Network Fundamentals

,
CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide Instructor Edition
Antoon W. Rufi Priscilla Oppenheimer Belle Woodward Gerlinde Brady

Cisco Press
800 East 96th Street Indianapolis, Indiana 46240 USA

ii

Network Fundamentals, CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide

Network Fundamentals, CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide
Instructor Edition Antoon W. Rufi, Priscilla Oppenheimer, Belle Woodward, and Gerlinde Brady
Copyright© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. Published by: Cisco Press 800 East 96th Street Indianapolis, IN 46240 USA All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without written permission from the publisher, except for the inclusion of brief quotations in a review. Printed in the United States of America First Release January 2008 ISBN-10: 1-58705-583-X ISBN-13: 978-1-58705-583-6

Publisher Paul Boger Associate Publisher Dave Dusthimer Cisco Representative Anthony Wolfenden Cisco Press Program Manager Jeff Brady Executive Editor Mary Beth Ray Production Manager Patrick Kanouse Development Editor Dayna Isley Project Editors Patrick Kanouse Jennifer Gallant Copy Editors Gayle Johnson Keith Cline Technical Editors Cindy G. Layman Michael Duane Taylor Tony Chen Editorial Assistant Vanessa Evans Book and Cover Designer Louisa Adair Composition Mark Shirar Proofreader Leslie Joseph

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Warning and Disclaimer
This book is designed to provide information about the Network Fundamentals course of the Cisco Network Academy CCNA Exploration curriculum. Every effort has been made to make this book as complete and as accurate as possible, but no warranty or fitness is implied. The information is provided on an “as is” basis. The authors, Cisco Press, and Cisco Systems, Inc. shall have neither liability nor responsibility to any person or entity with respect to any loss or damages arising from the information contained in this book or from the use of the discs or programs that may accompany it. The opinions expressed in this book belong to the author and are not necessarily those of Cisco Systems, Inc.

Trademark Acknowledgments
All terms mentioned in this book that are known to be trademarks or service marks have been appropriately capitalized. Cisco Press or Cisco Systems, Inc. cannot attest to the accuracy of this information. Use of a term in this book should not be regarded as affecting the validity of any trademark or service mark.

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Network Fundamentals, CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide

About the Authors
Antoon “Tony” W. Rufi currently is the associate dean of computer and information science for all the ECPI College of Technology campuses. He also teaches the Cisco Networking Academy CCNA, CCNP, Network Security, Fundamentals of Wireless LAN, and IP Telephony curricula. Before becoming an instructor for ECPI, he spent almost 30 years in the U.S. Air Force, working on numerous electronic projects and computer programs. Tony has a master’s degree in information science from the University of Maryland and a bachelor’s degree in industrial technology from Southern Illinois University. Priscilla Oppenheimer is an author and network consultant with more than 25 years of experience in the computer industry. Priscilla has a master’s degree in information science from the University of Michigan and has worked at such big-name companies as Apple Computer and Cisco Systems. She currently teaches at Southern Oregon University and provides network consulting to companies in her hometown of Ashland, Oregon, and elsewhere. Belle Woodward, CCNA, CCAI, CCNP, is an assistant professor in the School of Information Systems and Applied Technologies in the College of Applied Sciences and Arts at Southern Illinois University (SIU) in Carbondale, Illinois. She has more than nine years experience in the networking and network security field. Belle teaches network security, advanced networking, and telecommunications. After redesigning the networking and network security undergraduate curriculum, her students took first place at the 2006 Regional Midwestern Collegiate Cyber Defense Competition (CCDC) and fourth place at the national CCDC. In addition to publishing several journal articles in the network security discipline, Belle has also contributed several chapters included in published network security and networking books. Gerlinde Brady has been teaching Cisco CCNA and CCNP courses at Cabrillo College, a Cisco Regional Networking Academy, since 1999. She holds a master’s degree in education from the University of Hannover, Germany, and a master’s degree in translation (English/German) from the Monterey Institute of International Studies. Her IT industry experience includes LAN design, network administration, technical support, and training.

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About the Technical Reviewers
Cindy G. Layman has been an instructor at Itawamba Community College in Tupelo, Mississippi, for more than 10 years. She has been teaching programming, computer servicing, and networking courses, including the full CCNA curriculum in the Cisco Networking Academy. Cindy has a bachelor of science degree in mathematics and a bachelor of science degree in computer science, both from Mississippi State University. Before teaching at ICC, she was a programmer analyst for nine years. Michael Duane Taylor is department head of computer information sciences at the Raleigh Campus of ECPI College of Technology. He has more than seven years of experience teaching introductory networking and CCNA-level curriculum and was awarded the Instructor of the Year Award. Previously, Michael was a lab supervisor with Global Knowledge working with router hardware configuration and repair. He holds a bachelor’s degree in business administration from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and a master of science degree in industrial technology/computer network management from East Carolina University. His certifications include CCNA, CCNP-router, and MCSE.

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Network Fundamentals, CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide

Dedications
I would like to dedicate this book to my wife, Linda, who is instrumental in getting me to apply myself. Always supportive, she has been the catalyst that has kept me going. —Tony Rufi This book is dedicated to my hard-working students who have inspired me to be a better teacher. — Priscilla Oppenheimer This book is dedicated to my husband, Jeff, and son, Alan, whose tireless support helped see me through another project. —Belle Woodward To my wonderful husband, Paddy, and my daughters Fiona, Teresita, and Ejay, who let me take time away from them to be a part of this project. —Gerlinde Brady

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Acknowledgments
From Tony Rufi: I’d like to give special recognition to Mike Taylor for his diligent approach to tech editing. He has provided a tremendous amount of input to get the technical aspects of this endeavor correct. I have enjoyed working with him. I also want to thank Mary Beth Ray; she has been instrumental in allowing me to pursue the dream of authoring a book. A special thank you to ECPI College of Technology, specifically President Mark Dreyfus, Vice President of Academic Affairs John Olson, and Director of Operations Barbara Larar. Without their support, I would not have been able to write this book. From Priscilla Oppenheimer: I’d like to thank Cisco Press for giving me the opportunity to work on this project. I especially want to thank Mary Beth Ray and Dayna Isley for turning this complex project into a success. Thanks also go to our technical reviewers for their persistence and attention to detail. Finally, I’d like to thank the Cisco Networking Academy for developing courses that inspire students to do amazing things with networks. From Belle Woodward: It has been a great pleasure to be part of such an outstanding group of professionals, and to these people and everyone on the team I extend my heartfelt thanks. Dayna Isley, thanks for all your help and patience. Cindy and Michael, thanks for providing your expert technical knowledge in editing the book. I want to give special recognition to Susanne Ashby, a great friend, who has always been willing to read and edit my work. From Gerlinde Brady: I would like to thank Dayna Isley and Mary Beth Ray for their unending patience. A special thanks goes to the technical editors, Cindy Layman, Mike Taylor, and Tony Chen, for their diligence and expertise.

