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Lead levels in Thurmont water drop
News-Post Staff THURMONT - Lead levels in town water have decreased significantly since town omcials stopped adding fluoride, commissioners reported at Wednesday's meeting. They also voted to officially ban the use of fluoride. Fluoride itself does not produce high lead levels, but fluoride must be introduced into water along with hydrogluosilic.ic acid and town officials believe the acid washes lead from pipe soldering, said Mayor Terrence Best. When commissioners first had town water tested in 1992, some houses had SO times the accepted limit established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the average amount measured twice the limit, he said. Commissioners then stopped using fluoride .



. The suggested lead limit in water is 15 parts of lead per billion. A May
1993 test showed decreasing levels of lead in water. The high was 130.25 parts per billion and the average was 9.15 parts per billion. A third test, conducted in November, found the high at 31.95 ppb and the average at 7.11 ppb. .


P.O. 801 IlC07 hcOlN. ""stWlgtClt'l 12061383-2471


Belt Une

Eo L tCAm. DIRECTOR 3628 SouIh lSch SlIM

December 2, 1992

Mr. Michael Heath

Department of Health Division of Drinking Water Box 47822 Olympia, Washington 9S504-7822 Dear Mr. Heath: Enclosed is a partially completed EPA Form 141-A, which reports the results of our second round of copper and lead testing. We win forward the 25 water quality parameter samples as soon as they are received. For our entry point samples, pH and water temperature is measured daily at our Headworks' Control Station. I understand you will provide this information to Bob James. our District Engineer. and the EPA by the required reporting date. /' It is interesting to note the 90th percentile lead concentration was 17 ppb this time compared to 32 ppb last time. We have not been using fluoride since the drought this sununer. This latest testing gives us some limited insight as to the amoWlt of chemical adjustment that may be necessary. The percentage of homes that £ailed the "action level" was 9.8 percent. Your efforts with regard to this program are appreciated. If you should have any questions with regard to this submittal or other matters. please feel free to call me or Ken Merry at 206-593-S212.
Very' truly yours.

.:»: -, j

! 1-,///''',/,j'.


}. \ i~/I/~'!--



C. R. Myrick U Water Quality Coordinator


Enclosure c:: Ken Merry





1..•. HAHUUS. Pn.D .. D.i\.J3.T.
1J<')10 Ill) Ct~n·I·H·lC1.>
121121 btOUOtS "01\0 .OYO •• HAnYIJI.ND 20.", I:tOIi 11172'0107

t;ONHU 1 1·1NO TUXJt:C.ll.OOJS·,· ....

April J9. 1994 Ms. Win I Sliko 15U7 N. Fife St.
Tncomu, WS Y84'OG·7S0G

Dcnr M:; Silko:

You asked for Illy sclen liIlc oplnlou or water fluorlLlutioll. I am 11lCI1IOrallLlathnt J prepared while I was the Senior Science Advisor for (ODW) In the UnllcLl Stutes lluvlronmeutul Protectlon Agency (EPA). May Ist mcmo deals with all cvaluatlou uf the Iluorkle report accepted

two the Office of Wnler As you will note, the by the NTP. It culls Into qucstlon the sclcntlflc worth of their conclusions. It suggests the standnnl npproach to resolving the questions I asked, lIS well as the then current Information, proved that Fluoride It:I~ 110 salutary crred 011 teeth. These studies were large enough and accepted by reputable researchers III he vulid. The tuct rhnt I was able to quote four such studles at that time rcluforccd the coucluxluns that Iluorklatlon on Its face wus pointless.

Wheu I wrote the bnckground document thnt eventually became the basls fur the OOWIS lead rcgulntlon I was 110tllW:II'C of the effect Iluorldntlon had upon water supplies. The fnctlhal aLlLlili{1I1 of nUllrjLl~ C'111 Increu5~ lhe level of lellu III urlllking water is most discol1certing for lltt: l'llilowillg rem;ons:




I. The current Icall level is 15 pph. This wns uaseu not on heallh cOllsiLleru'liulls bul 011 CCUllOlllk l'1ll;lms. The EPA Celt thai 7 bllllou dollars would have to be spent to reach the 15 ppb level. The recomlJlendatlon I made, DnLlthal WIlS ngrecLl with by the elltire st:icllliric starr DIlLloutslLle reviewers, wns at 1lI0st 5 ppb. 1111s level have would cost 21 bllllou dollars to Implement owl EPA felt It was too much money to
spend. 2. Till! second conslderutlon was based on the publish eLIIlndlngs of Irv Billick of HUD !I11t1 rcpubllshcd by EPA's Office of Research DIlLl Development', Pugc 13-18

thin leud polsonlng for unknown rCU5UllS has n racial t:()llJPOIIl:1l1. CltlltJrcll who arc blade or hispanic given tile same exposures as while chlll1rclI :J!JSllrl) slglllflcalltly 1II0re IcaLl.• See the New Yurk Screening graphs 011 page 13·1B. Tills 11ICall~ Ihallhe Icvel set by EPA Is rnurglJlully sufe for while. (enclosed) dcmonstrnte
Ildlllt.c:, hut lIwwfe for Afrll!lln nlllerlc(11l or hlspanll! chllt.!ren. Children absorb proportionntcly IJlOTe leud tlmn do adults. From birth to 3 months when the central nervous system Is most vulnerable, bnbles nbsorb 4-8 times the amount of lend us rulults, a IIII consider thnt they drluk B times as much water, is a dlsaster In tile

llIaking. 3. Iron ud'klellcy




ncross lhe gul.



