General Editor: Michael Swan
This is a series of practical guides for teachers of English and other languages. Illustrative examples are usually drawn from the field of English as a foreign or second language, but the ideas and techniques described can equally well be used in the teaching of any language. In this series: Drama Techniques in Language Learning - A resource book of communication activities for language teachers by Alan Maley and Alan Duf] Games for Language Learning by Andrew Wright, David Betteridge and Michael Buckby Discussions that WorkTask-centred fluency practice by Penny Ur Once Upon a Time- Using stories in the language classroom by John Morgan and Mario Rinuolucri Teaching Listening Comprehension Keep Talking- Communicative by Friederike Klippel by Penny Ur fluency activities for language teaching

Keep Talking
Communicative fluency activities for language teaching

Friederike Klippel

Working with Words - A guide to teaching and learning vocabulary by Ruth Cairns and Stuart Redman Learner English - A teacher's guide to interference and other problems edited by Michael Swan and Bernard Smith Testing Spoken Language - A handbook by Nic Underhill of oral testing techniques

Literature in the Language Classroom - A resource book of ideas and activities by Joanne Collie and Stephen Slater Dictation - New methods, new possibilities by Paul Davis and lvlario Rinuolucri Grammar Practice Activities - A practical guide for teachers by Penny Ur Testing for Language Teachers by Arthur Hughes The Inward Ear - Poetry in the language classroom by Alan Maley and Alan Duff Pictures for Language Learning by Andrew Wright
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Cambridge University Press
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Acknowledgements PART 1 1


Lambert Lensing GmbH, Dortmund 1983 This translation © Cambridge University Press 1984 This edition first published Ninth printing 1991 Printed in Great Britain at The Bath Press, Avon Library of Congress catalogue card number: 48-9487 1984

© Verlag

Introduction 1 1.1 What the book contains 1.2 Some basic considerations 1.3 How to use the activities Questions and answers 12 2.1 Warming-up exercises 12 24 2.2 Interviews 2.3 Guessing games 31 40 2.4 Jigsaw tasks 2.5 Questioning activities 51




British Library cataloguino in publication data
Klippel, Friederike Keep talking. - (Cambridge handbooks for language teachers) 1. English language - Spoken EnglishStudy and teaching- Foreign speakersProblems, exercises, etc. I.Title 428.3'4'076 PE1128.A2 ISBN0521278716


58 Discussions and decisions 58 3.1 Ranking exercises 3.2 Discussion games 73 ., ., Values clarification techniques .J •.J 88 3.4 Thinking strategies 96 102 3.5 Problem-solving activities 115 Stories and scenes 4.1 Miming 115 4.2 Role play and simulations 130 4.3 Stories



Solutions PART 2 Copyright
It is normally necessary for written permission for copying to be obtained in advance from the publisher. Because Keep Talking is a resource book, it is necessary to copy individual pages for effective class use; for this reason the normal requirement is waived; it is not necessary to write to Cambridge University Press for permission.

Worksheets 136 Alphabetical table of activities Index to language and level Appendix: list of speech acts Bibliography 199






2 Questions and answers

2.1 Warming-up exercises
Activity Topic type pers.j' fact.

beg. beg. into into into into

Organisation class class indiv. pairs indiv. indiv.j' class indiv. indiv. class classj' groups pairs pairs

yes 5-10 no 5-10 Name tags pers. yes 10-15 4 Identity cards pers'; fact. Part 2 10-30 5 Trademark pers. yes 15-20 6 Three adjectives pers. * no 10-15 7 Stem sentences pers. int. Part 2 15-20 8 Choosing pictures pers. beg.Zinr, yes 15-20 9 Clusters fact. beg.Zim, yes 15-30 10 Groupings pers.1 fact. beg.Zinr. Part 2 5-10 Back to back pers. beg. no 10-20 12 Similar and different pers. * inr, no 10-20 pers. = p.ers?nal; pers." = more intimate; fact. = factual; beg. = beginners; into = intermediate; indiv, = individuals, groups = small groups; pairs = two people working together; class = everybody working together; Parr 2 = material for the exercise is to be found in Part 2. 3

1 Names 2 Name circle


Time ill minutes

pers.1 fact.


You can reduce the strain by reorganising the activity in such a way that the student concerned is questioned the class, thus avoiding a monologue where the pressure ISon one person only. Students often find pair v_vork least . the threatening because everybody is talking at the same time and they have only got one listener. Depending on the atmosp~ere in your classes, you may wish to modify whole-class exercises to include pair or group work. . A number of warming-up exercises, (e.g. No.8 Choosing pictures, No.9 Clusters, No. 10 Groupings, No.1! Back to back and No. 12 Similar and different), are also SUitable for light relief between periods of hard work. ~o. 10 Groupings contains a lot of ideas for dividing students into groups and can precede all types of group w~rk. . Most of the warming-up exercises are SUitable for beginners because they do not demand more than simple questions and answers. But the langu.age content of the exercises can easily be adapted to a higher level of proficiency. . . The following activities which are described III later sections can also serve as warming-up exercises: No. 13 Self-directed interviews, No. 20 Most names, No. 41 Go and find out, No. 42 Find someone who ... , No. 75 Four corners. There are further suggestions in Moskowitz 1978.


When people have to work together in a group it is advisable that they get to know each other a little at the beginning. Once they have talked to each other in an introductory exercise they will be less reluctant to cooperate in further activities. One of the pre-requisites of cooperation is knowing the other people's names. A second one is having some idea of what individual members of the group are interested in. One important use of warming-up exercises is with new classes at the beginning of a course or the school year. If you join in the activities and let the class know something about yourself, the students are more likely to accept you as a person and not just as a teacher. A second use of warming-up activities lies in getting students into the right mood before starting on some new project or task. However, even warming-up activities may seem threatening to very shy students. In particular, exercises in which one person has to speak about himself in front of the whole class (e.g, No.5 Trademark) belong in this category. 12

1 Names
Aims Skills - speaking Language - questions Other- getting to know each other's names Beginners Class As many small slips of paper as there are students 5-10 minutes Step 1: Each student writes his full name on a piece of paper. All the papers are collected and redistributed so that everyone receives the name of a person he does not know. Step 2: Everyone walks around the room and tries to find the person whose name he holds. Simple questions can be asked, e.g. 'Is your name ... ?' 'Are you ... ?' Step 3: When everyone has found his partner, he introduces him to the group. 13

Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure

etc. It is handed from one person to the next in the circle and likewise introduced each time. thick felt pens.g. giving reasons. 6 hobbies. The boy with the glasses sitting next to her is Jim.g.. masking tape 10-15 minutes Step 1: Students cut out name tags for themselves in the shapes and colours that they feel suit them best. ?' may be asked. 3 marital status. The students fix the 'wrong' tags to their clothes on the right side of their chests. 8 favourite country.. e. When he introduces him to the group.. background. 7 pet hates.questions. First of all the class agrees on the type of information that should be given on the name tags. Example: iF I i' kOO 3 Name tags Aims Skills .. K. these are mentioned as well. The student sitting to the left of the teacher continues by first pointing at the teacher and saying. Orgallisation Preparation Time procedure 2 Name circle Aims Skills . hobbies. According to the level of achievement in the class the types of questions can be varied.Questions and answers Variations Warming-up exercises 1: No direct questions of the type 'Are you . Again the students circulate and try and find the owner of the tag they are wearing. 2: A toy animal can be used to relax the atmosphere.statements (This is . Step 2: For a few minutes all the students just walk around and look at each other's name tags.g. 1 first name(s). 'Have you got more than one first name?' 'Does your surname end with an "e"?' 'Are your initials F. by encoding the information for these nine points in abbreviations or symbols. Each student should try and talk to at least five other students. They write their names on the tags.getting to know each other Intermediate Level 8 14 15 .speaking Language . 3: With more advanced learners more complex statements can be used. They may sit down again when their names have been recalled correctly. expressing likes Other . They then pick out somebody whose tag they find interesting and talk about the colour and shape of their tags. 'This is Fred Smith/Mrs Henderson. 'The girl with the green pullover is Jane. ..speaking Language .' then . That's . scissors. ) Other-learning each other's names. I'm . 9 where the person would like to be right now) Each student now draws/writes a 'mystery name tag'. When everyone has found his partner. Students have to find out by asking. all tags are collected and redistributed at random. have to stand up. 4 children. memory Beginners Class sitting in a circle. 2: 'Mysrery name tags' are used instead of proper name tags. 2 himself gi:ing his own name.. e. he asks him a few questions about his family. fix them to their clothes with masking tape and start walking around the room. 1: Those students whose names have been forgotten by the person whose turn it is.' Variations Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure Variations Individuals Sheets of stiff paper in different colours.. maximum of 25 students (For variation 2: toy animal) 5-10 minutes The teacher begins by giving her name.?' 2: Step 3 is expanded. The correct tags are then fixed on the left side and a short conversation about the shape and colour of the tag follows. 1: After each student has made his name tag. (e. 5 pets. .. In this way everybody in the CIrcle has to give the names of all the people sitting to their right before introducing themselves.

Step 3: Each student introduces his partner to the class using the identity card as a memory aid. 5: ~ith a very simple identity card this activity is suitable for beginners as well.speaking Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure Variations know each other Intermediate Pairs As many identity cards as there are students (see Part 2) 10-30 minutes Step 1: The students are grouped in pairs (see No.speaking (writing) Language . every drawing can be given a number and shown for a short time while students suggest whose trademark it could and asking for personal information. Students are asked to draw 'trademarks' for themselves which tell something about their personalities.Questions and answers Warming-up exercises 4 Identity cards Aims Skills . The student concerned should be free to remain anonymous. 2: The task 'Find out five things about your partner that ?ne c~ul~ not learn just by looking' can be given before the mterviewmg starts. 4: I~these inter~iews are done at the beginning of a course or seminar a question about individual expectations can be added. class None 10-15 minutes Step 1: On a piece of paper each student writes down three adjectives which he feels describe himself. Instead of having each student explain his drawing. agreeing and disagreeing. Step 2: Taking turns each student places his transparency on the OHP and explains his 'trademark' to the group. 1: The paired interviews can be conducted without identity cards. getting to 5 Trademark Aims Skills . An appropriate card might look like this. Example: name: three things I like: Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure Variations Remarks Language . Step 2: The teacher (or a student) reads out the papers one after the other. Each student must find out those things from his partner which he thinks are important or interesting.getting to know each other Intermediate Individuals Overhead projector and as many transparencies as there are students. This activity can be used both in newly formed groups as an icebreaker and in groups which have been working together for a while. watersoluble OHP pens (alternatively: pieces of A4 paper and felt pens) 15-20 minutes Step 1: Each student receives a blank transparency and a pen.introducing someone else to the group.making conjectures. Step 2: The two students in each pair now interview each other in order to fill in the blanks on the identity card. The others may ask questions.questions about personal data Other . family: hobbies: three things I don't like: Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure something I'd like to do: giving reasons Other . 16 . 3: Each student draws a portrait on the identity card. All the papers are collected. All the cards are exhibited on the classroom wall. stating likes and dislikes Other .speaking Language . 6 Three adjectives Aims Skills .getting to know each other better Intermediate Individuals. With each set of adjectives the group speculates who wrote them. 10 Groupings for ideas) and each of them receives a blank identity card.

). rude. exact. boring. . intelligent. loud. unhappy. Warming-lip exercises Remar/. p. fantastic. one of something he dislikes. expensive. angry. ready. strong. Other selection criteria can be used. JS there are students 15-20 minutes Step 1: All the pictures are put on a table. far. bad. empty. dark.reading comprehension. e. reasons. clever . red. strange. left. white. fair. magazines and Variations Remarks 7 Stem sentences Aims Skills . speaking Language= basic grammatical structures. tired. tall. difficult.' Other _ cooperation. small. wet. ill. big. hungry. unfair. As soon as the music is switched off . A short discussion with other members of the group sharing their ideas can follow. late. easy. He is asked to fill it in. lucky. thick. famous.g. right. Students are allowed to refuse to fill in sentences. friendly. among one's own collection of snapshots. new. hard. blue. noisy. deep. beautiful. grcy. 1: All completed handouts are collected.s name tags. speed of reaction. clean . Then they walk around the room and talk in pairs or small groups about their views and feelings. orange. cheap . relaxation. old. 2: The students put on their completed handouts like 9 Clusters Aims Skills -listening comprehension Language . free.the t~acher gives a command. etc. (An extensive list can be found in Moskowitz 1978. quick. brown. international. wrong. asking someone to do something Other . Suitable pictures can be found in newspapers. funny.getting to know each other better Intermediate Individuals One handout for each student (see Part 2) 15-20 minutes Step 1: Each student receives a copy of the handout. high. warm. jealous.. polite. yellow. Remarks 8 Choosing pictures Aims Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure Skills . little. fir. nasty. near. Then each student is asked to write down three adjectives which characterise his state of mind.speaking Language . blond. lonely. 15-30 minutes Step 1: The students walk around the room :vhile the music is playing. . dividing a class into groups Beginners / in termedia te Class A list of commands for the teacher. fat. people. a radio or cassette recorder for background music. nosy. unfriendly. fast. long. choose a picture that you have strong feelings about (positive or negative) and one that leaves you cold.) The following adjectives are likely to be known after two or three years of learning English: active. good. e.g. Each handout is read out and its author guessed. cold . short. grecn. busy. happy. exciting. quiet. scenery. wild. great. dead. rough. tiny. Step 2: Each student shows the two pictures to the class and explains why he likes or dislikes them. dirty. writing. weak. careful. neat. expressing likes and dislikes Other-fun Beginners/intermediate Individuals Collect about three times as many different pictures (of objects. terrible.understanding instructions . poor. interesting. Step 2: Individual students ask others to read out certain sentences. sweet. young. Students may refuse if they feel their answers are too personal. open. nice. black. Each student chooses two: one picture of something he likes. It may be advisable to revise suitable adjectives beforehand. lovely. interested. stupid. When the 19 Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure Leuel Organisation Preparation Time Procedure Variations 18 . awful. special. thirsty.k!_uestlOllS and answers Variations This activity can also be used to assess the atmosphere in a group at a particular time. pretty.. The room should be cleared of tables and chairs. golden. dangerous. slow. 242. 'Stand together in groups ot five.

1 Proverb matching (see Part 2. flowers. build- 20 21 . Examples: Remarks students have sorted themselves into groups the music continues and everybody again walks around alone until the next command. furniture. too. Step 2 is only suitable for younger students since it involves a lot of pushing and pulling. so that the others may guess the proverb. Together they have to think of a story/situation which illustrates their proverb. 'Stand together in groups of four and agree on a song you want to sing'.' Step 2: After about five to eight commands which involve everybody. For other exercises. In some cases it is possible to let students find their own partners. I mmr I ~ I omh I ~ I 6 Film title matching Examples: ~ I NOON ~::::.Questions and answers Warming-up exercises 2 Sentence matching (see Part 2. Anyone who is not in a group of seven is out. II GRAFFITI I I AMERICAN or: I WEST II SIDE II STORY I (for groups) 7 Personality matching II SHAKESPEARE I I I 10 Groupings Aims Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure Skills -listening or reading comprehension. drinks. Possible commands: 'Shake hands with as many people as possible'. the game can be finished off by calling out numbers. IDA) 3 Picture matching (see Part 2.g. ings. The two partners have to make up the word.-::::::~----. e. 'Form a group with people of roughly the same height'. etc. Since many of these incorporate the active use of the foreign language they are exercises in their own right. Each student receives one item of information and has to find his partner(s) who hold(s) the remaining item(s). 'Find people whose birthday is in the same month as yours. In these cases one of the following methods can be used.all elements Other. IDA) Each student receives half a proverb card and has to find the student holding the other half. groups (see Part 2) 5-10 minutes For many activities it is necessary to divide the whole class into pairs or groups. 10C) 5 .Word building Six-letter words are scrambled and three letters written on each card. 'Mime a scene with at least three other people'. lOB) 4 Mini-dialogues (see Part 2.dividing a class into groups speaking Examples: I WILLIAM I ISAAC II NEWTON I SHERLOCK 8. it may be desirable for students who do not know each other well to work together or for different groupings to provide new stimuli. (for groups) II BUS II BICYCLE I I CAR II LORRY means of transport I BOWL II BASKET II BOX II BAG I containers Other possibilities are: pets. Word matching Examples: I BUTTER IBIRTHI~ I ICE II CREAM 9 Object matching Examples: I II FLY I II HOLMES Beginners/intermediate Class. however. clothes. The procedure remains the same for all materials. Language . That means that separate groups of seven students have to be formed. 'seven'.

Questions and answers \\'arl/lillg-lip exercises and product(s) matching 10 Country Examples: I ISRAEL II GRAPEFRUIT I or: I NEW ZEALAND Alternatively. see ideas in No. of groups. as well as more personal characteristics like taste in clothes and behaviour in class.descriptive sentences (clothes. numbers 1.1 0 Groupings. Those mentioned here should give the teacher some ideas.guage . There are innumerable further possibilities. JIM BAKER II II MRS BAKER I JANET BAKER I 12 Similar and different Aims expressing one's opinion.i Each student writes down three ways in which he thinks that he and his partner are similar and three ways in which he thinks they are different. Step 2: First. stating whether something is right or wrong Other. memory Remarks 22 . the procedure described in Step 1 is repeated with a different partner. each of them makes statements about the other's appearance. Leuel Organisation Preparation Time Procedure 11 Back to back Aims Skills . Taking turns.g. My trousers are blue. II KIWI IIrr-: L-A-MB-I Lcuel Organisation Preparation Time Procedure capitals and flags may be added for the forming 11 Job and tool(s) matching Examples: or: I I I I I I DENTIST II SPADE I ~ TEACHER II CHALK II TEXTBOOK I SECRETARY II TYPEWRITER II FILE I GARDENER MR BAKER II DRILL I Variations 12 Families (for groups) Examples: Beginners Pairs (Cassette recorder with music tape or radio) 10-'-20 minutes Step 1: While the music is playing or the teacher is clapping. The points mentioned by the students may include obvious things like height or hair colour.3. hairstyle.5 and 7 work together.observation. Since the material used is not thrown away. each student pairs up with the person standing nearest and they stand back to back. listening comprehension Lan.getting to know someone else better Intermediate Pairs None 10-20 minutes Step 1: The students work together in pairs. As soon as the music stops. it is his partner's turn to start describing him. When the music stops a second time.writing. speaking Language . 23 13 Numbers Every player receives a number and the teacher announces number-groupings e. Skills . Student A: 'I think you're wearing blue jeans. Three or four description phases are sufficient. then they talk aboutthe differences. (For determining pairs. the time spent preparing a few sets of pairing/ grouping cards is time well spent. He does not show his partner what he has written. agreeing and disagreeing Other . both students tell each other about the similarities and talk about where they were right or wrong.speaking.g.making conjectures. As soon as he mentions something that is wrong. etc. e. everybody walks around the room observing other people's clothes. A student is allowed to keep making statements as long as they are correct. etc. but they aren't jeans' etc. Step 2: After a few minutes the music starts again and all partners separate.' Student B: 'That's not right. appearance).

45 Question and answer cards. Leuel into into into int. particularly No. ? But you said earlier that .. Interviews are contained in other activities as well.g.j' fact.writing. 117. pairs Self-directed interviews Group interview Opinion poll Guided interviews = personal. Organisation pairs groups groups pairs/ groups Preparation no no Part 2 Part 2 Time in minutes I 13 14 15 16 pers. taking them from recent news stories or texts read in class. In the warming-up phase of a course interviews could concentrate on more personal questions.. . Both partners in an interview should be good at listening so that a question-and-answer sequence develops into a conversation. = advanced.g. groups = small groups.. In the media the famous and not so famous are interviewed on important issues and trivial subjects.getting to know each other or each other's points of view In termedia te Pairs None 10-30 minutes Step 1: Each student writes down five to ten questions that he would like to be asked. 15 Opinion poll. as in No. in No. = two people working together. As a rule students should make some notes on the questions they are going to ask and of the answers they get. 2. 118 Making a radio programme. then the time spent on practising questions is increased. = factual.(Tithadvanced learners language functions like insisting and asking for confirmation d)id YOU mean that . No. information about one's personal life.. 113 Talk show.. As soon as beginners know the first structures for questions (e..2 Interviews Activity TO/lie type pers. fact. Part 2 = material for the exercise is to be found in Part 2.. etc. to insist and interpret. e. Since the students' chances of asking a lot of questions are not very good in 'language-oriented' lessons. fact. opinions. ).. Step 2: The students choose partners..j'pers. exchange question sheets and interview one another using these questions. In the foreign language classroom interviews are useful not only because they force students to listen carefully but also because they are so versatile in their subject matter./pers.3 Values clarification techniques. on her ability to ask the right kinds of questions./fact. Krupar 1973. A few sample sentences on the board may be a help for the less able. No. A list of possible topics for further interviews is given at the end of the section. \. 13 Self-directed interviews. and on the willingness to talk on the part of the person being interviewed. If everyone interviews his neighbour all students are practising the foreign language at the same time. 13 Self-directed interviews Aims Skills . Before you use an interview in your class make sure that the students can use the necessary question-and-answer structures. 112 TV interview. pers.Questions and answers Interuieu-. let me see ./ adv. An interview for a job is to be found in activity No. If they write down all the questions in detail beforehand they have a questionnaire. speaking Language . Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure 24 25 . The general context of these questions can be left open. contradicting and interrupting (Hold on a minute .questions Other. read and listen to interviews every day. Further suggestions for using interviews can be found in Dubin and MargoI1977... There is also a list of interview topics in No. ? Do you really think that . Revell 1979. 65 Futures and all the activities in section 3. 16 Guided interviews. ). When the learners have acquired a basic set of structures and vocabulary the interviews mentioned in this section can be used. fact. Can I just butt in here?) can be practised during interviews. they have to use reported speech. interviews are a necessity. interviews are a good compensation. No. The success of an interview depends both on the skill of the interviewer.. Can you sin~ an English song? Have you got a car?) interviewing can begin. No. Of course. several types of questionnaire are described in No. into = intermediate. adv. ? Did you say' . For the advertising industry and market research institutes. hesitating (Well. Some activities may be extended by interviews. 10-30 5-15 30-45 15-25 \Ve watch. you may choose any topic you wish.4 Identity cards. When students report back on interviews they have done. or the questions can be restricted to areas such as personal likes and dislikes. If you divide your class up into groups of three and let two students interview the third.

Each Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure Step 2: The groups are rearranged so that there is one member from each group in each new interview group. Instead of fully written-up questions each student specifies three to five topics he would like to be asked about.g. This means that in order to fill in his interview sheet each person has to talk to everybody else in the group. The groups now follow the suggestions on the group card (Part 2) and agree on two or three questions they want to ask about their topic. weight-watching: with five members each.speaking Language-. note taking Intermediate Groups of three to five students each (all groups should have the same number of students) Handouts for each group (see Part 2) 30-45 minutes Step 1: The class is divided into groups of equal size. Each member of the new group has to get the answers to his questions from all the other members of the group.r»1olttcte Ceyea. This activity is made more difficult and more interesting if the person interviewed is not allowed to answer truthfully.g. asking questions Other . writing Language .kM6 ~OLL 14 Group interview Aims Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure Variations Skills .br-eclkfa. After the questioning the students should discuss how much these 'lies' revealed and how the students interviewed felt during the questioning. then there are now five new groups which have six members each (one from each group). food : fOOD aVid-. e. This activity helps to avoid embarrassment because nobody has to reveal thoughts and feelings he does not want to talk about. drawing up tables and lists.making interaction Intermediate Groups of four to six students None 5-15 minutes In each group one student (who either volunteers or is drawn by lot) is questioned by all the other group members. 3 4 15 Opinion poll Aims Skills .Wla. food.planning and executing the solving of a task. Example: Step 3: It might be quite interesting to find Variations Remarks 1'1< ['AJ(FA:'5T Wl1ab do N. If there were six groups (e. pop music. He should fill in his own answers first. Each group member prepares an interview sheet with these questions. drinks. asking for and giving information Other . friends. 27 26 . agreeing and disagreeing. eating out.L I toast:" DRINk' 1 2 Me. usually kave. cooperation.Questions and answers in a discussion with the whole class what kinds of questions were asked and why they were chosen. favourite dish. Ollt interviews group receives one topic in the opinion poll (see Part 2). breakfast.{ov. arguing.speaking.

Family life. The Third World. Suggestions: Shopping. Students can decide what subtopics should be used for the group cards in a brainstorming session (see No.~ ~.all elements Other .. Fun. I x Type C Question/ statement Example: You have just taken off from Heathrow airport. questions like 'Was there any result that surprised you?' 'What is the most important result?' 'How can we act on these results?' can be asked. o You write a letter of complaint to the airline and tell them that you will never fly with them again. etc. Type F Questions to be answered Choose the appropriate never rarely answer: often every day Example: Who do you think is going to be the next Prime Minister in Britain? jl 11 11 I sometimes x l i . when the Choose one of the given answers/reactions: ~ Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure o You are pleased Variations o that women can become pilots at last. Step 5: (optional) When everybody in the class has heard what the findings were. You feel frightened.Questions and answers Captain welcomes you on board. Other types of guided interview can be developed by specifying the question forms that have to be used or the topics to be asked about.imagination Intermediate/ advanced Groups or pairs Handouts (see below and Part 2) 15-25 minutes Step 1: Each group receives a handout (see below) of the answers and tries to work out the appropriate questions. This may involve quite a lot of discussion where tables or diagrams have to be drawn. TypeB Statements Example: Girls are more easily frightened than boys. TypeD Yes/no questions Example: Would you support a strike in your firm? Choose the appropriate answer: ~ye_s_+-_~_lo t-_d_o_Il_'t_k_ll_o_w __ Type E Statements where blanks have Example: Being a mother is the to be filled in job in the world. Choose degree of agreement: disagree strongly disagree somewhat do not agree or disagree agree somewhat 16 Guided interviews Aims Skills . Step 2: Solutions are read out. Students can work out their own questionnaires by using one of the following types of questions or stimuli. Some examples of interviewguiding worksheets for pair work are given in Part 2.. so that everybody can have a look. 87 Brainstorming). The Captain is a woman.all four skills Language . . 28 29 . This procedure can be adapted to a great number of topics. Travelling. tables. on the wall (or overhead projector). Interviews Variations Remarks Step 3: The orginal groups reassemble to organise their data. Type A Questions about frequency Example: How often do you read a daily paper? o It does not bother you one way or the other. Equality. Work. Step 4: Each group presents their results either in the form of a short talk or by putting up lists.

It can be something one player is thinking of. a trial run through the game may refresh your students' memories and show whether any revision is needed before you start playing 30 31 . It is not only children that Ilke guessing. and so it is full of suspense. Gardening. an object seen only by one person. 3 No. = pers?~al. How this is done is determined by an additional set of rules. fact. 12 That was the nicest thing that ever happened to me. Both chance and skill (in asking the right questions) playa part in finding the solution. fact. fact. Think of questions that fit these answers and decide what the person who was interviewed is like. an activity . guessing games are true communicative situations and as such are very important for foreign language learning. a word. groups groups paIrs class/teams groups indiv. I need to find someone to practise with. As the person guessing has a real urge to find out something. into = intermediate.~. but I prefer the first. class = everybody working together. the type and number of questions./int. intiiv. but I'm not very good at it yet. fact. The popularity of guessing games can be explained by their structure. = individuals. teams large groups of equal size. fact./teams Preparation Part 2 no no yes no yes yes yes no yes Tillie ill minutes i~! . S I can't answer that question. The thing to be guessed differs greatly from game to game. r zi I 1 1 5-15 15-20 5-10 15-25 10-15 10-15 10-30 10-20 15-25 20-30 pcrs. as shown by many popular TV programmes. = beginn~rs. for example. adv. These rules lay down. I did. Parr 2 = material for the exercises is to be found in Part 2. = advanced. into into into adv. pairs = two people working together. They are generally liked by students of all ages because they combine language practice with fun and excitement. fact. Crganisation class groups class indiv. The outcome of the game tends to be uncertain until the last moment. Level into into into into into beg. 4 I can do either. = two Interview topics Smoking Quality of life Old and young under one roof Single-parent families Weather Handicapped people The best teacher I ever had Keeping fit The right to die Illness Minorities Changing jobs Moving house Letter-writing Favourite films Eating out Clothes Plans and ambitions Pets Saving things Old and new things Private and public transport Wildlife protection Hunger Loneliness Everybody knows guessing games. 2. 2 This is quite true. 7 New Zealand. adults like guessing too. 11 Never. 6 Frogs and snakes. pers'. Iceland or Malta. fact. Before you tryout a new guessing game with your class. make sure that the players know all the words and structures necessary for the game. = factual.3 Guessing games Aclil'ity 17 What is it? 18 A day in the life 19 Packing a suitcase I iO' Most names Lie detector 22 Coffeepotting 23 What's in the box? 24 Definitions 25 New rules 26 Hidden sentence Topic type fact.or lots of other things. pers. 8 As often as possible. The basic rule of guessing games is eminently simple: one person knows something that another one wants to find out. 9 I don't care which. 1 Yes.Questions and answers Guessing games Interview Here are 12 answers given in an interview. 10 I wouldn't be able to tell one from the other. fact. pers. If you are not sure. groups = small groups./ fact. beg.

