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I. Lch s hnh thnh v pht trin Amazon.

com Jeffrey Bezos, l i din sang gi nht ca cuc cch mng thng mi in t, l tng gim c iu hnh ng thi l cha ca Amazon.com. Cng ty ng sng lp tr thnh nhn hiu thng mi trc tuyn c bit n nhiu nht trn th gii v ng s hu khi ti sn ln ti 8,2t USD ch sau 14 nm thnh lp. Vo khong nm 1994 khi tc pht trin ca Internet l 2300%/nm, mc d khng c kinh nghim v bn hng cng nh khng nhiu hiu bit v Internet, nhng Jeffery Bezos sm nhn thy tng lai ca vic bn hng qua mng. V ng nhn thy vic tm kim ti liu kh khn nn ng ny sinh tng bn sch qua mng. V cng nm , Amazon.com ra i, cng ty ny ban u c t tn l Cadabra.Inc, nhng tn ny c thay i khi ngi ta pht hin ra rng i khi mi ngi nghe tn l Cadaver (t thi) Thng 7/1995, tn gi Amazon.com c chn v Amazon l tn con sng ln nht th gii. Cho nn tn gi gi ln quy m ln v cng mt phn v n bt u bng A , s hin ln u danh sch ch ci. Tr s chnh ca cng ty t ti thnh ph Seatte, bang Washington. 16/7/1995 Amazon c a ln mng nh mt nh sch trc tuyn vi mc tiu s dng Internet chuyn hot ng mua sch sang mt hnh thc nhanh nht, d dng nht v em li nhiu li ch nht c th. Quyn sch u tin m Amazon.com bn l Fluid Concept and Creative Analogies ca tc gi M Douglas Hofstadter Ngy 15/5/1997 Amazon c phn ha cng ty. Amazon.com pht hnh c phiu ln u tin v ng k trn sn giao dch chng khon Nasdaq ca M vi k hiu AMZN v c mc gi 18USD/c phn. T mt nh sch trc tuyn ban u, ch chuyn bn sch, Amazon.com tr thnh mt tp ha trc tuyn vi sn phm t thng vng n h cm pht trin nhanh nh v bo, Amazon.com a dng ha cc mt hng, thm nhiu sn phm khc nh h thng video gia dng, DVD, CD, my nghe nhc MP3, phn mm my tnh, game, c, thm ch thc phm Hin nay Amazon.com tr thnh website thng mi in t ln nht th gii vi doanh s bn hng trn mng internet gp gn ba ln so vi doanh thu ca hng xp hng

nh trong cng lnh vc Staples.Inc ti thi im thng 1 nm 2010.amazon.com cung cp hng triu sn phm cho hn 17 triu ngi tiu dng trn 160 quc gia. Amazon cn cung cp u gi trc tuyn.

II. Cch thc mua hng, thanh ton 1. CSDL amazon Amazon chuyn bit ha trang ca n phc v cc khch hng tr li, mt c s d liu theo di cc giao dch trc , bao gm cc mn mua cc vn chuyn, cc thng tin th tn dng. Khi tr li a ch ny khch hng c cho n bng tn v gii thiu cc mt hng nn mua. Amazon.com tm kim CSDL khch hng tm ra cc mu v khuynh hng ca cc khch hng ca n. H thng my tnh ca amazon nh hng vic bn cc sn phm thm m khng cn tng tc ca con ngi. 2. Qu trnh mua hng trn Amamzon 2.1 tm kim sn phm: Vic mua mt sn phm trn Amamzon ht sc n gin. Amazon.com chia trnh t mua thnh mt lot cc bc t bit, nh s c th tng bc v hng dn khch hng lm theo. Bt u trang ch ca Amazon.com v quyt nh sn phm m bn mun mua, hoc bn c th tm sch bng cch dng hp tm kim gc trn ca trang web, g tn sch bn mun mua. Sau bn s c a n trang sn phm cho quyn sch . 2.2 cho vo gi: mua sn phm chn add to shopping cart, vi cng ngh gi hng x l thng tin hin th mt danh sch cc sn phm m bn t mua, bn c th thay i s lng ca mi mn, b i mt mt hng khi gi, tnh tin hay tip tc mua sm. 2.3 Proceed to Checkout hoc bn c th s dng tin ch 1-Click nu tng mua hng trn Amazon. 2.4 Nhp a ch E-mail v password

2.5 Nhp a ch giao hng Chn thi gian giao hng. Nu n hng l qu tng, Amazon s a ramt s hnh thc gi qu, chi ph mi gi qu l $3.99. Bn c th xem thm phn Learn more bit sn phm ny c c chuyn hng n quc gia bn hay khng v chi ph giao hng l bao nhiu. 2.6 La chn hnh thc thanh ton. Amazon s xc nhn v tm tt nhng thng tin cn thit v n hng. Khch hng kim tra thng tin v click vo nt t hng. Khi bn hon tt n t hng amazon s gi xc nhn n bn bng e-mail. N s gi email th hai khi n hng c giao. Mt CSDL theo di trng thi ca tt c cc vn chuyn. Bn c th theo di trng thi mn hng bn mua cho n khi n ri khou3 trung t6m vn chuyn ca Amazon bng vic chon your account cui trang. Bn c th hy n t hng bt c lc no trc khi sn phm uc vn chuyn thng l trong vng 24 hoc 48 gi t khi mua hng.

