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Teach Yourself Korean

Teach Yourself Korean

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teach yourself

@

korean
mark vincent and jaehoon yeon

50 million people have earnt over 750 subiects the teach youřselÍ
way, with

For over 60 years more
lrnpressve results.

than

be where you want to be
with

teach yourself

E {r o o o
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contacted through the publishers.

Korean grammar is indebted to Ross King and Jaehoon Yeon's Elementary Korcar (Tuttle.. 2000) and Cortinuing Korean (Tuttle, 2002). !7e would lite to hear of any comments or suggestions for the improvement of this book, and can be

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There are now several introductory Korean courses on the market, and our aim has been to make this one stand out in the following ways. First, it focuses on real-life situations, with dialogues which feature authentic Korean as it is spoken on the
stÍeet. 'we have triěd to make the book be led by the dialogues,

Korean is an exciting language to learn and to speak, and we have enjoyed writing this book. Mark Vincent would like to dedicate his share of its production to Peter Dickinson and Steve Rees from Pindar School, Scarborough - two brilliant foreign language teachers from whom he learnt a great deal, not least a deep love of language, languages and all things foreign. Jaehoon Yeon would like to express hearďelt thanks to his former students at SOAS whose struggle with the Korean language has contributed unwittingly but enormously to making this book.
Jaehoon Yeon

Mark Vincent

while maintaining a logical progression througlr the basics of the grammar. Apart from the fust few units, in which we have deliberately simplified things, the dialogues contain real Korean with colloquial phrases and idiomatic expressions left in and
explained.

About the authors
Mark Vincent graduated from the School of Oriental and
African Studies, University of london in Korean and Linguistics.

Our second aim has been to make the lesson notes as clear as possible - drawing comparisons with English to illustrate how Korean is both similar and different, rather than innoducing a lot of grammatícal terminology. We have tried to explain in detail the crucial grammar points, and also provide a taster for a few more advanced matters, without lening these intrude. Much non-essential grammar has been omitted to put the focus on what ís especially important. The exercises have been designed to test the essential gÍammar thoroughly, and to give lots of practice with practical language use. The book is a collaboration, despite the authors being 6,000 miles apart for some of its production! The content of the dialogués was iointly planned, and then became Jaehoon Yeon's responsibility. The grammar content was also lointly planned, and the notes were wrinen by Mark Vincent and then checked by Jaehoon Yeon. The exercises were created by Mark Vincent
ond then checked by Jaehoon Yeon,

He went on to obtain both an MA and a PhD from the University of Durham, specializing in Hebrew and Biblical
Studies. He has spent over a year living and studying in Seoul

and has conducted research and published in several areas of Korean studies and the Hebrew Bible. He cuÍrently works in asset management for a maior investment company, Jaehoon Yeon received his BA and

MA in Linguistics at Seoul National University, and his PhD in Linguistics at SOAS, Universý of London. He is the co-author oÍ Elemmtary

Korean and Continuing Koreaa (Tuttle Publishing Co.) and has published many articles on Korean linguistics. He is currently lecturing in Korean language and literature at SOAS, University
of london.

We are grateful to those before us who have written books nbout Korean, and the approach adopted here to explain

r
II I

1+

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want to have a truly rewarding time when you visit Korea (whether for business or pleasure), learning Korean is the way forward. And even in the West you can practise' too. There are now
many Korean companies in Europe and the States, and there are growing communiiies of Koreans in Britain, on the west Coast of America, and elsewhere.

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tr
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A potted history oÍ Korean
Korean is a fascinating language to study. For a stan, it has a completely different alphabet to ours, a writing system which is unique among the languages of the wodd. Its grammar is Grammatically Korean is related to Japanese and Mongolian (the structure of the three languages is quite similar). Korean is thought to belong to the Altaic family of languages, meaning that it is also related to Tungusic and Turkish. This may all come as a surprise, since many people ássume that Korean will be like Chinese. Grammatically Korean is totally diÍferent from
Chinese. There is no connection between them.

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o 1+ o r
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- so much so that at 6rst everything seems to be expressed backwards in Korean! On top of this, it
entirely different to English

has sounds which are alien to any that we have in European languages. That's qúte a lot to cope with already, and we haven't even mentioned the different cultural assumptions which
underlie the different languages!

However, many Korean words (as opposed to grammar) come from Chinese, since China has been the maior influence in Korea's literature and culture, Probably 50 per cent of Korean words are originally of Chinese origin, This is a bit similar to the

Korean is not an easy lanBuage to leam. But, as we hope you'll come to experience for yourself very soon, the challenges that the language presents are what make communicating in it so '!íhen you to communicate in Korean, you will
begin rewarding. find it both entertaining and fulfilling.

way in which English has many words which are borrowed from Latin.

Some tips Íor learning Korean
The first thing to remembeÍ is this; don't be put off by how different and difficult it all seems at first. It is different, and it is difficult. But, as long as you keep going, you will quickly begin to spot the patterns and come to understand the way that Korean sentences work, It is quite possible for a westerner to learn to speak Korean Íluently - even a westemer with little previous eiperience oí language learning. Vith a course like this

Who speaks Korean, and why should you?
If you learn Korean, you

earth which remains divided, the language spoken by a country with one of the world's strongest economies, the language of a people of rich and diverse culture still largely unknown in thé rJřest. Koreans will appreciate it when you try to speak with them using their language, and they will be deligbted to communicate with you. Korean is the eleventh largest language in the world in terms of the number of native speakers.

will be speaking the language of 80 or 90 million other people, the language of the only nation on

will find that although t}rere are always new challenges along the way, you will progress rapidly and logically through the basics of the Korean language.
óne, you

Being in Korea and speaking in Korean is both exciting and challénging. Although many Koreans are learning English, most do not speak it, and ofthose that do, rnany are not able to speak coherently, even though they know lots of English words. If you

one oÍ the exciting things about learning Korean is that there are so few westeÍneÍswho can speak it. Despite Korea's rapid economic growth, and despite the constant American military presence in Seoul, there are still few westerners to be seen on the streets of even the largest cities. Very few oí those can speak any
Korean at all.

From ancient times literacy in Korea had existed only among the ruling classes. and the accuacy and sophistication of their research and phonological analysis is still a source of amazement to scholars today. ís perhaps the most outstanding scientific and cultural achievement of the Korean nation. Korean syllables. and is the last consonant letter in Fig. If you are to take seriously the task of learning Korean. you should be going first to the Korean texts. By the time you have passed the 6-rst few lessons. You should see romanization as a crutch to help you on your way as you leam Korean writing. 2). commánded extensive research to be conduďed in order to produce a writing system especially designed for writing Korean. the most famous of all the Korean kings and queens. The Korean alphabet The Korean alphabet is unique among the writing systems of the world. but it has one special feature which sets it apart from most others. followed by a romanized version. and consisted of classical Chinese. an alphabet. This is because it is the only known alphabet in the world which was specifically commissioned or made to order. Usually (apart from the case of silent letters and other peculiarities) we pronounce each letter in turn in the sequence running from left to right. then.In Eng|ish we write the letters Éftto right. each one following the next.F Koreans are absolutely delighted when you try to speak their language and úey will bend over backwards to try to help and encouÍage you. this looks like a zero. but Korean breaks the word into syllables: ko-map-sum-ni-da. and they won't take your effons to speak Korean for granted. Thus. This was carried out by a team of scholars. many Koreans your command of the language. it is best to be clear in your mind that you will try to speak in Korean. until we reach the We're going to divide looking at the alphabet and pronunciation into three sections. no matter how hard someone might try to persuade you to speak English! k is the best way to learn quickly. in 1446 King Selong. however. then to look at the way that we have romanized those end. Korean. First. This consonant All the dialogues in this book appear first in Korean script. But you must constantly practise reading the dialogues in the Korean script as well. then. but simply have a look at the way this works in Fig. Don't worry about the form of the letters. instead of writing a string of letters in its letters in syllable blocks. and finally to look at important rules of sound changes in pronunciation. is how to write other to make up words and s€ntences. It is not especially difficr:lt (certainly not as difficult as it looks). k-o-ma-p-s-u-m-n-i-d-a. l IeléLltt í Fig' Vhat we will be learning about fust. It means thank you. take the Korean word which is pronounced as komapsumnida. sequence. the letters of the alphabet and principles of Korean writing. These syllables are then placed next to each Writing Korean Every Korean syllable begins with a consonant lener (if the syllable begins with a vowel then a special null consonant symbol is inserted in place ofthe consonant letter. or sometimes of using Chinese characters and adapting some of them for use in a Korean context. without relying on the romanization. no matter how good you are. Contrariwise. to introduce you to the letters of the alphabet. For the fust few lessons you may well want to reý on the romanized version so that you can quickly begin to slxak Korean words and sentences without bcing troubled by the initial difficulty of being slowed down by letter has a vowel letter either on its right or underneath it (some .not even Chinese. there is no substitute for leaming to read the Korean script. The Korean alphabet. In English we stan writing at the beginning of a word and write a sequence of letters. They won't make you feel silly. Among the maiority of the people. han'gul. leners in this book. The Korean script (ban'gull is indeed. If you go to Korea and are keen to improve the writing system. first. ezlget for opportunities to ^Íe practise their English. there was no literacy at all . and looking at the romanization to rest your pronunciation. and you will soon come to appreciate both its uniqueness and its elegance. writes However.

pa. Some combinations are illustrated in Fig. Here are some consonant letters: 4 You are now in a position to do Exercises 1 and 2 and you should do these at this point. myu. and underneath are some syllables for you to praďise. 3 you will see the vowels a as in bat.E^I 2 qqq 4 7l+ 6E+ 8 š_7] 10 Llzl-al Ll There are also other vowels which have to be written under the consonant letter. ko.l For now we will just concentrate on syllables that have one consonant letter and one vowel létter. pyo. i. yo as in yoŘe[ yu as in yuletidel ú as u in curd ot e in óerá. in last place in a syllable it represents the sound ng as in bring. tů. Now. --1 EEJXE Ftg. r\t the beginning of the syllable it tells you that the syllable begins with a vowel sound.áios the next line we hňe made up syllables with the consonants you have learned. kom. chú' mu. First. 3 5 2 )t^)lA)lLttl Bl Úl Xl I] 0l Bl Ll 0l 0l Fig. pang and fing.! Exercise 1 1 H}E 2 4*É 6 0lol 8 .. syllable begins with a vowel sound . tyu. as we remarked earlier. yop.9 ErLl!J(=too Flg. ti. tyo. The vowels are pronounced o as ín boat (note that this is different to the vowel ó which you have learnt above).Q=8t. The syllables we have given are: kim. underneath position. ó as in hot. min. to give three-lettered svllables.. pyóng. These are' respectively: ka' kó' lga' kyó' ki' tya. cho. nó. pak.l These are pronounced as follows: k as ín kitchen. pu. -I -T. Ve need at this point to tell you that the null consonant symbol (the little circle) has two functions. Some of these are in Fig. nyu. you can add another consonánt underneath the first consonant and the vowel letter.'d'tÍ" 'on '. pó. 5 Ht ot xt )l L-i E L-i rjt o .vowels go both to the right and underneath.E-71 10 El El++ 7l Read the following Korean words written in Korean script and listen to the recording. ch as in chamber. and occasionally you will meet syllables that have two consonants next to each other in this final.-lL -rr +H5x?Fh E9e' FIg. Read the following Korean words written in Korean script and listen to the recording. chó. chun. In Fig. Sbme syltables have another consonant letter written underneath the first consonant and the vowel. kón. u as oo in pool. which means the 'o'ťy. chóm. 3 t-l t{ 9 I 7 olBlrl q"t t+ 4^] . Every syllabie must have the consonant letter plus a vowel letter.' to' to. kú. no.Ť / )J-JIL 9 -t9 f. However. mó.o. túm. The syllables we have given you a. the vowels that go to the right-hand side. chi.you must always write this null consonant whenever the syllable begins with a vowel sound. yo. ya as in va'' yó as in yonder' i as in /ir or ea in heat (this is why to'tell which one is to be used where!). uou n. )t cr _a=.. 5. Remember that we can add a vowel letter either to the right or underneath these. ECEEE-:'I--. ma. 4. nyó.2 L-O f. t as in toad. we will deal wiú those Iňr). o. exercise t 3 "l"l 5 zl. m as in miseri n as in nannyi D as in ihe last'lettói is the zero or null consonant. ya.

'To . palk. Once again the Occasionally you will meet syllables that have two consonants in the 6nal place. . and the best way to pick it up. wae. Notice that all the words beginning with vowels are grouped togaher under the null consonant symbol.ou "'"íd would to make úe normal k. 10.. ye also as in 'yesterdaý (there is no significant difference in sound between yáe and yó}. kwi. along with some examples of the vowels in the last paragraph. hwan. t. as an example. kwon. cch. Řs. p or ch sound. --l -n 10r- rI E IA d!rL I ttl EC= t = E { -r H rl rll J1t tl E 7r {t Ě HB -J- J+ r-l -t Fle' íí . difference is imponant. t'_ éh. oÍ course it's not. 9: wa (o + a) as in uag1wo (u + ó) as ua in uantedi wae (o + ae) as the word uhere. but we give you them in any case. t.7 )Jz'AE č!&&& lJ ý' lll' =ÉEE=E & You can also now look up in a dictionary any word you find written in the Korean script. s as in saÍ. withoui a puff of air. Fig. l0 eilaa"J7t ?tgs.ake these aspirated sounds shape your mouth 'l. k.í It is now time to learn some more consonants. the word pa means concer?r' business (as in 'it's not youÍ concern').t Flg. ůy (ú + i.to listen to the recordiňg or a Korean speaker. You have now learned the entire Korean alphabet. oen and óps. The first would be the Korean letter k. along-with.is. This means that all the vowels (the last 21 symbols on the list). The order of the Korean alphabet is given in Fig. The consonant s can also be doubled to give ss. 6 s! E! Flg.s can also be'doubled (that is. respectivety: I as in ladle. tt. s. pp. and saying it again when you weÍe irrltated wlth someone 'dón't be riáicilous. These sounds are illustrated in the syllables maan. p and ch. in Fig. They are as in Fig. -l In addition. t.h as in bope. one written immediately after the other). and then "" the sound by forcing air out of your mouth in a rush' If make vou Dut vouÍ hand'to you' lips as you make them (or hold up a 'oaoer) Áheei of vou shbuld fěel the puff of air as you make the (or ihooÍd. mwo. attd they are. we (wu + e\ es ue in ueti oe (o + i) as in German Goethei wi (u + i) as in French ozi. You will find a couple of examples. The syllables we have given you are. occur in the dictionary at the place marked by the asterisk. 7 has examples of syllables containing the double and aspirated consonants. Unless we tell you otherwise (by missing one of them out in the romanization) both of these should be pronounced. lllt 8 0H )l H{l =ě==== The 6nal four consonants on the list are aspirated versions (made with a puff of air) of the four consonants you have met alreadv. and the second would be k'. but the word p'a means a sPring onionl Finalln cenain vowels are made up of combinations of others (you read the one underneath fust." the paper móve). and are ready to tackle all the exercises. There are also a few more vowels to learn. The difference can be important. kye. yae. 11. the four consonants k. say them together' fast)' sometimes PÍonounced as e. ilk. Fig. p'en.t iig. o'and ch.t}-ArJrll 0 !-l Flg. 8 contains the vowels ae as a in carei e as in heti yae as in yestetday. 8. This is a bit more difficult to explain than aspiration' Here vou make vour mouth (lips and tongue) very tense and make ihe sound iightly. stupid!'. we romanize úe aspirated versions as k'. Fig. we roňanize these by kk. then the one on the righthand side). and try to imitate the sounds. Imagine the difference sound betweeň saying rhe c in oi cóurse if you were saying it calmly and narurallv.. These are given i. You can probably work out the pronunciations of these for yourself.

howeverjn actual pronunciation. d. However.'"""''. in the middle of a word. so that you can be sure where you should be looking up words in dictionaries or glossaries.on notes it contains (that is. 13 4vilř+ ř^ 10 d=g:l 12 4lr-l /14 . 'Ihere are several different methods of romanizing Korean. d. by using the romanization guidelines. 4 3 .lzl ír'... in addition . When the lener h occurs as the last consonant in a syllable and the following syllable begins with k. ln addition. However.íptlrt'Én'. p. tt. and become competent át handling Korean as a spoken language as soon as possible.saol oJ"d4^ig 6 +'J d/8ts S 8 "J+ 7 ^lB 10 €E 9 ÓJB Korean words and listen to the recoÍding' k. However. !íe could explain all the rules for this and let you work out the pronunciation for youtself. i*oon"nt that you learn it. certain lefters are pronounced in a different way under ceftain circumstances. ť' p'' ch'. b and i if they are preceded and followed by vowel sounds. p or ch. ""fo *h'" *. h"ve consistently used romanization. t. ch are written as g. Instead of . and the one we have used is a modified version ofwhat is known as the McCune-Reischauer system. written in Júiágu.h. there are two i. The consonants m and n are romanized as such. Romanization oÍ Korean This is not because we believe the Korean alphabet to.trý}E f. Therefore. or rather. 'lhe second reason is that often Korean letters are not pronounced 1 q7l^É 3 Ťa{E 5 4Ý]]s! 7 Eql^l o} 9 ÓJ rtr+4 2 E^13 4 qléÉE 6 {E}í 8 ĚeE oldl 10 cxactly as they are written.žnd Exeřcise 4 3 ařEl s 4qe 7ťl2 e g_drl e4A 11 1Ěg 2 4 "l:' 4 q^l a Altsl 6 Ó}ola-zg 8 EJ words wÍitten in Korean script are loan which you should be able to rccognize' write down what the English equivalent is' You have already seen the way we romanize most of the letters írom the previous explanation of the Korean alphabet. b and j when they occur beween vowels. double consonants áre wrinen as kk. although we indicate its presence in the vocabularies by writing it in brackets as in the word man(h)i" pronounced mani. ccfu aspirated consonants are written as k'."s Korean words written in Korean script are the names of couňtries which you should be able to recognize' Read *'ite dowň what the English equivalent is' it'. these letters k. Ve do not indicate this in the romanization. e. then those sounds become ašpirated. na-.t .. forro*l"g Korean "English wÁrds from iu"J th.í Exercise 3 ftre'fottow. which is the way it is pronounced (as in bringl. Korean scÍipts are glven ior all me Enelish diaTogues and the new vocabularies. ""-"' ""d course. p and ch are all written as such at the beginning of a word. t. dialogues and ihe vocabularies in the Korean i' tt'ařwe want you to move quickly through the o '.intinď tn. t. they can be pronounced g. the zero or null consonant is not romanized since it has no sound remember to write it in the Korean script when a syllable begins with a vowel however."^'á'í' io p. be On úe contrary. the word which is written in Korean letters as ha-ko (the dash marking the syllable break) will be romanized here as hago. but there nre a number of points to notice: . you will be reminded when these letters should be pronounced in the different way. This book gives you a romanized version of all the Korean . lf you listen to the recording (as you should). l". The lener h is sometimes not pronounped. as we have alÍeady stÍessed' it '"i.l Exercise 5 ř"a th" following 2^lrl 1!8. most of this is done for you. As the last consonant in a syllable. we romanize it as ng. in those cases we do not romanize it. pp.' "ňd letters).

F
. .

writins hk in romanization, therefore, we write k', which is the wó in which the Korean is acrually pronounced'

Exercise 2 |'ut the following Korean words in romanization Íorm.

The vowels are sÚaighďorward, and are 1663nj'Íd -in the wav we described when going through the lett€rs ot the Korean Be carefrrl to wátchihe two os, o and č (as in over and ^lo'habet. .rther), also remember that ú is pronounced as the u in bura; the ,.r i. áionoonced as tbe u in lute. You should look over J...,firi." áithe no*els again at this point to ensure that you
are happy with them.
In conclusion. a word about double consonants' By this we mean two svllablesin whió the first ends with the same consonant as

The consonant s is pronounced sh (as in slzll) when it is followed by the vowel i, and we romanize it as sh ln such ňi;;.*. Ňote that ss i i is pronou''ced sshi, but we romaníze it as ssi. Finallv. the consonanr I is a linle tricky' Sometimes-it is o.o',ounced l (when one of the |etters to the side oÍ ít is I ."n.án"nrl. bw between vowels it is pronounced r' Wt romanize it ai I or r according to the pronunciation' I ake . the word il for example, which means- da,y' lVhen the word is followed by the subject Particle -i, the l.is pronounced,as an Í. so we romanize it as ir-i. what you have to remember is that in the vocabulary this will be listed under il, and not i..ji.oundt a bit puzzling at 6rst, but you will soon get used to it, and theie is no real difficulty'

I ,d^Jts J {qs-l
5
elŤ 7 ^i+ě e rll^l+

2 ^l+ 4 olq 96 "JLl+ I q;l
10

dd

Although Korean writing is consistent (that is, a word is always rpclt in the same way), some syllables are pronounced in ďfferent ways in certain contexts (if swrounded by certain other syllables or sounds), For example, an n can, given certain conditions, be pronounced like an l. In Korean script the letter would still be written as an n, but Korean speakers would know to pronounce it as an l. You will know, not only because we are now going to tcll you the most important of the pronunciation rules, but also
bccause our romanization

D Pronunciation

will tell you.

Rule

1

;ň" ilt,iď .on.o""n, of the second (om-ma; man-na; hal-la)' ln these cases, hold on to the consonant sound a httle longer ,-ft"" *oria if there was iust one, for example, with omma, "." then. keeping your mouth closed and still making the t"u 'J.'. í'í*,ni.i,.ouád oi thž m, make a little pause before you say tt' 'ma'. Lisřen to this on the recording; don't get anxious about sound a llttle longer iust ÍemembeÍ to try to make the consonant ihan vo,t would if ihere were only one of them' ,ro* io a position to do the exercises on romanization' Yoo "." Exercis€ 1 !ýrite the following in Korean script' 2 kayo 1 Jaemin 4 yangju t chigum
marůn anju 7 mashida 9 chinccha
5

k, t and p precede m or n or l, they are pronounced (and romanized) as ng, n and m respectively. If the lctter they precede is an l, then the I also changes to an n sound. 'l'he following examples show in the left column how they would be spelt in han'gul, and in the right-hand column, the way they are pronounced and romanized. We have put dashes in to indicate the syllable breaks,
When the letters
hrrk-nyón

lnt-nun-da
hap-ni-da

tokJip

hang-nyón tan-nun-da ham-ni-da

tong-nip

Rule 2
I is pronounced as an n when immediately preceded by any consonant except I or n. Thus we have tong-nip as above (from tokJip), shimni (from shim-li). Whenever an I appears next to an n, either as

6 8

10 uri

chungguk pap

lcsulting pronunciation is
il-nyón'

nl or ln, the ll: chilli from chinJi, illyón from

F

Rule 3
lf a word ends in a consonánt and it is not followed by a Particle ía little word that anaches to nouns), or the verb -leyo (to De ln a iearned in Unit 1), then the last consonant is pronounced l hat means tnat soecial way. The last consonant is not Íeleased' ;";;;;';h;;"J "s vou *oold in English, mo'ing vour mouth into pósition to make a 6nal consonant sound (see below).and iav it, but stopping short of releasing any air' lt ilff;i; wo'uld sóund to an English speaker almost as if the consonant had been swallowed. If the last consonant is a ch, ch', s, ss or h, th-en the sound that is the sound t (agaln' ýou begin to make at the end of rhe word you don't release it). 'We felt it was imponant to include these rules, becalse- they ň"r.. i_t'i u".i. ..iu."t. and enable you to understand what is soins on when it seems that the KoÍean text does not matcn uP _ii'i actually.say' or ř" -*""i*,ion you to what Korean-speakers ab-out lt'.lt become overly worrled to But we don't want vou listen to the recording regularly, and look caretully at the korean script and the romanization, then you will-soon pick up the rules, and the explanations we have given in thts sectton wtu help you as you go. There is a practice exercise, howeve_r, to enable you to pÍactise the rules of this section' lf you preÍer' you can sklP rt ano ger straight on with the lessons themselves'
T1r_e

A-Korean never releases a consonant at the end of a syllable cxcept when the word is followed a particle or ending that begiňs with a vowel. The following examples show in the left column when the lást consonant is not released, and in the right trrlurnn when the last consonant is released before vowels.

Exércise 2

ld chip d.ll 2* ap *ql
l* 4* s* 6*

l,isten to the tape and practise them.

ot nat nat nat 7E kuk ll 9f pak e* pak l0* kkot

9 }+e *"1 )+ol Ťol qlgE+{ Ě"ll.il *ol I
*olo

chib-e ap'-e osh-ieyo nach-ún

nach'-i

nash'-i kug-ieyo pakk-e pat'-e

kkoch'-ieyo

How to use the course
Most of the 14 units of this course follow the same pattem.
lntroduction An introduction in English that explains what you will learn in the unit. l)ialogue In each unit there are two dialogues, followed by a list rrf new vocabulary and some simple comprehensiÓn questions

f,l

following exámples show in úe left column how they wo-uld ;;;;;ía i; ;;;;;"i''and in the right_hand column, the way they a.e p.onounced and romanized. Listen to the recordlng and pÍactise them.

Exerclse't

in English or Korean. Each dialogue is followed by grammar notes which explain how to use the language patterns that have
ťt)m€ up.

Ithrases and expressions This section gives you expressions that nrc commonly used as set phrases, and also gives you translations
trf

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

=4 +Ť"J hang_gung-mal +Ll sung_nyó *q 4 kam-ni-ta Étsr+ tan_nůn-da chang-mun 4Ě kung-min E"J sim-ni d4 am-mun "J* sim-man 10 d Yl

q

mong-nún-da

which you are not yet ready to analyse and which you must lcrrn simply as set expressions for the time being. Vocabulary New words from the dialogues will go into the vrrcabulary section. The list of words in the vocabulary follows rhc order in which they appear in the dialogue. Sometimes we llso give you additional words which are closely related to the orres that occur in the dialogues.
'l he units are meant to teach you how to use Korean practically

snippets oÍ dialogue which contain diÍícultgrammar patterns

in cveryday situations

- how

to order in a restaurant, how to

complain when your hotel room isn't quite what it should be, how to express opinions and disagreements, and so on. Grammar To be able to do these things, however, you need to have a good understanding of grammar. This is the purpose of the cómmentary sections' Do not be put off by the quantiry of grammar explanations' theÍefoÍe' You do need these in order to ipeak Korean properly. We have done our best to keep unnécessary detailš aňd minor exceptions to rules out of the text. Do nót worry if you don't undirstand every single bit of gÍammatical structure in the Korean dialogues. The important řhing is that you learn the dialogues thoroughly, and that you
undórstand the main grammar points of each unit. Practice Please do the exercises! Don't be tempted to skip to the next unit until you've done them, checked them in the key at the back of the book, understood your mistakes and learned the coÍrect ansE'ers' Take time to learn the Korean alphabet properly' and make sure you write the exercises out in Korean script, even if you also do them in romanization.

f,l

Ií you lvant to have a good command of spoken Korean, you will find the recording €ssential. Listen to it as often as you can - take it with you in the car or in your walkman for example. Listen back over units that you studied previously; listen to future units - to make yourself familiar with the sounds
and intonations - picking out what you can' €ven though you won't understand eYerything. Although the going will seem tough at times, Korean is a fun language, and studying it can be very rewarding. Remember to enjoy youself - the best way to do so is to follow the maxim 'a little and often'!

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ln lhis unit you will leam . how to talk about whore you ars going and why . how to ask quBstions . how to o1der dÍinks and

.
. .

snacks

how to make polite requests how to form what is knowl as the polite styls of sp€€ch

sentgnc€s

basic structuro of KoÍoan

ei'á":t.0lhaeyo Ug (verb stem) -Íó mwo ?l Ne.. are both fust names.. ne.T thg stÍget and asks him wher6 sangmin meets his Ířiend Jaemin in ha is otf to.ee and Pak). ]Ě aol lt9. á=u'á]llh''l". attaches to nouns) then. íirst name. . attachss to nouns) what? do (verb stém) do (stem plus polite ending -yo.Hlet É_IlHolE? ul . When you are writing Korean names in the Korean script. The two names in this dialogue. The fust syllable is the surname (the most common Korean surnames being Kim. in that case together Vhó else is going ďrere? Vhat does Jaemin suggest? bello!lhotu are You? hellollfine (note: this Phrase is both a question and a rePlY) bow haie you been doing fuening on)? fine. the surname (when it is used) always comes first.. Ódi kayo? Jaemin chigům shinae'e kayo' sangmin Mwo ha_ró shinae_e kayo? Jaemin Ppang sa-ró kayo' sangmin ttá_dó ppang sa+ó shinaeie kayo' Jaemin Kůróm kaoh'i kayo' Jaemin-ssi!Annyěnghaseyo? ha-rě oJd ppang B sa. D Where are You off to? ArEl ínamel -ssl l|| (title řE aE ll'l oJ l^l !"d !H lrn sanomin ! 9! E ól^ll B uti.^lu'll Ul.il sangmin Ne. Therefore.Ál- -ťl bread sayo Sangmin 1 2 3 4 5 Ne' Kach'i kayo' How is Sangmin gening on? Vhere is Jaemin going? Whv? kůřěm f a kach'i aol -do nau ll9 buy (verb stem) buy (stem plus polite ending -yo) -E llme too. and this is usually followed by chal chinaessčyo. Jaemin and Sangmin.'taell) thanks (l'ue been gettng ' 'on (questíon and reply) where are you going? what are you going to . In this book we rhall always use the Korean order (Pak Jaemin) rather than rhe English (Jaemin Pak). Annyóng hasgyo! chal chinagssÓyo? J.kayo? ln Korean. eol na. ol trl '/t li'/ I ódl ns ul chal ka_ 0l ll yes gpod' wdl (ďverb\ where? go (verb stem) 9o (stem plus polite ending -yo) now town centra ťo (prsposition. Lll .i"' kayo chigům I|= shínag l|u _e _01 llB )l_ El AEJ 'ňJ'řJ'^l3 ]l9' 7lB. inegular form) in order to (verb\ in ordér to do s€e section 2) usď with people's names. ódi kavo? -woha-ró. to do! Grammar 't Korean names a two-syllable Phřases and expressions annyóng haseyo? annyóng haseyol chal chinaessóyo ? Krrrean names usually consist oÍ three syllables. l. . ďso (particle. Mr Pak Jaemin's rrttrnňe is Pak. the opposite of tÍre English order. There are odd exceptions: sometimes the first name will only contain one syllable. remember also that Koreans Put no space bctween the surnáme and the 6rst name . . and his first name Jaemin.they are treated llmost like one word.

and want to say that she goes lrrtnewhere. The dialos'ue also contains other verbs whích occur in the middle . This polite sentence crrding -yo is also known as a particle..you don't ttr'cd to use a word for sĎe. it is ouitá acceptable to use their first name.i.. used.n"'r n"' a stem.. In ůe first few lessons wc shall remind you when we are teaching you úe stem form.Ko'rean sentences alwavs end řith verbs in this way. if you are alking about ytrur mother. Wc ought to explain the term 'polite sentence ending' (or 'polite 1'rrrticlé').i.. and it is sometimes called tltc'pólite particle'. Following the name you should use the poltte quite well and with. you will learn how to make the other lllrms of the verb from these stems...'..ibl" 'doine-*o. By thc rules we teach you.. for examp|e'.. Koreán has various styles or levels of speech which rrr: used according to the social situation in which you are rgrcaking. Deborah-ssi' Jaemtn!si. or because we only want you to learn one pnrticular íorm of the verb in question for the time being. vou'kno* vou are on a similar social level as John-ssi. Íor example. ha. steal )'. To summarize.a polrte verbs at the end of the sentences all end in -yo'.'t*"il.i ..il tt'ougt' you are having to say everything with quite simple endings.. it is because úere is something odd (irregular) about it. so you should hold All the sentences (except the first) in the dialogue end with a u.. For example.h. and Settmg.whom il"".2 Talking to íriends and talking about them \Ýhen referring to someone you know well in a friendly tt'"ň direcdy or to talk. *É..í.. Korean onlý requires that you say kayo .. There are some verbs which behave a bit Vcrbs are listed rxldly. and the 1xllité sentence form is haeyo. it is the most basic pan of a . all occur 4 Polite sentences with -yo 'ffi'ř. you could make a social mistake' tliífcrent endings at once onto a verb stem! In the vocabulary ricctions of thiJ book we shall usually list verbs by their stem krrms.ililí. ř ii were..á-io ffiř. she goes.'.. however.oo ln "ad. Kyuthae-ssi. This is explained in note 7' 'l'hc verb stems of this dialogue all end in vowels (ka-.t' t'"s its own verb and which could stand on its For example' the il.'l his a sentence. d' llké ualk.(go).. You will notice that all the verbs have endings to tbem' The rs.í..about them' .il. hc verbs in this lesson. This is simply the stem with the syllable -ta aftcr h..É". and this is the form in which you should learn them. the end' More clause endinBs lateť.a .i. and to these you can add what is called the polite rťntence ending' -yo... kirŘ. backwards! "."-"L..ř.l-u. Korean verb. that this It is onlv when vou are speaking to a very close friend just use their_name (though lÍ -ssi can'be dropped and you can you use other people are-present it is best to caÍry on ustnB lt)' lt make any mistakes or ottend anyone' wnereas lr -ssi vou won't y"oií a.'.. Thus. Knyo is in itself a cornplete sentence (or clause) which means l g4 be goes. however' a clause' Á clause'is a pa1t oÍ..is irregular. ka.ó ..'s ". Otherwise you tould make some bad mistakes! 'f Ío the íerb is quite different: we would say. trr make a Ihcre is no need to specify precisely who does the going in order goď Korean sentence.. Note that the verb ha.l 80 will say I shops-to go' Jvlatn veÍbs tbe sbobs.Even these aÍe at the end in a sense. ll we don't tell you a stem..ldo). and we will look at these now. Sometimes you might want to add as many as seven 3 in a dictionary in what is known as the 'rlictionary form'. Korean clauses and about clauses and . . Úe go. go.-._ .."pping it..to this maior difference in sentence structure takes a liftle whtle' . The mid-sentence verbs ln thls lesson wav of endinq all end with -ió.?i"nd. sa. You can use verbs that you learn from the dictionary simply by trrking off this -ta and using the stem as normal with the endings rlcscribed in this book.(buyl.. wherea' a Korean alwavs'come at the end of the sentence. "nd . etq depending on the context. and we will not Bo systematically through all thc d'ifferent kinds ofverb stems until Unit 7. w€. to fórm a sentence. In English' the Posltlon ot Korean verbs lirc a bit with the dictionary untíl that point.hanged a lirtle bit-' two clauses' botn go is made up of sentence IÍ you come then l'll of which cóuld stand on their own as sentences íyou co? e anr Korean sentences iit sot. halnd sa-). and so fonh. . iust ltke trtle--ssl' Eneliih. when you are having a drink with close cante Korean verbs are made up of stems onto which endings Ě. not hayo as you would have cxpccted.

the iz ordef to . 6 Word order I'r obably be wrong! Don't be tempted to try other ordárs _ they will 'We have seen that the word order of Korean sentences is very different from English.F friends. if you like.ct's look at the English sentence . You can specify it if you want to for special emphasis. as Nrrrp: This construcrion is only used with verbs of. that's not all! Remember th-at ii rrrlrlition. This gives. Notice llx' way one clause is embedded inside the óthe]r. 5 Who are you taIking abouť? hc rnost_ complicated part here is sorting out the word order. Note that. i. . suggestions or commands . which is the 7 Togotodo road style! Verbs in the polite sryle may b€ statemenb.going'and '.this is expressed in the tone of voice that you use to say the sentence rather than being shown explicitly in the form oí the verb. It is. It cannot be used with other verbs at the ěnd áf the \rDlCnCe. Ánnyóng haseyo can also be both a question and a statement. which marks the polite style of speech.l'm soins to the shoos Irr order ro buy bread'. Mary tbe shops-to uent. then the place where you're going. In other worás. -yo.. This is thé r l hcrefore. but as loqg as it is clear from the contexc. You have now begun to leam the most common. the Korean sentence order is na_do poang sa_ró kavo |l to bread buy-in-order-to go). This can be used in most social situations. we do not have anything as systematic and widespread as the Korean system of verb endings. Korean does not require it. I. rrrrcct. or a statement. These verb endings are crucial to every Korean sentence. bit comes ďst' .other verb ending introduced in this dialogue is _ró which You add this onto a verb item at the end ttl it clause. Úsually the order is lubjact _ object .rl in ppang sa-ró káyo' or PPang sa-ró shinae-e kayo. a middle-of-the. If you look at úe last seven sentences in the dialogue As we've already mentioned. because the context makes it clear that the speaker is asking the hearer. then the 1 specify the sublect of the sentence. .hc shops. However. Atthough we have formal and informal language in English. rt litcrllly means 'well have you been getting on?'. Korean puts its verbs at the end of clauses and rnucnces.but it is not necessary to say 'you'. . for example kayo or shinae-e kavo.uerb (SoV Íor short). ' tuv. Usuallv tlrc srrbject of the sentence comes first (in this case. saying úat you are fine. you will use a very different speech style to that which you would use if you were addressing a meeting. Chal chinaessóyo can be both a question. depending on the way in which you say it.'11r'sire oí. or talking to somebody for the first time. means uhere are you going .e.order. The phrase kach'i kayo is fiÍst a suggestion' then when it is used a second time it is a statement.tns in order to. and puts verb and clause endings after that. I). questions. iust as you added -yo to verb stems at the €nd of iťlllcnces. |'lrr. since you cítnnot say a Korean sentence without selecting a speech style in which to say it. You have seen this several times already in tbe dialogue. The speech style is shown in Korean principally by the verb endings. Korean says this iy iutting the rdo rlrrrrscs the orher way round: iz order to buy breadT'm soins ro . you'll see that only one uses a sublect (na-do ppang sa_ró kayo). but will soon). thř main veib rl the sentence is the going. PeÍe r tbe bull ku kul. with verb stems which end in consonants {yorr haven't learned any yet. Korean does not need you to rrurin verb: I I (subject) (optional) go to rhe shops bread buy in-order-to buy bread shops-to go in-order-to (English) (Korean) (from line 3). Odi kayo? therefore.what we would say in English. asking how someone is. Chď chinaessóyo? is a nice example. ůen th! Irr order-to clause. This grvcs us 1 |bread bay-in otder to| to the shÓps go.'rlring'. The subject of that sentence (na_do) is stated for emphasis. precisely who is doing the action the sentence describes. r |'llc other part of the sentence. pafticularly if it is neither especially formal nor intimate. you add the form ttrťl {rather rhan just -ró) to the verb stem.

1 There is/there are 1 2 3 4 5 Sangmin Sargmin Yógi issóyo. Algessóyo.v9 (stém) (Ío f'ends) -do -E a/so fruit soju issÓyo? Ne.. yangju -ta issěyo. ^+. Ne.. El flae. Ú 9iote.iingě-hagomarúnanju-hagop'aión-hago . ^+ P1ol9? E+. as you will remember. maekju hana-hago soju hana chuseyo. polite style) beer ]I}do:ti ham ta El spiits. maekju. Mashikke tůseyo. the waiter tuings the order . g1{otr. Mwo issóyo? Kwail_hagoo. chuseyo please giue me . .taisslyo. chuseyo +[fl prease g've (polite request ÍoÍm) ků]igo f e|íl and (atso) (used to begin a sentence) anju E+ snacks or side dishes for ddnks kwail ilEl oiingó 9!|0| marůn anju ÍllE E+ p'ajón uE chu- _olit olu all... Stems ending in consonants add the ending -óvo to form ihe oolite sryle' unless ůe last vowel in the stem is ní-" o. ilgórn gáolót! DlEe}+ó}n . . soju. and before tlre polite particle -yo cnn be added.]ě Dgót! 9áol +^le.J^lÉLltrt. KůrÓm. westem liquor Ajó&gí Sangmin Ajógsi sangmin Aió&si Sangmin A Sangmin Ailssi. 9t ?10t8? 0l^llÁl ]aJ' ut. .lole. . letn gi+E +^ilg. L1t.is óps'(there isn't or there arm't'. becomes Phrases and expr€ssions algessóyo kamsa hamnida yčgi issóyo mashikke túseyo . ótLlót! 4+ ótu +^le. A gE olBu 8E olxlrl 8E 0llllll aqJ .. Kúróm. a HÍ ! . squid hare yósi o{]l died snacls Korean-sft pancake Kůrigo anju-do chuseyo. KoÍaan winelvodl<a (1) exist' there islaÍe (ďem) (2) have (stém) (as above. -o.. Kamsa hamnida. (ůo fn'snds) KÓnbae! What drinks does the waiter have? How many drinks does Sangmin order? What else does he ask aboutl What side dishes does he order? !ýhat does the waitér wish his guests? i'h". . ďE olxlll á$ littlg while lateÍ. Grammar '|'he verb issóyo means there is ot there ate. . which. g!?llt EAte. there are some sbeep\. depending on_what yrru are talkiňg about (thete is a booh. ||rom ihe rules given earlier.9lmaokiu q+ 'l0|9 yangiu g+ -hago waiter! soiu.r"rn of tŇs verb ii iss-. Grt ilote.. the waiter brings the older .? hncyo not hayo).ends with a consonant' whereas the verbs from the first rlialogue all ended with vowels. yoú can work out that its polite style forrn is ópsóyo. + + + yo ayo óyo . lssóyo. Aóssi little while latar. To repeat' stems ending in vowels usually make the polite form by adding -yo (an exception ir the verb ha. in which case'-ayo is added to make the polite style' I\ kčnbae tbank you here you arelbere it is haue a good meallenjoy your food consonant-stem (1lnsonant-st€m vowel-stem ite style cbeer! if last uoutel is 'a or -o otheruise '|'he opposite of the verb iss. g+ ?. . the vowel -ó has to be inserted. finelun der stoodlr igh t autay doyouhaue. This is because irs.(do). ns. t'4+ l&góyo ajěssi 0]Ílll soiu á+ is8..D Cheers! sangmin goés to a bar with his íÍiends and orders írom the rťaiteí. . everything +- one and g. . kwail-hago ojingě chuseyo. ut '. issčyo? .

and the usual polite style rrrrlinu is -vo.s to be attached ro a noun. e. nouň it i.: cigarettes-hago makhes. once .This pair oÍ verbs. Yorr have learned about Korean verb stems and the polite lrrrlinq -vo. vou can also add -haco onto the last noun of the group wani to. You must not say cigareftěs lrr thc dialogue. zaÍr}es. In English we usually do need to specify this son oÍ thing.rrr'later. Thus you can.g. you must pause after saying hago.to school'. e. Jaemin_hago \.rrr. Notice that the Particle always comes after the noun that it Íelates to. and íor rurw simolv memorize the form chuseyo as a word meaning irrl'hikie tuseyo. It can only be used for males.: t ildr ette s-ha1o ffiatches-hago asbtray-hago lightet itt. In Korean.as though -more items in the list. You will notice again that you can make a complete sentence just with a verb (like issčyo). Bnglish often does the oPPosite of this. You don't need io specifv the subiect (who has).rntmin-haco shinae-e kayo.say lrcrnin-ha*o shinř-e kayo (l'm going m toul with laetnin|. It is a form used to make polite requests. so that you would say.with me'oř. nsk for one beer you say maekiu hana chuseyo' To ask for rrr tca you can say ch'a hana chuseyo. but Korean likes to be economical aňd tó cut out any unnecessary information. waiter' or even a man in úi street on occasions when formality is not called for. the particle -hago attaches to the fust noun oÍ the pair. You can tell by the context which is the relevanr meaning.lií.g. If you want to pause between the two words.'w the nuňbér h ana (one) comes afrcr what is being ordered. provided that the-coniext makes it clear-. say. when you aÍe using _ba8o to mean use a sjighdy exended form of the panicle' u. l(lnrEns love to get together and drlnk and tho most popular dÍink |lllllcularly among men is soiu. which has about r rb% alcohol content. nlonsc 4 6 l' Asking Íor'one' Giving lists. Notic€ lr. e. Thi term agassi should be used to refer to and attract the attention of young women. it is notl free word like the English 'and'' ll thcre are more than two items in a list. bur Korean says me-wilh and schoollto. The normal foÍm oÍ soju does not have an ! Korean drinking habits . each word is followed hy hago. For females the rerm is aiumma which liteially means azzÍ. but you are decidilg thrrc mieht be even lll lit()p ňere (or can't think of any more for the time being). it e'cisr oueť there|. Mashikke means tastily. you will learn ulx. but it is used as a general term to refer to a shopkeeper. Korean winďvodka. Ihc particle -hago can also mean'with'. This eives the sáquence a vaguer ring . The bit in the middle however. and' ó'psóyo can mean l don't haue. e. with the exception of the last. We have shown the particles bv inserting a dash between the word and the particle. Iře would say .Issóyo can mean I hauelbe has (onel some).and' The Korean word for and is the particle -bago.ttt a verb stóm which means |ltrrnl meaning is'pl€ase eat tastily'.g. have another meaning oÍ haue. Imagine that you want to say one thing azd anotheť cigarcttes and matcbes. You will see that this dialogue contains the verb r hrrtcřo. over 35. an order is made for a beer anda soiu.ttIse) haqo I lowever. and saying . The hago becomes a part of the word cigaremes. You can see this clearly in the dialogues. vořcan add more names to the list. and you don't even need to specifu-whai it is that you are talking about. as well ás expressing existence and location (as in chčgi issóyo' it's ouet tbere.is in na-dó (me-too).g. once again' this is because _hago belongs ii' tt'. I rl vrlu 2 Waiters and shopkeepers The word 3ióssi literally means zzcle. not before. cigarettes-hago |pause| matches.ThereÍore the lri. shinae-e (toum eentre-to = to totunJ. since as a particle it h. you cň "lso h116o kach'i. *ith. and siie'me.rirr.You have also seen the same ending in the phrase tůseyo' comts řzóib e ot take in.' The stem here is chu_. 6 Asking for things 3 Korean partacles In the íntroduction we talked about the way Korean adds little words called particles to the ends of worás. but is used for any woman who is.: lrrrnin-hago kach'i shinae-e kayo.

lileÍally fuze hclrse!). What other meaning could these sentences have? Imagine that the following Korean sentences were spoken to iuu] rvr"t. You shouldn't need any! Uniumble the following sentences: write them in-the correct f"ti it t.'.d'hk (veÍb stem) ani. €9ge Practice You will need the following words for the exercises.. don't be tempted to try t ' given you. at Íirst!).*anizad'on.t forget to work out the meaning! Don't spoken in a quasi-AmeÍican acc€nt.dě}49! 4 A 4x.qs? 5 +] "}^le-l áaql 7}g? ó š+' E+.El. Beer is b€coming increasingly populaÍ. and thg phrase oÍ. then in Korean script for practice' "ri. though recently it is being drunk moře and more in fřuit flavours like cherřy (cáéd sqíu) and lemon (eínon sďU). I a kayo ilbon_e chigům b issóvo maekchu ajóssi . lf you 9o out to drink with Korean Íriends thďe will bé toasts bgÍore each shot. b (iive the polite style form of the following verbs' Try making q short sentence out of each one.(eat| e Í has ani. and has a thick milky consistsncy. mwó kayo d chuseyo-ojingó yangju_hago e kůrigo chuseyo aniu_do f na-do kavo kage-e g marůn tjpap ániu-hago issóyo maek|u-hago Make up Korean sentences to say that there is or there are the following things.. óps! kac isssa- d mók.gaÍ mók(Vořb stem) ďtungguk llbon china I qq 7ls? 2 q7l glqe. "}Ť 4 "^lqg. . ] ÓJ.e sáot'. no matteÍ how bad your singing voico might be! Another allemative is the national anthem! soiu is usua|ly drunk in shots liks vodka. and 'you will be expect€d lo say one (English will b€ quité accaptablo.y'.á. with Korean bo6rs being typically sweeter and lighteí than their westem counteÍparts' Anotheí favourito is mekkólll.r especia|ly strong taste. lt ís the kind oÍ drink that you will pÍobably either love or hate' .sř (veřb stsm) q.. h.. Another popular habit is for sach person to sing a song' so be ready with a few BVis or Beatles numb€rs.. up an appropiiate response in each case' gE =+ Japan sulďlp lg Pub haklqo É|Íl school Fp g rice (cookd nce) ků-daům-e f EtEil aftďthat'.El^|. kase TlIl s/.op mashi. which is also made Írom rice. and there is also even cucumb€r flavour (oi soju)."-'b k"g"-."en't to use As vou are doinq these exercises.(sir ) . ís very populař ln Koroan baÍs (the word for bar is sulchip.

rle egÍees and su8gests that atter that you go to the pub b beer for a beerYou are in a pub where you meet a friend. En|oy your meal! r Šlre'Is have western spirits. Greet him and ask where he is going' Suggest.t squid.a friend who is going to the shop.'"o. fftr ítr Ř:*řii:í':. a You meet . Ířuit ind bread . grve you the following things. make op response and order some fruit..#x:Ť#. by a waiter for two orders.that yoďgo together.all of thern! E flease atso gtve me some rice. Make up rwo dialogues. c What are you doing after'that? Translate the following sentences into Korean. t^+ l' Ílll ''l ^ Dl+ I Í-44 + o. "n "pi.:"i"Í! n. please. Ask how he's been and order a beer and a soiu for the two of you.op'iát Get the ayentign of úe following people and ask them to ' ffi1*:. yout l we don. e "J+ 7 1D{ T Ť+ - qLlt . Then give me a please.'. . based on the foltowing scenarios.5 6 d s€ you going to the town cenÚe now? e where are you qoins? f we have béer. j Some Korean pancake and a soiu. Ask the waiter what snacks he has.t'rfrij.

