1S Accepting an apology). • It doesn't matter. ~ It's OK, but don't do it again, will you? • All is forgiven. It's quite all right .• I do wish you'll be more careful. Don't worry about it. • It's all right. • Well, all right. Everybody makes mistakes sometimes. • It doesn't matter at all. o Never mind.
@

60. Saying good~bye
(See Fn.no.8S Taking leave of sb).

32

61. Expressing gratitude
(See also Fn.no.163 Responding to thanks) . •, Many thanks .• It was terribly kind of you. • That's very kind of you .• Thank you .• Thank you for inviting us .• It was very kind of you to help us. • Thank you for everything. • Thanks for a great lunch .• You've been a great help, thank you very much. • It's good of you to say so. • Thanks a lot. • You've been so kind. • It was nice of you to arrange everything on such short notice .• I'm very grateful to you. • Thanks for a really lovely meal! • A present! Oh, you shouldn't have bothered. • You've been most helpful. • Thank you for a wonderful party. • It was very nice of you to come .• Thank you for coming so quickly .• I can't tell you how grateful I am. • Thank you. It's just what I wanted .• Thanks for a marvellous time .• I don't know how to thank you. • I can't thank you enough. • Thank you very much. • We're most grateful to you. • Thank you for an entertaining evening. • Thanks very much .• I don't know how I can thank you enough! • You've been most kind. • Thanks for giving such a good time. • Thank you very much indeed .• How can I thank you enough? • It was very thoughtful of you. Thank you. • That's really great of you,

62. Greeting people you already know
(See also Fn.no.B2 Introducing people and responding to introductions). • Hello there! • Hello, Sandra! • Hi! • Hello, Tom. How are you? • How's everything? • Jacob! How nice to see you! • Look who's here. • Hi, how's things? (Note: In this word group, 'is' is more common than 'are'. "How's things?", with an 'is' in the middle, has become an idiomatic expression. But note this, too: "How are things?" is not rare, either. People do use "How are things?" also at times) . • What a nice surprise! • Dolly! How nice to see you again! • Hi, Geetha! I haven't seen you for quite a while. • Sharma! It's months since I saw you! • How's it going? • Kiran! I haven't seen you for ages. • Hi, Manu! What are you doing here? • Hello, Anil! Where have you been lately? • Fancy meeting you here! • Ravi! Nice to see you again! There are four points you should keep in your mind about greeting somebody: 1) The expressions "Good morning", "Good afternoon" and

33 "Good evening" are polite greetings arid are somewhat formal. Close friends and relations usually use "Hi" and "Hello" instead. These are informal greetings.
2) You shouldn't ask "How's everything?", "How are you getting on?", "How's things?" or "How are things?" when you meet a stranger. You should use these forms of greetings only when you meet someone you already know. (See Fn.no.64 "Greeting sb you've just met for the first time" in Supplement 2). 3) When you greet someone who's in poor health, you often use

one of the following forms: "Hello, I hope you are well." "Hello, Jim, how are you feeling today?" "Hi, aunty, how are you these days?"
4) You should say "Nice to meet you" only when you greet

someone you meet for the first time. If you want to use this structure to greet someone you already know, use the word "see" in place of "meet". That is, you must say "Nice to see you".

General functional English practice
Supplements 1 & 2 deal with as many as 175 communicative functions and give you collections of word groups that would help you use the English language to perform those functions. In these Supplements, I've grouped word groups together and given them under separate function-headings. That is, the word groups that are given under a particular function heading are those that you can use to perform the particular function named in that heading. In this Supplement (Supplement as 62 of those functions. 1), we've already looked at as many

Now you're going to get extra functional English material for mixed practice. Here the word groups are not going to be grouped under separate headings. Instead, word groups that'd help you perform the various functions are going to be mixed together and given. This has been done to drive home an important point to you once again: In real life, nobody speaks by first deciding on the communicative function they're going to perform and then by selecting a word group that'd help them perform it. Rather, what they do is to just utter a word group or a series of word groups that occur to them as approximate to the context on the spur of the moment. And these word groups normally turn out to be those that perform the appropriate

