INTRODUCTION TO MICRO COMPUTER AND MICROPROCESSOR Introduction
A Microprocessor is a multipurpose programmable logic device which reads the binary instructions from a storage device called ‘Memory’ , accepts binary data as input and process data according to the instructions and gives the results as output. So, you can understand the Microprocessor as a programmable digital device, which can be used for both data processing and control applications. In view of a computer student, it is the CPU of a Computer or heart of the computer. A computer which is built around a microprocessor is called a microcomputer. A microcomputer system consists of a CPU (microprocessor), memories (primary and secondary) and I/O devices as shown in the block diagram in Fig 1. The memory and I/O devices are linked by data and address (control) buses. The CPU communicates with only one peripheral at a time by enabling the peripheral by the control signal. For example to send data to the output device, the CPU places the device address on the address bus, data on the data bus and enables the output device. The other peripherals that are not enabled remain in high impedance state called tri-state.
Fig.1 Block diagram of a Microcomputer
Evolution of Microprocessors
The first Microprocessor (4004) was designed by Intel Corporation which was founded by Moore and Noyce in 1968. In the early years, Intel focused on developing semiconductor memories (DRAMs and EPROMs) for digital computers. In 1969, a Japanese Calculator manufacturer, Busicom approached Intel with a design for a small calculator which need 12 custom chips. Ted Hoff, an Intel Engineer thought that a general purpose logic device could replace the multiple components. This idea led to the development of the first so called microprocessor. So, Microprocessors started with a modest beginning of drivers for calculators. Fedrico Faggin and Stanely Mazor implemented the ideas of Ted Hoff’s and designed the Intel 4000 family of processors comprising 4001 (2K-ROM), the 4002 (320 bit RAM), the 4003 (10 bit I/O shift-register) and the 4004, a 4 bit CPU. Intel introduced the 4004 microprocessor to the world wide market on November 15, 1971. It was a 4-bit PMOS chip with 2300 transistors. Around the same time Texas Instruments developed a 4-bit microprocessor TMS 1000 and became the owner of microprocessor patent. Later Intel introduced world’s first 8 bit general purpose microprocessor 8008 in 1972. This processor was used in the popular computer ‘Mark-8’ in those days. In 1974, Intel introduced the improved version of 8008, the 8080 microprocessor. This 8080 is the much more highly integrated chip than its predecessors which is built around N-channel MOS technology. It could execute up to 290,000 operations per second and could address up to 64K.bytes of memory. The other notable 8 bit microprocessors include Motorola 6800, Rockwell PPS-8 and Signetics 2650 with powerful architecture and instruction set. With developments in integration technology Intel was able to integrate the additional chips like 8224 clock generator and the 8228 system controller along with 8080 microprocessor with in a single chip and released the 8 bit microprocessor 8085 in the year 1976. The 8085 microprocessor consisted of 6500 MOS transistors and could work at clock frequencies of 3-5 MHz. It works on a single +5 volts supply. The other improved 8 bit microprocessors include Motorola MC 6809, Zilog Z-80 and RCA COSMAC. In 1978, Intel introduced the 16 bit microprocessor 8086 and 8088 in 1979. IBM selected the Intel 8088 for their personal computer (IBM-PC).8086 microprocessor made up of 29,000 MOS transistors and could work at a clock speed of 5-10 MHz. It has a 16-bit ALU with 16-bit data bus and 20-bit address bus. It can address up to 1MB of address space. The pipelining concept was used for the first time to improve the speed of the processor. It had a pre-fetch queue of 6 instructions where in the instructions to be executed were fetched during the execution of an instruction. It means 8086 architecture supports parallel processing. The 8088 microprocessor is similar to 8086 processor in architecture ,but the basic difference is it has only 8-bit data bus even though the ALU is of 16-bit.It has a prefetch queue of 4-instructions only. In 1982 Intel released another 16-bit processor called 80186 designed by a team under the leadership of Dave Stamm. This is having higher reliability and faster operational speed but at a lower cost. It had a pre-fetch queue of 6-instructions and it is suitable for high volume applications such as computer workstations, word-processor and personal computers. It is made up of 134,000 MOS transistors and could work at clock rates of 4 and 6 MHz. This is also comes under first generation of Microprocessors. Intel released another 16 bit microprocessor 80286 having 1, 34,000 transistors in 1981. It was used as CPU in PC-ATs in 1982. It is the second generation microprocessor, more advanced to 80186 processor. It could run at clock speeds of 6 to 12.5 MHz .It has a 16bit data bus and 24-bit address bus, so that it can address up to 16MB of address space and 1GB of virtual memory. It had a pre-fetch queue of 6 instructions .Intel introduced the concept of protected mode and virtual mode to ensure proper operation. It also had onchip memory management unit (MMU) .This was popularly called as Intel 286 in those days.
In 1985, Intel released the first 32 bit processor 80386, with 275,000 transistors. It has 32bit data bus and 32-bit address bus so that it can address up to a total of 4GB memory also a virtual memory space of 64TB.It could process five million instructions per second and could work with all popular operating systems including Windows. It has a pre-fetch queue of length 16-bytes with extensive memory management capabilities. It is incorporated with a concept called paging in addition to segmentation technique. It uses a math co-processor called 80387. Intel introduced 80486 microprocessor with a built-in maths co-processor and with 1.2 million transistors. It could run at the clock speed of 50 MHz This is also a 32 bit processor but it is twice as fast as 80386.The additional features in 486 processor are the built-in Cache and built-in math co-processors. The address bus here is bidirectional because of presence of cache memory. On 19th October, 1992, Intel released the Pentium-I Processor with 3.1 million transistors. So, the Pentium began as fifth generation of the Intel x86 architecture. This Pentium was a backward compatible while offering new features. The revolutionary technology followed is that the CPU is able to execute two instruction at the same time. This is known as super scalar technology. The Pentium uses a 32-bit expansion bus, however the data bus is 64 bits. The 7.5 million transistors based chip, Intel Pentium II processor was released in 1997. It works at a clock speed of 300M.Hz. Pentium II uses the Dynamic Execution Technology which consists of three different facilities namely, Multiple branch prediction, Data flow analysis, and Speculative execution unit. Another important feature is a thermal sensor located on the mother board can monitor the die temperature of the processor. For thermal management applications. Intel Celeron Processors were introduced in the year 1999. Pentium-III processor with 9.5 million transistors was introduced in 1999. It also uses dynamic execution micro-architecture, a unique combination of multiple branch prediction, dataflow analysis and speculative execution. The Pentium III has improved MMX and processor serial number feature. The improved MMX enables advanced imaging, 3D streaming audio and video, and speech recognition for enhanced Internet facility. Pentium-IV with 42 million transistors and 1.5 GHz clock speed was released by Intel in November 2000. The Pentium 4 processor has a system bus with 3.2 G-bytes per second of bandwidth. This high bandwidth is a key reason for applications that stream data from memory. This bandwidth is achieved with 64 –bit wide bus capable of transferring data at a rate of 400 MHz. The Pentium 4 processor enables real-time MPEG2 video encoding and near real-time MPEG4 encoding, allowing efficient video editing and video conferencing. Intel with partner Hewlett-Packard developed the next generation 64-bit processor architecture called IA-64 .This first implementation was named Itanium. Itanium processor which is the first in a family of 64 bit products was introduced in the year 2001.The Itanium processor was specially designed to provide a very high level of parallel processing ,to enable high performance without requiring very high clock frequencies .Key strengths of the Itanium architecture include ,up to 6 instructions/cycle. The Itanium processor can handle up to 6 simultaneous 64 –bit instructions per clock cycle.
Hence microprocessor is also known as the heart of the computer. Core 2 Quad processors are multi-chip modules consisting of two dies similar to those used in Core 2 Duo. The CPU performs the various activities in response to a set of instructions called a program. Pentium Dual-Core processors were positioned above Celeron but below Core and Core 2 microprocessors in Intel's product range. The time for the clock cycle of Intel 8085 is 200 ns. 5MHZ and 6MHZ selections are available. which was launched on March 16. So. adding a dedicated 1MB L2 cache for instructions and thereby effectively growing the original 256KBL2 cache.. The recent Itanium processor features a split L2 cache. The 8085 CPU consists of three major sections.The Itanium II is an IA-64 microprocessor developed jointly by Hewlett-Packard (HP) and Intel and released on July 8. The enhanced version of 8080 is the Intel 8085AH. and models based on the Arrandale dual-core mobile processor have been announced.2009. this is highly workload specific and requires applications to take advantage of the extra cores. The first six-core processor in the Core lineup is the Gulftown. The Pentium Dual-Core was also a very popular choice for over clocking. This 8085 is an enhanced version of its predecessor the 8080A. Its instruction set is 100% software compatible with the 8085A. Pentium 4EE was released by Intel in the year 2003 and Pentium 4E was released in the year 2004. LC or RC network. The block diagram of 8085 microprocessor is shown in Fig 2. While this allows twice the performance to a dual-core processors at the same clock frequency in ideal conditions. generally speaking. forming a quad-core processor.It is theoretically capable of performing nearly 8 times more work per clock cycle than other CISC and RISC architectures due to its parallel computing micro-architecture. 2010. It is an N channel depletion load. It is a 40 pin IC available as a DIP (Dual Inline Package) chip. price and performance at a given clock frequency. as it can deliver optimal performance (when over clocked) at a low price. Its clock cycle is 320 ns.
. with approximately two times performance. which consists of 167 million transistors was released on January 21. In September. The Pentium Dual Core. The first Itanium 2 processor (code named McKinley) was more powerful than the original Itanium processor. which becomes a dedicated data cache. Its instruction set is upward compatible with that of the 8080A. This 8085 microprocessor is built with nearly 6200 transistors. 8085A has an on-chip clock generator with external crystal. a 2 MB L2 cache shared by both cores. It is also 100% compatible with 8085A.The Intel 8085 CPU is an 8-bit device with a clock speed of 3 . silicon gate (HMOS) 8-bit processor. a microprocessor is nothing but the CPU . Programs are stored in the memory.2002. Both the regular Core i7 and the Extreme Edition are advertised as five stars in the Intel Processor Rating. Intel Core Duo consists of two cores on one die. Here 3MHZ. The Intel 8085 Microprocessor: Intel 8085A is a single chip 8-bit N-channel microprocessor which works at +5V DC power supply.2006. It has 20% lower power consumption than 8085A for 3MHZ and 5MHZ.5 MHZ. new Core i7 models based on the Lynnfield desktop quad-core processor and the Clarksfield quad-core mobile were added. The Pentium Dual-Core brand was used for mainstream X86-architecture microprocessors from Intel from 2006 to 2009 The 64 bit Intel Core2 was released on July 27. and an arbiter bus that controls both L2 cache and FSB access.
Central Processing Unit (CPU)
The Central Processing Unit of any microcomputer is the microprocessor. 2007. 8085A can operate with a 3MHZ single phase clock and 8085A-2 version can operate at a maximum frequency of 5MHZ. The CPU reads in data control signals (instructions) through the input ports and executes one instruction at a time. It has 80 basic instructions and 246 op-codes. In terms of features.
