Network Fundamentals

,
CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide Instructor Edition
Antoon W. Rufi Priscilla Oppenheimer Belle Woodward Gerlinde Brady

Cisco Press
800 East 96th Street Indianapolis, Indiana 46240 USA

ii

Network Fundamentals, CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide

Network Fundamentals, CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide
Instructor Edition Antoon W. Rufi, Priscilla Oppenheimer, Belle Woodward, and Gerlinde Brady
Copyright© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. Published by: Cisco Press 800 East 96th Street Indianapolis, IN 46240 USA All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without written permission from the publisher, except for the inclusion of brief quotations in a review. Printed in the United States of America First Release January 2008 ISBN-10: 1-58705-583-X ISBN-13: 978-1-58705-583-6

Publisher Paul Boger Associate Publisher Dave Dusthimer Cisco Representative Anthony Wolfenden Cisco Press Program Manager Jeff Brady Executive Editor Mary Beth Ray Production Manager Patrick Kanouse Development Editor Dayna Isley Project Editors Patrick Kanouse Jennifer Gallant Copy Editors Gayle Johnson Keith Cline Technical Editors Cindy G. Layman Michael Duane Taylor Tony Chen Editorial Assistant Vanessa Evans Book and Cover Designer Louisa Adair Composition Mark Shirar Proofreader Leslie Joseph

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Warning and Disclaimer
This book is designed to provide information about the Network Fundamentals course of the Cisco Network Academy CCNA Exploration curriculum. Every effort has been made to make this book as complete and as accurate as possible, but no warranty or fitness is implied. The information is provided on an “as is” basis. The authors, Cisco Press, and Cisco Systems, Inc. shall have neither liability nor responsibility to any person or entity with respect to any loss or damages arising from the information contained in this book or from the use of the discs or programs that may accompany it. The opinions expressed in this book belong to the author and are not necessarily those of Cisco Systems, Inc.

Trademark Acknowledgments
All terms mentioned in this book that are known to be trademarks or service marks have been appropriately capitalized. Cisco Press or Cisco Systems, Inc. cannot attest to the accuracy of this information. Use of a term in this book should not be regarded as affecting the validity of any trademark or service mark.

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Network Fundamentals, CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide

About the Authors
Antoon “Tony” W. Rufi currently is the associate dean of computer and information science for all the ECPI College of Technology campuses. He also teaches the Cisco Networking Academy CCNA, CCNP, Network Security, Fundamentals of Wireless LAN, and IP Telephony curricula. Before becoming an instructor for ECPI, he spent almost 30 years in the U.S. Air Force, working on numerous electronic projects and computer programs. Tony has a master’s degree in information science from the University of Maryland and a bachelor’s degree in industrial technology from Southern Illinois University. Priscilla Oppenheimer is an author and network consultant with more than 25 years of experience in the computer industry. Priscilla has a master’s degree in information science from the University of Michigan and has worked at such big-name companies as Apple Computer and Cisco Systems. She currently teaches at Southern Oregon University and provides network consulting to companies in her hometown of Ashland, Oregon, and elsewhere. Belle Woodward, CCNA, CCAI, CCNP, is an assistant professor in the School of Information Systems and Applied Technologies in the College of Applied Sciences and Arts at Southern Illinois University (SIU) in Carbondale, Illinois. She has more than nine years experience in the networking and network security field. Belle teaches network security, advanced networking, and telecommunications. After redesigning the networking and network security undergraduate curriculum, her students took first place at the 2006 Regional Midwestern Collegiate Cyber Defense Competition (CCDC) and fourth place at the national CCDC. In addition to publishing several journal articles in the network security discipline, Belle has also contributed several chapters included in published network security and networking books. Gerlinde Brady has been teaching Cisco CCNA and CCNP courses at Cabrillo College, a Cisco Regional Networking Academy, since 1999. She holds a master’s degree in education from the University of Hannover, Germany, and a master’s degree in translation (English/German) from the Monterey Institute of International Studies. Her IT industry experience includes LAN design, network administration, technical support, and training.

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About the Technical Reviewers
Cindy G. Layman has been an instructor at Itawamba Community College in Tupelo, Mississippi, for more than 10 years. She has been teaching programming, computer servicing, and networking courses, including the full CCNA curriculum in the Cisco Networking Academy. Cindy has a bachelor of science degree in mathematics and a bachelor of science degree in computer science, both from Mississippi State University. Before teaching at ICC, she was a programmer analyst for nine years. Michael Duane Taylor is department head of computer information sciences at the Raleigh Campus of ECPI College of Technology. He has more than seven years of experience teaching introductory networking and CCNA-level curriculum and was awarded the Instructor of the Year Award. Previously, Michael was a lab supervisor with Global Knowledge working with router hardware configuration and repair. He holds a bachelor’s degree in business administration from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and a master of science degree in industrial technology/computer network management from East Carolina University. His certifications include CCNA, CCNP-router, and MCSE.

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Network Fundamentals, CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide

Dedications
I would like to dedicate this book to my wife, Linda, who is instrumental in getting me to apply myself. Always supportive, she has been the catalyst that has kept me going. —Tony Rufi This book is dedicated to my hard-working students who have inspired me to be a better teacher. — Priscilla Oppenheimer This book is dedicated to my husband, Jeff, and son, Alan, whose tireless support helped see me through another project. —Belle Woodward To my wonderful husband, Paddy, and my daughters Fiona, Teresita, and Ejay, who let me take time away from them to be a part of this project. —Gerlinde Brady

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Acknowledgments
From Tony Rufi: I’d like to give special recognition to Mike Taylor for his diligent approach to tech editing. He has provided a tremendous amount of input to get the technical aspects of this endeavor correct. I have enjoyed working with him. I also want to thank Mary Beth Ray; she has been instrumental in allowing me to pursue the dream of authoring a book. A special thank you to ECPI College of Technology, specifically President Mark Dreyfus, Vice President of Academic Affairs John Olson, and Director of Operations Barbara Larar. Without their support, I would not have been able to write this book. From Priscilla Oppenheimer: I’d like to thank Cisco Press for giving me the opportunity to work on this project. I especially want to thank Mary Beth Ray and Dayna Isley for turning this complex project into a success. Thanks also go to our technical reviewers for their persistence and attention to detail. Finally, I’d like to thank the Cisco Networking Academy for developing courses that inspire students to do amazing things with networks. From Belle Woodward: It has been a great pleasure to be part of such an outstanding group of professionals, and to these people and everyone on the team I extend my heartfelt thanks. Dayna Isley, thanks for all your help and patience. Cindy and Michael, thanks for providing your expert technical knowledge in editing the book. I want to give special recognition to Susanne Ashby, a great friend, who has always been willing to read and edit my work. From Gerlinde Brady: I would like to thank Dayna Isley and Mary Beth Ray for their unending patience. A special thanks goes to the technical editors, Cindy Layman, Mike Taylor, and Tony Chen, for their diligence and expertise.

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Network Fundamentals, CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide

Contents at a Glance
Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Chapter 10 Chapter 11 Living in a Network-Centric World Communicating over the Network 1 33 63

Application Layer Functionality and Protocols OSI Transport Layer OSI Network Layer 91 125 151

Addressing the Network: IPv4 OSI Data Link Layer OSI Physical Layer Ethernet 231 199 217

Planning and Cabling Networks

263 297

Configuring and Testing Your Network

ix Contents Chapter 1 Living in a Network-Centric World Concept Questions 1 2 2 1 1 Communicating in a Network-Centric World Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Concept Questions 2 3 Communication: An Essential Part of Our Lives The Network as a Platform Vocabulary Exercise: Define Vocabulary Exercise: Identify 3 3 4 4 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Concept Questions 5 The Architecture of the Internet 5 Vocabulary Exercise: Define Concept Questions 6 5 7 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Trends in Networking 8 Multiple-Choice Questions Task 1: Install Google Earth Task 2: Run Google Earth Task 4: Reflection Task 6: Clean Up 13 13 8 10 Activity 1-1: Using Google Earth to View the World (1.1.5.4.3) 13 Task 1: Locate the SANS Resources Task 2: Review the SANS Resources Task 3: Collect Data Task 4: Reflection 15 16 14 15 Task 5: Challenge 16 Lab 1-1: Using Collaboration Tools: IRC and IM (1.6.1.1.1) 16 Task 1: Configure the Chat Client Task 2: Connect to the Chat Server Task 3: Consider the Chat Session Task 4: Reflection Task 6: Clean Up 21 22 Task 5: Challenge 22 19 20 21 .4) 11 11 11 Task 3: Navigate the Google Earth Interface Task 5: Challenge 13 Activity 1-2: Identifying Top Security Vulnerabilities (1.

6.6.2.5.7. and Internetworks Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Protocols 36 34 35 36 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Concept Questions Using Layered Models 36 37 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Network Addressing 38 37 38 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Multiple-Choice Questions 38 Activity 2-1: Using NeoTrace to View Internetworks (2.6.1) 22 Task 1: Define the Terms Wiki and Blog Task 3: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 28 28 22 23 Task 2: Explore Wiki Features with the TWiki Tutorial Task 4: Challenge 28 Skills Integration Challenge: Introduction to Packet Tracer (1.x Network Fundamentals. WANs.2.1.1) 39 Task 1: Trace Route to Remote Server Task 2: Trace Route Using NeoTrace Task 3: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 41 41 Task 4: Challenge 41 40 41 Lab 2-1: Topology Orientation and Building a Small Network (2. CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide Lab 1-2: Using Collaboration Tools: Wikis and Web Logs (1.1.2) 48 .1) 42 Task 1: Create a Peer-to-Peer Network Task 3: Cable the Peer-to-Peer Network Task 5: Reflection 48 43 43 47 43 Task 2: Identify the Cables Used in a Network Task 4: Connect Your Workstations to the Classroom Lab Switch Packet Tracer Companion: Topology Orientation and Building a Small Network (2.1.3) 28 Task 1: Explore the PT Interface Task 2: Explore PT Operations Task 4: Reflection Chapter 2 32 30 30 32 Task 3: Review the Standard Lab Setup Communicating over the Network The Platform for Communications 33 33 Concept Questions 33 34 34 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching LANs.

2) 59 Skills Integration Challenge: Examining Packets (2. Install.1) 69 69 70 Task 2: Observe the Properties of the Audio File Lab 3-1: Managing a Web Server (3. and Verify the Apache Web Server Task 2: Verify the Default Web Server Configuration File Task 3: Capture and Analyze HTTP Traffic with Wireshark Task 4: Challenge 78 Task 5: Reflection Task 6: Clean Up 78 79 79 73 77 76 Lab 3-2: E-mail Services and Protocols (3.1.1) 49 Task 1: Ping PDU Capture 53 Task 2: FTP PDU Capture 56 Task 3: HTTP PDU Capture 58 Task 4: Reflection Task 6: Cleanup 58 59 Task 5: Challenge 58 Packet Tracer Companion: Using Packet Tracer to View Protocol Data Units (2.1.3) 59 Task 1: Complete the Topology 60 61 61 61 Task 2: Add Simple PDUs in Real-Time Mode Task 3: Analyze PDUs in Simulation Mode (Packet Tracing) Task 4: Experiment with the Model of the Standard Lab Setup Task 5: Reflection CHapter 3 61 63 63 Application Layer Functionality and Protocols Applications: The Interface Between the Networks Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Concept Questions 64 64 Making Provisions for Applications and Services 65 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Multiple-Choice Questions 65 65 Application Layer Protocols and Services Examples 66 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Multiple-Choice Questions Task 1: Create a Sound File Task 3: Reflection Task 4: Clean Up 71 71 67 66 66 Activity 3-1: Data Stream Capture (3.4.6.2.6.2.1) Task 1: Configure the Pod Host Computer for E-mail Service 81 Task 2: Capture and Analyze E-mail Communication Between the Pod Host Computer and an E-mail Server 84 .3.1) 71 Task 1: Download.2.xi Lab 2-2: Using Wireshark to View Protocol Data Units (2.4.4.7.

TCP and UDP (4.5.5.xii Network Fundamentals.1) Task 1: Configure the Pod Host Computer to Capture Application Layer Protocols 113 Task 2: Capture and Analyze HTTP Communication Between the Pod Host Computer and a Web Server 114 Task 3: Capture and Analyze FTP Communication Between the Pod Host Computer and a Web Server 116 .1.5.2.3) Task 1: “Repair” and Test the Topology Task 3: Reflection Chapter 4 89 91 91 88 89 Task 2: Explore How DNS and HTTP Work Together OSI Transport Layer Roles of the Transport Layer Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Concept Questions 92 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Port Type Ranges Exercise Concept Questions 93 92 91 92 The TCP Protocol: Communicating with Reliability 92 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Managing TCP Sessions 93 93 Internet Research Exercise Concept Questions 94 93 The UDP Protocol: Communicating with Low Overhead 94 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion 94 95 Lab 4-1: Observing TCP and UDP Using netstat (4.1.5.1) Task 1: Explain Common netstat Command Parameters and Outputs 96 Task 2: Use netstat to Examine Protocol Information on a Pod Host Computer 98 Task 3: Reflection Task 5: Cleanup 100 100 100 Task 4: Challenge 100 Lab 4-2: TCP/IP Transport Layer Protocols.1) Task 1: Identify TCP Header Fields and Operation Using a Wireshark FTP Session Capture 102 Task 2: Identify UDP Header Fields and Operation Using a Wireshark TFTP Session Capture 108 Task 3: Reflection Task 5: Cleanup 110 111 111 Task 4: Challenge 111 Lab 4-3: Application and Transport Layer Protocols (4. CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide Task 3: Challenge 86 Task 4: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 86 86 87 Skills Integration Challenge: Configuring Hosts and Services (3.3.

xiii Task 4: Reflection Task 6: Clean Up 121 122 Task 5: Challenge 121 Packet Tracer Companion: Application and Transport Layer Protocols Examination (4. and TCP Work Together 124 125 125 126 126 127 Concept Questions Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Vocabulary Exercise: Define Internet Research Exercise Networks: Dividing Hosts into Groups 127 127 127 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Concept Questions 127 128 Routing: How Our Data Packets Are Handled Vocabulary Exercise: Define Routing Processes: How Routes Are Learned 129 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion 129 130 Lab 5-1: Examining a Device’s Gateway (5.1.1) 138 136 Task 1: Use the route Command to Modify a Windows Computer Routing Table 139 Task 2: Use a Windows Telnet Client Command telnet to Connect to a Cisco Router 144 Task 3: Examine Router Routes Using Basic Cisco IOS Commands Task 4: Reflection Task 6: Clean Up 147 147 147 Task 5: Challenge 147 Packet Tracer Companion: Examining a Route (5.3) 122 Task 1: Repair and Test the Topology Task 3: Reflection Chapter 5 OSI Network Layer IPv4 125 123 124 Task 2: Explore How DNS.1.2) Lab 5-2: Examining a Route (5.5.3.2) 122 Skills Integration Challenge: Analyzing the Application and Transport Layers (4.6. HTTP.5.1) Task 1: Understand and Explain the Purpose of a Gateway Address 132 Task 2: Understand How Network Information Is Configured on a Windows Computer 134 Task 3: Troubleshoot a Hidden Gateway Address Problem Task 4: Reflection Task 6: Clean Up 137 137 137 Task 5: Challenge 137 Packet Tracer Companion: Examining a Device’s Gateway (5.5.5. UDP.2) 145 .1.2.2.5.

1.1) Task 1: Use the ping Command to Verify Simple TCP/IP Network Connectivity 160 Task 2: Use the tracert Command to Verify TCP/IP Connectivity Task 3: Challenge 166 Task 4: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 168 168 168 164 Packet Tracer Companion: ping and traceroute (6.2) Lab 6-2: Examining ICMP Packets (6.2. CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide Skills Integration Challenge: Routing IP Packets (5.3) 148 Task 1: Configure a Router Interface Task 2: Examining Routes 149 149 150 150 Task 3: Configure a Route Using a GUI Task 5: Reflection Chapter 6 150 151 Task 4: Examine the Routing of the IP Packet Addressing the Network: IPv4 IPv4 Addresses 151 Concept Questions 151 152 152 Binary-to-Decimal Conversion Exercise Decimal-to-Binary Conversion Exercise Addresses for Different Purposes 152 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Internet Research Exercise Vocabulary: Completion Concept Questions Assigning Addresses 152 153 153 153 154 Internet Research Exercises Concept Questions Is It on My Network? 154 154 155 Binary Matching Exercise Concept Questions 156 Internet Research Exercise Calculating Addresses 156 155 156 Concept Questions 156 157 157 Multiple-Choice Questions Testing the Network Layer Concept Questions 157 158 159 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Lab 6-1: Ping and Traceroute (6.1.7.7.1.6.xiv Network Fundamentals.1) 169 Task 1: Understand the Format of ICMP Packets Task 3: Challenge 177 170 173 Task 2: Use Wireshark to Capture and Examine ICMP Messages .7.

3.7.2. Part 1 (6.3) 194 Task 1: IP Subnet Planning 195 196 196 Task 2: Finish Building the Network in Packet Tracer Task 3: Configure the Network Task 4: Test the Network Task 5: Reflection chapter 7 OSI Data Link Layer 197 199 199 197 Data Link Layer: Accessing the Media Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Concept Questions 199 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Media Access Control Techniques 199 200 200 Concept Questions 200 201 201 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Concept Questions 202 Media Access Control: Addressing and Framing Data 201 Putting It All Together: Follow Data Through an Internetwork 203 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Lab 7-1: Frame Examination (7.xv Task 4: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 177 177 177 178 Packet Tracer Companion: Examining ICMP Packets (6.5.2.1) 178 Task 1: For a Given IP Address.1) Task 1: For a Given IP Address and Subnet Mask.7.7.7.1.1) 203 205 Task 1: Explain the Header Fields in an Ethernet II Frame 206 209 Task 2: Use Wireshark to Capture and Analyze Ethernet II Frames . Part 2 (6.7.8.5.5. Determine Network Information Task 2: Challenge 180 Task 3: Clean Up 182 183 Activity 6-2: IPv4 Address Subnetting.2) 194 Skills Integration Challenge: Planning Subnets and Configuring IP Addresses (6. Determine Subnet Information 184 Task 2: Challenge 188 Task 3: Clean Up 191 192 Lab 6-3: Subnet and Router Configuration (6.1) Task 1: Subnet the Address Space 192 193 193 Task 2: Determine Interface Addresses Task 4: Verify the Configurations Task 5: Reflection 194 193 Task 3: Configure the Serial and FastEthernet Addresses Packet Tracer Companion: Subnet and Router Configuration (6.2) Activity 6-1: IPv4 Address Subnetting.4.

1.3) 227 Task 1: Connect the Devices in the Standard Lab Setup 228 228 Task 2: View the Standard Lab Setup in the Physical Workspace chapter 9 Ethernet 231 231 Overview of Ethernet Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Concept Questions 232 231 Ethernet: Communication Through the LAN 232 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Concept Questions 233 232 .3) Task 1: IP Subnet Planning 214 Task 2: Finish Building the Network in Packet Tracer.1) Task 1: Become Familiar with the Most Common Functions of a Cable Tester 221 Task 2: Test Different Cables for Type and Wiring Problems Task 4: Verify Cable Length Task 5: Reflection Task 7: Clean Up 226 226 Task 6: Challenge 226 226 223 224 Task 3: Perform Initial Configuration of the Fluke LinkRunner Skills Integration Challenge: Connecting Devices and Exploring the Physical View (8. CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide Task 3: Challenge 212 Task 4: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 212 213 213 Skills Integration Challenge: Data Link Layer Issues (7.6.1.4.xvi Network Fundamentals.1.5. Attending to Some Layer 2 Issues 215 Task 3: Configure the Network Task 4: Test the Network Task 5: Reflection Chapter 8 OSI Physical Layer 216 217 217 215 216 The Physical Layer: Communication Signals Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Concept Questions Concept Questions 217 217 Physical Signaling and Encoding: Representing Bits 218 218 218 218 219 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Concept Questions 219 Physical Media: Connecting Communication Vocabulary Exercise: Matching 219 220 Lab 8-1: Media Connectors Lab Activity (Lab 8.

8.8.3.2) Lab 9-2: Cisco Switch MAC Table Examination (9.8.1) 253 Task 1: Use Wireshark to Capture and Analyze Frames Originating from Network Nodes 255 Task 2: Examine the Origination of Frames in a Small Network Task 3: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 258 259 Task 4: Challenge 259 Packet Tracer Companion: An Intermediary Device as an End Device (9.1.8.2) 259 Skills Integration Challenge: Switched Ethernet (9.1) 249 248 Task 1: Use the Telnet Protocol to Log in to a Cisco Switch 251 Task 2: Use the Cisco IOS show mac-address-table Command to Examine MAC Addresses and Port Associations 251 Task 3: Challenge 253 Task 4: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 253 253 Packet Tracer Companion: Cisco Switch MAC Table Examination (9.1.2) 253 Lab 9-3: Intermediary Device as an End Device (9.3.1.3) 259 256 Task 1: IP Subnet Planning 260 261 Task 2: Repair Problems with the Ethernet Switched LAN .2.9.1) Task 1: Use the Windows arp Command Task 3: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 248 248 242 246 Task 2: Use Wireshark to Examine ARP Exchanges Task 4: Challenge 248 Packet Tracer Companion: Address Resolution Protocol (9.8.8.2.xvii The Ethernet Frame 233 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Multiple-Choice Questions Concept Questions 235 234 233 Ethernet Media Access Control 235 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Concept Questions 236 236 235 Ethernet Physical Layer Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Hubs and Switches 237 236 237 237 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Concept Question 238 Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) 238 Multiple-Choice Questions 238 240 Lab 9-1: Address Resolution Protocol (9.

6.6. CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide Task 3: Test the Network Task 4: Reflection Chapter 10 261 261 Planning and Cabling Networks Concept Questions 263 264 263 263 LANs: Making the Physical Connection Multiple-Choice Questions Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Device Interconnections 264 264 Concept Questions 264 265 265 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Developing an Addressing Scheme Concept Questions 266 266 266 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Multiple-Choice Questions Calculating the Subnets 267 Concept Questions Concept Question 267 267 Device Interconnections 268 268 269 Multiple-Choice Questions Lab 10-1: How Many Networks? (10.1) 282 Task 2: Configure HyperTerminal to Establish a Console Session with a Cisco IOS Router 283 .2) Task 1: Determine the Number of Subnets in Topology Diagram A 269 Task 2: Record Subnet Information Task 4: Record Subnet Information Task 6: Record Subnet Information Task 8: Record Subnet Information Task 9: Reflection 273 274 270 270 271 272 271 272 273 Task 3: Determine the Number of Subnets in Topology Diagram B Task 5: Determine the Number of Subnets in Topology Diagram C Task 7: Determine the Number of Subnets in Topology Diagram D Lab 10-2: Creating a Small Lab Topology (10.2) Task 1: Connect a Router and Computer with a Console Cable Lab 10-3: Establishing a Console Session with HyperTerminal (10.1.2.xviii Network Fundamentals.2.6.3.1) Task 1: Design the Logical Network 276 278 Task 2: Configure the Physical Lab Topology 278 Task 3: Configure the Logical Topology Task 4: Verify Network Connectivity Task 5: Reflection Task 7: Clean Up 281 281 281 282 280 Task 6: Challenge 281 Packet Tracer Companion: Creating a Small Topology (10.1.

7.xix Task 3: Configure HyperTerminal to Establish a Console Session with a Cisco IOS Switch 285 Task 3: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 286 286 287 Task 4: Challenge 286 Lab 10-3 (Alternative): Establishing a Console Session with TeraTerm Task 1: Connect a Router and Computer with a Console Cable 287 Task 2: Configure TeraTerm Web to Establish a Console Session with the Router 288 Task 3: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 288 289 Task 4: Challenge 289 Packet Tracer Companion: Establishing a Console Session with PT Terminal (10.1) 290 Task 1: Connect a Router and Computer with a Console Cable 290 Task 2: Configure Minicom to Establish a Console Session with the Router 291 Task 3: Perform Basic Commands Task 4: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 292 293 292 Skills and Integration Challenge: Planning and Cabling Networks (10.2) 289 Lab 10-4: Establishing a Console Session with Minicom (10.1.3.3) 293 Task 1: Build the Network Topology Task 3: Interface Configuration Task 4: Testing Connectivity Chapter 11 295 294 294 Task 2: Create and Assign an Addressing Scheme 295 297 Configuring and Testing Your Network Configuring Cisco Devices: IOS Basics 297 Concept Questions 297 298 298 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Cisco IOS Command Exercises Test Your Knowledge 299 Applying a Basic Configuration Using Cisco IOS 299 Concept Questions 300 300 301 Multiple-Choice Questions Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Verifying Connectivity 301 Test Your Knowledge 301 Concept Question 301 .6.6.2.

5.2.5.3.5.2) Lab 11-3: Managing Device Configuration (11. CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide Lab 11-1: Network Latency Documentation with ping (11.1) 310 303 Task 2: Compute Various Statistics on the Output of a ping Capture 304 306 Task 1: Configure Cisco Router Global Configuration Settings Task 2: Configure Cisco Router Password Access Task 3: Configure Cisco Router Interfaces Task 4: Save the Router Configuration Files Task 5: Configure a Cisco Switch Task 6: Reflection Task 8: Clean Up 323 325 Task 7: Challenge 324 320 317 319 315 312 Packet Tracer Companion: Basic Cisco Device Configuration (11.4.5.3.xx Network Fundamentals.1.1) 335 336 Task 1: Design the Logical Lab Topology Task 3: Configure the Logical Topology Task 4: Verify Network Connectivity Task 5: Reflection Task 7: Clean Up 341 341 342 337 338 Task 2: Configure the Physical Lab Topology 338 340 Task 6: Challenge 341 Lab 11-5: Network Testing (11.3) 302 Task 1: Use the ping Command to Document Network Latency Task 3: Measure Delay Effects from Larger Datagrams Task 4: Reflection 308 Task 5: Challenge 309 Lab 11-2: Basic Cisco Device Configuration (11.5.1) Task 1: Design the Logical Lab Topology Task 3: Configure the Logical Topology Task 4: Verify Network Connectivity Task 5: Reflection Task 7: Clean Up 350 351 Task 6: Challenge 350 343 345 Task 2: Configure the Physical Lab Topology 345 349 .1.4.5.1) 327 326 Task 1: Configure Network Connectivity Task 3: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 333 335 328 329 Task 2: Use TFTP to Save and Restore a Cisco IOS Configuration Task 4: Challenge 333 Packet Tracer Companion: Managing Device Configuration (11.2) Lab 11-4: Configure Host Computers for IP Networking (11.2.

5.xxi Lab 11-6: Network Documentation with Utility Commands (11.5.3) 374 Task 1: Plan 375 376 Task 2: Build and Configure the Network Task 3: Test and Analyze 377 Task 4: Reflection 377 .1.1) 366 Task 1: Prepare the Lab 367 368 370 372 Task 2: Review the Process of Data Flowing Through the Network Task 3: Analyze Captured Packets Task 4: Complete the Final Analysis Task 5: Conclusion Task 6: Summary 373 374 Skills Integration Challenge: Configuring and Analyzing Networks (11.1) 352 Task 1: Design the Logical Lab Topology Task 3: Configure the Logical Topology Task 4: Verify Network Connectivity Task 5: Document the Network Task 6: Reflection Task 8: Clean Up 358 359 Task 7: Challenge 358 357 353 354 Task 2: Configure the Physical Lab Topology 354 356 Lab 11-7: Case Study: Datagram Analysis with Wireshark (11.5.6.6.

In actual configuration examples and output (not general command syntax). Vertical bars (|) separate alternative. The Command Reference describes these conventions as follows: ■ Boldface indicates commands and keywords that are entered literally as shown. boldface indicates commands that are manually input by the user (such as a show command).xxii Network Fundamentals. Braces { } indicate a required choice. Italics indicate arguments for which you supply actual values. Braces within brackets [{ }] indicate a required choice within an optional element. ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ . CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide Icons Used in This Book Desktop Computer Laptop Firewall Packet Streaming Video IP Phone Switch Router Route/Switch Processor Phone Server Cloud Wireless Router Hub Printer Wireless Media LAN Media WAN Media Command Syntax Conventions The conventions used to present command syntax in this book are the same conventions used in the IOS Command Reference. Square brackets [ ] indicate optional elements. mutually exclusive elements.

but also that you can plan. This Labs and Study Guide is just such a collection of tools. you will be better prepared to move on to the rest of the CCNA Exploration curriculum and ultimately to pass the CCNA certification exam (640-802). this book is designed to help you learn all the required materials of the first course in the Networking Academy CCNA Exploration curriculum. The CCNA Exploration curriculum includes four courses oriented around the topics of the Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA) certification. implement. and troubleshoot these technologies. To be successful on the exam and achieve your CCNA certification. and open-ended questions designed to help you ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Review vocabulary Strengthen troubleshooting skills Boost networking skills Reinforce concepts Research topics Each chapter also includes a Labs and Activities section that includes the online curriculum labs and a Packet Tracer Skills Integration Challenge activity. these exams are rigorously application based. These activities require you to pull together several skills learned from the chapter—and previous chapters and courses—to successfully complete one comprehensive exercise. student performance tracking. Passing this foundation exam means that you not only have the required knowledge of the technologies covered by the exam. matching.cisco. Many of the hands-on labs include Packet Tracer companion activities. . Used to its fullest extent. The Study Guide sections of this book offer dozens of exercises to help you learn the concepts crucial to your success as a CCNA exam candidate. Each chapter is slightly different and includes multiplechoice. online assessment. fill-in-the-blank.xxiii Introduction The Cisco Networking Academy is a comprehensive e-learning program that provides students with Internet technology skills. Network Fundamentals. Goals and Methods First and foremost. Each chapter also includes a culminating activity called the Packet Tracer Skills Integration Challenge. and hands-on labs to prepare students for industry-standard certifications.com/go/certifications. design. CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide is a supplement to your classroom and laboratory experience with the Cisco Networking Academy. In other words. you should do everything in your power to arm yourself with a variety of tools and training materials to support your learning efforts. operate. it will help you gain knowledge and practice the skills associated with the content areas of the CCNA Exploration Network Fundamentals course. where you can use Packet Tracer to complete a simulation of the lab. You can view the exam topics any time at http://www. By establishing a firm foundation in the fundamental topics taught in this course. A Networking Academy delivers web-based content.

Although Packet Tracer is not a substitute for real equipment. . A Word About Eagle Server The CCNA Exploration courses are designed to provide a hands-on learning approach to networking. Your instructor needs to follow those instructions to set up the labs for you accordingly. visual. The Eagle Server is developed by the Cisco Networking Academy to provide network services and applications that are typically accessed over the Internet in an isolated lab environment. However. interactive teaching and learning tool developed by Cisco. CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide A Word About Packet Tracer Packet Tracer is a self-paced. Students can spend as much time as they like completing standard lab exercises through Packet Tracer.x is available only to Cisco Networking Academies through the Academy Connection website.xxiv Network Fundamentals. The Eagle Server provides the following network services: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ DNS Web server FTP TFTP SSH Instant messaging Wiki server E-mail The Eagle Server is required to complete most of the labs in CCNA Exploration. Packet Tracer version 4. and have the option to work from home. The top-down approach adopted in the Network Fundamentals course enables students to set up and implement application layer services in a network lab environment. Packet Tracer provides a visual simulation of equipment and network processes to offset the challenge of limited equipment. Lab activities are an important part of networking education. This “e-doing” capability is a fundamental component of learning how to configure routers and switches from the command line. Many of the hands-on labs in Network Fundamentals are based on an Internet model that uses a local server to provide a range of network services and applications that students can experiment with in the lab environment. The Eagle Server software and complete FAQ documentation can be downloaded by your instructor from the Tools section of Academy Connection. it allows students to practice using a command-line interface. lab equipment can be a scarce resource.

Work through the different types of questions to test your knowledge of the TCP/IP application and OSI application. to determine the number of subnetworks and hosts in a network. ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ . Many academies use this textbook as a required tool in the course. The questions and labs help you reinforce important concepts related to addressing. and protocols that enable network communication. security issues. and IP. while other academies recommend the Companion Guides as an additional source of study and practice materials. and session layer. scalability. This book has 11 chapters. Chapters and Topics The book has 11 chapters. the application layer. Chapter 6.” introduces the concepts of routing packets from a device on one network to a device on a different network. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide and the online curriculum is sequential. you should work through this Lab Study Guide in order. Chapter 3. The book covers the major topic headings in the same sequence as the online curriculum for the CCNA Exploration Network Fundamentals course. such as ping and trace. data packets. and Packet Tracer.xxv Audience for This Book This book’s main audience is anyone taking the CCNA Exploration Network Fundamentals course of the Cisco Networking Academy curriculum. The questions in the chapter focus on network architectures. “Communicating over the Network. The labs further reinforce that you have mastered the skills needed to work with the application layer of the OSI model. How This Book Is Organized Because the content of Network Fundamentals. blogs. as follows: ■ Chapter 1. This chapter also includes questions and labs related to Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) tools. “OSI Transport Layer. Chapter 4. media.” introduces the devices. Internet Relay Chat. “OSI Network Layer. “Living in a Network-Centric World. such as Wireshark. You learn how TCP and UDP apply to common applications. Chapter 5. and network collaboration tools. Activities and labs let you practice your skills using and configuring network applications such as Google Earth. “Addressing the Network: IPv4. to help evaluate network communications. or prefix length.” provides exercises and labs to supplement your study of the basics of communication and how networks support the way we live. network components. The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses different types of questions to test your knowledge of how devices communicate over the network. hands-on skills needed to use some critical tools.” provides exercises and labs that focus on the role of the transport layer as it provides the end-to-end transfer of data between applications. The Lab Exercises portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum labs to further reinforce that you have mastered the practical. “Application Layer Functionality and Protocols.” focuses on network addressing in detail and tests your knowledge of how to use the address mask.” introduces you to the top network model layer. with the same numbers and similar names as the online course chapters. presentation. wikis. beginning with Chapter 1. quality of service (QoS). Chapter 2. path determination.

a link to any supplemental content will be listed on your My Registered Books page. and you then gain access to exclusive deals on other resources from Cisco Press. After you register the book. Packet Tracer Companion. challenging labs that ask you to connect and configure a small network using basic Cisco IOS commands for routers and switches.com/bookstore/register.com website. . Packet Tracer Companion. Becoming a member and registering is free. and how to develop an addressing and testing scheme. which is located on its back cover.xxvi Network Fundamentals.ciscopress. To register this book.” supplements your study of how the OSI data link layer prepares network layer packets for transmission. Topics include the evolution of Ethernet technologies. “OSI Data Link Layer. http://www. Chapter 9. A Packet Tracer skills integration lab provides an opportunity to practice IP subnetting.” examines the technologies and operation of Ethernet. “Ethernet. “Planning and Cabling Networks. The chapter also helps you study Media Access Control (MAC) and MAC addressing. “OSI Physical Layer. ■ ■ ■ ■ About the CD-ROM The CD-ROM included with this book has all the Packet Tracer Activity. This chapter continues the examination of Ethernet frames that you started in Chapter 7. with a focus on ARP frames. You will apply the knowledge and skills developed in the previous chapters to determine the appropriate cables to use. This chapter tests your ability to describe the encapsulation processes that occur as data travels across a LAN and a WAN. Chapter 10. and setting speed and duplex settings.” focuses on designing and cabling a network. You will configure Cisco routers and switches for basic network operations. A Packet Tracer skills integration lab lets you simulate the steps of installing an Ethernet card in a PC. and building and configuring a complex network. standards. hands-on skills needed to understand and work with the OSI physical layer. and protocols associated with the physical layer (Layer 1). and Address Resolution Protocol (ARP). how to connect devices.com/title/1587132036.” provides questions and extensive. The files will be updated to cover any subsequent releases of Packet Tracer. “Configuring and Testing Your Network. MAC. connecting it to a switch. Chapter 11. CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide ■ Chapter 7. and Packet Tracer Challenge files that are referenced throughout the book as indicated by the Packet Tracer Activity.ciscopress. You can obtain updates to these files from the website for this book. go to http://www. The chapter also helps you develop skills related to examining Cisco switch MAC address tables. Use this chapter to reinforce that you have mastered the practical.com to continue registration. and Packet Tracer Challenge icons. You’ll then be prompted to log in or join Ciscopress.asp and enter the book’s ISBN. About the Cisco Press Website for This Book Cisco Press may provide additional content that can be accessed by registering your individual book at the Ciscopress.” provides questions and labs that explore the functions. A hands-on lab lets you practice your skills using Wireshark to capture and analyze Ethernet frames. Chapter 8.

but it has evolved over the years to encompass many types of media. How has data networking changed your community (your family. radio. and television. hands-on skills needed to understand the opportunities and challenges associated with modern networks. ranging from paper to fiber-optic cabling. 3. or country?) Answers will vary. . what other breakthroughs in communication media have extended the reach of human interactions? Answers will vary but could include smoke signals. use Chapter 1 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum or the corresponding Chapter 1 in Network Fundamentals. newspapers. fill-in-the-blank. 2. play. In addition to data networks. and how has this changed human interactions? Answers will vary but should mention that modern networks carry voice. As you work through this chapter. city. school. the printing press. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide for assistance. What types of network traffic do modern networks carry. Early data networks carried character-based messages between computer systems.CHAPTER 1 Living in a Network-Centric World The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of matching. the written word. telephony. text. Concept Questions 1. and education. and graphics. The addition of all these different types of network traffic has enabled the creation of online communities where geographic distances and physical limitations are no longer major obstacles and where humans around the globe can collaborate in their work. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum activities and labs to ensure that you have mastered the practical. multiple-choice. Study Guide Communicating in a Network-Centric World Humans are social animals who need to communicate with each other. movies. High-speed data networks that span the globe with cabling and networking devices have had a profound effect on human communication and will continue to revolutionize how humans interact with each other. and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of the importance of data networks and the major components and characteristics of network architectures. Communication was once limited to face-to-face conversations. telegraphy. video.

The message’s size The message’s complexity The message’s importance 2. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following questions. Students should include at least four of the following correct answers: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ The quality of the pathway between the sender and receiver The number of times a message changes form The number of times a message is redirected The number of times a message is readdressed The number of times a message is reformatted The number of other messages sharing the communication pathway Whether a confirmation of the message was returned to the sender The amount of time allotted for successful communication List three internal factors that affect data networks. Podcasting is an audio-based medium that lets people record audio and publish it on a website. and learn. Rules help data networks function despite the many factors that can degrade communication. A wiki is a web page that groups of people can edit and view together. communication networks include rules (or protocols) that help ensure reliable delivery of messages. 4. Concept Questions 1. Instant Messaging (IM) is a form of online real-time communication between two or more people based on entered text. play. List four external factors that affect data networks. 5. A blog is a web page that is easy to update and edit by someone who wants to publish a record of his or her thoughts on a subject.2 Network Fundamentals. Communication: An Essential Part of Our Lives Communication helps us work. . 2. Packet Tracer is a Cisco collaborative learning tool that provides a way to build virtual representations of networks that behave much like actual networks. 3. 1. as can internal factors that are related to aspects of the message itself. Because communication is so important. Factors that are external to the message can affect reliability.

Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 3 The Network as a Platform Data networks provide a platform for humans to communicate and thus play an increasingly important role in the business and personal lives of humans. Network engineers often include these elements in network topology drawings. a physical environment. and interpreted A means of interconnecting devices. in which data is transferred A unit of information that travels from one device to another across a medium Equipment that connects directly to a network Vocabulary Exercise: Identify Networks consist of many elements. Engineers use a set of standard icons to refer to the elements. received. Figure 1-1 Network Topology Icons B C A D F G H K IP E I J L . The figure shows a network topology for a typical small company. Fill in the definition for each element. Figure 1-1 shows some of these icons. directed. network experts have standardized many elements and components of a data network. Vocabulary Exercise: Define Table 1-1 lists the four fundamental elements of a network. Table 1-1 Element Network Element Definitions Definition Rule Medium Message Device An agreement or protocol that governs how messages are sent. speed. Modern networks support fast and reliable message transfer among millions of users across the globe. such as a cable or the air for wireless. and reliability that are required. To achieve the scale.

and instant messaging require a network to provide services. e-mail. or optical fiber. Interconnects computers and cabling to form a local-area network (LAN) e. Summarizes a group of network elements in topology drawings d. Router d. Network applications such as web browsing. In wired connections. A Firewall B Router C WAN medium D Network cloud E Server F LAN medium G LAN switch H Wireless router I IP phone J Desktop computer K Wireless media L Laptop computer Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 1-2.4 Network Fundamentals. 4. One form of a wide-area network (WAN) connection a. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Provide the name of each element in the network topology shown in Figure 1-1. Cloud f. Wireless router e. which carries data in the form of light signals. the terrestrial wireless connection between two ground stations. or the communication between devices on Earth and satellites in orbit. the medium is either copper. A device often found in home and small networks that lets laptop computers connect to a network without cabling c. Firewall c. 3. 1. . Protocols are the rules that network devices use to communicate. which carries data in the form of electrical signals. 2. Connects two or more networks and directs messages as they travel across a set of networks b. Switch b. Provides network security Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following questions. match the term on the left with its definition on the right. Wireless media include the wireless connection between a wireless router and a computer in a home network. Table 1-2 Device Network Devices Definition a. Serial link f.

simplify troubleshooting. Fill in the definition for each characteristic. 2. including traffic that was once relegated to its own separate network. including the Internet. which directs them to their destination. . 2. are also hierarchical. The Network Interface Card (NIC) converts the bits to electrical or optical signals and places them on the medium. their answers should read something like the following: 1. Converged networks have become common because they allow engineers to build one common infrastructure instead of multiple specialized networks. Business networks. At their destination. The bits arrive at a router. with different tiers offering different levels of service. and security. What is meant by the term converged network. The Internet’s architecture shares many of the same characteristics of any large network that supports numerous users. 6. Messages must be converted to bits (binary coded digital signals) before they are sent to their destination. This can save money. 5. and the Internet must provide fault tolerance. Many large networks. The computer converts the message to bits. The Architecture of the Internet A network architecture describes a network’s physical infrastructure and the high-level services and protocols that move messages across that infrastructure. 4. and enable advanced applications such as videoconferencing and online gaming. such as voice or radio. If they are just starting to learn networking and have grasped the information in “Elements of a Network” section in Chapter 1 of the curriculum and the Companion Guide.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 5 5. the bits get converted back into a human-readable format. Vocabulary Exercise: Define Table 1-3 lists four fundamental characteristics of network architectures. education networks. scalability. and why are converged networks becoming so common? What advantages do converged networks offer? A converged network carries network traffic of many different types. Concept Questions 1. Answers will vary depending on how much students already know. quality of service. TCP/IP is a set of standard protocols that is widely used in home and business networks as well as on the Internet. List the steps that take place on a network when you send an instant message. 3. The bits travel through network devices such as switches in the LAN.

Messages are divided into small blocks of data (packets) that can travel across many paths to the destination. If there’s a problem with any device in the path during a call. Even if no communication is occurring between the sender and receiver. or circuit. a call goes through a setup process whereby a temporary path. 3. there’s no requirement for call setup. The hierarchical structure also means that network traffic that is destined for a service that is local to the sender does not need to traverse to a central point for distribution. Tier 3 providers are smaller yet and focus on getting end users on the Internet. Why did the Internet designers choose packet switching instead of circuit switching? With circuit switching. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 1-3 Network Architecture Characteristics Definition Characteristic Fault tolerance Scalability Quality of service Security The capability of a network to withstand hardware and software failures and recover quickly when failures occur The capability of a network to expand quickly to support new users and applications without degrading performance for existing users A method of providing different priorities for different applications. Why was fault tolerance a major focus of the initial design for the Internet? The United States Department of Defense (DoD) designed the network that evolved into the Internet with fault tolerance because the department was concerned about a military attack or other severe problem that could destroy numerous sites and transmission facilities. because resources are used dynamically as packets arrive at switching locations. Compare and contrast circuit switching and packet switching. The circuit is dedicated to the call for the duration of the call. The early Internet designers chose packet switching because it provides better fault tolerance and scalability. based on the requirements of the applications and their importance to users Measures taken to guard against unauthorized access to a network and the data traveling on the network Concept Questions 1.6 Network Fundamentals. For example. Tier 1 providers. . The problem of underutilized idle circuits is eliminated. is created through various switching locations between the sender and receiver. Packets from different sources are intermixed. Tier 2 providers are smaller and often provide regional service. the circuit and its resources remain reserved until one end disconnects. using all available resources. How does the Internet benefit from using a hierarchical architecture? The hierarchical architecture permits Internet service providers (ISP) of different levels. Each tier can optimize its services for its unique role. A new call requires a new setup process that creates a new circuit. Packets are routed according to the best path available at the time and can be routed around problem areas. provide national and international connections and are optimized for carrying huge loads of traffic across the globe. With packet switching. which improves scalability and fault tolerance. such as AT&T and Verizon. the call is dropped and must be reestablished. 2.

The two types of network security concerns are network infrastructure security. For example. maintaining integrity to ensure that information is not altered in transmission. resulting in a loss of confidence in the business Loss of sales and eventual company failure because of a loss of public trust in the company’s ability to maintain privacy. and ensuring availability so that timely and reliable access to services is not disrupted by security breaches. The consequence of the calls being dropped or delayed include people dying or suffering needlessly with injuries. but here are some examples based on the curriculum: A network outage that stops communications and transactions.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 7 4. for example) Private customer contract details becoming known to competitors or made public. Business transactions can be time-sensitive. Calls to an emergency response center are time-sensitive. 1. with lots of starts and stops. or designs. and delivered. The consequences of a lost control signal to an automated piece of heavy machinery. 5. confidentiality. if their traffic is delayed. a stock price could change while a buyer is making a purchase if traffic is delayed. which protects devices and cabling. for example. 4. List some applications that are time-sensitive and the negative consequences of their packets getting dropped or delayed. and coping with network attacks. which protects the information carried in packets and stored on network-attached devices. but here are some examples based on the curriculum: Streaming video and audio are time-sensitive and will appear or sound choppy. patents. which are the rules that govern how packets are formatted. 2. could cause death or dismemberment. List some consequences of a network security breach. . Network firewalls can help ensure system reliability by detecting. 3. Production control in factories can be time-sensitive. addressed. and content security. Tools to provide security for individual messages must be implemented on top of the underlying protocols. and integrity Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following questions. Answers will vary. Three fundamental security measures include ensuring confidentiality so that only intended and authorized recipients can read data. Answers will vary. repelling. with consequent loss of business Misdirected or lost personal or business funds Stolen company intellectual property (research ideas.

Which of the following is a relatively new information technology (IT) job title? a. Networks will need to be scalable. Which of the following best defines a fault-tolerant network? a. Modern networks need to be ready to support increasing numbers of users who will make innovative use of the networks to enhance human communication. work. The increasing number of mobile users b.) a. Fewer applications as networks converge d. Which of the following are major trends that are contributing to the current evolution of networks? (Choose two. More networks that are open and unconcerned with protection from unauthorized access 3. Network technician d. Multiple-Choice Questions Choose the best answer for each of the following questions. and play. Increasing use of simplified network devices e. Software engineer 4. Fewer services as networks converge c. and flexible as users continue to depend on their networks to help them live. More networks that are locked down so that new applications and services cannot be added d. A fault-tolerant network is built to withstand earthquakes. More users wanting to access web pages in character mode b. A fault-tolerant network supports users who have different viewpoints. The need to support circuit switching 2.8 Network Fundamentals. A fault-tolerant network limits the impact of hardware or software failures and recovers quick- ly when a failure occurs. c. A fault-tolerant network can expand quickly to support new users and applications without causing errors for existing users. Which of the following is most associated with the concept of converged networks? a. d. More voice and video transmissions that require a level of consistent quality and uninterrupted delivery c. 1. learn. . Programmer b. The need to protect networks from unauthorized access f. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Trends in Networking Data networks continue to evolve quickly. b. Information security officer c. fault-tolerant.

A scalable network is built to support high-altitude environments. c. d.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 9 5. A scalable network ensures that priorities are matched with the type of communication and its importance to an organization. including skyscrapers and b. A scalable network supports redundant connections so that alternative paths are available when a device or link fails. . A scalable network can expand quickly to support new users and applications without impact- ing the performance of the service being offered to existing users. Which of the following best defines a scalable network? satellite dishes on mountains. a.

The Google Earth Plus version includes GPS support. depending on network speed. Experiment with Google Earth to explore continents.10 Network Fundamentals.com/product_comparison. and places of interest.html contains a description of the versions. Estimated completion time. Use this link to answer the following questions: 1. Google Earth displays the Earth as a manipulated 2D or 3D image. Explain the different versions of Google Earth. Explain the hardware and software requirements needed to use Google Earth (free edition). Which versions support Tilt and 3D rotation? All versions 2. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Explain the purpose of Google Earth. The popular world news channel CNN regularly uses Google Earth to show where a news story has occurred.1. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Labs and Activities Activity 1-1: Using Google Earth to View the World (1. is 30 minutes. The version that fits most needs is the free version.google. it requires a broadband connection to the Internet. Which Google Earth version supports the highest resolution? Google Earth Pro supports 4800 pixels. Google Earth. Background Google Earth is a popular application that executes on the desktop of most operating systems. the following minimum computer hardware requirements must be met: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Operating system: Microsoft Windows 2000 or Windows XP CPU: Pentium 3 with 500 MHz System memory (RAM): 128 MB Hard disk: 400 MB of free space Network speed: 128 kbps Graphics card: 3D-capable with 16 MB of video RAM (VRAM) Screen: 1024×768 pixels. and other support features. Currently. three versions of Google Earth exist. version 4. countries. .1. The Google Earth Pro version is for professional and commercial use. 16-bit high-color screen Scenario This activity is to be performed on a computer that has Internet access and on which you can install software. a spreadsheet importer. The URL http://earth.4) Upon completion of this activity. To use Google Earth. Experiment with Google Earth features such as Help and Tutorial.

Which mouse control zooms in and out? Right mouse button or scroll wheel. Placemark. navigation controls. choose User Guide to launch a default web browser and bring up the Google Earth User’s Guide (http://earth. otherwise. mouse. Take a few minutes to browse the User’s Guide. Follow the installation instructions. Remember. The Menu bar is located in the upper-left corner. answer the following questions: 1.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 11 Task 1: Install Google Earth If Google Earth is not installed on the computer. 2. Before leaving the User’s Guide website. shown in Figure 1-3.google. Task 3: Navigate the Google Earth Interface Step 1: Use the Overview Map feature. The mouse pointer must be moved close to the controls. Figure 1-2 Google Earth Opening Screen Task 2: Run Google Earth Refer to Figure 1-2.com/userguide/v4/). you can download the free application from http://earth.com/download-earth. are located in the upper-right quadrant. you may have to disable any popup blockers on your browser. and the Google Earth download should start automatically. List the three ways to move the image. 3. Figure 1-2 shows the opening screen for Google Earth. On the Help menu. Step 2: Review the navigation controls. the opening screen. They control the image magnification and position.html. . The navigation controls. This handy feature provides a relative global position of the magnified image. only a compass is displayed.google. Choose View > Overview Map. What is the purpose of the left mouse button? It rotates the image.

For latitude. The Royal Observatory. . state and city are displayed? San Jose. an image streaming indicator reports when the image resolution is complete. The second number is called the longitude.12 Network Fundamentals. the reference is East (E) or West (W) of the Royal Observatory.S. The image takes you to that site. the equator is an imaginary line dividing the globe into a Northern and Southern Hemisphere. is the international zero-longitude point. California What if you would like to “Fly To” London. The coordinate measurements are in degrees. Choose View > Grid to display Google Earth Gridlines. When the location has been reached. UK Step 5: Use the Fly To feature. but the new house next door had not yet been built. minutes. and some location images are older than others. Common graticule is the grid created by the longitude and latitude lines as depicted on a globe.S. and tenths. zip code. browse the surrounding area to see if you can determine approximately how old the image is. For example. On the left navigation bar. United Kingdom. Step 6: View geographic coordinates. what are the coordinates of your home? Answers will vary. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 1-3 Google Earth Screen Navigation Tools Tilt. Try to find your home using the Search > Fly To folder. the reference is North (N) or South (S) of the equator. seconds. and double-click that location. Geographic coordinates are displayed in the lower-left quadrant of the image. it’s the angle east or west of an arbitrary earth point. The first number is called the latitude. For longitude. The combined longitude and latitude are called the common graticule. one user commented that he found his home.2D or 3D Zoom Rotate or Move Step 3: Use the Sightseeing feature. Step 4: Experiment with the Search > Fly To folder. it’s the angle between a point and the equator. a U. What U. Using the pointer and coordinates shown in the lower-left quadrant of the image. If the resolution for your neighborhood is sufficient. Is the resolution for your home the same quality as the Sightseeing location in Step 3? Answers will vary. Expand Sightseeing. The equator has a 0° latitude. choose a location that you want to see. For example. UK? What data would you need to enter? London. experiment with the Places > Sightseeing folder. Enter 95134. Some locations have better resolution than others.

Locate and click Google Earth.edu/geography/gcraft/notes/coordsys/coordsys. A LAN sent your image request across the Internet. Step 2. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ ■ Use the SANS site to quickly identify Internet security threats.4. Use the following URL to learn about different coordinate systems: http://www. . Step 3. Task 6: Clean Up You may be required to remove Google Earth from the computer.google. For example. The delay in retrieving the image may have been short or long. While enjoying the images. satellite communication with an Earth station transmitted the image of your home to a ground location. Activity 1-2: Identifying Top Security Vulnerabilities (1. Some type of database was used to store the image. Explain how threats are organized. depending on the slowest speed of all network connections in the path between the database repository and your computer. Double-click Add or Remove Programs. Choose Start > Settings > Control Panel. Unless instructed otherwise. Task 5: Challenge Google Earth displays image coordinates in the lower-left quadrant of the image. Could the image be displayed faster if data compression techniques were used? Answers will vary.5. Step 4. consider what digital communication resources were used. Wikipedia also contains a useful definition of common geographic terms. Could someone eavesdrop on your network connection? Answers will vary. Consider network security.colorado.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 13 Task 4: Reflection Google Earth can bring the world into your home or office. Additional removal information is available at http://earth.html. Click Remove and follow the prompts. turn off the computer.py?answer=20738&ctx=sibling.3) Upon completion of this activity.com/support/bin/answer. Use the geographic coordinate system to describe your home with as much accuracy and detail as possible. If so. probably through several WANs and then to another LAN with a computer that returned the image to you. follow these steps: Step 1. Use the SANS links to access other security-related information. List several recent security vulnerabilities.

CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Background One of the most popular and trusted sites related to defending against computer and network security threats is SANS. peer-to-peer. personnel issues Special section: Security issues not related to any of the preceding categories ■ ■ ■ Scenario This activity introduces you to computer security vulnerabilities. How can a corporate security administrator quickly identify security threats? SANS and the FBI have compiled their list of the top 20 Internet Security Attack Targets at http://www. The list is regularly updated with information related to the following: ■ ■ Operating systems: Windows. You must complete this lab outside of the Cisco lab from a computer with Internet access. VoIP Servers and Phones N2. You will use the SANS website as a tool for threat vulnerability identification.sans. There are two major hyperlink topics: ■ ■ N1. VoIP devices Human elements: Security policies. go to http://www. understanding. Router and switch topics fall under the Network Devices category. human behavior. each a major contributor to information security. Network. Open the SANS Top 20 List. UNIX/Linux. and numbers separate category topics. media players.org/top20/. Estimated completion time is one hour. including web. On the resources menu. Using a web browser. Task 1: Locate the SANS Resources Step 1. database. Mac Applications: Cross-platform. Security. go to http://www.sans.org/ and select items from the Resources menu. and defense. backup software.org. and so on). choose top 20 list. instant messaging. SANS contains several components. Audit.14 Network Fundamentals. SANS stands for SysAdmin.sans. and management servers Network devices: Network infrastructure devices (routers. as shown in Figure 1-4. switches. For additional information about the SANS site. DNS servers. A letter indicates the category type. Network and Other Devices Common Configuration Weaknesses . N. Figure 1-4 SANS Menu The SANS Top-20 Internet Security Attack Targets list is organized by category.

and click a sample CVE hyperlink. Step 1: Choose a topic to investigate. Note the CVE references. which contains information about the vulnerability. The Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS) severity is displayed. Range: Answers will vary. Note: Because the CVE list changes. Source: Answers will vary. Fill in the following information about the vulnerability: Original release date: Answers will vary. contains links with information about the vulnerability and possible solutions. Answers will vary. Task 3: Collect Data The remainder of this lab walks you through a vulnerability investigation and solution. and Tools. Network and Other Devices Common Configuration Weaknesses to jump to this topic.gov/ and the vulnerability summary page for the CVE. The CVE name is linked to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) National Vulnerability Database (NVD). write a brief description of the solution as found on those pages. Fill in information about the vulnerability impact: CVSS Severity: Answers will vary. Overview: Answers will vary.2 Common Default Configuration Issues. Impact Type: Answers will vary. Step 2. sponsored by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) National Cyber Security Division and US-CERT. .2. The link should open a new web browser connected to http://nvd.nist. Last revised: Answers will vary. Solutions. Step 2. N2. Review the contents of N2. the current list may not contain the same vulnerabilities as those that were present at the time of this writing. Task 2: Review the SANS Resources Step 1. References to Advisories. Open Google and search on wireless router passwords to return links to multiple sites that publish a list of wireless router default administrator account names and passwords.2 (as of this writing) contains information about threats associated with default accounts and values. It contains a value between 1 and 10. Under the Impact heading are several values. Failure to change the default password on these devices can lead to compromise and vulnerability by attackers.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 15 Step 2: Click hyperlink N2. Using the hyperlinks. Authentication: Answers will vary. The next heading. For example. The last line under several topics’ references is Common Vulnerability Exposure (CVE). Step 3.

CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 4: Reflection The number of vulnerabilities for computers. IRC and IM fit nicely into these requirements. unless the user constantly monitors the e-mail account. Use IRC to demonstrate collaboration. Unfortunately. users can easily exchange ideas and files. but this will provide beneficial information about how vulnerability mitigation is accomplished in the world. What collaborators need for communication in the human network is a tool that has the flexibility of e-mail with the responsiveness of the telephone. on the other hand. However. IRC.1. you are said to “join a room.1) Upon completion of this lab. List several misuses of and data security issues involving IM. Governments have dedicated significant resources to coordinating and disseminating information about the vulnerability and possible solutions. Using the Internet or a private corporate network. often called a Buddy List. you establish a connection to a Chat server and join a discussion on a particular topic. Lab 1-1: Using Collaboration Tools: IRC and IM (1. . It remains the responsibility of the end user to implement the solution. Finding an organization willing to do this may be difficult. Task 5: Challenge Try to identify an organization that will meet with you to explain how vulnerabilities are tracked and solutions are applied. Although the following discussion focuses primarily on IM. Think of ways that users can help strengthen security. Think about user habits that create security risks. however. the telephone has been the technology of choice. To start chatting. Chat also provides a degree of anonymity. and data continues to increase. you can open additional IM windows. the telephone cannot be used to transfer files. It will also give representatives of the organization an opportunity to meet the class and conduct informal intern interviews. networks. one person needs to “invite” another. If you want to communicate with more than one person at a time. When you join. a brief hands-on lab will demonstrate the ease of IRC. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ ■ Define Internet Relay Chat (IRC) and Instant Messaging (IM). To initiate an instant message. IMing and chatting are both methods of real-time communication. allows multiple people to interact. unread e-mail may go unnoticed for a long period of time.6. and transfer files.” In the chat room. Background E-mail permits multiple users to collaborate.16 Network Fundamentals. The recipient of the invitation knows about—and accepts—the IM session based on the other user’s screen name. IM clients allow you to have an approved list of users. they are implemented differently. for security reasons. List several collaborative uses of IM. Each of these windows represents a two-person communication. share ideas. you typically create your own identity and can give as little information about yourself as you choose. IM provides one-on-one communication with “accepted” individuals. When people have wanted immediate contact.

Many of the IM networks use proprietary protocols. can differentiate between the various IM network protocols. AIM and . The IETF formalized an open standard. Child restrictions include limiting IM contacts and providing supervision while online. Yahoo! Messenger. Encrypted communication is supported. IM servers can also incorporate this support. Throughout this course we will learn about many different protocols. SIPv2 was originally defined in RFC 2543 and was made obsolete by RFC 3261. and the server joins clients. Popular IM networks include America OnLine (AOL) Instant Messenger (AIM). This device is called the Instant Messenger Server. desktop sharing. based on the Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (EMPP). such as Gaim and Trillian. The users on the end devices. This relationship is called an IM network. and ICQ (I Seek You). Some IM networks offer audio services. numerous open-source protocols exist. As with proprietary IM protocols. This arrangement is called a client/server relationship. called a protocol. Jabber. Voice over IP (VoIP). Applicable IETF references are RFC 3920 and RFC 3921. IM clients connect to an IM server. web conferencing. notably with Session Initiation Protocol (SIP). AIM and ICQ (purchased by AOL) use the proprietary Open System for Communication in Real Time (OSCAR) protocol. Social misuse of IM has been a concern for parents. and many IM networks encourage parental control.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 17 IM requires a device providing services that allows users to communicate. The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) has attempted to standardize IM protocols. File sharing between IM clients enables work collaboration. ■ ■ ■ ■ Protocols Each IM network uses an agreed-upon method of communication. Newer services that some IM networks are beginning to provide include videoconferencing. and even IP radio and IPTV. Windows Live Messenger (MSN). Some IM client applications. each with a dedicated following of users. Figure 1-5 AIM Client Features IM services have several common features: ■ When an IM client connects to the IM network. use a piece of software called the Instant Messenger Client. any existing connections can be alerted through a contact list—a list of other people that you communicate with through the IM client. Figure 1-5 shows the AIM client application connected to the AIM network. Text messaging between clients is possible and can be logged. Many different IM networks are available. Both Microsoft and Yahoo! have proprietary protocols but have partnered services for joint connectivity. such as a computer.

have been transferred to IM client computers. Ensure that all users are aware of those policies and clearly understand the potential risks. interrelated applications. create a separate account to be used for his or her daily office functions. As a result. Create secure communication paths when using IM with trusted business partners. Restrict Administrative and Power User level privileges to support personnel acting in their support capacity. many organizations either limit or block IM from entering the corporate network. Appropriately configure intrusion detection and prevention systems. enabling users to adapt new technologies for collaboration. blocking specific users. Ensure that vendor patches are promptly applied to IM software.) Monitor using an Intrusion Detection/Prevention system for users creating tunnels for IM or bypassing proxies. Employ antivirus and antispyware products. online time limits.4 How to Protect Against IM Vulnerabilities and Unauthorized IM Usage ■ Establish policies for acceptable use of IM. and the underlying operating system. Consider deploying products specifically designed for IM security. which have resulted in vulnerable computers. Security Multiple security issues have been identified with IM. mobile IM supports mobile users. IM clients and IM servers have experienced application vulnerabilities.sans. Computer worms. Some parental supervision tools include background logging.org/top20/#c4: C4. and Trojan horses. For example. Filter all HTTP traffic through an authenticating proxy server to provide additional capabilities of filtering and monitoring IM traffic. Another popular handheld appli- . Standard users should not be permitted to install software. Do not rely on external IM servers for internal use of IM. Even legitimate users can congest network throughput by transferring large files. If a user must have Administrative or Power User privileges. Without strong security methods. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Yahoo! Messenger provide free supervision software tools. Internet surfing. and disabling certain functions of the client. (Note: This offers only partial protection because of the number of potential protocols and associated ports and the ability of applications to bypass port restrictions. ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ The Future of IM The future of IM is promising. Most popular cellular phone manufacturers have their own form of mobile IM. providing IM services to handheld cellular phones. categorized as malware. The SANS Institute recommends several countermeasures that system administrators can use to protect their networks from IM vulnerabilities and misuse.) Block popular IM ports. chat room blocking. information exchanged between users can be captured and disclosed. and online communication. HTTP). Understand that many IM applications can enable associated communications to masquerade as otherwise legitimate traffic (for example. Block access to known public IM servers that have not been explicitly authorized. viruses. The following list is from the SANS website at http://www.18 Network Fundamentals. provide a commercial-grade IM proxy or internal IM server. (Note: This offers only partial protection because of the number of potential external servers.

exe (a Windows executable) from ftp://eagleserver. Figure 1-6 Topology for Lab 1-1 Eagle Server Pod#A Estimated completion time is 45 minutes. a cloud is often used to symbolize a more complex network.0. In subsequent chapters you will study in great detail the devices and protocols that are inside the cloud. Step 1: Verify that an IRC client is on the lab computer. If not.5. Figure 1-7 Gaim Accounts Window In the Accounts window.com/pub. Scenario Figure 1-6 shows two computers connected to a “cloud. such as the Internet. the cloud represents the network and networking devices between an IRC client and a server called eagle-server. Task 1: Configure the Chat Client The IRC protocol is an open standard. The BlackBerry supports common IM tools.com/pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter1.” In networking. In this lab. which is not the current focus of this discussion. download and install gaim-1. but any IRC client may be used if available. Step 2: Open the Accounts window.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 19 ance is the BlackBerry. follow the next steps to configure Gaim.example. such as text messaging. . for communicating across plain-text links. Some of the labs in this book.example. originally described in RFC 1459. After verifying that the Gaim chat client is installed. telephony. This lab uses Gaim as the IRC client. and web browsing. click Add. icon Accounts. Note: Eagle Server is a component of the Cisco Networking Academy. An IRC client is available for download from eagle-server at http://eagleserver.example. including this one. The Accounts window is shown in Figure 1-7. Open Gaim and select the Login window.com. Accept the default settings during the installation. as well as push e-mail. assume that a Cisco Networking Academy instructor has already set up Eagle Server and named it eagleserver.

expand the Show more options option. Two windows should open.20 Network Fundamentals. Click Sign-on. Figure 1-9 IRC Connect Status Window Figure 1-10 Gaim IRC Client Window . as shown in Figure 1-8: ■ ■ ■ ■ Protocol: IRC Screen Name: (how others will know you) Server: eagle-server. click Save. Figure 1-9 shows the IRC Connect Status window. Close the Accounts window. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Step 3: Add a new account.example. Figure 1-10 shows the main Gaim IM client window. where the new account to eagle-server should be visible. Fill in required information. Return to the Login window. In the Add Account window. Task 2: Connect to the Chat Server Step 1: Sign on.com Proxy type: No Proxy Gaim Add Account Window Figure 1-8 When you’re finished. used for chatting or IM.

the status window closes. Figure 1-12 Participating in a Chat During the chat. If the Channel name is incorrect. as shown in Figure 1-11. you should understand the social and security issues with IM and IRC. Click Chat. you will be in a chat room alone (unless other students made a similar error). consider how you—as a parent or network administrator—would manage this type of connection. but you might not understand the communication between the client and server. Multiple students can join and interact with each other. Task 3: Consider the Chat Session Figure 1-12 shows a brief chat between users root and student2. Figure 1-11 Joining a Chat Note: For you to join a chat channel. . the Gaim IM client can be used to connect to several different IM providers. When the IRC client connects to the IRC server.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 21 Step 2: Join the chat. and a Buddy List window appears. Answers will vary. Most teenagers and young adults today are familiar with IMing between friends and sharing files. the Channel name must start with #. Task 4: Reflection On a network with an Internet connection. As a future network engineer.

