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I HC BCH KHOA H NI

Tiu lun mn hc Bo qun thc phm

ti: Bo qun thc phm bng phng php chiu x

SVTH: Nguyn Vn Bnh Nguyn Th Hng Nh Th L

Ni dung
1. Khi nim 2. Lch s pht trin v thc trng ca thc phm chiu x 3. Chiu x trong bo qun thc phm 4. Quy nh v sinh an ton thc i vi thc phm bo qun bng phng php chiu x

1. Khi nim
Thc phm c bo qun bng phng php chiu x l thc phm c x l bng tia bc x ion ho ca ngun phng x hoc my pht tia bc x bo qun v ngn nga s bin cht ca thc phm

Liu hp th l t s gia de v dm,

- de: nng lng hp th trung bnh (jun) - dm: khi lng khi thc phm (kg). n v liu hp th l Gray (k hiu l Gy), 1Gy=1j/kg, 1kGy=1000 Gy.

c im c a cc tia dng trong c hiu x th c ph m


Tia Gamma: c to ra t cc nguyn t phng x Cobalt 60 hay nguyn t Cesium 137,cc cht ny pht ra cc photon c nng lng cao, n c th m xuyn qua thc phm su ti vi feet - Tia coban 60 (nng lng 1,17 v 1,33 MeV) - Tia cesium 137 (nng lng 0,66 MeV) Tia electron: Cc tia electron c th c chiu vo thc phm ch dy khong 3 cm (nng lng nh hn 10 MeV) Tia X: y l mt cng ngh mi . to ra tia X, ngi ta chiu trc tip tia electron ln mt bn m ng bng vng hay kim loi khc, s to ra mt dng tia X mt bn kia ca bn mng (nng lng nh hn 5 MeV)

2. Lch s pht trin v thc trng ca thc phm chiu x


tng s dng bc x ion ho trong bo qun thc phm gn nh ngay sau pht hin phng x Henri Becc-ren trong nm 1895 1905 - Cc nh khoa hc pht hin v bt u s dng bc x ion ha tiu dit vi khun trong thc phm. 1906 - Anh s dng ng v phng x chiu x thc phm dng ht 1918 - ti M s dng tia X bo qun thc phm 1920 - cc nh khoa hc Php pht hin ra ph ng php bo qun thc phm bng cch chiu x. 1970:Thnh lp D n Chiu x Thc phm Quc t

2. Lch s pht trin v thc trng ca thc phm chiu x


Trn th gii c khong 40 nc cho php s dng cng ngh chiu x cho khong 50 loi thc phm v c tnh c khong 500.000 tn thc phm c x l chiu x mi nm. Ti Vit Nam: Thc phm chiu x cha c s dng rng ri do cha c thit b v ngi tiu dng cng cha c thng tin v tnh an ton. Cng ngh chiu x thc phm c nghin cu v ng dng t nm 1985 ti Vin Nghin cu ht nhn Lt. Hin nay c nc ch c vi ba trung tm chiu x thc phm vi qui m bn cng nghip.

3. Bo
3.1. Nguyn l

qun thc phm bng phng php chiu x

Cc tia ion c kh nng tiu dit vi sinh vt rt cao, chng c th lm thay i cu trc ca cc phn t trong t bo, v c kh nng phn hy phn t nc theo c ch sau: Chng gy ra s ph hy cc lin kt hydro trong cc phn t ca t bo, mi ni hydro trong phn t AND, kt qu l hydro s tch khi deoxiribose, chng cn c kh nng thy phn purin v pyrimidine

Kh nng chng li cc tia ion ha ca cc vi sinh vt khc nhau:


