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# 1.

## Title: Measurement of dryness fraction by Separating Calorimeter, Throttling

Calorimeter, Separating and Throttling Calorimeter.
2. Learning objectives:
2.1. Intellectual skills:
a) Measurement of Dryness fraction of steam.
b) Understanding various methods of measurement of Dryness fraction.
2.2. Motor skills:
a) Arrangement of various components for set up of Throttling, Separating,
Separating and Throttling calorimeter.
b) To measure the quality of steam.
3. Prior concept:
a) Steam generation, Steam quality
b) Steam properties
4. New concept:
1. Separating calorimeter:

The quality of wet steam is usually defined by its dryness fraction. When the dryness
fraction, pressure and temperature of the steam are known, then the state of wet steam is
fully defined. In a steam plant it is at times necessary to know the state of the steam. For
wet steam, this entails finding the dryness fraction. When the steam is very wet, we make
use of a separating calorimeter.

## Fig. 3.1 Separating calorimeter [xiii]

The steam is collected out of the main steam supply and enters the separator from the top.
The steam is forced to make a sharp turn when it hits the perforated cup (or any other
mechanism that produces the same effect). This results in a vortex motion in the steam, and
water separates out by the centrifugal action. The droplets then remain inside the separator
and are collected at the bottom, where the level can be recorded from the water glass. The dry
steam will pass out of the calorimeter into a small condenser for the collection of the
condensate. However, not all the water droplets remain in the collector tank. Some water
droplets pass through to the condenser, and hence this calorimeter only gives a close
approximation of the dryness fraction of the steam.

From the results obtained from the two collectors, the dryness fraction may then be found
from

Dryness fraction =

x=

Where,

## M is the mass of dry steam and

m is the mass of suspended water separated in the calorimeter in the same time.

Procedure:

## 1. Observe the setup

2. Identify all the connected equipments
3. Check the range of pressure gauge
4. Open the steam supply valve for a few seconds
5. Measure the condensate formed due to condensation of the moisture in the steam.
6. Measure the condensate formed due to condensation of the dry steam

Observation Table:

1 Boiler steam pressure, p1 (bar)
2 Mass of condensate collected, m (kg)
3 Mass of dry steam, M (kg)

Calculation:

## Dryness fraction (x) =

x=

Result:

The dryness fraction of the sample taken from the main stream is ______________________.

Example:

## In a laboratory experiment, a sample of wet steam is allowed to pass through a

separating calorimeter. At some instant, the water collected in the chamber was 0.1 kg
whereas the condensed steam was found to be 1.25 kg. Determine the dryness fraction of the
steam entering the calorimeter.

Solution:

## Dryness fraction of the steam x =

= 0.926
2. Throttling calorimeter:
If we have steam that is nearly dry, we make use of a throttling calorimeter as shown
in figure. This calorimeter is operated by first opening the stop valve fully so that the steam is
not partially throttled as it passes through the apparatus for a while to allow the pressure and
temperature to stabilize. If the pressure is very close to atmospheric pressure, the saturation
should be around 100°C, it may be assumed that the steam is superheated.

When the conditions have become steady, the gauge pressure before throttling is read
from the pressure gauge. After throttling, the temperature and gauge pressure are read from
the thermometer and manometer respectively. The barometric pressure is also recorded.

From equation = ,

We have at p1 = at p2

+x = + Cp ( - )

And thus x=

Procedure:

## 1. Observe the setup

2. Identify all the connected equipments
3. Check the range of pressure gauge
4. Check the range of thermometer
5. Check the range of manometer
6. Open the steam supply valve for a short time
7. Measure the steam chest pressure (p1)
8. Measure the steam outlet pressure (p2)
9. Measure the outlet steam temperature (t2)

Observation Table:

1 Boiler steam pressure, p1 (bar)
2 Steam outlet pressure, p2 (bar)
3 Steam outlet temperature (°C)

## a. Enthalpy of feed water ( ): ________________

b. Enthalpy of wet steam ( ):________________

## a. Saturation temperature at (p2): ____________________

b. Degree of superheat: Outlet steam temperature – Saturation temperature
=( - )
= _____________
c. Enthalpy of superheated steam (hg2): ______________________

Calculations:

at p1 = at p2
+x = + Cp ( - )

And thus x=

x = _________________

Result:

The dryness fraction of the sample taken from the main stream is ______________________.
Example:

A throttling calorimeter is used to measure the dryness fraction of the steam in the
steam main which has steam flowing at a pressure of 8 bar. The steam after passing through
the calorimeter is at 1 bar pressure and 115 °C.

Calculate the dryness fraction of the steam in the main. Take Cps = 2.1 kJ/kg K.

Solution:

## 1. Condition of steam before throttling:

Pressure, p1 = 8 bar, dryness fraction, x =?
2. Condition of steam after throttling:
Pressure, p2 = 1 bar, Temperature, = = 115°C.

