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Cc k thut trong thng tin quang c th cung cp gii php ng dng cho hin ti v tng lai.

Thng qua
s pht trin ca si quang th kin trc mng vin thng cng ngy cng pht trin mnh m, cung cp tc
rt cao truyn d liu c dung lng ln. Mt s thun li ca h thng thng tin quang l: dung lng
bng thng cao, truyn dn di, ng tin cy. Nhng nm gn y, vic gia tng dung lng mng truyn
dn cng vi vic pht trin cc ng dng v dch v mi n khch hng to ra hin tng gi l tht c
chai trong mng truy nhp. Khng nghi ng g na mng quang l mt gii php cn thit v quan trng
trong vn truyn dn. Trong , mng quang th ng PON (Passive Optical Network) l mt gii php
trin vng y ha hn trong mng truy nhp lm gim bt hin tng tht c chai. Mng PON l mng
im n a im m khng c cc thnh phn tch cc trong tuyn truyn dn t ngun n ch, c bn th
n bao gm si quang v cc thit b th ng. iu ny lm tit kim chi ph bo dng, phn phi thit b,
cp ngun v tn dng c kin trc mng quang. Hin nay c 2 mng PON c chun ha ty theo k
thut lp 2 c s dng l ITU-T and IEEE. Chun PON u tin da vo ATM nh l APON v BPON v
da vo giao thc ng gi GFP c bit nh l GPON. Th 2 l chun IEEE 802.3ah ni ln nh l mt
ng c vin y ha hn cho mng truy nhp bng rng th h k tip, l EPON. Lun n tt nghip
ny c trnh by gm 4 chng vi ni dung nh sau:
Chng 1: Tm hiu cng ngh mng quang th ng PON (Passive Optical Network). Chng ny gii
thiu v mng PON, cc thnh phn c bn trong mng PON v phn loi cc loi PON.
Chng 2: Tm hiu FTTH (Fiber to the home). Chng ny tm hiu c th cc loi PON chun theo ITUT: APON/BPON, GPON v EPON, sau gii thiu mun m rng mng PON chun ny bng cch s
dng b khuch i quang nh th no?
Chng 3: M hnh thit k v bi ton thit k FTTH. Chng ny nu ra m hnh thit k, bi ton thit
k FTTH da trn cng ngh mng quang th ng PON theo chun ITU-T v hng m rng ca mng
PON.
Chng 4: Chng trnh thit k. Gii thiu chng trnh thit k. p dng Visual basic. Net gii quyt
chng trnh.
Do thi gian nghin cu khng nhiu v qu trnh thit k chc chn khng trnh khi mt s thiu st nht
nh. Mong c s gp ph bnh qu bu ca qu thy c sau ny em tip tc nghin cu su hn.

MC LC
MC LC .............................................................................................................................. i DANH MC
CC HNH V ............................................................................................... iv
DANH MC CC BNG .................................................................................................... vi
CHNG 1
TM HIU CNG NGH MNG QUANG TH NG PON ......................................... 1
1.1. Gii thiu mng quang th ng PON ............................................................................. 1
1.1.1. Cng ngh PON ........................................................................................................... 1
1.1.2. c im chnh ca h thng PON ............................................................................... 1
1.2. Thnh phn c bn ca mng quang th ng PON ........................................................ 2
1.2.2. OLT ............................................................................................................................. 4
1.2.2.1. Phn li OLT ............................................................................................................. 4
1.2.2.2. Phn dch v OLT ..................................................................................................... 5
1.2.2.3. Phn chung OLT ....................................................................................................... 5
1.2.3. ONU ............................................................................................................................ 5
1.2.3.1. Phn li ONU ............................................................................................................ 5
1.2.3.2. Phn dch v ONU .................................................................................................... 6
1.2.3.3. Phn chung ONU ...................................................................................................... 6
1.2.4. ODN ............................................................................................................................ 6
1.2.4.1. Si quang v cp quang ............................................................................................. 6
1.2.4.2. Splitter ...................................................................................................................... 7
1.3. Ti sao PON li pht trin ............................................................................................... 8
1.4. Phn loi PON................................................................................................................. 9
Chng 2 .................................................................................... 11

TM HIU FIBER TO THE HOME


2.1. APON/BPON ................................................................................................................ 11
2.1.1. M t h thng APON/BPON..................................................................................... 12
2.1.2. Kin trc phn lp APON/BPON ............................................................................... 13
2.1.3. Khung truyn dn APON/BPON ................................................................................ 13
2.1.4. Bc sng trong APON.............................................................................................. 16
2.1.5. Kin trc chuyn mch bo v .................................................................................... 17
2.2. GPON ........................................................................................................................... 18
2.2.1. M t h thng GPON ................................................................................................ 18
2.2.2. Lp truyn dn hi t GPON (GTC) ........................................................................... 19
2.2.3. Khung truyn dn GPON ........................................................................................... 20
2.2.3.1. Cu trc khung down ............................................................................................... 20
2.2.3.2. Cu trc khung up ................................................................................................... 24
2.2.3.3. nh x lu lng vo ti GTC ................................................................................. 28
2.2.4. Sp xp giao thc GPON ............................................................................................ 30
2.2.5. Phn b bng tn ng DBA trong GPON .................................................................. 32
2.2.6. Bo mt ...................................................................................................................... 33
2.2.7. Sa li FEC ................................................................................................................ 33
2.3. EPON........................................................................................................................... 34 ii

2.3.1. Kin trc tng Ethernet v EPON ............................................................................... 34


2.3.2. Lp ph thuc mi trng vt l PMD ca EPON ....................................................... 36
2.3.3. Hot ng burst mode v Loop Timing trong EPON .................................................. 36
2.3.4. Khung Ethernet .......................................................................................................... 37
2.3.5. Giao thc iu khin a im ..................................................................................... 37
2.3.5.1. Ranging trong EPON ............................................................................................... 38
2.3.5.2. Hot ng Gate v Report ....................................................................................... 38
2.3.5.4. Khi d liu giao thc iu khin a im ............................................................... 40
2.3.5.5. T ng khm ph ONU ......................................................................................... 41
2.3.5.6. M phng P2P trong EPON ..................................................................................... 42
2.3.6. So snh EPON v GPON ............................................................................................ 45
2.4. SuperPON ..................................................................................................................... 46
2.5. Phn b bng tn ........................................................................................................... 47
2.5.1. Phng php phn b bng tn c nh ...................................................................... 47
2.5.2. M t hot ng phn phi bng tn ng c bn ...................................................... 48
2.5.3. IPACT ........................................................................................................................ 49
2.5.4. Phn phi bng thng ti thiu c m bo ............................................................ 52
2.5.5.3. Phn b bng thng ng......................................................................................... 40
2.5.5.7. M ha v bo v .................................................................................................... 45
2.6. Chc nng hot ng, qun l v bo dng trong mng quang th ng PON ............. 53
2.6.1. Qun l mng c bn................................................................................................... 54
2.6.2. Cc chc nng qun l ................................................................................................ 55
2.6.2.1. Qun l thc thi ........................................................................................................ 55
2.6.2.2. Qun l cu hnh ...................................................................................................... 55
2.6.2.3. Qun l k ton ........................................................................................................ 55
2.6.2.4. Qun l li ............................................................................................................... 55
2.6.2.5. Qun l bo mt ....................................................................................................... 56
2.6.3. Hot ng, qun l v bo dng trong FTTH ............................................................ 57
2.7. ng dng ...................................................................................................................... 58
2.7.1. Trn th gii ............................................................................................................... 58
2.7.2. Ti Vit Nam.............................................................................................................. 59
Chng 3
M HNH THIT K V BI TON THIT K FFTH DA TRN CNG NGH MNG QUANG
TH NG PON ............................................................................ 61
3.1. tng m hnh thit k ............................................................................................... 61
3.2. Bi ton thit k ............................................................................................................ 62
3.2.1. Bi ton 1
Thit k FTTH da trn m hnh chun ITU-T ca mng PON ........................................ 62
3.2.2. Bi ton 2
Tnh cng sut thu c OLT v ONU v so snh vi nhy ca thit b sau a ra kt lun c thit
k c FTTH da trn m hnh chun ITU-T ca mng PON khng?62
3.2.3. Bi ton 3
S dng b khuch i quang tng cng sut pht ca OLT trong m hnh thit k FTTH da trn mng
PON ........................................................................................... 64
3.2.4. Bi ton 4 iii

S dng b khuch i quang b suy hao do t l b chia splitter gy nn trong m hnh thit k FTTH
da trn mng PON ............................................................................... 65
3.3. Gi s mt s thit b OLT v ONU .............................................................................. 67
Chng 4
CHNG TRNH THIT K ......................................................................................... 69
4.1. Gii thiu chng trnh ................................................................................................. 69
4.2. Hng dn thc hin chng trnh ................................................................................ 69
PH LC ............................................................................................................................ 79
TI LIU THAM KHO .................................................................................................... 81
T VIT TT ..................................................................................................................... 82 iv