Liu lng (kGy) 0.22 to 0.93 10 to 40 4 to 9 3.7 to 18 1.3 to 11

Vi sinh vt Cn trng Vi rt Nm men (trong ln men) Nm mc ( trong mng) Nm mc (c bo t) Vi khun ( t bo ca mm bnh) Mycobacterium tuberculosis Staphylococcus aureus Cornybacterium diphtheriae Salmonella spp. Vi khun (loi hoi sinh) Gram m Escherichia coli Pseudomonas aeruginosa Pseudomonas fluorescens Enterobacter aerogenes Gram dng Lactobacillus spp. Streptococcus faecalis Leuconostoc dextranicum Sarcina lutea Vi khun sinh bo t Bacillus subtillus Bacillus coagulans Clostridium botulinum (A) Clostridium botulinum (E) Clostridium perfringens Putrefactive anaerobe 3679 Bacillus stearothermophilus

1.4 1.4 to 7.0 4.2 3.7 to 4.8

1.0 to 2.3 1.6 to 2.3 1.2 to 2.3 1.4 to 1.8

0.23 to 0.38 1.7 to 8.8 0.9 3.7

12 to 18 10 19 to 37 15 to 18 3.1 23 to 50 10 to 17

3.2. Tc dng ca chiu x trong bo qun thc phm


ng dng quan trng nht ca phng php bo qun thc phm ny l m bo cht lng v sinh ca cc sn phm rn hay bn rn thng qua vic v hot cc mm bnh trong thc phm. Liu lng chiu x thp (<= 1 kGy) : hn ch ny mm, lm chm qu trnh chn, tiu dit cn trng, v hot k sinh trng. Liu lng chiu x trung bnh (1-10 kGy): lm gim s lng vi sinh vt gy hng thc phm, gim s lng hay loi tr nhng mm bnh khng to bo t. Liu lng chiu x cao (10kGy): tit trng

3.2. Tc dng ca chiu x trong bo qun thc phm


a.
b. Lm gim lng vi sinh vt gy bnh Virut > nm men > bo t > nm mc > gram (+) > gram (-) Chng nhim tp: Cc loi gia v, rau c mu, hng v mi c trng, chng thng b nhim tp nhiu loi vi sinh vt t mi trng v qu trnh sn xut. Do , cn phi lm gim lng vi sinh vt. V x l nhit lm gim ng k mi v hng nn chiu x (thanh trng lnh) l mt gii php hiu qu Lm tng thi gian bo qun: Thi gian bo qun ca nhiu loi rau qu, tht, gia cm, c v hi sn c th c tng bng vic x l kt hp gia chiu x liu lng thp v lm lnh khng lm nh hng n mi v cu trc. Chiu x liu lng thp c th lm chm qu trnh chn ca mt s loi qu, kim sot s nt ca nm v nu ca rau, do lm tng thi gian bo qun

c.

3.2. Tc dng ca chiu x trong bo qun thc phm


d. Hn ch s ny mm - c ch c s ny mm ca khoai ty, khoai lang, hnh, ti, gng, v ht d, Chiu x khng li d cht, v cho php bo qun nhit cao hn (10150C) - Liu lng 0,15 kGy Tiu dit cn trng - Tiu dit, kim sot su b, cn trng bo qun ht, u, bt m, ng cc, ht c ph, thc phm kh. - Liu lng thp khong 1 kGy

e.

Thc phm Tht ln, tht g, c, hi sn, mt s loi rau, thc n nng, nu. Cc loi gia v

Liu lng chiu x (kGy) 20 ti 71 Cc i ti 30

Tc dng Tit trng. Cc thc phm x l c th c nhit phng m khng b h hng. Lm gim lng vi sinh vt v cn trng . Lm chm qu trnh h hng do lm gim s lng vi sinh vt c trong thc phm ti sng v thc phm ng lnh. Tiu dit mt vi lo i vi khun gy ng c thc phm v k sinh trng gy bnh (nh trichinae) Ko di thi gian bo quan bng cch lm chm s pht trin ca nm mc. Git cht cc cn trng hay ngn cn chng trong qu trnh ti sn xut. C th c dng thay th cho thuc xng ha hc.