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Network Fundamentals, CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide

Contents at a Glance
Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Chapter 10 Chapter 11 Living in a Network-Centric World Communicating over the Network 1 33 63

Application Layer Functionality and Protocols OSI Transport Layer OSI Network Layer 91 125 151

Addressing the Network: IPv4 OSI Data Link Layer OSI Physical Layer Ethernet 231 199 217

Planning and Cabling Networks

263 297

Configuring and Testing Your Network

3) 13 Task 1: Locate the SANS Resources Task 2: Review the SANS Resources Task 3: Collect Data Task 4: Reflection 15 16 14 15 Task 5: Challenge 16 Lab 1-1: Using Collaboration Tools: IRC and IM (1.6.4) 11 11 11 Task 3: Navigate the Google Earth Interface Task 5: Challenge 13 Activity 1-2: Identifying Top Security Vulnerabilities (1.4.1.ix Contents Chapter 1 Living in a Network-Centric World Concept Questions 1 2 2 1 1 Communicating in a Network-Centric World Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Concept Questions 2 3 Communication: An Essential Part of Our Lives The Network as a Platform Vocabulary Exercise: Define Vocabulary Exercise: Identify 3 3 4 4 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Concept Questions 5 The Architecture of the Internet 5 Vocabulary Exercise: Define Concept Questions 6 5 7 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Trends in Networking 8 Multiple-Choice Questions Task 1: Install Google Earth Task 2: Run Google Earth Task 4: Reflection Task 6: Clean Up 13 13 8 10 Activity 1-1: Using Google Earth to View the World (1.5.1.1.1) 16 Task 1: Configure the Chat Client Task 2: Connect to the Chat Server Task 3: Consider the Chat Session Task 4: Reflection Task 6: Clean Up 21 22 Task 5: Challenge 22 19 20 21 .

CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide Lab 1-2: Using Collaboration Tools: Wikis and Web Logs (1.5.6.6.6.2. and Internetworks Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Protocols 36 34 35 36 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Concept Questions Using Layered Models 36 37 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Network Addressing 38 37 38 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Multiple-Choice Questions 38 Activity 2-1: Using NeoTrace to View Internetworks (2. WANs.7.1.1) 22 Task 1: Define the Terms Wiki and Blog Task 3: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 28 28 22 23 Task 2: Explore Wiki Features with the TWiki Tutorial Task 4: Challenge 28 Skills Integration Challenge: Introduction to Packet Tracer (1.2) 48 .2.1.x Network Fundamentals.1.3) 28 Task 1: Explore the PT Interface Task 2: Explore PT Operations Task 4: Reflection Chapter 2 32 30 30 32 Task 3: Review the Standard Lab Setup Communicating over the Network The Platform for Communications 33 33 Concept Questions 33 34 34 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching LANs.1) 42 Task 1: Create a Peer-to-Peer Network Task 3: Cable the Peer-to-Peer Network Task 5: Reflection 48 43 43 47 43 Task 2: Identify the Cables Used in a Network Task 4: Connect Your Workstations to the Classroom Lab Switch Packet Tracer Companion: Topology Orientation and Building a Small Network (2.1) 39 Task 1: Trace Route to Remote Server Task 2: Trace Route Using NeoTrace Task 3: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 41 41 Task 4: Challenge 41 40 41 Lab 2-1: Topology Orientation and Building a Small Network (2.

2.2.6.2) 59 Skills Integration Challenge: Examining Packets (2.1) 69 69 70 Task 2: Observe the Properties of the Audio File Lab 3-1: Managing a Web Server (3.3.3) 59 Task 1: Complete the Topology 60 61 61 61 Task 2: Add Simple PDUs in Real-Time Mode Task 3: Analyze PDUs in Simulation Mode (Packet Tracing) Task 4: Experiment with the Model of the Standard Lab Setup Task 5: Reflection CHapter 3 61 63 63 Application Layer Functionality and Protocols Applications: The Interface Between the Networks Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Concept Questions 64 64 Making Provisions for Applications and Services 65 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Multiple-Choice Questions 65 65 Application Layer Protocols and Services Examples 66 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Multiple-Choice Questions Task 1: Create a Sound File Task 3: Reflection Task 4: Clean Up 71 71 67 66 66 Activity 3-1: Data Stream Capture (3.1) Task 1: Configure the Pod Host Computer for E-mail Service 81 Task 2: Capture and Analyze E-mail Communication Between the Pod Host Computer and an E-mail Server 84 .xi Lab 2-2: Using Wireshark to View Protocol Data Units (2.4.1.4.7.1) 49 Task 1: Ping PDU Capture 53 Task 2: FTP PDU Capture 56 Task 3: HTTP PDU Capture 58 Task 4: Reflection Task 6: Cleanup 58 59 Task 5: Challenge 58 Packet Tracer Companion: Using Packet Tracer to View Protocol Data Units (2.6.1. and Verify the Apache Web Server Task 2: Verify the Default Web Server Configuration File Task 3: Capture and Analyze HTTP Traffic with Wireshark Task 4: Challenge 78 Task 5: Reflection Task 6: Clean Up 78 79 79 73 77 76 Lab 3-2: E-mail Services and Protocols (3.1) 71 Task 1: Download.4. Install.2.

5.5.1) Task 1: Configure the Pod Host Computer to Capture Application Layer Protocols 113 Task 2: Capture and Analyze HTTP Communication Between the Pod Host Computer and a Web Server 114 Task 3: Capture and Analyze FTP Communication Between the Pod Host Computer and a Web Server 116 .3.3) Task 1: “Repair” and Test the Topology Task 3: Reflection Chapter 4 89 91 91 88 89 Task 2: Explore How DNS and HTTP Work Together OSI Transport Layer Roles of the Transport Layer Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Concept Questions 92 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Port Type Ranges Exercise Concept Questions 93 92 91 92 The TCP Protocol: Communicating with Reliability 92 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Managing TCP Sessions 93 93 Internet Research Exercise Concept Questions 94 93 The UDP Protocol: Communicating with Low Overhead 94 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion 94 95 Lab 4-1: Observing TCP and UDP Using netstat (4. TCP and UDP (4.5.1.1) Task 1: Identify TCP Header Fields and Operation Using a Wireshark FTP Session Capture 102 Task 2: Identify UDP Header Fields and Operation Using a Wireshark TFTP Session Capture 108 Task 3: Reflection Task 5: Cleanup 110 111 111 Task 4: Challenge 111 Lab 4-3: Application and Transport Layer Protocols (4.5.2.xii Network Fundamentals. CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide Task 3: Challenge 86 Task 4: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 86 86 87 Skills Integration Challenge: Configuring Hosts and Services (3.1) Task 1: Explain Common netstat Command Parameters and Outputs 96 Task 2: Use netstat to Examine Protocol Information on a Pod Host Computer 98 Task 3: Reflection Task 5: Cleanup 100 100 100 Task 4: Challenge 100 Lab 4-2: TCP/IP Transport Layer Protocols.1.

and TCP Work Together 124 125 125 126 126 127 Concept Questions Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Vocabulary Exercise: Define Internet Research Exercise Networks: Dividing Hosts into Groups 127 127 127 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Concept Questions 127 128 Routing: How Our Data Packets Are Handled Vocabulary Exercise: Define Routing Processes: How Routes Are Learned 129 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion 129 130 Lab 5-1: Examining a Device’s Gateway (5.6.1.2.2) 122 Skills Integration Challenge: Analyzing the Application and Transport Layers (4.1) 138 136 Task 1: Use the route Command to Modify a Windows Computer Routing Table 139 Task 2: Use a Windows Telnet Client Command telnet to Connect to a Cisco Router 144 Task 3: Examine Router Routes Using Basic Cisco IOS Commands Task 4: Reflection Task 6: Clean Up 147 147 147 Task 5: Challenge 147 Packet Tracer Companion: Examining a Route (5.1.5.2.1.5.2) Lab 5-2: Examining a Route (5. HTTP.5.3) 122 Task 1: Repair and Test the Topology Task 3: Reflection Chapter 5 OSI Network Layer IPv4 125 123 124 Task 2: Explore How DNS. UDP.5.2) 145 .3.5.xiii Task 4: Reflection Task 6: Clean Up 121 122 Task 5: Challenge 121 Packet Tracer Companion: Application and Transport Layer Protocols Examination (4.1) Task 1: Understand and Explain the Purpose of a Gateway Address 132 Task 2: Understand How Network Information Is Configured on a Windows Computer 134 Task 3: Troubleshoot a Hidden Gateway Address Problem Task 4: Reflection Task 6: Clean Up 137 137 137 Task 5: Challenge 137 Packet Tracer Companion: Examining a Device’s Gateway (5.