DANH MC CC HNH V
Hnh 1. 1 : M hnh h thng mng PON [1]. ......................................................................... 2
Hnh 1. 2 : Giao din kt ni OLT n mng li v giao din kt ni ONU n khch hng
[9]. ....................................................................................................................................... 3
Hnh 1. 3 : Cc khi chc nng OLT [6]. ............................................................................... 4
Hnh 1. 4 : Cc khi chc nng ONU [6]. ............................................................................... 5
Hnh 1. 5 : c tuyn suy hao ca si quang [1]. .................................................................... 7
Hnh 1. 6 : Cc loi splitter..................................................................................................... 8
Hnh 1. 7 : Vic trin khai si quang trong mng truy nhp [10] ............................................. 9
Hnh 2. 1 : M hnh h thng BPON [1], [10] ...................................................................... 11
Hnh 2. 2 :Kin trc phn lp APON/BPON ........................................................................ 13
Hnh 2. 3 : Cu trc khung download v up load ca APON ................................................ 16
Hnh 2. 4 : K hoch phn b bc sng ca ITU-T G.983.3 ............................................... 17
Hnh 2. 5 : Kin trc chuyn mch bo v c a ra trong ITU-T G.983.1 ....................... 18
Hnh 2. 6 : Khi nim iu khin a truy nhp GPON [5] ..................................................... 20
Hnh 2 .7 : Khung down GTC [5] ......................................................................................... 20
Hnh 2. 8 : M t chi tit khung down GTC.......................................................................... 21
Hnh 2. 9 : C ch trng thi ng b ONU [5] .................................................................... 22
Hnh 2. 10 : Khung up GTC [5] ............................................................................................ 24
Hnh 2 .11 : M t chi tit khung up GTC [1] ....................................................................... 25
Hnh 2. 12 : Cc cell ATM hng up ln [5] ..................................................................... 27
Hnh 2. 13 : Cc khung GEM hng up ln [5] ................................................................. 27
Hnh 2. 14 : Bo co DBA hng up ln [5] ...................................................................... 27
Hnh 2. 15 : Cu trc header v khung GEM [5]................................................................... 28
Hnh 2. 16 : C ch trng thi m t GEM [5] ...................................................................... 29
Hnh 2. 17 : nh x v phn on d liu ca user thnh ti GEM [5] .................................. 30
Hnh 2. 18 : Ghp d liu khn cp s dng th tc phn khung GEM [5] ........................... 30
Hnh 2. 19 : Th tc sp xp GPON giai on 1 : Th tc ng k s serial cho ONU mi
[1] .......................................................................................................................................... 31
Hnh 2. 20 : Th tc sp xp GPON giai on 2 : Th tc o tr [1] ................................ 32
Hnh 2. 21 : V d khung down cho tc 2.488 Gbps [5] ................................................... 33
Hnh 2. 22 : V d khung up ln [5] ...................................................................................... 34
Hnh 2. 23 : Kin trc lp P2P Ethernet v lp P2MP EPON [1] .......................................... 35
Hnh 2. 24 : Khun dng khung Ethernet chun. .................................................................. 37
Hnh 2. 25 : Th tc sp xp EPON [1]. ............................................................................... 38
Hnh 2. 26 : Hot ng Gate ca EPON [1] .......................................................................... 39
Hnh 2. 27 : Hot ng Report ca EPON ............................................................................ 40
Hnh 2. 28 : Khun dng ca khi d liu giao thc iu khin a im MPCPDU .............. 41
Hnh 2. 29 : Th tc d tm t ng trong EPON ................................................................. 41
Hnh 2. 30 : Cc ONU khng thy lu lng trc tip vi nhau m phi thng qua OLT ..... 42
Hnh 2. 31 : M phng P2P trong EPON .............................................................................. 43 v

Hnh 2. 32 : Nhn khung MAC trong EPON ........................................................................ 44


Hnh 2. 33 : M phng hot ng OLT qung b lu lng v ONU truyn P2P trong
EPON .......................................................................................................................................... 45
Hnh 2. 34 : MAC P2P v qung b trong EPON ................................................................. 45
Hnh 2. 35 : Minh ha v tr ca b khuch i t sau b OLT ............................................ 47
Hnh 2. 36 : Minh ha v tr ca b khuch i t gn splitter b suy hao cho splitter ..... 47
Hnh 2. 37 : Phn b khe thi gian c nh [3] ..................................................................... 48
Hnh 2. 38 : M hnh phn b bng tn ng c bn [1] ....................................................... 48
Hnh 2. 39 : Cc bc thut ton polling [3] ......................................................................... 52
Hnh 2. 40 : Cc bc ca giao thc phn b bng thng ti thiu........................................ 53
Hnh 2. 41 : Cc thnh phn h thng qun l mng in hnh v mi quan h ca chng
[13] .......................................................................................................................................... 54
Hnh 2. 42 : Cc tin trnh qun l li [13] ............................................................................ 56
Hnh 2. 44 : Bng cp nht xp hng s dng FTTH chu ............................................. 58
Hnh 2. 43 : OLT khi to loop-back iu khin t xa [13] .................................................. 58
Hnh 3. 1 : M hnh thit k mng PON ............................................................................... 61
Hnh 3. 2 : Minh ha khong cch truyn cn tng v v tr ca b khuch i trong trong bi ton mun tng
cng sut pht ............................................................................................. 64
Hnh 3. 4 : Minh ha v tr ca b khuch i trong trong bi ton b suy hao cho splitter .... 66
Hnh 3. 5 : Lu gii thut ca bi ton s 2, 3 v 4 ............ Error! Bookmark not defined.
Hnh 4. 1: Giao din chnh ca chng trnh ........................................................................ 71
Hnh 4. 2 : Giao din ca chng trnh thit k h thng da vo s thu bao nhp ty ..... 71
Hnh 4. 3 : Giao din xut hin bng thng bo khi khng nhp vo s thu bao .................. 72
Hnh 4. 4 : Giao din kt qu chng trnh thit k h thng da vo s thu bao nhp ty 72
Hnh 4. 5 : Giao din chng trnh thit k FTTH da trn cng ngh quang th ng ......... 73
Hnh 4. 6 : Giao din c s d liu ca chng trnh thit k mng PON chun theo ITU-T. 73
Hnh 4. 7 : Giao kt qu chng trnh thit k mng PON theo chun ITU-T ....................... 75
Hnh 4. 8 : Giao din thit k mng PON c s dng b khuch i quang tng cng sut
pht .................................................................................................................................... 75
Hnh 4. 9 : Giao din kt qu tnh ton khi s dng b khuch i tng cng sut pht. .. 76
Hnh 4. 10 : Giao din thit k mng PON c s dng b khuch i quang b suy hao cho
splitter. ............................................................................................................................... 77
Hnh 4. 11 : Giao din kt qu ca chng trnh thit k PON s dng b khuch i quang b suy hao
cho splitter.......................................................................................................... 78 vi

DANH MC CC BNG
Bng 1. 1 : Lit k suy hao ca cc b chia splitter tng ng. ............................................... 8
Bng 1. 2 : M t s khc nhau ca APON/BPON, GPON v EPON. .................................. 10
Bng 2. 1 : Tc down v up ca APON/BPON. ............................................................... 12
Bng 3. 1 : Lit k cc thng s gi s thit b OLT trong PON. .......................................... 67
Bng 3. 2 : Lit k cc thng s gi s thit b ONU trong mng PON. ................................ 68

THIT K FTTH DA TRN CNG NGH MNG


QUANG TH NG
Chng 1: TM HIU CNG NGH MNG QUANG TH NG
PON
Chng ny gii thiu v mng quang th ng PON, cc thnh phn c bn ca mng quang th ng PON
v phn loi cc loi PON.

1.1. Gii thiu mng quang th ng PON


1.1.1. Cng ngh PON
PON l t vit tt ca Passive Optical Network tm dch l mng quang th ng. Cng ngh mng quang
th ng PON cn c hiu l mng cng ngh quang truy nhp gip tng cng kt ni gia cc nt mng
truy nhp ca nh cung cp dch v v ngi s dng. Cng ngh PON c bit ti u tin l TPON
(Telephony PON) c trin khai vo nhng nm 90, tip nm 1998, mng BPON (Broadband PON)
c chun ha da trn nn ATM. Hai nm 2003 v 2004 nh du s ra i ca hai dng cng ngh
Ethernet PON (EPON)
v Gigabit PON (GPON), c th ni hai cng ngh ny m ra c hi mi cho cc nh cung cp dch v gii
quyt hng lot vn truy nhp bng thng rng ti ngi s dng u cui. Thnh vin mi nht trong gia
nh PON l WDM PON (Wavelength Division Multiplexer PON). Trong cng ngh PON, tt c thnh
phn active gia tng i CO (Central Office) v ngi s dng s khng cn tn ti m thay vo l cc
thit b quang th ng, iu hng cc traffic trn mng da trn vic phn chia nng lng ti cc im
u cui trn ng truyn chnh v vy m ngi ta gi l cng ngh mng quang th ng (PON). V tr
ca h thng PON trong mng truyn dn: Mng quang th ng PON l mt dng ca mng truy nhp
quang. Mng truy nhp h tr cc kt ni n khch hng. N c t gn u cui khch hng v trin
khai vi s lng ln. Mng truy nhp tn ti nhiu dng khc nhau do nhiu l do khc nhau v PON l
mt trong nhng dng . So vi mng truy nhp cp ng truyn thng, si quang hu nh khng gii hn
bng thng (hng THz). Vic trin khai si quang n tn nh thu bao s l mc ch pht trin trong tng
lai.

1.1.2. c im chnh ca h thng PON

c trng ca h thng PON l thit b th ng phn phi si quang n tng nh thu bao s dng b
chia splitter c th ln ti 1:128.
PON h tr giao thc ATM, Ethernet.
PON h tr cc dch v voice, data v video tc cao.
Kh nng cung cp bng thng cao.
Chng 1: Tm hiu cng ngh mng quang th ng PON SVTH: Hng ng Ngc n Lp: 07VTH1
Trang 2

Trong h thng PON bng thng c chia s cho nhiu khch hng iu ny s lm gim chi ph cho
khch hng s dng.
Kh nng tn dng cng ngh WDM, ghp knh phn chia theo di tn v cung cp bng thng ng
gim thiu s lng cp quang cn thit kt ni gia OLT v splitter.
PON thc hin truyn dn 2 chiu trn 2 si quang hay 2 chiu trn cng 1 si quang.
PON c th h tr topo hnh cy, sao, bus v ring.

1.2. Thnh phn c bn ca mng quang th ng PON


1.2.1. M hnh h thng
HNH 1-1. M HNH H THNG MANG PON (1)

Mt h thng mng PON biu din trn hnh 1.1 bao gm cc thit b kt cui ng quang (OLTs Optical
line terminators) t ti trm trung tm (CO- Central Office) v b cc thit b kt cui knh quang (ONUs
Optical network units) c t pha ngi s dng. Gia chng l h thng phn phi mng quang (ODN
Optical distribution network) bao gm cp quang, cc thit b ghp/tch th ng
OLT c kt ni n mng li/metro thng qua giao tip (hnh 1.2):
V5: giao tip ny ni n mng PSTN/ISDN.
E1: giao tip vi mng DDN.
FE/GE v ATM: giao tip vi mng IP/ATM.

HINH 1-2. GIAO DIN KT NI OLT N MNG LI V GIAO DIN KT NI ONU N


KHCH HNG (9)
Giao din kt ni n cc thit b ca khch hng gm c cc loi sau (hnh 1.2):
POTS (Plain Old Telephone Service): l h thng in thoi tng t ch gi mt tn hiu tng t trn
mi cp dy, mi tn hiu ring bit ny c coi l mt knh. S dng POTS v modem gi tn hiu
tng t cung cp mt knh 64kbit/s. Modem v ng dy in thoi truyn thng kh ph hp cho mc
ch s dng Internet gi th in t. Tuy nhin, nu chng ta cn gi v nhn mt khi lng d liu
ln th s mt kh nhiu thi gian.
Dch v POTS c nhng c im sau y:
o Cc ng dy hin thi ch s dng hai cp dy xon.
o Tn hiu trn cp ni chng cui l tn hiu tng t.
o Cn modem chuyn tn hiu s thnh tn hiu tng t.
xDSL: cung cp kt ni xDSL bng thng cao kh nng ti a ln 50Mbps, vi yu cu khong cch cp
ng khong 500m v ti a n 1000m.
FE (Fast Ethernet): cung cp cc dch v tc ln ti 100Mbps cho khch hng.
2B+D: cung cp 2 knh B c tc mi knh l 64 kbps c dng cho thoi, fax, truyn d liu v truy
cp Internet; 1 knh D c tc 16 kbps c dng truyn tn hiu iu khin.

