PROJECT

U. S. AIR FORCE

RAND

RESEARCH MEMORANDUM
THE EXPLOITATION OF SUPERSTITIONS FOR PURPOSES OF PSYCHOIDGICAL WARFARE (U) Jean M. Hungerford

RM-365
ASTIA Document Number ATI 210637

14 April 1950

Assigned

to

_

This is a working paper. It may be expanded, modified, or withdrawn at any time. The views, conclusions, and recommendations expressed herein do not necessarily reflect the official views or policies of the United States Air Force.

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34 pp
1700 MAIN ST .•

SAN'A MONICA. CALIFOINIA----

RM-365

4-H.-56

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CONTENTS

Summary

1.

I. Introduction II. Superstition. in World War II
A. Germany

3
4

4

B.

Other Countries

7
10

III. Postwar Reports of Superstition in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe IV. Deliberate Manipulation of Superstitious Attitudes for Purposes, of Psychological Warfare V. A Few Factors to be Considered in Exploiting Superstitions

13

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2. Fatalistic attitudes towards one' IJ chances of escaping harm. 5. (Indeed. All of these appeals. the fact that certain types of neuroses were found to decrease in incidenoe and severity during the past war casts a measure of doubt on this assumptionG) It is olear. 4. t t susoeptibility to suCh non-rational appeals causes considerable trouble to the secret police and tor other autlwrities in totalitarian statesG is shown with particular clarity by the preoccupation of the This German secre police with chain letters during the war. etc. miracles. 3. in varying degrees. tha.dy deCided. however.society at war: 1. The most oommon types of non-rational appeals which have been noted i the unclassified literature are as fol1. caused by the belief that nonrational factors are more important. partioularly those maintaining t at the end of the world is at hand. Indifference to rational activity. either optimistic or passim! tic.t "fate" has alrea. may produce behavior which runs contrary to the needs of a .RM-365 4-14-50 -1- The scattered and fragmentary material available in unclassified sour 8S indicates that a number of people in nearly all major societies are suscep ible to superstitious appeals. Belief in protective devices and acts. etco . There is a frequent assumption that receptivity V8 to such appeals inoreases during wartime. Prophesies concerning future events.Gwsc 1. but no conclusive evidence to pr 1Jhis assumption has been found. "Fringe" or "radical" religions. Belief in magical phenomena. and by periodic denunciations of non-rational behavior in the Soviet press and radio.

RM-365 4-14-50 -2- 2. In some cases" these non-rational acts will be of au h a nature as to overburden the postal system. transportation syste (e. Weakening of power of approved symbols to hold allegiance. 3. the energies of internal security foroes may be taken up with investigattas and suppressing non-rational behavior. . Preoccupation with non-rational acts whioh are not conducive to t e war effort.g. pilgrimages). or other instrumentality of governmento In addition.

de "black" propagandists on both sides to by make use of non-rational appeals during the past wa.____. in the postwar period). so far we know s no major or systematic attempt to exploit potentialities in this The field is thus relatively unexplored. Introduction The purpose of this paper is to present a few examples of superstitio B (observed Doth during World War II and._. No attempt has been made in this paper to exami The all works of possible relevanoeo observations presented here are base on a reading of the major works on psychological warfare and of a few of t e many books whi ch deal with wartime conditiona in the princi pal countries involved in World War II.___ ~. the extent of their activities cannot be described __~~=re _ >_. in the case of the Soviet Union an the Eastern European countries._.RM-365 4-14-50 -3- I. all material in this.l material bearing on it must be gleaned from a mass of literature published during and after the war._. and scraps of area was made.ro Since the file of these "black" operators were not examined in the course of prepari this memorandum._' ___." __ ._. . to show some of th techniques which have been used by wartime propagandists to exploit popul superstitions. With the two exceptions of a file of cap~ured Nazi Security Service documents and of the weekly FCC reports on Nazi propaganda for 1943 and early 1944.report is based on open_ published Bouroeso 1 t __ Several attempts were II1I3. and to suggest very briefly some of the factors which might be oonsidered in any attempt to exploit superstitions for psyChological warfare 0 Although during the recent war sporadic attempts were made by propaganda specialists to make use of the enemy's non-rational beliefs.

apocalyptio stories appeared.RM-365 4-14-50 -4II.. Early in the war several different types of ohain letters 5. 1942. FCC.A-4. such story reoounted that in a certain observatory a new planet had been sighted which was moving rapidly towards collision with the earth. the Nazi Seourity Service reports on German morale make reference to the prevalence of several types of superstitious beliets and practices in wartime Germany. . ouija board manipulators. an increase in non-iosti tutionalized forms of religion was reported. 7. Superstition in World War II GERMANY Both the FCC stmrnaries of domestic German radio broadcasts and. A. in 1943. some of these contained prophecies of an early armisti while others purported to be good luck letters which if passed on would Serve to placate unseen foroes and preserve the welfa~e of the communicato A description of several chain letters circulating in 1942 is contained in a Nazi Security Service report of May 21.astrologers. and the like.. tea leaf readers. a translation of which appears as an appel'ldix this paper. Jan. Anxiety about the future. coupled with ignoranoe about how the war was going. Central European Analysis. to As the war progressed and its out- 0 come grew more unoertain and foreboding. 1944. led to the patronage of soothsayers ot all sorts who claimed to be able to guess the future -. Al'parently this took the form of brooding about death and metaphysical speculations about the after life and had no oonneotion with organized churoh groups or aotivitieso 2 0 1 FaIS. fortune-tellers.. crystal-gazers. 1 Finally. numerologists. began to circulate.