The arithmetic and logic unit consists of the following units (a). rotate. logical AND. shift and clear.Timing and Control unit. complementing. After performing the arithmetic operations the result is stored back in accumulator.Flag register. Certain instructions like DAA are performed using only accumulator. (a) Accumulator (A): It is an 8-bit register which is treated as a special function register. logical Exclusive OR. subtraction.They are: (i). All the I/O data transfers between 8085 and I/O devices are performed via accumulator. the data is sent out to an output device. So. (b). Most of the arithmetic and logic operations are performed using this accumulator. incrementing and decrementing. No other register can be used for these operations. Arithmetic and logic unit (ALU) (ii). The data in the accumulator alone can be rotated or shifted.Registers (iii). One of the operands for arithmetic operations in ALU is from the accumulator. logical OR. It is from the accumulator only. Similarly.Accumulator (A).
.Temporary register. An ALU is made of many logic gates and adders etc. the data from an input device is read only through the accumulator. many times the Accumulator register is treated as a default register.
Arithmetic and logic unit (ALU)
The ALU performs all the arithmetic and logical operations like addition. (c).
The Block Diagram of 8085 Microprocessor (b) Temporary register:
.Figure 2 .
Else (if it is zero).. IR register will receive the opcode for MVI M and the Temporary register will receive 17H. This register is used by the microprocessor to load the second operand during arithmetic/logical operations in ALU. this flag CY is set to 1 else it is reset (made0) Example : Let us consider the addition of two binary numbers 11011001 and 11101101 and check the Flag register.Sign Flag After execution of an arithmetic and logic operation. In arithmetic and logical operations. For example the data byte 10111101 has even parity and the data byte 10011011 has odd parity. But the Z and CY flags can be used for this purpose. So P bit=0. it contains only 5 flag bits and the remaining three bits are undefined as shown in Fig.3 In the Flag register each flag bit is a Flip-Flop. 17H instruction is fetched. The other is provided by the temporary register. the AC flag is set. P-Parity Flag If the result after an arithmetic and logical operation has an even number of 1s. Z .bit register which generally reflect data conditions in the accumulator with certain exceptions. the number is treated as a negative number. when a carry is generated by and passed on to bit 4 . if bit D7 of the result (Normally in the Accumulator) is 1. In arithmetic operations with signed numbers bit D7is reserved for indicating the sign and the remaining seven bits are used to denote the magnitude of the number. this parity flag is set to 1 otherwise (if number of 1s is odd) the flag is reset (made0). This Flag is used with signed numbers. This flag is used internally for BCD arithmetic and is not available for the programmer to change the sequence of a program with a jump instruction. For example when MVI M. Register contents is performed by the ALU. (c). Though this flag register is an eight bit register. like addition. it is viewed as a positive.This is an 8-bit register which is not accessible to the user.Zero Flag This Flag is set (made 1) if the result after any arithmetic operation is zero.3. So. Flag Register S . if D7 is 1. CY-Carry flag After an arithmetic operation. The final result is stored in the Accumulator and the flags are set or reset according to the result of the operation.
.For example in a given byte. and the flag is reset (made 0) if the result is not zero. that involves two operands . this flag is set or reset based on the results in the accumulator as well as in the other registers. Register and the addition of A and Temp. Hence this flag register is also known as Status register.e.the accumulator provides one operand. subtraction if there exists a carry or barrow.Flag register: The flag register is an 8. For example in ADD C instruction C register contents are moved to the Temp. i. the sign flag is set. AC – Auxiliary carry Flag In this arithmetic operation. the bit may be either in the flip state or flop state
The temporary data register is associated with the ALU operations. They are (i). so. during the execution of XCHG instruction.As these registers are internally used by the CPU. E. The given address is temporarily stored in W and Z registers and placed on the bus for the fetch cycle. the sum is not zero. So Z-Flag is reset (Z=0). The remaining registers are accessible to the user. Among these registers W and Z are not accessible to the user. At the time of exchange W and Z registers are used for temporary storage of data. There is a carry from the third bit to fourth bit. 8 – bit registers (B. So. The organization of 8085 registers is shown in Fig. they are not accessible to the user. of 1s is even. The W and Z registers are used by the processor during CALL instruction. So AC Flag is set (AC=1). This is not accessible to user. D. W register and Z register. C.D7 D0 11011001 11101101 1 11000110
In the result. 3. Another example is.Special purpose registers. The D7 bit=1. The Flag register contents after addition are shown below: D7 D0
The 8085 microprocessor has different types of registers. parity is even (P=1). In the result. H and L). So carry Flag is set (CY=1). (i) Temporary registers : The Temporary registers are temporary data registers. It includes six .Temporary registers. one 8-bit Accumulator and two 16-bit registers (SP and PC). there is a carry. Also there are two 8-bit temporary registers W and Z. One of the operand is stored in this register. (ii) General purpose registers :
. Similarly W and Z are also temporary registers used to hold 8-bit data during execution of certain instructions. intermediate operations. After addition. All are 8bit registers.4 The various registers of 8085 are classified into three types. the current Program counter (PC) contents are pushed on to the stack and the given address is loaded on to PC. When a CALL instruction is encountered in any program.General purpose registers (iii). the no. the sign Flag is set (S=1). Thus the program control is transferred to the address given in the instruction. (ii). They are used by the processor for internal. the contents of H-L pair are exchanged with D-E pair.
Now the H-L pair points to the location 8500 H. 8-bit general purpose registers to store data. This will load immediately the address of memory location (8500H) in to H-L pair . Accumulator (Register A): It is an 8-bit tri-state register. D. The H-L pair also functions as a data pointer or memory pointer For Ex: LXI H. The Special purpose registers are Accumulator (A). These registers can be used as separate 8-bit registers and also can be paired as 16-bit registers to store the address of a memory location. 8500 H. Parity and Carry as shown below
Here X means undefined. E. D-E and H-L register pairs only as shown below. It is also used in I/O operations. Flag Register. logic. for example B-C. Register organization When used as pair. In most of operations. Program Counter (PC) and Stack Pointer (SP). The five flags are Sign.as their name indicates. But they must be paired as B-C.B. the result is stored in Accumulator after execution. Which consists of only five flags. Flag Register: It is an 8-bit register. are used for some specific purpose. Zero. H and L are six. (iii) Special purpose registers: The Special purpose registers .Each flag bit is a flip flop that indicates either a set or reset state. It is mainly used for arithmetic. C. the higher order byte moves to the first register (B) and the low order byte moves to the second register (C).
. Auxiliary carry. load and store operations.
Figure 4. Instruction Register(IR).
The instruction decoder decodes the instruction at a binary level and sends the appropriate signals to the control unit. it always points to top of the Stack. As the Stack pointer always points to the top of the Stack. When a Write operation (PUSH) takes place.Sign Flag: The sign flag is set to1 if the most significant bit of the result of an arithmetic or logic operations is 1. i.e. Ex: LXI SP. i. Program Counter (PC): It is a 16-bit special purpose register. A stack works on Last in First out (LIFO) basis. Stack Pointer (SP): It is a 16-bit special purpose register which always stores the address of top of the Stack. The execution of a program is initiated by loading the PC by the address of the first instruction of the program. The processor then fetches the next instruction from the new address specified by the JUMP or CALL instruction. the contents of the stack pointer is decremented by two so that the SP points to the new location.
The remaining blocks of 8085 microprocessor block diagram
Instruction Register and Decoder: The instruction register and the decoder are also part of the ALU. When an instruction is fetched from memory. 8530 H Here 8530 H is the 16 bit address of the top of Stack location. the PC is automatically incremented to point to the next instruction unless a jump to some specific address occurs. The Stack Pointer is initialized by load register pair immediate instruction. This flag is not accessible to the user. The instruction register is a 8 – bit special register. if the result has an even number of 1s it is called even parity and the Parity Flag is set to 1. This process is repeated till the last instruction of the program. if the condition is not satisfied. Similarly when the Read operation (POP) occurs. which stores the address of the next instruction to be fetched or executed. it is loaded in the instruction register. In conditional JUMP and conditional CALL instructions. If there is odd number of 1s in the result. the processor increments the Program Counter by three so that it points the instruction followed by the conditional JUMP or CALL instruction.
. Stack is a part of the memory location used to store the data temporarily. it is called Odd Parity and the Parity flag is set 0. the Stack pointer is incremented by two to point to the next data on top of the Stack. Otherwise the processor fetches the next instruction from the new address specified by JUMP or CALL instruction. In case of JUMP or CALL instructions. After any arithmetic or logical operation. Else it is reset (0). Zero Flag: The Zero status flag is set to 1 if the result of an arithmetic or logic operation is Zero For non-Zero result it is reset to 0.e.G Auxiliary carry Flag: This flag is set if there is a carry from 3 rd bit to 4th bit during BCD operations (carry from lower nibble to higher nibble). only top of the Stack of the memory can be accessed. Otherwise. Parity Flag: Parity is defined by the number of 1s present in a binary number stored in A register. current address is stored in the Program Counter. The Decoder decodes the instruction and develops the sequence of events to follow. Once the first instruction is executed. but it is not a programmable and is not accessible to the user.
and halt and also when address lines are not in use. The TRAP is also a non maskable interrupt. These lines are used during serial data transmission over long distance where data is transmitted and received bit by bit. Among these interrupts INTR is the only nonvector interrupt whereas the other interrupts are vectored interrupts.
. It means that whenever the pin is activated. Due to these buffers the address and data buffers can be tri-stated when they are not in use. RST 5. the microprocessor loads the program counter with 0024H.5 and INTR. So. So. Address/Data Buffer: This is an 8-bit bi-directional buffer. The 16 bit address that is sent out through AD0-AD7 and A8-A15 are latched into this register. This increment operation takes place on increment/ decrement register address latch. Here RST means RESTART. Serial I/O control: This control provides two lines SOD (Serial Out Data) and SID (serial In Data) for serial communication. RST5. During first T .5. Among all these interrupts TRAP has the highest priority and INTR (Interrupt Request) has the lowest priority.5. The control block will take care of enabling and disabling of these interrupts etc…
The 8085 microprocessor has five interrupts. The address and data bus buffers are used to drive external address and data buses respectively.state of op code fetch machine cycle (T1) the microprocessor increments the PC register contents to point to the next location. This register is used by the CPU to increment/ decrement the contents of the Stack Pointer (SP) and increment program counter (PC) during instruction execution. the 8085 will always get interrupted even if the 8085 is in DI (Disable Interrupt) state. RST 6. This interrupt control has five interrupt signals. The address bus AD 0-AD7 continues to be available on the bus after T1 state from this latch.5. It is used to drive multiplexed address/data bus. Trap input is both edge and level sensitive. RST 7.5. their locations in the order of highest to lowest priority are given in Table 3. It means low order address bus (A7-A0) and data bus (D7-D0). RST 7. This block is linked to the CPU through the 8-bit internal data bus. It is also used to tri-state the multiplexed address/data bus under certain conditions like reset. the microprocessor is interrupted when the input pulse goes from low to high or when it remains high . 6. and 5. there will be external buffer chips also available. They are TRAP.5) are related to the call locations. Address Buffer: This is an 8-bit unidirectional buffer. and halt and also when A/D bus lines are not in use. It is used to drive external higher order address bus.5.5 and INTR. They are TRAP. So. hold. RST 6. It is also used to tri-state the higher order address (A8-A15) bus under certain conditions like reset. In actual practice. in a microprocessor the driving capacity of the address pins after the internal buffering may not be adequate.1. the microprocessor is interrupted when the input is both edge and level sensitive. hold.Increment/ Decrement Address Latch: This is a 16 bit special register not accessible to the user.5. TRAP: It is a non maskable interrupt with highest priority. The various interrupts.When interrupted. The numbers succeeding the RST (7. The Serial Output Data (SOD) pin is used to send data out serially and serial Input Data (SID) pin is used to receive data serially by the 8085 microprocessor. Interrupt control: This is an important block related to interrupts.