3: Points can be awarded not only for correct guesses but also for correct sentences. Games are a lot of fun even if they are not played in order to score points.speaking Language . e. Wright et al 1979). One member of each group leaves the room. . Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure 17 What is it? Aims Skills . have a look at collections of games for parties or children's groups.m.imagination Intermediate Class versus two students 33 Level Organisation 32 . A lot of the ideas in those books can be transferred to foreign language teaching. fictitious day. If you cannot think of any new rules. Step 4 (optional): When each 'victim' has guessed his. to 8 p.speaking Language . Variatiolls 1: Instead of home-made drawings.g. the 'victim's' day should not be divided into more than six two-hour periods. expressing uncertainty. giving reasons Other-fun Intermediate Class Transparencies for the overhead projector (see Part 2) with line drawings 5-15 minutes The teacher puts a transparency with a complicated line drawing on the OHP.statements.' 'I'm not quite sure. simple past tense Other . Another element to be considered before playing is the organisation of the game. One 'window' after the other is 'opened'. and you will find that one game idea can be the nucleus of many new asking only yes/no questions -how the group thinks they spent the previous day. Step 2: The remaining group members decide on how the person who is outside spent the previous day. who he talked to. it's got two legs.m. cartoons can be used (if a photocopier which prints onto plastic is available). but the object on the left looks like a chair.g.conditional Other . Chamberlin and Stenberg 1976. what he did. (writing) Language . Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure 19 Packing a suitcase Aims Skills .Questions and answers Guessing games in earnest.' 'Is the round thing a lamp?' 'Perhaps the long shape is a person. a sheet of cardboard with cut-out 'windows' at strategic points covers the picture. A trial run also has the advantage that the rules are demonstrated to all the players. 2: Instead of having the OHP out of focus. It should be out of focus (check position beforehand!). Lee 1979. They dra:v up an exact time schedule from 8 a. If you are playing a guessing game as a team contest it may be necessary to damp down the very competitive-minded. asking about events (yes/no questions). Step 3: The people who waited outside during Step 2 are called in and return to their groups. There are also several publications devoted specially to foreign language teaching games (e.questions. The students guess what the drawing could represent. Variation is a vital ingredient of good games.speaking. 'I think it could be a room.cooperation Intermediate Groups of four to six students each None 15-20 minutes Step 1: The class is divided into groups. So as not to make the guessing too difficult. and describe where the person was. so that only a blurred image can be seen.' etc. There they try and find out. the group tries to find out what he really did. in order to guarantee that as many students as possible are actively participating most of the time. More theoretical books giving the rationale behind the use of games in foreign language teaching are by Rixon (1981) and Klippel (1980). You can try changing the rules of familiar games or doing things in a different order. 18 A day in the life Aims Skills . making conjectures.

the teacher fixes a name tag to each student's back. They are allowed three guesses and must not take longer than three minutes. masking tape (or safety pins) 15-25 minutes Step 1: Without letting the student see it.yes/ no questions Other .and thus has guessed 'his' different personalities most quickly in a given time (20 minutes) . The rest of the class agrees on a person (either somebody from the class itself or a well-known person) for the two students to guess.. Step 2: The students who went outside now return to their groups. because they are only allowed one question or one guess per turn. Susan?' The two students can discuss possible solutions together. The other groupsW have to discuss their questions and strategies. would you pack a senseof humour?'h(This way of playing the game would. characteristics) they would pack into the suitcase of the unidentified person..speaking Language . They have to answer all questions.• . '1 f.• Remarks are not allowed to ask anyone person more than three questions. 'What object would you pack.••. r.5 4 Personalities (1). The rest of the group has to decide which answer was a lie... They ask individual students what things (objects. These can either be personal (e. depending on the students' cultural background and who is in the news at the time. One member of each group leaves the room. ~ E 20 Most names Aims Skills . They Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure 22 Coffeepotting Aims Skills . e....g. reduce t e amount of language practice for the class. They have to find out by asking yes/no questions 'who' they are. The ~:~~~n~hiCh guesses correctly decides on the next mystery 'i·". Many more can be added. group interaction In termedia te Individuals About three times as many name tags with the names of famous people written on them as there are students. In the case of factual questions the students asking them must not know the answers either. '.speaking Language . h owever. giving reasons Other .asking questions.. in one case they may lie. A list with suitable names is to be found in No. giving evasive answers Other-fun 35 34 . The student who has most names tags on his back . qualities..observation Intermediate Groups of six to seven students each None 10-15 minutes Step 1: The students are divided into groups (see No.Questions and answers Guessing games Preparation Time Procedure Variations None 5-10 minutes Step 1: Two students are asked to leave the room. 1: The roles of questioning and answering could be changed so that the two students ask. 21 Lie detector Aims . They have to give reasons to justify their declared the winner. Step 2: The students circulate around the room. Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure Skills . 'What do you feel about corporal punishment?') or factual questions.questions.speaking Language . The student tells them if they were right.mixing in the class. Martin?' 'What positive quality would you pack. As soon as somebody has found out who he is. 'Peter.' r. Step 2: The two students are called in again. 10 Groupings for ideas). W t.g. he tells the teacher. 3: The game can be played as a competition in groups.g. In their absence the groups decide on a set of five to eight questions they want to ask the students. One group thinks of the person to be guessed. except one. e. If he is right he receives a new name tag.'. truthfully.•.) 2: The two students could agree on a person to be guessed b Y t h e c Iass.

g.speaking Language . Each of the students now thinks of a definition for the word. etc.) inside each container 10-30 minutes ~ach student works with a partner (see No. Step 3: As soon as a student from the guessing group thinks he has found the solution. vocabulary building In termedia te Class or teams (if there are more than 20) At least one dictionary (English-English) 10-20 minutes Step 1: One student is asked to leave the room. Several unknown words are chosen and their correct definitions presented in random order. The second student has to guess the object. but not the direct question 'What is coffeepotting?' The students in the smaller group are allowed to give evasive answers. student is quite sure his partner has guessed the object correctly (by describing its function or appearance) he tells him the name. The game is finished when the original numbers of the groups (1/3 to 2/3) have been reversed. Step 2: The members of the bigger group now have to guess this activity.) as there are whose meaning they do not know from the dictionary.definitions. he whispers it to the teacher andif correct . If y. matchboxes tobacco tins. stamp. the other. ~he remaining students choose a word. two thirds) Chairs arranged in two rows facing each other 10-15 minutes Step 1: The groups sit down facing one another. without letting the others see it.speaking Language . 24 Definitions Aims Skills . The word is wntten on the blackboard. discussion skills Other .questions.questions. meaning of the word. The second student then fetches a box and lets the other one guess. new words Other .speaking Language . though they should be basically correct.shown the word he asks individual students for their definitions. When he has listened to all (or some) ot the definitions he says which one he thinks is the correct one. When the first Variations Remarks Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure 25 New rules Aims Skills . a piece of paper with the name (and the pronunciation) written on it should also be placed in the box. He can also ask additional questions about the (fictitious) . shows all the members of the smaller group a piece of paper with an activity (e. One student from each pair fetches a box and looks inside without letting his partner see what is in the box. Words and definitions have to be matched. Then the teacher. e.r Questions and answers Guessing games Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure Beginners/intermediate Two groups of different sizes (one group should have one third of the total number of students. vocabulary building Intermediate Pairs As many small containers (cigar boxes.ou think the students don't know the names of the objects. reading or skiing) written on it. 'Is coffeepotting fun in winter?' Both yes/ no questions and wh-questions are allowed.imagination. In their questions they use the substitute verb 'to coffeepot'. pencil-sharpener.g. Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure 23 What's in the box? Aims Skills . one little object (safety-pins.joins the answering group. Each person in the smaller group is questioned by two members of the other group.observation Intermediate Groups of five to seven students each None 37 Level Organisation Preparation 36 . Hav!ng bee? . explaining the use of an object without knowing its name Other . only one student memorising the dictionary definition. Step 2: The student is called back in.1 0 Groupings for Ideas). Students can be made aware of derivations of certain words from other languages they know or from other words they have learnt. etc.

Questions and answers Guessing games student from the other team. Each student chooses a sentence card. I hate spinach. I think.g. I've never been to Tokyo. Step 2: The groups now send one of their members as a 'spy' to another group. The 'spies' can ask questions and participate in the general conversation in order to find out the rule of their new group. The conversation continues until 3 (or 5) minutes are up. come and sit at the front of the class. e. individuals Cards with sentences (as many as there are students). Step 3: As soon as a spy thinks that he has discovered the new rule he returns to his group. Both teams listen attentively and try to guess the 'hidden sentence' of the Suggestions for topics Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure 38 39 . Modern art is fascinating. questions addressed to one member of the group ar. A general discussion follows about the difficulties of discovering the rules and of keeping to them. they shout 'Stop!' and repeat the sentence. Bus fares have gone up again. But I like children. guiding the conversation towards certain topics Advanced Teams. My mother used to bake a cake every Sunday. nobody is allowed to speak before he has scratched his head. If they think they hear it. Step 4: After a given time (15 minutes) all spies return to their own groups. If they are correct. one from each team. they score a point. Each group agrees on a rule that has to be followed in subsequent group conversations. For the next round two new students from each team come to the front. Pollution Watching TV Family life Travelling Fashion Keeping fit Time Procedure 15-25 minutes Step 1: The class is divided into groups. listening comprehension Language . Suggestions for sentences 26 Hidden sentence Aims Skills .all elements Other.e always answered by the right-hand neighbour..g. Scoring can be organised as follows: Guessing hidden sentence correctly: 1 point Use of hidden sentence by student without detection: 1 point Failure to use sentence: minus 1 point This means that each team can gain a maximum of 2 points in each round (if they detect the opponent's hidden sentence and if their own team member uses his sentence undetected). Step 2: The teacher chooses a topic card and announces the topic. The group members react to the 'spy's' contributions only as long as he does not violate the new rule. The two students start off a conversation with each other on this topic. nobody IS allowed to use the words 'yes' and 'no'. topic cards 20-30 minutes Step 1: Two teams are formed. Each group talks about a given topic. and another group member is dispatched as spy to a different group. Two students. The most dangerous thing you can do in rush-hour traffic is ride a bike. They have to guide the conversation in such a way that they can use the sentence on their card in a suitable context without anybody noticing it. Thev do not show their sentences to each other or to their teams .speaking. I really think it's old-fashioned to get married. Each team is allowed to shout 'Stop!' twice during each round. conversation. What I like about our town.

If your students have not yet been trained to use the foreign language amongst themselves in situations like these. fact. fact. fact. It ISobvious that this entails a large amount of practice in . No. and one copy each of handout B for the other half (see Part 2) 41 Level Organisation Preparation . into = intermediate. class = everybody working together. Participants in jigsaw tasks have to do a lot o~ talking bef?re they are able to fit the pieces together in the right way. 27 The same or different? Aims Skills . Gibson 1975. 102 Friendly Biscuits Inc./adv. there may be a few difficulties with monolingual groups when you start using jigsaw tasks. Some of these difficulties may be overcome if exercises designed for pair work are first done as team exercises so that necessary phrases can be practised. 30 What are the differences?) can be found in magazines. for No. Parr 2 = material for the exercises is to be found in Parr 2.exact description Other . If you have a camera you can take photographs for jigsaw tasks. fact. because each holds part of the solut~on. language. pairs One copy each of handout A for half the students. listening comprehension Language . the participants in a JIgsaw task have only one (or a few) piece(s) each. Suitable drawings (e.g.e. fact. 27 The same or different? and No. i. Further suggestions for exercises of this type may be found in Byrne and Rixon 1979. 30 What are the differences?) in which pictures have to be compared. have to be fitted together to find the solution.llanguage is needed here. In jigsaw tasks each participant is equally important.Questions and answers Jigsaw tasks 2. fact. which may be sentences from a story or factual text. Pair or group work is necessary for a number of jigsaw tasks. fact.. the students have to understand the bits ?f information they are given (i. The worksheets contained in Part 2 are also meant as stimuli for your own production of worksheets. Jigsaw tasks practise two very different areas of skill in the foreign language. fact. listening and/ or reading comprehension) and describe them to the rest of the group./adv. this type of activity is best used with intermediate and more advanced students.~ factual. 2 pairs = two people 15-20 5-10 10-15 5-10 10-15 10-15 30-45 15-30 10-15 10-15 5-15 )0-45 Jigsaw tasks use the same basic principle as jigsaw puzzles with one exception. derermining sequence.g. Nation 1977.e. namely No. working together. Textual material for strip stories can be taken from textbooks and text collections. In a number of jigsaw tasks in this section the participants have to give exact descriptions of scenes or objects (e. Whereas the player doing a jigsaw puzzle h~~ all the pieces he needs in front of him. the students have to organise the process of finding the solution. Firstly. = ~dvanced. 103 Baker Street. Leuel into into into into into into int.the foreign. Stanford and Stanford 1969 and Thomas 1978. agreeing and disagreeing. fact. Omaggio 1976. 32 Town plan). adv. arrangements of a few objects with the positions changed in each picture. into into into into int. and No. As in a puzzle-the individual parts. groups = small groups.5) are also a kind of jigsaw task. o rgal1isation Preparation 2 Time in minutes 27 28 29 130 \ 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 The same or different? Twins Partner puzzle What are the differences? Ordering Town plan Weekend trip Strip story Information search Messenger Jigsaw guessing Getting it together class/ pairs Part pairs Part pairs Part pam Part pam Part pairs Part groups Part class yes groups Part groups yes groups Part groups Part 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 fact . fact. or parts of a picture or comic strip. Some of the problem-solving activities (section 3. No.cooperation Intermediate Class. so these exercises can be valuable for revising prepositions and adjectives.4 Jigsaw tasks Activity Topic type fact.g. Kimball and Palmer 1978. 29 Partner puzzle and No. etc. A modified form of jigsaw tasks is found in communicative exercises for pair work (e. Because the language elements required by jigsaw tasks are not available at beginners' level. fact. That is why jigsaw tasks are said to improve cooperation and mutual acceptance within the group (see Aronson et al1975).speaking. Secondly. a lot of interactiona. especially in language functlO?~ like suggestIng. This makes them realise how important pronunciation and intonation are in making yourself 40 understood.

neither is allowed to see what the other is doing. students can exchange their tasks after completion. the teacher tells the class the answers. By describing their pictures to each other and asking questions. the inner circle facing outwards. synonymous and nonsynonymous sentences. Half of the photocopies should be cut up as indicated and put into separate envelopes.speaking. Step 3: When all the drawings have been discussed. a copy each of picture B (see Part 2) for the other half 5-10 minutes Step 1: Each student works with a partner. the other student gets the puzzle pieces. e. some are the s~me in A and B. words and drawings. One student receives a copy of the original picture.cooperation Intermediate Pairs A copy each of picture A (see Part 2) for half the students. All the students sitting in the inner circle receive handout A. The student who has a cross next to the number of the drawing begins by describing it to his partner. Level Organisation Preparation Variations Time Procedure Remarks Remarks 28 Twins Aims Skills . all the students can work on different tasks at the same time and exchange folders in order to work on more than one set. Step 2: Each handout contains 18 small drawings.) If the teacher produces a number of cardboard folders which each contain a set of instructions and picture sheets (A and B) in separate envelopes.g. The first student now has to tell the second how to arrange the pieces.cooperation In termedia te Pairs One copy each of handout A for half the students. and mark it 5 or D. (Idea from Nation 1977. which he must not show to his partner.exact description of a picture Other. 29 Partner puzzle Aims Skills . the other a copy of the picture with minor alterations. One student in each pair receives the complete picture. One student in each pair receives a copy of handout A. symbolic drawings. and some are different. All the students in the outer circle receive handout B. 10-15 minutes Each student works with a partner.speaking Language .speaking Language .exact description of a picture Other . so that two students from opposite groups sit facing each other. Instead of pictures. 10 Groupings). the outer circle facing inwards. If the teacher produces a number of cardboard folders (or big envelopes) with different pictures prepared in this way. By describing their pictures to 43 Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure 42 .Questions and answers Remarks jigsaw tasks Time Procedure 15-20 minutes Step 1: The class is divided into two groups of equal size and the chairs arranged in two circles. By describing the drawings to each other and asking questions the two students in each pair have to decide whether the drawing is the same or different. They must not let their partners see their handouts. the other a copy of handout B. They must not show each other their handouts. other things could be used.describing the position of puzzle pieces Other . The material can be varied in many ways. listening comprehension Language . the students have to determine which picture out of their set corresponds with one on their partner's handout. After discussing three drawings all the students in the outer circle move to the chair on their left and continue with a new partner. and one copy each of handout B for the other half (see Part 2) 5-10 minutes Each student works with a partner (for ideas on how to select partners see No. 30 What are the differences? Aims Skills .cooperation Intermediate Pairs As many copies of the picture in Part 2 as there are students.

B has to find Park Street. If the teacher produces a number of cardboard folders (or big envelopes) with different pictures prepared in this way.describing situations/ actions shown in pictures. First.Questions and answers Jigsaw tasks Remarks one another and asking questions they have to determine how many and what differences there are between them. Step 2: They decide on the content of the story and agree o? a sequence for their total number of pictures. using the spaces indicated by the numbers 1 to 15.cooperation Intermediate Pairs A comic strip (or picture story) of at least four pictures is cut up.e.speaking Language .' Step 2 can be rendered more difficult if the partners do not use the starting point but describe the way from one place to another (e. They must describe the way to these places starting at the point indicated on the map. the department store and Windon Common). Milk Lane. Step 2: When they think they have found all the differences they compare pictures. The partners then have to find out which numbers refer to which places by asking for directions.cooperation Aims Skills . the names of some streets (A has to find London Road. Pen Street. Aston Street. Nottingham Road. The students ask each other for information which is missing from their plan i. B does the same for his eight places. agreeing and disagreeing. both picture sheets are compared and the solution discussed. without letting his partner see where he has written them in (his partner has a list of the places). finding a compromise . each student describes his pictures to his partner. the other half. They do not show each other their pictures. Finally. Step 2: Student A then writes in the names of eight more places. Rat Lane. (Idea adapted from Byrne and Rixon 1979. Station Square and Fair Fields. version A for the first student. They are not allowed to show their pictures to their partners. so that each sheet contains half the pictures (see Part 2)._) 44 . Each partner has half the pictures from a comic strip. from the bus station to the pub) without revealing the exact location of their starting point. Remarks 33 Weekend trip 32 Town plan Aims Skills . expressing likes and dislikes Other . This has to be deduced from the street names given. The restaurant is down the street on your left.speaking Language . A: 'How do I get to the Chinese restaurant?' B: 'You walk up Linklow Hill and turn right into Ink Street. Cocoa Lane. B has to find the Post Office. students can exchange materials after completion of one task. North Street.making suggestions. Each partner receives a copy of the town plan. and the pictures pasted in random order on two pieces of paper. the Old Bridge and the Town Hall. Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure Variations Intermediate Pairs One town plan in two versions giving different pieces of information (see Part 2) 10-15 minutes Step 1: The students work in pairs.) Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure 31 Ordering Aims Skills .g. version B for the second.- . If the teacher prepares a number of picture sequences in this way. asking for and giving information. Half the students receive one set of pictures each. e. the other. High Street. making suggestions Other . Step 1: The students work in pairs. using numbers 16 to 30. 10-15 minutes .g.cooperation. Trent Crescent and River Drive) and the location of certain buildings and other places marked on the map (A has to find Rose Park.speaking Language . students can exchange their tasks after directions Other .

Your landlady would like to know as soon as possible whether you will stay on for Saturday and Sunday night. Work out a jointly-agreed plan for the weekend (till Monday morning. walkingcamping). or they are questioned in turn. 15-30 minutes Step 1: Each student receives a strip of paper with one sentence on it. (See Gibson go. etc. saying that something is right or wrong. A discussion follows on how everybody felt during this exercise.cooperation Intermediate Class A story with as many sentences as there are students.' Step 3: Each group presents its plan for the weekend trip. Work out the correct sequence without writing anything down. car .asking for and giving information. and what you would like to do and see. and one question card per group 10-15 minutes Level Organisation Preparation Time 46 .bed and breakfast. asking for confirmation Other .). e.cooperation Intermediate Groups of six to eight students Information cards which contain different pieces of information. 34 Strip story Aims Skills . Either the members of each group come forward and report on individual points mentioned on their information cards. like planning school bus routes.g. where you would like to stay.Certain places have to be visited (the map is divided into four squares and places in three of them have to be included in the itinerary). . 1: Instead of a prose text a dialogue is used. need to be prepared). train/bus . writing a tourist brochure. Decide where you would like. agreeing and disagreeing Other . They are told: 'It is Friday afternoon (5 p.' From now on the teacher should refuse to answer any questions or give any help.People are not allowed to spend more than a certain amount of money (information cards with fares.) Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure Variations Remarks 35 Information search Aims Skills . Step 3: The students present the sequence they have arrived at.m. He is asked not to show his sentence to anybody else but to memorise it within two minutes. 3: Each group can work out suggestions for weekend trips (including transport.making suggestions. making conjectures.youth hostel. prices of accommodation and tickets. 1: The task can be varied by imposing a number of different constraints. 2: The task in this case involves the solution of a puzzle for which each student holds a vital piece of information. one card per student (see Parr 2). planning a motorway.g. accommodation and prices) to be offered to the other groups. Step 2: The groups now have to work out a timetable and itinerary for a weekend trip into the area shown by the map. You are staying the night at a small hotel.m.Questions and answers Jigsaw tasks Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure Variations Remarks In termediate/ advanced Groups of six to eight students Each group receives several copies of the map and a set of information cards (see Part 2) 30-45 minutes Step 1: The first task of each grou p is to collect all the information and mark it (where necessary) on the master copy of the map. who have to choose. bicycle . After two minutes all the strips of paper are collected in again. expressing one's opinion. when you have to leave Beachton at 10 a. listening comprehension Language . Step 2: The teacher briefly explains the task: 'All the sentences you have learnt make up a story.) and you have just arrived at Beachton. 2: The trip need not be planned so as to satisfy all members of the group.hotel. deciding on the location of a holiday campi car factory/nature reserve. etc.Only certain types of transport may be used in combination with particular types of accommodation (e. . Each sentence is written on a separate strip of paper.speaking Language . The map can be used for a lot of other language activities.speaking. which may break up into sub-groups (of at least two). .

Instead of Lego bricks. arrangements of tangram pieces or other objects and drawings can be used. Answer. groups can exchange tasks after completion of the first one.cooperation Intermediate Groups of three to four students Lego bricks (one set of material for the teacher and one for each group) 10-15 minutes Step 1: Before the class starts the teacher builds something out of Lego bricks and covers it with a Moon. cooperation Intermediate Groups One puzzle for each group. When all the copies are finished they are compared with the original. 5: LA~'ilP (Love. reporting on something. Pear.speaking. Like. Song. One person in the group reads out the question from the question card. Name. describing one's feelings Other . 3: DESK (Dear.discussing. Tea. Then they discuss possible solutions. The first letters of all the group words give the solution to the whole puzzle. Accident. Difficult). In each group 49 Level Organisation Preparation Variations Time Procedure 48 . 7: HAND (Happy. Knife). Valley. listening comprehension Language . End. etc. The group can send the messenger to have a second look at the teacher's object. The messengers are not allowed to touch the Lego bricks or to demonstrate how it should be done. Old). Postman. If the teacher prepares different sets of material similar to that presented in Part 2. Eleven.speaking Language .making suggestions Other. and one question card). they are written on the blackboard. When groups have been formed and building materials have been distributed. The group solutions are 1: YEAR (Yawn. Tell the students that their task is to find out what 'plogs' are by sharing information. Then they share the pieces of information on their information cards. Rich). and write these on a separate piece of paper. Step 2: Each messenger reports back to his group and tells them how to go about building the same thing. but that some of the information they have been given is false. all the B pieces in another. Step 2: By comparing the statements on the cards they try to pick out the pieces of false information. Pen).cooperation. Step 3: As soon as the group words have been formed. The solution to each question is a word. Ride). 4: INTO (Indian. The first letters of the group words form HOLIDAY (read backwards from group 7 to 1). 6: OVER (Orange. the solution to which makes a word (see Part 2) 5-15 minutes Step 1: Each group receives a piece of paper with questions on it. seeing a problem as a whole Intermediate/ advanced Groups of five students One envelope with three cardboard pieces per student (see Part 2. The puzzles in Part 2 are designed for seven groups of four students each. Australia. Elephant). 2: APPLE (Afternoon.describing something exactly Other .speaking Language . Eat. Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure Remarks 36 Messenger Aims Skills . Step 2: All the students in the group try to make a new word out of the first letters of the individual words they have found. each group sends a messenger to look at the 'thing' the teacher has built.) 20-45 minutes Step 1: Each student receives an envelope. Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure 38 Getting it together Aims Skills . New. 37 Jigsaw guessing Aims Skills .Questions and answers Jigsaw tasks Procedure Remarks Step 1: Each group receives a set of cards (as many information cards as there are students. all the A pieces should be in one envelope.

so that a few groups of five students do the exercise. Question and answer cards fact.. Variations Remarks As soon as a group runs into serious difficulties or as soon as some squares have been formed. pers. You may. Last of all there are three activities suitable either as warming-up exercises or as strategies for tackling more factual topics. At a given signal.. As soon as students are able to produce yes/no and wh-questions most of these activities can be used. This may help the discussion later on. however. fact'. one B. Secondly there is a kind of exercise that could be employed to teach learners about the cultural background of the target country (No. one D and one E. 45 Ouestion and answer cards). not only as regards their content but also in terms of procedure. (See Learning for Change 1977. . one C. . in so far as it contains all those activities which. into = interrr:ediate. Step 2: These five squares can be made from the pieces: 2. however./ class Preparation yes Part Part Part no yes Part 2 2 2 Tillie ill minutes 10-15 15-30 15-30 10-20 10-20 10-20 10-15 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 What would happen if .1 to 2.4. 44 Ageless) that focus on the' learners themselves. fact. For reasons of motivation similar activities. A large part of this exercise does not involve talking or any kind of communication at all. 42 Find someone ulio .= more intimate. is usually very stimulating and intensive. She should encourage students to talk about their feelings. Part 2 = material for the exercises is to be found in Part 2. about their urge to communicate. their attitudes and values. like No. The book by Moskowitz (1978) contains a great number of humanistic exercises. Something else Ageless pers. the teacher stops the exercise and asks the students to report what happened in their groups.5 Questioning activities Actil'it)' Topic type pers..are central to the exercise. pers. No talking or any kind of communication is allowed during this phase. By simply introducing a few new rules. do not fit into any of the previous sections. purrs = two people working together. ~ factual. Thirdly there is a board game ~o. each student takes out his pieces./ Find someone who . 51 50 . ':-' DrganisLeue! ation into into into into into into into class groups indiv. while others try to observe their behaviour. groups = small groups.. indiv. pers. A student may refuse to take a piece of card which is given to him. 41 Go and fwd out and No. have to adapt the worksheets as these are not always aimed at the earliest stage at which an exercise can be used.g. Since both cooperation and communication . a limit on the number of questions or a time-limit they are transformed into games. Each student may pass a piece of card to another person but he may not reach out and take one.. = personal./ class indiv. The discussion. = individuals. The worksheets belonging to these exercises (in Part 2) can be modified accordingly. 43 Something else and No. e.Zgroups groups/ class pairs 2 pas. The class can be divided into players and observers. should not be done directly one after the other. it seems right to include it. pers. The aim of the group is to form five cardboard squares of exactly the same size. Question game fact. ? fact. For activities in which question forms are practised see sections 2.duestiolls and answers Questioning activities there should be one envelope marked A. 40 Question game).. First of all there are humanistic exercises (No./ Go and find out fact. class = everybody working together.S. although they centre around questioning.issues stressed in this book .) This last section in the chapter is something of a mixed bag. Many of these activities are quite flexible. indiv..