decreases the

chllLlren 1I1soellhllnces IcoLl ubsorptioll amount of Vltamln D needed [or iron

nbsorptlon.thcrcby enhancing the lend (hul geLS across uie gut. '1111sIs u self pcrpctuntlug cycle. II "ppcnrs frollt Nl·IANES II thut Afrlcnn utnerlcun nJlu hispullie chi Idrell II re fIIore 0 n(~11 II IIC III Ie thnll while kJt.Js.

I have nlso enclosed

H chill'( 011

clinrt shows lhul us lend couccutrutlon chnr: I~ Ihal there dlles not appear Il) he n level ot' Icud where lhe lQ Is nol udverscly IIlreded. Thcrcl'me lillY lend (likes [ts toll 011Ihe child's ueveloplng IIUtlvc Inlcllfgcut;c. '

(he loss of 10 us It relates to blood lead levels. The decreases, 10 lncreuses, What Is sJgl1lflcllllllllmullhc


The last 1'0111110IU:lk.e Is that'leuu crosses I'he pUICCII41 of pl'cgllu 11 women. The rule I is between 1 IIlld 1..3 1I1l1C~ that found III mnrcrnal blood. rnlls menns Ihut the ueycluplu" ('etlls Is "dllg exposed 10 potelltlally higher leyels or lend through nuorlthllcd drJllklJlg wuler. 'rIm SlIlIle rm.:lal I'iJldlllg:{ Ilpply It) Afrlclln 1I111CrkuIl Ulll.J hlspullIc udulls. Whkh IJIClIll~ lhlll

will he c:<posl!d 10 proportrollatcly given (he saUle C.xpllsurc.

higher levels of lend lhalHlrc while fetuses " . ,'

Very truly yours,

~7r"/'dYZ-~ William L Marcus, Ph.D." .







Gap in scores betwe~n 17-year-old black students and white , students on a national science test last year, up from 48 points in 1990 Gap in reading-test scores between 17-year-old black students and white students whose parents had some college education, up from 27 points
National Assessment of Educational Progress,

52 points

36 points

Page 23 FACTS: Blacks are exposed to higher IQ-Iowering lead levels. Fluorides have been shown to reduce IQ, impair reading comprehension, calculation and short-term working memory, arithmetic

Given the same fluoride exposure, blacks exhibit double the symptoms of fluoride toxicity as whites

"Safe" blood lead levels still a risk for lower IQ By Will Boggs, rvID BALTIMORE, May 01 (Reuters Health) - Lead can lower the IQ of children even when their blood contains less lead than the officially "harmless" level, according to results presented here on Monday at the Pediatric Academic Societies Annual Meeting. The official level used for lead poisoning has been lowered by more than 80% since 1970, explained Dr. Bruce Lanphear from Children's Hospital Medical Center in Cincinnati, Ohio. But he described the choice of 10 micrograms per deciliter of blood (mcgldL), the current level, as arbitrary, saying that it remains unclear whether lower levels are actually harmless. Lanphear and his associates measured blood lead levels during the first five years oflife in 276 children and measured their IQs at 60 months of age. They took into account a number of factors known to influence IQ, including birthweight, the mother's education level and smoking during pregnancy. The average blood lead level in the five-year-olds was 6.1 mcgldL and their average IQ was 90 (the national average is 100). Blood lead levels reached their highest point after 24 months when 33.8% of children had levels above the official "safe" cutoff, Lanphear said. As blood levels oflead rose, IQs fell, Lanphear noted. Overall, Lanphear said, there was a 5.7-point drop in IQ for each 10microgram increase in lead level. But among children with initially lower lead levels, the effect of rising lead was more striking. There was a I5-point drop in IQ for children who started the study with the lowest lead levels but then had higher exposure. "These data indicate that lead is a potent toxin at levels previously thought to be harmless," the researchers concluded. Lanphear urged the development of a prevention strategy aimed at eliminating lead from housing before children are exposed. "We need to stop using children as biological markers for substandard housing practices," he said, "and to test the safety and efficacy of existing lead hazard controls."


TUESDAY,' MAY 1; 2001


IQ tests reveal greater lead-induced damage
BALTIMORE Children exposed to lead at levels now considered safe scored substantially lower on intelligence tests. according to researchers who suggest one in every 30 children in the United States suffers harmful effects from the metal Children with a lead concentration of less than 10 micrograms.' per deciliter of blood scored an average of' ill points lower on the StanfordBinet .IQ test than the' mean of children with a lead concentration of 1. microgram or less. the researchers .