Various Interrupts . Based on the code.5 is a maskable interrupt known as MI.5 INTR (least priority) Call locations 0024H (7. These signals are explained below in detail.5and RST 5.5 RST 5. If the microprocessor is not able to respond to the requests immediately. it means the triggering level should be on until the microprocessor completes the execution of the current instruction.N o 1 2 3 4 5 Interrupts TRAP (Highest priority) RST 7. The signals associated with this unit are two control signals. and three status signals IO/ .5 and INTR. This flip flop is set 1. they should be stored or held by external hardware. This is also a maskable interrupt and can be disabled using the instruction DI (Disable Interrupt). control and timing signals required for the operation of memory and I/O devices. it executes interrupt acknowledge machine cycle. when a positive –going edge occurs on RST 7. RST 7. This unit with the help of these signals controls the entire operation of the microprocessor and the peripherals. This interrupt has the lowest priority among all the interrupts.5: It is an edge sensitive pin. When EI instruction is executed. interrupt. This is a non-vectored interrupt because when the remaining interrupts are initialized.5 interrupt pin .5 x 8)H = 002CH No location
Table 1 . It generates three types of signals namely status.5 x 8)H = 003CH (6.5 RST 6. Internal to 8085 there is a flip-flop connected to RST 7.RST 7.Call locations in order of highest to lowest priority
Timing and control Unit
This unit of the microprocessor issues necessary timing and control signals for the execution of instructions. RST 5. S1 and S0 to identify the nature of the operation and one special signal ALE which indicates the starting of the operation. During this cycle.
. The condition of these interrupts can be known using RIM (Read Interrupt Mask) instruction and the condition of the masking interrupt can be set and reset using SIM instruction (Set Interrupt Mask). During this time.5 x 8)H = 0034H (5. The signal works as a signal during acknowledge machine cycle. The mask on INTR can be removed by executing EI (Enable Interrupt) instruction. INTR: It is only non-vectored interrupt in 8085 microprocessor.5 input. -Read (active low): This is a Read control signal.5 interrupt has a higher priority than RST 6. These two interrupts are also maskable interrupts. they are automatically transferred (vectored) to specific locations on memory page 00H without any external hardware. The necessary hardware is already implemented inside the 8085. the remaining operation is executed by the processor S. This interrupt is enabled under program control with two instructions EI (Enable Interrupt) and SIM (Set Interrupt Mask) RST 6.5. RST 6. This signal indicates that the selected I/O or memory device is to be read and data are available on the data bus. But coming to INTR.5 have higher priority than INTR interrupt. the flip flop associated with this is set and the mask is removed. the device that has interrupted this microprocessor will provide the operation code.5 and RST 5.5: These interrupts are level sensitive. They do not require the signal. This RST 7. the microprocessor loads the code into instruction register from I/O device.
This signal indicates that the data on the data bus are to be written into a selected memory or I/O device.Write (active low): This is a Write control signal..
Hence it is Uni-directional(because the converse is not possible). The various operations and the associated status signals are shown in Table 3.The 8085 microprocessor with 16-bit address bus can address a maximum of 2 16= 65536=64 KB of memory locations. Status signals of 8085 IO/ : This is a status signal used to differentiate between I/O and memory operations. A bus is nothing but a group of electrical lines used to transmit the information as electrical signals. used to identify various operations. this 16-bit parallel address bus carries address from microprocessor to memories/peripherals. When this signal is high. The width of the parallel bus determines how much memory that a microprocessor can address. The complete operation of the microprocessor can be understood by these three signals. it indicates an I/O operation. This signal is used primarily to latch the low-order address from the multiplexed bus and generate a set of eight address lines A7 – A0.
S1 and S0: These signals are also status signals like IO/ . So. Data and Control Buses:
Intel 8085 has 16-bit unidirectional address bus which carries the address of memories and peripheral devices. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
IO/ 0 0 1 1 1/0 1 * * *
S1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 X X
S0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 X X
Status Memory Write Memory Read I/O Write I/O Read Opcode fetch Interrupt Acknowledge Halt Hold RESET
Table 2. The size of the address bus is independent of the size of the microprocessor. This signal is combined with Read ( ) and Write to generate necessary I/O and memory control signals.
Address.AD0 are address bits. when it is low it denotes a memory operation. It indicates that the bits on AD 7 . ALE (Address Latch Enable): This is a positive going pulse generated every time the 8085 begins an operation.
When ALE=1 (high) the A/D bus acts as a lower order address bus else it acts as Data bus. It means whether the microprocessor operation is a read or writes and whether it is memory or I/O operation. The Data bus is a bidirectional bus which is used to send data to and from the microprocessor. the data and address are sent on the same lines but at different instants of time. i. This refers to the width of the data bus but not the address bus. The above three buses that interface the CPU to the system components are combinedly known as the System bus. the crystal of the tuned circuit should have a frequency of 6MHZ. Power supply and clock pins: Vcc: +5V power supply Vss: Ground reference.e.
The pin diagram of 8085 microprocessor is shown in Fig 5. The size of the control bus depends upon the specific microprocessor. and address latch enables. LC Network) is connected at these two pins. INTEL used this time multiplexing technique to save the pins. the INTEL’s 8-bit general purpose registers matches with its 8-bit data bus.e. the 8 most significant bits of the address are transmitted by the high order address bus A8-A15. acknowledgement signals and hold signals. the lower order address lines are multiplexed with the data bus. The internal clock generator divides oscillator frequency by 2. Generally the size of the internal general purpose registers matches the size of the data bus. A microprocessor may also have certain additional control signals and such as interrupt signals. So. i.In INTEL 8085 microprocessor. But they are not considered as part of control bus even through they take part in control of microprocessor based systems. To demultiplexe the A/D bus the pin ALE is used. therefore to operate a system at 3MHZ. From the figure it is clear that it is 40 pin DIP chip. Thus.e. so that all the bits on the bus can at one time come into or go out of any of the registers. The size of the data bus determines the size of the microprocessor. at some instances it acts as a 8.
. The size of the data bus matches the size of the internal registers. In addition to this it includes state signals. The various pins of 8085 microprocessor can be grouped in the following categories Power Supply and Clock pins Data bus and Address bus Control and Status signals Interrupt signals DMA signals Serial I/O signals The description of various pins is given below. i.bit address bus and at other instances it works as a 8-bit data bus. But the 8 least significant bits of the addresses are transmitted by Address/Data bus or A/D bus. A 0-A7 will always have the address during the first T state (T1) of the machine cycle. Similarly8086 is a 16-bit microprocessor and its data bus width is 16 bits INTEL 8085 has Address/ Data bus namely AD 7-AD0. Typical control signals are Read or Write signals. The 8085 microprocessor has 8-bit data bus and hence it is called an 8bit microprocessor. X1 and X2: A Crystal (or RC. The control bus of 8085 is a uni-directional bus because the microprocessor alone sends control signals to memories or peripheral devices. This is also a parallel bus. the A/D bus operates in a time shared mode.
Control and Status Signals: ALE (Address Latch Enable): This is a positive going pulse generated every time the 8085 begins an operation. This signal indicates that the selected I/O or memory device is to be read and data are available on data bus. This signal is mainly used to latch the low order address from the multiplexed bus and generate a separate set of eight address lines (A7-A0) (Read): This is an active low read control pin. During the remaining part of the machine cycle (T2. These lines are exclusively used for the most significant 8 bits of the 16 bits of the16 bit address bus. They are used as the low-order address bus as well as the data bus. During the first part of the machine cycle (T1). which are bidirectional with dual purpose. (Write): This is an active low write control pin. It indicates that the data on the data on the data bus are to be are to be written into a selected memory or I/O location
. The ALE=High indicates that the bits on AD7-AD0 are address bits. Pin Diagram of 8085 A
A8-A0: These are the upper half of the 16 bit address lines. lower 8 bits of memory address or I/O address appear on the bus.
Figure 5.T3) these lines are used as a bidirectional data bus
.CLK (OUT): This signal is used as a system clock for other devices. Its frequency is half the oscillator frequency Data bus and Address bus: AD0-AD7: These lines are Address/Data lines.
a peripheral like DMA controller is requesting the use of address and data buses. It has higher priority. RST 7. READY (Input): Through this pin. the microprocessor will know whether peripheral device is ready or not for data transfer. RESETOUT: This signal is used to Reset other devices in microprocessor system. RST 7. SOD: Serial output Data pin is used by the microprocessor to output data serially to the external devices. (Output): It is an active low interrupt acknowledge pin. it indicates a memory operation. When it is high.5. It is a maskable vectored interrupt. The execution time is denoted by T-states. this pin helps to synchronize slow devices to the microprocessor.5 and INTR.5: It is a restart interrupt pin. If the device is not ready the processor waits. : It is an active low signal.5 and INTR: These are the interrupt signals which are externally initiated. RST5.5. the system is in reset i.IO/ : This is a status signal used to differentiate between IO and memory operations. RST 6. The most significant bit of accumulator should have the serial bit and D 6 bit of the accumulator must be made high to enable the serial data transfer. This signal is combined with and signals to generate I/O and memory control signals. It has higher priority than RST 6. RST5. the address & data buses are tristated. Serial input/ Output signals: SID: Serial input Data is a pin through which serial data are brought into the micro processor accumulator after the RIM instruction is executed. the program counter is set to zero. INTR (Interrupt Request): This is used as a general purpose interrupt. One Tstate is equal to the time period of the internal clock signal of the microprocessor
. When the signal on this pin goes low. It has a lowest priority and it is the only non-vectored interrupt. TRAP: It is a non-maskable vectored interrupt.e. This will acknowledge the receival of interrupt request to the peripheral device. Interrupt signals: TRAP. So. S1 and S0: These are status signals and they indicate the type of machine cycle in progress during execution of an instruction.
Timing Diagram :
The graphical representation of the time taken for the execution of each instruction by a microprocessor is known as timing diagram. HLDA (Output): A high on this p in acknowledges the hold request from peripheral. RST 6. DMA Signals: Hold: This pin is used during the Direct Memory Access.5 and RST5. it indicates an I/O operation and when it is low. Serial data is sent out of the microprocessor by executing SIM instruction.5.5: These two are maskable vectored interrupt with higher priority than INTR. A high on this pin indicates that.