gro€t and 1 2 3 4 How long is it since they met? How is Mr Pak's business doing? r0řhat does Mr Kirn say about Mr Pak's wiíe? !7hat is Mr Pak's wife's name? . č!il} 9?1lzoJ0l0llE' e!ě l. É}^{ IlHol9? olíll9? ul. chal chinaessóyo? Ne. Pangapsumnida. Chinccha oraeganman-ieyo. r= zč!g0lole. no see! Mr Kim meéts an old Íriend Mr Pak and is introduced to Mr Pak's wife. Uri chipsaram-ieyo. Ějdg +E =fl. annyóng haseyo? A! Pak sÓnsaengnim! Annyóng haseyo! = I Mr Kim Mr Pak MÍ Kim Mr Pak Mr Kim Mř Pak's MÍ oÍaeganman-ieyo! Ne' Kůraeyo. chó-nun Kim Jinyang-ieyo.olE. YojÚm saób-un ěttaeyo? Kujó kuraeyo' A! Kuraeyo? Pangapsumnida. 11= áEglfle.{da s oo o J 5 o GI o o 1+ 1+ o t3 \ J uo o t1+ u II Mř Pak MÍ Kim MÍ Pak Kim sónsaengnim. MannasÓ pangapsúmnida' ln this unit you wlll loam . Ma|ssům mani (pointing to his wiíe.'s business tbese daysť . 0l! ]dl'lg? HJaáLIQ.D Long time. gá "Jol edg BJaáLlEl. II I I Kim wifg turěssóyo. how to me€t. ]?l19. e!! eáa t'J{S eťg ttl^{ lI ^I adéu ' 9!56t^ll9? É]dě. á XlH'olg. how to íiM where you want to be how to say that something is or isn't something olso hovy to givo yoúr s€nlonces subiscts and loplcg iniÍoduco pgoplo oraeganman-ieyo yo|ům saób-un óraeyo? ku|ó kůraeyo malssům mani tňróssóyo Phrases and expressions long time. . (pointing to his wife. no see! so-so l'ue heard a lot about you (mannasó)pangapsůmnida pleased to meet you! bou'. +al ě^lB0l0llB.J ! 0t| ! EEól^llg! gata$0l0ll9 u| . chal chinaessóyo. . chl-nun chang Yunhuy-eyo. EĚ ^lgE ]X1 ]allB. P!u^l BJaáLIt}.

nrnckju-eyo l)lcase note is beer í Korean surnames and titles that'is'in this sense means 'is equivalent to. you can use the title sónsaengnim. Sir. like the polite title -ssi used with first names. is ldcntical with'. welour 2 -0l g Eg man(h)i *01 chó n _nún -= it is (eq)ivalent to) (noun\ Words' spe€cft much. is green. It is never used iust with someone's first name. This means that Mrs (]ho who is marriěd to Mr Kim (Korean women keep their own surnames rather than taking their husbands) may be addressed ns Kim sónsaengnim-puia (Kim'Mr-tuife|. 'lir say'A is B' (as in. It is also the normal word for a teacher. but the simple form ll-icyo is iust as common. and -eyo Grammar '!íhen you want to address Korean men politely. English does not make this dirtinction. Like other Korean verbs. for that matter. as when you start to learn Korean it can be lcmpting to use the copula where you should not. you would say. when you are saying thnt'one thing is equivalent to'or'the same as something else' thnt the copula (ieyo) is used in Korean. the third dcscribes the book. and the context is the only way of telling whetier it Pak sónsaengnim). thk Abing) is a table. However. wc have described the Íorm A-B-ieyo. or with the í. not before as in English. can you say Kim-ssi or Kim Jinyang-ssi. it behaves a little differently to ordinary verbs. The title can be used on its own to speak to someone you don't know. but in practice means Mr. tley are simply Addressing women is a little more complex. a lot IT/€ When you want to say that something li something else (e. many.g. Notice that. Mr Kim is a lapanese teacber.Kim sónsaongnim e élsH at 0ll Pak r{ kůraeyo (?) f Il|gp chinccha yoiÚm 8[ saóp g= (noun)-ieyo chip g house person saÍam chiFaram g^}É wife ^lEl malssilm ófiaeyo? 0|E|9p uÍl 9ťl 'ún -g ^lg Mr Kim (sonsaengnim a|so means téacf'eÓ ah! Pak (Korean sumame) realy (?). tbis office k tbc Korean d. It is only for the first. the title comes after the person's name. B-ieyo (or B-eyo) this Chinese book-ieyo 'l'he form -ieyo is used The copula Jang Yunhui Kim Jiíryang ěl E9| e šlgl (topic particle) woman's namé (sumame first) man's name (sumame Íirst) A ir used when 'B' ends in a vowel: :rSnsaengnim-ieyo is a teacber when'B'ends in a consonant.g. with the surname (Kin sónsaengnim. and sometimes Miss is also rused (Misu Pak). this is a Chinese book\. so you cannot say Áll these use the English 'is'. or whether being addressed as Mr. This occurs several times in this lcsson. and yet only the fust'is'means 'ir identical to'. k angryl.you use a special verb form called thc copula. and in all cases there is an implied Á which is unspoken. it does not mean 'is located in' or 'is a certain wny' (e. which literally me ans teaeher. it comes at the end of the rcntence.rll name (PakJaernin sónsaengnim). both of which would be considered to be qúte rude). The second 'is' expresses location. . You must be very cnreful with this. and it therefore shows respect in addressing the person being spoken about as an elder. Often women are nddressed as being their husbands' wives.epartmmt offieel. You could even say the English Mrs Cho (Misesu Cho). is ivit is so (?) (qu€6tion and roply) really nowadays busrhess (topic particle: s€e note 4) how is it? dgH rneans that someone is a teacher. The title sónsaengnim originally meant the one who was bom fust. Look at the following sentences: this is a book thc book is on the table the book is green Jinyang sónsaengnim (nor.

your family and your possessions. In the two s€ntences above. sónsaengnim_ůn (as for teacher). In Korean culture you are meant to downplay yourself.g. As for my business. you are expected to say uri (ozr) rather than nae or che. úe context tells you what the subiect of the sentence is. 11=. This term is never used to refer to your own wife. and -ůn when it ends in a consonant. chÓ_nun hangungmal sónsasngnim-i anieyo' A. It can be used as a statem€nt' e. therefore you don't have to say it explicitly as you do in English. the nouns rzy business and me would both be followed by the topic particle in Korean to show that they are the topics of their sentences. Koreans are very concemed about políteness. olěc o}Ll9. lnstead. it is (so)\. xl= gĚoJ gAlc 0t' 5lé ÉLlEt. -k . Yěgi-ga hanguk hakkwa Koran depdtment. tlle thing which is being talked about.ge Aniyo. choesong hamnida. ot As for m.it is honorific term puin.e. shillye hamnida. or anae. even though saób_un óttaeyo? Kůraeyo means is like that. kňraeyo (it is like that. Korean does this kind of thing very frequently with the topic particle -uď_nun. However. th*t's right. hou's business? teacher? rhc is no one else's. Mr Kim. Sometimes we do this in English with an expression like as for . Thus. Everybody is expected to do this when they trlk about their family members. +ě g0l^llg? gtt{ e!=g dé'J oJue{ *ole. liÍ o Mr tae Ne? il]o Mrtoo Mr o Mr [. D ttt not me! 4 Topics Korean has a particle which can be attached to a noun or a phrase to emphasize that it is the toPic of the sentence. l don't Lte czŘe. _nůn when the noun you are making a topic ends in a vowel. We might say. for emphasis. you use either the word chipsaram lliteraliy house pěrsoz). Yěgi-nun ilbon hakkwa-eyo.. therefore to speak ibout you. Ě!++n+]t o}Ll0llB. q]l= gE+'lollB' gil! ]ě É!+Ei'} oltl0ll9? 0lé{ n)l 9lol9. when referring to your relatives. The particle has two forms. honorific words and non-honorific words. and they can be divided into two categories. both oř which máan my.[ook at the following examples (we have put the implied Á in brackets! ): oraeganman-ieyo wi chipsaram-ieyo (a tnatter of) long tbne no see (tbis person) . Hanguk hakkwa{a anieyo. it's going pretý uell at the motnent.laetuin ssl-nin (as for laemin). Íirst he ma€t8 Mr Lee. 5 Hangungmalsónsasngnim-iseyo? Wives and Íamily There are at least three words for wife. as ínl sónsaengnim óttaeyo? uhat is the teachet like?. Ottaeyo means is hou?. you would say uri chipsaram lour wifel when you want to talk about your wife. Íor example. Furthermore. As a question. úat is to say.. Examples are soiu-nun (as for soful. however. It would be very rude to speak rbout sómebne else's wife with these non-honorific words' 3 Óttaeyo and kúraeyo house. kúraeyo? means is it like tbat? is that so? really? MÍ o ls looking for the Kořean t6acher. saób-íll (as for business)' 9d! ádlĚLlEl 0lélg ul? gÉlc Éeg dás0lAll9? Ě!4"J dés0l o}Ll0ll8..?ry urfe This is the same thing which we saw in unit 1. samushir-i anieyo? Ne. and even your Korean has a group of words which mean 'is (a cenain way)'. and thetefore when they are referring to someone else's wife they use an chó-nun ilbonmal sónsaengnim-ieyo. hou is what's business lihe. q]l]l E!+ět'J ^lPéol 0tLl0llE? uda Lll . ^}+ě0l Mr O gpos over to tho gdg AdlrloJ' G7l]l E!4+I} ^l+ě0lole? llda ul .EaH0l0le. . own wife as puin would be inappropriate and possiblý even arrogant.

. MusŮn ir-iseyo? Hangungmal sónsa€ngnim manna-ró wassóyo. nsgative Japanese lanwagÉ (subjeď paÍticle) department (of college/universiý office where? (over) therc what. as you would expect from the last lesson. ólt. For the moment simply learn it re a phrase . You could use it.. Simply remember shillye-jiman as a set expression. have indicated paÍticles by putting a dash between the nouD and its particle. iseyo? for example: Pak sónsaengnim-iseyo? Are you Mr Pak? Hangungnral sónsaengnim_iseyo? Are you tbe Korean teacher? .'. please? (i. Don't worry lbout the -iiman ending for now. uhat's the problem? ' 2 Joining nouns together hanguk É!+ Koreaín) (přonounced han_guk hangungmal aniyo ť!. but the formal is generally more suitable when speaking to rcmeone older or higher in satus than you. You will learn about how to make the formal style later. is shillye haeyo.. This lesson contains the phrase shillye hallrtnida (excuse mel. which is made from the verb stem shillye ha-. and Ílag the individual words and úe compound form in the vocabulary. nusůn ir-iseyo? ercuse me. This lesson also contains the forrn shillye-iinan. The formal and polite styles can be interchanged in many cases. . However. Examples are hanguk + mď. say. please are yoa. However. . which rnattér. The polite style form of this. ódi-eyo? shillye-iiman . .. . w o r* meet (stem) carne (past tense form) no ilbon gEl ilbonmal -sa -71 hakkwa Pt samushil llFAl llEE oEt Jaqn copula) As you know. í More on verb endings . Mr Kim Mr o shillye_jiman. 1 What does Mr O ask Mr ke? 2 'Who is Mr Lee? 3 Where are Mr O and Mr Lee having their conversation! 'Vhere 4 does Mr O go next? 5 Why has he come? Phrases and expressions shillye hamnida . it is normal to use a special form of the copula -iseyo? This form is an honorific form . which gives hangungnal (Korean hnguage) and hanguk bakkwa which mcans Korean depntnent.e. yógi_gahangukhakkwasamushir-ieyo? Ne.|E I 0lu9 -i _01 language Kor@n languaga g4) anléyo 0lu 9 (subjecl particle: see notes) /s noÍ (opposite oÍ -oeyo. Korean ataches all kinds of particles on the 'We cnd of nouns to give particular meanings. you will learn it thoroughly hter. Korean also allows many nouns to be srung together ln a sequence. uthat is it? bow can I helo vou? uhereis. and usually when you are asking aomeone to ei(cuse you. or Mr Pak. but . iseyo? choesong hamnida . this is the form you will want to use.. . The bamnida form is what is known as the formal style. . . bLrsi ness. hanguk hakkwa samushir-i Grammar \ goes ovér to the Korean departmenL |{'9'.manna-rówassóyo mal Ic4metosee.. the person I'm looking for) I'm sorry exeuse me.. . . therefore. We write some of these as one word (like hangungmal). .is irregular. This is an rbbreviation of shillye ha-iirnan.. when you do this.Mr Mr Mr o Le€ o chÓgi issčyo..it shows politeness to the other person. the -iiman ending meaning óar' The complete expression means I'm sorry. 3 Finding the person you want mugun chěgl I{7| el +É wassóyo manna- go|9 EU- itg The copula is Korean's special verb form which allows you to lck if something is something else. since ha.? Ve have seen that Korean verbs take many different endings. KúrÓm. to ask a person if they are Mr Kim.

sr. Are you 6ut tonight?|.'Whai is the difference between the subiect and topic particles? t When 'yes' means 'no' Vhen sornething is mentioned Íor the first time. lÍ thc question is positive |Do you like musbrooms?. Naturally enough. sónsaegnim-i. it is more correct to use the sublect or the topic particle. although some will sound moÍe natural to a Korean (and eventually to you) with one rather than the other. 'olng lktwcver. hakkwa-ga anieyo l 'iii.li'Jf = subiect particle. the Anrwcring questions that require 'yes' and 'no' answers can be I blt tricky in Korean.4 senténce subiects lA+ubiltopl (B-subi) anteyo (srbi am In the previous dialogue you met the topic paÍticle. if the topic Particle -nun were used instead oÍ the subject particle. Later on. Most sentences will be correct with either. if the question like the English 'as for'. you must always hEkkyo-ga kógi issóyo the school ouer tbere is/exists. which is similar. usually subiect particle is used. The form is: is. is particularly for an emphasis -when com. 'Á is not B'. as it can tend to confuse Koreans when foreigners do so.I do like tbem Arcn't you going out tonight? No. the man could also be the topic.g. I'm not Yes. The subiect particl€ _i attaches to the end of nouns which end in a consonant.. in a given sentence. when the subject is repeared in the conversation' you can switch to use the topic paÍticle instead.g. This gives: maekiuga. as for me (me-rur. I don't). The topic particle. as in 'this thing is not a book'. I don't No. things ar€ not quite so simple! In both of these sentences. kwair-i (from kwail' /rzlt). |B-subj) ódieyo? l{owcver. ? question.g. I am going No. 'o"'"'e. I am going out out gocs without saying that you need to think very carefully whcn answering negative questions in Korean! 7 Where is it? 5 Negative copula To lck where something is in Korean' you say. the particle marks out the subiect of the sentence. You have learnt how to say 'A is B' (this thing-A is a book-B). I do like tbem Koienn No. unfortunately. sle lzst loues it. e. you will recall. however. in the sentence Tlr e man kicked the dog. hakkyoga (sclool). l'ffi not Bnglish Korcnn h Yes.: Don't you like mushrooms? is negative (Don't you lihe mushrooms?. 'Mr Kim is not my teacher'. ln the senten ceThe man is fat. 'this book is not a Chinese book'. confusingly. you cán also say (B_srrál ) ódi issóyo! Whcn you answer a ubere uao the verb issóyo. 'the man' is the subject. I like them or No. thei the answer you give will be thc opiositě to what you would say in English. I hate shopping. As for Mum (Mum-nun). and this dialogue introduces you to the subi€ct particle. It is important that you do use one oÍ the other in your sentences whenever you can.'the man' is again the subfect. I don't Yes. the school is ouer there . Bnglish Yes.bi\ anieyo lunguí. However. e. then you answeÍ as you would in English (Yu. and the subject particle -ga a$aches to nouns which end in a vowel.l. e. chó-nun sónsaengnim-i lD. For example.. even though they often leave them out themselves in casual speech. lot a teacber You can anieyo (this) is not the Korean depart lrent Look at the examples in the dialogue very carefully to be suÍe thrt you have understood this pattern. Do not worry too much about whether.paring two things. Gradually you will get the feel of which particle to use as your sense of the language develops. Now you must leam the negative copula. Do not iust leave off panicles. It is panicularly common Ann't you goinf out tonigbt?|.

(e. makes sense' cUnvcrsation ". rnth tln-e in turn' you say this thing (igósh-i) 's..irltt. e' -ró) ? hakkyo ka b Mwó ha . how is it?)' the comPanY I Mr O o.". Then work out the meanings oí the sentences. pointing at . while the other peBon allows their hand to be shaken. (i/ga' uďnun) a Anřey"' Yogi Sov hello to the following people.e.J uf. and ask about how things iiJ *i. Insert the appropriate word endings into the gaps Írom the selection given.. Yojům saób-un ónaeyo? h sentences. The Íorm ch'ěum poepkessumnida is evén mors polite' and literally means I am seerng you for the first time. then make sure you use the correct form.n it'". ! Na shinae kayo. do. 9lÍl AlE Ameica(n) son school univeÉily hsalth company (..rxrk at the following drawings' Imagine that you are lolchinq a child the names of the objects and. the fiÍst one you would ó writc the Korean equivalint oÍ Hello Mr c. The Korean style is for the more senior person to do the shaking.. If there is a choice A. Remember to check what well as what comes before. so rhat the whole with Practice For the exercises you will need the following adďtional vocabulary: a ()higům ódi gayo? Snmushir-i ódieyo? (ouer there) h t It taehaklryoUet shinmun kóngang hoesa kaiok Miguk adul hakkyo de gfll ll+ 0l+ 01.'o'i"t" Koreaň . how's the business b Mrs Cho Mr Pak's wiÍe the family c school d l'aegyu her health r Miss Pak lill in the missing bits of the Íollowing dialogue i''nr. and be sure not to shake hands too hard./B. lt is wise to bow slightly when you shaks hands with people. so l'm pleased aÍe Vgry common. chapii ElIl magazine chigúm I|= now néwspaper 1 The following Korean sentences have gaps where particles and word endings should be.rmpany? (as for the company. business) family a b Musůn ir-i issóyo? t. ne. the company.lffil - - - - . and this characteristic is especially noticeable When you mest people Íor the first time.Koreans are very concerned about politeness. I seing introduced C (uďnun) óttaeyo? Kim sónsaengnim Ílga\ saňushir-ieyo? Yóei -samushir anieyo. ssi) a Sangmin (yo. For e*aňple. I Paek sónsaengnim' oraeganman-ieyo! b a Nc. Phrases such as mannasó pangapsúmnida' which literally means l've met you.'fo.

Óf! 4+Br]E}. saying that this thing is zol what you see in the picture. reallyš l'm sorry. Make up five questions for the following five people. Make sure that you get the words for 'yes' and 'no' the right way round with the last three! b Mr Lee a an American person I c a Chinese teacher d Mr Paek's son e a school teacher trrkhoon approaches the teacher and says. +d/8tsol4-q? ŤŤ Chinese department. but getting across the meaning with the words. 4š B+d^JHol Ó}qq]9. I'm not Mrs woo. For all five of your questions máke up positive and negative answers. Oh. I came to m€et Mr Pak's wife.E. are you the Japanese teacherl d 'lVaiter! Do you have any squid? Horu is tbe squid? Shillye iiman yógi-ga chungguk hakkwa samushir-ieyo? ( lhrrnggung mal sónsaengnim manna-ró wassóyo. I krw mig$t the teacher respond? e f g h i i k l It's not bad."oslat" the following sentences into Korean. Oh. a J. really? Pleased to n eet you..:]É d^Jts ++4 *Ť++4 7}9.! 7 T. Translate the following dialogue into English. phrases and constructions you have been learning. Is this the Japanese shop? I'm going to see the Korean teacher too. ěa]4"J *Ťq}4= qqqs? 471 flqg. a I'm Pak Sangmin.J ts ol ^l g. This is our Chinese teacher? Really? I'ue beard a lot about you. \Vhere is the Korean department? where is the school oÍfice? . it isn't. but finds himself talking to the wÍong pcrson in the wrong place. +d^JHe d. Remember that you should not be translating literally. For Ó}r]qlg. pol 719. Kim Dukhoon is looking for the Chinese teacher in the the first two. b How is school nowadays? c Excuse me. f. Make up a short dialogue in which two old fÍiends meet up and ásk each other how they are geming on. +.Now make up five more sentences. b a a b q7l= ŤŤq4^}+€o}{g. One of them his his son with him and introduces the son to the other parson. For the last three. ě4Bq4. Isn't this the Korean department office? No. ask negative questions (you arer't so-and-so are you?).B. ask if they are so-and-so.

aboú dining out in Korea . Ma|ssům haseyo. ^119 ]Ě s'ol9' G]l ^lB }l]l áEt+g(oll) 0l9=a 0lLl0ll9? 0lLl0ll9.at hlm for lunch. = HlT] 0}' sJ5ól^ll9. A. Ťcny ritnl hlm tor lunch. 0l&ll gŤ^l0ll ^}I =cll ég g0ll^l Ei^trl.Ť I\ . = Bl+]+ 4]á. lu o - o tr o CL tr o 33 o ct q) o o CL r+ rŮ q) o J 1+ o o GT I J U. oraeganman-ieyo. A] hal . - fl| TE lcu lu lcr lu lct lu +^lls. . &Et á= 7lf'ole. . annyóng hasByo? chó-nun yongguk tagsagwan-úy Tony-syo. chěnhwa chalmot kÓshyóssóyo. how to ask íor what you want . and ananges to rí'. Yógi kurón saram ópsóyo. áz ]lE}al^llE. 0l' e!5ól^llg? qE{lE? áéótllEJ' ed8g ole.ESorry lu q lu { lu wnong number! GE^llg? čl+6lIlBJ ed8'J . Lll ' "Já ól^ll9.ďLlEt. ^1= 9alZ-|P}0l0llB. how to make phon€ calls .k . Rlole. onůl chómshim-e shigan-i issóyo? chamkkan kidďseyo. . - Ýety ln thb unlt you will leam . how to makg aÍrang€ments ltdl tu 9= ědoll flole? Lll. Tony le trylng to contáď his old Korean Íriend' Mr Kim' but at Íirst h6 dhlr the wrong number.Í { I lorW !r P. Kógi sam-p'al-ku uy(e) i-o-kong-npk aniéyo? Anieyo. and dislik€ numb€Ía and counting houí to say 'but' lo''. ^l?J ]aJ' ll]l ád= dolE. l l(m'r wlíe Tw h6 a bÍief ctrÉÍb Ml Km' and aÍranges to Yóboseyo? cho€song ha-iiman' Kim sónsaengnim chom pakkwo-ius€yo' honorifics llr lÚn ďÉ say horv to makE suggestions soín€thing that you can't do r l(m lony N9. annyóng haseyo. has a brief chat to Mr Kim. B+tll^lĚg ELl ' =0}e. Lll =0t9. A. YÓboséyo? lB. . Aa laat Tony gsÍs through. how to discuss what you like to meét people Ťcný n Prk choesong ha-jiman' Kim sónsaengnim chom pakkwo-juseyo. . cho€song hamnida' gpts through. oJs^tEl.

but.. notice the h is not pronounced) ťen (pure Korean number) two (pure Korean number) Íwérye (pure Koréan number) hoťel Eg ap'esě 9l0|ll manna.. haue wel (adverb) rnl- it-iiman mashi-jiman mók-!iman ant-tlman goes. . does.at (particular) yóldu g tuF good (stem) good. each put into lhr .Echoayo -é -0l| Eá -E emóassy belonging to lunch aÍ (a certain time) l (humble Íorm) (subjéct) time. (polite form) Orammar bamnida. hr. .qJu_ shi gF -ll o'clock hotel in front of ittaga 01lll71 po. eats.but. . . I apologize... or Excuse me.7|oilyóngguk g+ a liťtle (while) wait Englancl.llmon form. nrltk- drinh is/are.Mr Kim Tony Mr Kim 1 2 3 4 5 6 ToÍry Né' iŠsóyoKurÓm. and it can be attached to any Yerb base. to mean I'rz sorry. Hata rrc a few other verb stems you have learnt. choayo. drinhs.but.. at.. mis- lrr... . _ul sago I'm sorry. -iiman is a verb ending which mlant ár'. buys...ap'esómannapshida ittaga popshida yěbGéyo ship'óyo Iuanttobuy. and puts it ln thc -iiman form: choesong ha-liman.chompakkwo-iuseyo (chónhwa) chalmot (chónhwa) chalmot kčshyóssóyo kčróssóyo cbamkkan kidariseyo malssům haseyo shigan-i issóyo? . Ar you will have guessed. cboesong hamnida. Biush Who does Tony ask for? What number did he mean to dial? '!řho does Tony identify himself as? !Ú|'hat does Tony ask Mr Kim? Why does he want to know this! Where do they decide to meet? chómshlm -Úy ^ll! shigan llz! che-ga IITJ choh... etccase me can I hauelspeak to .. t/... .. Ťhia unit takes another verb. I'm sorry. but . ue'll see each otber bterl see you later et's meet hter hello (on the telephone) p/ease (see note 2) a 'Ítle..but. such a. sits. please? you'ue got the utrong number (you'ue misdialled) I'ue got tbe urong number please uait a ?nornent please speak (l'm lktening!) do you haue (free) time? let's meet in front of . Ne. excuse me.. che-ga chómshim_ul sa_go ship'óyo. but. .Epwayo meeť (stem) in a little while llR se€' look (sometimes: meeÍ) see. choayo. . Kuróm. t Eontences with 'but' ln Unit 2 you learned shillye kÚrón chom qEWB sam p'al = ]E! ku+ t0l á P g kong/yóng 3/ o9 ě!l[ thlB€ eight nine two faa slx chěnhwa chalmot wkq zeft) Lr..but. but . inegular) (issůseyo?) .but.bat.. ittaga popshida. which meant I'm sorry. . Yěldu shi-e Lotte Hot'e| ap'-esó mannapshida. but .. fina. . chamkkan ě!?! taesagwan kjdaÍi. but . and a similar form rhlllye'iiman. /ook (polite styls. . . chal l|Ť A telephone wrongly. . hour =0lB yól Phrases and exptessions choesong ha-iiman choesong hamnida . OK (polite style. . . has. go do buy eat sit ka-iiman ha-iiman sa-iiman mtthi.

30'three-ten'. before the verb chu. the Sino-Korean numbers must be used. there are a number of oddities in the llbhunciation of numbers when they are put together. Taking an example from the next dialogue' someone orders two portions of somethíng and two dishes of something else.970 35. rprng. rhlp I shibo shimnyuk shipch'il shipp'al shipku iship 13 14 15 16 17 '18 ishibil ishibi ishipsam (9Íc. etc.lhip-p'al &thlm-nyuk rrl-rhib-il iam. for example. |t soÍtens the request.man-o-ch'ón-nyuk-baek-i. but to count minutes.pronounced as a t when _iiman is addéd.shib-o 2. You might use it in a sentence such as Mae$u chom chuseyo lPlease giue me some beer|. and we will tell you more about this as the course progresses. but the word is pronounced itliman. depending on lht rurrounding syllables: yuk. lá lt 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 shibil shibi shipsam '11 12 shipsa yuk 2 olťll Making nequests more potite p'rl hu I 10 The word chom is Ílagged in the vocabulary as meaning please' It is not. However. Just remember that the number 6 aan b? pronounced in any of the following ways. it does have a similar effect to 'please'. everything is straightforward. and which set you use in any situation all depends on what it is that you want to count! To count hours.) ku-ship 90 pask 100 1000 ch'ón man IO0OO D g Numbers and counting Korean has two completely different sets of numbers which makes things very awkward for the language learner. rnrk. then the . Numbers are used for countinB things. In this unit you will meet the Sino-Korean numbers only. lyul' lyungl lhonc numbers are given in Korean by listing the digits in lhtlr Sino-Korean form. You simply have to know that the word poÍtion takes the Sino-Korean numbers (so the word for uao is i). usually called Sino-Korean numerals.peek-p'al-ship-sa l*h'ón-ku-baek-chi'l-ship Ď. chó-nun yangju chal mashyčyo. however. we will always indicate thor in the romanization. In Korean Ean'gul yoll still write the double ss. and that dishes takes the pure Korean numbers (so the word for trzo is dwu)! There is no shortcut. However. please). They are as follows: llrr rrc a few more complicated examples for you to pick up lhl plttcrn: t lu. you use the pure Korean numbers. There is a Korean set. and consequently makes it more polite. In this unit you meet it in the sentence: Kim sčnsaengnim chom pakkwoirseyo (Can I speak to Mr Kim.) (Notice ůe form with iss-' where the double ss becomes hrrttg/yóng tl I 0 1 Can you work out the meanings of the following sentence? láln Kim sónsaengnim maekju chal mashi-|iman. then the sound -e. and rpukcrs usually give the first three. It is most frequently used when asking to be given something.(giue). especially ioncorning the number 6. because some of its uses are quite different. I'wcnry is just'wo-ten'.625 98 56 117 384 At you will have observed.) 21 22 23 19 20 samship ishipku 29 30 )rrro you have leamt 1 to 10. and another set which are of Chinese origin.: 20 i-ship sam-ship 30 sa-ship 40 (eťc. of itself the direct equivalent of our English word 'please'. yung nyuk. Seoul numbers have seven digits. if you insert the word chom in a request immediately before the verb at the end of the sentence. You iust have to learn which set of numbers are used with which objects. nyung. often called pure Korean numerals. that is.

(u}orhida' -pshida iš added onto a verb st€m ending in a vowel' rirď-upshida is added if the verb stem ends in a consonant. to produce the meaniÍg tuant 'o nrtrk-ko shÍo'óvo means I taafilo ear' The -ko attaches straight tr the verb item. Here are a couple ot examples ot 'llll lhr ítrrm: Yi'tlrlrr nhi-e ílmryrrrru rltlnnc-e kapshida kach'i Let's go to toun together at 72 haue a drink mashipshida Let's . and. since being pretry_ lr I rtote and not an action.g. one might quote the STD. Tieat them as if they are inseparable. Thus na-nun rr tirlrl. You've mer the polite ending -yo before. Here are a couple of r rlrttples: rrllrk.tltes pronounčed as a g after vowels. Although for the next íew units thís is the most common use you will meet for the polite honorific. then the telephone number: t llrr Saying what you want to do l<lrm -ko ship'óyo (the form ship'óyo coming from the stem 01535 352-0873 9663497 568326 ku-ryung-nyug-e sam-sa-ku-il kong-il-o-sam-o-e o-ryuk-p'al-sam-i-ryuk sam-o-i-ekong-p'al-ch'il-sam 4 lntroducinghonorifics rltttl'-) can be aáde'd onto any ve. 'ltr oxample you have seen is the ending (ů)seyo. whether it ends in a consonant or a vowel. eat llldnnn. other use in the back of your mind. which is the honorifii bit.meet mashi. even_ th. hence'the name |olítc honorific. kidariseyo (from kidari-). respecr or wish to honour. These verbs are in what we call the polite honorific form which is shown by the ending -seyo. since tlat describes an action' but (!h't say 1et's be pretry' using _(ů)pshida. there is anorher way in which it can be used. and šhows special respect or honour to Mr Kiň. AII you have to do is add -seyo to a verb stem which ends in a vowel. and -useyo to a verb stem which ends in a consonant. But it also has an -s. as you would expect. It is a form of respect. You will meet many' many examples as A llnrl verb to learn from this dialogue is ýou w<lrk through tlris book.mashiseyo iss- kidari- ha- kidariseyo haseyo ani- aniuseyo issuseyo chó-nun chómshim mók_ko ship'óyo I uant to eat lunch Jinyang manna-go ship'óyo I urant to meet linYang The most common use for this ending is as a polite request asking someone to do something. it is a -formal form..r. and it is this honorific parr that makes the ending -(u)seyo into a polite request. thc person you are requesting to do whatever it is. either to ask a question of somebody you a statement about them. then say -e. Yóu will meet this usagc in the next dialogue. This serves to honour the person you are talking to. Nrrtc thai vou can't put aňy other words between the _ko and tlre lhip'óýo parts. and lllíl'c:lre no iriegulariries other than that tbe k of the and issuseyo (from iss-). The ones you have seen are: haseyo (from ha-).. as opposed to something you nlrtlvelv pďite or soi in a very informal or colloquial conversation' Note wrrrrld ttncc urain that vou can only add this form onto a verb which dlrrlhás an acrión' just as you saw with -ko shiP'óyo. particularly esteem. . For now you should make sure that you are completely happy with the polite request meaning' but also be áware of ji'i. and this ending also has it. 'l1r nrcaninq of (Ú)pshida is let's do (such'and-such).rnsonňts is one that you are becoming familiar with. that is. like this: In this unit you meet several verbs that end with -seyo.rr6ť there_is a space beťween them. Thus the sentence Kimsónsaengnim-i hakkyo_e kaseyo means Mt Kim is going to school. pbase (io it). _ko l. since these honorifics arc something that we shall return to later on. This tlrttsrň of usine the vowel u to add to nouns or verb stems that ind ln c.second four' In Englísh. Thus you šllr rlly'let's go for'a walk'. or simply to m'akc I Making suggestions ending pattern . but the topic nrllcle (n)ůn is similar. e.b siern which describes an (verb).in it. so'that kidariseyo means please rzajr. Notiée ihat we've called the ending the polite honorific.

=^] =0l ' 0t+ =0t ólXlU' qlllE } á F qolg. Ne. You will actually Íind that Koreans tend to eat out a little moré oÍten than westemers.: shalllgiueyou. =27lLl laliJ XIE tscE q! cole.. els ed8 EU ea!c EU Ě!= L]l ol^l g^le.I m" not oi"logua was all about arranging to meét up for lunch. the food. After all. . .d. so everything works out fairly in the end! obneópwon lll lttm lmy I Xlm ÓsÓ orngópwon llr Xlm oseyo' lcchog_uro anjuseyo. 6l^]le? A =ots. 0l +oĚ gl9^ll9. They order drinks. you like . Cl Are you ready to order yet? Tony and Mr Kim meet up and go to a restaurant for lunch. Lll. waLísss amyes to take theh food order.ňng tho mad. eá!. everyone ends up b€ing the senior party at some time or other. mul-hago kimch'i chom tó chuseyo. True or false? . and this is a common enough Korean habit. aju choa ha-jiman. lt is generally regarded as the senior person's job to pay for everyone else. it is very rare to 'go dutch' and split the bill ás we might among friends in our culture. iust as it is in the West. choayo. ln the West we tend to eat out for special occasions or Íor a treat and. Eu EBrla? BlgBE EĚrl9? = =g$ +^ile. Íolty I l)o they order wine! l \líhnt does Tony think about Korean food? I lirny is conteniwith Kim's suggestion. oÍ course. Whgn eating out with Koreans. But on more normal' everyday occasions they will also often take an oÍdinary méal out and this can be done quite cheaply. ''la ohongěpwon chumunhashigessóyo? Yorry Íory o}ongěpwon Pulgogi i_inbun-hago naengmyón tu kúrůt chuseyo. túrilkkayo? utould you like to order? utoul. to the waitress: =gfl Eu "1?l)ll EAle! 0l]l^''l hunrun hashigessóyo ? '. either the person who has done the inviting. Mul naengmyÓn tůrilkkayo? Pibim naengmyÓn tůrilkkayo? Mul naengmyěn chuséyo. Koreans do this too and are prepared to spénd quite a bit of money to do so. and also that eating out can b€ done mořé cheaply in Korea.. maeun kó chal mon mÓgóyo. Phrrree and expÍessions nral orcyo uelcome! side) l r't'ho5-uro aniůseyo please sit ouer here (ouer this tbank you tuould you like sometbing to lrrmrprůmnida 0ntryoru hashigessóyo? r drink? Duting the med.l What does Tony ask the waitress for? =sfl !géLla. Ío tne wďťÍess: Agassi. Komapsumnida' Úmryosu hashigessóyo? UsÓn maekju chom chuseyo. ]Ě 3Ul= €^ltt.. lÚrKm lcny KůÍóm pulgogi-na kalbi-rul měgúpshida. llit. +E ól^l7'{olE? =Ea En]l olE=ól] Bs :]Ť +^ll9. and you must not ofÍend Koreans by insisting on breaking their cultural tÍadition.g Bt+ ól^lilolR? =sa 9d E+ Ě +^ll9. and then have a discussion about théir culinary likes and dislikes. . The wajtess aÍives to tale their food order. ln Korea it is normally one person who pays the bill.) ' Ěóln zil á tl +^1lB. or the most senior Íigure (in age oÍ status). Hanguk Ůmshik choa haseyo? Ne. Kůrigo chó-nun naengmyěn-do mÓk-ko ship'óyo. A llltla whlle later the waitess aÍrives with ohongóprvon Mashikketúseyo! tl. =Ea EgE EU little while later the waitress anives with the Íood.

Kotan spiced mainated sprcy (adi) thing. but rhe root h that something is good.+=01-inbun beef or (particle) mainated and ftíed spare níbs (usually pork. .= mon m_) pulgogi. Choayo is a kind of verbal adiective which means 'is good'.bn you explain the difÍerencg therefore. or idea sound even more vasue by adding -na to both nouns. $E cabbage.i asďstanÍ (remembér aiossi is the term to call him over) towards. You might conceivably rccognize it as being good kimch'i (as far as kimch'i goes. Somethíng else might be |ust as ncccptable. you might still be able to discern between good and bad cxomples. you are iust suggesting kalbi. object. cheaper than pulgogi) thin noodles with vegetables order (stem) (irntrariwise. lust like -hago can hc added after nouns to mean 'and'. It -meaning rnny by implication mean that you like it. a good guy. In a rimilar way you can have |ust onď noun plus _na to mžke the rcntcnce more vague so that ir means'(noun) or something'. Kalbi-na pulgogi mógůpshida means 'lct's eat kalbi or pulgogi'.. Then the translation woulďbe romcthing like 'let's eat kalbi or pulgogi or something'. unmanied woÚÉrn) '|'hc 6rst means that MÍ Kim is a good man. ) -na -u katbi tul naengmyón gP! chumun ha. spiced strongly with chillies rnore cbssic Korean side dish. or whoever else is being spoken about. fact (abbreviation of kót' spelt kěs) without actually wanting to say thet you like it. choa haeyo means 'like'. Kimch'i choayo means that the kimch'i is good. 'l'here is an important difference between these two verbs. You can make this eitber. between Kimsónsaerrgnim kúÍút mlí naengmyón fl muF -- -EE tus i0l two poftion Íwo (pure Koréan number) dishlbowl E 8P! pibim ulg ttirilkkayo e g4g agassi 0lrlul kimch'i g^l water thin noodles in cold soup (spicy and rďreshing!) mixed would you like? (it: sha l give you?) waitress! (lit-: gif .. choayo and Kimsónsaengnim choa baeyo? (. actuailv llkes the stuff. It is imporrant to see the distinctionl and here is an example to illustrate the diÍference. Kimch'i choa haevo tncans that you. (noun)-ná (noun). in the direction of Grammar 1 Choayoandchoaheeyo Et+ srt (stem) dink food very ÍiÍst /lke (stem) kč }l pulsogi mot = lltr7l cannoÍ (nb mot + m. Even iiyou hate kimch'i. thňfore. even íf It'r not quite at its best. .gl- * {9E =ga side walte. marinated mcans (noun) or (noun). This would mean thát you are not all that bothered about what exactly you eat.chongópwón -(u)řo cchok úmryosu u9ón 9! ůmghik g^| choa ha=0101aiu 0l+ maeun lfie ani. '|'lkc the sentence kalbi_na mčgupshida. It míýt be the case that-you like kimchíi.. The rccond means that you (or whoevei) actually likel himi ' 2Or -nl can be added after a noun to mean .or'. You can say you like something without eommenting on its relative quality.

thin noodle. Mot plus mannagives mon mannayo. then the number you want. without wltor this tims. you can't. Kimch'i is thg marinat€d pick|ed cabbage . your Korean sentence will say'I want to meet Mr Pak and Mrs Kim'. right near the end of the clause immediately before the verb. First you sate the substance you are measuring. saying that you want to do either AorB. uaually eaten in a cold souP as mul naengmyón. It expresses impossibility. Plbim naéngmyón is another Íorm. rather than that go. and mixed with othgr vegotablgs. lt contains |itoÍally hundreds oÍ sales assistants (mainly íomalo)' with at least one on svery singls counteÍ throughout the store. you can't use this construction. like mul klmchT or Wat€Ť kimch'i which is Now repeat the exercise. shiktang Al3 restaurant lott" Hotel is one of the Íamous buildings in seoul. paekhwaióm q!tě| department store wain glE wine mal ha- This is important. . Make up a sentence for each of the íollowing sets of information. I Elol- spea& say A Korean depařtment store is a little ditferent Írom its w€steÍn €quivalent. lrrr splcy and consists oŤ kimch'i in liquid.ngmyón which is a kind of clear. The word mot goes as close to the verb as possible. 4 Measurlng and counting We will have a detailed section on measuring and counting later on. Therg n b c d c f Pak bread pulgogi Mr English beer octopus teacher Japanese teacher Mrs Kim Íruit kalbi whisky meet €at buy naengmyón wait for drink order ars ceřtain othéÍvďeties. or if you aren't going. don't want to go or refuse to |a mede of white radish (mu) instead oÍ cabbagé. Watch out for the sound change that occurs at the end of mot when the verb Íollowing begins with an m. řďher liks vermicelli. but for now notice the two pafterns in this lesson which will give you the key: pulgogi (nounl naengmyón i tu (number') (measurel inbun kůrůt Practice Arltlitional vocabulary for these exercises is as follows. saying that you want to do A and B.you can't do it. lt is spicy (and l| ono oÍ thé Íew Korean dishes to contain mustard or something almllar to it)' but is extremely rsíreshing in the hot summer as it is aaryod with lots of ice. Note that your inability to do something is being described . For This l€sson also introducď two fiamous Korgan foods. you aren't able to or you won't. and you soon get usď to itl cxample. and mu kimch'i which Whether you want to go or not.(I can't meet'1. and is situatď ňght next to the Lotto Départment store (Koroa's biggest) betwesn Mylngdong and shich'ěng (city Hall).3 When you can't do it The little word mot can be added to a sentence to give the meaning that something cannot be done: shinae-e mot kayo (I ca?r't go to the city centre\. You also mét na.very spicy with lots of chilli powdgr .eaten as a sid6 dish with virtua|ly svery Koréan méal. If you simply choose not to go to the city. Lotté ís one oÍ Korea's chaebčl or largg conglomerates. for the fust. At Íiístit can soem as though you're under pr€ssurs to buy' but this isn't really ths cass any moÍe so than in the West. then the unit that you are measuring it by (here ponions and dishes).

mógóyo hakkyomannapshidayólshi_e shigan_i chómshim issuseyo? -e chuseyo usón chom rnaeun chal kó mot 9 'Iranslate the following sentences into English. t l0 You are arranging to meet your'friend. samman-sach'ón-sabaek_kushib-o. but I misdialled.-6231 PAKa5t69TT* kt's speak in Chinese. DaroR 6€.2 The Íollowing is an excerpt from a page in someone's telephone book.q' t]l^}+ol qq 9tq. Write out the names of each person and their number.s? o]+9_É9+9. Answer her. d e p'albaengnyukship-il. Sangrnin-ssi kidariseyo? d Sangmin eats spicy food. aa 7144. They ore intended io practise suggestions and also how to say 'but'.}óŤzlR} tŤ+4 + * Eq. c Jaemin-ssi. (implication: it isn't b c a haseyo? úmshik choa d e c naengmyón Í Hilton Hot'el ap'esó onůI mul ieyo chó-nun hanguk -uy ! kuship-ch'il.s. 4*a1z1o3 q7l f. suggesting a place and a time. Then make up four sentences. b c Sangmin oship-sam. d I want to go to America.e 7lĚ}4. Put the following verbs into the polite honoriGc form ^71-d*-f^lb řEč}.6. two with each of the tivo verb Íorms (you can use any verbs you want to make the sentences). She asks you where you should meét. a I'm going to the Japanese embassy. +É+444'qs? c rť "lÍr}7} "JÝ^lE}. and also into the'let's do'form. in Korean script and in romanization (doctorz rtysa\. s'Ólg. For example. Vhat are the following numbers in English? I like whisky but I can't drink it. Can you unscramble them? ll good for me or it makes me too drunk!) Í Í want to telephone Mr Kim. for the first you will write a Korean b Chigům chómshim mčg-ůroshiktang-e kayo. e I am meeting Mrs Jang in front of the Chinese embassy. but I can't. sentence saying that you can't go to the Japanese embassy. Pak sčniaengnim-úy Pak sónsaengnim-ůy adul adul choayo. b Let's go to the department store. The Íollowing sentences should be translated into Korean. kalbi tu-kúrút saminbun -hago chuseyo +. What is the difference between the following two pairs of iantences r b ? l-kalbi-ga aiu choayo. (ending in -seyo).fl ^}B azl (+}+ďg ěLg^}o]"l|9? +* adqg. a c 3 The following sentences are jumbled up. rthn 21t-54r. Í Paekhwaióm-e kayo.c cE- "JL}- . ibaek-ch'il. c Let's drink some beer or wine. I-kalbi-rul aju choa haeyo.4-g. d ^l{ol 9-Ó-4]g? t 'Ts b c dal4"J €Ť ad^Jts? i Change the Íollowing sentences to sáy that they can't be done. choa haeyo.\I.

0hěmwon !ňdr . . .yÓgi issěyo. chamkkan kldďseyo ' '.+ I J q) -t o ln Ílrlg unlt you will lBam J I c=rlg? Ňd6ln ga^l6 E tl +^llP' ul ' ag ^ld orl flolB.. - simplE shopping Íinding your Way around mor6 about negďil'n how to say 'if use oÍ lhe diroct obi€ct particl€ how to say whéÍosomething is and wh€Íg soms activity tak€s placo nroře numbeís and money in 0hómwon Otulr 0hómwon 0htL ohómwon OhtL Oh0mwon ohír \ Koréan basic use oÍ classifieE whon counting things 0hómwon Ohdr ohómwon . Modu ólmaoyo? Hanja saión sam-man won . YÓgi issóyo. Cheil ssan kó chuseyo. E!& ^l8E Illg ^iEC +Ál9. Komapsumnida. g 0l0llB? É!a0l P}a4. Hanja s4lndo issóyo? Hania sajěn-un s€ kali chongnyu-ga issóyo. kurónikka modu o-man won-ieyo. EF aoJ B0l0ile. - É II . G]l l/ol9. . giléLlEt. EF oloJ golfie. . . I1lg ď 7ll áP! a0l0ll9? Hls a gololle? *e/{le? lllA ]Ě' I1lg lr lua It lu4 dP! Et0t0llB? 0l! dáeuE.]aur} E+ gBJ a0toils. Ólma-eyo? Han kwon-e man won-ssik.How much is it all together? to a Korean bookstorg to buy soms dictionaÍies has a littls trouble over the prica. Ětxt llolg? rlxl SFrl ?tols. . +t II I 5o j GT GI t o tr J 1+ o J ooJ q) r\) o -t Í I I I o. gaF g 0}0ll9? aT Ňč! soJ E. modu i'man won-ieyo. . E }l ^ll šz} ]ltielH9. .. +^119. ' 0{]l ?1ol9. e ?lotR? ^tdElg ut . ěl+fiol9. Pt56l ]l^1l9! 9!5ól }l^l|9' Mwol ch'ajÚseyo? sajón issóyo? Ns.. l. IoJéLlE}. Han-yóng sajón túňlkkayo? Ng han-yěng sajón-hago yÓng-han sajón tul ta chuseyo. g+=E EĚrle? ul.