It New York Times Magazine. we were appalle( to find that not only had we been designated Task Force 13. immediately went to CINCPAC's headquarters and asked his chief 0 staff. known that Hitler was a very superstitious man.ve you lot it in for us. "Soldiers t Superstitions.er thirteen as his jinx. and RUBsia.although no verifi ation has been found for this -. Col. 19440 . a Friday' Miles Browning 8J d my Intelligence Officer. Charles H. but ur sortie had been set for February 15. and Bry8J J. and regards the numb. Gustav. Brown of the Marines. p. he is said to have frequented spiritualistic circles and taken part in seances. Poland. Capt. April 2. pp. Goebbels -.. 152-154. and he claimed to have heard voices commanding him to save Ge~. Yugos lavia. Hitler liked to launch large-scale attacks on Sundays (e. Semmler. 1 It is widely During the period of his preparation for power in the twenties. DaB bad luck:in the air).g. Rudolf." (Halsey. Admiral Halsey is a partioularly striking example: he carries innumerable talismans and good-luCk charms. Goebbels -. 'What goes on here? Ha. 1 It should be pointed out that democratic as well as totalitarian elitE S may be susceptible to superstition.RM-365 4-14-50 -5- In Nazi Germany several of the top Nazi elite were no less subject to superstitious beliefs than were the oommon people. 166-168. MoMorris.that since he regarded I'seven" as his lucky number. the Low Countries.The Man Next to Hitler 3 2 Rudolf' Semmler reports in that Hitler consulted and was greatly 4 moved by a fortune-teller who told him in 1923 that he would come to power in 1933 wi:th Hindenburg. avoids traveling in the same plane with Admiral Nimitz (whom he feel. or what?' "'Sock' Morris agreed that no Bane sailorman 'WOuld dare buck suel a combination of ill auspioes. Admiral Halseyts Story. pp.The Man Next to Hitler. Julian P. and changed our designation to TF 16 and our sortie to the fourteenth. Various American generals and admirals are noted for their stock: of superstitious notions. 97~) 2 3 4 Bychlowski.). Austril. Greece. It has even been reported -. Dictators and Disciples. In his memoirs he describes an incident which illustrates this last phobia: "When we reoeived orders for our next operation. William F.

Hess himself said that one factor in his decision to fly to England was that his old friend and professor Haushofer had seen him in three dreams piloting an airplane aoross the ocean. . (See Appendix A) Nazi authorities regarded chain letter as a nuisance problem. 2 There is no way of measuring acourately how widely held superstitious beliefs were in wartime Germany nor to what extent they served to depress morale.superstitious.. Count Ciano reports in his diary that 1 2 Semmler.' •••• The whole evening Goebbels remained upset by this oocurrence and looked thoroughly nervous. were aware that they might weaken morale. edited by John R. please. Reea. The more obscure the situation and the gloomier the future~ the more this is notioeable •••• QAt the usual time to-day I went into his room to show him some press telegr8Jll.S. It 8wayed~ slipped and fell to the flo the glass flying in all directionso For an instant there was a paintul silence. OPe cit. and as I stretohed out rq hand to take i I brushed mw sleeve against the silver-framed picture of Hitler which stood on the desk. I was horrified Then with a furious expression he shouted: 'No bad omens from Y' u. produce defeatism. and were sufficiently concerned to take steps to combat them. Semmler reCOlmts an incident which 1 illustrates the Propaganda Minister's non-rational fears: IlGoebbelsis very." British doctors reported Rudolf Hess' interest in the occult and his great confidence in horoscopes. p. Goebbels passed me the shee of paper with a remark. Similarly~ they took measures against fortune-tellers.RM-365 4-14-50 -6- Goebbels too was superstitious. Among them was an American radio announcement that Hitler was ill beyond recovery and that the General Staff had decided to force him to retire. ppo 166-1680 The Case of Rudolf' Hess. 13. or otherwise lessen the war e£forto But as the attached report on chain letters by the Securi y Servioe indicates. Goebbels' face had gone pale. impair working efficiency.

OTHER COUN'lRIES Similar examples of superstition have been reported in other countrie at war. Yet." 1 Penalties for fortune-telling first involved payment of a fine. They juggle the chronology of the Middle Ages or take at random various dates regarding the ages 0 army leaders. To complete the story it is said that this elephant basks in the sun under a 'peaoe palm tree' which always blooms in the year before a peace. FBTS. if it is copied seven times and sent out to others who do the same thing. . is supposed to bring luck to the WTiter. Some municipal zoo has a female elephant which ga birth to a baby in 1811 and again in 1918.. November 5..many have been arrested. 1 2 The Ciano Diaries. slide rules. through horoscopes.ctory to his people. Others spread copies of some documents which have even 'been released by the Fuehrer' and were written in the 17th century by monk who predicted the great struggle between East and West .. FCC.RM-365 4-14-50 -7- "since the Hess affair. edited by Hugh Gibson." B. p. '!'his is our unshakeable determination. It is quite natural that this elephant wi ' soon have a baby again. Press and radio publicity ot such punishment was Provincial and later national press article given as a warning to others. fortune tellers were imprisoned. both democratic and totalitarian.e said that the deoision H of the war woul£\ fall between four towns or four ruins. But the day of victory can not be discovered from tea leaves. B-lQ-ll. the vic r would kneel between two limetrees. announcing the vi. all fortune-tellers and astrologers in Ger. stars. politicians of past centuries. This and similar stuff. Central European Analysis. October 25.. there are people who have been doing so recently. it is therefore calle the 'Peace Elephant . and domestic radio broadcasts sought to dispel superstitious notions eitha through ridioule or rational arguments. The main thing for them is that the result points to peace in the near or distant future. and our Fuehrer's age.. 1943 issue of Del" Mittag: 2 One such article appeared in the "German victory must coma before German peaoe. and when this proved an unsuocessful deterrent. 1943.370. Another sort of clairvoyant deal with nature. or tricks with numbers.

German Radio Propaganda. the numb r 1 It was reported that rortune2 telling and astrology enjoyed new popularity in the United States0 Foreign correspondents stationed in the Soviet Union report occasional ins of superstition among peasants and the more ignorant groups in the Russian population. in the sunmer of 1941.RM-365 4-14-50 -8In London. Japanese troops. When Magidoff asked her what made her 3 she said. 1944 to ask him to hire her because. April 17. an acquaintance of Alexander Werth told him that the peasants were predicting that Hitler would die on August 5 and that the war would end August 120 4 It has been widely observed that in combat soldiers tend to adopt superstitious practices and fetishes which they believe will protect them from harm. the war was almost over. 1942. think so. Robert. Zolotow. p. She came to him in September. "Go od Luok 5 Belts. 5 1 2 Kris. although newspapers were sharply reduced in size. for example. she pointed out that there were no mushrooms that year and tb8:t almost all the newborn babies were gi r1s. In Anger and Pity. s . Maurice. Robert Magidoff. 4 Werth. these were belts which Japanese woman or belts-with-a-thousand-stitches. 103. with an uneducated cook whom he had promised to employ when the war was over. women had passed from hand to hand. 129. each in turn adding a stitch. Alexander. 1943. January 11. for example. pp~ 114-115. Moscow War Diary." Saturday Evening Post. describes a conversation he had ces of astrological advertisements increased. "The Soothsayer Comes BaCk. Ernst and Speier. wore good-luCk sennin-bari. In Mo. Magidoff. It New York Time Magazine. Hans.cow. p.