34 communicative functions. Remember this: The functionwise groupings in Supplements 1 & 2 are only intended for training purposes. When you go through the word groups given below, remember one thing: In order to become fluent, it's not necessary at all for you to learn to name the function that each word group can perform. No. That's not necessary. The main reason for this is what I've mentioned in the para above. In fact, it'd be almost impossible for anybody to go through a list of word groups and to write down against each the name of the commu·nicative function it performs and to get another person to agree that all the function names are "correct". This is because (as I've already told you), in general, there's no strict one-to-one correspondence between a particular word group and a particular function. And so when you point to a particular word group, it would usually be possible for one person to say that it performs one function and for another person to say that it really performs another function. Also, in the case of many word groups, it'd be quite difficult to find out what function they actually perform, unless you know the verbal context - that is, the other word groups that might have gone before them or after them in a conversation. Of course, I'm not trying to say that you must not try and categorize the word groups functionwise. No. What I'm trying to say is this: In order to speak English fluently; it's not necessary for you to learn to name the communicative function that a particular word group performs. .. But from another angle, such an exercise has great value. You see, what you do with a word group during such an exercise is to turn it over in your mind several times, trying to categorize it under the "correct" function - though it can often be categorized under more than one correct function, and though you may sometimes find it difficult to categorize it under any of the functions. So when you do such an exercise, what's important is not whether you've succeeded in grouping the word groups under the correct function-headings. What is important is the mental effort itself that you take to do the grouping. And so, you must not do this exercise with the aim of learning to put a word group in the "right" pigeon-hole. The result would only be frustrating in the end - because you'll find that you're not able to categorize most of the word groups readily or easily. On the other hand, you can do this exercise just for the fun of trying to find out what function-headings it's possible for you to categorize each word group under. The result would then be rewarding - even if you're not

3S
able this: you thus to categorize most of them properly. Yes, the result would be You get to know the word groups better, and they would occur to readily in their contexts whenever you have a conversation adding to your fluency.

And here is the interesting part. By now, you have only had training with 62 out of the 175 functions. Now, a number of the word groups that you'll now come across during this exercise have an interesting feature: They're those that won't help you perform any of those 62 functions, but will only help you perform some other'functions functions that you'll only come across in the next Supplement. Can you try and spot them (in the collection in this Supplement)? Even if you're not able to, this exercise would be superbly rewarding, as I've justtold you. . Here's another exercise you must do: As you've done with the word groups under Fn.nos. 1 to 62, pick up each word group and utter it ALOUD r+: several times. Keep up with this drill till the word groups yield readily to your organs of speech. Here we go:

Group 1
• Anybody would have done it just as well .• Aren't these oranges horrible! • Be brief - we don't have much time .• Can I buy you a coffee? • Can I get it at the reduced rate? • Can I help you in any way?· Can I take some of this paper? • Can you answer the phone for me, please? • Can you show me how to use this photocopier? • Choose carefully before you make a final decision. • Come round any time - I'm usually in. • Could I use your toilet, please? • Could you lay the table for dinner? • Did you buy this car new? • Did you have a nice holiday? • Do you see my point? • Doctor, I think he's seriously ill. Could you come and see him, please? • Don't cross the road now. Wait for a break in the traffic. • Don't hurry me. I'm doing it as fast as I can .• Don't laugh. It's a seriousmatter .• Don't leave so soon. Stay for dinner. • Don't travel on your own. It could be dangerous .• Don't you dare tell my father about this, • Drive through the gates, and you'll find the car park on the left .• Good heavens! Is it as late as that? I must rush. • Do you have any brothers and sisters? • Have you had enough? • He came last week. • He can drive your car. • He certainly ought to .• He comes from London .• He comes from the U.K. • He completely ignored your request. • He could go on forever. • He couldn't have been more angry '. He couldn't help them. •

36 He didn't let out anything important .• He didn't make it that way. • He disappeared without a trace .• He doesn't want to play. • He gave us a week from the date of his letter .• He gets on my nerves .• He had to leave at seven .• He hadn't got a licence .• He has a good opinion of himself. • He has a gun. • He has a small house on the outskirts .• He has no reason to be cross with you .• He hit me! • He insists on doing it alone. • He is rather taciturn. ·He just cut me dead .• He just disappeared. • He knows, apparently .• He lives in Pune .• He may not want to play. • He only drinks out of habit now - he doesn't really enjoy it .• He really is the limit .• He's a player of great class .• He's had an accident .• He's just bought a new car .• He's just made another appointment. • He's jusrreturned it. • He's left six boxes .• He's married at last .• He's my one and only. • He's never been late .• He's no longer among us . • He's not calling after all. • He's not good enough, I tell you. • He's not much use. • He's not very bright .• He's obviously guilty • He's on his way back .• He's on the shortlist. • He's one of a kind .• He's only thirty one .• He's promised it for June .• He's promised to apologize .• He's promised to stop smoking .• He's really cute .• He's really handsome. • He's really my type. • He's very clever, but he hasn't got much imagination .• He's a very open person. I like him. • Her new book has received a lot of praise. • His honesty is beyond question .• How are things at home now? • How are you finding life as a student? • How could you be so rude? • How could you have lied to me? • How do you advise me to do it? • How many children have you got? • How's everything at home? • Is your mother all right now? • However hard he works, he never seems to get tired.