'lb ray the two previous sentences. eveúhing. for example.sa- ]du''l kón Ul ssa_ lll_ ssan =E nll . we tull ólma g0l han E! kwon A man E! modu hania E!I[ so -s{rik théÍil'''both) English-Kor@n lwo (whén you mean 'ths two of Koran-English ch'rck tu ehlp ec ch'ae kwon book uuo bouse tbree uolumes buildings two boohs three bouses how much one (pure Korean. bacause of that thing. Annyónghi kaséyo! Annyónghi kygséyo. a Korean might myr ln English.Yčngsujůng_doi]rilkkayo? Né.tive) . ch'akkak haessóyo. rount obiects. right. Modu sam_man won-ieyo.ls expenďye make a misbka therefore. fine (Íormally| ch'akkak haessoyo I haue made a misuke kaseyo mwol kyeseyo ch'aisaión goodbye (to someone who is leaving) goodbye (to someone who is staying) whal (obrect form) ! {- l@k for han-yóng g-g ^ld yóng_han g+! dicťnnary sometimes use counterc (counting words) to We might say for example two cups of coffee. or for nlking about a certain number of something. On other occasions we do not use counters' for lxlmplc we say two books. whon used with a counter or moasure woíd) yolu'ne (measuÍa woro '|'hlr ig the usual pattern in Korean Íor counting things. évaryone ll kaii llil kind' exalrple (counlq Íor thg noun chongnyu) ÍáÍge(puro Korean) chinese charaďers Pun chro ll nyón won minute second sam day r'h'Ďng floors yeať |in building) prrn ch'o samshib il sa nyón iship sam (etc. However.000 u/on (unit of Koroan cunency) aach. third floor . Cups and packets are counters of tnoarures by which we count and measure things like coffee and roup.q40lyóngsujúng g+á lll- éxpens'ye (adjec. in Korean. ch€il ssan ks sam-man won-i6yo? Kúróm' cheil chongnyu choil kůrónikka prssan pls. three houses. ú ahtee p^ckets of soup. Here are some ť('mmon Korean counters which take the Sino-Korean numbers you have already leamed: won E! 10.E type' ýft. (ountars are frequently used when English does not use them. A|gesssůmnida Yógi issÓyo. mueh k it (all togetber)? pissan kón Ólma-eyo? Shim-man won-ieyo?l Al choesong hamnida. annyónghi annyónghi okly. Mnd ťlle mosÍ chéap (adjective) is chsap uls d oh'akkak ha.) ch'ůng three thirty days four years tbÍee rrrinutes twerrty seconds myóng zoa (Korean peÍson money) floors. object (abbre\r oÍ kót a! particlB) + topic receipt Orammar belp you? í Counters algesssůmnida I utldersund.chÍi3 chómwon chrl8 chómwon chÍl8 1 How many dictionaries does Chris want to buy? 2 How much are ůe first two volumes? 3 What choice is he later offered? 4 '!7hosekind oÍ Chinese character dictionary does he require? Vhat Íault is the confusion over cost? 5 6 What sarcastic remark does Chris make? Phrases and expre$sions mwol ch'aiúseyo? uhat arc you loohing fot? can l (modu) ólmaeyo? bou'. togpther. chusoyo. peÍ (s€e nota 3) EF 4 al.

ln Íact. You simply say sam il. for example: myón-myóng? myón-nyón? myót-pun? l lcrc are some a*"*pÍa' of common counters which are used with pure Korean numbers: rlri rlr igan This is not to say that Korean always uses counters.000 uon a box To make sentences out of these.. There are some words which do not take a special counteÍ' that is to say.Note that the word myóng can also be used with pure Korean numbers. there are no pure Korean numbers above 99. you are safe to use pure Korean numbers' You can ask how many of something there are with the word myót (spelt myóch'). ln Korean they are usually olÍcd modifiers. han(a) tu(l) se(t) tasot yósót ilgop yódól ahop yól ne(t) 1 yólhan(a) 2 yóldu(D 3 yólse(t) 4 5 b 7 lllwe ii!*a 70. however (say. and so Sino-Korean numbers have to be used Íor 100 and over. b-ut giveš the sěntence the flavour of so much each. that would be wrong. thr follówing sentences to see how it is used: hrn kwon-e man won-ssik apples 500 uton each won-ssik h"n sangja-e ch'ón won_ssik apples 7. If a counter is not used. you can simply use You now need to know the pure Korean numbers. which is difficult to lllnrlate. Study ňuit' "pi. Most counters are used with pure Korean numbers. that (kind of) lhoún sqicY nrppún bad good . the word itself is the counter. RemembeÍ always come before the noun they describe. so with the exception of those you have already learnt which takc ||ln llrón mlGun cheaq such a. below 50).' Here are you háve met so Íar. Thus.n efqensiue ůrt thcy The l€tters in brackets are only used when the number is not followed by a noun or a counteÍ to which it refers. therefore. We El z eup(full box bottle Pure Korean numbersi t the Sino-Korean numbers instead. as it is in English with books and houses. so ór so much per such and such a quantity. it is important to know the pure Korean numbers and to use them when they are required.".000 won Per book (volume) o-baek 11 12 13 { mahůn 40 lntroducingadiectives 10 súmu(l) 20 sórůn 30 I I You have now met several Korean words that function in the ůli tt'"t adiectives do in English. all you have to do is add the loPulá| fu3wa-ga o-baek won-ssig-ieyo Apples are 500 won each Prlces Koreans. but they work rather like adjectives. the number comes before what it is that you aÍe counting' instead of after it. If you need more than that. with a couple of extras thrown in: ihr on"j ghr. rrl rrtfnm I'lrn. for counting days with il lday) you don't need to say il sam il' In Íact. since otherwise you will be easily misunderstood (or not understood at all!) by 'l'hh lcsson introduces you to a construction Íor saying }row much thines cost' usinÁ the word ssik. For smaller numbers.. bours (duration) years of dge person person (honorifrc) o'clock hwon lnn animal lhnn uolume (for books) finBia pyóng teach you up to 49. Sirrr>Korean numbers.

nót ugo them. which means thing (and sometimes also 7 Saylng goodbye An example of the noun kót with an ad|ective would follows: ssan ke or ssan kčsh-i. but Korean dóes this sort oÍ thing a lot and it is good style' It makes your Korean sound natural. ln English we are encouráged not to beĚin sentenc€s with 'but'. It is sometimes abbreviated to kč. or. Vlth the subject particle its form is kčsh-i (prónunciation rules!). but it is often shortened to ke.ii'i'ti. Here are the most common examplés: In continuous speech. and annyčnghi kyeseyo rnltna '.to say goodbye to rnrconc who is leaving (i. the most expensive. go). stcy\. or' more commonly. which mean the cbeap thing. Annyónghi_kaseyo is used.You'll norice that they all end in n. 5 Superlatives You can easily make superlatives in Korean (e. . ohlnlr characters still romained ths most common way oÍ wřiting lÚ' lh. all oí which have to be leamt' Fortunately you do not ttltd lo do thls for your studies in Korsan. rhe most pretty. tt is then only academic and technica| books that kůrigo kúrónde kůrónikka kůrčm kúróna kůrčch'iman but (rlhereas) but and botueuer.". !řith 4l lopp particle íts form is kós-un. tbe spiciest food cheil pissan ke the most ěxpbisiue (thing) |subiéct| cheil choňn saram tbe best person ohlnrl 6 Linking words dllljrnt ones. many Korean ltltapaPcrs uso some chinBsg charactořs interspersed within the characters aÍ9 véry comptex and there are thousands oÍ l$nin'trxt sentences relate to each other by using linking words to begin consecutive sentences. On its own the word is pronounced kót. However.Y ol! might put thesé into sentences as be: You witl see from the dialogue that Korean has two ways for uyttrg goodbye. the fastest) by puttine rhe word cheil before the adiectivďmodifier cheil maeun ůmshik tbe most spicy food. 'řo in piacJ' (from ka_. from the htrnorific form of the verb iss-. but written kós (remember your pronunciation rules!).e. therefore (more colloquial) . all writing in l(om wai done in Chinese characters and then only by an elits that hnrw how' Evon many yeaÍs aÍter King sejong's great invention. but therefore. 'and'and similar words. tbe cheap one. Korean likes to show the way that you úthorttt. and it was not until the snd oí the 19th century that lha KoÍaan script b€gan to grow ln populařity. Unléss you wish to be a scholaÍ in oriental studies' p€rÍsctly Wgll with no knowledge ol charaďers €nd lln auíYlvo Jtould you wish to read a Korsan néwspaper you can buy one which and €ducated Koreans are expected to know around l. fact ot object|.l00 oharEďers which are recommended by the Korean sducation Lor Íill br otí-llmits to you.tay in peace' (made.ducated. about to walk or go away) and alň'(tn3hi kyeseyo is ušed to say goodbye to someo^ne who is tlaylnB there' while the perso-n saying it is gorng' Sometlmes lrrrth rpcakers will be going off ot couÍse' so rn that case botn wtnlld say annyónghi kaseyo' It sounds a bit tricky at hrst' rrlrnlttcdtv' but'onče you gét used to the idea it's really quite . chó-nul pissan kó choa haeyo I like expensiue things kůrón kó mon mógóyo l can't eat that (kiniof) thing !Chlnese characters ln lha dly8 beÍorg thé Korean alphabet was inventgd. Ánnvónchi means iz peace' so annyóngbi kaseyo lll!!n. kón. the best. tbat being so so.g. níÍ"ouhave ó thňk about is who is leaving and who ti rilvinc. in casual speech. exist. This noun kót itself neeás a little explanation' as it commonly occurs in several different forms. One very common construction in KoÍean is to find these words before the noun kót. surprisingly enough. and in a later lesson you will learn how they can be formed from their associated veÁs.

Yfui-sě měróyo? Aniyo.q ltÉiřÓl + rB+ Ě€ Dil* aJ+ Ť!E{'J ag +'l. a féw problems finding what he is looking Íor.l +"| ilc zlŤ"Jc altg +ř szl qěol4.l+F zttzJ. Chongno sagóri-esó orun cchog-uro ka-myón Hanguk oehwan únhaeng chijóm-i issÓyo. ětr N}lal0l^l 9= =!a +oĚ ]lE É!=9ÉcĚ Ilá0l t1ol9' ĚJda qrt^l gol9? B 0lLl9. olelt +a4. issóyo? llÍ Pak Mr Pak unhaongwon Mr Pak Unhaengwon At the caunter in sangÓp bank- "Je tĚ (4+ Éi. Ítft Pak shillye hamnida' l-kunch'ó-e únhaeng_i ódi f.l gž}g+ts^ls.l ád* "JÉ"l7}š'}4 .É f E t s9l ဠ+e qa €9l á€"ll ++q EJt}í eĚ "Jt Ť a4 ^lÉ*H.t.{4 rEf. 9 E éE 3d9 =ol^l =!fl .cg Ě4ElH4. KórÓsó o pun chóngdo kóllyóyo.iF9l +rlá. Komapsumnida.g4l . is required? fťa} ?*EL t 2 3 4 where is the Sangčp bank? !íhat service \0ťhat is the problem? Where is the other bank located? D finOing the way Mr Pak needs to find a bank to ggt some money changed. +{9l4olq Ů}ts ae ^}^}.{. the Íol|owing shows an o(ract from an academic book which uses both thg Korean sc. "4{c At the counter in sangěp bank ge E= Ě}t Eotr ě Bl+]] 4qe.lq B B B llr Pak Unhaengwon Yěngguk ton-ul hanguk ton-uro chom pakku_go ship'óyo. frlg'}9e t {9.E'E). q?l. *^l "J+t B} Unhaengwon A chó uch'egug-esl oencchog-uro ka-myÓn sangóp unhaeng-i issěyo. 0l3xl0l egol oltl ilole? A Il +Í{l+olltl a+oĚ ]}E ág eěol =Ea ?lol9.iĚ €sz1 91 tá44 E+.lldE+.J44ř.{++ {1}t a"Jql +9. Uri únhaeng-un oehwan ómmu_rul an hasyo. Hanguk oehwan Únhaeng_i Ódi issÓyo? Chongno cchog-uro kasayo.:E*-E fff* d.}+ .tl q{! ř+q. tslg +7l4.out oÍ interest. š+qe 4 7}.}aE}.J a t}9. +c.| € ?}EJ-9__ÉlřĚ. ě4ř .|l xl"l áát rĚ*. Hanguk oehwan ůnhasng-uro kaseyo. ltgřrg. eol 9lE ř4914'} t q*q 7l'l* 3txl *t r{ 9l4. "{{u B Ě!= 9Éegol oltl Rlolg? ěĚ *oĚ ]l^l9. fE +{š4l2l :}^! lln Ť4 :l4l .94 4á*s^}q +gřlt +{Ěg 4 dE{E}í * +E' d4.rolelts i!:uĚ q+"J a* É {.E^l4 *+3} Bl4qš aol4. !E}éLltl. bú he has ĚJdc ědlďLlEl.l. +t.rd* z}.l +7lá€9] ^l a+. Eféc B +al eéc 9lá gFE 9} ďe' e!8 Ě!+ EEl cěgtr ]u{lg.l* +{4 1' 7}7} +'J4"J +.ipt and chin6sé charaďers.q4.t!.

ř ďgcs ch'anggu g? ton E -(ílul -E/oehwan ómmu (verb) (clauso ending) tracle Átrother meaning is izÍo (another shape or form). In those cases.omethang happens 'l'hc particle -esč on the end of nouns means from (a place). in addition to úis meaning. and sayang Where . area. you put the particle -esó onto the wrlrd for study. 'l'he meaning. for example: lrrom the bank (_esó) to the post office (-kkaii) takes 10 minutes l'vc come from the embassy (esč): taesagwan-esó wassóyo 'l'hcre is another important (and slightly more complicated) use rlÍ _csó. W'hen you are describing wlrcre an activity is taking place. about (approxi mately) kólli. if you want to say that you are doing your hrltnework in the study.g. For example.. then . changing money from one currency lzro another one.Ěa. -esó thus marks the place where an activity is hrrppening. cashier window 2 Saying 'írom'. Commercial Bank (lit. It could be used in the following circumstances. It won't rurprise you to learn that the Íorm -uro is added to nouns that sangóp unhaong E íyeÍÓ. you simply mark thc place noun with -e. anE P|? 9lg (direct ob.ůnhaeng ůnhaengwon i.ieď particle) exchange óusíhasg seíV. Ifyou want to say that you are doíng some drawing in ýour bedroom' you Put the particle -esó onto the word hcdroom.ls (noun) distri ct. with issóyo and ópsóyo). in the direction of.bkes (time duration) kóllyóyo aĚÍl . cho) 'l'he particle -(u)ro is used to indicate dírection towards.t Íakes (polite style) chijěm I|á yógi-só q7|^| móřóyo g0|9 aniyo oluB o''ůn Álna 9E cÍossroads right brunch ls fár (polite style.: trade bann money wÍndow. hakkyo-e kayo.ongno (one of the main streets in Seoul.sangčp ďg left post offics location particle (place in which something happens).0l_ kúnch'ó chó- uch'eguk 9n+ -esó -0l|ll oen Íků. and the most irnportant use for that is the one you meet in the dialogue. N()te that -esó is not used to say where something exists (that ir. Í/. e. Írom ťhaÍ oné (nearer than cnd with consonants and -Ío to nouns that end with a vowel. ís towards. vicinity Grammar bank clerk í Directions old English 'yon') Íhaťone (a long way away. north of the Han river) kórósó Éo|tl on foot pun E minute chóngdo ěE extent. and therefore it usually occurs with verbs of going and coming.be noÍ (used to make Verbs negativé) (Hangwuk) oehwan Únhaeng Chongno sagóři 9tscc =E Korea Exchange Bank C/. you rnark the place noun with -cró. observe the following examples curefully: Knge-e ch'aek issóyo/manhayo 'l hcre arc books in the shoplThere are many books in the shop (existence once again) Knge-esó ch'aek-ul sayo I am buying a book in the shop (the activity of buying) . irr€gular from here (abbÍe\! ot yogi_eÁo) stem) no lr yóu have already leamt). since that is where the activity of drawing is taking placc.]- =g egfl =Íl bank this one (+ noun).-myěn -E . Neither is it used to say where you are Soing to (motion towards is marked by -e.

ř..tiJtt.l'J lrróvo The verb ending -(u)myón (-umyón after verb stems ending in consonants' otherwise _myón) can be added to the stem of any verb to make an if clause. the Don't watch television all the tíme! (what you. (usually not doing"or are not going to do something not ctrcumstances "* hy ehoice).'i.'Ň[-. etc. a sentence like na-nun ch'aeg-ul issóyo..lles oť the_form na_nun ch'aeg_i.t.lii.' il. ji r'""g*"t i-_ul yónggui ton-uro pakkwu-go ship'óyo) Mlrkiu tu kaii iongnYu-rul saYo? Áii yL" ["i"! í. -eso is used to say where an activity is taking place.l"i"itt l"!. The half of the sentence that comes before the -myčn is the part that is governed by the'if. so vou you wlll iii..n..nt to cbange some moneY 3 'lf' clauses subiects' ||lalrc note ůat the verbs issóyo and ópsóyo always.' .Ň llKe vcrbs of quantity like manh-. the subiect. This is best illustrated by example: t i.i..llllllAÍ to thě verbs issóyo and óPsóyo' .''.l rr. b"uy two (different1 hinds of beer? ltrrr rrl pakku_go ship'óyo i'. ond ópsóyo always take subiects' The same thing ápP.) r.i.urr'.i. much of something exists' They are thus . which mean you are not doing whatever it is' iúy. and to speak about the existence or non-existence of something in a particular place. the implied subiect.ňů.it. Yrxt trlve now learnt several verb stems which end in -i' They and kidari-.) Sometimes' however' the woro 'not' rlmply means 0mrhik'i an choaYo Ťi.ňi-. want to watch.take will not 6nd them in coniuncuon wlth .i"J 4 The object partacle The direct obiect oÍ a sentence is the bit of the sentence that gets something done to it by the subject oÍ the áctor in the sentence.. or to mean from. TV) Korean often marks the obiects in its sentences by adding thc oblect particle to the noun which is the obiect of the sentence. issčyo. going or coming) l I t't lr'rreg-ul sapshída huy a book I iŇ Thus..n. the object. I'll order one too Kim sónsaengnim ch'aj-ůmyón chó-cchog-uro kaseyo If you're looking for Mr Kim. there is a bank Sónsaengnim maekju chumun ha-myón. In other words' it is your decision. cricket) lmmln-un shinae-e an kaYo |lri]|ii "óí 'i'i"s into tóun (he doesn't want to...""""l.i J..to say it's time to learn how to say you . wants to play. yJ"i. chooses nol to ctc.ii.ióod lnrPProPriate) (irs ttre food's fault . Now 8aylng you'Íe not doing something lfii. This is best understood by examples. the subiect. -e is used with verbs of motion towards (coming and going). Here are examples: obiect...rt obiects. since "*. go that uay haeyo that you ln thc lost unit you learned the linle word mot. something. want to drink.-un shinae-e mot kayo (he can't' he has an romcthing else on.. th"t'h"ui thé ob|ect particle' This means that . like this: Yttu urc the little word an immediately before the Nr-nun maekiu an mashyóyo iriiú"s aeerll áon't drink beet (it's your choíce) iň'iri He's playing cricket (what he. In the following sentences the objects are in bold type: I want to drink a beer (what you.. since that verb and others *.mot would be l 'lřil'....Shiktang-esó mannapshida Let's tneet it the restaurant (the activity of meeting) Shiktang-e kayo l'rn going to tbe ÍestauÍant (motion towards the restauÍant. and -ul after a consonant. you lf you go in tbe direction of Cbóngno. a beer) verb. The object particle is -rul after a vowel. These verbs change slighdy Vrrb 8t9ms ending in _í . na-do maekju chumun Chongno cchog-uro ka-myón ůnhaeng-i issóyo ! lf you (sir) order a beer.. the object.

- there is a restaurant. cash is stillthe most common method oÍ payment. I've heard a lot about you! Chamkkan kidariseyo. and some may not have any. ! Banking and flnance É4++7|^\-9Ó]g' I \We beer. Yógi issóyo.when you add the polite Particle -yo. For example.read pyóns tn the following English sentences. The last i changes to yó. mashyóyo' kollyóyo and kidaryčyo. and the cost per glass is 500 won' you ivoutd write sómething like han-ian-e obaek won-ssig-ieyo. yógi-nun kurón saram_i ópsóyo.000 won. howsver. If you go this way s} "il. . pyo tarůn another. x| - - 7}B ol - 9t ol g. Here are a number of items. Kůrónikka modu samch'ón won-ieyo. would -? gena"J-'9É-gq4s? . Ál I 80.81. including the Íaď that Korea doés not use chgquss' The online system is highly developed. c*Én I! cup ilk. Is it far from here? On foot it takes 50 minutes. Banking is símple enough in Korea and the use of cÍďil cards is widespread. olq]9' e ÉŤ9] E}g 6J I'm a bank clerk from the Korea Exchange Bank. which nouns are direct objects and would thus be marked with -(r)ul if they were to bc translated into Korean? Note that some sentences may have more than one obiect.000 won notes (c.s. Chal mot kóshyóssóyo. and you can sénd money eleďřonically very easily and at a much chéaper cost than is usually possiblo in the Wast. Please go - -.000 won notg (shimman won). . I I dónl particularly want to drink beer right now. There is also a 100. but there are some crackers. to give you the polite style foÍms. if you see a picture of six glasses. I don't have time. Choesong ha-iiman. addition to the coins theré ďe 1. gqg? c €q] *€ Excuse mg but do you have a Korean-English dictionary? _ d_ Eqe? aq^l _ aas.h'ón won and man won). however. and in cBa ^l& EF Bl& +Í]l4 ]d ?lol9 ]t^llg qó{ ol 2 - G)lA =ř]l t}E 0l0ll9 rloJ lts ťol9' cgrlg 9e Xj= 9áE ^lg - Practice Here is additional vocabulary for these exercises. although it looks moré like a westem cheque than mon9y. b I'm sorry. C Caí I eat some bread? No. a the 1 Complete the following sentences with the words taken from the box at the bottom. d Pleásed to me€t you.I don't like Korean food. Make up a gentence which says in Korean what the cost per item is rnd then say what the total cost is. eóJql Our bank does not do that (kind of business). and the price per item. b ol+-oÉ-4*ol flqg.s g".000 won and 10.B+Ě to another bank. Think up appropriate Korean questions to go with íollowing answers. a +4 +čJe. have two kinds of h I E+ +9É "ll^l If you go right at the post office úere is an exchange bank.}€"lq19-9d+€ you like a receipt? j long time no seel How's business nowadays? .000 won. c Aniyo. g g Acket bottle difÍerent (modifier/adjective) a I want to watch a movie tonight' b What are you going to do when you see him? c How many cars does your family have? d He iust said a bad word. G Í No.togettreiit. There are oné or two p€culianlies. 5. {loJ á "}^]Í wánt to drink the most expensive alcohol.

Here is the shopping list (NB rzilA = lwi bottle s#2PPwl/tr 2lottfuaťl PÍactise counting the following things out loud' c 1 person. 22 books b 1 day. "l"J€-. h I want to change some money.* ^lB_ Ě. c How much is the cheapest one? won all together. i k What type would you like? I Please give me the cheapest.s 8. If you go five minutes. Go left.. a chumun ha. put them in! of the Korea Exchange Bank in this area. a Excuse me. The bank is on your right. q7l_ rA f{ a. goodbye! . 34 people d 3 octopus. {.l. 14 octopus e 2 bottles. s There's no branch Í It takes about ten minutes on foot.000 C Go left here. ĚJ fl:re]q?+ g+ +"Jgo]q]g. 8 books. I have about 50.g+- e{- 9lto-ts ".000 won.'lg *.. €*^}d t 7}z] Ťř9lol9. Each of your sentences should put the verb in the negative.* flq. +3] ^l+t+ E- q7l.000 won. "}^lts. 3 days. 9 octopus. i In Korea there are ten kinds of kimch'i. pyóng ). Ěn9.e. ÓJ g+9l+} g^]-^}ťgěJ Ěe *- 7}É x]d- 9tolg. atsl. Make up a dialogue between a shopkeeper and a child going rhopping. you'll see (= there is) Chongno crossroads. 7 people. with the word an.Ě E}Ťídqg. 10 bonles Í 9 dogs. In England there aÍe none.}B^l+.d kidarie ilkb kóllitúseyo Which of your sentences would still make sense if you replaced an with rnot? What would be the difference in meaning? Translate the Íollowing sentences into Korean. c How much is it? One plate is 2.EÍ do]g. 10. I dog (dog = kag) 1.'YK@ Make up 6ve Korean sentences based around the following verbs."}d^]E}. I can't eat kalbi either. 67 days ftat í0 /eere 4??/.'al t*ol? . Would you like a Korean language dictionary? b c d e a Í h I 6 Eol's. €Ť _E.000 won a 3 books.000 won. The following senrences have no particles in them. is there a restaurant in this area? b I can't eat naengmyón. m Is Mr Kim a bad man? n You're going to the post office? Okay. so it's 6.

lship pón bósu-rul t'a-myón Namdaemun shijang-€ kayo. He ends up being persuadod to 9o to Namdaomwun market instead. . how lo ioin two and maks surs you have got to the right place horv to shop íoÍíood at the maÍket how to express surprise or exclamation gda B1-\ g=Ot g 0lqle? g 0l0l. =aE 3á0l= E g0t9. Klm Mr.']l ^l5| 9du ol šFáoll Etl{E 'rl 3 o tr qt tr o + J a o í. I]rl Bl4rl elg'. arÉther passer-by. . .e ' ed8 áoJ =^lĚ0l^le9! ^lE llél8 nP}áLlE}. Úl/. MÍ Klm shillye-|iman. Mr 9AtA =$= ^lá0llÁl= IJ= aáol= EJ9 solg' é"Jololl9? ]aB| fĚ old s Bl^= Et^lg. compďsons .markeť? D ls ttris the bus Íor Tongdaemun Mr Klm is a stranger in Seoul who wants to find his way to Tongdaemwun market. another passer-by. how to catch buses in Korea g II . olN B sl^= aE solE á ]l= ]l= El^7l ^lB? 7lE'. o Mř l togrther to make one sentences Klm Tongdaemun shiiang Aniyo.ol9. 9dg gat }Ale. CL l- = . E] B0l9? Et]lE ^láEEt =a0l EtfiE I1l ě40ll=. ^láoll^l - edu alda !\) \ I - I ln this unit you will leam . ^l= ^|á olLlal^l ]l= Úl/']l ?lolE? s EĚitolg.+ x CL xGI {r J r+ CL o qt o a oot oo o GI o + 3 5 o + J tr o o I I -l I {r II l. tsEllE ^lsEE} El *n l|'lol ^lá0l ]*IlsJ HtÍ= tlolB.l+l8 gdu ď - ^| olue' oI 5Fá0l= =tJE Etol9. yógiTongdaemun shijang kanÚn bósu-ga issóyo? M] 1ro chó-do sÓul saram-i ani-rasó chal morúgessóyo' ro Mrs o. !é!a áalx|oJ oldu I]E ItalS G7l EcllE ^lB0l fo Mrs O. . ct 1+ o J II !da 9ól8 lr{lu gcl]E 9]]l s0l= ^lš0l ?lolE? ^láolB? ?]]l 9lt-t-}!E? t-JrlE ^lá0ll= 9! Iil _E ]ll ^lš0]l= s.e? HlE 'J aLlE šPšoll^lEl^llg. 01Ll^1 El. l chóngnyujang-€_nun ganun bÓsu-ga Ópsóyo. Namdasmun shÍang-iyo? Namdaemun shijang_e-nun sóyo? chóngnyuiang-é Tongdaemun shiiang kanůn běsu-ga mwo€a issóyo? . ElI|PJ.

-oss _0[11 GhóngrryUiang Namdaemun ťa. . they do se . .. KúřÓm iship pln běsu_rul t'aseyo. |. KúrÓch'iman Namdaemun shiiang_esě wonsungi-nun an p'arayo.. . not available norc than Namdaamun bké (transport}' řayel on (transport) Grcat South Gate (n Seour.Ul7l9- tllB ppo i l?l -0l^|e9 come (polite style Íorm) coms (stem) is rďning (politg stýa: 'arhq wayo) pi-ga . tbne is. Namdaemun shilang-iTongdaemun shi'iang-poda mulgón_do tó man-k'o chaemi issóyo. chógi běsu-ga wayo.1s my Oumble form) wonsungi p'arayo p'aliiman gá0| PolB inťergsDhg lb fun monl<ey s8l/ (polite styls Íorm.l another. thereÍore che nl saenggak chaemi iss.. chó-nun Wonsungi-nun p'iryo ópsóyo. chÓngmal-i8yo? Kúrónde. yokel (soe note 7: based on copula) quicldy over thére' ovar wnder over thare (neareÍ lhan chog0 (noun)-anl-rasó shfanS llg kanún ]l= bě6ů H|'A' sóul l{3 lus -oluafi ta.e. 'you mean?') item for g]e' lÍems so/d something which is not sold.y.g. stem is irregular) they se . . Phrases and exprcssions (chal) morúgessčyo an p'anňn ke ópsóyo I don't hnou (at all) there's notbing uhich is not sold.€t kónnóp'yěn _lďligunyo Tongda€mun Gígat Easl GaÍe 0n seour. bound tor séo!r/ ďnca . polité style: mamyo) (NB pronunc: h + k = k'. route nec6ssa. going to..!o o Mr Klm Komapsúmnida' Mrs o Ppalli kaseyo.rr.9pi-ga o.|7| wayo glB o. goods is manyrš a /oť (h is not pronounced.ůn Ell lamnot. (you can buy euerytbing) you're asking uthat tberc is? (you mean you don't knottlš) (based on iss-. g. exists) EII$ chóírgmal p'iryo óps_ PB p'iryo iss- 3E fl- mwoga innůnyagoyo ? che saenggag-enun paro HJE kir 39 tl- r@Iy is not necesBry. is needed directly opposlte sído fa€' faré country bumpkin. has no need of rb in my opinion =t||= Tong@mun nl€.t is not (noun) (here: s/'hce ch'onsaram euE! yogum E= ll KEd. but .Ilpón g SU|E to bus stop stop (stem) number _tyo _01sl p'anůn kg [-E rn p'anůn ke 9! lll= ]|| mulgčn -poda -E 't mano}_ ťJ- td Et (se€ note 3: used to chsck inÍoÍmation. (i. 1 'Why can't th€ 6rst person help? 2 l$7hat happens if you take buJnumber 20? 3 What is the choice like at Namdaemun? 4 !7hich market is prefered? 5 Is there anything you can't get at Namdaemun? 6 Where should you catch the bus? 7 why is there surprise át the last question? 8 Why the hurry? Mř Mwo_ga innůnyagoyo? Namdaemun shuang_enun an p'anůn ke ópsóyo. Tongdaemun shijang-poda mulgón-i tó manayo? Che saenggag-enun.Ill0l -ko manh-+-ko=mank'o) 84 -il tl- thought and (to ioin clauses) . Tongdaemun shijang-esě-nun p'aljiman ..MÍs o Kim Mrs O Mť Kim Mrg o MÍ Kim Ódi_sě ťayo? Mrc o Paro kil kónnóp'yón chóngnyuiang-esó t'aseyo' Mr Kim BÓsu yogům_i ólma_eyo? chóngmal chbnsaram-ishigunyo! sabaek won-iéyo.E- é=ěl só. however) is not néeded. difÍoBnt chógi n]l kógi .

. Depending (n the in.ateful that the particles are put into the correcr order. and the other says Namdaemun '*'hiianc-ivo? This translates as Namdaemun market? You said Ni-r|"o"mu market. The -rasó bit means because or since.say Manwon-iyo? 10. In the dialogue one speaker asks which bus qtrcs to Namdáemun market.onat. [. .6ut hanguk-do-e issoyo is wrong' You con learn the correct oiders by observing the example sentences iri this cou. Ýou might like to srudy the following two which illustrate tňe use of combined particles: "*o-il. To say that English bcer is better than Korean béer. -anirasě In the dialogue you will firrd the phrase sóul saram-i ani-rasó. Grammar Kim sónsaengnim-un hanguk-edo ilbon-edo kayo Mr Kim goes both to Korea and to lapan 1 -irasó. as in the You can comDare one thing with another quite simply in Korean. that is. and it means since (it) is not a (noun). lsódo. right? you uant Namdaemun market? or somethins similar. Here are examples of both constructions. the pattern is as follows (first .000 won (a ridiculously high price]. you can say hanguk-e-do issóyo (they haue ir in Korea. the particles -do and -ůď-nůn (too. The sentence in the dialogue therefore means since I am not a Seoul perso?. l'lowever. out of the phrase 'at Namdaemun market" You have io bi' . Possible examples are -esčnun. since I'm not from Seoul . . and you should also study the example in the dialogue: Hanguk saram-i anirasó hangungmal chal mot haeyo Since I'm not a Koreafl I can't speak Korean uery well Yóngguk saram-irasó sul chal mashyóyo Since I'm an English person I'm a good drinker 'Ihe oarticle -vo (or -ivo after consonants) can be added to u.. which you will íind useful.on it can express surprise or incredulity or c. and. For example.topíc) cnn be ajded áft. ako and. so it is best to stick to only using combinations that you have seen. ani-rasó is a different íorm of anieyo. . s lce something is sometbing e/se' you use the form -irasč instead of anirasó. both giving eitra emphasis to the noun and noiticlá to *hich tbev aie adóed.. . you could say since I'm a Korean with the words: hanguk saram-irasó. you might..te. Thus. Manv oarticles cannot occur together becáuse their meanings *uuíd'b" contradictory (the same noun cannot be both subject nnJ obj"ct. There are some rules.000 won? (you . . tóo). htlwever.Er'l]ř ^lál- cxample Namdaemun shiiang-e-nunmwóga issóyo?_This makes o tooi. Sťlul-enun shiktang manayo ln Seoul (topicl there are many restaurants 3 Checking on something To say the opposite of this..t other particles (but not the subiect or obiect particles). Iia shopkeeper cold you that an apple eost 10. however. This is related to the negative copula anieyo and you will see that both forms include the part -ani-.'" noon ro éheck *h"t has been said.io show surprise.et's iake an example sentence. fot exa-!li1.rn simply be used to checli whether what you heard was c()rÍect. 2 Particle order t<l 4 Comparing things You will have noticed that sometímes Korean allows you put more than one particle onto the end of a word.nust be johing!). to clarify something . .o on.' rno.

. but both oÍ them ars well worth a Visit- !Markes 6 Joining senténces together sentences: You have learnt the word kurigo which can be used to begin a second sentence with tbe meaning 'and .' Take the exaňple balt tlmo to go is betwsen ons and six in tho moming. Here are some exam"ples. Here is an example of its usc with the normal (non-honorific) copula: So you're To say something is small you use the verb chak-. Kim sónsaengnim-un ch'aeg-ul ilk-ko Chang sónsaengnim_un t'ellebi pwayo Mr Kim reads books and Mr Chang uatcbes TV 7 Exclamations How many other examples can you spot in the dialogue? 5 Many and Korean uses the word manayo to say that theÍe are many of something. and thé Hanguk ňmshik choayo. Íor example. chók-. cities out of seoul a|so havs good markďs oÍ cours6. often in the honbrific form -ishi-gunyo. but they can also sometimes bg disappointing. and it can be used with all verbs. Looi< at the example in the dialogue.then with Korean): with the_ llglish words ro show how rhe construcrion works. The night Both Tongdaemun and Namdaemun are also night markets. so you'rě Mr Kiffi (surpfke.e is big (-polite style k'óyo). suÍpise!)! Pleased to meet you! You do not need to use this form yourself. thereÍore ďroh-ko is pronounced cho_k'o.to say rbar somethi. but you need to be nble to recognize it if a Korean uses it. lt depends a bit on what you want to buy lt to which is best. chinese herbs md modicines. where vol will find it with the copula.saenggag-enun hanguk umshig-i chungguk umshik-poda (tč) mashi issčyo. and it is this Íorm that you have met. And lapanese food is good too Tlese two sentences can be joined into one by taking tlre verb stem mrÍkets can b€ good. and adding the eňding -ko to it: Hanguk umshik choh_ko ilbon ůmshik-do choayo (NB h + k = k'. English beer (subjecr or ropic) Korean beer-poda is more sood Yóngguk maekju-nun Hanguk maekju-poda tó choayo - You can even omit the word tó if you want to. The stem for the veÁ manayo is maíh_ (the h is still there in Korean writing in the polite foim manayo. psrhaps more plaasant to look round and has more touÍists' Tongdaomun sprawls Ílght on all tho way down ch'ěngyech'ón (parallel to chongno)' and la choapgr íor some goods.) Thcra arg othď markets too. lí pu're in seoul Íor a while it's probably somďhing which is \ťorth trylng once. chegi shijang is much léss well known (rnd thgreforg léss touristy) and is grsat Íor Íood. Here is another example in which something is cláimed to be more tasty than something else: Che. Kůrigo ilbon ůmshik-do choayo Korean food is good. Yónggug-enun yongguk saram_i manayo In Enghnd there are many Etglish people Yongguk-enun hanguk saram_i chógóyo In England tbere are feu Koreans I-chaeg_un k'ů_go chó-chaeg-un chagayo Tbis book is Ug and. Tongdagmun has a bstter sélection of shoes and boot8. polite form chógčyo. and tha fish market 1l . Namdaemun is more compact. ltaswon is well known íor havlng hordes of Íoreigněrs and lots of Koreans who can speak Encll8h. lt is particularly common with ihe copula. It uses another word k'u. polite form chagayoi to say there is or are few of something use the verb Kim sónsaengnim adul-i-gunyo! Chigům ódi kayo? Mr Kim's son! Wbere are you going nour? Baoul has several famous and fascinating markéts. of the first (cboh. But it's not the cheap€st placg to shop by any means. paÍticulďy Tonodagmun and Namdaemun Which you have leamt sométhing rbout in this lesson. big and small Kim sónsaengnim-ishi-gunyo! Pangapsúmnida Ah. Korean food is tastier than Chinese food. that orre is small feq 'l'he verb ending -kunyo can be added to verb stems in order to cxpress surprisě. 'l'his verb ending -ko is comrnon in Korean. . and for ginseng products. Here is anothér example. Ir my opinion.from choayo). but is silent in pronunciation).

. Ě áŇ0{l Al kkakka-iu. Ólma-na-yo? Han sángja_e samman_ch'ěn wón_man chuseyo' gtl9 -u (polite stylo. ]É olEj gd aP! +^lg. se sangia chuseyo' illn|a I How much reduction does the first vendor give on a box? 2 What is the response? 3 rJťhat is the próblem at the second stall? . but eventually manages to strike a good deal- qJrl Eg A oJrl ÉaA llT áa A EIl golole? Gll ^}nt áoJ 80l0llB' a áiloil LIP HlrlLllE. olPj ]Ě Ěl áiloll = DJd g0ll ]ll17l^ll9. Kůrěm taÍůnte ka-boseyo.édolóttón 0|E s8ógósgóyo kabo. Kůraďo pissayo. Mln|a chómwon B choayo' Han sangia_e iman-och'ón won naeseyo' Komapsůmnida. She has some trouble. chom kkakka-.juseyo. past tens€) l'll cut the Price for Yd) (polite style) approx. but sti// +^ll9. (Ío f.on't look fresh what did you say? ga B slr ég B ěs! Minia A Mlnia chómwon A MinJa Chómwon A chómwon Minh goes Erl B EIt áE B gll =0l9' noJĚLlEl. ]ťJE' Hl. per too (much) mild surprise sentencs ending cut the pice (Íol someone's beneÍit) áil take however. flalng?! e }llEr+ EJ Hl/ilLltg'. kkakka{urilkkeyo 410lE chčmwon B KůÍaeyo? Kurěm chom kkakka-durilkkeyo.{lg. ddď . q = 4+01+/'lle.ts'olll BL]lg' oIE a E ]ellg? fĚ ?lolEgrl|9.01 appls box aach. Minja' goes to thé maíket looking to buy some boxes of apples. ! B choayo.t\lg'. Kůróm han sangja-e iman-p'alch'ón won-e kaiyó-gas€yo. has gone oÍf Minia to anothar gíoceís. Óttón gón chom ssógóssóyo. nevefthdess. *0l9. Kuřlm iman-ch'ilch'Ón wón-man chuseyo' chom tó kkakka_juseyo. me- u- nart door . g 0lu9? = É|áruql AoJ d 3oJ +^llE. ?lot+^ilg.7lHach'im ole -put'ó -+E chassu Il+ place go and se€. about (deriýed Jrom ihe meaning 'oť you have learnt) Minia chómwon B Minia -man -EJ yóp' gl only pay Mworaguyo?! Yóp kagé-poda tÓ pissansyo. Minja goes to another grocers.. ols} 9d 8 u.(much oÍ it Íaw) at Pusan is a case in point' Korean markďs something you'll probably grow to |ové or hate! cl tnis Íruit doesn't look too good! ln this dialogue a Kořéan giÍl. (to hlirsďÍ) onúl ach'im-pul'ó chaosu ómne| 8hlngshing ha. Yěgi sagwa ólma-éyo? Han sangja_e samman won-ieyo' Němu pissa-neyo.mseff) 9= 0lé+El lil+s'Lll 0l ^lJl]l 49'01E'. ylsiÍ (a placs) moming luck from qguE -na is fresh cerbrh. I'm unlucky they d. soms (as a question word = which?) has gone bad.l What is the cause for surPrise? 5 Vhat is the final price? ohómwon Phrases and expressions chom kkakka-iuseyo (onul ach'im-put'ó) chaesu ómne rhingshing haepoiii anhaYo rnworaguyo? sagwa sangja please cut the Price a bit for me i'ue had no luck (all morning). fě EtE Bl )lEAle.?tol+kaiyóga_ 7lx71kůraedo ]u|E te El nómu ll+ -neyo -ulB -e llill 8Il -. l-sagwa€a shingshing hae_poiji anneyo.

so tbat person is a Korean. ( ih'ingu-hant'esó ton padayo l receiue money from my friend Wrllvoil-lar-e ómóni-egesó I receiue a letter from my Mum on Mondays o'iónii oadavo ntiiíi-t'áni'. -man can be added to any noun in this way. then! (depending on the intonation) the plsnty oÍ bargaining to be done at Korean markets.ii_"n.ón. speak Ío o nar. The best rdvlco ls to go shopping with a Korean or somsone who has been in Tharo 18 0 cutting the price Kořca a long time and who knows how to get a good deal. some cl g tvtonths oÍ the year (note carefully June and October in which the number loses the lasr letter): The months of tbe year in Korean are as follows ahopkoopsrs aksady give the lowest price.'a. so that samman won-man means only 30. Or. tbe baby is reading a So be's the Korean person.Grammar í 4 To and Írom (with people) onty The panicle -man means ozly. the places wheÍs there aÍa lowor íoreignsrs are more likely to ofÍaíthě best deals (and less llk ly to speak English!). ln general.000 won. and you must be aware lhat lt ls not fair to expect such dealgrs to cut' Others will give qultc an lnílared prlca when they se€ you ar€ a forěigner. although usually of a milder form than -kunyo. you use the particle -hant'e or the pnnicle -eĚe (the panicle -kke can be used when the person is honorific). and chaek-man chuseyo means please giue me tbe book only or please iust giue me the book. howcvgr' Korea is a much saíer placé íor not getting rippď otf than aomowhgrs like lndia or Thailand.nann*" I got a phone call from Dad (a call came) wnssčyo 'llr<rm a Wout. For example: I'm utiting a letter to Mum Ólnóni-ege p'yón|i ssóyo lrrcnrin-háni'e chu-go ship'óyo I want to qiue it to tae'nin 'ibť. ln genera|. Look carefully at the examples from the dialogues: Plga o-neyo! Kuróm. 2 when vou want to say Ío a peÍson (write Ío a person. This is perhaps a more useful pattern ro learn to use for yourself. I'm speaking to FatbeÍ ivasi hae-yo I'm setling it to Mother po''áeyo Óntůni-i"ňťe' More surprises The verb ending -neyo can be added to any verb stem. Na-Áan wassóyo means only l haue corfle. and it indicates surprise. il-wol i-wol ch'il-wol p'al-wol ku-wol shi-wol shibil-wol shibi-wol o-wol yu-wol sam-wol sa-wol lanuary February March May lune Apd I"lv August September December October Nouember . ků_saram-un Aegi-ga ch'aeg-ul ing-neyo! (spelr ilk-neyo) hanguk saram-ineyo! Oh no. it's raining! booh! person'is said with the particle -hant'esó or _egesó. eive to a párson).

a Kkakka-durilkkeyo. bus to the Louvre and a Japanese. these dictionaries are expensive! b Taegyu is coming! c vhat aÍe you doing? (surprise!) b c d e food Japanese food Here there Train bus Mr Kim Mr Pak Namdaemwun Tongdaemun moreexpensive tasty more of them faster (ppďayo) more luck d This newspaper's really interesting. Kůraedo Hanguk_do Flangug-e Yónggú saram-i manhayo. He doesn't need to take a bus and it only takes seven minutes to walk. a Yogi'pissaneyo. This exercise is intended to practise the -kunyo form with the copula (don't forget to use the honorific foÍm of the copula when appropriate). the Japanese can also speak Koreaq and so. Ťr{E Br]l. b YóĚi-šó p'al-iiman tarun te-e ka'myón tó ssayo. after explaining that he is Japanese not Korearq he tells him that the LouvÍe is nearby (not far).Practice a 6 questions in Korean' based on the Translate the following sentences into English. Chumun hashigessóyo? Yógi-ga Hanguk-anirasó Kimch'i-rul p'anun te chógóyo. old É]a= * d d"J B ts]az} Br.-Ě c o'lc d ^l*.llE khig a = timel b Mr Ob wife c a Japanese book a Mr Kim's dog d olqqqalE Ei "ll^l =. who the Korean mistakenly betweerr a Korean in Paris who wants to get b c d e E/d{Bo'l"llg. Yóp kage-e ka-bopshida.g.ll7l s o}a+EJÉ h B+E]= Make up a Korean sentences coinpaÍing the following sets of information.o'| qp]q 4 9]ól3. Han sangia-e mansamch'ónwon-e 1 Ánswer the following ďalogues in this lesson. For the first set you would make up a sentence to say that Korean food is moÍe tasty than Japanese Íood' Translate the following sentences and put them into the -neyo mild surprise form.^| qq-9-. vonsung-iinnůnyaguyo? Tongdaemun shiiang_e ka-boseyo.. ending. d Bósu yogum-i ólma-eyo? e Hanguk choa haseyo? Hangungnral chaemi issóyo? Imagine that you suddenly recognize or are surprised by seeing ůe following people or things. ^}'}E.ř q dEl9lq-9-? Í čhe óaenggak-poda oissavo. Join the following pains of sentences.ll^l4E qq 7}9? d Br.Al9--q zJ A. b Onul ach'im-e mwol haseyo? a Tongdaemun shiiang-e ka-go ship'óyo. d the Korea Exchange Bank e hyóngjun Í the Chinese teacher t ŤÓ'|€i (kuk = solp) ^. with the -ko clause a a Vrite a ďalogue thinks is a Korean. .llE ^lď"ll 49' o'l Ťř 5Íl]+ ^l +oil tsia 4-s' 49' €q5 E]^ 49. Iíhich oÍ the following Particle and which are not? sequences are acceptable b c e a ^l -q. Fortunately. Kach'i kayo? c I kwail-i an shingshing haeyo.' Ó}tsl ts4tlt 4g' í7l * qolg.$Holql9' ^}B. 4 ^}É} rJ'. Make sue to use full sentences in youÍ answeÍs' b EEIIE ^l+ol g oJ ^l*}L4 $o|9? ts].|lÉ ^l+"llE Ěaol Y}otg? e Ólc ÉĚl2-Ě qq4 É}g? 2 Make up answers or appropriate responses to the following questions. h i ! kaiyó-gaseyo. a My. c Sóúl shirrae-e kanun bosu-rul ódi-só ťayo? d onul ach'im-put'ó chaesu ómneyo! € Ilbon-un Hanguk-poda tó pissayo.

phns how to sWEBst and discuss aclivities g o . how to talk about shořt_téÍm o .10 Ónu bčsu_ga hak_kyo_e kanún bósu-eyo? Shipp'al pón bósu-ga čdi kayo? 3o o o {r + í+ o 5 J o t+ t st IJ B) II I J o \ I ď tr I ln this unlt you will léam . . . and pains' say thal you aÍ€ ill and gst sympathy tho pÍobablg íUtur€ (what you expocl lo do oÍ whď b ]flost pÍobablg) how to make sugg€stions and t6U othérs what you are thinking of doing horv to €xpÍess youÍ ach€s .

is convenient entrance . 9 ==^loll naeil mwo halkóeyo? ubat are you going to do tomonou? if you don't haue anything pyólil ópsůmyón . Mr Kim Kůrlm taům ilyoir-un Óttaeyó? Tony Taům ilyoiFenun taehak tongch'ang-hago pulguksa-e ka-lkka haeyo. . XJE óll8.l{|'l =ol9. Kůrónde ónU san-e kaikkayo? Tobongsan-i p'yón ha_lkóeyo. ]B B3 gagoll 3^ltrl. =ola. Ón1e_9a _T9n_Y Mr Kim fal tl. . the largest in Korea. am thinking oí doing when mountain near Kyóngju) ToÍry 1 2 Kim Tony Mr Vhat How does English weather compare with Korean? does Mr Kim suggest and under what circumstances? cho-ulkkayo? Ků taúm ilyoir-un ama kwaench'an_ulkóeyo' choayo. ^lsol|^] adg fal tla gsgc ot0ts. E!=c gŤE'Et g. Kůróm Tobongsan ipku-esÓ manna{kkayo? _(ůllkka haeyo -( 9) e man-ch'i anasč ElIl ónie 9!!| 'll san t! B s0lX 0| haesgóyo Tobongsan p'yěn E=! ha. Ne. Eu . it uon't be any good.Cl on to the mountains Mr Kim wants to take Tony mountain climbing. eda ug 9] É}loll9? gg s9E 2Jrl9? =&oltj Eu ]ln cI|oJ L]{gc d^taJól! E[]{E ól]ltr floltr.g€'gE P! El7'tLlte. seé note 3) ó!0ll _(ú)lkkayo -(o) p =t! )llQ iungsan -kiro haessěyo shyěp'ing (ha-) ilyoil 9991 ilyoillal 9l9glEl taehak Íll9l tongch'ang pulguksa iB(0l-) -]l= trolE a special matter. then on twoegenneyo Phrases and expressions - ama kwoench'anulkóeyo naeil (unfortunately) it uill probably turn out (be) okay nalssi Ellll -(ú)lkóeyo -(9) UE E 10lE 9J tono ow weather f atll olt- pyóli| H (Uséd to give verbs a future meaning. but with Tony's busy schedule they have some diÍficulty Íinding a convenient datá' ilta Eu e{ě Eu e!8 E= 3r/.? ^E Eu ttB g9goll= uq' 53=óln 2J'lóll L1l 'Víhat plans does Tony have for tomorrow! 4 with whom has he made plans íor the following Sunday? J What is resolved? 6 '$(. chó-do túngsan_ul choa haeyo. l9ry NaeilHanguk-un yěngguk-poda nalssi-ga choayo. Kúróm ků taúm i|yoil-e kapshidá. KÚrónde yóngguk_enun san-i manch'i anasÓ túngsan_ul mani mot haessóyo. -sqecial on. . .Eolipku g? ónú g1u E drd (past tense form of ha. Eu _]ě E=č! g?0l^l oJ=rlg? Mr Kim YojÚm nalssi_ga aju choayo. ratll=ó}= =olóJol BIl B0l^1 s+oll= =ó}= PJ 0| E ťol9. Mr Kim Kůróm taům ilyoil_do an toe_genneyo. >Jrlg? .do) since there aren't many (written manh-ii anh-asó) which one Iobongsán (mountain in seoul) is comfoftable. 9ll} š=rlE? ] trtB ggge olEl uď=7{oll8. Mr Kim mwo ha{kóeyo? Pyólil óps-umyón tungšan-ina ka{kkayo? Tony Ka-goship'-jimannaeil-unchipsaram-hago Tongdaemun shijang-esÓ shyop'ing ha-giro haessóyo.l]t ot+ =ots.Ihat do you know about Tony's opinion regarding the experience of mountain climbing? 3 eťě E=&ol E Et } ol|9. sěe note 6) shopping (do/go shopping) decided to Suncky sunday (longér Íorm) universv lil^l 0l =* colleague (fellouJ student in this case) Pulguksa (Korean Buddhist temple. something pafticular mountain climbing (verb ending meaning sha// We?.