or made pre-battle preparations in a ritualistic fashion.RM-365 4-14=50 -9- A foreign correspondent describes superstitions among Russian troops: "In some (troops). 286.n air combat orews considered it unlucky to make their beds 2 going on a mission but luCky to shave. This last belief was widespread in the Red Army.s.S. The 4 u. In letter after letter Red Army boys wrote back to their sweethearts and wives: 'So long as you are faithful to me. April 2. Russia On the Way. II. . American Soldi observes that many U. others fatalistically assumed that they would not be killed until their number up or that they would only be killed When a shell had their number on it." New York Times Magazines. war strengthened their belief in the Church. There is no statistical evidence to show how many soldiers accepted magic and fatalistic praotices. Vol. Among the top brass. They would be safe if they did not think of death. Ibid. but there are indications that even those men did not really think that these superstitious practices had any efficacy adopted them and felt that they derived some measure of confidenoe from t mo 1 Salisbury. They belie they would not die -. They would be safe if the"r wives or sweethearts did not lose faith in them. 2 3 4 "Soldiers' Superstitions. General Eisenhower carried a 5-guinea gold piece for good luck. soldiers carried protective amulets or cherished articles of clothing which they had worn in previous dangerous battles. Harrison. Admiral Halsey's superstitions have been noted above. . They wo be safe if they did not look baCkward in battle. edited by S~uel ppo 188-1910 A. 1944. I will not be killed. and General Kenne carried a pair of dice which had been blessed by a priest in World War I. Stouffer et al. p.if such-and-such did not happen. others acquired curious fetishes and superstitions. The American Soldier.

. You have only "People understand that if you drop a fork a woman is coming to to . III. Behind the Iron Curtain.so that he will never look at another woman but you ••• oa. by birds. p. however. If you break a mirror -. you know what.l 'WaS it sinful but that it woul~ Another recent visitor reports that among the few topics whiah it is still nsafe1t for foreigners to disouss with Russians are fortune-telling and superstitions. soldiers adopted all three techniques concurrently on the theory that it did no harm to try anything.ll. by water refleotion. his maid reproved him.. Within two kilometers of'Moscow there is a woman who guarantees to influence your lover -. One correspondent reports that "When he threw a bread crust in the wastebasket. Atkinson. by black: rats. and she reports. Sometimes. but if you drop a knife it will be a man.tell a sympathetic listener what you dreamed last night to have the dream interpreted for good or ill. saying that not only bring down dark spirits upon him. Postllar reports of superstition in the Soviet Union and Eastern EuroPe From occasional referenoes in the Soviet press and in the cemments of foreign visitors reoently returned from the Soviet Union it is apparent that thirty years' struggle against the ·vestiges of deoadent bourgeois culture. espeoially among peasants and unskilled laborers. good store of them whioh they will relate with relish and enthusiasm.has not been entirely sucaessf'ul in stamping out nreaotionary" superstitions. by tea leaves.well. .RM-365 4-14-50 -10Magic and fatalism apparently fulfilled much the same function as prayer and to some extent represented alternative techniques for dealing with the problem of anxiety. George.by means of his photograph . by paychic manifestations..2 "(In MoscoW) you oan get your fortune told by cards. Oriana. Russians love ghost stories and grisly supernatural tales and have a. po 310. Over At Uncle Joets. 149." 1 2 Moorad.

for example. oit. t tPBg knots in one's handkerchief. 1949.rve behavior of one such sect was se~ous Literaturnaya Gazeta.l... sometimes. and other similar aots •••" Despite official discouragement of "fringe" r~ligious groups. 3 enough to provoke a recent article ·n According to this account..-----~. It.in particular. a religious fanatio in a rural district persuaded a group of collective farmers that on a certain day they would be able to leave the earth and ascend to heaven....~le materialize although the group waited patiently for two weeks. 1949.i .-- _'L r 3 ."_.. Oleshohuk. in Current Digest of the Soviet Press. ~ • .~eta. the crops were not sowed and the children did not attend school.. . November 26.· _.. November B. Among the foolish attitudes for which she was ridiculed were her acceptance of Western superstitions -.RM-365 4-14-50 -11Superstitious practices are widely enough accepted and indulged in to oall forth an occasional articlEs of reproof in the Soviet press. Dece)ll. 54-58. Komsomolskaya Pravda.thered toge-ther -toawai-t -the ascension. --J '---J ~--. George.A Reactionary Ideology. concludes by berating local agitators and propagandis-ts for no-t counteri~ "this raving propaganda" wi -th "educational scientific-political propaganda ~n 1 2 3 Moorad.. 1949." Uchitelskaya G8. op. ~ T. At the ~ppointed hour the farmers and their families lett their work and i . in Current Digest o£ the Soviet Press.. the disrupt'. 2 ¥ege:re'V' T_ 1949. pp. '1:'-. Late in 1949 another Soviet periodical remarked: "It is still possible.t -the ascension did not Meanwhile The art. bu. Ear1~ in 1945. Ihr.. or conscientious and profound knowledge of a subjeot. published an article entitled "The Strange Case of Motia-MadeleinE" whioh satirized a Soviet girl for aping Western ways in her dress and contuot. a newspaper for Soviet young people. to find children in Soviet schools who suppose that the way to pass an exam is not by diligence and systematic work..--. F~ "Religion -. •• -. the belief that she could talk to 1 2 the dead. .ber . but by all sorteof magic actions like putting on 'a lucky suit...

Peoples' Rumania.1949. 4. the "miracle" so impressed the Czechs that pilgrims began to officials roads. February New York Times.isu and vanished.that all palmists . in a vision and to a report from Western even stated that the Virgin Mary had been seen waving an American tanks and troops. close converge on the village from miles around until Comnunist the church and turned the pilgrims away from approaching In anot instance .. and Czech radios which have indicate that the Comnunists flag and followed by American The number of broadcllsts from Mosoow appeared since the reported umiracles" would 1 2 Washington News.RM-365 4-14-50 -12- Similarly. on the ground that they are 'medieval remains of the capitalist era.the Virgin Mary was said to have appeared struck unconscious Bohemia a local Communist.. the Associated Press says . January 24 .. Finally." The New Yorker. About a year ago a curious rumor was reported from old man . l there are occasional re£erences to superstition in the Democracies...symbolioall to the Wast. . 1950.. the woman has had a donkey's A £ew days ago ..according "the government of Czechoslovakia decreed. 1950. "Talk of the Town.3 ~ . head." He replied ..fortune-tellers . 2 to a New Yorker item: then .. 3 "miracles" has been reported from CSGcho- In one instance the oross on the alter of a parish ."Who says so .~· Recently slovakian a series of religious villages. _"~~~~_~~~'~~~<~_~~~~_~~~_=="~O< ._..the story runs.. February 9.and 'other specialist in the occult' must suspend operations in that country at once. Since A woman was reported to have said to a mysterious "Don't be an ass.. church was reported to have bowed right and left and finally ..