5DCXH etc.states The first machine cycle is every instruction is the op-code fetch. 25 machine cycle is shown in Fig 6 as shown in the timing diagram. One T-state is equal to
=0. the lower order address disappears from AD0-AD7 lines and 8085 sends signal low to enable the addressed memory location. M3------) that follow depend upon what the instruction actually is. SPHL. All the one byte instructions which operate on 8-bit data like MOV A. S1 =1 and S0=0 In T2 state. The timing diagram for execution of MVI A. The 8085 machine cycles are divided into following six types. the microprocessor decodes the opcode and based on the instruction it decides whether to T0 state T5 or to enter state T1of the next machine cycle (M2)..are executed T4 state. The next machine cycles (M2. So. RAL etc…. the 8085 places the contents of the program counter o n the address bus. During T 1 state. During this time the opcode is fetched from memory and returned on the data bus to the microprocessor. The IO/ signal specifies whether the operation is read or write. the microprocessor loads the data from the data bus in its instruction register and raises to high which disables the memory device In T4 state. One byte instructions which operate on 16-bit data are executed in T5 and T6 states.333x10-6sec=333x10-9sec. The high order byte of the P. S1 and S0. During T1-T3 states the address is placed on the address bus and the opcode is returned on the data bus. 8085 also sends status signals IO/ . The operand may be either data or an address or other information required for the instruction.For Ex: If the internal clock frequency of 8085 microprocessor is 3 MHZ. The memory device then places the contents of the addressed memory location on the data bus (AD0-AD7) During T3 state. In opcode fetch machine cycle status signals are IO/ =0. B. DCRC. The T4-state is used to decode and execute the opcode. the microprocessor activates the ALE (Address Latch Enable) pin which is used to latch the low-order byte of the address in external latch before it vanishes.C (80) is placed on the A8-A15 lines. in 8085 microprocessor. (333 nano seconds nearly)
As far as execution of instructions is concerned.
. For example: INXH.C(00) is placed on the AD0-AD7 line which stays only on only during T1. Each instruction is divided into machine cycles and each machine cycle is divided into clock cycles or T. each instruction is divided into two parts: The operation code (opcode) and the operand. They are Opcode fetch Memory read Memory write I/O read I/O write Interrupt acknowledge
Opcode fetch Machine cycle:
The first operation in every instruction is the opcode fetch. ADDB. The opcode fetch cycle is called the M1 machine cycle and is usually for four T-states or clock cycles (certain instructions may also have 6T states in their opcode fetch machine cycle). The loworder byte of the P. The opcode tells us what the operation is and the operand is the necessary information required for the instruction. in T1 state.
The first two cycles are to get the memory address. The third read cycle is needed to read the data located at the address previously retrieved. the address of the instruction just read from memory (2020H) is sent back over the address bus in T1 and then data from that memory location is returned over the data bus in T2-T3. As shown in the memory read timing diagram. the instruction LDA 8900H which is a 3-byte instruction has three memory read cycles immediately after the opcode fetch cycle. This data is then loaded into accumulator.
. In the third read cycle. in two 8-bit groups (the low-order part of the address and then the high-order address). For example. after the opcode fetch cycle. on the other hand goes low each time data on the data bus is to be read into the microprocessor. the first two read cycles have the address going out over the address bus first for the low-order of the address (2001H) and then for the high-order of the address(2002H). . The timing diagram for memory read cycle [For Ex: LDA 2020H] is shown in Fig 7.Figure 6 Timing diagram for Opcode fetch Machine cycle Memory Read cycle: Memory read machine cycle is a machine cycle during which memory is read. IO/ goes low at the beginning of the opcode fetch cycle and remains low during the next three cycles.
Because. Timing diagram for Memory Read machine cycle Memory Write cycle: This memory write cycle is used when the microprocessor needs to send data out from accumulator or specific register and then write into the memory. This operation requires 7-T states for opcode fetch and three –T states for the memory write. the instruction has to write the data in the accumulator out to memory at the address location in the H-L register.
.Figure 7. This instruction requires two machine cycles-an opcode fetch machine cycle followed by one write cycle. A (50H). after fetching the opcode. As an example let us consider the instruction MOV M.
The memory read cycle (M2) displays the address of the second byte of the instruction (8001H) going out over the address bus and the port address (80H) returning on the data bus. Here 80H is the port address of the device being read. a memory read cycle and an I/O read cycle. M is shown in Fig .
. The opcode fetch cycle. The opcode fetch cycle shows the address [2000H] going out over the address bus and the opcode for the MOV M.Figure 8 . During the write cycle (M2). the address that was stored in the H-L pair goes out from the microprocessor during T 1 and data to be written from the accumulator goes out during T2-T3. I/O Read cycle: This I/O read cycle occurs when the microprocessor executes IN instruction and during the I/O read cycle. The opcode fetch cycle shows the address of the instruction (2000H) going out over t he address bus and the opcode (DBH) for the IN instruction returning on the data bus. there are three machine cycles. shows the timing diagram of the instruction IN 80H. IO/ . data is read in from an I/O device.A (50H) returning over the data bus. The three machine cycles combinedly taken 10-states. The Fig 9.Timing diagram for Memory Write machine cycle The timing diagram of the instruction MOV A. During the I/O read cycle. The remaining signals like ALE. the port address of the device being read is sent over the address bus and the lower 8-bits carry the same 8-bit port address and the data from the input device is returned on the data bus during T2-T3. and have their usual meaning as shown in the timing diagram.8. In the case of IN PORT.
In the third machine cycle the port address (84H) is sent out over both the upper and lower parts of the address bus. The first one is opcode fetch cycle. It is also to be noted that the data in the accumulator is being written to the output device and goes out over the data bus during T2 -T3 states after the port address has been sent over the two parts of the address bus during T1 of the I/O write cycle
. Timing diagram for I/O Read machine cycle I/O write cycle: During this I/O write cycle DATA is written into I/O device specified by the port address from the accumulator. The second machine cycle shows the address of the second byte of the instruction (2001H) going out over the address bus with the port address (84H) returning over the data bus. The out port instruction has three machine cycles. The OUT command writes the data stored in the accumulator over the data bus to the device whose port address was sent out over the address bus. From the timing diagram it is clear that.Figure 9. the port address of the device being read is sent out over both the lower and higher order parts of the address bus. 04H is the address of the output device The opcode fetch cycle sends the address of the instruction (2000H) over the address bus while the opcode (D3H) for the OUT instruction is returns on the data bus. The Fig 10 Shows the timing diagram for OUT 04H instruction. similar to I/O read cycle whenever the microprocessor addresses an I/O device. second one is memory read to get the port address and the third cycle is an I/O write cycle. The three machine cycle that forms the outport command has a total of ten T-states.
Another difference is. The microprocessor fetches one instruction from the memory at a time & executes it. fetch and execute cycles
Instruction cycle An instruction is a command given to the microprocessor to perform a specific operation on the given data. The time required to fetch an opcode (fetch cycle) is a fixed slot of time while the time required to execute an instruction (execute cycle) is variable which depends on the type of instruction to be executed. Program & data are stored in the memory. the interrupt acknowledge is six-T states whereas opcode fetch is only four T-states
Instruction cycle. Sequence of instructions written for a processor to perform a particular task is called a program. an instruction cycle is defined as the time required completing the execution of an instruction. The necessary steps that a microprocessor carries out to fetch an instruction & necessary data from the memory & to execute it constitute an instruction cycle. It executes all the instructions of the program one by one to produce the final result. An instruction cycle consists of a fetch cycle and an execute cycle. Machine cycle. In other words. It is same as an opcode fetch except that it 0sends out an signal instead of an signal and the status lines IO/ . S0 and S1 are 111 instead 011.
.Figure 10 Timing diagram for I/O Write machine cycle Interrupt Acknowledge This Interrupt acknowledge machine cycle is a special machine cycle that is used in place of opcode fetch cycle in the RST (restart) instruction.
Execute operation: The op-code fetched from the memory goes to the instruction register (IR). These sub-divisions are internal states synchronized with the system clock. Fetch operation: The first byte of an instruction is its op-code. The memory places the op-code on the data bus so as to transfer it to the microprocessor.In every machine cycle the first operation is op-code fetch and the remaining will be read or write from memory or IO devices. If the operand is in general purpose registers execution is immediately performed.
. After receiving the data it performs execute operation. A read cycle is similar to a fetch cycle. In the 8085. is sent to the memory.Instruction cycle(IC) = Fetch cycle(FC) + Execute cycle(EC) This is shown diagrammatically in the Fig. If an instruction contains data or operand and address which are still in the memory.
Instruction set of 8085
An Instruction is a command given to the microprocessor to perform a given task on specified data. The entire operation of fetching an op-code takes three clock cycles. In write cycle data are sent from the microprocessor to the memory or an output device. the microprocessor has to perform some read operations to get the desired data. execution begins. known as operand. The T-state is defined as one sub-division of the operation performed in one clock period. In case of a read cycle the quantity received from the memory are data or operand address instead of an op-code.11
Figure 11 Instruction cycle Machine cycle: Machine cycle is defined as the time required for completing the operation of accessing either memory or I/O device. The program counter (PC) keeps the memory address of the next instruction to be executed. The time taken for decoding and execution is one clock cycle. In some instructions write operation is performed. Thus we see that in some cases an execute cycle may involve one or more read or write cycles or both. After the instruction is decoded. which is the address of the memory location where op-code is available. Each instruction has two parts one is the task to be performed called the operation code (op-code) and the second is the data to be operated on. An instruction may be more than one byte long. From the instruction register it goes to the decoder circuitry which decodes the instruction.3. In the beginning of a fetch cycle the content of the program counter. The other bytes are data or operand address. the machine cycle may consist of three to six T states. The operand or data can be specified in various ways.
09 (two bytes) Hex code = 80. STA 3525 Hex code = 21.LXI H. Ex: 1. (b)Two byte instructions. The ASCII stands for ”American Standard code for Information Interchange” The term BCD stands for binary coded decimal. 25 (Three bytes)
DATA FORMATS: The 8085 is an 8-bit microprocessor which process only binary numbers. An integer without a sign can be represented by all the 8-bits in a microprocessor register. 95 (Three bytes) Hex code = 32. 09. Ex: 1.An 8bit register can store two BCD numbers. SUB A. Every instruction needs an op-code to specify what the operation of the instruction is and then an operand that gives the appropriate data needed for that particular operation code.