1.2) Lab 6-2: Examining ICMP Packets (6.7.1) Task 1: Use the ping Command to Verify Simple TCP/IP Network Connectivity 160 Task 2: Use the tracert Command to Verify TCP/IP Connectivity Task 3: Challenge 166 Task 4: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 168 168 168 164 Packet Tracer Companion: ping and traceroute (6.1.7.1) 169 Task 1: Understand the Format of ICMP Packets Task 3: Challenge 177 170 173 Task 2: Use Wireshark to Capture and Examine ICMP Messages .6. CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide Skills Integration Challenge: Routing IP Packets (5.xiv Network Fundamentals.7.3) 148 Task 1: Configure a Router Interface Task 2: Examining Routes 149 149 150 150 Task 3: Configure a Route Using a GUI Task 5: Reflection Chapter 6 150 151 Task 4: Examine the Routing of the IP Packet Addressing the Network: IPv4 IPv4 Addresses 151 Concept Questions 151 152 152 Binary-to-Decimal Conversion Exercise Decimal-to-Binary Conversion Exercise Addresses for Different Purposes 152 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Internet Research Exercise Vocabulary: Completion Concept Questions Assigning Addresses 152 153 153 153 154 Internet Research Exercises Concept Questions Is It on My Network? 154 154 155 Binary Matching Exercise Concept Questions 156 Internet Research Exercise Calculating Addresses 156 155 156 Concept Questions 156 157 157 Multiple-Choice Questions Testing the Network Layer Concept Questions 157 158 159 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Lab 6-1: Ping and Traceroute (6.2.1.

xv Task 4: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 177 177 177 178 Packet Tracer Companion: Examining ICMP Packets (6.1) Task 1: For a Given IP Address and Subnet Mask.2.4. Determine Network Information Task 2: Challenge 180 Task 3: Clean Up 182 183 Activity 6-2: IPv4 Address Subnetting.5.3) 194 Task 1: IP Subnet Planning 195 196 196 Task 2: Finish Building the Network in Packet Tracer Task 3: Configure the Network Task 4: Test the Network Task 5: Reflection chapter 7 OSI Data Link Layer 197 199 199 197 Data Link Layer: Accessing the Media Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Concept Questions 199 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Media Access Control Techniques 199 200 200 Concept Questions 200 201 201 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Concept Questions 202 Media Access Control: Addressing and Framing Data 201 Putting It All Together: Follow Data Through an Internetwork 203 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Lab 7-1: Frame Examination (7. Part 1 (6. Part 2 (6.1.2.7.3.7.7.7.5.1) Task 1: Subnet the Address Space 192 193 193 Task 2: Determine Interface Addresses Task 4: Verify the Configurations Task 5: Reflection 194 193 Task 3: Configure the Serial and FastEthernet Addresses Packet Tracer Companion: Subnet and Router Configuration (6.2) 194 Skills Integration Challenge: Planning Subnets and Configuring IP Addresses (6.7.1) 203 205 Task 1: Explain the Header Fields in an Ethernet II Frame 206 209 Task 2: Use Wireshark to Capture and Analyze Ethernet II Frames .8.5.2) Activity 6-1: IPv4 Address Subnetting.1) 178 Task 1: For a Given IP Address. Determine Subnet Information 184 Task 2: Challenge 188 Task 3: Clean Up 191 192 Lab 6-3: Subnet and Router Configuration (6.

1.3) 227 Task 1: Connect the Devices in the Standard Lab Setup 228 228 Task 2: View the Standard Lab Setup in the Physical Workspace chapter 9 Ethernet 231 231 Overview of Ethernet Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Concept Questions 232 231 Ethernet: Communication Through the LAN 232 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Concept Questions 233 232 . CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide Task 3: Challenge 212 Task 4: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 212 213 213 Skills Integration Challenge: Data Link Layer Issues (7.3) Task 1: IP Subnet Planning 214 Task 2: Finish Building the Network in Packet Tracer.6.4.1) Task 1: Become Familiar with the Most Common Functions of a Cable Tester 221 Task 2: Test Different Cables for Type and Wiring Problems Task 4: Verify Cable Length Task 5: Reflection Task 7: Clean Up 226 226 Task 6: Challenge 226 226 223 224 Task 3: Perform Initial Configuration of the Fluke LinkRunner Skills Integration Challenge: Connecting Devices and Exploring the Physical View (8.5.1. Attending to Some Layer 2 Issues 215 Task 3: Configure the Network Task 4: Test the Network Task 5: Reflection Chapter 8 OSI Physical Layer 216 217 217 215 216 The Physical Layer: Communication Signals Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Concept Questions Concept Questions 217 217 Physical Signaling and Encoding: Representing Bits 218 218 218 218 219 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Concept Questions 219 Physical Media: Connecting Communication Vocabulary Exercise: Matching 219 220 Lab 8-1: Media Connectors Lab Activity (Lab 8.1.xvi Network Fundamentals.

8.2) 253 Lab 9-3: Intermediary Device as an End Device (9.1.1.3.2.2.xvii The Ethernet Frame 233 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Multiple-Choice Questions Concept Questions 235 234 233 Ethernet Media Access Control 235 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Concept Questions 236 236 235 Ethernet Physical Layer Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Hubs and Switches 237 236 237 237 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Concept Question 238 Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) 238 Multiple-Choice Questions 238 240 Lab 9-1: Address Resolution Protocol (9.3) 259 256 Task 1: IP Subnet Planning 260 261 Task 2: Repair Problems with the Ethernet Switched LAN .1) Task 1: Use the Windows arp Command Task 3: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 248 248 242 246 Task 2: Use Wireshark to Examine ARP Exchanges Task 4: Challenge 248 Packet Tracer Companion: Address Resolution Protocol (9.8.8.2) 259 Skills Integration Challenge: Switched Ethernet (9.8.8.8.1) 253 Task 1: Use Wireshark to Capture and Analyze Frames Originating from Network Nodes 255 Task 2: Examine the Origination of Frames in a Small Network Task 3: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 258 259 Task 4: Challenge 259 Packet Tracer Companion: An Intermediary Device as an End Device (9.1.2) Lab 9-2: Cisco Switch MAC Table Examination (9.3.9.1) 249 248 Task 1: Use the Telnet Protocol to Log in to a Cisco Switch 251 Task 2: Use the Cisco IOS show mac-address-table Command to Examine MAC Addresses and Port Associations 251 Task 3: Challenge 253 Task 4: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 253 253 Packet Tracer Companion: Cisco Switch MAC Table Examination (9.