RM-S65 4-14-50 -13- were considerably annoyed at the interest they provoked. March 14. A Prague Sunday newspaper featured a story with pictures to show how the trick was performedo As for the report of the Virgin Mary's appearanoe waving the Americ flag. there were nine broadcasts concerning the ttmdracles· between February 28 and March 19. The "miraole of the cross" has been denounced as "an outrageous swindle" engineered by the parish priest "with the aid of a steel wire. and on March 10 all Czeoh motion picture houses were instructed to show a newsreel of it.~~---~ . (including a review of a New Times artiole on the subject). Leo J•• Paper Bullets.--' -. According to the Foreign Broadcast Information Service's daily reports of Soviet and Eastern European radio broadcasts. who told the Greeks that when the Persians shot off their arrows they shut out the light of the sun. Margolin. 20." IV. seven from Czeoh transmitters and two from Mosco. 2 military strategists and propagandists have tried to capitalize on the superstitio foibles of the ene~. p. In an anoient Chinese military campaign one 1 2 FBIS. the "fraud" was inspired by the Vatican as part of its plot to undermine the new regime. superstitious attitudes for u oses of From the days of Xerxes. a coil spring. . a Prague broadoast to Europe says: 1 "It is obvious at first sight that this apparition bears the mark 'made in the United States 0 I These despicable machinations only help to unmask the high clergy as executers of the plans 0 the imperialist warmongers cOIlDllunicated them by the Vatican to through its agents. and rubber bandS".------. 1950. GG9. It was explained to newspapermen at a press conference.

1 In more reoent times the British. edited by Ladislas Farago. Paul M~ •• PsyChological Warfare. 5 . the tribes scatt6red. pp. 1 2 3 4 Linebarger. 1944. In the United States.37. the Germans sent persons who masquera as astrologers into France ahead of the advancing armies with instruotions to try to depress French morale by spreading dire predictions among Frenc women about the fate of their husbands. the FBI was said to haTe kept a file of wartime astrologers and tortunetellers suspected of being Axis agents. Ope oit. and a few fifth columnists of thi 5 nature were arrested... Zolotow." Christian Century. achieved some military successes during t 1920's: when British plane-mounted loud speakers told tribesmen along th Northwest Frontier that God was angry with them for breaking the peace. of' warfare. 2 During World War II both sides made occ~8ional attempts to exploit the natural wartime interest in the supernatural. 6-7. In the course of the 1940 campaign on the Western front.nuary 12. 41. I p. Maurioe. Ibid. Braden. German Psychological warfare. Ja. Charles S•• "Why Are 'the Cults Growing. by exploiting local superstitions. the Russians who were attacking religion in their propaganda were reportedly considerably irritated at what struck them as improper form. 3 d They also used magic lanterns 4 to projeot images on the face of drifting clouds. p..RM-365 4=14-50 -14- oommander tried to destroy his opponent's forces with an army that includ large detachments of sorcerers.

especially in the United States and England. edited by Louis P. 123-124. We are really getting som. Rudolf. opo cit •• pp. 9~. In the United States astrologists are at work to prophesy an early end tor the Fuehrero we know that type 01' work as we have otten done it ourselvcso We shall ta.' These give a foreoast of the future course of the waro They are tantasti c and orazy but he toretells. in ~ch a terrible future is prophesied for the German people. Gruenberg.ewhere.Q "April 28. at Goebbels' instigation: t The Revelations of the Swedish tortune-teller. Lochner. 220. up which we are going to distribute.he is so himself -. trick: has been thought ot by Goebbels. 1942 .ndao We are theretore pressing into our service al~ star witnesses tor occult prophecyo Nostradamus must once again submit to being quoted 0" But Goebbelst astrological propaganda was not deSigned exclusively tor the enemy. He has noticed that in tUnes ot danger and distress people beoome much more prone to superstition or oocult praotices -." "May 19. especially in the occupied areas. .keup our astrological propaganda again as soon as possible. Goebbe s was well aware that there were propaganda potentialities inherent in the popular wartime interest in astrology and fortune-telling:l "March 16. The Americans and English tall easily tor that type of propaga. after 8. The enemy is now making use of horoscopes in the torm 01' handbills dropped from planes. 1 2 The Goebbe1s Diaries. pp.RM-365 4-14-50 -15As the following 1942 entries in his diary indi cate.and will seek the advioe of card-readers or other fortune-tellers. I expect quite a little of it. But we know something about this ourselves' I am having cowtter-horoscopes worked. Semmler desoribes a device used by Goebbels in the spring of 1944:2 "A new propaganda.. Berndt handed in a plan fOr oooultist propaganda to be carried on by us. "A month ago there appeared in a Norwegian paper. 126 Semmler. l 193. he also saw the possibilities of spreading occult prophecies domestically to bolster the morale of the German people.

flet predi cting a Germandefea. After many defeats. ppo 200-201.. During the Italian campaign British Italian Army magicians used their talents to conjure up devices to soare peasants J one such device is described by Captain Maskelyne in 2 Magic Top Secret. and able to stagger forward under its own power and emit frightful flashes and bangs. showing it to one another..Elizabeth. in particular. fortune-telling. 1945.t Germany and the Western Powers will fight together against Bolshevi sm. The final conclusion is tha. giving extracts from the artiole. All this is embroidered with details.t. Undercover Girl. the program even predioted a great disaste 1 for the first week in August. 1948 will be Hit1erts greatest year. "Soon after the Norwegianpaper had published these sensational foreoasts. . a typewritten leaflet began to turn up in a number 0 Germancities. they dropped lea. pulling out of their breastpookets the comforting prophecies of Gruenberg. used astrology. to analyze puppet rulers phrenol<gy.RlI-365 ~1g. In the Far East a black radio program. "Our menctuwereable to use illusions of an amusing nature in the Italian mountains. as these things always are. This thing soared several Italian Sicilian villages appearing in the dawnthumping its deafening 1 MacDonald. and persuading one another once again that everything will turn out all righton The Allies too put out propaganda designed to produce defeatism peopl&.y Sphereo With Wha1 looked like real olairvoyance. with Hitler hailed a. talking worriedly about the war.s the saviour of Europe.. a viotory for Germany. serious men. known as Operation Hermit and beamedby OSSto Nanking. about twelve feet high.50 -16period of muchbitterness and disappointment. they used a device which 'Waslittle more than a gigantic a_reorow. in East Asia to pre410t tll. Acoording to the passages from Goebbels' horosoopes in occupied oountriE S ~ong superstitious diaries quoted above. etc. especially when operating in small group as advanoe patrols soouting out the way for our general moves forward 0 In one area.ir downfall and the collapse of the Japanese Co-Prosperit. It was passed from hand 'to hand and one can imagine even sober.