1.haven't. All these verbs change the last i to yo and add yo in order rrr l Írlrklne decisions form the present polite style..' haíe iust.at...Grammar This unit contains several verbs whose stems end in i.*ťItTi'ůŤiiť''l'"il'. uill meet\..(uait) and kóIli_ (úa''s' takes (titnc)|. nolli.1""" ť. The probable future is the most common.ť.r.omcone 'shall we do something ltř.* example: umfigi. to someone 'shall .'ilili. .'t stem ending in ar'owel.. and you have previously met mashi_ (drink|. Thus manna.. This gives the polite style umiigyóyo.mzla:'#::.x.tu.}. and is used in most everyday situations when yort want to say that you are going to do something: Ju[wcr It 'ffiň. antl _ulkóeyo if the stem ends in a consonant. for example.h. 1 Verb stems ending in í írrr ll'l'Jlli:. learned' |dd and -ůlkkayo? to 6'_i".lr.iii_i.}.becomes anj-ňlkóeyrt ffi ffi*ffiffffiffffi ]i'tťg{':"""f. nollyóyo' mashyóyo.ffi .li$ti. ladú...i?Ii.. and ani.:.ái""'""' r" saý ii'ji..''.. iň:"'iň"iň'..*ll: qo sorutrrlurě' t: tjh::ll1!t aomcone 'shall lo .|Í.i.?rltý mokyoil kůmyoil kiday I t'oyoil ilyoil Saturday Sunday ilrlnfmg about it lAnrllmr whcn vou still. ill i]j Naeil chungguk taesagwan-e kalkóeyo I u.ó"ra therefore'"y yrgi "ni-ttt'k"y'1l "iiňitt''. y. because there are other ways of expressing the future tense in Korean .-jxil.':ffi J3. fornrr' cle suyoil DaysoÍtheweek Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday {H{{[:"'iil+"l:Íj.-iá'.becomcrr mannaJkčeyo (I ll uill sitl.i".. you add -lkóeyo if the stem ends in a vowel.there is a definite future. which you might use if there ir scarcely any doubt that you will do something' or iÍ you wattt to stress your intention to do it.'.il'il'l?.n:*.#&11.ffi Kim sonsaengntm-hago chomshim-ul mók_kiro rxu wrlulcl ray: hrrrrňyrrr The following are the days of thg week in Korean: wolyoil hwayoil lt!l!. kidaryóyo' kóllyóyo.l. next year) .ill (probably) go to the Cbinese embassy tomonow Naenyón-e ch'a-rul salkóeyo I'm going to buy a car next year (naenyón. As ytlrr would expect. have a beerJ' you would say maehwu 'We have called the form the probable future.(moue\. -1d9 $:1':jl?::'J:: 3 Probable future The most common way to give a sentence a future meaning irr Korean is to add -(u)lkóeyo to the stem of the main verb.(tease).'J.l.

no mom-i choch'i anayo? Yongtas-sshi-nun hangsang kkoebyóng-ul purijiyo! Anlyo' KÚróch'i anayo.. Móri-ga chom ap'ayo. Eeql ^lal n= ll9. sul mot mashyóyo' chóngmal pylngwon-e ka-yagessóyo.are very Íond of and to I xo. Jrrlpon Vefilr.eans Korgan mountain mountain climbingpublic if you goyou viÍtually any weekend oÍ hollday. . Ama nalssi-ga tÓWosÓ kurólkó-eyo' Anln kót kat'ayo. qr| P!g=xlg+ É0l91ol9! =alIl ^ln49lE! +tsE} ^lá á0l El tote. oJ0l NE NE asr ]t=ql Ě0l š2lE'? ^lLl{01l n= Eot 5xtPJotg. For most Koreans mountain climbing mgans a střenuous hike řather than scaling rock Íaces. dalll otrrlg. but that in no way diminish€s ths fun (or the steepness oÍ the mountains!)' proca€ding llttírr Jllpon Jdroon I baskatball (nonggu ha-). Yójl manbyÓngt'ongch'iyak' suFi issóyo! sashil vek_ooda sur-i tó choayoíionádam na-il masoyo. too. gach'i kalkkayo? Kulsseyo .z'it's noisy'\ rlrlllrllrówoyol don't ioke.B'? dč!0l Et o}ItEQ'... don't kid me. ě"J Ea0l = 7t 0til0tE. onúl-un chÓngmal ap'ayo' onúr-un ódija ap'ayo? Tut'ong-i issóyo. lovo to dřink. it doestt't seen like it rttllt lól let'ayo to eP'ů8unyot ^tour uhole bodY must be burting! lhtlnrhln-i ihut upt. lasóyo? shlkkurówoyo! Nolli_ji maseyo.sverything s€ems to bo hurting and his Írisnd Jaohoon isn't v6ry sympathotic. and is somewhal known in tho West). Eg 6tll ot^llE'. Mani ap'ayo? Kůraeyo' Mani ap'ayo' KŮrÓm yag-ul sa-rÓ yakkug-g kapshida' Chó-nun ňot kayo. Vaní. Board Jťron V. Bul Yongtae is not imprsssed. Yag_ul mógÓ-yagessóyo.ota. on a fton Íl'írr ůJron chó shinae-e ka-nunde. s. BaIE. Kedaga tari{o chom ap'ayo. for the wéalthy. Football (ch'ukku) is also popular and. D I've got a nasty headache! Y. g! olEgl7l ilolE? 0ti*119. =r{tg. the most common ons b€ing paduk (9o is the Japan€ss equiva|ent.illx rlrlron VrttL. =xlB0l9? ]ťIl PJ0l9. E= qol0!1tol9. á ot/dE. Tarl-doyo? chónshin-i ta ap'ú_gunyo' An ap'ůn dg-ga chÓ-nun mom-i chom choch'i anayo' with graat enthusiasm. = E' E0l EilAlts Bá !lE= +alXl9! olLlE'. 0t0l ElqA f Ě }l01|9' ' tEt olu 1 e0t9. )tE+} BalE = = 0lrr9. golÍ has grgat status (golp'u).. Hl^l)l Il I I I { I Why ir there little sympathy at first? WhAt ore the svmptoms? Wlrnt lr thc suese3ted reason for the illness? Whv can't thei-both go for the medicine? Whrt curc-all is suggested? lhreres and expressions rhi l0rtlhch'l rnhayo llrrhyóng-ul puri|iyo r'hrrh-ch'i anhaYo 3t nE tEl !E aH 0lBg? fPJg'.ll mrcyo 1r1 rrl mógóyagessóyo I'll baue to take some medicine . BtlE 0til9.. Ků_ge ia-eyo? KÓkjÓng ha-ji masoyo. Sport is very popular. Elol 01il9'. ]Ě E= got a^lo. and hwal'u. nun mom-i chorn I don't feel aery uell ( y:ou're making it uP! of course not an ilbress) feigning llllrhón5 he-ii maseyo don't uorry! (colloquial form: kokiong maseyo) I dón'tihiflk so. Him_i ópsóyo. rtE aEt ne tEl EE 9=e qq)l olrrlE'? tE F=01 ilole. 9Ec é"J oltrlg. When hg wants his fÍiend Jaehoon to gď him soms medicine. ITE ]1l E}o]l9? 4é 6lll= Dl^]lE. rllltoon Yongtae is sick . will b€ sure to Íind hordes of Korsans all dress€d up in hiking goar. be quiet! (lit.nfL. don't tease rrrrlll. otheí pastimss include thg noraebang and kďaokei Korgans also and card games ars also popular among some. Jaehoon has another suggestion. and sometimss braak into song as thgy do so. Pae-do ap'ayo. and nowadays the most popular sports are the American imports baseball (yagu' VeÍb: yagu ha_) and hní.

thn lr .e- ř ls f'oť (can also because you're hot. t Don't do it! -Il [ll|B kůrólkóeyo pae !l yak 9f yakkuk E+ him g kedaga . take the stem of lhrt vcrb-and add -ii an(b)iyo or -li mot Laeyo.'r "í lr ln r (as in ap'ů-) or o. Instead of adding trmathlng before the verb you wish to negate. concem kókióng ha_ Eá|0lbe woÍied ama olEl tówosó Egtl g8 x8 again. long nrSrtlvcňhould be used in more complex sentences. Thus ap'ů_ in the polite style is cho-ch'i anh- mom =[E gl= body who knows? dunno. followed hy yo-to form the polite style.(Ďrr) belongs to another group of verbs all lrrlllnc in -ň. maekiu-rul masbi-ii maseyo means pleasa úln'i drink beel Ťhe two phrases in this dialogue. To spell oňt these distinctions would be rather long wlndrd and would also make úe ďfference seem more important will have to fact (the Íact is .-nůnde -=B| kailsseyo (verb gnding for clauses. but hgÍe subject is Weather) it wi probably be like that because me-€'n please don't peňaps. then the ů becomes a. The first nlin don't uorry!. kók|óng hl.llEltl chěnshin E+! ap'ún 0l= nolli- ]3rl0l9 kat'. I To hurt =n tto s -ji maseyo hangsáng k|$oabyóng a Íeigned illness ap'ú. You hrvc learnt how to make negative sentences in Korean with mot rnd Án. lkrw do you know whether the last vowel before the yo will be ó? Simply remember this rule: if the preceding vowel ln r . see note 4) I Orammar 'l'ho vcrb stem ap'ů. and the second means don't tease me!' whlt other useful éxamples can you think of ? How would you lly 'pl€aoe don't wait here' and 'don't do the shopping'? I Long negatives manbyěngt'ongch'iyak -q- h u fti n g. minclecure. hospital how to make the long negative. The best advice is to look carefully at the dlrlorucc in ihis book. otherwise it is ó. by putting them immediately in front of the verb. .Eaolpyóngwon Efl = EJElngf panacsa make fun oÍ cure-all mediďne. Thise delete the u and add instead a or ó. . drugstore strangth. Generally. I'm not sure. ihort ncgatives are biner in short. moreoveL also. energy on top of that the whole body Whon you want to tell someone not to do something' take the rlrnt oÍ the verb you want to tell them not to do and add -ii mlrovo to it. 'ltrrr b no particularly significant difference between the two. thourh thcrě are some circumstances in wbich you are moÍe lllrlřto find the long form than the shoner one you have learnt rlllddy.hulťs (stem) ap'ayo 0lu9 huns (polito style) rut'ong F= headache móři qe| had kókióng 4é wony. Thus. probably taři qa lag séems /rlke stomach medicine chemists. and to imitate Korean speakers whenever tsu cin. depending on whrthcr you want to give the sense of the Korean word an lttorl't or isn't going tol or mot (can'tl. fufthem)ore a!ways rs not good (from choh-) aPrlyo. 'llrrro lr anothěr way also' which is known as the long negative. simple sentences. p ai ntu I (adite'oliv el -yagessóyo -otilolÍl sashll llll nongdam šEl nongdam ha. ) /bke (noun) lokes (verb) thrn lt rcallv is. You will then pick up a feel for which to use.0Í=.ll mescyo and nolli-ii maieyo are quite common.

'iň been said (in this case an inviňtion).. Descriptive verbs describe something.rc "l.i. Note tÁat you ..are all processive vcrbs.ui-""J -núnde. Korean has two basic kinds of verbs 6ffi.and óps-' giving'you .ae 8o togetber!).. ili Mr Kim You have not learnt the past tense. and we will tell you about whéther or not they can be used with panicular verb endings as we go olong. .. For example. but his uife can t do it l t Descriptive verbs and pnocessive verbs . what we have iust said nbout _nůnde.ply'y.Dad doesn't tell jokes Abóii-nun nongdam ha-ii anavo Therefore.J. '"y "u"u.í"ď. Take the verb mók_ as an cxample....*. so choh. whether they describe an action or are ldlcctival.e řs án.h.) take the "'j 6 What you wil! have to do This unit introduces you to one final pattem .."ri "Ji u.Tilil:#:: Processive verbs describe a process. tňngsan-ul choa ha-iiman Yun sónsaengnim pum tungsan ha_ii "T.h i"úi"i1'i. To form the construction.how to say that you will have to do something. Can you remember what they mean? . manna..i-'-..o ro'r*-i'Á-ňž'" speak-er still has more to .form would L. |snau . which is in a class of its own. .pt. n'. 4 lmminent elaboration l I I iil iill I tl #"l"". mók_. an|_. Koreans use this pamern all the timá io show that they have something more .i. the doing of something."?t'. Thus.." mók-ii an(h)ayo. .'.. *il'ái"l'áň.descriptive and processive. ln other words. but it isn't really aIl that diÍficult! Nor€an nas a very common way of linking two clauses toseth"" ro snow that the fust one is not all that you have got to.. r. look át *'. because it describes the process or Iction of the speaker liking someúing.H to form -(ů)nde instád 1řode"aÍter'. ln this case. He. the rest has been said.. The copula also'takes . i:ji -'" meet the -núnde pattern frequently'í"""j it'. ár. compactly by saying that _núnde can only be added to processive vcrbs..*".-formation of the. 'fhe two verbs iss_ and óps_ can be either processive or descriptive dcpending on their use.i. -"á. is processive. The statement i!. the copula.. is hot.ue come to meet Verbs.j: The. yet. {n action. (l'm obliged to)|. It is a clue to tbe listenár not to. it doesn't make the distinction that lhc present tense does. Cho(h)a ha-. not an ádjectivat .t it'"t -íooae'lí. as we did with -nunde.is an cxample.Hj after vowels). could have been said much more There is one other verb. The dialogue had two examples of the panern: yag_ul mčgó -yagessóyo and pyóngwon_e ka_yagessčyo. This can then be used in a sentence: figum mógó'yagessóyo (I am going to haue to eat ou.il#j: "*ii mote to com€. and that _(ů)nde is added to descriptive verbs and the copula. fie polite sryle is mógóyo..onsáriffiř#:'. so taking off the _yo and adďng the -yagesóyo ending we have mógó'yagessóyo. the second clause is kacili ki-ki.:: Nil-nun sbtnae-€ ka_nůnde. _ir'"ř1ij but the -nůnde added on to the end "oť kaiiái...t'i.'' thc past stem of all verbs.fi ťJ... mot kayo in the long negative form would be kaii mot naeyo' and an mógóyo in the long negative rÝrrrr ÝÝUulu uc ..o *t'"it'". They are adiectival verbs. but you might like keep in úe back of your inind the rá.ilži"ff. ka-. 1rn going into totan.íJ. is green. pattem is easy: take any verb which expre_sses an aďion (that is. We will tell you about this also on a case-by-case basis.. by contrast.ó.*.řh iss. That is the end of the 6rst cla"u. because it describes something as good.to the stem..il. take off dre -yo of the polite style form of the verb and add 1agessóyo.lu::iTq:'r mot haeyo Mr Yun likes mountain climbing. rne meanm8-ls straightlorwárd enough."y *hi. Descriptive verbs Íunction like ad|ectives in English.iii'ň" ii"Tlijii said.g. for example..which describe things (e.ň that there is more coming i" "nJ to it. is foolish etc."-_.n!. In úe future we shall be making use of these rwo terms when we describe verb endings.' Cho-nun Pak Jaemin-i_nde Kim sónsaengnim manna-ró wassóyo I'tn Pak Jaemin (and I'ue got more to say): I.* This sounds rarher forbidding.br.i .. we tell you all this because some verb enďngs will only work with one oÍ the two kinds of verbs. ha_.

ó"li_.. or someonc younger than you. tiÍedness."n."á". See if you can match them . i.l li'Á.. awful pain. giving reasons why she can't go? (Note: annyóng is a way of salng hello to a close Íliend. give you some sentences with the verb stem. Most medicines can bé bought over the counteÍ without prescription independent oí the hospital.) wlll nt' so be choose the most rrirl trl Íind all the possibilities and then llhrly. . has iust said something Íeally stupid' .in.'ill'-" ň.ll. annyóng! Naeil shigan_i issóyo? iltil lstate another Planl il. i{uiíÁ ityoit-i pyólil óps_umyón kach'i tungsan ' kalkkavo? l.#í.iir. too r Ytlu're trying to concentÍate.I Doctors and chemists at thé yakkuk (pharmacy).t'" and the other realizes that she --"di. r Your friend is making fun of You' your tnend' but sne h You want to go out tonight with . putting the verb into the correct Íorm.t'ig!"-i issóyo. . 4 slictlt Future a Yangju mashi-myón naeil móri-ga ap'ub Ittaga chómshim-ul mókc Hanguk saram manrra-myčn hanja saičn p'iryo ópsDecided d Pyóngwón_e ka_ e Wonsungi-rul saf onůl-un ůmshig-ul an mókThinking of g Chó-nun 'Star \Vars'(!) poh onůl ach'ím shyop'ing hai llyoir-e pulguksa-e kaShall we llnlc nrc lrrlkrwinc 2 i k l Ónie tůngsan ka-? Kim sónsaengnim_ul ódi_só manna-? Uch'eguk ap'-esó bósu-rul t'a-? The following dialogue concerns a boy who wants to go mountain climbing with Mik'a. a reluctant girl who keeps making up reasons why she can't go with him. Koreans are ěnthusiastic takers ol Chinese medicine is also very popular in Korea and there markets which conc€ntratg prsscribes. cdn't make it. and many frequontly take tonics and heálth drinks in the interest of staying healthy. on sslling the hsrbs and potions which ll aro lnv Mik'a.rl Practice 1 'We Here is an exercise about putting verbs into different forms. you writc out the sentences in full. she and suddenly .rr' ln róme cases' more than one expression some situations in which you might use one oÍ the idiomatic expressions. but someone is maklng .l lToo bisv doing somethirg else) loy 'Iaum ilyoir-urr ónaeyo? (#l lAnother Planl il. kuróm? Na-rul an choa haeyo? iitit (Dóesn't-like mountain climbing| hry Kuróm. Can you fill in the missing parts. ílu and so forth.. an twoegennneyo' ( iln you write a simple conversation between two friends' who thin]<s . Doctors are available at hospitals and gsnerally speaking there is no equivalent of going to a doclor med|cines for headache.il. Yuď. ntuch noise.tili'1"""-""v rtrr. and every part of your body seems to hurt.

a a-7| t +o}čllg. For each question we give you one oÍ two clauset ín which the first one always ends in -núnde. Kinr sónsaengnim-do kaseyo. i You ďdn't hear properly what your younger brother iusl said. so choosc the best option.Í You've made a mistake. h Your boss has lust said something you disagree with. kú'rčch'imankedaga kůrónde kú'rón kúlsseyo kůrigo Kň-saram choíh}-ůnde cho(h)-ůnde - - a Him_i hana_do ópsóyo' chónshin_i ta ap'ayo. -(nů)nde an kavo. c +Eóllg. e Pak sónsaengnim hakkyo-e kaseyo.dls E4ul ^ln' 444^l El^19 *el+s? Bl9{ a^!o] ť} Ó}ýř9 g f Bzl glÓ}s. c Sangmin-ssi-nů'n nongdam mani haeyo. MoÍe than one might be possible. d ol ^}3}7} cd čllg' b xlř * 7}g' e E]a * 49. with the íollowing symptoms' Can 44ilqs Pl. a Your iunior colleague has lust said something you disagree with. Your task is t() make up an appropriate clause which fits with the one wc have given you to make a complete sentence. "lU a +olg tl+ 91il9 a! q 4. chaemi ópsóyo. mot kayo. d Pulguksa-e ka_giro haessóyo. dcrcribe them? is in bed sick.Ljlg This exercise is designed to help you practise the pattem. b c I-osh-i pissa-nde clothes\ d Yóngguk taesagwan-e ka-nůnde e -núndc a Bósu-ga o_nůnde -(ost Choose the best word from those given here to fit in the gapr in the sentences. Put the following sentences into the long negative form. . b Kach'i shyop'ing kalkkayo? Tarun te-e ka-ginr haennnundeyo. t Your mother is panicking about your health. -.

Here are some Topic revision First of all. but much will be new.li' is aniáyo ant-iiman receiue padáyo pát-iiman mógóyo mók-|iman read ilgóyo ilk-iiman good i:hoayo éhoch'iman cho_!\kayo ilgůlkkayo móg_ůlkkayo ani_ůlkkayo pad_ůlkkayo . topic revision. and so on)." on them. the unit bas another important section wfrich you must work through carefully .can be broken down into cltctoÍies (one of these you have seen already .conbnant ind vowel . You should use this section to wórk through the granrmar points. However. The unit is a frrrther opponunity for you to revise both the practical topics we've gone through so far (finding your way! ordering food. In adďtion.it describes all the common types of Korean verb stems and the way in which the enďng. Here is a list of the topics you have covered so far. make sure you go bick to úe relevant lesson and cover tlem again. You havi learnt about vowel stems thc panicle -yďis added to give the polite style. and wit}r ďte grammar pinerns. Some b wlll bc revision. you _óyo tt aúut consonant stems to which you add either polite style. Many of the verb teach you aie also new. They are all common verbs. Te€tin& finding out what other people are up to: where they are going and why buying drinks and going out for entertainment identifying and introducing people elt . and these may occur in the ftom now on. to show you how úe endings are added. as you normally would. If you find'tlrere are ióňre topics which you are not so comfortable with.lntroduction {review simple phone calls and arranging to meet people rg fóoďand ordering food and drink in a resauÍant and money ýour way around ! the right bus g your free time verbs bccn learning the stems of Korean verbs and you have ut the way iň which endings are put onto these stems nicular meanings. each of these two types !o rivc ůe rrrň .ko and -iiman atach straight to the consonant base. faA of nese subdtegories bas cerain peculiarities d h rííxtthc way in which verb endings are added. o . Ye are bim to take ýou througb each of thi main types of verb Tn Kórc"n. Verb endings . This unit is designed to give you the opportunity to soak up all thethings you have learnt already and to give you more pračtice bothvith practical language use. Make sure that you know ůe baiic words and pfuases that you would need for each of them. as you need tobe comfonable puning different verb endings onto the different types of verb stem in order to progress quiclly with your Korean mrďes. It is very imponant to master this. 5wr rŮr r llH stems rtcms which end in consonants take the polite style n|p óyo or -ayo. but you will also probably wanr to keep coming back to it for reference. and you brrn them. put ". llnPlcc: .stems ji. depending on wheúer or not the vówcl bf the stem wás an o or an a. and to čheck you are halpy with áli th9 qa|or gÍarturraÍ points. like _(ň)tkkáyo ánd -(ů)pshida attach the longer the ů) to the verb stem.

is far móróyo Vowel stems tttrrhl. tur-ůlkkaytl Some verbs whose stem ends in p change the p to a w before adding the polite ending _oyo.ppr' vritz ssóyo ssů_go ssůJkkayo hurts ap'ayo ap'ú-go ap'ňJkkayo páppayo pappů-go pappúJkkayo is busy . howcver.tul- Certain Korean verb stems which end in I change the I to a t before endings that begin with a consonant (like -ko and -iiman). |r|lhrr -óyo or -ayo). -upshida and -pshida) add the shorter form straight to the stem since the stem ends in a vowel (note ha.baue fun.akL ch'uwoyo ch'wup-ko kakkap. that some verb ending patterns Perhaps the most confusing category is the last. norayo Plav alknou. The shoner endings (withour the -u) are then added- sal. h' beat tuÍoyo tut-ibnan llónl. i in a lltnl. lse.sell p'arayo mól. is nót fast ppallayo pparů_go pparúJkkayo knou Áollayo morň-go morúJkkayo sing. that is.is spicy maewoyo maep-ko óryópis is is is tóp- vcrbr o' (comel and Po' (look or watchi are regular aNa'l í]om their polite forms wayo and pwayo. purll.teach mashiJk\9yo karúch'yóyo karuch'i-go karuch'i-lkkayo Att rrr'oDtlon is the verb stem shwi. The only very common verb that does this is: listen. bur changes to the letter u before endings with two forms like -(u)lkkayo and -(u)pshida. lonlhu hr goes kayo sleep chayo leaue ftónayo get up irónayo uieu). rtyh arr bctcd on the polite style minus the -yo ending. Tte only difficulry is in the formation oÍ the politc style. Tor lr. the stem mashi_ would be rrrrrhyóró. Endings like -ko and -jiman are addcrl suaight to the stem. sinci it is based on the polite style (mashyóyo) tttltlur thc yo. rp'0. The stem lb lhru^e. p.t alayo p'al. rhr. but rdd another l before the polite style ending óyo or r||í.has an irregular polite style form): l r. The p rémains in endings which begin with consonants (-ko and -iiman). These all end in l.lnolc. -(u)lkkayo and so on}. the l-irregular verbs.(resr) which keeps the thr prrllt'c rtylc before adding óyo. call pullóyo purň-go purů-lkkayo . The shorter form (without the -u-) is then added: lrňnlluryóng hr. kugyčng sight-see haeyo study kongbu haeyo cha-go ka-go kalkkayo nóna-go mónalkkayo cha-lkkayo irónago kugyčng kwugyóng ha-go halkkayo iróna-lkkayo kongbwu kongbu ha-go halkkayo hot tówoyo tóp-ko difficuh óryówoyo óryóp-ko ch'up. plus só: Itir rdmcmber. in the vowel ů delete this ú before adding ending as you would for a consonant base You will 6nd that all the vowel bases are regular in the finll two columns.liue sarayo nol. Most vowel bases add the ending -yo directly to tbe stem to form the polite style.near kakkawoyo kakkap-ko maep. however. Everything else is as you would expect. the last coluňn of our table. endings with two forms (-ulkkayo and -lkkayo.drink mashyóyo mashi-go sal-go sa-lkkayo nol-go noJkkáyo al-go aJkkayo p'al-go p'alkkayo mčl-go mč_lkkayo llÍch'i. that verb stems which end in lů not only delete ll l. thrt cnd thr plltc style $íl. is all rigbtl also has an irregular polite sryle lhr óryóuJkkayrr ch'uu-lkkayo maeuJkkayo tóuJkkayo lratto. but the ldisappears beÍore all endings that have two foÍms G(u)pshida. I ll'ml kakkauJkkayo thrt end in -i change the i to yó before the polite yo is added.. there isln ending -só which amaches to the polite rtylc iniáus the yo. In úis řase. ívrrything else is regular: pp.0' mrr0.

and the minutes by SinoKorean numbers. kach'i kayo.02 is yoldu-shi i-bun. but in normal speecll the ch' is not pronounced). Chakkak haessóyo. Thus. the -ko form and the -upshida thc following verbs. however. To ask what time it is' you sa"y myó-shi-eyo? Literally this means houl matry bours is iri To ask at what time something happens you would say either myó-shi-e hakkyo-e kayo? or ón|e haklcyo-e kayo? (Note thé word myó is spelt myóch'. Most ol them should look familiar. d Chó-nun ilbon mal sónsaengnim-i anieyo. the following' Answer the question myó-shi-eyo for each of paeu.'mok" chu-go ihu.giue chuóyo (or chwoyo) paeu-lkkayo p'iu-lkkayo chu_lkkayo /rO I \8 Practice 1 Translate the following sentences into English. The hours are counted by the pure Korean numbers.40 is tu-shi sashippun-e and so on. An ap'un te-ga issóyo? i Yóngguk ton-ul chungguk ton_uro pakku_go ship'óyo. 3. You can s y at a certain time with thc panicle -e. and has the polite form chwoyo. . Chu.(shut\ e c p'alpappú_ g r-g form of Give the polite stYle.study paewoyo paeu-go _p'i*"yo p'iu_go Ď'lo. Half past one is han-shi pan. 4 (lheck vour answers carefully with the information about vcrbs tÉatwe have given you' up You are planning a trip away with your friend' Make rcsponses to his questions' 2 Telling the time in Korean is easy.35 is se-shi samshipo-bun. f Taúm wolyoir-un ama koench'an-ulkčeyo.. I Kůrigo chó-nun naengnryón-do mók-ko ship'óyo. e Choesong hamnida. 12. g Chó-do Sówul saram-i ani-rasó chal morugessóyo. h Chónshin-i ta ap'u-gunyo. 2 o'clock is tu-shi. at 2. You can say half past with the word pan.(moue\ l Han sangja-e iman won-e kajyó_gaseyo. k Marůn anju-hago p'ajón chuseyo' @ffi d n hab tat. Bases that end in u change the u to wo before the políte style -yo is added. . 9 o'clock is ahopshi.ís generally not shortened like this.'smjígi. rffi ffi@ffi a Kůróm. as they are based closely on sentences you have met in the dialogues of units 1 to 6. b onůl chómshim-e shigan-i issóyo? c Chinccha oraeganman-ieyo.

(you "deiide to have a beer each).ook at the following stÍeet Plan and answer the questions with full Korean sentences.il ztg? ^l aira\ d Hrkkyo-ga kakkawóyol I Uchegug-un taesagwan-poda tó móróyo? Hrkkyo-e ka-myón shigan mani kóllyóyo? a Uchegug-i ódi-eyo? Hrkkyo-ga ódi-eyol t kyohoe hakkyo chegwa church school bakery .il iÍ"rih.ob p.30 ru'n 9.00 2.Ít ioa/ -l *nnffiffi CH ONGNO a Kyohoe-esó yóngguk taesagwan-un móróyo? b |. a'c1it ut at hre' ía. Here is the information you need for the answers: oiingó yagu pulkogi d Chip e Shiiang cha- kwail Here is a typical day for Mr pak. do you eat well spicy rVould you like anything to drink? Mul_do túrilkkayo? food?) 0 Chunggung mal paewóyo? l.' a b a Kage b Hakkyo c Shiktang 7 follow. another kalbi. 5 wants to eat Pulgogi.a Ódi ka-lkkayo? b Mwo ha-ró kógi kayo? c Onie kalkkayol d Myč-shi_e mannaJkkayo? e Ódi-só mannaJk}ayo?' Read the following questions and answer each one negatively with a full sentencé (no. The dialogue panern is like this: What are you going to buy/do/drink/eat there? (ansuter\ IH l----------J l"uo".t /natlrbarrllhti. 6 Make up five short dialogues b (ansuer) a Where are you going? tffi I based on the followine information. and a third naengmvón_ !7rite a diďogue which includes the followine ouesdoňs from the waiter and your answers to them. Answer the questions that 7. Then make up another sentence saying what you do do instead. You go to a r€staurant with your two friends.ío atiilal /ual at Chtce"r<*aam. I'm not or no.30 7.kunch'ó-e hanguk oehwan únhaeng-i issóyo? G t@ lbtd_ //. i-/ Í/r4.a ó'00 7. Try to use the long negative pattern for one or two of the questions.I doz't). One of you I Ch'ukku choa haeyo? b Maeun kó chal mógóyo? c Tellebiiyón-ul mani pwayo} d Norae-rul chal pullóyo? É Can I help you? Can you eat spicy food? (literally.00 hl a Ed^Jtse g^]"il "JqLls? b dd 4ts € qqg? c EJql* qq zl9? d 9 .

c Just pay 15P ) won.hool to study English too. I came to rnest Mr Pak from úc Korcan cmbassy. See you laterl C Enioy your meal. thcn- Í ft tale about 15 minutcs.10 Jaemin has gone shopping. b l:t's a I'm goiqg to sc. s Hoťs business ůese days? h Give mc tbe chcapest ong plcasa i Thc weather is good nowadays. I k I can't cat spý thingr. řIave a look at his shopping list. meet out3ide úe shop. d Pll really have to go to hospial. How woďd he ask the úopkeeper for óg thingr on tbe list? what oigbt he say if the apples are too exPerrďve} How would he ask the toal cost? - AY g 7l o1 or ó 3 *zl 4 ť 2B d q4+ 11 Bnglish to Korean uarslation. Does the bus fot the post office stop at this stop? I .

Ne. šzsj r|t}al^Ig.mok . gJ.l.l her. = ul. šE/Ál 9= LJ Xl č!7Ě g91 Ea1 u'Jole. 95 Áqq uóll Ild. Hokshi Ódi kannunji aseyo? chal morůgessóyo.{. éEÁl H}T]+^1l9. ěE/ll= EtE LJX|3 tllol E óle] ftqTll otot B P! =}lrtll I1q 9++= ]Ě á 9'L1l9.ol9. gn oO o o br GI tr tr tr J +t t+ o. áflLllB. chogúm chón-kkaji issón_nÚnde. lly to ílnd that she'd already gone out Íor the evening with someone tgu llrl ldu ll GE^llg? frE^llg. -r o r\' o = -t I go3 É I d g ln ihis unit you will leam .. g. . Chamkkan-man kidariseyo' A nL whlle laterMian hamnida.. .mok řings up his giřlfřiend chÓngmin to cancel a date with D Stret iust gone out l dr. +^l oltl 'J=rl 0l^ll9? A lo while later. Yóboseyo? Yóboseyo. ul ád8 á ŇCLGI o ž IrI. . panggÚm nagassóyo.l ]lÚa E^llg. oJLl]ltr ělzloJ EtrxlolB. how to give inÍoÍmation aboljt wheře people ha\'e gone and why Yun Jr. how to give inÍořmation about what happened in thg past sevgral impoÍtant verb and claus€ endings one way of saying 'because' a way oÍ asking for somEthing to be done íoř youř beneít Jrrmok llÍ Yun M'l Yun Jr.J6l nl^]l9... +a d^lĚtol 0l0l fl=1q19. íu ur lll VU íP.chóngmin_ssichom pakkwo-juseyo.' . J st t. 9==olEnqlE.mok M7 Yun MÍ ul f ella? 0ls6lL]l. 0l. áU. 0l9!ÉL|tJ. chóngmin-ssi onul namia ch'ingu-rang yónghwa po-ró nagassóyo. 4= šrtxl 91*'=tjl ' B= Ll'/O|9. Uň chipsaram-i ama al-go iss-úlkóeyo. chamkkan-man kidaryó-boseyo.l''lĚiEl| ag "J0l ?l9^l9? otLlB.]lEB. Kúraeyo? lsang ha-ne' onůl chÓnyóg_é na_hago manna-giro haennůnde. 'ř14ďaI Esjfl. 9= I1E!B| Hte g0l éao|g. ]?ja.

ě]|chón ha.. bizare to date night late evening. chóngmin-ssi-hant'e chěn hal mar-i issuseyo? Aniyo' ÓpsÓyo. This us'es the conainuous tenie. happan. You would be far more likely to use the noímat řoreán present tense form na_nun chib-e kayo. l. and you would only do so if you olrticuIarly wanted to stress the proc€ss or tIe ongoing action bf vour qoins home. and the Korean emphasis is I am in a..state oÍ knowinz thlt' aÁd sometimes has the force I already knoul that bou kdn't need to tell me).EoJ- -al! cancel -1E8 with the intantion of (see note 5) telepl'oné (verb stem) busy (see note 6) to occur. Oh no! chal twoenneyo. it's all for the better . You meet that form in this [nk. irr most clrce you should probably not do so. AnnyÓnghi kyeseyo. . kůragyo. It is often uard with the verb to kloul. . The phrase al_go issčyo literally molns I am knouing. This continuous tense is indicated In Englišh we use the continuous tense fairly by the enčing llkc l-am eoins.you might saY: uhrck ilg-óyo appointm t chrok ilk-ko issóyo . you must not automatically assume that you should translate it by a Korean continuous Íorm.tll0l=0tpam '! nůtke =1| toÍao_ I0J9- -Orang -( 0D B is strange. onúl chó-hant'e pappun ir_i saenggyóssÓyo. see note 4) just now go out Írlrm that eňds in -izg. In English it is quite !()mmon to say a sántence |tke I'm going Dorae. ha_ chwiso ha.+1401-ryógo chónhwa ha. used in sentences ii sitting. a bit before previously until (used to Íorm the past tense. It would be very unusual to translate this by 3ho Korean continuous tense. 'Ihorc are certain circumstances in which the Korean continuous *ll yónghwa $p[ isang ha.. This ňeans'that when in English you meet a verb chogÚm chěn pakku. Íi.ot's take an example to illustrate this.ke place communicate Phrases and expresslons ódi kannůn|i aseyo? do you hnout ubere (she) has gonc? ama al-go issriJkčeyo uill PerhaPs knout isang ha-ne (it is) strange! chčrón oh dear!. as answers to the question mwol haeyo? luhat are you doing?\. ? mar-i issuseyo? Orammar í Itt Continuous states Enclish we have a present continuous tense.. A.0lá0}chónyók Il{ deit'u ha. and you should note ůese.naybe.Mrs Yun chórěn' chóngmin_ssi-nun tarun namja_rang deit'u Jaomok Mr9 Yun Jaemok Ama pam nÚtke_kkaii an torao-lkÓeyo' Kůrlm chal toenneyo. to stÍess that something is going on conlinuouily. onůl chónyók yaksog-ul chwiso ha-ryógo chónhwa haď-kódunyo.HIT_ chogÚm iEEl chón č! chón-e ě!0| !E-l ě! -kkaii _il1 -(ólss. retum othor common uses are to stÍess what you are in the process oí dolng rigtrt now. it's tumed out uell. perhaps. . for 3óecial emphasis. supper . movie Íorm is used however.o you haue a message for . chal toenngyo. řherias in Korean úe continuous form is used rlnli. rókannůnde.U7lhokshi onúl 9-E namia ch'ingu HII {!+ change a little while ago a little. be --l'zg. possibly today boyfriand MÍh Gil€ng after consonants) ťlm.-9 panggům EJ= naga. Ííeoucntlv. . Thus. yakok E+ come back.I!9|olpappůn ulE -kódúnyo saenggl. hant'e chón hal d.

l n lllóknl lrtrlrrrilll You have already learned the verb kabo-. t'enisu-rul (t?.of the past tense has become ir hv the rules of sound change. that is what you are busy with and in the middlé of doing. knock off the _yo.lite past mógóssóyo arassóyo anjassóyo kidaryóssóyo *rirl'ir. -ko issčyo' You will not normally find negatives in the continuous Dattern: vou would simolv use a no. iust as voi can on the normal verb bases that you have lp. They both mean I'm reading a booh.are sure that you want to stress that particular meaning of continuous aďion.to another verb. please haue a go ai uaiting.ryer rried p:laying Generally you should only use the present continuous tense when you. mógót-ko (nrÓ1óss.the -ss_ might .and kass--with the imminent elaboration 'nllndc added to them' This past tense _núnde form is very r otnmon in Korean. fortunately. baue hid a po at lverb\ing?.. for examplďan ilg óýo 1t'n not reaáiig1. teniis?) tho. llr'tncmber that the Íorms haennůnde and kannůnde are also r. perhábs my uife utill knou|.. it ís just a way of expressing probability. witlr the past base mógóss.n be made intoi veib form in the normal way. ttem polite minus -yo plus pok":' kayo kaka-bómók.+kuna). Sometimes the forms you make will look a lrtt rrdd'because óf the rules of sound change . I trr The past tense 2 Probabilities the l'hc oast tense in Korean is used very similarly to the Past tense ť..to make rhe past tense is To make the form. mčgót-kuna (mógóss. mógón-neyo (mógóss. and then add on the verb po_. take the _yo off the end and n.iqlish to sav what someone did or was doing in the past' Ý. It is oft€n used in the polite honorific sty|e to mean please haue a go at lverb) and see.to giue you the moke honorific past forms' take the present verb base.lJ'-is.llranoear into another sound. honorific past base (if the stem (if the stern ends in a consonant)' ntlrlr in a vowel). which we told you a compound of the verb ka. that is lllrlv easv too.lzis) hnc-bwassóyo? (baue yoi euer played tennis? haue you y<tu . ln the following point).::r":rTr"" try uaiting The two most common uses for this pattern are as follows: . however.you could l|ld(lc! mó8óssóyo. You have an example in this dialogue in the phrase ama al-go issůlkóeyo (my uife will ptobably kioul. for example' in the polite style.í b". You must take the other verb in ihe polite štyle -yo form.mál verb form. fof example' anjůshyóssóyo lir lyru (hotorifc) rnIllrhyóss-' sat dounl. r".g. For example.+neyo)' etc.mógóyo mógó_ mógó_bo_ make other compound verbs by adding the verb po.. It is not really one verb at all. This-paststem can tlir. please try out (verb)rzg. from the honorific Past base . árayo' kidaryóyo. kidaryó_boseyo in this lesson means please wait and see. please try waiting.+ko). or -ůshýóssllrlr con then' be made into. take the verb stem and add -ko iss-. but it will still be theÍe in Korean polite mrgoyo "'"řo' kidáryóyo aniayo' -yo mógč aÍa kidaryó ania minus plus mógóss- -ss aÍasskidaryóssaniass_ po. nrrrl add -shyóss. Notice that this isn't a proper future tensi.(see). the polite style ending -óyo: 3 Having a go at.s haess.'vhát you novr have is the past stem (previously you probable future form _ůlkčeyocan also be used simply to rnean 'probably'. but the second one suesses that you are in the process of reading the book even as you ln the past tense it meas haue you tied lvetblin1?. .(go) and the verb po.. aniiyo)..rr ňst need tó learn how to form it and.past lrarr. by adding' for rrEmple. Here áre some examples.rrricd orevióuslv. These two forms aÍe thus the .speak.n.n tcnse forms in which the -ss. e. éat ax'd see kidari_ kidaryóyo kidaryó_ kidaryó-bo.-but You can l(rtttcmber that you can put all sorts of endings.on the. Take the verb vou want in the polite style (e'g' nrÓrllyo. You will Íemember that we said in the last unit that Invc bcen learning the Present stem of verbs). example. meaning go andlee haue a go meant'go andsee'.

I'Lgyu changnyěn-e sóul taehakkyo-rul chorÓpha-go chigúmun Hyóndae chadongch'a-esó ilha€o issěyo. Yojúm chaemi-ga óttósayo? Yoiúm pappayo' Yóia ch'inguja saenggyó-só tě pappayo.gnl Yongt'r. how did they meet. where does she work. Óie pam-e ldi kassóssóyo? Yonel'r. a busy maner bas come up) Ir It ťr. Ama ódinga kassul kóeyo. GIl č!+]l ě}^l tl BlUUlE. +fiolg. Yója ch'ingu irum-i mwo-eyo? Móri-ga ap'a-só sul-ul mot masyóyo My head hurts. Ir tlil lcl oll1l BlollE u]t ó:a} il'=Bl olÁl UJoll oltl 2Jflolg? olÁl tjJol8? sfi'ol9.l'l 9lEól^ils? 9!5ót^llg' 9= li0lrt ot[1^itg? E= UIUUIE. and this is perhaps the meaning which you will use (and meet) most frequ€ntly. chigÚm-un kóuy maeil manna_só deit'u hajiyo? Ym!ťa. han tal hu_g p'at'i-esÓ uyónhi tashi mannassěyo. Írogytl Óie parn-edo nae-ga chónhwa haennunde lpsóssóyo. á"Jol0ll9.ole. +0ll iltEl0ll^l Ku-ttae-but'ó chaju manna{i shijak haessóyo. Et. Noraebang-esó nawa-só ódi kassóssÓyo? Yongú'a. ' lu1+El 4+ oJull IlBe 19 0lig oJu^l r]l0l E ólIl9? ^l4flote. řroyu t'rgrr . G il = E!+ 0t=0t 9t oil 9? a 4E0ll Elt tEl č!?]l tllt a$ =g6l! ^lěE ^1€ XfsŤoll^l gól! l/ol9. Vamttaa chóngmal-ieyo. what do they do together? Kim chóngmin-ieyo.l^l]l 96la Bilg áP! Dt^lda0l9? otaE olrll fiq 2JfiOlg? ratsoll ?tfi. so I cannot drink Cl Wrat did you do last night? Yongt'ag has a nsw girlÍriend' and his fÍiend T'aegyu appears rather inquisitive .flolB. 0l+ gE Yongt'!c Taégyu_ssi annyóng haseyo? Annyóng hassyo. :]Ě E0l0ll9. Nae yóia ch'ingu-nun noraebang-ul aju choa haeyo. Óttók'e mannassóyo? Vonot'. ťrrlyu Klóg_i an nayo? Kurěk'e sul_ul mani mashyóssóyo? Yon!l'. AÍnu il-do Ópsóssóyo. ÓJe pam-iyo? Kióg-i an nayo.. qqtE= Ět'l{ PJ9t=sl Ě 3 =Il +s6l rt^t oJHolP. Kurěn-iul arassěyo. Ť'mgyu Yon0l'!.what's her name. A good example would be: Piga wa-só hakkyo-e mot kayo It can mean'because A. so I cannot keep the appointment (lit. hae-juÓssóyo. and then I met a Korean friend Ch'ingu-rul manna-só sul chib-e kayo lí It tt lil . It's raining. u q& č!?= ldllt+g 2zts.. 0l0l olErt ?t=1q9. = ]]ll clollE? é4ól gollE^llE. ltqol glue. ch'ingu_ga sogae sEl $t TEI rltt tEl ch'óum-enun kurók'e maum-e tul-ii anannúnds. Nuga sul-ul mashyóyo? Taggyu-ssi-ga ohiryó maeil suFman mashijanayo? Ílaag|yu Ócchaettun óie ódi kassóssyo? Vonď'rr Noragbang-e kassěssóyo. 0l+ 50rďB.eťu Ku€6 ta-eyo? solchikhi mal hag'boseyo.ol9? 0lo LAtljJoll^l u9l^l q?E ř'ol9. rd gPlolB. Kůrón p'yón-ieyo. olg]l PJHolg? r1aql= ]*1l OlEoll ^ ]ll0ll éoJ0|0|l9.Here are some more examples: I meet (my) friend and then (ue) go to the pub Hangug-e ka-só hanguk ch'ingu-rul mannassóyo I uent to Korea. then B'. so I can't go to sebool I can't go to school because it's raining It Here are some more examples: onňl pappůn ir-i saenggyó-só yaksog-ul mot chik'yóyo Sometbing has corte up today. T'akku_rul chom ch'yÓssóyo' Í'r. g. ]lqol g!ue? ]3]ll á= "Jol 0ljíoí9? +]} é= 0t/d9? Ell.

etc.maňm-etúJ_ (t)like.ror. maoll [Ill kiók 7|q ódinga 0|g7l nuga +71 ohlřyó 90|Ě ócchaett]n 0|'E noraebang everyday memory somewheré or other !ý'o? (subject íorm) rather. . s'€'rt narly.. tnaybe .io...ne the truth! nowadays rb busy . honesdy solchikhi mal hae-boseyo yoiÚm E= pappu.blé tennis gtc.) to ptay (tgnnis.t l chadongch'a -g0lchadongch'a gÍJ ll=Íl IIEII univeBv yar graduaÍe (vorb stem) Hwndai car (company) ch'a 1l it ha.l ttao -put'ě -FH I by ctpnce. almost (lnÓl chómshim chom sa_juseyo? iiůriiiu y."_.. frequantly begin. please do it (for rrv or vrír ivould have said haseyo' Instead. ho* the verbs make togettt"t'"na implv that vou are asking for ijiriiiňt"g to bé donifor your benefit' tor my beneÍit fii'il. hae-iuseyo (please do 't. please 4o. ttt"t itt.v are for your benefit'my'beneht)" ťrevlo'usly iolcree do it for me.particulaÍly) like this polite You hrvc learnt how to ask people to do things by using _seyo. irluil and then add the verb ending you. (we) tnd to be so/do so (it's kióg_i an nayo ama ódinga kassňl kóeyo t'akku É|? solchikhi lllg nae Ul ch€ ! anway ' laraol<é' sínging roo m tny ch'i' a40l my (humble Íorm) E. The construction you aÍe aDour to rruurrtl cnding in iirin onables yóu to make such requests even more poltte' ano suppose vou want to iii.) I don't remember I expect ftae) uent someuhere or otber.il_..Ě."n It#lffi.lloF sogaehaóněk'e ^rl0l0| gr|| ch'óum Ílt kúrók'e ]3'll lrók'€ 0|É r|| maitm Elt tol I caÍ caÍ (shoÍt form) woík (verb stem) to intÍoduce how? at Íirst mind.. tlc literal meaning of the construction $ this meaning " .t:::']Hr"f. usually you rhu.HF!yóia ch'lngu q& e!? iřúm 0|l changnyón qE taehakkyo 0 elÍl llyóndae GňoÍópha- ' Orummar gidfiend nane laf.."1:E::"?i. coincidentslly again often.ř.i:"-ii'."ffi Itlr lr quite huF p'Et'l &g ?g0| pafty time from month after a common pattern' Here are a couple of examples: 'ryónhl tashl Ql.. Yo"t (tbis) umbrelh shijak ha. heart like that (hers'. tell . take the pollte sťyle 'ne knock off the -yo (hae-)' and add the-verb stem irrrb lhrcvo).ll. on the contary kúrón p'yón-ieyo . tablé tennis ÍrankJy.want' ending' so yoll 1oT" itll idlll *"nt to use the polite request iilr thc form hae + chu + seyo.lolkóÚy nE cfiaiu Il+ Llljjl[T''l. lnr me .l.Phrases and expressaons yoiům chaemi_ga čttóseyo? kůrón_iul arassóyo maům-e túl-ji anayo how are you dobry! how are things these days? I thought so I don't lihe (ber) lmarm-e an tuÍoyo) usually lihe tbat.iiii." buy my linch for me today? l'fiiu chom pillyó-iuseyo urrn lerd i. xlt.

do something for your bene6t)..h.::ťk:':tí!ť:ť don't you? l í ! ++g *4-s. the exact meaning of -iiyo coresponds to a number of English meanings. it is a bit like the polite style (since it ends ín -yo). b Pleaše go shopping for me.would be the double of mók-. by implication' we left agaln place lftcrwards). concerns its use lnd o-. b". however.. c Chómshirn saseyo. that you came.yonďth" scope of this book' It emphasizes the ř. mók-iiyo I suppose you aÍe Korean' aren't you? You'ue eaten lunch already.i.o . However. íaĚi wassóssóyo l wassóyo I came here yesterday came bere yesterday Practice t Put the following sentences into the past tense' Hangguk saram-ijiyo? Chómshim pólssó mógót-|iyo? Chigňm chómshim Sur-ul choaha_jiyo . dependíng on whether they occur irr statements' yes-no questíons. you knou. However. base Ťhc orecise meaning of ďle form is a bit more difficult to 2 Beginning to do things j. 4 The double past Korean has what is known as a double past construction. mógóssčss. b. Make the following into polite requests (ásking someone to Hasevo.vou doverDs Kawlth the two know about it. ol a'past event ánd shows that an event occurred need. {!ŤÉ"J+.óna is that the action is over. that is.".bh rcstlurunt last nigbt (and.' Compare the following two sentencesi Óle pam yóBi You can say that someone is beginning to do something in Korean by adding -ki shiiak ha.á.pilvó-iushwipke 9é prlli. It is used when the speaker wants to draw the hearer in to what is being said. hauen't you? Let's haue lutcb nou (I b c I É}jlql z}g. d Can you Phone Mr Kim for me? c Please buy me some medicine. with an .. the imPllcatron ái the . The act of our coming (and going) all took lmt night. went again and that it all took place in the past' aii in". etc. The following examples illustrate some of the ways it can be usedr Thc implication of the first of these might well be rhat you are rtlll heri.to a processive verb stem (a verb of doing). As you can see. which is a past tense of a verb formed in the normal way. Thus. "ou Thc eame would be tiue of kassóyo and kassóssóyo' 'Íhir rule is something of a simplification.s. and it gives your sentences a bit more flavour than the politc style. óí.l guess. you came and you remain. but it will explain moÍ of the occurrences of the double past that you are hkely lo nccd to know about for the time being. _Ý_E-+ql d c ?ff:::.added. Take a close look at iho example in the dialogue to see that emphasis: u'e carne t. Í Shiiak haseyo.Ji. to Iii-iii **pt"i"d in the distant past' what..Á. Here are two good examples: Hakkyo-esč ilbon mar-ul kongbu ba-gi shiiak haeyo (We) are beginxing to study Japanese at school haessóyo Noruadays some English people haue begun to learn the Yojum óttón yóngguk saram-i hangung mar-ul paeu-gi shiiak Korean language 3 Sentence endings wihtÍ -iÍyo You can end sentences with the form -iiyo added to any stem. or suggesdons. Pqř ť}"l "}d9. e4 619. 'go' and 'come. s+ÉB! dÓlg. It means something like l stppo se.gilusan 1a+A) /end easily bonow umbr€lla _óss.

