Biotechnology

Dolly and surrogate Mom

Embryonic stem cells and gene therapy

Genetically modified rice.

Biotechnology

Biotechnology, defined broadly, is the engineering of organisms for useful purposes. Often, biotechnology involves the creation of hybrid genes and their introduction into organisms in which some or all of the gene is not normally present.

Fourteen month-old genetically engineered (“biotech”) salmon (left) and standard salmon (right).

Biotechnology
We’ll examine: Animal cloning

Gene cloning for pharmaceutical production

Genetically modified food and the AmericanEuropean opinion divide.

DNA fingerprinting

The promise and perhaps perils of embryonic stem cells

Animal Cloning

Dolly and her surrogate mother.

Why Clone Animals? Five genetically identical cloned pigs. For pharmaceutical production. .g. To satisfy our desires (e. pet cloning). To answer questions of basic biology For herd improvement.

Is Animal Cloning Ethical? The first cloned horse and her surrogate mother/genetic twin. . the answer is beyond the scope of science. As with many important questions.

USU’s Contribution – A Cloned Mule and the First Cloned Equine .

. Cloning provides the most direct demonstration that all cells of an individual share a common genetic blueprint. the current technology of cloning is very inefficient.The Biotechnology of Reproductive Cloning Even under the best of circumstances.

as egg donor and surrogate mother. a domestic goat.Saved by Cloning? Some are firm believers while many view these approaches to be more of a stunt. . Note the use of a closely related species.

Carbon Copy– the First Cloned Pet (Science (2002) 295:1443) Significantly. Carbon Copy is not a phenotypic carbon copy of the animal she was cloned from. .

The Next Step? Highly unlikely. Attempts at human cloning are viewed very unfavorably in the scientific community. .

Recombinant DNA. . This creates DNA fragments useful for gene cloning. and Pharmaceutical Production These are mature and widely utilized biotechnologies. Gene Cloning. DNA can be cut at specific sequences using restriction enzymes.

.Restriction Enzymes are Enzymes That Cut DNA Only at Particular Sequences Restriction enzyme animation The enzyme EcoRI cutting DNA at its recognition sequence Different restriction enzymes have different recognition sequences. This makes it possible to create a wide variety of different gene fragments.

.DNAs Cut by a Restriction Enzyme Can be Joined Together in New Ways These are recombinant DNAs and they often are made of DNAs from different organisms.

.Plasmids are Used to Replicate a Recombinant DNA Plasmids are small circles of DNA found in bacteria. Pieces of foreign DNA can be added within a plasmid to create a recombinant plasmid. Replication often produces 50-100 copies of a recombinant plasmid in each cell. Plasmids replicate independently of the bacterial chromosome.

Harnessing the Power of Recombinant DNA Technology – Human Insulin Production by Bacteria .

Human Insulin Production by Bacteria and cut with a restriction enzyme 6) join the plasmid and human fragment .

. Screening bacterial cells to learn which contain the human insulin gene is the hard part.Human Insulin Production by Bacteria Mix the recombinant plasmid with bacteria.

Then the single cell with many recombinant plasmids produces trillions of like cells with recombinant plasmid – and the human insulin gene.Route to the Production by Bacteria of Human Insulin One cell with the recombinant plasmid This is the step when gene cloning takes place. . The single recombinant plasmid replicates within a cell. A fermentor used to grow recombinant bacteria.

break open the cells.Route to the Production by Bacteria of Human Insulin The final steps are to collect the bacteria. . and purify the insulin protein expressed from the recombinant human insulin gene.

Route to the Production by Bacteria of Human Insulin Overview of gene cloning. Cloning animation .

These goats contain the human gene for a clot-dissolving protein that is produced in their milk. . drug-producing gene.Pharming Pharming is the production of pharmaceuticals in animals engineered to contain a foreign.

The Promise and Possible Perils of Stem Cells .

dividing cell that gives rise to a daughter cell like itself and a daughter cell that becomes a specialized cell type. .The Stem Cell Concept A stem cell is an undifferentiated.

but the Most Promising Types of Stem Cells for Therapy are Embryonic Stem Cells .Stem Cells are Found in the Adult.

.The Inner Cell Mass is the Source of Embryonic Stem Cells The embryo is destroyed by separating it into individual cells for the collection of ICM cells.

Some Thorny Ethical Questions Are these masses of cells a human? Is it ethical to harvest embryonic stem cells from the “extra” embryos created during in vitro fertilization? .

If so. how can matched embryonic stem cells be obtained? A cloned embryo of a person can be made. Cells from any source other than you or an identical twin present the problem of rejection.Additional Potential Dilemmas – Therapeutic Cloning to Obtain Matched Embryonic Stem Cells Cultured mouse embryonic stem cells. . and embryonic stem cells harvested from these clones.

Therapeutic Cloning Is there any ethical difference between therapeutic and reproductive cloning? .

The defendant stated that the blood on his clothing was his. and Many Other Applications – The Technology of DNA Fingerprinting A DNA fingerprint used in a murder case.DNA. What are we looking at? How was it produced? . the Law.

Most alleles useful for DNA fingerprinting differ on the basis of the number of repetitive DNA sequences they contain.DNA Fingerprinting Basics Different individuals carry different alleles. .

DNA Fingerprinting Basics If DNA is cut with a restriction enzyme that recognizes sites on either side of the region that varies. . DNA fragments of different sizes will be produced. The more common the length variation at a particular site and the greater the number the sites analyzed. A DNA fingerprint is made by analyzing the sizes of DNA fragments produced from a number of different sites in the genome that vary in length. the more informative the fingerprint.

.A Site With Three Alleles Useful for DNA Fingerprinting DNA fragments of different size will be produced by a restriction enzyme that cuts at the points shown by the arrows.

The pattern of DNA bands is compared between each sample loaded on the gel. Gel electrophoresis animation .The DNA Fragments Are Separated on the Basis of Size The technique is gel electrophoresis.

with each site having many possible alleles. .Possible Patterns for a Single “Gene” With Three Alleles In a standard DNA fingerprint. about a dozen sites are analyzed.

DNA detective animation HGP fingerprinting page . the chance that two patterns match by coincidence is vanishingly small.A DNA Fingerprint When many genes are analyzed. each with many different alleles.

.DNA and the Law SLT 3/8/05 Some applications of DNA fingerprinting in the justice system.

Genetically Modified Foods Many of our crops in the US are genetically modified. Should they be? .

August 2004.GM Crops are Here Today Source: Pew Initiative on Food and Biotechnology. .

Methods for Plant Genetic Engineering are Well-Developed and Similar to Those for Animals .

. 7% of children suffer vitamin A deficiency. Worldwide.Golden Rice is Modified to be Provide a Dietary Source of Vitamin A Golden rice (yellow) with standard rice (white). many of them living in regions in which rice is a staple of the diet.

Genetically Modified Crops Genetically Modified Cotton (contains a bacterial gene for pest resistance) Standard Cotton .

GMOs. Are a Divisive Issue Protesters at the 2000 Montreal World Trade Summit European sentiment . Especially Outside the US.

Current Concerns by Scientists Focus on Environmental. Effects of GM Crops The jury’s still out on the magnitude of GM crop’s ecological impact. . Not Health. but the question is debated seriously.

Not Health.Current Concerns by Scientists Focus on Environmental. Effects of GM Crops .

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