CLASSIFICATION OF INSTRUCTIONS
. 32 bits can be processed by dividing them in groups of 8-bits. 85 (Three bytes) Hex code = C3. 09. So. A signed integer is either a positive or a negative number. MOV C. A 2. But it is very difficult to understand these binary numbers by a common user. One–byte instructions: An instruction with only opcode and do not require any dat or address is called a one byte instruction. The ASCII code is a 7-bit alphanumeric code that represents decimal numbers. So. 8509 2 . 05 (two bytes)
Three–byte instructions: A three byte instruction contains an opcode plus a 16 – bit address.LDA 8509 3. In 8085 microprocessor the most significant bit D7 is used for the sign. 67. the largest number that can be processed at one time is FFH. (c) Three byte instructions. They are (a) One byte (single) instructions. The numbers larger than 8-bits like 16.Instruction and data formats: The format of a typical instruction is composed of two parts: an operation code or op-code and an operand. signed integers and unsigned integers. 24. we have to code these binary numbers into different data formats. 07 3. 85 (Three bytes) Hex code = 3A. JMP 9567 4. 07 (two bytes) Hex code = 97. MVI A. 09 2. BCD. The commonly known data formats are ASCII. ADD B 3. 05 Hex code = 3E. According to the word or byte size the 8085 instructions are classified into three types. ADD B. used for decimal numbers from 0-9. English alphabets and certain special characters. 35. Here 0 denotes positive sign and 1 denotes the negative sign. CMA Hex code = 4FH (one byte) Hex code = 80H (one byte) Hex code = 2FH (one byte)
Two–byte instructions: At wo byte instruction is one which contains an 8-bit op-code and 8-bit operand (Data). Ex: 1.
LHLD (Load H-L pair direct). XCHG (Exchange the contents of H-L pair with D-E pair) etc… Ex: MVI A. LDA (Load Accumulator). INR (Increment). DCR (Decrement) etc… The arithmetic operations Add and subtract are performed in relation to the contents of the accumulator. from memory to register or register to memory but not from one memory location to another memory location. ADD.Subtract immediate the 8-bit data from accumulator . MVI (Move Immediate). the increment or the decrement operations can be performed in any register. Decrement the C register contents by one bit. Move the data 55H into Accumulator MOV B.
Arithmetic instructions modify all the flags according to the data conditions of the result. The instruction set of 8085 microprocessor is classified into five groups. The INR and DCR instructions affect all flags except the carry flag. Load H-L pair by address 8570H. Ex:ADD B. Data transfer (copy) instructions The data transfer instructions are used to transfer data from one register to another register. determines what functions the microprocessor can perform.An instruction is a binary pattern designed inside a microprocessor to perform a specific function. Add the data 08 to the accumulator. Copies the contents of ‘C’ register into ‘B’ register IN 00H . Add the contents of B register to the B register contents . C ADI 08 SUB A. Actually this data transfer instruction copies the data from source to destination and the contents of the source are not altered. . Arithmetic group Logic group Branch control group Machine control and I/O group. Increment the B register contents by one bit . Read the Input port(00H is the port address) OUT 01H . C . . STA (Store Accumulator). subtraction. But. B SUI 05 INR B DCR C . ADI (Add Immediate). The entire group of instructions. 55H . The 8085 microprocessor instruction set has 74 operation codes that result in 246 instructions. SUI (Subtract Immediate). data transfer instructions do not affect any flags. This instruction set includes all the 8080A instructions plus two additional instructions namely SIM and RIM. the data transfer instruction performs basically ‘copy’ operation. Subtract the contents of B register from accumulator. Logical Group of Instructions:
. LXI (Load Immediate HL Pair). They are: Data transfer (copy) group. So. SHLD (Store H-L pair direct). write data to an output port(01H is the port address) LXIH 8570H . Arithmetic Instructions The arithmetic operations like addition. called the instruction set. In the 8085 microprocessor. SUB (Subtract). increment and decrement are performed by the 8085 microprocessor using the following arithmetic instructions. Examples of data transfer instructions are MOV.
Since the microprocessor is a programmable logic chip, it can be perform all the logic functions of the hard-wired logic through its instruction set. The 8085 processor can perform the logic instructions like, AND, OR, NOT (Complement) and X-OR (Exclusive OR) etc… The mnemonics of these instructions are given below. ANA : ANI : ORA : OR : XRA : XRI : CMA : Logically AND the contents of a register Logically AND immediate the 8-bit data. Logically OR the contents of a register. Logically OR immediate the 8-bit data. Exclusive-OR the contents of a register. Immediate Exclusive-OR the 8-bit data Complement the accumulator
All the logic operations are performed in relation to the contents of the accumulator. The CMA instruction does not affect any flags. The executions of the logical instruction do not affect the contents of the operand register. Branch Instructions These instructions are very important because they allow the microprocessor to change the sequence of a program either conditionally or unconditionally. The conditional branch instructions transfer the program to the specified label when certain condition is satisfied. The unconditional branch instructions transfer the program to the specified location unconditionally. We know that the microprocessor is a sequential machine. So, it executes machine codes from one memory location to the next. Branch instructions instruct the microprocessor to go to a different memory location and the processor continues executing machine codes from the new location. The address of the new locations either specified explicitly or provided by the microprocessor or some times by additional hardware. The Branch instructions are classified into three categories. They are (a). Jump instructions (b). Call and return instructions (c). Restart instructions. Jump instructions specify memory locations explicitly and they are 3-byte instructions. These Jump instructions are of two types. They are , Unconditional Jump and Conditional Jump. Unconditional Jump: This is similar to Unconditional Go to statement in BASIC. When this instruction is executed the 16-bit address available immediately in the instruction is loaded into the program counter , so that the next sequence of instruction execution starts from this location. This Unconditional Jump instruction enables the programmer to create continuous loops. JMP (16 bit address). So, this is a 3-byte instruction where the first byte is opcode and the second, third bytes specify memory address. For example, the instruction JMP 8500H, instructs the microprocessor to go to the memory location8500H unconditionally. Sometimes, the jump location is specified using a label also. Conditional Jump:
This instruction allows the microprocessor to make decision depending on certain conditions indicated by flags. The 8085 processor Jump instruction is associated with four flags. Namely Carry flag (CY), Zero flag (Z), Sign flag (S) and Parity flag (P). The following instructions shown in Table 3.3 transfer the program sequence to the memory location specified under the given conditions. S. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Instruction JC (16 bit Addr) JNC (16 bit Addr) JZ (16 bit Addr) JNZ (16 bit Addr) JP (16 bit Addr) JM (16 bit Addr) JPE (16 bit Addr) JPO (16 bit Addr) Description Jump on carry (if CY=1) Jump on no carry (if CY=0) Jump on Zero (if Z=1) Jump on no Zero (if Z=0) Jump on plus (if D7=0; S=0) Jump on minus (if D7=1; S=1) Jump on Even Parity (if P=1) Jump on Odd Parity (if P=0)
Table 3 various conditional jump instructions To understand the instructions, let us consider the instruction JC (16 bit address). The meaning of this instruction is, the microprocessor is instructed to jump the specified 16 bit memory location if there exists a carry after the arithmetic operation else it will execute the next instruction in the sequence. CALL and RETURN Instructions The microprocessor uses the two instructions CALL and RETURN to implement subroutines. Here CALL instruction calls a subroutine program which is not a part of the main program and the RET instruction at the end of the subroutine program to return the control to the main program. Ex: CALL (16 bit memory address) RET RESET (RST) Instruction The 8085 processor provides eight RST instructions to transfer the program control to a specific location on page 00H. These instructions are 1-byte instructions. The various RST instructions and their call locations are given in the following Table 3.4 S. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Mnemonics RST 0 RST1 RST2 RST3 RST4 RST5 RST6 RST7 Hex code C7 CF D7 DF E7 EF F7 FF Call location In Hex 0000 0008 0010 0018 0020 0028 0030 0038 28
Table 4 Various RST instructions and their call locations
The microprocessor takes 5T states to implement the halt instruction. It takes one machine cycle with four states. Microprocessor spends four states doing nothing. RIM (Read Interrupt Mask): This instruction copies the status of the interrupts into the accumulator. It takes three machine cycles and takes 10 states. NOP (No Operation): when this instruction is executed. The op-code is FBH. The processor can be restarted by a valid interrupt or by applying a RESET signal.This instruction is normally used to generate very small time delays of the order of few micro seconds. This is a dual purpose instruction. the microprocessor performs nothing. This instruction will copy the contents into the Accumulator through the port whose address is 01H. Ex: (i) IN 01H. They are EI (Enable Interrupt) DI (Disable Interrupt) NOP (No Operation) SIM (Set Interrupt Mask) RIM (Read Interrupt Mask) HLT (Halt) EI (Enable Interrupt): This is a one byte instruction used to enable the interrupt.
. DI (Disable Interrupt): This is a one byte instruction which resets the interrupt enable flag to disable all the interrupts except TRAP. It is also used to read the serial data through the SID pin HLT (Halt): After execution of this instruction the microprocessor goes into the halt state. In both these instructions the default register is Accumulator. This instruction is used to enable the interrupts when the microprocessor is reset or the interrupt enable flag is reset after interrupt acknowledge.Machine control and I/O Instructions There are six basic machine control instructions. This instruction takes one machine cycle with four states. The op-code is F3H. The second purpose is to send the data out through the SOD pin at pin number 4 of the microprocessor. The op-code is DBH. I/O instructions: There are two important instructions to input the data into the microprocessor’s accumulator through the input port and output the data from the accumulator to the output port. SIM (Set Interrupt Mask): This instruction masks the interrupt as desired. The first purpose is to set or reset the mask of the maskable interrupt. They are IN (port address) OUT (port address) This port address is an 8-bit address. This NOP instruction is also very useful when we are required to insert a few instructions in the main program additionally . It is a one byte instruction whose opcode is 00H.
(ii)OUT 02H. The op-code for this instruction is D3H.
DETAILED INSTRUCTION SET
DATA TRANSFER INSTRUCTIONS
. It is a two byte instruction which requires 10 states. This instruction sends the contents of Accumulator to the outport whose address is 02H.
e..it enables the serial output.5 is disabled or masked. MOV A. STA 8000H . Subtract the contents of D register from Accumulator. (iii). There are five addressing modes 8085 processor.Bit D7 of accumulator is latched in to the SOD output line made available to serial peripheral if bit D6 =1 . Load the contents of memory location into Accumulator. M7.5 is enabled D0=1 RST 5. XXX – Don’t care condition R7.5 – D0=0 RST5. (2). (2). Register addressing mode.5 MSE – Mask set Enable.RST7. Direct addressing mode (iii).This is a master control over all the interrupt masking bits.5 is masked or disabled M6. C.5 is enabled D1=1 RST 6. ADD B.If this bit =1 . If the immediate data is 8-bit.5. Subtract immediately the data 05H from the accumulator (ii) Direct Addressing mode: The mode of addressing in which the 16-bit address of the operand is directly available in the instruction itself is called Direct Addressing mode.5 is enabled D2=1 RST7.it enables the function of bits D2. MVI 08H . ADI DATA . in which the operand is in one of the general purpose registers. Add immediate the data to the contents of the accumulator. Store the contents of the Accumulator in the location 8000H (3). LDA 9525H . Ex: (1). (3). Implicit addressing mode. Ex: (1).RST 7. The speed of execution mainly depends on the position of the operand in the instruction. Move the contents of B register to A register. Immediate addressing mode (ii). If the immediate data is 16 bit.SOD – Serial output Data . the instruction will be of two bytes.If this bit = 1 . This is a 3-byte instruction. (i).If this bit is high .5 masked or disabled.D1 and D0.