Group 2
• I absolutely refuse to believe that .• I can't believe she's 40. She looks a lot younger. • I couldn't be more angry. • I did my best to help you, but I do understand your point of view .• I don't think the meeting will go on much longer. • I hate being treated like a child. • I hate to bother you, but did you pick up my pen by mistake? • I hope they haven't had an accident." I said no such thing. • I shouldn't buy that. • I think these changes in the procedure would be a great saving in time. • I .think you should check up and satisfy yourself on this point. • I was away all week and only got your message too late. • I'd like a room with a view of the city. • I'd like a room with a view of the ocean. • I'd like a shave, please. • I'd like a single

37 (room) .• I'd like a subscription. • I'd like a suite .• I'd like a three-year subscription .• I'd like a wake-up call, please .• I'd like everything but onions. • I'd like to buy a certificate of deposit .• I'd like to buy a roll of stamps, please .• I'd like to buy a sheet of stamps, please .• I'd like to cancel my subscription .• I'd like to cash (in) these savings certificates .• I'd like to cash these traveller's cheques .• I'd like to change some foreign currency. • I'd like to close my account. • I'll be with you in a moment .• I'll believe it when I see it. • I'll bring it tomorrow .• I'll give you a hand .• I'll give you another chance .• I'll go if you go. • I'll have a burger with everything .• I'll have a cheeseburger and fries .• I'll have a good row with him .• I'll have a large coke, no ice .• I'll have a small pizza. • I'll have a small soda. • I'll have an order of fries. • I'll have finished by Thursday. • I'll have just a sip .• I'll have nothing to do with it .• I'll have some coffee .• I'll have someone bring your baggage up. • I'll have someone out (there) Saturday to fix it .• I'll have this one .• I'll have to ask him .• I'll have to excuse myself .• I'll have to have financing .• I'll have to keep looking for what I want .• I'll have to see some ID.• I'll have to think about that .• I'll introduce it to him .• I'll leave the light on .• I'll leave the porch light on .• I'll let it slide this time. • I'll let you go now. • I'll let you off this time. • I'll make sure the matter is taken care of. • I'll make you a present of it .• I'll need a couple of dozen .• I'll see you around four .• I'm afraid I'm tied up at the weekend. • I'm afraid there's been some awful news .• I'm ashamed of you .• I'm being discriminated against. • I'm beside myself with joy .• I'm bored silly. • I'm bored to death. • I'm bored to distraction. • I'm bored to tears. • I'm bored. • I'm broken-hearted. • I'm busy. • I'm calling on Benny tonight .• I'm chilled to the bone .• I'm clearing this cupboard. • I'm dead broke .• I'm deeply grateful. • I'm delighted to have you. • I'm depressed. • I'm determined to carry on .• I'm doing my (very) best .• I'm doing the best I can. • I'm down in the dumps. • I'm downhearted .• I'm dreadfully disappointed .• I'm dumbstruck. • I'm expecting someone else. • I'm extremely sorry. • I'm falling in love with you .• I'm falling in love .• I'm famished. • I'm fed up. • I'm feeling down .• I'm feeling fine .• I'm feeling good .• I'm feeling low .• I'm fine. • I'm flabbergasted .• I'm flat broke .• I'm freezing. • I'm friends with Gina .• I'm from Paris .• I'm fully responsible. • I'm getting old, I'm afraid .• I'm glad I've spoken to you about it .• I'm not good at figures. • I'm not