if a young man came up to you. a question board (see Part 2) and 10 (or 15) question cards (see Part 2) for each group 15-30 minutes Step 1: Each group receives the dice.if-clauses. gave you a red rose and said that you were the loveliest person he had seen for a long time? if yOU noticed that you hadn't got any money on YOLl ana you had promised to ring your mother from a call box at exactly this time? if you could not sleep at night? 1 40 Question game Aims Skills . Each student in the group is given a number from 1 to 6. Some more suggestions: What would happen if everybody who told a lie turned green? if people could get a driving licence at 14? if girls had to do military service? if men were not allowed to become doctors or pilots? if children over 10 were allowed to vote? if gold was found in your area? if a film was made in your school/place of work? if headmasters had to be elected by teachers and pupils? if smoking was forbidden in public places? if the price of alcohol was raised by 300 per cent? What would you do if you were invited to the Queen's garden party? if a photograph of yours won first prize at an exhibition? if your little sister aged 14 told you she was pregnant? if you saw your teacher picking apples from her neighbour's tree? if a salesman called at your house and tried to sell you a sauna bath? if your horoscope warned you against travelling when you want to go on holiday? if it rained every day of your holiday? _ if you got a love letter from somebody you did not know: if you found a snake und~r your bed? _ if you got lost on a walk In the woods ~ if you were not able to remember numb. The second student continues by answering or asking a third student to answer the first student's question.getting to know each other Intermediate Groups of six students Two dice of different colours. The students can prepare their own questions. asking for confirmation Other . Aims ? Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure Variations Skills .questions and answers a lib.Questions and answers Questioning actiuities 39 What would happen if . The question cards are put 111 piles face down next to the numbers 1 to 5 on the question board. listening comprehension Language .imagination Intermediate Class About twice as many slips of paper with an event/situation written on them as there are students 10-15 minutes Every student receives one or two slips of paper with sentences like these on them: 'What would happen if a shop gave away its goods free every Wednesday?' 'What would you do if you won a trip for two to a city of your choice?' One student starts by reading out his question and then asks another student to answer it.a if you broke an expensive vase while you were baby-sitting at a friend's house? if YOU invited somebody to dinner at your house but they forgot to come? if you forgot y~u had asked four people t~ lun. reading comprehension.>ch and didn't have any food In the house when they arnved. 53 Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure 52 . ..speaking. The activity is finished when all the questions have been read out and answered. If he has answered the question he may then read out his own question for somebody else to answer.speaking Language .ers? _ if somebody hit a small child very hard In your presence: if you found a £20 note . questi?n ~oard and question cards. making conjectures. if you suddenly found out that you could become invisible by eating spinach?.rary book? if your friend said she did not like the present you had given her? ..

class Handout (see Part 2. a?. days of the week. After a given time (15 minutes) or when someone has filled in all the blanks. he writes his name in the space and goes on to question someone else. songs. each student throws the dice. 15 Opinion poll. One die indicates the question to be asked (the one on top of the pile of question cards next to the number thrown) the other.conditional . As soon as somebody finds another student who answers 'yes' to one of the questions. Step 3: When everybody has finished asking. He writes the answers down. relaxation. If the 'question-die' shows a 6. months. 1: The types of task can be varied according to the background.getting to know each other Variations 54 55 . somebody answering 'yes' to another person's 9uest~on he IS not allowed to use that name himself.. e.They can preface their report with: 'I was surpnsed that X liked .speaking Language .asking for and giving information Other . etc. countries. 2: Two or three students can be given the same task.... class A different task for each student (see Part 2). articles of c!othmg. each student reads out his question/task and reports his findings.gones are: colours. muslc:al instruments. a list each of the names of all the students (in big classes) 15-30 minutes Step 1: Each student receives a task and a list of the names of all the other students (in small groups where students know each other the list of names is not necessary). 1: Students can prepare different questions. Step 2: Each student now questions everybody else. and crosses off the list the names of the people he has asked. 'I never thought that Y liked . imagination Intermediate Individuals or groups (in large classes) None 10-20 minutes The teacher explains the basic idea of the activity: 'Sup_pose you weren't you but somethi~g else entirely. it should contain roughly as many sentences as there are students) 10-20 minutes Step 1: Each student receives a handout. food. the person whose turn it is may ask a question of the student whose number was thrown with the 'student-die'.animal or a musical instrument. . The exercise is finished when everybody has answered every question.Questions and answers Questiolling activities Variations Step 2: Taking turns.getting to know each other. the questioning stops. Step 2: Students read out what they hav.thinking about oneself.. Leuel Organisation Preparation Time Procedure 41 Go and find out Aims Skills . Two students are asked to leave the room while the rest of the class agree on a person to be gues~ed. When th~ ~~'o students are called back in they ask questions such as: \\ hat wO~ll~ th~ person be if he or she was an animal? a colour? a building? a Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure Variations Remarks 42 Find someone who Aims Skills .questions Other .speaking (writing) Language .g.speaking Language . Intermediate Individuals. age and interests of the group.' Possible cate. Other . There is a similar exercise in No. the person who must answer the question. because each name may only be used once. . '. 2: Instead of personal questions others concerning subjects or topics taught in class can be chosen. cities. Just think what you would like to ~e and why. pieces of furniture. Everyone wa!ks around the room and questions other people about things on the handout. toys. kinds of literature.e found out . when I tell you the categories. flowers. kinds of fruit. gettmg to know each other. losing inhibitions Intermediate Individuals. according to his task. If a student overhears. Something else can also be played as a guessmg game. '. Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure 43 Something else Aims Skills . kinds of weather.

formulating questions. was quite startling/ disappointing/ fla ttering/ embarrassing .g. Being compared to . (If several cards have been distributed each pair of students exchanges cards with another after having answered all the questions. This exercise works well if the students have known each other for a while and a friendly. Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure Variations 44 Ageless Aims Skills .) 45 Question and answer cards Aims Skills . characteristics of the person can be deduced and his or her identity guessed.talking and thinking about oneself Intermediate Groups or class (if not more than 15 students) Questions about age. . . etc.. supportive atmosphere has been established. Other -learning something about English-speaking countnes Intermediate Pairs One card per student (see Part 2) 10-15 minutes The students work in pairs.. . (Idea adapted from Moskowitz 1978. They question each other in turn about the things specified on their cards. it should only be organised in groups which have a friendly.speaking Language . I don't see myself as . For this they should use the second type ot card (see Part 2).Questions and answers Questioning activities Remarks landscape? a piece of music? a musical instrument? a flower?. e. one list of questions for each group (see below) 10-20 minutes Each group/the class talks about age.. Other examples for guided questioning are to be found in No. (Idea adapted from Moskowitz 1978. .speaking Language . ' Since the insights gained in this activity can be quite unsettling for the people concerned. 2: The students make up their own cards about subjects _ dealt with in class. where answers are not given.questions about one's age and feelings about age Other . .) Remarks Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure Variations Remarks 56 .. who ask the other members of the class/their groups when it is their turn.. guided by the following questions: 'What do you like about your present age? What did you like about being younger? What will you like about being 5/10/30 years older? What will you like about being elderly? What is the ideal age? Why? What could you say to someone who is not happy about his age? Do you often think about agel growing old/ staying young? Does advertising influence your feelings?' The questions can be distributed to different students. 'I was surprised that . If the person to be guessed is present he can comment on the comparisons made. 16 Guided interviews... From the answers. ..) 1: Each student receives a different card and has to find his partner before he can start with the questions. supportive atmosphere.

. Lcuel int./ fact. pairs = two people working together. then eight) discuss the lists and aim for an agreed list at each stage. or questions for these exercises are taken from widely different contexts. contradicting. pers. = factual.1 Ranking exercises Activity 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 Rank order Qualities Guide Priorities Desert island (1) NASA game Values ladder Looking for a job Personalities (1) Guarantees Good teacher Job prestige Topic type pers. disagreeing. A variety of procedures for using ranking exercises can be suggested. for instance agreeing./adv. personal values and prejudices playa relatively minor part. Papalia 1976b. comparing. = beginners. Ranking exercises are a kind of preliminary step for the less structured values clarification techniques in section 3. = advanced. 47 Qualities motivates the students to consider various desirable characteristics for people in general./ pers.3 and. int. then four. These exercises require students to put a certain number of items from a given list into an order of importance or preference. Further suggestions for ranking exercises can be found in Howe and Howe 1975. reams = two large groups of equal size. As in some jigsaw tasks the students may experience a difference of opinion and may be stimulated to discuss these differences. teams indiv. thus helping them clarify their own values./ adv. when students explain or defend their choices in pairs or small groups. indiv. No. adv./ fact. This rearranging phase is usually followed by a period of discussion. indiv.Groups of increasing size (two members./adv. int. = individuals.j'pairs indiv. Rogers 1978. groups fact./ groups pairs/class PrepTillie hi aration minutes Part nl) Part Part nl) Part no Part no yes Part no 2 2 2 2 I IS-20 10-20 IS-30 IS-20 lO-20 lO-IS IS-IO 20-40 lO-IS 30-40 15-20 question their own decisions and increase their tolerance and understanding. In ranking the items from No. int. . beg. which has to be presented and defended in a final general discussion. beg. = personal. fact.Ranking exercises 3 Discussions and decisions 3. int. Part 2 = material for the exercise is to be found in Part 2. in small groups or with the whole class. e. pers. beg./alk into int. for inexperienced classes. int. Work on a ranking exercise can be continued in one of the following ways: . pairs 2 inr. A final discussion with the whole class follows.g./adv. the students sit down together in small groups and try to agree on a common listing./adv. These lists are then compared and discussed in pairs. indiv. The underlying situations./adl". That is why correct solutions can only be given for exercises like this one which remain outside the purely subjective sphere. It is recommended that a time limit be fixed for the first step as students tend to vary considerably in the time they need for deciding on a ranking. Ranking exercises practise interactive language. pcrs. groups = small groups. Reluctant students can be made to discuss their lists in detail if they are asked to produce an integrated list of rankings for their group./ groups/ class groups indiv. The first step remains the same for all procedures: the students are made familiar with the task./ fact. should precede them. fact. This can be done either by oral presentation by the teacher or by giving the students handouts. giving reasons. o rgall isation indiv. 51 NASA game. whereas common sense and general knowledge of the world are of greater importance. _ When each student has finished his list. fact. however./ pers. pcrs. It is to be hoped that the discussion of personal rankings will lead some students to 58 59 .All students whose lists are similar work together in groups and try to find as many arguments as possible for their rank order. class = everybody working together. problems.Each student works on his own and writes down his solutions. fact. fact. adv. lS-20 pers. pers. into = intermediate. indiv./int. Simon etaI1972. fact.Zadv.

political attitudes.cooperation Intermediate/ advanced Groups of three to five students each (even number of groups Handout (see Part 2) 15-30 minutes 61 60 . He is asked to fill it in according to the instructions. 47 Qualities Aims 48 Guide Aims Skills .reading comprehension. The same procedure can be followed for different lists. either writing it on the blackboard or the overhead projector. defending one's opinions. starting with the most important quality. pollution. Step 2: Students sit together in small groups and talk about their ranking of the qualities. giving reasons.expressing likes and dislikes.thinking about one's own values as regards other people Intermediate Skills . Level Grganisation Preparation Time giving and asking for reasons. etc. Because of the personal nature of the questions selected for the handout it is very important to create a supportive and friendly atmosphere within the class. social problems. He then rearranges the list in order of importance. A group consensus should be aimed at. Depending on the interests of the participants this step can lead to a discussion by individual members of the class of what is considered important. Organisation Preparation Time Procedure Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure Variations Remarks expressing certainty and uncertainty Other. stating preferences. qualities a good car should have. whole class (Step 3) None 10-20 minutes Step 1: The teacher presents the group with the following list. contradicting. Variations Individuals (Step 1). groups of three or four students (Step 2). It should be stressed that everybody is asked not only to state his first choice but to number all the choices in order of preference.thinking about one's own values Intermediate/ advanced Individuals (pairs and group work also possible) Handout (see Part 2) 15-20 minutes Step 1: Each student receives a copy of the handout. e. speaking Language . reasons for watching TV. (10 minutes) Step 2: When all the items have been ranked students share their results with their neighbour (in a large class) or with the whole class. If the questions suggested in Part 2 are considered to be too personal for a particular class. contradicting. It should be perfectly acceptable for a student to refuse to disclose his answer if he feels shy or insecure. or distributing it as a handout: reliability being a good listener strength honesty intelligence generosity caution being funny stubbornness helpfulness Each student should think about how important he considers each quality. comparative and superlative Other . During Step 2 students should be encouraged to help each other accept themselves and become aware of their values rather than criticise or condemn each other's attitudes.describing personal qualities.g. qualities of good parents/ friends/ politicians/ scientists/ nurses/ doctors.Discussions and decisions Ranking exercises 46 Rank order Aims Skills .speaking Langllage-:-arguing.speaking La~guage . things to make a holiday worthwhile. alternatives can easily be found. Step 3: The whole class aims to find a ranking order for the qualities which everyone agrees to (optional). which have been adapted to group interests and the age of the students. making suggestions Other . Level asking for and giving reasons. Suggestions: reasons for wanting/keeping a pet. etc.

reading comprehension. All you have is the swim-suit and sandals you are wearing. class None 10-20 minutes Step 1: The teacher tells the class about the situation and sets the task: 'You are stranded on a desert island in the Pacific.thinking about an everyday situation. they should attempt to reach a common solution to the choice of places (if not their sequence). 9) and present their results in turn. all the strips marked Check are torn off and collected by the Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure Work with a partner.speaking Language . 46 Rank order. 1: Step 2 can be omitted and a general discussion can follow Step 1 directly. (Idea adapted from Rogers 1978. She calculates the total rank of each item by adding up all the rank numbers given. Step 2: Meanwhile the students are given another copy of the handout. agreeing and disagreeing. In multi-national groups it may be difficult to go beyond Step 1. 3: The handout can also be used in ways described in No. Step 2: Each group elects a speaker who has to defend the solution arrived at by his group.' 62 63 . twice as many copies as there are students) 15-20 minutes Step 1: Each student receives a copy of the handout and is asked to rank the items in order of importance from 1 to 12. Group results are then compared with the overall result of individual ranking. 2: An intermediate step can be introduced to enable all groups working on the same task to discuss strategies for the 'fishbowl' phase. 1: The same procedure can be adopted with all the groups receiving the handout and the same task. You have 8 minutes. in which case it may be more profitable to ask people from similar cultural backgrounds to work together and present their results to the whole class.) Variations teacher. Differences between solutions can then be discussed. Choose the eight most useful items and rank them in order of usefulness.Discussions and decisions Ranking exercises Procedure Variations Remarks Step 1: The class is divided into an even number of small groups. speaking Language . All the speakers sit in the middle of the circle ('fishbowl' arrangement.imagination. see p. the one with the highest number the least important. Both kinds of group should reach an agreement after 10 to 15 minutes' discussion. The other half are presented orally with the same situation but have to find ten places without being given a list to choose from. a box of matches a magnifying glass an axe a bottle of whisky an atlas some metal knitting-needles a transistor radio with batteries a nylon tent a camera and five rolls of film ointment for cuts and burns a saucepan a knife and fork 20 metres of nylon rope a blanket a watch a towel a pencil and paper Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure 49 Priorities Aims Skills . The rank number for each item should be entered in both boxes. In the ensuing discussion. There is food and water on the island but nothing else. 50 Desert island (1) Aims Skills . Here is a list of things you may find useful. Half of these groups receive copies of the handout. fun Beginners/intermediate and asking for reasons. 2: Other questions can be worked on in the same way. The item with the lowest number is considered the most important one by most students. preparing for general discussion of compulsory education Intermediate/ advanced and asking for reasons Other . and they sit down in small groups and attempt to find a common ranking for the items. if-clauses Other . When everybody has finished (after about 5 minutes). making suggestions. groups of three to five members Handout (see Part 2.

g. (Idea adapted from Rogers 1978.for or agamst) 2 iii OJ c OJ :§.) 1_ . Step 3: The results of Step 2 are discussed and compared around the class.expressing personal insights and conjectures. (Note that the moon has no atmosphere.the highest step the strongest one.speaking Language . pairs Handout (see Part 2) 10-15 minutes Step 1: Each student is given the handout and asked to rank the 15 items. the 'star' method or the 'buzz group' system can be used instead of the two steps suggested here (see p. Step 2: The teacher presents a series of statements (see below) which call for value judgements by the students. Which six of these things would you like to take along and why?' There is. a bottle can be used for posting letters. the moon has no magnetic poles. e. 'For a bet. no correct solution to the task in this exercise. 52 Values ladder Aims Skills -listening comprehension. 1: To enhance the fantasy nature of the exercise. more exotic and apparently useless items can be chosen for the original list. so it is impossible to make fire or to transmit sound signals. expressing certainty and uncertainty. Students may change the position of their key words when new items have been read or rearrange all nine key words at the end. a mirror as a signalling and asking for reasons. Other .either positive or negative . discovering personal values Advanced Individuals None 15-20 minutes Step 1: The students are asked to draw a flight of nine steps on a piece of paper. simple past tense . They are expected to describe their reactions to individual items.general knowledge Intermediate/ advanced Individuals. Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure 5 Ul . 3: Students can be asked to provide material for other situations themselves. e. giving reasons. This will force the students to find new ways of using items. e Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure Remarks 64 The lowest step is meant to symbolise the weakest emotional reaction .e. The teacher does not read the next item until everybody has entered the key word on their ladder. 9). Step 3: At this stage the students should think about wh): they decided on such a ranking. After hearing each statement the students enter the key word on their values ladder according to the strength of their reaction. It should be seen as a lighthearted activity which will help provide an element of imagination and fun in the foreign language class. 65 .thinking about one's own spontaneous reactions. you will have to spend three weeks in a lonely cottage on the Scottish moors completely on your own. i. 2: Other procedures. Each statement is characterised by a key word. (weakest feelings . making objections Other. of course.S Q) OJ 51 NASA game Aims Skills .Discussions and decisions Ranking exercises Variations Remarks Step 2: Students present their solutions and defend their choices against the others' arguments.) Step 2: Each student then compares his solution with that of his neighbour and they try to arrive at a common ranking. speaking Language .

role taking Intermediate/ advanced Level Group work (three to five members) as preparation for Organisation 'fishbowl' discussion Handout (see Part 2) for each group Preparation 20-40 minutes Time Step 1: The handout is distributed to the groups and the task Procedure explained. When they are caught they pay the fines. speaking Language .arguing.Some young people in Britain design colourful car stickers and badges against the destruction of the world by technology and science.Some poor students use the local buses without paying fares. (conservation) . His report on the factory is suppressed by his paper when the manufacturer threatens to withdraw his advertisements. well as their own judgement. (food collective) . (shoplifting) . (stickers) . cartoons. They say that this is still cheaper than paying for reasons. They distribute the books to all the schools in Fiji. 2: All the items . (bus fares) . Thus the distribution of different reactions is made visible and can trigger off discussion at each stage. doubting. They can then write each key word on a small slip of paper and move the slips about on the ladder in order to rank them. 53 Looking for a job Skills .ther p~~~l~'s stateme~ts (agreeing. They then discuss the four apphc~nts and rank them according to their suitability. See No. disagreeing. antibiotics and pesticides. 11/ Variations Interview for a job.A group of women have started to boycott certain products which they believe are heavily contaminated by chemicals. based on the advertisement ~nd the background information on the handout as. They have formed a collective to sell organically grown health food. As a first step the groups decide on their criteria for selection. If one of the other members of the group feels that he has some better wa~ of arguing the group's position he may replace the speaker at his group.A newspaper reporter finds out that a manufacturer of fruit juice is mixing dangerous chemicals in his product. cnncising. (Fiji) .speaking . Unless a consensus ha~ been reached.reading comprehension. 4: The topical slant of the items can be varied according to the interests of the class. making compansons Other . (fruit juice) 1: Instead of statements. amongst the speakers after a given time (15 minutes) a vote IS taken by all the participants. When they are caught they defend their actions by pointing out that shop-owners make high profits anyway. general knowledge 66 67 . Each group imagines that they are members of the local council who have to select somebody for the vacant post of social worker at Fairview Estate from the four. ' Language . photographs or pictures can be used.A group of lawyers set up an office to provide free legal aid to foreign refugees who want to apply for political asylum.cooperation. (10-15 minutes) . etc.imagination. contradICt1l1g. All the group speakers meet in the middle to discuss the applicants.A group of young people engage in shoplifting as a kind of sport. (income tax) . the educational aims of the teacher.Discussions and decisions Ranking exercises Variations Statements . They meet regularly and go for walks in the country in order to observe wildlife.An American couple living in Fiji publish a book that shows how the lives of the Fijians have been changed by tourism. Step 2: Each group selects a speaker who has to explain and defend the choice of his group.their number may be reduced or increased . defending one's position. giving in) Other. _ The activity could be continued with a role play. reacting t~ o.A group of students want to do something about nature conservation. (legal aid) . 3: In a less formal classroom context the ladder can be drawn on the floor with chalk and students asked to stand on the step that corresponds with their strength of reaction. Aims 54 Personalities (1) Aims Skills .A doctor regularly cheats on his income tax but gives all the money he saves to a hospital in the African bush.can be given to the students on a handout.applications that have been submitted.

Health Guarantee £60 Popularity Guarantee £30 Intelligence Guarantee £40 Beauty Guarantee £40 Marriage Guarantee £30 Wealth Guarantee £60 Longevity Guarantee £60 Accident. students who selected the most popular personalities are asked to explain their choice.Life Guarantee Friendship Guarantee £60 Self-Fulfilment Guarantee £50 Fun Guarantee £40 Adventure Guarantee £30 Career Guarantee £50 Love Guarantee £60 Sexual Fulfilment Guarantee £50 Patience Guarantee £30 Happy Family Guarantee £40 joy-of-Living Guarantee £30 Variations Remarks Step 2: When the final list for the whole class has been compiled. Each client can spend £100 on guarantees. As the list of names to be given to the students is obviously very dependent on the cultural background and the age group of the students concerned.) The brokers now prepare a short talk .thinking about one's goal in life. They write their choices in order on a piece of paper. !he a:tivity co~ld be continued with the students writing out interview quesnons they would like to ask the person of their choice. looking ahead Variations Step 2: Brokers and clients sit facing each other. The students who acted as clients are asked to explain their choices and motives. He then walks over to the relevant brokers to make his purchases. Each of them should receive one guarantee to handle personally.Discussions and decisions Ranking exercises Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure Beginners Individuals None 10-15 minutes Step 1: The teacher writes the following list of (20-30) names on the board or the overhead projector. the names mentioned here can only be tentative suggestions. praising. Each broker has to keep a record of the number of guarantees sold.speaking Language .persuading others. 40 students) List of 20 guarantees (see below) 30'-40 minutes Step 1: The whole class is divided into two teams of equal size. The clients are asked to think about the goals they would like to achieve in life and how important the guarantees are. the other team being the clients.Free. £50 Satisfaction Guarantee £50 Stardom Guarantee £60 55 Guarantees Aims Skills . The teacher will be far more successful in devising a list which is geared towards her students' knowledge and interests. One team consists of brokers. 1: The exercise is repeated (with the same or different 68 69 . All the papers are collected. the brokers try to sell guarantees which assure the buyer that he will reach certain personal goals in his life. Instead of insurance. Step 4: The results of the sale are written up on the board or the overhead projector in order of popularity.praising the advantages of the particular guarantee they want to sell. Step 3: Each client now works out which guarantees he would like to spend his £100 on.about a minute per speaker . She asks the students to select the six personalities they would like to invite to their classroom to give a talk and rank them in order of preference. In turn the brokers tell the client about the guarantee they can offer. if-clauses Other . Mahatma Gandhi Mao TseTung William Shakespeare Queen Elizabeth I Karl Marx Alfred Hitchcock Margaret Thatcher Mohammed Ali Buffalo Bill John Travolta Ronald Reagan Erica Jong Miss Piggy Elvis Presley LivUllmann Johann Sebastian Bach David Copperfield Frank Sinatra Naomi James Charles Dickens Walt Disney Winston Churchill Fidel Castro Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure Intermediate/ advanced Two teams of equal size (max. giving and asking for reasons. its advantages and price. The brokers are given a list of guarantees and prices. (In smaller groups each broker has to handle more than one guarantee unless their number is reduced. The clients make notes.