1.2.6.6.2) Task 1: Connect a Router and Computer with a Console Cable Lab 10-3: Establishing a Console Session with HyperTerminal (10. CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide Task 3: Test the Network Task 4: Reflection Chapter 10 261 261 Planning and Cabling Networks Concept Questions 263 264 263 263 LANs: Making the Physical Connection Multiple-Choice Questions Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Device Interconnections 264 264 Concept Questions 264 265 265 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Developing an Addressing Scheme Concept Questions 266 266 266 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Multiple-Choice Questions Calculating the Subnets 267 Concept Questions Concept Question 267 267 Device Interconnections 268 268 269 Multiple-Choice Questions Lab 10-1: How Many Networks? (10.6.1) Task 1: Design the Logical Network 276 278 Task 2: Configure the Physical Lab Topology 278 Task 3: Configure the Logical Topology Task 4: Verify Network Connectivity Task 5: Reflection Task 7: Clean Up 281 281 281 282 280 Task 6: Challenge 281 Packet Tracer Companion: Creating a Small Topology (10.xviii Network Fundamentals.3.1) 282 Task 2: Configure HyperTerminal to Establish a Console Session with a Cisco IOS Router 283 .1.2.2) Task 1: Determine the Number of Subnets in Topology Diagram A 269 Task 2: Record Subnet Information Task 4: Record Subnet Information Task 6: Record Subnet Information Task 8: Record Subnet Information Task 9: Reflection 273 274 270 270 271 272 271 272 273 Task 3: Determine the Number of Subnets in Topology Diagram B Task 5: Determine the Number of Subnets in Topology Diagram C Task 7: Determine the Number of Subnets in Topology Diagram D Lab 10-2: Creating a Small Lab Topology (10.

xix Task 3: Configure HyperTerminal to Establish a Console Session with a Cisco IOS Switch 285 Task 3: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 286 286 287 Task 4: Challenge 286 Lab 10-3 (Alternative): Establishing a Console Session with TeraTerm Task 1: Connect a Router and Computer with a Console Cable 287 Task 2: Configure TeraTerm Web to Establish a Console Session with the Router 288 Task 3: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 288 289 Task 4: Challenge 289 Packet Tracer Companion: Establishing a Console Session with PT Terminal (10.2) 289 Lab 10-4: Establishing a Console Session with Minicom (10.1.1) 290 Task 1: Connect a Router and Computer with a Console Cable 290 Task 2: Configure Minicom to Establish a Console Session with the Router 291 Task 3: Perform Basic Commands Task 4: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 292 293 292 Skills and Integration Challenge: Planning and Cabling Networks (10.3.2.3) 293 Task 1: Build the Network Topology Task 3: Interface Configuration Task 4: Testing Connectivity Chapter 11 295 294 294 Task 2: Create and Assign an Addressing Scheme 295 297 Configuring and Testing Your Network Configuring Cisco Devices: IOS Basics 297 Concept Questions 297 298 298 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Cisco IOS Command Exercises Test Your Knowledge 299 Applying a Basic Configuration Using Cisco IOS 299 Concept Questions 300 300 301 Multiple-Choice Questions Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Verifying Connectivity 301 Test Your Knowledge 301 Concept Question 301 .6.7.6.

xx Network Fundamentals.1.5.4.2.1) 327 326 Task 1: Configure Network Connectivity Task 3: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 333 335 328 329 Task 2: Use TFTP to Save and Restore a Cisco IOS Configuration Task 4: Challenge 333 Packet Tracer Companion: Managing Device Configuration (11.1.1) 335 336 Task 1: Design the Logical Lab Topology Task 3: Configure the Logical Topology Task 4: Verify Network Connectivity Task 5: Reflection Task 7: Clean Up 341 341 342 337 338 Task 2: Configure the Physical Lab Topology 338 340 Task 6: Challenge 341 Lab 11-5: Network Testing (11.5.3.5.5.2) Lab 11-4: Configure Host Computers for IP Networking (11.1) Task 1: Design the Logical Lab Topology Task 3: Configure the Logical Topology Task 4: Verify Network Connectivity Task 5: Reflection Task 7: Clean Up 350 351 Task 6: Challenge 350 343 345 Task 2: Configure the Physical Lab Topology 345 349 .3) 302 Task 1: Use the ping Command to Document Network Latency Task 3: Measure Delay Effects from Larger Datagrams Task 4: Reflection 308 Task 5: Challenge 309 Lab 11-2: Basic Cisco Device Configuration (11.3.5.5. CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide Lab 11-1: Network Latency Documentation with ping (11.2) Lab 11-3: Managing Device Configuration (11.4.2.1) 310 303 Task 2: Compute Various Statistics on the Output of a ping Capture 304 306 Task 1: Configure Cisco Router Global Configuration Settings Task 2: Configure Cisco Router Password Access Task 3: Configure Cisco Router Interfaces Task 4: Save the Router Configuration Files Task 5: Configure a Cisco Switch Task 6: Reflection Task 8: Clean Up 323 325 Task 7: Challenge 324 320 317 319 315 312 Packet Tracer Companion: Basic Cisco Device Configuration (11.

1) 366 Task 1: Prepare the Lab 367 368 370 372 Task 2: Review the Process of Data Flowing Through the Network Task 3: Analyze Captured Packets Task 4: Complete the Final Analysis Task 5: Conclusion Task 6: Summary 373 374 Skills Integration Challenge: Configuring and Analyzing Networks (11.5.xxi Lab 11-6: Network Documentation with Utility Commands (11.5.3) 374 Task 1: Plan 375 376 Task 2: Build and Configure the Network Task 3: Test and Analyze 377 Task 4: Reflection 377 .5.6.1.1) 352 Task 1: Design the Logical Lab Topology Task 3: Configure the Logical Topology Task 4: Verify Network Connectivity Task 5: Document the Network Task 6: Reflection Task 8: Clean Up 358 359 Task 7: Challenge 358 357 353 354 Task 2: Configure the Physical Lab Topology 354 356 Lab 11-7: Case Study: Datagram Analysis with Wireshark (11.6.

Square brackets [ ] indicate optional elements. Braces within brackets [{ }] indicate a required choice within an optional element. Braces { } indicate a required choice. In actual configuration examples and output (not general command syntax). Vertical bars (|) separate alternative. boldface indicates commands that are manually input by the user (such as a show command). CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide Icons Used in This Book Desktop Computer Laptop Firewall Packet Streaming Video IP Phone Switch Router Route/Switch Processor Phone Server Cloud Wireless Router Hub Printer Wireless Media LAN Media WAN Media Command Syntax Conventions The conventions used to present command syntax in this book are the same conventions used in the IOS Command Reference. mutually exclusive elements. Italics indicate arguments for which you supply actual values. ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ .xxii Network Fundamentals. The Command Reference describes these conventions as follows: ■ Boldface indicates commands and keywords that are entered literally as shown.