3. Qu trnh giao dch v thanh ton th tn dng. Cng ty nhn v lu tr thng tin t hng ng thi chuyn tip thng tin thanh ton (s th tn dng, ch th ...) c m ho n my ch (Server, thit b x l d liu) ca Trung tm cung cp dch v x l th trn mng Internet. Vi qu trnh m ha cc thng tin thanh ton ca khch hng c bo mt an ton nhm chng gian ln trong cc giao dch. Khi Trung tm X l th tn dng nhn c thng tin thanh ton, s gii m thng tin v x l giao dch ng sau bc tng la (FireWall) v tch ri mng Internet, nhm mc ch bo mt tuyt i cho cc giao dch thng mi, nh dng li giao dch v chuyn tip thng tin thanh ton n ngn hng ca doanh nghip theo mt ng dy thu bao ring. Ngn hng ca Amazon.com gi thng ip in t yu cu thanh ton n ngn hng hoc cng ty cung cp th tn dng ca khch hng. V t chc ti chnh ny s phn hi l ng hoc t chi thanh ton n trung tm x l th tn dng trn mng internet. Trung tm x l th tn dng trn Internet s tip tc chuyn tip nhng thng tin phn

hi trn n Amazon.com, v ty theo cng ty s gi cho khch hng mt e-mail xc nh. Sau khi Amazon chuyn hng, cng ty s gi mt e-mail thng bo khc. Nu sn phm no cha c, Amazon s cho bit nhng g c chuyn v nhng g cn phi t hng. 4. 1-Click Shopping Cui nm 1997, Amazon.com cho ra i tin ch ny cho cc khch hng thng xuyn c t hng ch qua mt c nhp chut. vic t hng c d dng, ngi dng c th khai s th tn dng, a ch giao hng, phng thc vn chuyn cho 1-Click. V mi khi mua hng, bn ch cn nhp 1-Click l hon tt vic mua hng. III. M hnh kinh doanh ca Amazon 1. M hnh ca hng o Amazon.com l mt in hnh cho s ra i v pht trin ca m hnh ca hng o. y l website bn l trn mng ln nht th gii, Amazon.com l ni mi ngi n tm mua bt c th g mt cch trc tuyn. Hng triu ngi trn khp 220 quc gia nh gi Amazon l website bn l hng u. Sn phm m Amazon cung cp bao gm thip in t min ph, u gi trc tuyn, hng triu u sch, a CD, phim nh, a DVD, chi v tr chi, in t, lm bp, my tnh v nhiu sn phm khc. Ngoi ra, Amazon cn nhn mua sch c gip khch hng tit kim c rt nhiu, Amazon h tr tm kim cc nhanh, c mc nhn xt nh gi sch M hnh ny mang li nhiu li ch cho khch hng cng nh bn thn Amazon: i vi khch hng: Khch hng c mua hng ha trn Amazon vi gi r, d dng tm kim c sn phm m mnh mong mun, c th tit kim c rt nhiu t vic bn sch c cho Amazon, khch hng ca Amazon c giao hng nhanh chng, tn ni, v th m khch hng c th tit kim c thi gian ca mnh. i vi Amazon: M hnh kinh doanh ny l ngun thu truyn thng v ch yu ca Amazon, l c s cho nim tin ca khch hng i vi Amazon., qua s nh gi ca khch hng khi mua hng trn Amazon l phng thc qung co hiu qu cho Amazon. 2. M hnh ch in t ca Amazon zshop ZShops l tp hp cc ca hng trc tuyn to thnh mt ch in t (online mall).

zShops cho php cc cng ty khc m ca hng ca mnh di ci ln ca Amazon, v khch hng ca Amazon c li t vic c la chn nhiu sn phm hn. Nhn vo m hnh ny, ta c th hnh dung zShop.com l mt website tp hp cc trang web tng ng vi cc gian hng in t, trn qung co, gii thiu sn phm v bn sn phm/dch v ca doanh nghip. N cn bn l tp hp cc ca hng in t nh, c m bo di nhn hiu ca Amazon rt ni ting (under the Amazon umbrella). Cc website ng k kinh doanh ti zShop.com ch phi tr khon ph ht sc nh b. i li, Amazon s thu thp c lng thng tin khng l v thi quen mua hng ca ngi tiu dng. Li ch khi tham gia vo ch in t ca Amazon l chi ph thp, u t thp do khng phi tr tin thu nh kho cha hng m li c tip cn vi 12 triu khch hng ca Amazon.com. Mi ca hng phi tr mt khon thu bao hng thng l 39,99 la, cng thm khon hoa hng trn cc sn phm bn. bn trn. Nu bn ch bn mt vi sn phm v hy vng s c t hn 40 n t hng mt thng, hy ng k nh mt ngi bn c nhn vi Amazon m khng c l ph hng thng m thay vo l mi sn phm phi tr ph l $0,99. Vi cch sp xp ny, Amazon cng c c cc thng tin c gi tr v s thch v thi quen khch hng v em li kh nng v th trng mc tiu. M hnh kinh doanh mi ny c ba li ch chin lc: Th nht, vic chuyn hng sang mt ch trc tuyn bn mi th l mt n lc cnh tranh vi cc trang web cng giao din (portal) ca American Online v Yahoo, nhng trang web cung cp ng links n hng triu trang web khc. Th hai, n mang li c hi chim nhng ngun thu ca cc hng kinh doanh nh ang chy vo cc trang u gi nh eBay, Microsoft, Excite@Home, v Lycos, nhng hng ng chia s danh mc hng u gi ca h.Th ba, nm thm nhiu thng tin v khch hng, c thm hiu bit v hnh vi v thi quen tiu dng ca khch hng pht trin cc d n kinh doanh mi, p ng cc th trng v khch hng tim nng. Ch in t zShops ca Amazon c sp xp theo sn phm, hng mc sn phm ch khng theo tn ca hng. Sau khi khch hng chn mt mn hng trong danh sch, v khch ny c chuyn sang mt trang iu hnh mua bn trong c cha hnh nh v m t v sn phm. zShop.com mang li gi tr ln cho khc hng: S tin li ca vic mua hng m ch cn