Observe the response time before and during the file transfer. you will use a host computer that connects across the cloud to access the TWiki wiki server. you are probably familiar with the look and feel of a wiki. If there are connectivity issues with the lab computer connecting to Eagle Server. Task 1: Define the Terms Wiki and Blog Wiki is a Hawaiian-language word that means fast. you explore the TWiki wiki server installed on Eagle Server in this lab. Write a brief description of the network response time—during file transfers and without file transfers. Background The lab topology shown in Figure 1-13 should be configured and ready for use. a cloud is often used to symbolize a more complex network that is not the current focus of discussion. If you have ever used Wikipedia. ask the instructor for assistance. Use a continuous ping from the host to Eagle Server to monitor network throughput. To gain experience with a wiki. In networking terms. Scenario In this lab. a wiki is a web-based collaboration tool that permits almost anyone to immediately post information. Explore wiki features. Figure 1-13 Topology for Lab 1-2 Eagle Server Pod#A Note to Instructor: The lab should be preconfigured for students. transfer files between partners. In subsequent chapters you will study in great detail the devices and protocols that are inside the cloud. Lab 1-2: Using Collaboration Tools: Wikis and Web Logs (1. Task 6: Clean Up Check with your instructor before removing Gaim and shutting down the computer.22 Network Fundamentals.2. A wiki lets you access a home page (first page) that provides a search tool to assist you in locating the articles that interest you.” In networking. files. Use the Orientation lab to configure and test connectivity before students arrive in class. or graphics to a common site for other users to read and modify. you have the opportunity to learn about the different parts of a wiki. In this lab. A wiki can be installed for . CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 5: Challenge While you are connected in chat. you will be able to ■ ■ Define the terms wiki and blog.1) Upon completion of this lab. Figure 1-13 shows two computers connected to a “cloud.6.

Change a page and create a new one. Open a private account” topic. and . visit the following URLs outside of class: http://www. 3. A search engine is used for quick content location. 2. and the blog owner controls blog content. Although many different wiki servers are available. The user not only reads wiki contents but also participates by creating content within a web browser. It covers the following major topics: 1. The power of a wiki is in the rich hyperlink content. Point one browser at the TWiki URL. users have already been created for steps that require login privileges. but others are more restrictive.cgi?WhatIsWiki http://www. Task 2: Explore Wiki Features with the TWiki Tutorial The TWiki tutorial explores some of the more common features of a wiki. groups..com/ A web log.. Check out TWiki users. Use your browser to upload files as page attachments. Open a private account. and e-mail has not been configured on the lab host computers. Edit and auto links are available to edit a page and automatically link pages. 5. As you investigate each topic in the tutorial.wikispaces. Test the page controls. called a blog. Some blogs permit users to leave comments and provide feedback to the author.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 23 the Internet community or behind a corporate firewall for employee use. 8. Note that you won’t be able to carry out the instructions in the “3. It is recommended that you open two browsers. is similar to a wiki in that users create and post content for others to read. TWiki requires e-mail verification for new accounts. the following common features have been formalized into every wiki: ■ ■ Any web browser can be used to edit pages or create new content. Following hyperlinks can present continuity problems. from such providers as www. 6. Blogs are normally the creation of a single person.org/wiki. Text formatting is similar to creating an e-mail.wiki.blogger. Free Internet blog hosting is available. Access control can be set by the topic creator. Instead. Get e-mail alerts whenever pages are changed.com. similar to a free website or e-mail account. 4. defining who is permitted to edit content. ■ ■ ■ For more information on wikis. Get set. Take a quick tour. A wiki web is a grouping of pages with different collaboration groups. complete the questions in this task. 7.

CCNA Exploration Companion Guide use the other browser for “working” pages. The key point to understand about this step is that registration is a two-part process. Any external links that are selected will result in an error.. you will not be able to register. that hyperlinks to the topic. Figure 1-14 TWiki Sandbox Web Step 2: Open the TWiki Tutorial. Open a web browser and connect to the TWiki Sandbox at http://eagleserver. Adjust the browser window sizes so that instructions can be viewed in one browser and actions can be performed in the other. “Get set. Step 1: Establish a web client connection to the Eagle Server wiki. “Open a private account. List the mandatory information required for registration: First Name Last Name E-mail address Your password Retype password Organization name Country . shown in Figure 1-14. Instead. Step 3: Complete the TWiki tutorial.com/twiki/bin/view/Sandbox/WebHome.. answer the following questions: What is a WikiWord? A WikiWord is a topic name. users fill in registration information and submit the form to TWiki. made up of two or more words with initial capital letters.24 Network Fundamentals. to open the wiki tutorial page. How many results are returned from a search of WebSearch? 5 Refer to the tutorial. is a web topic designed to test wiki features.” After completing the first two tutorial sections. topic 1. “Take a quick tour. so enter it exactly as shown. Refer to the tutorial.example. therefore. topic 3. Click the TWiki Tutorial link. highlighted in Figure 1-14. The Sandbox. The URL name is case-sensitive. user IDs have been created for you to use later in this lab.” E-mail is not possible at this time.” and topic 2. First.

memorable password. Note to Instructor: This tutorial is an opportunity for the student to create a personalized page. The TWiki system generates a new password and sends it to the user’s e-mail account. Backlinks. version control. answer the following question: What is the latest revision number? 15 In Table 1-4. “Change a page and create a new one. Table 1-4 Description Action Links Action Link Add to or edit the topic Show the source text without editing the topic Attach files to a topic Find out what other topics link to this topic (reverse link) Additional controls. The second part of the registration process is when the user either enters the code in the activation window or responds with e-mail by clicking the TWiki response link. The user logs in with the new password and creates a new. After completing this tutorial section. Place the following action links: Attach. groups. answer the following questions related to user and group issues: How is a user’s password reset? The user selects WikiWord “Reset Password” and enters the login ID. “Check out TWiki users. such as rename/move. Printable. How can inappropriate changes be fixed in a wiki topic? A topic revision can be undone by a member of the TWikiAdminGroup. Refer to the tutorial. After completing this tutorial section. such as who changed what and when View a previous version of the topic or the difference between two versions Goes to a stripped-down version of the page. Recognize the student who has the best topic page! . and setting the topic’s parent Topics are under revision control—shows the topic’s complete change history. topic 4. place the correct action link next to the descriptions of page controls. Edit. “Test the page controls.” is an opportunity for you to add content to the wiki. Tutorial topic 5. History.” A list of TWiki users and groups is displayed. using Table 1-5 to log in to the wiki server.” makes you familiar with page-editing commands. good for printing Edit Raw View Attach Backlinks More History r3 > r2 > r1 Printable Tutorial topic 6. More. the user account is added to the TWiki database. Complete this tutorial. At this time. r3 > r2 > r1. and Raw View.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 25 TWiki responds to a registration request by sending an e-mail to the user that contains a unique activation code.

click the Log In link. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide On Eagle Server. See Figure 1-15. You should use the account that reflects your pod and host computer number.26 Network Fundamentals. . located in the upper-left corner of the page. These accounts are StudentCcna1 through StudentCcna22. All accounts have the same password. a group with private accounts has been created to allow participation in a private TWiki topic. Refer to Table 1-5. cisco. Table 1-5 Account Logins Account Login ID (Case-Sensitive) Lab pod#host# Pod1host1 Pod1host2 Pod2host1 Pod2host2 Pod3host1 Pod3host2 Pod4host1 Pod4host2 Pod5host1 Pod5host2 Pod6host1 Pod6host2 Pod7host1 Pod7host2 Pod8host1 Pod8host2 Pod9host1 Pod9host2 Pod10host1 Pod10host2 Pod11host1 Pod11host2 StudentCcna1 StudentCcna2 StudentCcna3 StudentCcna4 StudentCcna5 StudentCcna6 StudentCcna7 StudentCcna8 StudentCcna9 StudentCcna10 StudentCcna11 StudentCcna12 StudentCcna13 StudentCcna14 StudentCcna15 StudentCcna16 StudentCcna17 StudentCcna18 StudentCcna19 StudentCcna20 StudentCcna21 StudentCcna22 From the lab Wiki Welcome Screen.

“Use your browser to upload files as page attachments.” describes the process of uploading files into the wiki.” details how to receive e-mail alerts whenever a particular page has been updated. What is the default maximum file size that can be transferred? 10 MB Tutorial topic 8. Figure 1-17 Wiki Topic Page Tutorial topic 7. Sometimes it is not convenient to return regularly to a .Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 27 Figure 1-15 Log In Link A login box similar to the one shown in Figure 1-16 should appear. “Get e-mail alerts whenever pages are changed. To complete this tutorial. Figure 1-16 Login Box This should bring up your wiki topic page. create a document using Notepad. Both the username and password are case-sensitive. similar to the one shown in Figure 1-17. and upload it to the wiki server. Enter the applicable TWiki username and password cisco.

php/Main_Page Wireshark network protocol analyzer: http://wiki.28 Network Fundamentals.wireshark.org/wiki/CCNA_Certification Cisco Systems corporate history: http://en. ] wikiName three spaces * SMTP mail address three spaces * SMTP mail address : topics three spaces * [ webname . ] wikiName : topics ° ccna1@example.com/index.SMTP mail address three spaces * [ webName . and Table 1-6 reflects the addressing information. Edit the WebNotify page. . Answers will vary. alerts are not sent.3) Figure 1-18 shows the topology for this challenge.org/wiki/Network_Plus_Certification/Study_Guide Network Dictionary: http://wiki. Here are some wikis of possible interest: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ CCNA: http://en. and add the web name and your e-mail address. Here’s a possible format: three spaces * [ webname .1.org/ Task 4: Challenge Depending on the type of Eagle Server installation. Because e-mail is not configured on the host computer. Usefulness and collaboration will not be realized until you actually join a wiki.nyetwork.7.org/wiki/Cisco_Systems Wiki web about Cisco equipment and technology: http://www. Create a personal blog of your network education experience.org/wiki/Cisco Network+: http://en. Describe how you could receive e-mail notifications whenever a topic changes.com: CiscoStudentsStuff Task 3: Reflection This lab presented the mechanics of a wiki. the class may be able use the TWiki wiki server to post interesting topics related to computer network theory and class progress. Internet access is required. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide wiki simply to check for updates to postings. Packet Tracer Challenge Skills Integration Challenge: Introduction to Packet Tracer (1.networkdictionary. Task 5: Clean Up Close all web browsers and shut down the computer unless instructed otherwise.wikibooks.wikibooks.wikipedia. ] wikiName .

6 172.252 255. Examine a device configuration.168.254 172.255.16.0 255.255.6 172.252 255.0 255. Explore the Logical Workplace.1 172.0.254 255. .0 255. Connect devices.254 10.10.10.6 10.2 192. Explore Packet Tracer operation.0.0 255.254.254.254 172.255.253 Upon completion of this activity.255.10.16.1.254. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Explore Packet Tracer Real-time mode.10.168.254.0 255.16.254 192. Describe the devices.10. Review the standard lab setup.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 29 Figure 1-18 Topology for Skills Integration Challenge 1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server 2960-24TT S1-Central 1841 R2-Central PC-PT 1A PC-PT 1B Table 1-6 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP R2-Central S1-Central PC 1A PC 1B Eagle Server Fa0/0 S0/0/0 Fa0/0 S0/0/0 VLAN 1 NIC NIC NIC 192.255.255.255.255.0.16.255.1.0 — — 10.255.10.16.5 172.255.16.255.255.1 172.253 10.0.255.255.168.10.16.255.10.

When you click this symbol.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to perform this exercise using Packet Tracer.pkt files (network simulation model files) and . equipment. Click each group. automatically selects the connection type based on the interfaces available on the devices. Click the connections group symbol. Task 2: Explore PT Operations Step 1: Connect the devices using auto connect. The main part of the PT interface is the Logical Workplace. This activity gives you an opportunity to explore the standard lab setup using the Packet Tracer simulator. This is the large area where devices are placed and connected. the name of the group appears in the text box in the center. the gold lightning bolt. You are encouraged to compare the results obtained from Packet Tracer network models with the behavior of real equipment. these instructions appeared. or modify existing files from your instructor or your peers. routers. At the bottom of these instructions are two buttons: ■ ■ Check Results gives you feedback on how much of the activity you have completed. The first specific type.” tutorials. is the portion of the interface that you use to select and place devices into the Logical Workplace. This method provides the widest range of features and the most realistic experience. this experience can be supplemented by a simulated environment. When you click one of these symbols. Packet Tracer provides a set of protocols. and switches to learn networking concepts. When Packet Tracer starts.pka Packet Tracer activity file format. When you create your own networks in Packet Tracer.pkt file format. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Background Throughout the course you will use a standard lab setup created from actual PCs. You are also encouraged to examine the Help files built into Packet Tracer.pka files (activity files for practice).30 Network Fundamentals. you will often use the . and study the various devices that are available and their symbols. and features but only a fraction of what is possible with real equipment. and information on the strengths and limitations of using Packet Tracer to model networks. Reset Activity restarts the activity if you want to clear your work or get more practice. The specific connection symbols provide different cable types that can be used to connect devices. the pointer resembles a cable connector. Step 2: Explore symbols navigation. They are the result of the . which include an extensive “My First PT Lab. Task 1: Explore the PT Interface Step 1: Examine the Logical Workplace. below the yellow bar. the specific devices in the group appear in the box to the right. a description of the device appears in the text box below the specific devices. Packet Tracer can create two file formats: . Open the file LSG01-PTSkills1. Because equipment and time are limited. Packet Tracer is a supplement and not a replacement for experience with real equipment. As you move the mouse pointer over these symbols. When you launched this activity from the curriculum. The lower-left portion of the PT interface. it presents a logical view of the network in realtime mode. The simulator that is used in this course is Packet Tracer. servers. . The first box in the lower left contains symbols that represent groups of devices. As you point to the specific devices.

Config. and MAC address. MAC address. Server displays IP address. The Physical tab displays components of the device. such as ports. IP address. and Desktop. The Config tab displays the general information. including IP address. and VLAN membership. dialup. As you move the mouse pointer over these symbols. DNS. Step 2: Examine device configuration with a mouseover. ■ PC devices contain three tabs—Physical. . New modules can also be added using this tab. The Physical tab displays components of the device. port status. and gateway information. Click each device type found in the Logical Workplace to view the device configuration: ■ Router and Switch devices contain three tabs—Physical. Move the mouse over the devices found in the Logical Workplace. subnet mask. the command prompt. Config. and gateway information. ■ ■ ■ Step 3: Examine device configuration. New modules can also be added using this tab. subnet mask. port status. make the following connection: ■ ■ Connect Eagle Server to the R1-ISP router. click the auto connection symbol. The Config tab displays the device name. and CLI (command-line interface). the device configurations appear in a text box: ■ Router displays port configuration information. Connect PC-PT 1A to the S1-Central switch. The Desktop tab allows the user to configure IP address. and wireless. DNS server.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 31 To connect two devices. A terminal emulator. ■ Server and Hub devices contain two tabs—Physical and Config. click the first device. and a simulated web browser can also be accessed using the Desktop tab. including IP address. Switch displays port configuration information. The Physical tab displays physical components of the device. and gateway information. such as device name. The CLI tab allows the user to configure the device using the command-line interface. PC displays IP address. MAC address. The Config tab displays the general configuration information. default gateway. New modules can also be added using this tab. such as device name. Using the auto connection symbol. MAC address. such as modules. and then click the second device.

You are encouraged to obtain Packet Tracer from your instructor or Academy Connections. IP addresses. if you have not done so already. one server. .32 Network Fundamentals. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 3: Review the Standard Lab Setup The standard lab setup consists of two routers. one switch. Task 4: Reflection You have completed your first Packet Tracer lab. Each of these devices is preconfigured with such information as device names. and two PCs. gateways. and connections.

Study Guide The Platform for Communications Communication begins with a message. Concept Questions 1. 3. fill-in-the-blank.CHAPTER 2 Communicating over the Network The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of multiple-choice. What is the process used to allow many different conversations to be interleaved on a network called? Multiplexing 4. ■ ■ ■ What are the three elements of communication? Message source or sender Destination or receiver Channel or media What is the process of breaking large messages. What are these three types? Metallic wires within cables Glass or plastic fibers (fiber-optic cable) Wireless transmission ■ ■ ■ . that must be sent from one individual or device to another. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide. and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of how devices communicate over the network. for assistance. People exchange ideas using many different communication methods. use Chapter 2 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum or use the corresponding Chapter 2 in the Networking Fundamentals. or information. All of these methods have three elements in common. hands-on skills needed to use some critical tools to help evaluate network communications. Modern networks primarily use three types of media to interconnect devices. easier-to-manage pieces called? Segmentation 2. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum activities and labs to further reinforce that you have mastered the practical. As you work through this chapter. into smaller. matching. or flow of data.

Cat5 cable. file servers. switches. Table 2-1 Term Components of the Network Definition a. and internetworks. web browser In Table 2-2. The term intranet is often used to refer to a private connection of LANs and WANs that belongs to an organization. Table 2-2 Definition End or Intermediary Device Device Type Computers (work stations. match the definition on the right with a term on the left. and is designed to be accessible only by the organization’s members. identify the definition on the left with either end devices or intermediary devices on the right. laptops. fiber-optic cable a. switch. WANs. PDAs) Network access devices (hubs. and Internetworks Network infrastructures can vary greatly in terms of the following: ■ ■ ■ The size of the area covered The number of users connected The number and types of services available This section tests your knowledge of the differences between LANs. or others with authorization. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks for the following statements. WANs. and wireless access points) Network printers Internetworking devices (routers) VoIP phones Communication servers and modems Security cameras Security devices (firewalls) End devices End devices Intermediary device End devices Intermediary device End devices Intermediary device End devices Intermediary device LANs. . router c.34 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 2-1. E-mail. wireless connection. Services b. employees. Computer. Devices b. 1. web servers) Mobile handheld devices (such as wireless barcode scanners. Media c.

An individual network usually spans a single geographic area. The media connecting the PC to the networking device plugs directly into the NIC. or region. a. such as a single business. A LAN is usually administered by a single organization. Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 2-3. Table 2-3 Term LANs. providing services and applications to people within a common organizational structure. Table 2-4 Device LANs. campus. Internetworks In Table 2-4. match the definition on the right with a term on the left.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 35 2. A global mesh of interconnected networks. and Internetworks Definition a. c. it might be necessary to use a telecommunications service provider (TSP) to interconnect the LANs at the different locations. and Internetworks Number Router Firewall Wireless access point LAN hub LAN switch IP phone Wireless router Wireless media Server Laptop LAN media Desktop computer WAN media 1 7 9 3 2 8 10 13 4 6 12 5 11 . WANs use specifically designed network devices to make the interconnections between LANs. 4. When a company or organization has locations that are separated by large geographic distances. b. WANs c. 3. match the term on the left with the correct symbol number from Figure 2-1. WANs. LANs b. WANs.

Concept Questions 1. 1. These protocols are specific to the characteristics of the conversation. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks for the following statements. A standard is a process or protocol that has been endorsed by the networking industry and ratified by a standards organization. A group of interrelated protocols that are necessary to perform a communication function is called a protocol suite. 3. whether face to face or over a network. whether face to face or over a network. is governed by predetermined rules called protocols. 2. ■ What processes do networking protocol suites describe? The process by which networking devices share information about pathways with other networks How and when error and system messages are passed between devices The setup and termination of data transfer sessions ■ ■ . Successful communication between hosts on a network requires the interaction of many different protocols. is governed by predetermined rules called protocols. 4.36 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 2-1 Common Data Network Symbols 1 7 2 IP 8 3 9 4 10 11 5 12 6 13 Protocols All communication. All communication. The most common internetwork protocol is Internet Protocol (IP).

Protocols describe methods for exchanging data frames between devices over a common media. Application layer b. Session layer f. Internet layer d. Determines the best path through the network In Table 2-6. ■ What are some benefits to using a layered model to describe network protocols and operations? Assists in protocol design. Application layer b. Uses packet sequencing and application mapping through port numbers a. g. because protocols that operate at a specific layer have defined information that they act upon and a defined interface to the layers above and below Fosters competition because products from different vendors can work together Prevents technology or capability changes in one layer from affecting other layers above and below Provides a common language to describe networking functions and capabilities ■ ■ ■ Using Layered Models To visualize the interaction between various protocols. maintain. and procedural means to activate. it is common to use a layered model. Table 2-5 Term TCP/IP Model Definition a. Controls the hardware devices and media that make up the network c. Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 2-5. electrical. continues d. functional. A layered model depicts the operation of the protocols occurring within each layer. Ensures that loss of connection can be recovered and reset if data flow is interrupted before all data is received. Table 2-6 Term OSI Model Definition a. Transport layer c. and the interaction with the layers above and below it. Presentation layer c. Describes the mechanical. Provides for common representation of the data transferred between application layer services. match the definition on the right with a term on the left. a. Network access layer b. Provides services to the presentation layer to organize its dialogue and to manage data exchange.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 37 2. and deactivate physical connections for bit transmission to and from a network device. Network layer . Transport layer e. c. Represents data to the user plus encoding and dialog control d. match the definition on the right with a term on the left. b. Provides the means for end-to-end connectivity between individuals in the human network using data networks.

Using the OSI model as a guide. transfer. and reassemble the data for individual communications between the end devices. you can see the different addresses and identifiers that are necessary at each layer. Layer 2 c. 1. is contained in the header of the Layer 2 protocol data unit (PDU). Provides connectivity services that route packets from source network to destination network.38 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 2-6 Term OSI Model continued Definition f. Layer 2 is concerned with the delivery of messages on a single local network. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks for the following statements. this address is called the Media Access Control (MAC) address. The first identifier. Layer 4 2. Switches c. Layer 1 b. called a frame. 1. the host physical address. Network Addressing Various types of addresses must be included in a packet to successfully deliver the data from a source application running on one host to the correct destination application running on another. Multiple-Choice Questions Choose the best answer for each of the questions that follow. In a LAN using Ethernet. What kind of protocols are primarily designed to move data from one local network to another local network within an internetwork? a. Which devices make Layer 3 decisions? a. Physical layer e. The Layer 2 address is unique on the local network and represents the address of the end device on the physical media. 2. Data link layer g. Hubs d. d. Defines services to segment. A unique dialogue between devices is identified with a pair of Layer 4 source and destination port numbers that are representative of the two communicating applications. Servers . Routers b. Layer 3 d.

Each router represents a point where one network connects to another network and the packet was forwarded through. Scenario Using an Internet connection. The displayed list can help identify data-flow problems when trying to access a service such as a website.5. You should perform this activity on a computer that has Internet access and access to a command line. First. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ Explain the use of route tracing programs.1) Upon completion of this activity. NeoTrace uses available online information to graphically display the route traced on a global map. Tools such as traceroute/tracert are usually embedded within the operating system of the end device. however. It can also be useful when performing tasks such as downloading data. . Note. you use two route-tracing programs to examine the Internet pathway to destination networks. it enables the user to identify the path taken to reach a particular destination on the network or across internetworks. that because of the “meshed” nature of the interconnected networks that make up the Internet and IP’s capability to select different pathways over which to send packets. such as tracert and NeoTrace. Describe the interconnected and global nature of the Internet with respect to data flow. you might have to turn your firewalls off for this lab. The number of routers is known as the number of “hops” the data traveled from source to destination. Background Route-tracing software is a utility that lists the networks data has to traverse from the user’s originating device to a distant destination network device. some computers running Windows XP might have firewall programs enabled that might prevent tracert and NeoTrace from operating. one can trace each mirror to get a good idea of which mirror would be the fastest to use. The traceroute (or tracert) tool is often used for network troubleshooting. Others such as NeoTrace are proprietary programs that provide extra information. This network tool is typically executed in UNIX and similar systems at the command line as follows: traceroute <destination network name or end device address> This network tool is typically executed in Microsoft Windows systems at the command line as follows: tracert <destination network name or end device address> This tool determines the route taken by packets across an IP network. you use the Windows embedded tracert utility. two trace routes between the same source and destination conducted some time apart might produce different results.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 39 Labs and Activities Activity 2-1: Using NeoTrace to View Internetworks (2. By showing a list of routers traversed.2. If multiple websites (mirrors) are available for the same file of data. and then the more enhanced NeoTrace program. Remember. for example. This lab assumes the installation of NeoTrace. Use tracert and NeoTrace to trace a route from its PC to a distant server.

g-win.dfn.19.sprintlink.228.de [188. the tracert would have failed.net [62. Trace the route to a distant network. The first output line should show the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) followed by the IP address.dfn.74. Without this name resolution. Examine the output displayed.ar2.1.219.19.81] so-6-0-0.cr1.69] sl-bb20-rly-15-1.net [144. because this tool operates at the TCP/IP layers.96. Step 3.cisco.de [10. Step 2.com from a location in Bavaria. How many hops between the source and destination? Answer varies based on location Example 2-1 shows the successful result when running tracert www.cisco.133.0.gblx.25] Over a maximum of 30 hops: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 <10 ms <10 ms 20 ms <10 ms <10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 30 ms 30 ms 30 ms 100 ms 110 ms 171 ms 161 ms 160 ms 170 ms 170 ms 160 ms 160 ms 10 ms <10 ms <10 ms <10 ms <10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 30 ms 30 ms 30 ms 100 ms <10 ms <10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 20 ms 20 ms 31 ms 90 ms 10-37-00-1.sprintllink.48.gblx.95.5] sjck-sdf-ciod-gw1.25] sl-bb20-msq-10-0.133.net [208.1.net [144.FRA2.3.dillingen.sprintlink. To trace the route to a distant network. enter tracert www.107.com Tracing route to www.cisco.219.25] 110 ms 110 ms 160 ms 170 ms 160 ms 170 ms 181 ms 160 ms 151 ms 160 ms 151 ms 160 ms 160 ms 161 ms 150 ms 161 ms Trace complete.1.cr2. .net [195.232. the PC being used must have a working connection to the class/lab network. Germany.1. If DNS is not available.232.dfn.LON3.alp.de [188.cisco.com [198.14] sjck-dirty-gw1.239.8.174] pos1-0-622M.37.232. which understand valid IP addresses only.g-win.44.br1.131.32.18.net [144.207.232. The lab Domain Name Service (DNS) server was able to resolve the name to an IP address.net [144.16.193] cr-muenchen1.sprintlink.239.40 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 1: Trace Route to Remote Server Step 1.FRA2.net [195.com.3.internal.g-win.sprintlink.125] sl-bb25-sj-12-0.210] sl-gw11-sj-10-0.net [213.cisco.73] so0-0-0-2488M.sprintlink.145] ar-augsburg1. the IP address of the destination device rather than the server name has to be entered after the tracert command.sprintlink.8.gblx.net [144. Example 2-1 tracert Output C:\> tracert www.107.694] sl-bb22-sj-5-1.gblx.net [144.dfn.com [128.com [128.LON3.com [198.134] sl-ciscopsn2-11-0-0.317.de [188.cisco.106] www. At the command-line prompt.206.9.232.141] pos3-0-622M.11 ar-augsburg2.33] cr-frankfurt1.11] 194.23.g-win.189] sl-bb21-lon-5-0.de [188.96.74.cisco.

From the View menu. Then. Try a number of different URLs and view the routes to those destinations. Step 3. Launch the NeoTrace program. which enables you to enter the precise latitude and longitude of your location. On the View menu. Map View from the View menu displays the links and routers in their geographic location on a global map. Step 4. Step 2.cisco. Task 4: Challenge Consider and discuss possible network security issues that could arise from the use of programs such as traceroute and NeoTrace. Task 3: Reflection Review the purpose and usefulness of route-tracing programs. and examine your output. Step 4. Select each view in turn and note the differences and similarities. a DNS server was able to resolve the name to an IP address. Step 5. Unless instructed otherwise by your instructor. . Task 5: Clean Up Exit the NeoTrace program. Relate the displays of the output of NeoTrace to the concept of interconnected networks and the global nature of the Internet. Step 6. Therefore. properly shut down the computer. followed by the IP address. Try the same trace route on a PC connected to the Internet and examine your output: Number of hops to www. List View displays the list of routers similar to tracert. choose Options. Destination URL: Answer varies based on URL Destination IP address: Answer varies based on URL Task 2: Trace Route Using NeoTrace Step 1.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 41 The first output line shows the FQDN. Node View from the View menu displays the connections graphically with symbols. Follow the instructions to select your country and location within your country. there are listings of all routers through which the tracert requests had to pass to get to the destination. Step 7.cisco. and in the Home Location section click the Set Home Location button. Alternatively. Consider which technical details are revealed and how this information could perhaps be misused.com in the Target field and click Go. Click the Map tab. you can click the Advanced button. Enter www.com: Answer varies based on location Step 5. Try another trace route on the same PC.

you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ Correctly identify cables for use in the network. In the basic portion of this lab. Addressing for this lab is applied to the workstations and is used to enable communication between the devices. In addition.6. At the physical layer (Layer 1) of the OSI model. Physically cable a peer-to-peer and switched network. end devices must be connected by media (cables). as shown in Figure 2-2.1) Upon completion of this lab. which allows the data to reach the appropriate destination device.1. Figure 2-2 Topology for Lab 2-1 Peer-to-Peer Network Switched Network . Therefore. two or more devices communicate through an address. Background Many network problems can be fixed at the physical layer of a network. The type of media required depends on the type of device being connected. you need to understand clearly which cables to use for your network connections. The network layer (Layer 3) requires a unique address (also known as a logical address or IP address). Verify basic connectivity on each network. Scenario This lab starts with the simplest form of networking (peer to peer) and ends with the lab connecting through a switch. you use straight-through or patch cables to connect workstations and switches.42 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Lab 2-1: Topology Orientation and Building a Small Network (2.

you must identify the types of media you intend to use. Use a crossover cable to connect two workstations to each other through their network interface card (NIC) Ethernet port. Note: These steps must be completed on each workstation. The Network Connections window should appear. a. This is also an Ethernet cable. .Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 43 Task 1: Create a Peer-to-Peer Network Step 1. Obtain the following equipment and resources for the lab: ■ ■ ■ ■ Two workstations Two straight-through (patch) cables One crossover cable One switch (or hub) Task 2: Identify the Cables Used in a Network Before the devices can be cabled. right-click My Network Places. Task 3: Cable the Peer-to-Peer Network Step 1. and then click Properties. with icons showing the different network connections. The cables used in this lab are crossover and straight-through. Step 2. connect two workstations together. This is an Ethernet cable. Select a lab partner. click Start. Figure 2-3 Peer-to-Peer Cabling Which cable did you use? Crossover cable Step 2. See Figure 2-4. use the following step-by-step instructions. Use a straight-through cable to connect the router’s Ethernet port to a switch port or a workstation to a switch port. Apply a Layer 3 address to the workstations. Steps may differ slightly if you are using a different operating system. To complete this task. Connect one end of the cable to the NIC port on PC1 and the other end of the cable to PC2. Using the correct Ethernet cable. Notice when you look at the plug that both ends of the cable are exactly the same in each pin position. Notice when you look at the plug that the orange and green wires are in opposite positions on each end of the cable. The instructions are for Windows XP. Connect two workstations. On your computer. as shown in Figure 2-3.

. Select the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) item as shown in Figure 2-5.44 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 2-4 Network Connections b. c. Right-click the Local Area Connection and click Properties.168. Enter the IP address 192. Figure 2-5 Local Area Connection Properties d. and then click the Properties button.1. select the Use the following IP address option.168.2 for PC1. e. enter the IP address 192.1.3 for PC2. On the General tab of the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties window. In the IP address box.

You can enter DOS commands using this window. h. Step 3. and then click OK. as shown in Figure 2-6. click Start. enter the address manually.255. Click OK. you enter basic network commands to test your computer connections. If this address is not automatically listed. Close the Local Area Connection Properties window. The DOS command (cmd. .exe) window will appear as shown in Figure 2-8.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 45 f. The dialog box shown in Figure 2-7 appears. For the purposes of this lab. The subnet address should be 255. Verify connectivity. Figure 2-7 Run Command Enter cmd in the Open box.0.255. and then click Run. the subnet mask lists automatically. Press the Tab key. Figure 2-6 Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties g. On your computer.

Possible areas to troubleshoot include the following: ■ Verifying the correct IP addresses on both workstations . enter ping 192.3: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 192.168.168.3: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Answer for PC2: Reply from 192.1.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 192. From the PC1 DOS command prompt. From the PC2 DOS command prompt.1.168. router. enter ping 192.3: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 192.168. server.168.1.168. Use the ping command to verify that PC1 can reach PC2 and PC2 can reach PC1.1.1.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 192. and so on) is reachable across an IP network.1.46 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 2-8 cmd Command The ping command is a computer network tool used to test whether a host (workstation.1.3: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 192.1.1.168. troubleshoot as necessary.168.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 If the ping command displays an error message or doesn’t receive a reply from the other workstation.3.1.2. Step 4.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 192.168. What is the output of the ping command? Answer for PC1: Reply from 192.168.

Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 47 ■ Ensuring that the correct type of cable is used between the workstations What is the output of the ping command if you unplug the network cable and ping the other workstation? Answer for PC1: Destination host unreachable Destination host unreachable Destination host unreachable Destination host unreachable Task 4: Connect Your Workstations to the Classroom Lab Switch Step 1. Which cable did you use? Straight-through cable . Repeat this process for each workstation on your network. Connect the workstation to a switch. as shown in Figure 2-9. Using the correct cable. connect one end of the cable to the NIC port on the workstation and the other end to a port on the switch. Figure 2-9 Switched Network 1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server 2960-24TT S1-Central 1841 R2-Central PC-PT 1A PC-PT 1B Step 2.

The test folder should appear. Verify connectivity.3: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 192. Share a document between PCs. however. media disconnected.1. You can access this folder across the network.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. switch powered off Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Topology Orientation and Building a Small Network (2. you have access through all seven layers of the OSI model. and media disconnected What could prevent the ping from being sent to the workstations when they are connected through the switch? Wrong IP address.48 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Step 3. Task 5: Reflection What could prevent a ping from being sent between the workstations when they are directly connected? Wrong IP address on workstation.6. Right-click the folder and click Sharing and Security.3: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 192. or a misconfiguration of the switch. pinging wrong IP address. On the desktop. A hand symbol will appear under the icon. When you can see it and work with the file. .2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab2612. Double-click the workstation icon. Verify network connectivity by using the ping command to reach the other workstations attached to the switch. create a new folder and name it test.3: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 What is the output of the ping command if you ping an address that is not connected to this network? Answer for PC1: Request timed out Request timed out Request timed out Request timed out Step 4.1. Place a file in the folder. Remember. On your desktop.1. double-click My Network Places and then Computers Near Me.1. What is the output of the ping command? Answer for PC1: Reply from 192.168.168.168.3: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 192. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment.168.1.

or “packet sniffer” application. Perform basic PDU capture using Wireshark. analysis. Perform basic PDU analysis on straightforward network data traffic. Experiment with Wireshark features and options such as PDU capture and display filtering. go to http://www. used for network troubleshooting. Scenario To capture PDUs. This enables it to display the encapsulation and individual fields of a PDU and interpret their meaning. the screen shown in Figure 2-10 displays. A packet sniffer (also known as a network analyzer or protocol analyzer) is computer software that can intercept and log data traffic passing over a data network. and education. Wireshark was known as Ethereal. As data streams travel back and forth over the network.org. When Wireshark is launched.2. Figure 2-10 Wireshark Opening Screen . For information and to download the program. the computer on which Wireshark is installed must have a working connection to the network. Wireshark is programmed to recognize the structure of different network protocols.1) Upon completion of this lab. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ ■ Explain the purpose of a protocol analyzer (Wireshark). Before June 2006. and Wireshark must be running before any data can be captured. the sniffer “captures” each protocol data unit (PDU) and can decode and analyze its content according to the appropriate RFC or other specifications. It is a useful tool for anyone working with networks and can be used with most labs in the CCNA courses for data analysis and troubleshooting.6. Background Wireshark is a software protocol analyzer. software and protocol development.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 49 Lab 2-2: Using Wireshark to View Protocol Data Units (2.Wireshark.

you can set the other options. shown in Figure 2-11. provides a range of settings and filters to determine which and how much data traffic is captured. Figure 2-12 Wireshark Capture Options .50 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide To start data capture. Figure 2-11 Wireshark: Capture Options Dialog Box First. you must ensure that Wireshark is set to monitor the correct interface. for a computer this is the connected Ethernet adapter. Then. select Options from the Capture menu. select the network adapter in use. Among those available in the Capture Options dialog box. From the Interface dropdown list. The Capture Options dialog box. the two highlighted in Figure 2-12 deserve examination. Typically.

routers) throughout these courses. If this feature is checked. The examples in Figure 2-14 show the capture of a ping process (box on left) and then accessing a web page (box on right). Figure 2-13 Wireshark Capture Start As data PDUs are captured. and a message box displays the progress of this process (as shown in Figure 2-13). Note: The capturing of these other PDUs depends on the intermediary device connecting the end-device computers on this network. all PDUs destined for this computer and all those detected by the computer NIC on the same network segment (that is. . the types and number are indicated in the message box.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 51 If the Capture packets in promiscuous mode feature is not checked. Clicking the Start button starts the data-capture process. switches. those that “pass by” the NIC but are not destined for the computer) are captured. only PDUs destined for this computer will be captured. Although this is a useful feature. The Enable transport name resolution option allows you to control whether Wireshark translates network addresses found in PDUs into names. As you use different intermediary devices (hubs. Wireshark also provides a number of other capture-filtering and capture-process settings. the name-resolution process might add extra PDUs to your captured data. perhaps distorting the analysis. you will experience the different Wireshark results.

The PDU (or packet) details pane in the middle of Figure 2-15 displays the packet selected in the packet list pane in more detail. Packet number one is selected in this pane. The example in Figure 2-15 shows the PDUs captured when the ping utility was used and http://www. more details will display in the packet details pane and in the packet bytes pane.52 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 2-14 Wireshark Capture Output When the Stop button is clicked. Each line in the packet list corresponds to one PDU or packet of the captured data. By clicking packets in this pane.Wireshark. The packet details pane shows the current packet (selected in the pack- . as shown in Figure 2-15. the capture process is terminated and the main screen displays. If you select a line in this pane. you control what displays in the other two panes. Figure 2-15 Wireshark Capture Main Panes The PDU (or packet) list pane at the top of Figure 2-15 displays a summary of each packet captured. This main display window of Wireshark has three panes.org was accessed.

The packet list pane on Wireshark should now look something like Figure 2-17. and highlights the field selected in the packet details pane.168. Step 2. Set the capture options as described in the preceding section. and then start the capture process. a prompt asks whether you want to save the captured PDUs.254. Figure 2-16 Wireshark Save Option Clicking Continue without Saving closes the file and exits Wireshark without saving the captured data. stop the packet capture. as shown in Figure 2-16. you will find this displayed information useful for examining the binary values and content of PDUs. This pane shows the protocols and protocol fields of the selected packet.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 53 et list pane) in a more detailed form. The protocols and fields of the packet display in a tree form. However. The packet bytes pane shows the data of the current packet (selected in the packet list pane) in what is known as hexdump style. and then open this file in Wireshark for later analysis without having to recapture the same data traffic. When closing a data-capture screen or exiting Wireshark. when a more in-depth analysis is required. The information displayed when a capture file is opened is the same as the original capture. Examine the packet list pane. You can save the information captured for the data PDUs in a file. this pane is not examined in detail. The PDU (or packet) bytes pane at the bottom of Figure 2-15 displays the actual data (in hexadecimal form representing the actual binary) from the packet selected in the packet list pane. .254. In this case. After receiving the successful replies to the ping in the command-line window. which you can expand and collapse. ping the Eagle Server using the command ping 192. From the command line. Task 1: Ping PDU Capture Step 1. In this lab. launch Wireshark on a computer in a lab pod. After ensuring that the standard lab topology and configuration is correct. ping the IP address of another network-connected and poweredon end device in the lab topology.

9. The packet details pane will now display something similar to Figure 2-18. From the Wireshark packet list. 8. and the destination is the Eagle Server. If you performed Step 1. match the messages displayed in the command-line window when the ping was issued with the six packets captured by Wireshark. Locate the equivalent packets on the packet list on your computer. Step 3. Yes. Select (highlight) the first echo request packet on the list. 14. 11. 12.54 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 2-17 Wireshark Packet List Pane Look at the packets listed in Figure 2-17. answer the following: What protocol is used by ping? ICMP What is the full protocol name? Internet Control Message Protocol What are the names of the two ping messages? Echo Request Echo Reply Are the listed source and destination IP addresses what you expected? Why? Answers may vary. and 15. . particularly packet numbers 6. the source address is my computer. 7.

if you select (highlight) the second line (+ Ethernet II) in the details pane. the bytes pane highlights the corresponding values. make a note of the information you do recognize. . Figure 2-19 Wireshark Packet Details Pane. What protocols are in the Ethernet frame? eth:ip:icmp:data As you select a line in the packet details pane. Locate the two different types of “source” and “destination. Expanded As you can see. The packet details pane will now display something similar to Figure 2-19. Spend some time scrolling through this information. as shown in Figure 2-20. For example. and the Internet Protocol shows the IP addresses.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 55 Figure 2-18 Wireshark Packet Details Pane Click each of the four plus sign (+) buttons to expand the information. Although at this stage of the course you might not fully understand the displayed information.” Why are there two types? The Ethernet II shows the MAC addresses. you can further expand the details for each section and protocol. all or part of the information in the packet bytes pane also becomes highlighted.

exe and press the Enter key <ENTER> to start downloading the file from the FTP server. as follows: ftp> quit 221 Goodbye.254.5. enter ftp 192. Click Continue without Saving when the message box shown in Figure 2-16 appears.168.0. .example.254. 150 Opening BINARY mode data connection for pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter1/gaim1. When the connection is established.59Seconds 11729. When the file download is complete.exe (6967072 bytes).56 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 2-20 Wireshark Packet Expanded. User (eagle-server. Assuming Wireshark is still running from the previous steps.0.5. When successfully logged in. Highlighted Pane This line shows the particular binary values that represent that information in the PDU.exe 200 PORT command successful.example. enter get /pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter1/gaim-1. as follows: Userid: anonymous Password: <ENTER> You may alternatively log in with userid cisco and password cisco.com Connected to eagle-server. Start packet capture. Task 2: FTP PDU Capture Step 1. Consider using PASV. 220 Welcome to the eagle-server FTP service. Step 4. it is not necessary to understand this information in detail. enter quit. 226 File send OK.08Kbytes/sec. stop the PDU capture in Wireshark. Example 2-2 Eagle Server Output C:\Documents and Settings\ccna1>ftp eagle-server. At the command line on your computer running Wireshark. Go to the File menu and select Close. At this stage of the course. The output will look similar to Example 2-2. start packet capture by clicking the Start option on the Capture menu of Wireshark. C:\Documents and Settings\ccna1> When the file has successfully downloaded.com:(none)): anonymous 331 Please specify the password.com.example. Password:<ENTER> 230 Login successful. enter anonymous as the user without a password. ftp> get /pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter1/gaim-1.0.5. ftp: 6967072 bytes received in 0.

FTP > 1292 [SYN. ftp >1292 [FIN. In the details and bytes panes. and the Layer 7 protocol. From any pane. The first group is associated with the “connection” phase and logging in to the server. Increase the size of the Wireshark packet list pane and scroll through the PDUs listed. Locate and list examples of messages exchanged in the second phase (that is. View the packet details in the details pane.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 57 Step 2. Locate and note those PDUs associated with the file download. ACK]. TCP. 1292 > ftp [ACK]. Response: 220 Welcome to the eagle-server FTP service. What feature of TCP does this indicate? Send and receipt of data Step 3.” List examples of messages exchanged during this process. locate the packet containing the filename. The filename is gaim-1. Examine packet details. If you performed Step 2. ACK]. Answers will vary. Request: User anonymous. What protocols are encapsulated in the frame? Eth:ip:tcp:ftp-data Highlight the packets containing the username and password. Request: Pass. FTP.0. . Select (highlight) a packet on the list associated with the first phase of the FTP process. These will be the PDUs from the Layer 4 protocol. Highlight a packet containing the actual file content. Answers will vary. 1294 > ftp-data [ACK. Response: 221 Goodbye. the actual download request and the data transfer). What does this indicate about the security of this FTP login process? Security isn’t high because the name and password are visible. 1292 > ftp [FIN.5.exe. note the plain text visible in the bytes pane. 1292 > ftp [SYN]. Examine the highlighted portion in the packet bytes pane. Identify the three groups of PDUs associated with the file transfer.] The third group of PDUs relate to logging out and “breaking the connection. Request:QUIT. highlight and examine some packets exchanged in the third phase of the file download.] Locate recurring TCP exchanges throughout the FTP process. ACK. match the packets with the messages and prompts in the FTP command-line window. Response: 331 Please specify the password. Answers will vary. Highlight a packet associated with the second phase. FTP Data: 1448 bytes. List examples of messages exchanged in this phase.

254. Also. Step 2. User traffic could be monitored to identify errors in source or destination.58 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Which features distinguish the content of these packets? A [FIN. click the + box next to Line-based text data: html. When you have finished. In the packet list pane. close the Wireshark file and continue without saving. Step 3. . After the web page has fully downloaded. Note the similarity between this message exchange and the FTP exchange. Task 4: Reflection Consider the encapsulation information pertaining to captured network data Wireshark can provide. In the packet details pane.168. When this information expands. identify data traffic on a network that is requested by users. Start packet capture.com or enter the IP address 192. Locate and identify the TCP and HTTP packets associated with the downloaded web page. ACK] is issued to close the connection. Increase the size of the Wireshark packet list pane and scroll through the PDUs listed. Task 5: Challenge Discuss how you could use a protocol analyzer such as Wireshark to troubleshoot the failure of a web page to download successfully to a browser on a computer. Task 3: HTTP PDU Capture Step 1. stop the Wireshark packet capture. Answers may vary. Launch a web browser on the computer that is running Wireshark. start packet capture by clicking the Start option on the Capture menu of Wireshark. This shows the HTML data carried by the packet. Wireshark could show when a request for a web page failed because of an incorrect URL.254. Assuming Wireshark is still running from the previous steps. When finished. It is important that you can recognize and link both the protocols represented and the protocol layer and encapsulation types of the models with the information provided by Wireshark. Note: Capture options do not have to be set if you are continuing from previous steps of this lab. close the Wireshark file and continue without saving. highlight an HTTP packet that has the notation “(text/html)” in the Info column. Enter the URL of the Eagle Server as example. Relate this to the OSI and TCP/IP layer models. what is displayed? HTML code for the web page Examine the highlighted portion of the bytes pane.

pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to do the challenge lab using Packet Tracer. You can now open the file LSG01-PTSkills2.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab2622. Figure 2-21 Topology for Challenge 1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server 2960-24TT S1-Central 1841 R2-Central PC-PT 1A PC-PT 1B . however. Skills Integration Challenge: Examining Packets (2. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment.3) In this activity. Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Using Packet Tracer to View Protocol Data Units (2. and Table 2-7 reflects the addressing information. and analyzing a model of the Exploration lab network.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity. Remember. Remember. Figure 2-21 shows the topology for this challenge. however.6.1. testing.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 59 Task 6: Cleanup Unless instructed otherwise by your instructor. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity.2. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. exit Wireshark and properly shut down the computer.7. you start building.

255.255.0.254.254 172.0.168. When you create your own networks in Packet Tracer. Add simple PDUs in real-time mode.254 10.16.10.255. these instructions appeared.0 255.10.2.1 172. Connect PC 1B to the Fa0/2 port of the S1-Central Switch and check your work with the Check Results button to see that the topology is complete.168. in case you want to clear your work or gain more practice). display name 1B.6 10. default gateway 172.0. you will be using a standard lab setup created from actual PCs.16.10. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ ■ Complete the topology.253 10.255.254 192.16.254.255. you continue learning how to build and analyze this standard lab topology. Configure it using the following parameters: IP address 172.254.254 255. Analyze PDUs in simulation mode.6 172.255. In this activity.0.2 192.0 255. subnet mask 255. you are encouraged to examine the Help files available from the Help pull-down menu at the top of the Packet Tracer GUI.1.254.10.254. Background Throughout the course.255.255. Packet Tracer can create two file formats: PKT files (network simulation model files) and PKA files (activity files for practice).0.254.0 255. Experiment with the model of the standard lab setup.255. This activity provides an opportunity to explore the standard lab setup using the Packet Tracer simulator. servers. Resources include a “My First PT Lab” to help you learn the basic operation of Packet Tracer.60 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 2-7 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP Fa0/0 S0/0/0 192.255.0.255.255.253 R2-Central Fa0/0 S0/0/0 S1-Central PC 1A PC 1B Eagle Server VLAN 1 NIC NIC NIC Upon completion of this activity.255.255.5 172.252 255. routers.16.168. and switches to learn networking concepts.16. If you have not done so already. They are the result of the PKA Packet Tracer activity file format.255.6 172.10.252 255.10. and information about the strengths and weaknesses of using Packet Tracer to model networks. you will often use the PKT file format.10.0 255.255.1.16.254.1 172.16. .168.255. Task 1: Complete the Topology Add a PC to the workspace. When you launched this activity from the curriculum.255.0 255.0 N/A N/A 10. Two buttons appear at the bottom of these instructions: Check Results (which gives you feedback on how much of the activity you have completed) and Reset Activity (which starts the activity over.254 172. DNS server 192. tutorials to guide you through various tasks.1.16. or modify existing files from your instructor or your peers.16.10.

Double-click the red “Fire” button in the User-Created PDU window.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 61 Task 2: Add Simple PDUs in Real-Time Mode Using the Add Simple PDU. and in the lower right as a user-created PDU that can be manipulated for testing purposes. Click the packet envelope. Note that this packet will appear in the event list as something that was “detected” or “sniffed” on the network. one server. Try creating different combinations of test packets and analyzing their journey through the network. . Use the Capture / Forward button to move the packet through the network. Task 4: Experiment with the Model of the Standard Lab Setup The standard lab setup will consist of two routers. to examine the packet at each step in its journey. Each of these devices is preconfigured. you are encouraged to obtain Packet Tracer from your instructor and complete My First PT Lab (available by accessing the Help pull-down menu and choosing Contents). and two PCs. Task 5: Reflection If you have not already done so. one switch. or click the colored square in the Info column of the event list. Task 3: Analyze PDUs in Simulation Mode (Packet Tracing) Switch to simulation mode. send a test message: one between PC 1B and Eagle Server.

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presentation.CHAPTER 3 Application Layer Functionality and Protocols The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of multiple-choice. When placed side by side. Study Guide Applications: The Interface Between the Networks Visualizing the mechanisms that enable communication across the network is easier if you use the layered framework of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model. matching. hands-on skills needed to work with the application layer of the OSI model. for assistance. As you work through this chapter. or use the corresponding Chapter 3 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration Companion Guide. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum labs to further reinforce that you have mastered the practical. Figure 3-1 OSI and TCP/IP Models OSI Model 7 Application 6 Presentation 5 4 3 2 1 Session Transport Network Data Link Physical Application Layers TCP/IP Model Domain Name System Application Hypertext Transfer Protocol Simple Mail Transfer Protocol Post Office Protocol Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol Transport Internet Data Flow Layers Network Access . In this section you explore the upper layers of both the OSI and TCP/IP models. use Chapter 3 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum. and session layers. as shown in Figure 3-1. the OSI and TCP/IP models provide a means by which you can visualize and discuss the flow of networking. Application layer software and application layer services and protocols are examined in the labs. How the human network generates data and how that data then enters the computer network is discussed. fill-in-the-blank. and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of the TCP/IP model application layer and the OSI model application.

GIF. Session layer e. Define the meaning of any informational fields. Protocol used to provide remote access to servers and network work devices c. . Top layer of both the OSI and TCP/IP models d. Email clients and web browsers are a couple of examples. JPEG. Graphic image formats Concept Questions 1. What is meant by the term application layer services? Why are protocols important when used in conjunction with application layer services? Software programs need the assistance of application layer services to use network resources. Generally defines the protocols in the TCP/IP suite a. such as file transfer or network print spooling. Protocols define the standards and data formats used. compression. Define processes on either end of the communication. Telnet h. What does the term network-aware application mean? List a few examples. match the term on the left with its definition on the right. It is difficult to generalize about protocols because they vary so greatly in purpose. Layer 7 c. SMTP. Top layer of the OSI model g. and encryption e. Request For Comments (RFC) h. Define the format of a message. Define the start and end of a message. 3. Functions at this layer create and maintain dialogs between source and destination applications f. Define the types of messages. Specify what to do with corrupted or improperly formatted messages. The most widely known TCP/IP application layer protocols that provide for the exchange of user information b. Without protocols. Application layer b. Define the syntax of a message. DNS. 2. Table 3-1 Term OSI and TCP/IP Model Comparison Definition a. This layer provides coding.64 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 3-1. Define interaction with the next lower layer. Network-aware applications are software programs used to communicate over the network. Define how messages are sent and the expected response. Presentation layer d. HTTP. but what properties do application protocols display? Answers will vary. FTP g. These software programs are considered network-aware if they implement the application layer protocols and can communicate directly with the lower layers of the protocol stack. TIFF f. the data network would not have a common way to format and direct data.

If that is the case. a request to access that information must be made to the device where the data resides. simultaneously and as a single transaction . multiple clients requesting services. Hosted on a client e. a. simultaneously but as separate transactions d. match the term on the left with its definition on the right. Two or more computers are connected via a network and can share resources (such as printers and files) without having a dedicated server. Client b. cell phone. A Telnet server may have _____________. Can be on a client and/or a server a. whether it is a PC. Peer-to-peer networks b. PDA. Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 3-2. Table 3-2 Term Application Layer Terms Definition a. a single client requesting a service b. Telnet services f. or some other device connected to a network. laptop. Web browser e. Peer-to-peer networks b.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 65 Making Provisions for Applications and Services When people attempt to access information on their device. multiple clients requesting services. Web services d. Client/server networks c. Across the intranet only e. Server c. Peer-to-peer applications can be used on which of the following? (Choose all that apply. Device responding to the request d. multiple clients requesting services. but not at the same time c. Across the peer-to-server network 2. Across the Internet d. Multiple-Choice Questions Choose the best answer(s) for each of the following questions. Hosted on a web server f.) a. the data may not be physically stored on their device. Device requesting information c. 1.

TCP port 25 d. typically a web browser.66 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Application Layer Protocols and Services Examples As you will see later in this course. HTTP defines the message types that the client uses to request the web page and also the message types the server uses to respond. Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) d. TCP port 80 c. 6. Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 3-3. 5. Port numbers identify applications and application layer services that are the source and destination of data. 1. The Server Message Block (SMB) is a client/server file-sharing protocol. File Transfer Protocol (FTP) c. Server programs generally use predefined port numbers that are commonly known by clients. the web browser establishes a connection to the web service running on the server using the HTTP protocol. people can make files on their hard disks available to others for downloading. TCP/UDP port 53 b. DNS uses a hierarchical system to create a name database to provide name resolution. Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) g. The e-mail server operates two separate processes: Mail Transfer Agent (MTA) and Mail Delivery Agent (MDA). 10. Post Office Protocol (POP) e. the most popular network service. has revolutionized how people communicate through its simplicity and speed. based on the Gnutella protocol. With peer-to-peer applications . A DNS server provides name resolution using the name daemon. sends a request message to a server. UDP port 67 g. 9. TCP ports 20 and 21 b. 3. E-mail. UDP port 110 e. Telnet a. match the port number on the left with its protocol on the right. Sharing files over the Internet has become extremely popular. The FTP client is an application that runs on a computer that is used to push files to and pull files from a server. 8. 4. 2. Domain Name System (DNS) f. When a web address (or URL) is entered into a web browser. Table 3-3 Port Number Port Numbers and Protocols Protocol a. When a client. the transport layer uses an addressing scheme called a port number. DHCP allows a host to obtain an IP address dynamically when it connects to the network. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following statements. 7. TCP port 23 f.

Application. network. It centralizes the resources on a network. Multiple-Choice Questions Choose the best answer(s) for each of the following questions. Internet. 1. presentation. 6. Which of the following best describes a peer-to-peer network? a. The e-mail server operates which two separate processes? a. The Domain Name System (DNS) was created to do what? a. Telnet provides a standard method of emulating text-based terminal devices over the data network. d. The Open Systems Interconnection reference model is a layered. and physical d. Resolve domain names to IP addresses. Application. P2P d. E-mail c. Mail Transfer Agent (MTA) b.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 67 11. session. It decentralizes the resources on a network. eBay 3. presentation. and physical c. What is the most popular application service? a. session. b. network. transport. session. Mail Delivery Agent (MDA) 4. c. Upload d. Application. Resolve domain names to e-mail addresses. c. transport. d. Internet. b. transport. presentation. and physical b. Application. . data link. Query b. data link. It uses the client/server model. data link. The OSI model divides the networking process into which seven layers? a. transport. Pull 5. Data transfer from a client to a server is referred to as which of the following? a. Mail Transfer Bridge (MTB) c. Download c. Resolve domain names to computer names. World Wide Web b. network. Resolve domain names to MAC addresses. abstract representation created as a guideline for network protocol design. Internet. and physical 2. It uses file servers. Mail User Agent (MUA) d. presentation.

STelnet 9.68 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide 7. and other IP networking parameters? a. HTTPS b. Country of origin c. SSH c. The different top-level domains represent which of the following? (Choose all correct answers. For secure communication across the Internet. gateway. HTTP d. which protocol is used to access or post web server information? a. POP 10. Type of organization b. Which service automates the assignment of IP addresses. SMTP b. the e-mail client can use which of the following protocols? a. SHTTP c. TFTP c. File server name 8. Company or brand name d. SMTP b.) a. subnet masks. Telnet d. STP d. To receive e-mail messages from an e-mail server. DHCP .

as shown in Figure 3-3.1) Upon completion of this activity. Microsoft Sound Recorder is a Windows accessory. If a microphone and Microsoft Sound Recorder are not available. depending on network speed. you will use a microphone and Microsoft Sound Recorder to capture an audio stream. Open the Windows Sound Recorder application.com/dlls/podcasts/audio_feeds.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 69 Labs and Activities Activity 3-1: Data Stream Capture (3. or it can be transferred for storage on another device. Estimated completion time. The Sound Recorder interface is shown in Figure 3-2. is 30 minutes. Task 1: Create a Sound File Step 1.1. Scenario Perform this activity on a computer that has a microphone and Microsoft Sound Recorder or Internet access so that you can download an audio file. Record the file’s characteristics.html. click the Record button on the Sound Recorder interface. or create sounds that the microphone can pick up. Record an audio file. the data that comprises that file must be stored somewhere. To begin recording. Figure 3-2 Sound Recorder Interface Step 2. Examine data transfer rates associated with the file. you can download an audio file to use in this activity from http://newsroom. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ Capture or download an audio stream. You can find the application in Windows XP by choosing Start > Programs > Accessories > Entertainment > Sound Recorder. As the audio is recorded. . Speak into the microphone. In this activity.cisco. the sound’s waveform should appear on the Sound Recorder interface. You can find it in Windows XP by choosing Start > Programs > Accessories > Entertainment > Sound Recorder. The data can be stored on the end device where it was created.4. Background When an application creates a file.

70 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 3-3 Recording in Progress Click the Stop button when you are finished. Save to the desktop the audio file you created. depending on the file created. Step 3. Figure 3-4 Playback If you are unable to hear the recording. Step 2. Save the audio file.wav. and attempt to create the recording again. as shown in Figure 3-4. What is the file size in kilobytes? Answers will vary. Right-click the audio file you saved to the desktop. check the microphone’s configuration.com/dlls/podcasts/audio_feeds. What is the file size in bits? Answers will vary.html. Open the audio file in Windows Media Player. and choose Properties from the popup menu. close the Sound Recorder application. Check the audio file that was recorded. Save the audio file to the desktop. and the volume settings. right-click at the top of the Media Player interface. . download an audio file from News@Cisco at http://newsroom. Click the Play button to listen to the recording.cisco. and choose File > Properties from the popup menu. When the file is open. What is the file size in bytes? Answers will vary. depending on the file created. The recording should be played back. Name the file myaudio. and proceed to Task 2. Task 2: Observe the Properties of the Audio File Step 1. depending on the file created. Right-click the audio file and choose Open With > Windows Media Player. the speakers. After saving the file. View audio file properties. Step 4. If you are unable to create a recording.

Verify the default web server configuration file. Answers will vary. Web server support is a valuable skill for network administrators. depending on the file created. Calculate the amount of data per second in the audio file. Consumers use web browsers to access business websites. Unless instructed otherwise. and record the result. Task 3: Reflection Data files do not have to remain on the end devices where they are created. how long would it take the file transfer to be completed? Answers will vary. you may want to copy the audio file that you created to another computer or a portable audio device. turn off the computer.4.1) Upon completion of this lab. If so. how long would it take for the file transfer to be completed? Answers will vary. Even with an Ethernet connection operating at 100 Mbps. that is necessary for the frame’s delivery. Based on a survey by Netcraft in January 2007.2. and verify a web server application. Capture and analyze HTTP traffic with Wireshark. depending on the file created. Table 3-4 shows the top three web server applications by percentage of use. install. However. All Ethernet frames contain other information.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 71 What is the length of the audio file in seconds? Answers will vary. Task 4: Clean Up You may be required to remove from the computer the audio file you saved. Background Web servers are an important part of the business plan for any organization with a presence on the Internet. If the Ethernet overhead uses 5 percent of the available 100 Mbps bandwidth. the data that makes up a file is not transferred at this speed. . depending on the file created. such as source and destination addresses. web browsers make up only half the communication channel. and 95 percent of the bandwidth is left for the data payload. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ Download. The other half is web server support. For example. If the audio file that you saved to the desktop were to be transferred at a rate of 100 megabits per second (Mbps). Lab 3-1: Managing a Web Server (3. depending on the file created. delete the file from the desktop.

The lab should be configured as shown in Figure 3-5 and Table 3-5. using Wireshark to capture the communication. and configure the popular Apache web server. You will use a web browser to connect to the server. install. Analyzing the capture will help you understand how the HTTP protocol operates.72 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 3-4 Web Server Web Server Choices Percent of Use Apache Microsoft Sun Scenario 60 percent 31 percent 1.6 percent In this lab you will download. ask the instructor for assistance before proceeding. Figure 3-5 Topology for Lab 3-1 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 . If it is not.

255.0. Install the Apache web server on the pod host computer.255. Finally.10. check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central. ping eagle-server.254. The next installation step requires customized configuration of the web server.10.16.255.253 — 172. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server.5 172. 172.255.255. and Verify the Apache Web Server Step 1.16.252 255.255. and double-click the Apache file to begin installation.254 172.com/pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter3 to access and download the software.com.255.0 255.254 192. the lab topology may have been modified before this class. Open the folder where the software was saved. The Apache web server application is available for download from Eagle Server. and finally eagle-server. as shown in Figure 3-6.254.255.com.6 192.254. and save the software on the pod host computer.254 172.16.255.1 255.254. Step 2.255.0.255.255.16. 10.255.example.4 — 192.16.254 R2-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Eagle Server — — Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central — — — Note to Instructor: Depending on the classroom situation. Step 2.168.0 255.255. Take corrective action on devices that fail the ping tests.254 172.10.24.16.example. Using a web browser. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity. Task 1: Download.254.31.6.168. R1-ISP.10. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address.0 255. Verify that all network equipment is powered on and that eagle-server is on.0 — — 10.0 255.0 255.Pod#.252 255. as shown in Table 3-5.16.255. If an individual host computer cannot connect to eagle-server.10. troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity: Step 1. From a known good host computer. ping S1Central. R2-Central.168.10. Step 3.255.2 172. and that it can ping R1-ISP.254 172.Pod#. go to ftp://eagle-server.0. Download the software from Eagle Server. . verify that the host has the correct DNS address and that it can ping eagle-server.255.16.255.255. Install.255.0 255.example.0.254. Verify that the host computer has the correct Gateway IP address.10.253 10.1 172. If the ping test fails.10.16. Choose default values and consent to the licensing agreement. and that it can ping R2-Central. Right-click the file. 172.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 73 Table 3-5 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP S0/0/0 Fa0/0 10.

click Next. the administrator’s e-mail address is ccna10@example.com. This permits connections to the web server. click Unblock. Accept the default typical installation. for users 1 through 22. Click Next.74 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 3-6 Customized Configuration Screen Use the values shown in Table 3-6. Figure 3-7 Windows Security Alert . When the installation has finished. as shown in Figure 3-7. For example. Accept the recommended port and service status.com The computer’s IP address ccnaxx@example. close the screen. Table 3-6 Information Apache Server Values Value Network Domain Server Name Administrator’s E-mail Address example. Note: If a Windows Security Alert is displayed. Host B. and click Install. and click Next.com.2\ Accept the default installation folder. What is the default installation folder? C:\Program Files\Apache Software Foundation\Apache2. if the computer is on Pod 5.

Enter cmd. Test the web server on several different IP addresses from the 127. Example 3-1 netstat -a Output C:\> netstat -a Active Connections Proto TCP TCP TCP TCP Local Address GW-desktop-hom:http GW-desktop-hom:epmap Foreign Address GW-desktop-hom:0 GW-desktop-hom:0 State LISTENING LISTENING GW-desktop-hom:microsoft-ds GW-desktop-hom:3389 GW-desktop-hom:0 LISTENING LISTENING GW-desktop-hom:0 <output omitted> C:\> Using the command netstat -a. near the time. Choose Start > Run and open a command-line window.0. and connect to your computer’s URL.0. Figure 3-8 Web Server Default Page The 127. The Apache web server monitor icon should be visible on the lower-right side of the screen.0.0 /8 network address is reserved and is used for local IP addresses. .0. Open a web browser. The netstat command displays protocol statistics and connection information for this lab computer.0 /8 network range. The same page should be displayed if the URL is changed to the IP address on the Ethernet interface or to any host IP address in the 127.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 75 Step 3. as shown in Example 3-1.0 /8 network range. Verify the web server. verify that the web server is operating properly on the pod host computer. and then click OK.0. Fill in Table 3-7 with the results. A web page similar to Figure 3-8 appears if the web server is working properly.0. Use the netstat -a command to discover open and connected ports on your computer.

Review the httpd. A system administrator may need to verify or modify the default configuration file.2:80 DocumentRoot “C:/Program Files/Apache Software Foundation/ Apache2.255. change the line to Listen 127.56.255 127.1 127. ServerAdmin ccna2@example. as shown in Figure 3-9.0. To accept connections from only this host. The # character indicates a comment for system administrators.0.255. Scroll down the configuration file.78:80 Listen 80 Listen on TCP port 80 for all incoming connections. Table 3-8 Value Apache Web Server Settings Description #Listen 12. and verify the settings listed in Table 3-8. use the IP address:port number.2/htdocs” .255. the web server ignores the comment.0.254 127. Numerous configuration parameters allow the Apache web server to be fully customizable.conf.0.2\conf\httpd.255.com ServerName 172.0.conf file.1. Access the httpd. For servers without DNS names.76 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 3-7 IP Address Web Server Test Status Description 127. Figure 3-9 Apache Web Server Configuration File Step 2. C:\Program Files\Apache Software Foundation\Apache2. Open the Apache web server configuration file.0 OK OK Fail Fail Legal host address Legal host address Network broadcast address Network address Task 2: Verify the Default Web Server Configuration File Step 1.0.16.1 80.conf file. If there are problems. This is the root directory for the web server.34. e-mail the web server at this e-mail address.

