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Circularity & Cylindricity

# Circularity & Cylindricity

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Published by: anil chejara on Apr 19, 2012

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# INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, GANDHINGAR

ASSESSMENT OF CIRCULARITY AND CYLINDRICITY
METROLOGY LAB

NAME: ANIL CHEJARA
ROLL NO: 9003022
GROUP: 5

1

Table of Content:
1. Objective________________________________________________________________________2
2. Equipment______________________________________________________________________ 2
3. Theory _________________________________________________________________________2
4. Procedure_______________________________________________________________________3
5.Observation______________________________________________________________________3
6. Conclusion_______________________________________________________________________7

SIGNATURE
Prof. N. RAMAKRISHNAN
IIT GANDHINAGAR

2

OBJECTIVE: To assess the errors on a given cylinders in terms of circularity and cylindricity.
EQUIPMENT USED: Dial gauge, bench center, given cylindrical specimen.

Dial Gauge
THEORY: A cylinder is said to be true when its axis is straight and the cross section at any
point along the length is in the form of circle. Cylinder can be seen as a series of circular
cross section but it is not always true practically. There is always some amount of error. A
cylinder comprises of two types of error- (a) Circularity, which shows whether the cross
section at any point along the length is circular or not. (b) Cylindricity, which measures
whether the cylinder has a straight axis or not. Checking for circularity at different points
will give the form error of total cylinder.
A circular section may have either a specific form (ovalty/lobing) or an irregular profile.
Sometimes circular surfaces are used for moving parts such as ball bearings or spools,
in which case circularity helps ensure these parts move smoothly and wear evenly.
In case of irregular surfaces, there can be least square circle, minimum radial separation
circle, maximum inscribed circle, minimum circumscribed circle etc. Below is the
diagrammatical representation of irregular surfaces.

3

Figure 1: (From top left) Minimum radial separation circle, Least square circle, Maximum inscribed circle and
minimum circumscribed circle

Procedure:
1. First clean the cylinder and ensure no dust particles on the surface of cylinder.
2. Mark six equidistant points along the length of the cylinder.
3. Mark twelve equidistant point on the cross sectional area at one end.
4. Draw a twelve lines starting from the each of the twelve earlier marked points, along
the length of cylinder.
5. Mount the cylinder between the bench centres.
6. Using the dial gauge, measure the circularity at each point using the other five points
along the length.
7. Note down the readings.

OBSERVATION:
Length of given Cylinder: 31.6mm
Ideal Diameter of given Cylinder: 122mm
 Observed Table
(All readings are in Micrometer)
Points
along the
cross sec
n

Section
1
Section 2 Section 3 Section 4 Section 5 Section 6
1 0 12 -5 -15 -3 -10
2 15 11 1 -18 -11 -16
3 25 26.5 12 -8 -5 -12
4

4 39 38 26 1 15 14
5 55.5 56.5 44 21 36 34
6 60 66 57 45 56 60
7 65 70 69 56 72 83
8 47.2 63.5 62 55 78 90
9 32 52 46.5 43 68 81
10 18.2 31.5 30 28 52.5 64.5
11 6.4 25 12 7 29 34
12 3 17 4 -6 10 10

 Taking First point on each cross section as reference for measurement of circularity
(All readings in micrometre):
Points
along the
cross sec
n

Section
1
Section 2 Section 3 Section 4 Section 5 Section 6
1 0 0 0 0 0 0
2 15 -1 6 -3 -8 -6
3 25 14.5 17 7 -2 -2
4 39 26 31 16 18 24
5 55.5 44.5 49 36 39 44
6 60 54 62 60 59 70
7 65 58 74 71 75 93
8 47.2 51.5 67 70 81 100
9 32 40 51.5 58 71 91
10 18.2 19.5 35 43 55.5 74.5
11 6.4 13 17 22 32 44
12 3 5 9 9 13 20

 Taking all twelve points of one end cross section as reference points for cylindricity
observation:
Points along
the cross
sec
n

Section 1 Section 2 Section 3 Section 4 Section 5 Section 6
1 0 12 -5 -15 -3 -10
2 0 -4 -14 -33 -26 -31
3 0 1.5 -13 -33 -30 -37
4 0 -1 -13 -38 -24 -25
5 0 1 -11.5 -34.5 -19.5 -21.5
6 0 6 -3 -15 -4 0
7 0 5 4 -9 7 18
8 0 16.3 14.8 7.8 30.8 42.8
9 0 20 14.5 11 36 49
5

10 0 13.3 11.8 9.8 34.3 46.3
11 0 18.6 5.6 0.6 22.6 27.6
12 0 14 1 -9 7 7

Length of given Cylinder: 20mm
Ideal Diameter of given Cylinder: 240mm
 Observed Table

(All readings are in Micrometer)
Points
along the
cross sec
n

Section
1
Section 2 Section 3 Section 4 Section 5 Section 6
1 4 3.5 0 -30 -35 80
2 -16 -5.5 1 -33 -34 85
3 -36 -18 -6 -43 -46 78
4 -51 -28 -13 -41.5 -46 79
5 -64 -43 -25 -49.5 -52 64
6 -71 -52 =35.5 -73 -73 43
7 -66 -55 -48 -90 -95 23.5
8 -56 -53 -54 -97 -102.5 12
9 -42 -49 -56.5 -100 -103 10
10 -22.5 -39 -52 -96 -99 16
11 -12.5 -22 -35 -84 -89 32
12 -3 -7 -18 -59 -63 57

 Taking First point on each cross section as reference for measurement of circularity
(All readings in micrometre):
Points
along the
cross sec
n

Section
1
Section 2 Section 3 Section 4 Section 5 Section 6
1 0 0 0 0 0 0
2 -20 -9 1 -3 1 5
3 -40 -21.5 -6 -13 -11 -2
4 -55 -31.5 -13 -11.5 -11 -1
5 -68 -46.5 -25 -19.5 -17 -16
6 -75 -55.5 35.5 -43 -38 -37
7 -70 -58.5 -48 -60 -60 -56.5
8 -60 -56.5 -54 -67 -67.5 -68
6

9 -46 -52.5 -56.5 -70 -68 -70
10 -26.5 -42.5 -52 -66 -64 -64
11 -16.5 -25.5 -35 -54 -54 -48
12 -7 -10.5 -18 -29 -28 -23

 Taking all twelve points of one end cross section as reference points for cylindricity
observation:
Points along
the cross
sec
n

Section 1 Section 2 Section 3 Section 4 Section 5 Section 6
1 0 -0.5 -4 -34 -39 76
2 0 10.5 17 -17 -18 101
3 0 18 30 -7 -10 114
4 0 23 38 9.5 5 130
5 0 21 39 14.5 12 128
6 0 19 106.5 -2 -2 114
7 0 11 18 -24 -29 89.5
8 0 3 2 -41 -46.5 68
9 0 -7 -14.5 -58 -61 52
10 0 -16.5 -29.5 -73.5 -76.5 38.5
11 0 -9.5 -22.5 -71.5 -76.5 44.5
12 0 -4 -15 -56 -60 60

7

CONCLUSION:
 Cylinder is not found perfectly circular along the circumference when measured at six
different points along the length.
 The axis of cylinder is not perfectly straight. It is irregular.

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