" v. and the inhe. and to take sabotage against them.oseprincipal widespread. it can be reasoned -. if indireotly. be exist sa exploited in the event of a possible future conflio~ with Howm. who were mostly illiterate pea.ken to mean that is necessarily wh.despread these tendencies are is unknown and is a meot it wauld undoubtedly be possible to find ~ evidenoes of there supersti tion in arI¥ country in the "WOrld. instead of waiting for our troops to arrive with food and oongratulations of their help. r and postwar evidenoe it superstitious seems evident that in the basis both the Soviet Union and the Peoples' Democracies superstitions whioh could countries. for several oritical weeks. But the faot that the Soviet press. question. swearing that the Devi 1 was marching ahead of the invading English. thus congesting the roads along which Germanmotorized transport was struggling to retire. sharp weaponin our hands which punished the Germans severely. The Germantankman sometimes cut through the refugees and this inflamed teeling still more.· no doubt. this story assumed almost llllJ!l9nageab1e proportions 0 Villages on the route of our advance began to refuse sullenly to help the retreating Germans. A few factors On to be considered in exploit~ of ..bitants. and what began almost as a joke was soon a.RM-366 4=14-50 -17- way downtheir streets with great electric blue sparks jumping from it.although conclusive evidence t . and then. functions is to point out the shortoomings of Soviet soci on the phenomenon has oommented nAtional newspapers and periodicals in be taken to mean that Soviet leaders are aware that the problem does axis • Since it is doubttu1 that the "Soviet man" is motivated by psycnolog from those whiChanimate his mechanismsthat are fundamentally different Western counterpart.san simply took to their heels for the next village. the poor people flea. ItLike all tales spread amonguneducated folk (and helped.ype behavior in the books of Western of superatiti one of observers of the Soviet scene should not be tB. by our agents). nd the mere tact that a occasional references to this 1:.

Yet perhaps these forces are not entirely blind or beyond contra perhaps they can be placated if only he carries a good-luck charm or make six copies of a chain letter and passes it on. when in faot faotors making for anxiety and insecurity are multi as they are in time of war. he feels he does no-hmow wha-h is going on at a time when what happ ns This is outside his immediate locality is of vital importance to himo probably espeoially true in a totalitarian oountry where individuals have long been acoustomed to a government-controlled press and radio which giv out only as much information as they choose and which choose to leave out a great de~l and to treat the news whioh is presented with something less than oomplete frankness and objeotivity. At any rate it can do no harm. It Beams likely that when superstitions flourish in an atmosphere of tension and insecurity and tha daily experiences fail to provide suffioient reassurance and freedom from anxiety. in wartime the individual's insecurity is increased because. In wartime. an atmosphere exists which is conducive to th acceptanoe of superstitions. whether he and those he loves are killed or wounded seems a matter of chance. Most of all. the average person feels himself at the mercy of fate. since military security imposes at least a partial blackout of news.4-14=50 RM-365 -18- support this point has not been found in the material examined -. Furthermore. So he turns to the crystal-gazers and the fortune-tellers and the astrologer .wants to know not only what is happening today but what ~ happen tomorrow. the individual -- whether he lives in a demoDratic or in a totalitarian state -.to try.that wartime will aggravate superstitious tendencies.

~--- ------_j . prophecies of an early armistice or of new measure to end the war speedily. The fact that superstition was as prevalent as it was in World War II in the supposedly more enlightened and soientific era. often by the same individual who acoepts optimis 10 propheoies.of the twentieth century is evidence that the rejeotion of superstition does not necessarily follow enlightenment.RM-365 4-14-50 -19- who claim they can lift the veil from the future. even if based on nothing but rumor and superstit on. many a superstitious belief is the product of wishful thinking and is accepted beoause it represents something the individual would like to believe.· On the other hand. and Eastern Europe will be less susceptible to superstition than the more ignorant groupso Undoubtedly there is some correlation between the type and amount of eduoation a man has received and his readiness to accept such a non-rational idea as that passing on a chain letter can sa him from harm. Presumably the better-eduoated and more intelligent groups in the U. Thus dire prophecies of serious reverses or of cataolysmio destruction of the world also are accepted.y in a chain let may in wartime rationalize to the extent of saying: "I don't really believe in this. but at least it does no harm to try it. Finally. the anxious individual is not necessarily receptive only to those prophecies whioh are in acoord wi h his wishesJ he may also acoept those whioh confirm his worst fears.S. Even men who under normal oircumstance r would sooff at the idea that there was a~ magical potane.R. but the correlation may not be as olose as is popularly assumed.S." ---------~~~-~-----. Since most people hate war and long not only for victory but for peace . find a receptive audience.

but the sub-elites may not have been equally successful in ridding themselves of such bourgeois notions. The seoond oommon type of superstition which might be exploited is the popular acceptance of devices and practices calculated to ward off ha 0 t . There would seem to be two major direotions whi eh attempts to exploi popular superstitious ideas might take.. Or he may be willing to accept a harml ss superstition like carrying a gold coin for good luok while he draws the 1 at going so far as to consult and accept the propheoies of a ouija board manipulator. more decisive results might be obtained by some more specific predictions coupled with instructions of what to do to avoi the predicted disaster. it is unlikely t the Soviet elite are as addicted to superstition as the Nazi elite were. and the more ignorant workers in Russia and her satellites. the better-educated man may be more likely to seek relief from his anxieties in other ways. if directed against peasants. The first would involve using fortune-telling.RM-365 1. the more intelligent and better educated groups likely to fall prey to the more Given the srume degree of in the population will probably be ~ obvious and blatant forms of superstition. but although vague prophecies might produoe a general state those who aooepted them. Attempts to manipulate popular beliefs in superstition will probably be most successful. It should be relatively easy to devise general prophecies o~ eventual disaster. astrology. old people. insecurity.4-50 1 ~""-"~ On the other hand. and any of the occult techniques for guessing the future to predict dire events likely to befall the enemy. however. In view of the emphasis which Soviet leaders have placed on t materialistic explanations of the laws of the universe.