0 network on a Windows computer. Start Wireshark. access the web server by running Apache from a separate client machine. To complete this task. Right-click the file.html. and refresh the web browser. Modify the web server default page. display index. The new default page should be displayed. something more personal should be displayed. Open a web browser. Step 1. Note that an error message is displayed in the web browser. Some students may already be familiar with creating web pages. as shown in Figure 3-10. Figure 3-8 shows the default web page from file index. The file index. however—this is a classroom setting. From the pulldown list. Example 3-2 htdocs Edit <html><body><h1>Welcome to the Pod1HostB Web Server!!!</h1> <center><bold> Operated by me! </center></bold> Contact web administrator: ccna2@example.16 network. . choose notepad. Step 3. Deliberately enter a web page that is not on the web server.html if it is present.com </body></html> Save the file.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 77 Table 3-8 Value Apache Web Server Settings continued Description <IfModule dir_module> DirectoryIndex index.0.0.2\htdocs. Although this page is sufficient for testing. Analyze HTTP traffic.html. and choose Open With. Why does index. so you should encourage them to personalize the page. refresh the web browser to view the new content. As you make and save changes to index.html should be present. Open folder C:\Program Files\Apache Software Foundation\Apache2. The interface will not appear.0. go to http://127. If no page is requested from that directory. Change the file content to something similar to Example 3-2. and connect to another computer with an active web server.html not have to be entered in the URL for the file contents to be displayed? The web server configuration directive for that server displays index. and set the capture interface to the interface destined for the 172. Task 3: Capture and Analyze HTTP Traffic with Wireshark Wireshark will not capture packets sent from or to the 127.1. Be wary of content.0. Or.html as the default page.html </IfModule> DirectoryIndex sets the file that Apache serves if a directory is requested.

and identify several key configuration parameters.78 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 3-10 404 Not Found Error Figure 3-11 shows a captured HTTP session.0. . The web browser simply displayed the server response “The page cannot be found.” Figure 3-11 Wireshark Capture of HTTP Traffic What are the contents of the HTTP session? Line-based text data: text/html <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC “-//IETF//DTD HTML 2. Depending on the organization.1 error 404 and returned a file not found message to the web browser. Task 5: Reflection Web servers are an important component of e-commerce.0// EN”> <html><head> <title>404 Not Found</title> </head><body> <h1>Not Found</h1> <p>The requested URL /index.htm was requested from the web server.html and observed the effect on the web browser output. the network or web administrator has the responsibility of maintaining the corporate web server. The web server responded with an HTTP 1. test for proper operation. the server sent a 404 error. but the server did not have it. Finally.conf by changing the Listen 80 line to Listen 8080.0. </p> </body></html> Task 4: Challenge Modify the default web server configuration file httpd. Verify with the netstat command that the new web server TCP port is 8080. You modified the default web page index. This lab has demonstrated how to install and configure the Apache web server. Open a web browser and go to http://127.1:8080. File index.htm was not found on this server. you used Wireshark to capture an HTTP session of a file that could not be found. Therefore.

turn off power to the host computers. you will be able to ■ ■ Configure the pod host computer for e-mail service. In this lab. IMAP servers listen on well-known TCP port 143. You will use an e-mail client such as Outlook Express or Mozilla Thunderbird to connect to the eagleserver network service.1) Upon completion of this lab. Lab 3-2: E-mail Services and Protocols (3. It should be uninstalled. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. . Background E-mail is one of the most popular network services that uses a client/server model. consuming bandwidth and network resources. with user accounts that can send and receive external e-mail messages. Post Office Protocol version 3 (POPv3) is used when an external e-mail client wants to receive e-mail messages from the e-mail server. Spam attacks flood networks with useless. and leave the room ready for the next class. you will use IMAP instead of POPv3 for e-mail delivery to the client. E-mail servers have had numerous vulnerabilities. Also. which have left computers open to compromise. choose Start > Control Panel > Add or Remove Programs. To uninstall the web server. deliver e-mail to local accounts. RFC 2821. Scenario In this lab. The SMTP server listens on well-known TCP port 25. The e-mail client is configured on a user’s computer and is configured to connect to an e-mail server. You will monitor the communication with Wireshark and analyze the captured packets. the typical user may be unaware of the complexities of e-mail or the protocols used. unsolicited e-mail. and then click Remove. and relay e-mail between SMTP servers. consolidates and updates previous e-mail-related RFCs. you will configure and use an e-mail client application to connect to eagle-server network services. It has undergone many modifications and enhancements.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 79 Task 6: Clean Up During this lab the Apache web server was installed on the pod host computer. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. secure versions of both protocols employ Secure Socket Layer/Transport Layer Security (SSL/TLS) for communication. Consequently. Earlier versions of both protocols should not be used.4. Most Internet service providers (ISP) provide step-by-step instructions for using e-mail services. SMTP is used to send e-mail messages from the external e-mail client to the e-mail server. Capture and analyze e-mail communication between the pod host computer and a mail server. In network environments where the Mail User Agent (MUA) client must connect to an e-mail server on another network to send and receive e-mail. The POPv3 server listens on well-known TCP port 110. from April 2001. Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) is an Internet protocol that allows a central server to provide remote access to e-mail messages. ■ ■ E-mail is subject to multiple computer security vulnerabilities. Eagle-server has SMTP mail services preconfigured.3. Click Apache Web Server. the following protocols are used: ■ Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) was originally defined in RFC 821 in August 1982.

31.0.255.1 172.0 — — 10.255.254.255.16.255.255.5 172.Pod#.255. Figure 3-12 Topology for Lab 3-2 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 Table 3-9 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP S0/0/0 Fa0/0 10.10.168.254 192.4 — 192. If it is not.254.255.254 172.16.24.0 255.255.2 172.6 192.10.0 255.0 255.16.255.16.10.255.255.255.254 172.255.253 — 172.0.255.254.16. ask the instructor for assistance before proceeding.255.Pod#.254 172.168.168.252 255.80 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide The lab should be configured as shown in Figure 3-12 and Table 3-9.0 255.255.16.10.0 255.254 R2-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Eagle Server — — Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central — — — .255.10.10.0.1 255.16.0 255.255.254 172.252 255.254.253 10.0.

example. R1-ISP. Step 3. select Don’t import anything. and click Next.255. Download and install Mozilla Thunderbird.com. In the New Account Setup. check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central. with the information shown in Table 3-10. the lab topology may have been modified before this class. start Thunderbird.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 81 Note to Instructors: Depending on the classroom situation. From a known good host computer. double-click the filename and install Thunderbird with the default settings. 172.com/pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter3. If Thunderbird is not installed on the pod host computer.example.255. as shown in Table 3-9. Step 2. When finished. Figure 3-13 FTP Download for Wireshark Double-click the Thunderbird filename. and then click Next. 10.10.16. and finally eagle-server. as shown in Figure 3-13. 172.example.com. select Email account. Step 2. Finally. troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity: Step 1. When Thunderbird starts. you can download it from eagleserver. as prompted. When the file has downloaded. If an individual host computer cannot connect to eagle-server. Configure Thunderbird to receive and send e-mail messages. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests. ping eagle-server.254. If prompted for Import Options. Fill in the account information. Verify that the host computer has the correct Gateway IP address.10. If the ping test fails. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server.6. you must configure an e-mail account. verify that the host has the correct DNS address and that it can ping eagle-server. and that it can ping R2-Central. and then select Save the file to the host pod computer. The download URL is ftp://eagleserver.254. Task 1: Configure the Pod Host Computer for E-mail Service Step 1. Verify that all network equipment is powered on and that eagle-server is on. . this download may be slow.16. ping S1Central. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity. and that it can ping R1-ISP.example.com. R2-Central. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address. Note: Depending on the connection speed of the link between the two routers and the number of students downloading the file.

your_name@eagle-server.example. Use the same name as the Account Name.com IMAP eagle-server.example. you may be prompted for a password for your e-mail account. If this pod host is on Pod1. From the outgoing server screen. Host B.example.example. A total of 22 accounts are configured on Eagle Server. your_name@eagle-server. Host A.82 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 3-10 Field Account Information Value Account Name The account name is based on the pod and host computer. labeled ccna[1. the account name is ccna6.. If the pod host is on Pod 3. click Edit. the account name is ccna1. choose Tools > Account Settings > Outgoing Server (SMTP). shown in Figure 3-14.. Click Cancel. The Thunderbird client needs to have SMTP server login disabled.com Use the same name as above (see Account name discussion). To do this.com Your Name E-mail address Type of incoming server you are using Incoming Server (SMTP) Outgoing Server (SMTP) Incoming User Name Account Name When Thunderbird starts.com eagle-server.22]. Figure 3-14 Thunderbird SMTP Server Settings . and so on.

shown in Figure 3-15. by choosing Tools > Account Settings. Figure 3-16 Thunderbird Account Settings In the left pane of the Account Settings screen. Figure 3-15 SMTP Server Edit You may also want to verify account settings. A screen similar to Figure 3-17 appears. as shown in Figure 3-16. uncheck the Use name and password box. Click OK.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 83 On the SMTP Server screen. click Server Settings. . and then click OK again.

Start Wireshark captures. Wireshark displays captures based on packet type. again send and receive e-mail from a classmate. Using the e-mail client. When the e-mails have been sent. Send an uncaptured e-mail. Please note that this is the default password that is embedded in the Eagle Server. . you must be logged in. SMTP listens on TCP port 25.84 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 3-17 Thunderbird Server Settings What is the purpose of the SMTP protocol. check your e-mail. To create and send an e-mail. When you are certain that the e-mail operation is working properly for both sending and receiving. Ask another student in the class for his or her e-mail name. This time. the e-mail transactions will be captured. Task 2: Capture and Analyze E-mail Communication Between the Pod Host Computer and an E-mail Server Step 1. click the Write icon. If you have not previously logged in. and what is the well-known TCP port number? The SMTP protocol is used to send e-mail messages to an e-mail server for forwarding to a mail recipient. start a Wireshark capture. A partial Wireshark capture of an outgoing e-mail message using SMTP is shown in Figure 3-18. stop the Wireshark capture. each of you should compose and send an e-mail message to the other. To do so. however. enter cisco as the password. Using the name provided in the preceding task. Analyze a Wireshark capture session of SMTP. After sending and receiving one e-mail message. Step 2. Step 3.

com Recipient ok 354 Enter mail. however. In the second Wireshark window.com> RCPT TO:<ccna2@example.5 ccna2@example. In Figure 3-18. and the command may also be HELO or HELLO.1. version 8. the e-mail client sends the command EHLO. Malicious attackers can gain valuable knowledge simply by learning the SMTP server type and version.com [172. and e-mail servers send responses.1 E-mail client applications send commands to e-mail servers. this is line 7.0 mail-serial-number Message accepted for delivery What are the contents of the last message body from the e-mail client? QUIT How does the e-mail server respond? It sends a response to the e-mail client. Many different types of SMTP servers exist. closing connection.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 85 Figure 3-18 SMTP Capture Highlight the first SMTP capture in the top Wireshark window.1].com Sender ok 250 2. What are the SMTP server name and version? Sendmail. The e-mail server must respond to the command. end with “.1.0. Table 3-11 E-mail Client Response Table E-mail Server MAIL FROM:<ccna1@example. In every first SMTP exchange. pleased to meet you\r\n The next exchanges between the e-mail client and server contain e-mail information.13. 221. expand the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol record.16. Using your Wireshark capture. .example.com> DATA (message body is sent) 250 2.0 ccna1@example.” on a line by itself 250 2. fill in the e-mail server responses to the e-mail client commands shown in Table 3-11. The syntax may vary between clients. What is the SMTP server response to the EHLO command? 250-localhost.localdomain Hello host-1.1.

E-mail can also experience configuration issues. Sender ok RCPT To: instructor@example.1/8. Connection to host lost.localdomain Hello [172.. Understanding the flow of traffic with the SMTP protocol will help you understand how the protocol manages the client/server data connection. pleased to meet you MAIL From: ccna2@example. 28 Jan 2007 20:41:0 3 +1000 HELO eagle-server.1.example. 250 Mail queued for delivery.1. Scroll to and click Thunderbird. QUIT 221 Closing connection.com 25 220 localhost.1.5 instructor@example. The highlighted lines are what you enter into the blank Telnet window. as shown in Example 3-3.86 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 3: Challenge Access a computer that has Internet access. choose Start > Control Panel > Add or Remove Programs.. To test SMTP operation. Recipient ok DATA 354 Please start mail input.13.16.1.2]. and leave the room ready for the next class.com 250 2.. .0 ccna2@example. Example 3-3 Telnet Session C:\> telnet eagle-server.example. Good bye.. open the Windows command-line window. Sun.localdomain ESMTP Sendmail 8..13.com 250 localhost. turn off power to the host computers.com 250 2. To remove Thunderbird.com. e-mail SMTP server test. and begin a Telnet session with the SMTP server. Look up the SMTP server name and version for known weaknesses or compromises. Remove anything that was brought into the lab.com. the instructor may want the application removed. Is the problem with the e-mail client or the e-mail server? One simple way to test SMTP server operation is to use the Windows command-line Telnet utility to telnet into the SMTP server.. Are any newer versions available? Task 4: Reflection E-mail is probably the most common network service used. C:\ > Task 5: Clean Up If Thunderbird was installed on the pod host computer for this lab. . and then click Remove. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor.

Use simulation mode to view the details of packets generated by DNS and HTTP. configure. and switches to learn networking concepts. and connect hosts and servers. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ ■ Configure hosts and services. servers. you will build increasingly larger parts of this topology in Packet Tracer.5. Upon completion of this activity. Add. Figure 3-19 shows the topology for this Skills Integration Challenge. and Table 3-12 shows the corresponding addressing table. routers. Explore how DNS and HTTP work together. you will use a standard lab setup created from actual PCs. Background Throughout the course.1. Figure 3-19 Topology for the Challenge 1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server 2960-24TT S1-Central 1841 R2-Central PC 1A PC 1B .Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 87 Packet Tracer Challenge Skills Integration Challenge: Configuring Hosts and Services (3. At the end of each chapter.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to perform this exercise using Packet Tracer.3) Open the file LSG01-PTSkills3.

5 172.254. You can remove all test packets in a particular scenario by clicking the Delete button. .168.255.254 172.1.0.168. if you use the Delete button for Scenario 0.16. Test connectivity in real time by using ADD SIMPLE PDU to test connectivity between PC 1B and the Eagle Server.16.255.254 Connect PC 1B to the Fa0/2 port of the S1-Central switch.0.255.10.16.254 DNS server: 192.” The first time you issue this one-shot ping message.255.168.10.252 255. Scenario 0 might have one test packet from PC 1B to Eagle Server.254.255.16.16. it appears in the PDU List Window as part of “Scenario 0.10.1.255.0 Default gateway: 172.255.0 — — 10.168. Note that when you add a simple PDU.16.88 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 3-12 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP Fa0/0 S0/0/0 192.0 255.16.6 172.254. Verify your work using feedback from the Check Results button and the Assessment Items tab.254 172. For example.254.6 172.example.2 Subnet mask: 255.253 R2-Central Fa0/0 S0/0/0 S1-Central PC 1A PC 1B Eagle Server VLAN 1 NIC NIC NIC Task 1: “Repair” and Test the Topology Add a PC with a display name of 1B to the topology.253 10. the term scenario means a specific configuration of one or more test packets. and Scenario 1 might test packets between PC 1A and the routers. Connect Eagle Server to the Fa0/0 port on the R1-ISP router.0 255. Double-click the Fire button in the PDU List Window to send this single test ping a second time.254 255.255.0.255.1 172.10.0.255.254 10.0 255.2 192.0.16. For example. and add a DNS entry that associates eagle-server.255.168.254 192.com with the server’s IP address.252 255.10.10. it shows Failed because of the ARP process.10. Do this before the next task. You can create different test packet scenarios by clicking the New button.254.255.10.255. the test packet you just created between PC 1B and Eagle Server is removed.6 10. In Packet Tracer.255.1 172. This time it succeeds.0 255.255.255.1. Configure it with the following settings: ■ ■ ■ ■ IP address: 172.0 255.255. Turn on web services on the server by enabling HTTP.255. Enable DNS services.

Outbound PDU Details) for each event in the event list. Open a web browser from the desktop of PC 1B. especially when the packets are at PC 1B or at Eagle Server.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 89 Task 2: Explore How DNS and HTTP Work Together Switch from Realtime mode to Simulation mode. Task 3: Reflection Can you now explain the process that occurs when you enter a URL into a browser and a web page returns? What types of client/server interactions are involved? If you have not already done so.com. If you receive a “Buffer Full” message.example. click the View Previous Events button. you should be able to see how DNS and HTTP work together. Play this animation. Inbound PDU Details. Even though the processing of the packets by the switch and the routers may not make sense to you yet. . you are encouraged to obtain Packet Tracer from your instructor and complete My First PT Lab (choose Help > Contents). press Enter. and then use the Capture / Forward button in the Event List to capture the interaction of DNS and HTTP. Examine the Packet contents (PDU Information Window. Enter eagle-server.

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Multiplexing b. Reliable delivery g. Multiple network-aware applications can use the network at the same time. a. Facilitates data preparation for delivery by the lowest four OSI layers. one computer can use instant messaging. fill-in-the-blank. use Chapter 4 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum or use the corresponding Chapter 4 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA 1 Exploration Companion Guide for assistance.CHAPTER 4 OSI Transport Layer The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of multiple-choice. surf the web. Performed on the data in the segment to check if the segment was changed during transmission. f. Error checking d. and check e-mail. Manages data delivery if there is congestion on the host. b. match the definitions on the right with the terms on the left. The transport layer provides for data network needs by ■ ■ ■ ■ Dividing data received from an application into segments Adding a header to identify and manage each segment Using the header information to reassemble the segments back into application data Passing the assembled data to the correct application Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 4-1. Study Guide Roles of the Transport Layer The transport layer provides vital control over the network: It enables multiple applications to work at the same time over the same network. That way. Ensures the application is ready to receive data. and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of the OSI transport layer. c. hands-on skills needed. Flow control d. Ensures segment sequencing so that data can be presented by the session layer to the application layer with all data intact and ready for processing. As you work through this chapter. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum labs to further reinforce that you have mastered the practical. Data segmentation c. e. matching. Establishing a session e. use a Voice over IP (VoIP) phone. . g. stream video. Means lost segments are present so the data is received complete. Same order delivery f. Table 4-1 Term Transport Layer Matching Exercise Definition a.

reliable delivery. it retransmits that data to the destination. 2.92 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Concept Questions 1. it knows that the data has been successfully delivered and can quit tracking that data. . whereas each UDP segment only has 8 bytes of overhead. each with a specific function. As the source receives an acknowledgment from the destination. and flow control. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks for the following questions. This ensures that the destination application has the data in the exact form the sender intended. The pieces of communication in UDP are called datagrams. Additional functions specified by TCP are same order delivery. If the source does not receive an acknowledgment within a predetermined amount of time. In TCP. 3. each segment header contains a sequence number. 1. How does the transport layer multiplex different applications’ communication? Dividing data into small parts and sending these parts from the source to the destination enables many different communications to be interleaved (multiplexed) on the same network. Table 4-2 Port Type Port Type Ranges Numbers Well-known ports Registered ports Dynamic or private ports 0 to 1023 1024 to 49151 49152 to 65535 The TCP Protocol: Communicating with Reliability The key distinction between TCP and UDP is reliability. A TCP segment has 20 bytes of overhead in the header encapsulating the application layer data. Port Type Ranges Exercise Table 4-2 lists port types. Fill in the port number ranges in the Numbers column. 2. A complete TCP conversation requires the establishment of a session between the source and the destination in both directions. the transport layer adds to the segment a header containing binary data. How does the transport layer tell the difference between different data segments? To identify each segment of data. This sequence number allows the transport layer functions on the destination host to reassemble segments in the order in which they were transmitted. This reliability is achieved by having fields in the TCP segment.

Synchronize sequence numbers e. No more data from sender Managing TCP Sessions When services send data using TCP. This exercise works best if the students are required to present their website to the class or to teach each other in small groups. Urgent pointer field significant a. Reliability means ensuring that each segment of data that the source sends arrives at the destination. FIN f. why does the transport layer initiate a process to create a connection with the destination? This connection enables the tracking of a session. URG e. Table 4-3 Flags Flag-Matching Exercise Definition a.” and find a website that explains it. Segment sequence numbers enable reliability by indicating how to reassemble and reorder received segments. 2. Push function f. match the definition on the right with a flag on the left. For the original message to be understood by the recipient. PSH c. or communication stream between the hosts. but encourage students to find a website. provide the URL. enter the keywords “TCP segment reassembly. segments may arrive at their destination out of order. ACK b. Define reliability. . This process ensures that each host is aware of and prepared for the communication. RST d. Sequence numbers are assigned in the header of each packet to achieve this goal. be prepared to share your findings with the class. Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 4-3. the data in these segments is reassembled into the original order. and be prepared to explain or present the information found. A key feature of TCP is its reliability. Note to instructor: Answers will vary. Reset the connection c. Internet Research Exercise Using your favorite search engine. When the host is using TCP. SYN d.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 93 Concept Questions 1. Acknowledgment field significant b. Using this site.

Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following sentences. the same pair of ports is used in the header of all datagrams used in the transaction. The UDP Protocol: Communicating with Low Overhead User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is a simple protocol that provides the basic transport layer functions. 2. If these applications use TCP. It has much lower overhead than TCP because it is not connection oriented and does not provide the sophisticated retransmission. For the data returning to the client from the server. simply retry the request if they do not receive a response. These delays would be more detrimental to the application than small data losses. both hosts would have to support selective acknowledgments. Some applications. they might experience large delays while TCP detects data loss and retransmits data. The low overhead of UDP makes it very desirable for such applications. and flow-control mechanisms. After a client has chosen the source and destination ports. can tolerate some loss of data. and therefore they do not need TCP to guarantee the message delivery. UDP is said to be transaction based. and what does it do? Flow control assists the reliability of TCP transmission by adjusting the effective rate of data flow between the two services in the session. In what case would it be possible for the destination to acknowledge bytes in discontiguous segments and request that the host retransmit only the missing data? In this case. such as DNS. Some applications. What is expectational acknowledgment? Expectational acknowledgment is TCP using the acknowledgment number in segments sent back to the source to indicate the next byte in this session that the receiver expects to receive. such as online games and VoIP. 1. 3. What is flow control. the source and destination port numbers in the datagram header are reversed. 3.94 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Concept Questions 1. . sequencing. 2.

1) Upon completion of this lab. Table 4-4 shows the corresponding addressing table. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ Explain common netstat command parameters and outputs. netstat displays incoming and outgoing network connections (TCP and UDP). Figure 4-1 Topology for Lab 4-1 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 .5. and adjust netstat output options to analyze and understand TCP/IP transport layer protocol status. available on both Windows and UNIX/Linux computers. Passing optional parameters with the command will change output information. Figure 4-1 shows the topology for this lab. Background netstat is an abbreviation for the network statistics utility. host computer routing table information.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 95 Labs and Activities Lab 4-1: Observing TCP and UDP Using netstat (4. Scenario In this lab. you examine the netstat command on a pod host computer.1. Use netstat to examine protocol information on a pod host computer. and interface statistics.

252 255.10.1 255.0 255. ping S1-Central. Finally. 172. as shown here: C:\> netstat /? Use the output of the netstat /? command as reference to fill in the appropriate option that best matches the description in Table 4-5.6.6 192.255.254.255.254 R2-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Eagle Server N/A N/A Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central N/A N/A N/A Note to instructor: Depending on the classroom situation. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests.example. troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity: Step 1. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address. Step 3.254. and click OK. shown in the preceding logical addressing table.254 172. and finally Eagle Server.16.255.254.10.255.254.24.1 172. Task 1: Explain Common netstat Command Parameters and Outputs Open a terminal window by clicking Start > Run.252 255. If the ping test fails.16.255.example. To display help information about the netstat command.10.16.255.254 172.255.253 10.255.255.255. verify that the host has the correct DNS address and can ping eagle-server.0 255. and can ping R1-ISP.16.0 255.255.0. use the /? options. ping eagle-server.16.Pod#.254 172.0.com.31.10.5 172.com.10.16. check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central.255. and that Eagle Server is on.168.0 255.Pod#.4 N/A 192.com.96 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 4-4 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP S0/0/0 Fa0/0 10. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server.254. the lab topology may have been modified before this class. 10.16.255. R1-ISP. Step 2. Enter cmd.168.16.255.0 255.example. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity.2 172. 172. . From a known good host computer.255.168.255.254 172. Verify that the host computer has the correct gateway IP address.253 N/A 172.16.255.0.0 N/A N/A 10. If an individual host computer cannot connect to Eagle Server.254 192.10.10. R2-Central. Verify that all network equipment is powered on.255.0.255.10. and can ping R2-Central.254.0 255.255.

or this computer. A global address. The connection is open.0. The local connection is waiting a default period of time after sending a connection termination request before closing the connection. proto may be any of TCP. .0. TCPv6.1 0. Press Ctrl+C to stop redisplaying statistics. The connection is closed. meaning any. The connection should transition quickly through this state. Redisplays all connections and listening ports every 30 seconds. TCPv6. TCP.0. IPv6. Table 4-6 is a summary of TCP states. Transmission Control Protocol. This is the normal state for the data-transfer phase of the connection. CLOSE-WAIT SYN-SENT SYN_RECEIVED IP addresses displayed by netstat fall into several categories. Displays addresses and port numbers in numeric form. or UDPv6. UDP.0 Remote Address This address refers to the local host. ICMP. Shows connections for the protocol specified by proto. During the life of a TCP connection. the connection passes through a series of states. If used with the –s option to display per-protocol statistics. Display only open connections. Table 4-7 IP Address Packet State Table Description 127. The local connection is waiting for a response after sending a connection request. proto may be any of IP. The connection should transition quickly through this state. compiled from RFC 793. but is waiting for a termination request from the local user. and will normally last between 30 and 120 seconds. This is a normal condition. -an 30 No options When netstat statistics are displayed for TCP connections. UDP. or UDPv6. Multiple connections in SYN_RECEIVED state may indicate a TCP SYN attack. and data may be exchanged through the connection.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 97 Table 4–5 Option netstat Table Description -a -n 5 (interval) -p Displays all connections and listening ports. The address of the remote device that has a connection with this computer. as reported by netstat. Redisplays statistics every 5 seconds. This is a tricky problem. Table 4-6 State Packet State Table Connection Description LISTEN ESTABLISHED TIME-WAIT The local connection is waiting for a connection request from any remote device.0. as shown in Table 4-7. ICMPv6. the TCP state is displayed. The local connection is waiting for a confirming connection request acknowledgment. September 1981.

issue the command netstat –an: C:\> netstat –an Use the window vertical scrollbar to go back and forth between the outputs of the two commands.168.168.98 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 2: Use netstat to Examine Protocol Information on a Pod Host Computer Step 1.0. Use netstat to view existing connections.254. Compare outputs. Write down three TCP and three UDP connections from the netstat –a output and the corresponding translated port numbers from the netstat –an output. If fewer than three connections translate.0:135 GW-desktop-hom:0 0.0:0 *:* *:* *:* *:* *:* *:* LISTENING LISTENING LISTENING LISTENING Refer to the following netstat output shown in Example 4-1. Table 4-8 Connection Protocol netstat Output Table Local Address Foreign Address State TCP TCP GW-desktop-hom:epmap 0.254.1:123 GW-desktop-hom:netbios-ns 192.0.254.0:445 TCP UDP UDP UDP GW-desktop-hom:netbios-ssn 192.168.0:0 GW-desktop-hom:0 0.1:138 GW-desktop-hom:0 0. From the terminal window. local address. Table 4-8 provides a list of several common services on a host computer.0.0. Note to instructor: Answers will vary.1:137 GW-desktop-hom:netbios-dgm 192.0. and state information. noting how well-known port numbers are changed to names. From the terminal window in Task 1.0.0.168. The –n option forces netstat to display output in raw format.254.0.1:139 GW-desktop-hom:ntp 192. foreign address.0:0 LISTENING LISTENING GW-desktop-hom:microsoft-ds 0. issue the command netstat –a: C:\> netstat –a A table will display that lists the protocol (TCP and UDP). note that in Table 4-8. Addresses and protocols that can be translated into names are displayed.0.0. .

If typing is slow. connections should terminate from inactivity.1:1070 127.0. The four terminal windows that will be used for Telnet connections to Eagle Server can be relatively small. In this task. In the first Telnet terminal window. and UDP cannot build the TCP session. To close a Telnet connection. The command for a Telnet connection on port 21 follows: C:\> telnet eagle-server. In the third terminal window.1. telnet to Eagle Server on port 53. Step 2. port 21 SMTP: SMTP mail server. a connection might close before all connections have been made. telnet on port 21. Output should look similar to the output in Example 4-1. port 23 Why should Telnet to UDP ports fail? Telnet is a TCP protocol. Establish multiple concurrent TCP connections and record netstat output. telnet on port 23. approximately 1⁄2 screen width by 1⁄4 screen height. In the fourth terminal window. The terminal windows that will be used to collect connection information should be 1⁄2 screen width by full screen height. The venerable telnet command is used to access Eagle Server network services. press the Ctrl+] keys together. How would you respond? Because the foreign address is 127. Microsoft Telnet>.0.1:1070 State ESTABLISHED ESTABLISHED A new network engineer suspects that his host computer has been compromised by an outside attack against ports 1070 and 1071. telnet on port 25.0.0.1:1071 Foreign Address 127.com 53 In the large terminal window.0.0. Arrange the windows so that all are visible. several simultaneous connections will be made with Eagle Server. Eventually.1:1071 127. In the second terminal window. Type quit and press Enter to close the session.0.0.example.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 99 Example 4-1 Netstat Output C:\> netstat –n Active Connections Proto TCP TCP C:\> Local Address 127. That will bring up the t=Telnet prompt.0.0. thus providing several protocols to examine with netstat. port 53 FTP: FTP server. . Open four additional terminal windows. record established connections with Eagle Server. Several network services on Eagle Server will respond to a Telnet connection. You will use the following: ■ ■ ■ ■ DNS: Domain Name System server. port 25 Telnet: Telnet server. the host computer has made a TCP connection with itself.

254. Task 4: Challenge Close established sessions abruptly (close the terminal window). For example. Remove anything that was brought into the lab and leave the room ready for the next class. Try to view connections in stages different from ESTABLISHED.254.254:21 192.168. Both protocols support upper-layer protocol communication.168. UDP provides transport layer support for Domain Name System (DNS) services and Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP).168. among others. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ Identify TCP header fields and operation using a Wireshark FTP session capture. file wiresharksetup-0. January 1980.1) Upon completion of this activity.254.99.254. turn off power to the host computers. defined in RFC 761.168.100 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example 4-2 C:\>netstat Proto TCP TCP TCP TCP Eagle Server Output Table Local Address 192. TCP is used to provide transport layer support for the HTTP and FTP protocols.168.2. and interface statistics. and issue the netstat –an command.254. August 1980.1:1688 192.168.254. Task 5: Cleanup Unless directed otherwise by the instructor.exe. host computer routing table information. Lab 4-2: TCP/IP Transport Layer Protocols. Background The two protocols in the TCP/IP transport layer are the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP).5. Identify UDP header fields and operation using a Wireshark TFTP session capture. among others.168. Ponder the utility of netstat in small and large networks and consider how netstat can help you diagnose problems. defined in RFC 768.1:1693 192.254. you can download it from ftp://eagle-server.4.com/pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter4/.example. The ability to understand the parts of the TCP and UDP headers and operation is a critical skill for network engineers.254:53 192.1:1694 Foreign Address 192. If Wireshark has not been loaded on the host pod computer.254:23 State ESTABLISHED ESTABLISHED ESTABLISHED ESTABLISHED Task 3: Reflection The netstat utility displays incoming and outgoing network connections (TCP and UDP). and User Datagram Protocol (UDP). Scenario Using Wireshark capture. analyze TCP and UDP protocol header fields for file transfers between the host computer and Eagle Server.1:1691 192. TCP and UDP (4.254.254:25 192.168. .

16.16.16.254 172.255.255.0 255.255.6 192.255.10.1 172.252 255. Figure 4-2 shows the topology for this lab.0.Pod#.0 255.255.168.16.0 255.254 192.255.254.255.Pod#.1 255.24.253 N/A 172.255.254 R2-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Eagle Server N/A N/A Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central N/A N/A N/A .0.255.255.10.254 172.10.16.168.168.2 172.10.0 255.0 255.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 101 Windows command-line utilities FTP and TFTP will be used to connect to Eagle Server and download files.255.255.254. and Table 4-9 shows the corresponding addressing table.254 172.254 172.255.4 N/A 192.255.255. Figure 4–2 Topology for Lab 4-2 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 Table 4-9 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP S0/0/0 Fa0/0 10.255.252 255.10.16.0.255.0 255.5 172.10.253 10.31.0 N/A N/A 10.255.16.254.0.254.

example. and finally Eagle Server. Task 1: Identify TCP Header Fields and Operation Using a Wireshark FTP Session Capture Step 1.254. to connect to the FTP server. From a known good host computer. ftp. Open a command-line window by clicking Start > Run. A command-line window will start the FTP session. the session capture will be analyzed.6.example. 172. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server. Finally. ping Eagle Server.254. Start an FTP connection to Eagle Server. Verify that all network equipment is powered on.com. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity. If an individual host computer cannot connect to Eagle Server. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests.16. R2-Central. Step 2. R1-ISP. check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central.10. verify that the host has the correct DNS address and can ping eagle-server.16. and can ping R2-Central. Figure 4–3 Command-Line Window Start a Wireshark capture on the interface that has IP address 172. to the host computer.255. shown in the preceding logical addressing table.com. the lab topology might have been modified before this class. TCP sessions are well controlled and managed by information exchanged in the TCP header fields. Windows computers use the FTP client.10. Verify that the host computer has the correct gateway IP address. /pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter4/s1-central.16. 172. In this task. Step 3. and then click OK. and can ping R1-ISP.example. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address. type cmd.com When prompted for a user ID.[1-2]. If the ping test fails. 10.255. press Enter. . A window similar to Figure 4-3 should open. and the text configuration file for S1-Central from Eagle Server will be downloaded. When finished.Pod#. ping S1Central. Enter the following command: > ftp eagle-server. an FTP session is made to Eagle Server. Capture an FTP session. When prompted for a password. type anonymous. troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity using the following steps: Step 1.102 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Note to instructor: Depending on the classroom situation. and that Eagle Server is on.

Your capture should be similar to the capture shown in Figure 44. verify datagram arrival. an explanation of the summary information is needed. and manage window size. TCP performs an orderly shutdown and termination. Before we delve into TCP packet details. the TCP session is closed. Step 2. when the FTP session is finished. a new TCP session is started. Highlight the first TCP datagram from the host computer. When the FTP client is connected to the FTP server. Finally. The top window contains summary information for each captured record. . Switch to the Wireshark capture windows. For each exchange of data between the FTP client and FTP server. Analyze the TCP fields.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 103 Change the FTP directory to /pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter4/: ftp> cd /pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter4/ Download the file s1-central: ftp> get s1-central When finished. You might need to adjust the middle window and expand the TCP record by clicking the protocol expand box. TCP is routinely used during a session to control datagram delivery. terminate the FTP sessions in each command-line window with the FTP quit command: ftp> quit Close the command-line window with the command exit: > exit Stop the Wireshark capture. and move the cursor to the middle window. the transport layer protocol TCP created a reliable session. Figure 4–4 FTP Capture In Wireshark. detailed TCP information is available in the middle window. The expanded TCP datagram should look similar to Example 4-3. At the conclusion of the data transfer.

..... 172.0 . . = Urgent: Not set . on some port above 1023.. to Eagle Server. Dst port: ftp (21). and contains a SYN flag.168.254. = ECN-Echo: Not set .. ... = Syn: Set ..... = Push: Not set ..... Code Bits: U A R P S F RCS S Y I GK T HNN Code Bits Window Urgent Pointer Padding 24 TCP Destination Port Number 31 TCP Source Port Number . ...0.254.x... = Reset: Not set .. = Congestion Window Reduced (CWR): Not Set . .. Seq: 0. Len: 0 Source Port: 1052 (1052) Destination Port: ftp (21) Sequence number: 0 (relative sequence number) Header length: 28 bytes >Flags: 0x02 (SYN) 0.16... Src Port: 1052 (1052)..1. .104 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example 4-3 Wireshark Capture of a TCP Datagram >Transmission Control Protocol. Figure 4-5 shows a TCP datagram.0.. port number 21. 192. = Acknowledge: Not set .... .. Figure 4-5 0 TCP Packet Fields for Lab 4-2 TCP Segment 4 10 16 Sequence Number Acknowledgment Number HLEN Reserved TCP Checksum Options (If Any) Data Data...x... 0.0....0 = Fin: Not set Window size: 64240 Checksum: 0xb965 [correct] >Options: (8 bytes) Maximum segment size: 1460 bytes NOP NOP SACK permitted How is the first datagram in a TCP session identified? The initial datagram originates from the host computer.

Source Port. The value is normally a random value above 1023. Destination IP Address. TCP destination port number: Is used to identify the upper-layer protocol or application on the remote site.254 *1052 21 0 (relative) N/A 28 bytes * 64240 .1. Using the Wireshark capture of the first TCP session start-up (SYN bit set to 1). Among interesting values are ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ACK: Acknowledgment of a segment receipt SYN: Synchronize. Code bits: Have a special meaning in session management and in the treatment of segments. Acknowledgment number: Specifies the next octet expected by the receiver. HTTP.168.16. such as Telnet. which is the request to close the TCP session ■ ■ Window size: Is the value of the sliding window (that is.1 192. Destination Port) uniquely identifies the session to both sender and receiver. Sequence number: Specifies the number of the last octet in a segment. The quadruple field combination (Source IP Address. * 172.254. ■ ■ Table 4-10 TCP Header: SYN Bit Set to 1 Answers Characteristics Source IP address Destination IP address Source port number Destination port number Sequence number Acknowledgment number Header length Window size * May differ from what student enters. fill in information about the TCP header in Table 4-10.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 105 An explanation of each field is provided to refresh your memory: ■ TCP source port number: Belongs to the TCP session host that opened a connection. Options: The only option currently defined is the maximum TCP segment size (optional value). The values in the range of 0 to 1023 represent the so-called well-known ports and are associated with popular services and applications (as described in RFC 1700. Urgent pointer: Is only used with an URG (Urgent) flag (when the sender needs to send urgent data to the receiver). and so on). which is only set when a new TCP session is negotiated during the TCP three-way handshake FIN: Finish. FTP. how many octets can be sent before waiting for an acknowledgment).

Table 4–12 TCP Header: ACK Bits Set to 1 Answers Characteristics Source IP address Destination IP address Source port number Destination port number Sequence number Acknowledgment number Header length Window size * May differ from what student enters * 172. the opening TCP session sends a TCP datagram with the SYN bit set. the receiving computer may exhaust resources and crash.1 192. Attackers take advantage of the three-way handshake by initiating a “half-open” connection. A final ACK bit is never sent to finish the TCP handshake.254 * 172.1.168. A crash could involve a loss of networking . and the receiver sends a related TCP datagram with the SYN ACK bits set.254 *1052 21 1 (relative) 1 20 bytes * 64240 Ignoring the TCP session started when a data transfer occurred. how many other TCP datagrams contained a SYN bit? None.106 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Using the Wireshark capture of the first TCP session start-up (SYN and ACK bits are set to 1).1 * 21 1052 0 (relative) 1 28 bytes * 5840 Using the Wireshark capture of the first TCP session start-up (only ACK bit is set to 1). fill in information about the TCP header in Table 4-11. fill in information about the TCP header in Table 4-12. a new TCP connection is started in half-open fashion.16.168. Instead.16. In this sequence. Table 4–11 TCP Header: SYN and ACK Bits Set to 1 Answers Characteristics Source IP address Destination IP address Source port number Destination port number Sequence number Acknowledgment number Header length Window size * May differ from what student enters 192.1. a SYN bit is only used during the beginning of a TCP session. With sufficient TCP sessions in the half-open state.254.254.

The FTP client and server communicate with each other. announcing the termination of the TCP session. Figure 4–7 Orderly TCP Session Termination FTP Client FTP Client.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 107 services or could corrupt the operating system. visible in the Wireshark capture. and then sends its own TCP session termination. receives a duplicate termination. The FTP client TCP session acknowledges receipt of the termination datagram.“Quit” FTP Server. visible in the Wireshark capture. the FTP server TCP session sends a TCP datagram to the FTP client. This sequence. the FTP client sends a command to “quit. This is one example of a denial-ofservice (DoS) attack. In either case. When the FTP server sends a Response: 220 to the FTP client. and the TCP session is closed. . The default timeout value varies. the TCP session on the FTP client sends an acknowledgment to the TCP session on Eagle Server. At this time. Figure 4–6 TCP Session Management FTP Client FTP Welcome TCP Acknowledgment FTP Userid Sent TCP Acknowledgment FTP Password Response FTP Server When the FTP session has finished. such as when the connection is broken. an ACK datagram is sent to acknowledge the termination.“Goodbye” TCP Acknowledgment TCP Session ACK FIN Sent TCP Acknowledgment TCP Session ACK FIN Sent TCP Acknowledgment TCP Session Ends FTP Server Without an orderly termination. When the originator of the TCP termination. the TCP sessions will wait a certain period of time until closing. is shown in Figure 4-7. the attacker has won. This sequence. FTP server. is shown in Figure 4-6. unaware and uncaring that TCP has control and management over the session. networking service has been stopped on the receiver.” The FTP server acknowledges the FTP termination with a Response: 221 Goodbye. but is normally 5 minutes.

GET. source Specifies the file to transfer. /tftpboot. Transfers the file destination on the remote host to the file source on the local host. A TFTP transfer will be used to analyze transport layer UDP operation. open a command-line window. Use this mode when transferring binary files. Destination Start a Wireshark capture. No authentication is supported. Analyze the UDP fields. which is different from the directory structure supported by the FTP server. Student capture should be similar to the capture shown in Figure 4-8. TFTP [-i] host [GET | PUT] source [destination] -i Specifies binary image transfer mode (also called octet). Specifies where to transfer the file. Also. host GET Specifies the local or remote host. to retrieve a file. and then download the s1-central configuration file from Eagle Server with the Windows TFTP client. there is no authentication. For example. The TFTP server has its own directory on Eagle Server. Example 4-4 contains Windows TFTP client syntax. Example 4-4 >tftp –help TFTP Syntax for a Windows TFTP Client Transfers files to and from a remote computer running the TFTP service. there are only two commands.com get s1-central Step 2. to send a file. byte by byte. PUT Transfers the file source on the local host to the file destination on the remote host. The TFTP command has a different syntax than FTP.example. The command and syntax to perform this follows: >tftp eagle-server. Capture a TFTP session.108 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 2: Identify UDP Header Fields and Operation Using a Wireshark TFTP Session Capture Step 1. Switch to the Wireshark capture windows. and PUT. . In binary image mode the file is moved literally. Following the procedure in Task 1.

it is the responsibility of the upper-layer protocol.. in this case TFTP. Figure 4–9 UDP Datagram Capture See Figure 4-10. Highlight the first UDP datagram from the host computer. Instead. Figure 4–10 UDP Format UDP Segment 0 UDP Source Port UDP Message Length Data Data. detailed UDP information is available in the middle window. 16 UDP Destination Port UDP Checksum 31 Using the Wireshark capture of the first UDP datagram.. and move the cursor to the middle window. The checksum value is a hexadecimal (base 16) value. fill in information about the UDP header in Table 4-13. In Wireshark. a UDP datagram diagram. This will be shown during the UDP datagram examination. There are similarities. explain that the UDP header does not contain an acknowledgment field. to manage data transfer and receipt information. Each UDP datagram is identified by the UDP source port and UDP destination port.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 109 Figure 4-8 UDP Session Capture Note: If students point to UDP acknowledgments. The expanded UDP datagram should look similar to Figure 4-9. . compared to the TCP datagram. You might have to adjust the middle window and expand the UDP record by clicking the protocol expand box. however. denoted by the preceding 0x code. Header information is sparse.

and the upper-layer protocol must provide some type of acknowledgment control. but reliability and guaranteed delivery requires additional control over the communication channel.254 * 1038 69 * 30 bytes * 0x1f04 (correct) How does UDP verify datagram integrity? A checksum is sent in the UDP datagram. Both protocols have advantages .1.168. but this source port is used for the remainder of the TFTP transfer. the UDP datagram is assumed complete.168.254 * 172. Examine the first packet returned from Eagle Server. If the computed checksum is identical with the sent checksum. transport data between clients and servers using application layer protocols and are appropriate for the upper-layer protocol each supports. Task 3: Reflection This lab provided you with the opportunity to analyze TCP and UDP protocol operations from captured FTP and TFTP sessions. UDP has less overhead and control.16. TCP manages communication much differently from UDP. only the original source port used to begin the TFTP session is used to maintain the TFTP transfer.___. Because there is no reliable connection.1. however. * 172. and the datagram checksum value is recomputed upon receipt.1 192. Table 4-14 UDP Header Information Answers Characteristics Source IP address Destination IP address: 172. Fill in information about the UDP header in Table 4-14. 192.110 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 4-13 UDP Header Table Answers Characteristics Source IP address Destination IP address Source port number Destination port number UDP message length UDP checksum * May differ from what student enters.254.16.___ Source port number Destination port number UDP message length UDP checksum: 0x * May differ from what student enters.254. Both protocols.16.1 * 32799 * 1038 *524 bytes * 0xc5cf (correct) Notice that the return UDP datagram has a different UDP source port.

and leave the room ready for the next class. . However. Application layer protocols define the communication between network services. Observe TCP establish and manage communication channels with HTTP and FTP connections. Task 5: Cleanup During this lab. Clients initiate communication to the appropriate server. and configuration file passwords. and therefore different transport protocols have been developed to meet these requirements. turn off power to the host computers. Application layer protocols rely on lower-level TCP/IP protocols. Background The primary function of the transport layer is to keep track of multiple application conversations on the same host. password. Consider how you would determine which protocol to use if you were designing an application. yet each client communicates exclusively with a session established between the client and server. Task 4: Challenge Because neither FTP nor TFTP are secure protocols.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 111 and disadvantages. There may be several servers on the same end device. and an FTP server and client. Upper-layer TFTP data examination is a bit more complicated. Also examined are popular client requests and corresponding server responses. and the server responds to the client. This lab examines two popular application layer protocols. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ ■ Configure the host computer to capture application layer protocols. different applications have different requirements for their data. such as a web server and client. Scenario In this lab. Lab 4-3: Application and Transport Layer Protocols (4. a different server is listening on a different port for client connections. Capture and analyze FTP communication between the pod host computer and an FTP server. Remove anything that was brought into the lab.5. you use client applications to connect to Eagle Server network services. several files were transferred to the host computer and should be removed. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. HTTP and FTP.1) Upon completion of this lab. Analysis of the upper-layer FTP session will quickly identify the user ID. and how transport layer protocols TCP and UDP manage the communication channel. or clear-text file contents. such as TCP and UDP. A user may open several client applications to the same server. passwords. For each network service. This includes any user IDs. Capture and analyze HTTP communication between the pod host computer and a web server. You monitor the communication with Wireshark and analyze the captured packets.3. but the data field can be examined and configuration user ID and password information extracted. Applications are designed to use one protocol or another based on maximizing the advantages while minimizing the disadvantages. all data transferred is sent in clear text.

255.254.0 255.253 10.255.0 255.255.0. Figure 4–11 Topology for Lab 4-3 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 Table 4–15 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP R2-Central Eagle Server Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 S0/0/0 Fa0/0 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 10.255.24.10. ask the instructor for assistance before proceeding.255.16.255.255. This exercise demonstrates that although clients may differ.254 172. If it is not.0 N/A N/A 10.255.112 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide A web browser such as Internet Explorer or Firefox will be used to connect to the Eagle Server network service.0 255.16.0.255.0 255.2 172.254 172.1 255.16.254 172.254 172.255.168. The lab should be configured as shown in Figure 4-11 and Table 4-15.0 255.255.255.10.16.10.255.Pod#.253 N/A 172.10. Eagle Server has several network services preconfigured.252 255.252 255.255.31.16.168.254.255.16. as will the FTP command-line client.6 192.254.254. the underlying communication to the server remains the same.1 172.5 172.0.0 255.168. such as HTTP.4 N/A 192.Pod#.254 192.255. waiting to respond to client requests. The web browser will also be used to examine the FTP protocol.10.10.0.255.254 .255.16.

Step 2. Step 3. set the correct capture interface. check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central. R2-Central. Right-click the Wireshark filename. If the ping test fails. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server.6.example. or shortcut. and finally Eagle Server.com/pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter3. Task 1: Configure the Pod Host Computer to Capture Application Layer Protocols Step 1. shown in the preceding logical addressing table.254. Finally.com. Step 2. Thereafter.com. ping Eagle Server. Verify that the host computer has the correct gateway IP address. and can ping R2-Central. ping S1Central. the interface is used as the default and does not need to be changed. If an individual host computer cannot connect to Eagle Server.example. to another file. you can download it from eagleserver.10. it is because the file is a link. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity. Step 3. Verify that all network equipment is powered on. Start Wireshark and configure the capture interface.com. 172. verify that the host has the correct DNS address and can ping eagle-server. The interface with the IP address of the pod host computer is the correct interface. Wireshark can be started by clicking the interface Start button.16. Wireshark should begin to log data. From a known good host computer. This is also why the file has no physical size.254. double-click the filename and install Wireshark with the default settings. and then save the file to the host pod computer.example. Start Wireshark from Start > All Programs > Wireshark > Wireshark.16.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 113 Note to instructor: Depending on the classroom situation. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address. troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity using the following steps: Step 1. and can ping R1-ISP. If Wireshark is not installed on the pod host computer. The download URL is ftp://eagleserver. . R1-ISP. Wireshark will be used in upcoming tasks. 10. and that Eagle Server is on. the lab topology might have been modified before this class. See Figure 4-12. Figure 4-12 Wireshark Interface Capture After the file has downloaded.example. When the opening screen appears.255. 172.255. Stop Wireshark for the moment. Download and install Wireshark. If students ask why the Wireshark icon is a directory folder. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests.10.

There were actually at least three HTTP sessions created in Step 2. and 12. The first HTTP session started with a connection to http://eagleserver.com. Step 3. connect to URL http://eagleserver. Figure 4-13 Web Server Screen Click the web browser Refresh button.1 is defined in RFC 2616. and connect to URL http://eagleserver. . There should be no change to the display in the web client.com/page2. Do not close this web browser until instructed to do so.com/page2.example. relying on lower-level protocols such as TCP to establish and manage the communication channel. Do not close either browser until Wireshark capture is stopped. the TCP session must be created. A web page similar to Figure 4-13 will display. Wireshark will display captures based on packet type. This will display a different web page. The second session occurred with a refresh action.com. HTTP version 1. The resulting Wireshark data will display. Close the web browsers. Before HTTP can begin. Step 1. Start Wireshark captures. This is seen in the first three session lines. Using a web browser such as Internet Explorer or Firefox.html. This part of the lab demonstrates how sessions between multiple web clients and the web server are kept separate. Step 2.html. numbers 10. 11.example.example. Figure 4-15 shows a sample captured HTTP session. dated 1999.example. Start the pod host web browser. Stop Wireshark captures and analyze the captured data. The third session occurred when the second web browser accessed http://eagleserver. Open a second web browser.114 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 2: Capture and Analyze HTTP Communication Between the Pod Host Computer and a Web Server HTTP is an application layer protocol.

16. expand the fields. the path is the root directory of the web server. This is the actual information sent to the web server. . and how? 172. Table 4-16 HTTP Session Table Answers Characteristics Web browser IP address Web server IP address Transport layer protocol (UDP/TCP) Web browser port number Web server port number 172.254.2 192. Although no page was requested.168.16. If necessary. Move into the second (middle) Wireshark window to examine the layered protocols. the GET request is on line 13. Which computer initially signaled an end to the HTTP session.2 started the HTTP session to 192. and how? 192. Complete Table 4-17 using information from the protocol. some web servers are configured to display a default file if one is available.254. Table 4–17 HTTP Session Table Answer Characteristics Protocol version Request Method * Request URI Language HTTP/1. Highlight the first line of the HTTP protocol.1. This is the beginning of the TCP three-way handshake.254 with the SYN flag set. a GET request from the web browser.254 TCP 1056 80 Which computer initiated the HTTP session.2.168. Which protocol is carried (encapsulated) inside the TCP segment? Hypertext Transfer Protocol Expand the last protocol record and any subfields. In Figure 4-14.1.1 GET \ En-us *Request URI is the path to the requested document. In the first browser. acknowledged.16.1.254. and repeated by 172.254 signaled an end to the session with the FIN ACK flags set.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 115 Figure 4-14 Captured HTTP Session Fill in Table 4-16 from the information presented in the HTTP session.168.

26 Jan 2007 06:19:33 GMT\r\n If-None-Match: “98072-b8-82da8740”\r\n <. and then move into the second (middle) window. an entity corresponding to the requested resource. In Figure 4-14. in 1971. FTP version 5. GET. In this task. However. there are only a few lines of text (web server responses can contain thousands or millions of bytes). the bandwidth used is minimal. In this reply. the GET request contained the following additional instructions to the web server: If-modified-since: Fri. Crackers sometimes send unknown or garbled requests to web servers in an attempt to stop the server or gain access to the server command line. refresh. a request for an unknown web page will result in an error message. Because this web page was saved in the web client’s cache.page tag number (ETAG) What is the ETAG response from the web server? 98072-b8-82da8740 Task 3: Capture and Analyze FTP Communication Between the Pod Host Computer and a Web Server The application layer protocol FTP has undergone significant revision since it first appeared in RFC 114. Notice the information returned from the server. dated October 1985. The familiar web browser can be used to communicate with more than just the HTTP server.1 is defined in RFC 959. From RFC 2616 What does this response mean? The request has succeeded. the web browser and a command-line FTP utility are used to download data from an FTP server. Highlight the web server response. With a single packet returned for both the initial GET request and refresh. a single reply packet can save significant bandwidth. Open all collapsed subfields of HTTP. . this is on line 15. The web browser understands and correctly formats the data in the browser window. What is the web server response to the web client GET request? 200 OK. Figure 4-15 Captured HTTP Session The significance of the refresh action is in the server response. A response to the web browser is possible because the web server understands the type of request and has a file to return. Figure 4-15 shows a sample capture. 304 Not Modified. for an initial response that contains millions of bytes. Scroll down the top window of Wireshark until the second HTTP session. is sent in the response.116 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide The web server responds with the next HTTP packet. is visible. Also.

Example 4-6 ftp> help Commands may be abbreviated.com:(none)): anonymous 331 Please specify the password. A screen similar to Figure 4-16 will display. Password: <ENTER> 230 Login successful. Start a pod host computer FTP session with the FTP server. User (eagle-server. This means that the FTP client is waiting for a command to send to the FTP server. Step 2. type help and press Enter.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 117 In preparation for this task. press Enter. If necessary. refer to Task 1. Commands are: FTP Client Commands ! ? append ascii bell binary bye cd close delete debug dir disconnect get glob hash help lcd literal ls mdelete mdir mget mkdir mls mput open prompt put pwd quit quote recv remotehelp rename rmdir send status trace type user verbose .example. Example 4-5 FTP Eagle Server Example >ftp eagle-server. use user ID anonymous.example. open a command line on the host pod computer. The FTP client prompt is ftp>. To do so. 220 Welcome to the eagle-server FTP service. Start the pod host command-line FTP client. and then click OK. as shown in Example 4-6. using the Windows FTP client utility. Figure 4-16 Windows Command Line Step 1. as shown in Example 4-5. enter cmd.com Connected to eagle-server. To authenticate. click Start > Run. To view a list of FTP client commands.com.example. In response to the password prompt. Step 2. Start Wireshark captures. to open Wireshark.

Enter the command dir to display the current directory contents. Subdirectories can be traversed. Consider using PASV. User anonymous has been placed into a root jail. however.pcap 4493 Jan 12 04:27 http to eagle-server. Close the command-line window with the exit command. The first character. World (anyone) can read and access the directory. d. ftp: 333 bytes received in 0. This is not the real root directory of the server. x (access). as shown in Example 4-7. download a file. group.254. prohibiting access outside of the current directory. for the owner. w (write). ftp> quit 221 Goodbye. indicates that the file is a directory.pcap (5853 bytes).99.pcap” 200 PORT command successful.12Kbytes/sec. See Example 4-8.4. Example 4-8 FTP Subdirectory Example ftp> cd pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter2 250 Directory successfully changed. Move into directory pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter2.exe 226 Directory send OK. and exit. and world. Stop Wireshark captures. but only the highest point that user anonymous can access. 150 Opening BINARY mode data connection for ftptoeagle-server. 226 File send OK. the values are UNIX file permissions. drwxr-xr-x 3 0 0 4096 Jan 12 04:32 pub If students ask what the values at the beginning of the line mean. -rw-r—r— -rw-r—r— -rw-r—r— -rw-r—r— 1 0 100 1 0 100 1 0 100 5853 Jan 12 04:26 ftptoeagle-server.04Seconds 8.34Seconds 17.pcap 1486 Jan 12 04:27 ping to 192.21Kbytes/sec. Consider using PASV. Consider using PASV.pcap 1 0 100 15163750 Jan 12 04:30 wireshark-setup-0. Example 4-7 FTP Directory Output ftp> dir 200 PORT command successful. We will only use a few commands for Wireshark evaluation. ftp: 5853 bytes received in 0. the large number of FTP client commands makes using the command-line utility difficult for a novice. and files transferred to the pod host computer. 150 Here comes the directory listing. 150 Here comes the directory listing.168. ftp> dir 200 PORT command successful. The permissions are arranged as r (read). The FTP client is at the root directory of the FTP server.254. . and save the captures as FTP_Command_Line_Client.118 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Unfortunately. ftp> get “ftptoeagle-server.

Open a web browser as shown in Figure 4-17. similar to HTTP.com. as shown on the bottom of the Figure 4-17. Stop Wireshark captures. go down the directories until the URL path is pub/eaglelabs/eagle1/chapter2. this is line 23. close the web browser. Start Wireshark captures again. Response: 220. Start the pod host web browser. Figure 4-17 Web Browser FTP Client Using the browser. example. Figure 4-18 Wireshark FTP Capture Move into the middle Wireshark window and expand the FTP protocol. On the top Wireshark window. Analyze the captured data. and save the captures as FTP_Web_Browser_Client. and enter the URL ftp://eagle-server. open the Wireshark capture FTP_Web_Browser_Client. If not already opened. select the FTP capture that is the first FTP protocol transmission. Step 4.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 119 Step 3. In Figure 4-18. the web browser logged in to the FTP server as user anonymous. What is the FTP server response 220? Service is ready for a new user. When finished. FTP communicates using codes. Also. A browser window opens with the pub directory displayed. . Double-click the file ftptoeagle-server.pcap and save the file.

If possible. The transfer mode sets how the data port is configured. a client initiates an FTP session with the server on well-known TCP port 21. a port number above 1023. high ports are used on both ends of the connection. what was the web browser reply? IEUSER@ Which port number does the FTP client use to connect to the FTP server port 21? Port number will vary. Unless the FTP client firewall is configured to permit connections from the outside. the commands are similar. For data transfer. In active transfer mode. The FTP server source port number is 20. See Figure 4-20. For data transfer. What is the FTP data port number used by the FTP server? The port number is 20. a client initiates an FTP session with the server on well-known TCP port 21. the server opens a TCP session to the FTP client and transfers data across that port. a new port is opened. the FTP client must permit either FTP-related connections (implying stateful packet filtering) or disable blocking. The Windows FTP client used for this lab did not support the passive transfer mode. Both port numbers are above 1023. The implications between the two modes are important from an information security perspective. the server initiates a connection from well-known TCP port 20 to a client’s high port. The transfer mode can be either active or passive. In Figure 4-18. Open the Wireshark capture FTP_Web_Browser_Client. and the FTP client port number is some number above 1023. however. Step 5. In passive transfer mode. Compare FTP active and passive transfer modes. and observe the FTP communication. the port number is 1073. To establish connectivity for data transfer. there are two significant changes. Although the clients are different. . In passive mode. the client initiates the data connection to the server. When data is transferred or with simple directory listings. Figure 4-19 Active FTP FTP Client FTP Control Connection on TCP Port 21 FTP Server FTP Data Connection From TCP Port 20 on Server to a High Port on the Client. Second. This is called the transfer mode.120 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide When the FTP server issued a Response: 331 Please specify the password. See Figure 4-19. the client opens a new port to the server for data transfer. the same connection used in the active transfer mode. First. students should be shown a passive transfer mode. In active mode. data transfer may fail. however.

TCP manages the connection between client and server to ensure datagram delivery. and consider why UDP is inappropriate for HTTP. Think about the differences between TCP and UDP. Multiple application layer protocols can be accessed through a simple web browser. lasts until the client signals that it is leaving with the quit command. An HTTP session begins when a request is made to the HTTP server and ends when the response has been acknowledged by the HTTP client. How is the application layer protocol Telnet similar to HTTP and FTP? How does Telnet differ? Answers will vary. the server or client may initiate the data connection. use a web browser or command-line Telnet client to connect to a Cisco device such as S1-Central or R2-Central. Telnet. Depending on the transfer mode. however. FTP. . FTP. All of these services use TCP. even if the authentication is open to the world. and Gopher. data transfer will fail. sending requests and processing replies. The server listens on port 80 for client connections. but Telnet is similar to HTTP and FTP in that all three use the TCP protocol for connection-oriented. however. uses two protocols. Task 4: Reflection Both HTTP and FTP protocols rely on TCP to communicate. Task 5: Challenge Enabling Wireshark capture. Observe the Telnet protocol behavior. Issue a GET request and observe the results. but each must send and receive messages that can be correctly interpreted.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 121 Figure 4-20 Passive FTP FTP Client FTP Control Connection on TCP Port 21 FTP Server FTP Data Connection From the Client High TCP Port to the Server High TCP Port. Telnet and Gopher may also be supported on the browser. Unless the FTP server is configured to permit a connection to a random high port. The FTP client must authenticate to the FTP server. HTTP uses a single protocol to communicate with the HTTP server. An FTP session. The FTP server listens on TCP port 21. User anonymous normally has restricted access to the FTP server and cannot upload files. Not all FTP client applications support changes to the transfer mode. The communication protocol is normally defined in an RFC. The browser acts as a client to the server. guaranteed delivery of datagrams. A client application may be either a web browser or command-line utility. as the command line. Although only HTTP and FTP were examined here.

and switches to learn networking concepts. however.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to perform this exercise using Packet Tracer. UDP. HTTP. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ ■ Configure hosts and services. routers. Explore How DNS.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer.5. right-click Wireshark. Packet Tracer Challenge Skills Integration Challenge: Analyzing the Application and Transport Layers (4. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. and UDP work together. and leave the room ready for the next class. and analyze increasingly more complex protocol interactions. Connect and configure hosts and services on the model of the lab network.1. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity. turn off power to the host computers. click Start > Control Panel > Add or Remove Programs. and then click Remove. Background Throughout the course. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. you will build increasingly larger parts of this topology in Packet Tracer. delete all files retrieved from the FTP server. To remove Wireshark.3. and TCP on the model of the lab network. HTTP.6.3) Open the file LSG01-PTSkills4. Scroll to the bottom of the list. If downloaded files need to be removed from the host pod computer. Remove anything that was brought into the lab.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab4532. Use simulation mode to visualize the operation of DNS. . you will be using a standard lab setup created from actual PCs. At the end of each chapter. Remember. servers. UDP.122 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 6: Clean Up If Wireshark was installed on the pod host computer for this lab. Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Application and Transport Layer Protocols Examination (4. the instructor may want the application removed. You will use the topology in Figure 4-21 and the addressing table in Table 4-18 to document your design. Upon completion of this activity.

0 255.168.255. It must be powered on.254 255.255.16.0 N/A N/A 10.0.253 DNS enabled.6 10.1.0.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 123 Figure 4-21 Topology for Challenge 1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server 2960-24TT S1-Central 1841 R2-Central PC 1A PC 1B Table 4-18 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP Fa0/0 S0/0/0 192.1 172. with the association of eagle-server.255.2 192.255.254.example.254.254.16.255.10.254 172.255.252 255.168.1 172.255.255.10.16.253 10.10.252 255.0 255.com with the server’s IP address HTTP enabled .16.0 255.0.6 172.255.10.16.254 10.0 Default gateway 192.255.0 255. Then configure it with the following settings: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ IP address 192.254 172.255.255.254 192.10.5 172.0.0 255.254.16.254.255.6 172.16.168.255.168.10.254 Subnet mask 255.10.254.255.10.168.253 R2-Central Fa0/0 S0/0/0 S1-Central PC 1A PC 1B Eagle Server VLAN 1 NIC NIC NIC Task 1: Repair and Test the Topology The server has been replaced.255.255.1.255.

HTTP. Make sure Event Filter is set to display DNS. UDP. and then use the Capture / Forward button in the event List to capture the interaction of DNS. TCP. Play this animation and examine the packet contents (PDU Information window. For example.254. UDP. Scenario 1 might have test packets between PC 1B and the routers). UDP. and UDP and TCP. HTTP. click the View Previous Events button. please do this before the next task. If you receive a Buffer Full message. Configure it with the following settings: ■ ■ ■ ■ IP address 172. Open a web browser from the desktop of 1A. the term scenario means a specific configuration of one or more test packets. by using the Add Simple PDU to test connectivity between PC 1A and the Eagle Server.com. which is explained later in Chapter 9. and TCP Work Together Switch from real time to simulation mode. if you use the Delete button for Scenario 0. You can remove all test packets in a particular scenario by using the Delete button. send this single test ping a second time. “Ethernet. and ICMP.0. or by clicking the Info column for that packet instance as it is listed in the Event List. HTTP. You can examine the packet in two ways: by clicking the packet envelope as it is displayed in the animation.” Double-clicking the Fire button in the PDU List window. Test connectivity. Outbound PDU Details) for each event in the event list. in real time. The first time you issue this one-shot ping message. and TCP work together by studying tracing the packets and using the PDU Information window to look “inside” them. PC 1A has lost its IP address information. Verify your work using feedback from the Check Results button and the Assessment Items tab.16. it appears in the PDU List window as part of Scenario 0. especially when the packets are at PC 1A or at the Eagle Server.16.124 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Connect the Eagle Server to the Fa0/0 port on the R1-ISP router using a crossover cable.example. . this is because of the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) process. Scenario 0 might have one test packet from PC 1A to Eagle Server.254 Connect PC 1A to the Fa0/1 port of the S1-Central switch using a straight-through cable. the test packet you just created between PC 1A and Eagle Server will be removed. press Enter. it will show as Failed. In Packet Tracer. This time it will succeed.1. You can create different test packet scenarios by using the New button (for example. Task 3: Reflection Can you make a diagram of the sequence of protocol events involved in requesting a web page using a URL? Where might things go wrong? Compare and contrast DNS and HTTP.1 Subnet mask 255.0 Default gateway 172. and TCP.255. Inbound PDU Details.254 DNS server 192. HTTP. Note that when you add a simple PDU.255. Task 2: Explore How DNS. UDP. you should be able to see how DNS. Although the processing of the packets at the switch and the routers might not make sense to you yet. Type the URL eagleserver.168.

The packet arrives at the destination host and is processed at Layer 3. Layer 3 uses the following four basic processes: 1. hands-on skills needed to understand the opportunities and challenges associated with modern networks. The address space for IPv4 is 32 bit. The data must be packaged so that it can be sent in a manageable size. use Chapter 5 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum or use the corresponding Chapter 5 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration Companion Guide for assistance. Study Guide IPv4 The network layer provides services to exchange the individual pieces of data over the network between end devices. What are the four basic processes used in the network layer to accomplish end-to-end transport? To accomplish end-to-end transport. the most significant difference between IPv4 and IPv6 is length. Answers will vary but could include Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4). The most significant network layer protocol is the Internet Protocol (IP).CHAPTER 5 OSI Network Layer The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of matching. Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6). 3. 2. AppleTalk. IPv4 is going to be replaced by IPv6. . Concept Questions 1. As you work through this chapter. 4. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum activities and labs to ensure you have mastered the practical. and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of the importance of data networks and the major components and characteristics of network architectures. List three protocols implemented at the network layer that carry user data. whereas IPv6 is 128 bit. The network layer must provide services to direct these packets to their destination host. Novell Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX). and Connectionless Network Service (CLNS/DECNet) 3. multiple-choice. The network layer must provide a unique address for these end devices. IPv4 defines many different fields in the packet header. IP version 4 (IPv4) is the network layer protocol used as an example throughout this study guide. What is the most significant difference between the two? Although answers will vary. 2. fill-in-the-blank. These fields contain binary values that the IPv4 services reference as they forward packets across the network.