0"1 in 5 'children high in lead

FRIDAY. MAY 18. 2001

DETROIT - More than one in six Detroit children tested by the city's health department were ing with elevated lead levers. a study indicates, Based onl998 blood screenings •... the national study - released" Wednesday - showed that 175 percent of the children tested by health department officials had elevated lead levels. • Detroit was one of seven cities reviewed in.the study funded by the Alliance. to End' Childhood Lead Poisoning. a Washingtonbased advocacy and policy group.


.:_ The Associated Press


United Sialu ,Env!tonmllnlal

' Plotoctlon ,..


. • AgQ!,!CY

. '" WH550A

Office of Water

EPA 57019·Ql·4bO .. ,.... '".... Juoe 1991"'''''' ....



LeadandcopperRule '.

"Lead may
leach into the water from

some kinds
of home plumbing,"

The Lead and Copper Rule was published in the Federal Register on June 7, 1991. It becomes effective on December 7, 1992. Th1s rule requires treatment when lead and/or copper in drio.k.ing wale'r exceeds certain levels .. Lead enters d.rinlcloi water malnly irom the corrosion oflead-contaiillng household plumbing. Since lead and copper contamination generally occurs after water has len. the public water system, the bes] way for the water system operator to find out if customer' water is contaminated i.a to test water that has come from a household faucet. This type of contamination can be prevented by controlling the corrosiveness 9f the water supply. If corrosion control is not suffic:ient, leadcontaining materials may have to be replaced.

AcUon Levels
MCLG Action Level
(mgll) (m91l)




Maximum Contamlnant Level Goals (MCLG): Water systems should try to supply water which is free or lead and has no more, than 1.3 milligrams of copper per liter (mgtL). This is 'non·enforceable health goal. Action Levels: When the concentration oflead or copper reaches the actlon level in ten percent of the total number of required samples, the water system is required to carry out the waler treatment requirements of the rule. These enforceable treatment requirements are described below.


MonItorinfl Requirements
Lead/copper monitoring at hlgh·riSK homes.
Water systems must complete a materials evaluation of their distribution

system and/or review olher infonnaUon to target homes that are at high risk of lead/copper (Pb/Cu) contamination. Monitoring- is to be conducted at the tap in these homea, with the number of tap-saznpllng sites based on the population served.·One sample is required at each site. Add.Hional monitoring (or other water quality parameters (WQPs) aITecUn~ corrosion is required to optimize treatment and determine corcpllance with State lead/copper standards. Two types 01

• Nwnber , Syst;m

of Inltlal
Mat hems taps for



, within dlst. for WOP,

10,001.100,000 3.301·10.000 501.3,300 101·.500

100 60

3 2 1 1

systems must perform thls monitoring under the following conditions • Large systems serving more than 50,000 persons, regardless of the lead/copper levels in tap samples. . • Smaller syatems serving leu than 50,000 persons, if either act!on level is exceeded in tap samples.

Two types of sampling sites are specified for this purpose: • Within. the distribution system, with the number of sites




orm sampling). Two samples are required from each site. • One sample at each entry point to the distribution system.

based on population served (sites Play be same as for colif-


Fluoride increases lead concentrations in whole b... [Toxicology. 2010] ...




Display Settings:

Epub 2010 Feb 25.


Toxicology. 2010 Apr 30;271(1-2):21-6.

Fluoride increases lead concentrations in whole blood and in calcified tissues from lead-exposed rats.
Sawan RM, Leite GA, Saraiva Me, Barbosa F Jr, Tanus-Santos JE, Gerlach RF.
School of Dentistry of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo (FORP/USP), Av do Cafe sIn, 14040-904, Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil.

Higher blood lead (BPb) levels have been reported in children living in communities that receive fluoride-treated water. Here, we examined whether fluoride co-administered with lead increases BPb and lead concentrations in calcified tissues in Wistar rats exposed to this metal from the beginning of gestation. We exposed female rats and their offspring to control water (Control Group), 1OOmg/L of fluoride (F Group), 30mg/L of lead (Pb Group), or 1OOmg/L of fluoride and 30mg/L of lead (F+Pb Group) from 1 week prior to mating until offspring was 81 days old. Blood and calcified tissues (enamel, dentine, and bone) were harvested at day 81 for lead and fluoride analyses. Higher BPb concentrations were found in the F+Pb Group compared with the Pb Group (76.7+1-11.0microg/dL vs. 22.6+/-8.5microg/dL, respectively; p<O.001). Two- to threefold higher lead concentrations were found in the calcified tissues in the F+Pb Group compared with the Pb Group (all p<O.001). Fluoride concentrations were similar in the F and in the F+Pb Groups. These findings show that fluoride consistently increases BPb and calcified tissues Pb concentrations in animals exposed to low levels of lead and suggest that a biological effect not yet recognized may underlie the epidemiological association between increased BPb lead levels in children living in water-fluoridated communities.
PMID: 20188782 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLlNEJ

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