RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA

TO BE

Significa “ser ” o “estar”. estar” Es un verbo auxiliar. Hace la negaci ón a ñadiendo “not ” negació not” Hace la interrogación por inversió n. interrogació inversió Puede contraer con sujetos, demostrativos y tambié también con: who, where, how, etc. how,

LENGUA INGLESA

• • • •

Pedro Civera Coloma 2004

TO BE
•Puede contraer con sujetos, demostrativos y también con: who, where, how, etc.

PRESENTE
I am/I'm. Yo soy o yo estoy. You are/you're. He is/he's. She is/she's It is/it's.

PASADO
I was. Yo era o yo estaba. You were. He was. She was. It was. We were. You were. They were.

FUTURO
I will/ shall be. Yo seré o yo estaré. You will be. He will be. She will be. It will be. We will/ shall be. You will be. They will be.

I’m Peter. Peter’s That’s here. Manoli.

Who’s that girl?

We are/we're. You are/you're. They are/they're.

PRESENTE, PASADO Y FUTURO
PRESENTE PASADO FUTURO

CONTRACCIONES
Are not aren’t. Was wasn’t Is not isn’t. Were weren’t not ‘ll. Will not won’t . not Shall shan’t. not

AM IS ARE

WAS WERE

WILL BE

Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004.

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RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA

USOS
Para preguntar la edad. How old are you? I am forty. I am a teacher. He is a socialist. He is a catholic. Formar los continuos.

USOS
tiempos I am writing with a computer. I was swimming yesterday. I will be walking on the beach. La formación de la voz The book was written pasiva. by Emilio.

Indicar la profesión. La ideología. El credo religioso.

USOS
Para medidas. I am six feet tall. How big is the town? It is quite big. I am six feet tall. Indica tallas. Con adjetivos.

USOS
I am size 8. I am happy and you are right. Where’s the boy? When’s your birthday? I am right.

Where (¿Dónde?) What (¿Qué?) Who (¿Quién?) Why, (¿Por qué?) Con ciertas expresiones.

Contrae con demostrativos That’s right. y adverbios.

TO HAVE
•Se traduce por tener. •Puede ir acompañado de la partícula “got”. •No se produce alteraci ón del significado si aparece o no, pero cuando aparece el verbo puede ir contraido. •Tampoco se usa en las respuestas breves.

PRESENTE PASADO
I have/l've. To tengo. You have/you've. He has/he's. She has/she's. It has/it's. We have/we've. You have/you've. They have/they've. Have + not contrae en haven’t. Has + not contrae en hasn’t. I had. Yo tuve o yo ten ía. You had . He had . She had. It had. We had. You had . They had. Had + not contrae en hadn’t.

FUTURO
I will have. Yo tendré. You will have. He will have. She will have. It will have. We will have. You will have. They will have.

Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004.

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RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA

USOS
Indicar posesión. I have a white car. Obligación. I have got a white car. Puede indicar otro tipo de I have breakfast at actividades. 7:45. Ingestión de alimentos tanto sólidos como líquidos. Otros. I have a bath and my wife has a shower. Construcción perfectos. de tiempos I have been in New York.

USOS
I have to go to Alicante tomorrow.

Combinado con better You had better buy a indica consejo. new pair of shoes. La contracción es You’d better. La construcción causativo I’m going to have my have, se utiliza cuando hair cut. alguien hace algún servicio para nosotros.

PRESENTE, PASADO Y FUTURO
PRESENTE
HAVE HAS I have He has I had He had I will have She will have

CONTRACCIONES

PASADO
HAD

FUTURO
WILL HAVE

PRESENTE Have not Haven’t Has not Hasn’t

PASADO Had not Hadn’t

FUTURO Wil have not Won’t have

TO DO
Significa “hacer”. Es un verbo auxiliar. Hace la negación añadiendo “not” Interviene en la formación de las formas interrogativas y negativas del presente y pasado simple

PRESENTE PASADO
I do. Yo hago. You do. He does. She does. It does. We do. You do. They do. I did. Yo hice. You did . He did. She did. It did. We did. You did . They did.

FUTURO
I will do. Yo haré. You will do. He will do. She will do. It will do. We will do. You will do. They will do. Will not do contrae en won’t do.

Do not contrae en Did not contrae en don’t. didn’t. Does not contrae en doesn’t.

Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004.

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RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA

PRESENTE
Negativas.

PASADO
Otros usos idiomáticos.

He doesn’t eat meat. I didn’t go to the I don’t want to go to cinema. the cinema.

USOS
I did the shopping in Carrefour. I do the washing up every night. I never do the cleaning. Sometimes I do the cooking.

Interrogativas. Do you love her?

Did you go to Does he speak England? Valenciano? ¿Habla valenciano? He does running. love He did say what he wanted to say.

Uso enfático.

USOS
Con la expresión “Yo también”. -I like María Callas. -So do I.

LOS PRONOMBRES Y ADJETIVOS
Es necesario usarlos para evitar ambigüedad. Go to London, no sabríamos quién va, podría ser yo, tú, nosotros,etc. En castellano no pasa lo mismo. Vamos a Alicante, las desinencias verbales nos sacan de dudas. Está claro que somos nosotros.

Con la expresión tampoco”.

“Yo I don’t smoke. Neither do I.

PRONOMBRES PERSONALES SUJETO

PRONOMBRES PERSONALES COMPLEMENTO

ADJETIVOS POSESIVOS

PRONOMBRES POSESIVOS

PRONOMBRES REFLEXIVOS

I . Yo . You . Tú. He. Él. She. Ella. It. Ello.

Me. A mí, me. You. A ti, te. Him. A él, le. Her. A ella, le. It. A ello, le.

My. Mi. Your. Tu. His. Su de él. Her. Su de ella.

Mine. El mío. Yours. El tuyo . His. El suyo. (de él). Hers. El suyo. (de ella).

Myself. Me. Yourself. Te. Himself. Se. Herself. Se. Itself. Se. Ourselves . Nos. Yourselves . Os.

PRONOMBRES SUJETO Y COMPLEMENTO
SUJETO Ella es alta. You are a teacher. COMPLEMENTO Dale esto a ella. This is for you.

It. Su de ello. Its. El suyo. (de ello). Our. Nuestro, Ours. El nuestra. nuestro. Your. Vuestro, vuestra. Their. Su de ellos, su de ellas. Yours. El vuestro.

We. Nosotros o Us. A nosotros, a nosostras. nosotras, nos. You . Vosotros o vosotras. They. Ellos o ellas. You. A vosotros, a vosotras, os. Them . A ellos, a ellas, les.

Theirs. El suyo . Themselves . Se.

Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004.

4

“tú solo. aquello.. DIFERENCIA ENTRE ADJETIVO Y PRONOMBRE ADJETIVO acompaña al nombre Mi casa es grande. PLURAL THESE estos. every morning. esa. “You” se puede traducir por Tú. I went to Madrid by myself. esto. estas. aquella. vosotros. pero sí. Vd.” He himself can go. en cuyo caso significan “yo solo”. Pueden ir precedidos de by. Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. One. PRONOMBRES REFLEXIVOS Acciones que recaen He washes himself sobre el mismo sujeto. La mía también. THAT ese. Mine is also big. si sigue al Objeto Directo. “El uno al They love each other. She is the prettiest one. PRONOMBRE lo substituye. I love you. esas. esta. aquellos.“You” e “it” tienen la misma forma como sujetos que como complementos. vosotras y Vds. Enfatizan. She gave a kiss to me. THOSE esos. She gave me a kiss. ADJETIVOS Y PRONOMBRES DEMOSTRATIVOS SINGULAR THlS este. aquellas. My house is big. I was the second one in the race. “A todos ” They gave presents one another. You are young. otro” One Another. aquel. 5 . COMPLEMENTOS No utilizan preposición delante del objeto indirecto.RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA PRONOMBRES PERSONALES I” siempre se escribe con mayúscula. eso. PRONOMBRES REFLEXIVOS Each other.

Se traduce por “nada”. Afirmativas. This is Peter. There will be. This is Mary. That’s right. These books are interesting. “algún”. ANY Y NO Some. a There was not a boy. There's. En ciertas expresiones. There was a boy. There are four biscuits on the plate. 6 . algún. Do you want some chocolates? Have you any good book to lend me? I haven’t any money. INTERROGATIVA Is there a car? NEGATIVA There is not a car. THERE IS PRESENTE There is.RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA CONCORDANCIA This man is my teacher of English. En presentaciones Those girls are from Italy . No. Any. “ningún”. Is there anything I can do for you? SOME. Afirmativa pero el sentido es negativo. PASADO FUTURO CONDICIONAL There was. Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. USOS Se usan cuando hablamos por teléfono. Se traduce por algo. THERE IS AFIRMATIVA There is a car. algo de. Interrogativas y negativas. That woman is my wife. my friend HABER IMPERSONAL. I have no money. There would be. There were. Was boy? there There are. EJEMPLOS • • • There is someone waiting for you. I have some magazines from the library. HABER IMPERSONAL. interrogativas y se espera respuesta afirmativa.