to the various nationalities of the Sovie Union? What supersti tiona are most prevalent among peasants. they may overburden the postal system. What types of superstious appeals will be best adapted to the What superstitions are peouliar t various audiences to be propagandized? Eastern Europeans. If an attempt is made to exploit superstitions for purposes or psychologioal warfare. 1. it will be necessary to explore a number of probl not investigated in this paper. among civilians? given members of the enemy ~lite are addicted to certain types of superstitions? In addition to biographical and other material regarding group and individuals in the enemy country. a study of looal superstitions as reflected in popular rolk lore might be profitable in pro~idiDg answers these questions. letters may pose nuisance problems for the en~ Such governments in that they If widely consume time that could more profitably be spent on war tasks. 2. What timing factors should be considered in attempts to exploit superstitions? Will superstitions find greater acceptance after the ene -_----------------_- . Answers to some of them 1MJ.rtblack" propaganda operations. to Russians. Instructions on what to do to appease fortune should be devised with emphasis on acts which will cause greatest annoyance to the enemy government. disseminated.RM-365 4-14=50 -21- Chain letters instructing the recipient to make several copies of the letter and pass them on to friends would fall into this category. The questions listed below are merely suggestive of the various types of problems whioh should be ocnsidered.y found in the literature regarding World Wa be II . among What evideIlCe is there that combat troops or airmen.

and what specific effects should this type of nonrational appeal attempt to achieve? be What types of nuisance behavior woul most annoying to the enemy government or most likely to impair the war What types of nuisance behavior are possible for the individual effort? in a totalitarian country in wartime? 4.gents? What are the potentialities tor word-ot-mouth communication within the enemy country? 5. the intended audience? broadcasts? What are the relative advantages of disseminating this type appeal through word-of-mouth rumors introduced by a. are likely to be acceptable in As war progresses.g. e.go after an air raid or after a reduction in rations or an increase in the length of the presoribed working week? What types of superstitioD. the early part of a war as contrasted to later years? is there an increase in fatalistic attitudes and a corresponding decrease in the belief in the efficacy of magical devices? What evidence is there t t some types of superstitions lose their credibility after enjoying a brief vogue? 3.RM-B65 4-14-50 -22has suffered reverses or deprivations -. What are the best methods for communicating non-rational appeals to What audiences can be reached by leaflets or radi. by offering the domestic population reassuring prophecie to combat the effect of dire predictions? What may be the boomerang effe . What results have previous psychological warfare operations in this field obtained. to? What special limitations are attempts to exploit superstition au offset the effect of our To what extent can enemy counter-pro~ganda propaganda.e.

" According to this story. At a UN meeting.RM-365 4-14-50 -23of attempts to exploit popular folk lore?. when the slanderer and the serpent were vying for first place as the most loathsome creature in Hell.----------------. ~------. to what extent will the police controls in a totalitarian country make it difficult or impossible for the individual to engage in the nuisance behavior suggestec by our propaganda even if he should wish to do so? • 1 One illustration of the fact that such attempts can boomerang is afforded in the reoent exohange of Russian folk tales by Messrs. MeNeil recounted a Russian folk tale about a serpent to whom he compared Vyshinsky.--------------------------------------------------- . Vyshinsky neatly parried with another tale entitled "The Serpent and the Slanderer.Finally. top honors went to the slanderer. McNeil and Vyshinsky.

.

Periodic summaries from these lower sahelo s were sent to Berlin and an over-all report was prepared there in the Prinz Albrecht Strasse police headquarters. ! I I L_<_<_~. contains a rather full treatment of the problem of chain letters which. and because people were told that anyI one who breaks this "lucky chain" will be pursued by misfortune and will I 1 not find "salvation. the number of such letters visibly decreased. but it is clear that lower echelons of the police and security service had informants sprinkled throughout the population and in addition made use of various types of police files. . 1940. the transmission of these !messages reached such an extent that the press. How the materi was gathered is not specified in the issues which have been examined. _ _J ._~_~ ~." . I i ! various I These letters soon came to the attention of thousands of persons. parti y I religious-political content and were widely distributed -. strange letters appeared in parts of the Reich proper. has been translated in full below Resurgence of'the Chain Letter Problem A few months after the start of the war._.especially in t e country districts -. with the reaction of the population to variou radio broadcasts and articles in the press. 1942. __ . for example. _._.. and radio had to i expressly point out the foolishness of the chain letter nuisance. and with the prevalence of various types of crimes and misdemeanors. with difficulties which the man in the street had in dealing with his· food ration office.RM-365 1. .because of their prophesies about the progress and I outcome of the war or because they were regarded as good-luck letters whic Iwould preserve the safety of their possessors. however. Iboth because of the prescribed method of transmission (each recipient was 'told to make three to four copies). the reports were classified "Secret"._. Section III of the Office of the Chief of the Security Police and the Security Service issued periodic reports describing for the benefit of higher authorities what the German people were thinking and doing in the course of their daily life..-n-50 -1- CHUN LETTERS IN WARTIME GERMANY Under the Nazi regime in Germany._._ . and almost disappe~d 1 in the year 1941.~. with rumors. The issue of Meldungen aus dem Reich for M83" 21. <. These documents deal. In February of this year (1942). -<~__ ~. a new wave of.. film. I II I In the months from April to June. __ •. These had a partially religious. i . since infonma ion on this subject is comparatively scarce. As a I iresult.__ __ . <. Entitled ~eldungen aua dem Reich" (the title was later changed to "Be rich e zu Inlandsf'ragenlt). _ ~ .

~.. _. lin spite of the fact that the Arehive of the City of Wismar.RM-365 '. 1939. which allegedly started its rounds on November1." A similar chain lettsr.threatens to assume tar larger proportions in all parts of the Reich.) In the most 'cases these letters consist of the so-called "Greeting from Lourdes". The lucky chain began with two young soldiers. is circulated especially by young womenand girls.-11. J . _~~~_~. Then the usual demandfollows that the letter be !lepied and sent on to four persons "to whomone wishes good luck. has attempte Ito point out the false statements in the letter. and within 177 hours you will experience unexpected good fortune. which has achieved the greatest circulation not only becaus of its brevity. __ ~~_~~.-50 -2- chain letters began.I I I i - The so-called testament of a fleeing clergyman is in all respects a complete invention. . in Lourdes. Pr~ three Ave Marias. _~_~_~~al~e:~:~. This letter. A document with such contents has neither been found here nor is it preserved in the City Hall. probably because of the prophesies in the text (about the progress and outcome of the war._... Because of the numerous :questions which it has received. 50 that an armistice will cane".mation on printed postearcis. beginS with the words: "A mother passes it on. Persons who break the chain will never be happy-••• The lucky chain began on November3. Wismarhas already made arrangements to iprovide the reqoested infor. perhaps started as the "Greeting from Lourdes and was altered as a joke._ . 1942. sending it to you. which I according to the "Testament" possesses the original document. The lucky chain must make its way around the world.as can be ascertained from the available reports . because it alleged~ originated with young soldiers I An extract trom it is as follows: Somebodysent it to me and I am. which ." The letter ends with the words: "But you may not stop the letter. A • group of young soldiers. (Ed.y" appears. __ ~~~~_~ . which read as [follows: 'I j I i I . note: there follows a list of 22 cities from which reports were received by police headquarters. These words will 'be fulfilled. for if you de you will have no more happiness. Werequest you to assist us in suppressing this I t . and in fact has already surpassed the levels of the previous years. and in spite of its long-winded expressions is Ifrequently copied off. who deserve good fortune' You keep nothing' Again and again the so-called "Testament of a fleeing monkfrom the 17th Centur. but also because of the "plea for an armistice" which it !lentains. Copy it three times and send the text to four people to whom you wish good fortune.. Its circulation continues._.".