Tht ln, tht gia cm

0.1 ti 10

Du ty v mt s loi qu khc Cc loi ht, hoa qu, rau, v cc loi thc phm c kh nng nhim cn trng. Chui, l, xoi, u , i v cc cy khng thuc ging cam qut. Khoai ty, hnh, ti, gng. Lng thc, cc loi

1 ti 5

0.1 ti 2

Cc i ti 1.0

Lm chm qa trnh chn

0.05 ti 0.15

c ch s ny mm

3.3. nh hng ca chiu x ln cht


a. nh hng n gi tr dinh dng

lng thc phm: gi tr dinh dng v cm quan

- Nc l thnh phn d b nh hng bi chiu x, c ch chuyn ha nh sau: 3 H2O Chiu x H+ + OH- + H2O2 + H2 - Sau nc l Protein v cc hp cht cha nc rt nhy cm vi chiu x. Sn phm ca cc qu trnh trn l NH3, H2, CO2, H2S v cacbornyl - Cc axit amin cng rt nhy cm vi chiu x, c bit l cc aa: methionin, cysteine, histedine, arginine, tyrosine. cysteine nhy cm nht. 50% tng lng aa b mt khi chiu x, tryptophan mt 10% - Lipit b thay i rt mnh, c bit trong trng hp c mt ca oxy. Sn phm ca qu trnh ny l peroxit v cc sn phm oxy ha khc nh carbonyl - Cc cht pectin v cenlulose cng b bin i khi th phm b chiu x, kt qu l cc loi rau qu s mm hn

a.

nh hng n gi tr dinh dng


Cc vitamin: c bit n l rt nhy cm vi cc nh hng ca vic chiu x ion ha. Tnh nhy cm tng dn vi s chiu x : E>>A>>D>>K. Cc vitamin B1, B3, B6, B10,B12 b phn hy, cn vitamin B2, B5, folic li tng ln trong qu trnh chiu x + Vitamin A: mc chu ng tng ng vi liu lng ti 20kGy, lm gim s chn i vi cc loi hoa qu + Vitamin C: chiu x ion ha gy ra s oxi ha axt ascorbic thnh axit dehydroascorbic. Liu lng 3kGy lng tn th t axit ascorbic khong 16% to. C chua s mt khong 8-20% ty theo chn ca qu. + Vitamin D: tng i n nh vi s chiu x ion c trong cc loi thc phm giu lipid. Vi liu lng ln ti 15 kGy, vitamin D3 c kh nng chu chiu x tt hn l vitamin A hay vitamin E + Vitamin E: nhy cm nht vi s phng x so vi cc vitamin ha tan trong cht bo khc. + Vitamin B1: Liu lng 0.25-0.35 kGy lm tht thot khong 20-40% thiamin ng cc. liu lng 0.3 v 1kGy tht thot l 5.6 v 17.6% tht ln + Vitamin B2: c tnh khng li tia phng x mnh nht. + Vitamin B3: c tnh khng li tia phng x kh mnh (km h n khng ng k so vi vitamin B2),
-

b.

Thay i v gi tr cm quan
Mu, mi v v : Nhng thay i ca cc c tnh ny ch yu xy ra trong tht sng. Chiu x nhng liu lng nht nh c th lm mt mi tht sng v to ra mi i ca cht bo. Chiu x cng c th nh hng n mu sc ca tht ln, tht b v g ty sng, c bit l khi c mt oxy t do. Cc sn phm thc phm cha nhiu axit bo cha no th s thay i mi ng k
Chiu x Axit bo cha no Hp chtt p ch cacbon ch cacbon chaa no v no v Tng cng oxy Hp chtt H p cacbonyl cacbonyl (Gy mi i thiu) D b ph v Hp cht Hydroperoxide