V.24/V.35: ni vo cc thit b.

1.2.2. OLT
OLT cung cp giao din quang v pha mng phi quang ODN v cung cp t nht mt giao din quang trn
mng pha mng truy nhp quang. OLT c th c t bn trong tng i hay ti mt trm t xa. S
khi chc nng ca OLT c m t hnh 1.3
HNH 1.3. CC KHI CHC NNG OLT (6)
Mt OLT c th c chia lm 3 phn: phn li, phn dch v v phn chung.
1.2.2.1. Phn li OLT
Phn li OLT bao gm:
Chc nng kt ni cho c s ha cung cp cc kt ni gia phn mng li/metro vi phn mng phi
quang ODN.
Chc nng ghp knh truyn dn cung cp vic truyn v ghp cc knh trn mng phi quang ODN. V
d nh d liu i t mng li/metro n mng phi quang ODN th n c nhim v l truyn cn d liu i
t mng phi quang ODN n mng li/metro th n phi c ghp knh trc khi truyn n mng
li/metro.
Chc nng giao din ODN cung cp mi trng truyn dn quang kt ni OLT vi mt hoc nhiu ONU
bng vic s dng thit b th ng. N iu khin qu trnh chuyn i quang/in v in/quang. c
th thc hin c ch chuyn mch bo v v lm d dng cho vic x l thit b th ng splitter th OLT
s c cc chc nng giao din ODN ging nh phn mng phi quang ODN
1.2.2.2. Phn dch v OLT
Phn dch v OLT th c chc nng port dch v. Cc port dch v s truyn t nht tc ISDN v s c th
cu hnh mt s dch v hay c th h tr ng thi hai hay nhiu dch v khc nhau v d nh dch v
truyn hnh phn gii cao (HDTV- high definition TV), game online, truyn d liu... Bt k khi TU
(tributary unit) cng u cung cp hai hay nhiu port c tc 2 Mbps ph thuc vo cch cu hnh trn mi
port. Khi TU c nhiu port c th cu hnh mi port mt dch v khc nhau.
1.2.2.3. Phn chung OLT
Phn chung OLT bao gm chc nng cp ngun v chc nng hot ng, qun l v bo dng (OAMOperation, Administration and Maintenance). Chc nng cp ngun chuyn i ngun ngoi thnh ngun
mong mun. Chc nng OAM cung cp cc phng tin iu khin hot ng, qun l v bo dng cho
tt c khi OLT. Trong iu khin ni b, mt giao din c th c cung cp cho mc ch chy th v
giao din Q3 cho mng truy nhp n h thng ang hot ng thng qua chc nng sp xp.

1.2.3. ONU
ONU t ti pha khch hng, ONU cung cp cc phng tin cn thit phn phi cc dch v khc nhau
c iu khin bi OLT. M hnh cc khi chc nng ca ONU c m t hnh 1.4
HNH 1.1 CC KHI CHC NNG ONU(6)
Mt ONU c th chia lm 3 phn: phn li, phn dch v v phn chung.
1.2.3.1. Phn li ONU
Phn li ONU gm:
Chc nng ghp khch hng v dch v c nhim v nu v pha khch hng th d liu s c ghp
trc khi truyn n ODN cn nu v pha ODN th cc dch v s tch ra ph hp cho tng user yu cu
dch v.
Chc nng ghp knh truyn dn cung cp cc chc nng phn phi tn hiu gia ODN v khch hng.
Chc nng giao din ODN cung cp cc chc nng chuyn i quang/in hay in/quang.

1.2.3.2. Phn dch v ONU


Phn dch v ONU cung cp cc chc nng port ca user. Chc nng port ca user cung cp cho cc giao
din dch v ca khch hng v b thch nghi ca chng l 64 kbps hay n64 kbps. Chc nng ny c th
c cp bi mt khch hng hay mt nhm khch hng. N cng cung cp cc chc nng chuyn i tn
hiu ty thuc giao din vt l (v d nh rung chung, bo hiu, chuyn i A/D v D/A).
1.2.3.3. Phn chung ONU
Phn chung ONU bao gm chc nng cp ngun v chc nng hot ng, qun l v bo dng OAM. Chc
nng cp ngun cung cp ngun cho ONU (v d nh chuyn i AC thnh DC hay ngc li). Ngun c
th c cp ti ch hay t xa. Nhiu ONU c th chia s ngun. ONU c th hot ng bng ngun d
phng. Chc nng OAM cung cp cc phng tin iu khin cc chc nng hot ng, qun l v bo
dng cho tt c khi ca ONU.

1.2.4. ODN
Mng phi quang ODN cung cp mi trng truyn dn quang cho cc kt ni vt l t ONU n OLT.
ODN bao gm cc thnh phn sau:
Si quang v cp quang.
Cc connector.
Cc thit b th ng nh splitter.
Mi ni.
1.2.4.1. Si quang v cp quang
Si quang l mt thnh phn quan trng trong mng n to s kt ni gia cc thit b. Hai thng s c bn
ca si quang l suy hao v tn sc tuy nhin si quang ng dng trong mng PON th ch cn quan tm n
suy hao khng quan tm n tn sc bi khong cch truyn ti a ch l 20 km v tn sc th nh hng
khng ng k. Do ngi ta s dng si quang y l si quang c suy hao nh ch yu l s dng si
quang theo chun G.652 (theo khuyn ngh G.982).

HNH 1.2. C TUYN SUY HAO CA SI QUANG(1)

Nhn vo c tuyn suy hao ca si quang hnh 1.5 ta thy bc sng 1310 nm th suy hao si quang
khong 0.4 dB/km v bc sng 1490 nm th suy hao si quang khong 0.3 dB/km. Cc loi cp quang
s dng trong mng PON:
Cp gc (cp phn b t OLT n splitter): thng l loose-tube loi cp ny th c khuyn ngh ng
dng hu ht mng PON.
Cp phi (cp phn b t splitter n dy drop): c th s dng cp loose-tube hoc ribbon.
Dy drop (ko n nh thu bao).
1.2.4.2. Splitter
Thnh phn c nhc ch yu trong mng PON l splitter. Splitter l thit b th ng, cng dng ca n l
chia cng sut quang t mt si ra nhiu si khc nhau. T OLT n ONU c th s dng nhiu dng
splitter c t b chia l 1:2; 1:4; 1:8; 1:16;1:32; 1:64; 1:128. Hnh 1.6 s dng mt splitter c t l chia ln
nh 1:32 hay 1:64 hay c th s dng splitter nhiu lp vi lp th nht s dng splitter 1:2 v lp th 2 s
dng 2 splitter 1:4. Hu ht h thng PON c b chia splitter l 1:16 v 1:32. T l chia trc tip nh hng
qu suy hao ca h thng v suy hao truyn dn. T l ca splitter cng cao cng c ngha l cng sut truyn
n mi ONU s gim xung do suy hao ca b chia splitter 1:N tnh theo cng thc 10logN (dB) nn nu
t l b chia m tng ln gp i th suy hao s tng ln 3 dB.

HNH 1.3 CC LOI SPLITTER


(a)
S dng Splitter c t l b chia 1:32 hay 1:64
(b)
S dng Splitter c t l b chia 1:2 v 2 splitter c t l b chia 1:4
Da vo cc b chia nh l 1:2; 1:4; 1:8; 1:16;1:32; 1:64; 1:128 ta c suy hao tng ng lit k bng 1.1.
Bng 1. 1 : Lit k suy hao ca cc b chia splitter tng ng.

1.3. Ti sao PON li pht trin


Trong FTTH nu da vo mng quang ch ng th si quang s c ko t trm trung tm n nh thu
bao. y l kiu kin trc n gin s dng k thut P2P nhng chi ph ko mt si quang t trm trung
tm n nh khch hng l v cng c . Ta gi s c N thu bao vi khong cch truyn L tnh t trm
trung tm CO th ta cn c 2N b thu pht v NL chiu di si quang ( y gi s rng si quang truyn 2
hng) (hnh 1.7a). gim vic trin khai si quang, ta c th s dng trm chuyn mch t xa; iu ny
lm gim vic s dng chiu di si quang nhng li tng s b thu pht ln thnh 2N+2 bi c thm mt
lin kt thm vo mng (hnh 1.7b). Thm vo , trm chuyn mch t xa ny th cn ngun in hot
ng. Mt trong nhng chi ph cao nht ca mng l cung cp v duy tr ngun in hot ng trong mng.
Do , vic thay th trm chuyn mch t xa ny thnh splitter th s tit kim rt nhiu chi ph bi splitter
hot ng m khng cn cp ngun. Mng PON ti u b thu pht quang, trm trung tm v trin khai si
quang. B thu pht trong mng PON ch cn N+1v si quang trin khai c di L (hnh 1.7c). Bi nhng
li ch ca n va tit kim chi ph va d trin khai nn mng PON pht trin rt nhanh chng trong mng
truy nhp.

HNH 1.7: VIC TRIN KHAI SI QUANG TRONG MNG TRUY NHP (10)

1.4. Phn loi PON


Xt v k thut th mng PON c th chia lm 2 loi: th nht l da vo k thut ghp knh phn chia theo
thi gian s dng hng down v k thut truy cp ghp knh theo thi gian hng up th ta c cc loi
nh sau APON/BPON (ATM PON/Broadband PON, GPON(Gigabit PON) v EPON(Ethernet PON); th hai
da vo k thut ghp knh theo bc sng th ta c WDM PON. Trong n tt nghip ny ch yu nghin
cu v ATM/BPON, GPON v EPON. Bng 1.2 m t s khc nhau ca BPON, GPON v EPON ta c
ci nhn khi qut v 3 loi mng PON ny s c trnh by c th chng k tip.

Bng 1. 2 : M t s khc nhau ca APON/BPON, GPON v EPON

Ch ng 2: TM HIU FIBER TO THE HOME

Chng ny s m t c th cc loi APON/BPON, GPON, EPON nh s dng k thut g, cu trc khung


ca tng loi, gm c cc th tc g n hot ng ra sao theo chun ITU-T v cch m rng mng PON bng
cch s dng b khuch i ra sao trong superPON.

2.1. APON/BPON
APON/BPON c chun ha bi ITU-T. APON (ATM-PON) v BPON (Broadband PON) l tn khc nhau
ca kin trc TDM-PON da trn ITU-T G.983. Tn BPON phc v cho mc ch tip th, cn tn APON
th ni r khung ATM c dng truyn trong chun ITU-T G.983. ATM c 53 cell trong 5 cell header
v 48 cell ti. Bi v kch c c nh, ATM c th m bo cht lng dch v v d nh phn b bng
thng, m bo trATM c thit k h tr c thoi v d liu v th m n ph hp cho ng dng
FTTH.