Discussions and decisions Ranking exercises guarantees) by letting the former clients act as brokers and vice versa. You shoul~ .as far as it is possible .speaking .) The end re~ult shows the spread of opinion and clust~rs of sim. according to two cnteria. Where y~u . Secondly make a list in which you show how Important YOIl think each job should reasons. Step 4: Each quality is now discussed m turn and students who give it a high or very low ranking are call~d upon to explain why. describing Other . which is marked on the table (e. First arran~e the~ m the o~der in which these jobs are regarded and paid for In _our society. Step 2: The results are presented by the students and noted 70 71 . agreemg and disagreeing Other . as shown. of the 20 students who participated.awareness of the reasons for social prestige In termedia te advanced Pairs None 15-20 minutes Step 1: The teacher outlines the task. two felt that this quality was the most important. four the second.asking for and giving reasons. narrating.g. . 47 Qualtttes. 56 Good teacher Aims Skills . 3: Instead of personal goals students could be asked to buy guarantees for personal possessions or the lives of people they care for. For further ideas see No.sof~ II 1111 1I111 III II I /I I dentist taxi driver secretary schoolteacher policeman lawyer journalist university professor actor nurse shop-assistant librarian engineer farmer 'Work with your neighbour.. It is hoped that many st~dents Will be able to give examples in order to back up . 'You are going to be given a list of 14 oc~up~tio~s. etc. Language .ilar rankings. This is a very valuable activity for students who are trainmg to be teachers as it stimulates discussion about role expectations and self-image connected with the profession.speaking Language .t~elr statements.' Quality 4 I 5 6 7 8 9 10 Level Organisatio1l Preparation Time Procedure I ]:)'. mark the difference of opmion on your list.thinking about one's own school life and educational values Intermediate/ advanced Individuals Handout (see Part 2) 15-20 minutes Step 1: Each student receives the handout listing ten qualities of a good teacher. He is asked to rank them in order of importance. cannot agree. 2: Students decide on guarantees and their prices in a brainstorming session before the activity. You have to ra?k them .reach agreement in both rankings. Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure 57 Job prestige Aims Skills . Step 2: Meanwhile the teacher draws the following table on the board: 1 2 3 Variations Remarks Step 3: Each student calls out his ranking of the qualities.

fact. To get everybody involved in the discussion may 72 73 . int. The main intention of all these exercises is. 65 Futures and No./ pers. with clusters of high prestige and low prestige job emerging clearly. 67 Magic shop). 69 Tell us a story) and play with words (e./groups class yes no no no Part no Part no yes no no Part no yes no Part yes 2 2 inr./ fact." pers. fact. fact.' = more intimate. fact. fact. groups/pairs grou psi class teJ. pairs = two people working rogerher: teams = two large groups of equal size. The first list will probably be very similar in each case.j'adv. fact." pers. fact. Level into into ation o rgall is- Tillie ill Preparation minutes yes adv. groups = small groups. in some cases they are game-like discussions or game-like exercises that lead to discussions. = advanced: indiv. int.g./ fact. The ranking of the jobs according to the importance allotted to them by individual students may differ wildly and should stimulate a discussion on the criteria for 'upgrading' or 'downgrading' certain occupations.09 Tell us a story 70 What evidence? 71 Optimists and pessimists 72 People 73 Awards 74 Discussion wheel 75 Four corners Topic type fact. others help them learn something about themselves (e. Thus some discussion games make the students think about their values and priorities (e. to get the students to talk and to stimulate their interest and imagination. int. into into into into pairs teams pairs/ class incii\'. 3. into into 2 15-20 20-30 10-20 10-15 10-15 20-30 15-20 20-30 15-20 15-20 15-25 20-30 20-30 5-15 15-25 25-45 15-25 20-30 pers. adv. of course.2 Discussion games Activity 58 What is being advertised? 59 Mad discussion 60 Secret topic 61 Word wizard 62 Uses and abuses 63 Shrinking story 64 Which job? 65 Futures 66 Comments 67 Magic shop 68 Pink versus brown . 64 Which job? and No. fact. pers. No./ pers. 1\0. into = intermediate. into into into indiv. Not all of the 18 activities in this section are games in a narrow sense of the word./ pers. Quite often the same exercise can be used for discussion of serious questions as well as for playing with ideas and language.Discussions and decisions Discussion games Variations on the board. pers. class = everybody working together: Part 2 = material for the exercise is to be found in Part 2. pers. fact. fact. 61 Word wizard). ~ factual. No.g.g./ fact pers. groups teams groups class/ groups groups class/ groups 2 inr. int. Nearly all of them demand a certain degree of flexibility in the foreign language and are structured in such a way that everyone will get a turn. = individuals. fact." pers. = personal./pairs teams class groups indiv. The selection of jobs may be altered in view of the occupational background of the students concerned.

mediator (tries to find compromises between different factions. No. However.tudents to observe some of the others during the next dISCUSSIOn and to note down who takes which role. When the o?serv~rs h~ve noted some of the typical roles present in dISCUSSIOnsII your class the next step is to make the students I realise that they are adopting certain roles.making conjectures. This can be done either by making use of a tape or a video tape recording of the next discussion or by keeping detailed minutes. Quite a number of the problem-solving activities. tells jokes) . Other ways of organising discussions are mentioned in the general introduction (see pp.) 15-20 minutes Step 1: Each pair of students receives one advertisement. because'. 58 What is being advertised? Aims Skills . T~e partners discuss what product the advertisement could be tor and why they think so. (Don't throwaway the bits that have been cut out. ' or 'I don't agree with . hesitates when talking) You can probably think of more types yourself. a common feature is that students have to give reasons for their views. 65 Futures. the discussion games in this section differ quite substantially from one another.e.. but 111 order to be able to say things like 'I agree with . a knotted scarf or a paper weight) and agree. After about five minutes the advertisements are exchanged Time Procedure 75 74 . 38 Getting it together presents the participants with. he has to listen carefully throughout the discussion. explains the points where there IS agreement or disagreement in the group) . 58 What is being advertised?. 9-10). No.. It is not to be expected that e~ch student will be able to think of something n~w to say.clown (makes fun of everything.rambler (rambles on about trivial side-issues. discovering some advertising Level Organisation Preparation techniques Intermediate Pairs A number of different advertisements (cut out from magazines) from which all names and pictures of the products advertised have been removed.nosphere in your class and help students cooperate better WIth each ~ther.on the rule that whoever is holding the object has to contribute something to the discussion. Many of the discussion games may lead to oral or written follow-up activities: after doing No.speaking. Some discussion games can only be played by advanced learners who have a good command of the foreign language (e.. sometirones these people show quite clearly by their facial expressions what they think about the contributions of others) .initiator (starts the discussion.grumbler (criticises both content and procedure of the discussion) .sum~ariser (sums up in between. You could ask the students tohand round an object (e. the students could make up their own advertisements. expressing probability.hesitator (cannot find a clear view of his own. giving reasons Other. As regards their language learning aims.g. After the role play these roles are guessed. Further suggestions are to be found in Learning for Change 1977 and Stanford and Stanford 1969.making notes. 73 Awards could be followed by a panel discussion. ask ~ few s. writing Language . You can also use discussion games to improve the at. Then a role play can be acted out where each participant in the discus~ion has to playa role which the others do not know about. ranking exercises and values clarification techniques serve as stimuli for discussion as long as they generate controversial opinions amongst the students. One of each pair makes some notes. If you feel that is the case.g. stresses the common ground) . activity No. an attempt at working without commul1lcanon) which IS worth discussing afterwards. Possible roles are: . for example.. makes suggestions and tries to move the discussion along by asking questions) . can hardly be stopped) . an essay on one's hopes or fears for the future could be set. in connection with No. 60 Secret topic). Sometimes certain people subconsciously adopt particular roles in discussion.silent member (does not talk at all except possibly to his nei~hbo~r.Discussion games Discussions and decisions occasionally be ~xperie~ce \i. half as many advertisements as there are students.

g. health . Everybody can keep just four words '. fun.individual words .cigarettes). each pair of students show their second advertisement to the rest of the class and report their ideas on the product being advertised. Step 2: (optional) A jury decides who has put the best arguments and awards points for each team. Step 2: Taking turns.speaking Language .clean air. When all the advertisements have been discussed the teacher gives the solutions (by presenting the cut-out parts of each advertisement). Possible topics: flowers. class None 10-20 minutes Step 1: Two students agree on a topic they want to talk about without telling the others what it is. pairs None 10-15 minutes . modern art. The others listen. etc. words which you would like to keep and write them down. plastic spoons. alsatians or reasons. feeling for words. commurucanng \VIm very few words Intermediate Individuals. joins in their conversation. Step 1: The teacher asks the class to imagine the following situation: 'A wizard has taken away all the words from the world. their attention can be drawn to the associations which certain pictures give us (e. schools. writing Language . Anyone in the rest of the group who thinks he knows what they are tal. When the students are making suggestions about the type of product being advertised by. Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure Variations 59 Mad discussion Skills . Step 2: The two students start discussing their topic without mentioning it. ships. Choose four .imagination. Step 2: Each student finds a partner and tries communicate using only his four words. 60 Secret topic Aims Skills .talking without coming to the point. Each chooses a piece of paper with a topic on it. When about a third or halt of the class have joined in. Then the next two students continue with new topics. fun Level Intermediate Organisation Teams Preparation Pieces of paper with one word written on them (see below) Tin-Ie 20-30 minutes Procedure Step 1: The class is divided into teams. detective novels.king . bakers. the game is stopped.1 Other .speaking. The two students who discussed this particular advertisement in the first round say where they agree or disagree and give reasons.. 1: Students who think they know the secret topic ha ve to write it on a piece of paper and show it to the two students before they are accepted. waterfall. Remarks In this game it is important not only to put forward good arguments for one's own case but to try and contradict the opponent's point of view. about. New York. He then has three minutes to argue with the student from the other team about which is more important for mankind. socks. One student from each team comes forward. 76 Aims 61 Word wizard Aims Skills . watches. e. for example. 2: The game can be played in teams and points awarded according to the number of people who find out the secret topic. paper. Each student shares his eight words with Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure :0 . passports. imagination Advanced Pairs. idyllic scenes in the country.g.speaking Language .imagination. describing advantages and disadvantages. birthday cards. . contradicting Other . zips. operas. The p~lfS share their words with each other so that now both have eight words they can use.all elements Other.Discussions and decisions Discussion games Remarks and each pair of students discusses another advertisement in the same way. the wheel.

) Each team can have up to three answers before throwing the 'ball' to the other team. (Idea adapted from Brandes and Phillips 1979. These stories/poems are read out or stuck up on the wall. Example: Remarks secretary crosses out the words that have been used.speaking.memory. These are written down by everyone. Step 2: The first student is asked to come in and listens to the story (once). and student 4 to the last one. (In volleyball. 3: Students can pass each other a knotted scarf and play the game according to the rules of volleyball or another sport.d.g. Then their secretary makes up a new question for team 1. 1: Instead of telling a story. objects.ImagInatIOn In termedia te Teams None 10-15 minutes Stef 1: The te~cher and.ecla~ative sentences. The Variations 78 . The secretary from team 1 starts by inserting one word from list A and one from list B into one of the two sentence patterns: What can a/an A do with a/an B? Why does a/an A need a/an B? Th: students in team 2 must find three answers quickly. In the end everybody has 64 words. each of the two teams may only touch the ball three times before it has to be played to the opposite team. Step 3: Using their notes. list B. Then the original is read (played) once again. then twice more. Student S tells the story to the class. student 3 to student 4. e.speaking Languag_e . 2: If a cassette recorder is available all the versions of the story can be recorded and compared.Discussions and decisions Discussion games Remarks another student.all elements Other . which ar~ wnrten up by secretaries from the two teams.) Variations 62 Uses and abuses Aims Skills . Having a fixed sentence pattern may sometimes resuit in slightly odd sentences. 1: T~e sentence patterns can be extended by adding a place. LIst A contams people and animals. the students who were listening and observing report on the changes in the story. Step 3: Either alone or with a partner the students write a story or poem using only their words. insight into the process of communication Intermediate Class Story (see Part 2) or picture 20-30 minutes Step 1: Five students are asked to leave the room. The rest of the class is read the story (or played a recording). Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure 63 Shrinking story Aims Skills . Why does a/ an A need a/ an B in C? 2: A system of scoring can be introduced. listening comprehension Language . a picture could be described and drawn by the last student.the class prepare two lists (of about 20 Items!. They listen to the story twice and after the second reading agree on a few important points which a summary of the story should contain. 79 A teacher mother shop-assistant baby elephant crocodile soldier dustrnan farmer old woman nurse B book walking stick plaster SOp coin pen loaf of bread car cactus apple pie glass of beer safety pin Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure Step 2: The two teams sit facing each other. The game is finished when all the words have been used up. Student 2 then tells the story to student 3. so that both have 16. -ing form Other . The second student is called in and hears the story from the first student while the class notes down which of the important points have been mentioned.

He is ask. making comparisons Other. groups Two charts for each student (see Part 2) 20-30 minutes Step 1: Each student receives two copies of the chart. thoughtfulness. the students can draw sketches It is important to see the connections between the ~arious sq~ares.) Remarks Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure 67 Magic shop Aims Skills . a statement) under the name of the person. Step 2: Now every student writes a comment (a compliment. learning something about oneself Intermediate Groups of six students None 15-20 minutes Step 1: The . Step 3: The papers are read out one after the other and a discussion follows. 66 Comments Aims Skills . Each group member wrstes down the ideal job for himself and for everybody else in the group. optimism. honesty.learning something about one's own values Intermediate/ advanced Individuals Slips of paper with positive human qualities written on them (see below). friendliness. Step 2: ~hen students have finished. The papers are again collected and redistributed. names of Jobs Other.writing.speaking Language . The teacher (or a student) now collects all the papers. arguing.conditional. the other with Bad Thmgs by wnting examples in each square. For this exercise there should be a supportive atmosphere within the class.if-clauses.students work together in groups. humour. How did the people concerned feel? Were the comments fair / superficial/ critical/ supportive? Instead of having the discussion after all the comments have been read out. adaptability. gentleness.getting to know each other Intermediate Class None 15-20 minutes Step 1: Every student writes his name at the top of a piece of paper. Instead of writing.speaking ~anguage . fairness. stubbornness. intelligence. beauty. discussing. each with a positive human quality on it. cheerfulness. so that everyone can write a second comment. Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure Variations 65 Futures Aims Skills . :x'hat happens in the world now may well affect our children III twenty years' time. 81 Level Organisation Preparation Variations Remarks Time Procedure 80 .ed to fill i~ ?ne with Good Things. shuffled and redistributed.g. (Idea adapted from Learning for Change 1977. giving reasons. a short conversation can follow each comment. health. politeness.thinking about the world around us and how we are affected by what happens there Intermediate Individuals. humility. helpfulness. curiosity.Discussions and decisions Discussion games 64 Which job? Aims Skills . wisdom. Each group can focus on one time period and report the good and bad feelings of their group. e. justice. a question. Step 2: The job lists are read out and discussed in the groups. praising something Other. hospitality.all elements. Students explain why they feel the 'ideal jobs' suggested for them would/would not be ideal. three times as many slips as there are students (qualities may occur more than once) 15-20 minutes Step 1: Each student receives three slips of paper. speaking Language . perseverance.getting to know each other. they form groups to share and dISCUSS their hopes and fears for the future. All the papers are collected. speaking Language .future tense. charity.writing. expressing emotions Other.

pairs None 15-25 minutes Step 1: Students whose favourite colours are the same should work together. the view beyond a picture of the life hereafter. Each student makes notes on what his right-hand neighbour describe what it is like. or do you just hopefully tuck it in your pocket? Do you give it away to someone you think may want it? The barrier is death. The water is sex. \.speaking Language . giving reasons Other . ~tep 3: A.thinking about questions of credibility. and turned round and went back the way I'd come. Describe it and say what you would do with it. Then you come to some water. Each member of the group is asked to tell his version of a storv with the same basic plot.discussing. class None 20-30 minutes Step 1: The students work together in groups. Is it described as dark and frightening or sunlit and happy? Full of menace. describe what it is like. praising something. giving reasons. I 'saw' a range of formidable mountains. Remarks Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure Variations 69 Tell us a story Aims Skills .Discussions and decisions Discussion games Step 2: Each student decides which of his three qualities he would like to keep and which to exchange for others. The basic stages of the story are as follows: You are walking in a wood. which ones they kept and whether they are happy with their present one(s) (they may have more or fewer than three).(!hat do you fee] about this water and what do you do about it? Next you find a key. 68 Pink versus brown Aims Skills .speaking Language . Each partner argues for his favourite colour and tries to convince the other one of its qualities. (When I first played this game.descriptive sentences Other-fun In termedia te Groups of four to seven students. or later on.f~er 10 minutes of bartering. students report on which qualities they received. They describe to each other why they like this particular colour better than any other. Do you see a big golden key or a dreary little Yale key? Is it rusty or shining? Do you reject or hold on to it? Do you use it immediately in some way. Step 2: Students leave their groups and pair up with someone from a different group. Students then barter with different people. agreeing and disagreeing Other. or full of hopeful possibilities? It depends on attitudes to living. It is not meant to provide a psychoanalyst's couch for the foreign language classroom! 70 What evidence? Aims Skills . At the end of the wood there is a barrier. What is it like? What is on the other side? What do you do about it? Step 2: When everyone has told his story the teacher reveals how each episode of the story might be interpreted: The wood gives an indication of the storyteller'S view of life. Step 1 can be left out. There's hopel) This activity should not be taken too seriously. imagination Intermediate Groups. I disliked it intensely. and nothing beyond.speaking Language .contradicting. evaluating information Intermediate Teams or groups A handout for each group (see Part 2) 20-30 minutes Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure Level Organisation Preparation Time 82 83 . but pleasantly so? Do you dive right in or keep well out? The key is worldly success and ambition to attain it. Is it dark and dirty or lovely and sparkling? Deep or shallow? Frightening. perhaps finding a box full of treasure to go with it.

for bravery. groups of four to six students None 25-45 minutes Step 1: The students talk about the awards they can think of (awards for looks. The students should mainly imagine the person's present interests and lifestyle.imagination Intermediate Groups of three to four students Photos of different people (cut out from magazines or your own snapshots). agreeing and disagreeing Other . Smile Award. Or: I enjoy eating.g. photos are exchanged between groups.speaking Language . Step 2: After a few minutes of exchanging statements. 'But sports like boxing or car racing are dangerous.thinking of praiseworthy qualities in ordinary people Intermediate Class. one photo per group 15-25 minutes Step 1: Each group receives a photo and is asked to write a curriculum vitae for the person in the picture. reporting someone's activities. present tense. He tramples on his partner's feet.g. 'It is good for your health if you do some sport.' Then one student from the other team (pessimists) gives the other point of view.). All awards (they should be for positive qualities) are listed on the blackboard. When they have finished with the first picture. Each group works with three pictures. contradicting. describing someone Other . Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure 71 Optimists and pessimists Aims Skills . e. she could tell the students how far off the mark they are. 87 Brainstorming) the class try to think of many more possible awards (e. the groups report back to the whole class. A good follow-up activity is I/You/He statements like: I don't dance very well. You haven't got much feeling for rhythm.g. You are a bit overweight. The students now have to discuss what evidence each of them would accept as regards the truth of each statement. (Idea adapted from Krupar 1973.imagination. Step 2: Using brainstorming techniques (see No.Discussions and decisions Discussion games Procedure Remarks Step 1: Each team or group receives a copy of the handout.past tense.speaking Language . fun Intermediate Two teams None 5-15 minutes Step 1: One student from team 1 (optimists) begins by giving a statement. Listening Award. If the students cannot agree on acceptable proof they should note down their differences of opinion. Which lives were seen in a similar way by the three groups? Which pictures were interpreted differently? If the teacher uses photographs of people she knows. the students are asked if they found it difficult to adopt one point of view throughout. Step 2: When all the statements have been discussed. They should not discuss whether they believe that a statement is true but what evidence would convince them. Help Award. such as 'Miss World. He is fat. 85 Variations Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure 84 . stating preferences. Step 3: Groups are formed and each group decides on two categories of award they would like to find candidates for. which the optimists have to react to.) 72 People Aims Skills .expressing different points of view Other . Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure Remarks 73 Awards Aims Skills . e. They could also mention those statements which went against their personal viewpoint.describing someone.' The pessimists continue with a new .pessimistic . Step 2: The results of the group work are read out and discussed. etc.writing Language .statement. giving reasons.

etc. Variations 75 Four corners Aims Level Organisation Preparation 86 Skills . All the students in one corner interview each other about why they chose this one. Every topic on the wheel should be discussed at least once. 1: Instead of writing the discussion topics on the discussion wheel. articles of clothing. Time Procedure 74 Discussion wheel Aims Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure Skills . etc.g. ARTHUR HAILEY. Step 3: At the end a short discussion can follow on which students often chose the same corner.) Another group member takes down some notes. BROWN. 2: More factual or more personal topics can be chosen.Discussions and decisions Step 4: Now each group member describes one candidate for each award. The group members have to agree on who to give the awards to.speaking Language . 20-30 minutes Step 1: The teacher fixes a piece of paper to the wall in each of the four corners of the room. countries. Each group member is given a number from 1 to 6. animals. they can be put on small cards and laid face down on the wheel. When the next four signs are hung up everyone chooses agam. Step 2. The words on each piece of paper should belong to the same category. e. Instead of single words. proverbs or drawings can be used. 20 big pieces of paper with one word on each 87 . drinks. groups Masking tape.' The students are asked to read all four signs and stand in the corner which suits them best. statements. After a short while the other group members can join the discussion. two dice indicate the students who start the discussion. PURPLE. the qualities of all the people suggested for awards are discussed.getting to know each other In termedia te Class. WILLIAM WORDS\VORTH. The dice are thrown. tools.discussing Ctber= (dependent on the topics) Intermediate Groups of six students One handout for each group (see Part 2). RED. the third die indicates the topic they have to talk about. three dice per group 15-25 minutes Each group receives a copy of the handout and three dice. cities. A short discussion of the reasons for choosing these people follows. LEONARD COHEN. or writers: GEORGE ORWELL. Discussion games (see below). colours: WHITE. Variations Other possible categories for the signs are: types of music. Step 5: Each group reports its results to the class. The classroom should be cleared of tables and chairs. agreeing and disagreeing Other . which students never met. (These should be people he knows personally. the two students choose their own discussion topic. quotations. numbers.speaking Language -giving reasons. When everybody has finished. If the topic die shows the number 5.

groups = small groups.3 Values clarification techniques Activity 76 Personalities (2) Topic type Orgallis- Lcue! ation indiv. !~ese may be his parents. bcg. Howe and Howe 1975. pers. into pers. who have to be prepared to talk about their feelings and attitudes. but the latter are more structured and predictable. other relations.:. pairs = two people working together. . Papalia 1976b. int.speaking. indiv. past tense (reported speech) Other . Spending money pers. int. The educational bias of values cbr(fication techniques makes it easier to integrate them into a democratic style of teaching than more traditional teachercentred methods. You may help create this atmosphere by joining in some of the exercises and sharing your values with your students. pers. 85 Ideal day 86 Values topics pers. as well as being taken seriously as people. As regards the language items practised in these exercises. . Each ~tu?en: s~ould find at least two people who have influen./ class pairs indiv. The psychologist Louis Raths distinguishes between three main stages in this process: 'Prizing one's beliefs and behaviours. Values clarification techniques share some characteristics with ranking exercises./int.. ':.ced him in hIS life. Adults as well as young people may not always be consciously aware of their beliefs and so learners of all ages may find that the activities in this section help them to discover something about themselves. stating one's opinions and giving/ asking for reasons occur throughout. and that the right to refuse to answer is granted to everyone in these exercises.duals. speech acts like expressing likes and dislikes. acting on one's beliefs' (Simon et a11972. = beginners. Simon et aI1972. Moskowitz 1978. You should also remind your students of the guideline (see Introduction.descriptive sentences. or personahn. 19). leisure activities or politics. = intermediate. . p. including such areas as school. indiv. . Learning for Change 1977. writing Language . Part 2 = material for the exercise is to be found in Part 2. from history or literature. p. The activities in this section are based on the principle of the 'values clarification approach' which originated in the USA (see Howe and Howe 1975. pers. Values continuum pers.. Personal values relate both to one's own personality and to the outside world. because students are often asked to jot down their ideas and feelings. into int. . class = everybody working together. On the one hand this may be a very motivating experience. pers. in t. int. Twenty things I'd like to do pers. into indiv. He should note down some points in order to be able to tell the rest of the class briefly how these people have influenced him." = more intimate. class None 10-30 minutes Step 1: The students are asked to think about their lives and the people they know/have known.. Further suggestions for values clarification techniques can be found in Green 1975. 7) that nobody has to answer embarrassing questions. It is one of the assumptions of this approach that school must help young people to become aware of their own values and to act according to them. choosing one's beliefs and behaviours. acting on o. ':.:. note taking Intermediate Individuals.j' groups l're]» aration no yes Parr 2 no Parr 2 no Parr 2 Part 2 yes no Part 2 Tim» ill mil/lites 10-30 10-15 15-20 20-30 15-20 10-25 20-40 10-20 5-15 20-30 . Leuel Organisation Preparation Time Procedure 88 89 ./ groups/ class pairs class 83 Unfinished sentences 84 I'd rather be . on the other hand a situation in which the participants have to reveal some of their more 'private' thoughts may appear threatening.. 76 Personalities (2) Aims Skills . beg. = Indlvl.acknowledging the influence other people have on us./ class indiv.30 77 Lifestyle 78 Aims in life 79 80 81 82 pers. Skills like note taking are also practised. pers. The eleven activities in this section main lv concern the prizing and choosing of values.e's beliefs cannot be learnt so easily in the foreign language class.= personal. int..Discussions and decisions Values clarification techniques 3../ groups indil'. Thus it is essential to do these exercises in a supportive and relaxed atmosphere. int. ':. The individual tasks appeal directly to the learners. groups pers. Miracle workers pers. because the students feel that they are communicating about something meaningful. Simon et aI1972). indiv. inr.

.writing.thinking about one's priorities Beginners/intermediate Pairs Students.. I have learnt from this exercise I am worried that .Discussions and decisions Values clarification techniques Remarks Step 2: E~lch st:ldent in turn says a few sentences about these people. are ask~d a da~ or so beforehand to bring along three objects which are Important or significant for them. Step 2: When everybody has filled in the handout with at least one aim for each of the three time periods given. thinking about one's aims in life Intermediate Individuals. speaking Language reasons. Possible points to be raised: Are personal aims more important than general ones? Which kind of aims can we do most about ourselves? In which areas does chance playa part? Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure 79 Twenty things I'd like to do Aims Skills .asking for and giving reasons. groups A handout for each student (see Part 2) 15-20 minutes Step 1. expressing inrennons and desires Other .expressing likes and dislikes Other.making notes.g. Both partners then talk about similarities and differences between their choice of objects. where the three objects of a student whose identity is not revealed are shown and suggestions about their significance are made. These lists will remain private.!'. writing the activities one under the other. Each of them explains the use/purpose of the three objects he has brought with him and says why they are important and significant for him. Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure Variations 78 Aims in life Aims Skills .. I am surprised that . a kind of speculating or guessing game can be conducted. Step 2: The students are asked to code their lists by putting one or more of the following symbols in front of them: £ if the activity is expensive WF if the activity involves other people (WF = with friends) if they would do this on their own (A = alone) A M or F if they think their mother (M) or father (F) would enjoy this. They should jot down anything that comes to mind. too X if the activity is at all physically or mentally harmful (e. etc. 0 77 Lifestyle Aims Skills . job or farnily. 10-15 minutes Step 1: Students work with a partner. i. speaking ~angl:age . The students discuss and defend their aims in the groups. travel. small groups are formed. 1: Instead of real objects. I don 't mind that .speaking Language ..analysing one's likes Intermediate Individuals None 20-30 minutes Step 1: The students are asked to write a list of 20 things they would like to do. smoking) Step 3: Now the students should think about the distribution of these symbols on their lists and continue the following stem sentences: I am pleased that . drawings or photographs (cut out of magazines or catalogues) may be used..: Each student fills in the blanks in the handout by first choosing the area of his aims. a class discussion can follow Step 1. Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure 90 91 . These can be ordinary activities like eating a lot of icecream or more exotic dreams like going for a trip in a balloon. 2: Bef?re the paired discussion starts. Instead of group discussion. that .writing. Step 2: A few of the students present their partner's objects and explain their significance to the rest of the group. ' Variations and then by making a few notes on what he wants to achieve within this area in the time specified. stating likes and dislikes Other .discussion ~~nd/or ques tio n rnnv follow each speaker Emphasis should be given to positive influences.