swords and pistols of the enemw shall not strike him •••This letter was sent from heaven and was found in 1724 in Holstein.a. his sins shall._-- .4-l4-50 OJ m4: 365 The same motives may have contributed toward assisting in the distribution of another forger. It begins with the following words: Protective Letter. which a housewife in Hamburg circulated and also gave to an Italian citizen when he left the countr. It was written with golden letters and hovered over the holy baptismal font. But he who does not heed this letter and does not pass it on to be read or copied. Starvation will destroy those who remain. It developed that the latter carried with him the Letter . The letter is supposed to have been found in Jesus' grave and was also at one time in the possession of the Kaiser Karl." ••• ! i I I . and will be protected from all other bodily harm. It awes its popularity primarily to its use as a "luclq piece". Then the sons of the holy Francis and Dominick will go through the world and lead those who remain to Christ. In the Name of God the Father and of the Son •••Just as Christ stoed still in the garden. and has achieved as great cireulation among the Volk Cer. he shall be damned. Whoever carries this with hhn will not be harmed. A "Letter from Heaven" is also ver. But whosoever carries it with him.mans and the transferred Ge~ populations as in the Old Reich.from. After being told to cease working on Sunday and to go regul. Another "protective letter". so all guns shall be silent. As proof it is stated that a UCount Felix of Flanders ~ who wanted to behead a knight for his misdeeds was able neither to wound nor to behead the knight". The letter promisee further all kinds of miraeQQUs effects.y for the superstitious~ the allegea "Vision of the Countess Pillante. But the bent cross will be branded on the foreheads of the criminals. so that Europe will become ampty. differs very little from the so-called Letter from Heaven. The latter had the letters emblazoned on his shield in gold.Heaven with the ~sterious characters.rlyto church. I Roll -----. the peoples who have raised themselves against Christ will perish in flames.y. the recipient is also threatened as in all other cases .y widely distributed. The guns. Whoever carries it with him will "suffer no harm from a gun loaded by anyone".· and gives it to others to read or to copy. be forgiven even though they are as numerous as the stars in the heavens and the sands of the sea. This one ends with the words: But. Princess of Savoy-It.with eternal damnation: Whosoever does not believe this letter shall not achieve eternal salvation. and the Count then immediately copied it for himself.

Another "protective letter". medallions. however.the letter must at all times be carried by the soldier in his breast pocket. First.365 The letter ends with a row of capital letters in an arbitrary arrangement. A comrad. etc. (Bqreuth) Also in Protestant circles people have became thoroughly convinced of the effectiveness of these protective letters and they are often sent to the soldiers at the front as a talisman.e. believing citizens are influenced by them to such a degree that. and abwe a. the soldier must believe in it. In many cases.4-l4-50 _/ _ 1 RM-. which is bound to my heart. £01' axwnple.ll. crosses. the eenturies-old deep-rooted superstition tha. (Chemnitz) . and alleged that without the letter he never would have oome safely out of battle. are believed in by Catholic circles. who also carried the letter but apparently didn't believe in it. or would keep the soldier from harm.t special aenees can be used to influence one own fate or the tate of relatives at the front. which is sent especially frequently to the front. I always carry Thee with me.. In by far the majority of the eases the letters were sent on by the recipients with a certain anxiety and fear that if they destroyed the document the misfortune threatened in the letter would strike them or their families. the date predicted for the end of the war in these letters (three years and five months) has alraady achieved the status of a. again and again leads the population to the use of these chain letters. rosaties. One report states: Since allegedly so many of the statements in these letters have been fulfilled. Heavenly Father. motives. according to the reports. At least it eannot do any h~ to obey the admonition of the chain letters that they should be sent on. Then this letter would bring the help that was asked for. confirmed this repo1*t. According to Thy will. Thou wilt also bring my enemies To me here in quietnessl Protect and preserve me fr0Jll all harm. With Thy mighty merey •••" The strikingly large circulation of the chain letters. begins in the following manner: The words in this verse will bring help when it is asked for: In the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost. One report states: According to the belief of the woman who was questioned a member of the Evangelical Church . can be ascribed to several. fixed idea. the unquestioned reliability and power of these protective letters was believed in just as £innly as the power of certain holy objects. A soldier on leave~ who carried the letter. had fallen.

The women all maintained that they had not dared to destroy the chain letter or to refrain from passing it on.365 -5- As typical of the point of view of the rural population toward the hain letters.farm to farm in order to deliver these letters.he ~ or at the front.he "Greeting from LolWdes" to seek an early armistice. (Bayreuth) The letters are written almost exclusively by women and they are sent on largely to women who have relatives in t. One woman brought the chain letter to the others with the urgent admonition that they sheuld copy it three or four times as seen as possible and send it on tG acquaintances. FQr this reasQn.he purpose of t. ~ . It appears that this undesirable behavior cannot be cheeked without strong threats of punishment. It rarely happens that the clergy.showed that the population was seized as if by a psychosis. Oppeln. after all. with belief in their mir~us quality. etc. In order to obtain these protective letters and to send them on to soldiers at the front.-~~. service wives are often even sought out in their homes and requested to provide the desired dQcument. The letters eert~ do nQt contribute to improving war morale. since they feared that otherwise they would be visited by a major tragedy". t. It is.. the follOWing information comes from Linz: ------~.) The clergy do not playa prominent part in spreading chain letters. take a stand themselves against this pernicious behavior.r about relatives at the front plays a large ·le in the present wide circulation of these letters: One can conclude frQm the available :reports that the chain letter writers are motivated primarily by fear of further bloody battles. People want to do everything they ean for the soldiers. (Innsbruck) It is clear that worr. to whom the chain letter nuisance cannot be unknown. even chain letters are written for them. Even children are sent.~-1lr-50 RM-. but they indulgently overlook this "pious and harmless superstition". (Graz. from . a report states: Questioning of a whole series ~f chain letter writers only females fram peasant circles were concerned . For instance.