38 staying there again. • I'm not sure I follow .• I'm not sure I get your point. • I'm not sure I know what you mean. • I'm not sure whether I ought to .• I'm not sure which I like .• I'm not very interested. • I'm off to bed .• I'm on a strict budget .• I'm sitting on top of the world .• I'm snowed under .• I'm so furious .• I'm so glad you could come by. • I'm so glad you could come .• I'm so glad you could drop in. • I'm so glad you could make it .• I'm so glad you could visit. • I'm so glad you looked me up. • I'm so glad you stopped by. • I'm so glad you told us that. • I'm so glad you took the trouble to look me up .• I'm so happy for you! • I'm so happy you looked me up. • I'm so mad I could scream. • I'm so proud of you. • I'm so sorry. • I'm so upset, Sharma .• I'm sorry I interrupted. Please continue .• I'm sorry this has happened .• I'm sorry to ring you at home. • I'm sorry - I can't come just at this moment .• I've got a good eye for colour, • I've got a sweet tooth .• I've got an exam tomorrow. • I've got an eye for composition. • I've got enough saved up .• I've got exactly what you need .• I've got hold of a crib .• I've got it wrong again, • I've got just what you're looking for. • I've got just yom size. • I've got my hands full. • I've got nothing but the shirt on my back. • I've got Rita staying with me. • I've got the complete set. • I've got the job .• I've got to be going. • I've got to be running.• I've got to go to Delhi .• I've got to have you. • I've got to study. • I've got to work late. • I've had better days .• I've had it. • I've had this pain for days .• I've heard so much about you. • I've invited everyone. • I've invited him for tea. • I've just become a father. • I've just been playing badminton .• I've just got engaged to Madhu .• I've just had a new suit made. • I've told you umpteen times to phone me if you're going to be late.

Group 3
• If you ever need help, you know you can depend on me. • If you make that face again, your face will freeze that way. • If you need any help, I'll be right here .• If you need any help, my name's Vidya. • If you need anything, please let us know .• If you need me, call. • If you need me, I'll be right here. • If you need me, my name's Meena .• If you've already read that book, I'll give another. • Isn't fruit a price! • It couldn't be avoided .• It must be right .• It must have been a great shock, John's death. • It served him right. • It set my teeth on edge. • It shouldn't take long. • It takes all kinds to make a world .• It takes all kinds .• It took longer than I expected to get here. • It .

39 took me longer to get here than I thought it would. • It was a bolt from the blue. • It was a rather dreary party .• It was a real mystery .• It was destined to happen. • It was destiny. • It was fated to happen .• It was George's fault .• It was gone without a trace .• It was my treat. • It was nothing. • It was quite an accident .•.. It was really very clumsy of me. • It was terribly difficult. • It was the last thing I expected. • It was the shock of my life .• It was to be expected. • It was white as snow. • It was your fault. • It wasn't made with flour .• It will (all) work out. • It will be on the table in a minute. • It won't hurt you to try it . ._ It works for me .• It'll be absolutely disastrous. • It'll be difficult, you know. • It's a pity you can't come .• It's almost ready. • It's almost five .• It's always possible. • It's amazing how patient he is .• It's an absolute scandal. • It's an omen. • It's an outrageous suggestion .• It's as clean as a whistle .• It's as clear as day. • It's as good as done .• It's as plain as day. • It's at the tip of my tongue. • It's better for us to know exactly how things stand. • It's awful. • It's back to the drawing board .• It's bedtime. • It's been delightful. • It's been fun talking to you .• It's been great talking to you, but I have to go .• It's been our pleasure .• It's black as coal. • It's black as night .• It's no use trying to shout me down .• It's only human to be upset in a situation like that .• It's Padma's fault. • It's past your bedtime .• It's Paul's turn, I think. • It's perfect. • It's pitch black. • It's quarter to (two) .• It's raining again .• It's raining harder than ever. • It's raining. • It's satisfactory. • It's second nature. • It's sewn up .• It's sheer highway robbery. • It's slipped my mind. • It's smoggy. • It's snowing. • It's so dangerous .• It's so expensive .• It's so good to see you after all this time .• It's so good to see you again. • It's surprisingly difficult .• It's ten (minutes) to seven. • It's ten (minutes) after five. • It's ten past (two) .• It's ten past. • It's terrible .• It's the best we can do under the circumstances. • It's the cruel hand of fate .• It's two forty-five .• It's two o'clock (sharp) .• It's time to go to bed. • It's time to sit down .• It's too big. • It's too cold .• It's too crowded in here .• It's too expensive .• It's too hot. • It's too loose .• It's too short in the sleeves. • It's too tight .• It's turning colder .• It's twelve midnight. • It's twelve noon. • It's twenty (minutes) till five .• It's twenty to five .• It's two blocks from the bus stop. • It's two feet long. • It's ugly. • It's up to Paula to decide. • It's up to you .• It's Veena's turn, you know. • It's very difficult, you know. • It's very good of you to say that.