Fill in the purpose of each field. 4. or wirelessly as radio signals. Any individual IP packet can be communicated electrically over cable. What is this process called? Fragmentation Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks for the following questions. and media independent. In some cases. an intermediary device. The header of an IPv4 packet does not include fields required for reliable data delivery. Table 5-1 Field Key Fields of IPv4 Header Purpose IP source address IP destination address Time-to-Live (TTL) Type-of-Service (ToS) Protocol IPv4 address of host sending the packet: enables the destination host to respond to the source if required. These 13 bits allow a receiver to determine the place of a particular fragment in the original IP datagram. Vocabulary Exercise: Define Table 5-1 lists the six key fields in a typical IPv4 header. IPv4 is connectionless. which services have to resolve these issues? The upper-layer services resolve these issues. usually a router. There are no acknowledgments of packet delivery. 1. best effort (unreliable). Each route that a packet takes to reach the next device is called a hop. IPv4 address of host to receive the packet: enables routers at each hop to forward the packet towards the destination. 2. Intermediary devices that connect the networks are called routers. If out-of-order or missing packets create problems for the application using the data. List three basic characteristics of IPv4. 3. 5. Fragment offset . will need to split up a packet when forwarding it from one media to a media with a smaller maximum transmission unit (MTU). There is no error control for data. as optical signals over fiber. The data payload protocol type: Denotes whether the data is a UDP datagram or TCP segment. Number of hops before packet is dropped: This value is decremented at each hop to prevent packets being passed around the network in routing loops. Data quality of service (QoS) priority: Enables router to give priority to voice and network route information over regular data. because these transport layer protocols manage the receipt of their protocol data units (PDU) differently.126 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide 4. 6.

Be prepared to discuss and present your findings in class. trusted data to access the network. 6. 4. hosts communicate with each other without the need for any network layer intermediary device. Dividing large networks so that hosts who need to communicate are grouped together reduces the unnecessary overhead of all hosts needing to know all addresses. Separating networks is relatively simple if you use hierarchical addressing. 3. 7. they present problems that can be at least partially alleviated by dividing the network into smaller interconnected networks. On a Windows computer. A router will do one of the following with a packet: ■ ■ ■ Forward it to the next-hop router Forward it to the destination host Drop it Concept Questions 1. To support data communications between networks over internetworks. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks for the following questions. Broadcasts are contained within a broadcast domain. A broadcast is a message sent from one host to all other hosts on the network. it is a good idea to break the network into groups. The default gateway is a router on a network that serves as an exit from that network. acts as a gateway to the other network. an intermediary device. As networks grow larger. Please be prepared to allot class time for discussions/presentations. Answers will vary. Internet Research Exercise Use your favorite Internet search engine to find a website that describes the advantages to using hierarchical addressing. with the middle level denoting the network addresses and the lower level the individual hosts. 2. or router. When a host needs to communicate with another network. Routing: How Our Data Packets Are Handled Within a network or a subnetwork. Routing is done packet by packet and hop by hop. network layer addressing schemes are hierarchical. The gateway. is needed to send a packet out of the local network. 5.Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 127 Networks: Dividing Hosts into Groups As networks get larger. The firewall function performed by an intermediary permits only known. also known as the default gateway. what graphical user interface (GUI) tool do you use to configure the default gateway IPv4 address? The Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties tools . A hierarchical address uniquely identifies each host. 1. Using a hierarchical addressing scheme means that the higher levels of the address can be retained.

0 is used for this purpose. 4. What piece of addressing information should both the IPv4 host address and its default gateway share? The host IPv4 address and gateway address both must have the same network (and subnet. What is a default route? A default route is a route that will match all destination networks. 6. 8. Packets with a destination network address that does not match a more specific route in the routing table are forwarded to the next-hop router associated with the default route. The default route is used to forward packets for which there is no entry in the routing table for the destination network. If the network portion of the destination address of the packet is different from the network of the originating host. When forwarding a packet. the packet is sent to the gateway. 7. and metric. the address of the default gateway (router interface) is the next hop for all packets destined for another network. the router will select the most specific route. next hop. In IPv4 networks. Table 5-2 Terms Routing Terms Definitions Definition Next hop A next hop is the address of the device that will process the packet next.0. Why is Layer 3 addressing hierarchical? The hierarchical nature of Layer 3 addressing means that one route entry could refer to a large general network and another entry could refer to a subnet of that same network. Packets with a destination network address that does not match a more specific route in the routing table are forwarded to the next-hop router associated with the default route. a packet cannot be forwarded without a route. Routes must have which three main features in a routing table? The three main features that routes must have in a routing table are destination network. For a host on a network. 5. A default route is a route that will match all destination networks. Define each term and write your responses in the definition column. Can a packet be forwarded without a route? No. which route will a router select? When forwarding a packet. the address 0. To do this. Default route Gateway . if used) portion of their respective addresses. the packet has to be routed outside the original network. When should you use a default route? A default route is used to forward packets for which there is no entry in the routing table for the destination network. 3.128 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide 2. Vocabulary Exercise: Define Table 5-2 lists some terms about routing. The default gateway is needed to send a packet out of the local network.0.

passes the information to other routers. this information is passed on to other routers. in turn. Out-of-date routing information means that packets might not be forwarded to the most appropriate next hop. Otherwise. Because packets are forwarded at every hop. each known destination network needs to either have a route or a default route configured. the routing table needs to represent the most accurate state of network pathways that the router can access. To ensure that packets are routed to use the best possible next hops. 2. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks for the following questions. or router. 3. . Static routing is routing that depends on manually entered routes in the routing table. Routing is the process of finding a path to a destination host. For the routing decisions. It only needs to know the next hop on the path to the packet’s destination network. or changes to links between routers. the packet is dropped at that hop. 1. When a router receives information about new or changed routes.Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 129 Routing Processes: How Routes Are Learned Routing requires that every hop. causing delays or packet loss. Routing protocols are the set of rules by which routers dynamically share their routing information. The routing table contains the information that a router uses in its packet-forwarding decisions. every router must be configured with static routes to next hops that reflect its location in the internetwork. it updates its own routing table and. Each router in a path does not need a route to all networks. As routers become aware of changes to the networks for which they act as the gateway. along the path to a packet’s destination have a route to forward the packet.

A computer that communicates with another device must first know how to reach the device. devices on different networks have different source and destination network numbers. Troubleshoot a hidden gateway address problem. Therefore. By the use of several common utilities.1. The network portion of the IP address is used to identify when a packet must be sent to a gateway address. The network portion of the destination device is the same as the network portion of the host device. the host portion of the IP address is used as the host identifier. but Eagle Server is located on a different network.130 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Labs and Activities Lab 5-1: Examining a Device’s Gateway (5. Background An IP address is composed of a network portion and a host portion. users will not be able to perform their job.1) Upon completion of this lab. and Table 5-3 shows the corresponding addressing table. Gateway addresses are important to users. and only 20 percent of network traffic will go to local devices. If the pod host computer gateway address is not configured properly. Scenario Pod host computers must communicate with Eagle Server. connectivity with Eagle Server will fail. Understand how network information is configured on a Windows computer.5. This is called the 80/20 rule. However. Cisco estimates that 80 percent of network traffic will be destined to devices on other networks. which is assigned to a network device that forwards packets between distant networks. . A router is assigned the gateway address for all the devices on the LAN. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ Understand and explain the purpose of a gateway address. Figure 5-1 shows the topology for this lab. network configuration on a pod host computer will be verified. if a gateway cannot be reached by the LAN devices. One purpose of a router is to serve as an entry point for packets coming into the network and exit point for packets leaving the network. For devices on the same LAN.

254.253 10.0.255.2 172.254 R2-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Eagle Server N/A N/A Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central N/A N/A N/A .255.254.Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 131 Figure 5-1 Topology for Lab 5-1 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 Table 5-3 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP S0/0/0 Fa0/0 10.254 172.253 N/A 172.255.254.254 172.255.0 N/A N/A 10.16.0 255.Pod#.255.16.10.10.255.254 172.255.255.255.16.0.254.255.0 255.16.255.255.6 N/A 192.255.16.24.0 255.5 172.254 172.0.168.252 255.255.6 192.168.31.168.255.10.1 255.0 255.255.0 255.255.16.254 192.Pod#.10.16.0 255.0.10.252 255.10.1 172.255.

It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity.254.com. called the loopback interface.255.16.16. shown in the preceding logical addressing table. If an individual host computer cannot connect to Eagle Server.132 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Note to instructor: Depending on the classroom situation.255. In Example 5-1.0. R1-ISP. this computer will use 172.10. troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity with the following steps: Step 1.0. Step 2. A local interface. and can ping R2-Central.0 network. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server.6. ping Eagle Server.0) is on the same LAN. If the ping test fails. More specific networks are reached through other gateway addresses. The “quad-zero” Network Destination and Netmask values.1. 172. Step 3.16.example.0 and 0.0. and finally Eagle Server.0. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests.example. R2-Central. The fourth highlighted line displays the information in humanreadable form. ping S1Central.1? 00:10:a4:7b:01:5f Several Windows commands will display a network gateway address. 0. the netstat –r command is used to view the gateway addresses for this computer. Any device that has the same network address (in this example.16. the lab topology might have been modified before this class. Verify that all network equipment is powered on. Verify that the host computer has the correct gateway IP address. is automatically assigned to the 127. and can ping R1-ISP. For any nonlocal network. 172. refer to any network not specifically known. Figure 5-2 Communication Between LAN Devices Referring to Figure 5-2. and that Eagle Server is on. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address. From a known good host computer. 172.254 as the default gateway. One popular command is netstat –r.0.16. The first highlighted line shows what gateway address is used to forward all network packets destined outside of the LAN.255.0. what is the MAC address of the network device on IP address 172.0.254. This interface is .com. Task 1: Understand and Explain the Purpose of a Gateway Address For LAN traffic. the gateway address is the address of the Ethernet device. 10. Figure 5-2 shows two devices on the same network communicating with the ping command. Finally.10. verify that the host has the correct DNS address and can ping eagle-server.0. check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central.

127.16.1.1.255. MS TCP Loopback interface 0x20005 . Were responses successful? If not.255.. Example 5-1 Output of the netstat Command C:\>netstat –r Route Table ======================================================================= Interface List 0x1 . why? For 127..0.16.1..1..255.1.255.0.. Pings will fail.0 255.0..16. Use the ping command to ping different IP addresses on the 127. Pings are successful to any valid 127.0.0.255 Default Gateway: Netmask 0.0.1. 127.255 255.16.1.255.1 172.0.16.255.1.1 172.1.2 172.1.2 172. This entry is the third highlighted line.255.0.255.16.0.0 172.0. Open a terminal window on a pod host computer.0.2 127..255.254 Step 2.254 127..1 172.16.255.0.255 172..255.255.16..0 255.16...0...1.1.1..0.255..0.16..2 127. See the second highlighted entry. no.16.16.0.0 network.0.Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 133 used to identify the local host to local network services.255.0.0.0.1 172.255 255.0. . and 127.0.255.10.0.0 is accessed through gateway 172.0 127.2 127.255.255 is the network broadcast address. What is the default gateway address? 172. Finally...255.1.254 Gateway 172.. the IP address for this Ethernet interface.0.255 255...2. yes..2 Interface 172.255..0 host IP address.16.2 Metric 1 1 20 20 20 1 ======================================================================= Persistent Routes: None C:\> Step 1.255. Was the ping successful? Yes Step 3.00 16 76 ac a7 6a Intel(R) 82562V 10/100 Network Connection ======================================================================= ======================================================================= Active Routes: Network Destination 0.10. Use the ping command to verify connectivity with IP address 127.0 172.255. For 127. any device on network 172.0.255.0 255.16.16.2 172...

what is the MAC address of the gateway device? 00:0c:85:cf:66:40 Referring to Figure 5-3. As shown in Figure 5-3. Figure 5-3 Communication Between Devices on Different Networks Referring to Figure 5-3.254 is on a different network. A window similar to the one in Figure 5-4 will display. Examine network properties settings. communication between devices on different networks is different than on a LAN. IP address 172. Right-click Local Area Connection.168.168. Because IP address 192. and choose Properties. scroll down the list of items in the pane.254. the Layer 2 MAC addresses will change before the packet reaches its destination. For troubleshooting connectivity issues. Click Start > Control Panel > Network Connections. the pod host computer requests the MAC address of the default gateway device. Task 2: Understand How Network Information Is Configured on a Windows Computer Many times connectivity issues are attributed to incorrect network settings. To access this window. One method that might prove useful to determine the network interface IP properties is to examine the pod host computer’s Network Properties settings. for which IP can you not find a MAC address? 192.16.168.254 is only important to the gateway device on the same LAN that must eventually deliver the packet to that IP address. initiates a ping to IP address 192.168. several tools are available to quickly determine the network configuration for any Windows computer. Because network 172. and click the Properties button.16. In essence.0.0 differs from 192.254. .0. it is the door to other networks.254. The information cannot be determined from any device on this LAN. select Internet Protocol (TCP/IP). responds with its MAC address. The computer composes the Layer 2 header with the destination MAC address of the router and places frames on the wire to the gateway device.254.254.1.134 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide A default gateway address permits a network device to communicate with other devices on different networks. The MAC address of 192. On the General tab.254. Step 1. Pod host computer 2.254. a router.2. This gateway device. All traffic destined to different networks must go through the network device that has the default gateway address.168.

. . . . : 255. . : 172.0. as shown in Example 5-2. : 172.254 The first highlight shows the IP address for this pod host computer. . . In this case.0 . .2 Subnet Mask . Example 5-2 Output of the ipconfig Command C:\>ipconfig Windows IP Configuration Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection: Connection-specific DNS Suffix . Default Gateway . . . . . as shown in Figure 5-5.16. . Figure 5-5 Network Interface with Dynamic IP Address A more consistently reliable method for determining network settings on a Windows computer is to use the ipconfig command. . . . : IP Address. the Network Properties settings window is not very useful for determining IP address information. .255. . . The third highlight shows the default gateway address. .255.1. .16. . a dynamic IP address may be configured. . . The second highlight shows the subnet mask. .Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 135 Figure 5-4 Network Interface with Static IP Address However. .

. . . . . The technician received a trouble ticket from a user on computer host 1A. : No . As the third-shift help desk Cisco engineer. as shown in Example 5-3.1. . . : 00-16-76-AC-A7-6A Dhcp Enabled.0 Default Gateway . . . .254 192. . . . accessible with the command ipconfig /?. . use the command ipconfig /all. . . : No IP Address. The technician verified the cables and network settings on both computers.com. . . .254 DNS Servers . . fill in the Table 5-4 with information from your pod host computer. . . . . .0. . . .254 Note to instructors: Only the IP address should be different on a student’s pod host computer. . .0 172. . . Refer to the network topology in Figure 5-1 and the logical IP address assignments in Table 5-3. . . . . . .16. . Task 3: Troubleshoot a Hidden Gateway Address Problem When troubleshooting network issues. : Node Type . . You check with the corporate network engineer. . . To show the most information about the network connections. . . who reports that R2-Central has been temporarily brought down for a hardware upgrade. . . . . : No . : 172. . . . : GW-desktop-hom Primary Dns Suffix IP Routing Enabled WINS Proxy Enabled . Example 5-3 Output of the ipconfig /all Command C:\>ipconfig /all Windows IP Configuration Host Name . . : Intel (R) 82562V 10/100 Step 2. . Using the command ipconfig /all. .0. . . a thorough understanding of the network can often assist in identifying the real problem. .16. .16. . .254. .254. . .2 255. .16. . The highlighted line shows the domain name server IP address. . . . .255. . you are asked for assistance from the help desk technician. all other values should be the same as shown. . : . . . . . . . . but nothing unusual was found.136 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Several options are available with the ipconfig command. .168. . host-11B. . .1. : 192. : Unknown Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection: Connection-specific DNS Suffix Network Connection Physical Address. . . .255. . . .254 Description . . . : 255. . . . . . . . . ipconfig Table Address Table 5-4 Description IP address Subnet mask Default gateway DNS server 172. . . does not respond to pings. .255.255. . . . : 172.168. . . . .2 Subnet Mask .example. complaining that computer host 11B.

The pings succeed. Then. and in some instances LAN devices require a default gateway to communicate with other devices on the LAN. the user is able to establish connectivity with the computer. IP network 192.254. the gateway router is back on line and normal network operation resumes. You might have to restart the host computer to flush the DNS cache.254. turn off power to the host computers. . First. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. Task 4: Reflection A gateway address is critical to network connectivity. DNS requests from the LAN devices must go through the gateway device. Task 5: Challenge Use Wireshark to capture a ping between two pod host computers.2 from host 1A. 172. Within the hour. R2-Central.1. especially the gateway. use the hostname of the destination pod computer for DNS to reply with the destination IP address.168.11.5.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab5512. but DNS will not work. after that.Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 137 Nodding your head in understanding. You instruct the help desk technician to tell the user to use the IP address for host 11B temporarily. you ask the technician to ping the IP address for host 11B. Remember. Packet Tracer Activity Packet Tracer Companion: Examining a Device’s Gateway (5. you ask the technician to ping the gateway IP address. Next. If the gateway is down. and the pings fail.0. Windows command-line utilities such as netstat –r and ipconfig /all will report gateway settings on host computers.16. and leave the room ready for the next class. 172. LAN computers still have connectivity between each other. The gateway address should not be needed. Remove anything that was brought into the lab.16. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. capture a ping between network devices using only IP addresses.254. Observe the communication sequence between network devices. however. What is wrong? Because the DNS server is on a different network than the LAN. Task 6: Clean Up Unless directed otherwise by the instructor.

2. based upon configuration information on the network interface. Use a pod host computer to telnet into R2-Central. and the network route is automatically entered into the routing table. Examine router routes using basic Cisco IOS commands. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ Use the route command to modify a Windows computer routing table. This lab compares how routes are used in Windows computers and the Cisco router. Some routes are added to routing tables automatically. Use a Windows Telnet client command telnet to connect to a Cisco router. Figure 5-6 shows the topology for this lab. and then add the default gateway route back to the host table. The device considers a network directly connected when it has an IP address and network mask configured. Scenario Using a pod host computer.138 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Lab 5-2: Examining a Route (5. and Table 5-5 shows the corresponding addressing table. Delete the default gateway route.5. For networks that are not directly connected. test the connection. and examine the routing table. a device must know the route to the destination network. Figure 5-6 Topology for Lab 5-2 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 . examine the routing table with the route command and identify the different routes and gateway IP address for the route.1) Learning Objectives Upon completion of this lab. Background For packets to travel across a network. a default gateway IP address is configured that will send traffic to a device that should know about the network.

255. and that Eagle Server is on.Pod#.168. 172.255.0 255. the lab topology might have been modified before this class. students telnet into R2-Central and view the routing table.10.16.0 255.10.5 172.10.0.253 10. Ensure that the privileged exec password has been changed from the default value of cisco.16.10.254.252 255.1 172.16.254 172.255.31. and can ping R2-Central.1 255.168. ping Eagle Server.10.16.6. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server.255. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address. check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central. output from the netstat –r command is useful to determine route and gateway information.2 172. Verify that all network equipment is powered on.254.254.255.254. shown in the preceding logical addressing table.0 255. verify that the host has the correct DNS address.16.254.254.255.254 192.255. From a known good host computer. ping S1Central.255. Task 1: Use the route Command to Modify a Windows Computer Routing Table Shown in Example 5-4.253 N/A 172.254 172.255. 172. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests.Pod#. 10.6 192.0 255.255.255.16. Step 2.0.255.24.255.Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 139 Table 5-5 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP S0/0/0 Fa0/0 10. R1-ISP.com.16.255.example.252 255.com.10.0 N/A N/A 10.0 255. and finally Eagle Server.0 255.example. Verify that the host computer has the correct gateway IP address. Finally.254 R2-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Eagle Server N/A N/A Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central N/A N/A N/A Note to instructor: Depending on the classroom situation. Step 3. If the ping test fails.16. and can ping R1-ISP. and can ping eagle-server.255.0.255.254 172. R2-Central.10.10.255.255. If an individual host computer cannot connect to Eagle Server. In this lab. .16.254 172.168.6 N/A 192.255. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity. troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity using the following steps: Step 1.255.0.

255 255.1 172.255.0. MS TCP Loopback interface 0x20005 ..254 127.16.0 255.16..2 127. add... as shown in Example 5-6..254 Gateway 172.255.16..0.255.2 172.16. as shown in Example 5-5. Examine the active routes on a Windows computer..255..140 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example 5-4 Output of the netstat Command C:\>netstat –r Route Table ======================================================================= Interface List 0x1 .2 Interface 172.0 172..0 255.255 255. the route command can be used to view.16.1.16.0. delete. A useful command to modify the routing table is the route command.0..2 Metric 1 1 20 20 20 1 ======================================================================= Persistent Routes: None C:\> Step 1..255.0.16.1.. To view detailed information about the route command.16..0 172..00 16 76 ac a7 6a Intel(R) 82562V 10/100 Network Connection ======================================================================= ======================================================================= Active Routes: Network Destination 0. issue the command route PRINT.255 255. or change routing table entries..2 127.0.0...1.0.1.0....2 172.255 Default Gateway: Netmask 0.1..255.0 127.255.. use the option route /?.0 255.16.1 172.0. Example 5-5 Output of the route Command C:\>route /? An abbreviated option list for the route command is shown below: route PRINT route ADD route DELETE route CHANGE Prints active routes Adds a route: Deletes a route: Modifies an existing route route ADD network MASK mask gateway route DELETE network To view active routes.0.0.16.0.1 172...2 127.0.1.16.1 172.255.0. Unlike the netstat –r command.255 172.255.1.0.16.0..2 172..0.1.255.255.255. .

Example 5-7 Output of the ping Command C:\> ping eagle-server.1.16.254.255.0..com [192.254.255 255. Average = 0ms C:\> What is the gateway address to eagle-server. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms.1.254.0.1 172..0 .1...0.16...example.168.255.00 16 76 ac a7 6a .0.16.0 255.0.0.1.168.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.0.0.Intel(R) 82562V 10/100 Network Connection ======================================================================= Active Routes: Network Destination 0..example.. How important is the default gateway route? Delete the gateway route.16.0..0 172..254 Step 2. MS TCP Loopback interface 0x70003 .2 172.0.0.. Delete a route from the Windows computer routing table.0.1..255.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.2 Metric 1 1 20 20 20 1 ======================================================================= Verify network connectivity to Eagle Server.254..168.255.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.16..0.168.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Ping statistics for 192.254: Packets: Sent = 4.255..255 Default Gateway: Persistent Routes: None C:\> Netmask 0.0 127.1.16. Maximum = 0ms.com Pinging eagle-server.255..255 255.255.16.1..255.168.0.0.1.16.0.0... and try to ping Eagle Server. as shown in Example 5-7. Lost = 0 (0% loss).255.2 127.0 172.2 172. Received = 4.0 255. The syntax to remove the default gateway route is this: route DELETE network The full command is as follows: C:/> route DELETE 0..1 172..16.254 127.255.16.255 255.255.254 Gateway 172.Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 141 Example 5-6 Output of the route PRINT Command C:\ >route PRINT ======================================================================= Interface List 0x1 .0.0.16.com? 172.0.0 255.2 127.16..2 127...168.1 172.255 172..255.1 172.254] with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 192.255...2 172..example.254.2 Interface 172.16.

.16.255 Persistent Routes: None C:\> Netmask 255.2 172. Insert a route into the Windows computer routing table.0..1. or the cache times out...2 172.2 127.0 255.. Step 3..255.0. Removing the default gateway has no effect on LAN connectivity.142 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Examine the active routing table.0.16.. how can the DNS server be reached to resolve eagle-server.Intel(R) 82562V 10/100 Network Connection ======================================================================= ======================================================================= Active Routes: Network Destination 127.0.1 172..0 MASK 0. If the default gateway IP address is removed.16.0 255.2 172.255. such as 172.16.255 224. there is no default gateway IP address.example.255..1.254? Yes. The syntax to add a route to the Windows computer routing table is this: route ADD network MASK mask gateway-IP address The full command appears is as follows: C:/> route ADD 0. C:\> route PRINT ======================================================================= Interface List 0x1 .0 172.2 Metric 1 20 20 20 20 1 ======================================================================= Try to ping Eagle Server.2 Interface 127. If the computer is rebooted..2 172.2 127.0. the name will not be resolved because the DNS server is not on the LAN..0.1.16.0..0.. and verify that the default gateway route has been removed: What is the default gateway IP address? With the default route removed.0.com? The IP address for eagle-server.MS TCP Loopback interface 0x70003 . In the following configuration. use the IP address assigned to your host pod interface..1.1.254 .1..0..255.example.255 240..0 255..255.255.1.0.16.255.255 255..16.2 172.0.255.1.0.16.1 172.00 16 76 ac a7 6a .16.1 172.16...16.0....255.255.16.255.255 Gateway 127.1..0.0 255..255.0 172.0 172..com is stored in the computer’s cache.0. What are the results? Eagle Server cannot be reached.1 172.16.0.0.0.0.0.0. Can other LAN devices be reached.

.. Received = 4.1.0 255.2 Metric 1 1 20 20 20 1 255.0..1. Lost = 0 (0% loss).0 255...255.168..com [192.0..1 172.254] with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 192.0.168..0.0.255 Gateway 172..0.16.Intel(R) 82562V 10/100 Network Connection ======================================================================= ======================================================================= Active Routes: NetworkDestination 0...2 127. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms. Has the default gateway route been restored? Yes C:\ >route PRINT ======================================================================= Interface List 0x1 .255..example.0.254: Packets: Sent = 4.0.0 172.2 172.00 16 76 ac a7 6a . Maximum = 0ms.254.1..2 172.0 255.255 Default Gateway: 172. C:\> ping eagle-server.255..254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.0.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.16.255 255..0..255.0 172.com Pinging eagle-server.0.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Ping statistics for 192.0.example..254.168..16.16.16.254 ======================================================================= Persistent Routes: None C:\> Try to ping Eagle Server..254 127.254.255..255.16.1 172.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.0.1.16.255 255.2 127.255.255..255.16.0..1 172.16.168.1.2 172.255.0.Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 143 Examine the active routing table.255.168.0.255.2 Interface 172. MS TCP Loopback interface 0x70003 .16.. Average = 0ms C:\> .1....0 127.1 172..168.254.16.1.254.1.254. What are the results? Eagle Server can be reached again.16.255 Netmask 0.2 127..0.0.

and so on. . Table 5-6 shows the pod numbers and the corresponding usernames. Open a terminal window by clicking Start > Run. log in to a Cisco router. Type cmd. and requires a username and password. Table 5-6 Pod Number Pod Number Table Username 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 ccna1 ccna2 ccna3 ccna4 ccna5 ccna6 ccna7 ccna8 ccna9 ccna10 ccna11 To start a Telnet session with router R2-Central. Cisco devices have a Telnet server and. Enter the applicable username. students telnet into R2-Central and view the routing table. Step 1.254 <ENTER> A login window will prompt for a username. The Telnet utility has several options and can be viewed with the telnet /? command. For instructors. if properly configured.16. A username and password will be required to log in to the router. Username ccna1 is for users on pod 1 computers. The default password should have been changed to something other than cisco. cisco.144 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 2: Use a Windows Telnet Client Command telnet to Connect to a Cisco Router In this task. the corresponding password is cisco. however. Using the Windows Telnet client. will permit remote logins. and press Enter. The username depends on the pod. and then click OK. The password for all usernames is cisco. Access to the router is restricted. you telnet into the R2-Central router and use common Cisco IOS commands to examine the router routing table. Note to instructors: In this lab.255. ccna2 is for students on pod 2 computers. Type the password. enter the following command: C:/> telnet 172. as shown in Example 5-8. For all usernames. the username is instructor. and press Enter. A terminal window and prompt should be available. The router prompt should be visible after a successful login. Ensure that the privileged exec password has been changed from the default value of cisco.

Static.0. su . Also similar to a host computer.mobile. EX . This is to be expected. because the job of a router is to route traffic between networks. L1 . E2 . which has been accomplished.IS-IS.OSPF inter area N1 .OSPF NSSA external type 1. Authorized access only. B . a router may also employ a default gateway.10. therefore.candidate default. gateway addresses instruct the device about how to reach other networks when no other information is available. the router routing table is examined. This task does not examine Cisco IOS commands in detail.OSPF.EIGRP. The information required of this task. O . a router is knowledgeable about directly connected networks. is not difficult to glean. P .0 . The route information displayed is much more detailed than the route information on a host computer.OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 .RIP. M . U . Only limited permissions for ccnax usernames are available. The purpose of this task was to establish a Telnet session. The syntax to view the routing table is this: show ip route <ENTER> Enter the command to display the router routing table.IS-IS summary.BGP D . In the next task. L2 .10. Example 5-9 shows the routing table for R2-Central.Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 145 Example 5-8 Output for R2-Central ************************************************************ This is Eagle 1 lab router R2-Central. IA . it is not possible to modify router settings or view the configuration. R . Example 5-9 Output of the show ip route Command R2-Central#show ip route Codes: C .0.connected. * . however. R2-Central#.IS-IS inter area.periodic downloaded static route Gateway of last resort is 10.per-user static route o . but instead uses a common IOS command to view the routing table. Similar to the host computer default gateway IP address. N2 .IS-IS level-1.OSPF external type 1.IS-IS level-2 ia . ************************************************************ User Access Verification Username: ccna1 Password: cisco !The password is hidden when typed in R2-Central> At the prompt.OSPF external type 2 i .EIGRP external. a successful Telnet login has been created. Task 3: Examine Router Routes Using Basic Cisco IOS Commands As with any network device. S .ODR.6 to network 0.

1 subnets C S* 10.168.0.10.connected.0.per-user static route o .10.0/0 [1/0] via 10.EIGRP external. because the route is “quad-zero”(0.0/16 is directly connected. The Telnet client will also close the connection with the Telnet escape sequence Ctrl+] and quit. L1 . The asterisk shows the example is a candidate default route.0. B .ODR.0.0. When finished examining the routing table.IS-IS level-1. M .IS-IS inter area. .mobile.IS-IS. One highlighted line shows S.OSPF external type 1.0. N2 .10. Example 5-10 Explanation of Codes R2-Central#show ip route Codes:?C . Close the terminal window.10.0 C 172.OSPF. What would the router do with packets destined to 192. E2 .16. 1 subnets C S* 10. IA .IS-IS summary.4 is directly connected. L2 .254.OSPF external type 2 i .254? The router will use gateway of last resort IP address to forward packets destined to 192.10. which denotes directly connected networks and the interface that supports the connection. U .0.0.4 is directly connected. O . Serial0/2/0 0.0. FastEthernet0/0 10. P . * .254. If there is no other route in the routing table. R .0).6 R2-Central# Two highlighted lines in the example show C.EIGRP.6 to network 0.RIP.10. su . FastEthernet0/0 10.0/30 is subnetted.0.0/0 [1/0] via 10.0. Serial0/2/0 0.10.10. which is manually entered by the network administrator. denoting a static route.OSPF inter area N1 .IS-IS level-2 ia .OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 .0/16 is directly connected.0/30 is subnetted.candidate default. How is IP mask information displayed in a router routing table? Unlike the pod host computer.10. use the gateway of last resort IP address to forward packets. such as /30 or /16.16. S .Static.6 R2-Central# The Codes section shown in Example 5-10 explains the symbols to the left of each route entry.0.254.BGP D .0.146 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example 5-9 Output of the show ip route Command continued C 172. EX . exit the router with the command exit.10.OSPF NSSA external type 1.168. IP mask information is displayed as a numeric value (prefix).0.periodic downloaded static route Gateway of last resort is 10.

Example 5-11 Output of the show ip interface brief Command R2-Central#show ip interface brief Interface FastEthernet0/0 FastEthernet0/1 Serial0/2/0 Serial0/2/1 R2-Central# IP-Address 172. and gateway of last resort information are displayed.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab5522. The router routing table was examined with the Cisco IOS command show ip route.5 unassigned OK? Method Status YES manual up YES unset Protocol up administratively down down up YES manual up YES unset administratively down down Using Windows commands and the Cisco IOS commands in this lab.10. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment.254 <output omitted> R2-Central# Task 6: Clean Up Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. Routes for directly connected networks. the Cisco IOS command show ip interface brief shown in Example 511 will display IP address assignments. Task 5: Challenge You can use other Cisco IOS commands to view IP address information on a router.16. Remember. This technique will be used in other labs to connect to Cisco network devices.2. compare network information output. Similar to the Windows ipconfig command.255. was used to connect to a lab router. What was missing? What critical network information was similar? Both devices displayed directly connected routes and a default gateway route.168. and add route information on the pod host computer. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity. The Cisco router. R2-Central#show hosts Default domain is not set Name/address lookup uses domain service Name servers are 192. and leave the room ready for the next class. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. . statically assigned routes. The route command was used to view. delete. however.Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 147 Task 4: Reflection Two new Windows commands were used in this lab. R2-Central.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer.254. turn off power to the host computers.10. telnet.254 unassigned 10.5. did not display DNS server information. Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Examining a Route (5. however. The Windows Telnet client.

254 10.1. HTTP.16.6 172. Configure a static route using a GUI.1.10. In this activity. Figure 5-7 shows the topology for this skills integration challenge.168.255.255. DHCP.255.0 255.16. you will build increasingly larger parts of this topology in Packet Tracer.253 10. in Inbound and Outbound PDU Details view they were always encapsulated in IP packets.0. Explore the routing of IP packets.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to perform this exercise using Packet Tracer.255.0.0 255. such as DNS.255.254 172. the dominant network layer protocol of the Internet. and switches to learn networking concepts.168. routers.253 R2-Central Fa0/0 S0/0/0 S1-Central PC 1A PC 1B Eagle Server VLAN 1 NIC NIC NIC . TFTP.255.254.254.10.1.0 N/A N/A 10.168.0.254 255.255.255. and analyze increasingly more complex protocol interactions.5 172.16.16.3) Open the file LSG01-PTSkills5. you will be using a standard lab setup created from actual PCs.148 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Packet Tracer Challenge Skills Integration Challenge: Routing IP Packets (5.255.6 172. Table 5-7 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP Fa0/0 S0/0/0 192. At the end of each chapter.10. and Telnet.252 255. Upon completion of this activity.0 255.10. TCP and UDP. You have already studied a variety of application protocols. servers.255. Explore a routing table.254 172.6 10. works in the context of a simple example of IP routing.1 172.6.254.16.10.2 192. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ ■ Configure a router interface using a GUI. and two transport layer protocols. you will examine how IP.255.0.16.10.255. and Table 5-7 shows the corresponding addressing table.10.16.255.252 255. Background Throughout the course.255.0 255.1 172.0 255.255.255.10.254.254 192. You may have noticed that regardless of what application and transport protocols were involved.

FastEthernet0/0. and note the condition of the Fa0/0 interface (to which switch is connected). The request still fails.0. Move your cursor over the R2-Central router. It appears there is a problem with the router. but there is no way to reach the Eagle Server network. subnet mask. Try reaching Eagle Server. find INTERFACE.0. and be turned on to act as the default gateway for the LAN.255. For now. What are some possible reasons why? One possible reason Eagle Server cannot be reached is the fact that it is using a static IP and not the default route. Click router R2-Central and go to the Config tab. In the list shown.16. you will learn how to use the Cisco IOS command-line interface (CLI) to perform this task. and turn the port on. Verify that the router interface (port) is now working by using the mouse over. . At the end of the course. the Config tab is easier and will allow you to focus on the basic idea of IP routing. You will see the router’s directly connected networks.254 with subnet mask 255.Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 149 Figure 5-7 Topology for Challenge 1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server 2960-24TT S1-Central 1841 R2-Central PC 1A PC 1B Task 1: Configure a Router Interface There is a problem on the LAN: PC 1A cannot reach the Eagle Server (verify this in real-time mode). Close the router window.255. This interface must have an IP address. Add the IP address 172. Task 2: Examining Routes Use the Inspect tool (magnifying glass) to examine the routing table of R2-Central.

Using the PDU you created in Task 3.10. a one-shot ping. You should now see the route you configured in the routing table.0 /16 LAN are destined. double-click Fire to send it again. The PDU.16. will appear in the User Created PDU list for future use. In the list shown. Static. This route is configured so that wherever packets from the 172. and the next hop of 10. Task 5: Reflection What data can an IP packet contain? What is meant by the phrase “the IP packet is routed”? What is a route? Where might things go wrong? .150 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 3: Configure a Route Using a GUI Click router R2-Central and go to the Config tab. Task 4: Examine the Routing of the IP Packet Switch to simulation mode. Settings.0. click the Save button to save the interface and route configuration you have just done to NVRAM (in case the router is power cycled).0. Use the Inspect tool (magnifying glass) to examine the routing table of R2-Central again. Test connectivity. mask 0.0.0. they will go to the R1-ISP router.6 (the S0/0/0 interface on the R1-ISP router) and click the Add button. using the address 0.10. too. Verify your work using feedback from the Check Results button and the Assessment Items tab. by using Add Simple PDU to test connectivity between PC 1A and the Eagle Server.0. Trace the packet’s journey from PC 1A to Eagle Server and back using the Capture / Forward button and examining the packet’s contents by either clicking the envelope or clicking the colored square in the Info column of the event list.0. Configure what is known as a default static route. in real time. Under GLOBAL. find ROUTING.0.

This means that we look at each byte as a decimal number in the range of 0 to 255. for assistance. each packet has a 32-bit source address and a 32-bit destination address in the Layer 3 header. What is another way to refer to 1 byte or 8 bits? Octet. Study Guide IPv4 Addresses With IPv4. In this chapter. or use the corresponding Chapter 6 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration Companion Guide. and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of network addressing. Concept Questions 1. we refer to binary as it relates to IPv4 addressing. we define a network as a group of hosts that have identical bit patterns in the network address portion of their addresses. These addresses are used in the data network as binary patterns. Data that appears in binary may represent many different forms of data to the human network. use Chapter 6 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum activities and labs to ensure you have mastered the practical. What does IPv4 provide for packets that carry data? Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) provides hierarchical addressing for packets that carry data. For each IPv4 address. hands-on skills needed to understand the opportunities and challenges associated with IPv4. 3. 2.CHAPTER 6 Addressing the Network: IPv4 The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of matching. . What is another name for digital logic? Boolean logic. some portion of the high-order bits represents the network address. multiple-choice. fill-in-the-blank. 4. As you work through this chapter. What is the format used for IP addresses called? Dotted decimal. At Layer 3.

Add a “dot” between each decimal. The address by which we refer to the network In Table 6-2. Table 6-1 Network Address Type Matching Exercise Definition Address Type A.20 Decimal-to-Binary Conversion Exercise Convert the following IP address into a 32-bit binary number.16. Broadcast address C. The process of sending a packet from one host to a selected group of hosts A. Table 6-2 Communication Type Matching Exercise Communication Type Definition A. The process of sending a packet from one host to all hosts in the network C. Unicast B. Network address B. Binary number: 10101100000100000000010000010100 IP address: 172. match the type of communication on the left to its definition on the right. match the type of network address on the left to its definition on the right.152 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Binary-to-Decimal Conversion Exercise Convert the following 32-bit binary number into an IP address. Host address B. IP address: 172. Broadcast C.20 Binary number: 10101100000100000000010100010100 Addresses for Different Purposes Within the address range of each IPv4 network are three types of addresses: ■ ■ ■ Network addresses Broadcast addresses Host addresses Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 6-1. An address assigned to an end device in the network A.5.16. A special address used to send data to all hosts in the network C. Multicast B. The process of sending a packet from one host to an individual host .4. keeping in mind the following: ■ ■ ■ Divide the 32 bits into four octets. Convert each octet to decimal.

0.0.255 (10.0.255 (0.0 to 238.0. these addresses are listed as reserved for future use (RFC 3330).254.254.0.1. 4.1 address is used.0.0.0 to 169. 1.254.0 /16) 8.255.255 (192.255 (169.2.0 to 255.255.0 to 127.0 /8) 172.0.0. addresses 127.255. the IPv4 address range is 0.0.0. Be sure to include class time for presentations or discussions. 3.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 153 Internet Research Exercise Using any search engine available on the Internet.0 to 192. Another major block of addresses reserved for special purposes is the IPv4 multicast address range 224.0.0 /16) 4.0.255.255.0.255. What is the reserved block for default routing? 0. Concept Questions 1. 2. What is the loopback address.255 (172.255.255.0.0 to 239. One major block of addresses reserved for special purposes is the IPv4 experimental address range 240.0.255.0 to 192.0 to 10.168.255.31. and what block is reserved for loopback? Although only the single 127. What is the prefix length? The prefix length is the number of bits in the address that gives us the network portion.0 to 172. Expressed in dotted-decimal format. Answers will vary.255. What are the private address blocks? 10.255.2. 3.0.0 /8) 6.0 /12) 192.168. Which addresses in a network cannot be assigned to hosts? The first (network address) and last (broadcast address). How do you know how many bits represent the network portion and how many bits represent the host portion? When we express an IPv4 network address. The globally scoped multicast addresses are 224. What block of addresses is designated “link-local”? 169.2.255.255 (192.0 to 255.0.0. we add a prefix length to the network address.255.0 /24) .0.255.255. Vocabulary: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following sentences.255.255. 7.0.16.0.255.254. Currently. or find a calculator for the three address types.255 are reserved.255. 5.0.168. What block of addresses is designated “TEST-NET”? 192. 2.16. look up a website detailing the utility of calculating addresses by hand.0.0.0.

iana. intermediary devices. Describe the pros and cons of using DHCP for addressing. servers. Answers will vary. Assigning Addresses The allocation of network layer address space within the corporate network needs to be well designed. Answers will vary. This feature is especially helpful for mobile users who come and go on a network. With the classless system. Any of the following. Another benefit of DHCP is that an address is not permanently assigned to a host but is only “leased” for a period of time. search for an example of an IPv4 addressing scheme or an article about IPv4’s addressing. List four types of devices that work best using static IP addresses. Be prepared to discuss your opinions of the IANA with the class. Go to the IANA website at http://www. are acceptable: Servers. The allocation of these addresses inside the networks should be planned and documented for the following reasons: ■ ■ ■ Preventing duplication of addresses Providing and controlling access Monitoring security and performance Internet Research Exercises Using your favorite search engine. Answers will vary for both exercises. . static assignment of addressing information can provide increased control over network resources. routers. peripherals. hosts that are accessible from the Internet. Additionally. Nor should address assignment within the network be random. Describe the pros and cons of static addressing. 3. the address is returned to the pool for reuse. DHCP generally is the preferred method of assigning IP addresses to hosts on large networks because it reduces the burden on network support staff and virtually eliminates entry errors. firewalls. Answers will vary. Be sure to include class time for presentations or discussions. If hosts normally access a server at a particular IP address. and spend a few minutes familiarizing yourself with the site. address blocks appropriate to the number of hosts are assigned to companies or organizations without regard to the unicast class. 2. Static addresses are useful for printers. Define classless addressing. in any order. If the host is powered down or taken off the network.org. Network administrators should not randomly select the addresses used in their networks. Concept Questions 1. it would cause problems if that address changed.154 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide 9. Be prepared to present your findings. and other networking devices that need to be accessible to clients on the network. However. it can be time-consuming to enter the information on each host.

increased scalability and longevity. Binary Matching Exercise There are a limited number of subnet mask octets. We express the subnet mask in the same dotted-decimal format as the IPv4 address. 128 . 240 a. 11111111 c. 254 b. 224 f. 10000000 c. improved support for extensions and options. and any of these may appear in any order: Improved packet handling. the devices use a separate 32-bit pattern called a subnet mask. 11111000 g. 11110000 f. Is It on My Network? To define the network and host portions of an address. match the binary number to its numeric value. 255 g. 11111110 i. Tier 2: Tier 2 ISPs generally focus on business customers. flow labeling capability. 192 d. List some improvements that IPv6 will provide.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 155 4. Tier 3: The focus of these ISPs is the retail and home markets in a specific locale. header format simplification. 11111100 h. 5. 252 h. In Table 6-3. 11000000 d. 0 i. authentication and privacy capabilities. The prefix and the subnet mask are different ways of representing the same thing—the network portion of an address. 248 e. 00000000 b. 128-bit hierarchical addressing. Table 6-3 IPv4 Binary Matching Exercise Numeric Value Binary Number a. 11100000 e. What is the primary focus of each of the three tiers of ISPs? Tier 1: The primary focus of Tier 1 ISPs is reliability and/or speed. QoS mechanisms. Answers will vary. integrated security.

Why do routers use ANDing? Routers use ANDing to determine an acceptable route for an incoming packet. If the routers and end devices calculate these processes without your intervention. 3. the more equipped they are to design and administer one. why do you need to learn how to AND? Answers will vary. Using VLSM makes it easier to group networks around what commonalities? VLSM makes it easier to group based on common geographic location. Be prepared to present your findings. 2. How does ANDing help an originating host? An originating host must determine if a packet should be sent directly to a host in the local network or be directed to the gateway. . where n = the number of bits borrowed. each interface on a router must have a unique network ID. Every node on that link is on the same network. the more students understand and can predict the operation of a network. Answers will vary. What is the formula to calculate the number of subnets? 2^n. Because we use a router to connect these networks. Calculating Addresses Subnetting lets you create multiple logical networks from a single address block. Basically.156 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Concept Questions 1. How is a subnet mask created? The subnet mask is created by placing a binary 1 in each bit position that represents the network portion and placing a binary 0 in each bit position that represents the host portion. Internet Research Exercise Using your favorite search engine. research ANDing (be sure to specify that you mean in IPv4 networks). What are the two most useful tools in designing a network? A network diagram and a spreadsheet of IP addresses are the two most useful tools. Allow class time for presentations or discussions. and to group hosts used for specific purposes. 3. Concept Questions 1. to group based on ownership. 4. 2.

SNMP c. What utility attempts to trace the path that a packet takes through the network? a. Ping uses a Layer 3 protocol that is a part of the TCP/IP suite called Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP). d. This method lets you assign addresses that have already been allocated. After all the requests have been sent. Concept Questions 1.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 157 Multiple-Choice Questions 1. 2.0. ping displays the time between when the ping was sent and the response was received. . Ping has a timeout value for the response. Ping uses an ICMP Echo Request datagram. For each packet sent. Configmaker Testing the Network Layer Ping is a utility for testing IP connectivity between hosts. ping measures the time required for the reply. This output includes the success rate and average round-trip time to the destination. it responds with an ICMP Echo Reply datagram. If the host at the specified address receives the Echo request. ping b. As each response is received. Variant Language Superior Model c. ping gives up and sends a message indicating that a response was not received.0. 2. For what is VLSM an acronym? a. traceroute d. What does a response from 127. c. the ping utility provides output that summarizes the responses. Ping sends out requests for responses from a specified host address. If a response is not received within that timeout. How does ping work? Be as specific as you can. This method prevents addresses from being allocated. This method helps prevent assigning addresses that have already been allocated.0.0. This is a measure of the network performance. Very Long String of Marbles b. Why would you use a VLSM chart? a. Using a chart makes calculating VLSM easier.1 indicate? A response from 127.1 indicates that IP is properly installed on the host. Variable-Length Subsidiary Mode d. b. Variable-Length Subnet Mask 3.

The following may be in any order. not by nonoperational network elements. Another possibility is that the router interface might be fully operational but might have security applied to it that is preventing it from processing or responding to ping requests. 1. 4. Assume that you ping your gateway. 6. If a router does not have enough buffer space to receive incoming packets. Unreachable Destination or Service. the router discards these packets. What does TTL stand for? Time to Live 8. Why is ping not always the most reliable test for connectivity on a network? Answers will vary. Source Quench. but any of the following are correct. One possibility is that we have the wrong address for the gateway. What does traceroute do? Traceroute (tracert) is a utility that lets you observe the path between hosts. what sort of problem could this indicate? Answers will vary. but another host does. Many network administrators limit or prohibit the entry of ICMP datagrams into the corporate network. It is also possible that other hosts may have the same security restriction applied. the lack of a ping response could be caused by security restrictions. Therefore. . This could indicate a problem with the router’s interface serving as the gateway.158 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide 3. What do the first four Destination Unreachable codes mean? 0 = Net unreachable 1 = Host unreachable 2 = Protocol unreachable 3 = Port unreachable 2. A destination host may also send a source quench message if datagrams arrive too fast to be processed. 5. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following statements. If the gateway does not respond. Route Redirection. Host Confirmation. Name the different ICMP message types. Time Exceeded. What does RTT stand for? Round-Trip Time 7.

Use the tracert/traceroute command to verify TCP/IP connectivity. Linux.0 — — 10.255.0 255. This is because the Eagle Server lab has little network traffic.16.16. first defined in RFC 792 in September 1981.Pod#. Where to begin connectivity tests has been the subject of much debate.255.254 172.0.254 R2-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Eagle Server — — Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central — — — .16.16.255.2 172. Figure 6-1 shows the topology for this lab.0.0 255.255. tracert can be used to check for network latency.254 172.255. The tracert utility is available on Windows. ICMP message types were later expanded in RFC 1700.10.7.6 192.254.255. Scenario This lab examines the ping and tracert commands.0 255.168.255. Measured delay time will probably be less than that on a production network. Table 6-4 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP S0/0/0 Fa0/0 10.255.255. Both ping and tracert use Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) to send messages between devices.Pod#.255.1 172. Command options will be used to modify the command behavior.0 255. To familiarize you with the use of the commands.10. For example.255.0 255.6 — 192.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 159 Labs and Activities Lab 6-1: Ping and Traceroute (6. traceroute. when a web browser fails to connect to a web server.16.254 192.254. it usually depends on the experience of the network engineer and familiarity with the network.24. Background Two tools that are indispensable when testing TCP/IP network connectivity are ping and tracert.255. and Table 6-4 is the corresponding addressing table.0.252 255. you will be able to ■ ■ Use the ping command to verify simple TCP/IP network connectivity. ICMP is a TCP/IP network layer protocol.254.10.16.254.255.0 255. the tracert command would be used.253 — 172.0. the problem can be anywhere between the client and the server.255.1) Upon completion of this lab.168.253 10.10.31.16. In a complex network. and a similar utility.252 255.5 172.168. In addition to testing for connectivity.1 255.10.255.255.255.255.254 172.10. it tests network connectivity. is available on Linux and Cisco IOS. and Cisco IOS.1.254 172. devices in the Cisco lab will be tested. The ping utility is available on Windows. A network engineer may use the ping command to test for local network connectivity or connections where there are few devices.

R1-ISP.16. Verify that all network equipment is powered on and that eagle-server is on. Verify that the host computer has the correct Gateway IP address. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address. and that it can ping R2-Central.10.16. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server. From a known good host computer. verify that the host has the correct DNS address and that it can ping eagle-server.10.254.254. troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity with the following steps: Step 1.255.6. Step 2. R2-Central.example. and finally eagle-server. Step 3. Task 1: Use the ping Command to Verify Simple TCP/IP Network Connectivity The ping command is used to verify TCP/IP network layer connectivity on the local host computer or another device in the network. the lab topology may have been modified before this class. ping S1Central.255. to test Domain Name System (DNS) functionality.160 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 6-1 Topology for Lab 6-1 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 Note to Instructor: Depending on the classroom situation. ping eagle-server. Finally.com. 172. 172. check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central.com. such as eagle-server.com. and that it can ping R1-ISP. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity. For this .example. as shown in Table 6-4. 10. If an individual host computer cannot connect to eagle-server. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests. If the ping test fails. This command can be used with a destination IP address or qualified name.example.

1.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 172. Each pod host computer should have the same network mask and default gateway address.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 172. : 172. Example 6-1 C:\> ipconfig Output of the ipconfig Command Windows IP Configuration Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection: Connection-specific DNS Suffix . reconfigure the TCP/IP settings to match the settings for this pod host computer. The output should look similar to that shown in Example 6-2. four ping requests are sent to the destination.255.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 161 lab. : IP Address.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 172.0 172. . . . . . . The ping operation is straightforward. .16. . . as shown in Example 6-1. If there is a break between the source and destination.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 . and reply information is received.16.16. only IP addresses are used.2 Pinging 172.1.254 C:\> The output should look the same except for the IP address. . . .1. . .16.16.1.254 Use the ping command to verify TCP/IP network layer connectivity on the local host computer. . If the information is missing or if the subnet mask and default gateway are different. . : 172. only the IP address may differ. . . Open a Windows terminal and determine the IP address of the pod host computer with the ipconfig command. Step 1.1.255. The destination responds with an echo reply.2 Subnet Mask .0.1 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 172. . : 255. The source computer sends an ICMP echo request to the destination. Table 6-5 TCP/IP Information Value TCP/IP Information IP address Subnet mask Default gateway Depends on the pod host computer.1. .0. . . . Record local TCP/IP network information in Table 6-5. . . Example 6-2 Output of the ping Command on the Local TCP/IP Stack C:\> ping 172. .255. Verify TCP/IP network layer connectivity on the local host computer. .16. 255. .16. By default.16. a router may respond with an ICMP message that the host is unknown or the destination network is unknown.16.0 Default Gateway .1.255. .

Packets lost: The difference between the number of packets sent and received. The third highlighted line shows summary information about the replies: ■ ■ ■ Packets sent: The number of packets transmitted. The maximum TTL value is 255. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms. The second highlighted entry shows the following reply information: ■ ■ ■ Bytes: Size of the ICMP packet. fill in the results of the ping command on your computer. Use the ping command to verify TCP/IP network layer connectivity to the default gateway. Example 6-2 also shows information about the delay in replies. 32 bytes 4 4 0 0 ms 0 ms 0 ms Verify TCP/IP network layer connectivity on the LAN. Maximum = 0ms. For newer Windows machines the default value is 128. The results should be similar to those shown in Example 6-3. Lost = 0 (0% loss). Table 6-6 Field Field Information Value Size of packet Number of packets sent Number of replies Number of lost packets Minimum delay Maximum delay Average delay Step 2. TTL: Default TTL value of the destination device.2: Packets: Sent = 4. Lower round-trip times indicate faster links. four packets are sent. Packets received: The number of packets received. By default. minus the number of routers in the path. The default TTL value of the Windows XP computer is 128. Received = 4. and the Linux computer is 64.16. In Table 6-6.1. . A computer timer is set to 10 milliseconds. set to the IP address of the local computer. Average = 0ms C:\> The first highlighted line shows the destination address. Students may ask why default TTL values differ when different devices are accessed. Time: Elapsed time between transmission and reply. Cisco IOS is 255. measured in milliseconds. Values faster than 10 milliseconds display 0.162 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example 6-2 Output of the ping Command on the Local TCP/IP Stack continued Ping statistics for 172.

254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=62 Reply from 192.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=255 Reply from 172. Received = 4.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=62 .168. it is the default Gateway that has failed or that has misconfigured TCP/IP network settings.254.168.255.168.168. Lost = 0 (0% loss).Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 163 Example 6-3 Output of the ping Command to the Default Gateway C:\> ping 172. Example 6-4 Output of the ping Command to Eagle Server C:\> ping 192. Table 6-7 Field Field Information Value Size of packet Number of packets sent Number of replies Number of lost packets Minimum delay Maximum delay Average delay 32 bytes 4 4 0 0 ms 0 ms 0 ms What would be the result of a loss of connectivity to the default gateway? No external networks would be reachable. users may complain that the Eagle Server web server is down.254 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 192. Use the ping command to verify TCP/IP network layer connectivity to a device on a remote network.16.255.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=255 Reply from 172.16. In Table 6-7.16. Eagle Server is used.16.254. the TTL value returned is 255.254.16.254 Pinging 172. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms. Verify TCP/IP network layer connectivity to a remote network. Average = 0ms C:\> The Cisco IOS default TTL value is set to 255.16.168. The results should be similar to those shown in Example 6-4. fill in the results of the ping command to the default gateway.255.254 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 172. Because the router was not crossed.255. In this case. Maximum = 1ms.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=62 Reply from 192.16. For example.254 Pinging 192.255. In reality.254: Packets: Sent = 4. Step 3.254.255.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=255 Ping statistics for 172.254: bytes=32 time=1ms TTL=255 Reply from 172.255.254.

fill in the results of the ping command on your computer. Request timed out.168. therefore.254 with 32 bytes of data: Request timed out.254. Average = 0ms C:\> The Linux default TTL value is set to 64. In Example 6-5. Is the problem with Eagle Server or a device in the path? The tracert command. the output shows that a user cannot reach Eagle Server.254 Pinging 192. there are limitations.254: Packets: Sent = 4.164 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example 6-4 Output of the ping Command to Eagle Server continued Reply from 192. Example 6-5 Output of the ping Command to the Lost Packets C:\> ping 192. one by one. you can use the tracert command. Instead of using the ping command to test the connectivity of each device to the destination. Received = 4. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms. Step 4: In Table 6-8. Request timed out. Received = 0.168. Request timed out. the returned TTL value is 62.254. Two routers were crossed to reach Eagle Server. Lost = 4 (100% loss). Table 6-8 Field Field Information Value Size of packet Number of packets sent Number of replies Number of lost packets Minimum delay Maximum delay Average delay 32 bytes 4 4 0 0 ms 0 ms 0 ms The ping command is extremely useful when you’re troubleshooting network connectivity. examined next.254. C:\> Task 2: Use the tracert Command to Verify TCP/IP Connectivity The tracert command is useful for learning about network latency and path information.168. However.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=62 Ping statistics for 192.168. can display network latency and path information. Ping statistics for 192. Maximum = 0ms. .168.254.254: Packets: Sent = 4.254. Lost = 0 (0% loss).

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On Linux and Cisco IOS devices, the equivalent command is traceroute.
Step 1.

Verify TCP/IP network layer connectivity with the tracert command. Open a Windows terminal, and issue the following command: C:\> tracert 192.168.254.254 The output from the tracert command should be similar to that shown in Example 6-6.

Example 6-6

Output of the tracert Command to Eagle Server

C:\> tracert 192.168.254.254 Tracing route to 192.168.254.254 over a maximum of 30 hops 1 2 3 <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms 172.16.255.254 10.10.10.6 192.168.254.254

Trace complete. C:\>

Record your results in Table 6-9.
Table 6-9 Field Field Information Value

Maximum number of hops First router IP address Second router IP address Destination reached?
Step 2.

30 172.16.255.254 10.10.10.6 Yes

Observe tracert output to a host that lost network connectivity. S1-Central is a switch and does not decrement the packet TTL value. If there is a loss of connectivity to an end device such as Eagle Server, the tracert command can give you valuable clues about the source of the problem. The ping command would show the failure but not any other kind of information about the devices in the path. Referring to the topology diagram shown in Figure 6-1, both R2-Central and R1-ISP are used for connectivity between the pod host computers and Eagle Server. Refer to Example 6-7. Options are used with the tracert command to reduce wait time (in milliseconds), -w 5, and maximum hop count, -h 4. If Eagle Server were disconnected from the network, the default gateway would respond correctly, as well as R1-ISP. The problem must be on the 192.168.254.0/24 network. In this example, Eagle Server has been turned off.

Example 6-7

Output of the tracert Command

C:\> tracert -w 5 -h 4 192.168.254.254 Tracing route to 192.168.254.254 over a maximum of 4 hops 1 2 <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms 172.16.255.254 10.10.10.6

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Example 6-7
3 4 * *

Output of the tracert Command
* * * *

continued

Request timed out. Request timed out.

Trace complete. C:\>

What would the tracert output be if R1-ISP failed? Connectivity would stop after R2-Central. What would the tracert output be if R2-Central failed? There would be no connectivity.

Task 3: Challenge
The default values for the ping command normally work for most troubleshooting scenarios. There are times, however, when fine-tuning ping options may be useful. Issuing the ping command without any destination address displays the options shown in Example 6-8.
Example 6-8
C:\> ping

Output of a ping Command with No Destination Address

Usage: ping [-t] [-a] [-n count] [-l size] [-f] [-i TTL] [-v TOS] [-r count] [-s count] [[-j host-list] | [-k host-list]] [-w timeout] target_name

Options: -t Ping the specified host until stopped. To see statistics and continue - type Control-Break; To stop - type Control-C. -a -n count -l size -f -i TTL -v TOS -r count -s count -j host-list -k host-list -w timeout C:\> Resolve addresses to hostnames. Number of echo requests to send. Send buffer size. Set Don’t Fragment flag in packet. Time To Live. Type Of Service. Record route for count hops. Timestamp for count hops. Loose source route along host-list. Strict source route along host-list. Timeout in milliseconds to wait for each reply.

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The most useful options are highlighted. Some options do not work together, such as the -t and -n options. Other options can be used together. Experiment with those described in this section. To ping the destination address until stopped, use the -t option, as shown in Example 6-9. To stop the output, press Ctrl-C.
Example 6-9 Output of a ping Command Using the -t Option

C:\> ping -t 192.168.254.254 Pinging 192.168.254.254 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 192.168.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.168.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.168.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.168.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.168.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.168.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Ping statistics for 192.168.254.254: Packets: Sent = 6, Received = 6, Lost = 0 (0% loss), Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms, Maximum = 0ms, Average = 0ms Control-C ^C C:\>

To ping the destination once and record router hops, use the -n and -r options, as shown in Example 6-10.
Note: Not all devices honor the -r option. Example 6-10 Output of a ping Command Using the -n and -r Options

C:\> ping -n 1 -r 9 192.168.254.254 Pinging 192.168.254.254 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 192.168.254.254: bytes=32 time=1ms TTL=63 Route: 10.10.10.5 -> 192.168.254.253 -> 192.168.254.254 -> 10.10.10.6 -> 172.16.255.254 Ping statistics for 192.168.254.254: Packets: Sent = 1, Received = 1, Lost = 0 (0% loss), Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 1ms, Maximum = 1ms, Average = 1ms C:\>

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Task 4: Reflection
Network engineers use both ping and tracert to test network connectivity. For basic network connectivity, the ping command works best. To test latency and the network path, the tracert command is preferred. The ability to accurately and quickly diagnose network connectivity issues is a skill expected from a network engineer. Knowledge about the TCP/IP protocols and practice with troubleshooting commands will build that skill.

Task 5: Clean Up
Unless directed otherwise by the instructor, turn off power to the host computers. Remove anything that was brought into the lab, and leave the room ready for the next class.
Packet Tracer Companion

Packet Tracer Companion: ping and traceroute (6.7.1.2)
You can now open the file LSG01-Lab6712.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. Remember, however, that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. The instructions are summarized within the activity.

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Lab 6-2: Examining ICMP Packets (6.7.2.1)
Upon completion of this lab, you will be able to
■ ■

Understand the format of ICMP packets. Use Wireshark to capture and examine ICMP messages.

Background Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) was first defined in RFC 792 in September 1981. ICMP message types were later expanded in RFC 1700. ICMP operates at the TCP/IP network layer and is used to exchange information between devices. ICMP packets serve many uses in today’s computer networks. When a router cannot deliver a packet to a destination network or host, an informational message is returned to the source. Also, the ping and tracert commands send ICMP messages to destinations, and destinations respond with ICMP messages. Scenario Using Eagle Server, Wireshark captures will be made of ICMP packets between network devices. Figure 6-2 shows the topology for this lab, and Table 6-10 is the corresponding addressing table.
Figure 6-2 Topology for Lab 6-2

R1-ISP

S0/0/0 DCE

Eagle Server

S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24

S1-Central

R2-Central

1A

1B

11A

11B

Pod#1

Pod#11

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Table 6-10 Device

Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway

R1-ISP

S0/0/0 Fa0/0

10.10.10.6 192.168.254.253 10.10.10.5 172.16.255.254 192.168.254.254 172.31.24.254 172.16.Pod#.1 172.16.Pod#.2 172.16.254.1

255.255.255.252 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.252 255.255.0.0 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.0.0

— — 10.10.10.6 — 192.168.254.253 — 172.16.255.254 172.16.255.254 172.16.255.254

R2-Central

S0/0/0 Fa0/0

Eagle Server

— —

Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central

— — —

Note to Instructor: Depending on the classroom situation, the lab topology may have been modified before this class. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server.example.com, troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity using the following steps:
Step 1. Step 2.

Verify that all network equipment is powered on and that eagle-server is on. From a known good host computer, ping eagle-server. If the ping test fails, ping S1Central, R2-Central, R1-ISP, and finally eagle-server. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests. If an individual host computer cannot connect to eagle-server, check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address, as shown in Table 6-10, and that it can ping R2-Central, 172.16.255.254. Verify that the host computer has the correct Gateway IP address, 172.16.255.254, and that it can ping R1-ISP, 10.10.10.6. Finally, verify that the host has the correct DNS address and that it can ping eagle-server.example.com.

Step 3.

Task 1: Understand the Format of ICMP Packets
Refer to Figure 6-3, which shows the ICMP header fields common to all ICMP message types. Each ICMP message starts with an 8-bit Type field, an 8-bit Code field, and a computed 16-bit Checksum. The ICMP message type describes the remaining ICMP fields. Table 6-11 shows ICMP message types from RFC 792.
Figure 6-3
0 Type

ICMP Message Header
7 8 Code 16 24 Checksum 31

Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4

171

Table 6-11 Value

ICMP Message Types Meaning

0 3 4 5 8 11 12 13 14 15 16

Echo Reply Destination Unreachable Source Quench Redirect Echo Time Exceeded Parameter Problem Timestamp Timestamp Reply Information Request Information Reply

Codes provide additional information to the Type field. For example, if the Type field is 3, Destination Unreachable, additional information about the problem is returned in the Code field. Table 6-12 shows message codes for an ICMP Type 3 message, Destination Unreachable, from RFC 1700.
Table 6-12 Code Value ICMP Type 3 Message Codes Meaning

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Net Unreachable Host Unreachable Protocol Unreachable Port Unreachable Fragmentation Needed and Don’t Fragment Was Set Source Route Failed Destination Network Unknown Destination Host Unknown Source Host Isolated Communication with Destination Network Is Administratively Prohibited Communication with Destination Host Is Administratively Prohibited Destination Network Unreachable for Type of Service Destination Host Unreachable for Type of Service

172

Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide

Using the ICMP message capture shown in Example 6-11, fill in the fields in Figure 6-4 for the ICMP packet echo request. Values beginning with 0x are hexadecimal numbers.
Example 6-11 ICMP Packet Echo Request

Internet Control Message Protocol Type: 8 (Echo (Ping) request) Code: 0 Checksum: 0x365c [correct] Identifier: 0x0200 Sequence number: 0x1500 Data (32 bytes)

Figure 6-4
0

ICMP Packet Echo Request
7 8 16 24 31

Data...

Using the ICMP message capture shown in Example 6-12, fill in the fields in Figure 6-5 for the ICMP packet echo reply.
Example 6-12 ICMP Packet Echo Reply

Internet Control Message Protocol Type: 0 (Echo (Ping) reply) Code: 0 Checksum: 0x3e5c [correct] Identifier: 0x0200 Sequence number: 0x1500 Data (32 bytes)

Figure 6-5
0

ICMP Packet Echo Reply
7 8 16 24 31

Data...

At the TCP/IP network layer, communication between devices is not guaranteed. However, ICMP does provide minimal checks for a reply to match the request. From the information provided in the ICMP messages just shown, how does the sender know that the reply is to a specific echo? The identifier is used to identify this host computer, and the sequence number is used to identify this echo request.

254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Ping statistics for 192.168. Lost = 0 (0% loss). In this step.example.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192. From the Windows terminal.168. similar to those shown in Figure 6-6.168.254.254. open and install Wireshark. you can download it from Eagle Server: 1. Right-click the Wireshark filename.com [192.com Pinging eagle-server.254] with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 192. Figure 6-6 Wireshark Capture of ping Requests and Replies . You should receive four successful replies. Maximum = 0ms. When the file has been downloaded.254: Packets: Sent = 4. you use Wireshark to examine ICMP echo messages.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.254.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 173 Task 2: Use Wireshark to Capture and Examine ICMP Messages If Wireshark has not been loaded on the pod host computer.168. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms. Example 6-13 Successful ping Replies from Eagle Server C:\> ping eagle-server.example. and save the file to the pod host computer.com/pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter6. as shown in Example 6-13. choose Save Link As. Received = 4. 3. When ready.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192. Average = 0ms C:\> Stop the Wireshark capture.254. 2. Open a Windows terminal on the pod host computer.example. ping Eagle Server.168. There should be a total of four ICMP echo requests and matching echo replies. start the Wireshark capture. Open a web browser and go to ftp://eagle-server.168. Capture and evaluate ICMP echo messages to Eagle Server. Step 1.254.

record information from the first echo request packet to Eagle Server. depending on the operating system. For example. In Table 6-15. record information from the first echo reply packet from Eagle Server. if any. In Table 6-13.174 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Which network device responds to the ICMP echo request? The destination device Expand the middle window in Wireshark. and expand the Internet Control Message Protocol record until all fields are visible. Table 6-14 Field Ping Echo Reply Fields Value Type Code Checksum Identifier Sequence number Data 0 (Echo (ping) reply) 0 Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary acdefghijklmnopqrstuvwabcdefghi Which fields. but Windows keeps the Identifier field the same. The bottom window also is needed to examine the Data field. Table 6-13 Field Ping Echo Request Fields Value Type Code Checksum Identifier Sequence number Data 8 (Echo (ping) request) 0 Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwabcdefghi Are there 32 bytes of data? Yes In Table 6-14. . changed from the echo request? Type field and Checksum field Note: The Identifier field may change for subsequent echo request messages. Cisco IOS increments the Identifier field by 1. fill in information from each new ping. Continue to evaluate the remaining echo requests and replies.