-.3 Complete the following by filling in the blanks.l4a olAql z]aqg 7lÉýnolg ^J4^l aEqvl q}+ ts}g ÓJol * 0 9Ěe 6 g 7 49 b c d c olB EsoJql ++ ++ol 9lq9? ť^{/} .? ťal+q +4"ilg? qd]= ŤŤóií ddg E9'Ó|9? Noraebang-e kayo? Na-nun kayo (arm lpal) has begun to hurt\ (d o n' t li he nor aebangsl (I can't 80 eitbel) ointnent) Jaemin-ssi mot kayo? chat toenneyo Kuróm r T'ang mashyó-boseyo! (t'ang: spicy soup\ b You ibouW uisit Pulguksa one time |líterally.*1 Eqr+ eá qE dl4 řŤ4 I rz {+*ala f* lo flg iltt rt ?t 4Al 4i ýq 4tr t .E. B'. .Í ds. a busy matter has come up b no food in house G business is not good d Iet's go outside C Bo to sangÍnin's f go to city can't go go to restauÍant no money and wait what shall we do? buy some fruit ! te r*t '"4 Translate the following into Korean. The first tfuee have the sense of'because A.ťp aturnni meeting +s_oJol óli.tG ě |7 frll 44 E rý 44t r €ra T 4l+ al+ět 6fl 6"u) I 'and then'.mot ch'ýóyo t'akku (bead aches) (a?roth er a?p Translate the following (using verb compounds with po. 9Ě . b Sángmin has just gone out to play table tennis.s. each wiú two clauses linked by -só.for the English to Korean examples).l . This is practice Íor the -kódúnyo pattern' and you might want to look back at the lesson ňotěs for that paitern be%re you do Vrite out * I rBzl". 6 *Y +8 +e ?t + . c laemir itasn'. the following sentences. c !řhat did you do last night? Tell me the truth. come yet? Please (try) uaiting a little longet Use the following pairs of information to make up Korean ccntences.. í That's strange! Chris bas come back already. d r'áŘkí-rut mot ch'yó-bwassóyo? Kuróm han bón hae-boseyo. and in each case add a second sentence along the lines suggested in the brackets to explain what has just been said in the first sentence. .E 6fl O. (get used to: iksuk haeii-) d When did you graduate! c We met by chance in a bar. Something carne up (you see). the last three are sequential' Read the following page from someone's diary and then answer the questions. f a b c d e 5 llyoillar_e onúl bakkvo-e mot kavo rnoíkuyo onůl pam 'hin". !) c Pappů-iimanka-boseyo. qq zl4.J-Š. c At 6rst I didn't particularly like kimch'i.hess ť. .89 'dgol"ll9? olB oJg"Jol Ťtg 4řjí ěxs? oJgoJ"il= H)l -a =Aq oJ hotiday lus. but I got used to it.ač tl"l { the exercise. aŤĚ "J+ d+-. Please uisit . a t'm ringing to cancel my appointurent. "J*q"g.

il"{ť'Íi'3i?*n*o" something I i 3 :ffi.A p l!.:::.ól lr a l*á lo r l I t99l l-l lš5l I rt I W.l*lnÚrisuniryouwillteam =:il**.o.[in .. l lE É.J.I l!...::1. Make up appropťiate answers..:?.< r { o 3s tB' r-.:_.rJ.t ldř l*'l ato 9 I Ask your friend if they have tried doing the following things.@s # .E < 12 '+(g = o{.

harabóji mmpYón ElE! kyólióng ha- s*ngBhin gé! sa€ngil 8l| muós +9 tangshin oot! llotu|Í husband grandfathar biÍthday (honořiÍic form) b. rtlt ^lE=rl = B{!0l ég + g'olÉ?u= Hllílg.ltrI +E š.tD golu €^l= dolól^lě0ls? EJtilLl= tl|ó! 9. =^l= =0lól^lLlrl al iÍ9o' Tangshin-uir nae uygyón_ul choaha_ii anch'anayo. ě|Bt= Ň C eJrl g? tl ot afHl= gfil g golLl +ja }t^JtE.! we +E HE +E oought him that last yeart his lhmp'yón A husband and wiÍe are deciding what to buy grandfathgr for birthday.'rthday (normal form) whaÍ (ful| Íorm of mwo) eéÚ]- Pwuin Namp'yón haé-yagessóyo. chamba-nun tě isang p'iryo ópsóyo' Kurómyónshyóch'u-nunóttólkkayo? shyěch'u-do tě isang p'iryo ěpsÓyo. . 0lE0ll= _4 E9Í+^]l9. ^l HE :]a H'ď?! g&0lB. ?.l-bón-enun choayo. MuÓs-ul sa-důrilkka kyólchóng lrnphin-un nae ůygyón-ul ohorhr-ii ancb'anayo nrl hrn daero see? ! you don't like nry *ggestions. llrmp'yón lrntn l{|mp'yón lrrrn Usan-unóttólkkayo? Harawi-nun pi o-l ttae naga-ji anushi-janayo. you see! as (1) said. KuÍigo hara$ii-nun myóndo-rul chal an hasgyo. second alns (as in time.ES+- you (often used betwe€n husband and wiÍe) décide dacida {9 r* 9l/flpón E! chamba i_bón 0|g to help Pwuin Namp'yón Pwuin pól áBl E jacket (jumper. the task is not as easy as it sounds! hdn Kuróm.E tl 0lá Ea &'olE. +a= é rtl0l7lolB. ŤE áá Lll]l L.|| ru lrr-/ópo- chěng ha.chamba-rulsa-dúrilkkayo? chamba-nun polssó yÓl pÓl-ina kat-ko kyeseyo. many 'ÍÍs! times. HE +E I. However. 3019... gó!c u 9Z= =olólxl SE Lll]l Í]= "JĚltllĚ BÓ! =Ň Naair-iharabójisaengshin-ieyo.f.ch'aeg-ún_yo? Lamp'yón Halaběji-nuntoksó-rulshiróhashi-janayo? ug0l Ě0lBlIl 8ó!0l0llB. Mwo? Pólssó? KÚraeyo. uhat do lll{ót youthinkabout.lE EOt -_'] kuln llrmplón fuuln HalmÓni-nun toksó_rul choa hashi_nikka taeshin ilgUshi-myón toe-janayo. chom towa-iuŠeyo' Hangsangnae-gakyólchónghajanayo. (counler Íor clothes) (se€ note 4: canlcan'Í) ťiíne.? yoa Pwuin Namp'yón Pwuin Namp'yón ]Ě ^lLJ=ř'80ls' olgrl9? d7| gE]l= ]a ^ll4t 0ll Eř'&olB. fl? grl? ]eilg.lo^lE ^l= Bď0lE.8Ultowa-iu. Tangshin-i chóng ha-l su ópsóyo? Na-nun pappayo. like (I) said 3áólE Ed0t9. chom tó cho-un saenggag_ul mal hae_boseyo. Nao-ga ch'óum-e ma| han-daéro tangshin honia kyólchÓngha-myěn to&'janayo! Ku{Ótporagu! řE I.lE =šólď0l9. BE lal E /H*= Olgrtg? +E ií-. Kuňmyangmal-un? changnyón-€saturyÓt_ianayo' llrmp'yón Kuróm sae chÓnggi myóndogi-nun óttÓlkkayo? Ku-gón chaejangnyón-e sa furyět_janayo. +E0ll Phrrrog and expÍessions ňun lfiólkkayo? poragut hout about . Nongdam ha-ji maseyo. this time l I . L. . áUt= t] 0lá "Je solg. = =e ?é!e ol*JrlB? g0lBl^lE Bl E[ll u]l^l s9^láolE.JólXl ot^ll9. Iil +E ]alI g0lBlll= EEs š 9J ól^]l9. u á4= "J6ilE^lls. .

Compare the Ílrllrrwlng two sentences' the first one means that you will have {9} u'1 1 l Yangmal gE Giónggi myóndogi T!)l P!E)l ků_gón myóndo(-rul) há- -(ů)l ttae -( o) iaeshin tll*! saenggak g4 usan ++! reading to dislike grandma becauss (clause ending. on one's own ll) rttd ( lltn rllnrrcn8nim-ul kidaryó_důryóssóyo l wurd ÍOr MÍ Kifi t lh'lnlu-rul kidaryó-|uóssóyo Grammar Note: The verb endings to some of the sentences in this unit (tht' ones with -sh. politg styl€: katko kyeshi- llll- lry€seyo) exist (honoňÍic oÍ iss_ in its existential thgíe islare isstuhitó isang p'iryo ópsóyo p'iryo ha- tlolltl 0|8 IB flols jgolld meaning) haye (honoriíic oí iss. I'm trying to decide uhetber . tlh. and there is an implied for'grandad's benefit'in many rrl lhc scntences.and -s.r my frie?td I lllondering. added to veÍb stems) idea umbrella instead. Ar yorr can see. and it depends on whether thr prrson for whose benefit you are doing something is nllfnrcd (honorific) or not. 'buy for his benefit'.40|0lhalmóni ÍlB| u toksó = Ell llrr. Korean uses a special verb lurl which mears giue (to someone honoific). as in sa-iuseyo (please buy it for me).ať thr'lng (topic) the year before last electic shaver year shave I h'ltt1tt-cgc ch'aeg-ul ilgó-iuóssóyo 1l) mnt a book for my granáfather lrrrhóji-cge ch'aeg-ul ilgó-dúryóssóyo a book for my friend suggestion.katko ky6shi- illl ilfl- áaya.. possass (Íor honoÍiÍic person. This would form part of a sentence anď ll mcons wbether Mr Kim uill go.d f.rr nrc two ways of doing this.as you would expect. but we won't explairr them until after the second dialogue.also exists but is less common) shin _(Ú)nikka shiró ha. Now we are goinlq to expand on this to look at how to talk about doing things for other people's benefit. Once more you can make a compound verb whht rncans literally'buy and give'. the second means wlll have to decide what to buy for someone of your own hrwcr status (for example.in them) are new. I'm utondering uhetber.'ot you met it also in -(ů)lkka haeyo (I'm thinking of|' Itr .g. .in its meaning oÍ possession) any norc is not needed ls nsedsd (p'iryo rlhkrguc you have just looked at is all about buying presents for llrnrhrJ.(0)lkkr pattem is used in the following construction: llm rónrrcngnim kaJkka. but which in practice means 'lrrry krr him'. for the benefit oÍ someone else. Grandad is definitely honorific lrrl thir means that instead of making the compound with the vrrlr chwu.(giuc). worrying and deciding 1 Doing something Íor someone else We learnt in the last unit how to ask someone to do somethir4i for your benefit by combining verbs with the verb chu. your child): Mrrňr' rrl sa-důri-lkka kyólióng hae-yagessóyo Mrrl1r.. It could be used wirh . Thr' ln Xnrlhh we make quite a few constructions with the word flhrthrr'. Korean has two different verbs for llrtr rrc l giue. opinion alone.ul ea-iu-lkka kyčljóng hae-yagessóyo a tr rbprttding on who you are giving to. shyóch'u I bs. Korean makes these llňl oÍ lcntcnces by adding Jkka or -ůlkka to the base of the řh (thh lc the same ending as -(ů)lkkayo? (shall ule?\ wíthour l. on bahalÍ of ll lr yrrrr rlor'klc what to buy for someone honorific. I'm worrying wbether Itlt. llrrt1. socks when rome more examples using the two verbs for giue: fd chaeiangryón n{E gE(l) ůysyón 9l?! honja EI0 0l- Íi. e.

3 tlonc are a bit silly. 'fth dlrlo3uc has lots of examples.hrn|r-rul ilg_ůl su issóyo? lls yn nad those Chinese cbaracters ouer there? Ha- throw away llcďfk gq ady il The oúer form is simply a contraction of this longer version. since there is no decision to be taken about whether or not to actually do something. lll lly you can do the verb. trtlmtr pcoplc say things which are really stupid and Korean lfrldu r nicc (and not too rude) way of pointing that out and htltlnf fiut gendy) tbat the person should have known better. issóyo l cat eat it Ftí|-ul ru ópsóyo l c*rr't eat it ntfu ul ru '] I can go |r lru lrróyo lr lru ópróyo I cln't go ll'r n rlmple as that! But you must I'm uorried that it might rain Yóia ch'ingu_ga na_rul póri-lkka-bwa kókióng haeyo I am uonied that my girlfriend might damp me pód_ l Pi-ga oJkka-bwa kókióng haeyo practise it until you can do ll hlt. Take a llrlllPlcr processive verb stem (r vrrb of doing). something that you'd really not have to do). to mean ubether or zót. 'l'hc exercises should give you plenty of PÍactice. l Sometimes__{ů)lkka is followed in colloquial s1reech by another _in example. 1a is a particle which means'.to say that you can't.ill keep íĚe appointnent Uniónsu-ga sul-ul mani mashi-lkka kókiónghaéssčvo Nroil-kkaii l-il-ul kkůnnae-yagessóyo |'ll hove to finisb the woťk by tomofrou Nlonyón-enun kkok kyólhonlrae-yagessóyo l'll h. The man keeps suggesting lhal lo buy for granddad for his birthday and úe wife thinks hh ru. detinitely withod (Verb stem. kyólióng ha_ (decide\. For example. You could not use mďkka in alentence to mean l'm ulondering uhetbet it utill ruin oz zoÍ. The pattern -rather is -yagesóyo. when Koreans are saying that they are worried thar something-mjght happen. I taas Yóia ch'ingu_ga yaksog-ul chik'i-lkka kunggumhaeyo I uonder ulhether my girlftie u'. Often. 3 Things you'll have to do I I lotorttng This unit should remind you of the way to say that you arc going to have to do something (often the context cbncern.lukkok + 'inšh tail. add the ending J su if the stem ends in a vowel rrrrl '0l u ií it ends in a consonant' and then add either issóyo.luc to ?rraÍry next yeaf kkÚnme. as the iollowing I tl i Kalkka malkka kók|óng haeyo I'm utorrying uhether to go or not This form with malkka can only be used with verbs in wfuch a person is wonderíng whether or not they themselves will do something. malkka. Here are lto atrmples: llrrhlk rorro-l su ópsóyo I *ln't bt able to get home early (-lhó. kunggun ha(tllondn\. to finiď1 something) word. he suggests buying nÍhln] thcy bought last year. Here are a couple oiěxample il utoried that the diuet had had i tot-to driik This basic -(ů)lkka pattern is also found in a few common variations. and it is added onto any processive verb baše. For do something (in the sense of being able to carry it out.only if.sentences: any of the_following verbs: kók|óng ha_ (zorry). they use a slightly longer form of thc pattern: -ůlkka bwa: la You can and you can't llttcln has a veÍy common way of saying that you can or rt lalhrí thsn knowing how to). or čpsčyo. The implication is that the l . Thc form literally means something like 'only if I do such and such will it do'.

wu lí. stupid! What did you go and suggest it again for? l ! I'm Borry. B6l= il: tl! ll+ ll alr ilrť*ll$'u== Ěl s léÁle.and katko kyeshi.l wllÚón. I really didn't know! a dÍiv€í going the wÍong way up a ong-way street. gÚaéĚ0ll á* lň||oh'. +!ól^l9. Mianhamnida. 53e e EflgLl[}.sugohas€yo. Korean has anotheÍ verb form.l ft{aí'. to which they should really know the answer.wu Alllbangt'onghaengno€unyo. the verb issóyo. The ending -janayo (spelt -ianhayo) attaches to a presenr or a past base.wu Al+= 6lá0l9. You know how to say that someone has something by using second one is the honorific form and is usually found in thc polite honorific form katko lcyeseyo).(the *L{0n. You could say'because I'm going to a funeral!'and you would put -janayo onto the stem of the main verb of the sentence. Therefore the wiÍe says: Changnyón-e sat-janayo (from sa-ss-' past base of sa-) We bougbt that last year! Note the implication. =ol9c gBl Ell€lc *018.l lťlrÚ0alawu KomapsÚmnida. chÓngmalp'yojip'an-ulmotpwassóyo. fil u =áe gsg€ +ilflďote.l rtflcňawu ltaňFh|. Taúm-put'ěchoshimhaseyo' Hanbón-man pwa-juseyo. so he shouldn't have been so stupid as to suggest buying it again. K'ůnshilsu-rulhashyóssóyo. Pělgům-un oman won-imnida. ch'a-rul ta ttok kat'ún panghyang-uro chuch'a haď_janayo. . Kůraesóyo? Kúrómyón chó-ppalgan saek ilbang t'onghaeng p'yojl-rul mot pwassóyo? llbang t'onghaengno-e chalmot turě o-myěn aju wlhÓm ha-go pólgum-do manayo. This is a form you need to be able to recognize Íather than to actually use frequently yourself. eil^19? atE! 11 lsa 4 gt+ EB EIlEi P gBEéĚřg. ]]stLlt}. eJÉiLlEl.ml It*tlolt'rl 6 Having one right there Myěnhócchúng chom poyÓ-iusoyo. and to honorific bases (note the sound change ss to t when -ianayo is added to past bases). pllormrn catcnes ll llr ll when someone asks you something obvious. = A UPJ E} +dE. which stresses a bit more the act of possessing: katko iss. á"JĚ 0t *Ol9? sarang ha- Illfol- love It's a very useful pattern. 0l+ 9lBótn lBE PJOIE. Suppose you are going to get married and someone asked you why.man should know what they bought for granddad last year. uB+El ádólHe. Waoyo? MusŮn munie-ga innayo? chóngmal mollasÓ kůróseyo? Mwol mar-ioyo? Yógi chuch'ahan ch'a{ůr-ul han pón poseyo. lartlHoh|. Tu{ln. *Érl|oh'. chóngmallo mollassÓyo.l shillyehamnida. '1 have one with me now'.rtloh'. Imagine a situation in which someone wants a lighter. This stresses that he has one with him right there. l . Suppose someone met you and you were dressed all in black and they asked you why. You might respond: Sarang ha-ianayo! It's because I loue tbem. Sorneone else in the room has one and as he fumbles in his pockets' he might well say' na-nun katko issčyo. =ilol9. Often it is has the force 'I have one right here'. and one that makes your Korean sound natural and colourful. stupid! One of the very common uses of the pattern is to give an answer ff' ' gile? +é = flue? ] el^llE? áBJ Ee}H =Il]l Aldlé}LlEl' EG+^119. you should know we bought him that lasr year.

and you will use it whenever you meet and hrrtrrrrillc vcrbs. penalty signpost ba careful.past base of ha-) kyóngch'al 3al unjónsu El!# myěnhócchůng E0|= poyě-iu.+Xlolttok * waeyo ls tbe ?reuspapeÍ ouer tbere? diver !l9F (diving) licence to show why? problem what (kind of) l'lll ln. be similar direction red colour lt'r rxrw time that we talked a bit more systematically about You have already learnt that honorifics are rtrrll ltt Korcan to show respect tó the person you are talking thrrt rnd in the present tense this is often done by using the hrttrr which you have learned as the 'polite request form' l htyo. Here are a couple of examples: I lltrrrrrrr haen-nayo? lhtrrnrrrn kógi innayo? or doing their lob) policeman Haue you ordered? (haess.ke p'yoiip'an choshim ha- Élgúm í= EIIE 5C0l- to antar be dangerous fine. bs cautbus Oremmar I Qucstions with -nayo Phrases and expressions mwol mar-ieyo? chóngnral molla-só kúróseyo? kůraesóyo? chóngnal mollassóyo hanbón_man pwa chuseyo sugohaseyot so what? I really didn't ktoulrealize please let me off just tbis oncc! work hard! (said to someone uhat are you talking about? do you really not knou ftubat you're doing)? lhr lurticle -na is often used as a way of asking questions and *hrtt you use it in the polite style. precisely (often used with katl) same be the same. (Vithout the -yo it is an inÍormal rlrurlhrlt which you could only use between friends or to ask a rlttlrtkrn of someone younger or of lower status than you. It is very I lmllrr in Korean. In actual fact this form is not only used to make lFt||lírlr' it is also used to make statements or to ask questions rhltrt lnyone to whom you wish to show respect.+|goJ- k'ůn = šhilsu ll+ lgE ploii Eg l! Erl one way one-way street sr04 sronposÍ big nake a misďa mis'E.++ +lť]*ll s*g ď"řuL lbmg t'onghaengno gEJ llbang t'onghaeng šhilsu ha_ d+oltuřó o.) It tr nrlrlcd on to the stem of any verb (either the present stem tln plrt ntcm).H0*musún += munie chuch'a han +ÍlE! chuch'a ha.nnl t hOlluhlm mógón_na? (from iss-) Wbere are you going? Did you have luncb? |mógóss past base of mók-) - Ell paÍked to t Honorlflc forms palk kat'ún panghyang kď'- Bt ppalgan g?J saek 4 eBB exacuy. you should also add the polite 1lrrttrlc -yo to give _nayo.-0|9wihóm ha. .

. First. lnd ka.is ltlílntnůn (written móknůn)' and so on. Here 3 tntroducing modiÍiers: making veřbs anto nouns )nůn kó kó activities. plus the polite particle -yo. a. plus the noun kót.c stems. Just as ůere are Present and past stems' so also úere arc honorif.oshi_ oshyóss- stetn bon past stem ani. Everything abbur the h-onorific stems is regular apart froň the preseni polřte srylc which contracB to _(ů)seyo' as you have already learnt: You can add verb endings to the present honorific stem.: tbe aa of going the act of seeing a film the *ct of sifting here (from ani_) are.are mčgůnand kan. You will find that t Itoocrslve verbs stem stem plus _(ů ilk.they do not have past tense modifier forms).ilgushyóss_ ka_ kashi.talk to new people oÍ equivalent or senior status (to ask them quesdons' foÍ example). we will show you how to maki them. tlerefore. the modifier form of mók.Ún lf it ends in a consonant.an!ůshi_ aniushyósshon )shyóss_: tlrr'rr you add _nůn to verb stems that end in consonants' sorrnd ltrngcn will take place. lr able to express Íáe act of (verb\ing by using a íorm. seeins frlms? bnÚn kó chom poseyo ) look at uhat k hete (literally .(ú)n to the stem. as though they rvere nouns. the tbiflg that islackts herel .g.and óps_ (these verbs behave like processive verbs. There is no Fnrc modifier form Íor the descriptive verbs' mcmorize these rules. As you can see this is identical I ptat tense modifier form for processive verbs. This contracts to give the form you know -(u)seyo. often abbreviated to kó. . would a normal verb with a stem énding in _i_. e.ilgůshi. Actually. In English.lxlcessive verbs. but the pronunciation (accorďng Irt thn rules of sound change you learnt at the beginning of the lrrrrrk) will be nróngnůn. which dten simply add verbs like choayďchoa haeyo/shiró choa haeyo afterwards to say what you think about 'nún kó choa haseyo? look at the other uses. lir nukc a past tense modifier form for processive verbs you lrlrl . The honorific past stern is the usual l'trt . as you th laa. How you make the rnodifier form ofa verb depends on whether it is a processive or a descriptive verb. so that the Past tense modifier forms of mól. kashyót-kuna|!. simply add -n if the stem ends in a vowel. add -nůn. . _ surprise!) He played table tennk now look at iust one meáÍring of the mďifier form Sometimes you want to talk about the act of doing veÍbs).to the verb stem.nd then we will worry about what they mean. so lhll lho modifier forms are innriňn and ómnnůn in the present bll. the form _(ů)seyo is an abbreviation of the honorific particle (ů)shi.a tind of verb. In this unit we shall iust look at one of their uses and then in Unit 1l we shall You now need to learn about something called modifiers.kashyósso. Kim sčnsaengnim unión Kim sónsaengnim Can Mt Kim diue? Can Mr Kim hal su issůseyo? unión diuei - (identical) Pólssó honorific base of ka-) T'akku-rul ch'ishyóss_óyo (Írom kashyóss_. For mók_. the hangul letters wlll lircrally read mók-nún. plus the vowel -ó. The honorifc present stem is the usual stem plus the honorific panicle -(ů)shi. You cannot do ůis with the hcřlptlvo verbs Harabóji-nun unhaeng_e kashi-go halmóni-nun uch'egug_e post offrce IJ tst drrcriptive kaseyo Gtanddad-is going to the bank and grandma is going to tbe hashi_l su issóyo? F verbs. past He's abeady gone (surprise. for a' we say things hke l like suimming which means I liŘe gf tuimming. Thus the ttrrrrliíicr form of ka. and of course 'swimming' comes originally n vcrb 'swim'.is kanůn.

using a similar pattem to the one you were using in question 1. Vhat to wear.Jtsg g 3 +4ót9. That it might rain. That your g.. 1 Vac tha . but you don't have one. I can't park here. t nc you are talking to your sister and discussing with her what you will have to do because of them (using -yagessčyoi.) a b What to buy.JE"JE 7}949. ěol 4s.e 4 You want to know what's going on at the theatre. so I can't buy it. . however! (I already did it!\ l-chaeg-ul ilgó-boseyo. l Can you meet me tomorrow? I can't speak Japanese.c' to buy your brother for a birthday present. stupid! haseyo? st qid!| bouýt it yestztday. (I hate Íeading. (I | nugu-seyo? . That teacher will come (to a party). !7hat to order. 44n. nrpaii.idfriend might not like you any more. using the Drttcrn -(u)l su issóyo/ópsóyo that you have learnt in this hrrcn. Ťtlnelate the following sentenc€s into Korean.l *Ťg d{Ho]qlg' . d b this edible? Mrk" up retoÍB to l-raram-i an Make the following passage honoriGc where appropriate. (Note: leazs. (You'll have to go back. out and realize you've forgotten something. vheÍe to 8o at úe weekend.b ! lrheÍe to sit. '. (You'll have to look at the newspaper.l*. '!7e have told you that normally you only need onlhonorific "t . the following Korean statements using sassčyo? namia(boy) -clt'inga-eyo? Myóndo an I-caraň-i verb in a sentence' but for the Purposes of úis exercise use as many honorifics as you can. trying to ia the dialogue as interesting as you can. You make following suggestions of what to buy. 3 d I lettel write Practice 1 Say that you are worried about the following things. ad^Jts z1q Eol .P'yón|i-rul ssunůn kó shiró haeyo I hate uriting letters I Sul mashi_go unión hanůn ke wihom haeyo It's dangerous to drink and driue pYónji ssů_ g- EI| . b You can't meet your boyfriend tonight.ianhayo pattern. 2 e That Mr Kim might not come. d You go. nd youÍ suggestions and the answers she makes. Make up Korean sentences to say a Your head hurts. (wearz iyl . ^]z}*q 7l=žl a qqř yestetday (lt's my uife! You only met ber !'1 Íl+Í"il^. I Can I come too! a b c d That there won't be enough food. CD' ssi-ď) c You need to use a dictionary. . Say so in Korean. Look out for sentences that should not have tiem. {''J Ó}a *goil 7}^l ol oJ Here are some situations. didn't I!\ (No.) You're trying to decide about the following things. but she manages 'wÍite against índ a reason asainst it until the very last suggestion. I'm already manied. g t"Js t€g o}+ +olg.Jd. a I don't have nny money.il 4^] aq Ě& "}rq.

Lt]t11Ll9? xĚl s ul Bg €ts ^l ě. ^lá. kabang-ul nok'o kassóyo. 0t . ÉE *0l E^lE'.|. ]lg0l ols}l áaole? ]l=otr oJ=fl'olB.\) \ II 5 CL qt o &b a ecBle.ga ka-só han-pÓn ch'aja pojiyo' Kabang-i óttók'e saénggryÓssÓyo? No.ilEilt ?l0lE. aiu k'úgo. nnager comes. -t lll il] uIil G1& ^t^tdn ts! uaolE. EtLt g Fl^l0ll Ě! ^]g0ll^l š0I0llg' Í IT I ln this unit you will leam . Ěl c =olErllg' llllt J tr st { I llt -t lh. you havo lost and sáy when and where you lost thém how to buy medicine ÍÍom a Korean yakkulí or chemist 'when' claus€s how to say it seems as though something or other will happen al tťrnlm l rnlm P!ÚÚl }l^ll9' chě. shillye hamnida. . how to describe things that t/90ts. l ^lB=0l LJ ť^l]} oltlEI| ě ]teÍl+^lilcl9? ÁlÉ0ll^l L})l^l 4laa a q=ol 9= +oe .. ÁlF ]lB0l 0lLl0llE' H]} ]l^l whlle latar. lll fl Ě9a 1 =ol 9/u9? ql ll ' ^lé 0l+ á9É! ^lFólI 4óln eg7lÉ]l Eolflqe. a4u9. !aÉďI flg}ql9. kaiug-uro mandúróssěyo- . alU 11Ě! ětz! rlE}4 E^llg. Lll ' 0t+ tI. E{ llt*01 . aě40l?' r{}oltE? rJ]l }got Pl=Bt. kómchóng saeg-igo.EWtrat did you do with it? ar llr at lfr lr x1 5r áalĚ}Llo. gts 0lB a^g 0l .. . chó-nun óje ch'ingu-dŮl-irang yógi |*nnóor'on wassónnúndéyo. ^rF 0lLlE. _l& ol5}l olál'olB? ať&0ll EH019. che.-JělBl Egol^ll8? +éggLlr}? r{l }r4= 9lolHaolB. I]= olÍl a+=olaJ G]l gfl'=tllP' ]lt+E 2JOlg. A o o o CL o í+ o J CL o t a J 1+ -l I o qt J - 1+ . ==oil ďg e|^lĚ}Lltrl.

aÍound..4óttók'e 0|E|r|| put down. A. chongópwon Sonnim chongópwon Ómnůn kět kat'úndeyo. saiangnim_hant'g hanbón muró_bo-lkkeyo' The manager comes. uhat's tbe problem? uhat does it look likeš l'll iust ask (*ch and such a lin nao..u9chóhůy Il9 (nmboÍn'mel cchům kkůnna- . liké be contained. í'. credit caío managér (honoriÍic form) have neal coÍp out yóngóp e!9| 6l- (humble Íorm of wuli.qJ-sóÍyu leather óe made of (past tense oí ínake (l-iřregular verb like p'al-.iěn han taúme orůn cchog-uro sg.E90lsashil k'adu chungyo han ^lĚ document important (modiÍrer form. be included yes (politer Íorm oÍ rr) Sonnim Saiang Sonnim Saiang Sonnim Kyóngch'a|só-e ponaessóyo. it comes to mind peÍson) kyóngch'alsó ěllN bonae.. sóryu kabang_i anieyo. snall road . sashil aju chungyohan sóryu-hago ch'aekhago ůnhaeng k'adu-ga turó issóyo.^lě](H) E0ltslÍóbóÍi.!l0lE1no(h)- kabang llg a brieícase.. app roxi matel y -(u)l ttae {9) E *uUll business óttók'e ( ..9|0|He|3hlk8a ha. chěngmal kamsahamnida. nol. my) about.alllol- llc 'lE a card (e. look for how? like this like that look (like) oJĚgolB mandúl. onúl ach'im ch'óngso hal ttae kabang-i hana issóssóyo. er. sonnim *El chó'.nggong naoh'óng8o ha- ě4u8^0}- trae ul f/hish (as in tl Íhishes) when (see note 4) Íme (When) clean up keep remember. . Annyónghi kyeseyo.g. .. customer chórón!chamkkankidaryó-boseyo. our. -ilga ódi_in|i chom Please tell me uthere (such and uhoejón han taúm_e -hant'e) han_bón muró-bo_Ikkeyo karúch'yó_|useyo saenggyčssóyo? aa.bÓn_cchae kolmog-e issóyo.-o| tl_ vem be important in fact ask lose an adiéctive) Phrases and expressions čmnůnkót kat'ůndeyo musňn ir_imnikka? it doesn't look as tbough tbere is anythinglare atry hou can I help you?. ye' saenggang nayo. tsch'aia Po.E7l'|| kómiěng eě! kaiuk ll4 ch'ai. chó-gÓ-gyo? Aniyo. Yóngčp kkúnna-l ttaé cchúm ' .alang(nim} murÓ-bo. Mwo chungyo han ke lurÓ innayo? Ye. Ku_gě-l ěttók'e hashyóssěyo? mmd01ó&9óyo irók'e 0l37ll kůrók'e -l3 saenggi. a bag searcl.. Qe yógi-só shiksa ha-go no-k'o nawassóyo' Myót shi-e chÓhuy shiktang-esó nagashyónnayo? Han yÓlhan-shi cchŮm_ieyo. Saiang Sonnim Sajang Sonnim Annyóng haseyo? Musůn ir_imnikka? che kabang-ul irěbóryóssóyo.etc) black mandul-' l irregular vérb) Saiang =gg ohungyo ha. leave have a look. tl]ó iss.Hlllbogwan ha- ohwahoeičn s9| I! uho9ión El*ol- police sbtion send chwahoeičn han taům-e such) is a{ter doing a left turn after doing a rigbt turn kolmog gElc cchae Il ight tum left turn B= number (time. alley. little while later.hmm... Kú-saram-dur-i pogwan ha-go iss-ulkěeyo' KyÓngch'alsÓ-ga ódi-inii chom karuch'yó_ jushigessóyo? shiKang_ssó naga-só chwahoe. . ků_gčJóttók'e hashyóssóyo ubat did you do u]ith it? .chongópwon chógi sonnim A sóryu kabang-i innůnde.

However. or what you want to do. topic (_i. Taking a processive verb and a descriptive irlll lh both past and pieseňt tenses' then' we would get the árlhrwing forms: ha- that a word is plural . It is very rare that there is any ambiguiry or confusion because of this. I lt loems like lgu cln say that'it lgrrrn bv using modifier forms of verbs plus kót kaťayo. have already studied the clause ending _nunde. for using the í Making plurals You will have noticed that a Korean noun can be eiúer singular or plural. -důr-ul. _důl-hant'c. except that saying -nňndeyo allows you to make more of a pause than using _nůnde. lome examPles: ayo ppang-ul móng-nůn TV-rul po-nůn It seems uatching like tbe teacher is ryo I'm from the BBC (nňndeyo) I'd like to do an interview I'd like to buy a bicycle Can you show me your I'm the brother of your kót kat'ayo choh-ůn kót kat'ayo nalssi-ga It seems lihe Minbo is eating bread It seems like the ureatbet is bad in England This house seems to be nice TV (nůndeyo) (nůndeyo) friend range? Pleased to meet you! May I have a seat? thrn something happens Since -nůndeyo is a colloquial expression. and so on. either about what thc peÍson you are speaking to should do about it or what you would like to happen (on the basis of having explained who you are.Grammar lltn thc svstem we have described here. lllrrnt 'plls ha-nůndeyo cho-ůndeyo haen-núndeyo choan_nůndeyo (processiue) cho. The following sentence would go on to Bive more specific information. depending on the context. Remember that the modifier forms are dcpending ón whether the main verb is procešsive or HFlvc. _důl-hago. It is a . You can also end r sentence with _nůnde by adding the polite particle -yo after it. Nrrlo uls<l that -nůndeyo and the related _nůnde are added to thl trrcrent stem of processive verbs. for examplel). and it is perhaps best to explain by example.(desciptiue\ 2 'We Ending seRtences with-núndeyo fumrmbcr that in the past examples the first of the two ns llrírlro thc hyphen) represents the double s of the past base irhtsh hrc becóine pronóunced as an n ďrrough the pronunciation tÚlrr wc describeďat the beginning of the course. _ůn} or other particles (such as {o or _hago) onto the pluÍal form. This all sounds a bit confusing in writing. so pi-ga o-nun kót kat'ayo seems like something is bappening' in iirnr 'htt iftmt llterally'the act of raining it is like'. Thus you could have any of úe following forms: důl_do. Notice how the second sentence often makes an explicit request. ln oúer words. ls'. You can then add subiect. Jir. ll a vcrb w:hich means is lihe. Korean does not have one word Íor dog aad another word Íor dogs1 it has iust one word kae which can mean either. or. to inďcarc that you have something more to say. and on to the past stem trl brrth orocessive ánd descriptive verbs' The form (ů}ndeyo. _důr-i. hrnr youiself. lt. you wllll|l $() wÍong. There is a plural particle which can be used to show explicitly ob|ect. In the following sentences' the first could be ended in Korean with -nňndeyo. if you remember the rules we have given you. rt ttLc it'i ruining. in effect. however.Í rhc iulat"d (ú)nde are oniy used for the present tense of rltrrlotive verbs. _dňr_un. that you are going to eláborate on what you have iust said.it is -túl. where you have comc from. or homes in to ask something. -ůl. you will sometimcs find it used in other ways which do not seem to fit exactly havr mct many times the form (ú)l added to the stem oÍ r lor example in the endings: (ů)I !lka(yo)' (ů)l kka haeyo' jlrvo. often _nůndeyo is used to explain who you are. In ačtual fact this (ů)| is the future modifier. The use is very like that for -nňnde.

t llk ?. choshim haseyoKudgo shwipke p'iro-rul nukkyÓ-do nolla-ji maseyo' Ns. ěnie-but'ó ap'u-gi shiiak haessěyo? ll' trk Ó|e-but'Ó ap'u-gi shijak'aessóyo.LlB? gLlr} 9{= qoE Ě=0l [llts Lll Élg ól E^ltr' g ól ^laolÚ 6t+ s É} ^ll Here are some examples in sentences: Pang-esó naoJ nae pang-ul ch'óngsoha-seyo Wben you come out of the room. Haru-o myÓt pÓn sshik měngnayo? Tut'ong-i shim ha-l ttae-nun ns shigan-mada han al Bghlk tushi-go.r hrn al sshik rr. ?ak Vrlr.^ó|tr BĚ0l fl= a lr +é qt= Egrlg? ul ' FEol 0t+ ěĚ!t1l ' +Egl š +^lilo]a? Lll . Musůn yag-ul lůÍilkkayo? r Prk Ne. óli .l-Ed|. Nun-un ap'u-ji anuseyo? Ns. I yag-ul chapswo-boseyo. tut'ong yak chom chushigessěyo? Yrhrr Ne. The whole consruction (verl) stem)_(ů)l ttae means uben (verb\ happens. Ir Vrhx 'ah llr lol f^l š uolIlE ^l+0ll Edle' +44 ee ae s. komapsumnida. 9l^l ]ĚeB' tse olEll g}o. Algossěyo.4dE Llt. lhrrees and expressions aHa airlrurclu-8a lonln-l-n kót kaťayo ňr lhllan-mrda han al rrhll túrcyo it seems as tbotgb it's because of stress uke one tablet euery four hours EJla e0lR. Cham-un chal chumuseyo? Anlyo.o19? 0lnl+E1 0lEll oJol ot^t g^lta. $al]l Ll+ oltrl^l á I}9. Vrlr mt tak Y .\Eč||.{l8? . but it has a future meaning. Ama sut'uresu-hago kwallyÓn_i innun kót kat'ayo.P E?t01e. tut'ong-i aju shim ha-nde.ill go An even more important use of _(ň)l is when it is followed by the noun ttae which means tine.^-Eč||-A)} aEEa ěolE'. otiil9. Yrlrl '. chom naaii-myón. š E^} ěc ^=+9^lle? ÉJťgolLle.take orre tablet tbree times a rhwlnlr o'lro-ru| ll0lhyó. Kurók'unyo.modineÍ iust like -nůn and _(ň)n. please dean it up Hanguk mar-ul karuch'i-l ttae haksaeng-dur-i manassóyo? Were there mary students uhen you taught Korean? D nasty headaches Mr Pak goes to the chemist to get some medicine for a nasty headache. 9lt+Et 0tIIlt ^t+il. Have a look at thc examples: hakkyo-e kal ttae pi-ga o-l ttae ómóni toraoJ ttae uhen I go to scbool uhen it rains ubet Mum gets back ]alI ě]ll ]ilÉE!'xE =a}Il 0l/Íll9' ^é6l^119. Ama kwaro-hago sut'uresu-ga wonin-i-n kót kat'ayo.. ďFoll EE4qug? rhllhu. lilí ellt l'Jěc elll Bl. 0t0t iltrólI . 0l E= á+] Eda. This means that you can use the pattem you have iust learňt (modifer + kót kat'ayo) to say seems like something Úill '7 happen: ]^l FEol dg ol Piga o-l kót kat'ayo It seens like it taill rain KaJ kót kat'ayo It seems as tbougb slbe u'. = Eil g7'lol9' 0l0l .hón túrcyo .k Ho6sa-esó ir-ul nómu mani ha-go sut'uresu_rul mani padassóyo. MÓri-ga nómu ap'asč chal mot chayo.do nolla-ii maseyo day after meak ilon't be surptised if you feel tired uery easily . |lUU ul ' loJáLltl' Vrlrr Ósě oseyo.\E B0| a^loll^l g€ L1. shikhu_e han al sshik haru sabón tuseyoPu|agyong kat'un kls-un ómnayo? l yag-ul mlg-umyón chorum-i o-nikka. chogum ap'ayo.^{ ^l+*o1E'..

after the meal 4 HonoriÍic verbs ďeeplness. Notice r. You rrn only use this form to say what you yourself will do.link chapswo po. r to be surprised' b6 shoďed nn bonorific meaning honorific Grammar í The future marker -kess r -kess can be added to verbs to make furure Íorms.". lmmediate Íuturc Yoť have previously leaÍnt to put sentences in the future with added to the present stem of processive verbs which . then you aÍe meant to nrake up a first sentence with -(nu)ndeyo along the lines of thr English that we suggest. something similar fatigue. are promising to do or are iust about to do. If we givc you the second sentence in Korean.iven in Unit 12 and you do not need to be cbncerned about it until then.Uo]il- han al E! E ona tablet get beftar per day Xtrrcan often uses the endinB _kessóyo added to the honorific rtrnr of verbs to ask polite questions.='J|tsťl- +qt a sideiffect each.E!- company sÍress receive ecrtainly do. Korean has another future form -(ú)tkkevo.. Here is a list of the common Itrrttorific verbs and their non-honorific equivalents. since you have no control over their lťtions and there is theÍefore always a certain element oÍ doubt kúrók'unyo:l3EB kwallyón t!É relation. is it?! an eye s/eep (noun) s/eep (honorific equivalent of cha-) lbout them. t Asking polite questions maji. something-you will the form -(ů)lkčeyo. Examples are: chigum llrhiges-sčyo? (are you going noul?|. chemist ls senbus when par. it's like that. lrn rrrrlk lrr lrr lrttk rlrirk /nrashi- tl""p eat exist. every after meals. cbumv bashigessóyo? Ituuld you like to order?). lt can also be used to express lll|llcsts: hae-iushigessóyo? (would you do it for me?).eaÍ (honorific equivalent of mok-) haru-e ÚJE()| -mada -[lEl shikhu 4{g pujagyong cham chumushi."i " more definite (rather than probable) future.(sleep). An explanation of this is g. yr)n must provide a second sentence that fits with it.ělflE!. It is (lítcn used in círcumstances where there is no doubt about whcther or riot you will be able to do the thing concerned.r1rrciolly the verb issóyo. since ytttt have control oveÍ your own actions' You cannot say what ovetwo* rrrncone else will do. . If we give you a Korean sentence ending in -(nu)ndeyo.ťy aaÍlng (honoriíic fořm) chápsushi_ ěl+tl. ln thir lcsson you meet the verb churnwushi. chorum -= kai'ún kót 3e a shipke A p'iřo u!= núkkinolla. drowsíness (a) similar thing.yaksa shim ónje hoesa glJ Sutruresu .which is the honorific rtnrrr <rf the verb cha. weainess eaďy to fee! Iorcan has several verbs which are only used in the honorific ftrrnr (the non-honorific form is a completely different verb). I see.++ll- á Íeason' cause ah. stay baue die eatldrifik chumushichapsushi kyeshiissůshitora-gashitúshi- hon polite chumwuseyo chapsuseyo kyeseyo tora-gaseyo tuseyo issuseyo 2 Practice | 'l'his exercise is designed to help you practise the -(nu)ndeyo lorm.\ kwaro illE wonin E!g! nun ts ha- Ell gn 0l- pharmacist.\ E tl .*p.

t_}o}z]g +€ El "|ď qzl "}^i9..il. verb into the.orooertv othce asks you to describe .':t''Ěrih?.. h lt lí you a ' nnrlat..q^| Ť!Ť * *q9? E_E 4ĚEll l.. ij. l'vc had so much stress lately and I can't sleeo at nieht.a' . the like'p"t. I seem to have losr mv medicine.: of the following verbs.::#. a b c d Ed^JHÓ]ql9.i*+gr al+]}Ťs6il9? 'qg? l 4lol=É Ě 4 ťE} lrřl z}Ť 7}9. tslzl elg. leavás you .i. f.. appropriatc | chom pakkwo- illir d oie ch'ingu-hago yógi wan_nundeyo.i// znd serrtence) b (I'ue come from England) Kčgi_só hangungmar-ul chogum kongbu haessó-vo(I telepboned-yesterday)'Kim c sónsaengnim .j ush ígessóyo " f ""saengn im-uv pu in -i n devo' (w h ? h "i " o. You've made a big misuke! go into the ciťy late at niqht it's dangerous.t. ! l 'l uO a.ushtgessóyo? a Y-óngguk taesagwan-uy Tony-indeyo (Create .t..ř:.. ^l+"il rtols. ildi...' don't tllh or./11?1 lil lll e a When you eat food b When you park your car c Vhen you _áre góing into d Vhen the 6lm'š ovei '!0hen (toch'ak ha-.'".1.1|T'h':-Tt:1'+.^.ornó t"ut. put t4E I r d I I .ÉťÉzq9?r -ql ++ 4qo] E}€ Ó! Ť9a1x.l:. 4Ůt Ť li l't C E Ll-ol-71 Hl 4?t"|4 . buy it? ! olíE x]Ť +ig 6}7lÉ ilol-s? b !.!1HP:..rťť#'. e at^JH g*il9..:l.it seems lil/r tlkg it: iI# r:L a di c tnna ry) Hana poyó. '. chumoiii"' š^JĚ dqďg.:::_:!. senrence for each lll l|11 ir i You have lost your iacket and the man at the lost t'". (Create apprcpliat( ll l jrry Í f ť::. :o € lnd serrtence. Vhat are his instructions? "-nái. rhe tbllowing into Korean. dp}ót4lg.Y:oť:thatúemeaningis . uřt' rlxnrt whcn to take them. Vould you show me that dicřionary? Viere did you lr thcrc a problem? Yes. You've lost your bag? What'was inside? You don'r like my ideas! So what did you do? You hlve a headache and your friend.t.ň.q .''*i i'--inůínffii. d Ý!{.91 q tq+.. who has gone out whtlo you were asleep. Í 7}*g q7l ř9}"lg.[ 0 t town let's go to a restauranl I had a beer let's go together don't talk tate care call me 4 f il l l . 'lrlnrlate the following sentences inro English.. ..t^'".. arriue\ When you go out I arrived home *ilH. lpoctar.in b.

tp!Eil $=de? Pyóngsu decide to w out the depaftmént store instead- chÓ shyóch'u chom pwa-ra. Wa. ..T - . chó-shyóch'u ólma-eyo? P'al ch'ón won_ieyo. Na-hant'e Óullyóyo? .t . á . how to shop for clothes ol Ál g. é4ollts tlllEol š ?^]ět}. 9l ' é"J t+ 0ll0l . \ . Mwol ch'ajúseyo? llrúttt chom hwalttongjóg-in os-ul ch'an-núndeyo.. Itllálltwon B l-gó óttaeyo? Yojum aju yuhaeng ha-nůn sut'ail_ieyo. l aBl 0l7l Y}. Kůlsse' kůróm tarÚn kos_e ka-bolkka? . Ět ilr Itl flr ! - I x x + o J II I -T J tr I llkrlrrl Qfurgru llfurlrrl a{tanwon A lltrlrrl l. l aJ DE *0ll )l=rt? //. commenting on prices. B *9^]l9? *=t1l9' ě '+e 4aÉ9' $s4E == 'q lsBtlldl' ě0l g= + 9/= a?1! = =€ Ť 0lE. . chóngmal ssa-da. ě0| gĚ E lr/dl . lúilntmd lr ÍlA B0 toilE'..E l+ Sr l+ WoulO you lake to try it on? Al!l0tEP Hltrlrrr rlallrrl. =0l.{la. r. ()l}l oltlll9? Rá 0l+ Ftsól= ^Elg0l0ll9. .. Chaeryo-ga mwo-eyo? iýrlrylu r4$firwon B Paok p'óséntu myěn-ieyo.a tr CL 3 tr F+ ot oo rŮ J tr IT { II 1+ ttl li.Ů lltrrltr rlrrJ Pyóngsu decide to w out the department store instead. chongmal cho_t'a. chiÍ_i pyóllo an choa. Hanbón ibó-boshigessóyo? palgún saeg-uro-yo' honoriÍics lll xr N9'komapsůmnida. AnFya' Nag maům-e kkok turě. j]oJáLltl . E s golE^lilolE? Ill . kurónde i-gě pwa. chom ch'Óngbaji-hago kach'i ib-ul su in-nun móshit_ko chil choun osh-iyo. é"J *t+. Kúrae? Nae saenggag-enun dijain_ichom kushik kat_ta- Agassi. rno Pyóngswu go to Namdaemun market to buy some !l* llr la l}at. 0lLl0l. U. CL ooo r+ 1+ o o . rilE7t elolg? url ll{dlE Eotqle. u 0tafl 4 =ol ol lll^l Á ld= g0l0l9? I{ f all? /H= Lll .'filgru blhtl ln this unh you will leam . quality and style comparing one thing with anotheÍ informal styles of speech (used between close friendx) more about modiÍiers and l{úlllwon B ÓsÓ oseyo. El.

jilr

Phrases and expressions
ibó-boshigessóyo? uould you'Iike to try it on? wa' cnonpal ssada uout, that,s reall^t cheatt - '' . . . -hant'e óullyčyo? do"''it . .i' 'rii. For any verb endings that you do not recognize, read gÍammar section after reading úe dialogue.
hanbón
i

nae.maů.m-e_kkok tůró

(yo)

I like it uery muth

llnll ( íteÍa consonant stem) or -n (after a vowel stem) onto the rlt lt rlctn íor the present tense, plus the verb ending -da. Hence: ltttt rrítnda, kidari-nda, móng-nůnda, ha-nda, mashi-nda etc' hl rhr past tense you simply add -da onto the past stem of the irl lrr kidaryóna, mogótta, haetta, mashyotta.
thc

li

shyóch'u 1{* díjain QIlg kushik ?al kkok + chil { pyóllo EE
hwa]ttongjók j=q hwalttongjóg-ln J!.| 9! eit 0f0l

Itrr rlncriptive verbs, you add -da to the stem of the verb, either tltr 1ritrt stem or úe present stem according to whether you want rl or present meaning. a

ml gl
kos4

shift design old sýle, old tashbned Qxacťy' cenainly, Pracisely wow!
hay! quality
(not)

l

I

brr rrc some example sentences in the plain style. Mf rrhrr"ga shijang-e ka-nda Minbo goes to the market Mlrtltrr-ga shijang-e kat-ta Minbo uent to tbe marhet
Minho eats an apple
Mirrho ate an apple Today, the weather is good Yesterday, tbe ueather uas good
ttt11n1-nůnda

Mlrho.ga sagwa-rul
Mlttho-ga sagwa-rul

place

paniculady (see note 2)

lllÓl.('tta

palgún e ch'óngbaii 3UlI|
yuhae]€
l

mó8hlss-:!tlha-

sut'ait AEIEI

*B0]-

cha€Íyo
p'ósg'lt'u óulll-

E
g

iL

myón

uEE

Q||t|-

liks an adiective) bnght blue jst.ns óa sÍylish, handsome ba popular, be in vogue style stuff, (tdw) mateial (also ingredientsl par cent cotton

(modiÍier form of tho above,

casual, activé

hrlll rrnlssi-za cho-t'a ů1r nllrri-ga- choat-ta
I

b

{[arlk]nr in the plain style. l hr rrí thcse you have learnt already: it is the question panicle

hr rrklltion, there are two very common ways of asking

nr rrklod to any verb stem (past, present, honorific) without the |rllh'l!.yo on the end. Here are some examples: mwol móngtll lwhat are you ealizgi), mwol ha-na? (wbat are you doing?1.

sdr

(a person)

Alltlhtt common question pattern is to add -ni? to any verb iallll /r o_ni! ódi gan-ni? meaning is it raining! and ulhere thl lot pl respecdvely.

lbr

The plain style The.plain style is used
us€Cl

í

Grammar
between very close friends

lru rome examples of questions in the plain style: Nlmdrrmun shi|ang-i čdini? wbere is Namdaemun
musůn yak-ul

tlnil rch'im
mfuón.ni}

market? What medicine did you take this morning?

when saying something to yourself oui loud and it "f.. is uscrl as a wntten lorm in notices and in books and newspapers.

speaking to someone much

yo*g., ih"n y"r. il .""

or

whcrr

i"

a|l;l ylc of the present tense, minus the -yo. Thus, plain sryle lilnrndl would include: móg&ra, hae-ra, ka-ii ma-Ía edt it! ' h hh donl Eof (from ha-ii maseyo)), and so on. fit Hl
|llln
ní rny processive verb: mók-ia, ha-|a' iyagi ha-ia (let's eat, ln lt' lat's talh\ and so on.
rrylo ruggestions can be made by adding -ja to the present

VeU etn mekc commands in the plain sryle by adding -ra to the

hs form is very like that of the modifiers you met in Unit 9. btrr wtth some important differences. For processive verbs you atl,l

2

The inÍormal style

very easy.