Step 2: Students sit together in small groups and describe what they have decided to buy with a particular amount of money and why they would like to make this purchase. T Values clarification techniques Procedure Step 1: Each student writes down what he would spend a given sum of money and asking for reasons. (f) a Chinese meal.tudents may want to make suggestions for other ways of coding. 79 Twenty things I'd like to do to sum up their insights. £5. Step 4: (optional) A few students take over the roles of their most valued miracle workers and hold a mock discussion as to who is most important for mankind. groups None 10-25 minutes Leuel Organisation Preparation Time 92 Remarks . Instead of s:ate~ents (which ca~ of course be adapted to any course work being done at the time) proverbs or sayings can be used. Each student should divide them into three groups of five: (a) the five most desirable ones for himself. (b) a paperback novel. students compare their lists and try to find out if they agree on a few not very desirable miracle workers.Discussions and decisions :h<: completed sentences are collected by the teacher and l~dlVld~al ones read out. £20. (g) a pot plant. e. e. Variations 80 Values continuum Aims Skills .nNo.grving reasons.thinking about aims and priorities in one's life Intermediate Individuals. small groups or class A handout for each student (see Part 2) 20-40 minutes Step 1: Each student receives a handout with the names and description of 15 miracle workers. (b) the next most interesting ones.g. (Idea adapted from Simon er aI1972. Leuel Organisation Preparation Time Procedure 82 Miracle workers Aims Skills . These items can be adapted to suit the group of students.) 93 Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure Variations 81 Spending money Aims Skills .g. for £2 you could buy (a) a cinema ticket for the latest James Bond film. speaking Language . .000.000. 2: The lists are made up of things the students would not like to do. Step 2: In small groups or the whole class together. class A handout for each student (see Part 2) 15-20 minutes Step 1: Each st~dent fills in the handout by marking on his agreement or disagreement with each statement .classifying one's values Intermediate Individuals. provided they contain a stimulus for discussion. e. They should try and discover a pattern in their choices.asking for and giving reasons Other. £50. (d) a T-shirt. £1. £100. .readingcomprehension. agreeing and disagreeing Other. They can use unfinished sentences ~s I. Variations 1: S. (c) a pack of cards.thinking about one's priorities Intermediate Individuals.g. SOp. (e) an LP with a selection of pop songs. whose services he would like to obtain. £100. £500. £2. expressing agreement and disagreement Other.000. speaking L~nguage . Step 3: (optional) Students are asked to look at their han~outs again and note those statements where they agreed or ~hsagreed very strongly. 'What values are dominant in your choice of the desirable miracle workers?' Step 3: Individual students talk about one particular miracle worker and tell the class which category he is in and why they put him there. £5.speaking Language .reading comprehension. Students are given a choice of five to eight items for each sum. .stribution of agreements and disagreements "':Ithlll the class ISrevealed and differences of opinion are discussed.Ste_p 2: The di. (c) the five least desirable ones.

getting to know each other better Intermediate Groups of three to five students A handout with the board game (see Part 2).buy.sweet . facing each other.whisky round . make . e. imagination Intermediate Individuals None 20-30 minutes Step 1: Students are asked to write a description of an ideal day.anguag_e . e. They each connnue the first of the unfinished sentences on the handout and talk about their sentences. see Introduction.speaking Language . The player concerned is allowed to refuse to answer the question. If a part~c~lar g~ammatical structure is to be practised. Variations sparrow hawk chicken snail mouse egg candle . one inside the other.ugliness hammer rose mineral water square cold . Each player throws the die and moves his counter forward accordingly. but he should say why he won't answer it.neon light village city lemon .break.g. asking questions Other .g. etc. Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure 94 95 . The students in the outer circle then all move one chair to the left and do the second sentence with a new partner. Aims Skills .potato The same activity is possible with verbs. If his counter lands on a white square he tells the others in the group something about the topic on the square.speaking Language . The~e are always two students facing each other. The students should also give a reason for their choice. the infinitive or If-clauses. sentences using this structure may be chosen. They continue moving on after each sentence until all the sentences have been discussed.expressing emotions and thoughts. a die and counters for each group 30 minutes The rules of the game are simple. The class is divided into two teams of equal size.all elements Other . adjectives) for the teacher 5-15 minutes The teacher reads out pairs of 'opposites' from her list and asks the students which ones they would rather be. 9) A handout for each student (see Part 2) 10-20 minutes.getting to know oneself and others better Intermediate Pairs (two teams of equal size arranged in the 'onion' formation. their activities and the company they would like to have.wood fire . Other topics to write about are: my ideal flat/house.asking for and giving reasons Other-fun Intermediate Class A list of word pairs (nouns.describing something. Step 2: Some students read out their descriptions. reading comprehension L. an ideal friend.nail .fun. an ideal .speaking. They can choose freely the places they would like to be in.writing. Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure 85 Ideal day Aims Skills . reading aloud Language . arrive -leave. Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure Variations Variations 84 I'd rather be . 86 Values topics Aims Skills . sell. Possible word pairs: soft glass water bitter beauty hard .Discussions and decisions Values clarification techniques 83 Unfinished sentences Aims Skills . The chairs are arranged in two circles. agreeing and disagreeing (a great number of structures) Other . listening comprehension. If he lands on a 'free question' square one of the other students may ask him a question. Each student receives a handout and sits on a chair.

pairs = two people workIn. The ideas are written on the board. In the last decade Edward de Bono has repeatedly demanded that thinking should be taught in schools. e. practicability. Leuel into into into into into ation Step 1: The class is divided into groups. comparatives. writing Language . 1: After Step 1 the groups exchange their lists of ideas./pairs/ class groups/ class class groups no no yes yes Part 2 fact. pairs. Variations Remarks 88 PMI Aims Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure Skills . etc. In the second stage these ideas have to be ordered and evaluated. fact. these exercises practise all forms of comparison and the conditional. o rgml is- Time in minutes 5-15 10-20 10-20 5-20 15-20 groups indiv.his thinking course for schools (de Bono 1973).speaking.note taking. Possible tasks are: (a) How many possible uses can you find for a paper clip (plastic bag/wooden coat hanger/teacup/pencil/sheet of typing paper/ matchbox. costs. is a technique that has been used widely in psychology and cannot be attributed to him. class = everybody working together. although also mentioned by de Bono. Each group receives the same task. Brainstorming increases mental flexibility and encourages original thinking. Possible ideas: 97 87 Brainstorming Aims Level Organisation Preparation Time 96 Skills . simplicity.speaking. Step 2: Each group reads out their list of ideas. How many ways can you find of getting the money for the call? (c) How many ways can you find of opening a wine bottle without a corkscrew? (d) How many ways can you find of having a cheap holiday? The groups work on the task for a few minutes. etc. indiv. thinking creatively Intermediate Individuals.g together. .1) and role play. Part 2 = material for the exercise IS to be found In Part 2.imagination. fact. into = intermediate. fact.g. suggesting. All the ideas are written down by the group secretary. It is obvious that there is ample opportunity to use the foreign language at both stages. practice of important thinking skiIIs Intermediate Groups of four to seven students None 5-15 minutes . groups = small groups.Discussions and decisions Thinking strategies Procedure Preparation 3. Apart from the speec~ acts of agreeing and disagreeing. His main intention is to change our rigid way of thinking and make us learn to think creatively. Further suggestions can be found in de Bono 1973.).conditional. 89 Consequences. making suggestions Other . Thin~ing !trategies can be linked with ranking exercises (see secnon . class None 10-20 minutes Step 1: The students have to think of the plus points (P). fact. Some of the activities in this section are tak~n from . collecting as many ideas as possible without commenting on them or evaluating them.)? (b) You have to make an important phone call but you have no change. danger. Step 3: The groups choose five ideas from the complete list (either the most original or the most practical ones) and rank them.conditional.factu~l. The teacher gives the class an idea and then everybody works on their own for a few minutes. ·2: Each group chooses an idea and discusses it according to the procedure in No. etc. It is a useful strategy for a great number of teaching situations.4 Thinking strategies Activity 87 88 89 90 91 Brainstorming PMI Consequences Alternatives Viewpoints Topic type fact. writing Language . The thinking strategies included here resemble each other ~n that different ideas have to be collected by the participants In the first stage. Each group ranks the ideas on its new list according to a common criterion. minus points (M) and interesting points (I) of an idea. BraIn~tormIng. = individuals. making suggestions Other.

conditional Other . Examples: A 25-hour working week is introduced. class As many cards with an action on as there are groups 10-20 minutes Step 1: The teacher divides the class into groups. blue clothes. like the one that follows. People should wear badges to show what mood they are in. 2: Small groups rank the points mentioned by other students. schools and offices are no longer heated. E Q U E N C S E Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure 90 Alternatives Aims Skills .thinking creatively Intermediate Groups of three to six students. stations. girls.Discussions and decisions Thinking strategies Variations Remarks A new law is passed that forbids smoking in all public places. (Idea adapted from de Bono 1973. 1: After Step 1. Scientists discover that cancer is caused by pollution. They all crash after take-off. For some classes it can be helpful to give the students a handout to be filled in.speaking Language . (Idea adapted from de Bono 1973. Nevertheless it may help students realise that simple actions have far-reaching consequences. mental flexibility Intermediate Class (small groups) List of problem situations for the teacher (see examples below) 5-20 minutes Step 1: The teacher presents a problem situation to the class and asks the students to think of as many courses of action as possible for the people involved. new card a different group member becomes secretary. Planes do not work any more.conditional. 99 Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure 98 . A group of boys always use the bus or tram without paying. The group secretary writes down all the consequences. Remarks Step 2: When the group cannot think of any more consequences they exchange cards with another group. Men can get maternity leave (paternity leave) like women. writing Language . It should be stressed that there is rarely a chain of events triggered by one action alone.speaking.) Variations.future tense. She gives each group an action card. Step 3: The ideas are discussed with the whole class. making suggestions Other . Children over 5 are given the vote.creative thinking. To save energy public buildings like post offices. Step 2: Each student works with a partner and they share their ideas. Every family is only allowed to have meat once a week. Boys are only allowed to wear green clothes. This technique is slightly misleading as it does not take complex situations and reasons for actions into account. A lorry driver empties a tankful of poisonous waste into the river near a town. Animal merchants catch the last animals of a dying species and sell them to zoos in Europe and North America. Robots that can do housework are built. Step 3: The consequences of each action are shared and discussed with the whole class. Each group now has to think of all the possible long-term and short-term consequences this action may have. Each student can work out consequences on his own before working in a group.) Action C 0 N Next few days Next year Next 20 years S 89 Consequences Aims Skills . small groups are formed who evaluate the ideas of other students. A scientist discovers a way of making gold cheaply. With each.

You think it is really ugly and do~s not suit her. 3: The students devise their own problem situations. you know it was very expensive and your friend is easily offended. The teacher writes the names. Remarks 91 Viewpoints Aims Skilk-speaking Language . Everyone has been invited except you.empathy. The rank orders and consequences of individual • groups are compared. would like to go back to her job. p. They then dl~cuss what consequences the five most popular suggestions will have. her parents and the headmaster might feel about the situation. The group secretary in each group makes some notes.all elements Other. These students sit in a circle in the middle of the class and hold a conversation in which they put their arguments and feelings forward.g. (Idea adapted from de Bono 1973.nd!vidual students present their suggestions and a complete list IScompiled (in note form) on the board or overhead projector. her eight year-old daughter. They then try to add more thoughts and arguments. role taking Intermediate Groups of three to five students As many handouts as there are groups (see Part 2) 101 Level Organisation Preparation 100 . What can you do? (b) SO. her mother-in-law. However. You did not.Discussions and decisions Thinking strategies Step 2: I.) Time Procedure Variations 15-20 minutes Step 1: The teacher divides the class into small groups and presents the situation: . The students discuss amongst themselves what they think this particular person might feel. Your teacher treats you differently from before and you think she suspects that you t?ok the money. 2: Commercially produced materials for role play (e. Step 3: (optional) Students work together in small groups a~d rank all the suggestions in order of preference. Step 2: The teacher gives each group that part of the handout which concerns 'their' person (see Part 2). 9) is followed. Mary Taylor. What can you do? More problems and moral dilemmas can be found in the problem pages of magazines. Lynch 1977 and Menne 1975) may be used. a 35 year-old housewife. met him two hours ago at the 'Peking Restaurant. The stu~ents should learn to work beyond the obvious alternatives. What can you say? (d) You see somebody dumping rubbish in the countryside What can you do? . Imagine what her husband. Possible problem situations: (a) Y~u hear from a friend that someone is saying nasty thmgs about you. ages and jobs of the people mentioned in the situation on the board and assigns one of these people to each group. but you know who took It.memoney was stolen in the classroom recently. The groups compare their own ideas with those on the handout. after an eight year break. The 'fishbowl' procedure (see Introduction. What can you do? (c) Your friend has bought a new coat. (e) Some_on~ in your class is giving a party. . teaching physics and mathematics. What can you do? (f) You forgot about an important appointment with your boss (teacher/great-uncle) and have just realised that you should hav. The t~lef has not been found. 1: Step 1 is omitted. Step 3: One person from each group comes forward.

/pairs/ groups groups groups indiv. Make a list of eight to twelve things which you think are necessary for survival.imagination. pairs pairs indiv. 92 Desert island (2) Aims Skills . pers./adv. 50 Desert island (1).duals.Discussions and decisions Problem-solving activities 3. fact. and there are banana trees and coconut palms. It is advisable to use the less complex ranking exercises before any problemsolving activities if the students have not done this kind of work before./ class Preporation no no Part no 110 Leuel into int./adv./ adv. They decide on a group list of a maximum of eight items and rank these according to their importance. adv. groups None 10-20 minutes Step 1: The teacher describes the task to the students: 'You are stranded on a desert island a long way from anywhere. fact. Puzzles like No. fact. Thus there is more creative use of the foreign language. beg./ fact. activities Orgauisation indiv.5 Activity Problem-solving Topic type fact. 103 Baker Street there is just one correct solution: however./ fact. Part 2 = material for the exercise is to be found in Part 2. beg. ideas or procedures. into into into into into int. give reasons. = factual. = advanced. But unlike ranking exercises. problem-solving activities demand that the learners ./ fact. The climate is mild. . 103 Baker Street practise question forms. most of the exercises in this section lead to a discussion of several ways of solving the problems. per-s. = beginners./ pers. In some ways these activities are similar to ranking exercises (section 3.speaking. themselves decide upon the items to be ranked. Further suggestions can be found in Fletcher and Birr 1979 and Krupar 1973.1 (Ranking exercises). like them. Time ill minutes 92 Desert island (2) 93 Rescue 94 Desperate decision 95 Fire 96 One day in London 97 Our room 98 Treasure hunt 99 Something for everybody 100 Group holiday 101 Everyday problems 102 Friendly Biscuits Inc. fact.g.4 (jigsaw tasks) and 3. int. pairs = two people working together. The latter provide situations which the learners might conceivably have to face outside the classroom. No. fact fact. fun Intermediate Individuals. In the following activities the learners have to find solutions to various types of problem. 93 Rescue) to the more realistic (e.' Students work on their own. More problem-solving activities are listed in sections 2. making suggestions Other ./int.g. into = intermediate. rhev generate discussions of the importance or relevance of Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure Variations 102 103 . agreeing and disagreeing. into into into int. pers. See No.1) because./ fact. most of the problemsolving tasks in this section require pair or group work throughout. fact. modify or reject suggestions and reasons given by others. pers. but in general students will have to make suggestions. pers./ fact. common sense. Step 3: The students discuss the new li. No. and accept. 103 Baker Street 104 Problem page (1) 105 Problem page (2) 10-20 2 2 10-20 30-40 5-10 15-20 15-20 days statements. The problem tasks themselves range from the imaginary (e. 99 Something for everybody). class = evervbodv working and asking for reasons. 97 Our room or No. groups = small groups. Part yes no 10-20 15-20 10-15 10-20 5-15 20-30 20 30 Part 2 no Part 2 Part 2 Part 2 Part 2 pe:s. ~ personal./ fact.'v. In the case of puzzles like No./ pairs/ groups/ class groups/ class groups groups/ class groups class pairs/groups indiv. Apart from the activities focusing on the likes and dislikes of individual learners. indiv. = md. Step 2: Students pair up and compare lists. They agree on a common list of a maximum of ten items. The language which is needed for problem-solving activities depends on the topic of each exercise. pers.sts in group~ of four to six students. which therefore need an initial phase whe~e each student works on his own. pairs. 92 Desert island (2) or No. fact. writing Language . There is a fresh water spring on the island./adv.

e.Discussions and decisions Problem-solving activities 93 Rescue Aims Skills . con mona . . .asking for and giving reasons. 95 Fire Aims Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure Skills .reading comprehension.rea The others should ask questions they would take t ese t mgs.. intelligence 30. . The task can be made more specific. Variations Step 3: Each group presents its list of criteria to the class.thinking about essentials Beginners/intermediate Individuals None 5-10 minutes . ~~ichn~~nq~i~%g~:tat~h~~~i:~ musical instruments." ituation may be chosen: d A different slt. ' Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure d h teacher may ask a few comprehension clear~d an t e questionsup.. as POSSI e. many can read a map?).g. Imagine you are the selection committee and you have to decide who may be rescued. The lists are discussed.imagination Intermedia tel advanced Groups of three to six students each A handout for each student (see Part 2) 30-40 minutes Skills .g. All life is going to perish in two days due to radiation. Think of a list of criteria which you would use in your decision. I Language. A spaceship from another solar system lands and offers to rescue twelve people. You ave a minutes to grab five of your belongings and rescueut:~~ Which five things would you take? Remember. Other . th class' Step 1: The teacher describes the s~tuatIon ~ e few' 'A fire has broken out where you live. yo ca~i~.h xt summer The cottage ISrru es aw for three m'~lnt s nef It ha~ electricity and water and a big from a~~ VIda~~~~e:ri~~ot far away and there i~ also a ~rout ~~~:. a~~ a'small forest. ~ over t e canttor f that person's point of view. Variations Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure 104 Step 1: Each student receives a handout (Part 2) and reads the description of the situation. stating possibilities.. fertility 15. Comprehension difficulties are would rescue from Jhe fire. 'Find ten criteria. Step 2: Each group discusses the problem and tries to work out a list. the If a solution cannot be agree II Each student takes Y studenhts par oann: ~~~ pO~~. comparisons Other .:~:~lh' student writes down up to five things he Remarks to 94 Desperate deciSion Aims agreeing and disagreeing Other .. who could start a new world on an empty planet very much like Earth. Although the basic problem is a rather depressing one. rnatena s a 105 .speaking Language -stating an opinion.. ey sd~:-r dvantages of each solution and decide the e est one.I~~ne :~~sk and argues from ~.. You can award up to 100 points if a candidate gets full marks on all 1 in a h lidav cottage in Scotian 'You are staying on your own mao .making suggestions. "I ay .thinking about one's values Intermediate/ advanced Groups of five to eight students None 10-20 minutes Step 1: The teacher explains the situation: 'The Earth is doomed. on tahdvbantagesaAngai~:hey should write down the reasons for their choice. How many 0 f the hiking group are feeling ill? H .. it helps students to clarify their own values as regards judging others. d out their lists and explain why Step 3: Some sthu enths.(e. h d Then they discuss ibl Th h ld wnte t em own.h. ) What about your .speaking di . shoul~ challenge the arguments and conclusions of the Variations reportin~ group. e. )' like 'Why wouldn't you ta k e . 'I' The other groups Ste 3' Each group presents ItS so ution. appearance 5. d on within the group. f ' ow d find as many courses 0 action Step 2: The groups try an. giving and asking for reasons.g. physical fitness 20. speaking Language . etc. agreeing and disagreeing.

Both of you arrive at Heathrow airport at 9 a.all elements (especially Items of furniture. Did one partner dominate? Did one partner try to persuade the other one? Was there a lot of arguing? Did one of the pair have to give up a lot of ideas? Who made the suggestions? etc. These are the colours: light brown. e. In order to make the furnishing more realistic the pieces of furniture may be cut out of the handout and placed on the plan of the room. dark green. They must not use up more than 100 p~in~s furnishing the room. 2: The task can be varied by presenting the stude. If the wardrobe is put at right angles to the wall then the bed is in a small alcove. Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure Variations Variations 106 107 . but you have no other money. At the moment the room has white walls and a dark brown carpet.m. Both partners dISCUSS which pieces of furniture to choose and where ~o put them . The partners find out from each other what they would like to do and what they would not like to do.g.speaking " Language .Discussions and decisions Problem-solving activities and sports) would you need to survive the three months without being bored?' Each student makes a list of all the things he would like to take with him. Toget?er with his partner he tries to furnish the room usmg the pleces. The most commonly chosen and the most unusual objects can be found out. 'You may choose the furniture and up to four or the following colours for your room. overhead projector 15-20 minutes Step 1: Each student receives a hando~t. Similarities and differences between individual suggestions are discussed. and you have to be back at the airport at 9 p. Sydney. maroon. Step 3: The students report their plans back to the class..all elements Other.cooperation Intermediate Pairs None 15-20 minutes Step 1: The teacher describes the situation: 'You have to plan how to spend a day in London with your partner.of furniture available on the handout. It has a full tank.nts WIth coloured catalogues from furniture shops f. different locations (New York. You should plan the day in such a way that you are happy with it. There is a self-drive car which you may use.' Step 2: Some students explain their arrangement of the furniture by placing their cut-outs on the plan on the overhead projector and answering questions as to the reasons behind their decisions. pink.' Step 2: The students work in pairs. . . adverbial phrases) Other .speaking Language . light blue. scissors for each pair of students. etc. . You receive £10 each. In doing so the students practise sentences like: 'Shall we put the bed next to the window or in the corner? \Ve could put the bookcases near the writing table..cooperation Intermediate Pairs A handout for each student (see Part 2). prepositions. 1: Students can also decide about a colour scheme tor theIr. 97 Our room Aims Skills. . ~ark. They then work out a timetable for the dav. a transparency for the overhead projector with the floor-plan of the room. texts studied).m. purple. Each item on the list has been allocated a certain number ot points. grey. In connection with other work done in class (e. room.rom which they cut out the pieces of furniture they would like.) can be chosen. black. orange. A few students then report back to the class. Step 4: (optional) The teacher asks how the timetables were agreed on. Decide what you would like to do. yellow. 96 One day in London Aims Skills .g.

all mixed up. Your teacher will give you the next word. (Word: there) (d) Phone this number xxx-xxxx and ask to speak to Mr Z. Your teacher will tell you the next word. following instructions. They make a word. Find out where he spent his holiday last year.sug. programme On Monday and write downh the text. your letter has no mistakes s~e will. Write down all the letters that were wrong. Bnng I the recording and the text with you to t e esson on Thursday.all four skills Language . (Word: the) Solution: There is a surprise for you in the cupboard. (Envelope: Your word is: surprise) (c) Here is a text where some words are spelt (Word: . a word or letter. Ask Mrs B if you have found the correct word. (These are suggestions individual classes. (Word: cupboard) . . the solution can be marked on a special notice on t~e wall m the classroom. glvmg In Other . The basic principle of a treasure hunt is as follows. e.g. expressmg likes. (f) Here are the rules for a new game. Learn it by heart and recite it in the next lesson. All the pieces of information collected by the students have to be combined to find the general solution. though. for tasks are of course. Together With stu d en t s C and D make the materials for hthe game.) which should be adapted for Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure a b our yours. the treasure. tell him 99 Something for everybody Aims Skills . If he does it properly he is rewarded with a piece of information.send you the .) or which are SUited to their interests and capabilities. (Word: IS) . Give the recipe to E. (Word: a) h . In an English-language environment the ibili POSSI I mes.) It would be useful (if possible) to enlist the help of other English-speaking people so that the tasks for the students can include phoning and letter writing.all elements Other . individualised learning Intermediate Individuals. e. .f '£1 (h) Write a letter to Mrs Y.which they will need later on (e.given to the students one by one. Each student has to follow instructions and fulfil a certain task. If Possible tasks (a) There is a poem on page xx in your textbook. You will then get an envelope from your teacher. The prize for finding the solution can be anything from a bag of sweets to a visit to an English film. so . .11. F and G.gestions. pairs. i.cooperation Intermediate/ advanced Groups.. The teacher who knows her class will have lots of ideas about what to choose. far greater than abroad. Play I~With them. The word you need is underlined With a red p~n In the recipe. you the next word. 37 Jigsaw guessing. Check with your dictionary to find OUtthe correct spelling. If you don't make any mistakes he will tell . Ideally the tasks should be tailor-made for individual students.Discussions and decisions Problem-solving activities 98 Treasure hunt Aims Shiils . di lik Language . h The main point is. etc. Your teac er WI give you the next word. IS I es and preferences. You will then get the next word from their teacher. so that their strengths may be exploited or their special talents used. Progress in finding. Act it in front of the class in the next lesson. (There is a simple version of this type of activity in No. (Word: for) . Put them in the right order and write your Own ending to the dialogue.reclpe. to adapt the t~sks t? t e . When the teacher has worked out the tasks they can be . individual students and make them pract~se s~~lls.speaking .m) (i) Record the news on an English-language radio . You will then get an envelope from your teacher. looking words up In ~ IctlOna~y.maki~g . groups and class See Procedure A few minutes each lesson for a number of days (or weeks) General remarks: All the tasks for the treasure hunt have to be worked out in advance. (Envelope: Your word is: you) (b) (For two students) Here are the lines of a dialogue. Ask her for t e recipe or tn. (g) Go and explain the new game to class X. Read this story and tell the class what It ISabout In the (e) next lesson.g. class 108 Level Organisation 109 . that we can play it next week.

they may present their case to the class for further discussion. Step 2: Each group describes the holiday they have chosen and outlines the reason for this choice. making suggestions. The others try to suggest ways and means of hel ping with the problem. You should now think of what you could do with the money so that everyone in the class is satisfied. See No. Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure 100 Group holiday Aims Skills .speaking. Remarks 102 Friendly Biscuits Inc. Each group as to find the answers to these questions:. Each student receives a handout containing eight suggestions for a two week holiday. 46 Rank order for descriptions of these procedures. makmg suggestions. discussing alternatives Other . not being able to remember names. ov!sleeping. listening comprehension Language . A supportive atmosphere is necessary so that students do not feel embarrassed or harassed.speaking Language . The other groups may ask questions or comment. e rou s have five minutes to decide which piece~ 0 . Aims Level Organisation Preparation Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure Skills .Problem-solving Discussions and decisions Remarks activities Preparation Time Procedure Remarks None 10-20 minutes Step 1: The students form groups and the teacher describes the situation: 'Imagine that you. Language . The class then tries to agree on a common proposal by arguing and presenting reasons (not by majority votel). If the group really cannot agree on a type of holiday they would all like to share.. Each group now has to find the one holiday that they would like to have together.. have £20 left over from a bargain sale you organised. 101 Everyday problems Aims Skills -listening comprehension. etc. ~ p ion th d d how they can organise their search information t ey nee an . not show each other their group handout. agreeing and disagreeing. . empathy Intermediate Groups of six to eight students or class None 10-15 minutes I Individual students describe. Criteria for ranking may be the interest stimulated by the photos or the degree of adventure inherent in them. What are their names and jobs? . a problem they have. Writing things do\~n is only a owe at ' 'home table' Members of different groups must eac h group s . a ways for etting their keys.' Step 2: Each group presents its suggestion. A class discussion as to what students expect from a holiday can follow. As a follow-up exercise the students can be asked to rank a number of pictures taken from travel brochures.g.h Each group receives a different handout ~see Part Z) w~~ contains only a quarter of the n~cessar.asking for information Other . e. then rank them. speaki.cooperation Intermediate Four groups of students A different handout for each group (see Part 2) 10-20 minutes h Step 1: The class is divided into f~ur groups. When you have found one suggestion you all agree with. .asking for and giving reasons. Groups may also suggest a kind of holiday not mentioned in the handout. First write down all the ideas you have without talking about them or commenting on them.y mf?rmatl?n. A decision should be reached by discussion and finding good arguments and not by a majority vote. 111 Time Procedure Variations 110 .helping each other. II d for more information. giving in Other .ng . that is all of you together. f How many men and women work in the management 0 Friend I BiSCUitsI " y ' ' nc. present it to the class.fair discussion Intermediate Groups of five to seven students A handout for each student (see Part 2) 15-20 minutes Step 1: The class is divided into groups.describing something. . 87 Brainstorming and No.

. Each student receives his stnp of papehr. one per stu ent pair or group of 104B) 0 f 104A one per . ac . One of the pair or a group secretary makes some notes.J. Time Procedure 20-30 minutes he oairs or zrouos Ste1: Each student receives a handout: T e paIrS ~r gr.all elements Other . . The teacher should stress the two rules again: No writing except at the 'home table' of each group.coopera tion Intermedia te Class One copy of the handout (see Part 2) cut into strips (if there are more than 20 students two copies of the handout should be cut up) 5-15 minutes Step 1: The teacher draws the follOWing diagram On the board or overhead projector. SOlution: Board of directors: Personal assistants: Secretaries: Typists: FRIENDLY BISCUITS INC. Step 3: After five minutes everyone returns to his group. th swers . where all the information is collected. B. activities Name Variations Remarks Ron Preedy Mary Hill Carole Ward Sheila Rogers I J I Marital status Pet Book Drink Brenda Pilot David Parsons Angela Woodhouse Philippa Gordon John Martin Jean Carter Christina Stead Roger Haldane Remarks .. when each of them has received a handout. The aim is to find out each person's name.. Id be Step J. One person lives in each house. he) tal~ T . should that be nece~ary. which books he or she likes and what he or she likes to drink. 104 Problem page (1) Aims Skills . 1: Each group is allotted a particular letter. C and D). Th ey talk about the advice given mean . d .all elements Other . h Id If there are fewer than 20 students.ry to..oup~ de~de which letter they would like to diSCUSS.4. this can be done by the students themselves.' on it.Discussions and decisions Problem-solving Step 2: The groups have five minutes to interview members of other groups in order to find the answers. The teacher's sole function IS to .amse t e co . ection ~} dh f·l Il f orma tion . b t the problem described in the letter and suggest ways ot solving it. what pet he or she owns. ith Each of you will get a piece 0 f paper w~Il' some information I ble.empathy Intermediate speaking Level Organisation Preparation Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure Pairs or groups d Two handouts (see Part 2.E h pair or group receives the han out Wit 1 t e tep . Step 4: The teacher announces which answers are correct. answers. eight women 103 Baker Street" Aims Skills .reading comprehension. 2: Each secretary reports on t 1re pro blem and the Step suggested solution. The situation is outlined to the students: 'These are five houses in Baker Street. 112 Variations 113 .speaking Language . whether he or she is married or not. four men. Language . in t re ta e. Instead of grouping the students at the beginning. In large classes there could be two groups of each kind (A. No showing of the handout. It sllho~ _. . or more Jlgsa exercises see section 2.. left entirely to the students h ow t hev or~. The answers to the questions are written down and handed to the teacher.1 h S . each stu ent s ou receive two strips. Share what you know and t. IF" \\" This activity is built on the jigsaw pnnClp e.rerrun t e o students to use English.