16.253.168.1. Expand the middle Wireshark window and the Internet Control Message Protocol record.253. C:\> ping 192.254: Destination host unreachable. Reply from 172. Try to ping IP address 192. In this step. Instead of a request timeout. Ping statistics for 192. Reply from 172.16. Step 2. Maximum = 0ms.255. Received = 4.168.16. Lost = 0 (0% loss).16.168. Average = 0ms C:\> What network device responds to pings to a fictitious destination? The gateway router Figure 6-7 shows Wireshark captures to a fictitious destination.255. . Example 6-14 Ping Results from a Fictitious Destination C:\> ping 192. an echo response occurs. but the sequence number changes.253.1: Packets: Sent = 4. pings are sent to a fictitious network and host. The results from the Wireshark capture are evaluated.253.168.253.1 See Example 6-14.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 175 Table 6-15 Packet Ping Echo Requests and Replies Checksum Identifier Sequence Number Request #2 Reply #2 Request #3 Reply #3 Request #4 Reply #4 Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Same as request #2 Same as request #2 Same as request #2 Same as request #2 Same as request #2 Answers will vary Same as request #2 Answers will vary Same as request #3 Answers will vary Same as request #4 Why do the Checksum values change with each new request? The Identifier remains the same. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms.254: Destination host unreachable.1 Pinging 192.253. Reply from 172.1 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 172.1.255. Capture and evaluate ICMP echo messages to 192.254: Destination host unreachable.168.255.168.254: Destination host unreachable.

Received = 4.254: TTL expired in transit.255.16.254 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 172.255. Lost = 0 (0% loss).16.254 Example 6-15 shows ping replies when the TTL value has been exceeded. and set the TTL value to 1: C:\> ping -i 1 192.254: Packets: Sent = 4.254: TTL expired in transit. Host Unreachable Step 3. Reply from 172.255.254: TTL expired in transit.255.16.168. Reply from 172.254.168. In this step. Maximum = 0ms.254.254: TTL expired in transit.16.254.168.176 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 6-7 Wireshark Capture from a Fictitious Destination Which ICMP message type is used to return information to the sender? Type 3 message What code is associated with the message type? Code 1. Expand the middle Wireshark window and the Internet Control Message Protocol record. Capture and evaluate ICMP echo messages that exceed the TTL value. simulating an unreachable destination.254 Pinging 192.254. Ping statistics for 192. Average = 0ms C:\> What network device responds to pings that exceed the TTL value? The gateway router Figure 6-8 shows Wireshark captures to a fictitious destination. Example 6-15 Ping Results for an Exceeded TTL C:\> ping -i 1 192. pings are sent with a low TTL value. Figure 6-8 Wireshark Capture of TTL Value Exceeded . Ping Eagle Server. Reply from 172.168. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms.

Click the filename.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab6722. and leave the room ready for the next class. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. Task 3: Challenge Use Wireshark to capture a tracert session to Eagle Server and then to 192.7. and follow the uninstall instructions.254. Remember. click Remove.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 177 Which ICMP message type is used to return information to the sender? Type 11 message What code is associated with the message type? Code 0. . you can capture and evaluate different ICMP message type values. This demonstrates how the tracert command traces the network path to the destination. turn off power to the host computers. Remove any Wireshark pcap files that were created on the pod host computer. The instructions are summarized within the activity. however. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. Task 4: Reflection The ICMP protocol is very useful when troubleshooting network connectivity issues. Task 5: Clean Up Wireshark may have been loaded on the pod host computer.251. Without ICMP messages. Examine the ICMP TTL exceeded message. Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Examining ICMP Packets (6.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. and scroll down to Wireshark.2. Time to live exceeded in transit Which network device is responsible for decrementing the TTL value? Routers decrement the TTL value. If the program must be removed. choose Start > Control Panel > Add or Remove Programs.168. Using the ping command. a sender has no way to tell why a destination connection failed.

convert the host IP address and network mask into binary. Scenario When given an IP address and network mask. Part 1 (6. you will be able to determine network information for a given IP address and network mask. In Table 6-16.3.1) Upon completion of this activity.25. Determine Network Information Given the following information: ■ ■ Host IP address: 172.178 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Activity 6-1: IPv4 Address Subnetting. Step 1.0 (/16) you will determine the following information in this task: ■ ■ ■ ■ Network address Network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts Translate the host IP address and network mask into binary notation. Background This activity is designed to teach you how to compute network IP address information from a given IP address.114.255.250 Network mask: 255. Table 6-16 Decimal-to-Binary Conversion 172 25 114 250 IP address Network mask 10101100 11111111 255 00011001 11111111 255 01110010 00000000 0 11111010 00000000 0 .0. such as ■ ■ ■ ■ Network address Network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts Task 1: For a Given IP Address. you will be able to determine other information about the IP address.7.

Determine the network address.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 179 Step 2.0. Table 6-18 Broadcast Information 172 25 0 0 Network address Subnet mask 10101100 11111111 11001000 11111111 11001000 25 00000000 00000000 11111111 255 00000000 00000000 11111111 255 Broadcast address 10101100 172 By counting the number of host bits.536 – 2 = 65. In Table 6-17.536 65.534 (addresses that cannot use the all-0s address [the network address] or the all-1s address [the broadcast address]) Add this information to Table 6-19. In Table 6-18. Host bits: 16 Total number of hosts: 216 = 65. The network mask separates the network portion of the address from the host portion. which is 172. perform the following tasks: ■ ■ Draw a line under the mask.0. determine the broadcast address for the network address. AND Operation 172 25 114 250 Table 6-17 IP address Subnet mask 10101100 11111111 00011001 11111111 00011001 25 01110010 00000000 00000000 0 11111010 00000000 00000000 0 Network address 10101100 172 Step 3. and the broadcast address has all 1s in the host portion of the address. 0 AND anything results in a 0. . you can determine the total number of usable hosts for this network. Note: 1 AND 1 results in a 1. The network address has all 0s in the host portion of the address. The result is the network address for this host IP address.25. Perform a bitwise AND operation on the IP address and subnet mask. ■ Express the result in dotted-decimal notation.

30.1.180 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 6-19 Field Host Bits: Information on the Number of Hosts Value Host IP address Network mask Network address Network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts 172.33 255.255. create a subnetting worksheet to show and record all work for each problem.255 16 bits 65.534 usable hosts Task 2: Challenge For all problems.255. Table 6-21 Field Problem 2 172.0 172.250 255.536 – 2 = 65.1.1.0 172.25.114.255.255 8 bits 256 – 2 = 254 .0.0.536 total hosts 65.30.0.0 172.0 (/16) 172.25.30.534 Value Host IP address Network mask Network address Network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts 172.0 172.1. Table 6-20 shows Problem 1.255 16 bits or 216 or 65.255.0.30.255.30.255.0 172. Table 6-20 Field Problem 1 Value Host IP address Network mask Network address Network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts Table 6-21 shows Problem 2.30.536 – 2 = 65.33 255.25.

534 .536 – 2 = 65. Table 6-22 Field Problem 3 Value Host IP address Network mask Network address Network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts Table 6-23 shows Problem 4.0.534 Value Host IP address Network mask Network address Network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts 192.17.255 16 bits 65.3.168.0 192.17.168.10.255.0 172.10.255.234 255.0.0.17.168.168.99. Table 6-24 Field Problem 5 172.536 – 2 = 65.0 192.255. Table 6-23 Field Problem 4 192.0 172.168.0 192.255.10.255.219 255.168.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 181 Table 6-22 shows Problem 3.255.0 192.255 8 bits 256 – 2 = 254 Value Host IP address Network mask Network address Network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts Table 6-24 shows Problem 5.0.71 255.255 16 bits 65.

192 192.168.3.3. Table 6-25 Field Problem 6 Value Host IP address Network mask Network address Network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts 192. .255.168.224 192. and leave the room ready for the next class.182 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 6-25 shows Problem 6.3.219 255.255.223 5 bits 32 – 2 = 30 Task 3: Clean Up Remove anything that was brought into the lab.168.

subtract 2 for the usable number of hosts per subnet—one for the subnet address and one for the subnet’s broadcast address. as shown in Table 6-27.4. Using the chart shown in Table 6-26.024 29 512 28 256 27 128 26 64 25 32 24 16 23 8 22 4 21 2 20 1 Number of bits borrowed: 10 1.7. Because subnet masks must be contiguous 1s followed by contiguous 0s.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 183 Activity 6-2: IPv4 Address Subnetting.1) In this activity. Background Determine how many bits must be allocated to create a certain number of subnets or a certain number of hosts per subnet. you learn how to determine subnet information for a given IP address and subnetwork mask. Table 6-27 Decimal Decimal-to-Binary Conversion Binary 255 254 252 248 240 224 192 128 0 11111111 11111110 11111100 11111000 11110000 11100000 11000000 10000000 00000000 . Part 2 (6.024 9 512 8 256 7 128 6 64 5 32 4 16 3 8 2 4 1 2 1 1 Remember. Table 6-26 Hosts or Subnets 210 1. the converted dotted-decimal notation can contain one of a certain number of values. it is easy to determine how many bits must be borrowed.

0 (/16) Subnet mask: 255. network mask.192 (/26) you will determine the following information in this task: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Number of subnet bits Number of subnets Number of host bits per subnet Number of usable hosts per subnet Subnet address for this IP address IP address of the first host on this subnet IP address of the last host on this subnet Broadcast address for this subnet Translate the host IP address and subnet mask into binary notation in Table 6-28.184 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Scenario When given an IP address.0. you will be able to determine other information about the IP address: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ The subnet address of this subnet The broadcast address of this subnet The range of host addresses for this subnet The maximum number of subnets for this subnet mask The number of hosts for each subnet The number of subnet bits The number of this subnet Task 1: For a Given IP Address and Subnet Mask.255.25. and subnetwork mask.255. Translate Host IP Addresses Value Step 1. Table 6-28 Field IP address 172 10101100 25 00011001 11111111 255 114 01110010 11111111 255 250 11111010 11000000 192 Subnet mask 11111111 255 .255. Determine Subnet Information Given the following information: ■ ■ ■ Host IP address: 172.114.250 Network mask: 255.

Determine which bits in the address contain network information and which contain host information. The result is the subnet address of this subnet. The result is the number of subnet bits.D. Perform a bitwise AND operation on the IP address and subnet mask. Figure 6-9 Major Divide/Subnet Divide M. which in this case is 10 bits. 0 AND anything else results in a 0. This range contains the bits that are being incremented to create the subnet numbers or addresses.192. Step 4. S.D. In Table 6-29.) as a wavy line where the 1s in the major network mask end (also the mask if there was no subnetting).0.114. As shown in Figure 6-9. Table 6-29 Determine the Network 172 25 114 250 IP address Subnet mask Subnet address 10101100 11111111 10101100 172 11001000 11111111 11001000 25 01110010 11111111 01110010 114 11111010 11000000 11000000 192 Note: 1 AND 1 results in a 1.25.D.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 185 Step 2.0. Step 3.) as a straight line where the 1s in the given subnet mask end. .D.D. draw the major divide (M. label the subnet counting range between the M. The network information ends where the 1s in the mask end. 01110010 11111111 01110010 10 Bits IP Address Subnet Mask Subnet Add. 10101110 11111111 10001010 11001000 11111111 11001000 11 111010 11 000000 11 000000 Draw the subnet divide (S.. which can be determined by simply counting the number of bits between the M. which is 172. or the first 16 leftmost bits. As shown in Figure 6-10. Draw a line under the mask. Determine the bit ranges for subnets and hosts. Express the result in dotted-decimal notation.D.255. In this example. and S. the major network mask is 255. determine the network (or subnet) where this host address belongs.D. and the S.D.

and the last bits at the end on the right. all bits before the S.255.114. which you make a 1. This gives us the broadcast IP address on this subnet.). which you make a 0.186 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 6-10 Bit Ranges for Subnets and Hosts M. 10101110 11111111 10001010 11001000 11111111 11001000 11 111010 11 000000 11 000000 Host Counting Range Label the host counting range between the S. IP Address Subnet Mask Subnet Add. which is the last part of the result for Range of Host Addresses for This Subnet.114. Next.254.D. S. In the host portion (to the right of the S.193.D.D. which in the example is 172. Use Figure 6-11 to determine the range of host addresses available on this subnet and the broadcast address on this subnet. make the host bits all 0s except for the rightmost bit (or least-significant bit). 11 111010 11 000000 11 000000 Host Counting Range First Host 10101100 172 11001000 25 11001000 25 11001000 25 01110010 114 01110010 114 01110010 114 11 000001 193 11 111110 254 11 111111 255 Last Host 10101100 172 Broadcast 10101100 172 Write down all the network/subnet bits of the network address (that is.D. This gives us the last host IP address on this subnet. 10101100 11111111 10101100 11001000 11111111 11001000 01110010 11111111 01110010 Subnet Counting Range Figure 6-11 S. make the host bits all 1s.D. make the host bits all 1s except for the rightmost bit (or least-significant bit).114.D.25. In the host portion (to the right of the S. This range contains the bits that are being incremented to create the host numbers or addresses.). This is the result for Broadcast Address of This Subnet. Subnet Counting Range and Host Counting Range M.D. which in the example is 172. 01110010 11111111 01110010 Subnet Counting Range IP Address Subnet Mask Subnet Add. This gives us the first host IP address on this subnet. which in the example is 172. . in the host portion (to the right of the S.D. which is the first part of the result for Range of Host Addresses for This Subnet.D.25. Step 5.).).25.

255.114.25. all 1s not used): 210 = 1024 subnets Step 7.255.0.114.0 (/16) 172. 26 – 2 = 64 – 2 = 62 hosts per subnet Number of host bits per subnet: 6 bits Number of usable hosts per subnet: 26 – 2 = 64 – 2 = 62 hosts per subnet .536 – 2 = 65.255 Determine the number of subnets.25.192 (/26) 26 bits 210 = 1024 subnets 6 bits 26 – 2 = 64 – 2 = 62 hosts per subnet 172.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 187 Add the missing information to Table 6-30.114. Determine the number of usable hosts per subnet. 10 bits).25.25. 6 bits) minus 2 (1 for the subnet address and 1 for the broadcast address of the subnet). Table 6-30 Field Fill in the Missing Information Value Host IP address Major network mask Major (base) network address Major network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts 172.534 usable hosts Subnet mask Number of subnet bits Number of subnets Number of host bits per subnet Number of usable hosts per subnet Subnet address for this IP address IP address of the first host on this subnet IP address of the last host on this subnet Broadcast address for this subnet Step 6.192 172.250 255. Use the formula 2n.0 172. The number of subnets is determined by how many bits are in the subnet counting range (in this example. where n is the number of bits in the subnet counting range.255.254 172.25.255.114.255 16 bits or 216 or 65.25. The number of hosts per subnet is determined by the number of host bits (in this example.25.536 total hosts 65.193 172.114. 210 = 1024 Number of subnet bits: 10 bits Number of subnets (all 0s used.0.255.

30.25.0 172. Table 6-32 shows Problem 1.254 172.255.193 172.25.250 255. create a subnetting worksheet to show and record all work for each problem.254 172.1.25.114.114.30. Final Answers Value Table 6-31 Field Host IP address Subnet mask Number of subnet bits Number of subnets Number of host bits per subnet Number of usable hosts per subnet Subnet address for this IP address IP address of the first host on this subnet IP address of the last host on this subnet Broadcast address for this subnet 172.188 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Step 8.192 (/26) 26 bits 210 = 1024 subnets 6 bits 26 – 2 = 64 – 2 = 62 hosts per subnet 172.192 172.30.1.0 8 bits 256 – 2 = 254 8 bits 256 – 2 = 254 172.1.30.114.25.114.255 Task 2: Challenge For all problems. Table 6-32 Field Problem 1 Value Host IP address Subnet mask Number of subnet bits Number of subnets Number of host bits per subnet Number of usable hosts per subnet Subnet address for this IP address IP address of the first host on this subnet IP address of the last host on this subnet Broadcast address for this subnet 172.25.33 255.1.1 172. Review the final answers in Table 6-31.114.255.1.255 .255.30.255.

384 – 2 = 16.30.255.33 255.1 192.255.192.10.192.192.1.1.382 4–2=2 2 172. Table 6-34 Field Problem 3 172.10.10.234 255.10.254 192.34 172.0 24 bits 224 8 bits 256 – 2 = 254 192.10.33 172.32 172.0 192.30.255 .Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 189 Table 6-33 shows Problem 2.30.255.252 14 bits 16.30.35 Value Host IP address Subnet mask Number of subnet bits Number of subnets Number of host bits per subnet Number of usable hosts per subnet Subnet address for this IP address IP address of the first host on this subnet IP address of the last host on this subnet Broadcast address for this subnet 192.1.255.192.30.192.1.1. Table 6-33 Field Problem 2 Value Host IP address Subnet mask Number of subnet bits Number of subnets Number of host bits per subnet Number of usable hosts per subnet Subnet address for this IP address IP address of the first host on this subnet IP address of the last host on this subnet Broadcast address for this subnet Table 6-34 shows Problem 3.

255.219 255.0 24 bits 224 8 bits 256 – 2 = 254 192.168.168.254 192.0.255.255.255 .0 192.71 255.17.0 172.1 192. Table 6-35 Field Problem 4 Value Host IP address Subnet mask Number of subnet bits Number of subnets Number of host bits per subnet Number of usable hosts per subnet Subnet address for this IP address IP address of the first host on this subnet IP address of the last host on this subnet Broadcast address for this subnet Table 6-36 shows Problem 5.17.255 Value Host IP address Subnet mask Number of subnet bits Number of subnets Number of host bits per subnet Number of usable hosts per subnet Subnet address for this IP address IP address of the first host on this subnet IP address of the last host on this subnet Broadcast address for this subnet 192.3.3.254 172.255.0.190 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 6-35 shows Problem 4.0 16 bits 216 – 2 16 bits 256 – 2 = 254 172.168.0.255.1 172.17.99. Table 6-36 Field Problem 5 172.168.17.3.168.17.3.3.

255.218 192.216 192.3. and leave the room ready for the next class.168.3.3.255. Table 6-37 Field Problem 6 Value Host IP address Subnet mask Number of subnet bits Number of subnets Number of host bits per subnet Number of usable hosts per subnet Subnet address for this IP address IP address of the first host on this subnet IP address of the last host on this subnet Broadcast address for this subnet 192.168.168.217 192. .3.168.252 6 bits 64 – 2 = 62 4–2=2 2 192.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 191 Table 6-37 shows Problem 6.219 Task 3: Clean Up Remove anything that was brought into the lab.168.3.218 255.

1.1. Scenario In this lab activity.168. The routers then will be ready for interface address configuration according to your IP addressing scheme.224 What is the subnet mask for the network in slash format? /27 How many usable hosts are there per subnet? 30 Step 3.255. .1) Upon completion of this lab. Assign subnet 3 to the network attached to R2. You have been given the 192. Assign appropriate addresses to interfaces and document them.1. Consider the following questions when creating your network design: ■ ■ ■ ■ How many subnets are needed for this network? 3 What is the subnet mask for this network in dotted-decimal format? 255. Test and verify configurations.64/27 192.255.0/24 address space to use in your network design.168.168.32/27 Fa0/0 192. Figure 6-12 Topology for Lab 6-3 192. You are given one address block that you must subnet to provide a logical addressing scheme for the network. Step 2. Reflect on and document the network implementation. The network connected to router R2 requires enough IP addresses to support 30 hosts. Assign subnet 2 to the link between R1 and R2. Examine the network requirements.7. verify that the network is working properly.96/27 Fa0/0 PC1 S0/0/0 R1 S0/0/0 DCE PC2 R2 Task 1: Subnet the Address Space Step 1. The network consists of the following segments: ■ ■ ■ The network connected to router R1 requires enough IP addresses to support 15 hosts. The link between router R1 and router R2 requires IP addresses at each end of the link. you design and apply an IP addressing scheme for the topology shown in Figure 612. Assign subnetwork addresses to the topology diagram shown in Figure 6-12: ■ ■ ■ Assign subnet 1 to the network attached to R1.192 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Lab 6-3: Subnet and Router Configuration (6.1. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Subnet an address space given requirements. Configure and activate serial and FastEthernet interfaces.168.5. When the configuration is complete.

168.65 192. can you ping the default gateway? Yes From the router R1. Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway Table 6-38 Device R1 Fa0/0 S0/0/0 192.255.97 R2 Fa0/0 S0/0/0 PC1 PC2 NIC NIC Task 3: Configure the Serial and FastEthernet Addresses Step 1.33 192.255. can you ping the default gateway? Yes From the host attached to R2. Assign the last valid host address in subnet 3 to PC2.1.62 192.224 — — — — 192. Assign the last valid host address in subnet 1 to PC1.224 255.33 192. you will use the Config tab. can you ping the Serial 0/0/0 interface of R1? Yes .255. Task 4: Verify the Configurations Answer the following questions to verify that the network is operating as expected: ■ ■ ■ ■ From the host attached to R1.255.168. Configure the interfaces on the R1 and R2 routers with the IP addresses from your network design. In Table 6-38. Configure the router interfaces.224 255. Step 2.1.97 192. document the addresses to be used.255.224 255. Assign appropriate addresses to the device interfaces: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Assign the first valid host address in subnet 1 to the LAN interface on R1.168. be sure to save the running configuration to the router’s NVRAM.168.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 193 Task 2: Determine Interface Addresses Step 1.224 255. Configure the PC interfaces.255.1. When you have finished.255.1.1. Assign the last valid host address in subnet 2 to the WAN interface on R2. Configure the Ethernet interfaces of PC1 and PC2 with the IP addresses and default gateways from your network design.255. can you ping the Serial 0/0/0 interface of R2? Yes From the router R2.255.94 192.224 255. Assign the first valid host address in subnet 3 to the LAN interface on R2.1.168.255.126 255.1.168.1.168. Assign the first valid host address in subnet 2 to the WAN interface on R1. Note that to complete the activity in Packet Tracer.168. Step 2.255.255.

and router interfaces.1. check the physical connections and configurations.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. ■ Background You have been asked to implement the standard lab topology. trace.3) Open the file LSG01-PTSkills6. however. Upon completion of this lab. Configure the network: Apply your subnetting scheme to servers.5. Build the network: Connect devices with Ethernet and serial cables. If any of the pings failed. PCs.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab6752. Task 5: Reflection Are there any devices on the network that cannot ping each other? Answers will vary What is missing from the network that is preventing communication between these devices? Answers will vary Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Subnet and Router Configuration (6. configure services and static routing. The instructions are summarized within the activity.8. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ Do IP subnet planning: Practice your subnetting skills. and Inspect tools. . Packet Tracer Challenge Skills Integration Challenge: Planning Subnets and Configuring IP Addresses (6.194 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Note: The answers to the preceding questions should be yes. Remember. web traffic. Test the network: Using ping.7. but with a new IP addressing scheme.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to perform this exercise using Packet Tracer.

255. Fill in your answers in Table 6-39.130 192.168.255.0 /24.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 195 You will use many of the skills you have learned to this point in the course.23.255.62 192.255.255.255.129 192.240 255.62 192.168.130 192.168.23.168.252 255.1 192.110 192. up to 28 hosts .192 255.192 255.255.2 192.168. You must provide for existing networks as well as future growth.23.168.255.255. existing student LAN (off of router R2-Central).192 255.23.110 R2-Central Fa0/0 S0/0/0 PC 1A PC 1B Eagle Server NIC NIC NIC Subnet assignments: ■ ■ First subnet.255.23.23. Figure 6-13 shows the topology for this lab.255.23.23.168.168.168.255.62 192. up to 60 hosts Second subnet. Table 6-39 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP Fa0/0 S0/0/0 192.168. future student LAN.23.109 255. Figure 6-13 Topology for Challenge 1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server 2960-24TT S1-Central 1841 R2-Central PC-PT 1A PC-PT 1B Task 1: IP Subnet Planning You have been given an IP address block of 192.23.23.168.255.168.23.252 — — 192.23.255.130 192.168.252 255.

■ ■ Task 2: Finish Building the Network in Packet Tracer Add cables where they are missing: ■ ■ ■ ■ Connect a serial DCE cable to R1-ISP S0/0/0. For R1-ISP’s Fa0/0 interface. in addition to IP configuration. R2-Central’s serial interface. You do not need to configure the switch. up to 12 hosts Fourth subnet. you need to set the clock rate (a timing mechanism required on the DCE end of serial links) to 64000. use the lowest usable address on the existing WAN subnet. For R2-Central’s Fa0/0 interface. and enable HTTP services. Connect PC 1A to the first FastEthernet port on switch S1-Central. ■ Task 3: Configure the Network You need to configure the server. use the domain name eagle-server. For R1-ISP’s S0/0/0 interface. For the server. Connect PC 1B to the second FastEthernet port on switch S1-Central. make sure the power is on to the device and the interfaces. Connect interface Fa0/0 on router R2-Central to the highest FastEthernet port on switch S1Central. with the other end to R2-Central S0/0/0. Part of the router configuration has already been done for you. existing ISP LAN. and the two PCs.196 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Third subnet. The static route on R1-ISP should point to the existing student LAN subnet via R2-Central’s . up to 8 hosts Fifth subnet. For all devices. both routers.example. point-to-point link Seventh subnet. point-to-point link Sixth subnet. All you must do is configure the static routes and the interfaces via the GUI. enable DNS services. configure them to use DNS services. ■ ■ ■ ■ Additional configurations: ■ ■ For PCs 1A and 1B.com. use the highest usable address on the existing student LAN subnet. future WAN. configure the second-highest usable IP address on the existing ISP LAN subnet. For the R1-ISP router serial interface. configure the highest usable IP address on the existing ISP LAN subnet. No clock rate is needed on the DTE side—in this case. point-to-point link Interface IP addresses: ■ ■ For the server. existing WAN. future WAN. nor do you need the IOS CLI to configure the routers. For hosts 1A and 1B. future ISP LAN. For R2-Central’s S0/0/0 interface. configure the highest usable address on the existing WAN subnet. use the first two IP addresses (the two lowest usable addresses) on the existing student LAN subnet.

Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 197 serial interface IP address. DNS. with HTTP. and the Inspect tool. and ICMP viewable. These procedures were explained in the Chapter 5 Skills Integration Challenge. TCP. Task 4: Test the Network Use ping. and testing skills will serve you well throughout your networking courses. configuration. Task 5: Reflection Reflect on how much you have learned so far! Practicing IP subnetting skills and network building. UDP. trace. to test your understanding of how the network is operating. web traffic. The static route on R2-Central should be a default static route that points to R1-ISP’s serial interface IP address. . Trace packet flow in simulation mode.

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A layer of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model that frames upper-layer data and controls how data is placed on a medium b. Study Guide Data Link Layer: Accessing the Media The data link layer plays a major role in networks. Node c. Network e. 2. What is the difference between a logical network and a physical network? The network layer defines the logical network using a hierarchical addressing scheme. Frame b. match the term on the left to its definition on the right. optical fibers. Media d. for assistance. or use the corresponding Chapter 7 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration Companion Guide. including copper cabling. As you work through this chapter. and the air in the case of wireless. The data link layer hides the details of these media from the upper layers and takes on the job of transmitting data across each network segment. Table 7-1 Term Data Link Layer Terms Definition a. and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of the data link layer. fill-in-the-blank. The media can consist of many different types. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum activities and labs to ensure that you have mastered the practical.CHAPTER 7 OSI Data Link Layer The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of matching. The data link layer defines the physical network as a set of devices on a common medium. What are the two main jobs of the data link layer? The data link layer allows upper layers to access media. Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 7-1. Data link d. The protocol data unit (PDU) used in Layer 2 of the OSI model Concept Questions 1. A device on a network c. use Chapter 7 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum. hands-on skills you need to work with the data link layer. because it is the layer that accesses the physical medium and causes network traffic to traverse different physical media. . Two or more devices connected to a common medium e. It also controls how data is placed on and received from media. The physical means used to carry data signals a.

the probability of successful access without a data collision decreases. all nodes compete for the use of the medium. encapsulate the Layer 3 PDU into a new frame. The controlled method provides predictable. With contention-based media access control. depending on the medium and the data link layer protocols in use. A router uses data link layer services to receive a frame from one medium. has physical interfaces that can encapsulate a packet into the appropriate frame and handle the media access control method to access each link. With controlled media access control. 3. such as a Network Interface Card (NIC) on a local-area network (LAN). and place the frame on the medium of the next link in the network. Some methods are complicated and add overhead to the process. Network devices take turns. Media Access Control Techniques Media access control regulates the placement of data frames on a medium.200 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide 3. There are different ways to accomplish this regulation. To connect to a network. As more nodes try to access the network to send data. Other methods are less complicated but may not scale as well. If the data link layer didn’t exist. The technique for getting a frame on and off a medium is called the media access control method. but it can be inefficient because a device has to wait its turn before it can use the medium. in sequence. 1. to access the medium. what changes would be required of a network layer protocol such as Internet Protocol (IP)? Without a data link layer. Compare and contrast controlled media access control and contention-based media access control. IP would need to change every time a new network technology or medium were developed. 4. deterministic throughput. IP or other network layer protocols would need to make provisions for connecting every type of media that could exist along a delivery path. Any device can try to access the medium whenever it has data to send. decapsulate the frame to the Layer 3 PDU. each node has its own time to use the medium. Concept Questions 1. The contention-based method has less overhead but does not scale well under heavy use. . such as a router. An intermediary device. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following statements. This disadvantage is avoided by using a layered model for networking and by giving the data link layer the job of placing data on a medium and controlling access to the medium. 2. Moreover. a node uses an adapter. The adapter manages the framing and media access control.

3. Ethernet uses CSMA/CD. Most Layer 2 frames also have addressing fields in the header that identify the sender and receiver. 2. and trailer. monitor the medium for the presence of another node’s signal. What is the difference between full-duplex communication and half-duplex communication? With full-duplex communication. . stop transmitting and wait a random amount of time before trying again. transmit the data. 3. you can keep the list simple. 2. Having many nodes share access to the medium requires a data link layer media access control method to regulate the transmission of data. If a carrier signal is not detected. only one device can transmit at any given time. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following statements. and token passing. Although different protocols place different fields in a frame. 3. Three media access control methods used by logical multiaccess topologies include carrier sense multiple access collision detect. 4. A logical multiaccess topology enables a number of nodes to communicate by using the same shared medium. If another node is also transmitting. Receiving data while transmitting is not allowed. At this point. For example. Media Access Control: Addressing and Framing Data A fundamental job of the data link layer is to encapsulate a Layer 3 PDU into a Layer 2 PDU.” Sense whether the medium is free. “Ethernet. both devices can transmit and receive on the medium at the same time. most protocols specify that the frame should have a header. List the steps in the carrier sense multiple access collision detect (CSMA/CD) process. 1. wait and try again later.Chapter 7: OSI Data Link Layer 201 2. If a carrier signal from another node is detected. Match the field on the left to its definition on the right. With half-duplex communication. Receiving data while transmitting is allowed. Data link layer rules (also called protocols) specify the media access control method that is used for a particular technology. You will learn more about CSMA/CD in Chapter 9. data field. The Layer 2 PDU is called a frame. carrier sense multiple access collision avoidance. 4. Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Table 7-2 lists some typical fields that appear in frame headers. 1. While transmitting. 5.

Layer 3 addresses. Address c. Point-to-Point Protocol c. on the other hand. 802. If a device is moved to another network. Used to indicate overloading on the medium f. its Layer 2 address does not need to change. Often found on WANs a. Layer 3 addresses use a hierarchical addressing scheme and indicate a network number and host identifier. Length e. Specifies the number of bytes in the data part of the frame c. Priority f. Tells other devices on the network that a frame is coming along the medium b. Provides unacknowledged connectionless service over a shared medium using CSMA/CD b. Includes specifications for operation at 10. 1000. 100. Flow control g. Uses a flag field at the beginning of the frame c. Establishes a logical connection (session) between two nodes a. Identifies the sender and receiver e. and 10.3 standard a. Start frame b. are carried from source to destination host across an internetwork. Layer 2 addresses are used only for local delivery when transporting a frame across a shared local medium. A protocol for wireless networks that uses CSMA/CA a. Indicates the upper-layer service contained in the frame a. Type d.11 c. Congestion control g. .202 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 7-2 Field Frame Header Fields Definition a. Compare and contrast Layer 2 addresses with Layer 3 addresses. Table 7-3 Protocol Data Link Layer Protocols Specification a. Ethernet b. Defined by the IEEE 802. Used to start and stop traffic when overloading occurs d. Defined in a Request For Comments (RFC) document b. Match each protocol on the left to its specifications on the right. Uses a preamble field at the beginning of the frame b. Layer 2 addresses use a flat addressing scheme and do not indicate on what network a device is located. Indicates a particular type of communication service for special processing Table 7-3 lists three major data link layer protocols. When a packet crosses an internetwork.000 Mbps b. Uses an acknowledgment to confirm that a frame was received successfully Concept Questions 1. it gets encapsulated in a new data link layer header with new Layer 2 addresses for each hop it takes.

. The data link layer refers to the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) cache to determine the Media Access Control (MAC) address that is associated with the Ethernet interface on the client’s router. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following statements that describe a user accessing a web page stored on a web server that is located on a remote network. A TCP three-way handshake sets up a connection with the server. or loss that would change the bit values that those signals represent. 6. 1. The client builds an Ethernet II frame to transport the IPv4 packet across the local medium. 5. The transport layer places a destination port number of 80 in the TCP segment to indicate the WWW service. The user is on an Ethernet LAN. a number of packets are generated and encapsulated in Layer 2 frames. distortion. After it is on the medium. What is the purpose of the Frame Check Sequence (FCS) in a frame trailer? The FCS field is used to determine if errors occurred in the transmission and receipt of a frame. you should now be able to put together at a high level the events that take place on a network when a user accesses a service. an IP packet is constructed to identify the source and destination hosts. 3. The FCS field is necessary because the signals on the medium are subject to interference. 2. For the destination address. If you have done the reading in Chapter 7 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum or if you have used the corresponding Chapter 7 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration Companion Guide. At the network layer. The transport layer identifies the upper-layer service that the user wants to reach as the HTTP (or World Wide Web [WWW]) service. The transport layer also places the source port number for this session in the segment. 3. 4. the client uses the IP address associated with the WWW server’s hostname. The user sends data to a router on that Ethernet LAN. The application layer adds a Layer 7 header. The router sends the data to another router across a PPP WAN link. Putting It All Together: Follow Data Through an Internetwork When a user on a LAN wants to access a service. Only two devices are connected. The user starts by clicking a link or URL on a web page. TCP adds an acknowledgment number that tells the web server the sequence number that TCP expects in the next segment it receives.Chapter 7: OSI Data Link Layer 203 2. Why are Layer 2 addresses not needed in point-to-point topologies? Layer 2 addresses are not needed in point-to-point topologies because there can be no confusion about the frame’s destination. The user’s web browser initiates a Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) GET request. The recipient router forwards the data onto an Ethernet LAN where the server resides. a frame has only one place to go (to the other device). It uses its own IPv4 address as the source address.

The server examines the frame. and a packet flows back to the client. The server examines the TCP segment to determine the session to which the data belongs. The router includes a Protocol field in the PPP header with a value of 0x0021 to indicate that 13. This is done by examining the source and destination ports. The recipient router checks the FCS to determine if the frame was received intact without any errors. Because it matches. without any errors. The router consults its ARP cache to determine the MAC address of the web server.204 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide 7. 21. The router removes the data link header and pushes the packet up to the network layer. The physical layer transmits the frame onto the medium bit by bit. so the physical layer begins transmitting the frame onto the WAN medium bit by bit. The server compares the destination IPv4 address in the packet to its own IPv4 address. the destination IPv4 address in the packet is compared to routes in the routing table. A match is found. the server pushes the data to TCP. 20. 16. routing table. 9. can now form a response. The Physical layer transmits the frame onto the medium bit by bit. the user sees a web page. 17. 18. The data link layer frame indicates that the upper-layer data is IPv4 by placing 0x0800 in the Type field of the Ethernet II header. and the router determines that the next hop for the packet is a router at the other end of a PPP WAN link. The router creates a PPP frame to transport the packet across the WAN. It checks the FCS to determine if the frame was received intact 19. the server removes the network layer header and pushes the data to the transport layer. 22. Eventually. an IPv4 packet is encapsulated. The frame begins with a Preamble field and ends with an FCS field for error detection. The TCP sequence number is used to place this segment in the proper order to be sent upward to the application layer. 8. 12. 14. The client uses the CSMA/CD media access control method to verify that the medium is not already in use. It then builds an Ethernet II frame to transport the IPv4 packet to the server. Because it matches. At the network layer. The router determines that the packet should be sent out an Ethernet network to the web server. Because the IP network layer header identified the upper-layer protocol as 0x06. It uses CSMA/CD to verify that the medium is not already in use. The router removes the data link header and pushes the packet up to the network layer. The service . At the application layer. The PPP session has already been established. The 22 steps reverse themselves. 10. 15. the server removes the data link header and pushes the packet up to the network layer. the destination IPv4 address in the packet is compared to the routes in the 11. The server compares the destination MAC address in the frame to the MAC address of the NIC in the server. as soon as all the necessary packets have been sent and received. the HTTP GET request is delivered to the WWW service. The router that receives the frame checks the FCS at the end of the frame to determine if the frame was received intact without any errors. At the network layer.

the Layer 2 frame encapsulation is Ethernet II. When learning about Layer 2 concepts.example.5.2. if the upper-layer protocol is TCP/IP and the media access is Ethernet.exe. you can download it from ftp://eagleserver. Use Wireshark to capture and analyze Ethernet II frames. Figure 7-1 Topology for Lab 7-1 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 . such as TCP/IP. data flows down the OSI layers and is encapsulated in a Layer 2 frame. For example. If Wireshark has not been loaded on the host pod computer.99. it is helpful to analyze frame header information.com/pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter7/. The frame composition depends on the media access type. The Ethernet II frame header is examined in this lab. Scenario Wireshark will be used to capture and analyze Ethernet II frame header fields. Ethernet II frames can support various upper-layer protocols. Background When upper-layer protocols communicate with each other. and Table 7-4 is the corresponding addressing table. The Windows ping command will be used to generate network traffic for Wireshark to capture. you will be able to ■ ■ Explain the header fields in an Ethernet II frame.1) Upon completion of this lab. Figure 7-1 shows the topology for this lab.4. The file is wireshark-setup-0.Chapter 7: OSI Data Link Layer 205 Labs and Activities Lab 7-1: Frame Examination (7.

10.16.255.255.0 255.10.10.255. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity.0 255.16. the lab topology may have been modified before this class.10.254 192. the ping command issues echo requests.254.254.24. and finally eagle-server.16. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address. Finally. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server.255.Pod#.255. Verify that all network equipment is powered on and that eagle-server is on.253 10.255.0 255.255.255.255.255. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests.2 172.255. and that it can ping R2-Central.0. the Panel List window shows a Wireshark capture of the ping command between a pod host computer and Eagle Server.253 — 172.254 172. If an individual host computer cannot connect to eagle-server.254 172.254.254.10. verify that the host has the correct DNS address and that it can ping eagle-server.255. From a known good host computer.16.10.168.255. . Figure 7-2 Ethernet II Frame Format Destination Address Source Address Frame Type 2 Octets Preamble Data FCS 8 Octets 6 Octets 6 Octets 46–1500 Octets 4 Octets In Figure 7-3.0 255. shown in the logical addressing table.16.0 255.255.5 172.168.16.255.10.255.168.254 172.255.Pod#.1 172.254. R1-ISP. troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity by following these steps: Step 1.example. followed by a DNS query.0.254 R2-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Eagle Server — — Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central — — — Note to Instructor: Depending on the classroom situation.1 255. ping S1Central. The session begins with the ARP protocol querying for the MAC address of the Gateway router.252 255.0 255.254.206 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 7-4 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP S0/0/0 Fa0/0 10.0 — — 10.31.0.252 255. 10.255.6 192.com. If the ping test fails.0. Task 1: Explain the Header Fields in an Ethernet II Frame Figure 7-2 shows the format for an Ethernet II frame.com.16. 172. Finally.example.6. R2-Central. Step 2.16.255.6 — 192. ping eagle-server. 172.255. Verify that the host computer has the correct Gateway IP address. and that it can ping R1-ISP. Step 3.254 172.10. check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central.16.

you can obtain Ethernet II frame information. Layer 2 addresses for the frame. Using this window. ac:a7:6a.org/forum/macid. the Packet Details window shows Frame 1 detail information. Each address is 48 bits long. Source Address Frame Type 00:16:76:ac:a7:6a 0x0806 For Ethernet II frames. 0 to 9. this field contains a hexadecimal value that is used to indicate the type of upper-layer protocol in the data field. A common format is 12:34:56:78:9A:BC. The Data field is between 46 and 1500 bytes. Here are two common frame types: Value Description 0x0800 IPv4 protocol 0x0806 Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) Contains the encapsulated upper-layer protocol. or 6 bytes.htm for a list of vendor codes. The last six hex digits. processed by the NIC hardware. The destination address may be a broadcast that contains all 1s. Data ARP . The source address is always unicast. expressed as 12 hexadecimal digits.neotechcc. Ethernet II supports numerous upper-layer protocols. The first six hex numbers indicate the manufacturer of the network interface card (NIC). A to F. Table 7-5 Field Ethernet II Frame Header Value Description Preamble Destination Address Not shown in the capture ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff This field contains synchronizing bits. Refer to http://www. Table 7-5 shows the information you can obtain. or unicast. are the serial number of the NIC.Chapter 7: OSI Data Link Layer 207 Figure 7-3 Wireshark Capture of the ping Command In Figure 7-3.

What is the significance of all 1s in the destination address field? This is a broadcast address. answer the following questions about the destination and source MAC address. type. answer the following questions about the destination and source MAC address. Destination Address MAC address: ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff NIC manufacturer: Does not apply NIC serial number: Does not apply Source Address MAC address: 00:16:76:ac:a7:6a NIC manufacturer: Intel NIC serial number: ac:a7:6a From the information contained in the Packet List window for the second frame. and the computer with the corresponding IP address sends a unicast reply to the source. and data field. . encompassing frame addresses.208 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 7-5 Field Ethernet II Frame Header Value continued Description FCS Not shown in the capture Frame Check Sequence. used by the NIC to identify errors during transmission. All computers on the LAN receive the frame. It is verified by the receiver. Destination Address MAC address: 00:16:76:ac:a7:6a NIC manufacturer: Intel NIC serial number: ac:a7:6a Source Address MAC address: 00:0c:85:cf:66:40 NIC manufacturer: Cisco NIC serial number: cf:66:40 Figure 7-4 is an expanded view of Frame 3 from the Wireshark capture. The value is computed by the sending machine. From the information contained in the Packet List window for the first frame.

Configure Wireshark for packet captures. Open a Windows terminal window. Prepare Wireshark for captures. Ping eagle-server. Step 2. and capture the session. Choose Capture > Interfaces.y interface IP address. Start a ping to Eagle Server. and click OK. enter cmd. Table 7-6 Field Ethernet II Frame Header Completion Value Preamble Destination Address Source Address Frame Type Data FCS Not shown in the capture 00:0c:85:cf:66:40 00:16:76:ac:a7:6a 0x0800 IP Not shown in the capture Task 2: Use Wireshark to Capture and Analyze Ethernet II Frames In this task. and then click the start button that corresponds to the 172. Step 1.x. stop the Wireshark capture.example. This begins the packet capture. When the command has finished executing. as shown in Example 7-1.Chapter 7: OSI Data Link Layer 209 Figure 7-4 Frame 3 Fields Use the information shown in Figure 7-4 to complete Table 7-6.16. Choose Start > Run.com. . you use Wireshark to capture and analyze packets captured on the pod host computer.

as shown in Example 7-3.16. Use the Windows XP ipconfig /flushdns command to clear the DNS cache.example.254.254.com is stored in the DNS cache.16. Received = 4.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=62 Ping statistics for 192.0x30004 Internet Address 172.168.1 --. Average = 0ms C:\> Step 3. C:\> ping eagle-server.254.254.com Pinging eagle-server.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=62 Reply from 192. you can flush the ARP cache using the arp -d * command.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=62 Reply from 192.example.168. Next.1.254: Packets: Sent = 4. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms.254.255. .254 C:\> arp -d * C:\> arp -a No ARP Entries Found C:\> Physical Address 00-0c-85-cf-66-40 Type dynamic If you do not see a DNS query.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=62 Reply from 192. Lost = 0 (0% loss). Your capture should look similar to the one shown in Figure 7-3. the ping command is executed.example.com [192.168. Example 7-2 Displaying and Flushing the ARP Cache C:\> arp -a Interface: 172.168. a DNS request is made for the IP address of eagleserver. Maximum = 0ms.168.168. as shown in Example 7-2.com. it is because the DNS record for eagle-server.254.254] with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 192.example. The Wireshark Packet List window should start with an ARP request and reply for the Gateway’s MAC address. If you don’t see an ARP exchange. Analyze the Wireshark capture.2600] Copyright 1985-2001 Microsoft Corp. Finally.210 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example 7-1 Pinging Eagle Server Microsoft Windows XP [Version 5.1.

. . .0. . . C:\> ipconfig /displaydns Windows IP Configuration 1.in-addr. . : 86386 Data Length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . : 1. . : Answer A (Host) Record .254 localhost --------------------------------------Record Name . . . : localhost Record Type . .example. .Chapter 7: OSI Data Link Layer 211 Example 7-3 Displaying and Flushing the DNS Cache C:\> ipconfig /displaydns Windows IP Configuration 1. . . . . . . . .0. : 4 Section . . . .0. . .0. . . . .0. .168. . . . . : 4 Section . . . . . . . : 549045 Data Length . . : localhost Record Type . : 4 Section . : Answer PTR Record localhost --------------------------------------Record Name . . . .in-addr. . . . Record Type . . .com Record Type . . : 127.0.arpa --------------------------------------Record Name .1 C:\> .1 C:\> ipconfig /flushdns Windows IP Configuration Successfully flushed the DNS Resolver Cache. .0. .in-addr. : 1 Time To Live .127.127. : 1 Time To Live . . .127.0. : eagle-server. .in-addr. .arpa. . . .254. . . : 4 Section . : 12 Time To Live . : Answer PTR Record . : 549045 Data Length . .127. . . .0. . : 127. . . .arpa. . : 1. . . . .0. . . . : 549013 Data Length . . . . Record Type . . . : 4 Section . .example. . : 549013 Data Length . : localhost . .0. . . . . . . .com ---------------------------------------Record Name . . . : Answer A (Host) Record . . : 12 Time To Live . : 192. . . .0. . .arpa ---------------------------------------Record Name . . : Answer A (Host) Record . . . . . . : localhost eagle-server. : 1 Time To Live . .

The first six hex digits contain the manufacturer of the NIC. NIC serial number: Answers will vary. R2-Central MAC address information MAC address: Answers will vary. 0x0800 is the frame type for IP. What would you tell the student? MAC addresses are visible only on the LAN and are different for each LAN.212 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Use your Wireshark capture of the ping command to answer the following questions. A 2-byte frame type field contains a value that indicates the . and verify that the Ethernet II frame type remains 0x0800. 0x0800 is the frame type for IP. the destination MAC address contains all 1s. and the last six hex digits contain the NIC serial number. Because ARP is not encapsulated inside an IP packet. What is the Ethernet II frame type value for an ARP Reply? 0x0806 What is the Ethernet II frame type value for a DNS query? 0x0800. What is the Ethernet II frame type value for a DNS query response? 0x0800 What is the Ethernet II frame type value for an ICMP echo? 0x0800. NIC manufacturer: Cisco NIC serial number: Answers will vary. it must have a unique identifier. the information cannot be obtained from a Wireshark capture on your LAN. ICMP is encapsulated in the IP packet. What is the Ethernet II frame type value for an ICMP echo reply? 0x0800 Task 3: Challenge Use Wireshark to capture sessions from other TCP/IP protocols. Pod computer MAC address information MAC address: Answers will vary. What is the Ethernet II frame type value for an ARP Request? 0x0806. Because the student’s Eagle Server is on a different LAN than yours. Task 4: Reflection In this lab. different from the identifier for IP. Again. such as FTP and HTTP. NIC manufacturer: Answers will vary. 10101011. Destination and source MAC addresses each contain 12 hex digits. A preamble field contains 7 bytes of alternating 1010 sequences and 1 byte that signals the beginning of the frame. DNS is encapsulated in an IP packet. Analyze the captured packets. If the frame is a broadcast. Ethernet II frame header information was examined. A student from another school wants to know the MAC address for Eagle Server.

Configure the network. Use ping. Build the network. Practice your subnetting skills. and configure services and static routing.Chapter 7: OSI Data Link Layer 213 protocol in the data field. a 4-byte FCS value is used to verify that there were no errors during transmission. and leave the room ready for the next class. trace.6. Test the network. Reflect on the necessity and formatting of each of these fields. and consider why the developers of Ethernet chose to place the destination address first. Upon completion of this activity. For IPv4. The data field is variable and contains the encapsulated upper-layer protocol. consider why the preamble field is necessary and why it consists of alternating 1s and 0s. choose Start > Control Panel. In this challenge you must add a WIC to a device to complete the network. Click Add or Remove Programs. Connect devices with Ethernet and serial cables. For example. web traffic. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Practice your IP subnet planning skills. Sometimes the NIC for a serial connection. .3) Open file LSG01-PTSkills7. Packet Tracer Challenge Skills Integration Challenge: Data Link Layer Issues (7.1. PCs. you have been asked to implement a new IP addressing scheme for the Exploration lab topology. Remove any files created on the pod host computer during the lab. the value is 0x0800. At the end of a frame. ■ ■ Background Network Interface Cards (NIC) are sometimes thought of as Layer 2 and Layer 1 devices (or as Layer 2 and Layer 1 components of devices that function at all seven layers). Also reflect on the destination and source addresses.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to perform this exercise using Packet Tracer. before the source address. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. Task 5: Clean Up Wireshark was installed on the pod host computer. Figure 7-5 shows the topology for this lab. and router interfaces. If Wireshark needs to be uninstalled. In addition. typically used in WAN connections. and click Remove. is called a WAN interface card (WIC). and the Inspect tool. Apply your subnetting scheme to server. turn off power to the host computers. and Table 7-7 is the corresponding addressing table. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. Choose Wireshark.

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Figure 7-5

Topology for the Challenge
1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server

2960-24TT S1-Central

1841 R2-Central

PC-PT 1A

PC-PT 1B

Table 7-7 Device

Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway (Route)

R1-ISP

Fa0/0 S0/0/0

172.16.3.62 172.16.3.98 172.16.1.254 172.16.3.97 172.16.0.1 172.16.0.2 172.16.3.61

255.255.255.192 255.255.255.252 255.255.254.0 255.255.255.252 255.255.254.0 255.255.254.0 255.255.255.192

— — 172.16.3.98 172.16.3.98 172.16.1.254 172.16.1.254 172.16.3.62

R2-Central

Fa0/0 S0/0/0

PC 1A PC 1B Eagle Server

NIC NIC NIC

Task 1: IP Subnet Planning
You have been given an IP address block of 172.16.0.0/22. You must provide for existing networks as well as future growth. Subnet assignments:
■ ■ ■

First subnet, existing student LAN, up to 400 hosts (Fa0/0 on R2-Central) Second subnet, future student LAN, up to 180 hosts (not yet implemented) Third subnet, existing ISP LAN, up to 40 hosts (Fa0/0 on R1-ISP)

Chapter 7: OSI Data Link Layer

215

■ ■ ■ ■

Fourth subnet, future ISP LAN, up to 18 hosts (not yet implemented) Fifth subnet, existing WAN, point-to-point link (S0/0/0 on R1-ISP and R2-Central) Sixth subnet, future WAN, point-to-point link (not yet implemented) Seventh subnet, future WAN, point-to-point link (not yet implemented)

Interface IP addresses:
■ ■

For the server, configure the second-highest usable IP address on the existing ISP LAN subnet. For R1-ISP’s Fa0/0 interface, configure the highest usable IP address on the existing ISP LAN subnet. For R1-ISP’s S0/0/0 interface, configure the highest usable address on the existing WAN subnet. For R2-Central’s S0/0/0 interface, use the lowest usable address on the existing WAN subnet. For R2-Central’s Fa0/0 interface, use the highest usable address on the existing student LAN subnet. For PCs 1A and 1B, use the first two IP addresses (the two lowest usable addresses) on the existing student LAN subnet.

■ ■

Additional configurations:
■ ■

For PCs 1A and 1B, in addition to IP configuration, configure them to use DNS services. For the server, enable DNS services, use the domain name eagle-server.example.com, and enable HTTP services.

Task 2: Finish Building the Network in Packet Tracer, Attending to Some Layer 2 Issues
On the R2-Central router, a NIC is missing for the serial connection to R1-ISP. Add a WIC-2T in the slot on the right. Also on R2-Central, Fa0/0 is shut down; turn it on. Connect a serial DCE cable to R1-ISP S0/0/0, with the other end connected to R2-Central S0/0/0. For all devices, make sure the power is on.

Task 3: Configure the Network
You need to configure the server, both routers, and the two PCs. You do not need to configure the switch, nor do you need the IOS CLI to configure the routers. Part of the router configuration has already been done for you; all you must do is configure the static routes and the interfaces via the GUI. The static route on R1-ISP should point to the existing student LAN subnet via R2-Central’s serial interface IP address. The static route on R2-Central should be a default static route that points to R1-ISP’s serial interface IP address. These procedures were explained in the Chapter 5 Skills Integration Challenge, and you practiced them in the Chapter 6 Skills Integration Challenge.

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Task 4: Test the Network
Use ping, trace, web traffic, and the Inspect tool. Trace packet flow in simulation mode, with HTTP, DNS, TCP, UDP, and ICMP viewable, to test your understanding of how the network is operating. Note in particular what Layer 2 encapsulation is used in each step of a packet’s journey, and how the headers on the Layer 2 PDUs change.

Task 5: Reflection
Consider an ICMP echo request packet sent from PC 1A to Eagle Server and the ICMP echo reply packet that results. Reflect on which addresses stay the same in this situation and which ones change.

CHAPTER 8

OSI Physical Layer

The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of multiple-choice, matching, fill-in-the-blank, and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of the OSI physical layer. The Lab Exercises portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum labs to further reinforce that you have mastered the practical, hands-on skills needed to understand and work with the physical layer. As you work through this chapter, use Chapter 8 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum or use the corresponding Chapter 8 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration Companion Guide for assistance.

Study Guide
The Physical Layer: Communication Signals
The role of the OSI physical layer is to encode the binary digits that represent data link layer frames into signals and to transmit and receive these signals across the physical media (copper wires, optical fiber, and wireless) that connect network devices.

Vocabulary Exercise: Completion
Fill in the blanks for the following statements.
1.

The purpose of the physical layer is to create the electrical, optical, or microwave signal that represents the bits in each frame. Manchester encoding indicates a 0 by a high-to-low voltage transition in the middle of the bit time. For a 1, there is a low-to-high voltage transition in the middle of the bit time.

2.

Concept Questions
1.

What are the three basic forms of network media on which data is represented? Copper cable, fiber, and wireless

2.

Physical layer standards cover what four areas? Physical and electrical properties of the media Mechanical properties (materials, dimensions, pinouts) of the connectors Bit representation by the signals (encoding) Definition of control information signals

3.

What are the three fundamental functions of the physical layer? The physical components Data encoding Signaling

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Physical Signaling and Encoding: Representing Bits
Eventually, all communication from the human network becomes binary digits, which are transported individually across the physical media.

Concept Questions
1.

Bits are represented on the medium by changing one or more of the following characteristics of a signal: Amplitude Frequency Phase

2.

Different physical media support the transfer of bits at different speeds. Data transfer can be measured in three ways: Bandwidth Throughput Goodput

Vocabulary Exercise: Completion
Fill in the blanks in the following statements.
1.

The capacity of a medium to carry data is described as the raw data bandwidth of the media. Digital bandwidth measures the amount of information that can flow from one place to another in a given amount of time. Throughput is the measure of the transfer of bits across the media over a given period of time. Goodput is the measure of usable data transferred over a given period of time, and is therefore the measure that is of most interest to network users.

2. 3.

Vocabulary Exercise: Matching
In Table 8-1, match the definition on the right with a term on the left.
Table 8-1 Term Signaling and Encoding Definition

a. NRZ signaling b. Manchester encoding

b. Bit values are represented as voltage transitions. a. Uses bandwidth inefficiently and is susceptible to electromagnetic interference. In addition, the boundaries between individual bits can be lost when long strings of 1s or 0s are transmitted consecutively. c. Each byte to be transmitted is broken into 4-bit pieces or nibbles and encoded as 5-bit values known as symbols. These symbols represent the data to be transmitted and a set of codes that help control transmission on the media.

c. 4B/5B

Chapter 8: OSI Physical Layer

219

Physical Media: Connecting Communication
The physical layer is concerned with network media and signaling. This layer produces the representation and groupings of bits as voltages, radio frequencies, or light pulses. Various standards organizations have contributed to the definition of the physical, electrical, and mechanical properties of the media available for different data communications.

Concept Questions
1.

Standards for copper media are defined by what criteria? Type of copper cabling used Bandwidth of the communication Type of connectors used Pinout and color codes of connections to the media Maximum distance of the media

2.

What can limit the susceptibility of copper cables to electronic noise? Selecting the cable type or category most suited to protect the data signals in a given networking environment Designing a cable infrastructure to avoid known and potential sources of interference in the building structure Using cabling techniques that include the proper handling and termination of the cables

Vocabulary Exercise: Matching
In Table 8-2, match a connector on the right with a media (cable) on the left.
Table 8-2 Media and Connectors Connector

Media (Cable)

a. Unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) cabling b. Coaxial cable c. Multimode optical fiber d. Single-mode optical fiber

c. Straight-Tip (ST) a. RJ-45 d. Subscriber Connector (SC) b. BNC

In Table 8-3, match the speed on the right with the wireless standard on the left.
Table 8-3 Wireless Media Speed

Wireless Standard

a. Bluetooth 802.15 b. 802.11(a,b,g,n), HiperLAN 2 c. 802, 11, MMDS, LMDS d. GSM, GPRS, CDMA, 2.5-3G

c. 22+ Mbps a. < 1 Mbps d. 10[nd]384 Kbps b. 1[nd]54+ Mbps

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Labs and Activities
Lab 8-1: Media Connectors Lab Activity (Lab 8.4.1.1)
Upon completion of this lab, you will be able to do the following:
■ ■ ■

Test cables using a Fluke 620 LAN CableMeter and a Fluke LinkRunner. Become familiar with the most common functions of a cable tester. Test different cables for type and wiring problems.

Background Category 5 (Cat 5) unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) cables are wired according to function. End devices, such as routers and host computers, connect to switches with Cat 5 straight-through cables. When connected together, however, a Cat 5 crossover cable must be used. This is also true of switches. When connecting one switch to another, a Cat 5 crossover cable is used again. Problems related to cables are one of the most common causes of network failure. Basic cable tests can prove helpful in troubleshooting cabling problems with UTP. The quality of cabling components used, the routing and installation of the cable, and the quality of the connector terminations will be the main factors in determining how trouble-free the cabling will be.
Note to instructor: Before starting the lab, the teacher or lab assistant should have several correctly

wired Cat 5 cables that are used by the student to learn cable tester operation. The cables should be both straight-through and crossover. There should also be several Cat 5 cables available with problems. Cables should be numbered to simplify the testing process and to maintain consistency. The following resources are required:
■ ■

Good Cat 5 straight-through and crossover wired cables of different colors Cat 5 straight-through and crossover wired cables with open wire connections in the middle or one or more conductors shorted at one end that are different colors and different lengths Fluke 620 LAN CableMeter or equivalent (see Figure 8-1) Fluke LinkRunner
Fluke 620 LAN CableMeter

■ ■

Figure 8-1

Chapter 8: OSI Physical Layer

221

Scenario First, you will visually determine whether the Cat 5 cable type is crossover or straight-through. Next, you use the cable tester to verify the cable type and common features available with the tester. Finally, you use the cable tester to test for bad cables that cannot be determined with a visual inspection.

Task 1: Become Familiar with the Most Common Functions of a Cable Tester
Figure 8-2 shows the TIA/EIA 568B Cat 5 UTP wire positioning for a straight-through and a crossover cable. When Cat 5 connectors are held together, wire color is a quick way to determine the cable type. TIA/EIA 568B is different from TIA/EIA 568A wiring. TIA/EIA 568A straight-through cables can be identified by the color coding.
Figure 8-2 TIA/EIA 568B Cat 5 UTP
TIA/EIA 568B CAT 5 UTP Straight Through 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 TIA/EIA 568B CAT 5 UTP Crossover 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Step 1.

Visually determine cable types.

Note to instructor: Students should be given a functional straight-through and crossover cable. These

cables will be used to learn cable tester features and build confidence in cable tester accuracy. There should be two numbered cables available. Perform a visual inspection of the cables and then fill out the chart in Table 8-4 with the cable color, type, and use.
Table 8-4 Cable Number Cable Types Cable Color Cable Type (StraightThrough or Crossover) Cable Use (Circle correct device)

1 2

Answers will vary Answers will vary

Answers will vary Answers will vary

Switch to: host / switch Switch to: host / switch

It is now time to verify the cable type and learn about the common features of the cable tester.

Figure 8-3 Cable Coupler and Cable Identifier cable coupler cable identifier Place the near end of the cable into the RJ-45 jack labeled UTP/FTP on the tester. The first option should be Cable. Step 3. and then insert the cable identifier into the other side of the coupler. Press the Setup button to enter the setup mode. and the bottom set of numbers refers to the far end. shown in Figure 8-3. Table 8-5 Tester Option Cable Tester Settings for UTP Desired Setting: UTP Cable Wiring Category Wire size CAL to Cable? Beeping LCD contrast UTP 10Base-T or EIA/TIA 4PR Category 5 AWG 24 No On or Off From 1 through 10 (brightest) When satisfied with the correct settings.or down-arrow buttons until the desired cable type of UTP is selected. Turn the rotary switch selector on the tester to the WIRE MAP position. press the Setup button to exit setup mode. Press the up. The wiring of both the near and far end of the cable will be displayed. and observe the LCD screen on the tester. Verify the cable wire map. Use the following procedure to test each cable with the LAN cable coupler and cable identifier. Press Enter to accept that setting and go to the next one. . The top set of numbers displayed on the LCD screen refers to the near end. The coupler and the cable identifier are accessories that come with the Fluke 620 LAN CableMeter. Perform initial configuration of the Fluke 620 LAN CableMeter. Continue pressing the up/down-arrow buttons and pressing Enter until the tester is set to the cabling settings in Table 8-5. Place the RJ-45 to RJ-45 female coupler on the far end of the cable. The wire map function displays which pins on one end of the cable are connected to which pins on the other end.222 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Step 2.

and fill in Table 8-6 based on the results. . the tester screen test results. For each cable.Chapter 8: OSI Physical Layer 223 Perform a wire map test on each of the cables provided. repeat the setup steps described in Task 1. the tester screen test results. Task 2: Test Different Cables for Type and Wiring Problems Obtain at least five different cables from your instructor. For each cable. and whether the cable is straight-through or crossover. The tester Length function displays the length of the cable. Using the cable tester Wire Map function. and what the problem is (if one exists). whether the cable is straight-through or crossover. For each cable. write down the number and color. Then fill in Table 8-8 based on the result for each Cat 5 cable tested. Step 2. Move the rotary switch selector on the tester to the Length position. Perform a basic cable test on each of the cables. and complete Table 8-7 based on the results. In the next task. write down the number and color. unknown cables are tested. Table 8-6 Cable Tester Settings for UTP Cable Color Cable Type (Straight-Through or Crossover) Cable Number 1 2 Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Note any problems encountered during this test: Answers will vary Step 4. If power was cycled. perform a wire map test on each of the cables provided. and any problem. Table 8-7 Results of Basic Cable Test Cable Color Cable Length Cable Number 1 2 Answers will vary Answers will vary Note any problems encountered during this test: Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Repeat these steps until you are comfortable using the cable tester. If power was cycled. Verify the cable length. repeat the setup steps described in Step 2. the cable length. Move the rotary switch selector on the tester to the Wire Map position. write down the number and color.

Fluke LinkRunner Step 2. . Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary. and press the green button on the lower right along with the blue button to the left. Answers will vary Straight-through Crossover Crossover Top: 12364578 Bottom: 12364578 Top: 12364578 Bottom: 36124578 Top: 12oo4578 Bottom: 36124578 None None Pins 3 and 6 are open somewhere in the first half of the cable Pin 5 is shorted in the last half of the cable Miswire 4 Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Straight-through Top: 12364578 Bottom: 12364s78 Top: 12365478 Bottom: 12364578 5 Straight-through *Refer to the Fluke manual for a detailed description of test results for wire map. Step 3.224 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 8-8 Results of Wire Map Test Cable Color Cable type (Straight-Through or Crossover) *Test Results Problem Description Cable Cable Type Number (Visual Inspection) 1 2 3 Answers will vary Answers will vary. Answers are examples only. and will vary. which is shown in Figure 8-4. 4. and 5 show examples of cable problems. Rows 3. Task 3: Perform Initial Configuration of the Fluke LinkRunner Step 1. Figure 8-4 Turn on the Fluke LinkRunner. Place both ends of the cable into the LAN and MAP ports located on top of the LinkRunner. Press the green button on the lower right to turn it back off.

Figure 8-7 Fluke LinkRunner: Bad Cable . Figure 8-5 Fluke LinkRunner: Straight-Through Cable If it is a correct crossover cable.Chapter 8: OSI Physical Layer 225 If it is a correct straight-through cable. two intersecting lines (as shown in Figure 8-6) will appear in the upper-left corner of the screen. as shown in Figure 8-7. the triangle with an exclamation mark in the center will appear and details will display. two parallel lines (as shown in Figure 8-5) will appear in the upper-left corner of the screen. Figure 8-6 Fluke LinkRunner: Crossover Cable If it is a bad cable.

Skills learned in this lab will enable you to quickly troubleshoot wrong cable types and broken cables. A cable tester is used to determine cable type. Locate the length of the cable below the icon indicating the type of cable (as shown in Figure 8-8). This isn’t unusual. and press the green button on the lower right along with the blue button to the left.226 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 4: Verify Cable Length Note: The instructions to test a cable are the same as determining cable length. and wire map. and is part of the learning process. Network technicians should be able to determine when to use Cat 5 UTP straight-through and crossover cables. Turn on the Fluke LinkRunner by pressing the green button on the lower right along with the blue button on the right. cables are constantly moved and reconnected. Ask the instructor where to return used cables. Store the cables neatly for the next class. Place both ends of the cable into the LAN and MAP ports located on top of the LinkRunner. Fluke LinkRunner: Cable Length Step 2. length. Press the green button on the lower right to turn it back off. In a lab environment. Step 1. Step 3. A properly functioning cable today may be broken tomorrow. Task 6: Challenge Look for opportunities to test other cables with the Fluke 620 LAN CableMeter. Figure 8-8 Task 5: Reflection Problems related to cables are one of the most common causes of network failure. Step 4. . Task 7: Clean Up The cable tester is expensive and should never be left unattended. Return the cable tester to the instructor when finished.

