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Steam turbines for Power Plants: creation experience and development prospects

Alexander Tsvetkov Power Machines, Russia Power-Gen Europe 2005, Milan, 28-30.06.2005

INTRODUCTION Power generating plants of Russia are mostly provided by the equipment of Russian make. The largest Russian manufacturer of steam turbines is LMZ which occupies one of the leading positions in the world. It contributes 75% of the installed capacity in the states of the former USSR and 9% of the worlds power generation. Several years ago LMZ together with the leading Russian manufacturer of power generators (Electrosila), minor steam turbines (KTZ), turbine blades (ZTL), Central-Research Institute (CKTI) and sales company (Energomachexport) formed united power building engineering consortium which at present well known as OJSC Power Machines. This consolidation helped LMZ not only to survive during difficult times of economic depression but also face the 21st century with new ideas and developments. APPLICATIONS OF LMZ STEAM TURBINES There are more than 50 types and modifications of LMZ make steam turbines with output range from 30 up to 1200 MW (Figure 1). All turbines may be divided into three groups: The first group includes steam turbines for fossil-fired power stations: condensing, district heating and back-pressure turbines of 50 to 110 MW for 90 (130) bar, 530540 oC without reheat for cogeneration and district heating. condensing and district heating reheat turbines for sub-critical steam conditions of 130 (170) bar, 540/540 oC of 180 to 500 MW; turbines for supercritical steam conditions 240 bar, 540/540 oC of 300, 500, 800 and 1200 MW. The second group covers steam turbines for nuclear power plants and consists of a tandemcompound high-speed turbine of 1000 MW output for 60 bar saturated steam. The third group covers 100 -150 MW turbines for combined cycle plants. The district heating versions of the turbines provide heat load to 320 MW with heating of district water from 70 to 150 oC. LPC grid-type diaphragms are used in this versions.

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CONVENTIONAL AND MODERN APPROACHES

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Beginning from 1940 up to recent time LMZ turbine design concept is based on the use of a relatively small number of turbine cylinders. HP, IP, and LP cylinders are designed for a certain range of steam flow and parameters in such a way that the required output range and initial steam conditions will be met by combinations of cylinders. For example, 300, 500, and 800 MW turbines presently manufactured by LMZ are based on an LP cylinders with 1200 mm titanium moving blade instead of 960 mm stainless steel blade formerly employed (Figure 2). The major features of LMZ turbines are the following: All turbines are tandem-compound and operate at 50 cycles. Governing valves with partial arc admission are used in all turbines up to 800 MW. LPC last stage is equipped with stainless steel and titanium blades, including heat monitoring system (Figure 3). Impulse type blades, diaphragm-disk design of steam path, optimum positive value of reaction in root section with increasing level of reaction towards the blade periphery. All moving blades have covering shrouds or integrally milled shrouds. In IP and LP cylinders integrally milled shrouds improve steam path efficiency and provide damping by friction created in them (Figure 4). Integrally forged flexible rotors in combination with impulse blading, reduce parasitic steam leakage. Moving blades with fork roots are secured by rivets. Blades with T-shaped roots are used for less stressed stages. The last stage moving blades have a side entry fir-tree root. Use of internal grid-type diaphragms for control of district heating / cogeneration turbines (Figure 5). Multiple system of interchannel moisture separation and moisture removal in the interrow gap (Figure 6). There is no denying the fact that by now most TPP equipment in Russia is old (Figure 7, 9) and needs considerable upgrading. A significant part of the equipment operates with natural gas which is a very valuable raw material for the chemical and a very important export article at that. In any case considerable consumption of high quality fuel is not efficient as far as power is generated on the obsolete and worn out equipment (Figure 8). Utilization of natural gas in combined cycle plants is the most contemporary way which is followed by Russia too. Besides nuclear power engineering is also considered as a perspective one in Russia and in some world regions with high developing economics. In view of the above at present main efforts of LMZ are aimed at:

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development of efficient steam turbines for Combined Cycle Units. development of turbines for supercritical steam parameters for coal fired TPS. development of steam turbines for Nuclear Power Plants of new generation. upgrading of old steam turbines