Korean also has another very important system of addressilu tnose younger rhan you or very close to you, in addition to rhr plaln sryle. In Íact, it is perhaps even more common and it ir

More on modiÍiers l untt c you learnt how to make modifiers with -nůn Íor laaaltivc verbs and -(ů)n for descriptive verbs. You learned

Iry
lfU

AII you have to do is take the polite style of the verb (oresenr. Past or Íuture) and take off the _yo panicle! Thats aliihere i., to it:

Í lvrlb)Jrg.
hmPlo:

lhoy could be used with the noun ke (kót) to mean tbe act

h írst, yoo

Nae maům_e kkok tůró Kúrónde igč pwa Chil-i pyóllo an choa

and taktng ott the _yo, the informal sryle of thl copulá is atter a vowel, and -iya after a consonant:

The onc-exception is the copula: instead of takinq the -ievo fonrr
-y,r

Brt look at tbis The qulity k ttot uery good

I like it uery much

|n

can use modifiers in front of any noun and, as would expect, their function is to modify the noun, to tell rcmething about the noun they modify. Here is a good

3

Chó saram-un hanguk saram-iya That percon is a Korean sonsaengnlm-un úysa_ya Mr Kim k a medical docttlt ^Im

Use oÍ the panicle -í.7/ro
vtrrr

The panicle

has various functions' some of which '_(ů)ro have learnt already. Here is a list of its different useskich'a-ro wayó son_úro mandůróyo Kyor'ong sago-ro
chugóssóyo
instruments; try, by means

of

cause, reason: because

of

cotne by train mahe by hand (He) died ( beczuse ofl in) a traffc accident (I) refused for a priuate reasofi

(apple\, and chega móngnňn (from vrtb mók-) is modifying the noun 'apple'. The meaning of 9htle is the apple I an eating.ln English, we put the nóun t rnd eftcrwards the modifying phrase ((which) I am eating), lul ln Korcan it is the other way round. The noun and its itnlllylnr phrasc can then be uséd as pan of a sentence' ás lftl would rny other noun. For examplg you might want to say lrllt I am cating has gone bad or uthere is the apple I am íaÍuaYou could do this in Korean like this (the modifying rro in brackets and you can see thát they are optional; lir Inmncee would make perfect sense without them, but the $dlÍyln3 phrases show which particular apple you are talking

lh};r móng-nun sagwa l.lrn úo noun is sagwa

fi fi fl

k $ltn

rhilh

|r|r.1 móng-nůn) sagwa-ga ssógóssóyo lrůr{r móng-nún) sagwa-ga óď issóyo?

Kaeinióý iyu-ro
kóiól haessóyo
I chib-un namu-ro

stuff, raw materiak from-

of

n'ň. Ml

O Do you think it suats me?

madňróssóyo '!7ain-un

p'odo-ro madůróyo

uood

This house

k made of

grdpes

Wine is made from

tlr clothes on and théy havo anotheř discussion. ol. 0}+ qt,lEÉlg. 0o ryóng8u) uElEl olEel Ll?
ut,

Yóngug_esó_nun

unit, measure, degree: by p'aundu/ k'iro_ro p'arayó

in

They sell by tbe poundthilo

Bitain

direction: toutards London_uro kassóyo Uri cib-uro oseyo

0|ltl lt riL ?lole. am
r.Í./.

l, ť qEa. ]ĚBl ě I t e gotEcale?

+e a eÚ'

(He) uent to Londott Please come to my bouse

ll
E.

]]ll cl Ě *št}. 0)' 0}+ =^lólltr. ..lĚt1l g0tIlE'?

ÉE áoJ 0lÉa 0l0ll9. EE aal!e? Éa q9? & 7lqle. }e áP! 0l8 EEc{l9

Phraees and expressions
9]'

éeqlg. B+ Nrl é+óllE = Bl{! a ]ll 98 a0l0ll9. Hl*Ě! EE tst'll= L't4EólI= áfl 0l, ul ,^lá0í|^l= Blio|l EqE É0l3elE. F c oJoll * .^)ll E= st]lE 5l}lE9. 5]l^í ^lá0ll^l *E LJ0IE ^l& ^]l L1l ullLl tJ ^ll E+ teJE 0l*0l ^l0l ^15 =Etl 9allla? Ét! 4olEe. ]an aě! tJ s *0t9. EJE E, ]l^l 8+ 5 t+^l ďElol?Jlolg.
Pyóngsu)
Ya, aiu móshin-nŮndeyo. Na-hant'e óulli-ni? Úng, chal óullyÓ. Kúrónde chom chagún kÓl
kat-ta.

*+lr
lt.ió

fuí rrmman_ich'ón mwo
*ór&do'yo
Uon.lndcYo

rrcng8ak hae-do

it seerns to ,ne it's onlY j2,000 won (it's not much)

at ledst
about

ltrhl hrc'bwa-yagessóyo
maiůng

rlcng8ak chom

I'l! baue to go auaY and think

it

lono. ha. A^lotlryóu

E-

t

ío Ri wďl (mai
only
look ďmilaÍ

yes (casual íorm)
+

chómwon
Mlnho (to

pl.0t ha- Hl*01man'€

IP

look super, look good

nuÍrda = man-nunda)

Pyóngsu
chómwon Mlnho chómwon

chom k'ún gó] ibó-boshi-llaeyo?
Né' Yógi issóyo.

A

lit

le while later.
KÚ-ge tó chal man-nÚnda' Ya, aiu kůnsa haeyo. KůrÓnde' ólma-jiyo? samman ich'ěn won-ieyo. Mworaguyo? Waeyo? ssan kÓ-eyo. Kyóu samman-ich'ón won-indeyo mwo. che'ga saenggak hae-do, chom pissan kÓt kat'undeyo. Namdaemun shijang-esě-nun pisut han ke

ka_ ňwolÚ.hln

Elol ..al-ge lltll toe- 9bae orao gall

taÍú_r]=_

b9 dr'fféÍenť(polite styls: talÍayo) within, in onl| (2 or 3 months)

usable

become long

double, (two) timas
here: last, ďldure by far, far and awaY

l{! 'l_

Pyóngsu chómwon Minho Chómwon Minho chómwon Pyóngsu Minho chómwon

Onmmar

lnrllng sentences with mwo

r Koreans will add mwo to the end of certain has no_real $anslation ;';iňJ.i "Ře.úooght. Ityou don't need to use it ;iatt\i and 'knou'', 'tii"lil;;ň"* | ltié yo" isn't it oÍ l think' řiiel.s|J;;ůú
wben you come across it.

A, ne, Namdaěmun-hago-nun pisút

p'alch'ón Won-igyo.

any rhould not try to translate it or think that rt has

hae-poyGdo chir-i Íallayo.

Pyěngsu chómwon Minho

Namdaemun shijang-esó os-ul sa-myón tu se tal man_e mot ssú-ge toé-só sae os-ul sa-ya to+.gědunyo. Kurómyěn i-osh-i Namdaemun shiiang ot-poda ne.bae-na orae kayo? chÓgó-do-yo. KŮÍigo hwolsshin tó chal yagessóyomajayo. Um, ka-sÓ saenggak chom tashi hae-bwa-

lí lt looks the same

good rc has a rather complex verb in it which is a

pa}ticles and compounds verbs in ň;i(;.;;;'". -u,iita up importani meanings'. The ;;"J;;;; io it slowly to

lÚlc

Ei:(ňi"i;ť'Ř;,'to

the vcrb is pisůt ha- which means b similar' To this to give the app"an has been added

lr formed.

il"lip"váia;. Ýe wilÍ woik tluough

euen though it appean simihr. mčgťl_ bo-seyo. and yorr You have also learnt the form _(ó)do before. and it can be used aftcr verbs with the particle -do leuer tbough). to appear similar. t"Íking to. (it) uill do. lo try it on? Óther examples would be: lllp'l mrrhi-llaeyo? 2o you uan. Imagine you are lrtwrcri"nu'ut" rel! lrr rrl l chilá end eskinp the child where his granddad has eÍanddad l. lnere ls tnus llo ureorrrParrurrrry . You can add the ending -ge onto otheÍ v. will be much moň suaighďorward.. This example is iust thó same. who is an older.Youhave seen verlrr remember that these verbs are added on to the polite sty|e oídrr main verb.(to tÍy on\ to give the meaning uould wr llh. esteemed person)' 3 Use ofthe verb ťoe- lhlllr. what does yout llnrrrnmim.meaning to look similar. to dink ' Nrrtrchlng-e c-offee.rl Do you want to/do you Íeel lake? ltr nlncrn -(u)tlaeyo can be added to úe stems of processive wth'brrcr (present'tense) to ask in a casual way if someone ttltlr to do-or feels like doing something' You met it in the rhtrm hen-bón ibó-boshi-Ilaeyo. o'.rl' stems. naga-do toeyo llrtr lrc a Another meaning of the verb toe. which is why we are going over it again and giving you a ícw more examples. There is thus no incompatibiliry agme honorifics and informal speech styles. ' granddad do? hr m-ío? llhtrrrninim. compounded before with the verbs chu. is it okay?l This is a very useful pattern and is often used by Koreans to aslr for and to give permission. to mean it's okay il. minus the yo. meaning ll becomes unusable. will govern whether nonorlnc.llhrt to a child and asking j*tr' You would rlrr. where it is added to the hrttrrllflc form of ibó-po.is becomes.t ll()l lll . Here are two examples: lr' llrntrlrific siňce the person you are talking about (the child) is llrrl rn honorific perňn' In contrast' if you ale talking to a r rrlrrror and askins him what he is dourg. Minho mwo Professor' wbat does Minbo do? hrr. t. nó mwo ha-ni? barabóii mwo Professot. which means ezrrl though. You saw it irr tbe dialogue wiú the word mot ssu-ge (unusable\. it's okay to go out (lit. and io close friends and young people or children řllll llti8ht use the iníormal style oÍ the plain style. and follow it with toe_ to say that sómething becomes rlr comes to a particular state. please try eatirrg it|. and once again this is added to rhe polire style of thc verb.1 vou use an honorific. you would use an informal style and. but in lrl rrtll e ituatiois you migňt'use the formal style (which you will lmrn lntcr). This means that the meaning oÍ the entire verb set pisuthac poyodo is euen thougb it looks similar. If you are asking a child *lrrl hc is doing. Make sure you understand in each rirr tho rocial level of the person being addressed and the social lrvrl rlÍ thc person being spoken about: Minbo. are taking this opportunity to remind you about the essenti.i. ubat do you do? Mlnho. kallaeyo? do you fancy some coffee? Houl about going Ío a noraebangi . llrp rrrrnn you are talking about. of course. it's okaylit uill do) mógó_do toeyo? is it okay to eat this? (lit. the yo is removcrl (pisůt hae-) and the next verb poi_ is added (pisut haepoi_). Ýrlu would use the informal or plain style (because you are irllrtrrr to a child) and you would usé an honorific (because you ar.means is okay. . you might use the polite lrr rvcrr thc formal šryle and you would cenainly use an honorific.however. ihr polite style of r sizilar is taken (pisňt haeyo).li(inB about grandad.u. furrrnrrber. Here are some other examples: Mon mčk_ke toeóssóyo lt has become inedible (it's gone off!) Hanguk yóia-hago kyčrhon I came to marry a Korean girl ha-ge toeóssčyo alrrch ltvlcs aná honorifics. euen if/euen thou*l) yoi4 go or1t.and po. Uhprr vou are addressinq someone as 'you' and talking about them' The verb toe.. .z euen if/though I eat tbis. lr is absolutely essential that you are clear about the distinctiorr. . with the -yo particle taken off (Íor example. Mostly you will use the polite sťyle.yó? couple of examples of different combinations of l 4 Speech 'Ve styles and honorifacs difference between speech styles and honorifics in Korean. uhat does your Mltthlr' harabóii mwo granddad doš hr rhl-ni? Minbo. speech styles are decided according to the Person i.

the other one says they saw last year.qós_yn uri-ga changnyón-e pon yónghwa-ianayo! YóIdu shi-ga nómu nňióssóyo? Musůn ňar-ieyo?i Chóngmal chaemi ómnun kót kat'ayo. to see a different film. t"k. . even thoush vou haven't beendrinking. it's four times Co'n I try on those clothes you are wearing? as Trans. qualiry.Practice 1 Put the Íollowing sentences into the plain style. h Do yóuiaue anything similar? Yott ore looking for a new bag and come across the following rirli. .l ray *itich one you would like to buy' 3 e the film we saw last vear Í the food I hate Join the following two sets of information with _ó/a-do trr give the meaning'even if A."to . q4 "J qEl '^lq s? 4''"' d l í ..t *r't. here are rhree phrascr that you might like to use: |!g. e It's a bright colour it doesn't suit you Now say the dialogue aloud using the informal sryle for . modifier forms you have learnt in this lesson. To help you. c B 4^I9? d "Jg En l'ronslate the following sentences into Korean' t 'l'hat person who speaks Korean well is coming' I t dont like those ciothes you bought yesterday' c I le's a stvlish man."" .. Í a e i h ad*qs? flqg. . co-o". For example. when you are driving at night. then B' (or. size. but the other thinls it's on too late arrrl that itt boring anyway. a It looks good it isn't b It's expensive it'll be tasry c It's raining I want to go out d I don't like him I'll have td meet him Í I've got a headache thinking of going to a noraebang I4"k-.rll the verb ending]s and taking out ány honorific .. the first will be: Euen if it looks good. a ol *Ó] cl]J +o}ltl b ťl7} 9}'q. He wart.uífi*". liven thóugh the quality is better.ar." óne with the oiher (price. 4aĚ}n 9qg? ář EJ 7]4qE ul:z1 g * Eqs. p a dialogue between two people arguing aborrr which film to see on TV tonight. a clothes made of cotton b the beer we drank vesterdav c the book Mr Kim is readinl d the shin he is wearing the following phrases into Korean using rhc I " what did you say? ttl.. y.r film which. - cxoensive. B'). colour) il.late. might have used.even though A.. one óf them wžnt..".

rt tl u^ls ég B'l^l Bll3E ^lol0ll f el! ol83oJ óll EgLlt}. rll st J CL J o CL q) ln this unit you will leam . ol0l ?al é^laJE ]a|n 0lLlHlE lláLlt}.T tr o o J o. o-il-išang yeyak ha-shimyÓn o_p'ósent'u harin hae-túrinůndeyo. 3ilBJ= -at Tllo? EaJrl9. -t I -l tpl irt gg ots ql9+ól^lE =e}tr. goll ÉčllBl ó !} agJE ?lug? =EgLlE}. e=B= +^119. é^laJól] š Etsóll 5% g = tl E=IIE g] . ]aln o {r o o o o o I! t+ II J CL o CL o t' o q) É o o o . tense quoted sp€€ch and reporting what othgr people said ll llm |'llllln Ch'imáaebang_un haru-e om_an won-i_go ondolpang_un haru-e saman won-i-mnida' Ólma-dongan mugushigessumnikka? Usón saň-il-dongan-yo. olLI9. ^lš ^l30ll 91ÉLlr}? ol ĚÉollE +ě ^lěEol lťl"J' -\aEBl +cs. Yl0ř Lll ]Ě 9al ol +pl ÉlJ +ťl olÉ^'1^lE ggElo'l tléLlt}. Kurigo chom tó mug-uljido mollayo. ole^l^tE EBEIOI 7tl e óll Eal=tll8. ch'imdaebang-ul túrilkkayo. }l l. Ltl 3=t* 6tLt áď"Jáat+ort gPJ8ol! eEBJe ^toJEgLlr+. 9l rl9? ]l^l qilolg. . =E Iló}^lcJoll 7t^lE gLltl' zíl+B lo.pl ^lPu. tE 1 eole.ltltÚm l lhldn . about making mmplaints when things don't go quite as they should moÍe ábout lhe foÍmal style of sp€ech and thg futuro Irtlmlm Ilhuln Pin pang issóyo? 'issóyo. ql9+ól= 9g =9J =ot-J }l0119. é. . . o qt :t 3 o r1) 1.D Do you have a spare room? Mr Lo€ is looking Íor a couplg oÍ rooms in a hotel' Ěl ít! řI +e! U oJ g10l g? ut rtote.9sá. about booking hotels and inquiring about vacancies and facilities ==ólÉB. ot+ . ondolpang-ul Ne. cUEeJ = o^l]JláLlrl? ól+0]l Éld +s sg EE9. 3$B ótuóln gilÉLltl. ol. ]aln É^lcJn} s^]eJol 9lšLlt}. l}lJ l. tůÍilkkayo? Ch'imdaebang hana-hago ondolpang hana chuseyo' No'algéssúmnida.|. .

as if you always use the polite style it muk=isang 018 duing sW. kŮróm uri chipsaram-hago chom úynon hae_ bwayagessóyo. aju hullyung ha-gunyo! o{l-dongan yéyak hanun ke cho-ul kót kat'ayo' Ama uri chipsaram-do choa yeyak haharin ha- 0lE0l- řÍynon ha. Aniyo. ďc. lodge.i. you situations.uiriontativ. bur it by anybody when some formalityis called for' It is rliiiio elightly more common among men than women ano' lllhtpl"t. tt is used in formal .a The íormal style lhr Írlrmal sryle is the last importanl ll rlu lrc a man. .Sonnim Chuin Sonnim Chuin Sonnim Sonnim Chuin A. kurigo hanshiktang-gwa yangshildang-i issumnida.'with some sentences in the formal sryle and some in the Frríltc nyle.s (such as rhe hotel worker in the dialogue). llgop-shi-but'ó yól-shi-sai-e chiha shiKang-e ka-shimyón toemnida. . Ach'im shiksa-do p'oham toeřitiiyo? Ne. often by othcláls or ltr lrnrn. o. it is a good idea to say some sentences rn the ír.g|=Ul- halin EIE EEol- reserue. oÍakshil.bn momin$ breakfast have breal<fast be included breal<fast (abbreviaied íorm) between basemď)t reshurant ha{kóeyo' suyóng ha- chikchěp E|č| shisól suyóngjang +gěl ^|fl sauna orakshil Ul30t- basement deliver direct(ly) factliý swim s€'Una sv. Kúrigo ich'ón won-man tó nae-shimyón sonnim pang-kkaji paedaFdo has-durimnida. sauna. chickchóp shiktang-e ka-sÓ mókkessóyo. great to edt it seems lihe it utould be a gool idea to book for fiue nights empty.. |-hot'gr-e tto musun shisól-dur-i issúmnikka? suyóngjang.) mug-úshigessóyo? chom tó muk-ňliido mollayo chipsaram-hago chom ůynon hae_bwayagessóyo chikchóp shiktange ka-só cho_ůl kót kat'ayo mókkessóyo o_il_dongan yeyak hanůn ke st4ýng for? ue may stay longer (I don't knou if ue might . . o.timming pool +goJ- Phrases and expressions ólmaJongan hout long utill you be ll+u g=ld aÍnuseínenÍs (electronic games. Pang-e t'ellebiiyln-gwa chónhwa-do innayo? Mullon-imnida. KúÍigominiba-do issůmnida.o-*"" to mix Íorňai and polite speech sryles in this my. vacant.EgEol tlsai-e 1l0l0I chlha shiktang ll0l AIE chiha ll0l Paedal ha- úynon 9= dlscuss discuss.".ítni| ltyl. ) I'll baue to discuss it uith my utife we'll go to tbe rcsta ra?rt sut'enduba hanshil@ng P!^l B ^E!EE] yansshiktang Pl^l El miniba oluHl hullyung ha' bar (standing bar) Korean restaunnt (serving Korean food) wastern restaurant -l0l- mini-bar is excellent.. sut'enduba. book ďve a discount discount ach'imshiksa 0le4^l ach'im 0lg ách'im ha. free (oÍ seats and Íooms) Orummar Pin g l pang t! ch'imdaebang gÍ||EJ ďt'lmdae áÍ|| ondolbang tEB haru_e 0[Ť0l ólma_dongan gEl=E -dongan -=E haru UJF room room with bed bed room with bed on floor per day ons day (duration) how long more than speech -style'^for.0Jg0ip'oham doeó-iss. spend the night lalt tounA to Koreans as though your Korean is a bit etteminate' iii. mullon ach'im shiksa-do p'oham toeó-issumnida. noraebang.ionally.iiti. .

choesong hamnida and algessůmnida. MÚo that this form is never added to an honorific stem.Íormal style always go on honorific present stems. lt is suÍficient to be able to recognize the -kess as the Itrlttto marker. All those expressioni are almošt always used in the formal style.. we iust write two ss in romanization.that the ending is spelt _(sů)pnida. sass-sůmnida. . shall ute . ' I uill haue to discuss . and the precise difference between them is lrxclhing that you do not really need to worry about for this rtrttřro. you add the ending bny samnikka? sasssa- lll rlprcŠs probability). Note You have already learnt how to make suggestions in the formal yl!. but pronounced -(sů). You haYe ťwo llrrl(l cxámples in this unit: l'hl ibúshyóss_ ibůshimnida sashimnida ibůshyčssůmnida sashyóssůmnida Ólntl-dongan mugúshřgess-óyo! How long ulill you be staying for? ( 'ltlprarom-hago Note that tbe past formal forms have a treble -s. formal style. if able to go or graduate (or not) ibůshi ibúshipshio sashi- sashipshio rot l'll be . however. not questions.make. -(ů)lkóeyo is a more useful form than -kess Althorrgh this form does express the future (it can also be used sten past honorific ho?.teaf bry sa- I The future marker -kess samnida sass- ibčssůmnida sassňmnida sashisashyóss- future marker -kess can be added to any pres€nt stem nrnral or honorific) to make a future stem. stent past bonorific bon past ipsúmnida ibóssibůshi_ ip- . iommands or sussestions)you add the ending -(sů)ňnida to ihe stem of the verbftther the present stem' past stem' or honorific PÍesent oÍ past stem). It is tht ttlcd in certain idiomatic phrases like algessúmnida and llttlÍu$crsúmnida (l understand and I don't understand\. and to know that it can be used to make future rlrntr which cán then be used in other constructions. the most common way to put a normal rrttllncc into the future is with the -(ň)lkóeyo form which you hrve llready learnt. and the ending is -pshio (pronounced rather as if it were rp sa- sten honorifc stem formal command Yur lEn say that you don't know whether you will do something t'l lllh€Í by adding -(u)lii-do moru. and ltircnn never allows you to refeÍ to yourself in honorific terms. Here are a couple of other examples: l don't knou ubetber l'll r hrrlóp ha-l|i-do mollayo }x l rrr ies-ůlii-do morůmnida l dotl't euen knou. and so are soelr for example. u)ea.to a verb stem.mida. and to vowel stems -mnida: To make statements in the formal style (that is.t lrlt lungctl. it miýt be tbat we stay .t ipipsúmnikka? ibóssůmnikka? ibůshi_ ibóss- sassúmnikka? sashi- hrt nxrrt situations.kceg future marker is used in the ending -yagessóyo (as which you have already learnt.questions in the _(sú)mnikka? as follows: hlo-lrwaya-gess-óy . way back in the early lessons of the course: -(ů)pshida. lo consonant stems you add the form _sůmnida. as tlllllcltions (e.\ always include yourself. You will recopize these formal statements from expressions like mian bamnida. Irr tho rccond example) lhl ůynon o uith my utife . normal sentences which state facts.g. You can then add I vrrh rndings to this (such as the polite or formal styles' or a *httrc ending such as -iiman) in the normal way. To. The example ltrrttl thc dialogue was chom tó mwug-ulii-do mollayo (l don't lnow whather ue ulill stay a bit longer. ibůshimnikka? sashimnikka? past ibůshyčsssashyóss_ ! | don't know whether ibúshyóssůmnikka? sashyóssúmnikkal -pshiyo): Commands in the.

4 lf you do. 0H716liléLltl. uton't it be okay?|.| olrngóprvon chosúmnida. the hotél didn't turn out to bg as good as it looked . Ne. 'J'=tl| l go The next dialogue is quite advanced in parts and you should bc satisfied if you understand the gist of what is going on.whllelabr. g0l^ll9? ssa ěilIloJ' 0l ég tló{Ál c c}ol flole. 0hotpópwon BlT] -^H I|UllE ě +é +^ll9.olB. =éLlEt. géól^lIle. An. Kůraoyo? chóngmal cho€song hamnida.is a common pattern.ln 7l=Él =^l0l o lsfitlm angaji-yót€oyo. A little lrrrÚm a. ]a 8 0láóle9' a+7l Il=rlIl afl=6le. rl? Ohlb. so that if they go to the restaurant between those times. and this pattern' one clause ending in -myčn.i-_Ě. plus a fornt of the verb toe.tlUl. In the context of thc dialogue it is used to say that breakfast is available between certain times.řHi-lji'g3gJLi|Bťo. musůn ir-iseyo? |-hot'el sÓbisu-e taehaesó ha-l mar-i issóyo. it uill be OK. goJol is cold D ttre towe! is difi and the Íood . . *s ^lHl^oll aáóllloJ xi álEll oJáo=l^ls EErte? =sa IlUllgĚlEll 5{ě "Jóln {etlle. 'ég . n} =^l ^lc =sa=illl ratt E ?lolE. latr u ^]Bl^ól! ^léc ul9. ol tl g'r o-}ol s=tilE g0l0ll9..chamkkankidariseyo. 0l ul haeyo." tJ.olB. I]aE éLJÍ_lg ]ťxloJ lllPl =g$c oJtrg'oLl'l 9= Eá u]} +^lle. ^l*gLlcl' |lI' BáI Ee galIlE *4ot sailA ol ag 9=c ^lBe PJ0t9. Kurigo onúl ach'im-a shiktang_e kannundg umšhigl talnigÓ-i"sóssÓp. 0l brln Chibaein chom Pakl(wo-iuseyo. Malssúm hashiiiyo. gá ad9 š^lEi ólal l4ól=lllE ]l3 A very similar pattern is used in the next dialogue. 9= ola +a€'J0}gan +301 Lle clelfl'ol9. Óje-do mach' Eč!šóln+E'qoil9. lqm t}^l É!šóllE al7ltáLltt ' ohongóPwon lolmlm Unfortunately. ^{ 0}.^-oll en]} E}e 1 eolB. where therc use would be pakk_e naga_myón an toemnikka? (can't outside? uton't it be OK if I go outside?|. nlPl =^l 5g áléÉ}Llo. 9l 0l El IlBllEgLl tl. é'JI]Ě =gól= u g9 gčlluldc !š0l ]a Eol otLloíl9. It can be used to ask for permission to do something: chigům ka-myón toeyo? (ls it okay to go nout?1.ole. +s áz! ]lt}al^llB. it will be OK The sentence ka_shimyón toemnida means if you go. is a similar sentence to this: chó_hant'e mal ha-rryón an toeyo? lcttt't you tell me? if you tell me. . If you can understand the details of the dialogue then you can be surc that youÍ Korean is coming on very well indeed. lt ll El4gE = gol=7ltt! ótE^l ašol otP EI1l]l g'ctl =E'. A similar ě+]lt38auo. chibaein-imnida. ÚÍnshig-i tashigěřko mash_iómnůnde'do nur_ieyo. weil'ó-hant'o malssum hashyóssumnikka? ElEll "Jáót11Ě Ll Mullon chongópwon agasshi-hant'e ya€i haďiiyo' Kurěnde agasshi-ga pulch'inchólha_ndsdaga ché hangung mar-ul mot aradut_ket_tago ha_myónsó ůmshig-g amu munje_ga ěp_tago haessóyo. n[E ]alg? 8g Tltě}LlE}. =Eawhile latér. it uill ba oK. ^l olBlE ol8ltlgne. shillyé-jiman. choesong ha-jiman chě-hant'e malssum hashimyón an too-lkkayo? chibaein-hant'e chikchóp mal ha-go ship'undéyo' ťm munje€a man_un kÓt kat'ayo' chigwon-dur-i pulch'inchól ha-go muttukttuk |-hot'sl sóbisu-€ IIUE *9 =lE=0l lan 9= 0l80ll ^190il ol ?19. . ntg al olE ge ol^lrtll a^E E il.

g0l=. soe note 4) nots 5) týhllé (s€€ be fastelgss. bg súaréeťc. ch6ga chúkshi shiktang chongÓpwon{ul-€ge yaegi ha{€ssumnida.daístand0^ Verb like t F. be unkind. . hounl-e taehaosó chlbaein eóbisu IIUE .ngaÍ-i€yo Phrases and expřessions . a platÍorm' clothes etc.. .to}E- kara-ip- 30lg- changé (a towel.saY it (honoíiÍc) muttukttuk ha- shlgebs.ouldn't it be 4ll rigbt to -Q! 0F ara-dú-ko ďc. sonnim ch'órěm pulp'yóng hanun kyÓngu-ga chigúm_kkaii ópsónnundeyo..lago ha- on Íop of(clause €nding' onto verbs. about (noun) malssÚm ha- ha-l mal 9=0J- ll E speď' say something to honoriÍic.{Ol 9lweit'ó +E+oF be unhdptul. . Nas pang_uy t'gllebiiyón-un kojang nat_ko naengianggo mun_un yólli_ii-do anayo. ka]a-ťa. . trains etc. cho6ong hamnida. to tell tbe tÍutb. like ths -nunde pattem) Uí. Ků_gót-ppun-i anieyo. i?' fact . soliikhi mal has-só i-hot'el sóbisu-hago shisór-un óngmang-i-neyo.) sayhg Ghis pattem shows Wt cold (toe€. . conceming malBsum haseyo!) pleeF€ tell me. pktÉF.!. onůl ach'im sugón-ul karadallago haBnnunde sugónl nčmu těrówossóyo. be the sama. be impolite be strbbom. risÍen.chlbáeln Chibaain ň' Sonnim clúbaďn A. be blunt be oÉ'ct.9l0| ^lanoryók ha- -rryóngó -gll quoted speoch.t) mal<a óie{o mach'angaii_yótgoyo mot ara_důt_ket_tago haamu munie óPtago haessóyo mashi_ómnůnde_do mar_ieyo tell me? cttz't yol iust tell me? it uas exactly tbe sarne yesterday as u.) l. -e taehaesó ha-l -{nl(ulndodasa -= gl ElTl ya6gi ha. strive mistake make a mistake understand (she) said that there uasn't atry problem sugčn_ul kara_tallago haessčyo food euen tasted bad I'm saying (emphasis!) tbat tbe I asked (her) to cbange tbe toutel pólsagng ha- shlbu Lao}shilsu d+ ha.- .ť+0l- chůkgH sugón =^| +d kaF g- Íg0]- occur. there's something I uant to ara-důl. .llm has€yo EáÚl[B munio -o -0ll F{oh|lnchól ha- al8l chigwon =n lE! Eoit- Wblem empwee about. KÚřlgo tto issčyo. happen immediateý towsl solchikhi mal hae_só honestly speaking. Yogům-un tashi hwanpul hacdúÍigessumnida..0í7|01- olprlnfl B flo|E waitq tdk' issóyo mar-i I haue something to say about .L. have gone oÍt' cold. Kuróch'iman chóhuy-do sonnim-ch'óíóm pulp'yóng manůn saram-un p'iryo óps_uniKa onůl tangiang naga-juseyo. Hangsang ch'o€sěn_uy pongsa-rul ha-ryógo noryÓk hanundg-do kakkum shilsu_ga palsaeng hamnida.) change clothes change (platform. often in phrasg (oÍ someoné ýy m. KůÍigonag adůl pang-un aiik-kkaji ch'óngso-do an haessóyo' KÚ{ót ch'am isang ha€unyo.. chěngmal cho€song hamnida. be idantical ilaoh'. .ell say that (o?le) could?r't shlkma3h-i óps. ara-duróyo' tď ch&hant'e malssům ba_shimyón an toelkkayo? sayabout. . .nanággÍ (of hotél or facility) -0l ^{Ul^ ulil^l s€Ív'c€ concern i ng (noun). be unQleasnt eftoft.

). on top of that.CAI| pJ: óngmang gg tangjang yogům 9Ě! naongjanggo na$ěyo I.pqnt clac said to you.etc.taehaesó pulp'yóng haessoyo nalssí_e taehaesó muró-bwassóvo (ute) ( l)ln clothcs rfnp .še gě rubbish. awtut.i*. rc thc shops'. Ilnundr.. the second one fil thr rcponed speech form. IÍ you lo lnow more' you should consult an advanced gÍammar Vhrt we tell you here is more than you need to-get by.. chot'a etc. still clean. Here are three examples: the first Sltcr jives you what the person actually said. Here Ill lwo cxamples in sentences: lrr tl Grammar Concerning I:. tbe seruice (he) ashed about the ..1"if ji5ff .xlnB on the right-hand side. Here are sorne examples: clr'onech'i-e.|H()|e -ppun koiang na_ Itďu- -ř only (harei occuÍence) óe dlrťy (polite: tórówěyo. 'He said he uas goizg to the shopš.) yet. end honorifics. rpcech in Korean you use the plain style of the verb ll-lrpur.:Ť::"Jíff be) complained abou. in Korean and use some of the forms yourself. thq're í řl 1l o-nĎndcdaga ch'uwoyo h't nlslng and on np of that it's eold i'""i'Íé'". clean up vety like complain c i rcu m stan c e.what you are talking..taehaesó' iyagi haessóyo soblsu_e.. wriring or tl ! tzlked about bolitics ltlr unh introduces you to the raúer complicated matter of il*ffd Uccch in Korean. plus ko ha-.l chir-i cho-ůndedaga ssayo are good quality and. say. the noun which they precede. ka-nůndedaga |on top of going| and so on.il{:#.J.ffi t:.riť modlhers are added to verbs which ." iláiÍy'..i. Reported speecb is when you say what ll.' lllr rrction is designed so that you will be able to recogniz€ ftptad lprcch l l tu dcrigned Quotetlons and řeported speech 2 The Íuture modifier ll|t bl.hlll r (nrčg_ul kósh_i) issóyo? (thing to eat) is there 4tytbirrg to eat at hoftel (lit. 'He said he was going to lil fhopt. about.aeatbeÍ discussing.. was'I'm fi. (uords to say) I'ue got some rl'llrlltt c tachaesó (hal mar-i) llrr lrts to help you spot hrrly( llr t l rhigan-i) toess óyo? tbings to say about tbe seruice (time to go) is it time to go? r. but wben we report what he said we change ft1t to romcthing like. has it become tine to go?) Bet! door reftigerator braak down b€ broken down t on top oÍthat d@s not open immgdiatďy fa€ reimbu. You use the |Olnrlo or -núnde imminent elaboration form plus -dedaga' so 1hrt lhc comp|eted forms look like cho-ůndedaga |on top of lrlq yood|.i.#il:l*.iď''il#'i. sanda. to teach reponed speech comprebensively. appa ing hwanput ha- tl !!l0_ Yrru hlvc lcarnt the word kedaga which means on top of that Ittrl yott can use a similar form to add to verbs. we've ř!*"'#ťi:í'.tóróp_ EÉ- ch'óngso ha_ eáoF cň'am epulpYóng ha_ _ch'óřóm kyóngu ajik 016l lgo}ě+ -Í{g l(o|ang iitiri i mun ft yolli-ii an(h).i{ffi:':'i'I. and likewise its literal lr?..: pu.h. Remember 3_ lhr plrin sryle can be formed on any verb stem' past pÍes€nt I futun.' lVhat the person said literally. of course. kanda.á. p-verb liko kakkap. 'he said' or 'he says'. situ at i o n the pattem.!r**irmť. ]- . *r. for example.

hrvc iilst iaid' as in I asked bim to (do it foÍ ?ne|. sbigótao mash_i ómnůnde{o-marieyo. noryók ha-nunde'do ct'il'ů-s" palsaeng hamnida (from úe ďalogue) means oí/r thougb we (realb) 4Íe trying' ocaasionally misukes l'ippon. this note is merely to explain what is going thc dielogue'and to enable you to recognize the Íorm.t*$. 5 ffi . ltilr tlw this in the phrase su3ón'ul karadallago haennunde rril okcd ber n charge the toutek for ne . lln other -nůndae{o form &om the dialogue is a way of putting imclrl cmohasis on what you have iust said. The combined do form -nundedo also rnans eum thougb (so and sol.'ťl'ťl. added to the polite style minus -yo to mean euen though.ťr:nJt. ).:i1'1l.ť:ii:'.l ll úa ni. For example. . Herc aÍe a couple of other examples. You have also learned -do. Before you go' you iot down some ions you want to ask about the school."-"mber.= manťa) nalsshi-ga choassóyo I'n going going home he says be's going home there are a lot of people he said there utere a lot of the ueather was good people Kim sónsaengnim_i choat-tago (plain style past of cho' way: nalssi-ga haessóyo = (Mr Kim speaking) Mr Kim said that the ueathet was good choat-ta (from choass-)) Note that suggestions and commands can be quoted in the same chib-e kapshida la's go bome chib-e kaia-go haessóyo he suggested ule go bome (kaia = plain style sugg€stion of ka' pap mógóra pap móg-uago be told (bimlme) to eat bislmy food Questions are a little more complicated and you only need to be able to recognize them as having -nya_ oÍ _nunya_ in them: you will then know what they are when someone uses the form. emphasis than simply _do' Thus.na-nun chiLe kayo chib-e kanda-go haeyo (plain style of ka. rnd then Mr Lre adds: euel though (despite the fact tbat) -ú hod uos off ond uas tasuless. to say that you were talking (while you watched TV). you would say: t'ďebiiyón_ul po'myónsó iyagi haessóyo.. theÍe is ^ Instead of saying something like (hae' White You can say that you are doing something while you are doing something else by adding _(ů)myónsó to the 'while' clause. I haessóyo edt youÍ íood! }ú to rcponed speech again' Vhen you ask something to be Íor your benefit (by using a compound verb with chrr-' . please do it for mel and then report what lcnr OuoteO requests ňu 5iút rule to . Can you put 6 lnto Korean in full sentences? Eventhough: -nundedo How many students? (halaaeng: srndezr) You have leamt the imminent elaboration form -nunde which indicates that you have not finished what you are saying yet end that there is more to come.t h Eyón-myóng dme is lunch? it okay to go home to eat at lunchtime? ) .l!":.. The mar_ieyo bit on the end -cm rcmethirig like that's what I'm saýng and adds strong l ltrcnlcr bttuň -phtrir to what has iust been said.ln hroiuseyo.. The hlrr hrd iušt told Mr lre that there was no problem with the tbd.b do it for me|.bile you're eating rr€ thinking of sending your children to a new school in -have a meéting with one of the teachers to r and you rbout'the school. Do not worry thlr panern. but has Vhat facilities? lr it possible to study Korean and Chinese? How many studenis studying Korean? (hou' matyz Vh.= kanda) saram-důr-i rnansůmnida saÍám-dfu-i mánt'a-go haessóyo (plain style of ma"(h). You saw it in the ihrrrc úmihig-i t. Hangung mal paeu_myónsó ůmag-ul turóyo I lkten to music while I study Korean Móg-ůmyónsó mal hae_boseyo Pbase ull me u.

for which you must prepare answers in Korean. We'll go straight to the bar and have a drink. Mr Kim is an impolite person. eEB}g Ě}+ol] ol Et}€ol ol| 9. Radio-rul túr_ňrnyónsó ch'aeg_ul ilgóyo.2 You go to mak€ e booking at a hotel with the following requirements. b c d e a "Jq4^1E 9+g 4^] :*Ě6ll EB + sšqq. Alk iÍ there are the following facilities at the hotel at which ň a Mwol towa-durilkkavo? b Ch'imdaebang durilkkayo? c Ai-dur-i myó-sar-i eyo? (ai: child\ d Olma dongan mug-ushigessóyo! e Ách'im shiksa paedal hae-durilkkayo? 3 Put the following sentences into the Íormal style. It would be a good idea to stay for three nights. oJš^l"il BqE}. My son still hasn't got up. making your hrrguage as strong as you can. What facilities are theÍ€ at the hotel? 'l'here seem to be a lot of problems with my car.l-o-^]ts zl4oJ*r'l tstll . Translate the following sentences into English. Ytxtr hotel room has a Íew problems. \7rite out a seÍies of complaints. a Muós-ul hashyčssóyo} b Ch'imdaebang hana chuseyo. as you can see in lhc picture. _Ě"gq] rJóll^] "JŤoJ o]. ota gr! P9E}í flq9.t q s}Ě}^]E 107o ĚoJ óll -Bq+. 4 d Na-nun paekhwaióm-e kanda. c Chó-saram-un Kim sónsaengnim-iseyo? € l'rlnslate the following into Korean. l yorr are staying. 8 erJ* Ť 7il Ť4]9' ol f ěz]čl "J6l1^] r{ ^}+g dqdl9. I low long are you booking for? I told the bank clerk immediately. The_ receptionist asks you the following questions. h Ť^{g' É"J"l 9.

711l7t {rurle'? Eoll óg!!= ěg 0161 ^lz! Ť*ll9 ' Lll . nalE Ěal B+* + ?lgrle? oaet ]lt}d E^llE.]alB gag 9+0ll=R? 2^l 30ř0ll 4é ]lÍl7} 91olP. gg0l0llE. 4éc oJgdagu$' qBc *40l gDl tsXl eJ*áLlEt' L1l o o. how to buy tÍain tickéts . chikhaeng-un chwasóg-i ólma nam-ji anassÚmnida.7lto|9. Elt . how to ask ÍoÍinÍořmation about catching the train you 'rr . . )l4eE? gue g.l\rtro lrr lĚr lBr lJr llr llI llI to Taegu I 59l caJrlg? 7lÍl]l 9/u9? Ňq ol+ ]l= tll . wanhaeng_un ng-shigan samship-pun kóllimnida.€ GI oo o Jt+ Fl. +E = oll E7láLlt}' ol. ]ěĚ +dla. 30ll/d t g gEiLlt}. Kagyóg-un-yo? Wanhaeng-un p'alch'Ón won-igo. !gáLltl. chikhaeng-un manoch'ón won-imnida. golu 3ae? álgc 3^lč ealn' Eěe 4^l'J 30Ě ^tae SBLltl. Tu-kaji-ga innúndeyo.aaolI.t. . EÉrl9? ĚEt Cg'Jte' 3== 3t9É +^ll9. . ul lalrl ?lee! E! - t- tr \ ln this unit you will leam . L1l. shigan-un ěha-na kóllyóyo? chikhaeng-un se-shigan kólli-go. Jl iseE. want how to discuss going out Íoř meals and drinks tog€thér 'lr Mwol towa-dúÍilkkayo? onůl chónyók Taegu kanÚn kich'a-ga innayo? Na. F ]tll]t ?l=tllg' sÉc 5^l 30E0l! "l 48e 7^l 4sE0l0lle. Wanhaong-un tasó_shi samship-pun-igo chikhasng-un ilgop-shi sashipo-pun-ieyo.o J o So' o =o íto I I + r4 llt lÉ48 36t^1l9' 3s4= Ból^lls? JE40E +qgLltt. 6A1 30= )trt7t 91=til .ř. EF d0lElagLltl. tlEg Áqfl= 4B ]lIl= &=tllP.0te^17!tolE? 9tr8J nqile.

or rhlkrr-hu-e (after tbe meall. p'yóndo wangbok chulbal uE tlEl chulbal chóngwangp'an Éeal! electron i c noti ce b oard please look at pwa-iuseyo Hl+l{19 -S ha. Ku_góllo chuieyo. Hwagin chom hae'bogessůmnida. Komapsumnida.t can I belp you? there are onlý a'fetl'. places be left (over). pú'ak ha. To say I haue a fauour to asŘ.-ll0l- hom E single retum plattorm depaÍfure depaft Orammar 1 -lllkkayo to ask questions Modushibimanwon-imnida. '|'o zay before (verb) you add -ki ión-e to the stem. .+ Elol- . llyoil chlnyóg-enun chikhaeng kich'a_nun ómnundeyo. towa-durilkkayo? anassumnida hou. 'l'hc context will always mak€ clear to you which is the correct lllclning and in most cases -(ů)lkkayo does mean shall ue? and ' ylylk ha-l su Phrases and expressions mwol olrna nam-|i L rued to make suggestions. P'yóndo-rul turilkkayo? Wangbog-ul turilkkayo? Aniyo.k !l4Í Maep'yowon !r Pat Mř NB'chari_rul hamkke-yeyak hal su iss-úlkkayo? chamkkan-man kidaryó-boseyo. Taegu tll+ wanhaeng Eg nutlk and you saw it used in the sentence kňmyčnsóg-uro buťrk hamnida. onje tora-oshigessóyo? llyoil chónyóg-eyo' YósÓ-shi samship_pun kich'a_ga innunde' wanhaeng-ieyo.o do it as a fauourl. There are several patterns like this in Korean where lpitnln verb endings do not always have their basic meaning.Maep'yowon Mr Pak Mr Pak Mr Pak Maep'yowon Maep'yowon Maep'yowon Mr Pak Pak Maep}owon Pa.gtEolkůmyěnsók halpyónsók wonha. I ask you . and then add put'ak hamrrida or Put'ak haeyo lihase. rlthough in a slightly different way.lg kagyók 7l4 chwasók E4 nam. ll lr e lgo sometimis used to ask a question: ne-chari-rul hamkke Maep}owon Mr Pak Aiikmorumnida. confrrm smoker (compartment) no smoung compaftment want.n. A. Hůbyěnsóg-ul wonhaseyo. They can also be used with verbs. Ne' algessóyo. kůmyónsčg_ulwonhaseyo? Kúmyónsóg-uro put'ak hamnida. respectively. Korcrns have a wo td Íot fauout chikhaeng. Ne chari_ga it-kunyo. left a Korean city slow tnin (also called t Making nequests (as in do a fauour for someone|.Elchari IIA hamkke gllll hwagin ha. ll in ch'ulbal shigan-|ón-e (before tbe time of departure).ch'ulbalsňigan-jón-ó chónkwangp'an-ul pwa-juseyo. Wangbog-uro chussyo. remain t Beíore and after seaÍ together Eg!4 E|g4 check. ln romc of the earlier rrnits of this course you learnt _ůlkkayo as I pottcrn meaning sball ute? As youwill have seen in this lesson.E!01- mwugwunghwa) price fasť ťra. Ků-gó cho-k'unyo. . KŮrómyěn ilyoil ohu-nun-yo? Tu_shi samship_pun-echikhaeng kich'a-gaissóyo. They can be used with nouns. Myót-pÓn hom_esó kich'a_ga ttóna-jiyo? issůlkkayo? (is it possible to book four seats lopther?'). you say either lcho-ga) put'ak issčyo and then say what the request is or else my tňc raquest. require make a request You have already learnt the nouns chón and hu which rnean húore and after. express Írath (also caíled saemaul(ho)) seating. ne. I or hrkkyo-e kagi ičn-e (before (I/you) go to school\. as in the Íollowing examples: shi|ak ha3i ión-e (before ue begin .