Majority of the instructions of 8085 microprocessor requires an operand (either data or address) on which the intended operation can be performed.5 – D1=0 RST6.This is an additional control to reset RST7.5 flip-flop is reset .5 – D2=0 . M5. IN 01H .
. (iv). the address of the operand (data) is available in the instruction itself.LXIH 8500H : Load immediate the H-L pair with the operand 8500H (3).5 – Reset RST7. The scheme involved in identifying the position of operands in an instruction is known as addressing mode. Add the contents of C register to the contents of B register. SUB D. the instruction is of 3 bytes. Immediate Addressing mode: The mode of addressing in which the operand is a part of the instruction itself is known as Immediate Addressing mode. Read the data from port whose address is 01H. Register indirect addressing mode. B. i. Register addressing modes: The mode. Ex: (1). (v).They are (i). (2). SUI 05H . Some instructions may require only one operand and some other instructions require two operands for its instruction execution. Move the data 08 H immediately to the accumulator (4). is known as the register addressing mode. SOE – Serial output enable.
Step3. Step5. i. Implicit Addressing mode: The mode of instruction which do not specify the operand in the instruction but it is implicated. M . Explanation: This assembly language program adds two 8-bit numbers stored in two memory locations . Set carry. STC. RLC. Register indirect addressing modes: The 16-bit address location of the operand stored in a register pair (H-L) is given in the instruction. : Initialize H-L pair with memory address XX00 (say: 9000). : Halt PROGRAM:
. Step7. Rotate Accumulator left by one bit (4).. : Add contents of memory location M to accumulator. Hence it is called Register indirect addressing mode Ex: (1).e. Ex: (1). Step4.e. Step2.CMC.The sum of the two numbers is 8-bits only. Step6. complement the contents of Accumulator (2).The necessary algorithm and flow charts are given below. RRC. ALGORITHM: Step1. the operand is automatically considered to be in the Accumulator. Complement carry (3).
ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE PROGRAMMING EXAMPLES:
Addition Programs Example 1: Addition of two 8-bit numbers whose sum is 8-bits. : Increment memory pointer (i. : Add the contents of memory indicated by memory pointer to accumulator. : Clear accumulator. LXIH 9570H .(iv). Move the contents of the memory location pointed by the H-L pair to accumulator (v). The address of the operand is given in an indirect way with the help of a register pair. Rotate Accumulator right by one bit (5). XX01). is known as implicit addressing mode. Load immediate the H-L pair with the address of the location 9570H MOV A. : Store the contents of accumulator in 9002.CMA.
Clear accumulator The first number is added to accumulator [A] [A] + M Increment the memory pointer to next location of the Data. 00 A. M 9002
Initialise memory pointer to point the first data location 9000.Address Hex of the me mo ry loc ati on 8000 21.
. 9000 A.0 8003 8004 8005 8006 8007 8008 8009 800A 3E 00 86 23 86 32 02 90
LXI MVI ADD INX ADD STA
H. The 2nd number is added to contents of accumulator The contents of accumulator are stored in memory location 9002. M H A.
Stop the execution
Explanation: The first 8-bit number is stored in one memory location (say 8500) and the second 8-bit number is stored in the next location (8501).18 Example 2: Addition of two 8-bit numbers whose sum is 16 bits. Step2.e. Store the LSB of the sum in one memory location (8502) and the MSB (carry) in the other location(8503). A to memory location XX02
Fig 3. Step5.Ex: Input: Ex: (i) 9000 – 29 H 9001 – 16 H Result: Ex: (i) 9002 – 3F H
Ex :(ii) 9000 –49 H 9001 –32 H Ex :( ii) 9002 – 7B
Flow Chart Start
Initialise H-L Pair with XX00
Clear Accumulator (00) A
Add contents of M to Accumulator
# Increment memory pointer(XX01) # Add contents of M to A
Copy the contents of Reg.Add these two numbers and check for carry. : Clear accumulator. : Add the contents of memory indicated by memory pointer to accumulator. 8501). : Increment memory pointer (i.
. Step3. ALGORITHM: Step1. : Initialize H-L pair with memory address X (say: 8500). Step4. : Add contents of memory location M to accumulator.
Step6. Step8 : Store the Carry in 8503 location Step 9 : Halt
Initialise H-L Pair with XX00
Clear Accumulator (00) A
Add contents of M to Accumulator
# Increment memory pointer(XX01) & # Add contents of M to A
Store the sum in the location xx02
Is Carry exists ?
Store Zero in the XX03 location
Store carry in the XX03 location
Fig 3. : Check for Carry Step 7 : Store the sum in 8502.19
00 A. The 2nd number is added to contents of accumulator Is Carry exists ? No.00 8003 8004 8005 8006 8007 8008 8009 800A 800B 800C 800D 800E 800F 8010 8011 8012 8013 8014 3E 00 86 0E 00 23 86 32 0E 80 0C 32 02 85 79 32 03 85
Mnemonics OpOperand c o d e LXI MVI ADD MVI INX ADD JNC H. Clear accumulator The first number is added to accumulator [A] [A]+M Initial value of Carry is 0 Increment the memory pointer to next location of the Data.00 H A.C 8503 H
Store the carry at 8503 location
. 8500 H A. M C. M FWD
Initialise memory pointer to point the first data location 9000.go to the label FWD Make carry =1 The sum is stored in memory location 8502.Address Hex of the me mor y loca tion 8000 21.
C 8502 H
Stop the execution
Step5. ALGORITHM: Step1. : Apply the instruction DAA(Decimal adjust after addition) Step7: Check for Carry Step8: Store the sum in XX02. Step3. : Initialize H-L pair with memory address XXXX (say: 8500). Step4. Except that the use of DAA instruction. : Increment memory pointer (i.Add these two numbers and use the DAA instruction to get the result in decimal. : Clear Carry register C. Step6.e. The first 8-bit number is stored in one memory location (say 8500) and the second 8-bit number is stored in the next location(8501).Ex: Input:
8500 – 97 H 8501 – 98H
8502 – 32 H 8503 -. Step2. Store the LSB of the sum in one memory location(8502) and the MSB (carry) in the other location(8503). 8501). Also check for carry. : Add the contents of memory indicated by memory pointer to accumulator. : Move contents of memory location M to accumulator.01 H
Example 3: Decimal addition of two 8-bit numbers whose sum is 16 bits. Explanation: Decimal addition of two 8-bit numbers is same as that of two 8-bit numbers program. Step9: Store the Carry in XX03 location Step10: Halt Flow Chart Start
Initialise H-L Pair with XX00
Clear Carry register (00) C
Add contents of M to Accumulator
# Increment memory pointer(XX01) & # Add contents of M to A
Apply DAA instruction to convert Hex data to decimal form
20 PROGRAM Address of the mem ory locat ion 8000 8003 8004 8005 8006 8007 8008 8009 Hex Label Mnemonics Comments OpOperand c o d e LXI H. M FWD The first number is added to accumulator [A] [A]+M Increment the memory pointer to next location of the Data. C 8503 H
. 00 Clear accumulator MOV INX ADD DAA JNC A. M H A. go to the label FWD Make carry =1 The contents of accumulator are stored in memory location 8502. 8500 Initialise memory pointer to point H the first data location 9000. Carry is moved to accumulator A Carry is stored in the location 8503
21. MVI C. The 2nd number is added to contents of accumulator Is Carry exists? No.Store the sum in the location XX02
Is Carry Exists?
Store Zero in the XX03 location
Stores carry in the XX03 location
Fig . 0E 00 7E 23 86 27 D2 0D 80 0C 32 02 85 79 32 03 85
800C 800D 800E 800F 8010 8011 8012 8013
C 8502 H
Stop the execution
Store the sum in the next two locations and the carry (if any) in the third location ALGORITHM: Step1: First 16 bit number is in locations 8500 & 8501 respectively Step2: Second 16-bit number is in locations 8502 & 8503 Step3: Add the two 16-bit numbers using DAD Instruction. Step6: Halt
Initialise H-L Pair with 8500
Load the first 16-bit number in to H-L Pair
Exchange this number in to D-E pair
Load the second 16-bit number in to H-L pair
Add the LSB of Ist number to the LSB of the second number & MSB of the second number to MSB of the second number using DAD instruction
8500 – 67 D 8501 – 85 D
8502 – 52 D 8503 – 01 (Carry)
Example 4: Addition of two 16-bit numbers whose sum is 16 bits or more Explanation: First 16-bit number is stored in two consecutive locations (Ex 8500 &8501) because in each location we can store only one 8-bit number. Step4: Sum is stored in locations 8504 & 8505. Store the second 16-bit number in the next two consecutive locations (For Ex: 8502 &8503). Step5: Carry (if any) is stored in the location 8506.Add the LSB of the first number to the LSB of the second number and the MSB of the first number to the MSB of the second number using the DAD instruction.
Store the LSBs of the sum in 8504 & 8505 locations
Is Carry Set?
Store “0” in the location 8506
Store”1” in the 8506 location
C 8506 H MSB of the sum is initially 00 Add two 16 –bit numbers Is Carry? If yes go to the next line .ADDRESS
HEX – C O D E
OPCO D E LHLD XCHG LHLD MVI DAD JNC INR SHLD MOV STA
8000 8001 8002 8003 8004 8005 8006 8007 8008 8009 800A 800B 800C 800D 800E 800F 8010 8011 8012 8013 8014
2A.85 00 85 EB 2A 02 85 0E 00 19 D2 0E 80 OC 22 04 85 79 32 06 85
First 16-bit number in H-L pair Exchange first number to D-E Pair
8502 H 00 D FWD C 8504 H A.Else go to the 800E LOCATION Increment carry Store the LSB of the Sum in 8504 & MSB in 8505 locations MSBs of the sum is in Accumulator Store the MSB (Carry) of the result in 8506 location
: Move the minuend into accumulator Step3. : Stop the execution Flow Chart Start
Initialise H-L Pair with XX00
Move the contents of M to Accumulator
Increment memory pointer(XX01)
Subtract the subtrahend in memory location M from the minuend in A
Store the result in the location XX02
. The first 8-bit number is stored in XX00 memory location and the second 8-bit number is stored in the XX01 location .Ex: INPUT:
8500. : Store the result in XX02.bit numbers.12 H LSB of the Ist Number 8501.13 H MSB of the Ist Number 8502 -13 H LSB of the IInd Number 8503 -12H MSB of the IInd number
RESULT : 8504 .00 Carry . Explanation: It’s a simple program similar to addition of two 8.25H LSB of the Sum 8505 – 25H MSB of the Sum 8506 -.
Example 5: Subtraction of two 8-bit numbers without borrows.
ALGORITHM: Step1. : Subtract the subtrahend in memory location M from the minuend. Step6. Step2. : Increment H-L pair Step4. except that we use the instruction SUB instead of ADD. : Initialise H-L pair with the address of minuend. Step5.Use the SUB instruction and store the result in the XX02 location.