dng li mt ln duy nht one-stop shopping. Vi zShops, khch hng c la chn v s cc mt hng khc nhau ca nhiu hng cung cp khc nhau ch trong mt trang web duy nht, Amazon, thay v phi dnh thi gian lt cc trang web khc cho mi mt sn phm khc nhau. Thm vo , khch hng cng trnh c vic phi nhp i nhp li a ch giao hng v thng tin th tn dng ca mnh mi khi kt thc vic mua mt mn hng no

IV. Li th cnh tranh ca Amazon 1. H thng kho hng ca Amazon 1.1. Gii thiu khi qu th thng kho hng ca Amazon. Amazon hin nay l trang web bn l khng l c phm vi hot ng trn ton th gii, vi doanh thu nm 2004 ln ti 7 t USD, nhiu hn bt k hng bn l no khc. V im ni bt v cng l iu to nn thnh cng cho Amazone chnh l h thng kho hng. Cc nh kho c Amazone xy dng khng theo cch thng thng m n c u t cng ngh kh nhiu. N c s dng cng ngh cao n ni i hi rt nhiu dng m ha vn hnh phc tp khng km g trang web ca Amazone. Bao gm: - H thng kho t ng - H thng my tnh tip nhn v x l n hng - Trm phn phi tin - Cc cabin bit ni cha hng ha - H thng bng ti, sensor quang, thng ng hng H thng kho hng ca amazon gm 6 kho hng quy m ln, mi kho hng tr gi ti 50 triu la. Chi ph xy dng kho hng l rt tn km. Trong mi kho hng u c y cc mt hng t gia dng, qun o giy dp sch bo in t dn nhng mt hng c bit ha nh lu nim trang sc Nhn chung cc mt hng m amazon kinh doanh rt phong ph a dng cc chng loi p ng mi nhu cu ca khch hng. V tr t cc kho hng cng c amazon cn nhc rt k lng. Cc kho hng thng

c t gn cc trung tm tiu th ln hay cc a im thun li v giao thng p ng kh nng phn phi hng ha rt nhanh chng. Thng th cc kho hng ny c t gn sn bay tin cho vic vn chuyn. H thng kho hng ca Amazon m bo mi lin h rt cao t nh sn xut h thng phn phi ti khc hhng. Trong mi kho hng cc mt hng c sp xp, bo qun rt khoa hc m bo cho cc quy trnh ly hng, nhp hng, x l n t hng nhanh chng hiu qu cao.Vi s lng mt hng v cng ln amazon u t h thng thng tin vi h thng my tnh cc phn mm ng dng v x l thng tin gip cho vic qun lc hiu qu nhanh chng. Nhng thng tin quan trng u c ghi li v phc v cho nhng ln kinh doanh tip theo. 1.2 Phn tch h thng kho hng ca Amazon Nh nu trn, cc kho hng ca Amazon khng h ging vi cc kho hng truyn thng m c tin hc ho cao .Cc nh kho ca Amazon s dng cng ngh cao n ni chng i hi rt nhiu dng m ho vn hnh v phc tp khng km trang web ca Amazon. My tnh bt u quy trnh bng cch gi tn hiu thng qua mng khng dy ti cho cng nhn h bit cn phi ly th g xung khi gi; sau h ng gi mi th theo trnh t gi i. Trong qu trnh gi hng, my tnh to ra v s dng d liu t nhng sn phm b ng gi ti thi gian ch i v cc nh qun l c nhim v phi theo di st sao h thng d liu ny. C th thy y chnh l im khc bit trong m hnh xy dng kho hng ha ca Amazon. Hu ht cc doanh nghip TMT khc ch ch n vic xy dng h tng c s cng ngh thng tin cho website ca mnh, h khng u t nhiu cho h thng bn bi, kho lu tr. Vic giao hng thng c tin hnh thng qua cc trung gian khc nh qua ng bu kin, hay h s gom hng ti a im xc nh no . y Amazone s dng m hnh mng li phn phi, l nh phn phi d tr v giao hng. Phng n ny c li th l dch v khch hng tt hn, thi gian p ng n hng nhanh hn l nhng g c th nh i cho chi ph tc nghip hu cn. y chnh l iu m Amazone hng n. Tuy nhin th phng n ny cn chi ph vn chuyn v chi ph d tr l kh cao. Chnh v th m Benzos quyt nh u t kh nhiu cho h thng kho hng, bn bi.