Kurigo noras ha-ii malgo kůnyang lÚt-klman haseyo. Xlm a{s 3ěs qá!u l !lé!! Il l.f It Yut d8e olms? aol rt^lTJlolE? rl. rhlp'úndeyo.. l sěnsaengl onÚ| chónyók pap móg-úmyónsó soju han jan óttaeyo? choayo.hal&-yo-eka-n talm-e |aftet going to !il Itr ol I i In the next dialogue there is more new gÍanrmaÍ' but the most important thing is the colloquial language that is used.g.To school). ]all leilólll gn ]g E]lgJ 6l^119. móg-únhu-e (aftet eating\. but not quit€ the same as what you have seen b€foÍe and your aim should be to get the drift ofwhat is going on. lllcllt n= a5at = qole. KÚřigo norae hanůn kÓn ttak chllsa6g-ieyo.Choa. :lg oll E 4alqle. Kodaga chó-nun saengsón hoe_rul mon mÓgóyo. Kůrónde ódi ka-lkÓeyo? Kulosoyo.. 9= Áq ilds a{{ eNc fĚtll oltltr ^+ 3 )0ll9? =0l9. á 0l^l= a =cBl'q 11= =!]lts gtrol|9' ]aln lalólts a g^40l0ll9' 0l' ]Ě Ě!]l 92 uE } qos 5180tE'. a da. say after (verb) you add -(ů)n hu-e (or _(ů)n taum_e.=cit. chÓdo ka-go ship'unds. chÓ_nun lnch'ón-e ke-8ó shingshing han saengsón hoe'rul mók-ko fnL. and not to be put off by tbe colloquialisms and (at times) seeming lack of grammar rules! This is what it will be like when you fust go to Korea and listen to Koreans alking with each other. Kim sónsaong. Kúnyang hao-bon soři-syo. ldBt e= Eot gr g.. Kim sÓnsaeng_hago l sónsaong-hant'e yaegi hae'bolkkayo? cho-ch'lyo' Ói. A' kurÓm pulgogi malgo tarún kÓ móg_Ěmyón tor_lanayo. Kúrónde uri tÚl-man Tařůn saram-do purú-iiyo. Kurigo saengsón ho€_nun yoiům nlmu pissa_goyo. With a little practice at concentrating on the drift oÍ what is being said' you will find that the Korean you have learnt in this course will stand you in good stead. kúrlm. chosůmnido. l aěa llěg h. lnch'ón-un němu mórlyo. you will recall.t lr. which has the same meaning) to the verb stem oÍ a processive verb. fl &Be a+0tulE. 0il0t . Ajik kyehoek f ?l. El.ole. onúr_un chó{o ttara-ga-sě pulgogi_€ soju-na móg-ul su Pakk-g ópkonneyo.. . Choayo. =tr^lE. q= + 9lc IlE Ge+)lÁl =I]l0ll ít0ll €Íilule ' ^+u onůl chěnyók il kkůnna-go mwo ha{kóeyo? ópeóyo. l rónsaong-un ěttagyo? Kach'i kashiggssóyo? Kůl8s€yo. e.kl -fle. 0t4l }lq g. c019. 501. Kók|óng maseyo. ]Ěql +al =e =sJ ElĚ ^lĚE a ddólI otot some collgagues are discussing what they will do atteí work. r{ts Edoll ěáE! 85Él=qI !eqle. fts ólaJn9.tro l' f. There are several examples of constructions being used in ways similar to..I Itrl(m eěě adg eťě qěc =Ile. KůÍigonasó noraeban9edo ka€o-yo' sul mashinůn kón cho-úndg chÓ-nun pu|gogi-nun pyóllo-eyo. 0$]ló|l Eirle? 0l dáĚEll . t!! fltn Il tr. ll kkúnnajo-yo? Mořůgessóyo. as in kanůn).t Xr Yur he-ryógoyo. IlcolL} ě0l q oal 3r}E'? ]le? 840lulg. r1E 7ln {eBl. . ]alI 8da= 9é L1+ UlÁlI9.onúl chónyóg-un nae_ga han t'ók nae lkkoyo.t * Yun chónyěk-ina kach'i móg-urÓ ka-Ikkayo? kayo? Cho-un saenggag-ineyo.h Ilt llm l* Yun I don't want to go there! gts I1q g ěun q g}0ll9? g ěunE? Ee olE. 3'tllE' =n]lól? ^+ Ě!č! faln uA batgoilE ltIE. 0t ]B' =ÉLlEl.. This -(ů)n is the past modifer which you have already learnt (the present modi6er. 0t d8! !+ qog^t E!& otultg? *Vur n Xlm Ill. 4áol^llE. A. 9= Ilqe u]l €}q gng. Kurónde onůl ton-l pyělló ómnůndo ' . Ků-9ó ko8nch'anun saenggag-ineyo. Kúnyang pulgogi-hago soju han-jan Irt. E8e Ll+ c9ls. is _nůn.

ii's on me kyehogk l|q p/anís) puřii. sercdy have any inch'ěn Korean port néar seoul sshlngshing haóé írss/. It Jc not nccd to worry about learning rules for this kind of ln most circumstances you will want to úse a more gsmmatical style of speaking when you fust begin in Korea. as the ! EE cgulgaongsón 8ť haryógoyo prcviously met the -(ů)ryógo PatteÍn' with the ulth the intention o/. ned mlr out q {qooile otlls -kiman haséyo -]lE _ gtr do (veŤb) Eíóllo ops. It is very useful to recognize what is colloquial speech.E!= E[.tm to mean aTter (verb): ll h.cal/ ói 0l0ll heyl (used to call close fňends pap mók.(ú}ryó8o pattern. Your main task should the rest of this section if you wish. . The full form would have lilrrthlng like so|u han ian haryogó ónu-sulchib'ina )'/tlo (we utere tbinking of going to some pub or otber I a tl?lnkl. They can also make incomplete sentences f*fh thry complete simply by adding the polite particle -yo. but this is cut down to what would translate e drink .lI}E. in better English. as in hangung mal paeu-ryčgo ch'aek lln -(u) su pakk_g óps-(9)E + ĚJil a- kedaga tllElTl on top of that ttarů.tBt€ďrnosÍ nď\e. almost of bcing able to say it by hean. and as you spend more ng with Koreans you will quickly leam to do this Íor yourself. I lur becn omiaed in casual spech and the polite particle rcund the construction off. Normally it is used in the pattern (clause B).+=. just 4- and colleagues) have a lhlr rllrkrguc ohows the way in which Koreans can add particles n lh rnd of verbs in colloquial speech to give extra nuances to dft thry rrc saying.folow 'ish hoe gl raw meat ei 0|0l hey' come ofÍ it! theré is nothing fo t bUÍ to (veíb) b lbr } but hcre the pattern is simply (clause A)-uryógo-yo. ' kůrryang :lL' simply. lhsÍead of (noun) (whsn sugg€€ting another alternative) ere two sentences from the dialogue with an of how they have been constructed. rze utere iust thinhing t a dink andis made into a sentence simply be adding I .or. seem a bit complicated. and sometimes even to lrut lu.r prl rrn'rró sul han-|an hapshida \|ll |tnlúlng uork let's haue a drink |rl tr rÓ enn be abbreviated to -kosó. is awfut (to me) (noun) malgo f clJ u^l -ko nasó -tr ul| p]'óllo a= _' . rtcly familiarize yourself with the dialogue.El kÚÍigo nasó a'?éI thaÍ aÉor (added to veřb stéms) not par7iculaÍly. just listen instead I uas just saying it (don't tlke it too seriously) there's nothing for it (no ahernatiue) bat to eat soiu l lttíormal aentences I'll pay (for eueryone).a/o of us going? we uere just thinking of hauing a soju I don't really like pulgogi I really bate singing Ornmmar l Morc ways oÍ saying 'aÍtelwards' ' rnh l. For the advenrurous. however. /iusr not (noun).Phrases and exprcssions a|ik kyehoek ópsóyo cho-ůn saenggag-ineyo uri tňl-man kavo? kůnyang soiu han ian haryógoyo chčnúnpulgogi-nun norae hanůn kón ttak chilsaeg-ieyo norae ha-ji malgo tůt-kiman haseyo kůnyang hae-bon sori-eyo soiu-na mčg-ul su pakk_e óp-kenneyo han t'ók naelkkeyo il kkňnnago pyóllo-eyo after firisbing uork I don't baue arry plans yet tbat's a good idea is it iust tbe .'rt ctt llrl(l the ending _ko na-só to any present tense processive don't sing. not r€ally (fond of) ttak chil8aeg-iéyo hate.r. l.

it bťs Chapii-malgo shinmun-ul ing_nůn tó choa haeyo It's not mag*zifles. Ch&nun pulgwi_nun pyóllo-eyo.. in this case. Sentences with negative verbs in them (with an and mot) can bc lr. Iook at the following examples. thc fottowing sentences into English' {** {4'1ills. The ao at the end is the clause ending -ko that normally means azl when you are going to add another clausc. the first ir from the dialogue: . abbreviated Íorm to native speakers.."r. but another instead lorit but to go. buy meat 1. which is slightly different.fr!.l {E}Bxl 9}9t"1S. Simply adtl -ii malgo (tbis is the same -ii that you use in the long negativc. EgTts. However. in addition.-*" óstig"{ tď do someúing.? r d E a4Ólqls. ůndolnggomething means iust llNr tut'triman haseyoverbs means 'lístal'! F"or foT . Here are examplesl óogóvo. as you can see in úese examples: Sagwa-malgo kogi sa-pshida La's lot buy apples. "Íhis to indicate that this is also part of the plan as well.-n ins hstead } H:l *r'r* Ifť.at H*#'nY:rt "-iliilL. I 4 Not one thang. or in -ii mascyo). I'lI haue to go You can stay instead of (noln)' oÍ Žo' (noun) by putting thl word mďgo after úe noun. You should stick to the full Íorm with a negative verb most of the time and leave the colloquial. il q-o-E "Jý{s. td you have no option but to do something or řy"í. the meaning is as rzell. sentence is being added to the one that has been said previously IRH.l ru pakk-e ópsóy ícpri"tr". kogi_rul pyóllo an choa haeyo l don't particula y like meat pyóllo ka-go ship'chi anayo l don't partialhrly uatt to 8l) pyóllo chaemi ópsóyo it's not ptftiďlarb ifltfiesting The ďalogue also has a pyóllo sentence in it.KÚrtgp na-ú núaeá6.ng-a-do kago-yo This means afta that (ue utere thinking ofl going to o noraebang loo.l'al':":. But you can see that it is in a sense an abbreviated form oÍ chónun pulgogi-nun pyóllo choa ha-ii anayo.ll rn. you can use the ni pr[*-e ópJ'. to mean flo' pa?tiďIaÍb.\#xt*.#!#-!ť"hilii^."s' (veÍb. . .This will be clearer with examples. . Then thc panicle yo is added to round it all off.. puning the copula onto the end of the word pyóllo. This is a morc cotloquial form. there's'nothing fo? it but to b'Í. so the panern is essentially the same. ol'} to processive l hrr rddcd ll l rrc cxamPlest 3 Negatives wifthwót/o modifed by insening the word pyčllo in them.rauspapeÍs I errioy Íeadirrg Pulguksa_malgo san_e ka_nůn ke óttaeyo? How about goittg to the mourrtain instedd of Punlguhsa? You can use a similar pattem to say insr?ad of (verb). it's . la's buy medt: instcad of apples.lr'o mók-kiman haessóyo -li\ rY atrYthing ue itst ate tlrnhrrvo? ffi tlrurri"t (ratber than partieipating)? nothlng Íor it' but to .

not to Seoul. for the first one you could make up a sentence *hh h rnid I uaflt to eat fruit. doing them and then that you will gó out afteí doing thám' b Telephoning your mother.il 7l= + óJ zit sóJ 7lŽ} 9i ol 9. Ťrrnrhte the following sentences into Korean. Mrlrr rrp a set of sentences. uo thr€e sentences saying that there is nothing for 9lq9? it b pay the money c get up at six in the morning a go home Vhrt shall we do after finishing work? Vhcn arc you going to come back? Do you like eating raw fish? . I tuy romething to eat before th€ dePartuÍe time. I thrll we have a talk to your parents? I ťd llke to go too.tsa] +4}q] E^]ql ěBót9'.'} 4* 4{e H^]. truttO.l1 trJ+g? ^lÉ"il "{. d Reading the newspaper..? l{*..For each of the following say úat you will so out be{otl. not rneat. l. but it's a long way. c Having fun (nol-).ook. each one using the following sets {rl lnkrrnradon and using (noun)-malgo or (verb)-ii malgo. íttt lxlniple. at the following information about train availabiliry and then answer the quesdons. a (Eating) lunch.r'l *{ c d e b rJŤq 2}Í dÓ]9' 7lŽ}. l Grn l book úree seats together? Ltt'r go to Inchón. gŽ} +4zl ++ ^JÉ rJŤ 20:00 10:00 14:00 ^ls řJd a *+ 8:00 7:00 13 :00 ě* ( 7l Ž}) E+ 23 :80 1 1 ^l +š :00 l5:00 16:00 18:00 Iz:Oo eJ{ zlE xl 6n s{ a . ť41 š+6119? rJ d .

'"iti"g about rbl rlhlng. you will 6nd thar sirnply reading through the dialogues every so often will help you to retain the things you have leamt.{:##i'.l'"ll'. you should grr over the dialogue again more thoroughly. Make sure you arc comfonable with úe topics in the list that follows and be surc to revise the gÍanrmirr notes for any of the maior patterns you are not qúte happy with' It would be a good idea also to rearl through all the dialogues in the units once again..:x':'il:r:fTi:i. You will find there are things that you felt a bit uneasy about at the time thar aÍe now cleafeÍ to you and you are sure to understand more fully what is going on grammatically in the ďalogues. some at quite a high level.{ llrllll with Korean wllcncver you visit Koreá oÍ communicate l.l I llllll h'uíncys I atltlulng to go out lnďloe 1 | 'llrnrlrtc rhe following into English' aeshin bidio Ómóni-ga yónghwa-rul choa ha-nikka abóii you have reached the end of the course. and should have a more fascinating and enioyable experience ari i *lil$:'-{i.. Of course there will still be many things that you are not able to say in Korean. l l l m.. This unit contains more exercises which practise the situations and grammaÍ you have been leamíng in the last six units. You should feel capable of handling thesc topics at a simple level should you need to when you are irr Korea' If you feel unsure about a paÚicular topic. Even though i. lut'uiccu-ga wonin-in kót han sóryu-ga rúró-issóyo' iiit'ri "Ňit'-gyo ssúge toeossoyo' mot Ch'ón3paii_ga kat'ayo' - Topic revision The following list shows the main topics that have been coveretl in the last six units.'".:#l'iŤť':] .lJlili pt.t_1lil'_t'Í..'#*#.-.illto . what You did lrttyllp prcscnts 'Jlilll"'.*lt. bur with the tools we have given you you should be able to succeerl in carrying out many language tasks.ila.tty obiects ring clothes and asking about Íacilities I a a a llŤ:. Most of these exercises are Korean to Enlish or English to Korean translations.::.mvón toeyo.rllFb.'li:':Ť::.qÍffi!pjT#.:íj ff iiŤii::f : (torÓg'wan IY*r.#Lil{:l Er.i'i1hch'yó-iushigessóyo? maŇ mashyóssóyo? koióÍ'e 'u"ut yuhaeng ha_nun sut'ail-ieyo' Ýoioň "p Myónhócchúng chom poyo1useyo' = library\ ti[ifr :ljiť:}:: .":" and traffic offences I I I &r ilblns hrllnr lll ll'.. and should revise thc expressions and vocabulary that go with it.tp. since that is the best way to check that you havc really mastered the material in the units.T'" I HnlPlrlninB Hill'. I )ath tlllnB nPPointments trlvrttccrl phone conversations other people Sreview lntroduction So. you have virtually reached the end of this course.

\ I Rrwrltc the dialogue in question 7 using the informal and phln rtyles of speech. Naeil chónyóg-e shigan-i issóyo? lNo. ao] BÉ9}+"}. ets}Ě Ťr' *q9.s. Nait'-u kaJkkayo? (nalt'u: night club\ (That's a good idea.J4 h l ol4 4. (Hoíll about Taesday? Do yol haue time thm?| Ňc. r ólz}. d ls theÍe a telephone and TV in the room? 'l he service is rubbish! lasr vear. A You A You A You A You 4 Translare the following into Korean. ii r- . WhY?\ Kůnyang naga-go ship'ónnňndeyo. choayo. i I'd like to go to Inchón and eat raw fish.} 6}4 r ól+. "on. a Ao}9.{9. Hangsang yangmal sayo. d q{ q7l *fl*E{s. c I'm.? d ol d tsIzl e"l qlg? "l e ++g xiŤ a^4E ^}Bol^{g? ř t r **ÚtE o}Ť 9€čtg. I ol^l t!+ {2^l ol"J 4z}*g. i What does your car look like? k Would you write a letter for me? I My head huns so much I can't sleep. I +^l qq *=zl o)4e? I ^t rlEiBldeqBzls-? 4l+ Ei l 9El*"í4E Éli*al Ť '}9.^6---á_ Ygur frlcnd has a new girlftiend and you quiz him about fun Mrke up questions io fill in the Íollowing fact file: l{rmr Atr O*uprdon tllhlr'r ?hrt name llow mcď do together? the following into English. lReally? Will tbere be a ParE?\ Aniyo. o}7l E7l ". ó| (lmplote the following dialogue. É.il +xl "J!ě'}+ + d Š. lJlrďDillikes I 'fnnrlrtc Y1t. A You A You lwhat are you eoing to buy for him?l Yangrnal-yo.glqs? b +ř4Éq dg "Jol t ať +4rl tstgót -=-Bq4.Y!^:-.ltl7} aol +4í ilqg. a ŽJd^Jts E}Ť] +^n9. b You can wear it with iežns. It looks a bit smalth I thought so. Kůnyang shiktang-e ka-só kach'i chónyók ha-nůn křevo. (How about Monday?) Volyoil-lar-un abóji-úy saengshin-ieyo. ringing to cancel my appointment."priate ÍesPonse to úe following questions or requests. dn urgerrt manet has come uP. I Í We bought him socks e a I really didn't see the sien. b sš+Ťac +"}+^J9? c 4]ÓltrĚ q -{E qq 7}^]l.

western sprrlts of them. Where are You gotng' R.iqht now I'm off to tie ciry cenue' Vf. \'i'. let's. o o {l - Excuse mď'Vaiter! Do you have any solu. our depaffment store? j Mrstales do happ€n. I It's tumed out well then. 6ne. The following_pictures tell what you did last saturdav. íh"núyo"..ííiň.l.we've got all of CL II s) řř"íčidi"j' those..' give us a beer and one soju' please' Yes. . you can according to what the pictures suggest. .. Goodbve! h Thís evenins I'll oav' i what.iioi uo* t'"u. '!ílitť d Ppalli hae-juseyo.á *l"r. it isn't.9 € 10 :l -.áid yóu'l. beer. Enioy it! (Good appetite!) GI o tr o o ."a some snackďside dishes' what do vou have? a. tr "+ qI - J v.. kt's go together! "t.. b even if you have no energy (srrength)."'.. e Be (more) careful from now oí.. p'aion . l. you been g€fting along? C+ Pinc."ryf."u. puning i. Put the following sentences into the formal style."i v"u going to do in the city centre? il* :iT?. arr Ycs. a Chigům ódi kaseyo? b Chumun haessóvo! c Ilgop-shi-e irónayo. Chó-saram_un pulch'iniól han saram-ieyo. Soiu. k Shall I introduce vou? I Vould you like tó try it on? Ycs.T'oliiio' *."_.time." '.. 'iř*'gi". SSN'SS 11 Translate the following into Korean. ".y snacks.. f We'll go straight to the reshurant and eat. t understand."ii.-ttllt:"a c ?::'lnetp tnls ttme. r-l Unll t g) ) - t|lt rr you oÍÍto? lrcmin! Hello/How are You! fi. me some fruit Cheers! and some squid' please' Hcre vou are. o .::ou"t of what you did. Ve have. !. a I started meeting her often from that time. r ou d Although it might look similar.i'!11 i'". yes.

Iťs over there- department' This is iďthe Korean department MÍKim Ycs.:"'..Unit 2 Long time.€e Itdr Mr Le€ MrO O lt's not m€t Excuse me! Yes? ill ffi trfr Yes? Speaking. úis the Korean MÍo MÍo MÍo MÍ Lee řr*:." ř. Tooy *_P"k rony sořry' wřong numbert Isn't that 3gg 2Si6? t.. please. l.. Mr Kim.. Would you like to order? Pulgogi for two people and two dishes of Vould you like water naengmyon or pibim naengrnyon? Water naengmyon...."*. naengmyon. Áh' hello! Long time' no see! Do you have any free tirne this lunchtime? Yes.ve heard a tot about youPleasď to'm€et you. no seet Mr Pak Mr Kim! How are you? MÍKim Áň' Mr Pak! Hello'there! Mr Pak r_ong tlme. I llrí mloh Atsnanl htlt lr lt all togethor? What are you looking for? Do you have dictionaries? .i ář'lffi . Yes. Then I'd like to buy you luneh. 6ne. please.'. thil. oh. but can I speak to MÍ Kim' MÍ Pak MÍ Kinn MÍ Pak MÍ Kinx MrKiln MrKim Mr Pak's wife tles' It's so-so. but can I speak to li:It".r. hň| 'Ldy to oÍder yet? h. please? wlÍo Wait a moment. I'm pleased thát I've"met ř"Tj':|it How's business fine. please. Hello? I'm sorry.^WJrat brings you here? (Can I help yout) to meet the Korean language :^:e-rTme teacher- P. Isn't B![ lTelcome! Please take a seat over here. hello.*Hffi RiJňt. r m Jmyang Kim. Áh.''"' ňese diys? MÍ r. I like it a log but I can't eat spicy food eo well.. \Íould you like anything to drink? Ve'll h:ve some beer fust. i|*!ě.:r1. Let's meet at 12 in ftont of Lotte Hotel. Unit 3 lnl Enioy your meal! Waitress! More water and more kimchi. omcea -. I'll see you in a little while.[[g:*ri"-":":." t'm +l' aepartrnent's ofdcel Ifu€Je. please. I'm Tony from the British cmbassy. You've dialled the wrong number. Thank you. So.**:. is this the Korean depanmenr. Then let's eat pulgogi or kalbi.s # lrtn lrrl ?rtn Do you like Korean food? Ycs. Ycs' 6ne. I'm Yunhuy Jang. Ťhere is no such person here.?'' Great. Ánd l'd like to eat some naengmyon as well.ry. sorry. I'm sorry. reallý? Pleased to meet you. This is my wife.. MrO MÍ rÉe $jri. sor. I do. please. no see! No.

t market? *ltm llfio It llm Mntt llr llm Mlr o Mt tlm at Namdaemun market' goods than at Tongdaemun more in'ni"'opinion Namdaemun market has oo"lí.h. Here you are.. I'd like both a Korean-English dictionirn and an English-Korean dictionary.ive. therefore all togerher it's 50..Assistant Chris Assistant Chris Assistant Chris Assistant together.000 won.000 won all lur íor Tongdaemun marketil Excuse me. can you tell me where the bank in ltr (l IÍ you go left at that post office over there. here it is. Where is there a Korea Exchange Bank? Cross over the road and go towards Chongno. i*liiii'i ilrl Chris Assistant Justa moment. iri"" r"ngdaemun. Hurry ůp. and is more Tonsdaemun.. here' a busif to Tongdaemun .. 20.n út... But you get bus numDer from \iil. since the ffi'iůk. morning)! \rill you cut the price I hatmwon Mtnlr I hltrnwon No. \řould you like a iťť:*'nl"'n"""*." also? 'We have tfuee kinds of Chinese character The cheapest one. Here it is.000 won' exPensive. Is it far from here? íilll do.. please.000 won? How much won?! is the most expensive one.r'"i ř". Excuse me. 'll. is there a bus to Tongdaemun market from here? i.000 won . b|l]'r. Thank you.. Át the crossroads in Chongno.. .. is there a bus for Tongdaemun market here? clue. need r'. How much is it all together? The Chinese character dictionary is 30. Oh... Do you have Chinese character dictionaries Excuse me.n't A A A Mtrlr I hfiruwon Mtnlr ři. Goodbye! Goodbye. then?! 100.". Ť't'.''-. We don't deal with foreign currency at this bank.000 won.Ť'al.j. take a box Íor 28.". It's still Then lo and try somewheÍe else! *ó*ing (today.. It's about five minutes on Íoot. How much is it? Each volume is 10. Yes. h.'*" Á'" be a real stranger here a Finding the way iJ.. . I'm sorry.ii . Please go to the Korea Exchange Bank.. .i". MÍ Pak MÍ Pak Bank Clerk B there is the Sango'p bank. The bus is coming! look too goodl How much are the aPPles here? One box is 30. The cheapest one is 30.000 won all together. b:il. MÍ Pak Bank Clerk A around here? Tlrank you. llr llm Mrr(l lltar uuňit<in)t lt's 400 won' Thank vou..li l't't'ough ' ' ' I don't monkev.' .. I'm not from seoul' ffi.'ř.000 llm lrro market io it o'ill take you to Namdaemun marxet' Ň. OK. the number 20 bus' !íhere do I get it? across the road' in"J'óp "'"igt" much is the fare? How (country iů"".'i:1l't#:. Ii Chris Assistant Chris receipt? Yes please.É'. I've made a mistake..000 won' Mr Pak Bank Clerk B Mr Pak Bank Clerk B I'd like to change some English money into Korean money. It's 30.. if you go right there is a Korea Exchange Bank." market? Vhat is there at Namdaemun market? nothing thev don't sell get -''. A Korean dictionary? Yes..tThere's i.' Chris Assistant Chris Assistant dictionary..

arcohor! |ránn MrKim Tony Yes."' wifc will know' Mve íffl'. lt huÍts a lot' iňin i. When would be okay? The Sunday after that would probably be fine..c..j' i'i''[ fngY-! j'án "t"'hol' ln1'rr il"T'ffj"'áil'*' t'o'pit"t' íJáio tó th' Unil ilfi'JJl'i . which mounain shall We go to? Tobongsan mountain would be convenient. What?l That's even more expensive than the řijjiil is hot. any idea where she might 8ťil"rl t'""" . shall we go to the really good today. All right. But úere aren't many mountains in Britain so I haven't been able to do much. Shall we go together? Yongt'ae I don't know. 'What are you going to do tomorrow? If you don't have anything on.Minla Minia Minia Minia Chómwon B Chómwon B Chómwon B Chómwon B These apples don't Iook too good (Íresh).f.'. GoodbYe' . Then let's go úat following Sunday. Jaehoon You don't feel well again? You're always Yongt'ae pretending to be ill! No I'm not.dicine.l don't feel too good. H. Please cut me a bit more ofÍ the price.igiii'cn"'g''n with her boYfriena' tl'jir'i ň"1. then! Just pay 25. -..000 a box..000 won. I don't.. The weather's bener in Korea than England. Really? Then I'll cut the price a bit for you. Some of them have gone bad. i.i:'ři"". . Then shall we meet at the enrance to Tobongsan mountain? lltl I lrrt gone out h{l:l lrrnol llt Yun i.000 won.. tr it bad? Yc8.s r9u I realý MÍ Kim Tony MÍ Kim Tony Tony MÍKim MrKim Tony mountains? ! do want to go. Three boxes please. Thank you. my no energy (strength)' Besides' Unit 6 oÚÍ to fie mountains MÍKim The weather's Tony Fm itťrr [l*lf**im*q'"::*ť!. How about next Sunday. Maybe my ?lh lrnnol has gone out to see a movre she was supposed l'Ye got a nasty headach€l ťtlr lnnrol UÚr lmurrL Jaehoon I'm going into town.n" l have stomach ache as well' t}'e chemist to buy some ffi. wcather j}yj'ff ::$:řJoTi1JJÍ.tr'ťffitrlill-lffi message for Chongrruni No.t. . I like mountain climbing too. Today I really am ill. All right..h".#ř.::. but tomorrow I decided to go shopping at Tongdaemun market with my wife.**.ť*l: mcdicine. medicine. g" t" řťr ii:-. **.iťj'ffii'.**ar T:{"* !:T. "*nge. That's not true..Í[ffi.:-:. lll iL Minia stall next door! All rigbt. Next Sunday won't do either. Then lust give me 27. then. By the way. then? Next Sunday I'm thinking of going to Pulguksa with some ftiends ftom university. How much will you give me thern for? Just give me 31. h"o" a clue' Just a moment' ři.

How did you meet? be oK w( Since crandma likes reading rt rhc reád it instead! suggestton' óón]t ioke. She graduated last year from Seoul National University.'.'.i#:Í:Ť"t*::řffi':'Ťiř.lil:!:J. I was here yesterday with bag behind' t left my ř.3l. but you'd gone out then too. What. And now you're meeting her and dating nearly every day.i.lii:#}T. already? Vife l Yes._á". What's her name? She's called Kim Chongmin. Uilro řsra you do with btn it1l some Excuse me. where díd you go last night? Last night? I don't remember. utho was drinking!) You're the one who driús every day (on the contrary).. then? Ve bought him that last Year' ."řj Ýou see?I You don't líke my-s}rggest'ons' ii"'a ú""i j*iae.' l{c's gol rstl ýlret"about a shirt then? a shirt either' ň. I expect we wenr th*rlrl lůj. like I sáid át 6Íst! j'1. "o doesn't go out when tt rams' Hc Some socks.rr!'sI ' ' ^.. l.'' noraebangs. Át fust I didrr'r like her ůat much. Please help this time. where did you go? we bought him that last yeaÍl ... are you? umbrella? áboo.d1fud Taegyu Yongt'ae working for Hyundai cars. my girlfriend really likr. Vhere did you go after coming out of the noraebang? \Íe played a bit of table tennis. llc s got ten .n't "". Wife Husband Vife Husband lt's granddad's birthday tomorrow. I Taegyu Yonýae Taegyu rl Yongl'ae Taegyu tll Yongt'ae Unit 9 went to a noraebang.ť"'.J' "'á . We staned meeting regularly írom then on. Now she's ill'l'ill.Xl''. Is that all? Tell me honestly! lt's true! Nothing happened! Anyhow.i. \tre're going to have to decide what to buy him. 'we somewhere or other. Try making a bener if ýh"t My Éiend did an innoduction for me. but a month later we met by chance at a party. I've (iust) got a girlfriend. so I'm even more busy! I thought so. I always decide. Can't you decide? I'm busy.. You don't remember?! Had you drunk so muchll You mean rze drinking? (lit.what did you do last niglrť? Yongt'ae Taegyu Taegyu Yongt'a€ I Yong'ae Taegyu.a t"TiÍl*o" o*:ť:^l|:_::. How aĚut a new electric razorj l Taegyu Yongt'ae Taegyu Yongt'ae Taegyu Yongt'ae I lltt l More or less! I tried to ring you last night. how are you doing?! Hi there! How are things? Nowadays I'm a bit busy.

..'i.000 won. That looks a bit better. When it gets a bit easier. I like them. . lltrrh. Oh..." :. Here you are.::'lT$' ňow often should and so I can'r l lltrhr ť. Would you like to try one on? Yes... S". No. *"' There were .: ťťtT*:{": :T .tln1rrr t lnlrnon lltlrhr I l Mr Pak i. ' iťs uery Eig..::"ffir:Ťiy" fi nled to srress' then. black and made of leatner. .#fi il1ljil.r. á"sig' ls J bit oid_fashioned.. They are keepirrl.h]ě.i l'" u' ti' " i"" t" u'"nt l here Hello.r I Sonnim Saiang Sonnim shirts? 8. that's really cheap.'y ll tlhr lnlrworr ll I hnlrwon I h0rrrwrn ll Mr Pak Mr Pak li l Yaksa Hello. !íhat about these? This style is very popular at the moment. Something stylish and good quality which I can wear with ieans. Chongčpwon Sajang Sonnim Sajang Sonnim Saiang Sonnim . that looks very nice. can I help vou? Yaksa i. Thank you very much..:: . rJíhat is ít made of? 700"/o cotton. "'. g:j. I'm looking Íor casual shirts.1'"l''' res.:lT."na Chongópwon Chongópwon Sonnim Yes_ .nl1ru I hnlrwolr tltllro htlrrtwon Yes.tr":lilTi i&n:: ťť.':i. (Something ir) a bright colour.*1.Ti {. it's really nice I tt'i"[ tt'.orn-"-irnpor. Does it suit me? Alr. Ah. Agassi. !7ould you like to try a bigger one? Yes..*l'. ]s that it? l\o.Ú tt lrrllr Look at that shirt.1.I Chongópwon Sonlim Sonnim l1."l". please. the police station.:::1 il. \i[ow. '.. how much are those ýJi. By the way.i"il you Thank l*..l j.Tí:#"'-: f]l""'. :tr. Don't be surprised if you feel tired easily.. I take them? l'.1ť. OK.il.1i..". how much is it? . Shall we go and look somewhere else then? 'Welcome! Nasty headaches 9:: :"^:ť'^:-: *here the police station is? Iť*."n. Do you think it suits me? he you thlnk lt suits me? Yaksa Mr Pak Yaksa I Mr Pak Yaksa r*fr*i "*lť!ť'i:mru" fi:5'"ť"::'ffii].ll..Tů:.ťj:":1. then iust take one tablet after meals three times a day. . but look at it.-. Are there any side-effects? rJťhen you take the medicine you will feel drowsy so take care. d lt l r You can take one every four hours while it's very bad.ffi1H5 nfi *r ltŤl:i I help you? a n um tr l*{rl l{ hhl you llke to try it on? n$1.}. please."":'j'. I don't know. that looks super. il Sajang did yJu do with it? -!íhat .Jff:'Ť.:' J::Ll[i:.. Yeah. rt's not a briefcase- your bap? have a look.. how can "'.:!1..|. ! lRrttw rt A lltlhl lt rl l.':'ť..* ..x* ř*""l''n:||''''.actually. Can you hllr lll lll I rlu lfu Frh $:. Thereš a briefcase. the quality's not very good. But it seemďlooks a bit small.:!ilJ-"""' lltrrllll 1l lltlhl llÁtttlYltlt What are you looking for? Yes.ix#i .. qescrtb€ *.

Mmm.000 It sounds a bit expensive to me! At Namdaemun they had a similar one for I I I : Oh. I'll go and think about it.H. I'll talk about that with my wife.m{H":. a s. I Do you have a spare noom? rllill Sonnim Chuin Sonnim Chuin ilhrdn Chuin llr Sonnim lr lll I Chuin Sonnim Chuin l Sonnim l Cbuin Sonnim 1l with a bed.ňáown řl..Chómwon Minho Chómwon l Minho Pyóngsu won.i. then? Oh.n':.. It will be 50.000 won for the roonr lanttlnt st " *"..fr)lJli..m. Did vou 3ř::f. we offer n 5% discount.TlJ'"' ll'lr** Please' to the maná'eÍ' the hotel \óngsu Chčmwon Minho or three months. btrt the quality is very different. please? Yes. one wiů bed and one with floor sleeping' Certainly.". probably like that' then' My wife will be better to Chómwon only 8. 32. thank you. I think.000 for the room with íl<x'r sleeping.." j.". If you book for 6ve nights or more. *T{ťrlíirt-.000 won.:*r.ťfi "x'. we'll Bo to the restaurant.il'*. What? Whyl fiat's a very good price. Only 32.Ť:. How many nights are you staying? Three nights.'*l :H'ur*: x* f"'iilii''J.1l. It looks the same.fl i?[ilil:x$l*' i#. a Korean ÍestauÍantand a western one.l".*ť:'.g*T"l.. all' This morning I asked for I l$ňnhn comolaints like this' ru. No.l:'E.li*"t*'.*..'""ilimr:l'n. Do you reckon this shirt at Namdaemun.ve don't usually B€t any is strange. Tíell.*.tol*on í:*iin l*:u|l'". . at least..r' "''ť-::: ff. a noraebang. at Namdaemun. We may stay a little longer than that (l don't know). If you buy clothcs !. and 40..ř ff:'ffil s€rvlce' llmdlpwon ii tiitt will last four times as long.e afvals "v t-" I'i " Hi5li.i'#i:r that. mv son's .. Oh.. a bar. sir' w.!' I hhohr iffi#.'. we do.:xjri. . sorry.i[x"' ťť}ni:* l .:i"#i'j1jb.$il:}.""xl room.1X1'".[ff ::i.T"rn*:Ílfi:"1!:" " Unit í2 Do you have any free rooms." ". please. that's excellent' It would #ťi.'ili:iT:T':'. pleas€ go to the basement restaurant' Or you can have breakfast brought to your room for 2. And it will be a much better 6t. Is there a TV and a phone in the rooms? Of course. Vhat other facilities does the hotel have? we have a swimming pool.tl.Íruna' a games room. breakfast is included.t t hthroln j. and there is also a mini-bar. fris lunhn hhrrln Tijíťi**r:f. Is breakfast included in the price? Yes. Áh yes.000 won extra peÍ person. they become unusable in just two s. . Would you like beds or sleeping the Íloor? orr iffi I I - PÍoblem "ny ls' ttt"n"e vou can tell me what the :'' r'.'"''*l iij. so you have to buy new oncr.ť:l'ir' *ťrláll.ights..*:tit.ň th"t is not all' The television tn our and ůe fridge door l have to say that quite.'ř"1i i". Between 7 and 10 a.. l#so*un i. I don't know.p.000 won.

. I guess I'll just have to iome and eat pulgogi and soju! Ml holr Mr Yun Mtr t. i_iit. I canlt eat raw fish' óx. BeÍore the rňe of departure look at the electronic notice board. would you like to whát "bout come? I would like to go. Mrr lhn Yttn f. please. I'rok I Mtr 'oc Don't worry. When are you coming back? Non-smoking or smoking? Non-smoking. but I'd prefer to go out to Inchón and eat raw fish. Mrs Kim. there's one at 2. a. Sunday evening. but l don\ parricularly like pulgogi. the slow one four hours 30 minrrtes'What about the price? Yes. Yeah. thank you very much. sure! Hey. please. Well vol don't have to eat Pulgogr' you can have íomethíngelse. But I don't have much .t . Just let me check .45How long do they take) The fast one rakes three hours. ort' it was only an idea. Vhar abo r Mr Kim and Mr Lee? I don't want to go there! After work? Don't know. Vhat about going out for a meal? Sounds a good idea. I'll buY. that's fine. No. Can we book four seats together? Please wait a minute. Mr Lee.30. a slow one at 5.iřt lng. Hn llrrr lfu l'lh Mt llnr l Yeah. though.e cash right now' I Maep'yowon Maep'yowon Maep'yowon l MÍ Pak MÍ Pak Maep'yowon That'll be okay' !íe'll take the fast one.000 won. the fasr 15'000' and we on|y have a few seats left íor please? Yes. and I hate singing.!TUnit í3 llt lrrlr Hn Mr ltlrrt Yrrrr Two to Taegu Maep'yowon Can I help you? Mr Pak Are there any rrains ro Taegu this evening Maep'yowon Mr Pak Mr Pak i Maep'yowon Maep'yowon MÍ Pak Maep'yowon MÍ Pak Mr Pak MÍ Pak the fast one. That's nice of You' you.000 won altogether. please.30. No.30. And you can iust listen instead of sinsing. what about Sunday afternoonÍ Yes. there are two trains. What are you doing after work this evening? I haven't got anything planned. !íould you like single tickets or return? yes. and of course we could drink soiu and then go out to a noraebang or something. and a fast one at7. return please. but where are we gotng to/ vet"uld qo and eat púlgogi. Mr Yun Mr Paek Mr Yun Mr Paek Mr Yun ti . that's fáirinough.pa. Yes. but it's a slow one. it's too far and it's too expensive' Besides. There is no Íast train on Sunday evening. Okay. Just the two of us? We could invite some others. Mrs Lee! Do you fancy going oui for a meal tonight? OK. There's a train at 6. the slow one is 8.oo Maep'yowon Mr Pak Maep'yowon Mr Pak i That will be 120. 'What platform does the train io froÁi l donl know yet. There are four seats available. okav then.

kayo. chuseyo. ffi'ff' 2 4 6 I Denmark Poland 10 America The Netfierlands Mexico t!{ol 4s? oiingó chuseyo. Exercises on Korean alphabet 'rč kagc_e kayo? tqs? d I iffie-.lg lhinacssóyo.|.qe.B x o t. q +. 2 piano 4 television 6 axi 8 ice cream 10 sandwich 12 tennis 14 tomato it q!řolí B} + 9lolg' ta issóyo' ňňágJ -"*l*t'ago pap lí q+4a "} E} 9lqg' I ! n"f#**'' 9 1 3 Erercises on romanization 1 zlt 3 zlř 5 p}E "JŤ 7 r'l^l+ . soiu cÍuseyo. nrrhi-ró sulchib-e kayo. ll+E Ť4s. O + 6 Mannada 8 Hakkyo 10 Chómshim nrck|u issóyol ěoí z}g' llbon+ kavo.t+ Sěnsaengnim ExeÍcise 1 4 "J+ 6Ť+ 8S 2 4 10 +ťJ Saram 2 . Chigům hakkyo_e kayo' Soiu issóyo? E)(eřci36 2 Ónaeyo? Ániyo Mwo saYo? .

:.d mógóyo e ópsčvo Í háeyžl g aniayo a .ff. ip-e kayo' lDC' ere you A: Chal chinaessóvo? B: Ne.*.. 1v*'t5'.." "o hrr I llit-u-tli annyónglraseyo! Hakkyo_nun Prlq annyóng haseyo? Kóngang-un llbu n-ieyo. Excuse me.''.8.ce..'i. Cha| chinaessórr.lm. íll a' ýo c d c ga nun. ollng&eyo..1.waítert e. manna-ró kayo. cJrapchi_ga aniáyo. Chinese department off.. " b *: s'{ó'ch-"seyo? Ódi kayol ding&ga anieyo.*l*.esó mwo sayo? t l or haseYo! $*r hrrot rl. fi $i#í{{*:'i:*ff. I {iTlliTlfi. A: (to the. rcrry. Irtrr I a arf. ."$JffďTfll'".1ffi ró sulch . drparonent is? together then. clucg-i anieyo. p rónrrcngrim annyóng haseyo! Hoesa-nun óttaeyo? tl|rlru Cho annyčng haieyo! Šaób-un órtaeyo? !l Émrcnglim puin annyóng haseyo! Kalog-un ótaeyo? óttaeýo? óttalyo? E (erciso 6 I l : ífsiÍ. E:<ercb€7 í 3:.:** ExeÍcise 8 cheeg-ieyo. lllnmun-leyo..:liarňYón8 $n€umoshinae-e kaló? í lf'_Íi". I'm going to see (meet) a teacher (someone) at MÍ Pak? [n department also.j"r*. Mr Pak is the Chinese teacher.o thinmua-i anievo."{i. i j Mwo sa_ro kage-ě kavo? Kage.r:i#$ť. not Mr Pak. rlo.f":i[J:'#i. rgwa-ga anieyo."il#Íiť#.IiiJ. Chal chinaessóyo ? [=iťs good at the moment].*.*:il-hago ppang . Álgessóyo.ffťtŤgg* ppang mógóyo.u.lt'. but could you tell me where the therc.. Exercise 5 aayayo! Mwo ha-ró šulchib-e kavo? 5..n:L' tltlt'a-eyg.ta issóyo! Íilá. N."t. hana hago soju honl ť..

:ffitáH:?"? Uri Snnrr llltn |illJe'haTPlgaj Ilbonmal sónsaengnim_iseyo? íl tl^lts:99ol-9ŤÓl* .) rl tl { B: *Eg"J+geŤ"J8ol hL hd. Mannasó pangapsumnida..'1frfl:. Miguksaram-isevo? m Errre řl 4"iy"' Ne.9iuť..tl"T*'". ťf.hrgo naengrnyón chumun ha-go ship'óyo. Jllňln-rri-nun Sangmin-ssi mot kidaryóyo (or. l rónrecngnim-hago Misisu Kim manna-go ship'óyo. (ln!l chómahim-e ďligan-i issčyo? Uún mul chom chuseyo. kidariseyo).TJ:essčyo' oraeganman-ieyo.TFtm i' fi :tí.hego kwail sa-go ship'óyo' frthnl-hago kalbi mók-ko ship'óyo.. puin. i$##iil.ffi _ e rae| sónsaen€nim Ne' hakkyo sónsaengrrim_ievo. ' f iŤ*::řJ:':'. I sónsaen5im-ievo|1uro' I sónsaengnini-i aoieyo. Kúraeyo? Malssůrtt ll lyrrr yuk-yuk-yuk-gong-i-sam-il. g h i '" í'11::PÍ.'ť#.or adur_ieyo. ffi'&.1$*:*"'. ) Hlnluk 8 i i Ánnyóng hasevo? Á! Annytne básevo? Oraeganmai-ievo.! l I t l l l l I ( l rónrrenglrim: kong-il-o-il-yuk-p'aI-ch'il-gu-il_gong-i.r hekkyo ap'esó mannapshida.ďn?oY.. miguksararí_ievo. nttn chunguk hakkwa samushir-i anieyo. $1jg.fiťiccha ť:. Anio' hakkyo sčnsaeirgnim-i anieyo..:ffi:.lgffH. A B A Exercis€ mani tůróssóvoIlbon kase.t I d #u''.) qrh +qq-tol+oJ ( rónraengniml o-p'al-i-o-gu-i-gong') mal sónsaengnim-iseyo.nun llbon táesagwan-e mot kayo. adur-'i anieyo' lhrnl.xt chun-gguk kůraeyo l {í|t o|Ťq-q^igo| ll lhrlmln: i-gu-il-yuk-sa-p'al-i. Exercisg z : . -Ne' ťaek sÓnsaengnim l sÓnsaengnim-iseyo? iguksararí-i anievo. fiÚnlrrlr rnol sónsaengrrim-i ópsčyo.) {|ll +{qol+-olŤ4€L řlt'ah Long-il-yuk-i-sam-řgu-yuk-kong. ..a .rri maeun kó mon mógóyo.. etc. *rrot hl th. lrr trttd part' Pak sónsaengnim-ina Misisu Kim manna-go rhlp'ilyol ppang-ina kwail sa-go ship'óyo. Y{lhhl.eío? ťtd: hinguk sónsaengnirn manna-ró kavo.. chungguk sónsaengnim-i aniseyo? ttte' chungguk sónsáengnim-ieyb.. Gtl$m chómshim móg-uro shiktang-e mot kayo.".. lrlbl uminbun-hago naengm'yón tu-kurut chuseyo' Hl. r-íakl(yo sónsaengnim anisevo! "1iill...:i"oo*-*. l|tnlil. Yoiům sačb-un óttaeyo? *irrt úmchik choa haseyo? ihll-nun Hilton Hotel-uy Sangmin-ieyo. Mrrun kó chal mot (pron: mon) mógčyo. E }ntmln. b _ c Exercise 6 Ne.manna-ró wassóyo. llirlo rónsaens"im-hago ilbonmal sónsaengnim kidari-go Mirlíu-hago wisk'i mashi-go ship'čyo.: lffiyÉ.7".

modu ch'ón-sa-baek won-ieyo. trh.g. yuk-ch'ón won-ssig_ieyo. i-ch'ón won-ssig-ieyo. . Kim sónsaengnim chom pakkwo chuseyo. Kim sónsaengnim chamkkan kidariseyo. mon mashyóyo. atíl. -e Í modu man-p'al-ch'ón won-ieyo. mot kayo. d Viklk-e kago ship-iiman.. . Í Í-alťť_*!-":**an_ap'esó) raeKnwatom-e mot kayo.e Misisu Jang mon mzrnnay('.cant. ch'il-paek won-ssig-ieYo. You've misdialled. . Í Kim só'nsaengnim-hant'e chónhwl hago ship-iiman. chaInrrt (orossoyo.cho<h'imaň. issuseyo? a97 b53 ExeÍcisé 8 207 aesakwan anieyo? c a d e 867 34495 issóyo? umshik choahaseYo! mashi-go ship'óyo? c paek won-ssig-ieyo. modu sa-baek won-ieYo.Ýould you like any. Saram-reyo.l 'fust wnetn€Í oÍ.í I tarun kaseyo I l rrjón kapshida. then. but r.I'm sorry. where is the British embasry? c Please sit down over here íat this side). c Maekiu-na wain máshioshida.egt Korean (weil).. Yčlshi-e hakkyrr oshippun uy orun unhaeng 6 sent€Dce srrys something is good (irresoective . thing to drink? d (somďfree) time? kt's meet later.. Althou6h r rrKe sprcy P:+ I can't eat Korean. e W. P. E (ercis€ E.iski. 10 Exercis€ a 5 chumun hapshida Yál trr-rhi-c hakkyo aplesó mannaPshida' B mannaseyo f b chumun haseyo c POSeyO d aniůseyo e kidariseyo saseyo kaseyo kapshida sapshida mannapshida kidaripshida anjupshida popshida tht.i you llke lt ([resp€ctive of its quality).o T:" l'l* e mr rtrmt Just a moment.not you personally like it} anó the seconá savs rh. b Paekhwachóm-e kaoshida. but there is no such person here. or. Is ďrat 863-0542? ill*:ti: tood. modu sa-ch'ón-o'baek won-ieyo.óp rhiťóyo I (hlm) Exercise 7 a Chunguk mal-lo malhaoshida.' ďr'ón-o-baek won_ssig-ieyo. ExeÍcise 9 b Excuse me. modu man-lch'ón won-ieyo. The .

chaek sumul-du kwrrtr b tr-rl. e l u Pyon8' yol pyÓng. Lhell ssan ke ólma_evo? Hanguk oehwan ůnhaág chiióm_i ópsóvo. m(uy) kae-igunYo! I !ógi h I Í Kčrósó ship-pun cchí.ro.?#:il'ř. c Maekju an tuseyo.'. kae han mariI Chón won. . Únhaeng_i orůncchog-e issčyo. sam-it. sčrún-nesaram.1rt". . na tu-óv"ng h"go ppang chom chuseyo' ch'ón won-ieyo. ojingó yól-ne mari.g" sagwa hago kimch'i-do issóyo? Exercise 7 a Marun anju an chumun haevo. .kóltvóvo. g+ol= oJ ^l+trE} cl r'| u]!|o| 9. ochip won-ieYo. e d Sónsaengnim an kidarisevo. ^iď"1^'l4É. ilgop sáram. Chongnrr cňóa't'"-ii. ilun shiiang-ai'esó Kim sónsaengnim mannayo' l *4E ^l+"'| Er{Ě g:l_s.|.$. man won.aengrnyón mon mógóyo. d Yógis! oencchog-uro kaseyo..*"s.1fi k Ottčn chongnyu_rul turilkkavó? I Cheil ssan kó chuseyo.15.x"'. rlát Exercise I L Sillye-iiman. yógi shiktang issóyo? b !.r'tngÓ se mari' ojingó ahop mari. e !'.. Exercise 6 a Chaek se kwon. puin-ishigunYo! unhaeng-igunYo! sónsaengnim-ishigunyo ! . ůmshie-i ilbon ůmshik-poda tó mashi issóyo' l kógi--poda tó man(h)ayo' . chaek yódól kwon. řiií"dá ňitT.{'|řslff"'. t'"ngungrna l chaemi ópsóyo' sagčri-ga issóyo. leyo Exercise 5 lónrecngrim-i nappun saram-ieyo? iii-Jiíú"' Cňóayo' Annyónghi kaseyo' gh'asuseyo? igsóyo? lseóyo. Kalbi-do mon mčgóyo.+EJE ^lá:|l a|l]. 4 E ^]+"il= "J 4=E}g.. yukship-ch'il-il.! l asóuroI bIeesč c ul uro d un/i rul e nun ul ÍnunI g ul ina € g". lrsóyo.'s. Í Kae ahop mari. c !l1n saram. kuróniklta modu yuk-ch'ón won-ieyo.H. o_'bun kamyón. dLJ€ ařŤ"il^] Nr-nun mot kaYo. Chaek an ilgóyo. d r."'i te-e ka-boseyo. c glTa::y:? Han chópshi-e i-ch'ón won ."}#*'o''' ttanguk mal saión-ul turilkkavo? i iiidls". b o-bun an kčllyóyo.qs.