Nadie. ¿Qué o Cuál? What ¿Qué? Se usa cuando no hay antecedentes. Either you stay here or come with us. I have no money. I neither like coffee nor tea. OTROS INDEFINIDOS All. Anything. Anywhere. Which is your favourite singer? What do you think of him? Whom did you speak to? The man with whom you spoke is Pepe. Both. Ninguno de los dos.. Alguien. Cada uno. Nobody.RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA COMPUESTOS Something. Todas partes. Everything. No one. PRONOMBRES Y PARTICULAS INTERROGATIVAS Who. Alguien. nadie. Everybody. Whom. Everyone. Cada. Algo. nadie. Se refiere a dos. Alguien. Nowhere. Whose car is this Ford Fiesta? Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. ¿A quién? Se usa compañado por preposiciones. Someone.ni. Do you want some chocolates? Have you any good book to lend me? I haven’t any money. Whose ¿De quién? Se usa en la forma posesiva. Who came yesterday? PRONOMBRES Y PARTICULAS INTERROGATIVAS Which. Anybody. EJEMPLOS I have some magazines from the library. Either. Each. Todos. Each and every day I sleep siesta. Ni. Alguien. None wanted coffee. O. Neither. Todo. Both are 14. Nada. ninguna parte. Nothing. Everywhere . None. 7 . Algo. Algún lugar. nada. Cada. Nadie. Alguna parte. All my friends came to my party. Ninguna parte. Hace referencia a más de dos. Somebody. Neither…nor Ni. Every. ¿Quién? Se usa con personas. Neither of them are happy. Anyone. Somewhere . OTROS INDEFINIDOS Every day I go running.

Sand. One book. Help. Where do you live? What kind of music do you like? CONTABLES E INCONTABLES •I bought a paper. Té Time. This is Bohemian glass. ¿Por qué? How fast can you type? How often do you play football? Why was he late? PRONOMBRES Y PARTICULAS INTERROGATIVAS When. Chocolate. Homework. Papel. Arena. Hambre. ¿Cúantos? How much. Dirt. Deberes. Tiempo. Physics. Two pencils. Crema . Basura. Agua. Suciedad. •I drink coffee. Esperanza. 8 . ¿Dónde? What kind. few etc. some. Hielo. NOMBRES INCONTABLES Butter. Trouble. Tienen forma de plural y pueden llevar el art ículo a/an o the. Hope.RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA PRONOMBRES Y PARTICULAS INTERROGATIVAS How. Mantequilla. ¿Con qué frecuencia? Why. Water. Give me two coffees. Chocolate. This is made of iron. Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. News . Coffee. Hunger. ¿Cuánto tiempo ? How far. Tea. Problema. Café. ¿Qué clase? When did you go there? CONTABLES E INCONTABLES •Los nombres se pueden clasificar en contables e incontables. Four cars. •Contables son aquéllos que podemos contar con la ayuda de un numeral. Ice. ¿A qué distancia? How is your mother? How many books do you read a year? How much is that CD? How long will it take to go to Madrid by plane? How far is Elche from Santa Pola? PRONOMBRES Y PARTICULAS INTERROGATIVAS How fast. ¿Cómo? How many . Cream. Rubbish. ¿Cuánto? How long. •Give me a glass. Noticias. ¿A qué velocidad? How often. •She has a new iron. Paper. Toothpaste Pasta de dientes. Ayuda. Three boys. Give me some paper to write. Física. ¿Cuándo? Where.

Work. I have a few good friends. Silver. Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. lo necesario ”. Azúcar. Fun. There are plenty of good books in the library.RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA NOMBRES INCONTABLES Flour. Jabón. MUCH. muchos. A few. I don’t have to hurry. Food. They eat too much Demasiado. 9 . Mucho. Furniture. I have many friends. We have so many books . Poco. Leche. Milk. So Much. Unos pocos o unas pocas. Diversión. Lots of people came yesterday. Montones de. Mobiliario. Too Many. Pocos o pocas. Weather. Trabajo. Mucho. Tiempo atmosférico. Mucho. I’ve got plenty of time. He drinks so little water. Tanto. Too Few. He eats little fruit. Comida. Mucho. FEW. Money. Too many cooks spoil the broth. LITTLE. MANY. INCONTABLES Too Much. Consejo. Vino. Dinero. Plenty of. So Little. Cielo . Sky. Mathemati cs. Too Little. Muchos o muchas. Advice. “más de meat. A LOT OF Many. Mucha. Música. Much. Demasiado poco. Tiene el matiz de “de sobra”. Soap. With a little milk please. Demasiado pocos. We have a lot of books. Wine. Music. So Many. CONTABLES E INCONTABLES A lot of. There were too few to start the party. INCONTABLES I don’t drink much coke. They have too little money. CONTABLES So Few. He is alone. They spend so much money. We drink a lot of water. he has so few friends. Lots of. Tantos. Demasiados. Few. muchos. She has read few books. Plata. Tan pocos. Tan poco. Harina. A little Un poco. Little. Sugar. Matemáticas.

A packet of. Estudiante . A cup of coffe. Musician. Una lata de bebida. Cat. Una lata de. Una bolsa de. Brother. Flor. Un doctor. Empress. Chica. Un trozo de. Sister. A can of coke. A bottle of. Hen. Spinster. Daughter. Emperador. Bachelor. Soltero. Duke. Músico. Lector. A cup of. Hermano. Una botella de. Duque. Hermana. Student. Padre. Doctor. Puerta. Artist. Boy. Soltera. Abogado. Chico. PARTITIVOS A piece of. Duquesa. Actor. Driver. Gallo. Gallina. por eso tenemos la misma palabra para masculino y femenino. Sister. Padre. Chico. Father. Una doctora. Madre. Médico. Actriz. FEMENINOS Mother. Emperor. Artista. A woman doctor. A bar of chocolate. Boy. A can of. A bottle of wine. una porción de. A tin of tuna. Emperatriz. Una barra de. Girl. Brother. Reader. Hermano. A packet of crisps. Door. EL GENERO GENERO MASCULINOS Father. Cock. Conductor. Actor. Hermana. Una taza de. Actress. Gato. 10 . Toro. Cow. A piece of paper. MASCULINO Y FEMENINO A male doctor. Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. MASCULINO Y FEMENINO Bull. Lawyer. Duchess. Madre. Hija. Teacher. NEUTROS Flower. •Un gran número de nombres carecen de é l. Vaca.RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA PARTITIVOS A bar of. Mother. Profesor. A tin of.

Sastre. Man. Book. Hija. Goddess. Stewardess. Caballo. Poet. Churches Bushes Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. Viuda. SS. Boxes. Leona. EL PLURAL DE LOS NOMBRES REGLA GENERAL. Tío.RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA MASCULINO Y FEMENINO God. Camarero. Príncipe. Z. Auxiliar de vuelo. PLURAL Potatoes. Princesa. Yegua. Poetisa. CH. Daughter. Poeta. Brushes. Widow. SH. Mare. Mujer. Books. CH. Cars. Princess. Widower. Kisses. Prince. Z. Steward. Pen. 11 . Aunt. Box. SH. Wife . Señor. Pens. Pouch. Uncle. SS. EL PLURAL DE LOS NOMBRES AÑADEN “-ES” ACABADOS EN “X. A ÑADIR “-S” AÑ SINGULAR Car. Poetess. Anfitriona. Camarera. Church Bush. Dios. Waiter. Tía. Esposo. Woman. Hombre. León. Lion. Waitress. Anfitrión. Host. Horse. Nephew. PLURAL EL PLURAL DE LOS NOMBRES AÑADEN “-ES” ACABADOS EN “X. Azafata. Esposa. Tailor. Dressmaker. Lioness. Sobrina. Sobrino. Viudo. O Kiss. Hijo. MASCULINO Y FEMENINO Son. O SINGULAR Potato Brush. Niece. MASCULINO Y FEMENINO Lord. Husband. Hostess. Modista. Lady. Pouches. Diosa. Señora.