40 • It's warmer in the kitchen .• It's windy .• It's women's intuition .• It's wonderful. • It's you! • It's your fate.

Group 4
• Last night's party was great fun. • Let me get in a word here. • Let me help you off with your things .• Let me know if there's anything I can do. • Let me know tomorrow .• Let me make myself clear. • Letme repeat myself .• Let me rephrase that. • Let me see if I can lift you. • Let me see your references. • Let me spell it out for you. • Let's ask Anil to play .• Let's ask that man over there .• Let's be quiet .• Let's borrow Fathima's calculator .• Let's bring this matter to a close. • Let's call it a day. • Let's call it a night .• Let's carry on .• Let's change the channel. • Let's continue this another time. I really must go. • Let's do lunch sometime .• Let's do lunch .• Let's do this again soon. • Let's drop the subject .• Let's find a different station. • Let's fix another date, then. • Let's get a new car .• Let's get going. • Make sure you take plenty of warm clothes with you. • Now what have got to say for yourself? • Of course, this has put us in a difficult position .• One of the windows is broken. • One step at a time .• One thing leads to another .• Only a dozen, he wanted .• Only in your dreams .• Only one of them is yours .• Out-of-state cheques will take some time to clear .• Phone me if there's a problem .• Please accept this small gift .• Please do your best to complete it today. • Please excuse us for this mistake. • Shall I help you clear away the plates? • Shall we have another game? • She can use what she likes .• She shouldn't have done that .• She's an actress or something .• She's late - she may have missed the bus. • So you want it for nothing .• Something has obviously gone wrong. • Tell me all your news .• Thank you for your support at this difficult time .• That house is available for immediate occupancy. • That parcel's from James .• That performance is sold out. • That really flatters your figure .• That sends shivers down my spine .• That should arrive on Monday. • That smells .• That spot cannot be removed. • That stew is mouth-watering .• That tastes great .• That tastes like chicken. • That tastes terrible. • That turns my stomach. • That was a flop .• That was Hamid. • That was your lookout. • That won't do it .• That won't do .• That won't work (at all) (well). • That'll be 50 rupees. • That'll be ten bucks .• That'll never hold water. • That's a lie .• That's a silly plan.

41

Functional English Questions for practice
A 'question' is a very important functional English tool. Yes, a.question - an interrogative structure. It helps you put spoken English to real use and to perform a number of communicative functions in English. But many people are not good at framing questions - orally; off-hand. And that is one of the reasons why they find it difficult to communicate their wants, needs, feelings and emotions effectively to others and to start or keep up the flow of everyday conversations. Even people who write good English have difficulty putting together questions orally. You ask them to frame questions in writing - they'll do it easily. But when it comes to framing questions orally (in the course of everyday conversations), they falter - and they start uttering all sorts of un-English questions. Later lessons would deal with the reasons and other related matters in detail. So, that's not what we're going to do now. What we're going to do right now is to start getting your ears and organs of speech to become used to the way questions are a~edjn English. This is a very important step in picking up the skill of framing questions orally - easily and naturally. So I am now going to give you a collection of carefully selected everyday questions. Pick up each of the questions and practice uttering it ALOUD several times. Here we go:

Group 1
• Any ideas for the weekend? • Any time to spare tomorrow? • Anything else to be done? • Are the brakes in working order? • Are the shops open today? • Are there any vacant seats? • Are these oranges juicy? • Are you certain she cried? • Are you for or against this plan? • Are you free or busy? • Are you free this Sunday? • Are you likely to be there tomorrow? • Are you planning to go abroad again? • Are you there? • Are you with , us or against us? • Aren't you supposed to be away? • Can I borrow your book? • Can I get you something to eat? • Can I give you a piece of advice? • Can I have it for a week? • Can I have this shirt pressed? • Can I pay by cheque? • Can I take a few? • Can it be Nizar? • Can she delay it a bit longer? • Can we be sure that it won't back-fire? • Can you change me a 5rupee note? • Can you come to tea tomorrow? • Can you come tomorrow? • Can you describe a time when you felt that things were not going well? • Can you describe a time when you felt you were doing well? • Can you describe your ideal employer? • Can you do some shopping for me? •