2.1.1. M t h thng APON/BPON

Hnh 2.1 ch ra kin trc ca BPON (Broadband PON). Trong kin trc ny, OLT kt ni n ONU qua
splitter 1:N. Khong cch truyn dn ti a l 10-20 km. Lu lng up ln t ONU c truyn bc sng
1310 nm v down t OLT l bc sng 1490 nm v bc sng 1550 nm c dng down video. D liu
down xung s truyn tt c cc gi d liu n tt c ONU v n s nhn gi m ng a ch ca n cn
hng up ln th cc gi t cc ONU s truyn ln lt cc gi n OLT thng qua s iu khin ca OLT.
OLT s qui nh khe thi gian m ONU no c truyn ti thi im c th trnh c s ng .

HNH 2.1

M HNH H THNG BPON (1),(10)

Trong thit b, OLT thng c to thnh line card v c ghp vo trong b khung v kt ni n mng
li/metro. Cn ONU th c mt hay nhiu port dnh cho kt ni thoi (T1/E1) v data (10/100BASE-T
Ethernet) n khch hng. G.983.1 l khuyn ngh cho APON/BPON ra i nm 1998 vi tc
155.52Mbps v 622.08Mbps. Phin bn mi hn ra i nm 2005 thm vo tc truyn dn 1244.16
Mbps. Nh cung cp dch v APON/BPON c th la chn thc thi tc truyn dn down v up i xng
hay bt i xng. Bng 2.1 ch ra s kt hp tc down v up ca APON/BPON.

Bng 2. 1 : Tc down v up ca APON/BPON.


C G.983.1 v G.984.1 ghi r gii php 2 si quang vi si quang down v up chuyn dng. Bc sng
1310nm c dng c 2 hng trong gii php 2 si. Tuy nhin, trn thc t khng h thng no trin khai
gii php 2 si quang. Th nht l do hng down ta s dng bc sng 1490 nm v up s dng bc
sng 1310 nm, hai bc sng ny khc nhau ta c th s dng trn cng mt si quang m khng gy nhiu
trn ng truyn; th hai ta c th tit kim c chi ph v n gin hn trong vic lp t. Tt c chun
ITU-T PON c 3 loi thit k lp truyn dn quang gia OLT v ONU vi suy hao mng phn phi quang
ODN khc nhau. 3 loi c ch nh trong ITU-T G.982 l:
Loi A: 520 dB
Loi B: 1025 dB
Loi C: 1530 dB
Thit k loi C th yu cu qu cng sut rt nghim ngt v si quang. V cc l do thc t v chi ph, loi
B+ vi suy hao 28 dB c gii thiu hu ht cc nh cung cp dch v.

2.1.2. Kin trc phn lp APON/BPON


M hnh phn lp mng ATM c trnh by trn hnh 2.2 gm c lp ng v lp mi trng truyn dn,
lp mi trng truyn dn phn chia thnh lp mi trng vt l v lp hi t truyn dn TC. Trong mng
ATM-PON lp ng tng ng vi lp ng o ca lp ATM. Lp vt l thc hin giao tip quang ca
mng (hay chnh l mng phn phi quang ODN). Lp ny thc hin cc chc nng: chuyn i in-quang,
nhn/truyn cc tn hiu n/i lp vt l ti mt trong ba bc sng 1310, 1490, 1550nm, kt ni vi si
quang ca ODN.
Lp hi t truyn dn TC tng ng vi lp 2 trong m hnh OSI. Lp TC c phn chia thnh lp con
truyn dn PON v lp con thch ng. Lp con thch ng c chun ha da trn chun ATM trn c s
cp ng truyn thng [ITU I.732]. Chc nng ca lp ny l chuyn i khung 125micro.s thnh cell ATM.
Lp con truyn dn PON th thc hin cc chc nng nh sp xp, cp pht khe thi gian, cp pht bng tn,
bo mt, ng chnh khung, ng b burst, ng b bit/byte.

HNH 2.2 KIN TRC PHN LP APON/BPON


Trong h thng APON/BPON, cc kt ni gia ONU v OLT c thit lp nh l mt mch o ATM. Mi
mch o c ch nh bi s nhn dng ng o (VPI- Virtual Path Identifier) v nhn dng knh o
(VCI- Virtual Channel Identifier) m n c ghi vo trong cell bao gm lung d liu ca n. VPI v VCI
l s liu cung cp cc cp khc nhau ca tn hiu ATM c ghp hay chuyn mch. Nhiu mch o VC c
th tn ti ng o ring. Mt kt ni ATM c ch nh bi cp VPI/VCI.

2.1.3. Khung truyn dn APON/BPON


ITU-T G.983.1 nh r kin trc tham chiu, c im ca b thu pht, cu trc khung truyn ti v cc chc
nng sp xp trong APON/BPON. Tn hiu APON/BPON c truyn trong khe thi gian. Mi khe thi
gian cha mt cell ATM hay mt cell hot ng, qun l v bo dng lp vt l (PLOAM - Physical Layer
Operation, Administration and Maintenance). Cell PLOAM c dng truyn thng tin qun l ca lp
vt l nh l cc bn tin giao thc dng cho vic sp xp, trn key vi d liu v cp nht. Cc khe thi gian
download l cc cell ATM v PLOAM c di mi cell l 53 byte. Mt cell PLOAM c chn vo c
mi 28 khe thi gian (hay 27 cell ATM). tc 155.52Mbps, APON/BPON quy nh khung down c 54
cell ATM l truyn d liu nh vy tc down thc s l: 54/56 155.52 Mbps = 149.97 Mbps V 2 cell
PLOAM dnh cho ng b, iu khin li, bo mt, bo dng v phn phi bng thng. Khung up ln c
53 khe nh vy khung up ln thc s tc d 155.52 Mbps l: 53/56 155.52 Mbps = 147.19 Mbps V mi
khe up ln c chia thnh nhiu khe con, mi khe con cha 3 byte overhead t trc cell ATM v
PLOAM. Bn cnh mi khe up ln c th c chia thnh nhiu khe nh. Hnh 2.3 (a,c) m t khung
down v up ca APON/BPON ti 155.52 Mbps. Cu trc khung ti 622.08 Mbps v 1244.16 Mbps th tng
t ngoi tr s khe thi gian trn khung tng ln ln lt 4 v 8 ln. Cu trc PLOAM down m t hnh
2.3 (b) n gm cc phn sau:

5 byte header c th c m t bn di:

Vng IDENT c nm v tr u tin trong PLOAM down.


K tip l 2 byte ng b.
PLOAM c 27 grant, c mi 6-7 grant th c kim tra CRC.
MSG_PON_ID nh a ch cho mi ONU. Trong th tc sp xp ONU c gn s nhn dng PON_ID.
S nhn dng ny c gi tr t 0 n 63.
MSG_ID m t loi bn tin.
MESSAGE_FIELD cha bn tin cnh bo, x l cc bn tin nhn c ONU lin quan n th tc sp
xp.
BIP8 (bit-interleaved parity) c 8 bit cho php ONU kim tra tc li bit BER.Mi bit ca BIP8 s
XOR vi tt c bit cng v tr trong mt byte. ONU s so snh vi
BIP8 nhn c vi BIP8 c tnh trn lung nhn c, mi bit khng ging s c tnh ton.
Vic truyn cell ATM, cell PLOAM hng up ln c iu khin bi OLT thng qua cell PLOAM
truyn hng down. G.983 yu cu ti thiu c mi 100 ms c mt cell PLOAM trn mt ONU. 3 byte
u hng up ln cha thi gian ngh, li m u v ranh gii bt u cell.

APON/BPON ch nh thi gian ngh ti thiu l 4 bit. N cung cp thi gian ngh gia 2 cell hay khe con
lin k trnh ng .
Li m u ly pha ca cell n hay khe con ng b bit v khi phc bin .
Ranh gii l phn ch nh bt u cell ATM hay khe con, m c th c dng thc hin ng b
byte.
Ni dung ca vng ny c lp trnh v c nh r trong OLT trong bn tin c t u ca khung
hng up ln.

56 khe thi gian download

53 khe thi gian upload


Hnh 2. 3 : Cu trc khung download v up load ca APON
(a) Khun dng khung down tc 155 Mbps ; (b) Khun dng bn tin
PLOAM down ; (c) Khun dng ca bn tin up ln ; (d) Khun dng bn tin
PLOAM up ln [4]
Khun dng cell PLOAM up ln c m t hnh 2.3 (d) bao gm cc phn sau:
Ging nh khung down n cng c 5 byte header v 1 byte IDENT bt u khung up.
MSG_PON_ID v MSG_ID phc v cho vic nhn dng ONU.
Byte CRC truyn cnh bo cc thng tin hot ng, qun l v bo dng t ONU.
17 byte iu khin ngun laser: s dng cho ONU bo co cc mc cng sut v t l extinction cho
mi ngun laser ca ONU chng c th duy tr gi tr thch hp.
16 byte iu khin b thu c dng b thu ca OLT hiu chnh mc ngng cho vic pht hin
mc 0 v mc 1.
BIP cng c chc nng tng t nh khung down.

2.1.4. Bc sng trong APON/BPON


Trng hp h thng truyn 2 si quang, h thng APON/BPON dnh vng ca s bc sng 1260-1360
nm cho c hng down v up. Trng hp truyn mt si, vng bc sng 1480-1500 nm c dng
hng down, vng bc sng 1260-1360 nm dng hng up v vng m rng. Vng m rng gm 2
phn: phn 1 bc sng 1539-1565 nm cung cp cc dch v k thut s v phn 2 bc sng 1550-1560
nm dng cho vic phn phi video. Hai bng 1360-1480 nm, t 1565 nm tr i c dnh cho nghin cu
tng lai. Hnh 2.4 m t k hoch phn b bc sng ca ITU-T G983.3
HNH 2.4: K HOCH PHN B BC SNG CA ITU-T G.983.3

vng m rng. Vng m rng gm 2 phn: phn 1 bc sng 1539-1565 nm cung cp cc dch v k thut
s v phn 2 bc sng 1550-1560 nm dng cho vic phn phi video. Hai bng 1360-1480 nm, t 1565
nm tr i c dnh cho nghin cu tng lai. Hnh 2.4 m t k hoch phn b bc sng ca ITU-T
G983.3

Hnh 2. 5 : Kin trc chuyn mch bo v c a ra trong


ITU-T G.983.1
2.2. GPON
GPON vit tt ca t Gigabit Passive Optical Network. GPON l s pht trin ca APON/BPON n hot
ng tc ln ti hng Gbps v c chun ha thnh ITU-T G.984. GPON khng ph thuc vo
ATM, GPON s dng lp con truyn dn hi t (GTC- GPON Transmission Convergence), khung GTC c
th ng gi cc cell ATM. Khng ging nh APON/BPON, khung GTC c th ng gi trc tip cc gi
d liu thng qua phng php ng gi GPON (GEM- GPON Encapsulation Method). Phn ti khung GTC
cha c ATM v GEM.