Mouse. Safe. Shelves. Teeth.RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA ACABADAS EN “-o” de origen extranjero. Ratón Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. Wives. Kimono Piano. añ Kilo. Feet. Goose. fe” POR “-ves”. Caja de seguridad. Diente. Mitad. Cliff. Wife. Knife. Mice. Woman. Buey Men. Thieves. Women Geese. Mujer. Foot. Pianos. Calves. Leaves. Lobo. Cuchillo. Half. Pie. Hoja. ves” PLURAL SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR PLURAL Lady City Ladies Cities Wolf. Child. Gavilla. Leaf. Kimonos. Vida. Shelf. PLURALES IRREGULARES Man. Sheaf. Knives. Thief. Esposa. Safes. Acantilado. Wolves. 12 . añaden “-s“. Monkey Toys. RESTO DE PALABRAS EN “-f” o “-fe” AÑADEN “-s“. Tooth. Chief. Ganso. Loaves. Barra de pan. Kilos. Ladrón. Life. Self. Boys. Chiefs . Sheaves . Cliffs. mismo. Monkeys ACABADOS EN “-y” precedida de consonante. Selves. Ox. Halves. Calf. Ternero. Lives. Loaf. Tomatoes ACABADOS EN “-y” precedida de vocal Toy Boy. Jefe. Estanterí Uno a. Hombre. SINGULAR CAMBIAN “-f” o “-fe ”. Tomato. Niño. Children. Oxen.

Mackarel. Phonetics. Platija. Bacalao Deer. Oveja. Trucha. OTRAS PALABRAS QUE USAN LA MISMA FORMA PARA SINGULAR Y PLURAL Aircraft. Calamar. PENNY PUEDE TENER DOS PLURALES I have 4 pennies. Carp. Cattle. Police. Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004.RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA ANIMALES QUE USAN LA MISMA FORMA PARA SINGULAR Y PLURAL Sheep. Scissors. Duck. Trout. Salmon Salmón. Pyjamas. Gafas. Tijeras. I paid 50 pence. The police are looking for the thief. Thanks Gracias PALABRAS QUE SIEMPRE VAN EN SINGULAR Mathematics. Matemáticas Politics. Hovercraft . Política. Shorts. Jeans. Caballa. Cod. Gymnastics Gimnasia . Our team are wearing the new T-shirts. Folk. Ganado. Squid. Fonética. Prismáticos. Policia. Plaice. best. Ciervo. Stairs. Spacecraft . 13 . Gente. Glasses Pijama. Pantalones cortos Trousers. Aerodeslizador. Nave espacial. Binoculars. Partridge Perdíz. Carpa. Aeronave. Pantalones Escaleras vaqueros PUEDEN IR EN SINGULAR Y PLURAL Our police is very Our team is the efficient. Gente. PALABRAS QUE SIEMPRE VAN EN PLURAL People. Pato.

g. Preposición + verbo. This present is for that woman. Maids of honour. l. Preposición + nombre. Cuando los nombres acaban en consonante sonora o vocal. Pronombre + nombre. Complemento Directo. Shegoat. Ingresos.. n. v. z. Nombre + nombre. Puñado. Cats. f /z/ Windows. FORMACIÓ FORMACIÓN DE PALABRAS COMPUESTAS Verbo + nombre. Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. k. b. . Desayuno. t. 14 . FORMACIÓ FORMACIÓN DE PALABRAS COMPUESTAS Adjetivo + nombre. María is a teacher. /s/. Cuando los nombres acaban en consonante sorda. w. Toothpaste. Income. Ing + nombre.. p. x. Dama de honor Brother in law. Complemento Indirecto. r. Cuando los nombres acaban en s. I saw a woman there. Handful. Policeman Postman Menservants . m. PRONUNCIACION DE LA DESINENCIA DE PLURAL. Lavadora. Cabra. Breakfast. Predicado. j /iz/ Houses. ss.RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA PALABRAS COMPUESTAS Maid of honour. Exceso trabajo. Pasta de dientes. Policemen Postmen Brothers in law. de FUNCIONES DEL NOMBRE Sujeto. María is a sociable woman. PALABRAS COMPUESTAS CON man o -woman Manservant. Overwork. Washingmachine . Cuñado. d. ch..

Pollution.RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA SUFIJOS DE NOMBRES -er. Anti- PREFIJOS NEGATIVOS OverPrePredictabl e. -ist. Comprehe nsive. -ant. -er. Hapiness. -less. -ed. -ness. PREFIJOS NEGATIVOS DisIlDishonest. Sensible. UnInInvisible . Undermine ral. -ible. Under SemiSemiprofe ssional. Profesiones Ideologías. Illegal. Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. Faithful. ImImpolite. Exclusive -ous. Shipment. Childlike. IrIrregular. Nombre. Baker. Hopeless. Comunism. -ee. Nombre. NonNonsmoker. Profesiones Cosas. SUFIJOS DE NOMBRES -ance. Historic. Nombre. Opener -ism. -ive. -ment. Irrelevant. Personas Employee. Nombres Verbos. Abundance -tion. Childhood -ity. -ive. Wooden. Nombre. SUFIJOS DE ADJETIVOS O ADVERBIOS. Practical -ful. Overdose SuperUnthinkabl e Post- Supernatu Postpone. Nombre. Nombre. -ic. Trustworthy. Ability. -al. Antibiotic. -like. Violinist. -tion. 15 . Education -hood. Excited -worthy -en. Industrious SUFIJOS DE ADJETIVOS O ADVERBIOS.

Un europeo. EL ART ÍCULO INDETERMINADO Su traducción es “un”. I went to my sister’s She was at the baker’s. A university. s ólo “ ’ ”. A day’s break. Las palabras que comienzan por “h” muda como honest. Las palabras que comienzan por semiconsonantes como “university” llevan “a”. “una”. An umbrella. La estructura del genitivo sajón es: Poseedor + ‘s + cosa poseída. Un uniforme. Una manzana. An hour. A uniform. acabados en “s” sólo añaden el apóstrofo. Acabados en s. “A ” se emplea con palabras que comienzan por sonido consonántico. Una hora. He goes to his friend’s. USOS DEL GENITIVO SAJÓN SAJÓ Apóstrofo y una “s “es la Peter’s bike. 16 . Un honor.RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA GENITIVO SAJÓN SAJÓ •Es una construcción especial que se utiliza para indicar posesión. Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. Un coche. hospitales e iglesias. Un paraguas. A European. Today’s paper. USOS DEL GENITIVO SAJÓN SAJÓ Tiendas. Un sindicato . Casas y tiendas. A car. I was at the dentist’s. Una casa. A n honest person. Una universidad. “A n” va con las que comienzan por sonido vocálico. USOS DEL GENITIVO SAJÓN SAJÓ Algunas expresiones. He got married in Sant Louis’. A union. The car’s engine. AN An apple. regla general. A n MP. Una persona honrada. My brother and sister’s friends. Pits’ car. Más de un sujeto. •Normalmente la utilizamos con personas y rara vez con objetos. ARTÍCULO INDETERMINADO A A house. Tiene dos formas “a” y “an”. An honor. terminados en “s” o “-es” siguen la regla general. Plurales irregulares no A men’s club. Un miembro del Parlamento. Los plurales regulares A girls’ school. llevan “an”.

Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. Cuando es la primera vez The woman had a nice que hablamos de un house near the beach. e ideas políticas. Con musicales. referencia a un colectivo. USOS DEL ARTICULO DETERMINADO Junto a un adjetivo hace The blind. instrumentos I play the piano. personas. I am a lawyer and he is a nurse. Cosas únicas. •El. objeto. Desiertos. Islas. •Tiene dos pronunciaciones según vaya precediendo a vocales o consonantes. Con enfermedades. USOS The Nile. Para indicar el precio de las It is 10 euros a kilo. The girls. The British. The cars.RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA USOS DEL ARTÍCULO ARTÍ INDETERMINADO Con números y expresiones A hundred. He was a socialist and now he is a conservative. Cuando la referencia no I want a book but I está clara. religiones. Montañas. Con los superlativos. The Moon. The poor. USOS DEL ARTICULO DETERMINADO Países en plural. Last week I had a terrible cold. The car. don’t want an English book. The Canary Islands. Water is in my opinion the best drink. EL ART ÍCULO DETERMINADO THE •Es parte invariable de la oración. The Earth.. The Alps. cosas. la los y las. The Sahara. The girl. Ríos. The Black Sea. Mares. The Sun. He is a Catholic and I am a Jew. The Netherlands. 17 . a un tipo de The rich. de cantidad. EL ARTÍCULO ARTÍ INDETERMINADO Con profesiones. The Universe.