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High reliability and efficiency of modern LMZ turbines is provided by the following factors: modern cycle arrangements. up-to-date methods of profiles, including three-D mathematic simulation (Figure 10). application of reactive type-blading in HP and IP cylinders. application of the developed shrouding and sealings. aerodynamic testing of the steam path components. LPC testing on a unique full-scale investigation facility at LMZ factory providing fundamental wide-range research work. reasonable choice of the materials and manufacture technologies. quality inspection at all stages of manufacture. final bench tests. STEAM TURBINES FOR COMBINED CYCLE UNITS LMZ condensing steam turbine for combined cycle (CCP Banhida in Hungary) has been designed for operating in a wide range of initial steam conditions, up to pressure of 130 bar and temperature of 565 oC. Both reheat and non-reheat cycles are supported. The turbine has a throttle-type steam distribution. This unit features a high/ intermediate pressure double casing cylinder and a single flow low pressure cylinder (Figure 11). The HP and IP steam paths are arranged in an opposed flow configuration to balance opposing thrust loads. The left flow has 19 stages with reactive type blading and the left one 8 impulse stages. IP exhaust is used as the connection point for admitting steam from the HPSG low pressure line into the turbine. HP/IP cylinders are designed with two casings, rotor diameter is decreased, reactive type blades of HP steam path are used, aerodynamic reaction level is increased, twisted stationary and moving blades airfoils for all stages are used and total HP/IP cylinder efficiency is increased. The effect is about 29 kCal/kWh improvement in steam turbine heat rate in comparison with other existing LMZ designs. LP cylinder of steam turbine of this type may be provided with single or double flow LP sections featuring 755 mm, 960 mm or 1200 mm last stage blades. The design is based on condenser back pressure and site conditions. LP stationary blades are assembled tangentially. Inner and outer HPC casings are cast from molybdenum-vanadium steel. HP rotor is solid-forged, steel

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grade 25X1M1? ? . LPC is welded, made of carbon steel. LP rotor is solid-forged made of steel 26XM3M2? ? . Spray cooling system is provided for LPC at low flow modes. TURBINES FOR SUPERCRITICAL STEAM PARAMETERS FOR COAL FIRED TPS The main parameters and longitudinal section of steam turbine K-350-290 (TPP Novocherkaskaya in Russia) for supercritical steam conditions are shown in Figure 12. The turbine design is single-shaft with HP, IP and LP cylinders. The reheat line is placed between HPC and IPC. HPC has a throttle-type steam distribution, with two casings inner and outer and has 14 active stages. Steam flow turn to 180o is provided for inner casing and steam admission area cooling. IPC is single flow with 15 active stages. LPC is double flow with 4 stages in each flow with the last stage blades of 1200 mm effective length from titanium alloy. All LPC stationary blades are tangentially assembled. Rotors of all cylinders are solid-forged. Spherical, self-adjusted thrust-journal bearing is located between HPC and IPC. Applied materials for the turbine components for supercritical conditions are shown in Figure 13. Steel grade 15X11M? ? ? is applied for high-temperature cast casing components. For valves components high-resistant alloy made on the basis of ferrous-nickel ? ? -612 is used. For rotors manufacture steel grade P2MA (25X1M? ? ) is used together with the arranged rotor forced cooling. Steel grade like 18X11MH? ? with the content of 12% chrome has the most heat resistance. For rotor components manufacture steel grade Z11MHA? ? is used. STEAM TURBINES FOR NUCLEAR POWER STATIONS The turbine K-1000-60/3000-2 (NPP Kudankulam in India) is intended for operation in conjunction with water-cooled and water-moderated reactor rated 3000 MWth. The steam turbine K-1000-60/3000-2 rated 1000MW is a single-shaft, high-speed condensing unit (3000 rpm), four-cylinder (HPC+3 LPC), with an external steam separation loop and steam reheat (Figure 14). Steam parameters of the turbine are shown in Figure 15. The turbine is characterized by the following features: low mass and overall dimension of the turbine components achieved due to the high rotational speed of 3000 rpm. This results in decrease of construction and operation expenses. application of the unique moving blades for LPC last stage with an effective length of 1200mm made of titanium alloy BT-6 with further implantation process of nitrogen ions and titanium nitride.

