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John Michell 1783. 1796 PierreSimon Laplace
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1915 Albert Einstein ,
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Karl Schwarzschild
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1930 Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar ,


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1,44
( Chandrasekhar) .
Arthur Eddington, o
. Eddington

:
Chandrasekhar ,
Pauli.
1939, Robert Oppenheimer

Chandraseksar.
Oppenheimer
Schwarzschild
Schwarzschild,
Schwarzschild.
Schwarzschild
.
, .
,
,

Schwarzschild.
,

,
.
Schwarzschild,
20 .
1958, David Finkelstein
Eddington-Finkelstein,
Schwarzchild r=2 m
, :
.
Oppenheimer,

. ,
Finkelstein, .
1963 Roz Kerr
. , Roger Penrose
.
1967 pulsar
pulsar .

pulsar .

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Kerr-Newman-
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(J=0)

(J>0)

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Schwarzchild

Kerr

(Q 0)

Reissner-Nordstrm

Kerr-Newman

~105109 M

~103 M

~0.00110 AU
~103 km = R

~10 M

~30 km

~M

~0.1 mm

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Schwarzchild
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OJ 287 18
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1,4-3 15-20 .
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NGC 6240 ,
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Hubble
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Hawking?

1974 Stephen Hawking



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Hawking. Hawking

Heisenberg.
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Hawking
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Kip Thorne,
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Heisenberg:
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16

2:
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"quantus", "

&
Stephen Hawking
Richard Gott
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(Big Bang).

2
Einstein,



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LHC,

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, Physical
Review Letters,
CERN.

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LHC
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LHC
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Hawking

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LHC,


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Hawking
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Hawking.
Hawking

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