Con las palabras “bed ”. hospital. The police. Comidas. I play tennis on Monday. market. Lunch. Partes del cuerpo. Kingdom. Estaciones y fiestas. “university”. The blind. Italian is very romantic. The Barrymore. Con apellidos. Con los adjetivos pasa The rich also cry. I went to the Post Office. town. NO SE USA Cuando nos referimos al Wine is good for you. 30th November is my birthday. He is in bed. Bed. Meses. “hospital”. I went to the cinema last Sunday. State. Junto a las Republic . He was in the navy. The wine from Pinoso is the best. palabras The United Kingdom. Deportes. college. Idiomas. Expresiones. USOS DEL ARTICULO DETERMINADO Con cosas únicas. Easter is a great holiday. church. college”. In the hospital. 18 . The moon isn’t red. Canales hechos por el Suez canal. “school”. Con contables en The orange is an singular hace referencia excellent fruit. In July I go to San Juan beach. a la totalidad. “prison”. court. hombre. Wash your hair. At night. Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. actividades y Swimming is good for juegos. university. NO SE USA Colores. breakfast and supper are the meals of the day. lo mismo. In hospital. sentido general de algo. NO SE USA Con días de la semana. The Arab Republic .RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA USOS DEL ARTICULO DETERMINADO También con algunas expresiones. USOS DEL ARTICULO DETERMINADO Con fechas se lee pero no se escribe. you. Red is my favourite colour. class. prison.

Modificar al sustantivo y normalmente le preceden..ni. 19 . Todos y cada uno No. NEITHER. Ambos. Ni…... BOTH. USOS Detrás de los verbos copulativos: be . Con personas. Each. My daughter wears red shoes. etc. Algunos siempre llevan preposición. Most. Every. Both. fall. seem. I have no money now. ALL.and. Both of them. look. All the students were happy after the Todos. Más exam.. Neither. appear. NONE. Either you come with me or go with O…. All. ALL. EACH. None. party. sound. She has a red dress. Los participios pueden He is tired. NONE. EITHER. Doctor Ferreira no The doctor Ferreira. NO. She is nice. I am interested in politics. Ninguno. him.RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA NO SE USA Con las comidas.. BOTH. NONE. I never watch TV. EITHER.. or. EITHER. Most of them are from Canada. Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. Either. EACH. Ninguno. and Sarah like Con “ver la tele ”.. la mayor parte. Nada. hacer las veces de adjetivos. stay. Both Peter confetti. La mayoría.They have red skirts. Tanto como. Al ser en inglés parte invariable I have a red car. EVERY. get. LOS ADJETIVOS. I have lunch at home. Neither. Más de dos None of my friends wanted to buy my car. NO. A red car. I like both the film and the book. He is tyring. Cada uno. EVERY. EACH. EVERY. ALL. NEITHER. Each student must buy a dictionary.or. Both…. Every citizen paid the taxes.n I like neither coffee nor tea. Neither of them came to my Ni.o. feel. taste. NEITHER. BOTH. NO. Both of them are happy Ellos dos. de dos.

I am as tall as you are. Los que van detrás se She is alive. No tan como. I am getting fatter and fatter. the + The richer. Interesting. The + comparativo. The most interesting. Bigger . Fatter. Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004..as. va el He is not so intelligent as his brother Mike. Comparativo + and + comparativo. The biggest. The most comfortable .RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA EL ADJETIVO Los que van delante A beautiful song . As.. “-Er”. duplican la consonante. EL COMPARATIVO I am taller now. llaman predicativos LA COMPARACIÓN CON COMPARACIÓ ADJETIVOS IGUALDAD As. So. LA COMPARACIÓN POSITIVO COMPARATIVO Taller.. fat. Los monos í labos acabados en una consonante monosí precedida de una única vocal. Big. Si acaban en “-y ” se sustituye por “ i ”. SUPERLATIVO The tallest. Fatter. 20 . Happier. Tall. En los puntos adjetivo. se llaman atributivos. the sillier. It is more interesting than the film. Happy.. More…..than.. Como en fat . Tan como. The happiest LA COMPARACIÓN POSITIVO Comfortable COMPARATIVO SUPERLATIVO More comfortable . More interesting. LA COMPARACIÓN CON COMPARACIÓ ADJETIVOS • • • Los monosiíabos y bis í labos a ñaden “-er” en el monosií er” comparativo. comparativo.

El peor. in restaurantes San Juan Beach. POSITIVO Busy. The least. She is less intelligent than Rose. Sitios donde I was at school and then at se estudia o university later on I worked trabaja. Mejor.. SUPERLATIVO The least busy. The eldest.est Con adjetivos de una o dos silabas. Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. Se utiliza in para lugares y periodos de tiempo. El mejor The worst. LOS IRREGULARES Much / Many . silabas. COMPARATIVO Less busy. Bad.. Más. Old. The farthest. Lejos. Bueno. Lo más lejano. Más lejos. Viejo. The least + adjetivo indican inferioridad. Elder. Far. at IBM. LAS PREPOSICIONES.RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA EL SUPERLATIVO The . LOS IRREGULARES Good. Peor. AT Puntos concretos. The most.. then actividades at the theatre and later at a de grupo concert and at a lecture.. Mucho. El más. afterwards at a match and finally at the cinema. 21 . The least important of all his novels. Farther. Less. El menos. Poco. Worse. More. AT Nombres de He was at a meeting. The + most + adjetivo The most beautiful girl Con los de dos o más in town. Cafés y We'll eat at MacDonald's. Better. El más viejo. LAS PREPOSICIONES. Más viejo. Little. Menos. We stopped at the zoo. COMPARATIVO DE INFERIORIDAD Less + adj + than . Malo. The richest people in Elda. The best.

ON Con pisos. Elche is on the road to Murcia. At first sight. Expresiones At present I’m reading a novel. de arriba. Al menos. A primera vista. At noon. I saw her on the plane/on the train/on the bus. Transportes públicos. bus-stop. del autobús. I study French on Monday. Valentine’s many people buy diamonds.RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA LAS PREPOSICIONES. At the bottom. de la calle Horas Navidad Pascua I wake up at six. EXPRESIONES CON AT At the At the At the top. We have a house on the river. En este momento. 22 . AT Con el número I lived at 35 Príncipe de Asturias. Al amanecer Al mediodia At midnight. LAS PREPOSICIONES. The soldier is on duty. I live on the second floor. motos y bicicletas. Benidorm is on the coast. ON Expresiones. The train arrived on time. En la parte de abajo. Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. ON Tocando o cercano a una línea. y At Christmas I buy many presents and at Easter I go to the beach. On page 26 you will find the exercises. At sunset. office. Al fín. At work. At the station. He is on a business trip. He died at the age of 81. LAS PREPOSICIONES. The keys are on the table. Días. EXPRESIONES CON AT At sunrise. trabajo. Páginas. Por la noche. LAS PREPOSICIONES. En la estación. Al atardecer At last. En la parte En el En la parada En la oficina. caballos. At least. Tocando una superficie. At night. On St. Al mediodia At this moment.

IN Con coche. Con países. I got married in October. taxi y avioneta. IN Con grandes islas. LAS PREPOSICIONES. I read the paper in the morning. Partes del cuerpo. LAS PREPOSICIONES. de Spain was very rich in the Middle Ages. In bed. Con regiones. Estaciones. IN Siglos.RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA LAS PREPOSICIONES. We spent the summer in the Canary islands. in danger In other words Períodos tiempo. está dentro de The bottles are in the fridge. I live in Spain. algo. 23 . Con algunos lugares. I go to San Juan beach in summer. in love In private In any case in order. I have a pain in my stomach. I met my wife in 1982. I lived in Onesimo Redondo street. IN Partes del día Meses. LAS PREPOSICIONES. I saw him in a new Mercedes. In he l9th century people did not wear jeans. Nombres de calles. IN Cuando algo My friends are in the cuartelillo. EXPRESIONES CON IN in a hurry. Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. Años. LAS PREPOSICIONES. In hospital. They are in the Sahara.

Yesterday. STILL. DURING Y AGO Yet. Al final en interrogativas y negativas. Modificando adjetivos. Perhaps they will win. Almost Hardly Rather Daily. The most quickly. Frequently.RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA ADVERBIOS Modificando adverbios. When. How long. There. Fast. Where. How often Which. Modificando frases. COMPARATIVO SUPERLATIVO Sooner. Away. How. He writes quite quickly. It is very cheap. Here. Well. 24 . Tomorrow. Last week. Recuerda Rich enough money ADVERBIOS INTERROGTIVOS YET. Always. Why. Very. CLASIFICACIÓ CLASIFICACIÓN FRECUEN LUGA MODO CIA R Often. Quickly. Con el pretérito perfecto. Slowly. He is rich enough Sometim es. aún. ALREADY. More quickly. todavía. Have you seen her yet? Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. Never. Near. How far. LA COMPARACION DE LOS ADVERBIOS POSITIVO Soon. The soonest. OJO CON ENOUGH TIEMPO CON ADJETIVOS CON NOMBRES He has enough money GRADO Enough. I haven't finished the job yet.