1.3Quy trnh lmv vic ca Amazon. file:///C:/Users/DZUNG/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image002.jpg Partners (External): i tc (ngoi) End Users (Internal): Khch hng ngi dng cui (ni) Fulfillment Centers: Trung tm hu cn u ra Supply Chain: Chui cung ng Planning Aplications: Lp k hoch ng dng Financial analysis: Phn tch ti chnh Web servers: Trang web ch E-Mail servers: Trang ch email Personalization: C nhn ha Campaign generation: Chin dch pht sinh Content server: My ch ni dung 1.4 Qu trnh h thng kho x l n t hng Bc 1: My tnh kim tra v tr ca hng ha sau khi khch hng t hng. N xc nh n hng do Amazon thc hin hay i tc ca n. Nu do Amazon thc hin, n hng c truyn t ng ti cc trm phn phi thng tin tng ng trong kho hng. Bc 2: Mt b phn (flowmeister) ti trm phn phi nhn tt c cc n hng v phn chia chng t ng cho nhng nhn vin c th xc nh thng qua mng khng dy. Bc 3: Nhn vin nht hng i dc theo cc khoang cha hng,dngmykimtraccmcamthn gtrnhstrnglp, ddngqunlchonhnglnmuahngkti p. Bc 4: Cc hng ha nht ra c t vo thng, sau chuyn vo bng ti di hn 10 dm chy quanh nh kho. Trn bng ti c khong 15 im c m hng ha, theo di hng ha gim sai st im c m hng, gim st hng ha l cc cm my tnh c nhn vin km theo m bo tnh chnh xc ca cc mt hng. Bc 5: Tt c cc thng chy trn bng ti tp trung vo 1 v tr, nhng m hng

ha c sp xp ph hp vi s n hng. Cc hng ha c chuyn t cc thng n cc mng trt, trt xung v c cc nhn vin t vo cc thng cacton d dng vn chuyn Bc 6: Cc sn phm c qua 1 bc kim tra, qut ghp hng theo n t hng tng ng. Bc 7: Nu nh hng ha no cn thit phi c gi bc th cng nhn s nht ra v gi th cng. Bc 8: Cc thng cacton c ng li, dn bng dnh, cn o, dn nhn mc v chuyn bng 1 dy chuyn n 1 trong 40 thng xe ti trong nh kho. Cc xe ti ny ch n hng vn chuyn UPS hoc USPS. Cc hng ha li tip tc cuc hnh trnh. Quy trnh x l trn ca Amazon da trn m hnh chin lc CFN (Customer Fulfillment Networking) c biu din qua 2 m hnh sau: 1. Khch hng t mua, nhp th tn dng thanh ton 2. n hng ca khch hng c phn tch v chn ra nh cung ng ph hp (nu hng khng ct rong kho ca amazon) 3. Nh sn xut giao hng ti kho ca Amazon 4. Tt c hng c ng gi, lp rp nh kho gn nht v vn chuyn qua UPS hoc bu in 5. Hng c giao t nh kho gn nht qua UPS, bu in Decision Support: H tr ra quyt nh Supply Chain Planning & Execution: Lp k hoch v thc thic hui cung ng 1. OMS: Kim tra th tn dng, n hng, hnh thc vn chuyn, gi thnh 2. IMS: Hng ha no c lu kho, u v vi s lng no? Ci no sn sng, ci no cn t trc 3. WMS & TMS: Chn, ng gi v vn chuyn n hng hiu qu, ti u nht. 4. Vng quay muahng (Sch bn chy lit k theo sn phm, loi, quc gia) 5. T vn bn hng (Gi cho khch hng cc sn phm) 6. Mng li chn lc nhu cu khch hng (Khch hng hay mua g? S thch)

7. Phn mm phn tch nhu cu kim k d liu doanh thu qua sp, loi ,quc gia, vng, min 8. D liu ca Oracle (Hthng QLCSDL) v sn phm, thng tin khch hng 9. ATP: C th p ng n hng 1 cch c li? p li, cc nh qun l ca Amazon b phn lu kho phi n lc ht sc y nng sut ln cao ti ti a. Chng hn bng vic ti thit k h thng chuyn hng trn bng chuyn t ng, Amazon c th tng nng sut ca mt kho ln 40%. l l do trong 3 nm qua, chi ph vn hnh cc nh kho ca Amazon gim t 20% doanh thu xung cn cha y 10% doanh thu. Cc nh kho ca Amazon vn hnh hiu qu n ni t l lun chuyn hng mi ca cc nh kho ny t 20 ln/nm. Tt c cc cng ty bn l khc ch t con s di 15 ln/nm. V trn thc t, mt trong nhng th mnh ln nht hin nay ca Amazon l nng lc qun l hng tn kho, v thm ch Amazon cn c cc cng ty bn l khc giao ton b hot ng kinh doanh thng mi in t ca mnh cho Amazon thu ph, nh trng hp cc hng bn l Toys R Us v Target. V v h thng lu kho ca Amazon hot ng qu i l hiu qu cho nn bn cnh vic bn cc sn phm ca mnh trn website, Amazone hin cn bn rt nhiu sn phm ca cc nh bn l khc trn cng trang web ca mnh. iu ny em li thnh cng qu sc tng tng cho Amazon. T sut li nhun ca Amazon khi bn bun v n hoa hng cho cc i th cnh tranh cng cao khng km t sut li nhun nu hng bn l trc tip ti ngi tiu dng. Ngoi ra, cng ty khng tn mt ng chi ph qung co no v gi ca mnh l rt r, v ngi tiu dng c th d dng so snh mc gi ca Amazon vi gi ca cc nh bn l khc. iu ny khng ch tit kim tin m cn to ra lng trung thnh v tin tng ca khch hng. Vic u t cao v kh nghim tc cho cng ngh trong h thng kho hng v cng vi l vic qun l kho hng kh tt gip cho Amazone to ra mt cuc cch mng v TMT v tr thnh trang web khng l c phm vi trn ton th gii. 1.5. Nhnxtcanhm, u, nhcimcahthngkhohng. a, u im - Vic Amazone t xy dng kho hng ring cho mnh s gip cho kh nng kim sot