2.2.1. M t h thng GPON


Kin trc GPON th tng t APON/BPON c m t phn 2.1.1. Tuy nhin, i vi h thng GPON
th tc tng ln n hng Gigabit v ng thi b chia splitter y ln ti 1:128 trong khi b chia
splitter ca APON/BPON ch c 1:32 v khong cch ti a gia OLT v ONU ln ti 60 km ch khng
phi l 20 km nh trong APON/BPON. Bng 2.2 lit k tc bit ca GPON trong G.984.3.

Bng 2. 2 : Lit k tc d bit ca GPON trong G.984.3


Khi tc bit tng ln n hng gigabit th cn c b pht cng sut cao v do dn n l cng cn c b
thu c nhy cao hn. iu ny c th c khc phc bng cch s dng c ch cn bng cng sut. C
ch cn bng cng sut h tr cho vic iu chnh cc mc cng sut ca ONU lm gim vng chnh lch
cng sut nhn c OLT. Mt ONU gn OLT th suy hao thp, s khi to cng sut nh hn ONU
xa.

2.2.2. Lp truyn dn hi t GPON


Chc nng chnh ca lp truyn dn hi t GPON (GTC- GPON Transmission Convergence) l cung cp
ghp knh vn chuyn gia OLT v ONU. Cc chc nng khc bao gm:
Thch nghi vi giao thc tn hiu lp con.
Cc chc nng hot ng, qun l v bo dng lp vt l PLOAM.
Giao din phn phi bng tn ng.
Sp xp v ng k ONU.
Sa li (mc nh).
Mt m lung d liu down xung (mc nh).
Knh thng tin cho OMCI.

Chc nng GTC: H thng GTC cung cp iu khin a truy nhp cho lu lng up ln. Trong khi nim
c bn, cc khung down ch th vng c php truyn lu lng up ln trong khung up ln ng b vi
khung down.
Khi nim iu khin a truy nhp GPON c m t hnh 2.6. OLT gi cc con tr trong khi iu khin
vt l PCBd, cc con tr ny ch th thi gian bt u v kt thc m mi container truyn dn (T-CONT) c
th dng truyn d liu up ln. Bng cch ny, ch c mt ONU truy nhp mng ti bt k thi im no
khng c s tranh chp trong hot ng bnh thng. Cc con tr c a vo cc khi byte, cho php OLT
iu khin mi trng mng vi tc 64 kbps. Tuy nhin, chun cho php nh khai thc dch v thm cc
tc ln hn.

Hnh 2. 6 : Khi nim iu khin a truy nhp GPON [5]


2.2.3. Khung truyn dn GPON
2.2.3.1. Cu trc khung down
Mi khung down GTC di 125 s c tc khung down l 1.24416 Gbit/s v 2.48832 Gbit/s, cha khi
iu khin vt l (PCBd- downstream Physical Control Block) v phn ti c m t hnh 2.7.

Hnh 2 .7 : Khung down GTC [5]


Header ca khi iu khin vt l bao gm phn c nh v phn c th thay i. Phn c nh cha vng
ng b vt l, vng ID v vng PLOAM. Phn c th thay i bao gm chiu di ti hng down (PlendPayload length downstream) v b nh bng thng up ln. Chi tit cc vng c m t hnh 2.8.

Hnh 2. 8 : M t chi tit khung down GTC


a. Vng ng b vt l
Vng ng b vt l c c nh l 4 byte v n bt u mi khi PCBd. ONU s dng phn ny tm
v tr bt u khung. M ca vng Psync 0xB6AB31E0. ONU thc hin c ch ng b nh hnh 2.9. ONU
bt u trng thi tm kim. ONU tm ra Psync trong hng i. Mi ln n tm ra Psync th n s chuyn
thnh pre-sync v thit lp b m ci gi tr l 1. Sau ONU s tm Psync khc sau chu k 125 s. C mi
Psync ng, b m s tng thm 1. Nu Psync khng ng, ONU s truyn ngc li trng thi tm kim.
Trong trng thi pre-sync, nu b m truyn ng ti M1 th ONU s truyn n trng thi ng b sync.
Mi ln ONU n trng thi sync, ONU biu th n tm ra cu trc khung down v bt u x l thng tin
PCBd. Nu ONU pht hin vng Psync M2 k tip khng ng, n s biu th l mt khung v tr v trng
thi tm kim.

Hnh 2. 9 : C ch trng thi ng b ONU [5]

b. Vng ID
Vng ID c 32 bit tron mt bit dng kim tra li khung FEC hng down, mt bit dnh v 30 bit
ch th cu trc khung ln hn. B m siu khung ny c dng cho h thng m ha d liu ca user v
cng c th c dng cung cp tn hiu tham chiu ng b tc thp. 30 bit ca vng ID dng
m v mi ID ca khung s ln hn khung trc . Bt c khi no b m tng ti gi tr ti a th n s
quay v 0 cho khung tip theo.
c. Vng PLOAM
Vng PLOAM c 13 byte trong khi iu khin vt l, n cha cc bn tin OAM lp vt l. Hot ng, qun
l v bo dng OAM lin quan n cc cnh bo gy ra bi cc s kin c truyn qua cc bn tin trong
vng PLOAM 13 byte. Tt c kch hot u lin quan n bn tin c nh x trong vng PLOAM.
ONU ID nh a ch cho mi ONU ring. Trong lc sp xp, ONU s c gn mt s gi l ONU ID.
S ny c gi tr t 0 n 253. Lc cha c sp xp vng ny c gi tr l 0xFF qung b cho tt c
ONU.
Bn tin ID ch th loi bn tin.
Data c dng cho phn ti ca bn tin truyn dn hi t GPON GTC.
CRC dng kim tra li khung.
d. Vng BIP
Vng BIP c 8 bit cha s bit chn l c chn vo ca tt c byte truyn i, u thu cng tnh s bit c
chn vo l chn hay l sau so snh vi kt qu ca BIP c truyn o s li trn ng link.
e. Vng chiu di ti hng down
Vng chiu di ti hng down (Plend- Payload Length downstream) ch nh chiu di b nh bng thng
v phn dnh ring cho ATM trong container truyn dn. Vng ny c gi 2 ln. 12 bit u biu din
chiu di b nh bng thng. iu ny gii hn s ID phn b c th c gn ch ln ti 4095. Chiu di
phn dnh ring cho ATM c biu din 12 bit tip theo. iu ny cho php up ln 4095 cell ATM trong
mt khung v tc ln ti 10 Gbps. 8 bit cui kim tra CRC. u thu ca vng Plend s thc hin pht
hin v sa li.
f. Vng b nh bng thng
Vng b nh bng thng l mt mng c cu trc 8 byte. Mi vng trong mng ny biu th phn bng thng
cho mt container truyn dn ring. Ton b s vng trong b nh c biu din chiu di ti Plend.
Khun dng mi vng c m t hnh 2.8.
Vng phn b ID cha 12 bit ch th CON-T ring m n c gn thi gian up ln ca mng PON.
Vng c cha 12 bit ch th cch phn phi dng (hnh 2.8 biu din cc chc nng ca 12 bit c)
o Bit 11 gi PLSu (power levelling sequence upstream): nu bit ny c ci t, ONU s gi thng tin
PLSu trong lc phn b. Nu khng c ci t th ONU s khng gi thng tin PLSu trong lc phn b.
o Bit 10 gi PLOAMu: nu bit ny c ci t, ONU s gi thng tin PLOAMu trong lc phn b. Nu
khng c ci t th ONU s khng gi thng tin PLOAMu trong lc phn b.
o Bit 9 s dng sa li FEC (forward error correction): nu bit ny c ci t ONU s tnh ton v chn
FEC trong lc phn b.
o Bit 7 v 8 gi DBRu (Dynamic Bandwidth Report upstream): ph thuc vo ni dung 2 bit ONU s gi
DBRu ph hp vi v tr ID hay khng.
00: khng gi DBRu 01: gi DBRu mode 0 (2 byte) 10: gi DBRu mode 1 (3 byte) 11: gi DBRu mode 2 (5
byte)
o Bit 0-6: dnh.

Vng StartTime cha 16 bit ch th thi gian bt u phn b. Thi gian ny tnh bng byte, bt u
khung l zero. iu ny gii hn kch thc ca khung up ln l 65,536 byte. iu ny nh a ch
cho tc up ln ti 2.488 Gbps. Thi
gian bt u tr n ni bt u truyn d liu khng bao gm thi gian overhead ca lp vt l.
Vng StopTime cha 16 bit ch th thi gian kt thc phn b. Thi gian ny c tnh bng byte, bt u
khung l zero. Thi gian kt trc tr n byte d liu cui cng c kt hp vi vic phn b ny.
Vng CRC: cu trc phn b c bo v s dng CRC-8.
g. Vng ti
Vng ti truyn dn hi t c 2 phn: phn dnh ring cho ATM v phn dnh ring cho GEM.
Phn dnh ring cho ATM: cha 53 cell ATM. Kch thc phn ny c a vo vng Plend dnh cho
ATM. Do vng ny cng c kch thc l bi s 53 byte. Cc cell down th c lc ONU da vo VPI
cha mi cell.
Phn dnh ring cho GEM: cha mt s khung GEM phc ha thnh a khung. Kch thc ca phn
dnh ring GEM th bng ton b chiu di khung tr i khi iu khin PCBd v phn ATM. Khung down
c lc ONU da vo12-bit Port-ID cha trong mi phn on khung.
2.2.3.2. Cu trc khung up
Cu trc khung up ln c biu din hnh 2.10. Chiu di khung th ging nh khung down. Mi khung
cha mt s truyn dn t mt hay nhiu ONU. B nh bng thng ch nh vic sp xp truyn dn ny.
Mi chu k phn phi phi theo s iu khin ca OLT, ONU c th truyn mt n bn overhead v d liu
user. Bn loi overhead l:
Overhead lp vt l (PLOu- Physical layer overhead).
Cc hot ng, qun l v bo dng lp vt l (PLOAMu-Physical layer operations, administration and
management upstream).
San bng cng sut (PLSu- Power levelling sequence upstream).
Bo co bng thng ng (DBRu-Dynamic Bandwidth Report upstream)