Does + not contra en doesn’t. En posición final enfatiza. It usan does. Have you already bought the books? del en He still hasn’t paid. EL IMPERATIVO AFIRMATIVA Infinitivo sin to. She. she. Come here. He has the tickets already. Va entre sujeto y verbo en afirmativas e interrogativas Va detrás sujeto negativas. Do + not contrae en don’t.RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA STILL Still. He doesn’t love her. énfasis My sister is still working . We don’t smoke. “-ch”. During the summer Indica un per íodo de I go to Santa Pola. I have already bought the grapes. Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. Va detrás de to be. ( he. •Los verbos que terminan en “-ss”. EL PRESENTE SIMPLE •Equivale al presente de indicativo. I still love her. “-o“ añaden “-es” en la tercera persona del singular EL PRESENTE SIMPLE AFIRMATIVA Sujeto + Inf sin to I play tennis. “-“x. his He. Already . INTERROGATIVA Do + S + Inf sin to. NEGATIVA Do not + Inf sin to. “-sh”. Detrás de to be. Todavía. NEGATIVA Sujeto + do + not + I don’t like cocido. I went to Elche two Se coloca al final de la days ago. oración. Already . tiempo dentro de otro. Go home. Da DURING Y AGO During. Do you love me? He. she. •Se forma con el sujeto más el infinitivo. it añaden (s) He kisses o (es) mother. He doesn’t cook. •La tercera persona del singular. Do they still live in Sax? ALREADY Already . Ago. drink too FORMA ENFÁTICA Do go home. Inf sin to. Don’t much. e it) añaden “-s” o “-es”. 25 . Se coloca entre el auxiliar y el verbo en afirmativas This car is already too old.

I never go to the university by car. UOS DEL PRESENTE SIMPLE Para contar historias. Occasionally Often.RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA USOS DEL PRESENTE SIMPLE Indicar hábitos o costumbres. Con refranes. The play begins at 8 and ends at 10. Are + . Is. USOS DEL PRESENTE SIMPLE Always. The plane leaves at 7. Are you listening to me? Quejas sobre acciones They are always que se repiten. A waiter couple. friend. Time flies. Sujeto + Am. am USOS DEL PRESENTE CONTINUO Acciones en proceso. Seldom. acontecimientos deportivos. In winter. I am not cooking. Negativa. Sujeto + Am. Acciones planificadas. I'm playing golf with my friend Eduardo next Sunday. I am paying my flat. I reading.00. complaining Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. asks a Para indicar The sun rises verdades everyday.30. On Sometimes. Con un futuro She is going to get relativamente inmediato. Horarios. BE GOING TO Cuando se tiene I am going to visit my intención de hacer algo. Are + Not + Verbo + Ing. Never. Frequently. Sujeto + Verbo + Ing. Are + Verbo + Ing. married next Sunday. It’s going to rain. Colombus discovers America in 1492. etc. Para planes futuros. I am reading a good book. Is. universales. cuentos. 26 . Every day. Is. En el llamado presente històrico. Sundays Usually. Interrogativa Am. chistes. Para predecir algo. EL PRESENTE CONTINUO Afirmativa.

Did you buy the new CD? Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. Appear. Taste. Sujeto + Inf sin to + Ed Los acabados en “-e” solo “-d”.RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA FORMA –ING ACABADOS EN –”E” Have. Lie. Practise. Study. Doubt. Hope. I didn’t out. Play. S+ Did + Not + I didn’t eat the Inf . Practising. Fear. Belong to. Buying. I played chess. Inf sin to. Lying. Depend. Die. See. Buy. la lista de verbos I bought a new irregulares. Come. Guess. Interrogativa Did + Sujeto + . Smell. Regulares Afirmativa. Negativa. Have. + Inf sin to Did + Not contrae en din’t. Feel. VERBOS QUE NO SE SUELEN USAR EN LOS TIEMPOS CONTINUOS. Did + S + Inf. FORMA –ING ACABADOS EN “-ie” Dying. Living. Owe. S+ 2 columna de I ate the cake. Studying. cake. Believe. FORMA –ING ACABADOS EN “Y” Try. Having. Like. Playing. go LOS VERBOS IRREGULARES Afirmativa. EL PASADO SIMPLE. Coming. Forget. Did you eat the cake? Negativa. I loved her. 27 . Love. house. Live. Sujeto + Did not. Trying. Interrogativa. Consider.

Has + Sujeto Have you + Participio Pasado. I was riding a car and then. Con ever. I was reading a novel while she was watching TV. sucediendo. I have always liked the country. Have. Were + Not + Ing. played golf? Neg. I was not sleeping Were they playing chess? USOS DEL PASADO CONTINUO Para hablar acerca de I was reading when lo que estaba she came. EL PRESENTE PERFECTO Afir. EL PRESENTE PERFECTO • Este tiempo hace referencia a acciones ya acabadas • Como todos los tiempos perfectos. Inter. many times. Were + .RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA EL PASADO CONTINUO Afirmativa. Sujeto + Was. Were + Ing. Sujeto + Ing. recientemente. Con already . played tennis. I have visited Paris. Has I have not not + Participio played Pasado. Acciones que se han He has visited Madrid repetido en el pasado.. chess. En descripciones. We have already finished. I was reading Time. indica que la I have just seen my acción ha ocurrido wife. USOS DEL PRESENTE PERFECTO Con just. Sujeto + Was. (alguna vez) Have you ever been to Rome? Con always. Negativa. USOS DEL PRESENTE PERFECTO Acciones que ocurrieron en el pasado I have eaten paella. Has I have + Participio Pasado. 28 . Interrogativa Was. Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004.. Sujeto + Have. Cuando dos acciones estaban ocurriendo al mismo tiempo. se forma con el verbo to have y el Participio Pasado. Sujeto + Have.

Since. I will go with you. Will you marry me? ¿Te casarás conmigo? USOS DEL FUTURO SlMPLE En sugerencias. + Participio Pasado Had she been with you? EL FUTURO SlMPLE Afir. I will not pay for that. Determinaciones. Negativa. Desde o desde que. Sujeto + Had + Participio Pasado. Iré contigo. Nos remonta a un punto concreto en el pasado. Desde hace. + Inf sin to. Shall we go to the cinema? I will buy you the car. Inter. I have lived in Elda for 40 years. been wearing glasses? For. EL PASADO PERFECTO Afirmativa. I had not gone. En promesas. Sujeto + Will + Inf sin to. I will go with you. Neg. Sujeto + Will not. She has had the same car since 1987. I have been wearing glasses since October. Interrogativa Had + Sujeto . No pagaré eso. Will + Sujeto + Inf sin to. I will never do it again. FOR Y SINCE How long. all my work. Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 29 . Se utiliza para How long have you preguntar por la duración. Sujeto + Had not + Participio Pasado. USOS DEL PASADO PERFECTO Acciones que ocurrieron When I had finished antes que otra. Énfasis.RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA FOR Y SINCE Suelen acompañar a éste tiempo para referirse a acciones que empezaron en el pasado y que continúan hasta el momento presente. Se emplea con períodos de tiempo. I went to the swimming pool. I had seen her.

Sujeto + Will have + Not I will not + Participio Pasado. They will win the match. Will + Sujeto + Will have Will you have + Participio Pasado. you’ll be late. Sujeto + Will have + Not + Participio Pasado. I will buy a Harley next year. eaten? EL CONDICIONAL SIMPLE Afir. Ofrecimientos. indica acciones que ocurrirán. I will have eaten. have eaten. I will be driving to Alicante. I would go with you. If you don’t hurry. Would + Sujeto + Inf sin to. Sujeto + Would not/ won't + Have+ Participio Pasado. Lógicamente. Inter.RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA USOS DEL FUTURO SlMPLE Predicciones. I will have eaten. I would not pay that. I would not have paid that. I'll help you with your exercises. studying in Elx ? EL FUTURO PERFECTO Afir. or you’ll get drunk. Neg I will not have eaten. Neg. 30 . Sujeto + Would + Have+ Participio Pasado. Sujeto + Would not + Inf sin to. Inter Will + Sujeto + Will Will you have + Participio have eaten? Pasado. Would you have married her? Neg. Will + Sujeto + Be + Will you be Inf + Ing. Sujeto + Will have + Participio Pasado. EL FUTURO CONTINUO Afir. Con advertencias y condiciónes. Inter. Sujeto + Will not + Inf sin to + Ing. Would + Sujeto + Have+ Participio Pasado. Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. Inter. Neg. Para expresar deseo o Don’t drink too much rechazo ante algo. Afir. Inter. EL CONDICIONAL PERFECTO Afir. Would you marry me? Neg. Sujeto + Would + Inf sin to. I will not be eating there. I would have gone with you. Sujeto + Will be + Inf sin to + Ing. EL FUTURO PERFECTO Sujeto + Will have + Participio Pasado.