Figure 22 PROGRAM: ADDRESS HEX C O D E 8000 8001 8002 8003 8004 8005 8006 8007 8008 21 00 85 7E 23 96 23 77 76 LABEL MNEMONIC OPCOD OPERAN E D LXI H. 8500 COMMENTS
Initialise H-L pair and get the First number in to 8500 location
MOV INX SUB INX MOV HLT
[A] [M] [M+1] [M] A [A] – [M] Next memory location Store the result in the location 8502 Stop the execution
.M H M H M.
Step2. So. : Add the first number to the 10’s complement of second number. Step6. : Initialise H-L pair with the address of second number (XX01). Step5.30H
Result: 8502 – 29H
Example 6: Subtraction of two 8-bit Decimal numbers. Explanation: In this program we can’t use the DAA instruction after SUB or SBB instruction because it is decimal adjust after addition only. : Stop the execution Flow Chart Start
Initialise H-L Pair with XX01 and get the second number
Find it’s 10’s complement
Add first number to the 10’s complement of the second number
Apply the DAA instruction to get decimal result
Store the result in the location XX02
.INPUT: Ex :
8500. : Store the result in XX02. for decimal subtraction the number which is to be subtracted is converted to 10’s complement and then DAA is applied.59H 8501. : Find its ten’s complement Step3.
ALGORITHM: Step1. : Decrement the H-L pair for the first number (XX00) Step4.
Initialise H-L pair and get theSecond number in to 8501 location
MVI SUB INR DCX ADD DAA STA
A.99 M A H M
[A] 99 9’s complement of second number 10’s complement of second number Address of the first number Add first number to 10’s complement of second number Store the result in the location 8502 Stop the execution
HEX C O D E
MNEMONIC COMMENTS OPCODE OPERAND
8000 8001 8002 8003 8004 8005 8006 8007 8008 8009 800A 800B 800C 800D
21 00 85 3E 99 96 3C 2B 86 27 32 02 85 76
The lsbs are subtracted using SUB instruction and the MSBs aare subtracted using SBB instruction. : Store the result in locations 8504 & 8505. ALGORITHM: Step1. Step4. : Store the second number in the locations 8502 &8503.Here we use SUB &SBB instructions to get the result . Step6. : Store the borrow in location 8506 Step 7: Stop the execution
Initialize H-L Pair with XX00
Load the first 16-bit number in to H-L Pair A
Exchange this number in to D-E pair
Load the second 16-bit number in to H-L pair
Subtract LSB of 2 nd number from the LSB of the Ist number & MSB of the 2 nd number from MSB of the first number
. Explanation: It is very similar to the addition of two 16-bit numers.Ex: Input: 8500 -76 D 8501.The result is stored in different locations. : Subtract the second number from the first number with borrow. Step5. : Store the first number in the locations 8500 & 8501.The first 16-bit number is stored in two consecutive locations and the second 16-bit number is stored in the next two consecutive locations. Step2.35 D
Result: 8502 .41 D
Example 6: Subtraction of two 16 –bit numbers.
Store the result in XX04 & XX05 locations
Is borrow Set ?
Store “0” in the location XX06
Store ”1” in the XX06 location
so that multiplicand is in D-E pair. D H H. Step 4 : Shift the multiplier left by one bit. but when it is multiplied by zero. This process is done for all the 8-bits of the multiplier. So. result in memory location. Step 7 : If count ≠ 0. the product is simply shifted left by one bit.If the bit of the multiplier is 1 the multiplicand is added to the product and the product is shifted to left by one bit. Go to step 4 Step 8 : Store the product i.(say 8500) Step 2 : Exchange the H-L pair by D-E pair. ALGORITHM: Step 1 : Initialise H-L pair with the address of multiplicand. Step 9 : Stop the execution
. each bit of the multiplier is taken one by one and checked whether it is 1 or 0 . Step 5 : If there is carry add multiplicand to product.ADDRESS 8000 8003 8004 8005 8006 8007 8008 8009 800A 800A 800B 800C
HEX 2A.e. the product is zero. A A. Explanation: The multiplication of two binary numbers is done by successive addition. Product is 16-bits.FF H MSB of the Ist Number 8502 -EE H LSB of the IInd Number 8503 –EE H MSB of the IInd number
Multiplication Programs Example 7: Multiplication of two 8-bit numbers. EB 2A 02 85 7B 95 6F 9C 67 22
MNEMONIC OPCOD OPERAN E D LHLD 8500 H XCHG LHLD
COMMENTS First 16-bit number in H-L pair Exchange first number to D-E Pair Get the second 16-bit number in H-L pair Get the lower byte of the First number in to Accumulator Subtract the lower byte of the second number Store the result in L. If the bit of the multiplier is 0 . E L L.FF H LSB of the Ist Number 8501 . Step 3 : Load the multiplier in Accumulator. When multiplicand is multiplied by 1 the product is equal to the multiplicand.register Get higher byte of the first number Subtract higher byte of second number with borrow Store the result in memory locations with LSB in 8504 & MSB in 8505
MOV SUB MOV MOV SBB MOV SHLD
A.11H LSB 8505 – 11 H MSB
8500. A 8504
800D 80OE 80OF Ex: INPUT :
04 85 76
Stop execution RESULT: 8504 . Step 6 : Decrement the count.
Load the multiplier in to Accumulator & multiplicand in D-E pair
Initial value of product=00. Count=08
Shift product left by one bit &Shift multiplier left by one bit
Is carry exists from multiplier ?
Product = Product + Multiplicand
Count = count -1
Is count =0?
8000 8003 8004 8005 8006 8007 8008 8009 800A 800B 800C 800D 800E 800F 8010 8011 8012 8013 8014 8015 8016 8017 8018
2A.0 EB 3A 02 85 21 00 00 0E 08 29 17 D2 12 80 19 0D C2 0C 80 22 03 85
OPCOD E LHLD XCHG LDA LXI MVI LOO DAD RAL JNC DAD DCR JNZ SHLD
OPERAND H.0000 C.08 H FWD D C LOOP 8503 Load the multiplicand in to H-L pair Exchange the multiplicand in to D-E pair Multiplier in Accumulator Initial value in H-L pair is 00 Count =08 Shift the partial product left by one bit. Rotate multiplier left by one bit Is Multiplier bit =1? No go to label FWD Product =Product +Multiplicand COUNT=COUNT-1
Store the result in the locations 8503 & 8504
. 8500 8502 H.
Stop the execution
Multiplier 34 H – LSB of Product
.Address 8500 8501 8502 Result: 8503
Data 8AH – LSB of Multiplicand 00 H – MSB of Multiplicand 52 H .
2C H – MSB of Product
: If count not equal to zero go to step 4 STEP10: Store the quotient in 8503 STEP11: Store the remainder in 8504 STEP12: Stop execution. the bit of the quotient is set to 1 else 0. STEP7. STEP6. The divisor is subtracted from the MSBs of the dividend .If a borrow occurs.The vacancy arised due to shifting is occupied by the quotient . ALGORTHM: STEP1.In the present example the dividend is a 16-bit number and the divisor is a 8-bit number. : Make count C=08 STEP4.B STEP3.Division Programs Example 7: Division of a 16. The dividend and quotient are in a pair of register H-L. : Initialise H-L pair with address of dividend.For correct subtraction process the dividend is shifted left by one bit before each subtraction. STEP2.
Explanation: The division of a 16/8-bit number by a 8-bit number follows the successive subtraction method. : Get the divisor from 8502 to register A & then to Reg. : Decrement count in C STEP9. : Shift dividend and divisor left by one bit STEP 5: Subtract divisor from dividend. : If carry = 1 : goto step 8 else step7.Similarly the divisor is in the location 8502. The dividend is in locations 8500 &8501.The quotient is stored at 8503 and the remainder is stored at 8504 locations.bit number by a 8-bit number. : Increment quotient register. STEP8.
Move the divisor in to Reg.26
Initialise H-L pair with address of dividend
Copy the divisor in to Reg. B
Move count =08 in to C register
# Shift dividend left by one bit # Shift Quotient left by one
Is MSBs of Dividend > Divisor ? Yes
Quotient = Quotient +1
8 MSBs of dividend = 8 MSBs of dividend -divisor
Count = Count-1
Is Coun t =0?
store th quotient in 8503 &remainder in 8504
H B FWD H.PROGRAM: ADD HEX – LABEL C O D E 21 00 85 3A 02 85 47 0E 08 29 7C 90 DA 11 80 67 2C 0D C2 09 80 22 03 85 76 FWD MNEMONIC OPCOD OPERAN E D LHLD LDA MOV MVI BACK DAD MOV SUB JC MOV INR DCR JNZ SHLD HLT H.08 H A. 8500 8502 H B.A C.A L C BACK 8503H COMMENTS
8000 8001 8002 8003 8004 8005 8006 8007 8008 8009 800A 800B 800C 800D 800E 800F 8010 8011 8012 8013 8014 8015 8016 8017 8018
Initialize the H-L pair for dividend Load the divisor from location 8502 to accumulator Move Divisor to Reg.H Increment quotient Decrement count If count is not zero jump to8009 location Store quotient in 8503 and remainder in 8504 locations Stop execution
Input & Result
Address 8500 8501 8502 8503 8504
Data 64 LSB of Dividend 00 MSB of Dividend 07 Divisor 0E Quotient 02 Remainder
.goto label FWD MSB of the dividend in Reg.B from A Count =08 Shift dividend and quotient left by one bit MSB of dividend in to accumulator Subtract divisor from MSB bits of divisor Is MSB part of dividend > divisor ? No.
Largest & Smallest numbers in an Array
Example 8: To find the largest number in a data array
Using the count. this process is completed .Explanation: To find the largest number in a data array of N numbers (say)first the count is placed in memory location (8500H) and the data are stored in consecutive locations. Now the third number in the memory location is again compared with the accumulator. (8501…. Step4: The larger in the two is placed in Accumulator Step5: The number in Accumulator is compared with the next number in memory . Step 7.85XX. Step 8: Final result is stored in memory location. Step 9: Stop the execution
. Step 6: The larger number is stored in Accumulator. until all the numbers are compared . The larger of the two is stored in Accumulator. And the largest number is kept in the accumulator.onwards). ALGORTHM: Step1: Store the count in the Memory location pointed by H-L register.The first number is copied to Accumulator and it is compared with the second number in the memory location. The process is repeated until the count is zero. Step2: Move the I st number of the data array in to accumulator Step3: Compare this with the second number in Memory location.Finally the accumulator stores the smallest number and this number is stored in the memory location.
Initialise H-L pair
Get the count in Register C
Get first number in Accumulator
Is Number in Accumulator> Next number ?