Figure 8-9 shows the topology for this skills integration challenge. This activity examines device configurations in Packet Tracer. and how to properly connect devices. View the standard lab setup at the various levels of the physical workspace. Verify connectivity. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Connect the devices in the standard lab setup.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to perform this exercise using Packet Tracer. and connecting the devices. in a lab environment. Enter and view the physical workspace. selecting the proper cable based on the configuration.5. it is important to know how to select the proper cable. Upon completion of this activity. and Table 8-9 shows the corresponding addressing table. View the standard lab setup in the physical workspace. This activity also explores the physical view of the network in Packet Tracer. Figure 8-9 Topology for Challenge 1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server 2960-24TT S1-Central 1841 R2-Central PC 1A PC 1B .1.Chapter 8: OSI Physical Layer 227 Packet Tracer Challenge Skills Integration Challenge: Connecting Devices and Exploring the Physical View (8. Background When working in Packet Tracer. Connect the devices. or in a corporate setting.3) Open the file LSG01-PTSkills8.

255.1.10. Verify connectivity.168.255.254 172. Click both routers and examine the configuration using the Config tab. Check your configuration by clicking the Check Results button. Connect the routers together using the proper interfaces and the proper cable.255.168.255.168.253 10.254 255. the IP address of Eagle Server.254 10.168.254. and the connections are repeated at the other end of the link.0 255. check your connections and troubleshoot until the pings succeed.255.255.0 255.0.1. connected to a DCE (data communication equipment). Click router R2-Central and examine the configuration using the Config tab. The DCE connects to a service provider’s local loop. Click router R1-ISP and examine the configuration using the Config tab.254.0.16.255.16.255.5 172.168. Enter and view the physical workspace.254 192.10. Connect the devices.1 172. from across the street to across the globe.1 172. Connect the proper interface on the router to the proper interface on Eagle Server using the proper cable. In an internetwork.254.0 N/A N/A 10.254. If the pings fail.255.10.0 255. issue the command ping 192.255.0.6 172. Most of our work in Packet Tracer has been done in the logical workspace.16.254. such as a channel/data service unit (CSU/DSU) or modem. Connect PC 1A to the first port on switch S1-Central and PC 1B to the second port on switch S1-Central using the proper cable.16.16. The serial link between the routers represents a dedicated leased line between two locations consisting of a DTE (data terminal equipment).255. .0. From the command prompt on the desktop of both PCs.10.252 255.10.254 172. The physical workspace enables you to see these relationships more clearly. such as a router.255.10.0 255.6 172.255. Step 2. routers may be in different sites.0 255.255.228 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 8-9 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP Fa0/0 S0/0/0 192.255.2 192.254.10.16.10.255.6 10.252 255.253 R2-Central Fa0/0 S0/0/0 S1-Central PC 1A PC 1B Eagle Server VLAN 1 NIC NIC NIC Task 1: Connect the Devices in the Standard Lab Setup Step 1. Task 2: View the Standard Lab Setup in the Physical Workspace Step 1. Connect the proper interface on the router to interface FastEthernet0/24 on switch S1Central using the proper cable.

Chapter 8: OSI Physical Layer 229 Enter the physical workspace by clicking the tab in the upper-left corner of the workspace. View the standard lab setup at the various levels of the physical workspace. You will see a physical representation of the equipment installed in the wiring closet and the cabling that connects the equipment. Step 2. . Click the wiring closet. It shows the connection between Central City and ISP City. Click Central City. Repeat the steps to view the equipment installed in ISP City. You will see the city and the location of the central office building. Click Intercity on the navigation bar. Examine this view of the topology. You will see the floor plan of the building and the location of the wiring closet. Click the central office building.

.

fill-in-the-blank. multiple-choice. Ethernet operates at the physical layer and the Media Access Control (MAC) sublayer of the data link layer. for assistance. Provides an interface to the upper layers b. hands-on skills needed to work with Ethernet. and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of Ethernet. In addition. Adds a frame delimiter b. Ethernet (without LLC) is the frame encapsulation method used for the most popular network layer protocol in use today. Provides a unique source and destination address . Using IEEE terminology. can give upper-layer protocols access to Ethernet. or use the corresponding Chapter 9 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration Companion Guide.3. Logical Link Control (LLC) or IEEE 802. Remains relatively independent of the physical equipment b. Internet Protocol (IP). Study Guide Overview of Ethernet Ethernet is the predominant LAN technology in use today. match the function on the right with the correct IEEE sublayer of the data link layer. MAC a.CHAPTER 9 Ethernet The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of matching. Table 9-1 Sublayer Data Link Layer Sublayers Function a. Ethernet has been so successful because it has evolved over time to incorporate new technologies such as higher speeds and fiber-optic cabling. Ethernet’s success can also be attributed to the fact that it was adopted by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and standardized as IEEE 802. LLC b. Controls the placement of a frame on the medium a. use Chapter 9 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum. As you work through this chapter. Ethernet operates at the OSI physical and data link layers. Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 9-1. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum activities and labs to ensure you have mastered the practical. The upper sublayer of the data link layer.2.

Ethernet: Communication Through the LAN The term Ethernet first appeared in 1973 when Dr. 2.3 standard for Ethernet in 1985. reliability.0. a receiving node calculates its own CRC to compare to the one in the frame. Switch d. addressing. Metcalfe of the Xerox Corporation circulated a memo to his colleagues. Uses 185 meters of thin coaxial cable f. How does Ethernet handle error detection? The sending node calculates a Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) of the bits in the frame. Ethernet has evolved from a shared coaxial medium. What functions does data encapsulation provide? Data encapsulation provides frame delimiting. Today. Only one station at a time can transmit c. match the description on the right with the correct Ethernet term on the left. Its original speed of 3 Mbps evolved to 10 Mbps. If the two CRC results match. ease of maintenance. proposing the name for their prototype network. 3. Uses 500 meters of thick coaxial cable . to a shared hub-based network. Hub d. Digital Equipment Corporation. low cost of installation and upgrading. Why has Ethernet been so successful? Ethernet has been so successful because it has evolved with the times to incorporate new technologies. 10BASE5 b. Isolates each port and sends a frame only to its proper destination (if the destination is known) e. Both ends of a connection can send at the same time a. Since 1985. Concentrates connections. Robert M. and then to 100 Mbps and 1 Gbps.0 standard for Ethernet. DIX V2. and government networks. educational. and standardization by the IEEE. After receiving a frame. Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 9-2. the fact that the Ethernet frame has remained relatively unchanged over the years has allowed applications to keep running over Ethernet even as it evolved. Ethernet forms the foundation of most industrial. allowing the network to see a group of nodes as a single unit b. Table 9-2 Term Ethernet Implementations Description a. and now 10 Gbps. The IEEE published the 802. and finally to a selective-forwarding environment with high-speed switches. and error detection. also known as Ethernet II. Ethernet’s success also can be attributed to its simplicity. Full duplex f. In 1980. was released in 1982. the recipient assumes that the frame arrived without error. In addition. The node places the CRC result in the Frame Check Sequence (FCS) field in the trailer part of the Ethernet frame. The name reflects the goal that Ethernet become ubiquitous. The cabling has also evolved from coaxial to unshielded twisted pair to fiber-optic.232 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Concept Questions 1. Metcalfe’s goal that Ethernet become ubiquitous has been achieved. and Xerox published the DIX V1. Intel. much like the ether substance that scientists in the 1800s believed filled space and matter. Half duplex e. 10BASE2 c.

When Ethernet was upgraded to run on hubs with twisted-pair cabling. Carries the upper-layer data b. a switch port and the connected device can send at the same time. The cabling for Ethernet has evolved from coaxial to unshielded twisted pair to fiber-optic. unlike a hub. What aspects of Ethernet have remained relatively unchanged over the years. Specifies the frame’s intended recipient . Specifies the frame’s sender c. The Ethernet Frame A fundamental job of the data link layer is to encapsulate a Layer 3 Protocol Data Unit (PDU) into a Layer 2 PDU. most protocols specify that the frame should have a header. Source address e. Transmitting and receiving simultaneously is not allowed. it still used half-duplex communication. Fiber-optic is reserved mostly for data centers.3 header and trailer. it used half-duplex communication. Although different protocols place different fields in a frame. Ethernet is still usually connected in a star topology. Preamble b. and trailer. Table 9-3 Field Frame Header Fields Definition a. Tells other devices on the network that a frame is coming along the medium d. Compare and contrast half duplex and full duplex. Full duplex means that each end of a communications channel can send at the same time. which is a shared device. Half duplex is used on a medium that can carry only one signal at a time. Used for error detection a. Length/type f. Unshielded twisted pair is still widely used. Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Table 9-3 lists the fields that appear in an IEEE 802. data field. Start of frame delimiter c. Match the field on the left with the definition on the right. 2. the hub was still a shared medium. Used for synchronization e. Destination address d. The Ethernet frame has remained relatively unchanged.Chapter 9: Ethernet 233 Concept Questions 1. Switches are capable of full duplex because they consider each connection a separate communication channel. Specifies the number of bytes in the data part of the frame or specifies the type of data (the upper-layer protocol) f. and high-end devices. When Ethernet ran on coaxial cable. Data g. The Layer 2 PDU is called a frame. Frame check sequence g. Ethernet follows these conventions. Although the cabling could have supported full duplex. but the center of the star is a switch rather than a hub these days. and what aspects have changed? Ethernet’s simplicity and ease of use and installation have remained unchanged. Most Layer 2 frames also have addressing fields in the header that identify the sender and receiver. Only one device can send at any time. links between switches. For example.

1024 bytes d. The receiving device reports a collision. b. The recipient sends a query to the sender to determine how the field should be interpreted. d. the field specifies a type. d. . d. The recipient calculates a CRC that differs from the CRC in the FCS field and drops the b. c. To ensure that the frame is at least 64 bytes. What is the maximum size of an Ethernet frame according to the IEEE 802. The recipient bases the decision on whether it’s been configured for Ethernet II or IEEE 802. 6. d. The sender backs off and waits a random amount of time before trying again. 5. If the value is equal to or less than 1536.234 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Multiple-Choice Questions Choose the best answer for each of the following questions. c. 1.3ac standard? a. a. What happens if a frame arrives damaged? frame. the field specifies a type. To ensure that the frame is protected from damage. To provide synchronization. The sender notices the missing acknowledgment and retransmits the frame. The receiving device requests a retransmission. 64 bytes 2. 72 bytes d. c. To specify the Portable Application Description (PAD) that describes the encapsulated data. What does a receiving device do if it receives a frame that is less than the allowed minimum size or greater than the allowed maximum size? a. 1518 bytes c. 64 bytes 3. 128 bytes c. Why is padding sometimes added to the data part of an Ethernet frame? a. The receiving device sends back a negative acknowledgment to the sender. b. The recipient requests a retransmission. What is the minimum size of an Ethernet frame? a. 4. 1522 bytes b. 1522 bytes b. If the value is equal to or greater than 0x0600. b. How does a recipient device know if the sender used the Length/Type field to specify a length or a type? a.3. The receiving device drops the frame. c.

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7.

How long is a MAC address?

a. Six hexadecimal digits b. 32 bits c. 48 bits d. 8 bytes

Concept Questions
1.

Compare and contrast MAC addresses with IP addresses. MAC addresses operate at the OSI data link layer (Layer 2). Layer 2 addresses are used only for local delivery when transporting a frame across a local medium. These addresses use a flat addressing scheme and do not indicate on what network a device is located. If a device is moved to another network, its Layer 2 address does not need to change. IP addresses operate at the OSI network layer (Layer 3). Layer 3 addresses are carried from source to destination host across an internetwork. Layer 3 addresses use a hierarchical addressing scheme and indicate a network number and host identifier.

2.

Compare and contrast unicast, broadcast, and multicast communications at the MAC sublayer. Unicast, broadcast, and multicast are all 48-bit MAC address types. All of them can be destination MAC addresses. Only unicast can be a source address. A unicast address is a unique address used when a frame is sent from a single transmitting device to a single destination device. In the case of a broadcast, the frame is destined for all devices in the broadcast domain and is addressed to a MAC broadcast address of 48 1s (or FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF in hexadecimal). With multicast, a source can send to a group of devices. The low-order bit of the first byte must be a 1 for the address to be a multicast. If the multicast is also an IP multicast, the first 24 bits of the MAC address are 01-00-5E in hexadecimal.

Ethernet Media Access Control
In a shared medium, all devices have guaranteed access to the medium, but they must fairly share the medium and not interfere with each other. If more than one device transmits at the same time, the physical signals collide, and the data is damaged. Both transmitters must recognize that their data has been damaged and resend it. Ethernet uses carrier sense multiple access collision detect (CSMA/CD) to detect and handle collisions and regulate use of the shared medium.

Vocabulary Exercise: Completion
Fill in the blanks for the following statements that discuss CSMA/CD.
1.

Because devices using coaxial or hub-based Ethernet send their messages on a shared medium, a protocol (or coordination scheme or media access control method) is used to determine if the medium is already in use before a sender transmits. When a device detects that no other computer is sending a frame, the device transmits if it has something to send. All devices that have messages to send must listen before transmitting.

2.

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3. 4.

If a device detects a signal from another device, it waits before attempting to transmit. When no traffic is detected, a device transmits its message. While transmitting, the device continues to listen for traffic from another device. If another device is sending at the same time, a collision has occurred. If a collision happens, the sending devices continue to send for the time it takes to send a jam signal and then stop sending. The devices invoke a backoff algorithm that causes them to wait a random amount of time before trying to send again.

5.

Concept Questions
1.

What is interframe spacing, and why does Ethernet use it? Interframe spacing is the required time between frames on an Ethernet network. After a frame has been sent, all devices are required to wait a minimum of 96 bit times (the time it takes to send 96 bits). This gives the medium time to stabilize after transmitting a frame.

2.

Why is the backoff timing random when an Ethernet collision occurs? The backoff waiting period is intentionally designed to be random so that two stations do not delay for the same amount of time before retransmitting, which would result in more collisions.

Ethernet Physical Layer
The many implementations of Ethernet include Classic Ethernet, Fast Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet, and 10 Gigabit Ethernet. The differences occur at the physical layer, often called the Ethernet PHY. Four data rates are currently defined for operation over optical-fiber and twisted-pair cables:
■ ■ ■ ■

10 Mbps: 10BASE-T Classic Ethernet 100 Mbps: Fast Ethernet 1000 Mbps: Gigabit Ethernet 10 Gbps: 10 Gigabit Ethernet

Vocabulary Exercise: Completion
Fill in the blanks for the following statements that describe Ethernet physical layer options.
1.

10BASE-T uses two pairs of a four-pair cable and is terminated at each end with an eight-pin RJ-45 connector. The pair connected to pins 1 and 2 is used for transmitting, and the pair connected to pins 3 and 6 is used for receiving. Replacing hubs with switches in 10BASE-T networks has greatly increased the bandwidth available to these networks and has helped Ethernet maintain its dominance in the LAN market. The 10BASE-T links connected to a switch can support either half-duplex or full-duplex operation. The most popular implementations of 100 Mbps Ethernet are 100BASE-TX, which uses Category 5 or later UTP cable, and 100BASE-FX, which uses fiber-optic cable. 1000BASE-T Ethernet provides full-duplex transmission using four pairs of Category 5 or later UTP cable.

2.

3.

4.

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5.

The two fiber versions of Gigabit Ethernet are 1000BASE-SX and 1000BASE-LX. Fiber-optic cabling offers better noise immunity than UTP, a smaller physical size, and higher distances and bandwidth. A difference between 1000BASE-SX and 1000BASE-LX is the wavelength of the optical signal. The IEEE 802.3ae standard was adapted to include 10-Gbps, full-duplex transmission over fiber-optic cable. 10-Gigabit Ethernet is evolving for use not only in LANs, but also in MANs and WANs. Although Gigabit Ethernet is now widely available and 10-Gigabit products are becoming more available, the IEEE and the 10-Gigabit Ethernet Alliance are working on 40-, 100-, and even 160-Gbps standards.

6.

7.

8.

Hubs and Switches
In the 1970s and 1980s, Ethernet networks were connected in a bus topology using coaxial cable. The coaxial cable provided a shared medium. In the 1990s, administrators started connecting nodes to the shared network in a star topology using twisted-pair cabling and hubs. During the 1990s, to improve performance, administrators upgraded their hubs to switches. Switches divide collision domains into smaller domains, sometimes so small that collisions are no longer an issue. For example, in the common case where a single device is connected to a port on a switch, both ends of the communications channel can send and receive at the same time, and collisions don’t occur. Switches forward broadcast and multicast traffic to all members of a LAN but provide selective forwarding for unicast traffic. The selective forwarding greatly reduces collisions and improves performance.

Vocabulary Exercise: Matching
In Table 9-4, match the characteristic on the right with the correct term on the left.
Table 9-4 Term Characteristics of Hubs and Switches Characteristic

a. Hub b. Switch

b. Divides collision domains a. Forwards received bits out every port b. Supports full-duplex communication a. Simplifies network cabling but doesn’t have any performance benefits a. When many nodes that transmit frequently are connected to this device, latency increases, because each node must wait for an opportunity to transmit b. Provides an alternative to contention-based Ethernet b. Maintains a table that maps each MAC address to a port

Vocabulary Exercise: Completion
Fill in the blanks for the following statements that describe the selective forwarding service provided by switches.
1.

A switch selectively forwards a frame that it receives on a port to the port where the destination node is connected.

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2.

Switches use store-and-forward switching, whereby the switch receives an entire frame, checks the FCS field for errors, and forwards the frame to the appropriate port. A switch maintains a table, called the MAC table (also called MAC address table, CAM table, switch table, bridge table, filter table), that matches a MAC address with the port used to connect the node with that address.

3.

Concept Question
List and describe the five basic operations of an Ethernet LAN switch. Learning. A switch populates the MAC table by learning which port it should use to reach each MAC address. As a frame enters the switch, the switch examines the MAC source address. If no entry exists in the table for this address, the switch creates a new entry that pairs the source address with the port on which the frame arrived. The switch can now use this mapping to forward frames to the node with the MAC address in the table entry. Aging. A switch tracks how long an entry has been in the MAC table. If the entry reaches a certain age without being refreshed by a new frame from the same node on the same port, the entry is removed. Flooding. If a switch has not yet learned which port it should use to forward a frame to a destination, the switch sends the frame to all ports, except the port on which the frame arrived. Selective forwarding. A switch examines the destination MAC address in a frame and forwards the frame out the appropriate port. Filtering. After a switch has learned the address or addresses that map to a port, it filters frames from going out that port that include a destination address that is not mapped to the port.

Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
To send an IP packet to a recipient, a sender needs to learn the recipient’s MAC address. ARP provides a means for a sender to broadcast a message to find the MAC address for a known IP address.

Multiple-Choice Questions
Choose the best answer for each of the following questions.
1.

What is a basic job of ARP?

a. Resolve IPv4 addresses to MAC addresses b. Build a table that maps MAC addresses to ports c. Build a loop-free LAN from redundantly connected switches d. Provide a resource protocol for finding applications 2.

If a node has recently sent a frame to another node, where is the mapping of IPv4 address to MAC address stored?

a. MAC table b. ARP cache c. Routing table d. NVRAM

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3.

When a node has not recently sent a frame to another node, how does the node discover the correct MAC address to use for the IPv4 address of the destination node?

a. The sender sends an IPv4 query to the destination node to ask the node for its MAC address. b. The sender broadcasts an ARP request. c. The sender monitors traffic until it discovers the correct MAC address to use. d. The sender transmits a TCP SYN to the destination node. 4.

What type of header does an ARP frame contain?

a. IP b. Ethernet c. TCP d. UDP 5.

When an Ethernet transmitter sends to a destination not on its local network, what MAC destination address does it use, and how does it discover this address? request.

a. The transmitter uses the MAC address of the destination, which it discovers with an ARP b. The transmitter uses the MAC address of the local router interface, which it discovers with an

ARP request.
c. The transmitter uses the MAC address of the destination, which it discovers with a proxy ARP

request.
d. The transmitter doesn’t need a MAC address for the destination and relies on the IP destination

address to provide enough information for routers to forward the frame.
6.

What is the destination address in the frame when a node sends an ARP request to find the MAC address associated with a known IP address?

a. 255.255.255.255 b. The address of the local router interface c. The recipient’s address d. FF:FF:FF:FF:FF:FF

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Labs and Activities
Lab 9-1: Address Resolution Protocol (9.8.1.1)
Upon completion of this lab, you will be able to
■ ■

Use the Windows arp command. Use Wireshark to examine ARP exchanges.

Background TCP/IP uses ARP to map a Layer 3 IP address to a Layer 2 MAC address. When a frame is placed on the network, it must have a destination MAC address. To dynamically discover the MAC address of the destination device, an ARP request is broadcast on the LAN. The device that contains the destination IP address responds, and the MAC address is recorded in the ARP cache. Every device on the LAN keeps its own ARP cache, which is a small area in RAM that holds ARP results. An ARP cache timer removes ARP entries that have not been used for a certain period of time. Depending on the device, the times differ. For example, some Windows operating systems store ARP cache entries for 2 minutes. If the entry is used again during that time, the ARP timer for that entry is extended to 10 minutes. ARP is an excellent example of a performance trade-off. With no cache, ARP must continually request address translations each time a frame is placed on the network. This adds latency to the communication and could congest the LAN. Conversely, unlimited hold times could cause errors with devices that leave the network or change the Layer 3 address. A network engineer needs to be aware of ARP but may not interact with the protocol on a regular basis. ARP is a protocol that enables network devices to communicate with the TCP/IP protocol. Without ARP, no efficient method exists to build the datagram Layer 2 destination address. ARP is a potential security risk. ARP spoofing, or ARP poisoning, is a technique used by an attacker to inject the wrong MAC address association into a network. An attacker forges a device’s MAC address, and frames are sent to the wrong destination. Manually configuring static ARP associations is one way to prevent ARP spoofing. In addition, an authorized MAC address list may be configured in Cisco devices to restrict network access to only approved devices. Scenario With a pod host computer, use the Windows arp utility command to examine and change ARP cache entries. In Task 2, you will use Wireshark to capture and analyze ARP exchanges between network devices. If Wireshark has not been loaded on the host pod computer, you can download it from ftp://eagleserver.example.com/pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter9/. The file is wireshark-setup-0.99.4.exe. Figure 9-1 shows the topology for this lab, and Table 9-5 is the corresponding addressing table.

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Figure 9-1

Topology for Lab 9-1

R1-ISP

S0/0/0 DCE

Eagle Server

S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24

S1-Central

R2-Central

1A

1B

11A

11B

Pod#1

Pod#11

Table 9-5 Device

Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway

R1-ISP

S0/0/0 Fa0/0

10.10.10.6 192.168.254.253 10.10.10.5 172.16.255.254 192.168.254.254 172.31.24.254 172.16.Pod#.1 172.16.Pod#.2 172.16.254.1

255.255.255.252 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.252 255.255.0.0 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.0.0

— — 10.10.10.6 — 192.168.254.253 — 172.16.255.254 172.16.255.254 172.16.255.254

R2-Central

S0/0/0 Fa0/0

Eagle Server

— —

Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central

— — —

Note to Instructor: Depending on the classroom situation, the lab topology may have been modified before this class. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server.example.com, troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity:
Step 1.

Verify that all network equipment is powered on and that eagle-server is on.

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Step 2.

From a known good host computer, ping eagle-server. If the ping test fails, ping S1Central, R2-Central, R1-ISP, and finally eagle-server. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests. If an individual host computer cannot connect to eagle-server, check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address, shown in Table 9-5, and that it can ping R2-Central, 172.16.255.254. Verify that the host computer has the correct Gateway IP address, 172.16.255.254, and that it can ping R1-ISP, 10.10.10.6. Finally, verify that the host has the correct DNS address and that it can ping eagle-server.example.com.

Step 3.

Task 1: Use the Windows arp Command
Step 1.

Access the Windows terminal. Open a Windows terminal by choosing Start > Run. Enter cmd, and click OK. With no options, the arp command displays useful help information. Issue the arp command on the pod host computer, and examine the output. It should look like Example 9-1.

Example 9-1

Using the arp Command

C:\> arp Displays and modifies the IP-to-Physical address translation tables used by address resolution protocol (ARP). ARP -s inet_addr eth_addr [if_addr] ARP -d inet_addr [if_addr] ARP -a [inet_addr] [-N if_addr] -a Displays current ARP entries by interrogating the current protocol data. If inet_addr is specified, the IP and Physical addresses for only the specified computer are displayed. If more than one network interface uses ARP, entries for each ARP table are displayed. -g Same as -a. Specifies an internet address. inet_addr

-N if_addr Displays the ARP entries for the network interface specified by if_addr. -d Deletes the host specified by inet_addr. inet_addr may be wildcarded with * to delete all hosts. -s Adds the host and associates the Internet address inet_addr with the Physical address eth_addr. The Physical address is given as 6 hexadecimal bytes separated by hyphens. The entry is permanent. eth_addr if_addr interface Specifies a physical address. If present, this specifies the Internet address of the

whose address translation table should be modified. If not present, the first applicable interface will be used.

Maximum = 0ms.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 172. C:\> .2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Ping statistics for 172.16.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 172.2 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 172.1. Any entry indicates communication between the pod host computer and other network devices. Lost = 0 (0% loss). .55.1.16.. Received = 4..16.16. the ARP cache should be empty. Using the arp Command with the -a Option Example 9-2 C:\> arp -a No ARP Entries Found C:\> Without any network communication. Use the ping command to dynamically add entries to the ARP cache.2 Pinging 172.212 00-aa-00-62-c6-09 > arp -a table.1.16.255.1. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms. By accessing other devices. Adds a static entry. Displays the arp Answer the following questions about the arp command: ■ What command is used to display all entries in the ARP cache? arp -a ■ What command is used to delete all ARP cache entries (flush the ARP cache)? arp -d * ■ What command is used to delete the ARP cache entry for 172.. When you issued the command that displays ARP entries. The ping command can be used to test network connectivity.Chapter 9: Ethernet 243 Example 9-1 Using the arp Command continued Example: > arp -s 157. as shown in Example 9-3.16.16.255.16. what were the results? The ARP cache should be empty. Step 3..1.254? arp -d 172. Use the arp command to examine the local ARP cache.1.254 Step 2. as shown in Example 9-2.85.. Average = 0ms C:\> C:\> arp -a .16.1. ARP associations are dynamically added to the ARP cache. Example 9-3 Using the ping Command C:\> ping 172..2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 172.2: Packets: Sent = 4.

2 C:\> Physical Address 00-10-a4-7b-01-5f Type dynamic Use the command ipconfig /all to verify another pod host computer’s Layer 2 and Layer 3 information.254 What is the physical address of the Gateway? Answers will vary. which is how long the ARP cache stores an initial entry.16. Record the two ARP cache entries using Table 9-6. Manually adjust entries in the ARP cache. First. What is the physical address of the destination pod host computer? Answers will vary. Issue the ping command to that pod host computer. only the Gateway MAC address is displayed. Examine the ARP cache entry.16. Verify that the ARP cache contains two entries: one for the Gateway and one for the destination pod host computer. . and check the ARP cache again.1 —. Or. Was the ARP cache entry cleared? Yes If the entry was not cleared.0x60004 Internet Address 172. How was the address discovered? Dynamically Issue the ping command to Eagle Server.example. which will retain the cache entry for approximately 10 minutes. What is the physical address of Eagle Server? It cannot be determined. What is the IP address of the Gateway? 172.com.16.1. Wait between 2 and 3 minutes. you did not wait 2 minutes. Dynamically What is the IP address of the destination pod host computer? Answers will vary. It may be easier to ping both devices more than once. Do not send any traffic to the computer accessed previously. How was the ARP entry added to the ARP cache? Hint: Review the Type column. eagle-server.244 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example 9-3 Using the ping Command continued Interface: 172.1. Because Eagle Server is on a different network. Issue the ping command to the Gateway. a couple explanations are possible.255. R2-Central. you accessed the destination device more than once and caused the ARP timeout for the entry to rise to 10 minutes. Examine the ARP cache entry. Step 4.

16. Consider a secure environment where the Gateway controls access to a web server that contains top-secret information.16.16. All entries should be removed.0x60004 Internet Address 172. You can delete addresses individually by specifying the IP address. .1.16.1 —. or you can delete all entries using the wildcard *.2 C:\> Physical Address 00-10-a4-7b-01-5f Type dynamic Physical Address 00-10-a4-7b-01-5f 00-0c-85-cf-66-40 Type dynamic dynamic What command deletes the entry for the pod host computer? arp -d inet-addr Record the remaining ARP cache entry in Table 9-7.1.16. What is one layer of security that can be applied to ARP cache entries to help counter ARP spoofing? Add a static ARP entry for the Gateway.254 Answers will vary Answers will vary Dynamically Dynamically Next.0x60004 Internet Address 172.16. Table 9-7 Device Remaining ARP Cache Entry IP Address Physical Address How Is It Discovered? Gateway 172.254 C:\> C:\> arp -d 172. Example 9-4 shows how to manually delete an ARP cache entry.254 Answers will vary. To delete entries in the ARP cache.255. Example 9-4 Manually Deleting an ARP Cache Entry C:\> arp -a Interface: 172.16. delete the entry for the pod host computer.255.16.1. Dynamically Simulate removing all entries. issue the arp -d {inet-addr | *} command. What command deletes all entries in the ARP cache? arp -d * Issue the command to remove all entries in the ARP cache on your pod host computer.Chapter 9: Ethernet 245 Table 9-6 Device Initial ARP Cache Entries IP Address Physical Address How Is It Discovered? Pod host computer Gateway Answers will vary 172.255. and examine the ARP cache with the arp -a command.1.255.2 172.1 —.254 C:\> arp -a Interface: 172.

Now. What is the type of the ARP entry? Static For the next task.16. The Wireshark Packet List window displays the number of packets captured. Check the box to update the list of packets in real time. Wireshark will be used to capture and examine an ARP exchange.255.16. Choose Capture > Options. you will use it to view the ARP cache.255. Prepare Wireshark for captures. Prepare the pod host computer for ARP captures. and click OK. Send one ping request to Eagle Server.254 What is the physical address of the Gateway? Answers will vary. Flush the ARP cache. and examine the ARP cache again. and one ping request is sent to Eagle Server.254 MAC-address Issue the command on your pod host computer. .168.16. Enter cmd.254. In this step. Select the interface that corresponds to the LAN. Send one ping request to the Gateway. using the command ping -n 1 172. Stop Wireshark and evaluate the communication.254. and the ARP communication is evaluated. Task 2: Use Wireshark to Examine ARP Exchanges Step 1. Capture and evaluate ARP communication. If you haven’t already done so. You should see a Wireshark screen similar to the one shown in Figure 9-2. open a Windows terminal window by choosing Start > Run. this will require ARP to rediscover address maps. Configure Wireshark for packet captures. provide answers to these questions: ■ ■ ■ What is the IP address of the Gateway? 172. using the command ping -n 1 192.255. This begins the packet capture.246 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Simulate adding a static entry for the Gateway. What command adds a static ARP entry for the Gateway to the ARP cache? arp -s 172. Click Start. one ping request is sent to the Gateway.254. Do not close the Windows terminal. Step 2. Afterward. What command did you use? arp -d * Step 3. The Packet Details window shows ARP protocol contents. the Wireshark capture is stopped.

Chapter 9: Ethernet 247 Figure 9-2 Wireshark Screen Using your Wireshark capture. Table 9-8 Field First ARP Packet Value Sender MAC address Sender IP address Target MAC address Target IP address Answers will vary Answers will vary 00:00:00:00:00:00 172.255.254 Fill in Table 9-9 with information about the second ARP packet. Table 9-9 Field Second ARP Packet Value Sender MAC address Sender IP address Target MAC address Target IP address Answers will vary 172. .16.254 Answers will vary Answers will vary If the Ethernet II frame for an ARP request is a broadcast. answer the following questions: ■ ■ What is the first ARP packet? A request What is the second ARP packet? A reply Fill in Table 9-8 with information about the first ARP packet. why does the target MAC address contain all 0s? The ARP protocol has no value yet to put in the field.16.255.

it will eventually be deleted from cache. because the cache entry was accessed within the 2-minute cache timeout. discuss the advantages of configuring MAC address restrictions for wireless networks. If the entry was learned dynamically. it is a static entry and remains until the computer is turned off or the ARP cache is manually flushed. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. and click Remove.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab9812. Discuss ways in which attackers can circumvent this security. Remember.1. however. If a packet must move across networks. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. If Wireshark needs to be uninstalled. Task 4: Challenge Using outside resources. Click Add or Remove Programs. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity. This sets the new timeout value to 10 minutes. Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Address Resolution Protocol (9. How long should the Gateway mapping be stored in the ARP cache on the pod host computer? Why? 10 minutes. which is used to forward the packet outside the LAN. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. choose Start > Control Panel. the Layer 2 MAC address changes with each hop across a router.8. The ARP cache stores ARP address mappings. Task 5: Clean Up Wireshark was installed on the pod host computer. but the Layer 3 address never changes. perform a search on ARP spoofing. . Most wireless routers support a network administrator manually adding a list of MAC addresses to the router that are permitted access to the wireless network. Remove any files created on the pod host computer during the lab. If the entry was manually inserted in the ARP cache. turn off power to the host computers. Discuss several techniques used to counter this type of attack. and leave the room ready for the next class. Choose Wireshark.248 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Why was there no ARP request for the ping to Eagle Server? The TCP/IP protocol already had the MAC address for the Gateway. Task 3: Reflection The ARP protocol maps Layer 3 IP addresses to Layer 2 MAC addresses.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. Using outside resources.

A console port can be used if the Cisco router or switch is within proximity of a computer. Background Switches maintain a table of MAC addresses and associated switch ports. Log in with your student account. the Cisco device can be configured for a Telnet session. or the frame is a broadcast. a modem configured on the AUX port enables telephone access. When a switch receives a frame. you will be able to ■ ■ Use the Telnet protocol to log into a Cisco switch. For devices physically distant from the network engineer. you will connect to the switch via a Telnet session. Use the Cisco show mac-address-table command to examine MAC address and port associations. and the corresponding port is used to route the frame out the switch.1) Upon completion of this lab. the frame is routed out all ports except the port where it originated. If a switch does not know which port to use to route the frame. otherwise. limited privileges have been configured for student use. Cisco IOS devices provide a default Telnet server. If the network is not secure.Chapter 9: Ethernet 249 Packet Tracer Challenge Lab 9-2: Cisco Switch MAC Table Examination (9. network connectivity can be established through two means.8. network engineers can log into network devices from anywhere across a secure network. You will do the following: ■ ■ ■ Telnet to S1-Central. For secure networks.2. Figure 9-3 shows the topology for this lab. Access to Cisco devices can be accomplished through several means. it is denied. In this lab. In this course. Using Telnet. a serial connection can be established. and Table 9-10 is the corresponding addressing table. the destination MAC address is checked against the table. Scenario Telnet is a network service that uses a client/server model. Using the Windows hyperterm utility. Use the show mac-address-table command to examine the MAC addresses and association to ports. . and operating systems such as Windows have built-in Telnet clients. The Cisco device must be configured for Telnet access.

254 172.252 255. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server.254 192.255.254.255.253 10.16.255.254 172.1 172.168.0.16.255.255.255.example.255.10.10.0. Take corrective action on devices that fail the ping tests.255. .5 172.255.0.254.0 255.255.0.6 192.252 255.255.254.168.255.16. ping eagle-server. troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity: Step 1.250 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 9-3 Topology for Lab 9-2 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 Table 9-10 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP S0/0/0 Fa0/0 10.16. R1-ISP.10. and finally eagle-server.254 R2-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Eagle Server — — Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central — — — Note to Instructor: Depending on the classroom situation.0 255. Step 2.2 172.0 — — 10.255.10.253 — 172.168.0 255. From a known good host computer.10.255.Pod#.Pod#.6 — 192.1 255. Verify that all network equipment is powered on and that eagle-server is on.0 255. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity.254 172.254.31.0 255.10.16.255. If the ping test fails. R2-Central.254 172.255.16. ping S1Central. the lab topology may have been modified before this class.com.16.24.0 255.255.255.

From the Windows terminal. ******************************************************************* User Access Verification Username: ccna1 Password: cisco S1-Central# (*hidden*) Task 2: Use the Cisco IOS show mac-address-table Command to Examine MAC Addresses and Port Associations Step 1.6. If an individual host computer cannot connect to eagle-server.com. This outputs all options for the command.16.10.Chapter 9: Ethernet 251 Step 3. Use the Windows Telnet client to access S1-Central. 172.10.254. S1-Central has been configured with 11 student accounts. use user ID ccna1.16. Verify that the host computer has the correct Gateway IP address. To provide access to each student. use the user ID corresponding to your pod.255. ccna1 through ccna11. . Task 1: Use the Telnet Protocol to Log in to a Cisco Switch Step 1.1 An access prompt is displayed. for host computers on pod 1.255.16.example. Access the Windows terminal. the password is cisco.254. and click OK. Enter cmd. issue the Telnet command telnet destination-ip-address: C:/> telnet 172. shown in Table 9-10. Issue the show mac-address-table ? command. Unless directed otherwise by your instructor. Step 2. Use Table 9-11 to fill in a description for each command option.254. and that it can ping R1-ISP. Finally. For example. similar to the one shown in Example 9-5. Authorized access only. Open a Windows terminal by choosing Start > Run. verify that the host has the correct DNS address and that it can ping eagle-server. and that it can ping R2-Central. 10. Example 9-5 Switch Access Prompt ******************************************************************* This is Lab switch S1-Central. check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central. Examine the switch MAC address table. 172. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address.

Issue the show mac-address-table command. Table 9-12 MAC Addresses and Ports Switch Port MAC Address Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Suppose that a hub with five active hosts is connected to switch port gi0/0. Use Table 9-12 to list the MAC addresses and corresponding switch ports. entries. or learned. Address keyword Aging-time keyword Count keyword Dynamic entry type Interface keyword Multicast information for the selected wildcard MAC notification parameters and history table Static entry type VLAN keyword Output modifiers Carriage return Examine dynamic MAC address table entries. How many MAC addresses are listed for switch port gi0/0? 5 .252 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 9-11 Option Show Mac-Address-Table Command Options Description address aging-time count dynamic interface multicast notification static vlan | <cr> Step 2. This command displays static (CPU) and dynamic.

Without a MAC address table. network engineers can access Cisco devices remotely across secure LANs. the frame is routed out the corresponding port. Task 5: Clean Up Unless directed otherwise by the instructor.8.Chapter 9: Ethernet 253 Step 3. Copy and paste data captured by Wireshark into Notepad for further analysis. in seconds. This has the benefit of permitting access to remote devices for troubleshooting and monitoring purposes. Issue the show mac-address-table aging-time command. Examine MAC address table aging time. and leave the room ready for the next class.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. however. When a frame enters the switch.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab9822. Lab 9-3: Intermediary Device as an End Device (9. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity. Remember. turn off power to the host computers.1) Upon completion of this lab. Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Cisco Switch MAC Table Examination (9. the switch performs a lookup of the frame destination MAC address. that MAC address entries are stored. This command displays the default amount of time.2. . Task 4: Reflection Using the Telnet protocol. What is the default aging time for VLAN 1? 300 Task 3: Challenge What would be the result if the MAC address table were flushed of dynamic entries? The switch would broadcast frames out each port except the originating port until the switch learned all the MAC addresses connected to the switch. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. the switch would have to flood the frame out each port. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ Use Wireshark to capture and analyze frames originating from network nodes. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. Examine the origination of frames in a small network.8.3. If a match occurs in the MAC address table. A switch contains a MAC address table that lists the MAC address connected to each switch port.

0 255.0 255.255.168. because you will use Telnet to directly access the switch.0. a switch efficiently passes frames from one device to another in a LAN.0 255.10.24.254.16.0.254 R2-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Eagle Server — — Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central — — — .254.254 172. however.254.255.255.254 192.5 172.example. If Wireshark has not been loaded on the host pod computer. In this lab.255.0.31.255.254. The file is wireshark-setup-0.255.exe. Figure 9-4 Topology for Lab 9-3 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 Table 9-13 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP S0/0/0 Fa0/0 10.168.255.16. and Table 9-13 is the corresponding addressing table.255.0 255.10.99.0 255.6 192.255.255.0 255.16. you will see the switch originating frames.16.2 172.6 — 192.16. Scenario You will use Wireshark to capture and analyze Ethernet frames.1 172.10.255. you can download it from ftp://eagleserver.255.255. A switch normally does not originate frames to node devices.0 — — 10.16.253 10.252 255.10.254 172.168.254 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Background A switch is used to forward frames between network devices.Pod#.255.254 172.com/pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter9/.255.16.255.10.254 172.252 255.255.255.Pod#.0. Rather. Figure 9-4 shows the topology for this lab.10.1 255.253 — 172.4.

Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address. For example. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity. Finally. Configure Wireshark for packet capture. use user ID ccna1. During this capture there will probably be more than 200 packets. the password is cisco. and finally eagle-server.254. cisco.Chapter 9: Ethernet 255 Note to Instructor: Depending on the classroom situation. Step 3.com. Examine and clear the MAC address table. From the Windows terminal.255. issue the Telnet command telnet 172. Step 3.com. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests. Step 2. R1-ISP.16.6.16.10. check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central. ping eagle-server. Select the interface that corresponds to the LAN. Step 2. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server. Examine the switch MAC address table with the show mac-address-table command. ccna1 through ccna11.10. verify that the host has the correct DNS address and that it can ping eagle-server. the lab topology may have been modified before this class.example. Verify that the host computer has the correct Gateway IP address. In this lab you will ping a neighbor’s pod host computer. shown in Table 9-13. Verify that all network equipment is powered on and that eagle-server is on.254.255. Use the Windows Telnet client to access S1-Central. R2-Central. 172.example. Choose Capture > Options. for host computers on pod 1. use the user ID corresponding to your pod. In addition to several static CPU entries. If an individual host computer cannot connect to eagle-server. and that it can ping R2-Central. To provide access to each student. Unless directed otherwise by your instructor.1. From a known good host computer. Click Start. 172. This begins the packet capture. however. The critical Telnet conversation between the pod host computer and S1-Central will be easy to filter. The S1-Central prompt. numerous dynamic address table entries should be listed. Enter the appropriate username and password. ping S1Central. Enter enable to enter privileged mode.254. . Write down the IP address and port connection on S1-Central for the neighbor’s pod host computer: ■ ■ IP address: Answers will vary S1-Central port number: Answers will vary Task 1: Use Wireshark to Capture and Analyze Frames Originating from Network Nodes Step 1. should be returned. If the ping test fails. 10.16. Check the box to update the list of packets in real time. making analysis a bit tedious. Use Table 9-14 to list the dynamic MAC address entries. S1-Central#. and that it can ping R1-ISP. S1-Central has been configured with 11 student accounts. troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity: Step 1.

256 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 9-14 Dynamic MAC Address Entries Switch Port MAC Address Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary To clear dynamic MAC address table entries. switch to HEX Dump. You can use the show mac-address-table command again to verify that the dynamic entries have been cleared. Stop the Wireshark capture. Task 2: Examine the Origination of Frames in a Small Network Step 1. Table 9-15 Dynamic MAC Address Entries Switch Port MAC Address Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary What conclusion can you make about how a switch learns MAC addresses connected to switch interfaces? A switch does not learn about connected devices until traffic originates from the device. which was recorded earlier: C:>\ ping -n 1 ip-address The MAC address for your neighbor’s computer should be dynamically added in the S1Central MAC address table. To prove this to students. because R2-Router sends Ethernet keepalive frames every 10 seconds. A stream content window opens. using ASCII as the default display. In Wireshark. issue the Cisco IOS interface configuration command no keepalive. on R2-Router interface Fa 0/0. From Wireshark. You will analyze the capture in the next task. If the username and passwords are not visible. choose Analyze > Follow TCP Stream. Note to Instructor: Fa 0/24. may be read within 10 seconds after flushing the MAC address table. This is normal. . You can use the show mac-address-table command again to verify that the address is added. Ping your neighbor’s IP address. Open a second terminal window. Use Table 9-15 to list the dynamic MAC address entries. This stops the 10-second Ethernet heartbeat. R2-Router. Highlight one of the Telnet session packets. use the clear mac-address-table dynamic command. examine the Telnet session to S1-Central.

Chapter 9: Ethernet 257 Verify the username and password that you entered: ■ ■ Username: Answers will vary Password: cisco Close the stream content window.f79f. Figure 9-5 Wireshark Capture of Telnet Select the last Telnet data packet from S1-Central before the ping command. You will copy and paste data into Notepad for analysis.RPC —————————————————————Vlan —— All All All All 1 Mac Address —————000f. To remove any display filters. You should see a dynamic mapping for your own computer similar to the output shown in Example 9-6. View the packet in the Packet Details window pane. Right-click telnet and choose Copy Bytes (Printable Text Only).0ccc. Step 2.015f Type ———— STATIC STATIC STATIC STATIC DYNAMIC Ports ——CPU CPU CPU CPU Fa0/1 Total Mac Addresses for this criterion: 5 S1-Central# In Table 9-16. Figure 9-5 shows partial output of a Wireshark capture. scroll down to the captured ICMP request that was generated when you pinged. In the top Wireshark Packet List pane. Examine output of the show mac-address-table command. write down the dynamic MAC address and port number displayed in the output.cccc 0100. choose Edit > Paste to copy and paste the Telnet data into Notepad. Open Notepad.a47b.0ccc.6cc0 0100.dddd 0010.0cdd. Example 9-6 MAC Address Table Before the Ping Mac Address Table {_lEMaNL.cccd 0100. click the Filter button at the top-left corner of the screen and remove the filter string. In Notepad. Does the switch port correspond to your pod host computer? Yes .

0cdd.0ccc.f79f.6cc0 0100. In Notepad.a47b.76ac. view the packet in the Packet Details window pane.dddd 0010. Example 9-7 MAC Address Table After the Ping Mac Address Table {_lEPaNM. .0ccc. The text should be similar to Example 9-7. despite having been cleared? This is the connection for the pod host computer that is telnetted into S1-Central.cccd 0100.a76a Type ———— STATIC STATIC STATIC STATIC DYNAMIC DYNAMIC Ports ——CPU CPU CPU CPU Fa0/1 Fa0/2 Total Mac Addresses for this criterion: 6 S1-Central# In Table 9-17. Next. write down the MAC address and port number for the second dynamic entry displayed in the output. Select the last Telnet data packet following the ping reply. Right-click TELNET and choose Copy Bytes (Printable Text Only).015f 0016. Does the switch port correspond to your neighbor’s pod host computer? Yes Table 9-17 Dynamic MAC Address Entry Type Port MAC Address Answers will vary Dynamic Answers will vary Task 3: Reflection The Wireshark capture of a Telnet session between a pod host computer and S1-Central was analyzed to show how a switch dynamically learns about nodes directly connected to it.258 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 9-16 Dynamic MAC Address Entry Type Port MAC Address Answers will vary Dynamic Answers will vary Why is your pod host computer mapping still in the MAC address table.VP —————————————————————Vlan —— All All All All 1 1 Mac Address —————000f.cccc 0100. choose Edit > Paste to copy and paste the Telnet data into Notepad.

Figure 9-6 shows the topology for this Skills Integration Challenge. Student answers will vary on how to secure the communication channel. and leave the room ready for the next class. Packet Tracer Challenge Skills Integration Challenge: Switched Ethernet (9. Remember. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. Background You have been asked to repair some problems in the network model related to the Ethernet LAN connected to R2-Central. and click Remove.9. Upon completion of this activity. and Table 9-18 is the corresponding addressing table. Remove any files created on the pod host computer during the lab.3. SSH is one way to encrypt communications between devices. If Wireshark needs to be uninstalled. Choose Wireshark. any clear-text password can be viewed and used by an attacker.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab9832. Task 5: Clean Up Wireshark was installed on the pod host computer. .pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to perform this exercise using Packet Tracer. Point out that because the TCP session may be captured. choose Analyze > Follow TCP Stream to view the login user ID and password. however. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ Determine IP subnet plans. and lively discussions should be encouraged. Emphasize that security should be employed in layers.3) Open file LSG01-PTSkills9. How secure is the Telnet protocol? What can be done to make communication with Cisco devices more secure? The Telnet protocol is very insecure and should never be used outside of secure networks. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity.1. Test the network. and no one solution is a guarantee against compromise. passwords of more than nine characters. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: An Intermediary Device as an End Device (9. choose Start > Control Panel. Click Add or Remove Programs. turn off power to the host computers. one recommendation may be to require passphrases—that is.8.Chapter 9: Ethernet 259 Task 4: Challenge Use Wireshark to capture and analyze a Telnet session between the pod host computer and the Cisco switch. For example. Repair Ethernet-related network issues. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. From Wireshark.

252 255.260 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 9-6 Topology for the Challenge 1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server 2960-24TT S1-Central 1841 R2-Central PC 1A PC 1B Table 9-18 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP Fa0/0 S0/0/0 192.255.255.248 255.255.255.255.111.111.1 192.134 192.168.168.168.168. existing ISP LAN.128 255.255.168.111.255.111. existing WAN. The subnet assignments are as follows: ■ ■ ■ First subnet. up to five hosts (already configured) Third subnet.0/24.168.111.138 192.111.111.255.255. You must provide for the three existing networks.126 192.255.128 255.126 192.168.252 255. up to 100 hosts (Fa0/0 on R2-Central) Second subnet.126 192.138 192.111.111.168.111.133 255.111.168.248 — — 192.168.2 192.111.134 R2-Central Fa0/0 S0/0/0 PC 1A PC 1B Eagle Server NIC NIC NIC Task 1: IP Subnet Planning You have been given an IP address block of 192.255.138 192.137 192.168.128 255.111.255.168. point-to-point link (already configured) .255. existing student LAN.168.255.

The next-hop router (to which the default route should point). For hosts 1A and 1B. and the PC 1A interfaces are incorrect. and ARP viewable.168. Task 3: Test the Network Use ping. Connect the Fa0/24 interface on the switch to the R2-Central Fa0/0 interface. and Fa0/24). web traffic. use the first two IP addresses (the two lowest usable addresses) on the existing student LAN subnet. make sure that the power is on to the device and to the interfaces (make sure that the Ethernet interfaces are not shut down). and R2-Central’s serial interface have already been configured. Connect this newly installed Fast Ethernet NIC to the Fa0/2 interface on the switch. The static route on R2-Central should be a default static route that points to R1-ISP’s serial interface IP address. UDP. and the Inspect tool to trace packet flow in simulation mode. the DNS server is 192. For hosts 1A and 1B. trace. Task 4: Reflection The two Layer 2 and Layer 1 technologies in this model are a serial connection (between the routers) and the Ethernet LANs (for the ISP server and with the S1-Central switch). Set all Ethernet interfaces to autonegotiate speed and duplex (which will achieve full-duplex 100-Mbps operation if both ends of the link can support it). In a future course you will learn much more about switched Ethernet technologies. has an IP address of 192. Connect PC 1A to the Fa0/1 interface on the switch. the S1-Central switch interfaces (Fa0/1. R1-ISP. For all devices.133 /29. Remove the wireless card from PC 1B. . Assign the highest usable subnet address to the gateway and the two lowest usable addresses to the PCs.138 /30. ■ ■ ■ Task 2: Repair Problems with the Ethernet Switched LAN PC 1B has a wireless card and cannot be connected to the switch. with HTTP.Chapter 9: Ethernet 261 Interface IP addresses: ■ ■ The server. These procedures were explained in the Chapter 5 and 6 Skills Integration Challenges. TCP. ICMP. to test your understanding of how the network is operating. For R2-Central’s Fa0/0 interface.111. DNS. Add IP addresses to the router Fa0/0 interface and to the two PCs. Add the Fast Ethernet Interface card PT-HOST-NM-1CFE to PC 1B. R1-ISP. Compare and contrast the serial connection with Ethernet. Apparently the Ethernet speed and duplex settings for the R2-Central Fa0/0 interface.111. Fa0/2.168. use the highest usable address on the existing student LAN subnet.

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whereas a switch is a Layer 2 device. In the long run. Be as detailed as possible. matching. Study Guide LANs: Making the Physical Connection A networking professional needs to know how to select and interconnect the proper devices for a network.CHAPTER 10 Planning and Cabling Networks The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of multiple-choice. more speed. In this chapter. They filter frames. and speeds of different ports and interfaces. hands-on skills needed. They also allow for the interconnection of segments with different speeds. this up-front investment might save money. use Chapter 10 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum or use the corresponding Chapter 10 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration Companion Guide for assistance. Compare and contrast the function of hubs and switches. more capabilities. including cost. . 2. Hubs should be used in small LANs. supported speeds. Growth consists of more user devices. and capabilities. Switches are Layer 2 devices. A hub is a Layer 1 device. Routers. and manageability. Hubs do not filter frames. Concept Questions 1. As you work through this chapter. and switches are common network devices. As a networking professional. and also new technology. The design of an IP addressing scheme is presented and then practiced with the help of concept questions and the hands-on labs. Explain the advantage of one device over the other. and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of planning and cabling networks. you identify the cables needed to make successful LAN and WAN connections and learn how to use device management connections. types. To allow for growth. Hubs do not segment networks. devices will need to be selected that go beyond the current need of the LAN in terms of number of ports. It is essential that you have knowledge of the different media types and the distinct roles they play with the devices that they connect. All of the ports of a hub are part of one collision domain. That affects the cost calculation because the costs will seem high compared to the current network needs. Explain how adaptability to new technologies can be taken into consideration when selecting devices for a LAN. though. Switches are more expensive than hubs but use bandwidth more efficiently. you need to be familiar with the different device selection factors. They flood all the frames they receive on one port out all other ports. Each switch port is its own collision domain. Devices need to have empty slots that allow the addition of modules that have more capabilities or that support new technologies. Switches segment networks into multiple collision domains. Hubs are less expensive and less efficient than switches. hubs. expandability. How does this affect the cost calculations? When selecting devices for a LAN it is important to allow for future growth. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum labs to further reinforce that you have mastered the practical. fill-in-the-blank.

which can increase LAN performance. The computer and the router both have Medium Dependent Interface (MDI) connections with pins 1 and 2 for transmitting and pins 3 and 6 for receiving. 3. How do switches create collision domains? port. A swich is used to segment a network into multiple collision domains. . By providing multiple interconnections between a number of switches d. A switch provides dedicated bandwidth on each port. The straight-through cable will connect with its pins 1 and 2 to pins 1 and 2 of the computer. Concept Questions 1. A network administrator needs to be familiar with the different standards that define devices and cabling in these areas. Switches regenerate each bit of the frames they receive. Each switch port creates a point-to-point dedicated connection to the devices connected to that b. c. they remain in a single collision domain. How can redundancy be provided in a switched network? a. By using high-speed fiber-optic media c. By allowing the interconnection of segments with different speeds. Each area has its unique requirements and standards. Explain what will happen when you use a straight-through cable to connect your computer to the Fast Ethernet interface of a router. 1. a. By delpoying gigabit switches only 2. d. The transmit wires of the cables will be connected to the transmit pins on the router and the computer. By using a special cable type to connect to the devices on its ports. By deploying one central switch with a high port density b. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks for the following statements. Pins 3 and 6 of both devices will be connected in the same way. 2.264 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Multiple-Choice Questions Choose the best possible answer for each of the following questions. there are several physical areas to consider. 1. and no data transfer will be possible. Device Interconnections When planning the installation of LAN cabling. Even though hubs can be interconnected.

switches. Data Circuit-Terminal Equipment (DTE) is a device that receives clocking services from another device and adjusts accordingly. Answers may vary. Interference can be produced by electrical machines. There are four physical areas to consider when planning the installation of LAN cabling. data service units (DSU). sometimes servers Backbone cabling: Cabling that connects the telecommunications room to the equipment room Distribution/horizontal cabling: Typically. including computers and radio equipment. List these four areas and their main components. there is no service provider. or connects telecommunications rooms. In the lab setting. patch panels. configuring. The routers are connected back to back. cabling to access outside resources. Attenuation is the decrease in signal strength along an electrical or optical cable. hubs. The ANSI/TIA/EIA-568-B standard specifies the maximum cable length in UTP installations. patch cables. high-bandwidth cabling that connects the telecommunications room with the work area. A router is considered a DTE device. 3. The Data Communications Equipment (DCE) is a device that supplies the clocking services to another device. this device is at the WAN access provider end of the link. This router will provide the clocking that is usually provided by the service provider’s equipment. This knowledge is vital in designing.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 265 2. Typically. Signal attenuation and exposure to possible interference increase with cable length. Typically. this device is at the WAN customer or user end of the link. Developing an Addressing Scheme Developing an IP addressing scheme is one of the most important tasks that you will have to perform as a network professional. Explain how the serial connection to a WAN service provider differs from the way the serial connections are set up for the curriculum labs. 1. 3. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks for the following statements that discuss features and issues related to different types of media. one router will act as the DCE and uses a DCE cable. Telecommunications room: hubs. 2. Work area: Work areas are dedicated to end devices. 5. It is extremely important that you understand IP addressing. and troubleshooting networks. . lighting. 4. patch cables. This is where the users access the network. Therefore. and other communications devices. and switches. routers. UTP cabling uses RJ-45 connectors. Main components are jacks to connect individual devices to the network.

2. Which formula is used to calculate the number of hosts per network or subnet? Use n to represent the number of bits. A systematic allocation of IP addresses makes troubleshooting and the addition of new hosts easier. IP phones. You also need to consider network devices such as router LAN interfaces and router WAN (serial) interfaces. 3. 2.266 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Concept Questions 1. 1. Multiple-Choice Questions Choose the best possible answer(s) for the following questions. a. 1. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks for the following statements dealing with IP addressing and subnetting. administrator computers. and other end devices such as printers. and server addresses. network resources. and IP cameras. (n – 2) . It is good practice to use IP addresses that fit a common pattern across all subnets. departments. Gateway address 2. special users. management subnets. Network devices requiring an IP address for management purposes are switches and wireless access points. 3. Which addresses cannot be assigned to hosts? Choose all that apply. Some common categories are general users. servers. You need to consider end devices such as user computers. Each subnet requires a router interface as the gateway for that subnet. Network devices that require IP addresses for management purposes include switches and wireless access points. (2^n – 1) b. 2^n c. Broadcast address d. Subnets divide broadcast domains into a number of smaller domains. router LAN and WAN interfaces. a. Network address c. What devices do you need to consider when counting devices in your network that need IP addresses. Why does each connection between routers count as a separate subnet if there are no hosts connected? The router interfaces on the link connecting the two routers need to have IP addresses. Management address b. What are some common categories that you can use to allocate IP addresses? Explain why you should use address schemes that fit a common pattern across your network. (2^n – 2) d.

what will be the subnet mask for your network? 255. Device Interconnections Cisco devices. Larger collision domains Calculating the Subnets Two different methods can be used for allocating addresses to an Internetwork.255. and switches have several different types of interfaces associated with them.0 2. Which addressing method will allow you to design an IP addressing scheme without wasting any host addresses? How is the efficiency of this method achieved? The method that allows for the most efficient IP addressing design without wasting any addresses is called variable-length subnet masking (VLSM). can use a bit mask of 255. .0 and you need to create 64 subnets.16. What are advantages of dividing networks into subnets? Choose all that apply.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 267 3. which requires only two IP addresses. Network 5 needs to support 128 host addresses. Network 4 needs to support 52 host addresses. Network 3 needs to support 2 host addresses. It allows a subnet to be subnetted. Implementation of different levels of security d.255. It is important to understand the different types of interfaces and know the types of cable required to connect to the interfaces. and other subnets that require more host addresses can use different bit masks. This way. Network 2 needs to support 64 host addresses.252. LAN and WAN interfaces require different cabling and configuration. Variable-length subnet masking (VLSM) assigns the prefix and host bits to each network based on the number of hosts in that network. These interfaces are also referred to as ports.252. Decreased costs b. If your network uses the address 172. Smaller broadcast domains c. You have the following network requirements: Network 1 needs to support 32 host addresses. routers. VLSM allows different subnet masks within one network. The non-VLSM approach uses the same prefix length and the same number of host bits for each subnet. a. Concept Questions 1. a serial link.0.255.

To establish a WAN connection b. To make a back-to-back connection between routers in the lab d. 1. To connect to LAN devices such as computers and switches c. The Telnet interface c. a. Briefly describe the function of each of these interfaces. The Ethernet interface b. The console interface d. What can Ethernet interfaces be used for? Choose all that apply. To connect to a terminating device such as a switch or a computer . To connect the router to the DSU/CSU 2. Serial interface: This is the WAN interface. They can also connect to other routers. Which interface is the primary interface for the initial configuration of a Cisco device such as a router or a switch? a. A CSU/DSU is a device used to make the physical connection between data networks and WAN provider’s circuits. It provides physical access to the router for troubleshooting. To connect the router to a terminal for configuration purposes b. Auxiliary interface: This interface provides remote management for the router.268 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Concept Question List the four types of interfaces on Cisco routers and switches. To connect to other routers d. The serial interface 3. To establish communication with a router via a console on a remote WAN c. Multiple-Choice Questions Choose the best possible answers(s) for the following questions dealing with interface types. WAN interfaces are used for connecting WAN devices to the CSU/DSU. Console interface: This is the primary interface for initial configuration of a Cisco device. It connects to LAN devices such as computers or switches. a. Ethernet interface: This is the LAN interface of a router or a switch. What are serial interfaces used for? Choose all that apply.

168. Examine the use of the available network address space. you have been given the network address 192. In this example.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 269 Labs and Activities Lab 10-1: How Many Networks? (10. the number of hosts is not important. Scenario In this lab. Figure 10-1 Topology Diagram A Fa0/0 S0/0/0 S0/0/0 B1 B2 How many networks are shown in Figure 10-1? 2 How many bits should you allocate to create the required number of subnets? 1 How many usable host addresses did this give you? 126 What is the new subnet mask in decimal form? 255.1128 How many subnets are available for future use? 0 . You must determine the number of networks needed then design an appropriate addressing scheme.0/24 to subnet and provide the IP addressing for the networks shown in the topology diagrams.255. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ ■ Determine the number of subnets.2. Assign addresses and subnet mask pairs to device interfaces.26.255.2) Upon completion of this lab. Design an appropriate addressing scheme.3. Task 1: Determine the Number of Subnets in Topology Diagram A Use the topology in Figure 10-1 to answer the questions that follow. Place the correct address and mask in the addressing table. You are only required to determine the number of subnets per topology example.

26.168.270 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 2: Record Subnet Information Fill in Table 10-1 with the subnet information.168.0 192.254 192.168.255.255 Task 3: Determine the Number of Subnets in Topology Diagram B Use the topology in Figure 10-2 to answer the questions that follow.255.26.26.127 192.126 192.26. Figure 10-2 Topology Diagram B Fa0/0 S0/0/1 HQ S0/0/0 S0/0/1 S0/0/0 B1 B2 How many networks are there? 4 How many bits should you allocate to create the required number of subnets? 2 How many usable host addresses did this give you? 30 What is the new subnet mask in decimal form? 255.128 192.26.129 192.192 How many subnets are available for future use? 0 .168.26.168.1 192.26.26.168.168.168. Table 10-1 Subnet Information Subnet Address First Usable Host Address Last Usable Host Address Broadcast Address Subnet Number 0 1 192.

Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 271 Task 4: Record Subnet Information Fill in Table 10-2 with the subnet information.127 192.191 192.26.62 192. Figure 10-3 Topology Diagram C S0/0/1 S0/0/0 B1 S0/0/0 S0/0/1 HQ S0/1/0 S0/0/0 B2 S0/0/1 S0/1/0 S0/0/0 S0/0/1 B3 Fa0/0 How many networks are there? 6 How many bits should you allocate to create the required number of subnets? 3 How many usable host addresses did this give you? 30 What is the new subnet mask in decimal form? 255. Use the subnet mask from Step 4.168.168.168.168.168.128 192.190 192.26.193 192.168.168.26.26.168.126 192.26.254 192.255 Task 5: Determine the Number of Subnets in Topology Diagram C Use the topology in Figure 10-3 to answer the questions that follow. Table 10-2 Subnet Information Subnet Address First Usable Host Address Last Usable Host Address Broadcast Address Subnet Number 0 1 2 3 192.168.168.0 192.224 How many subnets are available for future use? 2 .26.168.192 192.26.26.1 192.129 192.168.26.26.64 192.26.63 192.26.26.168.255.65 192.26.26.168.26.168.255.168.

193 192.127 192.33 192.168.168.168.168.168.26.168.26.190 192.224 192.26.26. Table 10-3 Subnet Information Subnet Address First Usable Host Address Last Usable Host Address Broadcast Address Subnet Number 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 192.64 192.30 192. Figure 10-4 Topology Diagram D Fa0/0 Fa0/0 S0/0/0 S0/0/1 Fa0/0 S0/0/0 S0/0/1 S0/0/1 S0/1/1 B1 S0/0/1 HQ B2 S0/0/0 S0/0/1 S0/0/0 S0/0/1 S0/0/0 B3 Fa0/0 B4 Fa0/0 Fa0/0 B5 .26.168.192 192.191 192.168.26.26.62 192.94 192.65 192.168.159 192.128 192.26.168.26.168.26.26.168.168.26.26.272 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 6: Record Subnet Information Fill in the Table 10-3 with the subnet information.168.168.168.26.26.158 192.26.168.26.168.168.26.168.97 192.168.31 192.32 192.168.63 192.1 192.26.95 192.160 192.168.26.223 192.225 192.168.254 192.168.26.168.168.168.255 Task 7: Determine the Number of Subnets in Topology Diagram D Use the topology in Figure 10-4 to answer the questions that follow.168.26.26.26.26.0 192.26.168.26.168.168.96 192.161 192.26.129 192.26.26.26.222 192.126 192.26.

0 192.26.168.168.168.26.168.168.159 192.206 192.26.26.168.26.26.26.168.26.128 192.168.26.26.168.26.26. you need the number of networks and hosts.46 192.63 192.168. .145 192.26.96 192.168.168.225 192. Table 10-4 Subnet Information Subnet Address First Usable Host Address Last Usable Host Address Broadcast Address Subnet Number 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 192.26.112 192.47 192.168.26.168.26.95 192.168.168.26.223 192.26.26.168.142 192.26.240 192.26.168.177 192.224 192.168.168.26.26.26.168.192 192.62 192.26.255 Task 9: Reflection What information is needed when determining an appropriate addressing scheme for a network? When determining an appropriate addressing scheme for a network.209 192.33 192.168.48 192.241 192.26.168.168.26.26.168.158 192.1 192.79 192.30 192.239 192.26.26.26.26.110 192.26.176 192.26.26.168.144 192.127 192.14 192.161 192.26.113 192.26.26.168.193 192.168.26.168.168.255.168.2222 192.168.168.168.168.26.168.143 192.168.80 192.26.26.26.175 192.168.168.94 192.26.255.238 192.65 192.32 192.111 192.16 192.49 192.168.129 192.26.126 192.168.168.168.26.26.31 192.168.160 192.168.168.208 192.168.168.254 192.15 192.168.168.26.78 192.168.168.97 192.168.26.168.207 192.168.168.26.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 273 How many networks are there? 12 How many bits should you allocate to create the required number of subnets? 4 How many usable host addresses did this give you? 14 What is the new subnet mask in decimal form? 255.26.168.26.26.26.26.168.81 192.26.26.168.168.168.26.168.190 192.168.240 How many subnets are available for future use? 4 Task 8: Record Subnet Information Fill in Table 10-4 with the subnet information.26.26.26.191 192.174 192.26.26.26.64 192.168.17 192.