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application of solid-forged rotors with semi-couplings. LP solid-forged rotors with speed of 3000 r/m without central opening, made of ingot blanks of 235 tons which finally have pure mass of 75 tons. Such rotors are a novelty in the world power industry which makes it possible to increase operational reliability in comparison with those made by welding as well as reduce man hour while manufacturing.

application of moving blades in all stages with integrally milled shrouds. damping of moving blades achieved by the created friction in the shrouds makes it possible to avoid the necessity of damping wire installation in the turbine flow path. This provides high vibration reliability and blading efficiency.

installation of stop and governing valves both at HPC and LPC inlets. Availability of both types of valves at LPC inlet provides reliability of turbine protection from speed-up which is very important taking into account considerable amounts of steam and moisture in separatorreheater.

due to the fact that HPC casing and components are made of stainless steel the problem of inter-row gap erosion requiring much maintenance and expenses becomes solved. HPC shrouds of blades are designed to have an inclined inner surface that stabilizes film moisture flow and helps to remove it out of the turbine with the extracted steam. LPC last stage has an increased heat drop, axial clearances and inner channel moisture removal. Due to the increased heat drop steam pressure becomes more before the last stage. As a result less size of moisture drops in the flow path reduces erosion of the last stage blades surface.

tangentially assembled stationary blades of two last HPC stages and of all LPC last stages are applied in order to even distribute steam flow speed all along the blade length and reduce the power losses.

one of the main features that distinguishes the turbine for NPP Kudankulam from LMZ model unit K-1000-60/3000 (Figure 16) lies in the difference of cooling water temperature 31oC and 20 oC relatively. The reduced quantity of LPC that is from 4 to 3 decreases capital expenses and as a result layout changes 3 LPCs are located one after another on one side from HPC. Applied materials for the major components K-1000-60/3000 turbine are shown in

Figure 17. UPGRADING OF OLD STEAM TURBINES Eight steam turbines of LMZ make K-300-240 (TPP Kostromskaya in Russia) are subject for upgrading. Turbine plant No No 1 No 2 No 3 No 4 No 5 No 6 No 7 No 8

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222 218 233 205 220 211 206 210

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Hours in operation, thousands 227 of hours Park service life (determined by LMZ), thousands of hours

Most components located in HPC and operated under creep conditions at temperature more than 450 oC and at pressure 90 bar take the most wear redoubled by the phenomenon known as metal fatigue (rotor, inner cylinder, etc). As a result they appear to be the first to expire their actual service life. In this case upgrading is made by means of HPC components replacement saving HPC outer casing (Figure 18). This upgrading is aimed at considerable reliability and efficiency improvement of 300 MW power units and increase of their rated power up to 320 MW. HPC design is based on modern methods of steam path calculation in 3-D model and accumulated experience as a result of actual research tests for 300 MW turbine cylinders at the power plants. The main features of new HPC design are as follows: reactive type blading is used instead of impulse one. stationary blades are tangentially assembled and special designing of the root area leakages optimal directed. more efficient airfoils of stationary and moving blades. moving blades with integrally milled shrouds, providing more efficient sealing-ten teeth instead of two, efficient diaphragm and end sealings (Figure 19). optimized profiling of diaphragm stationary blades meridian contour, inlet and outlet exhausts and extraction branches. The increase of HPC efficiency using reactive type blading is achieved by the following factors: the increase of the quantity of stages leads to the increase of heat recovery the decrease of enthalpy drop at a stage reduces the losses in the nozzles and moving blades. reduce of the flow path diameter and increase of the blades length, particularly in the first stages, that leads to the decrease of additional losses in the blading. the decrease of steam leakages in the turbine stages achieved by the application of the developed diaphragm sealings and reduce of radial clearances as the rotor structure is more rigid. considerable decrease of the heat adiabatic drop to the governing stage of 1.5 times, redistribution of the heat drop to HPC affords to increase pressure in the chamber of the governing stage and increase of its throughput capacity that enables rise of efficiency.

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Owing to the fact that the turbine K-300-240 is applied with boiler units, running both at constant initial pressure and at sliding one, the new HPC design retains nozzle steam distribution within the governing stage. Materials applied for upgraded HPC components are shown in Figure 20. SUMMARY Design features and some aspects of efficiency improvement of LMZ turbines are presented. The progress of turbine development in comparing with preceding design is given. LMZ design philosophy and proven engineering approaches are able to provide any expected configuration and performance characteristics of the power plant, operational profile and purchase contract stipulations.