Le suelen acompañar: at present. Regular + ed S + Vb Irr ( 2ªColumna). I am playing tennis Acciones repetidas. Inter. letter. I have been learning English for 20 years. Inter. I have eaten paella. 31 . Have o Has + S + Participo pasado? I have played tennis. S + Be (Was. Are + S + Ing? Are you running? Acciones en proceso I am readind a book. Were ) I was writing a + Ing. yet. She is not smoking. S + Have o Has+ I have not been not + Been + Ing. yesterday . never. He is always talking. ocurrieron en el I was reading the paper pasado. Otros. I get up at 7. Have o Has + S + Have you been Been + Ing? reading? Usos. Were you writing a letter? I was painting the gate. Neg. It) añade He kisses her. Acciones pasadas que todavía continúan. Usos. EL PASADO CONTINUO Afir. I have not seen her. S + Was. Horarios. “-s” o “-es Neg. Neg. always. Sujeto + Don’t o Doesn’t + Inf Inter.RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA EL PRESENTE SIMPLE Afir . Afir.45. S + Be (am. etc.00. EL PRESENTE PERFECTO Afir . 3ª p. I did not play. S + Have (have o has) + Participio pasado S + Have + Not + Participo pasado. S + Did + Not (didn’t) + Inf. Sujeto + Inf. She. S + Be + Not + Ing. Usos. Neg. Neg. nowadays. for. I live in Elda. Inter. The train leaves at 6. sujetas a un horario. She doesn’t smoke. The match starts at Acciones en el futuro 6. often. las que no se dice cuando sucedieron. (He. is. Otros. Acciones habituales. etc. Neg. Otros. Am. Le suelen acompañar: every day . En narraciones. Verdades universales. For y since le suelen acompañar. I ate. The girls were smiling. usually. Acciones en proceso en el pasado. Otros. Did you play? Did you eat? Acciones que I went to Barcelona. Inter. Did + S + Inf? I played. Have you been there? EL PASADO SIMPLE Afir . two days ago etc. S + Vb. at the moment. Do o Does + S + Inf? I don’t like coffee. since. Do you love me? Does he go to school? Usos. EL PRESENTE CONTINUO Afir . Inter. I have not washed the dishes. are) I am reading. Snow is cold. etc. Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. tomorrow. Were + Not + Ing I was not writing a letter. Was. already. Is.00. Acciones acabadas de I have read the book. Otros. and then it began to A veces acompaña al rain. Were + S + Ing? Usos. Usos. Para descripciones. now. generally . sleeping. Puede llevar just. Planes futuros. + Ing. EL PRESENTE PERFECTO CONTINUO S + Have o Has + Been +Ing. pasado continuo Le suelen acompañar: last year. I did not eat.

I will have been working. Neg. Neg. watching TV. Acciones futuras. Acciones acabadas en el futuro. EL PASADO PERFECTO CONTINUO S + Had + Been I had been + Ing. in a month. Acciones que estarán finalizadas en el futuro. Predicciones Otros. S + Had + I had gone . Will + S + Have + Been + Ing. before.00. S + Had + Not + I had not been Been + Ing. S + Will + Not + Have + Been + Ing. I will not have finished. Usos. S + Will o Shall + I will go . S + had + Not + I had not gone . Will + S + Have + Participio Pasado? EL FUTURO PERFECTO CONTINUO S + Will have + Been + Ing. S + Will + Not + I will not go. Inter. watching TV. Usos. Le suelen acompañar: when. Afir. by the time etc. Neg. next year. EL FUTURO PERFECTO Afir. Inter. Usos. Otros. Will she have paid? Afir. Will you be working? Inter. Acciones que ocurrieron antes que otra acción pasada. S + Will + Not + Have + Participio Pasado. Le suelen acompañar: tonight. S + Will have + Participio Pasado. Inf. Acciones futuras en progreso. Will + S + Inf? Will she come? Usos. Inter. Will you have been working? Inter. Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. Participio Pasado. EL FUTURO SIMPLE Afir. Neg. Had + S + Had she gone? Participio Pasado?. Participio Pasado. Will + S + Be + Ing? Usos. Had + S + Been Had she been + Ing?. Usos. Inf. I will be reading Valle de Elda. S + Wil be + Ing S + Will + Not + Be + Ing. I will not have been working.RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA EL PASADO PERFECTO Afir. Neg. EL FUTURO CONTINUO Afir. 32 . Inter. I will have arrived at 7. tomorrow. I will not be watching TV. ironing? Acciones que estaban en proceso antes que otra acción pasada ocurriera. Neg.

Although he is rich.sino también. ORACIONES COPULATIVAS And. yet nobody loves her. Owing to. Ya que. No sólo. Puesto que. . S + Would + Not + Have + Participio Pasado. He is tall and intelligent.. Would + S + Have + Would you have Participio Pasado? gone to Paris? Usos. As I had studied French I could travelled alone.. Neg. She studies for being a lawyer. Since.. For. Lisbon? Usos Deseos en el presente o en el futuro. O.. Además. I became rich because I saved a lot. Pero. They both teach French and Tanto. Como. Para. The recital was cancelled owing to lack of audience. besides I don’t want to buy anything else. debido a. Lamentos sobre acciones pasadas. S + Would + Have + I would have gone Participio Pasado. You can stay or come with us. 33 . EL CONDICIONAL PERFECTO Afir. Yet. I like Verdi but I prefer Puccini. Although. De igual modo. Porque. I would go to London..RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA EL CONDICIONAL SIMPLE Afir. Besides. Y. She is pretty. It rained a lot. Likewise. Neg.como. Moreover. ORACIONES CAUSALES Because. moreover it snowed. I bought a ham. As. Not only I read Valle de Elda but I also read Vivir en Elda. They are either Italian or Greek. Neither…nor. Inter Would + S + Inf? Would you go to . Both…and. he hasn’t many friends. I would not go to London. Inte. Italian. S + Would + Inf.ni. I neither like Wagner nor the Ni.. O…o. likewise did my neighbour. Not only…but also. Since they are adults they can go. Aunque. Aunque. Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. Además. to London. I have no money. Either…or. I would not have gone to London. ORACIONES ADVERSATIVAS But. ORACIONES DISYUNTIVAS Or. Rolling Stones. S + Would + Not + Inf.

similarly Del mismo Elda has nice museums. ORACIONES CONSECUTIVAS So.RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA ORACIONES FINALES In order to. They voted so as to elect the new President. In order to be accepted you have to pay first. Por si. shows off. I bought a present so that Para que. which is why Esa es la razón por la he’s always alone. No tan como. ORACIONES CONCESIVAS Although. So as to. Incluso s i. Therefore. A pesar de . For fear. Which is why. I didn’t buy it. As a pianist she is the best. modo. que. Como. He is not so tall as me. Though. she doen’t love you. He eats like a lion. No matter if you love her. Aunque. Though he is ill. he never complains. No matter. He is not as honest as his brother. No importa. ORACIONES COMPARATIVAS As. He won the pools so he bought a new house. Como. As…as. Even if. you liked it. 34 . Por lo tanto. Sin embargo. Despite. He has many friends therefore he is never alone. Tan como. Even if it rains I will go. Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. Para. I liked it. So…as. Por eso . Like. Even though he is rich he never Incluso. Petrel has nice parks. Por miedo a. Aunque. Como. He is as intelligent as his sister. En el caso de que. Con el fin de. ORACIONES DE MODO As. In spite of having lived in France she doesn’t speak French. Even though. Similarly. In spite of. A pesar de. Although I prefer to stay I have to go now. He eats a lot of oranges for fear of getting a cold. So…that. ORACIONES ADVERSATIVAS However. however. Despite all the efforts he didn’t win. In case. He is boring. I have an insurance in case I need it.

Lugar. Until I found it I was sad. 35 . A menos que If you need me. This is the book which I bought in Martín Fierro. The boy whose bike is this is Mike. Tiempo. Which. phone me. That. In short. ORACIONES DE RELATIVO Personas. Una vez. Unless. While. Donde. Wherever she goes she buys some clothes. Who. Antes. Since. Desde. Ahora. Whenever. En breve. Now I am hungry. ORACIONES DE TIEMPO Where. Mientras. Finally. Wherever. When. No sonner…than Apenas. Finally I read the book. This is the house where we lived until 1996. Cosas. No sooner had they gone than I was asleep. ORACIONES DE TIEMPO Now. Dondequiera que. Finalmente. ORACIONES DE RELATIVO Posesión. I have lived here since 1962 Whenever he comes I visit him . Whose. Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. That.RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA ORACIONES CONDICIONALES If. Before. This is the day when I was born. In short they will be here. I worked in Crevillente. Once I pay the house I will buy a car. When you want to visit us. Hasta. Si. This is the man who came here yesterday. let us know. The house that I sold. Once. This is the school where I studied. This is the man that came yesterday. Before I worked in Elda. Cada vez que Until. Cuando. Where. While I was in Italy I ate a lot of pasta. Unless you pay you can’t come ORACIONES DE TIEMPO When.