Get Larger number in Accumulator
Is count = 0 ? Yes
store the result in the location 85XX
M C H M LOOP2
INITIALISE H-L PAIR Count in the C register First number in H-L pair Move first number in to Accumulator Decrement the count Get the next number Compare the next number with previous number Is next number >previous maximum?No.M H A. 8500 C.go to the loop2 If.8 5 7E 23 4E 0D 91 BE D2 0D 80 7E 0D C2 07 80 78 32 XX 85 LOOP2 LOOP1
MNEMONIC OPCOD OPERAN E D LXI MOV INX MOV DCR INX CMP JNC H.00.ADD
8000 8003 8004 8005 8006 8007 8008 8009 800A 800B 800C 800D 800E 800F 8011 8012 8013 8014 8015
– LABEL C O D E 21.yes move the large number in to Accumulator Decrement the count If count not equal to zero.M C LOOP1
Store the largest number in the location 85XX
MOV DCR JNZ
HLT 8500.N(Say N=7 ) 8501-05 8502-0A 8503-08 8504-14 8505 -7F 8506-25 8507-2D
Stop the execution Result : 8508 .7F
Ex : Input :
Step 7.The smaller of the two is stored in Accumulator.Using the count.Finally the accumulator stores the smallest number and this number is stored in the memory location.and the smallest number is kept in the accumulator. Step 6: The smaller number is stored in Accumulator. Step 8: Final result is stored in memory location. ALGORTHM : Step1: Store the count in the Memory location pointed by H-L register. The process is repeated until the count is zero. Step2: Move the I st number of the data array in to accumulator Step3: Compare this with the second number in Memory location.this process is completed until all the numbers are compared .The first number is copied to Accumulator and it is compared with the second number in the memory location.Example 9 :
To find the smallest number in a data array. (8501….
Explanation: To find the smallest number in a data array of N numbers (say)first the count is placed in memory location (8500H) and the data are stored in consecutive locations. Step4: The smaller in the two is placed in Accumulator Step5: The number in Accumulator is compared with the next number in memory .onwards).Now the third number in the memory location is again compared with the accumulator. Step 9: Stop the execution
Initialise H-L pair
Get the count in Register C
Get first number in to Accumulator
Is Number in Accumulator< Next number ?
Get smaller number in Accumulator
Is count = 0 ? No Yes store the result at 85xx
move the smaller number in to Accumulator Decrement the count If count not equal to zero.M H A. 8500 C.ADD
8000 8001 8002 8003 8004 8005 8006 8007 8008 8009 800A 800B 800C 800D 800E 800F 8011 8012 8013 8014 8015
HEX – LABEL C O D E 21 00 85 7E 23 4E 0D 91 BE D2 0D 80 7E 0D C2 07 80 78 32 XX 85 LOOP2 LOOP1
MNEMONIC OPCOD OPERAN E D LXI MOV INX MOV DCR INX CMP JC H.repeat
MOV DCR JNZ
A.M C H M LOOP2
Initialise the H-L pair.M C LOOP1
Store the smallest number in the location 85XX
. Count in the C register First number in H-L pair Move first number in to Accumulator Decrement the count Get the next number Compare the next number with previous number Is next number <previous smallest ?If yes go to the loop2 No.
. The contents of the stack are moved to certain memory locations after PUSH instruction. it is difficult to debug and document a program that uses stack. stack operations are also very fast The stack may also be used for storing local variables of subroutine and for the transfer of parameter addresses to a subroutine.1 Application of Stack: Stack provides a powerful data structure which has applications in many situations.e.8016
HLT 8500 . the contents of the memory are transferred back to registers by POP instruction. One can put the data on the top of the stack by a special operation known as PUSH. The main advantage of the stack is that. a set of registers is arranged in a shift register organization.14. 3. Stack is implemented in two ways. the data written first can be accessed last. This facilitates the implementation of re-entrant subroutines which is a very important software property. a block of RAM area is allocated to the stack. The disadvantage is. Whenever the stack is empty. One can PUSH or POP data from the top register. as the stack has no fixed address. The whole block of data moves up or down as a result of push and pop operations respectively.N((Say N=7) 8501-09 8502-0A 8503-08 8504-14 8505 -7F 8506-04 8507-2D
Stop the execution Result : 8508 – 04
Ex: Input :
Stack and Subroutines
Stack is a set of memory locations in the Read/Write memory which is used for temporary storage of binary information during the execution of a program. the data are taken out of the location pointed at by SP and SP is incremented by one. This is stored in the 16bit Stack pointer register as shown in Fig. Data can be read or taken out from the top of the stack by another special instruction known as POP. i. In the second case. it points to the bottom address. Similarly if the POP operation is performed. This is not true in the case of other registers and memory locations. Similarly. If a PUSH operation is performed.14. We can store data (PUSH) in it with out destroying previously stored data. It is implemented in the Last-in-first-out (LIFO) manner. In the first case. For example let us consider a Stack whose stack top is 4506 H.. In this case the data do not move but SP is incremented or decremented as a result of push or pop operations respectively. 3.2 Stack operation: Operations on stack are performed using the two instructions namely PUSH and POP. the data are stored at the location pointed to by SP and it is decremented by one. A special purpose register known as stack pointer (SP) points to the top of the stack.
29 The PUSH operation of the Stack Let us consider two registers (register pair) B & C whose contents are 25 & 62. Reg.Figure. C
. B Reg.
31 & 3.30 After PUSH operation the status of the stack Let us now consider POP operation: The Figs 3.32 explains before and after the POP operation in detail .
.After PUSH operation the status of the Stack is as shown in Fig 3.30
.32 Programming Example FOR PUSH & POP Write a program to initialize the stack pointer (SP) and store the contents of the register pair H-L on stack by using PUSH instruction. . .This is shown in Fig. Memory Location 8000 8003 8006 8007 .
. 8. .2565 H H CALL Comments Initialize Stack pointer
. 4506 H H.00A Label Mnemonics LXI LXI PUSH DELAY Operand SP. Use the contents of the register pair for delay counter and at the end of the delay retrieve the contents of H-L using POP. . .Figure 3. . .3.
the conten ts.31 The POP operation of the Stack
Figure 32 After POP operation the status of the stack Before the operation the data 15 and 1C are in the locations 4502 & 4503 and after the pop operation the data is copied to B-C pair and now the SP register points to 4504 location.
At the end of the subroutine 807B H. The RET instruction is present. This can be done any number of times. Diagrammatic representation Let us assume that the execution of the main program started at 8000 H. the contents of the program counter. 3. it comes back to main program at 8021 H as shown in the following Fig. let us assume that a delay is needed three times in a program. we write subroutine programs MUL & DIV separately from main program and use the instruction CALL MUL (or) CALL DIV in the main program. This will take the control back to main program. For example. we can write a subroutine program called ‘delay’ and can be called any number of times we need Similarly. in any main program if these operations are needed more than once.33 Diagrammatic representation of subroutine program execution
. For this purpose we write separate programs. It continues until a CALL subroutine instruction at 8020 H is encountered.Subroutine: It is a set of instructions written separately from the main program to execute a function that occurs repeatedly in the main program. They are CALL and RET. Then the program execution transfers to 8070 H. which is the address of the instruction following the CALL instruction is stored on the stack and the program execution is transferred to the subroutine address. The CALL instruction is used in the main program to call a subroutine and RET instruction is used at the end of the subroutine to return to the main program. When a subroutine is called.34
Fig. The 8085 microprocessor has two instructions to implement the subroutines. Writing delay programs for three times in a main program is nothing but repetition. When the RET instruction is executed at the end of the subroutine. the memory address stored on the stack is retrieved and the sequence of execution is resumed in the main program. So. After executing this RET. So. the entire program will become lengthy and complex. So. At the end of every subroutine program there must be an instruction called ‘RET’. in 8085 microprocessor we do not find the instructions for multiplication and division.
Mnemonics LXI Operand SP. End of the main program . 8400 H Comments Initialize the Stack pointer at 8400 H
Subroutine Program: Memory Address Mnemonics Operand Comments
.The same is explained using the assembly language program example. Program Example: Memory Address 8000 | | | 8020 8021 8022 8023 | | | 802F CALL Next instruction | | | HLT 8070 H Call a subroutine program stored at the location 8070 H. (It is a three by Instruction) The address of the next instruction following CALL instruction.
RET Next Subroutine
End of the program Instructions of next subroutine if any End of the subroutine.
.8070 | | | | 807B 807C
Beginning of the Subroutine.
The technique involved here is. The time of execution of the microprocessor is equal to the delay time produced. Similarly to observe the rotations of a stepper motor. This delay program is not a part of the main program. For small delays we can use only one register. a register is loaded with a number and then decremented by using the instruction DCR until it becomes zero. Here we will discuss the software delay program. the display can be visualized clearly. a delay is needed between every two excitation signals applied to the motor. For example. So. Delay Subroutine with one register: Program
. Since the microprocessor is a very fast device it sends the signal at very high speeds there by our eye cannot recognize the display pattern. if you provide some delay between two input signals. The delay can be produced by either hardware chip like 8253 or by writing a software program using registers of the processor. we have constructed a display system where the LEDs receive the input from a microprocessor. Hence it is called delay sub-routine program.Delay programs:
In many situations it may be desired to provide some delay between the execution of two instructions by a microprocessor. But for longer delays one has to use two or three registers.
Address Label 9000 9002 9003 LOOP
Mnemonics MVI DCR JNZ
Operand A. jump to LOOP. FF A LOOP
Comments Get FF in register A Decrement register A. Has the content of register B becomes zero? No. proceed ahead. Yes.
Return to main program
Calculation of Delay time for the above program: In the above program register A is loaded by FFH B(255 decimal) and it is decremented in a loop until it becomes zero. The number of states required for the execution of each instruction is as follows:
. The delay produced by this program is as follows
We should know the number of times each instruction of the above program is being executed.
Instructions MVI A. FFH (loop) DCR A JNZ loop
States 7 4 7/10
Total T States=3584 The time required for one T-state in INTEL 8085 microprocessor is nearly 330n.sec
Delay time is= 3584 x 333n.sec = 3.584 x 0.333 x 10-3 seconds = 1.18272 x 10-3 seconds = 1. 193472 milliseconds
Delay Subroutine with two registers Program:
Address Label 8400 8402 8404 8405 8408 8409 LOOP1 LOOP2
Machine Mnemonic Operand Comments Code MVI MVI DCR JNZ DCR JNZ B, 10H C, 56H C LOOP2 B LOOP1 Get desired number in register B Get desired number in register Decrement C. Is [C] zero? No, go to LOOP2. Yes, proceed further Decrement register B Is [B] zero? No, go to LOOP1. Yes, proceed further
Return to main program.
Delay Subroutine using register pair Program:
Addres s 8000
Machin e Code
Mnemonic Operand LXI D, FFFF D A, D E LOOP
Comments Get FFFF in register pair D-E Decrement count Move the contents of register D to accumulator Check if D and E are zero. If D-E is not zero, jump to LOOP Return to main program
DCX MOV ORA JNZ RET
Delay Subroutine using three registers Program:
Comments Get control word Initialize port foe LED Display
Output for LED Stop.the delay time also increases.
From the above discussion it is clear that with increase of T-states required for a delay subroutine . FFH D.Addres s 8400 8402 8404 8406 8408 840A 840B 840E 840F 8412 8413 8416 8418 8419
Machin e Code
Mnemonic MVI OUT MVI MVI MVI DCR JNZ DCR JNZ DCR JNZ MVI OUT HLT
Operand A. -----------------x------------------
. 50H C. 98H 03 B. FFH D LOOP3 C LOOP2 B LOOP1 A.