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LIST OF FIGURES

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Figure 1. Main Technical Characteristics of Steam Turbines Produced by LMZ Figure 2. New Design Arrangement of 350-850 MW Steam Turbines Based on LPC with 1200 mm Titanium Moving Blade Figure 3. Range of LPC Last Stage Moving Blade Figure 4. Different Types of Shrouds Figure 5. LPC Control Grid Diaphragm Before and After Modification Figure 6. LPC Last Stage with Interchannel Moisture Separation and Film Moisture Removal Figure 7. TPP equipment in Russia classified in accordance with the operating period (%) Figure 8. Fuel consumption for TPS in Russia (%) Figure 9. Exhaustion of park service life for TPS rated (GW) Figure 10. 3-D Stage Calculation Results Figure 11. Steam Turbine of 80 MW for CCP Banhida in Hangary Figure 12. Steam Turbine of 350 MW on Supercriticl Conditions for Novocherkasskaya TPP in Russia Figure 13. Applied Materials for Turbine Components for Supercritical Conditions Figure 14. Steam Turbine K-1000-60/3000-2 for NPP Kudankulam Figure 15. Turbine K-1000-60/3000-2 parameters Figure 16. Steam Turbine K-1000-60/3000 of Standard Model Figure 17. Chemical Analysis and Mechanical Properties of Main Component Parts of Turbine Figure 18. Longitudinal Section of modernized HPC K-300-240 Figure 19. New Design of End and Shroud Sealings Figure 20. Materials Applied and Chemical Composition for Upgraded HPC

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Steam conditions Unsaturated steam
Pressure kg(f)/cm (abs.) Temperat. C

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Extraction conditions Cooling water The number of regenerative bleed-off 3 7 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 1 8 8 7 8 8 8 6 1 3 Temperature of feeding water C 238 226 227 237 237 250 227 250 250 250 263 248 247 249 245 249 253 256 259 65 276 278 245 276 274 224 225 65 65 power and heat Pressure (abs.) kg(f)/cm Upper 0.4-2.5 0.6-2.5 0.6-2.0 0.6-2.0 0.6-2.0 0.6-2.0 5,0 7,0 6,0 Lower 0.3-1.5 0.7-2.5 0.7-2.5 0.3-1.0 0.5-1.5 0.5-1.5 0.5-1.5 0.5-1.5 0,9 0,3 1,5 Industrial Intermediate superheat
Pressure kg(f)/cm (abs.) Temperat. C

Turbine

I R-50-130(90) K-55-90 T-60-112 ? ? -65-90/13 PT-65-130/13 ? T-80-130/13 ? -110-90 II T-180/210-130-l ? -180/215-130-2 ? -180/215-130*) ? -190/220-170*) ? -200-130-7 ? -210-130-8 ? -200-130-9 ? -215-130-1(2) ? -225-130 ? -200-181 ? -300-170 ? -330-170*) ? 450 130 III ? 300-240-2T ? -300-240-3 ? -500-160 ? -500-240-4 ? -800-240-5 IY ? -1000-60/3000**) ? -1065-60/3000**) Y ? -35-6***) ? -150-7,7 ? -150-7,7

Nominal (maximal) electric power value, MW 52,7(60) 55(57) 55(75) 64(75) 65(75) 80(100) 110(115) 180(210) 180(215) 185(215) 190(220) 200(200) 210(210) 200 (200) 215(220) 225(225) 200(220) 310(310) 330(330) 450 310(310) 300(314) 500(525) 500(535) 800(850) 1103 1078 35 170 160

Maximal steam disposal on turbine, t/h 470 217 270 398 396 470 420 670 670 670 670 670 670 670 670 670 655 960 1050 1150 1000 975 1715 1650 2650 6320 6380 230/46 480+110 480+110

130 90 112 90 130 130 90 130 130 130 170 130 130 130 130 130 181 170 170 130 240 240 166 240 240 60 60 6 75 78

555 535 530 535 555 555 535 540 540 540 540 540 535 540 540 540 535 540 540 540 540 540 530 540 540 x-0,995 x-0.995 x-0,995 510 510

_ 25.4 25.4 26.2 27.5 24.5 24.6 24.7 24.1 23.6 22.0 39.1 43.0 36.6 40.1 37.3 37.3 38.3 34.1 5,6 6,7 -

540 540 540 540 540 535 540 540 540 535 540 540 54 540 540 535 540 540 250 250 -

Discharge, Temperature m3/h at condencer inlet C 8000 7000 8000 8000 8000 16000 22000 22000 22000 22000 VCU 27500 VCU 25000 27500 25000 26000 38000 45000 36000 36000 68500 51480 73000 170000 140000 12500 27500 27500 10 5 20 20 20 10 27 20 27 27 30 12 5 22 25 12 25 12 24 12 12 20 20 15 15 15

Heat load Gcal/h 105 68(85) 60(84) 68(100) 260 260 275 265 100 570 912 170 340

Pressure Ammount of hg(f)/?m extracted (abs.) steam t/h 7-21 320(415) 10-16 10-16 10-16 155(250) 140(250) 185(300) -

NOTES : 1. ? - kondensation; T - with controlled power-and-heat extraction; PI - with controlled industrial and power-ane-heat extraction; R - with back-pressure. 2. Designed for 3000 rpm. 3. In bracket - maximum values. 4 . *) - are being designed at present. 5. **)- for Nuclear PS. 6. ***) - for Geothermal PS.