42 Can you give a recent example? • Can you give me some advice on this? • Can you hear me? • Can you help me with this letter? • Can you imagine what he might do? • Can you prove that he is wrong? • Can you recommend a good hotel? • Can you see all right from that seat? • Can you stay a little longer? • Can you tell me about a difficult situation you've faced? • Can you tell me about a time when you successfully managed a difficult situation in life? • Can you tell me how you typically approach a project? • Can you tell me something about your ambitions? • Can you think of any way of doing it? • Could I use your phone, please? • Could we have made a mistake? • Could you describe that man for me? • Could you explain how it works? • Could you explain what you mean by that? ~ Could you give me more details? • Could you help me with the washing up? • Could you move your chair this way a bit? • Could you stick to the point, please? • Could you talk a bit more quietly? • Could you tell me where John lives? • Could you wait a little longer? • Did any of them come here? • Did any of you go there? • Did anybody telephone? • Did anyone object? • Did it frighten you? • Did you all go straight to the park afterwards? • Did you count your change? • Did you hear any strange noises? • Did you hear the news? • Did you hear this? • Did you lock the front door? • Did you use to cry a lot when you were a child? • Do I have any choice in the matter? • Do many people consult him? • Do the others like it? • Do you feel like taking a break? • Do you have any experience in this kind of work? • Do you have enough of this cloth? • Do you have the courage to do it? • Do you find it difficult to work with anyone right now? • Do you have to cook yourself? • Do you honestly think he will accept it? • Do you intend to make any changes? • Do you , know if he is there? • Do you know of a good doctor around here? • Do you know what make that car is? • Do you like swimming? • Do you like to work in a team or on your own? • Do you like your tea with or without sugar? • Do you mean you actually saw her? • Do you own a car? • Do you still require it? • Do you think he is going to be elected? • Do you think he is serious? • Do you think she has forgotten? • Do you think you could help me with this? • Do you think you could manage to get it done?

Group 2
• Do you want anything else? • Do you want to bring it right away? • Do you want to invite everybody? • Do you want to

43 know about their reaction? • Does he sell radios? • Does she always get angry? • Does that mean you think differently? • Doesn't he seem under-qualified for this job? • Don't they have a light in their house? • Don't you think younger candidates are better for this job? • Don't you think this is unnecessary? • Given a choice in your work, what would you like to do first? • Given a choice, what would you leave till last in your work? • Going by train? • Hadn't you better do it now? • Has he got to work so hard? • Has he telephoned yet? • Has she been there? • Have any developments in this field taken your interest recently? • Have they got all they want? • Have you any objection? • Have you been to Bombay recently? • Have you considered taking up that job? • Have you considered what'll happen when they come to know of this? • Have you decided what to do? • Have you ever seen a bear wrestling? • Have you finished? • Have you got any brothers or sisters? • Have you got any money with you? • Have you got anything for headaches? • Have you got time to have a look at this? • Have you got to start today itself? • Have you had any training? • Have you heard about him? • Have you made up your mind to employ her? • Have you planned anything for tomorrow? • Have you thought about the question of repayment? • Have you undertaken any project work recently? • Haven't you always wanted to go to the Himalayas? • Haven't you' heard the news? • How about asking them? • How about four o'clock? • How are you all today? • How are you feeling now? • How are you finding the new house? • How are you travelling? ., How are you? • How can I learn to paint? • How did that job influence your career? • How did the fire start? • How did you come to chose your degree?· How did you get into this line of work? • How did you get on? • How did you get your last job? • How did you spend the weekend? • How do you decide on your objectives? • How do you get the best out of people? • How do you get things done? • How do you go to the office? • How do you know there's going to be a strike? • How do you like this weather? • How do you manage your day? • How do you manage your staff? • How do you see this job developing? • How do you start this motor? • How do you work in a team? • How does the job sound to you? • How does this job fit into your career plan? • How early did she get there? • How have you changed over the last three years? • How have your studies been funded? • How important is your work to you? • How