A Networking Academy delivers web-based content. Used to its fullest extent. In other words. Passing this foundation exam means that you not only have the required knowledge of the technologies covered by the exam. these exams are rigorously application based. matching. CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide is a supplement to your classroom and laboratory experience with the Cisco Networking Academy. you should do everything in your power to arm yourself with a variety of tools and training materials to support your learning efforts.cisco. To be successful on the exam and achieve your CCNA certification. This Labs and Study Guide is just such a collection of tools. and open-ended questions designed to help you ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Review vocabulary Strengthen troubleshooting skills Boost networking skills Reinforce concepts Research topics Each chapter also includes a Labs and Activities section that includes the online curriculum labs and a Packet Tracer Skills Integration Challenge activity. this book is designed to help you learn all the required materials of the first course in the Networking Academy CCNA Exploration curriculum. operate. The Study Guide sections of this book offer dozens of exercises to help you learn the concepts crucial to your success as a CCNA exam candidate. student performance tracking. where you can use Packet Tracer to complete a simulation of the lab. Goals and Methods First and foremost. The CCNA Exploration curriculum includes four courses oriented around the topics of the Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA) certification. Many of the hands-on labs include Packet Tracer companion activities. and troubleshoot these technologies. design. you will be better prepared to move on to the rest of the CCNA Exploration curriculum and ultimately to pass the CCNA certification exam (640-802). Each chapter also includes a culminating activity called the Packet Tracer Skills Integration Challenge. Network Fundamentals. implement. it will help you gain knowledge and practice the skills associated with the content areas of the CCNA Exploration Network Fundamentals course. Each chapter is slightly different and includes multiplechoice. . online assessment. and hands-on labs to prepare students for industry-standard certifications.xxiii Introduction The Cisco Networking Academy is a comprehensive e-learning program that provides students with Internet technology skills. These activities require you to pull together several skills learned from the chapter—and previous chapters and courses—to successfully complete one comprehensive exercise. but also that you can plan. You can view the exam topics any time at http://www. fill-in-the-blank.com/go/certifications. By establishing a firm foundation in the fundamental topics taught in this course.

Although Packet Tracer is not a substitute for real equipment. it allows students to practice using a command-line interface.xxiv Network Fundamentals. Packet Tracer version 4. Students can spend as much time as they like completing standard lab exercises through Packet Tracer. Lab activities are an important part of networking education. CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide A Word About Packet Tracer Packet Tracer is a self-paced. visual. Your instructor needs to follow those instructions to set up the labs for you accordingly. lab equipment can be a scarce resource. A Word About Eagle Server The CCNA Exploration courses are designed to provide a hands-on learning approach to networking. interactive teaching and learning tool developed by Cisco. The Eagle Server provides the following network services: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ DNS Web server FTP TFTP SSH Instant messaging Wiki server E-mail The Eagle Server is required to complete most of the labs in CCNA Exploration. The Eagle Server software and complete FAQ documentation can be downloaded by your instructor from the Tools section of Academy Connection. Many of the hands-on labs in Network Fundamentals are based on an Internet model that uses a local server to provide a range of network services and applications that students can experiment with in the lab environment. However. This “e-doing” capability is a fundamental component of learning how to configure routers and switches from the command line. The top-down approach adopted in the Network Fundamentals course enables students to set up and implement application layer services in a network lab environment. Packet Tracer provides a visual simulation of equipment and network processes to offset the challenge of limited equipment. . and have the option to work from home.x is available only to Cisco Networking Academies through the Academy Connection website. The Eagle Server is developed by the Cisco Networking Academy to provide network services and applications that are typically accessed over the Internet in an isolated lab environment.

as follows: ■ Chapter 1. to determine the number of subnetworks and hosts in a network. hands-on skills needed to use some critical tools. with the same numbers and similar names as the online course chapters. Activities and labs let you practice your skills using and configuring network applications such as Google Earth. Chapter 3. Internet Relay Chat. The questions and labs help you reinforce important concepts related to addressing. Work through the different types of questions to test your knowledge of the TCP/IP application and OSI application. blogs. The Lab Exercises portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum labs to further reinforce that you have mastered the practical. you should work through this Lab Study Guide in order. and network collaboration tools. the application layer. while other academies recommend the Companion Guides as an additional source of study and practice materials. “Communicating over the Network. Chapter 4. “Addressing the Network: IPv4. and session layer. How This Book Is Organized Because the content of Network Fundamentals. “Application Layer Functionality and Protocols. to help evaluate network communications. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide and the online curriculum is sequential. “Living in a Network-Centric World. Chapter 2. path determination.xxv Audience for This Book This book’s main audience is anyone taking the CCNA Exploration Network Fundamentals course of the Cisco Networking Academy curriculum.” provides exercises and labs to supplement your study of the basics of communication and how networks support the way we live. The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses different types of questions to test your knowledge of how devices communicate over the network. such as ping and trace. data packets. and protocols that enable network communication. security issues. Chapter 6. Chapters and Topics The book has 11 chapters. quality of service (QoS).” introduces the devices. wikis. such as Wireshark.” introduces you to the top network model layer. The labs further reinforce that you have mastered the skills needed to work with the application layer of the OSI model.” provides exercises and labs that focus on the role of the transport layer as it provides the end-to-end transfer of data between applications. Chapter 5. “OSI Network Layer. ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ . The questions in the chapter focus on network architectures. network components. and IP. This book has 11 chapters. or prefix length. beginning with Chapter 1. The book covers the major topic headings in the same sequence as the online curriculum for the CCNA Exploration Network Fundamentals course. This chapter also includes questions and labs related to Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) tools.” focuses on network addressing in detail and tests your knowledge of how to use the address mask. presentation.” introduces the concepts of routing packets from a device on one network to a device on a different network. scalability. media. and Packet Tracer. Many academies use this textbook as a required tool in the course. You learn how TCP and UDP apply to common applications. “OSI Transport Layer.

Becoming a member and registering is free. You will apply the knowledge and skills developed in the previous chapters to determine the appropriate cables to use.com website.asp and enter the book’s ISBN. About the Cisco Press Website for This Book Cisco Press may provide additional content that can be accessed by registering your individual book at the Ciscopress.” focuses on designing and cabling a network. Chapter 10. “Configuring and Testing Your Network. “OSI Physical Layer.com to continue registration. and Packet Tracer Challenge files that are referenced throughout the book as indicated by the Packet Tracer Activity. You can obtain updates to these files from the website for this book.” examines the technologies and operation of Ethernet. and Packet Tracer Challenge icons. Chapter 8. Use this chapter to reinforce that you have mastered the practical. how to connect devices. and you then gain access to exclusive deals on other resources from Cisco Press.” supplements your study of how the OSI data link layer prepares network layer packets for transmission. “OSI Data Link Layer. CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide ■ Chapter 7. Chapter 11. and setting speed and duplex settings. . Chapter 9. challenging labs that ask you to connect and configure a small network using basic Cisco IOS commands for routers and switches. To register this book. go to http://www. with a focus on ARP frames.ciscopress. The files will be updated to cover any subsequent releases of Packet Tracer. “Planning and Cabling Networks. “Ethernet.” provides questions and extensive. You’ll then be prompted to log in or join Ciscopress. and building and configuring a complex network. This chapter tests your ability to describe the encapsulation processes that occur as data travels across a LAN and a WAN. and protocols associated with the physical layer (Layer 1). which is located on its back cover. and how to develop an addressing and testing scheme.” provides questions and labs that explore the functions. connecting it to a switch. hands-on skills needed to understand and work with the OSI physical layer. Packet Tracer Companion. A Packet Tracer skills integration lab lets you simulate the steps of installing an Ethernet card in a PC. standards. a link to any supplemental content will be listed on your My Registered Books page.com/title/1587132036. The chapter also helps you study Media Access Control (MAC) and MAC addressing. You will configure Cisco routers and switches for basic network operations. Topics include the evolution of Ethernet technologies. Packet Tracer Companion.com/bookstore/register. This chapter continues the examination of Ethernet frames that you started in Chapter 7. A hands-on lab lets you practice your skills using Wireshark to capture and analyze Ethernet frames. http://www. and Address Resolution Protocol (ARP). The chapter also helps you develop skills related to examining Cisco switch MAC address tables. ■ ■ ■ ■ About the CD-ROM The CD-ROM included with this book has all the Packet Tracer Activity. A Packet Tracer skills integration lab provides an opportunity to practice IP subnetting. After you register the book. MAC.ciscopress.xxvi Network Fundamentals.