Poder. dare y need. have to y used to. shall. •No tienen todos los tiempos verbales. Usan otros verbos para suplir sus carencias temporales. Must.He was able to go. I used to go to the disco. VERBOS MODALES May. The reason why I bought this is you. Can she go? LOS VERBOS MODALES LOS VERBOS MODALES No tienen imperativo. sacar conclusiones. Auxiliares de futuro Deber. Van seguidos de Infinitivo sin to. He can. Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004.del condicional. infinitivo. I had to go alone. Poder. Deber. 36 . Atreverse Will. Whom. Dare. to have y to be. He must study everyday . hablar de posibilidades y establecer conjeturas. Necesitar Would. could.RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA ORACIONES DE RELATIVO Personas. He must study. The that. •Hacen la negación y la interrogación como el verbo to be. LOS Can. And this is what he said. She can swim. •Se usan para hacer suposiciones. •Tienen una única forma para todas las personas en presente: I can. might. Ought to.I can ski. The girl whom I loved. tienen presente y pasado. Tampoco aparecen en formas pasivas. Why. Can. No forman tiempos continuos ni perfectos. por ejemplo. ¿Van seguidos de infinitivo sin to. Aux. ni participio de presente ni de pasado. Need. may. thing This is the thing that we should do. a excepción de ought to. LOS VERBOS MODALES LOS VERBOS MODALES •Los verbos modales se llaman así al carecer de las mayoría de las formas verbales. Can you ski? •No se construyen con to do. “must” y “ought to ” sólo tienen presente. What.

Especulaciones. Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. I can go with you. He may be in Ital If I may say so I will buy it. presente de indicativo. intelectual. Peticiones formales. Could I go with you? MAY Posibilidad. CAN Expresa conocimiento y I can play the violin. Puede indicar You can’t smoke prohibición en la forma here. Could se usa para el pasado y el condicional. Can I help you? Indica habilidad pasado. Deducción negativa. MIGHT Expresa una It might snow in posibildad más remota Benidorm but I doubt it. I could go yesterday. capacidad física e I can read. Will he be able to come in time? I have been able to finish it in time. Se puede traducir por poder o saber. 37 . que may. Prohibiciones. Posibilidad. You can come with us. Permiso. Sugerencias. I know how to swim. They can’t be at home. COULD en el I could translate Italian at the age of 9. I can swim . Solamente se usa para el She can do it alone.RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA CAN Sólo se usa en el presente. para el resto se utiliza to be able to. I could go tomorrow. It may rain during the weekend. Especulaciones. CAN Habilidad. I can swim . Sugerencias. He might be working in a new book. May I come in ? You may not stay here. Ofrecimientos. l'll be able to go tonight. negativa. Tambien para dar y Can I go with you? recibir permiso.

I must visit my friend. Prohibiciones. Predicciones sobre el futuro.RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA MUST Obligaciónes morales. You have to drive with a helmet. You must not come here again. En negativa. Ofrecimientos. it is one of the best in Spain. You must visit the museum. indica que algo no es necesario. SHALL Auxiliar de futuro I shall go. I will buy a sandwich when I finish this. Decisiones. You ought to spend more time with them. Para indicar costumbres. Deducciónes. He must be out because nobody answers the phone. he is ill. I will buy a new car. Will you pass me the salt? WOULD Peticiones y ofrecimientos. Puede expresar cierta We shall never determinación surrender. Peticiones. Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. It will be sunny. HAVE TO Obligación normalmente impuesta. Would you like to come with me? In 1998 I would walk a lot. I will do it. Consejos. WILL Auxiliar del futuro simple. SHOULD. Hábitos y rutinas en el pasado. You don't have to stay if you have something to do. You should go to the Yemo Cineplex cinemas. I have to take an aspirin every night. OUGHT TO Para dar consejos. 38 .

Would you marry me? I would play tennis when I was 10. Para la forma negativa e interrogativa hay dos opciones: Need you buy so much? Do you need to buy so much? Can. I will buy a Harley. Habilidad en el pasado. Shall I open the window? I shall visit her. Posibilidad. NEED • • • • He needs to have more money to buy this car. Peticiones formales. en el I used to sing in the shower. I couldn’t buy the car. They could be in Tokyo. I can swim. Can I come in? He can’t go now. Sugerencias. You could try next year. Preferencias. Imposibilidad. RESUMEN DE LOS VERBOS MODALES May. You needn’t come tomorrow. Need to indica necesidad. They will come. He could read Russian. Petición de permiso. May I come in? You may not smoke here. Predicciones. Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. Prohibición It may rain tomorrow. Decisiones. I would rather go to the cinema. RESUMEN DE LOS VERBOS MODALES Habilidades. RESUMEN DE LOS VERBOS MODALES Will. He needs a lot of money to get married. Would. Could. Acciones futuras.RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA USED TO Hábitos pasado. Permiso. Might. It might snow. Posibilidad. Shall. NEED Verbo modal o verbo ordinario. I need to consult a good doctor. Posibilidad remota. Acciones pasadas. 39 . Imposibilidad. Peticiones formales.

aren't you? You aren’t from Petrel. do you? She doesn't write very well. Tienen dos partes. You have to drive on the right. RESUMEN DE LOS VERBOS MODALES Have to. could she? You study every day. Habilidades. Obligaciones impuestas. have + PP. Necesidad. Prohibiciones. Ausencia de necesidad. si la primera es afirmativa. are you? She isn’t from Sax. can’t Deducciones. Must. You needn’t come tomorrow. Obligación. You are going to need a lot of help. 40 .RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA RESUMEN DE LOS VERBOS MODALES Should Ought to. You must not go with that boy. is she? He has a Harley. Must. I must study. can't you? QUESTION TAGS (COLETILLAS) She couldn't run fast. Consejos. She could have seen her. en presente. QUESTION TAGS (COLETILLAS) You are from Petrel. hasn't he? You can swim. They must have bought a new house. + Have + Participio Pasado. QUESTION TAGS (COLETILLAS) Preguntas que sirven para confirmar una suposición. might Could. don't you? She plays golf. Con los demás verbos se usan las partículas do. doesn't she? You don't speak Chinese. does. RESUMEN DE LOS VERBOS MODALES May. didn't you? Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. Needn’t. They can’t have come here this morning. Be able to. la segunda será negativa. does she? You went to Milan. They may have gone. Deducciones donde no tenemos mucha seguridad. Las frases con verbos auxiliares o defectivos forman la coletilla con el mismo verbo. Need. You should buy her a diamond. He is able to make a cake.

decir y contar. • To tell va con un complemento indirecto. She made a fortune in Cuba. •To say solo necesita un complemento directo. noise. 41 . will they? •En condicional se usa would. He makes a lot of I do the cooking. I do the dusting on Tuesday. MAKE Y DO His son is doing badly at university. won't they? They won't come tomorrow. would she? QUESTION TAGS (COLETILLAS) • Recuerda que son como una pila • Positivo-negativo Positivo• Negativo-positivo Negativo- SAY Y TELL • Tienen el mismo significado. I make the beds in the morning. They will come tomorrow. MAKE Y DO •Comparten el significado de hacer •No existen reglas •To make tiene el matiz de fabricar. offer. mistakes. Make me a promise.RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA QUESTION TAGS (COLETILLAS) •En futuro se usa will y won't. Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. I´m going to We do business with make you my last Japan. I told her your story I told your story to her. How do you do? I make many telephone calls. He does well in his job. I said that I was going to move to Sax. wouldn't they? She wouldn't buy it. She is making My sister does the washing coffee. up. MAKE Y DO Everybody makes I always do the ironing. They would buy it if they could. He is always making friends. She did her hair yesterday.

would you live in a big house? Supposing. Se usa con adjetivos How fast. Oraciones interrogativas negativas. you can be with us. You could go as long as you pay your part. También podemos tener: If + presente + futuro. What. What a yacht. Se usa con sustantivos.RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA EXCLAMACIONES What a. Con imperativo. Isn’t he the perfect football player? También con adjetivos What a pretty girl. Si hubiera llovido me habría mojado. If I eat chocolate. situaciones hipotéticas. I + would get fat. Unless se suele We won’t go out unless you emplear en lugar de pay. ORACIONES CONDICIONALES Primer tipo: If + presente + presente. eat something OTRAS COMBINACIONES Suppose. futuro. Supposing you find a wallet with money. + If I finish early I can go. Si llueve me mojo. If you are hungry. Si lloviera me mojaría. EXCLAMACIONES How. I get fat. Suppose you are rich. Se usa con plurales e What horribe films. I will get fat. Provided you want it I will give it to you. Tercer tipo: If pasado perfecto condicional perfecto. if not. If I eat chocolate. should + imperativo. What weather. + If I had eaten chocolate. What pretty girls. Imperativo + Stop shouting or I will get conjunction + clause angry. ORACIONES CONDICIONALES PRIMER TIPO SEGUNDO TIPO Acciones probables Acciones en presente o improbables. Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. + I would have get fat. On the condition On the condition that you pay that. y adverbios. 42 . Should you see her give her my regards. TERCER TIPO Acciones imposibles. + If I ate chocolate. Segundo tipo: If pasado simple conditional simple. Provided. OTRAS COMBINACIONES If + presente modal. incontables. How beautiful. what will you do? As long as.