Figure 1. Main Technical Characteristics of Steam Turbines Produced by LMZ

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Figure 2. New Design Arrangement of 350-850 MW Steam Turbines Based on LPC with 1200 mm Titanium Moving Blade

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Figure 3. Range of LPC Last Stage Moving Blade

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Figure 4. Different Types of Shrouds

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Figure 5. LPC Control Grid Diaphragm Before and After Modification

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Figure 6. LPC Last Stage with Interchannel Moisture Separation and Film Moisture Removal

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30-50 years

5-20 years

30%

35%

20-30 years

35%
Figure 7. TPP equipment in Russia classified in accordance with the operating period (%)

Figure 8. Fuel consumption for TPS in Russia (%)

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120

115,5

100

85
80

71

60

48
40 2005 2010 2015 2020

Figure 9. Exhaustion of park service life for TPS rated (GW)

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Figure 10. 3-D Stage Calculation Results

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Live steam: pressure, bar(abs) temperature, C flow, t/H Rated output, MW

6,9 507 222 78,6

Figure 11. Steam Turbine of 80 MW for CCP Banhida in Hungary

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Live steam: pressure, bar(abs) temperature, C flow, t/H At exhaust of HPC: pressure, bar temperature, C steam flow, t/h Feedwater temperature, C Condenser parameters: cooling water flow, m/h inlet cooling water temperature, C design pressure, bar Rated output, MW

290 580 949,3

49,85 312,8 748,5 297,4

32000 12,0 0,033 350

Figure 12. Steam Turbine of 350 MW on Supercritical Conditions for Novocherkasskaya TPP in Russia

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Long-term strength, s 100000


Ref. ? 1 2 3 4 5 Material ? 2? ? (25? 1? 1? ? ) ? 11? ? ? ? ? 15? 1? 1? (? ) 1? 11? ? ? (? ) ? ? -756(1? 12? 2? ? ) Application HP and IP rotors HP and IP rotors Casings Casings Pipelines T=575C 100 100 100 >80 60 70 120 T=600C

Creep limits and long-term stregth for Steel 15? 11? ? ? (? ) (s 0,2=470 MPa)
T, C 565 580 600 s1/100000 70 55 s1000 160 210 120 s10000 140 150 90 s100000 120 100 70

Creep limits and long-term stregth for Steel R2MA at 550C


t hour s l.s s 1% MPa MPa s 0.5% MPa 103 225 160 210 104 180 160 105 140 76 105 2105 115 62 84

Figure 13. Applied Materials for Turbine Components for Supercritical Conditions

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Figure 14. Steam Turbine K-1000-60/3000-2 for NPP Kudankulam

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Reactor rated thermal output, MW Rated live steam flow, kg/s Rated absolute live steam pressure, MPa Rated live steam temperature, C Rated degree of live steam moisture, % Absolute steam pressure at HPC outlet, MPa Degree of moisture after separation, % Absolute steam pressure after steam reheater, MPa Steam temperature after reheater at LPC inlet, C Feed water temperature, C Absolute steam pressure within the condenser, kPa Steam maximum flow into condenser, kg/s Generator rated output (gross) at, MW Heat rate (gross) at guarantee terms, kJ/kWh

3000 1661,1 5,88 274,3 0,5 0,750 0,5 0,698 250 223,8 8,06 892,2 997,5 10700,3

Figure 15. Turbine K-1000-60/3000-2 parameters

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Figure 16. Steam Turbine K-1000-60/3000 of Standard Model

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Ref ? Object

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Chemical analysis Material C Mn Si Cr Mo Elements, percent V Ti Nb S P Ni Mechanical properties

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KCU KCV 0.2 B kJ/m2 kJ/m2 HB 2 2 Cu W kgf/mm kgf/mm % % (kgm/?m2) (kgm/?m2) 50 70 50 70 21 60 72 60 77 70 70 38 49 75 72 14 30 14 30 23 14 40 15 40 13 40 14 45 10 25 14 35 590 590 187 255 187 255