hng ha tt hn, tnh linh hot nghip v ( nh nhn hng, giao hng) cao hn, v mt s li ch v hnh khc - m bo cho tnh lin tc ca qu trnh sn xut v phn phi hng ha. - V h thng kho hng ca Amazone c u t kh nhiu cng ngh nn to ra nng sut cng nh hiu qu cng vic cao. iu ny gp phn gim chi ph sn xut v chi ph vn chuyn, v thm vo l nng cao cht lng dch v khch hng, thi gian p ng n hng nhanh hn. - Gip cho vic hot ng ca cc khu khc cng c din ra thun li. T c th a ra nhiu chin lc mi, gip doanh nghip thu c nhiu li nhun. - H thng kho hng ca amazon c xy dng pht huy li th theo quy m v m bo a dng ha rt nhiu mt hng v c b tr khoa hc thun li cho vic giao nhn hng ha p ng nhanh chng nhu cu ngy cng to ln ca khch hng b, Nhc im - Vic u t cho kho hng l kh tn km, th nn chi ph vn chuyn, chi ph sn xut v chi ph bo qun lu kho l kh cao. - V h thng kho hng s dng rt nhiu cng ngh hin i nn vic tuyn dng nhn cng cho kho hng l kh kh khn. - Vi quy m ln nh amazon m ch c 6 kho hng l qu t khng p ng cho tp khch hng ton cu, v vy i khi vn c s sp xp khng nht qun cc kho hng do khi lng hng qu ln, nht l vo cc ngy l. 1.6 Li th cnh tranh ca Amazonv kho hng Nh cc phn tch trn, d dng khng nh kho hng l cha kha dn n li th cnh tranh ca Amazon. Amazon s hu mt h thng lu kho cc k hiu qu v hin i, c thit k chnh xc v tin hc ho mt cch cao . Vi h thng kho hng nh vy, amazon khng ch gim c chi ph vn hnh, m cn tng nng sut lun chuyn hng ho ca cc nh kho. Vic Amazon quyt nh t xy dng thm h thng lu kho bi l mt quyt nh khng my d dng. Vi gi tr khong 50 triu USD cho mi nh kho, vic xy dng v vn

hnh h thng nh kho qu l tn km. c th kinh doanh thnh cng, Amazon phi pht hnh 2 t USD tri phiu cng ty. Th l c v nh Bezos khng phi ang xy dng mt cng ty dot.com ch thc v hng li c h thng nh kho hu hnh nh cng ty bn l thng thng. Nhiu nh u t bt u ph phn m hnh kinh doanh ca Amazon l khng khc g cc cng ty bn l truyn thng, ch khc mi ch l c mt trang web n tng hn m thi. Tuy nhin, y li chnh l li th cnh tranh s 1 ca amazon.com . Nu ai n thm quan 6 nh kho ca Amazon ngy nay, ngi ta c th d dng nhn ra cc nh u t sai lm khi ph bnh m hnh ny ca Bezos. 2. Cng ngh Tt c nhng iu trn y l gii mt lun im quan trng Bezos kin tr theo ui t khi ng khi s Amazon m n by gi mi ngi mi tin: "Trong mt th gii hu hnh, mi ngi u ngh a im l quan trng nht. i vi chng ti, 3 th quan trng nht l: cng ngh, cng ngh v cng ngh." Amazon chi tiu nhiu tin vo pht trin cc phn mm tin hc. Nh vic chuyn sang s dng h iu hnh min ph Linux, hng gim c chi ph cng ngh ti 20% trong vng 2 nm qua. Amazon s hu mt kho d liu khng l. The data warehouse becomes increasingly critical to the business as the scope and volume expand.ng Dalzell, trng b phn thng tin ca Amazon.com cho bit, "chng ti khc vi cc nh bn l trc tuyn khc ch chng ti c cc c s cng ngh cho php khch hng ... tm sn phm thc s h quan tm" Amazon.com has one of the largest data warehouses in the world. Amazon.com c mt trong nhng kho d liu ln nht th gii. The data warehouse at Amazon.com is the single place where everything comes together. Cc kho d liu ti Amazon.com l ni duy nht m tt c mi th u lin quan vi nhau.Charlie Bell, vice president of technology infrastructure for Amazon.com said that the data warehouse is the "centralized infrastructure that can be leveraged. The data warehouse gives us a single place that we can pull all the data together to improve service for our customers and lower costs." Charlie Bell, ph gim c c s h tng cng ngh ca Amazon.com cho bit, cc kho d liu l "s tha hng c th c ca c s h tng. Cc kho d liu cho