OnlY after this demand he Bishop's office in Linz sent the following instruction to the lower clergy of the diocese: "The chain letter nuisance has assumed such proportions during t e past weeks that there is cause to make a. The Faithful are to be exhorted to destroy such cha.RM-. continually increasing extent. It should be noted in this connection that only a very small percentage of the letters eVer cometo the attention of the authori ties at all.g.a.. The Reichspost has constantly seized and turned over to the police whole sheats of letters which from their outer appearance alone can be identified as chain letters. but also in Slovene.in letters in the event that they come into their hands and in any case not to cire\lla.is continu. In Hausaeh/Kinzigtal alone 20 copies of it could be seized in a single day_ The letters are circulated by the entire Catholic population. the appropriate church authorities were asked to take easures against the circulation of chain letters.5 4-14-50 -6- n the course of the month of April. the next opportunity should be taken in a sermon or in an announcement fram the pulpit to state expressly that these ohain letters represent gross superstition. For your information it is added that the secret police have brought this nuisanee to our attention and have asked that we take measures from. towns. but also in all part. a single office was able to eize from 20 to .--. (e. which no real Catholic can take part in or promote. there are aamplaints about a stead~ increasing flood o£ chain letters.30 chain letters almost daily. general appeal to counteract it. Through letters which were apprehended in the LSrrach Kreis it was possible to aseertain that the Catholic priest in Haslach/ Kinzigtal had also circulated the letters. Karlsruhe) In Oberkrain the letter from Lourdes is circulating in German. this document.this quarter to help suppress it. 1942. not only In the past two months the circulation of this chain letter (Greeting fram Lourdes) has grown to a veritable flood in the whole district.in which as is well known the wish for an early armistice is expressed .Si 'at the Reich. In spite of all measures the constantly increasing flood of the chain letters cannot be stopped.te them further. In nearly all.lly being copied and sent on.36. In cases where the Pastor has net already done so on his own responsibill ty in the recent past. but especiallJr in the country. . Danubedistricts. (Innsbruck) --------~~----~---. Not only in the Alp and..--~~--. The chain letter "Greeting from Lourdes" is circulating to a. even in the territories which have been newly won or retaken. Since it was necessary o assume that the numberof letters in circulation must have been several imes this number.

and on the other to encourage the desire for peace in order that the morale or these unreflective and primitive sectors of the p0pula~ion may be weakened.ted. Dortumund and Dflsseldorf it is reported almost uniformly: Various observations lead one to the conelusion that the chain letters are being circulated by the same people who recently circulated the Galen sermon and the other pastoral letters. For example. just as in 1940. in spite of the fact that the local press has already denounced this malpractice which overburdens the post office in an irresponsible manner. the pres .RM-365 h-H-S6 -7- rom Vienna. The purpose m~ be on the one hand to preserve the belief of the people in their church through this superstitious nonsense. it has been reported from Graz: The well-known cha. cal attempts to suppress the chain letter nuisance have been unavailing u o the present time. adio iand film be employed again to check this constantly increasing maance by pointing out the nonsensicaJ. nature of such activity_ WPD/sj . Party circles have therefore proposed that.in letters continue to be circula.

& . 1948. Garden City. 1945. Paper Bullets: In World War II. 1946. New York: Maskelyne.. Maomillan Co. Behind the Iron Curtain. New York: Macmillan Co.: Journal Press. 1949. and Bryan J. ce. William L..-50 -8- BIBLIOGRAPHY Atkinson. In Anger And Pity. Londan: Linebarger. Ine. Goebbels. & Co. Igor. The Goebbels Experiment. 1947. Rudolf. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill NewYork: E. P. London.. Hans. The Man Next to Hitler. New York: Harcourt. 1946. . A Brief' Storr of Psychological Froben Press. Washington. edited by Samuel A. P. City Publishing Kris. William F. On the Way. Salisbury. Undercover Girl. German Radio Pr0paganda. London: Magic Top Secret. Halsey. Semmler. Stouffer et ale Princeton. Oriana. (Volume II). Arthur.-] RM-365 i. Jasper. 1944. 1946. New York: 1947. Garden City.C. Derrick and Weidenfe1d.ey Paul & Co. PsYChological Warfare. MacDonald. Westhouse. D. Admiral Halsey's New York: Garden Oxford Infant I Chose Freedom.. 1947. The American Soldier: Combat and Its Aftermath.. NeW' Jersey: Princeton University Press. White. Vietor. Elizabeth Magidof'f. 1947..Co. Co. 1949. 19 7. Sington. StanJ.. Dutton Storz.. Leo J. Robert. Over At Uno~e Joe's.J.. London Brace & Land of Milk and Honey.. Latimer House Ltd. Moorad. Whitt~esey House. A. Kravchenko. George. London: New York: Harrison. 1942. Doubleday Warfare Margolin. Co. 1949. Russia. New York: Ernst and Speier. The Iron Curtain. John Murray. Gouzenko. Paul M. University Press.

~l. Committee for National Morale. 1946-October 15." The New Yorker (February 4. 1943-1944. 1944). 1943). SaturdaY Evening Post Zolotow. Federal Communications Commission. "Good Luck Belts. 1944).. Heinemann Ltd. Current Digest of the Soviet Press. Published by the Far Eastern and Russian Institute. edited by John R. (April 2. 1946.rl:!." New York Times Magazine Christian CentuEZ (January ll. 1942). 1939-1943. New York: Doubleday & Co.. Maurice. Rees. 1942-1943.. University of Washington (October 31.''Superstitions. Charles S. "Why Are the Cults Growing. 1949. Lochner Garden City. passim). 1950). edited by Hugh Gibson. Soviet Press Translations. London: William. 1947. Foreign Broadcast Intelligence Service.1I "Talk (>t New York Times Magazine the Town." (April17. Weekly Intelligence Reports on Nazi Propaganda. The Goebbe1s Diaries. New New York: German Psychological Warfare. edited and translated by Louis P.. edited by Ladis1as Farago. 1945. Garden City. ''The Soothsayer Comes Back. Published by the Joint Committee on Slavic Studies (March 1949-March 1950). The Ciano Diaries.RM-365 4-14-50 -9 The Case of Rudolf Hess. Braden. Central European Radio Analysis. York: Doubled~ & Co. 1941.. ." (January 12.

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