Outside 1 HP housing 2 3

06? 12? 3? -? 0.06 0.6 0.4

11.8 13.5

2.7 0.7 0.025 0.025 3.3 1.2 2.7 0.7 0.025 0.025 3.3 1.2 0.3 0.3 0.04

Inside HP 11.8 06? 12? 3? -? 0.06 0.6 0.4 housing 13.5 LPC casing St. 3 0.14 0.4 0.12 0.3 0.22 0.65 0.3

0.05

4 HP rotor

30? ? 3? 1? ?

0.17 1.25 0.26 0.47 0.12 0.4 1.7 0.33 0.17 0.73 0.2 8 5

3.3 0.2 0.015 0.015 3.8 3.3 0.015 0.015 3.8 0.25

780 (8) 810

5 LP rotor

26XH3M2? A

0.24 0.28 1.25 0.48 0.1 0.31 0.62 0.15 1.75 0.72 0.2 0.11 10.0 0.7 0.5 0.2 11.5 0.58 0.23 0.82 0.42

15? 11? ? -? Moving blades 6 (last stage)

0.03

0.6 0.3 68 80 0.035 58 72 82 55 80

83

392

20? 13-? BT-6

12.0 0.15 0.6 0.6 0.26 14.0

0.6 0.025 0.03

72 95 120 65

491 ( 3.5)

590

207 293

Titanium, Al5.5-6.7, V 3.5-4.5, ? 0.1, Fe 0.4 0.06 0.6 0.4 11.9 13.6 2.7 0.7 0.025 0.025 3.3 1.2

7 Stationary blades

06? 12? 3?

Where: s 0.2 yield point, s B ultimate strength, d elongation, ? reduction of area, KCU impact strength for speciments with U-notch at 20 C, KCV - impact strength for speciments with V-notch at 20 C, HB Brinell hardness. Figure 17. Chemical Analysis and Mechanical Properties of Main Component Parts of Turbine

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Figure 18. Longitudinal Section of modernized HPC K-300-240

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Figure 19. New Design of End and Shroud Sealings

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Ref. ? 1

Object Moving blades: HPC governing stage Moving blades: (2-11) HPC stages Stationary blades: (2-11) HPC stages Moving blades: (12-20) HPC stages Stationary blades: (12-20) HPC stages HPC outer casing HPC inner casing Nozzle boxes HP rotor

Material 18X? ? ? ? ? (? ? 291) 08X16H13M2? (? ? 680) 15X11? ? 15X11? ? 20X13? 2X13 15XM1? ? 15XM1? ? 15XM1? ? ?2? ?

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

C 0.060.12 0.110.20 0.110.20 0.110.20 0.50.26 0.160.24 0.140.20 0.140.20 0.140.20 0.210.29

Mn 0.6-1.0 <-1.0 <-0.70 <-0.70 <-0.6 <-0.6 0.6-0.9 0.6-0.9 0.6-0.9 0.3-0.6

Si <-0.6 <-0.8 <0.50 <0.50 <-0.6 <-0.6 0.20.4 0.20.4 0.20.4 0.250.5

Cr 1011,5 15-17 1011.5 1011.5 10-14 12-14 1.21.7 1.21.7 1.21.7 1.51.8

Chemical analysis (elements, percent) Mo V Ti Nb S 0.80.20.2<-0.2 <-0.025 1.1 0.4 0.45 0.92.0<-0.02 1.3 2.5 0.58- 0.23<-0.03 0.82 0.42 0.58- 0.23<-0.03 0.82 0.42 0.91.2 0.91.2 0.91.2 0.91.05 0.250.4 0.250.4 0.250.4 0.220.32 <-0.025 <-0.025 <-0.025 <-0.025 <-0.025 <-0.025

P <-0.03 <-0.35 <-0.35 <-0.35 <-0.03 <-0.03 <-0.025 <-0.025 <-0.025 <-0.025

Ni 0.5-1.0 12.514.5 <-0.6 <-0.6 <-0.6 <-0.6 <-0.3 <-0.3 <-0.3 <-0.4

Cu -0.3 <-0.3 <-0.03 <-0.03 <-0.3 <-0.3 <-0.3 <-0.20

As -

Figure 20. Materials Applied and Chemical Composition for Upgraded HPC