In Personam Jurisdiction

Statute Classification

Location of tort Tortious act was the source of harm-causing event; D. was there. Implied location of tort by location of injury Gray: Tortious act was the injury (explosion); doesn’t need to have been there

Statutory Analysis

Illinois Long-arm Laundry-list of contacts necessary for jurisdiction California Long-arm Any kind of contact that is constitutional is sufficient for jurisdiction



Scalia: I.S. contacts only if no personal service. Brennan: Even if personal service, still need I.S. contacts

Burnham If there was personal service.

Pennoyer (1878) 1. Was D. served in forum? 2. Was D. agent served in forum? 3. Was D. domiciled in forum? 4. Did D. consent willingly or inadvertently?

Foreseeability World. Volks: Foreseeability not that product would enter state but that D. would be sued there.

If no personal service International Shoe Contact
Minimal contacts with the forum such that exercise of jurisdiction does not offend traditional notions of fair play and substantial justice.

Purposeful Availment Must reach out to forum Hanson: P. maintaining contact after moving, NO. World. Volks.: P. extending contact through unilateral act, NO. McGee: One time is enough Stream of Commerce Asahi: No est. law Bren: Reasonably anticipate prod. will get to forum. O’Con: That plus intent or purpose to serve that forum

Burger King I.S. has 2 elements: Contacts and Fairness Sliding Scale: If substantial fairness, then contacts may be less

If no sufficient contacts: END Fairness

Relatedness McGee: P. claim arises out of D. contact with forum.

State Interest McGee, Hess: Protect its citizens

Inconvenience BK: Must put D. at severe disadv. in lit.


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