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Eventually,all communication from the human network becomes binary digits,which are transported
individually across the physical media.

Concept Questions

1.Bits are represented on the medium by changing one or more of the following characteristics of

a signal:

Amplitude

Frequency

Phase

2.Different physical media support the transfer of bits at different speeds. Data transfer can be
measured in three ways:

Bandwidth

Throughput

Goodput

Vocabulary Exercise: Completion

Fill in the blanks in the following statements.

1.The capacity of a medium to carry data is described as the raw data bandwidthof the media.
Digital bandwidth measures the amount of informationthat can flow from one place to another
in a given amount of time.

2.Throughputis the measure of the transfer of bits across the media over a given period of time.

3.Goodputis the measure of usable data transferred over a given period of time,and is therefore
the measure that is of most interest to network users.

Vocabulary Exercise: Matching

In Table 8-1,match the definition on the right with a term on the left.

Table 8-1

Signaling and Encoding

Term

Definition

a. NRZ signaling

b.Bit values are represented as voltage transitions.

b. Manchester encoding

a.Uses bandwidth inefficiently and is susceptible to electromagnetic
interference. In addition,the boundaries between individual bits can
be lost when long strings of 1s or 0s are transmitted consecutively.

c. 4B/5B

c.Each byte to be transmitted is broken into 4-bit pieces or nibbles and
encoded as 5-bit values known as symbols. These symbols represent
the data to be transmitted and a set of codes that help control trans-
mission on the media.

218Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide

08_583x_ch08.qxd 1/3/08 1:31 PM Page 218

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