As you work through this chapter. and television. 2. How has data networking changed your community (your family. In addition to data networks. 3. and education. telegraphy. video. Study Guide Communicating in a Network-Centric World Humans are social animals who need to communicate with each other. newspapers. city. Communication was once limited to face-to-face conversations. Early data networks carried character-based messages between computer systems. play. hands-on skills needed to understand the opportunities and challenges associated with modern networks. radio.CHAPTER 1 Living in a Network-Centric World The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of matching. movies. what other breakthroughs in communication media have extended the reach of human interactions? Answers will vary but could include smoke signals. fill-in-the-blank. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum activities and labs to ensure that you have mastered the practical. text. telephony. the written word. school. multiple-choice. but it has evolved over the years to encompass many types of media. High-speed data networks that span the globe with cabling and networking devices have had a profound effect on human communication and will continue to revolutionize how humans interact with each other. use Chapter 1 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum or the corresponding Chapter 1 in Network Fundamentals. and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of the importance of data networks and the major components and characteristics of network architectures. ranging from paper to fiber-optic cabling. the printing press. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide for assistance. Concept Questions 1. and graphics. or country?) Answers will vary. . What types of network traffic do modern networks carry. and how has this changed human interactions? Answers will vary but should mention that modern networks carry voice. The addition of all these different types of network traffic has enabled the creation of online communities where geographic distances and physical limitations are no longer major obstacles and where humans around the globe can collaborate in their work.

communication networks include rules (or protocols) that help ensure reliable delivery of messages. 4. Packet Tracer is a Cisco collaborative learning tool that provides a way to build virtual representations of networks that behave much like actual networks. and learn. 5. 1. Students should include at least four of the following correct answers: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ The quality of the pathway between the sender and receiver The number of times a message changes form The number of times a message is redirected The number of times a message is readdressed The number of times a message is reformatted The number of other messages sharing the communication pathway Whether a confirmation of the message was returned to the sender The amount of time allotted for successful communication List three internal factors that affect data networks. Concept Questions 1. Instant Messaging (IM) is a form of online real-time communication between two or more people based on entered text. Factors that are external to the message can affect reliability. Communication: An Essential Part of Our Lives Communication helps us work. Rules help data networks function despite the many factors that can degrade communication. 3. A wiki is a web page that groups of people can edit and view together. 2.2 Network Fundamentals. as can internal factors that are related to aspects of the message itself. The message’s size The message’s complexity The message’s importance 2. A blog is a web page that is easy to update and edit by someone who wants to publish a record of his or her thoughts on a subject. List four external factors that affect data networks. play. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following questions. Because communication is so important. . Podcasting is an audio-based medium that lets people record audio and publish it on a website.

Engineers use a set of standard icons to refer to the elements. Figure 1-1 shows some of these icons.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 3 The Network as a Platform Data networks provide a platform for humans to communicate and thus play an increasingly important role in the business and personal lives of humans. and reliability that are required. Modern networks support fast and reliable message transfer among millions of users across the globe. and interpreted A means of interconnecting devices. Figure 1-1 Network Topology Icons B C A D F G H K IP E I J L . directed. Vocabulary Exercise: Define Table 1-1 lists the four fundamental elements of a network. network experts have standardized many elements and components of a data network. To achieve the scale. a physical environment. The figure shows a network topology for a typical small company. received. Fill in the definition for each element. speed. in which data is transferred A unit of information that travels from one device to another across a medium Equipment that connects directly to a network Vocabulary Exercise: Identify Networks consist of many elements. Network engineers often include these elements in network topology drawings. Table 1-1 Element Network Element Definitions Definition Rule Medium Message Device An agreement or protocol that governs how messages are sent. such as a cable or the air for wireless.

and instant messaging require a network to provide services. 2. In wired connections. Switch b. Serial link f. which carries data in the form of electrical signals. or the communication between devices on Earth and satellites in orbit. 3.4 Network Fundamentals. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Provide the name of each element in the network topology shown in Figure 1-1. Provides network security Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following questions. A device often found in home and small networks that lets laptop computers connect to a network without cabling c. Cloud f. Table 1-2 Device Network Devices Definition a. Protocols are the rules that network devices use to communicate. Summarizes a group of network elements in topology drawings d. the terrestrial wireless connection between two ground stations. . 4. One form of a wide-area network (WAN) connection a. Firewall c. Router d. e-mail. Wireless router e. match the term on the left with its definition on the right. which carries data in the form of light signals. Interconnects computers and cabling to form a local-area network (LAN) e. Connects two or more networks and directs messages as they travel across a set of networks b. the medium is either copper. Wireless media include the wireless connection between a wireless router and a computer in a home network. Network applications such as web browsing. 1. A Firewall B Router C WAN medium D Network cloud E Server F LAN medium G LAN switch H Wireless router I IP phone J Desktop computer K Wireless media L Laptop computer Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 1-2. or optical fiber.

which directs them to their destination. Fill in the definition for each characteristic. The Network Interface Card (NIC) converts the bits to electrical or optical signals and places them on the medium. and why are converged networks becoming so common? What advantages do converged networks offer? A converged network carries network traffic of many different types. including the Internet. simplify troubleshooting. The Internet’s architecture shares many of the same characteristics of any large network that supports numerous users. 2. 3. Many large networks. The Architecture of the Internet A network architecture describes a network’s physical infrastructure and the high-level services and protocols that move messages across that infrastructure. Converged networks have become common because they allow engineers to build one common infrastructure instead of multiple specialized networks. This can save money. TCP/IP is a set of standard protocols that is widely used in home and business networks as well as on the Internet. education networks. Answers will vary depending on how much students already know. At their destination. List the steps that take place on a network when you send an instant message. 2. 6. are also hierarchical. The computer converts the message to bits. including traffic that was once relegated to its own separate network. If they are just starting to learn networking and have grasped the information in “Elements of a Network” section in Chapter 1 of the curriculum and the Companion Guide. What is meant by the term converged network. and security. such as voice or radio. Concept Questions 1. with different tiers offering different levels of service. and enable advanced applications such as videoconferencing and online gaming. . the bits get converted back into a human-readable format. Messages must be converted to bits (binary coded digital signals) before they are sent to their destination. Vocabulary Exercise: Define Table 1-3 lists four fundamental characteristics of network architectures.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 5 5. Business networks. The bits arrive at a router. The bits travel through network devices such as switches in the LAN. quality of service. scalability. 4. 5. and the Internet must provide fault tolerance. their answers should read something like the following: 1.

