Nonfluent Aphasias

Type
Broca’s Aphasia
Site of lesion: Broca’s Area: 3rd convolution (gyrus & sulcus) left frontal lobe Brodmann’s areas 44 & 45

Diagram

Behavioral Characteristics/ deficits
        Agrammatism Effortful Speech Short, telegraphic phrases Presence of Apraxia Naming problems Slow speech rate Lacking intonation Poor reading and writing Relatively good auditory comprehension Intact repetition Lack of spontaneous speech Naming problems Short, telegraphic sentences Good articulation Agrammatism Paraphasis

Prognosis & Goals


Transcortical Motor Aphasia
Site of Lesion: Superior & Anterior to Broca’s area Communication b/w Broca’s area and pre-motor or supplementary motor area (Brodmann’s Area 6) cut off. Links to Basal ganglia and/or thalamus may be severed       

Isolation/Mixed Aphasia Site of lesion:

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Similar to Broca’s but severely impaired comprehension Marked naming difficulty Mild-moderately impaired repetition skills

Global Aphasia Site of lesion: both anterior and posterior lesions

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All language functions severely affected (receptive and expressive) Severe deficits in comprehension and production Naming problems Difficulty with gestural skills Impaired reading and writing

Often temporal and parietal. Wernicke’s area and arcuate fascilicus are undamaged. Adjacent to Hechl’s Gyrus. paraphasias. Brodmann’s areas 21 and 42 Diagram Behavioral Characteristics/ deficits       Fluent but meaningless speech Severe auditory comprehension deficit Jargon. Angular gyrus may also be affected causing alexia and agraphia            Marked naming problems Near-normal language Good comprehension Good repetition skills Relatively good auditory comprehension Good articulation Good grammar . Extends into parietal lobe. Connects Broca’s and Wernicke’s both Broca’s and Wernickes intact. and neologisms Good articulation and intonation Naming difficulties Poor reading comprehension Writing deficits Prognosis & Goals  Conduction Aphasia Site of lesion: damage to arcuate fasciculus – bundle of nerve fibers below supramarginal gyrus in the temporal lobe. affecting angular gyrus. Anomic Aphasia Site of lesion: localized with least reliability of any aphasic syndromes.Fluent Aphasias Type Wernicke’s Aphasia Site of lesion: Wernicke’s area: posterior region of left superior temporal gyrus . writing & auditory comprehension. Cut off from the rest of the brain by infarcted tissue.      Marked difficulty repeating words and phrases Only minor comprehension problems Good articulation and prosody Naming problems Recognition of errors with attempts to self-correct Intact repetition Poor auditory Comprehension Naming difficulties Paraphasias Transcortical Sensory Aphasia Site of lesion: Broca’s area.center for reading.

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