44
long are letters to Bombay taking? • How long can I have it for? • How long do you plan to stay with this organization? • How long do you want him to stay? • How long have you been back? • How long have you known him? • How long will it take? • How many brothers and sisters have you got? • How many of those do you want? • How many people was she able to meet? • How much did they get for it? • How much did you lend him? • How much do you want for it? • How much do you weigh? • How much longer is he going to be? • How much of this do you want? • How much practice must he do? • How much will you charge for the repairs? • How often do you go there? • How on earth did she manage to do that? • How quickly can you get here? • How small is it? • How soon do they want it? • How soon do you want it? • How tall are you? • How tall would you say that girl is? • How was she looking? • How was the trip? • How wide is the room? • How will your studies relate to you}:" work? • How will your studies support your career? • How would you account for your absence? • How would you approach this job? • How would you feel if you were ignored? • How would your boss describe your work? • How'll you deal with that? • How's life? • How's the family? • How's work these days?

Group 3
• If you could change your current job in any way; how would you do it? • If you did not have to work, what would you do? • If you know the answer, why didn't you speak up? • If you take this job, what would be your major contribution? • If you were in that situation, what would you have done? • If you're not too busy; could I ask you something? • Is anybody home? • Is he badly hurt? • Is he very bright? • Is he well-known? • Is it an out-of-the-way-place? • Is it any good trying to explain? • Is it cheaper by bus? • Is it customary to do like that? • Is it worth waiting for them? • Is she ready yet? • Is something the matter? • Is something wrong? • Is that all? • Is that the reason she failed? • Is that thing worth paying money for? • Is the meeting on the 2nd? • Is there a hotel anywhere round here? • Is there any chance of her marrying him? • Is there anyone who doesn't like it? • Is there anything else you want to know? • Is there anything special about it? • Is there anything you want? • Is there enough sugar? • Is this bag Anil's? • Is your watch right? • Isn't it a terrible waste of money? • Isn't it rather expensive? • Just what are you objecting to? • May I make a point about the

45 new proposal? • May I make a suggestion? • Now what do I have to do? • On a holiday, what db you miss about your work? • Seen any good films lately? • Shall I do it or shan't I? • Supposing it rained, what would you do? • Surely you're not fooling me? • Tell me about yourself? • Was she really so bad? • Was the film good? • Was the traffic heavy today? • Was there anyone around? • Were there many people there? • What are the alternatives? • What are the major influences that encourage you to take ajob? • What are the prospects for a newcomer? • What are you doing this evening? • What are you going to do when he returns? • What are you going to tell him? • What are you looking for in a career? • What are you looking for in a job? • What are you thinking about? • What are your career aspirations? • What are your plans for the weekend? • What are your strengths? • What are your weaknesses? • What attracted you to this industry? • What business is it of yours? • What can he do better than you? • What class of degree do you expect to get? • What contribution do you make in a team? • What date is today? • What day is it today? • What decisions do you find difficult to make? • What decisions do you find easy to make? • What did you learn from that company's approach? • What did you learn in that job? • What did you think of his speech? • What difference does it make? • What do lowe you? • What do they do for a living? • What do you call the stuff you use to shine your shoes? • What do you consider yourself good at doing? • What do you do in your spare time? • What do you expect to achieve by all this? • What do you know about our company? • What do you like best about your present company? • What do you like best about your present job? • What do you like least about your job? • What do you like most about your subject? • What do you like to do in your spare time? • What do you look for in a manager? • What do you look for in a subordinate? • What do you think are the major opportunities this company has? • What do you think I should do? • What do you think is most likely to happen? • What do you think is your market value? • What do you think it would be like if he took charge of the office? • What do you think you can bring to this organization? • What do you think you can bring to this position? • What does it mean if a cat crosses your path? • What does John look like? • What does that notice say? • What environment do you work best in? • What explanation do they give for it? • What got him to change his mind? • What have

46 .you been doing since you resigned? • What have you been up to? • What have you contributed to the college? • What have you enjoyed most at college? • What have you got in your hand? • What have you read recently that has taken your interest? • What height is the hall? • What interests you most in your work? • What is he afraid of? • What is the price of this T V? • What is your ideal work environment? • What is your major achievement? • What is your strongest subject? • What kind of furniture is that? • What kind of person would you say he is? • What length is the bench? • What made you try there? • What make is your scooter? • What make of car is that? • What makes you think you can be successful with this organization? - What on earth is that thing? • What other jobs have you applied for recently? • What paper do you read? • What plans do you have to gain further qualifications? • What possessed him to behave like that? • What questions have you for us? • What really motivates you?