Each tier can optimize its services for its unique role. The hierarchical structure also means that network traffic that is destined for a service that is local to the sender does not need to traverse to a central point for distribution.6 Network Fundamentals. Messages are divided into small blocks of data (packets) that can travel across many paths to the destination. Tier 2 providers are smaller and often provide regional service. For example. using all available resources. based on the requirements of the applications and their importance to users Measures taken to guard against unauthorized access to a network and the data traveling on the network Concept Questions 1. Why did the Internet designers choose packet switching instead of circuit switching? With circuit switching. such as AT&T and Verizon. Packets are routed according to the best path available at the time and can be routed around problem areas. 2. Tier 3 providers are smaller yet and focus on getting end users on the Internet. If there’s a problem with any device in the path during a call. A new call requires a new setup process that creates a new circuit. The problem of underutilized idle circuits is eliminated. Compare and contrast circuit switching and packet switching. a call goes through a setup process whereby a temporary path. 3. How does the Internet benefit from using a hierarchical architecture? The hierarchical architecture permits Internet service providers (ISP) of different levels. which improves scalability and fault tolerance. Why was fault tolerance a major focus of the initial design for the Internet? The United States Department of Defense (DoD) designed the network that evolved into the Internet with fault tolerance because the department was concerned about a military attack or other severe problem that could destroy numerous sites and transmission facilities. or circuit. With packet switching. there’s no requirement for call setup. is created through various switching locations between the sender and receiver. provide national and international connections and are optimized for carrying huge loads of traffic across the globe. because resources are used dynamically as packets arrive at switching locations. the circuit and its resources remain reserved until one end disconnects. . Even if no communication is occurring between the sender and receiver. Tier 1 providers. The early Internet designers chose packet switching because it provides better fault tolerance and scalability. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 1-3 Network Architecture Characteristics Definition Characteristic Fault tolerance Scalability Quality of service Security The capability of a network to withstand hardware and software failures and recover quickly when failures occur The capability of a network to expand quickly to support new users and applications without degrading performance for existing users A method of providing different priorities for different applications. the call is dropped and must be reestablished. The circuit is dedicated to the call for the duration of the call. Packets from different sources are intermixed.

Calls to an emergency response center are time-sensitive. with lots of starts and stops.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 7 4. resulting in a loss of confidence in the business Loss of sales and eventual company failure because of a loss of public trust in the company’s ability to maintain privacy. and coping with network attacks. for example. which are the rules that govern how packets are formatted. Production control in factories can be time-sensitive. but here are some examples based on the curriculum: Streaming video and audio are time-sensitive and will appear or sound choppy. 4. addressed. patents. a stock price could change while a buyer is making a purchase if traffic is delayed. 5. and delivered. Three fundamental security measures include ensuring confidentiality so that only intended and authorized recipients can read data. List some consequences of a network security breach. and content security. Answers will vary. The consequences of a lost control signal to an automated piece of heavy machinery. For example. with consequent loss of business Misdirected or lost personal or business funds Stolen company intellectual property (research ideas. . could cause death or dismemberment. The two types of network security concerns are network infrastructure security. Answers will vary. if their traffic is delayed. Business transactions can be time-sensitive. and ensuring availability so that timely and reliable access to services is not disrupted by security breaches. 1. confidentiality. 2. or designs. repelling. for example) Private customer contract details becoming known to competitors or made public. Tools to provide security for individual messages must be implemented on top of the underlying protocols. which protects the information carried in packets and stored on network-attached devices. and integrity Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following questions. Network firewalls can help ensure system reliability by detecting. 3. List some applications that are time-sensitive and the negative consequences of their packets getting dropped or delayed. which protects devices and cabling. The consequence of the calls being dropped or delayed include people dying or suffering needlessly with injuries. maintaining integrity to ensure that information is not altered in transmission. but here are some examples based on the curriculum: A network outage that stops communications and transactions.

More voice and video transmissions that require a level of consistent quality and uninterrupted delivery c. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Trends in Networking Data networks continue to evolve quickly. fault-tolerant. Multiple-Choice Questions Choose the best answer for each of the following questions. 1. More networks that are locked down so that new applications and services cannot be added d. Fewer applications as networks converge d. A fault-tolerant network supports users who have different viewpoints. Networks will need to be scalable. Software engineer 4. The increasing number of mobile users b. Which of the following is a relatively new information technology (IT) job title? a.8 Network Fundamentals. learn. Programmer b. Information security officer c. A fault-tolerant network can expand quickly to support new users and applications without causing errors for existing users. d. Which of the following are major trends that are contributing to the current evolution of networks? (Choose two. The need to protect networks from unauthorized access f. and flexible as users continue to depend on their networks to help them live. and play. b. Which of the following best defines a fault-tolerant network? a. More networks that are open and unconcerned with protection from unauthorized access 3.) a. Modern networks need to be ready to support increasing numbers of users who will make innovative use of the networks to enhance human communication. Which of the following is most associated with the concept of converged networks? a. Network technician d. work. . Fewer services as networks converge c. A fault-tolerant network limits the impact of hardware or software failures and recovers quick- ly when a failure occurs. More users wanting to access web pages in character mode b. A fault-tolerant network is built to withstand earthquakes. c. The need to support circuit switching 2. Increasing use of simplified network devices e.

d. A scalable network supports redundant connections so that alternative paths are available when a device or link fails. c. a. A scalable network is built to support high-altitude environments. A scalable network can expand quickly to support new users and applications without impact- ing the performance of the service being offered to existing users. A scalable network ensures that priorities are matched with the type of communication and its importance to an organization. Which of the following best defines a scalable network? satellite dishes on mountains.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 9 5. . including skyscrapers and b.

The version that fits most needs is the free version. is 30 minutes.1. a spreadsheet importer. Background Google Earth is a popular application that executes on the desktop of most operating systems.10 Network Fundamentals. Google Earth. Currently.google. Explain the hardware and software requirements needed to use Google Earth (free edition). The Google Earth Plus version includes GPS support. Experiment with Google Earth to explore continents. . Google Earth displays the Earth as a manipulated 2D or 3D image. depending on network speed.1. version 4. The popular world news channel CNN regularly uses Google Earth to show where a news story has occurred. and places of interest. The Google Earth Pro version is for professional and commercial use.com/product_comparison. countries.html contains a description of the versions. To use Google Earth. Estimated completion time. Use this link to answer the following questions: 1. it requires a broadband connection to the Internet. the following minimum computer hardware requirements must be met: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Operating system: Microsoft Windows 2000 or Windows XP CPU: Pentium 3 with 500 MHz System memory (RAM): 128 MB Hard disk: 400 MB of free space Network speed: 128 kbps Graphics card: 3D-capable with 16 MB of video RAM (VRAM) Screen: 1024×768 pixels. Which Google Earth version supports the highest resolution? Google Earth Pro supports 4800 pixels. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Labs and Activities Activity 1-1: Using Google Earth to View the World (1.4) Upon completion of this activity. 16-bit high-color screen Scenario This activity is to be performed on a computer that has Internet access and on which you can install software. The URL http://earth. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Explain the purpose of Google Earth. three versions of Google Earth exist. Explain the different versions of Google Earth. and other support features. Experiment with Google Earth features such as Help and Tutorial. Which versions support Tilt and 3D rotation? All versions 2.