Subnet A and Subnet B are subnets that are currently needed.274 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Lab 10-2: Creating a Small Lab Topology (10. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ ■ Design the logical network. you create a small network that requires connecting network devices and configuring host computers for basic network connectivity. as shown in Figure 10-5.6. Configure the logical LAN topology. Configure the physical lab topology. Subnet C and Subnet D are anticipated subnets.1.1) Upon completion of this lab. . Background Table 10-5 shows the equipment and hardware requirements for this lab. not yet connected to the network. Gather the necessary equipment and cables. Figure 10-5 Topology for Lab 10-2 Subnet A Fa0/0 Fa0/1 Subnet B Fa0/1 1 R1 Fa0/2 S1 Fa0/3 Subnet C Subnet D 2 3 Note: The CD-ROM accompanying this book contains a subnet chart for the last IP address octet. Verify LAN connectivity. Table 10-5 Hardware Equipment and Hardware for Lab Quantity Description Cisco Router Cisco Switch Computer (host) Cat5 better straight-through UTP cable Cat5 crossover UTP cable Scenario 1 1 3 3 1 Part of CCNA Lab bundle Part of CCNA Lab bundle Lab computer Connects Router 1 and computers Host1 and Host2 to Switch1 Connects computer Host1 to Router1 In this lab. Subnet zero will be used.

198 255.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 275 Note to instructor: In Chapter 11 labs.248 172.255.255.20. Example Router 1 Configuration Router1 configuration ! service timestamps debug uptime service timestamps log uptime no service password-encryption ! no ip domain-lookup ! hostname Router1 ! enable secret cisco ! ! interface FastEthernet0/0 description connection to Host1 ip address no shutdown ! interface FastEthernet0/1 description connection LAN ip address no shutdown ! ip classless ip http server ! banner motd % ******************************************************************* 172.255. For this lab. the router should be configured for students.0. Another alternative is to use two routers connected through a serial connection and use the Fast Ethernet interfaces from each router. ******************************************************************* % ! .252 This is Eagle 1 lab router Router1.0. consider configuring a loopback interface as an alternative to the FastEthernet 0/1. The following example contains a basic configuration for Router 1.20. Authorized access only.202 255. If you do not have a router that has two Fast Ethernet interfaces. students will learn how to configure a router.255.

0.20.255.128 What is the bit mask? 172.1 172.127 11111111.0/24 (address / mask). Router interfaces will use the last available IP address in the address block. Table 10-7 Subnet D IP Address Information Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast Network Address 172. Design Subnet D address block. and pick the first address block that will support Subnet D.0. which requires the largest block of IP addresses.0.1 172.10000000 .11111111.20.0.276 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide line con 0 password cisco ! line con 0 password cisco login line aux 0 line vty 0 4 password cisco login ! end Task 1: Design the Logical Network Given an IP address and mask of 172. design an IP addressing scheme that satisfies the requirements listed in Table 10-6. Refer to the subnet chart on the CD-ROM.1111111. Begin the logical network design by satisfying the requirement of Subnet D.20. Step 1.20.0 255. Fill in Table 10-7 with IP address information for Subnet D.20.0. Table 10-6 Subnet Subnet Requirements Number of Hosts Subnet A Subnet B Subnet C Subnet D 2 6 47 125 Host computers from each subnet will use the first available IP address in the address block.255.

198 172.11000000 Step 3.0.11111111. Table 10-9 Subnet B IP Address Information Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast Network Address 172.11111000 Step 4.255.192 255. the next largest IP address block.20.0.20. Satisfy the requirement of Subnet B.255.20.20.0.0.129 172.255.190 172. Design Subnet A address block. Table 10-8 Subnet C IP address information Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast Network Address 172.255. Refer to the subnet chart on the CD-ROM.128 255.11111111.0. and pick the next available address block that will support Subnet B.11111111.20.20. Design Subnet D address block.252 172. and pick the next available address block that will support Subnet A.20.20.202 172. Refer to the subnet chart on the CD-ROM.255.1111111. and pick the next available address block that will support Subnet C.0. Fill in Table 10-9 with IP address information for Subnet B. Refer to the subnet chart on the CD-ROM.1111111. Satisfy the requirement of Subnet A.0.20.203 What is the bit mask? 11111111.0. the next largest address block.20.255.199 What is the bit mask? 11111111.0.201 172. Design Subnet B address block.0.11111100 . Fill in Table 10-10 with IP address information for Subnet A.191 What is the bit mask? 11111111. Satisfy the requirement for Subnet C. Table 10-10 Subnet A IP Address Information Network Address Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast 172.200 255. Fill in Table 10-8 with IP address information for Subnet C.248 172.193 172.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 277 Step 2.192 172.20.0.0.11111111.20.

20. Confirm that the power is applied to the connected device. take a moment to verify the connections. the gateway address is the IP address assigned to the router interface for that subnet. Visually inspect network connections. If not already enabled. and Router 1 to Switch 1. write down the IP address information for each computer in the tables that follow. .0. From the IP address information recorded in Task 1. Any switch connection that does not transition from amber to green should be investigated. and the correct cable is functional. Therefore. and why? Both devices have similar network interfaces. Attention to detail now will minimize the time required to troubleshoot network connectivity issues later.252 172. Cable the network devices as shown in Figure 10-5. What cable type is needed to connect Host 1. Step 2. Ensure that all switch connections show green. Therefore. Table 10-11 Host 1 Address Type Address IP address IP mask Gateway address 172. What type of cable connects Router1 interface Fa0/0 to Host 1? Crossover cable What type of cable connects Router 1 interface Fa0/1 to Switch 1? Straight-through cable What type of cable connects Host 2 to Switch 1? Straight-through cable What type of cable connects Host 3 to Switch 1? Straight-through cable Is all equipment turned on? Yes Task 3: Configure the Logical Topology Step 1. turn power on to all devices.202 In Table 10-12.20.201 255. After cabling the network devices. Document logical network settings. The host computer gateway IP address is used to send IP packets to other networks. Physically connect devices. and why? The switch ports are dissimilar to the router and computer network interfaces.255. the correct cable is used. enter the information for Host 1. and like devices require a crossover cable. straight-through cables are required. Host 2. enter addressing information for Host 2.278 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 2: Configure the Physical Lab Topology Step 1. What cable type is needed to connect Host 1 to Router 1.255. In Table 10-11.0.

20.193 255.194 255.248 172.255. click Start > Control Panel > Network Connections.0.20. and then click the Properties button.255.0.198 In Table 10-13.0.0. select Internet Protocol (TCP/IP).198 Configure the Host 1 computer.255.248 172. 172.20. Figure 10-6 shows Host 1 IP address and gateway settings. Table 10-13 Host 3 Address Type Address IP address IP mask Gateway address Step 2. enter addressing information for Host 3. Manually enter the following information. On Host 1.20. On the General tab. Right-click the Local Area Connection device icon and choose Properties. recorded in the preceding Step 1: ■ ■ ■ IP address: Host1 IP address Subnet mask: Host1 subnet mask Default gateway: Gateway IP address Figure 10-6 Host 1 IP Addressing and Gateway Settings .255.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 279 Table 10-12 Host 2 Address Type Address IP address IP mask Gateway address 172.

194 172.0.193 172.20. close the Internet Protocols (TCP/IP) Properties window by clicking OK.20. Try to disable and then reenable the network interface card (NIC) by right-clicking the NIC in the Local Area Connection Properties window.0. Task 4: Verify Network Connectivity Verify with your instructor that Router 1 has been configured.0. . the topology diagram shown in Figure 10-5 can prove extremely helpful. Step 3. Type cmd. connectivity will be broken between LANs.194 172. Switch 1 should have a default configuration.20.0.20.198 172. using the IP address information for those computers. Fa0/1) Router 1. Depending on the Windows operating system.20.0. Use Table 10-14 to methodically verify and record connectivity with each network device. disable the firewall (for your ping tests to work).0. the computer might require a reboot for changes to be effective.20. Table 10-14 Network Connectivity Test Results From To IP Address Ping Results Host 1 Host 1 Host 1 Host 1 Host 2 Host 2 Host 2 Host 2 Host 3 Host 3 Host 3 Host 3 Gateway (Router 1. Fa0/1 Host 2 Host 3 Host 3 Gateway (Router 1.0. Take corrective action to establish connectivity if a test fails.202 172. Configure Host 2 and Host 3 computers.20. Repeat Step 2 for computers Host 2 and Host 3. Fa0/0) Router 1.20.201 Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Note any break in connectivity.20.0. In this scenario. and then press Enter. Fa0/1) Router1.202 172.198 172.193 172. Otherwise. Remember that the default gateway address on the computers is the IP address of the Fast Ethernet interface of the router that the computers connect to via the switch. Fa0/0 Host 1 Host 2 Gateway (Router 1.20. Network connectivity can be verified with the Windows ping command.198 172. Open a terminal window by clicking Start > Run.0. it might be a gateway issue. how can you detect a malfunctioning gateway? If Host 2 and Host 3 can successfully ping each other but not Host 1. When troubleshooting connectivity issues.20.0. Fa0/0 Host 1 172.20.0.202 172.0.201 172. Close the Local Area Connection window.280 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide When finished. If your computer’s operating system is Windows XP SP2.

If the solution did not fix the problem. A summary of the instructions is provided within the Packet Tracer activity. Step 1. Write down your proposed solution(s). Hosts cannot ping the router. Step 4. Test your solution. keep in mind that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. Problems can be either physical (wrong UTP cable) or logical (wrong IP address or gateway). and leave the room ready for the next class. Step 3. Check the IP address configuration. Carefully remove cables and return them neatly to their storage. This is a particularly important lab. Task 7: Clean Up Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. Use the table provided in Task 3 to identify failed connectivity. document the solution. Answers may vary. Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Creating a Small Topology (10. If the solution fixed the problem. . Answers may vary. Task 6: Challenge Ask your instructor or another student to introduce one or two problems in your network when you aren’t looking or are out of the lab room.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. However. Step 2.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab10612. Hosts 1 and 2 cannot ping Host 3. Check cabling. restore host computer network connectivity. and then turn off power to the host computers. It is best to practice host computer configuration and verification several times. To fix the problems.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 281 Task 5: Reflection Review any physical or logical configuration problems encountered during this lab. follow these steps: Note to instructors: A simple way to introduce problems is to switch the Fast Ethernet connections. List the problems.1. This will reinforce the skills you learned in this lab and make you a better network technician. continue troubleshooting. In addition to practicing IP subnetting. Be sure that you have a thorough understanding of the procedures used to verify network connectivity. Check the default gateways on the hosts. Perform a good visual inspection. Look for green link lights on Switch 1. Reconnect cables that were disconnected for this lab.6. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. you configured host computers with network addresses and tested them for connectivity.

Figure 10-7 Establishing a Console Session with HyperTerminal Straight-Through Cable Serial Cable Console (Rollover) Crossover Cable The following resources are required: ■ ■ ■ Computer with a serial interface and HyperTerminal loaded Cisco router Console (rollover) cable for connecting the workstation to the router Task 1: Connect a Router and Computer with a Console Cable Step 1. 1700. Instructions for TeraTerm Web use are contained in the section “Lab 10-3 (Alternative): Establishing a Console Session with TeraTerm” later in this chapter.282 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Lab 10-3: Establishing a Console Session with HyperTerminal (10. Possible routers include 800.6.1) Upon completion of this lab. Configure HyperTerminal to establish a console session with a Cisco IOS router. Scenario Set up a network similar to the one in Figure 10-7. Configure HyperTerminal to establish a console session with a Cisco IOS switch. Using HyperTerminal is the most basic way to access a router for checking or changing its configuration. Connect the other cable end to the host computer with a DB-9 or DB-25 adapter to the COM 1 port.2. . you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ Connect a router and computer using a console cable. Any router that meets the interface requirements may be used. Another popular serial communication utility is TeraTerm Web. 2500. 2600 routers. Set up the basic physical connection. A serial interface on a computer is connected to the Cisco device via a rollover cable. or a combination. Background HyperTerminal is a simple Windows-based terminal emulation program for serial communication that can be used to connect to the console port on Cisco IOS devices. Connect the console (rollover) cable to the console port on the router. 1600.

Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 283 Step 2. Figure 10-9 HyperTerminal Connection Type . enable power to the computer and router. From the Windows taskbar. Configure HyperTerminal. Figure 10-8 shows an example of the opening HyperTerminal configuration window. If you are accessing HyperTerminal for the first time. start the HyperTerminal program by clicking Start > All Programs > Accessories > Communications > HyperTerminal. Power on the devices. or leave the default. Start the HyperTerminal application. in the Connect using field. Select an appropriate icon. Figure 10-8 HyperTerminal Connection Description Window In the Connect To window shown in Figure 10-9. the program prompts for an area code/phone number. Click OK. At the Connection Description window. Task 2: Configure HyperTerminal to Establish a Console Session with a Cisco IOS Router Step 1. enter a session name in the Name field. If not already powered on. Note to instructors: On newer systems. Step 2. COM 1. enter the appropriate connection type. You need to fill in a number to be able to continue. you might have to use an USB connection rather than the COM port. Click OK.

this indicates that connection has been successfully completed. change port settings to the values in Table 10-15. click Yes. There should be a response from the router. close the HyperTerminal session. and then click Open.284 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide In the COM 1 Properties box shown in Figure 10-10. verify that the router has power. Reconnect the HyperTerminal session. ask the instructor for assistance. When asked whether to save the session. click Cancel. This time. exit HyperTerminal. press the Enter key. For example. Step 4. Click File > Exit. . If there is still no connection. when the Connection Description window opens. Close HyperTerminal. Check the connection to the correct COM 1 port on the PC and the console port on the router. Enter a name for the session. Step 3. Select the saved session. Click File > Open. Figure 10-10 HyperTerminal COM 1 Port Settings Table 10-15 HyperTerminal Port Settings Settings Value Bits per second Data bits Parity Stop bits Flow control Click OK. When finished. 9600 8 None 1 None When the HyperTerminal session window comes up. When finished. Reopen the HyperTerminal session as described in Task 2. troubleshoot as necessary. Use this technique to reconnect the HyperTerminal session to a Cisco device without reconfiguring a new session. If there is no connection. Step 1.

Use the procedure described in Task 2. Select an appropriate icon. COM 1. From the Windows taskbar. Start the HyperTerminal application. See Figure 10-11. enter the appropriate connection type. Step 1. Connect the other cable end to the host computer with a DB-9 or DB-25 adapter to the COM 1 port. or leave the default. Step 3. Table 10-16 Port Settings Settings Value Bits per second Data bits Parity Stop bits Flow control Click OK. In this task. in the Connect using field. you make a serial connection between the host computer and a Cisco IOS switch. Set up the basic physical connection. Click OK. Connect the console (rollover) cable to the console port on the router. Figure 10-11 Serial Connection Between a Host Computer and Cisco Switch 1 S1 Step 2. enable power to the computer and switch. At the opening HyperTerminal Connection Description window. In the Connect To window. Step 2. Power on the devices. enter a session name in the Name field.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 285 Task 3: Configure HyperTerminal to Establish a Console Session with a Cisco IOS Switch Serial connections between Cisco IOS routers and switches are similar. Step 4. In the COM 1 Properties window. Configure HyperTerminal. to configure HyperTerminal. start the HyperTerminal program by clicking Start > Programs > Accessories > Communications > HyperTerminal. change port settings to the values shown in Table 10-16. 9600 8 None 1 None . If not already powered on. Click OK.

Task 5: Clean Up Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. turn off power to the host computer and router. Close HyperTerminal. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. When finished. For example. Step 5. Compare the differences. press the Enter key. close the HyperTerminal session. Task 4: Challenge Draw the pin connections for the rollover cable and straight-through cable. and be able to identify the different cable types. this indicates that connection has been successfully completed. Task 3: Reflection This lab provided information for establishing a console connection to a Cisco IOS router and switch. Check the connection to the correct COM 1 port on the PC and the console port on the switch. You will only be able to connect to the router if you are using the proper settings. click No. When asked whether to save the session.286 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide When the HyperTerminal session window comes up. ask the instructor for assistance. There should be a response from the switch. Be sure to remember the correct HyperTerminal port settings. . and leave the room ready for the next class. If there is no connection. Remove the rollover cable. If there is still no connection. verify that the switch has power. Click File > Exit. troubleshoot as necessary.

but it can be downloaded from the following http://www. Ensure that power is turned off on the computer and Cisco router. Background TeraTerm Web is another simple Windows-based terminal emulation program for serial communication that can be used to connect to the console port on Cisco IOS devices.ayera. Any router that meets the interface requirements may be used. 1700. Step 2. . you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ Connect a router and computer using a console cable. Set up the basic physical connection.com/teraterm/. Figure 10-12 Establishing a Console Session with TeraTerm Straight-Through Cable Serial Cable Console (Rollover) Crossover Cable The following resources are required: ■ ■ ■ Computer with a serial interface and TeraTerm Pro loaded Cisco router Console (rollover) cable for connecting the workstation to the router Task 1: Connect a Router and Computer with a Console Cable Step 1. Possible routers include 800. 2600 routers.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 287 Lab 10-3 (Alternative): Establishing a Console Session with TeraTerm Upon completion of this lab. Power on the devices. Configure TeraTerm to establish a console session with the router. Note to instructor: TeraTerm is not available on the Eagle Server. Connect the console (rollover) cable to the console port on the router. or a combination. Scenario Cable a network similar to Figure 10-12. 2500. Enable power to the computer and router. Connect the other cable end to the PC with a DB-9 or DB-25 adapter to the COM 1 port. 1600.

Click File > Exit. Reconnect the TeraTerm Web session. If there is still no connection. If there is no connection. click Yes. this indicates that the connection has been successfully completed. Configure TeraTerm Web Click File > New Connection. Use this technique to reconnect the TeraTerm Web session to a Cisco device without reconfiguring a new session. Step 4. . press the Enter key. Click File > Open. When finished. Cisco switches are accessed in the same way. Start TeraTerm Web application. ttermpro. Step 2. Remember that you must use the correct serial port configurations to connect to the Cisco device via Minicom. From the Windows taskbar. Step 3. Select the saved session. For example. Enter a name for the session. Click OK. ask the instructor for assistance.288 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 2: Configure TeraTerm Web to Establish a Console Session with the Router Step 1. When asked whether to save the session. Figure 10-13 TeraTerm Web Connection Configuration Window When the TeraTerm Web session window comes up. There should be a response from the router. troubleshoot as necessary. Refer to Figure 10-13. Close TeraTerm Web. and starting the TeraTerm Web application. start the TeraTerm Web program by opening the TeraTerm Web folder. Check the connection to the COM 1 port on the PC and the console port on the router. close the TeraTerm Web session. verify that the router has power. Select the appropriate serial COM port. This time. Step 1. click Cancel. when the New Description window opens (see Figure 10-13). Task 3: Reflection This lab provided information for establishing a console connection to a Cisco router. and then click Open. Reopen the TeraTerm Web session as described in Task 2.

and leave the room ready for the next class.6. keep in mind that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. and be able to identify the different cable types.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. Compare the differences.2. turn off power to the host computer and router.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 289 Task 4: Challenge Draw the pin connections for the rollover cable and straight-through cable. Remove the rollover cable. Task 5: Clean Up Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. A summary of the instructions is provided within the Packet Tracer activity. . Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Establishing a Console Session with PT Terminal (10. However. Remove anything that was brought into the lab.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab10622.

. The Linux or UNIX operating system is required. Connect the console (rollover) cable to the console port on the router.6. Enable power to the computer and router. Connect the other cable end to the PC with a DB-9 or DB-25 adapter to the COM 1 port. Possible routers include 800. 2600 routers. Set up the basic physical connection. Scenario Set up a network similar to the one in Figure 10-14. Perform basic commands. or a combination.3. 1700. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ Connect a router and computer using a console cable. 1600. such as controlling a modem or accessing a Cisco router through the serial console connection.290 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Lab 10-4: Establishing a Console Session with Minicom (10. similar to the Windows HyperTerminal program. Configure Minicom to establish a console session with the router. Power on the devices. 2500. Figure 10-14 Topology for Lab 10-4 Straight-Through Cable Serial Cable Console (Rollover) Crossover Cable The following resources are required: ■ ■ ■ Linux/UNIX computer with a serial interface and Minicom loaded Cisco router Console (rollover) cable for connecting the workstation to the router Task 1: Connect a Router and Computer with a Console Cable Step 1. Ensure that power is turned off on the computer and Cisco router. Minicom can be used for many purposes. Background Minicom is a text-based UNIX terminal emulation program.1) Upon completion of this lab. Step 2. Any router that meets the interface requirements may be used.

To configure the serial port. Press Enter. enter the minicom command with the –s option. root access is required. . Figure 10-15 shows the main configuration window. Figure 10-16 Serial Port Configuration Window Table 10-17 Serial Port Settings Option Field Value A Serial Device Dev/ttyS0 for COM 1 /dev/ttyS1 for COM 2 E Bps/Par/Bits Bps: 9600 Par: None Bits: 8 Stop bits: 1 (or. Start the Minicom application in configuration mode. From the Linux command prompt. Configure Minicom for serial communications. to start Minicom. Use the letter by the field to change a setting. Table 10-17 shows the correct values. This starts Minicom in configuration mode: [root]# minicom –s <ENTER> Step 2. Figure 10-15 Main Configuration Window Figure 10-16 shows the serial port configuration window. scroll down the configuration list and select Serial port setup. select option Q) F G Hardware Flow Control Software Flow Control Toggle: No Toggle: No Return to the Configuration menu by pressing Enter or Esc. Note: To configure Minicom.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 291 Task 2: Configure Minicom to Establish a Console Session with the Router Step 1.

the default values will be reloaded. close the Minicom session. Restart the Minicom session. serial communication utility. press <Ctrl> A. Close Minicom. use <Ctrl> A. For example. menu-driven. as follows: [root]# minicom <ENTER> When the session window starts. press the Enter key. Check the connection to the correct COM 1 port on the PC and the console port on the router. select Save setup as dfl (default file). . For example. Figure 10-18 Minicom Command Summary Screen Task 4: Reflection This lab provided information for establishing a console connection to a Cisco router using Minicom. Basic commands are not intuitive. verify that the router has power. troubleshoot as necessary. There should be a response from the router. Cisco switches are accessed in the same fashion. to control the utility. Figure 10-18 shows a list of functions and corresponding keys. followed by either Q or X. followed by Z. Select Exit from Minicom. Task 3: Perform Basic Commands Minicom is a text-based. Figure 10-17 Serial Port Configuration Window Step 3. However. When Minicom is restarted. this indicates that a connection has been successfully completed. To quit Minicom. press <Ctrl> A. To get help.292 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide In the window shown in Figure 10-17. When finished. users communicate with remote devices within the terminal window. Step 4. If there is no connection.

255.255. Background Table 10-18 shows the addressing for this lab.168.110 192.255.1.255.168.62 192.255.255.255.168.168.168.252 255.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 293 Task 5: Clean Up Unless directed otherwise by the instructor.255.1.168.93 255.252 255.1.1.138 192.1.1.255.240 255. Configure router and PC interfaces.129 192. Packet Tracer Challenge Skills and Integration Challenge: Planning and Cabling Networks (10.255.255. turn off power to the host computer and router.110 192.240 255.168.1.255.1 192.168.255.1.126 192. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ ■ Build the network topology.255. Table 10-18 Addressing Table Device Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1 Fa0/0 S0/0/0 S0/0/1 192.192 255. keep in mind that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment.255. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity.1.3) You can now open the file LSG01-PTSkills10. Plan the IP addresses.113 192.168.1.94 R2 Fa0/0 Fa0/1 S0/0/0 S0/0/1 R3 Fa0/0 S0/0/0 S0/0/1 PC1-A PC2-A PC3-A Eagle-Server NIC NIC NIC NIC .240 255.255.192 255.255.126 192.168. and leave the room ready for the next class.224 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 192.168.255.1.1. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. Upon completion of this lab.137 192.252 255.1.94 192.252 255.255. However.1.1.133 192.255.255.1.255.130 192.168.255.168.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer.255.1. Test the network.255.168.1.224 255.255.168.168.168.7.62 192.252 255.168.255. Remove the rollover cable.134 192.97 192.255.1.252 255.240 255.

Use Table 10-21 and Table 10-22 to create an effective addressing scheme. Table 10-19 Routers Hostname Interface Connects To Interfaces R1 R1 R1 R2 R2 R2 R3 Fa0/0 S0/0/0 (DCE) S0/0/1 (DCE) Fa0/0 S0/0/1 (DCE) Fa0/1 Fa0/0 SW-1 R2 R3 SW-2A R3 SW-2B SW-3 Fa0/1 S0/0/0 S0/0/1 Fa0/1 S0/0/0 Fa0/1 Fa0/1 Table 10-20 shows the switch information.168. Table 10-19 shows the router information.1. planning. and configuration skills. assign the networks in decreasing order of number of hosts required for efficient use of address space. Seven total networks are required. Task 1: Build the Network Topology Use the following tables and the devices in the device pool to create the topology.0 /24 address space. Device names and routing have already been configured. Table 10-21 LAN Hostname Interface Number of Hosts R1 R2 Fa0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/1 60 10 30 7 R3 Fa0/0 . Table 10-20 Switches Hostname Interface Connects To Interfaces SW-1 SW-2A SW-2B SW-3 Fa0/2 Fa0/2 Fa0/2) Fa0/2 PC-1A PC-1B Eagle-Server PC-1C FastEthernet FastEthernet FastEthernet FastEthernet Task 2: Create and Assign an Addressing Scheme You are asked to use the 192.294 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Practice your network building.

R2. the R1–R3 link will use the second WAN subnet. and R3 routers. ■ ■ Task 3: Interface Configuration Perform interface configuration of the R1. and the server according to the preceding addressing scheme. .Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 295 Table 10-22 WAN Hostname Address to be Assigned Number of Hosts R1–R3 R1–R3 R2–R3 R1–First host address R1–First host address R2–First host address 2 2 2 Use the following rules to assign IP addresses: ■ PCs will use the first host address in the subnet. and the server. other PCs. and the R2–R3 link will use the third WAN subnet. The R1–R2 link will use the first WAN subnet. All Fast Ethernet ports on a router will use the last host address of the assigned subnet. the server will use the second to last host address in its subnet. Task 4: Testing Connectivity Make sure all PCs can ping their gateways. the PCs. R1 and R2 DCE interfaces should have clock rates of 56000.

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Concept Questions 1. Study Guide Configuring Cisco Devices: IOS Basics Routers and switches need an operating system to function. and password recovery. As you work through this chapter. it is important to protect it with a password. Access through the AUX port does not require network services on the device. It is important to configure the console port with a password and prevent physical access to the router by keeping it in a locked room. The console port provides a low-speed serial connection and is used mainly when network services are unavailable on the device—during initial configuration. The operating system on most Cisco devices is the Cisco IOS. multiple-choice. use Chapter 11 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum. just like the console port. Telnet and SSH provide remote access to the device and require network services. What security concerns do you need to consider for the different access methods? Answers will vary. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum activities and labs to ensure you have mastered the practical. It provides a number of network services. Describe the different access methods for Cisco devices. . such as routing and switching. The AUX port can be used to access the device either locally or through a dialup connection. When an AUX port is available. or use the corresponding Chapter 11 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration Companion Guide. addressing. for assistance.CHAPTER 11 Configuring and Testing Your Network The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of matching. For security reasons. SSH is preferred over Telnet. Discuss when and why you would use a certain method. Understanding these functions and being able to access them is essential for network administrators and technicians. fill-in-the-blank. and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of configuring and testing networks. troubleshooting. Not all devices have an AUX port. and quality of service. security. disaster recovery. SSH uses more secure password authentication and encrypts the data for transport. hands-on skills you need.

Therefore. Privileged EXEC mode c. 3. Global configuration mode a. Router# c. A network technician might be allowed to look at configurations but not change them. these changes are not permanent unless they are written to the startup configuration file in NVRAM. which is volatile memory. Router(config)# d. Table 11-1 Prompt IOS Configuration Modes IOS Configuration Mode a. The startup configuration file is stored in nonvolatile RAM (NVRAM). the startup configuration file loads into RAM. match the device prompt on the left with the correct IOS configuration mode on the right. After it is loaded into RAM. it becomes the running configuration file—the file that is used to operate the device. Because this file is in RAM. 2. It is important to save changes that need to be permanent. These changes are active immediately. Answers may vary. Authentication can be configured for different modes. Each time a device is started or reloaded.298 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide 2. and how they relate to each other. For example. The running configuration file is lost when the device is powered down. because this file is stored in RAM. Answers may vary. the network administrator can grant different personnel different levels of access. location. Switch> b. Switch(config-if)# b. Interface configuration mode Cisco IOS Command Exercises Answer these questions based on the following command: Router#show ip interface brief 1. the startup configuration file stays intact when the device is powered off. The main advantage is the controlled access or security. User EXEC mode d. Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 11-1. Describe the advantage of the hierarchical modal structure. Any configuration changes that are made to the device are written to the running configuration file. What is the name of the command? show Does this command use arguments or keywords? Keywords . Compare and contrast the two main configuration files on Cisco devices in terms of function.

Passwords establish basic security at the local level. Where do the following commands get the information they display? Name the file if applicable and the storage location of this information. NVRAM.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 299 3. Because configuration files are critical. and IP addresses are needed to establish connectivity with other devices on the network. The most important initial configuration parameters include hostnames. . and the IP addresses and descriptions on the interface. show version: IOS information in RAM show startup-config: Backup configuration file in NVRAM show running-config: Active configuration file in RAM show flash: Operating systems stored in flash Test Your Knowledge Use Table 11-2 to test your knowledge of the command-line interface (CLI) shortcuts and hot keys. Table 11-2 Key IOS Command-Line Help Function Tab Ctrl-R Ctrl-Z Up arrow Down arrow Ctrl-D Ctrl-C Ctrl-Shift-6 Backspace exit Autocomplete: completes the remainder of the command or keyword Redisplays a line Exits configuration mode and returns to privileged EXEC mode Scrolls backwards through previously entered commands Scrolls forward through previously entered commands Deletes the character to the right of the cursor Aborts the current command and exits configuration mode Interrupts an IOS process such as ping or traceroute Deletes the character to the left of the cursor A command to move up one level in the configuration mode hierarchy Applying a Basic Configuration Using Cisco IOS All networking devices need a basic configuration to be functional. passwords. Possible locations are RAM. and flash. the network administrator needs to exercise proper file management by saving changes to the configuration and by backing up configuration files. Hostnames are important for network documentation and remote access. ROM.

This means that the administrator connects to the networking devices via the network. Router(config)# interface s0/1/0 d. Multiple-Choice Questions Choose the best possible answer(s) for the following questions dealing with interface configuration network testing. Router(config)# interface 0/1/0 b. There should always be backup copies of files to aid in disaster recovery. are managed remotely. Answers will vary. Which of the following interface commands allows you to enter interface configuration mode to configure a router’s interface? a. They are visible to anyone who logs on to the system. Hostnames. b. Briefly explain the purpose of banners. The administrator needs to have fast access to the desired files. 2. because this lets you sort files by date if needed. The administrator does not have the physical devices in front of him or her to make sure they are attached to the correct piece of equipment. The directory structure needs to be logical and should be documented. Router# interface s0 c. The filename also needs to indicate the hostname of the device it belongs to. Router(config)> interface s0/1/0 2. proper file management is very important. Hostnames are a vital part of network management.) a. Enable the interface. such as from an office. Therefore. This can prove helpful if somebody breaks into the system and a legal case arises. Backing up configuration files is part of good file management. Therefore. It is good practice to advise against unauthorized access with the help of banners. Including dates in the naming convention can be helpful. Explain why the hostname is an extremely important feature for networking devices. Enter global configuration mode. and they need to be worded carefully. Answers will vary. 3.300 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Concept Questions 1. c. a logical naming scheme that includes version control is critical. . Network configuration files are extremely important on a production network. Specify the interface address and subnet mask. help the administrator know what device he or she is connected to. Most networking devices. d. Banners provide a method for declaring that only authorized personnel should have access to the devices. such as routers and switches. 1. Which of the following steps are required to configure an Ethernet interface? (Choose all that apply. Answers may vary. and explain why they should contain some type of warning message. Explain how good management of configuration files can be implemented. together with up-to-date documentation. Enter interface configuration mode. Filenaming conventions are extremely important. Be specific in your answer.

The output provided by the utilities and the show commands provides useful information for troubleshooting. and 1 of the OSI model.) a. 1. Like other hosts. and Layer 3 connectivity has been established. Because the ping test tests all the layers of the TCP/IP model.0. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following sentences. Because it uses a protocol stack to perform connectivity testing. a switch needs a default gateway address defined to communicate with hosts outside the local network. b. It is possible that a router along the path did not have a route to the destination and did not send an ICMP destination unreachable message. show interfaces c. Answers may vary. Time to Live (TTL) defines the number of hops that the ping packet has remaining before it will be dropped.): The ping timed out. The ping 127. Test Your Knowledge The ping utility yields useful indicators that can be used for troubleshooting. One effective way to test network connectivity is to use the ping command. Because it tests all the layers of the OSI model. 2. Testing network connectivity is a very important task. Why is the ping test also called testing the protocol stack? a. Exclamation mark (!): The ping completed successfully. Verifying Connectivity A network needs full connectivity to converge. Concept Question Explain how the internal IP configuration on the local host can be tested. c. It verifies the proper operation of the protocol stack from the network layer to the physical layer (and back) without putting a signal on the medium. 3. Period (. The letter U: A router along the path did not have a route to the destination address and responded with an ICMP unreachable message. show IP interface brief b.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 301 3. d. 2. Describe the following indicators. .1 command can be used to test the local host IP configuration. A connectivity problem has occurred along the path. Because it tests connectivity at Layers 3. show running-configuration d. The output of which of the following commands shows the interface description? (Choose all that apply. A network administrator needs to be familiar with the different testing utilities such as ping and traceroute and the different show commands. show interface description 4.0. It is also possible that the ping was blocked by security measures.

Measure delay effects from larger datagrams. and some private networks block transit ICMP echo datagrams. You will note the latency value at the center of the ordered range of latency points (median) and identify the most frequently occurring delay (mode). You will accomplish this by analyzing the return delay from a distant computer using the ping command. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ Use the ping command to document network latency. measured in milliseconds. The purpose of this lab is to measure and evaluate network latency over time. You will perform statistical analysis of throughput delay with the assistance of a spreadsheet application such as Microsoft Excel. otherwise. Network engineers routinely rely on networks outside of local administration for connectivity to external networks. For this experiment to be interesting. Normally these devices are the ones that introduce network latency. to capture a representative sample of typical network activity. Background To obtain realistic network latency statistics. by computing the average latency (mean). If you’re patient.4. Destinations on the same LAN or within a few hops may return an unrepresentative low latency. Compute various statistics on the output of a ping capture. You will summarize return delay times.302 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Labs and Activities Lab 11-1: Network Latency Documentation with ping (11. Scenario In the topology diagram shown in Figure 11-1. a sufficiently distant destination should be chosen. The destination server computer must return ICMP echo replies. you can find a suitable destination. You will also measure delay when the ICMP datagram size increases. Be sure to check with your instructor for any local security restrictions on using the ping command on the network. Some computers have this feature disabled through a firewall. Monitoring path latency provides some measure of administrative diligence.3.3) Upon completion of this lab. and during different periods of the day. delay cannot be computed. the network cloud represents all the network devices and cabling between the student computer and the destination server computer. Figure 11-1 Topology for Lab 11-1 Server Computer Network Cloud Student Computer . this lab must be performed on a live network. which may be used in decision-making when evaluating suitable applications for wide-area network (WAN) deployment.

use another destination.yahoo. Lost = 0 (0% loss) Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 304ms. and retest. Average = 304 ms Use the ping /? command to answer the following questions: What is the purpose of the -n option and argument 1? The -n option determines the number of echo requests to send.191.yahoo. Task 1: Use the ping Command to Document Network Latency Step 1. Example 11-1 Ping Test C:\> ping -n 1 www.com.yahoo-ht3. Enter cmd. as shown in Example 11-1.akadns. Received = 1.93.com Pinging www.com or yahoo.52] with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 209. Attempt to ping a suitably distant destination. Students might decide to ping google. What option and argument would change the default size to 100 bytes? ping IP Address -l 100 Decide on a destination server computer.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 303 This lab requires five days of testing. Note to Instructor: Answers will vary.191. and one in the evening. When you’re done. If packets were lost.com. Verify connectivity between the student computer and the destination server computer. you will have 15 sets of data. The ping command might fail or succeed. . Use the ping command to verify connectivity with the destination. for example. To understand the delay effects from larger datagrams. you will send and analyze increasingly larger ICMP datagrams. such as www. and then click OK. Open a terminal window by choosing Start > Run. and write down the results: Packets sent: _____________ Packets received: _________ Packets lost: _____________ Answers will vary. Three tests will be performed each day. The idea is to note and document latency differences that occur at different times of the day.net [209. one test should be done in the early morning.191. depending on the destination address.5: Packets: Sent = 1. Preferably.52: bytes=32 time=304ms TTL=52 Ping statistics for 209. and write down the name: Answers will vary.93. Maximum = 304ms .93. depending on the destination server computer students choose. one around midday.

If the spreadsheet has numbers in different fields. When you’re done. and mode delay values. Bring the text file into the Microsoft Excel spreadsheet application. median. Alternatively. ensure that all numeric values are separated from text characters. To format a text file for use within Excel. start Microsoft Excel. manually fix the numbers. shown in Figure 11-2.txt to the end of the ping command. Figure 11-2 Excel Text Import Wizard Step 2.txt. Choose File > Open. choose Fixed Width. Compute the mean. In Step 2. In the Text Import wizard. Highlight the filename and click Open.304 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Step 2. click Finish. If it isn’t already open. you can redirect output to a file by appending >day-sample#. you should have a spreadsheet that looks similar to Figure 11-3. Task 2: Compute Various Statistics on the Output of a ping Capture Step 1. Click Browse to move to the directory that holds the text file. The command syntax is ping [options] >day-sample#. Perform a delay test. . After the spreadsheet has been opened. Write down the command that sends 100 echo requests to the destination: ping -n 100 Use the ping command to send 100 echo requests to your destination. format the columns so that they are more readable. where day is the day the test was performed (1 through 5) and sample# is the sample period (1 through 3). Step 1. Note: The terminal remains blank until the command has finished.txt. copy the replies into Notepad. Choose Start > Programs > Accessories > Notepad. follow the instructions to separate numeric values from text values. When the input formatting is satisfactory. Save the file using the name format day-sample#. When you’re finished.

Figure 11-4 Ordering on the Delay Column . Finally. In Figure 11-4 it is Column G. You do this by choosing Data > Sort.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 305 Figure 11-3 Partial Spreadsheet Record the number of dropped packets in the column Dropped Packets. Select the column that contains the Delay values. If a header row was highlighted. Highlight all the data fields. When you’re finished. click the Header row radio button. Dropped packets have a consistently large delay value. the delay values must be ordered (sorted) when computing the median and mode values. Figure 11-4 shows a partial spreadsheet highlighted and the Data dialog box opened. click OK.

Perform a quick visual inspection to verify that your median value is similar to what is shown midway in the data range. FOR /L %i IN (100. Perform a variable-sized delay test. this would equate to the formula in cell G102: =average(G2:G101). . The formula used to compute the modal delay. you will send increasingly larger ICMP echo requests to the destination. In this analysis. by step amount.txt. Record this number in your chart in the Mean column. and only the last reply is saved. Step 1. delay is the sum of the delays divided by the number of measurements. as shown in the following command. as well as a chart that plots size versus delay. or the delay value in the center of the ordered range. and save the file using the name variablesizedelay. Record this number in your chart in the Mode column.100. use the redirect append operator. To redirect output to a file. The formula used to compute the median delay. but you should retain the data text file. So (1.–1.end) DO command [command-parameters] The set is a sequence of numbers from start to end. >. Issue this command: FOR /L %i IN (100. The output of one line is shown in Example 11-2. Perform a quick visual inspection to verify that your mean value is approximately the value shown. the formula in cell G103 would be =median(G2:G101).5) would generate the sequence 1 2 3 4 5.txt Note: The terminal remains blank until the command has finished. >>. is similar to the average formula. You will create a spreadsheet with the reply results. the formula in cell G104 would be =mode(G2:G101). overwrites the file each time the ping command is executed. or the delay value that occurs the most frequently.1) would generate the sequence (5 4 3 2 1).2000) DO ping -n 1 -l %i destination Copy the output into Notepad. and (5. The syntax is FOR /L %variable IN (start.306 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide The formula used to compute the mean. Task 3: Measure Delay Effects from Larger Datagrams To determine if larger datagrams affect delay. You may either save or discard the new spreadsheet file. The easiest way to accomplish this task is to use the Windows built-in FOR loop command.100. Record this number in your chart in the Median column. In the following command. destination is the destination.2000) DO ping -n 1 -l %i destination >> variablesizedelay. or average.1. For the median value. For the mode value.step. Perform a quick visual inspection to verify that your mode value is the most frequently occurring value in the data range. The normal redirect operator. 20 datagrams will be incremented by 100 bytes per ping request. is also similar. All 20 replies are arranged similarly. For this spreadsheet.

Received = 1. A number of charts can be used to display delay data. Step 4. save your spreadsheet and chart.191.100.191. Open the new text file in Excel. When larger datagrams are sent. a delay might occur. Figure 11-5 Excel Text Import Wizard The difference between this file and the previous one is that the variable-size file has much more information than is really needed.akadns.93. as shown in Figure 11-5. Create a chart of the data. . A chart should be clear.2000) DO ping -n 1 -l %i www. The chart shown in Figure 11-7 is a stacked line chart.52: bytes=100 time=383ms TTL=52 Ping statistics for 209. Bytes and Delay. Bring the text file into the Excel spreadsheet application.93.52] with 100 bytes of data: Reply from 209. depending on available bandwidth and other traffic on the network.net [209. and submit them to your instructor with the final delay analysis. Highlight the Delay column data and choose Insert > Chart.93. Maximum = 383ms.yahoo-ht3. Lost = 0 (0% loss). Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 383ms.com >>variablesizedelay. the spreadsheet should look similar to Figure 11-6.52: Packets: Sent = 1.txt C:\> ping -n 1 -l 100 Pinging www. Clean up and organize the spreadsheet data into two columns. Can you make any assumptions about delay when larger datagrams are sent across a network? Answers may vary.191. Step 3. When you’re finished. but there is room for individual creativity. Format the spreadsheet.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 307 Example 11-2 Variable-Size Delay Test C:\> FOR /L %i IN (100. When you’re finished.yahoo. Average = 383ms Step 2.

If that does not work. and network delay spikes. If delays are caused by events within the organization. try to work out the problem with the ISP first. subscribing with a different or additional Internet service provider (ISP) may prove beneficial. When the source originates from external networks not under the control of the organization. Also. network devices may become overwhelmed during certain times of the day. and corrective action can be taken. Careful delay analysis over successive days and at different times of the day can alert the network engineer to changes in network performance. many users subscribe to peer-to-peer applications such as Kazaa and Napster. . valuable bandwidth is diverted from critical business applications. routine data transfers should be scheduled during off-peak times. For example. when delay is less.308 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 11-6 Formatted Spreadsheet Figure 11-7 Plot of Delay Versus Datagram Size Task 4: Reflection The ping command can provide important network latency information. In this case. network analysis tools can be used to determine the source. When these file-sharing applications are active.

Write a one. and perform a separate delay test while the file is downloading.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 309 Task 5: Challenge If permitted.or two-paragraph analysis that compares these delay results against a measurement made without the download. download a large file. .

1) Learning Objectives Upon completion of this lab. Configure Cisco router interfaces. Another alternative would be to use two routers connected through a serial connection and use the FastEthernet interfaces from each router. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Configure Cisco router global configuration settings. make sure that the equipment listed in Table 11-3 is available. Background Figure 11-8 shows the topology for this lab.310 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Lab 11-2: Basic Cisco Device Configuration (11. Save the router configuration file. and message-of-the-day (MOTD) banner. To configure the lab. Configure Cisco router password access. Table 11-3 Hardware Equipment and Hardware Requirements Quantity Description Cisco router Cisco switch Computer (host) Console (rollover) cable Crossover cable Straight-through cable 1 1 3 3 1 3 Part of the CCNA Lab bundle Part of the CCNA Lab bundle Lab computer Connects computer Host1 to the router console port Connects the computer to the router LAN interface FA0/0 Connects computer hosts to the switch and the switch to the router Note to Instructor: If you do not have a router that has two FastEthernet interfaces.5. Figure 11-8 Topology for Lab 11-2 1 Fa0/0 Fa0/1 Fa0/1 R1 Fa0/2 S1 Fa0/3 2 3 Gather the necessary equipment and cables. Common configuration tasks include setting the hostname. access passwords.1. . consider configur- ing a loopback interface as an alternative to the FastEthernet 0/1. Configure a Cisco switch.

219.255.238 192.62 192.219. fill in Table 11-4.223 192.133.219.79 192.219.133.95 192.219. The changes must be saved in NVRAM to be persistent across reboot.174 192.219.81 192.113 192. Address information is easy to compute with the subnet number filled in first. Configuration changes may also be saved offline in a text file for auditing or device replacement.219.133.219.0 # Subnet 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 192.219.133.133.191 192.219.133.219.219.240 First host address Last Host Address Broadcast IP address: 192.133.127 192.177 192.219.133.133.219.133.145 192.219.207 192. Given an IP address of 198.193 192.219.209 192. entering a description that describes the destination connection decreases troubleshooting time.133.219.133.219.32 192.158 192.133.133.0 192.133.133.219.133.47 192.133.219.33 192.160 192.133.133.133.219. (Hint: fill in the subnet number and then the host address.65 192.143 192.133.133.219.46 192. and rollover cables.254 192.17 192.133.219.219.219 192.144 192.126 192.133.133.128 192.1 192.133.176 192. Configuration changes take effect immediately.219.219.219.219.96 192.133.240 192.133.219. with 4 bits borrowed for subnets.) Note to Instructor: To reinforce student cable identification.133.219.133.95 192.219. Maximum number of usable subnets (including the 0th subnet): 16 Number of usable hosts per subnet: 14 Table 11-4 Subnet Address Table Subnet mask: 255.219.175 192.219.0/24.133.159 192.64 192.78 192.219.80 192. Students should be able to identify the proper cable type based on a visual inspection.219. Cisco IOS switch configuration is similar to Cisco IOS router configuration.224 192.133. In addition to assigning a Layer 3 IP address.31 192.133.255.219.219.133.129 192.219.255 .133.142 192.219.133.133.219.133.219.133.219.133.219.111 192.219.133.112 192.219.219.133.133.219. Scenario In this lab.219.219.219.208 192.219.207 192.133.15 192.133.133.133.133.133.14 192.16 192.219.219.63 192.133.133.161 192.133.133.133.190 192.219.219.97 192. Mix crossover.219.219.133.133.48 192.241 192.133.133.219. you will configure common settings on a Cisco router and Cisco switch.133.133.225 192.219.30 192.133.222 192.219.133.133.239 192.219.110 192.133.219.133.219. have several different types of cables available for the students.192 192.219.219.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 311 Interface configuration is extremely important. straight-through.

Connect a straight-through cable between the Router interface Fa0/1 and any of the switch’s interfaces (1 through 24). . Connect the console or rollover cable to the console port on the router. switch. Task 1: Configure Cisco Router Global Configuration Settings Step 1. press the Enter key until the router responds. The instructor will assign subnetworks. From the Widows taskbar. Figure 11-9 Lab Cabling 1 Fa0/0 Fa0/1 R1 Straight-Through Cable Serial Cable Console (Rollover) Crossover Cable Step 2. Connect host computer through HyperTerminal. Physically connect the devices. start the HyperTerminal program by choosing Start > Programs > Accessories > Communications > HyperTerminal. Figure 11-9 shows the cabling for this lab.312 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Before proceeding. Connect the crossover cable between the host computer’s network interface card (NIC) and Router interface Fa0/0. Configure HyperTerminal with the proper settings: ■ ■ Name the connection description: Lab 11_5_1 Connect using: COM1 (or an appropriate COM port) Configure the COM1 properties: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Bits per second: 9600 Data bits: 8 Parity: None Stop bits: 1 Flow control: None When the HyperTerminal session window comes up. Connect the other end of the cable to the host computer using a DB-9 adapter to the COM 1 port. Give each team of students a subnetwork number. Ensure that power has been applied to the host computer. verify your addresses with the instructor. and router.

exit by entering no: Would you like to enter the initial configuration dialog? [yes/no]: no Press RETURN to get started! Router> In privileged EXEC command mode. enter privileged EXEC mode: Router> enable Router# Verify a clean configuration file using the privileged EXEC command show runningconfig. To terminate the domain name lookup process. However. and describe them: confirm: Confirms replacement of running-config with a new config file memory: Configures from nonvolatile memory network: Configures from a TFTP network host overwrite-network: Overwrites nonvolatile memory from the TFTP network host replace: Replaces the running-config with a new config file terminal: Configures from the terminal <cr> .Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 313 If the router terminal is in configuration mode. This results in the following: Name lookup aborted Router> To disable name translation attempts. a delay occurs while the request times out. release. Depending on the router’s model and the IOS version.. From user EXEC mode. This can take from several seconds to several minutes.domain server (255. The following shows a user mistyping a command and the router attempting a domain name lookup: Router>enabel Translating “enabel”. What two commands may be used to leave privileged EXEC mode? exit or end What shortcut command can you use to enter privileged EXEC mode? en Examine the different configuration modes that can be entered with the command configure?. Write down the list of configuration modes.255) % Press Ctrl-Shift-6. If a configuration file was previously saved. Step 3. If your router does not have a default configuration. ask the instructor to remove the configuration. Because no domain server is configured. it should have no configured passwords or IP addresses. release. press Ctrl-Shift-6. and then press X.255. Configure global configuration hostname settings. the router attempts to translate any misspelled or unrecognized commands as a domain name. it must be removed.. apply the global configuration command no ip domain-lookup. your configuration may look slightly different from a typical default router’s configuration. and then press X.255.

the end command. and Ctrl-Z What shortcut command can be used to enter global configuration mode? config t Set the device hostname to Router1: router(config)# hostname Router1 Router1(config)# How can the hostname be removed? no hostname Router1 Step 4. exec: Sets the EXEC process creation banner incoming: Sets the incoming terminal line banner login: Sets the login banner motd: Sets the message-of-the-day banner prompt-timeout: Sets the message for the login authentication timeout slip-ppp: Sets the message for SLIP/PPP . banner content may have a significant legal impact on the organization. Router1(config)# banner ? LINE: c banner-text c. Only system administrators of the ABC Company are authorized users. penalties for unauthorized access. Access is granted to only current ABC system administrators with prior written approval. For example. All connections are continuously logged. Configure the MOTD banner. Create a suitable MOTD banner. A banner should include information about authorization. In production networks. and describe them. a court might interpret a friendly “Welcome” message as permission for an attacker to hack into the router. and applicable local laws. Unauthorized access is prohibited and will be prosecuted. connection logging. where ‘c’ is a delimiting character Examine the different banner modes that can be entered. and all connection information will be logged. Unauthorized access will be prosecuted. enter global configuration mode: Router# configuration terminal Router(config)# What three methods may be used to leave global configuration mode and return to privileged EXEC mode? The exit command. suppose you are connected to an ABC network device.314 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide From privileged EXEC mode. Write down the list of banner modes. For example. The corporate security policy should cover all banner messages.

Configure the privileged EXEC password. contains no encryption or weak cryptography and should never be used if the enable secret command is available. enable password.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 315 Choose a terminating character that will not be used in the message text. as shown in Example 11-3. The enable secret command uses a very secure MD5 cryptographic hash algorithm.------------------+ | | | . Use the terminating character on a blank line to end the MOTD entry. The MOTD banner is displayed on all connections before the login prompt. Cisco says “As far as anyone at Cisco knows. aux. Cisco IOS supports two commands that set access to privileged EXEC mode. and virtual lines. *** All connections are continuously logged. and will be prosecuted. End with the character %’ ***You are connected to an ABC network device. *** % Router1(config)# What is the global configuration command to remove the MOTD banner? no banner motd Personal banners on nonproduction devices can be entertaining. because it controls access to configuration mode. Configure the MOTD banner. The privileged EXEC mode password is the most critical password. it is impossible to recover an enable secret based on the contents of a configuration file (other than by obvious dictionary attacks). such as % (percent). The following is a banner made from ASCII art that can be copied into the router: ( o o ) +------------------.oooO--(_)--Oooo. Access is granted to only current ABC company system administrators with prior written approval.oooO ( ) Oooo. Step 1. )--------------------+ ) / (_/ | | | +---------------------\ (----( \_) Task 2: Configure Cisco Router Password Access Access passwords are set for privileged EXEC mode and the user entry point such as console. *** *** Unauthorized access is prohibited. Example 11-3 banner motd Output Router1(config)# banner motd % Enter TEXT message. One command.” Password security relies on the password .

we will use weak passwords. the number has been expanded. In newer Cisco IOS versions. In early Cisco IOS versions. Set the console access password to cisco. What is the router prompt? What is the mode? Router1(config-line)# exit Router1(config)# Global configuration mode Issue the command end. and symbols. In a lab environment. Exits the configuration and returns to privileged EXEC mode. only five virtual lines could be set—0 through 4. What is the router prompt? What is the mode? Router1# Privileged EXEC mode . Issue the command exit. Configure the console password. Router1(config-line)# line vty 0 4 Router1(config-line)# password cisco Router1(config-line)# login There are three ways to exit line configuration mode. The virtual line password controls Telnet access to the router. Configure the virtual line password. Table 11-5 Command Ways to Exit Line Configuration Mode Effect exit end Ctrl-Z Returns to global configuration mode. strong passwords should be used at all times.316 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide algorithm and the password. Unless a Telnet password is set. Set the privileged EXEC password to class: Router1(config)# enable secret class Router1(config)# Step 2. numbers. The console password controls console access to the router. In production environments. Fill in Table 11-5 with the correct answers. Set the virtual line access password to cisco. A strong password consists of at least nine characters of uppercase and lowercase letters. Router1(config)# line console 0 Router1(config-line)# password cisco Router1(config-line)# login What is the command to remove the console password? no password cisco Step 3. access on that virtual line is blocked.

Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 317 Task 3: Configure Cisco Router Interfaces All cabled interfaces should contain documentation about the connection.1.14 Step 1. the maximum description length is 240 characters. Write down the first IP address: Answers will vary. depending on which subnet students choose from Table 11-4.255. On newer Cisco IOS versions.0 255. interface Fa0/0. 192. Apply the description on the router interface with the interface configuration command description. Write a short description for the connections on Router1: Fa0/0 -> Connection to Host1 with crossover cable. 192.240 The first IP address will be used to configure the host computer LAN.168. as shown in Example 11-4.168.1 The last IP address will be used to configure the router fa0/0 interface.1.1. Write down the last IP address: Answers will vary. Figure 11-10 shows a network topology in which a host computer is connected to Router 1. Figure 11-10 Network Topology 1 Fa0/0 Fa0/1 R1 Straight-Through Cable Serial Cable Console (Rollover) Crossover Cable Write down your subnet number and mask: Answers will vary.168. 192. Example 11-4 Interface Configuration Router1(config)# interface fa0/0 Router1(config-if)# description Connection to Host1 with crossover cable Router1(config-if)# ip address address mask Router1(config-if)# no shutdown Router1(config-if)# end Router1# . Configure the router interface Fa0/0.255.

as shown in Example 11-5. Step 4. If ping replies are not successful. Configure the host computer for LAN connectivity.318 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Look for the interface to become active: *Mar 24 19:58:59. Example 11-5 Interface Configuration Router1(config)# interface fa0/1 Router1(config-if)# description Connection to switch with straightthrough cable Router1(config-if)# ip address address mask Router1(config-if)# no shutdown Router1(config-if)# end Router1# Look for the interface to become active: *Mar 24 19:58:59. and verify network settings with the ipconfig command. Write a short description for the connections on Router1: Fa0/1 -> Apply the description on the router interface with the interface configuration command description. troubleshoot the connection. What Cisco IOS command can you use to verify the interface status? show interface fa0/0 and show interface fa0/1 What Windows command can you use to verify host computer configuration? ipconfig What is the correct LAN cable between Host1 and Router1? Crossover . Verify network connectivity. Use the ping command to verify network connectivity with the router. Open a Windows command window.602: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet0/0.602: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet0/1. changed state to up Step 3. Rightclick the LAN icon. Configure the router interface Fa0/1. changed state to up Step 2. Recall that you access the LAN configuration window by choosing Start > Control Panel > Network Connections. Configure the host computer. Fill in the following fields: ■ ■ ■ IP Address: The first host address Subnet Mask: The subnet mask Default Gateway: The router’s IP address Click OK. and then click Close. Highlight the Internet Protocol field. and choose Properties. and choose Properties.

someone is bound to ask why the cryptotext is different. Table 11-6 describes acceptable key responses. and it calls nonvolatile RAM (NVRAM) configuration storage the startup configuration. For configurations to survive rebooting or power restarts. JnEnON09QjpibV33dJXBI0. Table 11-6 Key Key Responses Description Spacebar Enter Q Ctrl-C Displays the next page Displays the next line Quits Quits Write down one possible shortcut command that displays the contents of NVRAM: show start Use this command to show the contents of NVRAM. The cryptotext $1$Sg/E$JnEnON09QjpibV33dJXBI0 is actually composed of three fields. If the output of NVRAM is missing. MD5. Use the Cisco IOS show command to view RAM and NVRAM configurations.) What is the enable secret password? enable secret 5 $1$Sg/E$JnEnON09QjpibV33dJXBI0 Ask students to compare their passwords. Because the salts are different. separated by $. to compute the MD5 hash. The second field. The configuration is displayed one screen at a time. NVRAM must be manually updated after any changes are made. but a short answer to intrigue students may lead to independent research. cisco. Step 1. but they will be close to 1000 bytes.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 319 Task 4: Save the Router Configuration Files Cisco IOS calls RAM configuration storage the running configuration. Sg/E. that is used with the password. (Answers will vary. Compare router RAM and NVRAM configurations. A line containing — more — indicates that there is additional information to display. 1. Router1# show running-config Use the output to answer the following questions: How large is the configuration file? The current configuration is 935 bytes. or random value. the RAM configuration must be copied into NVRAM. . The first field. is called the salt. If all students used cisco as the enable secret password. the resulting hash is different. The answer is beyond the scope of this curriculum. it is because there is no saved configuration. This does not occur automatically. contains the hash algorithm type—in this case. Example 11-6 Missing NVRAM Router1# show startup-config startup-config is not present Router1# Display the contents of RAM. as shown in Example 11-6.

wr mem. Step 1. If your switch does not have a default configuration. Configure the global configuration hostname setting. it must be manually saved in NVRAM. Step 2. ask the instructor to remove the configuration. Move the console. Save the RAM configuration to NVRAM. Example 11-7 Saving the RAM Configuration Router1# copy running-config startup-config Destination filename [startup-config]? <ENTER> Building configuration.. sh run. From user EXEC mode. Ensure that power has been applied to the switch. Task 5: Configure a Cisco Switch Cisco IOS switch configuration is similar to configuring a Cisco IOS router. there should be no configured passwords. or rollover. copy run start. For a configuration to be used the next time the router is powered on or reloaded. write terminal Step 2. Save the RAM configuration to NVRAM. Depending on the switch model and IOS version. In HyperTerminal. wr Review the contents of NVRAM. The benefit of learning IOS commands is that they are similar to many different devices and IOS versions. The contents should be the same.320 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide ■ ■ ■ Does your MOTD banner contain the information you entered earlier? Yes Do your interface descriptions contain the information you entered earlier? Yes Write down one possible shortcut command that will display the contents of RAM. write mem. enter global configuration mode: Switch> en Switch# config t Switch(config)# Set the device hostname to Switch1: Switch(config)# hostname Switch1 Switch1(config)# . cable to the console port on the switch.. [OK] Router1# Write down one possible shortcut command that will copy the RAM configuration to NVRAM. press Enter until the switch responds. and verify that the configuration is the same as the configuration in RAM. your configuration may look slightly different from the typical default switch configuration. However. as shown in Example 11-7. Connect the host to the switch.

and all connection information will be logged. Configure the virtual line password. . Set the console access password to class: Switch1(config)# line console 0 Switch1(config-line)# password class Switch1(config-line)# login Step 6. and interface Fa0/3 is connected to host computer 3. Use the terminating character on a blank line to end the MOTD entry. Figure 11-11 shows a network topology in which Router1 is connected to Switch1. 0 through 15: Switch1(config-line)# line vty 0 15 Switch1(config-line)# password class Switch1(config-line)# login Step 7.% Step 4. Configure the console password. and will be prosecuted. Set the virtual line access password to class. Unauthorized access is prohibited. For assistance. interface Fa0/1. Configure the MOTD banner. Unauthorized access will be prosecuted. Switch1 interface Fa0/2 is connected to host computer 2. Configure the MOTD banner: Switch1(config)# banner motd % The MOTD banner is displayed on all connections before the login prompt. Set the privileged EXEC password to cisco: Switch1(config)# enable secret cisco Switch1(config)# Step 5. All connections are continuously logged. Sixteen virtual lines can be configured on a Cisco IOS switch. Configure the privileged EXEC password. Configure the interface description. Create a suitable MOTD banner. Switch1(config)# banner motd % You are connected to an ABC network device. Access is granted to only current ABC system administrators with prior written approval. review the similar step for configuring a switch MOTD banner. Only system administrators of the ABC company are authorized users.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 321 Step 3.

Save the RAM configuration to NVRAM..322 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 11-11 Network Topology 1 Fa0/0 Fa0/1 Fa0/1 R1 Fa0/2 S1 Fa0/3 2 3 In Table 11-7. and verify that the configuration is the same as the configuration in RAM. Table 11-7 Interface Description Description Switch1 Interface Fa0/1 Fa0/2 Fa0/3 Connection to Router 1 Connection to host computer 2 Connection to host computer 3 Apply the descriptions on the switch interface using the interface configuration command description. The contents should be the same. as shown in Example 11-8. write a short description for the connections on Switch1. . Example 11-9 Saving the Configuration Switch1# copy run start Destination filename [startup-config]? <ENTER> Building configuration.. [OK] Switch1# Review the contents of NVRAM. it must be manually saved in NVRAM. Example 11-8 Interface Description Switch1(config)# interface fa0/1 Switch1(config-if)# description Connection to Router1 Switch1(config)# interface fa0/2 Switch1(config-if)# description Connection to host computer 2 Switch1(config)# interface fa0/3 Switch1(config-if)# description Connection to host computer 3 Switch1(config-if)# end Switch1# Step 8. For a configuration to be used the next time the switch is powered on or reloaded. Save the RAM configuration to NVRAM as shown in Example 11-9.

It is perfectly acceptable to use notes at first to help configure a device. Table 118 lists the commands covered in this lab. Table 11-8 Action Commands Covered in This Lab Command Enter global configuration mode. Specify a password to prevent unauthorized access to the console. but an experienced network engineer does not need a cheat sheet to perform common configuration tasks. the faster you will become at configuring a Cisco IOS router and switch. configure terminal Example: Router> enable Router# configure terminal Router(config)# Specify the router’s name. hostname name Example: Router(config)# hostname Router1 Router1(config)# Specify an encrypted password to prevent unauthorized access to privileged EXEC mode. enable secret password Example: Router(config)# enable secret cisco Router(config)# password password login Example: Router(config)# line con 0 Router(config-line)# password class Router(config-line)# login Router(config-line)# Specify a password to prevent unauthorized Telnet access. Router vty lines: 0 4 password password login Example: Router(config)# line vty 0 4 Router(config-line)# password class Router(config-line)# login Router(config-line)# continues .Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 323 Task 6: Reflection The more you practice the commands.

from HyperTerminal choose Transfer > Capture Text. to save the configuration file to an offline text file. Enter a path and filename. It also can be copied and pasted into a router. as shown in Figure 11-12. . The file can be edited and saved. and click Start. banner motd % Example: Router(config)# banner motd % banner text % Router(config)# Configure an interface. One way to do so is to choose Transfer > Capture Text from HyperTerminal. copy running-config startup-config Example: Router# copy running-config startup-config Router# Task 7: Challenge It is often necessary. Figure 11-12 HyperTerminal Capture Menu All communication between the host computer and router is saved to a file. To start a capture.324 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 11-8 Action Commands Covered in This Lab continued Command Configure the MOTD banner. and always handy. Step 1. Router: Interface is off by default Switch: Interface is on by default interface type/port Example: Router(config)# interface fa0/0 Router(config-if)# description description Router(config-if)# ip address address mask Router(config-if)# no shutdown Router(config-if)# Save the configuration to NVRAM.

and press Spacebar until all the configuration has been displayed. Reload the router: Router1# reload Proceed with reload? [confirm] <ENTER> When the router reboots. Issue the privileged EXEC command show running-config. Manually correct any lines that were scrambled or places where several lines occupy the same line. Step 4. Remove any lines that are not configuration commands. The configuration is quickly loaded to the router. Each message must be investigated and corrected. Task 8: Clean Up Before turning off power to the router and switch.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 325 Step 2. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. enter global configuration mode: Router> en Router# config t Router(config)# Right-click inside the HyperTerminal window and choose Paste To Host. After checking the configuration file. Otherwise. remove the NVRAM configuration file from each device using the privileged EXEC command erase startup-config. Verify the configuration. stale configuration commands may survive a paste action and have unintended consequences. such as the — more — prompt. Stop the capture. Highlighting the HyperTerminal text and copying may also bring the configuration into memory. The important point is to closely examine the configuration for any errors before reloading. . and then turn off power to the host computers. Erase the NVRAM configuration file: Router1# erase start Erasing the nvram filesystem will remove all configuration files! Continue? [confirm] <ENTER> [OK] Erase of nvram: complete Step 3. Watch closely for error messages. This places the configuration in host computer memory. and save to NVRAM. highlight the lines and choose Edit > Copy from Notepad. After the reload is complete. it is always a best practice to begin with a clean RAM configuration. and leave the room ready for the next class. Choose Transfer > Capture Text > Stop. restore host computer network connectivity. manually enable the interfaces by issuing the no shutdown command in interface configuration mode. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. Open the text file and review the contents. To load the configuration file. Delete any configuration files saved on the host computers.

1. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. Remember.326 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Basic Cisco Device Configuration (11. however. .pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity.5.2) You can now open the file LSG1-Lab11512.

You are given an IP address of 10. you will be able to ■ ■ Configure network connectivity. save the configuration to a TFTP server.aspx or from any freeware or shareware website.1) Upon completion of this lab.250.2. You may download a free copy of the SolarWinds TFTP server software from www.5. Use TFTP to save and restore a Cisco IOS configuration. and Router1 should use the last valid host address. Figure 11-13 Topology for Lab 11-3 1 Fa0/0 R1 Straight-Through Cable Serial Cable Console (Rollover) Crossover Cable Table 11-9 lists the lab equipment and hardware requirements for this lab.0/24 and additional 6 bits for subnets.com/products/freetools/free_tftp_server. Table 11-9 Hardware Lab Equipment and Hardware Requirements Quantity Description Cisco router Computer (host) Console (rollover) cable Crossover cable 1 1 1 1 Part of the CCNA Lab bundle Lab computer Connects computer Host1 to the router console port Connects the Host1 NIC to Router1 Fa0/0 The host computer will be used as a TFTP server. Host1 should use the first valid host address. Use the last valid subnet.250. SolarWinds is a free TFTP application for Windows. Background Figure 11-13 shows the topology for this lab. and then restore the configuration from a TFTP server. Scenario In this lab.solarwinds. . you will configure common settings on a Cisco router. This lab requires the use of SolarWinds TFTP server software.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 327 Lab 11-3: Managing Device Configuration (11.