chng ti mt ni duy nht m chng ti c th kt hp tt c cc d liu vi nhau ci thin dch v cho khch hng ca chng ti v gim chi ph". The data warehouse is the central point for all of its data- "including order data, customer data and inventory datawhich supports user analysis." Cc kho d liu l im trung tm cho tt c cc d liu "bao gm cc d liu t, d liu khch hng v d liu kim k, phn tch m h tr ngi dng". Because Amazon has become the mediator between buyer and seller, they don't actually have to stock the inventory. V Amazon tr thnh trung gian gia ngi bn v ngi mua, h khng thc s c hng tn kho. This allows Amazon to cut on inventory cost and ultimately offer the customer a cheaper price. iu ny cho php Amazon ct gim trn chi ph hng tn kho v cui cng cung cp cho khch hng vi gi r hn. Amazon.com l mt nh tin phong trong vic thc hin chin lc CFN. Its innovative CFNChin lc CFN sng tostrategy enables true dynamic commerce that provides a cho php lm thng mi in t mt cch nng ng. N khng ch gip hon thin m cn ci tin nhiu hn dch v tha mn nhu cu ca khch hng v y l mt qu trnh thc hin bi s hp tc ca khch hng thng quan h thng x l n t hng v thng qua website Thit b phn cng v phn mn ban u ca Amazon.com bao gm thit b k thut s ca Alpha v Netscape c xy dng da trn c s d liu v h thng ERP ca Oracle. Theo ng Jeff Bezos th cng ty u t 80% vo vic pht trin cc phn mn t khi thnh lp vo nm 1994 nhm xy dng mt giao din ni ting thn thin vi ngi dng v hon thin qu trnh hu cn ngc. n nm 1998 c 2/3 trong s 2100 nhn vin ca cng ty lm vic trong b phn dch v khch hng 3. Sn phm, dch v a dng Bn cnh ca hng trc tuyn, amazon.com m rng hot ng ra rt nhiu hng khc nhau nh: ca hng chuyn dng, v d nh ca hng k thut, chi. Amazon.com cng m rng dch v bin tp trong nhiu lnh vc khc nhau thng qua mng li cc chuyn gia trong nhiu lnh vc. Amazon.com cn pht trin danh mc sn phm thm hng triu u sch qua s dng v khng cn xut bn na.

Amazon.com cng khai thc cc sn phm ngoi sch bn, nh lin kt vi Sony Corp. nm 2002 bn cc sn phm ca Sony online. Nhng c im ni bt ca ca hng trc tuyn ca amazon.com l d tm kim, d xem v t hng; nhiu thng tin v sn phm, nhiu bi bnh lun, nh gi, nhiu gii thiu, gi hp l v chuyn nghip; danh mc sn phm rng, phong ph, gi thp hn cc ca hng truyn thng; h thng thanh ton an ton v thc hin n hng chuyn nghip. Amazon.com cng m rng sang dch v h tr doanh nghip nh sn giao dch v u gi in t. Amazon Auctions cho php cc c nhn v doanh nghip nh tham gia u gi trc tuyn trn khp th gii. Dch v zShops cho cc doanh nghip thu gian hng trn Amazon.com vi mc ph hp l hng thng, cho php cc doanh nghip nh hin din trn mng v c th s dng h thng thc hin n hng hng u ca Amazon.com. Khch hng c th mua sm trn amazon.com t PCs, cell phones, PDAs, Pocket PCs v dch v in thoi 121 ca AT&T. 4. Dch v khch hng Amazon.com lin tc b sung cc tnh nng khin qu trnh mua sm trn mng hp dn hn i vi khch hng. Mc Gift Ideas a ra cc tng v qu tng mi m, hp dn theo tng thi im trong nm. Mc Community cung cp thng tin v sn phm v nhng kin chi x ca khch hng vi nhau. Mc E-card cho php khch hng chn la v gi nhng bu thip in t min ph cho bn b, ngi thn ca mnh. Amazon.com v ang lin tc b sung thm nhng dch v rt hp dn nh trn cho khch hng ca mnh. H thng CRM ca Amazon.com hot ng hiu qu thng qua cc hoat ng one-to-one marketing. T nm 2002, khi khch hng vo trang web ca amazon t ln th 2 tr i, mt file cookie c s dng xc nh khch hng v hin th dng cho hi Welcome back, Tommy, v a ra nhng gi mua sm da trn cc hot ng mua sm trc ca khch hng. Amazon cng phn tch qu trnh mua sm ca cc khch hng thng xuyn v gi nhng email gi v cc sn phm mi cho khch hng. Thng k kin, nh gi ca khch hng i vi cc sn phm cho php khch hng a ra cc la chn chnh xc v nng cao lng tin ca khch hng trong qu trnh mua