3.4. Cc yu t nh hng n hiu qu chiu x


Chng loi vi sinh vt S lng vi sinh vt hay bo t tn ti ban u. Cng nhiu vi sinh vt th hiu ng tiu dit ca cng mt liu lng chiu x s cng yu. Thnh phn ca thc phm. Thnh phn nh protein, catalaza, cc cht kh (nh nitrit, sulfit) c th c tnh ch t bo v. Cc thnh phn ni vi nhm SH c th nhy cm. Vic c mt hay khng ca oxy. Tc dng ca oxy t do ln vi sinh vt thay i t khng c tc dng n c tc dng rt mnh ti vi sinh vt. Nhng phn ng ph khng mong mun c th c tng cng v s c mt ca oxy v b lm gim khi trong mi trng chn khng. Trng thi vt l ca thc phm trong qu trnh chiu x. C hm lng m v nhit c tc dng khc nhau ln cc c th khc nhau. Tnh trng ca c th sinh vt. Tui i, nhit ca s pht trin v s hnh thnh bo t cng nh trng thi (sinh d ng hoc bo t) c th nh hng n tnh nhy cm vi chiu x ca sinh vt

4. Quy nh v sinh an ton thc i vi thc phm bo qun bng phng php chiu x (Theo Quyt nh s 3616 / 2004/Q-BYT ngy 14 thng 10 nm 2004 ca B trng B Y t)
iu 4. Yu cu chung 1. C s chiu x thc phm phi thc hin cc quy nh ti Php lnh An ton v kim sot bc x v cc vn bn quy phm php lut hng dn thi hnh Php lnh ny. 2. C s chiu x thc phm ch c hot ng chiu x thc phm sau khi c s ng bng vn bn ca Cc An ton v sinh thc phm. 3. C s chiu x thc phm phi c 02 khu vc ring bit dnh cho thc phm ch chiu x v thc phm c chiu x trnh ti nhim hoc chiu x lp li. Nhng khu vc ny phi rng, ph hp vi quy m chiu x v phi p ng y cc iu kin bo qun thc phm tng ng. 4. C s chiu x thc phm phi c cn b c o to y kin thc chuyn mn, k thut ph hp theo quy nh ca Php lnh an ton v kim sot bc x v cc quy nh khc ca php lut. iu 5. Quy nh i vi ngun bc x 1. Ch s dng cc ngun bc x c quy nh trong TCVN 7247:2003 Thc phm chiu x - Yu cu chung chiu x thc phm: a) Tia X c pht ra t cc my pht lm vic mc nng lng nh hn hoc bng 5 mga electron von (MeV). b) Tia gamma t cc ng v phng x 60Co hoc 137Cs. c) Chm electron c pht ra t cc my pht lm vic mc nng lng nh hn hoc bng 10 MeV. 2. Ngoi vic tun th cc quy nh v qun l ngun bc x, mi trng hp lm tng hoc gim ngun bc x, thay i cc c trng ca my pht tia hoc khi c sa cha cc thit b nh hng n s phn liu th phi ngng hot ng v thng bo ngay cho Cc Kim sot v An ton bc x ht nhn.

iu 6. Qun l liu chiu x ti c s chiu x thc phm 1. Qu trnh chiu x thc phm phi bo m liu hp th i vi mi loi thc phm khng vt qu gii hn cho php c quy nh ti iu 9 ca Quy nh ny. 2. Trng hp thc phm cn liu hp th cao hn 10 kGy t c mc tiu k thut khc phi c s ng bng vn bn ca Cc An ton v sinh thc phm. 3. Vic o liu hp th phi thc hin theo mt trong cc Tiu chun Vit Nam sau: TCVN 7248:2003 Tiu chun thc hnh o liu p dng cho thit b chiu x gamma dng x l thc phm hoc TCVN 7249:2003, Tiu chun thc hnh o liu p dng cho thit b chiu x chm tia electron v bc x hm (bremsstranhlung) dng x l thc phm. 4. C s chiu x thc phm phi lu gi bo co kt qu chiu x mi l hng thc phm trong mt nm k t khi chiu x v cc ni dung sau: a) Thng tin v l hng (loi thc phm, c s sn xut, ngy sn xut hoc hn s dng). b) Tnh trng ngun nng lng, qu trnh hiu chnh liu. c) Gi tr liu hp th (xc nh theo Khon 3 iu ny). d) Thi im chiu x. iu 7. Quy nh i vi vn hnh thit b chiu x thc phm Qu trnh vn hnh thit b chiu x thc phm phi tun theo TCVN 7250:2003