## c. Enthalpy of feed water ( ): 720.9 kJ/kg

d. Enthalpy of wet steam ( ): 2046.5 kJ/kg

## d. Saturation temperature at (p2): 99.6 °C

e. Degree of superheat: Outlet steam temperature – Saturation temperature
=( - )

= 115 – 99.6

at p1 = at p2
+x = + Cp ( - )

## 720.9 + x * 2046.5 = 417.5 + 2257.9 + 2.1 * (115 – 99.6)

x=

x = 0.97
3. Separating and throttling calorimeter:

If the steam whose dryness fraction is to be determined is very wet then throttling to
atmospheric pressure may not be sufficient to ensure superheated steam at exit. In this case it
is necessary to dry the steam partially, before throttling. This is done by passing the steam
sample from the main through a separating calorimeter as shown in figure. The steam is made
to change direction suddenly, and the water, being denser than the dry steam is separated out.
The quantity of water which is separated out (mw) is measured at the separator, the steam
remaining which now has a higher dryness fraction, is passed through the throttling
calorimeter. With the combined separating and throttling calorimeter it is necessary to
condense the steam after throttling and measure the amount of condensate (m s). If a throttling
calorimeter only is sufficient, there is no need to measure condensate, the pressure and
temperature measurements at exit being sufficient.

Let,

## = Dryness fraction of the steam at Throttling Calorimeter

Dryness fraction at 2 is , therefore, the mass of dry steam leaving the separating
calorimeter is equal to ms and this must be the mass of dry vapour in the sample drawn
from the main at state 1.

## Hence fraction in main, = =

The dryness fraction can be determined as follows:

= = + * ………………..at p2

## From Enthalpy at 2 = Enthalpy at 3

x2 =

The values of and are read from steam tables at pressure p2. The pressure in
the separator is small so that p1 is approximately equal to p2.

Procedure:

## 1. Observe the setup

2. Identify all the connected equipments
3. Check the range of pressure gauge
4. Check the range of thermometer
5. Check the range of manometer
6. Open the steam supply valve for a short time
7. Measure the steam chest pressure (p1)
8. Measure the steam outlet pressure (p2)
9. Measure the outlet steam temperature

Observation table:

1 Boiler steam pressure, p1 (bar)
2 Boiler steam temperature, (°C)
3 Water condensate formed in separating calorimeter, m w (kg)
4 Steam outlet pressure at throttling calorimeter, p 2 (bar)
5 Outlet steam temperature from throttling calorimeter, (°C)
6 Outlet steam pressure from throttling calorimeter, p 3 (bar)
7 Condensate collected at the throttling calorimeter, ms (kg)

## a. Enthalpy of feed water at state 2, : __________________

b. Enthalpy of wet steam at state 2, : _____________________
c. Temperature of the output steam ( )) : _________________
d. Saturation temperature at p3: ____________________
e. Degree of superheat: Outlet steam temperature – Saturation temperature
=( - )
= _____________
f. Enthalpy of feed water at p3: _________________________
g. Enthalpy of wet steam at p3: _____________________________________
h. Enthalpy of Superheated steam at p3: __________________

Calculations:

1. x1 =

x1 =

x1 = _______________

2. = + + Cps ( - )

= ________________

3. = = + *
x2 =

x2 = ___________

4. = + *

= _____________

Result:

The dryness fraction of the sample taken from the main stream is ______________________.
Example:

## In a laboratory experiment, the following observations were taken with a separating

and a throttling calorimeter to find the dryness fraction of steam:

## a. Total quantity of steam passed = 36 kg

b. Water drained from separator = 1.8 kg
c. Steam pressure before throttling = 12 bar
d. Temperature of steam after throttling = 110 °C
e. Pressure after throttling = 1.013 bar
f. Specific heat of steam = 2.1 kJ/kg K

Solution:

Given:

Let,

## x2 = Dryness fraction for throttling calorimeter

x = Actual dryness fraction entering the combined separating and throttling calorimeter

## From steam table, properties of steam

a. = 798.4 kJ/kg
b. = 1984.3 kJ/kg
c. Temperature of the output steam ( ) : 110 °C
d. Saturation temperature of the output steam ( ) at p3: 100 °C
e. Enthalpy of feed water at p3 ( ): 419.1 kJ /kg
f. Enthalpy of wet steam at p3( ): 2256.9 kJ/kg
g. Enthalpy of Superheated steam at p3: 2276 kJ/kg
Calculations:

## 1. We know that mass of dry steam, ms = (ms +mw) - mw

= 36 – 1.8

= 34.2 kg

= = 0.95 ……. x1

2. = + + Cps ( - )

## = 419.1 + 2256.9 + 2.1 * (110 - 100)

= 2697 kJ /kg

3. = = + *

x2 =

=

= 0.9568

4. Actual dryness fraction of the steam entering the combined separating and throttling
calorimeter,
x= *
x = 0.95 * 0.9568
x = 0.909 ….. Ans