106 Adverb charade 107 Miming people and bct. fact./ pers. miming exercises train the students' skill of observation and improvisation. In terms of language elements. Furthermore./int. I 4: Half of the groups receive the letters and have to guess at tlhe answers. they practise question forms and expressing possibilities. Pair or group work reduces stage fright to a certain extent and can be used as a starter. = personal. objects yes yes yes yes yes 10-15 10-15 15-20 15-20 15-20 108 Daily life 109 Hotel receptionist 110 Messages fact. If there are letters which say almost t. h Step 4: ~hey can be compared with the answers given by t e magazme on the other handout.3). actions or people have to be mimed and guessed in the following five activities. e same thm~. beg. the other half get the answers and have to gues w at the problems are.reading comprehension. The mimes are done in pairs or groups./pairs/ groups groups class/ groups pairs Preparation 105 Problem page (2) Aims Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure Skills . 3: Every group has to discuss all the letters. only one of these is left up. Each student is given three st~ckers (coloured dots). inr./int. miming activities are valuable language-learning situations. writing Activity Tillie ill minutes fact. Organisation pairs/ class indiv. pairs = two people working together. He should stick these on the letters which he agrees with most of all.Discussions and decisions Remarks 2: All groups are given the same letter. Step 1: Each s:udent receives a copy of the handout with the letters on and IS aske? to write a reply to one of them. = factual. Step 2: All the replIes are put up on the wall so that e~erybody :an read them.handout (see Part 2) per student and three coloured dots or stickers per student 20-30 minutes speaking. This should be kept in mind when you do mimes for the first time with your class. beg. . Language-learning exercises using mime are to be found III 114 115 . c rs 4 Stories and scenes 4. fact. class = everybody working together. Finally. Since the speed of the guessing depends on the quality of the mime. Step 3: The :hree letters ranked most highly in this way are read out and dIscussed in class./ pers. s Proble~ pages can be found in many women's and teenage ' magazmes. in one case individual students have to perform their mimes for the whole class. fact. into int. pers. Shy students or students not used to this kind of activity may not find it easy to act something out in front of everyone else. indiv. class A. Objects. Language . less inventive students may not be such popular performers as others. Guessing something is linked with the real desire to find out and thus is a true communicative situation (see introduction to section 2. beg. = beginners.1 Miming Topic type Level beg.all elements Other-empathy Intermediate/ advanced Individuals. miming exercises are useful because they emphasise the importance of gesture and facial expression in communication. He can use all three dots on one letter or spread them out. = intermediate. In spite of these possible drawbacks. = individuals: groups = small groups.

This can be played as a competitive team game.speaking Language . etc. angrily. 1978.observation. Dubin and MargoI1977. Another student joins hi~ until up to ten students are involved in miming a situation. fun Beginners Individuals. The individual mimes can be organised m one of the following ways: (a) E~ery student chooses a piece of paper from a pile and mimes the person or the object. (c) Each group of students is given the s~me people ~nd. objects to mime. . badly. a fat bus conductor). photos or drawings of people and objects 10-15 minutes Instructions ~s to what the students have to mime are given ~erbal1y or VIsually.making conjectures. pairs. adverbs Other-fun Beginners/ intermedia te Pairs. groups Variations Several piles of small pieces of paper with descriptions of pe?ple (e. . One draws a piece of pape~ from ~he a~tio~ pile.. Step 2: Each group performs their mime in turn. eating a banana.asking yes/no questions. (d) Chain mime. The others observe and make suggestions about the people and objects in the mime. an old man. asking questions Other . 1: Each group may speak just one sentence of the dialogue during the mime. 106 Adverb charade Aims Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure Skills .g. making suggestions.speaking Language . e. . e. stating one s opimons. cautiously. The first pair of students come to the front of the class. class About 50 small pieces of paper 10-15 minutes I ~ i I Remarks Variations Step 1: The pieces of paper are distributed. fun Beginners/ intermedia te Groups of three to five students . Remarks 116 117 . 2: (For advanced students) During each mime the students in the audience make notes on the topic and roles. and what props are needed. on th. names of objects. The rest of the class guess. agreeing and disagreeing Other . Step 2: Each student teams up with a partner.e other an adverb. Step 1: Each group of students receives.Stories and scenes Dixey and Rinvolucri and Duff 1978. The others guess.g. Language . writing . a differe. knitting. Maley r. Suitable dialogues can be found in textbooks. so that each student receives two.g. 108 Daily life Aims Skills . One student starts by miming his object/ person. f Miming (b) Two or three students combine their miming tasks to mime a short scene together. After each performance the students in the audience suggest what the mime was about. They decide who takes which role. the other from the adverb pile. On one piece of paper he writes a simple action. Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure 107 Miming people and objects Aims Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure Skills . Both rrurne their action m the manner described by the adverb.speaking. Performances and different realisations are discussed.asking questions.dialogue and has five minutes in which to organise the mimmg. some objects as props 15-20 minutes . reading a paper. All the pieces of paper are put in two piles face down.nt .observation. The number of variations for mimes is probably infinite and there is plenty of scope for the creative teacher. Short dialogues on separate pieces of paper. When they have watched all the mimes they argue within their groups and try to work out a list of all the topics/roles in the mimes.

Then the second students in each pair mime their messages. Please come quickly.) Step 2: The students are divided into groups. When do they leave? How long do they take and how much do they cost? Is there a heated indoor swimming pool in the town? How far is it? Somebody has put a crocodile in my bath. Step 2: All the students stand around the walls of the classroom making sure that their partner is as far away as possible. The receptionist's task is finished when he has found out the exact message. I am expecting a phone call from my wife.writing.Miming Stories and scenes 109 Hotel receptionist Aims Skills . 2: In addition to miming. A guest staying at the hotel has a very bad cold and has lost his voice. Other . It s very cold m my room. groups of five to eight students At least as many messages as there are students. making conjectures. The first student in each pair mimes his message to his partner. Where is the nearest post office? Can you get two opera tickets for tomorrow night? But only if there are seats in the first fifteen rows. There's a very funny noise coming from the room next to mine. I can't turn the radiators on. Then the students find a partner. playing the part of the guest.m. 119 to Variations Possible messages Possible messages the cinema with you.all kinds of questions expressing understanding asking for confirmation' . (e. That is.g. .). (See Maley and Duff 1978. Could you send so~eone ~p to have a look?) and. Can you change a £5 note into lOp pieces? I'd like to go on a sightseeing tour round the town tomorrow. Have you tried to turn on the heating? etc. please? I ~m going out now. The objects are wntten on small pieces of paper. drawing may be allowed. half of the class are miming.observation.expressing one's opinions. He t~er~fore has to communicate with the hotel receptionist by mirning.) Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure Remarks 110 Messages Aims Skills . I have to catch an early train tomorrow. mimes hIS request while the hotel ~eceptionist guesses. Step 3: Everyone sits down with his partner and tells him what he thought the message was. fun Intermediate Class.30 a. while the other half are watching. I'd like to go 7p. Could Ibe woken at 5.m. on small slips of paper 15-20 minutes Step 1: The teacher explains the situation. saying something is right/ wrong Other-fun Intermediate Pairs As many pieces of paper with messages on as there are students Leuel Organisation Preparation Time Procedure 15-20 minutes Step 1: Each student takes a message which he is not allowed to show to anybody else in the class. The rest of the class should help the teacher (receptionist) figure out the request. The guest is played by one of the students. The members of each group sit in a circle and take turns to play the guest and the hotel receptionist. Could you please tell her that I've lost my voice and have written a letter to her? I have forgotten the number of my room. Each group has a supply of messages to draw from. ThIs studen~ draws a slip of paper with a message on (e. speaking Language . (In the example given above the statement: 'You are cold and the heating is not on' would not be enough. The observing partners write down the message as they interpret it.dents have to claim objects they have lost.. 1: The setting is changed to a Lost Property Office where stu. Are you cold? No? Isee your room IS cold. I'm afraid that somebody might be ill.speaking (reading comprehension) Language .' In the first two ~r t~ree rounds the teacher takes the part of the hotel rec~ptIomst. Meet me at my house at 118 .g. 'Th~ setting is a hotel in an English-speaking country. Then the original messages are read out.

int. fact. pers. int./ adv.flour pounds of apples. on your pu over. 01 et paper I f oun dea red purse on the fl Ih . Also a lot of materials for role play have been published (see Heyworth 1978. 20-30 30-45 3-5 hrs. class material for the exercise is to be found in Part 2. Seely 1978. fact. Do Please do SOme sho ./ adv. groups pairs/groups/ Tillie ill minutes 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 Telephoning TV interview Talk show Controversy in the school The XY society Swap shop Interview for a job Making a radio programme 2 2 yes Part no yes yes yes 15-20 20-30 45-90 20-45 5-81m. you want to cO~~? opping tomorrow to get a new bicycle. It's right under 4. fact./adv.g. Your t. e. into int.or pure fantasy . Go to the library a d book t as £2. = small Part 2 = 120 It is not easy to distinguish clearly between role play and simulation. ation pairs groups groups/class groups/ class groups/teams class indiv. = factual. fact.l I am going to g h . Organis- Preporation Part no Level int. fact. groups.f two bottles of lemo~~~:ga:~ ~oem' Gtet. pairs = two people working together. Is it yours? n get a 00 on cats. fact. int. = personal. . Most simulations demand that the participants are supplied with background information and materials to work from both before and during the simulation. Role plays may be enacted around everyday situations as well as around topical problems like the generation gap or vandalism. Walker 1979).as in acting out a shopping situation . fact. Could ~e do our homework together this aftern'oon. 55). just as in reality. Realistic role plays have been common features of situational language teaching for a long time and are catered for by suitable dialogues in most beginners' in pretending to interview a Martian on TV. In contrast to simulations. My choice of role plays and 121 . 'Simulations are simplified patterns of human interactions or social processes where the players participate in roles' (Davison and Gordon 1978. p.ous~rs have split. Can you come> . int. fact. '. Both are forms of games mirroring a slice of reality. role plays often consist of short scenes. which can be realistic . int.50 m It. As a rule simulations are more highly structured and contain more diverse elements in their content and procedure. in writing the front page of a newspaper. = individuals: groups everybody working together. Accomplishing the task set in a simulation has sometimes got to be done within a time limit. Lynch 1977. There ISa big White stain 11 your left arm. Menne 1975./pers.2 Activity Role play and simulations Topic type fact./adv.Stories and scenes Role play and simulations (an ~bo~row your record player? Mine is broken am avmg a party on Saturday./ adv. int. = intermediate./adv./pers. = indiv.

Learning for. respectively. video tapes of encounters where the foreign language is used at different levels of formality. directing. but leaves them free to express themselves without restrictions. interrupting.insisting. Step 2: One person from an A-group and one from a B-group act the telephone conversat~on in front of ~he group. each B-group a copy of a B-role card (see Part 2). Heyworth 19~8. 112 TV interview Aims Skills . or better. role cards and cue cards. Dixey and Rinvolucri 1978. This does not mean that simulations cannot be adapted to suit the needs and interests of your students. e. Other . The materials necessary for a simulation should be more varied and complex to suit the multi-layered structure of a simulation. 118 Making a radio programme can easily be changed in their topical outline while keeping to the procedure given for each activity.Stories and scenes simulations was guided by the intention to achieve effective language learning situations rather than extremely original topics. which tell the players what the person whose role they are taking is like. Jones 1982. and simulations quite often train all four skills.improvisation. Up to four more pairs give their version as well.on slmulatlOns III foreign language teaching: British Council 1977. two students draw an A-role card and a B-role card. Herbert and Sturtridge 1979. which run over several stages. Seely 1978.1IId anstcer cards. think of what they could say for one minute and then act the telephone conversatIOn. The complexity of simulations. Nos. introducing someone Other .thinking about the ideal family Intermediate/ advanced Groups of four to six students None 20-30 minutes Level Organisation Preparation Time 123 122 . 115 The XY society and No. (Another exam pie of cue cards is to be found in No. Therefore simulations mainly constitute practice sessions where the participants draw on everything they have learnt so far. Maley and Duff 1978. 104 and 105 Problem page (1) and (2). A great number of articles and books have been published on the use of role plays. and the following titles are only a small selection: British Council 1977. expressing uncertainty . 117 lnteruieio for a job Part 2 contains role cards. can be a valuable training in this skill prior to role play. i. flexibility in using the foreign Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure language Intermediate/ advanced Pairs Role cards (see Part 2) 15-20 minutes Step 1: The class is divided into two teams (A and B) and each team into sub-groups of three to five students. The students in each group work out some phrases which they could use in the telephone conversation indicated on the role card. Role plays make use of two types of materials..e. 111 Telephoning Aims Skills . words and language skills will be needed by the players. Taylor and Wa.speaking (writing) Language . VariatioJ1s With advanced students the preparation phase may be shorter. Even very advanced learners of English are rarely able to speak consciously in a particular style or register. prevents the teacher from exactly determining beforehand which structures. Lynch 1977. which guide the players as to what they should say in detail. A number of activities in this book may be complemented by role plays. the conversation. Role plays improve the students' oral performance generally. 111 Telephoning contains cue cards. which may be necessary for a role.speaking.describing something. on simulations: Role play and simulations Davison and Gordon 1978. For these students the study of texts. Fletcher and Birt 1979. " (present simple) questions. writing Language . Each A-group receives a copy of an A-role card. The role plays and simulations included here should also encourage teachers to develop their own materials.g. Change 1977. This procedure is repeated with different r?le cards. The worksheet for No.l~ord 1978. For exercise No. Menne 1975. hesitating. Both No.i Role plays are quite demanding foreign language situations in that the players have to use the foreign language correctly and adequately both in terms of the foreign language itself and the particular role that is acted out. 45 Guestion .

ways Step 2: Each id 1f '1' peop ~ In t err Ideal family.all elements Other . number of role cards or name cards (if every student plays himself) from the general pile. another group thinks of the point of view of the pupils concerned. which are shuffled and handeaJ O~tor fiCtItIOUS people. they should be Other ideal groups can be intervi d . ~a~e: ge. ac ta k master draws a certain Variations . pupils of different age groups. (c) Each student desig hi . 124 One group of four to six students and suitable questions as talk prepare three topics each Step 2: Each t lk . If video equipment is available.sonahtIes. . and the questions from the audience read out and answered. principal (headmaster). Then it is the turn of the next group to present their talk show. One group prepares arguments the parents might put forward. group' 'ideal fl t h . become obvIOUS. Step 2: Students are then divided into groups. All in all there can be up to eight different groups. local press and school administration (local education authority).g. 125 . Step 3: The final step can be a panel discussion with a representative of each group on the panel. consisting of one talk master and up to five people being interviewed. Step 3: Each group. th h " the warming-up category and e~ t e aCtl~lty belongs to get to know each other better ~u ~nts talk In ~rder to name on a piece of paper. Letting each group perform could lead to boredom in big classes. ?escnbmg one's . teachers.bler of thbefamily introduces either . arru y mem er.g. Each talk master tells his group which topics he wants to ask them about and how he is going to interview them.speaking Language-introducin bd . Job: H 0 bbires: job/hobby Remarks Skills . the local press interview teachers and pupils. All the texts are read and language difficulties cleared up. In S 0 questIOns Oth er-imagmatIOn fun Intermediate/ advan~ed Groups. etc. e. f a master IS allotted abo t h ? pe~ple to interview (there should bUt e same number InterVIews per talk mast ) E h Inot e more than five er. Country: Married/children. 1: Instead of arranging meetings each group can produce a leaflet/poster outlining their position.repare t~e role of the ask the members of the 'idea(fae:iIt?S the Interviewer could .:~~~~as to p.e.'. the talk shows can be recorded and discussed at a later stage or shown to other classes. a -s anng group'.~f~e~i~~~n t~~~~~:~~~. Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure 114 Controversy in the school Aims Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure Skills . class Handouts (see Part 2) 20-45 minutes Step 1: Each student receives a handout. dealing with the parents. interviewer in tur~ain ~mI y ISIntervIewed by a different the role la each rent of the class. The groups arrange meetings. The talk show is interrupted after ten minutes.Stories and scenes Role play and simulations Procedure aO~l~rf. t~l~Ya~~:l. f::~~/e~~e Variations 113 Talk show Aims asking all k~ s~mef 0 y. They should all rn.. e. One could either decide on two or three groups by lot or space the performances out and calion one group per week. the people being interviewed or the talk master himself. iewe .all four skills Language .. acts out their talk show in front of the class. can be organised: rnatlves as to how the talk show (a) The students play themselves. Ideal holiday . masters of the show.g.cooperation Intermediate/ advanced Groups. The rest of the class are the audience and may write down additional questions or suggestions regarding the topic. follow the same pa~:e IS own role card. ac student writes his (b) The students write out role c d f . the parents want to talk to the ~Jf::r~nt of behaviour and ideas of the I ~ he t ~er.. re:::~i~~ ~~:fri~~:i~t~~~:tudents' val~es and ideals discussed afterwards.. At the beginning of himself ~r fnothermfem. class Video equipment (optional) 45-90 minutes Step 1: There are three alte .

. majority.g. It will largely depend on the students' and teacher's interests which type of society is chosen.. Any of the steps from the table can be tackled on its own.. must never . Have you ever been to . Th e SOCIetycan have a e. secretary.sin~and designing application form and membership card C Agenda for a forthcoming meeting D Items on the agenda: fund-raising. you are especially interested in steam engines Or: You are a fan of the Beatles and are desperately looking for a copy of their white album in good condition.. demonstration E Rules F Membership forms and cards Step 1: Each student receives a role card (e. The Beatles white album.. . Care should be taken that there are several suitable objects for the individual collectors so that finding partners for a swap is not too difficult.g.'. to be founded and naming it . designing posters Discussion Devi.. 127 126 . publicity. We'd like to .. one arm missing. Step 2: The students walk around and try to find others who are either interested in one of the objects they have to Variations Remarks offer or who can offer them something.:~~i~~~~~~d i~ the/~gra~ below. because your own copy is very badly scratched) and two or three object cards (e.tter wnnng.aim ate SOCIety Classroom activity Discussion of aims Structures and vocabulary Present simple and continuous.'. tor ange 1977. The students are then given the information which is necessary. .. ballot. ~~te taking. if the teacher wants them to practise writing skills Step D is appropriate. We'll . Members will have to . class None 5-8 hours The activity follo h ' The first step inv~~:s ~.. po unon control ca " f group/playground fight' " rnpargrung or a new play(Idea adapted from' Lear~7:gafamCsht a new motorway... expressing interest.all four skills Language .) Variations 115 The XV society Aims Skills .. etc. ? Names? Remarks Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure 116 Swap shop Aims Skills . nominate ' second . Real objects can be brought along and used for this activity. numbers . describing adjectives. e... deals with .. should could . Further activities: p re p ar:anon of newsletter .. activity e g 11' ea t wit m this type of ..) Remarks 2: All kinds of issues can be d 1 ith ' .. I propose/ suggest . might .'" .. if-clauses Other swapping things Intermediate Individuals Role cards (see Procedure). . le.. teams... . . We have to . real hair).. sleeve is very torn. ? Are you married .g. . finding a motto. (Idea adapted from Syed 1978. treasurer and the committee Drawing up an agenda Debate. You are a collector of model trains. The students would then have to be told the name and purpose of the society.all language elements Other-fun Intermediate/ advanced Groups. .. radio or TV programme about the society. cards with descriptions or drawings of suitable objects (about three cards per student) So ae y actiutty A - Meeting to found a society Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure 20-30 minutes B Election of office bearers Election of chairperson. records in passable condition Or: Model of the French high speed train Or: Victorian doll.Role play and simulations Stories and scenes 'nonsense purpose' like making trousers the compulsory dress for everyone (Trouser Society) or a real one like founding a debating dub at school (Debating Society).. Students should be told beforehand that it might be necessary to swap with more than one person..speaking Language _ offering something.. dates..

Lindon Borough Council group receive the full handout. the use of more than one room 3-5 hours Step 1: Students may work on their ow.g: in a ~ase of truancy they might want to record an interview ~Ith the pupil concerned.r commentaries separated by advertising and music. pairs Tape recorder and microphone. The sequence of the individual interviews is fixed. 53 Looking for a job) 30-45 minutes Step 1: The class is divided into five groups.2 students Presenters of the programme .n or in groups or pairs. Then they decide which applicant to accept. his teacher and parents) and wnte up th~ questions with the help of the teacher. consisting of short intervrews o.asking questions.2 students First interview .preparation for possible real life situation Intermediate Five groups Skills .4 students Advertisements . Step 3: Before the final recording each group presents Its part of the programme. The presenters work out their introductory remarks to each part of the programme.all elements Other . The stud~nts working out the advertisements look through the magazmes to find ideas they want to adapt. exercise for other classes.2 students Sound effects . Step 4: Final recording. each of the four remaining groups. The end product should be a r~diO p:ogramme 10 to 20 minutes long. Step 2: The students preparing the interviews and the commentary look through the newspaper articles to ~nd suitable topics. Last minute alterations are made.oves from group to group to help and correct written material. collection of magazine/ newspaper articles with human interest stories. the group who prepared the interview) simultaneously while the other members of each applicant's group watch and listen. The teacher m. Students work on different parts of the programme and a schedule has to be written up first of all with the different tasks clearly specified. groups. When they have found a story they think interesting they decide who to intervie:v (e. Step 3: The Borough Council group split into two groups each interviewing two of the applicants (these are chosen b.5 students Second interview . Step 4: The Borough Council group come together again and report on the interviews they have conducted. player.3 students More items for the programme can be introduced with larger classes.working on a task which produces a result that can Remarks Level Organisation Preparation be played to others Intermedia tel advanced Class.all four skills Language . . . The applicants prepare the answers/statements for the questions they think will be asked. Remarks 118 Making a radio programme Aims Skills . and music . Step 2: The Borough Council group work out the questions they would like to ask each applicant. . record/ cassette. stating one's intentions. sound effects record/ cassette. A radio programme like this can be a valuable hstenm? . One group represents Lindon Borough Council. In large classes there can be more applicants for the job.6 students Commentary . It is surprising how many original ideas the students will come up with once they get interested in the project.speaking Language . Meanwhile the applicants talk about the interviews and give their impressions of what was said. one of the four applicants. giving Time Procedure Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure A handout for each group (see Part 2 No. each of the other groups get the advertisements and their own application. cassette recorder or record 128 129 . Example: Selecting and recording the music .Stories and scenes Role play and simulations 117 Interview for a job Aims information about oneself Other.3 students Short sketch .

Similar exercises.imagination Intermediate Groups A large number of photographs pers. 'h 11 2' After Step 2 all the pictures are displayed on t e wa h Wh~n the reports are read out the others have to guess w IC 119 Chain story Aims Skills .' A student (either a volunteer or the person sitting nearest to the teacher) continues the story.imagination In rerrnedia te Pairs or individuals dialogue Level Organisation 131 130 . 'It was a stormy night in November. h' pictures fit which report. = personal. int. He may say up to three sentences and must include the word on his slip of paper. For this they will need imagination as well as some skill in the foreign language. ' Step 2: When each group has decided which pictures to use they write their report. fact.ave to us!three. past tenses./adv. into = intermediate. Step 2: The teacher starts the story by giving the first sentence. Part 2 = material for the exercise is to be found in Part 2. are No. Time ill minutes Level beg.g. 121 Picture stories). fact.writing Language .describing somethmg. although these differ in their structure (dialogue). Stimuli are given in the form of individual words (No. = advanced.jint. 119 Chain story) or pictures (No. indiv. Other . . 120 Newspaper report and No. ation class groups pairs/indiv.simple past Other . Story-telling activates more than a limited number of patterns and structures and these activities are best used as general revision. Their aim is to write a newspaper report linking these three pictures. Remarks (i_2P~ Newspaper 121 122 123 119 Chain story report Picture stories Letters and telegrams Keep talking yes yes yes Part 2 yes 10-20 20-30 15-20 10-20 5-15 120 Newspaper report Aims Skills . Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure ' d taken from magazines an newspapers 20-30 minutes . The numbers determine in which the students have to contnbute to the t h e sequence m w story. Organis- Variatiol1s Preparation Each student is also given a number. adv.h h 1: Each group chooses three pictures whic anot er group has to write about.Stories Stories and scenes 4. = beginners.h h h Stel: Each group is given five pictures of whic t ~y ./ fict.reporting . .speaking Language . 60 Secret topic. = individuals. 59 Mad discussion and No.imagination. indiv. events. Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure 121 Picture stories Aims Skills . = factual. ' 3: The reports are taken as starting points for mterviewe Remarks and role plays. as many pieces of paper as there are students 10-20 minutes Step 1: Each student receives a word slip. fact. fact. h h It If unusual and widely differing pictures are c osen t e resu can be very funny. e. flexibility Beginners/intermediate Class Small slips of paper with one noun/verb/ adjective on each of them. pairs = two people working together. h rai degree by One can direct the contents of t e story to a cer am the choice of words. 'h Step 3: The reports are read out and the pictures s own to Variations the class. . class = everybody working together.writing " Language . groups = small groups. The aim of these activities is to get the students to produce longer connected texts.3 Activity Stories Topic type fict. beg. in terms of their comprehensive scope./pers. The next student goes on. into into adv. passive Other . fact. indiv.

Stories Stories and scenes Examples: f I ki If a cigarette cost £1 a lot 0 peop e . S g mo Ill. When Iwas a little boy/girl, . Homesl( k ness . h Pets I used to have ... /1 would like to ave ... There are no certificates for good parents. P arents Clothes I like. . . . . Animals don't chew chewing gum. C Irewmg gum Variations L: This can be played as a team contest. . 2: The topic and sentence cards can be prepared by the students. . hh b en dealt This activity can be used to revise topics t at ave e with in class.

Preparation Time Procedure Variations

Pictures from magazines and cartoon strips with the words in the speech bubbles blanked out 15-20 minutes The students have to write texts for the pictures or fill in the speech bubbles. 1: If more than one pair of students receive the same pictures/ cartoon strips their results can be compared. 2: One pair of students fills in the first speech bubble on a cartoon strip then hands the page to the next pair who fill in the next bubble, and so on. The first pair, in the meantime, fill in the first speech bubble on another strip, and then pass that on in the same way.


122 Letters and telegrams
Aims Skills - writing, reading comprehension Language - nouns, verb forms Other - recognising unnecessary language Advanced Individuals A copy of the letter (Part 2) for each student 10-20 minutes Each student receives a copy of a letter (see Part 2 for an example) and is asked to write two telegrams for it, one with 24 words, the other with 12 words. The telegrams are read out and compared. Students receive different letters.

Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure


123 Keep talking
Aims Skills - speaking Language - all elements Other - improvisation, flexibility, imagination Intermediate/ advanced Individuals Slips of paper with both a sentence and a topic written on them 5-15 minutes A student chooses a slip of paper and has to talk for one minute about the topic, beginning with the sentence on the piece of paper.

Level Organisation Preparation Time Procedure






\ \


No.27 The same or different? Same: 2,3,5,7,9,12,14,15,17 Different: 1,4,6,8,10,11,13,16,18 No.28 Twins Pictures which are identical: down on the left on 28B.


right on 28A and third

No.30 What are the differences? Differences: left-hand pot plant on window sill, cat looking in, birds in the sky, pencil flying through the air, coffee cup on filing cabinet, label on filing cabinet, sheet of paper on desk of black-haired typist, handbag of same typist, two pieces of paper on filing cabinet in foreground, castors (In chair.



No.51 NASA game Oxygen, water, map, food, receiver/transmittc, rope, first aid kit, parachute silk, life raft, signal flan:" pistols, dried milk, heating unit, magnetic compass, box of matches, No. 103 Baker Street
"., -,

Evans Dudd married tortoise rabbit thrillers wine spinster dog love stories beer

Abraham wicower cat

Charles bachelor canary historical novels whisky






a broken line indicates where worksheets need to be cut up. 4 Identity cards SURNAME Photo FIRST NAMES ADDRESS FAMILY SCHOOL/UNIVERSITY Main Subjects Studied HOBBIES OTHER INTERESTS - 136 © Cambridge University Press 1984 137 .Part 2 Worksheets On the following pages.