Korea is expensive too.ffi'ff*' r i rhYoP'ing halkka haeYo' Tongdaemun market! You want to know if we've got monkeys? Go and try lt É(€rcisé 7 The acceptable sequences aÍe: a. c Mwo ha-neyo? I saión_i pissa-neyo. E I'll cut the price for you. in choa haeYo. Mind you (how ever . d Shibil pón bčsu-ga Namdaemun shiiang-e ka-go iship bósu-nun Tongdaemun shiiang-e kayo. h. hcssóyo tnayo let'ayo hrli maseYo . ver-ul saró yakkug-€ ? 'nót keyo. b Ómóni ch'aek ilk-ko abóii ťellebřrul pwayo. next door shop). f There are more English people in Korea than I thougbt. but if you go somewhere else (to l different place) it's cheaper. .neyo.ttcYo r nrbllócyo l |i'rlr. c where do you catch a bus Íor (going to} Seoul city centrc} d I haven't had any luck all morningl e Japan is more expensive than Korea.p' r. shinae_e kayo. Irdeni aP'aYo. a ExeÍclso 9 I saram-i Pak sónsaengrim-igo chó saram Kang sónsaerrgnim l€ljvo- KomawoYo. shikkurów-oyo) . e Sangiun(_do) bósu t'a_go Myóngt'aek-do bósu t'ayo. c Kogi(-do) mon mók-ko sagwa-do mon mógoyo.' o? (ór. rannircyo (oÍ' chaesu Ómn€yo:' te aďugwunyo pťrrr Illrryo (or.c Kich'a-nun bósu-poda tó pallayo' d Kim sónsaengnim-i Pak sónsaengnim-poda chaesu ttl man(h)ayo.l haasóyo r t llrrl hocssÓyo l nlíl'klro haessayo I Eiirilil:i: I blllrvol lr. . b They do sell them here. c. Exeřcise 8 ^ b Taegyu-ga o. ). e Namdaemun shiiang-i Tongdaemun shiiang-poda pissayo. 't}r'"tr:'r'J. . shikkurówoyo ) Exéř6i3€ ío Shipp'al pón bósu_nun o_ship-ch'il pón bósu-ga hakkyo-e kanun bósu-eyo. it's expensive here! Let's go and try next door (at thr llřoL. d.r*ýohaes'sóyo' . 1 r rp'fillrřlcyo I lininlk. Taň_do aP'ayo' tulut'oňg yag_i issóyo' kepsfuoa' d I shinmun_i chóngmal chaemi in-neyo. llillt c ExeÍciso 6 a Wow. You can take a box for 1 31000 won h \Vould you like to order? I Since this isn't Korea (since we're not in Korea) tlere are fcw places selling kimchi.

Tari-do ap'-ayo.h.íi.ř' ha-go. Exercis€ 8 t lryo? Móri-ga aplayo. i And I'd like to eat some naengmyon as well. c Chumun haii anayo.hi'hip' P*-'"yo' l!il'B. e Bósu t'aii mot haeyo. b Chisúm kaii mot haeyo. kayol Unit 7 E (eÍcis€ 1 ra-ró kayo' 7 a b Then let's go together.l xtg. ji''1 b kůlsseyo a kedaga lmh. Umshig-ul mot móg-óylr' !t o m-ró kage_e ksyo. tben?! Is there anywhere thtt doesn't hurt? i I'd like to change English currency into Chinese. .. Í Next Monday will perhaps be OK. I made a misake. c kůrčch'iman (kuraedo would be even becer) d kůróch'iman e kůrigo r [ili.000 won a box. d I'rn not the Japanese language teacher. I You can take them for 20.t ha-oshida.2 or' Yódól-shi I i'nil}liť'l'n""-nr"' ra'ship-o Prrn-leyo' a b Shigan-un in- a ppalli t'apshida sam-ship-pun-ieyo' c an choayo d kach'i kalkkayo? e kú sararn puin_i an choayo ÝÁl rhl a Ex€rcis3 6 I Ýó atl". s Since I'm not from Seoul either. lh#:*"lr"'."'"' .. d I sagwa-ga shingshing haii anayo.'''liťť.:lsiťilxlď'n'""'x. I !'rtrYo' | lrltlý"o' I lmlltyoyo' tat-ko' y'al-go PaPPU-8o' umiigt-go' tat-uPshida ' p'a-Pshida. plearo. h So your whole body hurts. € I'm sorry. tE$Á^}it%1Bsi* "'u" ti**119i"' . pappu-pshlda' umiigi-PsnIoa' ExoÍcbo 7 a Kogi-rul choa haii anayo.Exercise 5 la. Do you have (free) time today Iuncbtime? c It's really been a long time (since we've seen each other). I really don't know. k Give us some dried snacks and some Korean pancake.

Exercisé 9
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Hakkyo_e kassóvo. b Maekju mani máshyóssóvo. c Yakso8-ul mot chik'yóssóvo. d mannassóvo.'

tullrT

llrrl5rrksa han bón ka-boseyo. l{vrn though you're busy, go and see. l lrvc you never tríed playing table tennís? Then have a go! |rlrnilr-ssi ajik an wassóyo? Kuróm chogum tó kidaryó-boseyo.

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Exercise 2
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a Hae-iuseyo. b r-on'ing hae-luseyo.

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(()r, Kimch'i-rul pyóllo choaha-ji anan-nunde), iksuk
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Exercise 4
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go to see a movie.

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(10.00 p.m.) thcrc isnt. thorc is.

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Sashir-un óje hae bwassóyo' boshvóssóyo? Exercise 6 a b Pumonim-hanťe yáegi halkkavo? a.di}l'}''''3T'ii"Ět'"'o'.roh. Sáshir_un čie hae bwassóyo' I l lt'tttn ch'wo boshyóssóyo ? Nr' l lne bwassóyo. . shiró hamnida.J|*.?B:Tes f t11hlru-gé ónmang-ieyo. ilu' l lnc bwassEyo. ii.flb:_: toraga_l su pakk_e ópsóyo.rlrrr hae ltn" l lne b*assóyo."unusable).''#ďlx{[i.ifi .ií'u't'"-t ttae-nun pot'ong nait'u'na shiktang-e kayo' halkka yo ? a. 3 Ch'ulbal ha_gi chón-e).Tť!ri:ť:#. tn tact (actually) there were some very important papers lt's..i*T:. yaksog_uI chal chik'yóyo. Ap' I Irům-i mwo-eyo? could ylrrr i ítlhrr's name: Myót-sar-ieyo? Chigób-i mwo-eyo? Abóii irum-i mwo-eyo? fiiťť'J'#*. | '.". she can warch the vicrc.#. lrrrlln chul arassóyo.. t .:. i:Íill ."..on """ning after work I'm planning to go to the 'hrngňón-e ku šarám_hant'e yangmar-ul sa iuóssóyo' ( |hom chag'un kót katlayo. . Šashir-un óje hae bwassóyo' trrvótltr hae boshvóssóyo? t lu' l t'i" b*".n ť*t"se (lit:.probably due ro srress- il*:y.2 r t nltt hae boshyóssóyo? ópsóyo.'#.Íť.t1.i"i:" " !íhrt do lrrw mct: together: lJLrýdislikes: Ónók'e mannass_óyo? Hamkke (Kach'i) mwol haeYo? Mwol choahaeyo? Mwol siróhaeyo? .'ůru_e Exercise 5 c d a b Ě olr.iff. I Airlyrr.'ů:...n.i. .1'jil".il.mwól saengsónhoechoaha'-seyo? j l-rrlchtclub) |'vÓíÍrl cho-ch'i an-un kot kat'ayo. Saihir-un óje hae bwassóyo' nm*-.B(eřcise 4 Í .. r t hňngmallo p'yoiip'an-ul mot pwas_sóyo' ( 'lrlrňcbaii hádo kách'i ibul swu issóyo' I Yrlrrň-uÍ ch'ňiso ba_ryógo chónhwa haessóyo' t írnj-čchónhwa hago t'erebi-ka issóyo? c ' : b rnslcle..ť#*fr.ffiJ :t'r*.'oýo.'"... t Nrmcr (hcupetionr Í Ě:l{ď{.Hn".. lr r ra llrtllyc-iiman yógi kurón saram ópsčyo' d c ' h Í c e .roho 4 Unit t4 I Exercise í watching movies.1. Arrlvil.:":''.lt óff 1Tl $"':*".:J.i-:'"''**íl:!ÍJ-. irrsh'ln-c kasó saengsónhoe-rul mók-ko shiplóyo' ( ihr-re óttók'e saenggyóssóyo ? P'yóňi han-iang ssó iushigessóyo? Mnrl'ra noňo áp'asó cham_ul mot chayo' Lrch.

rúeyo' i 'ap ijiři. Hwayoir-un óttae? Ku ttae_nun shigan issó? Ung.wuseyo' t"ng. Plain style: Á Naeil chónyóg-e shigan-i iss-ni? You Áni. Volyoil_lar_unabóiisaengshin_iya.ffittí.e (hllÓm l I r ódi kashimnikka (humun haesssumntkxar llrlo rhi-c irónamnida' ? É(ercise 7 Ánio' pappňn ir-i issóyo. pappun ir_i iss-ta.l'án'.'"' lljlp.rr oalsaeng hamnita' í.1t anayo' I hanrrrr mógut I lilit. choa. would youl k How would a new television be? I Á similar tlring is about twice as cheaP at Namdaemun.tn'LTň'f.H"o"Hf.l lPo-do n"lla-ii towa. Naitu kalkka? t(o-ya.|Ti:íi. í0 $nlťiloť'h'"-'' t'ago han saram'imnida' llah'lm igopshi-e irónassóyo' Cho.trúnvog_un nae-ga naeJkkeyo' rhtliu. pappun ir-i issó. Volyoil_tar-un abóii saengshin-ida' b Do dangerous.J"n!.hin-i i l. s I've got f seems like we're out every rlay rŮ.un saenggag-ieyo.'?":lr'. d I was here yesterday. e The girl said that it was good quality. iiiil-ni . TVolyoir-un óttáe? l.lxm'c'non I llrut hrc poy&do pisut ba.E (ercise 6 a IÍ you do it wrong (if you don't do it properly| it's very y_ou have a message for Poktong? c Ve deliver it to your room (lit:.. I leÍt my |umper. alew girlfriend and it Dont talk. Kurae? P'at'í-ga iss6! Áni. wolyoir-un ótt&ni? Kůnyang naga-go A You A You A You A Iou Á You Ábóii-ha'nt'emwol sa_durilkkóya? Yangmal.rhi+ yónghwa-Íul pwassoyo' Pusan-e kassóyo' Exeřcise 8 Informal style: A Naeil chónyčg_e shigan-i issó? You Áni. iust listen. j You wouldn't know where hďshe has gone. Hangsang yangmal si. filli.i"óň_J my_a+hi-e ttóna-shyóssóyo? l I unoh[n-ůl sogae halkkayo? ibó}orhigcssóyo? . 1r I tn nre-toco ku yóia-rul chaiu manna_gi shi|ak haessóyo' maseYo' I llm. i Look at this! The qualiry's pretty bad.i'J .*iiTliq keseyo' Annyónghi l l l i kóeyo. thďguest's room). H''::: lÍjll"Ť'':t_. Kunyang shiktang-e kasó kach'i chónyók Kunyang naga_go ship'čnnunde. wae? ship'ónnunde.ilť'.'ilíiť.ilh.. waeyo? Volyoir-un ótueyo? Kuraeyo? P'at'i-ga issóyo? Ábóii-hanťe mwol sa-durilkkóeyo? Hwayoir-un óttaeyo? Ku ttae-nůn shigan issóyo? ! liill*il-"'ťfiijiinchól tr$r. wae? A You Cho-un saenggag-ý. . kasó kach'i chónyók hanun h Take one tablet twice a day after meals..

clean up al tablet uery coxntry bufipkin.*rdr. (tuo) times brc lnnbet ltine) side lTl rl GI E J - iÍi''. = sbt. baue bad luch '##.l"p-t sbep rrorr (used to makeíerb.':. '.h'imt'a- breakfast ' son ya.J - d o l x o Ía LJ thu bnting. cashier uindout roon. still uaiter! v9'ning. unmatiort bluc jeats clean. u)ell (adverbl urtongly.:iki. yokel dt ftrst depararre like tr cr !t o o anian p'anůn te anieyo o K' n g h t' rn c perhaps' probab!ý [."Ltrťi]" € O tiiifrl ďfř hu* boÍite stylel nurLs (steÍn) n lront of t'" *-"one ubo it kidariseyo iumpet a little (ubile) ple^se Údit a .. ) double..fr*' .notner't ct3p last year tnagazine try eating (honorific form) aaÍ honorific equivalent of mok- . tbe year before bst year is irúercsting' k fafl stuff. frequertly sood. uindou. srl (srcm) iW.) -r aru 6'.Z'6. (raut) material luck oftm.." ach'imshiksa adul agassi ah! rzr (shon form) looh for to baue a look. table tennk etc. painfil (adi*tivel uaderund (Ut verb like nl-. ara-dut. to look fot uery bed a. uith bed to play (ten rb..!L:#* * ".s nqativl| ctf annyónghi kaseyo annyonghi kyeseyo aniu anr aniyo ?$ť.jÍ"' algesssůmnida ama an aiil -íÝ ##:.y.!.. mks/eep (noun) haue no luck.ho etc. li*eni ata-&royo. breakÍast labbreviated foim) haue breakfast tit..*"*:.r.

ab out electric shauet (aWrc xir?rau ly ) really Chongno (one of the main Han river) We.- ..K4?jTr-^YawaY'orrr s not good (fton choh) 3rue (stem) be careful. nonh of the chikhaeig cful chilseeg-! chinccha Ítť.ttain(alao really dhea(y) basement restaarant b?ancb bus stop uaiter.un saenggag_ineyo choayo choa ba- chó chip chiparam me uife ho*se ob dear!.Íiťi. assistarrt (rally) hatc quuty electro c noticeboard ulephorc ulephore (verb sternl the whole body euen@ chó' cho-ch'i anhcho.che chari 'f9.OK lpolite solct exatsc mL'' ilnun lruuk hUlo l*rro *ryo hrhrhrn sleep (honorifc equivalent cha-) of order (steml be imPortart impotunt (modifrer form. {.utl (wer) thcre at lcdst a littb. ako (panicle.h *t to date doisn no..:.*ss"c-"nchigwon chiha chiha shiktans chijěm chikchón úig.s ine s s parked n parh immediately chó8i I'a sorr!.i?2Íil!. like an adiective) please giue (polite request Cbina chón ha_ chón ha-t ma| cbón_c chón chómshirn chohchohůy cbom chogurn cbón chogxrm form) rtror|ón rhor|ón han taum-e leftwm cancel . . o my! to gradudte choesong ha_iiman choesong hamnida chógó_do good..lmzn.. fne. ílÉa(stcm) cr.rratsagoodidea !"?. I alologize. dr ou... chegwaióm chjbaeiÁ employee DASemerrt tttanager (of hotel or facitityl nora bahery (burnble form) tn .úL bur'6v' aftet doing a left freuiously before cotrttaaniczte something to saylgass onl comn anic4te WW"""-n lro hr- seating Phces wm fil'u hl.rry opinion the moit zy seat decide extent. kind streets in Seoul. attaches to nouns) l|"tn duing lao (pure Korean number) . exc. be cautious sle ep ine s s. son. a bit a littb ubih ago 'bfrY't*.

-e -e -e -e -e taehaesň -:ce -eso er abo t. [regular form) ntuersrry) somethirrg . 1Ýorz haessóvo haeyo ' ha-ró haha-l mal -h"go hakkwa and departmmt (of co egel in odet to do did (past tense form of ha. pethaps. uorh aror& (verb stem) after fnishing work llbon llbonmal llcchik lapat eaťb read uOy one-uay stteet o?re Japatuse hnguage ilt. aaiue rcimbrse sal - hullyuns ha- Hyóndec chadongch'a I by Íar. |. conceming bey. polite style thar' lnurhi- baue (honorifrc oÍ iss.reať seoul portion e?rtrdrrce hoe hoesa hfui haru-e harin harin haharu per day giue a dbcount one day (durution) gandfatba dkcoum Korcan food) to (a person) Ro?can rcst^uÍdrrt (serui?'P llóbóriltók'c Irlm lmng 'rrn8 uritb l-rang aker vowel) lose like this . mergy Íau. come off it! location particle (place in which nouns) about.do) do (stem plus polite ending -yo. per Ío (preposition.o do (verb stern) hwrldongi0t hwrnpul hahwoluhin hu modifier form of the below (like an adiective) casual.ume t lnry lnng ha-ne(yo) br. possibly alone. on one's outt mtoker (compartmett) check" cottfnm houl to something happens). concenzing at (a ertaifl time) each.rreat strange.bón hakkyo halmóni hamkke han han (num ber/time -hant'e ) I gatdma scbool cchům hanguk hanla -hant'e harabó|i hana hangsang hangungrnal hanaóng Korean-English orre o''' (PuÍe Korean' when used wlth a counteÍ oÍ measure word) about. far aad away after k accelbrt. ataches to platform maybe. thk nont this time tnatter.zare b'oíe (it b) stÍdrrge! 7 exist. geat Hyundai car (comPatry) tuo l. biz. arourrd. alucys Korean hnguage \9r. appf oxirnateh to' Íot (4 peftorr) togethet ll hrll klrúnnago llbrnB t'onghaeng llbrn3 t'onghaengno this one (+ nouttl.ea (n ) llyoll llyolllrl lmh'ón guhl -lnbun lpku hensfuftta1g an nese cbaracte"s lV ronounced b an Sunfuy Sutday (longer Íorm| Koreci port .in its meaning oÍ possession) I . tbere islarc (steml 2 haue (sten\ as above. lrróyo ha- company sttetzgth. buiness. .

maňnated cabbage . polite sryle katko = Iike lóltióng halÓllilóllyóyo lolmog lomapsumnida lrómióng kón uo|ry. obiect. cortcern be uorried rzŘas (time duration) raŘes (polite style) í alle!. uisit (a phce) together shop big lok beneft) you're makirrg it uP! (feigntug an ilhess) exaaly. irreg. possess (for honorífic person. a platform.-ryo igga in a little uhib (used to check iďormation. to 6nish frnish ló something) a feigned illness thing. verb) kit kimch'i -ki-man hasevo kiók on top of that . be similat seem 'lódunyo lóri kalbi kanún kara-ipkara-t'akarůch'ikat'- lolrng nalo|rng nassóyo lňkchóng ha-ii maseyo lrókióng ouer there (nearet than chogi') break doun be btohea doum dorr't uoíry! (colloquial forrn: kokjong naseyo) kaúo kyeshi_ kat'ňn kat'ňn kót kayo kedaga lcidari- kyeseyol grme (a) haue.aait road. PreciselY uith out fail.lo naso of Řor. a bag go and see. ceruinb. faa (abbreviation kind. spelt &os) azd (to ioin clauses) aftet (added to verb stems) (see page 110) kal kajyčga_ leathet take change (a touel. trairrs erc. ofiect (abbÍev oÍ kot topic panicle) health + stmtlar go (stem plus polite ending -yo) simihr thing. *sually beef or pork gorrrg to.l teach be the same. small toad thatk you bhck tbing.nemory lóuy Place nea y. clotlres etc. alnost LůkÚ-daum-e lrú-gón kú1ót poragu! kújó kuraeyo that onc (nearer than ehol after that that thing (topicl yot see! so-so soup Luk _t . route iust do lverb) chssic Korean side dkh. 'you mean?') please a card ' *lro haessóyo *lrll decided to llrlik"-iullocbyóng-ul puriiiyo kok lunnallunnaelkwocbyóng util aat the pÍice (for someone's -tr maseyo doťt kagyók kaji kajok kaiuk kage kach'i kabang kabo- k'adu k'ůn ka- price go (verb stem) a briefcase. defititely ilzlsá (verb stem. exemple (counteÍ foÍ thc noun chongnyu) family -lo .) marituted and fried meat. bound for change clothes charrge (platfolrn. somethirrg lóngang kónnóp'yón lórósó kóróssóyo kor opposiu side on foot dialled (past tense oÍ kol-.

etr.l bbascd to . etc. all togah er. kůÍónikka kúrůt kushik kwail kwaro kwallyón kwon kyehock kyeshi- after that of cowse not lihe tbat then. look good simply.irregular verb) I = manrlol mai- spicl mód bead fu to fit well (maj mal tnatnundal language speak.h'i óP'6_ rlÍinh n. becatse of tbat and (also) (used to begin a sentence) ln . sit l4tion be the same. bc tifut?rsdn (to edt M. sleech I) satu!. saY (of sorneone iulrlúm haseyo kůraesóyo? kůraeyo (?) kůrigo rcally (?).ttgt 1 (honorifi c) i'ue heard a lot about You oah 10.irregular verb like b'al. hett naum I bedb) like it tuÍóyo naum-G (kkok) l t]oďt like (ber) |maum-e al naum'c tul-ii anayo utoyo\ AmeŤicl mbur mini-bar mlnlb. h that case *ch a" that (paaiadar) (we) tetd to be so I ilo so (it's $laally lihc tbat. Iink pl4nk) uoJ*nre (measure word) arsl kyohoe existerrtial there iďarc meaning) (honorific of isý in its kyótóng ha_ kyóngch'al kyóngch'alsó kyóngu kyóu mach'angali-ieyo -mada maeil chtrch dcctule policenwt police sution oaly ci?afirrstarrcc. often rn Phrasc tnaksňm haseyo|\ sPeak. oA fasbioned ouerutork nlnn.bss. rzaŘe (l.n(h)i nan{h'i anasó nan. euery maekiu tnaetm eueryday beer ?Bet (stefr.l 'be ttude bž-fu of (p t "seoÍ 1past nan&tl-. tike (I) said kůraedo kůnsa ha_ kůnyang disrta. just boulever' ncueÍtheless' bxt sritl so uhat? knows? uho lll trluňm hrn daero as uords. eu erYth ing' modu ďcryona I don't know molhYo boily mom .c n.nbyón$'ongch'iyak nrndulňrnduróssóyo dkb ft it old style.rhiartt rnaÍ-leyo I'm saying lstsl tbat nlrhiómnunde-do thc foód usud bad miad. area. uiciniry nal. I'm not s*te. + nunda m&óyo norúllorůgasóyo mórhlrc' = stem) ízr (polite style.' relotion.túm ha- bonorific. be bandsome .000 nrn(h)- is tíatty (h is not pronounced' polite stYle n. l. Please sd! it i t'm l*tei. be idertical each.) thercfore. nol. kůmyónsók kůnch'č no smoking compartneat look super. is it / it is so (?) ňll kůrigo nasó kůróhch'i anhayo kůrókt kůróm kúrón kůrón p'yón-ieyo. rnarry' a lot since thae arm't matry w ntten matrh -i i ath asol 'utithht j in otlY (2 or motttbsl miraelc d're anre-all mediciac.nln úm mani furóssóyo blease tall ?ne.kůlsseyo I dunno.n et Yut llunnró p'í8ap6umnlda itricd stuús rÍun aniu be at&. irregular not k row (steml mal ha- sq I don't kttou be stylkh.fi1ch.

rr. Ieaue utbet to be strprked. refrigefatoÍ yesterdt! as squid hou.oI tbe conttary áay! (used to call close friends and colleagues) it uas etactly the same naganalssi nam- naengtanggo naengrnyón thh noodles utith uegetables go out be left (ouefl. uthat.'don't kiil ne. that (one) couw?r't eat und. uhich be subbora. (subiect form) u'. ab oat . be blnzt uhat? uhat (ob1tt Íorn) ulhat (Íull form of rnwo) MrnGhenoÍyók hanÓkkinótkc sing 'karuoke' singing room nake effort. much uell ueather Namdaemun namla ch'ingu naone namp'yón boyftieil yes Namdaetnun Great South Gate (in Seoul). or pay totnoftou) try lt|l.etstand rn-) Illl.mot mot ara_důt_ket_tago ba_ carnot lnb mot + . aufuL aPPalling nó(h)_ nolla- put doum.= n on sa.do mach'angaii_yótgoyo ollngó lllme left ÍatheÍ. make Íun of maseyo tease too (mxcb) lota (noun) loŘes (verb) 4 song iolll. seruice be suYing? busband come out it doesn't look as úough there k atntbing I are atry rooň uritň bed on floor rubbisb. 772) (diuing) licence lhll kannunii aseyo? ildlnga rl.ii don't'ioke. lómu ffiqdam nonc nÓnldem ha- nolrebang problen d.oor myóndo(_rul) hamyónhócchung _myónsó mwo mwol _nyón myón n ask ubat (kind of).boš 4fl eye cotton shane ór'chrcttun ódl come (stem\ 4?ťyaay myót (myoch') myót shi na -na utbat (rutnber)? while (*e p. renain lllmr nam-ii anassumnida ilhnr-dongan ólmr-dongan mwug_ ilmmu llmnun kót kat'unde ondolbang ón5mang ón|c urhigessóyo ? there are onlY a feu sPaces left hou lons hotu loig uill you business. don't mókmukmul mul naengÍnyón mulgón mun munie muós muIó_bomusůn muttukttuk ha- spicy and rcfresbing! goods stay' lodge' sped the niýt ut tet thin noodbs in cold soup..hwsn rrhlryó ól uhere? do you krotu wbete (she) has gone? someuhere ot othet exchange uhat time Ilme lťhw6n unhaeng (rn Korea Excbatge Bank naaiinaeil náe nae- get better 4p pÍorirn4te ly. be shocked ónu onÚl ubich one toddy . stÍiue to feel Iut! lau raloi nulu Iun 0.

lhrn ard rooms) is erbens.nhaíln ž frrc.) long timc no see! Iottg ytng di?ection rice (cooked ce) baue a mcal óaó oseyo ňght nókipĎ' to ''Ón t.yo ho_ tuke hom a reqtest aow pťa. items sold nr.iu' to Íeccive rahs.begkiad. k óttólkkayo? ótaeyo? óttók'c ónók'c saenggyčssóyo? óttón óulli_ hou b it? hou would it be? hou? ubat does it look like? word welcome! ditealy basY busy Tc m ll' lyó. .llúr hlrom illn looh similu s?é' loo& (sometimes morc tban keeb = me€t) Korean-styb patcake tbey sell.'"iů !ulps '' í#Í. weaňless time.. is not needcd. a penzlry ícounter for clotlres) nnúet anp seril parly sall (polite style form.iu- p'yo p'voii p'yoirp'an p'yón ha_ pae paedal ha- paekhwaióm pakkupalgůn pam panS pď cer't .icket a sign.lueyo 'nbase look at 'se". k rainfug mixed bortou ccttairr. b tpeded i{ltl- F t!. sorrrc (as a question it (a = peron) which?) Iend errr7t!. etc. udcúrrt. manY times) throw auaY m show retl (as in first time' s€cond FrnrG- is . took (polite style' iÍr€gulaÍ) . free (ol seats p'iryo hay'oham doeřiss_ p!óndo plón|i is needed (p'iryo ha. d signpost d signpost b comfortable. item for sale. stem is irregular) fatigue. b corraenient stonacb fuliuer deparunett store change !il'il|" l'rn3 quický bead onh fiifr. .oÍae oÍakshil orún oÍaeganman_ieyo amxserrrerrts (electronic gomct.Úe ex\irsiue (adiective) Nrft hr- p'aión ýaliiman p'anůn ke p'arayo p'at'i P'iÍo p'iryo isp'iryo ópsp'ósenťu btta .. haPPen rurl'tln call pangpsůmnida panggům pleased to meet you ?oom iruťrk 'puťp pw.be brnohu Pulst tenr_-pl€' Kiteal oiced maÍin4t'd bee| lulluksa puly'yóng ha_ ki palsaeng ha- bright nigbt just cDn pbin n kute neaÍ Kyongiu) (Korcaa Buddhist ocanr. way) rlllFr.. fut . has to need of b necessary.rot necessary.also exirtr but is less common) be included single (ticket.Í.

be quiet! haue meal festauÍdnt excr. ýop ing ( ilo /go sh oPPing) rllbbu r)$ch..u!ón ru$n-ul kara-allago nrc88oyo uork bard! (said to someone doing their iob) towel I asketl (her) to c'hatge the touel .. rhllru harhlm he- shut up!. past tense) off faa (the faa gr n4 loue is . take place: colour (verb stem) rhlnrc taufi centŤe . .pyólil pyólilópsumyón.ne.. wincluodha olchikhi mal hae-boseYo rrlchikhi mal hae-só rmnim Ůryu frankly' honestý tell me the uuth! honestly sPeaking. scarcely haue atty specato?r. get cow market rhllhu rhlkkurówoyol rhl|rr ha- afut meal úlltrng rhllru rhlllyc hamnida rhlllyc-iiman . . . be stalo begt t. pyóllo pyóllo óps_ pyóngwon _ró hospiul (+ negative) haue almost none. ia fact CustorneÍ Seord . hour be bad.. Please in order to *anse ne. . llln !.rcus'p^pď rhlnmwun . lóul doatment sangóp Sangóp ňnhaeng saóp saram sarang hasashil sauna sayo shi shigan se trade business persort rlB an trade bank) cizl k (literallv. btt .rhit b chea7 úeap bdieaivel- rró3órsčyo each' per íse notes\ bas gónl bad' has gole (polite style. .rrlu rulchikhi (stem) seÍtrice to introdrcc Ňi\ Ko?etr. to tell the trah.hlÍó he- rhlól rhwlpkc úyóch'u n dislike fa"ilrty edsib sbirt sh opp rhyop'ing (ha-) ú.nirrd to occur. start thfee (p!Íe Korean) o'clock álry (stem plus polite ending -yr) rÓťril rlťurtcu ruto haseyo . aot panicuhrly.Ó- .. . it con es to . haue gone off. bappm. mkt4ke mtke a mistake be serious sasaek saenggak saenggak saenggáng na_ saenggisaengshin saengson ály saengil sagóri sagwa sai-e sa|ón saiang(nim) san sangra samushil betuem nznaget (honorifrc Íorm\ dictionary offce box mountain C-am mer crossroads apple fBh birt h dry (honor|Ác Íotm| Iooh lihe birthday (normal Íorm\ thought idea remember. not really paÍtrc laf if you don't haue anything a special mattel sometbing ú|lrng illL.se . . ) rl-t rót'cnduba uable bar (sunding bar) style sttess uriu shig&issshiiak ha- time.

.ón . be included to erttSt headache post office aao (pure Korean number) two (when you mean 'the two of ůem'' 'both') with kat|l igbt urn lnryosu Ómrhik after doiry a Tobongsan toksó ton tongch'ang Tongdaemun to€- tó isang tó tarřtn tashi taům (daum) te ullayo) atother. b- ance. shall I give you?) be contained. is autful (to follout *) t'ata nol dgdifli moreouer. coincidmully w.suyóng hasuyóngiang sulchip sutim tub sutinming pool tahe (t?arrsport).norrth insttad. pÍecisely (often used t'akl(u Taryu all. opfuion belonging to dbass by ch discussion tówosó ttáe towa-tu- yoa're hot verb líke hakkap. ttauel (t?ar'spoÍt) trn' IF ot lu tul chilsaeg-ieyo hate. euetytbing crrý ^o|edn about. because teunz dirty (polite = .oÍouo. different afte4 next agarn be difÍermt (po|ite sw|e Ótnryosu hashigessóyo? dink riýt tutz Inl dňnk? food bank ulould you like sometbing to yes (casual form) a driuet ?lace Toborgsan (Korean mountaitr in Seoul) reading morrqt colleague (fellow student in become 0nhecng Ónhrcngwon un|čnBu bark clerk uelour is it iust the tuo of * going? towar&. wÍ'óyo slou. coicening (noun e taehaeso) table tetnis taehaesó llnpan llró taehak ilrllkkayo |Ótó o- tangjang tangshin tal taesagwan taeshin taehakkyo tari tarň_ and wife) leg inmediault yot (often 'between husband = . trabz came (past ten* Íorm| . after vowels) otrynorc . also exactly. oz behalf enbass!' uniuersiťl uttiuersity iss- of luttonB uch'e8uk uhoción uhoción han taum-e .uÍo uaan u.l wrcyo wou! urlry? wrln w.nSbok wine titne (whet) wanhacng rct n. be this case) Gredt East Gatz (itr Seou 0pyón lyónhi - 0ynon 0ynon ha- suggestion.etc.Óy tóróp torao- Totgdaemun come back.rrorlrruifl clifibiflg uould you like? (lit.lo. fu the direaior of tmbrelh first (-ro. ) to help bectuse it is hot..rrote url url tul-man kayo? .

a*tY a.rřt (búk clerk) hatment }r. reqú?e m GT -l about. a.roz (unit of Korean currency) uarrt. a. Korean style) before O c' ch'imdaq ch'imdae bnns' F - bqin.*. Promse itia. cbemkt appohtmmt s?iits. fme atonc ct lfnend nowadrys yólli-ii an(h)yóng-han hout are you dobryl. mouie . conefling al4ltt (moreover' also' hu (tauďdaum) tashi. medicine cbemist.wayo weit'ó wihóm ha- cozre (polite style form) won won hawonin uaitzt be dzngěrols reason. hout are tbtugs thae dcys? how is business these days? Íaz (pure Korean number) tutelue lpt:. aýcÍyone drucys [:Hx hangsang 'lvlso tao -kď kuncn x I 6 qt t rrl rrd r yónggú English-Korean film.re Koran number) does . tell I'll han n uke sone medicina yanglu yangrnal yangshiktang ye k phdrrracist. sutt Wrtrdny (t-n*iÍn to'^| itHi::.er lut. a'eŤytbing. apptoxi'núte'l íurthcrmore) tlL avcrYthing ost. Briuklisb btsirass receipt next door . -e: -e taehaeso B o ) - wonsrmgi yaegi hayag_ul mógóyagessóyo monkey ar 9e ) - yak yakkuk yaksa yakso. drugstore ulk.rot ope?. tto bÁn bumberhime| csbím yeyak hayóboseyo yóBt Íesefle' book hello (q the telephone) at neaíb yógi-so yoiřtm yocům yóia ch'ingu yoiům chaemi-ga ónóseyo? yoiúm saób_un ónaeyo? yól yóldu fron herc (abbrcv oÍ yoý-eso| fee. .--. z. uresteln liquo? socks uestetn íesuuÍant yes (politer form of ae) here r/Ílrr (after.tt .a. next) úout!arould.ngrllsaensshin) f( komlong bbck .d lhogeth er. u. (a certain time) (to ioin clauses) ialso) (used to begin ccntence) kůrigo J yónghwa yóngóp yčngsuiung Ergbrdlkh. be in uogue brd: (room with a bed) ( ]'on the Íloor. biefcase "Xffir kabang ondoibang ma€xlu o O o únharng(unhaengrvonl yóp' yuhaeng ha- be populat.PPtc tobohtnent.B ga.

(nao-) p'yon hahoesa al'. cztuinlv. therc isl^Ťe atDtcss t74il ira ctlv. yokel crlp custorner dangercus decide deliuer contphifl comparry ch'onsaram chan sonnim pulp'yong hamyon saek o.. ar ea. snow maeil modu nun Écbaice (Korea Excbange Baak) axcase me. stiue '.tgY. easib ilcchik shwip.'. ach'imshiksa ach'im.. altogeth eÍ chigwon pin him yóngguk yóng_han ipku arórhíng' oa.. chapswo Po- church Chinese cbaraaer clean. confrm car (short form) ch'a ssit- chadongch'a uy .}npťy (honorific. e|)ery (each. fut . strerrgth Ariance Englard. equivalent oÍ mok-\i Qry eating| (honorif. (honori6c) (stem) atqcnsiue aÍcuse fie. please axi't. clean up come (out) hania kyohoe taesagwan alour comforublelconuetimt cottort courrtry bumpkin.llort.c form) chapsushi-.(kyeshi-) cboesong ha-iiman depart departne depattmeat (store) ch'ulbal wihorn hachóng ha_ paedal hach'ulbal hahakkwa (paekhwaiom) ataitg p$sachikhaeng anrything.r!' ul. sorry. Per) mashiuniónsu -dongan -mada. ach'im mčk_ bósu chóngnyuiang saóP Pappů- koiang na- lhtctly lhcouat illillkc chikchóp/paro harin kúrůt shiró ha- illrtrict.(kara-ip-/t'a-) hwagin hachungguk ch'ongso ha- '. times furins arch. all ltime as well as meal) chónyok ta . Pr e cise IY kkok. ) chóshim hapakku.bonout boylgirlfriend bread bteakfast br e a kfas t ( abbreviated form bus (to have breakfast) body blue jeans pillinamjďyóia ch'ingu PPANg mom ch'óngba|i lbtlooary hdsn diiain sajón tarú_ lÍÍlratt dhh bteak dowtt ). t)icirritY úl (vcrb stem) door kúnch'ó ha- brcy ázy (verb stem) by far. (-sshik) carefullcautio* cheap check. nok oehwan (unheng) shilye hamnida iss. . far atd autry call c4r cancel business bus stop ocummt sóryu mun bae hwolssin purůch'wiso ha- s:r- thlucr dtlnh oubla. ch an ge lclot\esh rains etc.'tbassY nPloYee .r eu eryone. shwipke mók- Chiza . . Briuin English-Koreatt asGr'\rda.

oŘ (polite style) good. llttlc. but still hou. nol etc. a bit (quantity) tu a little uhile óttólkk'e lool. fne. please lllrthis lhtb. maům-e tůróyo lltle (while. _dongan p'al. mtcb. old mer in geteral grandma. I /i&e (polite form) llfu that (adiective) -ch'órom kůrók'e irok'e choa ha_.l mauget (honorlfic Íotm| (l inegular verb like chapchi mandůlsalang (nim) man(h)- norry (á is not pronouced) . type. utod (to sPeaHsay) year kaii graduate grandfatber. hbly. long kůraedo chómshim álrrs (polite style) árrrrs (stem) Irutthg painful (adiúve) busband ap'ayo ap'ůap'ňn narnp'yón ólma. nouadays hatt ht bnd bttct teri pillÉ-iu p'yón|i móshixiss- lllr lzal/o (on the telephone) hospiul bouse help bete (from here) hou? hou is it? pyóngwon €hip óttaeyo? kóngang yóboseyo to\r'a-iuyógi (yogi-so) móri issňshi- l/fu (stem). place in _ which something happens) kórósó chaiu ůnshik -myón chungyo haha-ró chaemi isssogae ha- ilbon (mal) ap'esó _put'ó' (_esó) ltnpcr lt. ittaga chogům chom Poch'alch'aia po iróbčri- lova sarang ha- boueuer. old uomen in getural bandsotne head bealth haue (stem) Daze (honorific form) goodbye lto somane who is staying) good. sirnply kwail chuka.(naga-) choh- lutaou lorln nongdam (ha-) chamba kůnyang panggům good (stem) giue go (ott) )ltd. neuertheless. to look for lotc hnch magazine rna&e = ta meet') chamkkan.feel frtb family kaiok flm.l. exanpb Xorcar-Etglish Korcaa language hsguage. see (sornetima look for hnk. mouie (at) frst (on) foot yónghwa ch'óům saengsón nůkki_ t hporurt lsfiofuce lokt ht order to do hfiatiary'fun ltpan (l aPanese hnguage) food Írait frequertly. often (in) front of from (location particle. tlme). utell (adverb\ good.rÍ.bye (to soneone who is leaving) choayo chal hanguk han-yóng hangungrnal mal (mal ha-) yo|ům chógo_do o€n annyónghi kaseyo annyónghi kyeseyo h cholóp haharabóii halmóni ..

. fne (fornall only one day opi?rion (in ffiyl (humble form) algessúmnida hana haru -man. chumum hashigessóyo! kónnóplón uri the?e ouí '. etc.reuspLpeÍ neuertheless.) amá saram kos kyehoek ollasedoďt.ok probhm pub aniyo mul naengrnyón an p'anún ke arueyo promise. Iately not (opposite of -(i)eyo) not auaibble.r. booh patppalgan lesUxrdrrt náen|anggo put'ak hayeyak ha- shittang . o'. pe"haps zra (humble form) medicine (p haffiacistl. bouláer.rou) notuadays.nountain klinbing) more (any norel morcy month mingte mb-. wrongly mixed mind.reeded) .first time'. aruse rcceipt rccaiue rains. (not) really chuch'a ha- pyóllo -e to zly (humble form) san (tungsan) che Ptobably PaBon Placc Pbn play (turnis. ftequently office wonin itk- one OK.) . -poda )rth ýrticularly Oer.. is tbat so(š) raad fcason.rrafket maybe. would you like to order? Wosib oÍ'.' ilaat" gi* (polite Ponion pTice ch'i- . piano erc. but still irům p'iryo ha-/iss. heart manna. (drug*orel meet (steml (pleased to meet you) morc tban morning mos. ight.les in cold soup aigbt no next yčP' p:rm shinmun chuseyo kyóngch'aU-só -inbun uch'eguk chón-e kagy. is ruining chil ppalli pi-ca ochinccha chóngmal chigům yoiúm pon.(ops-) kúraedo police (rrranlsution) p?aviousb post office request form) -!i maseyo number (úmes| number (time as in . .re (bumble fotm oÍ uuri| chóhůy kog Pun chalmot pibim ton tal ach'im cheil isang. dppoint nern munle yaksok sulchip quÚliD quickly raally (colloquial) ÍCally lc4lb@' is it(?). sometbi?rE uhich is not sold not know (stem) nood. cach 'puhaps. (pon) -shi samushil -cchae morú_ kůraeyo(? ) o'clock often.(mannaso pangapsůmnida) maům hokshi na (chó) yak (yaksa) (yakkuk) shiiang sidc gtdtt. -ppun che saenggag_enňn chaiu yóngsu|ůng Ícd tcfrigerator rcquest rcserue. ure chumun ha-. (negative) (not).urn e ?reeded (not .

&tr oy o) ara-důlan to€genneyo taehak. him isang ha- .ornofiott) toq also (particle.road toom ricz. ury) szroter (compartment). ercuse t7e norae (ha-).wo i móshiss_ suyóng ha_ (suyóngiang) tmbrelh surim (sutimming pool) S. enetgy styIíshlharrdsornc suit (a person) Uute s& pae together . attaches to nouns) too (much) lowards. idea (remember. sqtid s?icy kut kúio kúracyo ut e s tcrn liq uor oiingó shilak hamuk- strcngďt.acl. snlru soft norr-srnoking corrrpart nent chachumushihůpyónsók. I cpoloýú. begit stay. obiea. tell Agltusteless lrlt. becatse of that lhlng. hbPhon yaegi hamash-i iss-/óps- karúch'i- Sthphone (verb stem) lhank you lbat one llongway away) )haa one lnearet than cho-\ (oacr) tbere chónhwa chónhwa hachó_ kamsahamnidď komapsumnida ků- lhorefore. fact (abbreviation lbought. cooked (urcooked) igbt (direaion) raum (tickets) kil wangbok pap (ssal) orún Ír pang Íllk. start. bour llmes/double lo (preposition. i*st sJcqp (honoriíc) sit sit (stem) side sbop suck cchok kage an ani- hakkyo chari Pomyóndo (-rul) ha- mach'angaii . ilyoil óulli_ undersund (1/t verb like usan unforuutely uniuetsity tul . lo4ge. it's all for the best kach'i nómu ůro sugón shinae chal toenneyo du. noracbanr choesong hamnida lnácun yangiu adúl hal mal fngnal umryosu tothy -hant'e onůl naeil -do togetbe? hamkke s'op (veÍb st€m) sttange. kůmyónsčk DUn p'yóndo kůnyang (marůn) an|u oí tol spelt Éos) kč saenggak (na-) s€ cka ip'yo bae -e shigan -e8e sorlp sp (I'm) so-so somabing to say so'l song. in the direction of toutel lou)n t2ntre tumed out uell. ataches to nouns) to tolfor (a person\ chógi kůronikka sleep shgh (ticka. 'karaokc' singing room sock dinks ntry. spend tbe night stomach irit. taehakkyo .ndt. it comes to mind) lárae (pure Korean) 3hb ore (+ noua).eztical see. look (sometimes = to meet) side dish for drkks or simply.lixen4 ara. tbis notn llmc. (time duration) trauel on (transport) kóllit'a- school seat shaue same/id.

kÍ/ At lntroduaion to Koreat by J.htnl Korean folk tales for kids at the Korean LG company website. unmarried woman) want.indiana. good (adverbl we. language 1to spealďsav) (polite form) utork.krÁangeuUindex. natter. requirc water wait a momerrt (please) waite uait alossr agassi chamkkan kidariseyo kidari- o II Vcbsites that can be used for leaming Korean: r Korean@Monash.co. malssům kó}chóng crsmaterialsAoml0l/ Mr oh's learnkorean. ouÍ ttteathet uait?ess! (lit.au/(oÍeaÍý r Korean studies at sogang Univ€Ísity: E + x nul uÍi won ha- onte mwo (mwol) (muos) musur4 myčt/myóch' chal čsčoseyo nalssi = GT IT t chamkkan chipsaram ch'anggu nugu(nuga) ónů ili http//korean. migú ar ea.until UsÁ u i ciniry.cqriculum.a ďaccessasiďsnapshot/loreď o J yot year befote last couples) yet.com: httpy'/www'learnkorean.mct'go. -kkaii uefll dktrict kůnch'o aiq ch'am utrongly. bh. This is not designed for language leaming but it has an English version as well as a KoÍean one. a littb utelcome! well.htm Learning hangul with Soyongdori: hnp.//library.arts. E .lg.ac.monash.oý 207 4 6 l Auďo files of Korean conversations and narrations at lndiana University: hnpJ/languagelab.curriculum.think guest. = gid.htm Snapshots of Asia (Korea) at Access Ásia: httpr'Árww.edurtoreanl 0 l.aďaccessasia/torea/tids.sogang.1lrq"gh English with the Korean Ministry of Culture and Tourism: httpy'/www.edu. http://www. mis- unite uolry uritb (irang aÍteI consoni xts) uord. still yes (oÍten benr'een married chaeiangnyón tangshin aiik n€ korea. Go to bnp/Árww.coný il chalmot -ssu (ha_) Korea for kids: hnpr'Árww.edu.comlkintrď *otott . David Eisenberg: hnp/Áangintro.hunl tr I = - t {r Korean Language Institute at the University of Bridgeport: hnpr'/www.bridiepon'edu/IndexhtmVCenters/Disteď a a -láng mal (mal ha-). b*iness kot- utindou (subiect form) rrz'la (not a polite fórm) raloi wbat (obiqt ÍoÍm) (full íorm) uhat (hjnd od which) (numúr) uhe uberc uhich ore? uhile.€du.kr/englisb/ and click on 'LG Korean Folk Tales'.

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