iu 8. Yu cu i vi thc phm chiu x 1. Thc phm trc khi chiu x c ch bin trong iu kin bo m v sinh, t cht lng theo cc tiu chun tng ng. 2. Khng c chiu x li thc phm tr trng hp: ng cc, u , cc loi thc phm kh v cc hng ho khc tng t c chiu x vi mc ch kim sot ti nhim cn trng hoc c ch s ny mm. Thc phm khng c coi l chiu x li nu: a) Thc phm ch bin t nguyn liu c chiu x liu hp th khng ln hn 1kGy; b) Thc phm em chiu x cha khng qu 5% thnh ph n theo kh i lng c chiu x; c) Yu cu cng ngh c th phi chiu x qua nhiu giai on tng liu hp th cc giai on ca qu trnh ch bin t c gi tr gy hiu qu mong mun. 3. Ch c php lu thng trn th trng nhng thc phm chiu x c ghi nhn thc phm y theo quy nh ti iu 10 ca Quy nh ny. iu 9. Danh mc thc phm c php chiu x v gii hn liu hp th ti a

TT

Loi thc phm

Mc ch chiu x

Liu hp th ti a (kGy) Ti thiu Ti a 0,2 1,0 1,0 2,5 1,0 1,0 5,0 0,25

1 2

Loi 1: Sn phm nng sn dng thn, r, c. Loi 2: Rau, qu ti (tr loi 1)

c ch s ny mm trong qu trnh bo qun a) Lm chm qu trnh chn b) Dit cn trng, k sinh trng c) Ko di thi gian bo qun d) X l kim dch a) Dit cn trng, k sinh trng b) Gim nhim bn vi sinh vt c) c ch s ny mm

0,1 0,3 0,3 1,0 0,2 0,3 1,5 0,1

Loi 3: Ng cc v cc sn phm bt nghin t ng cc; u ht, ht c du, hoa qu kh Loi 4: Thy sn v sn phm thy sn, bao gm ng vt khng xng sng, ng vt lng c dng ti sng hoc lnh ng.

a) Hn ch vi sinh vt gy bnh b) Ko di thi gian bo qun c) Kim sot ng thc vt k sinh

1,0 1,0 0,1

7,0 3,0 2,0

Loi 5: Tht gia sc, gia cm v sn phm t gia sc, gia cm dng ti sng hoc lnh ng . Loi 6: Rau kh, gia v v tho mc Loi 7: Thc phm kh c ngun gc ng vt

a) Hn ch vi sinh vt gy bnh b) Ko di thi gian bo qun c) Kim sot ng thc vt k sinh

1,0 1,0 0,5 2,0 0,3 0,3 1,0 2,0

7,0 3,0 2,0 10,0 1,0 1,0 3,0 7,0

6 7

a) Hn ch vi sinh vt gy bnh b) Dit cn trng, k sinh trng a) Dit cn trng, k sinh trng b) Kim sot nm mc c) Hn ch vi sinh vt gy bnh

iu10. Bao gi, bo qun, ghi nhn 1. Thc phm trc v sau khi chiu x phi c ng gi trong cng mt bao b. 2. Thc phm chiu x phi c bo qun theo quy nh nh thc phm khi cha chiu x. 3. Trn bao b ca thc phm chiu x, ngoi nhng thng tin bt bu c theo quy nh ca php lut v ghi nhn thc phm phi c dng ch: Thc phm chiu x hoc dn nhn hiu nhn bit thc phm chiu x (theo Ph lc km theo Quyt nh ny) T nm 1986, tt c cc sn phm chiu x phi mang theo cc biu tng quc t gi l mt radura, trng ging nh mt bng hoa cch iu. FDA yu cu c logo trn cc bao b ca thc phm ng gi, trn cc bng-rn ti thi im mua hng ha (i vi sn phm tng sng) v c trn c cc ha n cho cc thnh phn chiu x