......7 1 lOA SteIB sentences I Make hay Grouping ~-----------------------------+------------------------------You can't teach ! an old dog new tricks....----- I Summerhill is possibly I : the happiest I school In the I world . I I I I'd like to have No one tells them I what to wear....--.-...-....... ...... it's worth doing well......... ~ while the sun shines..........----= Summerhill founded i....---------:-------A new broom : ! A bad workman When the eat's away : the mice will play........... .... You scratch my back : and I'll scratch yours......................... : : I there is a lot of learning at : Summerhill ... .... -------------1---: \ : always blames his tools......... ..-..... ....... sweeps clean .........---........ I would --..............Where there's a will Ail work and no play I like people who ..... : is worth two in the bush................... " " .... .......................-----..........-... -----------------_----- ....._----- --------------------------4--------------------------..... Everybody should I I I until they are! 16 years old ........------t-..-.-.--------_---there's a way...1....----------------------------------------~---------------------------------....-----------__________________________ Don't put all your eggs If I had £100.............................. generally remain at the school: I that a child is I innately wise i and realistic.......... .... I ................... -------------+--------------+-------------T------------I ' Only one or two : have rooms for I' Hate breeds hate: and love breeds I : W e genera IIY have older pupils b t2 b a ou :J...........-.................... -------------~--------------~-------------+-------------Some children I at the age of five i Children can go : or stay away cSometO ' i years.... --------------L--------------T------------T----- I .......---........ oys : and 20 girls..........................................: i : All the same................................ ............ ---------------------- I have never -.... ......... ---... : in one basket.............._ ..-T----I but you cannot make it drink ......-.: r I ...........------t----------------------------.............------... love .................: In Summerhill everyone has equal r' hts : Ig..-........... Finish these sentences............--- I could not live without .... themselves.--............ ----------------------------~------------------------------------------..... ......................000 A bird in the hand was : I ...... ............---... i -................. : to lessons II from them..........................--.... ll ummer h I I I ---------------t--------------+--------------T--------------------------r--------------r-------------T-----------The children .....--------- ---...------. I My view IS I am frightened of ....... - makes Jack a dull boy......... The last time I laughed a lot was ....--......-----... ........... -------- --.........--------......... ............. ..: i................ 138 © Cambridge University Press 1984 © Cambridge University Press 1984 139 .. ........ ....... " make(s) me feel good................ ......... In the year 1921....------------------:-You may lead a horse to water If a thing is worth doing --------................ ......................-......_..... --------.........-......--......................------.... My favourite animals are ....... ...-..

please? Ccrtch numb...\: V\.-----i -------t-------t-----...-t--.. _ I I ~----------------------------T----- I I ---. ! 1"1i f'J'5! r..IJ.: I -~~--------------~----------------- .-= Could __ _ _.How l?ng h~ve you ha new bicycle.Thank you..iclidn1 ~atch what you . \()II ---------------i ? -------+-------1------+-------1-------+--------1--------+------ I I I I I I I ------------------1 .1_-+I I + I + I .? i I I I I I ~i~i : I I I ---~h! Ic~uld~'~ e~t soup breakfast...-r .-A-b -tI ou a year. I J : i~ i.-+-------+------ +------+-----I I I -t------+---I I I I I I I I I I --+------ - .. : I I I I --i... d your _ I I I I .---i-----: '-=\\ : ~: l_ffl_ffl~I~' I I L I I i~ I ! I@oil I ! I@o. What could it be? _ I'm happy with anything. very.IL. -------r------~-----~~-------~-------r------+------~------I t:t. the stop over there.: _ Yes.. It's light and fast. r-- _ : for ~I I = W. There was a very good film on last night.r!I \()I. ~ .....-----I I I I I I I j I I Y ....Excuse me. could you tell me the time. please. ~-----------------' 140 © Cambridge University Press 1984 © Cambridge University Press 1984 141 ....e-l : I I I :-I I I i V~I i .. _ . please? It's a quarter pas tf our.:d. : It..-= . __________________ .! a:>ly I ------t------T------+-------t------+------t------. ...'.Just sugar.b~t~r-n~t _ _ Perhaps it's dangerous.OI.--_ ~---------------------------i----------I .::J.'I(::(: I I I' I I I I I I I I I I I ft ft I I I I ~-----------------------------:--------------------_ What do you usually have for breakfast? -------- : ~ .-- I - you give me two ripe bananas and the rest green? : i .With milk and sugar.r 2S-bus from a I _ Are you happy with it? ~ __ . ? -{ I I 1--------------I Excuse me.Would you like ripe ones or green ones.1: i~:~ . Two spoons... please..n. could you tell me the quickest way to the station.~ : I I \ I _ Would you like some coffee? ----------------- I -I 1 I {" \ : : I _ What was the last film you saw? _ _ I can't remember. _ ! I tI~ : I tII~ 1 ~ I I I -+ !: ~ _ I -- l+l + I I I 0 ug! u(! Cl~ i Cl~ iDiD!~i~ I...ILId:~. please.~..OI_'-I I I I + I I -+ .Yes..lOB 10C rouplng ~ . even \ I I I I I I III i III! ~ -------"1----I I I i i 6: ()_:l!.What is the quickest way to the station.Two kilos of bananas. soup. I never watch TV. I i ~ i 61 hili i IIIII I I I : I ICl-1Q)!- ~-----------------_ It looks like some kind of ma~h~n: I _ Look at this. please? -= S07ry.. _ _ You should.. ~o:ch i~.. Groupings I I ~ ~I j I ! /Q\! IG'\! .

cold I special? I I I I I : FOOD You have to find out which meals or kinds of food the other people in your class dislike Each of you prepares an interview card which could look like this: Name Freddie food hates? chocolate. photography surfing. Each of you prepares an interview card which could look like this: Name Tim where? McDonald's _______ -------~----------------------I I very nice"" nice people from different countries a bit hiking. Each of you prepares an interview card which could look like this: Name Tina dislikes? orange juice Ask your partner questions about his or her last holiday. got camera as birthday present surfing is fun. sandwiches.15 16 Guided interviews HOLIDAYS Breakfast HOLIDAYS You can partner's following about a either answer your questions by using the notes or by talking holiday you really had. but you can ask other questions as well. drink? milk I FOOD Eating out You have to find out whether the other people in your class ever eat out. Use the following notes to help you. swimming in lakes I I I I I I I I I I I I I I. FOOD You ha~e to find out what the other people In your class usually have for breakfast.Why? Why not? Sightseeing? Sports? Food? Go again? Do anything Bad points? I I I I Iceland 2 weeks camping group of students . omelettes ~ I I 142 © Cambridge University Press 1984 © Cambridge University Press 1984 143 . and If so where they go. see a glacier rain. Each of you prepares an interview card which could look like this: Name Lisa Drinks FOOD You have to find out which drinks the people In your class like and dislike. can play chess anywhere film is expensive need someone with a car for surf board I I I I I I I I Ask your partner about his or her hobbies.-------------------------I I ~-------------------------4----------------------~HOBBIES ~ I Food hates : I I I I I I I You have to find out if the other people _In yo. What hobby? Others? How much time? How started? Why these? Bad points? I I I I l -------------t-------~--_j I I I I Cooking FOOD I I I I I I You have to find out which meals or drinks the other people in your class can prepare themselves Each of you prepares an inter~iew card which could look like this: Name Peter I I I I I I I I I I can prepare/make? tea. Each of you prepares an interview card which could look likl' this: favourite favourite Name I main course? dessert? Chris pizza ice cream Fevoutiie . porridge. play chess with a friend once a week. playing chess take photos on holiday. no fruit perhaps climb a volcano. meals FOOD I I I I I I a bit boring. Where? How long for? Stay where? With whom? Like it? . Do you think you are: Name too fat? just right? I too thin? Bob Weight-watching FOOD i I HOBBIES ~ I You can either answer vour partner's questions by Csing the following notes or by talking about your real hobbies. Use the follOWing notes to help you. spinach --. surfing in summer father plays chess. You have to find out the favourite meals (main course and dessert) of the other people in your class.ur class think they are too fat. Just right or too thin Each of you prepares an in'terview card which could look like this' .

. ::~~\'. I I I x s 6 7~ x s x I i \6 \ X I 7 \ 8 9 ~ x ~ \8 I x I 9 .. x X ~ x \'O~ I 111 I \ /2 /2 1"3 «KKKl x .' I"- m..:~~ I 17 e:.o \ /"3 occ X x o· x x \'7 x .' ..~i H~ 18 x \" I ~ G x'" 144 © Cambridge University Press 1984 © Cambridge University Press 1984 145 . .17 4 i 27 fJln_(fJ fJllfllJJJ1([! ([})Jr Different? B x x x ~ 1 I 1 1 1 -1 A x x ~ ~ ~o x I I \z~o I I3 I 1 x 1 .g....-. e X.0:.

.mm""..a_itwe_ 'Ot<:_""1$i?5%_ii""i'5""=:ii= . ·-·-lRJ =....".~==.----~~ . 146 © Cambridge University Press 1984 © Cambridge University Press 1984 147 ...u_'-m'''''''''''-1-mrr~' 's =~" ~~ __ ~ __ 28A 288 ...'f"".....-iiiIiliiii!illliiil _ZiIii'"W?Iiiii1ii' .... ! ... s ~=iiii·"'·· _UF-at'iiiiiiiiliiiliiiMlliiim ·... .' _....m.W=-iJjUWiii-fi5ii1"WWiE' _'...._...'''or.35i=-='"""'f'fFi''''''''1TiZ'''"''7i''?T''''''''...~ _""Z.. i.....'V''''"''. iii!ll1-- • W_=5WPiiiili-"---'_ffPB::v'tf5?5iSiiIiliii-'-iIiiiiilt...."mrriil'iil7IIIfIlIl' II..

29 Partner puzzle 30 What are the differences? A -----------------~ 148 © Cambridge University Press 1984 © Cambridge University Press 1984 149 .

Then write eight k and unnumbered bulld1ngs. nr·<.'""'~~.: bus statlon.. .Jc~ 150 © Cambridge University Press 1984 . ~~~~sn.. a half ress f d the following places.e~...""... an Indian partner see what you hav~ wn .~~~ming pool.. . which your partner has written In. Oon't let your a mes of places on the map doctor's surgery. a k\~derg:~~eun~: h~ has to find these Plafesh Y~~it~~v: ~~b'.::'. a First find out all the names of the s(t~~~t~h~~~:es numbered 16 to ~Odl: C~~:5ae.-m-!!W~· 31 ORDERING ! 32 TOWN PLAN 1 I I A ----------------~ B g.... a nosouar..op..-"-"""""" -" ----"'"l'" . cinema a supermarket. a • restaurant.. . a petro! station. a schoo. ur artner."'i¥'~W4!tr. a library.-- "~"'~".from yo ~urant a police station.~ \+. I ©Cambridge University Press 1984 151 .'§_11&~~W !1'~3.

..m. and equipment may be used free of charge. Information Card 2 .:. _ 'The Trout' is a very nice country pub with good food but only a few rooms. _ Beachton hotels are full at weekends.. . I I I I I I Information Card 6 sand .. There will be folk music. The sports fields.One can find interesting stones and fossils in the quarries near Cookwell. _ Bicycles can be hired at Oldfield.-------------------------Information Card 5 ::'.. I I 1b cP (19 6.The famous Cookwell festival is being held at the weekend. ~"::~<I . I I I I ---------------------------. . I --------------------------+-------------------------I I Information Card 3 . I I I I I I I I . .There is a very nice footpath from Cookwell along the Little Mead and the Mead to Gloster .A.The camping site near Oldfield is next to the main road and a petrol station.The sandy beaches near Beachton are polluted.There are dangerous 'currents off the rocky coast.There is a special weekend ticket for all buses and trains for £5. sheepdog trials and dancing.c:. . .hin91e river . clothes and furniture.The caves are closed to the public on Sundays. . Oldfield and Beachton.v cave fishin9 camping wood .. _ There is a good market in Oldfield every Saturday where local crafts are sold.There are' Bed and Breakfasts' in Cookwell. Rooms should be booked in advance.00. I I I I Information Card 4 I I I I I I I I I I I I I _ Lochness Castle and Gardens are open to the public on Sundays from 10 a. swimming pool. (guided tours only)..-:'. . tools.33A ~ WEEKEND !_R_IP __ Information Card 1 ._. .'.. _ Oldfield has a museum with a lot of old farm machines.There is a sports day at Stinkton on Saturday. to 4 p.m.Little Bampton is a very picturesque village with a fine old church.00.. Gloster.0 foctory hotel clwrcn disco bo"t hire I I I I I I ·'6~ be<llAty spot '" 152 © Cambridge University Press 1984 © Cambridge University Press 1984 153 .Tickets for the safari park cost £5. . a fair. 33B --=l---.

sometimes made from bags. The group word: A part of the body..-~s~~..da-.. I L I I I ---I _______________________ 1 There are different plogs for all kinds of material: Wire..-. 2 A hot drink. 2 You cannot . ----------------ousewives never touch plogs. -----------------------------.. -~~~~~~~~lg~~~?~~i9hi-h~d. 2 In the sky at night.. not an apple.---------I Group 3 Find these words: 1 Jingle Bells. Make a word from the first letters of these words. a . tailors and halrdres~e~s-----ne~~!:!I~g_:.... birthday' to you.---..b. The group word: A preposition.I~gS-at. The group word: A preposition. big and bright. --. 2 He delivers letters.::-Pl~g~. Plogs are not seen very often..cloth. --II I -- I ----------------------- You use plogs to make small pieces outofa big piece.--- 1-------.--- ----- ____ ... paper. \ one pair of plogs in every family.. Group 5 Find these words: 1 When you ask a question you usually get an .... The group word: It gives you light.. The group word: A piece of furniture. 2 Between two mountains. milk or tea. 4 Number between ten and twelve.P f_~h_a~~~e_~I~=~ : What are plogs? --------------------------------~------------------------\ What are plogs? L _ I V~ What are ~-.~.. You need plogs in the garden.... o. 3 If you have lots of money you are . I Make a word from the first leiters of these I I words. 3 You write with it. 3 You do it on horses and bicycles. Clementine and Old MacDonald are ..d-----:-YO-. : I I I .._ Plogs can be opened and shut. H . ------------------------~------------------------Plogs are about one metre long. and a spoon for eating.Y. 4 When two cars crash into I each other. they have an . Most plogs have two holes. I I _______ Most plogs have sharp points.o~. Plogs do not burn.. 3 The first word in a letter. I Make a word from the first letters of I these words. :-. Make a word from the first letters of these words. ---------..-----------1-. Make a word from the first letters of these words. 4 You are called by it. I 5 The time from noon till evening.f~~rthey break. Group 2 Find these words: 1 A big animal with grey skin and a trunk.ern countries there IS at least co I umn are wrong...35 37 Information search (FO r the teacher The eight statements following the questions in the right-hand JIGSAW _ Group 1 Find these words: 1 You do it when you are tired. You need plogs for sewing. Plogs are scissors}. 20 centimetres long.-- ~-----------------------~----Ordinary plogs are about : ~:~~~ are special plogs for beauty ______________________ I I I I You can hurt people With plogs. Plogs are hard and ~o~~e~~ . cake alP and chocolate...____ ______ ----_-----1 Group 7 Find these words: 1 Something that is not easy is . When you drop ~1~9~~~t~~.--- Group 6 Find these words: 1 A fruit and a colour. ----~------ I I I I I Group 4 Find these words: 1 Not young but .~g~ ~_. :. I GUESSING ~~~:s~ ~~~~ ~~~~~:~~_e~~ There are many kinds of plogs. Make a word from the first letters of these words.. -. -------------------------~---------- ___ _________ J : Surgeons. 4 Last word in a letter to a good friend..y-----on your hands it doesn't hurt.. _____________________________ In west.o...apples. 3 Kangaroos and koalas live there.. : s.---Plogs make good toys for young children.. ---T-if.. I I I The group word: A kind of 2 You need a fork.k~r~~------New plogs are sharp. ___________ I I ----------i--- I i Plogshavetwopartswhichare screwed together..------------I I I ---------------~---------~--------------------You can hold plogs in one hand.. bread... but you can ..-. I I I r-----------------------------I I I I I I I I I ------------t-----------------------: Plogs smell nice... 154 © Cambridge University Press 1984 © Cambridge University Press 1984 155 .-. 4 If it was your birthday today people would say '. 3 A kind of fruit. ------------------------+----------- i I I I . --------------------------~ ---------- The group word: A period of time.. Make a word from the first letters of these words.----- Plogs are useful. 2 Something that is not old is ..... I 4 If you do not dislike something you .-.h~~~r~.. 4 Everything has a beginning and an . 3 They were in North America before the Europeans came.----------------0 ----------------------------~----------------It IS dangerous for children to I What are ploqs? use plogs..-I I I ------------.~b-..

"'.) uopsano ~---------------------+--------------------------r-------------------------What would you give ! If somebody gave you i What kind of weather me as a birthday : £50 what would you : do you like best? present? ! ! _______________________ . -. A -._i do with it? +. -' -------------------------1------------------------What would you like to: change in your life? Which human quality do you consider the : most important? What is the most important thing in the upbringing of children? What kind of animal would you like to be? Why? t ! Where would you like : to be right now? Why? ! i What gives you pleasure? I i ! i i What would you like to achieve within the coming year? 156 © Cambridge University Press 1984 © Cambridge University Press 1984 157 .y / D I I I / 0 \ \1 I E B E Sp.l"e.38 40 Getting it together \ Question gome / / / /'J \ \ \ E \ I I I I I -. Question Cards -.

------------------------~--------------------------: : who knows what a kiwi is and where I it lives.-. I Find out I who has more than 100 books . -----------------Find out who likes classical music. --------------------------{--------------------------- -------------------------~------------------------Find out I Find out who usually sings in the bath. . . I whose name has more than twenty letters. . Durham has got a driving licence likes liquorice wears socks in bed knows what lads and lasses are can hum the tune of 'Yankee Doodle' dreams about flying collects something believes in reincarnation rolls their own cigarettes can tell you a joke in English likes working in the garden has got a three-speed bicycle "vas born on a Sunday believes in ghosts has flown in a helicopter or a glider can speak another language apart from English and their own language goes jogging ------------------------~-----------------------Find out i Find out -------------------------~-------------------------Find out who can knit. .. Gloucester. 158 © Cambridge University Press 1984 © Cambridge University Press 1984 159 . . who has more than one first name.-who knows the capitals of Australia and New Zealand. -1. . . . . . who likes to get up early. -- - -- -------- ------ ---------------------------.--------------------------: I I : Find out who writes poems. ----------------------------+----------------------------Find out who can sew on buttons and darn socks. . I who likes horror films. . Carlisle._w~~ :~n _d~~C~ ~~ ~~~o. I 1 Find out who reads a daily paper. : L : I I I Find out who can repair a flat tyre on a bicycle.:_ Find out : who has been on a walking holiday.-------------- ------------------------4------------------------Find out who has been to London. .----------Find out who has an unusual hobby.-- musical instrument.--. . . Find out who keeps a diary. . I who can sing 'Auld Lang Syne'.. . . Find out who is able to use a washing-machine. . : I who does not watch TV for more than two hours a week. .. I who can cook a really good meal. . . Find out who belongs to a club. --------------------------1-------------------------Find out I Find out ---------------------------. . I Find out who would like to be 10 years old again. . Find out who collects something unusual. Find out who works for a charity. -------------------------~------------------------Find out : Find out who has had a holiday job. - --------:---- Find out who can playa . Find out who has tea for breakfast. .--------------------------Find out : Find out I I who likes spinach. I I likes doing jigsaw puzzles likes to have very hot baths reads more than one book a week can tell you three meanings for [rem] has been to Scotland can tell you which language the word cymru is taken from can recite the alphabet in under 10 seconds owns a pet with four legs has got more than three brothers or sisters is wearing something purple has played this game before pronounces these English towns correctly: Worcester. . --Find~Ci -- -- -- . . . . _ .41 Go and find out Find out ~~~O_I~~S _s~i~e~s~f~:'S ~~d_ b_:~t~~ ~-Fi-n-d-o-u-t-------------' 42 chews chewing gum _ .----- --i-Fi~d-o~t---1 I .

.. What do you think? Would you like to do more or less? I I I I I I I I I KEEPING FIT Talk with your partner about keeping fit Answer his question then go on. Brisbane. 4 Which would you most like to improve? your looks your attitude to work your social life your interest in current affairs 0 your relations with your family o o o o o o 160 © Cambridge University Press 1984 © Cambridge University Press 1984 161 .arrived 30. Perth.45 46 Read the questions and answers below carefully. emu. iron ore. coal. Question and answer cards A Ask your partner questions about Australia: about its size about its wildlife about its native people Big cities: Sydney. e. and so on. I I I 5 What would you like to take a course in? transcendental meditation basket weaving practical mathematics beauty care a foreign language o Flag: o o o o o Natural resources: uranium.. ? Go on in this way...000 years ago. 1 2 3 4 Do you think it is important to keep fit? Why? What about you? B 3 In which way do you learn best? by reading things out loud by having the radio on while you work 0 by repetition 0 by discussing things with someone else 0 by making a lot of notes o o I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I / I I 5 6 . Start like this: 1 What do you do about keeping fit? 2 3 4 5 6 Go on in this way.p A 7 Which would you most like to have? 0 one or two very close friends 0 a large number of acquaintances 0 five or six good friends 0 just one friend 0 both good friends and many acquaintances 8 Which is the quality your friends like most in you? your honesty your cheerfulness and good humour 0 your reliability 0 your willingness to listen and to help 0 your-generosity ~ KEEPING FIT Talk with your partner about keeping fit.m. lived in harmony with the land. poverty. Melbourne. Size: as big as Brazil Wildlife: lots of animals not found elsewhere. Adelaide. koala. Give number 1 to the answer that applies to you most of all. kangaroo. Rank all the answers to each question from 1 to 5. many tribes. Which would you least like to do tonight? go to the cinema and see a western 0 listen to a Haydn symphony 0 play Monopoly with friends 0 mend clothes 0 go to bed at 8p.g. number 2 to the second most applicable. Today: discrimination. Number 5 should always be the answer you least agree with. Darwin B Here are the answers to your partner's questions: Native people of Australia: Aborigines . copper I I I I I I Ask your partner questions about Australia: about the flag about natural resources about big cities 6 Which would you like to have a lot of money for? to travel a lot to be independent to buy things you like to spend freely on food and drink 0 to help others in need 2 What would make you most uneasy? somebody praising you in front of others 0 being in a large crowd 0 meeting a new girlfriend's or boyfriend's parents for the first time 0 people laughing at you 0 seeing somebody cry o o o o o ~-----------------------------~~----------------------------~ o.

Unfortunately the delegation will only be in your area for three days and you cannot show them everything. Write the number in both boxes. From the following list select ten places that the delegation should go and see and put them in order of importance.m- 48 I 49 Why go to school? Number these reasons in their order of importance from 1 (most important reason) to 12 (least important reason). GUIDE Imagine that you have to work out a guided tour for a foreign delegation visiting your country. give them a balanced impression of your people and country. a hospital a home for mentally handicapped children a coal mine a nice pub a nuclear power station a cemetery an art gallery a botanical garden some examples of modern architecture a shopping precinct a football stadium a farm a safa ri pa rk a poor housing area a TV studio a town hall a secondary school a historical museum a medieval castle a university an airport a water reservoi r a steel factory a natu re reserve D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D I to acquire general knowledge to prepare for a job to meet other young people to train one's memory to learn something about subjects one will not deal with again later to find out what one is really interested in to give one's parents some peace and quiet to test one's intelligence to learn how to study and work with books to have a good time to be kept dependent to learn discipline and order Check I I I I I I ~ 162 © Cambridge University Press 1984 © Cambridge University Press 1984 163 . You want to show them places that you feel will .

needs a bigger flat.a Apply to lindon BoroughCouncil. no experience in working with old people. no youth c l uhj w idea pr-ead va c. marriage problems. would like a house. would like half-time job.7.a.i qh-c-i s e rje rs r high Lnc l dence of t. very interested in political work. Sue and Mike Darrell. likes working evenings. cheerful personality. spends more than he earns. © Cambridge University Press 1984 © Cambridge University Press 1984 165 .uare one of the crew on board a spaceship to rendezvous with the mother ship on the lighted side of the moon. would like to share the job because of the children.lalisl:t.O. a bit short-tempered. Fn i r-v i ew Counc I 1 Es tn te built l'. no car. box of matches concentrated food 20 metres of nylon rope parachute silk portable heating unit two .ome 300 kilometres from the rendezvous point. secondary modern e chcc l .000 p.E-72.lindon.a. Your task is to rank them in order of their importance to your crew in your attempt to reach the rendezvous point.Someeveningand weekend work. suffered from alcoholism. T APPLICANTS Freda Hastings. many h. Robert Ludlow. The 15 Items left Intact after landing are listed below. Write number 1 for the most important item. 23 Single. 2 children aged 8 and 6. barman and night watchman before training as a social worker 10 years ago. however. Salary£. just finished training as a social worker. Mechanical difficulties. to work in FaiNiew Estate. 35 Divorced. do not want to work weekends.H. no employment in the last eight years. very strict with children and youngsters.r-unnc y nnd juvco l Le do l Lnquenc y .:. t wo primary s choc l s . went to work in Africa for six years after training. 28 and 32 Married.000 each p. 49 Married.Needscar. wants to make a new start. Council flat available. have forced your ship to crashland at a spot s. both trained social workers. number 2 for the second most important item.4 and 1. n-. cannot work evenings or weekends. has a car. not many friends.Box 106. some experience in running a youth club. and so on through to number 15. no car. now cured after therapy. and you have to c. trip. will not accept any job for less than £4. wants £7. Harold Winter.. has had five jobs in the last four years. bad health. The rough landing has damaged much of the equipment aboard. trained as a social worker 10 years ago. most essential items for the 300 km.hoose the. worked as lorry driver. P. likes children. 3 children aged 6.200 p. insecure personality. has a motorbike.45 calibre pistols one case of tins of dried milk two 50 kilo tanks of oxygen star map life raft magnetic compass 20 litres of water signal flares first-aid kit solar-powered FM receiver/transmitter 164 WANTED experienced SOCIAL WORKER Preferably full-time. l nr-qn pro pcr-t i cn of o l d-cme pens i oner-s i one pub. Lar-ue number' or one-parent fnmilies. gets on well with older people. Your survival depends on reaching the mother ship.51 53 Y. no children.

laughed harder than ever. answer without opening his mouth. can you?" the Bear demanded. "Now. With his nose still pointing upward. "Won't the other animals be surprised when they hear old Osmo has caught a grouse?" He was very proud of his feat and he wanted all the world to know of it. hoping Mikko would see the grouse. "Not from the south. If I'd had the grouse in my mouth and you'd asked me about the wind. of course." he thought to himself.56 63 \ GOOD TEACHER keeps in contact ~it. "Why did you open your mouth then?" "Well.parents of his or her pupils an. "What had I to do with it?" "You kept asking me about the wind until I opened my mouth that's what you did!" The Fox shrugged his shoulders. Mikko. don't blame me. he began parading it up and down the forest paths. Osmo? Which way is the wind blowing to-day? Can you tell me?" Osmo could not. growing more impatient every moment. He at once saw that Osmo was showing off.h the . Then he clenched his teeth together and said "EAST"! o o o o o o o o o o 166 A good teacher lets the students share his or her own life with all its ups and downs works hard to remain up-to-date in his or her subject openly admits when he or she has made a mistake or does not know something is i~terested in his or her students. "Pretty good. Instead he pointed his nose upward and sniffed. "It seems to be from the south.' he thought "They won't be so ready to call me awkward and lumbering after this!" Presently Mikko the Fox sauntered by. "Ah. while Osmo the Bear was prowling about the forest. you say? Then which way is it blowing?" By this time the Bear was so cross with Mikko. "Urn! urn!" grunted Osmo. he caught a grouse. So he pretended not to see the grouse at all. "You've made me lose my nice plump grouse!" "I?" said Mikko. trying to attract attention to himself. "See here. and understand why he couldn't speak. I'd never have said 'north'!" "What would you have said?" asked the Bear. equipment and teaching methods and attempts to make his or her lessons interesting helps the students become independent and organise their own learning © Cambridge University Press 1984 167 . you can't say 'north' without opening your mouth." said he. see what you've done!" he stormed angrily. The Fox laughed and laughed. and roared out. But the Fox didn't glance at him at all.d lets them participate In the life of the school (in a primary or secondary school) is able to maintain discipline and order Shrinking story THE BEAR SAYS NORTH (Finnish Folk Tale) ONE DAY. holding the grouse carefully in his teeth without hurting it. he kept sniffing the air. so he grunted. he forgot all about his grouse. "They'll certainly envy me this nice plump grouse. he just opened his mouth. Blame yourself. "North!" Of course the moment he opened his mouth the grouse flew away." said Mikko in an offhand way. and he made up his mind the Bear should not get the admiration he wanted. asks them about their homes and tries to help where possible makes the students work hard and sets high standards is friendly and helpful to his or her colleagues uses ~ lot of different materials. Osmo. "It is from the south. "is that you. isn't it Osmo?" "Urn! urn!" repeated Osmo. the rascal. So.

q -.~o '" ... :< OJ" "0 What evidence? There are fifteen tables in this room.. Children like ice cream. ~o~ . Today Next week Next year My lifetime My children's lifetime :.Q i:j~ >..cO OJ" "0 Violence on TV makes people more aggressive. Girls are better storytellers than boys.. A car is more expensive than a bicycle.. - 168 © Cambridge University Press 1984 © Cambridge University Press 1984 169 .:....8 . :.s OJ >.. Maud will never be able to sing in tune...0 :.8 -.g :. TIME--.q "E. TIME----111.~-6 '" ." c: C ....65 70 FUTURES .'E ~ H and Now erl Cacti grow better in sunlight than in the shade...:.'E :...u :.." c: C '" . :< .. >.. ~~. >... Hiroshima was destroyed in 1945.. Pop music is horrible..Q i:j~ >.u :..cO .0 :.. Life is hard. Rachel is intelligent.. Peter is conservative...s OJ >. ~ Here and Now / Today Next week Next year My lifetime My children's lifetime There are a hundred centimetres in one metre. Men are better cooks than women.. - ... Spiders have eight legs.