Hnh 2. 10 : Khung up GTC [5]


Hnh 2 .11 : M t chi tit khung up GTC [1]

Hnh 2.11 ch ra chi tit cc overhead. OLT ch th thng qua c trong b nh bng thng c hay khng
thng tin vng PLOAMu, PLSu hay DBRu c gi trn mi vng phn b. Lp trnh OLT cn nm gi
bng thng v nhu cu cc knh l thuc thnh trng mc khi ci t tn s truyn dn. Trng thi ca
PLOu th n trong vng sp xp khi phn phi. Quy lut l mi ln mt ONU chuyn qua mi trng mng
PON, n phi gi bn sao PLOu. Trong trng hp ONU c 2 v tr ID lin tip, ONU s chn khng gi
PLOu cho Alloc-ID th 2. Vic chn ny c th xy ra li khi c nhiu Alloc-ID lin tc c gn bi OLT.
Ch vic chn ny ch xy ra khi OLT truyn n cng mt ONU.
a. Vng overhead lp vt l up ln
Vng overhead lp vt l up ln gm cc vng l li m u, vng ranh gii v 3 vng d liu tng ng vi
ONU. D liu ny c gi ni bt u bt k burst truyn dn no ca ONU. Ch rng duy tr kt

ni vi ONU, OLT s th cp vic truyn up ln ca mi ONU trong khong thi gian ti thiu. Khong thi
gian ny c xc nh bi cc thng s dch v ca ONU. OLT s nh dng v iu khin li m u v
ranh gii trong cc bn tin overhead. Vng BIP c 8 bit cha s bit chn l c chn vo ca tt c byte
truyn i cho n BIP cui cng ca ONU, ngoi tr cc byte li m u v ranh gii. u thu ca OLT s
tnh s bit c chn vo l chn hay l cho mi burst ONU sau so snh vi kt qu ca BIP nhn c
tnh ra s li trn ng link. Vng ONU-ID c 8 bit cha s nhn dng duy nht ca ONU. ONU-ID
c gn cho ONU trong th tc sp xp. Trc khi ONU-ID c gn, ONU t gi tr khng xc nh l
255 trong vng ny. OLT c th kim tra vng ny xc nhn a ch phn b v truyn ng n ONU.
Vng ID cung cp trng thi ONU thi gian thc bo co cho OLT. Vng ID c m t hnh 1.22. Ch
rng khi ONU ch ra mt PLOAM khn cp ang i, OLT s cp mt v tr up ln cho php ONU gi bn
tin PLOAM. Thi gian p li s t hn 5 ms.
b. Vng PLOAMu
Cc hot ng, qun l v bo dng lp vt l PLOAMu c 13 byte cha cc bn tin PLOAM c m t
phn PLOAMd.
c. Vng san bng cng sut PLSu
Trnh t san bng cng sut PLSu c kch thc 120 byte, ONU s dng cho vic o cng sut. Chc nng
gip iu chnh mc cng sut ONU. Vng ny c gi khi c ch th c. C ch iu khin cng sut th
c li trong 2 trng hp l khi to cng sut ban u ca b pht ONU (ch xy ra lc kch hot ONU) v
thay i cng sut ca b pht ONU (xy ra lc hot ng cng nh lc kch hot). PLSu c th c yu
cu bt k thi im no. nhiu trng hp trong lc kch hot, OLT c th ci t bit PLSu qung b
cho php ONU thit lp b pht. Nu ONU khng s dng vng PLSu th ONU s khng kch hot b pht.
iu ny lm gim s ng .
d. Vng bo co bng thng ng DBRu
Cu trc DBRu cha thng tin T-CONT. Vng ny c gi khi c ch th c. Vng DBA cha trng thi
lu lng ca T-CONT. Vng 8, 16 hay 32-bit c dng cho mc ch ny. Vng CRC: cu trc DBRu
c bo v s dng CRC-8. u thu ca DBRu s thc hin pht hin v sa li CRC-8. Nu CRC ch th
rng li khng th sa c th thng tin trong DBRu s b loi b.
e. Phn ti
Phn ti up ln c th l cell ATM, khung GEM hay bo co DBA.
Phn ti ATM up ln c 53 byte. Chiu di ca phn ti ny phi nh hn chiu di overhead c yu cu.
OLT sp xp cc con tr phn ti ATM lun l 53 byte. Nu ti khng 53 cell th n s n thm cho
53 byte (hnh 2.12)

Hnh 2. 12 : Cc cell ATM hng up ln [5]

Phn ti up ln GEM cha mt s khung GEM (hnh 2.13). Chiu di ca phn ti ny phi nh hn chiu
di overhead c yu cu

Hnh 2. 13 : Cc khung GEM hng up ln [5]


Phn ti up ln DBA cha bo co phn b bng thng ng t ONU (hnh 2.14). Bo co bng thng ng
u tin c xp hng cc byte u tin ti v tr bt u phn b. Tt c bo co th lin tip. Nu chiu
di phn b khng khp vi ton b chiu di bo co th ONU s b bt phn cui ca bo co hay m
thm cc bit zero phn cui nu khng . Ch rng ONU phi phn hi vic phn b ti DBA thm ch
nu mode ny ca DBA khng h tr th n vn duy tr phn ti ny.

Hnh 2. 14 : Bo co DBA hng up ln [5]

2.2.3.3. nh x lu lng vo ti GTC


S a dng ca nhiu loi d liu user c th c truyn trong phn ti GTC. Cc giao thc
chnh l ATM v GEM. Bn trong mi loi giao thc ny, cc dch v khc nhau c th c
truyn.
a. nh x cell ATM vo GTC
Lu lng ATM c truyn trong sut vo giao thc GTC. hng down, cell c truyn
t OLT n ONU s dng phn ti dnh ring cho ATM, OLT c th phn phi nhiu cell m
n cn. Khung ONU s lc cell n da v VPI v phn phi cc cell ph hp n phn ATM
trong ONU. hng up, cc cell c truyn t ONU n OLT s dng thi gian phn phi
ATM c cu hnh. ONU m thm cc cell ATM cho y khung v sau gi chng n
OLT trong thi gian c phn b. OLT s nhn cell v ghp cell ca cc ONU vi nhau v
truyn n phn ATM trong OLT. Cc dch v c trong ATM l voice, cc dch v PDH,
Ethernet v cc dch v khc da vo mch ATM.
b. nh x GEM vo GTC
GEM (G-PON Encapsulation Method) l phng php ng gi d liu trong GPON. GEM c truyn
trong sut trong vo giao thc GTC. hng down, khung c truyn t OLT n ONU s dng phn ti
dnh ring cho GEM. hng up, cc khung c truyn t ONU n OLT s dng thi gian phn b
GEM c cu hnh.
Hnh 2. 15 : Cu trc header v khung GEM [5]

Giao thc GEM c 2 chc nng: cung cp phc ha khung d liu ca user v cung cp port
nhn dng ghp knh. Ch rng thut ng khung d liu ca ngi dng biu th khung n
v i ca user. iu ny c thc hin da vo vic s dng header GEM nh biu din
hnh 2.15. Header GEM cha ch th chiu di ti (PLI-Payload length indicator), port ID, ch
th loi ti (PTI-Payload type indicator) v 13 bit vng iu khin li header (HEC- header
error control). PLI ch th chiu di c kch thc L (byte) ch th phn ti c phn on sau
phn header ny. PLI c dng tm header k tip trong lung d liu. 12 bit vng ny cho
php phn on ln ti 4095 byte. Nu khung d liu ca user ln hn th chng s tch ra
phn thnh on nh hn 4095 byte. Port ID c dng cung cp nhn dng lu lng cho
4096 ONU trong mng PON, cung cp vic ghp knh lu lng.
Vng PTI c dng ch th ni dung loi ti c phn on v cch x l ph hp vi n. M ca vng
3 bit ny th c dng tng t trong header ATM.
M PTI
000
001
010
011
100
101
110
111

ngha
Phn on d liu user, tt nghn khng
xy ra, cha kt thc khung
Phn on d liu user, tt nghn khng
xy ra, kt thc khung
Phn on d liu user, tt nghn xy ra,
cha kt thc khung
Phn on d liu user, tt nghn xy ra,
kt thc khung
Hot ng, qun l v bo dng GEM
dnh
dnh
dnh

HEC cung cp cc chc nng pht hin v sa li.

Hnh 2. 16 : C ch trng thi m t GEM [5]


Tin trnh m t trong GPON yu cu s c mt ca header GEM ti ni bt mi khung down dnh ring cho
GEM v mi phn ti GEM up ln. Pha thu th chc chn tm thy header u tin v c th tm thy header
k tip bng vic s dng PLI nh l con tr. Ni cch khc pha thu s chuyn tip lp tc n trng thi
sync ti ni bt u phn ti. Tuy nhin, trong trng hp li khng th sa c trong header, th tin trnh
m t s mt ng b vi lung d liu. Sau pha thu s th yu cu li vic ng b bng vic thc hin
c ch trng thi biu din hnh 2.16. Trong trng thi tm kim, u thu tm kim HEC header GEM trong
hng i (bit hay byte). Khi n tm thy HEC, n s chuyn tip n trng thi pre-sync ni m n tm thy
HEC ti v tr c ch th trong header c tm thy trc. Nu HEC khp th sau n s chuyn tip
n trng thi sync. Nu khng khp th n s quay v trng thi tm kim. h tr vic tch tc , khung
GEM nhn ri c nh ngha. Nu khng c khung user c gi, qu trnh truyn c th pht ra cc
khung nhn ri lm y thi gian trng. Pha thu s s dng cc khung ny duy tr ng b v tt nhin
l khng c d liu trong GEM. Header ca GEM nhn ri quy nh tt c u l zero. iu ny ng rng
kiu c truyn tht s l 0xB6AB31E055, bi hot ng cng XOR trc khi truyn.

Hnh 2. 17 : nh x v phn on d liu ca user thnh ti GEM [5]

Ch rng mi phn khung c to ra th truyn lin tip. Mt phn khung khng th ng


gia vng ranh gii ca khung. mi khung y hay phn khung th u cn phi c
header ng trc. Ngoi ra cn c cch chia phn khung khc c m t hnh 2.18.