Mt s vn
Ngi tiu dng t ra: THC PHM CHIU X C AN TON KHNG? - m bo an ton v mt v sinh v khng lm mt i cc thnh phn dinh dng. Cng ngh ny gp phn to ra ngun thc phm sch, lm gim cc v ng c. - X l bc x ch gy nn nhng bin i ho hc khng ng k v t ra v hi i vi thc phm. Hiu ng bc x c th to ra mt s sn phm x ly nh glucose, axit formic, axetandehit v CO2 . Cc cht ny cng c to ra khi x l thc phm bng nhit. Cc sn phm x ly c nghin cu kh k lng v khng c bng chng no th hin tnh c hi ca chng. S tiu ho chng chng gy nn bt k hiu ng c hi no. - Tnh an ton v mt sc khe cng nh li ch v kinh t ca thc phm chiu x c cc t chc c uy tn ca Lin Hp Quc nh T chc Y t th gii (WHO), T chc Lng nng Th gii (FAO), C quan Nng lng nguyn t quc t (IAEA) nghin cu y v cng nhn. Cc thc phm qua x l chiu x s khng c hot tnh chiu x

Mt s vn
Liu cc cng nhn lm vic vi cc thit b chiu x c phi i mt vi nguy him do v tnh tip xc hoc tip xc lu di vi phng x Bt k hot ng cng nghip no cng gy ra nhng him ha nht nh i vi con ngi v mi trng Cc thit b chiu x c thit k c bit d tm nhng thit b hng v bo v con ngi khi vic v tnh tip xc vi phng x. Cc khu vc c kh nng nguy him u c gim st v c mt h thng cc kha trong ngn cn mi s xm nhp khng cho php vo bung phng x khi cc sn phm ang c chiu x. Cng nhn c bo m an ton hn khi c ngh ngi da trn quy trnh lm vic kht khe v c o to mt cch cn thn. Tt c cc nh my phng x u phi c giy php. Ti Anh, y ban An ton v Sc khe va bo co vi Quc hi rng nhng ngi cng nhn s khng phi i mt vi bt k nguy hi bt thng no, rng: nguy him c t di s kim sot hiu qu bng cch s dng h thng qun l an ton tinh vi.

Ti liu tham kho


A. Ti liu ting vit PGS.TS. H Vn Thuyt, TS. H Ph H, TS. Nguyn Thanh Tm, Bi ging bo qun thc phm PGS.TS. Nguyn Duy Thnh , Bi ging Cc cht ph gia dng trong sn xut thc phm , 30-31 Nhm cc tc gi trng i hc Nng, Bo qun thc phm, i hc Nng, 90-96 Quyt nh s 3616 /2004/Q-BYT ngy 14 thng 10 nm 2004 ca B trng B Y t http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Food_irradiation B. Ti liu ting anh New methods of food preservation.- P. LOAHARANU. The nutrition handbook for food processor- D.A.E.Ehlermann, Federal Research Centre for Nutrition, Germany. Facts about food irradiation- ICGFI is an international group of experts designatedby Governments to evaluate and advise on global activities of food irradiation TECHNOLOGY AND OUR FOOD SYSTEM -Prepared by J. Lynne Brown, Ph.D, R.D., Associate Professor of Food Science, The Pennsylvania State University. GENERAL STANDARD FOR IRRADIATED FOODS -CODEX STAN 106-1983, REV.1-2003 FOOD IRRADIATION TODAY-by O.P. Snyder and D.M. Poland Copyright 1995 www.extension.iastate.edu/foodsafety/irradiation

Xin cm n thy c v cc bn lng nghe!