74 78 Aims in life NEXT YEAR areas ( ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) ) NEXT 5 YEARS ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( trtu:el ) ) ) ) job family friends hobby ) ) partner ( ( ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) NEXT 30 YEARS possessions) appearance) qualifications ( ( ( learning lifestyle : : : ) ) ) Cambridge University Press 1984 the urorld Wheel 170 ( © © Cambridge University Press 1984 .

You will learn how to accept old age and lead an interesting and fulfilling life after 60. a photographer or a draughts man. 10 Pop Ular He will make you popular with lots of people. Tiful She is an expert in cosmetic surgery and will help you to achieve the appearance you have always dreamed of. 6 A. Your art will be talked about and bought by the world's leading museums. Your 5 Robinson Crusoe He is a specialist in adventures and exciting trips to foreign countries. L. Wright Learn how to be optimistic. Whatever you do you will be well-known We can learn a lot from the past. Clever He will help you become very intelligent. She will help you become full of ideas for every situation in your life and your job as well as your hobbies and family life. People can be changed by education. Ther She will help you with your family life. 11 M. Develop your artistic abilities. 15/. Proverbs true. K. Sight She will give you self-knowledge 14 O. You will always have a lot of friends. Q. life will be dangerous but never boring. 4 Prof. Art Iste will help you become a good painter or SCUlptor. U. N. I. People who tell lies steal as well. always see a good point. 1 Claire Voyant Everything you want to know about the future will be answered by her and she will train you to become a clairvoyant as well. Dear She is an expert on originality. For every problem there is only one correct solution. It's never too late. Even in the most depressing situation you will Think before you act. Where there's there's a will a way. It will be very happy and satisfying.80 82 Values continuum Agree strongly Beating children is sometimes necessary. You will never be Agree somewhat Neither agree nor Disagree Disagree disagree somewhat strongly 3 Dr B. Work He will help you find the job which is right for you. She can even alter your height and shape. Success is guaranteed for their methods. N ever fight against things you cannot change by yourself. famous. an expert at making money. are usually 7 B. 1 3 I. With his help you will find the right partner. 1 2 St Valentine He is an expert on love. 2 Jack Goldrich He will help you to become poor again. Everybody is different. 9 Art Iste Modern problems cannot be solved by old methods. 0. L. Miracle workers A group of 15 experts are offering their services. 172 © Cambridge University Press 1984 © Cambridge University Press 1984 173 . Oldcastle She is the expert on growing old. SAlex Fame He will help you to become everywhere. and insight into your own personality.

. . . .j dJ!U e S5U!UaAi3 ~ isaq . .. .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .'.. . .. . . . ."""""". . . . ". . . .. . . . . .. ..cJ. . . . . . . I find it difficult to ~jj'l and less". . . . . . . . . .\ iuasaid F"I~~. .. . . . . . ."""""""'" your ideas about the ideal wile or husband your feelings about smoking :::: " .". . . . . .. .. . . ". . . . .. . . . . ... . .{ A. . . . . .". . .. . . . ."'. . . . ." I'd like to be more"".". . . . . On Saturdays I usually """"""""""""""""""""""'" I feel best when people """"""""""""""""""""""" I'd like to spend a long holiday in """""""""""""""""'" I wish politicians would """"""""""""""""""""""" ue I have never. .""""'. . . . .83 86 VAlUES UNfiNisHEd SENTENCES U! palSi3Ji31U! all? no. . . . . . . .. .. . ... . . . . Some day I am going to . . ... ."""""""""" .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . I like people who """""""""""""""""""""""""" I get very angry if. . . . . . .. . . . .unJU~Mp1? If I had 24 hours to live. . . . . .. . . .. ."."'" I am not interested in """"""'.." a game you like playing how you get to school work 174 © Cambridge University Press 1984 © Cambridge University Press 1984 175 . . . . . .. . .. .... . .... .. ... . . .. . . . .. . .. . . .. .. . . . . . ...~!1no" UOSEas i3lfl ~Jd"l'\ alfl U! op nol: l"qM The funniest thing I ever saw was """""""""""""""""" . . . . . . . . . .. '" ""...""" Studying is """"". Parents should always """"""""""""""""""""""'" My children will """""""""""""""""""""""""'" This world would be a better place if . . ." ". . . . . . . . . . . . ..nunoo e Topics uaNO nc). . . . . . . .. .. . .. . . .. . I'd".. . . . . . .. . . . . .. .. . ._ . . . . ... . . .. . . . . . ..."'" If I could be somewhere else now. .. . . . . . .... . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . The thing that worries me most is """""""""""""""""" I never worry about . .. . .. . . . . . .. . . .



Mary Taylor, 35, housewife (physics and maths teacher) would like to go back to teaching, feels unfulfilled at home, has an offer of a job in a nearby school; a friend of hers is a teacher there.

You are Susan Munden, a 35 year-old teacher on a hiking trip in the Scottish Highlands with a group of seven pupils, three boys and four girls aged between 13 and 16. You are carrying your own food and tents. You have planned to be out of contact with other people for a whole week and are expected on Sunday at a small village on the Scottish west coast where you will be picked up by a bus. Today is Thursday. It has been raining steadily since Tuesday night and everyone is wet and cold. You know that you have not come as farasyou should have done by this time, and you start feeling anxious about getting to the meeting point on Sunday. During the morning a dense fog starts coming down, and within half an hour the mountains and the path are covered in thick fog. You have to walk by compass now, which slows the group down even further. At lunchtime two boys and two girls start complaining about stomach pains, diarrhoea and feeling sick. You suspect that some of the water you took from mountain streams may have been contaminated. In the afternoon they feel worse and can only walk very slowly. While climbing down a steep hillside the youngest girl, Rosie, stumbles and falls. She cannot get up. Her leg is broken. You set up camp and

discuss with your group what is to be done. You are in a valley between two mountain ridges. The nearest road is about 15 kilometres away as the crow flies, but there is no path across the mountains and the moor is beyond them. There is no bridge across the river, and with all the rain of the last few days it may be too deep to wade across. About 5 kilometres back the way you have come, a relatively easy path turns off which takes you to a lake and a fisherman's hut about 30 kilometres away. However, you do not know whether anybody lives in the hut or whether it has a phone. The next village is about 40 kilometres away. About 10 kilometres back the way you have come there is a small forest where you could find some firewood. You have enough food till Sunday and there are mountain streams nearby. You also have camping gas cookers and enough gas for three hot drinks and two warm meals a day, but there is no firewood. The only people who can read a map and use a compass, apart from you, are one of the sick boys and Fiona, the oldest girl (she is feeling all right). Rosie is in a lot of pain and needs a doctor soon.

Mark Taylor, 40, architect, is understanding, does not mind Mary working, has a demanding job, no time or desire to help in the house, feels that Mary might have forgotten a lot about her subjects.




Moira Taylor, 8, at school, is afraid her mother will have less time for her when working; would like a brother or sister.



Margaret Taylor, 68, widow. Mark's mother, runs a bookshop, has been working all her life, supports Mary, lives far away.






-~-------------------------r---------------------------Frank and Elizabeth Martin. 70 and 58, Mary's parents, retired postman and housewife, both very much against Mary going back to work, feel both Moira and Mark would suffer, think Mary has everything she needs, live in the next street, come and see their daughter very often. Gordon Parsons, 45, headmaster of the school, thinks women cannot be good mathematicians, but thinks women are good at classroom management, desperately needs a physics and maths teacher for his school. feels that Mary is a bit shy and may not know about the latest developments in her subjects.
What can you do? Think of all the possible courses of action and decide on the best one. Give reasons fer your choice.






Cambridge University Press 1984


Cambridge University Press 1984




Be Your Own

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Cambridge University Press 1984


Cambridge University Press 1984




Friendl~ Biscuits Inc.
You know that: Ron Preedy is on the board of directors. he has an allfemale staff. A Philippa Gordon is personal assistant to one of the other directors. John Martin is the only male secretary, but he does not work together with the male typist. .

The dog owner drinks beer.


Miss Dudd owns a dog. ~~----------------------------------- - ------------ ----The woman at No.1 2 has two pets; a tortoise and a rabbit.

r-~------------------------You know that: There are three directors, a personal assistant, secretary and typist for each director. B All in all there are four men and eight women. The personal assistants are Mary Hill, Angela Woodhouse and Philippa Gordon.


Mrs Evans is married. ------- -------- - -------- ------------- -------- -----------Mr Abraham is a widower; his neighbour is divorced. The married woman reads thrillers. The woman who likes coffee does not own a pet. No. 18 is the only house without a pet. There arefive pets in BakerStreet;a cat,a dog, a canary,a rabbitandatortoise.

--~---------------------------------------------------You know that: Only one of the typists and one of the secretaries is a man. C The male secretary works for Angela Woodhouse, is assistant to Brenda Pilot. Sheila Rogers is not Philippa Gordon's typist. who
. ,!

The bachelor likes historical novels.

Mr Abraham cannot read, he watches Tv,

The widower and the spinster like beer.




Mrs Birt likes to read books by Charles Dickens. The whisky drinker owns a canary. The dog owner living next door to the bachelor is keen on love stories. Mr Charles lives between Miss Dudd and Mrs Birt. The married woman drinks wine. The pet at No. 14 is a dog.

-~----------------------------------------------------You know that: Christina Stead is the only typist working for a male secretary. D Director David Parsons is quite content both with Roger Haldane as typist and Jean Carter as secretary. Carole Ward would rather work for Angela Woodhouse. Her typist Sheila Rogers cannot understand that.







Mr Abraham lives at No. 20. The dog owner and the cat owner do not live next to each other.



Cambridge University Press 1984


Cambridge University Press 1984


Dear Mar}. for no one can keep up a pretence of love for long. I cannot accept their reasoning that it would be for the good of the child. there really isn't much hope either. he agrees with your point of view. . though I'm fond of him. / enjoy his company and have always resarded him as a good friend. Now' mv hl!sband's job is taking him up Sarti! for SIX weeks and I can't bear the thouvht of being on my own. Dear Mary. /t is very nice.11 upset you. I don't want to be left on the shelf My mother says love grows if you marry someone who is good to you. (Miss R.mind your own business. c We feel for the protection of the girl that we should complain to the general manager. He's 2. but I'm not. Do you think she's right? Miss P. You'd be far better off unwed than married to a man who might bore you or irritate you or even repel you. ~vnen will people accept a more liberal outlook on life? (Ms K O'M) Two-timer Dear Mar): We work in the typing pool of a large London store and are verv concerned for the welfare of one of ourvouns colleagues.unmarried. " She is only 1. But we wouldn't like anybody to get the sack (Four Worried Typists) I don't want to be alone 8 ell} o I think she could be right but Iwouldn't take any bets on it. • I hl. But / have no intention of even contemp_lating marriage for years yet.9. I married my first and only boyfriend We now have two lovely children and my husband is good and kind I should be happy. I am now pregnant and having a dreadful time with my family because they C?re trying to pressure us into getting married. w. o (Mrs T. and has become very friendly with a young man who works in one of the departments' of the store. 182 © Cambridge University Press 1984 Cambridge University Press 1984 183 . And he Isn't successful enough or rich enough to be the man I would choose. But lately he has talked of marriage. I feel that life is passing me by and that I married too young.but he's bound to get the message.. then you are going to face a heap of problems.and he was willing to wed you as a last resort. But provided you are sensible it will pass.. Imagine how you'd feel ifthe position was reversed . Now he has asked me to marry him and I suppose I would be mad to refuse. But I hope that when your child is old enough to think for himself. but I wouldn't bet on it. Why don't you show a little enterprise and get out of your village? There's a big world waiting outside. He seems to assume that I am 'serious about him and will eventually settle down in some dull little semi in the suburbs. Suffol/? I'm restless 1048 e(l} Dear Mary. when I was 24. Be straightforward with him now.9 and I'm 26. . / have been married for just ocer a year. c He has been very good to me and bought me anything / have asked for. you are entitled to live as vou think fit. If he doesn't. I recently broke up with a man I loved and he married another girl I have been going out with someone else ever since. and act as if we are not there. I don't want to hurt him or frighten him off because he does give me a good time. By the time the baby is of school age. ichisper. and I don't mean another man. don't let him know the parting \\. I live in a small village so I'm unlikely to get another chance. / have been tioing uiith my boyfriend for two years. The girl is old enough to know what she is doing.IVebeen seeing a young man once or tuuce a week for the past year. If it's important to his job that he should work away from home for a few weeks. Think of him for once rather than of yourself and what you might be missing out on if he never saw you again.marriage will be a thing of the past anyway. but we have made very few friends. I suppose it is difficult to tell a man who obviously loves you that all you want from him is what you can grab. Of course. Wouldn't you resent it? Maybe you think he'll never realise the reason you accepted him. You are not a fool and you know that sooner or later you are going to hurt him badly. Six years ago.·aI·from' both our families.104A Will marriage bring love? Dear Mary. But I don't love him. and not my future husband. McC) • • • e My advice is simple . £) • © to me as if you need a new interest. And I am now building a fantasy world around a friend's husband. Why not find yourself a job to keep you occupied? You can keep in touch with him by telephone. We were lucky enouah to buv a house although we had to ':nove au. I suppose I should be ashamed Can you help me? (Mrs R. Passionate love can overcome the minor irritations and often even the major ones. H'e know that he is engaged to a vir! who lives near him. e You may be right about marriage being a thing of the past in a few years.) G It sounds Dear Mary. But how can I get over to him that I am only prepared to allow him to be in mv company. It's pretty insulting to marry a man just because you're afraid no one else will ask you. Evervbodv starts feeling restless now and again. And I certainly wouldn't bet on the success of a marriage that's based on the fear of never getting another chance. He pops into the typing pool to see her and they hold hands. J. Where there's no love.

----------------- ---------- ---------. Pepe feels the same. It's called your rongue. open your mouth and look closely at the little pink object behind your lips. --------------------. It is very . You nng him or her up. You are Nick/Nicky .------------- You are Ricky A You are in the kitchen baking a cake as a surprise for your parents.----------- --------------- ~----------------------------------------------~ANSWERS Dear Hesitating. A You are studying for an important exam next week and are Jus.105 111 [P)u@[b)~®m [P)@~®«~] LETTERS You are Robin A You are in a hurry because you are going out in half an h~ur and want to wash and dry your hair beforehand. Your parents will be home in two hours. Dear Mary. You don't sound as if you have enough nerve to approach a puff of thistledown and that's what must be in your brain-box if you're content to carry on this way. 184 © Cambridge University Press 1984 © Cambridge University Press 1984 185 . You ring up your friend Robin. Your phone nngs. And you really would like to tell the young man or girl. I suggest you peer in the mirror. You are really eager to tell your friend all about it so you ring her or him up. --- _- ------ ---------- -------- - ------------- -- --------- You are Mrs Fletcher B You are 75 years old and have sprained your ankle. You went to a log cabin on a lonely lake With some other students.t struggling with a difficult book. We're both Catholic. and on my dad's passport. it won't matter if you have to wait a while before you are able to go back to him. I'm also interested in a girl I see at work and another one I meet at the bus stop. There you did your own cooking. Please don't think it's infatuation 'cos it's not. Mary.who lives on the top floor in your building all about your fall. Mary (Liverpool) ~~-----------------------------------------------------------You are Francis/Frances B You and your boy or girlfriend have just split up and you. but I can't on my own as I'm 16. desperately need someone to talk to. You need someone to do some shopping for you. I suggest you discuss the whole matter with your parents and then perhaps you could arrange with Pepe that he comes over and visits you and your family this summer so that you can really get to know each other again. but though she fascinates me I have never plucked up enough courage to speak to her.------------- --------- ---------- --------------- You are Gene/Jean . lots of sports and had a party every night. The trouble is that now I'm back home just writing to Pepe isn't enough. The phone rings. You know you have to go back to your book quickly so as not to forget what you worked out. Until you start using it you'll never get a girlfriend. . So shy This girl has lived in our neighbourhood for five years. In fact there are lots of attractive girls in my vicinity. I want to go back to him. I was very fed up at the time and I met and fell in love with a waiter from another hotel. If you really love Pepe. B You have just come home from the most fantastic weeken~ trip you have ever had. Why haven't I enough nerve to approach them? Hesitating Holiday romance Earlier this year I went with my parents to Majorca for a holiday. When you think that you have Just worked out what one chapter means the phone rings. --------. It's really love and it's changed my whole life. difficult for you to walk.

e..\o.e.\S J\\omi(\"1 I wQ.ra-\~nt -to I:. Ought we to reply? Ny Oh11 v i ew is that indeed :.. Is this it chance to put a hrake on it or stop it nltorrether? l f\obod~ a1\SW~r'O t'ne ..1<.'n. 0nc.I\\~ .oo.0 Sol'1eChll-~ a b.\~ ""~ \::.OMorrovJ.. lV\ol'\€.\.tab6T\ t'nE!~ af"e. ""':) "ass \"Crt: I ""':) ·lnkrra.l\~f\'I: '2lel:. Ala .&1< to US \.~.nd staMI's. 1~ -furious that I hacin't ?ut..t knew w'n~fe. ~ost offICe. '\YU SI2..\......\. 1\ I \::.-Ie.aridar-rf s .. was tOfh . Ii fElEIiRA s I\e.d:lk. e. has little or no value. farm' about 20 k i lometres a\.30U Know what n~s n<1\. '. Some of them n r-e lee en to melee two visits .hie{ has fT"0bab\') c. Wti<Jht (FOn"\ Mlil'i and Dad.:.r-e ?o\ic.f"Lot.r~ 1:0 0..e.r~ \. RoMo has 122 LETTERS Denr As l'art of our. we have to sav it again. This country is going from bad to worse.. G<. awa'.. BJc. The students are qe t t.e \:'\. And they should be made to learn about the past.o.\0.'ue.funds are nvn i Lub Le for these t..~ ·'5 cne.. L\:~ to a t I'ac tor... Love Mi~J2. or 'now I'LL 5\.\e. st-o\e.o0"tr~.r'n"'I'~ -at 'che :.. AUl\h·e Ma~ but.0 be.o""orrOvJ.. 4W I hied to n·r19 '::Iou e~rlier 'tOd8\. \Yi. But it is very important indeed that children should be made to learn the traditional school subjects.. ar Pn"~ll'al.d~ as ~os5ib\e care of the Mail'\. Onlv then will they have the courage to face' the present.ol. 'c~ c. or whatever the latestjargon is. 'oorroWe. But one cause is definitely our schools. \:'Ylrou~h -tor ser-ve reason..)<.. Monel::) -\'. The free and easy methods..M M~ c..t w=K. No. o.. but c. Ike t. th Ls school.r've 'JOt lJQ.pof'e.:iUl>t to \. cou\cI.\"~S bad(. Our schools arc letting us down. \Vorst of all." h\Jrrlj_ I 'u \:. The trouble has many causes. the.LJ~r':'l\::"'i"S (r< M~ S\~plfl(y bn~ v..s -are clown anA Dear Pri nci pill t Our wor-k in :·jodern S't ud Lea is qo Lnq very well . the time spent on 'Modem Studies'.el at Il\(lsbruc. I U&ua\\~ ~.. We have lost our influence in the world..\'one. ~\J \.j.\.'c Letting Us Down \Vc have said it before.')O\l ~u~e. The crime rate is soaring.:l.114 Controversy in the school IJ..\f' hav-e seen it? Sounds as if it's a direct reference to some of the Moder-n Studies wor-k n t.3..\\. from: to: re: Deputy Principal Lo ca I press/nodern s tud i ea Pr-Lnc i pa I -a bNle? R.aMera. --rl-tank ~od. lIlow l.h-hiked \:.0 Sab:wr"'J to\:'r<:l and 'Oet SOMe.1. and is a cause or bad behaviour LInd Lowers t..t.F' lc..r-e':3 WQ.aM ~ Do about t:nE:.r':'l hopetul aoout ~e. and pi!]s . f'e. Most ilV\F.\.oT\.. " . -\'Gssfort.1h~tr . Last (\i5'nt in 't:'n~ Youtlr\ l-\osl:.·l~ ClI'\ ad:of" WhO·15 i" a l'\a~ a'c. 'out \:. And the s other to an experimental commune abcu t 50 kilometres away wlrLch specialises in cr-qun i c I'ar-m nq and Low-d mpac t technology.are. \"""ft..vJOrk If' MoGernStudies R""ato '0"'1\ i"J..\e \-\-arr~ Clno.\--.(\'t e-. ".(\t s\:..>.is a ref"~<te froM CI<..r o. 1 wiSh "I hao. fua~~ p~~ase. card.<:~G'Ci"'3 ('Ie ti. . ~\:..e. h'1:c..h Me ao.d out of the c.t. tl\L~ w""k ).. "I o.tqnt {:. Barnt~. {-oad.obe. Wt>v.\e. i Could you please let me lcnow whe t her. Freedom is being worn away...)\J:.. The lack of discipline. M':) ..~r>O. 'l> 'cobr4 r-LM. 186 © Cambridge University Press 1984 © Cambridge University Press 1984 .ll"d. A\.ed \:. o1\e'.M SOIV\I? MOfU!~ as cr. \:.wo visits? I ana inter-r"a\l c. Particularly the past of this great country. T'oe. The government is not respected.Lnq a lot out of it .1. Perhaps '.le.'<1Y to see how valuable protein from third \"~rld countries is being used to fatten up cot .ren'c \le.?€ned.1:0 Meet ~"'""? \{ 00\..t '.~ 5~fI\ I enclose n cu t t i nq from t odayt s local peper-..0 coMe ~f'<i \.\. Television is daily more shocking. he.of\i~\. SOME!..K SOMeone.

Please tell me more about .. C looks like . If A happens X will come. is not possible.. Wrong. That's not . is not as as . I feel that X is right. That could/ may/ might happen.. I'm sure that . ? What makes you feel that . is a much more important than . disagreeing/ contradicting I don't agree. Exactly. asking for reasons Whv? Why do you think that. I think so. expressing interest or illdifference I'm interested in .. . makes me think of . . X put it very well. I think/ feel that . is right because . stating whether something is right or wrong True. ? What do you feel/think about . There is definitely . If A happened X would go. You can't compare with . I'd like to know more about . agreeing/supporting other people's opinions Yes.... X raised some good points. ? defending one's opinion Yes.... I don't think that ........ That's no proof. I feel that . is not very likely . OK. as against ..... that's right. I'm not at all sure if .. .. What you said is really an argument for my point of view... .. .. I . Oh no.. But surely . · . . That's not the point/ question/ problem . · . making conjectures C could be a .. ? Are you sure that .... Perhaps .. making comparisons · . I feel. There are far fewer/not as many arguments for .. · .. and so I think that... That's what I feel.. Absolutely not. sounds interesting. ... .. · ... I'm keen on . . are less important than ... asking for someone's opinion Do you think that .... That's right. · . · . On the contrary. other people's opinions 194 195 .. · ... expressing certainty and uncertainty. I feel .. What X said are the most important .. . I (fully) agree with you. There may be ... That's it exactly. but what I really mean is ... ? giving reasons I think . . I'd like to do something on . are as as .. You can't say that. That's why I feel that . probability and possibility I'm absolutely certain that . · . too... could be . You have to compare with . might... That isn't right..... .. As far as I'm concerned .. too... What I'm trying to say is .. I don't think so..Appendix: list of speech acts Appendix: list of speech acts Expressing and finding out intellectual and emotional attitudes expressing one's opinion I think .

expressing intentions I'm going to . I know. The . Let's start with .. then.. you're right. . What I don't like about is . expressing doubt I can't say if ... ? than . Appendix: list of speech acts giving instructions First put the then ..... I intend to . I've got that..... Move . Getting things done asking someone to do something Would you please . making suggestions What about ? We could and then . It became clear/obvious that ..'v . All right..... . . · .. to the right/left. but I'm still not sure . Do you think that .. goes in here. please. OK.. but . Hold it upright/higher/lower.. It's very doubtful whether .. · . I found out about . Why don't we .. Is that what you mean? Do you want to say .. giving in All right. I'm not at all keen on . stating preferences I'd rather . I suggest that each of us .. What a boring topic..·=c· Appendix: list of speech acts · . doesn't interest me... ? I doubt it. . Stop talking . That's clear now.. didn't you? Do we have to fill everything in? Yes. insisting I have to say again that . Perhaps I was a bit too ...... is the best .. Could you speak up. I have my doubts about that..... You haven't convinced me yet. I don't care... You have to before you can . OK. praising · . What I like best is .. I realised that ...... . this ...... please? Could you say that again. I enjoy .. Don't .. giving confirmation . is the most beautiful . We must keep to the rules.... I didn't understand your last sentence. that's what I meant/wanted to say.. OK. don't you? You said ... a better/more interesting/...... is great/very good/fun/fantastic. When I'm twenty I'll In ten years' time I'll I want to ... expressing likes and dislikes I love/like . I've ever seen .. expressing understanding I see. I prefer to ....... Pardon? asking for confirmation. than .>"'·.. Never . . is/ are great/wonderful/ fantastic/ first rate . I hate/dislike . expressing personal insights I learnt that .. r". I've never .... I take that back.. ? or not to do something 196 197 ... I have to insist on ... You may have a point there.. please. Let me show you. · . ? Could you .. ? Did you say that ? You mean that .. I'd much rather Open the .5.... I didn't hear what you said...

Effective Techlliques for English Conversation Groups.]. Blaney. and M. Rowley. Black. and H. Speech acts for particular situations role play: assigning roles Could you act . . 248-254.' Praxis des neusprachlichen Unterrichts Vol. and A. Peter? Would you like to be .' Foreign Language Annals Vol..' In Burt and Dulay.. C. (1974)..' Special Issue of EL T Documents (77/1). E. Peter? Who'd like to take the part of . Teachillg and Bilingual Education. R. Byrne. Gordon (1978). and F. de Bono. 115-124. Byrne. Snapp (1975). New Directions ill Second Language Learning. I wouldn't know. P talks all the time.4. Communication Games. You re always asking me to write things down/be 1 Bibliography your speaker .Appendix: list of speech acts j complaining B never says anything. 'Adapting human relations training techniques for ESL classes. 'An adaption of group dynamics techniques to foreign language teaching. Well. and S.: Newbury House. London: The British Council. Dulay (eds. E. K. P. ? Which part would you like to take. pp. Rinvolucri (1978). and P.. Walk straight on for . meeting people: introducing someone This is ... 'Interaction activities in the foreign classroom. 202-205.' Psychology Today Vol. E. Aronson. London: Woburn Press. Well. . Games and Simulations ill Action. Phillips (1979). and H. Bratt Paulston.. Can I butt in here? Could you stop here for a moment? Could I question your last point? Before you go on.. Cole. London: Hutchinson.3. No. M. (1973). pp. 353-360. or how to grow a tulip-rose. He/she won't let me see that handout ... (1979). I'd like you to meet . Dixey.' English Language Teaching journal Vol... 'Sprachbezogene und mitteilungsbezogene Kommunikation im Englischunterricht. let me think.) (1975).. J. and H. Burzkarnrn (1977). discussions: interrupting Just a minute .. He's /she's . A. British Council (1977).1 j j I Abbott. S. What Do You Think? London: Longman... . 8.2. Brandes.. simulations and role-playing.. Rixon (1979). Sikes.... 4 No. ELT Guide 1.eps interrupti~g/making silly remarks ... Walk along High Street until you come to . D. London: Longman.' TESOL Quarterly Vol. C.. C. Byrne. Get Up and Do It! London: Longman. Dubin (1975). Mass.. (1976). Sandra. . It's the third street on your left/right. Chamberlin. 24. Teaching Oral English. D. Gamester's Handbook: 140 Games for Teachers and Group Leaders. Davison. 'Games. 204-210. Wright (1974). A ke. and K.. 43-50. pp. pp.. C. M. : 199 198 . D. Blandford: Direct Education Services Ltd. 1975. 33 No. Dobson. pp.. Burt. Stephan and M. CaRT Thinking. 'The jigsaw route to learning and liking. A. pp. Washington: TESOL. Stenberg (1976). Peter? asking the way: giving directions Turn right/left at the next traffic lights.3. giving evasive answers. Brown. D. I can't sav. let me . (1970). N. and W. hesitating I'm not sure. 9 No. Selekman (1976).]. 'Communicative exercises: A problem and a suggested solution. Play and Practise! London: John Murray.

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