2.2.4. Sp xp giao thc GPON


ITU-T Rec. G.983.2 B-PON v ITU-T Rec. G.984.3 G-PON s dng th tc sp xp tng t
nhau. Th tc sp xp GPON c chia lm 2 giai on. Giai on u, ng k s serial cho
ONU mi v cp ID cho ONU. S serial l s nhn dng ca mi ONU ring v l s duy nht.
Ni cch khc s nhn dng ONU c dng iu khin, kim tra v o th ONU, v th n
l s duy nht trn trong mi mng PON. Trong giai on u, n gm cc bc sau (hnh
2.19):
(1) OLT ch nh tt c ONU tm dng vic truyn dn hng up ln (ONU halt)
(2) OLT s truyn s serial cho ONU cha c s nhn dng (serial_number request).
(3) Lc nhn c serial_number request, ONU ny s truyn s serial (SN-transmission) sau
khi i thi gian ngu nhin (ti a l 50 ms).
(4) OLT s gn s nhn dng v gi li bn tin assign ONU-ID cho ONU mi cha ng k.
Trong giai on k tip, tr round-trip c o mi ONU ng k mi. Hn na, giai
on ny cng ng dng cho cc ONU m b mt tn hiu trong lc truyn. Cc bc chi tit
c m t nh sau (hnh 2.20):
(5) OLT ch nh tt c ONU tm dng vic truyn dn hng up ln (ONU halt).
(6) S dng s serial ng k, OLT quy nh ch c mt ONU c truyn tn hiu o
tr (Ranging request).

(7) ONU c s serial khp vi s serial c ch nh s truyn tn hiu o tr (Ranging


transmission) n bao gm s nhn dng ONU c gn giai on u.
(8) OLT s o tr round-trip RTD ty thuc vo thi gian m tn hiu o tr thu c.
Hn na, sau khi xc nhn s serial v s nhn dng ONU khp vi nhau th n cho bit tr
cn bng (=Teqd - RTD) ti ONU (thng qua bn tin Ranging_time). y Teqd l hng s v
RTD l gi tr tr round-trip ti a ci t trong mng PON. V d trong trng hp tr
round-trip ti a ca 20 km th Teqd l 200 ms.
(9) ONU ghi nh tr cn bng m n tip nhn v lm chm li thi gian truyn up ln
thng qua gi tr tr cn bng (Delay equalization).
Thng qua cc tin trnh ny, tt c ONU c sp xp tr nn tng ng vi mt
tr round-trip (= tr round-trip gc + tr cn bng)

Hnh 2. 19 : Th tc sp xp GPON giai on 1 : Th tc ng k


s serial cho ONU mi [1]

Hnh 2. 20 : Th tc sp xp GPON giai on 2 :


Th tc o tr [1]
2.2.5. Phn b bng tn ng DBA trong GPON
Phng php c bn nht ca phn phi bng thng up ln l phn b bng nhau gia cc
ONU. Phng php ny th khng hiu qu, c bit l lu lng gi bi nhu cu bng thng
ca cc ONU th him khi bng nhau ti mi thi im. Vic tn dng ton b bng thng c
th c thc hin nu bng thng up ln c phn phi ng ty theo nhu cu ca ONU.
Trong khi ITU-T khng quy nh thut ton DBA, G.983.4 quy nh khung v c ch thc
hin DBA trong h thng BPON v GPON. G.983.4 quy nh 2 c ch gn bng tn ng:
Vi phng php u, ONU ng vai tr l b ng, OLT gim st bao nhiu bng thng
ca mi ONU c s dng, da trn s cell ATM nhn ri v khung GEM nhn ri m n
nhn trong khung GTC up ln. V l do ny, phng php ny c coi nh l iu chnh cell
nhn ri. Phng php ny cn c gi l bo co khng trng thi (NSR-Non-Status
Reporting). C nhiu bng thng hn c gn cho ONU nu vic tn dng bng thng vt
qu ngng quy nh. Thun li ca phng php ny l lm n gin ha ONU v trnh vic
s dng bng thng up ln cho vic bo co nhu cu bng thng.
Vi phng php th 2, ONU bo co trng thi b m n OLT. Do vy n c gi l
bo co trng thi b m hay bo co trng thi SR (Status Reporting). Ch th nhu cu bng
thng trong loi T-CONT th c truyn trong vng overhead lp vt l c th hn l vng
bo co bng thng ng DBRu. OLT s dng thng tin bo co trng thi quyt nh phn
b bng thng ph hp cho mi v tr ID.

2.2.6. Bo mt
Trong h thng PON th hng down d liu c truyn broadcast n tt c ONU. Mi
ONU ch c th truy cp d liu ca mnh, nhng nu user no c nh ph hoi th c th
gi ONU ca user khc truy cp d liu, h thng bo mt PON th ngn chng vic nghe
ln ny. Ging nh cc mng khc GPON s dng th tc mt m ngn nga vic nghe
trm cc tn hiu khng mong mun. Khng ging nh truy cp wireless hay modem, trong

mng PON bt k ONU no cng khng th thy c lu lng up ln ca ONU khc. iu


ny cho php lm n gin ha th tc mt m. u tin l ch cn mt m hng down d
liu. Th 2 l d liu up ln c th truyn key mt m. GPON s dng chun mt m AES
(Advanced Encryption Standard). l mt khi mt m m n hot ng trn mt khi d
liu 16 byte (128 bit). c bit mode counter c s dng. Khi mt m gi ngu nhin 16
byte c pht ra v XOR vi d liu ng vo to ra d liu mt m OLT. ONU d
liu c mt m ny th XOR vi chui gi ngu nhin 16 byte tng t nh OLT to
li d liu ban u. Vi ATM ch c 48 byte c mt m, vi GEM ch c phn ti GEM
c mt m. OLT khi to vic trao i key bng vic gi bn tin n ONU thng qua knh
PLOAM. Sau ONU s chu trch nhim to ra key v pht ngc tr v OLT. N nhn key
128, 192 v 256 byte.

2.2.7. Sa li FEC
Sa li FEC (Forward error correction) c quy nh l s dng m h thng m FEC
c mc nh b thu OLT hay ONU. M FEC l m RS (Reed Solomon) hay cn gi l
m RS(255, 239). y l m khi c 239 byte d liu v 16 byte kim tra li to thnh
khi d liu c 255 byte. M RS(255, 239) cho php pht hin v sa nhiu li, kt qu l
lm tng li ln 3-4 dB. Nh biu din hnh 1.32, khung up v down l cc khi 255
byte trong c 239 byte d liu v 16 byte kim tra li, nu khng c cc byte kim tra
li th cc byte ny s tr thnh byte d liu. Do vy s dng FEC lm gim bng thng ti
ca tn hiu trong hy vng l lm tng hiu sut bng thng bng vic gim vic truyn li
cc gi d liu do li truyn dn.

Hnh 2. 21 : V d khung down cho tc 2.488 Gbps [5]

Hnh 2.21 m t vic chia khung down thnh cc khi 255 byte. T m trong 255 byte u
tin bao gm khi PCBd. Bi v cc khung down khng c chia thnh cc khi 255 byte
sn nn khi cui cng s t hn 255 byte. V d nh ti tc 2.488 Gbps chiu di
khung l 38,880 byte th ta c 152 khi c 255 byte v khi cui cng c 120 byte bao gm
104 byte d liu v 16 byte kim tra li do m thm 135 byte d liu 0 vo. Cc byte 0
ny th khng c truyn nhng n c chn vo b thu khi n thc hin tnh ton
kim tra li khi ny.

Hnh 2. 22 : V d khung up ln [5]


hng up, m t hnh 2.22 tng t nh khung down ngoi tr t m u tin khng bao
gm overhead lp vt l. T m u tin bt u vi vng BIP khng cha vng m u v
vng ranh gii. Mi burst c phn thnh khi ti 239 byte v c nh x thnh cc khi t
m 255 byte. Ging nh khung down t m cui cng cha t hn 239 byte th s m thm
vo cc byte 0.

2.3. EPON
EPON l t vit tt ca Ethernet passive optical network. EPON th tng t nh mng quang
ch ng Ethernet, n c chun ha bi IEEE 802.3. Giao thc s dng trong EPON l s
m rng ca IEEE 802.3 hot ng tc ln ti Gbps. EPON s dng giao thc iu khin
a im (MPCP-Multipoint control protocol) s dng lp con m phng P2P vi 2 byte nhn
gi Ethernet v vng nhn dng ng link c s ha (LLID-Logical link identification).

2.3.1. Kin trc lp Ethernet v EPON


Ethernet bao gm lp vt l v lp lin kt d liu ca m hnh OSI. Hnh 2.23 biu din
s so snh m hnh cc lp ca Ethernet P2P truyn thng v kin trc P2MP EPON. T
hnh 2.23 ta thy lp EPON th tng t vi Ethernet P2P truyn thng. Chun Ethernet
chia lp vt l v lp lin kt d liu thnh nhiu lp con. Lp vt l kt ni vi lp lin kt
d liu s dng giao din MII (Media-independent Interface) hay GMII (Gigabit Mediaindependent Interface)

Hnh 2. 23 : Kin trc lp P2P Ethernet v lp P2MP EPON [1]

Lp con MAC mc nh trong Ethernet P2P c thay bng lp iu khin a truy nhp
(MPMC- Multipoint media access control) c tnh bt buc trong EPON. Lp MPMC chy
giao thc iu khin a im (MPCP- Multipoint control protocol) sp xp truy cp n
mi trng mng quang th ng PON b chia s gia cc ONU trong EPON. Mc d cc
ngn xp ca OLT v ONU trng c v gn ging nhau (hnh 2.23), MPCP trong OLT ng
vai tr l ch cn MPCP trong ONU ng vai tr l t. S thng nht lp con cng c m
rng trong EPON iu khin chc nng m phng P2P m IEEE 802.1 c th dng tip
trong EPON.
Giao thc truyn dn EPON da trn cu trc chun ca khung Ethernet, n khai thc k
thut TDM hng down v TDMA hng up ln. EPON qui nh thng lng i
xng c 2 hng up v down vi tc 1 Gbps, v k tha m ng dy 8B/10B (ph
lc A) c dng trong chun Etherne gigabit IEEE802.3z. Vic m ha 8B/10B thm vo
tc tng ln 1.25 Gbps, m 8B/10B lm cho ng ra cn bng in p DC v truyn
cho vic khi phc xung clock d dng.
D liu c truyn trong khung Ethernet v mi ONU ch nhn khung c nh a ch l
n. hng up mi ONU c cp cho mt khe thi gian ring v ONU c th truyn trn
khe c dnh ring ny. Bc sng hot ng ca EPON l 1490 nm hng down v 1310
nm hng up.