In this lab you practice transferring a configura- tion file to a router that does not have a configuration file in NVRAM. Set the Layer 3 address.328 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Use Table 11-10 to record your addressing. When the HyperTerminal session window opens.252 Last Host Address Broadcast First Host Address 10. Connect the console. From the Widows taskbar.250. The configuration tasks for Router1 are as follows: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Specify the router name: Router1 Specify an encrypted privileged EXEC password: cisco Specify a console access password: class Specify a Telnet access password: class Configure the MOTD banner.250. Task 1: Configure Network Connectivity Step 1. Students should be able to identify the proper cable type based on a visual inspection. and default gateway. subnet mask. cable to the console port on the router.250.250. have several different types of cables available for the students. start the HyperTerminal program by choosing Start > Programs > Accessories > Communications > HyperTerminal.250. Connect the other cable end to the host computer with a DB-9 adapter to the COM 1 port.255.250.0 Subnet Subnet mask: 255. Physically connect the devices.250.255.250.248 10. or rollover. Mix crossover. straight-through.250. Ensure that power has been applied to both the host computer and the router. configure the Host1 computer with an IP address. Step 4. Caution: Do not save the configuration in NVRAM. Table 11-10 IP Addressing IP address: 10.251 To reinforce student cable identification. Step 3. Logically connect the devices. Using the IP address information from the scenario. press the Enter key until the router responds. Issue the no shutdown command.250. Connect the host computer to the router through HyperTerminal. Configure Router1.250 10.249 10. and rollover cables. . Configure the Router1 interface Fa0/0: ■ ■ ■ Set the description. Step 2. Refer to Figure 11-13.

Click Next. as shown in Example 11-10. choose File > Configure. timeout is 2 seconds: . 100-byte ICMP Echos to 10. Agree to the license agreement. Figure 11-14 shows an active TFTP server window. click Finish. Step 3. round-trip min/avg/max = 1/1/1 ms Router1# Task 2: Use TFTP to Save and Restore a Cisco IOS Configuration Step 1. and accept the default settings. Verify connectivity.250. . as shown in Table 11-11.250. To configure the TFTP server. Double-click the SolarWinds TFTP application to begin the installation.249.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 329 Step 5. Step 2.250. Sending 5. After SolarWinds has finished the installation. Configure the TFTP server. Figure 11-14 TFTP Server Window Start the TFTP server by choosing Start > Programs > SolarWinds Free Tools > TFTP Server. Verify connectivity between Host1 and Router1. Verify the settings. as shown in Figure 11-15.!!!! Success rate is 80 percent (4/5). Start the TFTP server. Install the SolarWinds TFTP application. Example 11-10 Verify Connectivity Router1# ping 10.249 Type escape sequence to abort.250.

From HyperTerminal.txt. 1081 bytes Verify the transferred file.250). Step 4.250 To 10.250. When you’re finished.250.008 secs (538 bytes/sec) Router1# Verify a successful upload transfer.250.249 Destination filename [router1-confg]? <ENTER> !! 1081 bytes copied in 2. begin a TFTP upload to the TFTP server.250. .330 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 11-15 Active TFTP Server Window Table 11-11 TFTP Server Settings Setting Value TFTP Root Directory Security Advanced Security Auto-Close Log TFTP-Root Transmit and Receive Files 10. Save the Router1 configuration to the TFTP server. click OK.250. The contents should be similar to the following: 3/25/2007 12:29 :Receiving router1-confg from (10.250. Example 11-11 Saving the Router Configuration to the TFTP Server Router1#copy running-config tftp: Address or name of remote host []? 10.250.250.250. Open Log file c:\Program Files\SolarWinds\Free Tools\TFTP-Server.250) 3/25/2007 12:29 :Received router1-confg from (10.250 Never Enable Log Requests to the Following File. as shown in Example 11-11. The contents should be similar to the configuration shown in Example 11-12. Use Microsoft Word or WordPad to examine the contents of the file c:\TFTP-Root\router1-confg.250. Leave the default file.

4 service timestamps debug datetime msec service timestamps log datetime msec no service password-encryption ! hostname Router1 ! boot-start-marker boot-end-marker ! enable secret 5 $1$D02B$AuX05n0HPT239yYRoQ0oE.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 331 Example 11-12 Configuration File ! version 12.255.250. ! no aaa new-model ip cef ! interface FastEthernet0/0 description connection to host1 ip address 10.252 duplex auto speed auto ! interface FastEthernet0/1 no ip address shutdown duplex auto speed auto ! interface Serial0/1/0 no ip address shutdown no fair-queue ! interface Serial0/1/1 no ip address shutdown clock rate 2000000 ! ip http server no ip http secure-server ! control-plane ! banner motd *** ABC COMPANY NETWORK DEVICE **** *** Authorized access only ***** *** Logging is enabled **** .250 255.250.255.

332 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example 11-12 Configuration File ! line con 0 password class login line aux 0 line vty 0 4 password class login ! continued scheduler allocate 20000 1000 End Step 5.250. one per line. Example 11-15 Hostname Configuration Router(config-if)# exit Router(config)# hostname TEST Test(config-if)# end TEST# Verify connectivity using the ping command. Verify that NVRAM is clear. Router1 fa0/0 must be configured with an IP address.967: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet0/0. . as shown in Example 11-16. and then reboot Router1.095: %SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from console by console *Mar 25 16:43:04. Example 11-14 Interface Configuration Router> enable Router# conf t Enter configuration commands. Configure the hostname of the router to TEST.252 Router(config-if)# no shutdown Router(config-if)# exit *Mar 25 16:43:03. changed state to up End with CNTL/Z. Example 11-13 Verify Empty NVRAM Router1# show startup-config startup-config is not present Router1# reload Proceed with reload? [confirm] <ENTER> Connectivity must be established with the TFTP server.250 255.255. and the interface must be enabled. Router(config)# interface fa0/0 Router(config-if)# ip address 10. Restore the Router1 configuration from the TFTP server. as shown in Example 11-15.255. as shown in Example 11-13.250. as shown in Example 11-14.

249 Type escape sequence to abort. Select no at the prompt that says “Configuration has been modified. Step 4.250. Task 3: Reflection TFTP is a fast.250. Task 4: Challenge Similar to uploading a configuration file.250. 100-byte ICMP Echos to 10. The filename is highlighted in Example 11-18.250.250.250.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 333 Example 11-16 Ping Test Test# ping 10. The configuration should be the same as what was configured in Task 1. To discover the IOS filename. Version 12.250. Reload the router..4(10b).” The previous configuration should be restored. Compiled Fri 19-Jan-07 15:15 by prod_rel_team .375: %SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from tftp://10.249 Source filename []? router1-confg Destination filename [startup-config]? <ENTER> Accessing tftp://10. the IOS can also be stored offline for future use. issue the Cisco IOS command show version.249/router1-confg.250. as shown in Example 11-17.249.250.com/techsupport Copyright (c) 1986-2007 by Cisco Systems. Example 11-17 File Transfer from the TFTP Server Test# copy tftp startup-config Address or name of remote host []? 10.364 secs (115 bytes/sec) Router1# *Mar 25 16:55:26.250.249/router1-confg by console Router1# View the configuration in NVRAM to verify an accurate transfer.!!!! Success rate is 80 percent(4/5). efficient way to save and load Cisco IOS configuration files.cisco. Inc. and the router’s hostname should now be Router1..1081 bytes] 1081 bytes copied in 9. Example 11-18 IOS Filename in Flash Router1# show version Cisco IOS Software.249 (via FastEthernet0/0): ! [OK . Loading router1-confg from 10. timeout is 2 seconds: . round-trip min/avg/max = 1/1/1ms Router# Download the Router1 configuration file from the TFTP server. RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc3) Technical Support: http://www.250. Sending 5.250. 1841 Software (C1841-ADVIPSERVICESK9-M).

191K bytes of NVRAM.4(13r)T. distribute or use encryption. exporters.250. Example 11-19 File Transfer to TFTP Server Router1# copy flash tftp Source filename []? c1841-advipservicesk9-mz. export.com/wwl/export/crypto/tool/stqrg.com.cisco.S. as shown in Example 11-19. contact Cisco by sending email to export@cisco. Processor board ID FHK110918KJ 2 Serial(sync/async) interfaces DRAM configuration is 64 bits wide with parity disabled.249 Destination filename [c1841-advipservicesk9-mz. Delivery of Cisco cryptographic products does not imply third-party authority to import. transfer and use.bin]? !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!! 22063220 bytes copied in 59.html If you require further assistance. Cisco 1841 (revision 6. 62720K bytes of ATA CompactFlash (Read/Write) Configuration register is 0x2102 Router1# The commands to upload the IOS are similar to uploading the configuration file. distributors and users are responsible for compliance with U.124-10b. laws governing Cisco cryptographic products may be found at: http://www.bin Address or name of remote host []? 10. and local laws. export.124-10b.334 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example 11-18 IOS Filename in Flash continued ROM: System Bootstrap.S. return this product immediately. Importers.564 secs (370412 bytes/sec) Router1# .0) with 174080K/22528K bytes of memory.bin” This product contains cryptographic features and is subject to United States and local country laws governing import. Version 12. If you are unable to comply with U.250. and local country laws.S.124-10b. RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1) Router1 uptime is 17 minutes System returned to ROM by reload at 16:47:54 UTC Sun Mar 25 2007 System image file is “flash:c1841-advipservicesk9-mz. A summary of U. By using this product you agree to comply with applicable laws and regulations.

Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Managing Device Configuration (11. however. restore host computer network connectivity. Remember. . that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. Choose SolarWinds and click Remove.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. Choose Start > Control Panel. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity.5. and leave the room ready for the next class. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. Remove the SolarWinds TFTP server from the host computer. Delete any configuration files saved on the host computers. Accept the defaults. Use the privileged EXEC command erase startup-config. Remove anything that was brought into the lab.2) You can now open the file LSG1-Lab11522.2.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 335 Task 5: Clean Up Before turning off power to the router. Click Add or Remove Applications. remove the NVRAM configuration file if it was loaded. and then turn off power to the host computers.

Table 11-12 lists the lab equipment and hardware requirements. Configure the logical LAN topology. straight-through. Figure 11-16 Topology for Lab 11-4 S1 Fa0/1 Fa0/2 1 2 Gather the necessary equipment and cables. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ ■ Design the logical lab topology. and rollover cables. Verify LAN connectivity. have several different types of cables available for the students. Table 11-12 Lab Equipment and Hardware Requirements Hardware Quantity Description Cisco router Cisco switch Computer (host) Category 5 or better straight-through UTP cables 1 1 2 2 Part of the CCNA Lab bundle Part of the CCNA Lab bundle Lab computer Connects computers Host1 and Host2 to Switch1 Scenario In this lab you will create a small network that requires connecting network devices and configuring host computers for basic network connectivity.1) Upon completion of this lab. Background Figure 11-16 shows the topology diagram for this lab. To reinforce student cable identification.336 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Lab 11-4: Configure Host Computers for IP Networking (11.5. Mix crossover. .3. Configure the physical lab topology. Students should be able to identify the proper cable type based on a visual inspection.

80 192.168.254.254.254.254.254.254.72 192.168.39 192.87 192.254.254.168.9 192.152 192.105 192.168.168.168.254.254.23 192.95 192.254.254.254.254.168.168.168.135 192.255.168.168.31 192.254.32 192.254.168.49 192.254.254.254.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 337 Task 1: Design the Logical Lab Topology Given an IP address of 192.254.168.168.121 192.22 192.174 192.254.254.168.254.254.254.254.86 192.168.254.168.168.168.168.168.168.24 192.104 192.168.254.168.153 192.254.110 192.254.168.8 192.254.168.254.254.254.254.134 192.168.254.88 192.30 192.137 192.160 192.97 192.16 192.168.254.168.254.254.168.168.254.47 192.254.64 192.70 192.166 192.63 192.168.168.168.254.55 192.254.254.254.254.17 192.168.168.254.254.120 192.254.0 192.254.41 192.168.168.168.168.254.168.168.0/24.175 192.168.168.168.169 192.168.168.254.168.254.177 192.57 192.254.168.118 192.168.168.81 192.168.254.79 192.168.254.168.168.254.254.48 192.254.25 192.168.168.158 192.168.254.62 192.103 192.168.254.168.254.168.168.168.7 192.168.254.254.168.151 192.150 192.254.182 192.129 192.254.168.248 Last Host Address Broadcast 192.254.96 192.71 192.144 192.126 192.168.40 192.183 continues .168.46 192.161 192. Table 11-13 Addressing Table IP address: 192.168.168. fill in the following information: Maximum number of usable subnets (including the 0th subnet): 31 Number of usable hosts per subnet: 6 Use Table 11-13 to record the addressing scheme.168.168.254.111 192.254.54 192.167 192.254.168.254.168.254.254. and 5 bits used for subnets.254.6 192.136 192.168.127 192.113 192.78 192.254.254.143 192.128 192.142 192.159 192.254.33 192.254.145 192.254.73 192.254.89 192.168.94 192.254.168.254.168.254.254.176 192.0 Subnet First Host Address Subnet mask: 255.1 192.255.65 192.168.168.168.119 192.168.15 192.254.254.254.38 192.254.254.168.168.14 192.168.56 192.168.168.254.168.168.254.168.168.168 192.254.102 192.168.254.254.168.168.112 192.

254.209 192.168.168.254.254.168.248 Last Host Address Broadcast First Host Address 192.239 192.254.168.254.168.168.254.254.254.216 192. . Visually inspect network connections.254.254.168.168. Cable the network devices as shown earlier in Figure 11-16. Task 3: Configure the Logical Topology Step 1.184 192. After cabling the network devices.168.249 192.168.168.168.254.214 192.222 192.254.254.168.255.231 192.254.168. take a moment to verify the connections.168.200 192.254.246 192.199 192.168.168. Physically connect the devices.206 192.168.208 192.168.254.190 192.255 Before proceeding.254.254.0 Subnet continued Subnet mask: 255.254.254.254.254.168.247 192. Because computers and the switch are not wired the same for networking.198 192.207 192. Write down the IP address information for each device in Table 11-14.168.254.254.217 192.191 192.168.254.240 192. Attention to detail now will minimize the time required to troubleshoot network connectivity issues later.230 192.168.254.254.224 192.168.225 192.254 192.232 192.168. If it’s not already enabled.254.185 192.168.201 192.254. The instructor will assign one subnetwork per student or team.338 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 11-13 Addressing Table IP address: 192.254.193 192.254.192 192. Is a crossover cable needed to connect host computers to the switch? Why or why not? No.254.254. Step 2. Task 2: Configure the Physical Lab Topology Step 1.168.255.254. turn on power to all devices.223 192.168. verify your addresses with the instructor.241 192.248 192.168.168.168.168.168.168. straightthrough cables are used.254.238 192. Document logical network settings.168. Host computers will use the first two IP addresses in the subnetwork.254.233 192.168.254.215 192.168.

and then click Close. On Computer1. Answers will vary 255. Figure 11-17 Host IP Address and Gateway Settings When you’re finished. Table 11-15 Host Addressing Table Host1 IP address IP mask Host2 IP address IP mask Step 2.255. Right-click the LAN icon. choose Internet Protocol (TCP/IP).248 From the information given in Table 11-15. Verify proper configuration of Host1 with the ipconfig /all command.248 255. and then click the Properties button. click OK.255. Refer to Figure 11-17 for Host1 IP address and gateway settings.255. write down the IP network addressing for each computer.255. and choose Properties. On the General tab.248 Answers will vary 255. choose Start > Control Panel > Network Connections.255. Record the output in Table 11-16.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 339 Table 11-14 Logical Topology Device Subnetwork IP Address Mask Host1 Host2 Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary 255.255.248 Configure the Host1 computer. The computer may require a reboot for changes to be effective.255.255. .

Repeat Step 2 for Host2 using IP address information from Table 11-15. Table 11-18 Ping Results From To IP Address Ping Result Host1 Host2 Host2 Host1 Answers will vary Answers will vary Should be successful Should be successful Take corrective action to establish connectivity if a test fails. and then click OK.255. To disable a Windows firewall. Record the output in Table 11-17.255. Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary 255. which you filled out in Step 1. Note: If pings to host computers fail. choose Start > Control Panel > Windows Firewall.248 Unassigned Configure Host2. Verify proper configuration.255.255. Table 11-17 Host ipconfig Output Setting Value Ethernet device Physical address IP address Subnet mask Default gateway Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary 255. . click Off. temporarily disable the computer firewall.248 Unassigned Task 4: Verify Network Connectivity Network connectivity can be verified with the Windows ping command. and retest.340 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 11-16 ipconfig Output Setting Value Ethernet device Physical address IP address Subnet mask Default gateway Step 3. Use Table 11-18 to methodically verify connectivity with each network device.

If the solution did not fix the problem. and leave the room ready for the next class. restore the host computer network connectivity. continue troubleshooting. Test your solution. Replace the computer with the faulty NIC. To fix the problems. List the problems. perform a good visual inspection. and then turn off power to the host computers. Task 6: Challenge Ask your instructor or another student to introduce one or two problems in your network when you aren’t looking or are out of the lab room. and configure the IP address on the replacement computer. Possible problems: IP addresses on different subnets Incorrect or faulty cable Faulty NIC Write down your proposed solution(s). Correct the IP address configuration. Use Table 11-18 to identify failed connectivity. Look for green link lights on Switch1. document the solution. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. Make sure you have a thorough understanding of the procedures used to configure a Windows host computer.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 341 Task 5: Reflection Review any physical or logical configuration problems encountered during this lab. Replace the cable. If the solution fixed the problem. Problems can be either physical (the wrong UTP cable) or logical (the wrong IP address). . Task 7: Clean Up Unless directed otherwise by the instructor.

and Host3 to Switch1 Connects Host1 to Router1 Connects Host1 to the Router1 console If you do not have a router that has two FastEthernet interfaces.5. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ ■ Design the logical lab topology. consider configuring a loopback interface as an alternative to the FastEthernet 0/1.1) Upon completion of this lab. Verify LAN connectivity.4.342 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Lab 11-5: Network Testing (11. . Configure the logical LAN topology. Figure 11-18 Topology for Lab 11-5 Subnet A Fa0/0 Fa0/1 Subnet B Fa0/1 1 R1 Fa0/2 S1 Fa0/3 Subnet C Subnet D Subnet E Subnet F 2 3 Gather the necessary equipment and cables. Background Figure 11-18 shows the topology for this lab. Table 11-19 lists the equipment and hardware requirements for this lab. Configure the physical lab topology. Host2. Table 11-19 Lab Equipment and Hardware Requirements Hardware Quantity Description Cisco router Cisco switch Computer (host) Category 5 or better straight-through UTP cables Category 5 crossover UTP cable Console (rollover) cable 1 1 3 3 1 1 Part of the CCNA Lab bundle Part of the CCNA Lab bundle Lab computer Connects Router1. Another alternative would be to use two routers connected through a serial connection and use the FastEthernet interfaces from each router.

127 Design the Subnet C address block. not yet connected to the network.0.0.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 343 Scenario In this lab.126 172. Begin the logical network design by satisfying the requirements of Subnet B. Subnet C.1 172. Mix crossover.0 Step 2.128 172.20. The 0th subnet will be used. Design the Subnet B address block.255. you should start with Subnet B and finish with Subnet A.20. To reinforce student cable identification. Task 1: Design the Logical Lab Topology Given an IP address and mask of 172.255.0.20. you will create a small network that requires connecting network devices and configuring host computers for basic network connectivity. Using binary numbers to create your subnet chart. Using binary numbers to create your subnet chart. . 255.0. straight-through. Table 11-21 Subnet B IP Address Information Network Address Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast 172. Students should be able to identify the proper cable type based on a visual inspection. have several different types of cables available for the students. which requires the largest block of IP addresses. pick the next available address block that will support Subnet C.0/24 (address/mask). Table 11-20 Addressing Requirements Subnet Number of Hosts Subnet A Subnet B Subnet C Subnet D Subnet E Subnet F As shown in the topology diagram Between 80 and 100 Between 40 and 52 Between 20 and 29 12 5 Note: Always start with the subnet that has the largest number of hosts. Fill in Table 11-22 with the IP address information for Subnet C.20. the next-largest IP address block. Step 1. pick the first address block that will support Subnet B. and work your way down. Therefore. Subnet E. and Subnet F are anticipated subnets. Satisfy the requirements of Subnet C. Fill in Table 11-21 with the IP address information for Subnet B. Subnet A and Subnet B are subnets that are currently needed.0. design an IP addressing scheme that satisfies the requirements listed in Table 11-20.20. and rollover cables. Subnet D.

223 What is the bit mask? 11111111.225 172.11100000 Step 4.0.20. Table 11-23 Subnet D IP Address Information Network Address Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast 172.0. Satisfy the requirements of Subnet D. Fill in Table 11-25 with the Subnet F IP address information. the next-largest IP address block.20.222 172.0.192 172.190 172. Using binary numbers to create your subnet chart. pick the next available address block that will support Subnet D. the next-largest IP address block.20.0.20.0. Using binary numbers to create your subnet chart. Satisfy the requirements of Subnet E.255.193 172. pick the next available address block that will support Subnet E.20. Design the Subnet F address block.11111111.255.192 255.1111111.0. Design the Subnet E address block.1111111.0.191 What is the bit mask? 11111111.20.11111111. Table 11-24 Subnet E IP Address Information Network Address Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast 172. .224 255.238 172.20.0. pick the next available address block that will support Subnet F.239 What is the bit mask? 11111111.224 172.255.0.1111111.20.20. Design the Subnet D address block.344 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 11-22 Subnet C IP Address Information Network Address Mask First Host Last Host Broadcast 172. Satisfy the requirements of Subnet F.11110000 Step 5.11000000 Step 3.240 172. Fill in Table 11-24 with the Subnet E IP address information.129 172.0. Using binary numbers to create your subnet chart.255.20. Fill in Table 11-23 with the Subnet D IP address information.255.11111111.20.128 255. the next-largest IP address block.0.20.255.0.

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Table 11-25 Subnet F IP Address Information Network Address Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast

172.20.0.240

255.255.255.248

172.20.0.241

172.20.0.246

172.20.0.24

What is the bit mask? 11111111.1111111.11111111.11111000
Step 6.

Design the Subnet A address block. Satisfy the requirements of Subnet A, the smallest IP address block. Using binary numbers to create your subnet chart, pick the next available address block that will support Subnet A. Fill in Table 11-26 with the Subnet A IP addressing table.

Table 11-26 Subnet A IP Addressing Table Network Address Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast

172.20.0.248

255.255.255.252

172.20.0.249

172.20.0.250

172.20.0.251

What is the bit mask? 11111111.1111111.11111111.11111100

Task 2: Configure the Physical Lab Topology
Step 1.

Physically connect the lab devices. Cable the network devices as shown earlier, in Figure 11-18. Pay special attention to the crossover cable required between Host1 and Router1. If it’s not already enabled, turn on power to all devices.

Step 2.

Visually inspect the network connections. After cabling the network devices, take a moment to verify the connections. Attention to detail now will minimize the time required to troubleshoot Layer 1 connectivity issues later.

Task 3: Configure the Logical Topology
Step 1.

Document logical network settings. On Subnet A, Host1 uses the first IP address in the subnet. Router1, interface Fa0/0, uses the last host address. On Subnet B, host computers use the first and second IP addresses in the subnet, respectively. Router1, interface Fa0/1, uses the last network host address. To properly route Layer 2 frames between LAN devices, Switch1 does not require Layer 3 configuration. The IP address assigned to Switch1, interface VLAN 1, is used to establish Layer 3 connectivity between external devices and the switch. Without an IP address, upper-layer protocols such as Telnet and HTTP will not work. The default gateway address

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permits the switch to respond to protocol requests from devices on distant networks. For example, the IP gateway address extends Layer 3 connectivity beyond Subnet B. Switch1 uses the next-to-last host address. Write down the IP address information for each device listed in Table 11-27.
Table 11-27 IP Address Information Device Subnet IP Address Mask Gateway

Host1 Router1-Fa0/0 Host2 Host3 Switch1 Router1-Fa0/1
Step 2.

172.20.0.248 172.20.0.248 172.20.0.0 172.20.0.0 172.20.0.0 172.20.0.0

172.20.0.249 172.20.0.250 172.20.0.1 172.20.0.2 172.20.0.125 172.20.0.126

255.255.255.252 255.255.255.252 255.255.255.128 255.255.255.128 255.255.255.128 255.255.255.128

172.20.0.250 — 172.20.0.126 172.20.0.126 172.20.0.126 —

Configure host computers. On each computer, in turn, choose Start > Control Panel > Network Connections. Right-click the LAN icon, and choose Properties. On the General tab, choose Internet Protocol (TCP/IP), and then click the Properties button. Verify that the Host1 Layer 3 IP address is on a different subnet than Host2 and Host3. Configure each host computer using the IP address information recorded in Step 1. Verify proper configuration of each host computer with the ipconfig command, and fill in Table 11-28.

Table 11-28 Host Configuration Device IP Address Mask Default Gateway

Host1 Host2 Host3
Step 3.

172.20.0.249 172.20.0.1 172.20.0.2 Configure Router1.

255.255.255.252 255.255.255.128 255.255.255.128

172.20.0.250 172.20.0.126 172.20.0.126

From the Windows taskbar, start the HyperTerminal program by choosing Start > Programs > Accessories > Communications > HyperTerminal. Configure HyperTerminal for access to Router1. Configuration for Router1 includes the following tasks:
■ ■ ■ ■ ■

Specify the router name: Router1 Specify an encrypted privileged EXEC password: cisco Specify a console access password: class Specify a Telnet access password: class Configure the MOTD banner.

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Configure Router1 interface Fa0/0:
■ ■ ■

Set the description. Set the Layer 3 address. Issue the no shutdown command.

Configure Router1 interface Fa0/1:
■ ■ ■

Set the description. Set the Layer 3 address. Issue the no shutdown command.

Save the configuration in NVRAM. What command do you use to display the contents of RAM? show running-config Record the configuration specifications:
■ ■ ■ ■ ■

Hostname: Router1 Enable secret password: cisco Console access password: class Telnet access password: class MOTD banner: Answers will vary

What command do you use to display configuration information for interface Fa0/0? show interface Fa0/0 Record the configuration specifications:
■ ■ ■

FastEthernet 0/0 status (up/down): Should be up Line protocol: Should be up MAC address: Answers will vary

What command do you use to display configuration information for interface Fa0/1? show interface Fa0/1 Record the configuration specifications:
■ ■ ■

FastEthernet 0/0 status (up/down): Should be up Line protocol: Should be up MAC address: Answers will vary

What command do you use to display brief IP address information about each interface? show ip interface brief Record the configuration specifications:
Interface FastEthernet0/0 FastEthernet0/1 IP-Address 172.20.0.250 172.20.0.126 OK? Method Status YES manual up YES manual up Protocol up up

Take corrective action with any problems, and retest.

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Step 4.

Configure Switch1. Move the console cable from Router1 to Switch1. Press Enter until you receive a response. Configuration for Switch1 includes the following:
■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■

Specify a switch name: Switch1 Specify an encrypted privileged EXEC password: cisco Specify a console access password: class Specify a Telnet access password: class Configure the MOTD banner. Configure Switch1 interface Fa0/1:

Set the description.

Configure Switch1 interface Fa0/2:

Set the description.

Configure Switch1 interface Fa0/3:

Set the description.

Configure the management VLAN1 IP address:
■ ■ ■

Set the description. Set the Layer 3 address. Issue the no shutdown command.

Configure the default IP gateway address.

What command do you use to display the contents of RAM? show running-config Write the configuration specifications:
■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■

Hostname: Switch1 Enable secret password: cisco Console access password: class Telnet access password: class MOTD banner: Answers will vary Interface VLAN 1: 172.20.0.125 Default IP gateway address: 172.20.0.126

What command do you use to display configuration information for interface VLAN 1? show interface vlan1
■ ■

VLAN 1 status (up/down): Should be up Line protocol: Should be up

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Task 4: Verify Network Connectivity
Step 1.

Use the ping command to verify network connectivity. You can verify network connectivity using the ping command. It is very important that connectivity exist throughout the network. Corrective action must be taken if a failure occurs. Use Table 11-29 to methodically verify connectivity with each network device.

Table 11-29 Connectivity Testing From To IP Address Ping Result

Host1 Host1 Host1 Host1 Host1 Host1 Host1 Host2 Host2 Host2 Host2 Host2 Host2 Host2 Host3 Host3 Host3 Host3 Host3 Host3

LocalHost (127.0.0.1) NIC IP address Gateway (Router1, Fa0/0 Router1, Fa0/1 Switch1 Host2 Host3 LocalHost (127.0.0.1) NIC IP address Host3 Switch1 Gateway (Router1, Fa0/1) Router1, Fa0/0 Host1 LocalHost (127.0.0.1) NIC IP address Host2 Switch1 Gateway (Router1, Fa0/1) Router1, Fa0/0

127.0.0.1 172.20.0.249 172.20.0.250 172.20.0.126 172.20.0.125 172.20.0.1 172.20.0.2 127.0.0.1 172.20.0.1 172.20.0.2 172.20.0.125 172.20.0.126 172.20.0.250 172.20.0.249 127.0.0.1 172.20.0.2 172.20.0.1 172.20.0.125 172.20.0.126 172.20.0.250

Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful

Take corrective action to establish connectivity if a test fails.
Note: If pings to host computers fail, temporarily disable the computer firewall, and retest. To disable a Windows firewall, choose Start > Control Panel > Windows Firewall, click Off, and then click OK.

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Step 2.

Use the tracert command to verify local connectivity. From Host1, issue the tracert command to Host2 and Host3. Record the results:
■ ■

From Host1 to Host2: Answers should show success From Host1 to Host3: Answers should show success

Step 3.

Verify Layer 2 connectivity. If it’s not already connected, move the console cable from Router1 to Switch1. Press the Enter key until Switch1 responds. Issue the command show mac-address-table. This command displays static (CPU) and dynamic, or learned, entries. List the dynamic MAC addresses and their corresponding switch ports in Table 11-30.

Table 11-30 MAC Address Table MAC Address Switch Port

Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary

Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary

Verify that there are three dynamically learned MAC addresses—one each from Fa0/1, Fa0/2, and Fa0/3.

Task 5: Reflection
Review any physical or logical configuration problems encountered during this lab. Make sure you have a thorough understanding of the procedures used to verify network connectivity.

Task 6: Challenge
Ask your instructor or another student to introduce one or two problems in your network when you aren’t looking or are out of the lab room. Problems can be either physical (the wrong UTP cable) or logical (the wrong IP address or gateway). To fix the problems, perform a good visual inspection. Look for green link lights on Switch1. Use Table 11-18 to identify failed connectivity. List the problems. Possible answers include incorrect IP addressing and incorrect cabling. Write down your proposed solution(s). Possible solutions include correcting the IP address configuration and replacing the cable. Test your solution. If the solution fixed the problem, document the solution. If the solution did not fix the problem, continue troubleshooting.

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Task 7: Clean Up
Unless directed otherwise by the instructor, restore host computer network connectivity, and then turn off power to the host computers. Before turning off power to the router and switch, remove the NVRAM configuration file from each device with the privileged EXEC command erase startup-config. Carefully remove the cables, and return them neatly to their storage. Reconnect cables that were disconnected for this lab. Remove anything that was brought into the lab, and leave the room ready for the next class.

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Lab 11-6: Network Documentation with Utility Commands (11.5.5.1)
Upon completion of this lab, you will be able to
■ ■ ■ ■ ■

Design the logical lab topology. Configure the physical lab topology. Design and configure the logical LAN topology. Verify LAN connectivity. Document the network.

Background Figure 11-19 shows the topology for this lab.
Figure 11-19 Topology for Lab 11-6
Subnet A
Fa0/0 Fa0/1

Subnet B
Fa0/1

1

R1
Fa0/2

S1
Fa0/3

Subnet C

2

3

Gather the necessary equipment and cables. Table 11-31 lists the equipment and hardware requirements for this lab.
Table 11-31 Equipment and Hardware Requirements Hardware Quantity Description

Cisco router Cisco switch Computer (host) Category 5 or better straight-through UTP cables Category 5 crossover UTP cable Console (rollover) cable

1 1 3 3 1 1

Part of the CCNA Lab bundle Part of the CCNA Lab bundle Lab computer Connects Router1, Host1, and Host2 to Switch1 Connects Host1 to Router1 Connects Host1 to the Router1 console

If you do not have a router that has two FastEthernet interfaces, consider configuring a loopback interface as an alternative to FastEthernet 0/1. Another alternative would be to use two routers connected through a serial connection and use the FastEthernet interfaces from each router.

255. Students should be able to identify the proper cable type based on a visual inspection. To reinforce student cable identification.200. Task 1: Design the Logical Lab Topology Given an IP address of 209. The 0th subnet will be used. Using binary numbers to create your subnet chart. not yet connected to the network. design an IP addressing scheme that satisfies the requirements listed in Table 11-32. Scenario Network documentation is a very important tool for the organization.165.165.200.239 What is the bit mask? 11111111. Satisfy the requirements of Subnet B. pick the next available address block that will support Subnet C. pick the first address block that will support Subnet B. Subnet A and Subnet B are subnets that are currently needed.255.224/27 (address/mask). the next-largest block of IP addresses. In this lab you will create a small network that requires connecting network devices and configuring host computers for basic network connectivity. 2 Between 2 and 6 Between 10 and 12 Design the Subnet C address block. Design the Subnet B address block.224 255. Begin the logical network design by satisfying the requirements of Subnet C.1111111.200.165. . A well-documented network enables network engineers to save significant time in troubleshooting and planning future growth. Fill in Table 11-33 with the IP address information for Subnet C.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 353 In this lab. the largest IP address block.165. Using binary numbers to create your subnet chart. and rollover cables.11111111.165.200. Subnet C is an anticipated subnet. Mix crossover.200.238 209.240 209.225 209. Table 11-32 IP Addressing Requirements Subnet Number of Hosts Subnet A Subnet B Subnet C Step 1. have several different types of cables available for the students. straight-through.11110000 Step 2. router and host output will be copied from the devices and into Notepad for use in network documentation. Table 11-33 Subnet C IP Address Information Network Address Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast 209.

After cabling the network devices.255. Visually inspect the network connections.165.165. pick the next available address block that will support Subnet A.200. Satisfy the requirements of Subnet A.251 What is the bit mask? 11111111.247 What is the bit mask? 11111111. If it’s not already enabled.200. Step 2.200.246 209.249 209.200.200. Table 11-35 Subnet A IP Address Information Network Address Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast 209.11111111. take a moment to verify the connections.200. Fill in Table 11-35 with the IP address information for Subnet A. Pay special attention to the crossover cable required between Host1 and Router1. Design the Subnet A address block.354 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Fill in Table 11-34 with the IP address information for Subnet B.200.165.248 255.1111111.255. Attention to detail now will minimize the time required to troubleshoot network connectivity issues later.1111111. Using binary numbers to create your subnet chart. turn on power to all devices.165.165.240 209. Document the logical network settings.111111000___ Step 3.165.255.200.250 209. Table 11-34 Subnet B IP Address Information Network Address Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast 209.248 209. Write down the IP address information for each device in Table 11-36.11111100 Task 2: Configure the Physical Lab Topology Step 1. Physically connect lab devices.240 255.252 209. Task 3: Configure the Logical Topology Step 1.165.11111111. the smallest IP address block.255. . Host computers use the first two IP addresses in the subnetwork.165. Cable the network devices as shown in Figure 11-19. The network router uses the last network host address.

165.200.240 — 209.255.255.255. Highlight Internet Protocol (TCP/IP). Configure HyperTerminal for access to Router1. Highlight the Local Area Connection device icon. choose Start > Control Panel > Network Connections. Set the Layer 3 address.200. On each computer in turn.248 255.255.165. Record your information in a separate document.250 — 209.249 209.165.246 209. Step 3.200.200.255. Configure Router1.165. . Verify that the Host1 Layer 3 IP address is on a different subnetwork than Host2 and Host3.200.165.200. These are the configuration tasks for Router1: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Specify the router name: Router1 Specify an encrypted privileged EXEC password: cisco Specify a console access password: class Specify a Telnet access password: class Configure the MOTD banner.165.250 209.252 255.200.241 209.255.246 209. start the HyperTerminal program by choosing Start > Programs > Accessories > Communications > HyperTerminal.165.248 — — 209.240 209.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 355 Table 11-36 IP Address Information Device Subnet IP Address Mask Gateway Router1 -FA0/0 Host1 Router1 -FA0/1 Host2 Host2 Switch Step 2.255.165.165.255. Configure each host computer using the IP address information recorded in Step 1.200.165.165.248 209. Configure Router1 interface Fa0/0: ■ ■ ■ Set the description. Set the Layer 3 address. and name it Documentation_Lab11-6. 209. ■ Configure Router1 interface Fa0/1: ■ ■ ■ Set the description.248 255. Issue the no shutdown command.255.255. and choose Properties.200.252 255.242 — 255.200.200.165. Verify proper configuration of each host computer using the ipconfig /all command.248 209. From the Windows taskbar.200. right-click. and choose Properties.200. Issue the no shutdown command.165.246 — Configure the host computers.240 209.

Network connectivity can be verified with the ping command. Copy the output of the show mac address-table command to your document named Documentation_Lab11-6. It is very important that connectivity exist throughout the network. Note: If pings to host computers fail.356 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Specify the command you use to save the configuration in NVRAM: copy run start Specify the command you use to display the contents of RAM: show running-configuration Save the output of the configuration to your document named Documentation_Lab11-6. Press Enter until you receive a response. Corrective action must be taken if a failure occurs. and retest. and click OK. . Step 4. click OFF. Configuration tasks for Switch1 are as follows: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Specify the switch name: Switch1 Specify an encrypted privileged EXEC password: cisco Specify a console access password: class Specify a Telnet access password: class Configure the MOTD banner. Task 4: Verify Network Connectivity Step 1. Configure Switch1 interface Fa0/1: ■ Set the description. temporarily disable the computer firewall. Configure Switch1. Copy the output of the show interface fa0/0 and show interface fa0/1 commands into your document named Documentation_Lab11-6. Move the console cable from Router1 to Switch1. Use the ping command to verify network connectivity. Copy the output of the show ip interface brief command to your document named Documentation_Lab11-6. ■ Configure Switch1 interface Fa0/2: ■ Set the description. Use Table 11-37 to methodically verify connectivity with each network device. Specify the command you use to display the contents of RAM: show running-configuration Copy the output of the configuration to your document named Documentation_Lab11-6. To disable a Windows firewall. ■ Configure Switch1 interface Fa0/3: ■ Set the description. Take corrective action to establish connectivity if a test fails. choose Start > Control Panel > Windows Firewall.

265.200. From Host3.241 209.1) NIC IP address Host2 Gateway (Router1.265.200.241 209.200.0.0. Fa0/1 Host2 Host3 LocalHost (127.200. and Host1.250 209. Fa0/1) Router1. tracert results can be compared against periods of high traffic. .0. The network was physically and logically configured and verified.200.250 209.1) NIC IP Address Gateway (Router1.265.246126 209. Fa0/0 Host1 127.0.200.0. That is.265.0.249 127.200. Fa0/1) Router1. the tracert command may be used as a crude throughput tester for network baselining.0.265.165. Fa0/0 Host1 LocalHost (127.243 209.200.165.265. Router1.200. Task 5: Document the Network With all the work performed so far.265.242 209. Fa0/0 Router1. issue the tracert command to Host3.246 209. issue the tracert command to Router1.242 127. Router1.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 357 Table 11-37 Connectivity Testing From To IP Address Ping Result Host1 Host1 Host1 Host1 Host1 Host1 Host2 Host2 Host2 Host2 Host2 Host2 Host3 Host3 Host3 Host3 Host3 Host3 Step 2.1 209.0.0.0.265.200.265. Record the results in your document named Documentation_Lab11-6. Record the results in your document named Documentation_Lab11-6. From Host2.249 209. From Host1. it would seem that there is nothing left to do. issue the tracert command to Host2.241 209. and command output was copied into tables.249 Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Use the tracert command to verify local connectivity. Results can be used to justify equipment upgrades or new purchases.265. and Host1.0. with minimal traffic. and Host3.250 209.1 209. LocalHost (127.265.200.200.0. Host2.200.200. In addition to connectivity testing.1 209.265.200.1) NIC IP Address Host3 Gateway (Router1. Record the results in your document named Documentation_Lab11-6.246 209.165.

answer the following questions in the documentation. Note to Instructor: You could introduce problems into the network by changing IP addresses. Look for green link lights on Switch1. default gateways.) Be sure to include the following information: ■ ■ A copy of the physical topology A copy of the logical topology Prepare your documentation in a professional format. If the solution did not fix the problem. or cables.358 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide The last step in network documentation is to organize your output. Problems can be either physical (cables moved on the switch) or logical (the wrong IP address or gateway). subnet masks. For example. document the solution. As you organize. perhaps in a cover letter: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ When was the network created? When was the network documented? Were any significant challenges overcome? Who performed the configuration? (Talent like this needs to be tracked.) Who wrote the documentation? (Talent like this needs to be tracked. Perform a good visual inspection. and submit it to your instructor. If the solution fixed the problem. think about what might be needed six months or a year from now. Use your network documentation to make sure your configurations are correct: Answers will vary Write down your proposed solution(s): Answers will vary Test your solution. Task 6: Reflection Review any physical or logical configuration problems you encountered during this lab. continue troubleshooting. Answers will vary . Use your network documentation to troubleshoot and remedy the problems. Task 7: Challenge Ask your instructor or another student to introduce one or two problems in your network when you aren’t looking or are out of the lab room. Ensure that you understand the procedures used to verify network connectivity.

255. Reconnect cables that were disconnected for this lab. remove the NVRAM configuration file from each device using the privileged EXEC command erase startup-config.252 duplex auto speed auto ! interface FastEthernet0/1 description connection to Switch1 ip address 209.255.250 255. Carefully remove the cables.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 359 Task 8: Clean Up Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. Remove anything that was brought into the lab.165.246 255. then turn off power to the host computers. Instructors may find the following configuration examples helpful.200.4 service timestamps debug datetime msec service timestamps log datetime msec no service password-encryption ! hostname Router1 ! boot-start-marker boot-end-marker ! enable secret 5 $1$sqIx$iKGfkjNa6IlaBVnPnGrVR0 ! no aaa new-model ip cef ! interface FastEthernet0/0 description connection to Host1 ip address 209. and return them neatly to their storage.248 duplex auto speed auto .165. Example Router 1 Configuration Router1 Configuration Current configuration : 1138 bytes ! version 12. Before turning off power to the router and switch.255. restore host computer network connectivity.255.200. and leave the room ready for the next class.

530c. line protocol is up Hardware is Gt96k FE.360 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example ! Router 1 Configuration continued interface Serial0/1/0 no ip address shutdown no fair-queue ! interface Serial0/1/1 no ip address shutdown clock rate 2000000 ! interface Vlan1 no ip address ! ip http server no ip http secure-server ! control-plane ! banner motd ^C **** ABC network device **** **** Authorized access only **** **** Logging is enabled ***** ^C ! line con 0 password class login line aux 0 line vty 0 4 password class login ! scheduler allocate 20000 1000 end Example Router 1 Interface Fa0/0 Configuration Router1# show interface fa0/0 Router1#sh int fa0/0 FastEthernet0/0 is up.530c. address is 001b.cdee) Description: connection to Host1 .cdee (bia 001b.

200. address is 001b. 0 CRC.530c. Total output drops: 0 Queueing strategy: fifo Output queue: 0/40 (size/max) 5 minute input rate 0 bits/sec. 0 throttles 0 input errors. 4 interface resets 0 babbles. reliability 255/255. line protocol is up Hardware is Gt96k FE. DLY 100 usec. output hang never Last clearing of “show interface” counters never Input queue: 0/75/0/0 (size/max/drops/flushes). loopback not set Keepalive not set Auto-duplex. reliability 255/255. 0 frame. 0 late collision. 88733 bytes.cdef) Description: connection to Switch1 Internet address is 209.cdef (bia 001b. ARP Timeout 04:00:00 Last input never. 0 no carrier 0 output buffer failures.530c.250/30 MTU 1500 bytes. 0 underruns 0 output errors.165.165. Auto Speed. 8915 bytes Received 44 broadcasts.246/29 MTU 1500 bytes. output never. 0 packets/sec 5 minute output rate 0 bits/sec. DLY 100 usec. output hang never Last clearing of “show interface” counters never Input queue: 0/75/0/0 (size/max/drops/flushes). 0 ignored 0 watchdog 0 input packets with dribble condition detected 277 packets output. 0 collisions. BW 100000 Kbit. 0 runts.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 361 Example Router 1 Interface Fa0/0 Configuration continued Internet address is 209. 0 packets/sec 5 minute output rate 0 bits/sec. 0 packets/sec 54 packets input. output 00:00:02.200. loopback not set Keepalive set (10 sec) Full-duplex. ARP Timeout 04:00:00 Last input 00:01:27. 100Mb/s. BW 100000 Kbit. 0 overrun. rxload 1/255 Encapsulation ARPA. txload 1/255. rxload 1/255 Encapsulation ARPA. 100BaseTX/FX ARP type: ARPA. 0 giants. 0 output buffers swapped out Example Router 1 Interface Fa0/1 Configuration Router1# show interface fa0/1 FastEthernet0/1 is up. 0 packets/sec . txload 1/255. 0 deferred 0 lost carrier. Total output drops: 0 Queueing strategy: fifo Output queue: 0/40 (size/max) 5 minute input rate 0 bits/sec. 100BaseTX/FX ARP type: ARPA.

165. 0 runts. Current configuration : 1862 bytesad 1/255 ! version 12. 1 interface resets 0 babbles. 0 overrun.165. 0 no carrier 0 output buffer failures. 0 giants.362 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example Router 1 Interface Fa0/1 Configuration continued 0 packets input.1 no service padARPA. 0 CRC. loopback service timestamps debug uptime service timestamps log uptime no service password-encryption ! hostname Switch1 ! enable secret 5 $1$X9tO$93NSNcI66s8ESanQ/o3A60 ! interface FastEthernet0/1 description connection to Router1 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/2 description connection to Host2 no ip address .200.. 0 deferred 0 lost carrier.246 YES manual up unassigned unassigned YES unset YES unset administratively down down administratively down down Example Switch 1 Configuration Building configuration. 14481 bytes. 0 frame.200. 0 bytes Received 0 broadcasts. 0 late collision. 0 ignored 0 watchdog 0 input packets with dribble condition detected 91 packets output.. 0 throttles 0 input errors. 0 output buffers swapped out Example Router 1 IP Address Configuration Router1# sh ip int brief Interface FastEthernet0/0 FastEthernet0/1 Serial0/1/0 Serial0/1/1 IP-Address OK? Method Status Protocol up up 209. 0 collisions.250 YES manual up 209. 0 underruns 0 output errors.

Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 363 Example ! Switch 1 Configuration continued interface FastEthernet0/3 description connection to Host3 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/4 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/5 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/6 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/7 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/8 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/9 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/10 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/11 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/12 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/13 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/14 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/15 no ip address ! .

364 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example Switch 1 Configuration continued interface FastEthernet0/16 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/17 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/18 no ip address ! Interface FastEthernet0/19 no ip address ! Interface FastEthernet0/20 no ip address ! Interface FastEthernet0/21 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/22 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/23 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/24 no ip address ! interface GigabitEthernet0/1 no ip address !s interface GigabitEthernet0/2 no ip address ! ip http server ! banner motd ^C **** ABC network device **** **** Authorized access only **** **** Logging is enabled ***** .

250 Tracing route to 209.200.200.165.200.242 Tracing route to 209.cccc 0100.3c3a 001b.242 Trace complete.165.165.0ccc.8bb4.200.0cdd.250 Trace complete.200. C:\> tracert 209.165.165.200.76ac.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 365 Example Switch 1 MAC Address Table Mac Address Table ------------------------------------------Vlan ---All All All All 1 1 1 Mac Address ----------000f.165.241 over a maximum of 30 hops 1 2 <1 ms 1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms 209.241 Tracing route to 209.250 209.a76a 0018.dddd 0016. C:\> tracert 209.250 209.242 over a maximum of 30 hops 1 2 <1 ms 1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms 209.250 over a maximum of 30 hops 1 <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms 209.165.cccd 0100. C:\> .200.200.f79f.241 Trace complete.6cc0 0100.165.cdef Type -------STATIC STATIC STATIC STATIC DYNAMIC DYNAMIC DYNAMIC Ports ----CPU CPU CPU CPU Fa0/3 Fa0/2 Fa0/1 Total Mac Addresses for this criterion: 7 Switch1# Example Traceroute Results Host1 C:\> tracert 209.200.200.165.165.0ccc.530c.200.165.

and explain the frame fields.exe Scenario This exercise details the sequence of datagrams that are created and sent across a network between a web client.2.2.1.366 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Lab 11-7: Case Study: Datagram Analysis with Wireshark (11.example.2.1. and a web server.250/24 DNS Server .com. Figure 11-20 Topology for Lab 11-7 Client LAN: MAC Address: 00:02:3f:7e:37:da IP Address: 10.255/24 Server S1 LAN: MAC Address: 00:0f:f7:9f:6c:c9 IP Address: 10. a network protocol analyzer.1/24 LAN: MAC Address: 00:0c:85:cf:66:41 IP Address: 10. How an Ethernet II frame is constructed. eagle1. How an IP packet is constructed. you will be able to demonstrate ■ ■ ■ ■ How a TCP segment is constructed.251/24 R1 LAN: MAC Address: 00:0c:85:cf:66:40 IP Address: 10.1. be sure to get permission in writing.2. For brevity and clarity. PC_Client.1.pcap (reference only) wireshark. and install Wireshark on your computer if it is not already installed: ■ ■ ■ eagle1_web_client.1.5.254/24 LAN: MAC Address: 00:0c:29:63:17:a5 IP Address: 10. Download the following files from Eagle Server. network packet noise has been omitted from the captures. and explain the packet fields. Figure 11-20 shows the topology for this lab.1. Before executing a network protocol analyzer on a network that belongs to someone else. and explain the segment fields. Understanding the process involved in sequentially placing packets on the network will help you logically troubleshoot network failures when connectivity breaks.6.1) Upon completion of this exercise. The contents of an Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) Request and ARP Reply.pcap (discussed) eagle1_web_server. Background This lab requires two captured packet files and Wireshark.

Refer to Example 11-20. . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . .com is entered. . . Example 11-20 PC Client Initial Network State C: > ipconfig / all Windows IP Configuration Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection: Connection-specific DNS Suffix . . .250 C: > arp -a No ARP Entries Found C: > A web client is started. . : 00:02:3f:7e:37:da Dhcp Enabled. : 10. : 10.254 DNS Servers . : Description . . .255. . . . Verify that Packet List and Packet Details are checked. as shown in Figure 11-21. .0 Default Gateway . . .Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 367 Using Microsoft command-line tools. . and the URL eagle1. . . . This begins the communication process to the web server. . . .1.1 Subnet Mask . . . . : 255. . . . you can display IP configuration information and the contents of the ARP cache. uncheck Name Resolution for MAC Layer and Transport Layer. . . : No IP Address. . .example. and it’s where the captured packets start. . . . Filter Toolbar. . . . . . . . and Packet Bytes. .255. To ensure that there is no automatic translation in MAC addresses. .1. . . .1. Uncheck Main Toolbar. : 10. . Start Wireshark on your computer. Figure 11-21 PC Client with Web Browser Task 1: Prepare the Lab Step 1. . .1. . . .1. . : Intel(R) PRO/1000 MT Network Connection Physical Address. Refer to Figure 11-22 for changes to the default output.

pcap. Likewise. Some information is unknown to PC_Client. A screen similar to Figure 11-23 appears. Because this communication is from a web client. At each layer. PC_Client generates an internal TCP port address—in this conversation. eagle1_web_client. so it must be discovered using other network protocols. a sequence number has been internally generated. Consider the TCP segment shown in Figure 11-24. the transport layer protocol is TCP. Various pull-down menus and submenus are available. When PC_Client builds the datagram for a connection with eagle1. 80. important header information is added. provided by the application layer.368 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 11-22 Wireshark Default View Changes Step 2. 1085—and knows the well-known web server port address. the datagram travels down the various network layers. Figure 11-23 Wireshark with eagle1_web_client. In the bottom window. Review transport layer operation. . Data is included. There are also two separate data windows.example.pcap Task 2: Review the Process of Data Flowing Through the Network Step 1. The bottom window contains packet details. Load the web client capture. each line that contains a plus sign next to it indicates that additional information is available.com. The top Wireshark window lists all captured packets.

Review data link layer operation.example. Figure 11-25 IP Packet Fields IP Packet 0 Version 4 IHL Identification TTL Protocol Source IP Address Destination IP Address Data 8 10 TOS Flags 16 Total Length Fragment Offset Header Checksum 31 The destination for this packet is eagle1. fields related to the upper-layer protocols are empty. Step 3. The corresponding IP address must be discovered through Domain Name System (DNS). For example. the IPv4 (IP) packet has several fields ready with information. as shown in Figure 11-26. but it must discover the destination MAC address. Step 2. PC_Client knows the source MAC address. the packet version (IPv4) is known. as shown in Figure 11-25. Review network layer operation.com. At the network layer. as well as the source IP address.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 369 Figure 11-24 TCP Segment Field TCP Segment 0 4 7 Source Port Sequence Number Acknowledgment Number Data Offset Reserved ECN Checksum Options and Padding Data Control Bits Window Urgent Pointer 10 16 Destination Port 31 There is no acknowledgment number. Before this segment can move to the network layer. Before the datagram is placed on the physical medium. Figure 11-26 Ethernet II Frame Fields Ethernet II Frame Format Source Frame Address Type 2 Octets Preamble Destination Address Data CRC 8 Octets 6 Octets 6 Octets 46–1500 Octets 4 Octets . Until the upper-layer datagram is received. it must be encapsulated inside a frame. the TCP three-way handshake must be performed.

com.example. You can view the contents of the Ethernet II frame by clicking the checkbox in the second line of the Packet Details window. Why didn’t the DNS server have to send an ARP Request for the PC_Client MAC address? When an ARP Request is received. The DNS server cannot be queried.com must first be completed.1. the source MAC address of the request is stored in the receiver’s ARP cache.com is unknown.example. and the destination address for an ARP Reply is a unicast address. What is the source MAC address for the ARP Reply? 00:0c:29:63:17:a5 What is the destination MAC address for the ARP Request? 00:02:31:7e:73:da What is the Ethernet II frame type? 0x0806 (ARP) What is the destination IP address in the ARP Reply? 10. A review of missing information will be helpful in following the captured packet sequence: ■ The TCP segment cannot be constructed because the acknowledgment field is blank. This is resolved with a DNS request from PC_Client to the DNS server. No. No. The DNS server sent an ARP Reply. Refer to Wireshark’s Packet List window. 2. Refer to Wireshark’s Packet List window. The captured frame is an ARP Request. You can view the contents of the ARP Request by clicking the ARP Request line in the Packet Details window.example. Examine the ARP reply. A TCP three-way handshake with eagle1. What is the source MAC address for the ARP Request? 00:02:31:7e:73:da What is the destination MAC address for the ARP Request? ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff What is the unknown IP address in the ARP Request? 10. The ARP protocol is broadcast on the LAN to learn the destination MAC address for eagle1.1 Based on the observation of the ARP protocol. because PC_Client does not know the IP address for eagle1. 1. The ARP protocol is broadcast on the LAN to discover the MAC address for the DNS server. . Examine the ARP request. what can you infer about an ARP Request destination address and an ARP Reply destination address? The destination address for an ARP Request is a broadcast address. Review the data flow sequence.1. because the MAC address for the DNS server is unknown. ■ ■ ■ Step 2.370 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 3: Analyze Captured Packets Step 1.250 What is the Ethernet II frame type? 0x0806 (ARP) Step 3.1. The TCP three-way handshake cannot occur. The MAC address for eagle1.com.example.1.

Examine the TCP three-way handshake. If all UDP packets were dropped at the firewall. answer the following questions: What is the Ethernet II frame type? 0x0800 (IP) What is the transport layer protocol. asks you if you can think of any reason why all UDP packets should not be blocked from entering the internal network. This is also when TCP sliding windows are negotiated. MSS stands for maximum segment size. eagle1. a firewall administrator. Refer to Wireshark’s Packet List window. PC_Client must have the ARP address to the Gateway. 3.com responds with the TCP ACK and SYN flags set. PC_Client sent a DNS query to the DNS server.example. Examine the DNS query.254. Refer to Wireshark’s Packet List window.1.1. only the TCP SYN flag is set on the datagram sent from PC_Client.1. why did eagle1.example respond with an acknowledgment of 1? TCP employs expectational acknowledgments.2.2.0/24. The ARP Reply was from the Gateway. The DNS server sent a DNS query response to PC_Client. Using the Packet Details window. answer the following questions: What is the Ethernet II frame type? 0x0800 (IP) What is the transport layer protocol. No. No. This value is sent during connection startup. What is your response? DNS uses UDP for name translation. 8. port 1043 What is the IP address for eagle1. 4. A better approach would be to employ a stateful packet filter and create rules that permit established and related traffic through the firewall. When a TCP segment is transported over IPv4. These captures contain the TCP three-way handshake between PC_Client and eagle1. 5 and No. No.251 One of your colleagues. PC_Client sent an ARP Request to IP address 10. sequence number 0.com? 10. No. Initially. along with an acknowledgment of 1 and a sequence of 0. MSS is computed to be the maximum size of an IPv4 datagram minus 40 bytes. Is this IP address different from the IP address for eagle1. In the Packet List window is an unexplained value. Step 6. 6. and what is the destination port number? UDP.2.2.com? Explain.example. Refer to Wireshark’s Packet List window. MSS=1460. Because 10. If the initial TCP sequence value from PC_Client is 0.example. and 9. employees could not translate names to IP addresses.com. Step 7.251 is on a different network than 10.1.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 371 Step 4. and what is the destination port number? UDP. Yes.example. This means that the TCP acknowledgment number sent is for the expected sequence number of the next packet. Using the Packet Details window. Examine the DNS query response. Refer to Wireshark’s Packet List window. 7. port 53 Step 5. . Examine the ARP Request.

No. Match the Wireshark output to the process. .0 Congestion Window Reduced ECN Echo Urgent ACK PSH SYN FIN Task 4: Complete the Final Analysis Step 1. 10. 2. The ARP protocol is broadcast on the LAN to discover the MAC address for the DNS server. This is resolved with a DNS request from PC_Client to the DNS server. . Don’t fragment (set) 0 . . . Fill in the correct Wireshark Packet List window number that satisfies each of the following missing entries: ■ The TCP segment cannot be constructed because the acknowledgment field is blank. No. the DNS query response The DNS server cannot be queried because the MAC address for the DNS server is unknown. . . This is shown in Wireshark’s Packet List. the TCP ACK response to eagle1. DNS server. No. . . Wireshark’s Packet List.0. . .example. No. . 8. . . . . .1. Reserved (not set) 1 . . where PC_Client sent a web protocol GET request. It has taken a total of nine datagrams sent between PC_Client. what does the IP flag value of 0x04 mean? IP flag values: 8421 0 . . . More fragments (not set) When PC_Client completes the TCP three-way handshake. 9. what TCP flag states are returned to eagle1.com must first be completed. .0.example.0. .com. .com before PC_Client has sufficient information to send the original web client request to eagle1. Table 11-38 TCP Flag States Bit Position Flag 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0. .0.example. .com. No. . . and eagle1. the ARP response from the DNS server ■ ■ . A TCP three-way handshake with eagle1.example. . .example. . . . . 9. .com The TCP three-way handshake cannot occur because PC_Client does not know the IP address for eagle1. . . . . . No.example. 4.372 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide In eagle1. .com.example.com? Table 11-38 shows the TCP flag states. Gateway.

Use the Wireshark TCP stream. Figure 11-27 Output of TCP Stream Task 5: Conclusion Using a network protocol analyzer can be an effective learning tool for understanding critical elements of network communication. Wireshark Packet List No.com responds with a TCP ACK.example. 12.com is unknown. from Wireshark.com? No. unsuccessful DNS queries. Next. The ACK datagram for Wireshark Packet List No. 13 The Wireshark Packet List No. 13.example.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 373 ■ The MAC address for the gateway to reach eagle1. A protocol analyzer shows unsuccessful ARP requests.com.example. 6.example. 14 and 16 are ACK datagrams from PC_Client. The ARP protocol is broadcast on the LAN to learn the destination MAC address for the gateway. choose Analyze > Follow TCP Stream. and unacknowledged packets. scroll down to the bottom of the Detail List window. To verify the ACK. if a web browser could not connect to a web server. What is the purpose of this datagram? This datagram is a TCP window update to expand the window size. For example. there could be multiple causes. Review the information in the [SEQ/ACK analysis] frame.com to the PC_Client GET request. Next. and 15 are TCP segments from eagle1. Analyzing packet contents can be a daunting experience—time-consuming and errorprone. highlight Wireshark Packet List No. as shown in Wireshark Packet List No.example. and the TCP session is closed. 18. No. first select a TCP datagram from the Wireshark Packet List. Wireshark Packet List No. To use this feature. 17 datagram is sent from PC_Client to eagle1. Wireshark Packet List No. the same protocol analyzer can become an effective troubleshooting tool when the network fails. the ARP response from the Gateway Wireshark Packet List No. 14 is a response to which datagram from eagle1. Step 2. 14. A window similar to the one shown in Figure 11-27 appears. 11 is an acknowledgment from eagle1.com. As soon as the network administrator is familiar with communication protocols. . Wireshark includes an option that constructs the TCP stream in a separate window. and expand the [SEQ/ACK analysis] frame.example. eagle1. When PC_Client is finished. 10. TCP ACK and FIN flags are sent.

configuring. and configure the entire lab network. HDLC) Tracing the route to the web server (DNS.1. respectively. ARP. Figure 11-28 Skills Integration Lab Topology 1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server 2960-24TT S1-Central 1841 R2-Central PC-PT 1A PC-PT 1B .3) Open file LSG01-PTSkills11. You have also developed a conceptual understanding of networking protocols and device algorithms. Behind-the-scenes protocols such as DNS and ARP are used to fill in missing parts of IP packets and Ethernet frames. with the client issuing a TCP FIN flag. Figure 11-28 shows the topology for this lab. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ Build. you have been developing network planning.374 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 6: Summary In this exercise you have learned how a web client and web server communicate. Before a TCP session can begin. IP. IP. Here is an opportunity to test yourself. the TCP three-way handshake must build a reliable path and supply both communicating ends with initial TCP header information. and testing skills. Packet Tracer Challenge Skills Integration Challenge: Configuring and Analyzing Networks (11. although some are quite easy) in less than 30 minutes. HDLC) Background Throughout this course. the TCP session is destroyed in an orderly manner. Analyze the events involved in ■ ■ Requesting a web page (DNS. ARP. Ethernet.6. ICMP. See if you can complete this entire challenge (approximately 100 configurable components. Finally. Upon completion of this activity. Integrate skills from throughout the course.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to perform this exercise using Packet Tracer. building. TCP. HTTP. Ethernet. test. UDP.

For R2-Central’s S0/0/0 interface. In general. connected to Fa0/24 on S1-Central) Second subnet. passwords. existing ISP LAN. and connect them to the Fa0/1 and Fa0/2 interfaces on S1Central. banners) should be entered exactly as specified in these instructions for the grading to work properly. and one named R2-Central. For R1-ISP’s Fa0/0 interface. For hosts 1A and 1B. which has a serial DCE WAN connection to R2-Central and an Fa0/0 LAN connection to Eagle_Server.0 /24. future ISP LAN. For the switch management interface. up to 28 hosts (Fa0/0 on R2-Central. . use the lowest usable address on the existing WAN subnet. use the second-highest usable address on the student subnet. up to seven hosts (not yet implemented) Fifth subnet. You have been given an IP address block of 192. installed in the slot on the right—one named R1-ISP. use the highest usable address on the existing student LAN subnet. existing student LAN. future student LAN. You must provide for existing networks as well as future growth. up to 14 hosts (Fa0/0 on R1-ISP) Fourth subnet. configure the second-highest usable IP address on the ISP LAN subnet. which has a serial DCE WAN connection to R1ISP and an Fa0/0 LAN connection to S1-Central One 2960TT switch (S1-Central) Two PCs named 1A and 1B A server named Eagle_Server ■ ■ ■ Note that both the display names and hostnames for all devices must be configured exactly. configure the highest usable address on the existing WAN subnet.3. Subnet assignments: ■ First subnet. ■ ■ ■ ■ Use Table 11-39 to record your address information. all strings (names. use the first two IP addresses (the two lowest usable addresses) on the existing student LAN subnet. and connect it to the Fa0/24 interface on S1-Central. configure the highest usable IP address on the ISP LAN subnet. For R1-ISP’s S0/0/0 interface. up to 28 hosts (not yet implemented) Third subnet.168. existing WAN. point-to-point link (S0/0/0 on R1-ISP and S0/0/0 on R2-Central) ■ ■ ■ ■ IP address assignments: ■ ■ ■ For the server. For R2-Central’s Fa0/0 interface.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 375 Task 1: Plan Use the standard Exploration lab topology as you plan your IP addressing scheme: ■ Two 1841 routers with WIC-2T interface cards.

168. For the server.255.255. hostname. and the two PCs. Configure both routers.** and **This is lab router R2-Central. The static route on R1-ISP should point to the existing Student LAN subnet via R2-Central’s serial interface IP address.3. login passwords for access (enable.3.com.1 192.224 255.168. The banners should say **This is lab router R1ISP.255. and management interface (int vlan1).255.168.98 192. and routing (static route on R1-ISP.3. and enable HTTP services. passwords.255. The following login passwords should all be set to cisco: enable.168. Authorized access only. Hint: To configure static routes. Whenever you configure a Cisco IOS device. and Telnet passwords all set to cisco).30 192. the server.3. use the domain name eagle-server. default route on R2-Central). Note to Instructor: You might want to introduce students to the concepts of static routes and discuss the command syntax and default routes. use “Reset Activity” and retime yourself doing the entire configuration again. As you work.3. configure them to use DNS services. and Telnet.255. Whenever you configure a Cisco IOS device.168. use a clock rate of 64000 on the R1ISP S0/0/0 interface. in addition to IP configuration.3. be sure to save your configuration. hostname. Students need to understand these concepts to successfully complete this lab. console.255.168.255.255.168. .**).376 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 11-39 Addressing Table Device Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP Fa0/0 S0/0/0 192.98 192.3.168. the switch. Authorized access only.255.240 — — 192. use “Check Results” to see what components still need to be configured.78 192.3. On the switch.2 192.30 192.224 255. use ip route global configuration mode.** The interfaces should be configured as specified in Table 11-39.example.252 255. interfaces (FastEthernet and serial).252 255.30 192. You can use the CLI help function to determine the command syntax.224 255. banner (**This is lab switch S1-Central.77 255.240 255.3.168. console.3. The static route on R2-Central should be a default static route that points via R1-ISP’s serial interface IP address.168.98 192.255.3.97 192. The router configuration must include “housekeeping” (display name. Authorized access only.78 R2-Central Fa0/0 S0/0/0 PC-1A PC-1B Eagle-Server NIC NIC NIC Task 2: Build and Configure the Network Build the network. enable DNS services. For Hosts 1A and 1B.3. If you want more practice. Configure the routers using the CLI to practice your skills. be sure to save your configuration.255.255.255.168. banner). taking care to make connections as specified. configure the display name.168.

Power-cycle the devices to clear the network again and. request a web page while making the following protocols visible in the event list: DNS. issue a traceroute to the server from one of the PCs. . Then power-cycle the devices and reset the network. Examine how the trace is built from ICMP echo requests. ARP. UDP. As soon as you are convinced that your network is working. Task 4: Reflection Relate the processes observed in Task 3 to the TCP/IP Protocol Graph. Also note the algorithms used by hosts. and routers. Again explain the entire process to a peer. TCP. Your skills at modeling networks in Packet Tracer will serve you well in subsequent courses. ICMP. switches. Examine the packets as they are processed by the devices to study protocol behavior. make sure you have saved your configurations on the Cisco IOS devices. also in simulation mode.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 377 Task 3: Test and Analyze It is good practice to test connectivity through ping and Telnet. HTTP. In simulation mode. especially how IP is involved in everything. Telnet. Explain the entire process to a peer. and to examine routing tables.

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