Group 4
• What salary did she expect? • What shall I do with these screws? • What shall I wear? • What shape is it? • What size is the table? • What sort of person are you socially? • What sort of person are you? • What sort of salary are you expecting? • What sort of things do you like to delegate? • What sort of tool is that? • What support will you need to do this job? • What time is best? • What time shall I came? • What training courses have you been on? • What training have you had for this job? • What type of wood is that? • What was it about? • What was it like in Madras? • What was the examination like? • What was the party like? • What was the question-paper like? • What will you do if you don't get this job? • What will you do in your retirement? • What will you look forward to most in this job? • What would happen if you refused to obey? • What would you advise? • What would you do· if you became the President? • What would you do if you had a plane ?'~ What would you prefer to do? • What would your colleagues say about you? • What'll you have to drink? • What are the office hours? • What are they charging? • What's behind all this rumour? • What's he like at office? • What's she doing these days? • What's that parcel like? • What's that place like? • What's the meaning of all this? • What's the name of the thing you use for washing dishes? • What's the particular advantage of this thing? • What's the point

47
of inviting him, if he won't come? • What's to be done? • What's your attitude towards it? • What's your job? • What's your opinion on that? • What's your reason, for asking him to come? • What's your view on his decision? • When can I collect the clothes? • When can you do it? • When can you let her have them? • When can you let us have it back? • When did the trunk call come through? • When did you last write? • When do you plan to retire? • When do you want it back? • When were you most happy at work? • Whenwill he be back? • When'll it be finished? • Where are you off to now? • Where can he have gone? • Where did you go to school? • Where did you have breakfast? • Where do you get them from? • Where do you see yourself going in the next three years? • Where do you see yourself in five years' time? • Where does John live? • Where does she come from? • Where have all the books gone? • Where have you been all this time? • Where shall we go for dinner? • Which colour do you prefer -- red or yellow? • Which costs more - the small one or the big one? • Which ismy seat? • Which of these two would you choose? • Which of those two is your house? • Which of your jobs have given you the greatest satisfaction? • Which will you take -- this one or that one? • Which would be the better - this or that? • Which would you choose, if you were me? e : Who are you working best with just now? • Who can that be on the phone? • Who did he come with? • Who did they meet? • Who do you plan to go with? • Who do you think he is? • Who do you think is most likely to win? • Who do you work for? • Who gave her the box? • Who has been sleeping on this bench? • Who has got it right? • Who has got it wrong? • Who is he marrying? • Who is it for? • Who keeps the keys? • Who on earth would take such a risk? • Who paid for the tea? • Who telephoned? .. Who was behind all these things? • Who was she talking to? "Who would know about such things? • Who'd like to begin? -Who's the best person to ask? • Who's there? • Whose bag do you think this is? • Whose fault was it? • Whose pen is this? • Whose pencil is this? • Whose sari do you think looks the nicest? • Whose side are you on?
v Why are you dissatisfied with your present job? • Why are you interested in management? • Why argue with him? • Why did she lose her temperz » Why did you come to this university? • Why did you leave that company? • Why do you want this

48 job? • Why doesn't he do something useful? • Why don't we look at it this way? • Why don't you stick to the subject? • Why go by train, if you can fly? • Why have you stayed for such a short while with your present company? • Why is mathematics your weakest subject? • Why not go there tomorrow? • Why not try these people? • Why not wear a pyjama? • Why should we hire you? • Why so serious? • Why were you let go by that company? • Why were you out of work for so long? • Why were you transferred? • Will this book do? • Will you be away long? • Will you be ready by four? • Will you buy another one? • Will you have your bath now or later? • Will you help me check the accounts? • Won't your father be angry? • Would anybody like to comment? • Would he follow her wherever she went? • Would you agree with that attitude? • Would you do it, if you were me? • Would you get me some stamps on your way back? • Would you like me to check the almirah? • Would you like me to help you with it? • Would you like some tea? • Would you like to begin? • Would you mind moving back a bit? • Would you mind switching the light on? • Wouldn't it be a good idea to invite everybody?

*

That's all for this week. 'Bye till then.

*
functions in Supplement 2.

*

We'll take up more communicative

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