sm ti Amazon.con hn hn so vi mua sm truyn thng. Tt c nhng n lc ny ca Amazon.com nhm to cho khch hng s thoi mi v yn tm hn khi mua hng ng thi khuyn khch khch hng quay li mua sm tip. Bn cnh cng c tm kim c xy dng tinh t v hiu qu, amazon.com cn c h thng kho hng khng l gip em li nng lc cnh tranh hn hn so vi cc i th cnh tranh. Thng 2 nm 2005, Amazon gii thiu dch v mi cho php gi hng ho m khch hng t mua ti bt c u vi mc chi ph c nh l 79 USD/nm. Theo Amazon th dch v ny s duy tr v m rng s lng khch hng trung thnh. Nhng cng c nhng lo ngi rng dch v mi s lm tng chi ph vn chuyn. V thc t cho thy chi ph vn chuyn ca Amazon tng cao trong thi qua khin li nhun tng khng ng k cho d doanh s bn hng tng ti 24%. 5 . Chin lc lin kt T nm 1997, Amazon.com trin khai hot ng lin kt vi cc cng ty khc, n nm 2002 Amazon.com c hn 500.000 i tc hp tc gii thiu khch hang cho Amazon.com vi mc hoa hng 3-5% trn cc giao dch c thc hin. Tnm 2000, Amazon.com cng trin khai hot ng hp tc vi nhiu i tckhc nh Carsdirect.com, Health and Beauty vi Drugstore.com, ToysRUs, Amazon.com cng k hp ng vi tp on Borders Group Inc., cho php khch hang mua hang trn amazon.com n ly hang ti cc ca hang ca Borders.Ngc li, Amazon.com cng tr thnh ca hang trn web ca cc tp on bn l ton cu nh Target v Circuit City. Amazon cng c trang cng c search ca ring mnh ti a ch a9.com. Theo nghincuca Retail Forward, Amazon.com c xp hng s 1 v bn l trnmng.Doanhthunm 2003 t 5.3 t USD, nm 2005 t gn 7 t USD, chin khong 25 % doanh s bn l qua mng. Theo nh gi tnh hnh hot ng ca Amazon.com hin ang c xu hng tt vi chi ph ang gim dn v li nhun ang tang dn. 6. Amazon v cc doanh nghip trc tuyn khc Cng vi s gia tng nhanh chng ca cc cng c tm kim mua sm trc tuyn. Ngi tiu dng ang ngy mt snh iu hn trong vic chn la ni mua sm trc tuyn ca mnh. H i hi cht lng cao v gi c cnh tranh, Steve Weinstein, mt nh phn

tch ti Pacific Crest Securities, cho bit, Amazon c nhiu ngi bit n nh l mt trang web bn l a dng v d tip cn nht trn Internet, nhng hng cng cn phi chnh sa li nhiu yu t tr nn khc bit vi cc i th cnh tranh, cch thc m theo d on s gip Amazon ginh thng li trn th trng bn l trc tuyn. V iu ny ng ngha vi vic Amazon s phi b ra nhiu tin hn u t. i th cnh tranh ca Amazon.com phi k n ebay.com Mc d theo cc ti liu, nm 2004, Amazon t doanh thu k lc ln ti 7 t USD, nhiu hn bt k hng bn l no khc. Ch c eBay, vi doanh s 34,2 t USD nm 2004, c th vt qua Amazon, song eBay l cng giao dch ngi mua ngi bn gp nhau v ng gi ch khng trc tip mua i bn li nh Amazon.Trc y, hai hng c hai hng i khc nhau nn thng tuyn b h b sung cho nhau ch khng cnh tranh trc tip. eBay thin v bn u gi vi hng ngn ca hng ca ngi tiu dng lp ra, cn Amazon bn l trc tip. Nhng nay, eBay chuyn trng tm sang bn hng c gi c nh, cn Amazon li khuyn khch ngi tiu dng m ca hng bn l trn Amazon nn rt cuc hai bn tin li gn nhau trong chin lc pht trin. Ch c iu Amazon ang tn dng li th c sn ca h l c s d liu khch hng tng giao dch trn Amazon bn hng trc tip ng theo s thch ca tng ngi. Nhng ai tng mua hng qua Amazon u bit chuyn sau , hng ny thnh thong gi th mi cho cc sn phm tng t hay sn phm h tng tm kim, tm hiu trn Amazon. Hng ny cn gi th mi khch hng nhn xt v sn phm mua. Cn eBay do cho mi ngi giao dch vi nhau nn ngy cng c v xa ri khch hng. Tht vy, cch y ba nm, eBay c lng truy cp cao hn Amazon n 30% nhng ngy nay, lng ngi s dng thng xuyn c ng k ti khon trn eBay l 84,5 triu ngi, ch hn 81 triu khch hng thng xuyn ca Amazon khng ng k. Amazon cng vt eBay nhiu kha cnh khc. Vo nm 2005, tng th gi ca eBay gp ba ln Amazon. Lc , Wall Street rt thch chuyn eBay khng tn tin tr hng v c dng tin rt n nh. Nm nay, gi c phiu ca eBay gim mt na v th gi ca Amazon ln u tin vt qua eBay vo thng 7/2008. Trong khi eBay m rng ra hng

qung co rao vt, thanh ton trc tuyn ri in thoi Internet, Amazon b ra hng trm triu la xy dng thng hiu thnh ni bn l ng tin cy - nh sn sng tr tin cho khch khi vic mua bn b trc trc. nh tranh trc tip vi amazon.com

Amazon vs ebay:

