Robbins, Judge, and Vohra

Organizational Behavior
14th Edition

Attitudes and Job Satisfaction

Kelli J. Schutte
William Jewell College Copyright © 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational Behavior, 14e

3-0

Show whether there are cultural differences in job satisfaction.Chapter Learning Objectives  After studying this chapter. you should be able to: – – – – – – – Contrast the three components of an attitude. Compare and contrast the major job attitudes. Ltd Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational Behavior. 14e 3-1 . Summarize the main causes of job satisfaction. Identify four employee responses to dissatisfaction. Summarize the relationship between attitudes and behavior. Define job satisfaction and show how it can be measured. Copyright © 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt.

tuition reimbursement .$2000 bonus – 1 year Copyright © 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational Behavior.GOOGLE           UNLIMITED FOOD Huge gym On site car wash Free check ups Free dental Child care Free transportation Life insurance 25 holidays– 6 years &more Take out meals. 14e .

attitude  Evaluative statements – favorable /unfavorable about people. objects  How we feel about others  Likes . Ltd Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational Behavior. behavior  My appraisal rating (PA) is low –  I hate my supervisor  I want to quit this job Copyright © 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. affect . dislikes – about job Main components of attitudes:  Cognition. events. 14e .

Attitudes Evaluative statements or judgments concerning objects. 14e An intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something See E X H I B I T 3–1 3-4 . people. or events Three components of an attitude: Affective Cognitive The opinion or belief segment of an attitude The emotional or feeling segment of an attitude Behavioral Attitude Copyright © 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational Behavior.

 Cognition – the description of the way things are . 14e . – Sets the affective component  Affect – the emotional segment of an attitude – I hate my supervisor  Behavior – intention to behave in a certain way – Quit the job Copyright © 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational Behavior.

 These components are closely related  Attitudes are important for their behavioral component – Positive attitude – Behavior follows attitude  Attitude follows behavior? Research by Leon Festinger – Ex: Quality of Indian Jeans. 14e .. Ltd Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational Behavior.  These illustrate the effects of cognitive dissonance  Cognitive dissonance is an uncomfortable feeling caused by holding two contradictory ideas simultaneously – Attitude following behavior Copyright © 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt.

or through rationalization – Desire to reduce dissonance depends on: • Importance of elements • Degree of individual influence • Rewards involved in dissonance Copyright © 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt.Does Behavior Always Follow from Attitudes?  Leon Festinger – No. modifying the behaviors. 14e 3-7 . to reach stability and consistency – Consistency is achieved by changing the attitudes. or dissonance. the reverse is sometimes true!  Cognitive Dissonance: Any incompatibility between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes – Individuals seek to reduce this uncomfortable gap. Ltd Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational Behavior.

and autonomy Copyright © 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. competence. 14e 3-8 . Ltd Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational Behavior. job meaningfulness.What are the Major Job Attitudes?  Job Satisfaction – A positive feeling about the job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics  Job Involvement – Degree of psychological identification with the job where perceived performance is important to self-worth  Psychological Empowerment – Belief in the degree of influence over the job.

– Less important now than in the past – now perhaps more of an occupational commitment.Another Major Job Attitude  Organizational Commitment – Identifying with a particular organization and its goals. 14e 3-9 . Copyright © 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. while wishing to maintain membership in the organization. – Three dimensions: • Affective – emotional attachment to organization • Continuance Commitment – economic value of staying • Normative – moral or ethical obligations – Has some relation to performance. especially for new employees. Ltd Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational Behavior. loyalty to profession rather than a given employer.

employees are involved in decision making. and enthusiasm for the job. and supervisors are seen as supportive. Copyright © 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. 14e 3-10 . satisfaction with. – High POS is related to higher OCBs and performance.  Employee Engagement – The degree of involvement with.And Yet More Major Job Attitudes…  Perceived Organizational Support (POS) – Degree to which employees believe the organization values their contribution and cares about their well-being. – Engaged employees are passionate about their work and company. Ltd Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational Behavior. – Higher when rewards are fair.

Ltd Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational Behavior. benefits. 14e 3-11 . Results vary by employee facets of the job. Seventy-one percent of Indian employees surveyed are satisfied with their jobs.  How to measure? – Single global rating (one question/one answer) – Summation score (many questions/one average)  Are people satisfied in their jobs? – – – – In India. yes. Compensation.Job Satisfaction  One of the primary job attitudes measured. and incentives are the most problematic elements in India. – Broad term involving a complex individual summation of a number of discrete job elements. See E X H I B I T 3–2 Copyright © 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt.

– Money may bring happiness. See E X H I B I T 3–3 Copyright © 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. but not necessarily job satisfaction. there is no relationship between amount of pay and job satisfaction. – Those with positive core self-evaluation are more satisfied with their jobs.Causes of Job Satisfaction  Pay influences job satisfaction only to a point. 14e 3-12 .  Personality can influence job satisfaction. – Negative people are usually not satisfied with their jobs. Ltd Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational Behavior. – Once an individual reaches a comfortable level of living.

Ltd Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational Behavior.Employee Responses to Dissatisfaction Active Exit • Behavior directed toward leaving the organization Voice • Active and constructive attempts to improve conditions Destructive Neglect • Allowing conditions to worsen Constructive Loyalty • Passively waiting for conditions to improve Passive See E X H I B I T 3–4 Copyright © 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. 14e 3-13 .

Ltd Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational Behavior.  Absenteeism – Satisfied employees are moderately less likely to miss work. 14e 3-14 . Copyright © 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt.  Organizational Citizenship Behaviors – Satisfaction influences OCB through perceptions of fairness.  Customer Satisfaction – Satisfied frontline employees increase customer satisfaction and loyalty.Outcomes of Job Satisfaction  Job Performance – Satisfied workers are more productive AND more productive workers are more satisfied! – The causality may run both ways.

More Outcomes of Job Satisfaction  Turnover – Satisfied employees are less likely to quit. Ltd Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational Behavior. • Economic environment and tenure • Organizational actions taken to retain high performers and to weed out lower performers  Workplace Deviance – Dissatisfied workers are more likely to unionize. Copyright © 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Despite the overwhelming evidence of the impact of job satisfaction on the bottom line. steal. 14e 3-15 . be tardy. most managers are either unconcerned about or overestimate worker satisfaction. – Many moderating variables in this relationship. abuse substances. and withdraw.

14e 3-16 . Ltd Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational Behavior. Western workers appear to be more satisfied than those in Eastern cultures. This may be because Westerners emphasize positive emotions and individual happiness more than do those in Eastern cultures.Global Implications  Are Employees in Some Cultures More Satisfied With Their Jobs? – According to some studies. See E X H I B I T 3–5 Copyright © 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. – Another study showed that Indian employees rated their satisfaction higher than other employees in the Asia-Pacific region.

absenteeism. theft. 14e 3-17 . tardiness. and increasing OCB  Focus on the intrinsic parts of the job: make work challenging and interesting – Pay is not enough Copyright © 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt.Summary and Managerial Implications  Managers should watch employee attitudes: – They give warnings of potential problems – They influence behavior  Managers should try to increase job satisfaction and generate positive job attitudes – Reduces costs by lowering turnover. Ltd Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational Behavior.

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