I ate bread with olive oil. I will eat bread PASIVA Bread with olive oil is eaten. PERFECTOS ACTIVA I have eaten bread PASIVA Bread has been eaten LA VOZ PASIVA by indica el complemento agente. CONTINUOS ACTIVA I am eating bread PASIVA Bread is being eaten I was eating bread Bread was being eaten I will be eating bread I would be eating bread Bread will be being eaten Bread would be being eaten I would eat braed Bread would be eaten LA VOZ PASIVA T. • Puede que desconozcamos al autor de la acción o que no nos interese.RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA LA VOZ PASIVA •Se usa para resaltar más la acción que el sujeto. Bread will be eaten LA VOZ PASIVA T. •En inglés se usa mucho más que en castellano. Bread with olive oil was eaten. I had eaten bread Bread had been eaten I will have eaten bread I would have eaten bread Bread will have been eaten Bread would have been eaten Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. El pan es comido LA VOZ PASIVA T. 43 . SIMPLES ACTIVA I eat bread with olive oil. FÓRMULA • • • • CD pasa a Sujeto Se utiliza el verbo To be en el mismo tiempo Aparece el Participio Pasado Yo como pan. It was done by my mother.

Prometer. Saber. Pay. Solicitar. Remarcar. Enviar. Esto no ocurre en español. Tell. I gave Mary a kiss. Considerar To think. Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. Mostrar. OTROS VERBOS To know. Creer. Anunciar. Señalar. Announce. 44 . I showed my friend my My friend was house. Pensar. C INDIRECTO PASIVA. Ask. To say. Point out. Preguntar. Advertir. Reclamar Protest. Think. Cambios: en expresiones temporales. It is said that he is going to be promoted. Pagar. EL ESTILO INDIRECTO •Para contar lo que dijo alguien. Explicar. Declare. shown my house. State. Afirmar. Dar. Inquire. VERBOS Say. Contar. Protestar CAMBIOS El tiempo de lo narrado da un salto hacia atrás Las preguntas dejan de serlo. Refuse. Prestar. It is said that it was stolen It is believed thathe was murdered EL ESTILO INDIRECTO.RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA LA VOZ PASIVA. en los tiempos verbales y en los pronombres. •En estilo indirecto la frase suele empezar con un verbo. Declarar. Remark. Warn. Negarse a. LA VOZ PASIVA. C INDIRECTO PASIVA. Show. LA VOZ PASIVA. To believe. Decir Explain. Give. Lend. Pensar. Claim. To consider. Ofrecer. Offer. Promise. Quejarse. Con estos verbos se puede usar el complemento indirecto como sujeto. Send. •Los verbos suelen ir en pasado. Decir . Mary was given a kiss. Complain.

He said he had to study. He said he had been waiting for him. Condicional Simple. He said he lived in Elda. Futuro Simple. Pasado Simple. I will live in Alicante. He said he would live in Alicante.RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA EL ESTILO INDIRECTO. I was writing a letter. EL ESTILO INDIRECTO. He said he could swim. He said he had been there. EL ESTILO INDIRECTO. I had been waiting for you. He said he had working with him. Then. Yesterday I went He said he had gone to to Madrid. Pasado Perfecto Continuo. Pasado Continuo. I shall do it. Pasado Perfecto. I will be singing in a karaoke. 45 . I have been working with him. been He said he was reading a book. It may rain today. I have bought a car. He said he had been writing a letter. I am sad today. Should. The previous day. Presente Simple. Madrid the previous day. Presente Perfecto Continuo. Presente Continuo. I had been there. I live in Elda. Pasado Perfecto. Shall. EL ESTILO INDIRECTO. I am reading a book. He said he would singing in a karaoke. Had To. The day before. Today. Have To. I am happy now. I can swim. Pasado Simple. Pasado Continuo. Yesterday. He said it might rain that day. CAMBIOS TEMPORALES Now. Might. Pasado Perfecto Continuo. He said he should do it. May. He said he was sad that day. Futuro Continuo. Presente Perfecto Simple. Pasado Perfecto Continuo. Pasado Perfecto. He said he had bought a car. Condicional Continuo. Pasado Perfecto Simple. He said he was happy then. That day. Could. He said he had gone to London. Can. be EL ESTILO INDIRECTO. Must. Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. I must study. I went to London. Pasado Perfecto Continuo.

A week ago I played tennis in Almeria. He suggested that we should take a taxi. PREGUNTAS Where's Mary? How can I go to Elche? Why do you smoke? He asked where Mary was.RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA CAMBIOS TEMPORALES Tomorrow. He said that those were his friends. Go out. ORDENES He told us to go out. These. The following week. He invited me to go out. He said he had played tennis in Almería the week before. Those. SUGERENCIAS Let’s take a taxi. Go out. Next week I will be He said he would be in in Milan. 46 . cooked paella the previous week. Here. The previous week. Then. I am going to buy this. I cooked paella last He said he had week. Next week. He suggested taking a taxi. OTROS CAMBIOS This. Milan the following week. These are my friends. There. The next day. Valencia the day after. I will go to Valencia He said he would go to tomorrow. The Week Before. He ordered me to drink the milk. He said he was going to buy that. I live here. The day after. Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. He asked me how he could go to Elche? He wanted to know why I smoked. Now. He said he lived there. A Week Ago. Drink the mik . Now I want a coffee. CAMBIOS TEMPORALES Last week. That. The following day. He said that then he wanted a coffee.

I prefer tea to coffee. WHAT IS LIKE •Se utiliza para recabar información sobre el aspecto físico de alguien pues para saber cómo es alguien de carácter usamos how. I prefer swimming to running. It's time. but now I use contact lenses. 47 . He used to drink quite a lot. DESEOS Prefer.RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA PREGUNTAS What does she do? He asked what she did. It's about time. I would prefer to go with you. I wish you were quiet. Used to. Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. I prefer to stay at home. I’d prefer a coffee. DESEOS I would like to go to Paris. Would prefer. Expresa deseos. I’d rather not go now. It's time to eat. It's time for us to eat. DESEOS Y QUEJAS Would like. I used to wear glasses. What is your girlfriend like? She is very pretty. If only she would stop complaining. I would like you to come with me. Wish. para su traducción se debe usar el subjuntivo. When did you go He asked me when to Petrel? I had gone to Petrel. It’s about time he came. I’d rather not go. I wish I had lived in America. I had better go to have a drink. I wish you would be rich. If only. I would like a sandwich. EXPRESIONES DE INTERÉS Had better. It's time we ate. Would rather.

•En la interrogrativa y negativa utilizan los auxiliares. She is too old to climb the mountain. He speaks English pretty well. He speaks English rather well. Rather. EL CAUSATIVO HAVE •Esta estructura se puede usar en todos los tiempos. EL CAUSATIVO HAVE •El que realiza la acción no es el sujeto sino otra persona. I have my hair cut every month. 48 . • Serán separables si podemos colocar complementos entre el verbo y la preposición. I have my car repaired when it breaks down. I am going to put on my coat. We are looking forward to the festivities. • Cortarse el pelo. Too. He speaks English fairly well. EJ. •El sujeto no se hace un empaste ni se corta el pelo. hacerse un empaste. I am rich enough. sino que contrata un servicio. To look I'm looking for a new job. EXPRESIONES DE INTERÉS Fairly. •Se usan los verbos causativos have y get. Pretty.RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA EXPRESIONES DE INTERÉS To be used to. los Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. I have enough money. I am used to reading the paper. He speaks English quite well. I am going to put my coat on. I am going to look up a word in the dictionary. Enough. Quite. does. did. VERBOS CON PREPOSICÓN •Pueden ser: separables e inseparables. do. Did you have your tooth fill? Do you have your carpets cleaned every year? VERBOS CON PREPOSICÓN PREPOSICÓ Muchos verbos ingleses van acompa ñados de preposiciones o adverbios.

es Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004.gva.RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA FINAL Para cualquier comentario o sugerencia Pedro Civera Coloma direelda@centres. 49 .uned.cult.es pcivera@elx.

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