Ging nhau: -website thng mi in t ln nht th gii -Ni thc hin giao dch mua bn ton cu thng qua mng internet B sung v TMT (chc nng v mc tiu) -Khng gian trc tuyn cc i tc (ngi mua / bn) tm thy giao dch mnh cn -Gip cho cc thnh vin lit k v trng by sn phm ca h, u gi cc sn phm v thanh ton chng -T chc mng li thng tin thng mi ton cu nhm mc ch em li s tin dng v li ch cho ngi s dng -To c hi giao dch ton cu cho c nhn, doanh nghip -Tit kim thi gian -em li s a dng hng ho

Khc nhau:

Amazon.com Nh phn phi, chuyn bn hng qua mng Phng thc KD B2C Th mnh:

chnh sch v gi Qung co trc tuyn - mng li phn phi

Ebay.com Sn giao dch C2C: Ni ngi mua v ngi bn trao i, u gi hng ho kim li nhun t vic trao i hng ho cu khch hng Quan h vi mng li cng ty giao nhn trn ton cu Ph ca amazon thng thp hn so vi ebay, nu bn c bn mt hng no trn 2 ca hng ny c th bit c iu . Ph thu: Ph ng ti u gi thu ca ngi bn Ph khi sn phm c giao dch thnh cng (t nht 1,25% trn tng gi tr hp ng. ) Ph ph Ph thu t vic s dng thanh ton qua h thng tr tin Paypal

Nhng hng ha cm bn trn Ebay: Thuc l (nhng mt hng lin quan n thuc l hay hng su tp th c php) Ru (tr hng su tp v ru vang bn bi cc nh phn phi c giy php) Cc sn phm c v Phat xt c Bng a lu Sng v n dc Qun o lt qua s dng Cc b phn ca ngi ng vt sng

Mt s sn phm c bn quyn V s cng cc mn hng lin quan c bc ... Dnh cho EBAY: b sung thm nhng u im v hnh thc (m hnh thng mi) ny: Nh ta bit: M hnh u gi trc tuyn l cch cho php ngi tham gia u gi cc sn phm hoc cc dch v thng qua Internet. i th chnh ca eBay l h thng u gi Marketplace ca Amazon.com v Yahoo! Auctions. Ging nh hu ht cc cng ty u gi, eBay khng trc tip bn hng ca chnh mnh m ch gip cho cc thnh vin lit k v trng by sn phm ca h, u gi cc sn phm v thanh ton chng. N hot ng ging nh l mt ni hp ch cho cc thnh vin hoc cc doanh nghip s dng u gi cc sn phm v dch v.

V d: C mt vi loi hnh thc u gi trn mng ang hin hu nh: u gi kiu Anh, gi khi im s c t mc thp v sau c nng ln bi cc ngi tham gi u gi tip theo; u gi kiu H Lan, ng thi nhiu mn hng ging nhau s c a ln sn u gi, tt c nhng ngi u gi thng s tr cng mt gi gi cao nht m tt c cc mn hng c bn (treasury bills l mt v d cho kiu u gi ny). Hu ht tt c cc sn u gi trc tuyn u s dng u gi kiu Anh. Ch chnh: Ti sao Ebay li bn u gi? Nhng u im ca m hnh thng mi ny l: 1. Khng rng buc thi gian. Vic t gi c th thc hin bt k lc no. Cc sn phm

uc lit k trong mt mt vi ngy (thng l t 1 n 10 ngy, ty theo thch ca ngi bn) ngi mua c thi gian tm kim, quyt nh v t gi. Gi tr ca mn hng s c nng ln theo s lng ngi tham gi u gi. 2. Khng rng buc a l: Nhng ngi bn hng v nhng ngi u gi c th tham gia u gi t bt k ni no c truy cp Internet. iu ny lm cc cuc u gi thm gn gi v gim chi ph tham d mt cuc u gi. iu ny ng thi cng lm tng s lng cc sn phm (c cng nhiu ngi bn hng) v s lng cc t gi (c cng nhiu ngi t gi). Nhng mn hng khng nhng khng cn phi a n sn u gi m cn gim c chi ph, gim c gi khi im c chp nhn ca ngi bn. 3. Sc mnh ca tng tc x hi: Tng tc x hi m lin quan n qu trnh u gi th ging nh vic nh bc. Nhng ngi u gi ch i trong hi vng l h s thng (eBay gi nhng ngi t gi thnh cng l nhng ngi chin thng). Cng ging nh s ham m c bc, nhiu ngi tham gia t gi ch yu "chi tr chi" ch khng mun ginh c mn hng. V iu ny to ra mt s phn chia ln cc khch hng tim nng ca eBay. 4. S lng ngi u gi ln. Bi v tim nng c gi thp, hng ha v dch v a dng, d dng tham gia v li ch x hi ca qu trnh u gi. 5. S lng ngi bn hng ln. Bi v c nhiu ngi tham gia t gi, c th t c gi cao, gim chi ph bn hng, d bun bn. 6. Mng li kinh doanh. S lng ln cc ngi tham gia u gi s khuyn khch nhiu ngi bn, ngc li s lng ln cc ngi bn s lm tng s lng ngi u gi. Cng c nhiu hot ng th h thng cng ln mnh, v m hnh kinh doanh cng tr nn c gi tr cho nhng ngi tham gia. 7. u gi l mt hnh thc r rt nht ca s chn lch gi. V vy, h c gng chuyn mt phn thng d ca khch hng thnh thng d hng ha. u gi trn mng l mt hnh mu hiu qu ca s chnh lch gi.