2.3.2. Lp ph thuc mi trng vt l PMD ca EPON


Lp PMD qui nh cc c im vt l ca b thu pht quang. Ethernet l thit k c s k tha
chi ph thp y mnh vic trin khai rng ri. iu ny l cha kha cho s pht trin thnh
cng ca Ethernet. Tri ngc vi t l chia 1:32 s dng trong GPON, IEEE 802.3ah qui nh
t l chia ti thiu l 1:16. S thng nht ca lp con c h tr ln ti 32,768 ONU khc nhau
thng qua 15 bit nhn dng ng link c s ha (LLID- Logical link identifier). Hai im
khc nhau gia OLT v ONU, 10 km v 20 km c nh ngha trong chun EPON. Lp PMD
1000BASE-PX10-D v 1000BASE-PX10-U nh ngha cc tnh cht ca b thu pht OLT v
ONU vi khong cch l 10 km. 1000BASE-PX-20-D v 1000BASE-PX-20-U qui nh
khong cch gia OLT v ONU l 20 km. EPON k tha c bn bc sng ca ITU G.983.3.
Ch rng cc c im ONU cho khong cch truyn dn 10 km v 20 km hu nh ging ht
nhau. Hu ht s thay i u c thc hin OLT khi khong cch truyn dn tng t 10
km ln 20 km. iu ny gip tn dng c chi ph thit b ONU. N cng to c hi cho u
cui user c th tip tc s dng li ONU khi tng khong cch truyn dn.

2.3.3. Hot ng burst mode v Loop Timing trong EPON


Giao thc Ethernet l giao thc kiu burst. Tuy nhin, Ethernet P2P hin i s dng cc knh
thu v pht chuyn dng gia hub v trm Ethernet. Mt h thng duy tr xung ng b gia
b thu v pht bng vic truyn cc symbol nhn ri khi khng c d liu c gi. Thm ch
khi giao thc Ethernet xut hin t ngt, lp vt l ca Ethernet P2P hin i cng cho n l
bnh thng. Mc d li m u c gi trong Ethernet P2P hin i nhng n chng c
ngha g ngoi tr tnh tng thch b gim i so vi thit b Ethernet ban u. Khi kt ni vt l

up ln ca EPON t ngt xut hin, mt ln na li m u th cn thit gip b thu OLT


ng b vi ONU. Hn th na, li m u c m phng trong EPON dng truyn ID
lin kt c s ha (LLID-Logical link ID) s dng trong m phng P2P. gi chi ph thp,
tt c b pht Ethernet u chy bt ng b trong mi vng ni b ring, khng c s ng
b chung ton b. Mt b thu nhn c tn hiu ng h t gating ca d liu nhn c. S
tng thch gia cc ngun tn hiu ng h c tnh ton bi s iu chnh khe h lin tip
gia cc khung Ethernet.
Trong h thng EPON, lin kt vt l down xung duy tr lung tn hiu v ng b clock
lin tc. hng up ln, gi tn hiu ng h tham chiu OLT, ONU s dng ng
h loop vng cho truyn dn burst hng up ln.
Chng 2: Tm hiu Fiber to the home SVTH: Hng ng Ngc n Lp: 07VTH1 Trang 37

2.3.4. Khung Ethernet


EPON truyn d liu nh l khung Ethernet t nhin trong mng quang th ng PON.
Khung Ethernet c kch c khc nhau. Dng khung Ethernet chun c biu din hnh
1.35. Bt u khung l li m u v 1 byte bt u ranh gii (SFD-start frame delimiter)
bo hiu bt u khung. Chun EPON sp xp li ta c th thay i truyn LLID
cho ONU. Mi khung truyn a ch MAC ch v ngun, mi vng ny chim 6 byte. 2
byte ch chiu di/loi c dng m t chiu di ti khi gi tr ca n trong khong 01500. Khi gi tr ca n chy t 1,536-65,535, n c dng m t loi khung Ethernet.
Mc ch ca vng ny biu din chiu di v loi khung. Tip theo sau ti l 4 byte
kim tra khung (FCS-Frame Check Sequence) s dng CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check).

Hnh 2. 24 : Khun dng khung Ethernet chun.


Hnh 2.24 m t khung Ethernet truyn cc byte m u ti thiu truyn thng tin qun l v
giao thc. Trong vng Ethernet, thng tin qun l v OAM c truyn s dng cc khi d
liu giao thc (PDU-Protocol Data Unit) v cc khung OAM, chng l cc khung Ethernet
chun nhn dng bi gi tr chiu di/loi ring. Thng tin giao thc v OAM c truyn
trong vng ti ca khung PDU v OAM. Cc khung ny c ghp trong di bng vi cc
khung Ethernet khc truyn d liu ca user thc s.

2.3.5. Giao thc iu khin a im


Giao thc iu khin a im trong lp MPMC s dng khi d liu giao thc iu khin
a im (MPCPDU- Multipoint Control Protocol Data Unit) thc hin tm ra ONU v
cc chc nng sp xp. N cng h tr c ch phn x iu khin truy nhp hng up
ln gia cc ONU.
2.3.5.1. Sp xp trong EPON

Hnh 2. 25 : Th tc sp xp EPON [1].


Tin trnh sp xp o thi gian RTT gia OLT v ONU, OLT c th b cc khe thi gian ph
hp cho ONU trnh s ng hng up ln. N t c thng qua khi MPCPDU
Gate v Report c biu din hnh 2.25. C OLT v ONU u gi b m 32 bit vi thi
gian 16 ns. Trong tin trnh sp xp, OLT gi bn tin Gate vi nhn T1 biu din thi gian
thc. ONU nhn bn tin Gate ti T2 sau tr truyn dn v khi ng li thi gian T1. Sau
mt thi gian tr hon tin trnh, ONU gi bn tin Report vi thi gian l T3 vi nhn T4 = T1

+ (T3 - T2). OLT nhn bn tin Report vi nhn T4 vi thi gian thc l T5 c ch nh trong
hnh 1.36. RTT ch n gin l T5-T4.
2.3.5.2. Hot ng Gate v Report
Hot ng Gate cung cp c ch cho OLT ch nh khe thi gian m ONU c th
truyn. Hnh 2.26 m t hot ng Gate EPON. Chc nng Gate ph thuc vo ng h
cc b m c ng b vi ng h ca OLT. Bn tin Gate quy nh thi gian bt u v
chiu di truyn dn up ln ca ONU. ONU s bt laser khi ng h cc b bng vi thi
gian bt u khung c ch nh trong bn tin Gate. Vng chiu di a ra s chu k bit
ONU c php truyn trong burst ny. trn khung Gate nhn, ONU cp nht vo thanh
ghi clock, thanh ghi bt u khe v thanh ghi chiu di khe.

Hnh 2. 26 : Hot ng Gate ca EPON [1]


Trong hot ng Report, ONU ch dn cho OLT vi di xp hng v cung cp thng tin thi gian tnh
ton thi gian RTT c gi t MPCPDU Report. trn MPCPDU Report, OLT cp nht vo b nh
di xp hng v RTT c biu din hnh 2.27.

Hnh 2. 27 : Hot ng Report ca EPON


2.3.5.3. Phn b bng thng ng
Chun EPON khng nh r cc chi tit b sung ca DBA. Tuy nhin, hot ng Gate v
Report cung cp giao din v c ch cn thit cho iu khin bng thng ONU. N ty vo nh
cung cp dch v thit k vch k hoch v thut ton phn phi bng thng ng DBA.
2.3.5.4. Khi d liu giao thc iu khin a im
Khi d liu giao thc iu khin a im (MPCPDU - Multipoint Control Protocol Data Unit) c di
khung MAC l 64 byte khng c VLAN. Khun dng chung ca MPCPDU m t hnh 2.28. MPCPDU
c nhn dng bi khung MAC loi 088-08. Vng 2 byte nh r loi bn tin MPCPDU. Hnh 1.39 ch ra
m ca tt c loi MPCPDU c nh ngha trong EPON. Mi bn tin MPCPDU cha 4 byte OLT v
ONU c th cp nht lin tc hiu chnh chnh lch thi gian v d nh s thay i nhit trong si quang.
Phn chia data/pad ca MPCPDU cha cc thng s MAC c dng trong MPCP v vng m zero gi
kch c khung l 64 byte.

Hnh 2. 28 : Khun dng ca khi d liu giao thc iu khin a im


MPCPDU
2.3.5.5. T ng khm ph ONU
Tin trnh d tm t ng cho php ONU EPON ng k v tham gia vo h thng sau khi cp ngun. OLT
cp cho MAC o v gn LLID cho ONU trong m phng P2P. Trong sut qu trnh d tm t ng, ONU v
OLT trao i kh nng vi nhau nh l ng b thi gian. ng b thi gian l thi gian c yu cu bi

OLT sau khi nhn t ngt d liu, kha ng h pht ONU v xt ngng quyt nh m s sai khc
cc mc cng sut nhn c t cc ONU khc nhau.

Hnh 2.29 : Th tc d tm t ng trong EPON


thc hin d tm t ng, OLT qung b d tm khung Gate theo chu k. Nh trong hnh
2.29, ca s d tm c dnh ring cho vic d tm Gate. OLT cng truyn thi gian ng b
b thu kiu burst n ONU trong cng d tm m ONU bit nh dng tn hiu up ln vi
cc symbol nhn ri trong lc khi to thi gian ng b burst. ONU nhn cng d tm v gi
Register Request sau khi i vi tr ngu nhin. OLT nhn Register Request v cp cho
ONU mt LLID. Sau OLT gi khung gate khc cng nhn khe thi gian up ln t ONU
vi LLID c cp mi v sau ONU truyn khung Register Ack biu th vic hon tt tin
trnh nh k. Trong ca s d tm, nhiu ONU c ng k trong mt thi im v gy ra s
ng ti OLT. S tranh chp trong ca s d tm c gii quyt bng cch thm vo tr
ngu nhin trc khi cho mi ONU truyn khung Register. N cng c th cho OLT nhn
nhiu khung Register trong ca s d tm.
2.3.5.6. M phng P2P trong EPON
Giao din MAC Ethernet c kt ni vi switch lp 2 hay router lp 3. Switch lp 2 kt ni trc tip vi
thit b mng trn lp Ethernet v do n hiu qu hn, chi ph t hn v d qun l hn trong mi trng
mng LAN. Ni cch khc, b nh tuyn dng trong mng din rng kt ni mng lp 2. Trong mi
trng Ethernet, kt ni lp 2 t c khi s dng IEEE802.1 da vo switch. Switch Ethernet truyn lu
lng gia cc port. Mi port c kt ni vi vng qung b khc nhau cha mt hoc nhiu thit b MAC.
Mt switch gi s rng bn trong cng thit b MAC c th truyn lu lng trc tip vi nhau m khng
cn s gip . N thc hin chc nng chuyn mch lp 2 bng vic kim tra a ch ch v a ch ngun
ca mi khung nhn c. Nu c 2 trong chng ph thuc vo mt vng (v d nh c kt ni cng mt
port), n s lc gi m khng truyn gi. iu ny gip gi bng thng trong cc phn khc ca mng v tn
dng hiu sut mng.

Hnh 2. 30 : Cc ONU khng thy lu lng trc tip vi nhau m


phi thng qua OLT