answer the following questions: 1. They control the image magnification and position. choose User Guide to launch a default web browser and bring up the Google Earth User’s Guide (http://earth. only a compass is displayed. This handy feature provides a relative global position of the magnified image. Choose View > Overview Map.com/download-earth. Figure 1-2 Google Earth Opening Screen Task 2: Run Google Earth Refer to Figure 1-2. The mouse pointer must be moved close to the controls. navigation controls. Take a few minutes to browse the User’s Guide. Which mouse control zooms in and out? Right mouse button or scroll wheel. The Menu bar is located in the upper-left corner. mouse.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 11 Task 1: Install Google Earth If Google Earth is not installed on the computer. 3. Step 2: Review the navigation controls.com/userguide/v4/). What is the purpose of the left mouse button? It rotates the image. are located in the upper-right quadrant.html. . shown in Figure 1-3. the opening screen.google. Placemark. Before leaving the User’s Guide website. you may have to disable any popup blockers on your browser. Remember. Figure 1-2 shows the opening screen for Google Earth.google. The navigation controls. you can download the free application from http://earth. otherwise. and the Google Earth download should start automatically. List the three ways to move the image. On the Help menu. 2. Follow the installation instructions. Task 3: Navigate the Google Earth Interface Step 1: Use the Overview Map feature.

experiment with the Places > Sightseeing folder. Enter 95134. zip code. the reference is North (N) or South (S) of the equator. Try to find your home using the Search > Fly To folder. For example. and double-click that location. The coordinate measurements are in degrees. California What if you would like to “Fly To” London. The equator has a 0° latitude. On the left navigation bar. Common graticule is the grid created by the longitude and latitude lines as depicted on a globe. but the new house next door had not yet been built. UK? What data would you need to enter? London. UK Step 5: Use the Fly To feature. seconds. What U.S. The Royal Observatory. it’s the angle between a point and the equator. The image takes you to that site. the reference is East (E) or West (W) of the Royal Observatory. . Using the pointer and coordinates shown in the lower-left quadrant of the image. browse the surrounding area to see if you can determine approximately how old the image is. The second number is called the longitude. Is the resolution for your home the same quality as the Sightseeing location in Step 3? Answers will vary. When the location has been reached. the equator is an imaginary line dividing the globe into a Northern and Southern Hemisphere. Step 4: Experiment with the Search > Fly To folder. If the resolution for your neighborhood is sufficient. For longitude. is the international zero-longitude point. The combined longitude and latitude are called the common graticule.12 Network Fundamentals.S. and some location images are older than others. what are the coordinates of your home? Answers will vary. Some locations have better resolution than others.2D or 3D Zoom Rotate or Move Step 3: Use the Sightseeing feature. an image streaming indicator reports when the image resolution is complete. The first number is called the latitude. a U. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 1-3 Google Earth Screen Navigation Tools Tilt. For example. and tenths. one user commented that he found his home. United Kingdom. Step 6: View geographic coordinates. Choose View > Grid to display Google Earth Gridlines. Expand Sightseeing. minutes. For latitude. Geographic coordinates are displayed in the lower-left quadrant of the image. it’s the angle east or west of an arbitrary earth point. state and city are displayed? San Jose. choose a location that you want to see.

While enjoying the images.4. Locate and click Google Earth. Double-click Add or Remove Programs. Some type of database was used to store the image. Could the image be displayed faster if data compression techniques were used? Answers will vary. Step 3. Step 4. If so. satellite communication with an Earth station transmitted the image of your home to a ground location. Could someone eavesdrop on your network connection? Answers will vary. Task 6: Clean Up You may be required to remove Google Earth from the computer.com/support/bin/answer. .html. Use the following URL to learn about different coordinate systems: http://www. consider what digital communication resources were used. probably through several WANs and then to another LAN with a computer that returned the image to you. A LAN sent your image request across the Internet.colorado.5.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 13 Task 4: Reflection Google Earth can bring the world into your home or office.edu/geography/gcraft/notes/coordsys/coordsys. List several recent security vulnerabilities.google. depending on the slowest speed of all network connections in the path between the database repository and your computer. Task 5: Challenge Google Earth displays image coordinates in the lower-left quadrant of the image. turn off the computer. Activity 1-2: Identifying Top Security Vulnerabilities (1. Additional removal information is available at http://earth. Click Remove and follow the prompts. The delay in retrieving the image may have been short or long.3) Upon completion of this activity. Explain how threats are organized. For example. Consider network security. follow these steps: Step 1. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ ■ Use the SANS site to quickly identify Internet security threats. Step 2. Wikipedia also contains a useful definition of common geographic terms. Choose Start > Settings > Control Panel.py?answer=20738&ctx=sibling. Use the SANS links to access other security-related information. Unless instructed otherwise. Use the geographic coordinate system to describe your home with as much accuracy and detail as possible.

org/ and select items from the Resources menu. A letter indicates the category type. Network. Network and Other Devices Common Configuration Weaknesses . SANS contains several components. and so on). On the resources menu. You will use the SANS website as a tool for threat vulnerability identification. backup software. human behavior. Security.14 Network Fundamentals. database. There are two major hyperlink topics: ■ ■ N1. switches. including web. Task 1: Locate the SANS Resources Step 1. media players. understanding. You must complete this lab outside of the Cisco lab from a computer with Internet access. For additional information about the SANS site.sans. choose top 20 list. instant messaging. Mac Applications: Cross-platform. Using a web browser. and management servers Network devices: Network infrastructure devices (routers. Router and switch topics fall under the Network Devices category.sans. and numbers separate category topics. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Background One of the most popular and trusted sites related to defending against computer and network security threats is SANS. Audit. go to http://www. VoIP Servers and Phones N2. Open the SANS Top 20 List. personnel issues Special section: Security issues not related to any of the preceding categories ■ ■ ■ Scenario This activity introduces you to computer security vulnerabilities. The list is regularly updated with information related to the following: ■ ■ Operating systems: Windows.org. go to http://www. VoIP devices Human elements: Security policies. Figure 1-4 SANS Menu The SANS Top-20 Internet Security Attack Targets list is organized by category. How can a corporate security administrator quickly identify security threats? SANS and the FBI have compiled their list of the top 20 Internet Security Attack Targets at http://www. each a major contributor to information security. and defense. as shown in Figure 1-4.sans. SANS stands for SysAdmin. N. DNS servers. Estimated completion time is one hour. peer-to-peer. UNIX/Linux.org/top20/.

2. Network and Other Devices Common Configuration Weaknesses to jump to this topic. write a brief description of the solution as found on those pages. Note the CVE references. and click a sample CVE hyperlink. contains links with information about the vulnerability and possible solutions. and Tools.gov/ and the vulnerability summary page for the CVE. The CVE name is linked to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) National Vulnerability Database (NVD).2 Common Default Configuration Issues. References to Advisories. Step 3. Task 2: Review the SANS Resources Step 1. Overview: Answers will vary. Solutions. Answers will vary. The next heading. Range: Answers will vary. Fill in the following information about the vulnerability: Original release date: Answers will vary. Note: Because the CVE list changes. sponsored by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) National Cyber Security Division and US-CERT.nist. Step 1: Choose a topic to investigate. Open Google and search on wireless router passwords to return links to multiple sites that publish a list of wireless router default administrator account names and passwords. the current list may not contain the same vulnerabilities as those that were present at the time of this writing.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 15 Step 2: Click hyperlink N2. .2 (as of this writing) contains information about threats associated with default accounts and values. N2. The Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS) severity is displayed. Review the contents of N2. Step 2. For example. The last line under several topics’ references is Common Vulnerability Exposure (CVE). Last revised: Answers will vary. Fill in information about the vulnerability impact: CVSS Severity: Answers will vary. It contains a value between 1 and 10. Authentication: Answers will vary. which contains information about the vulnerability. Under the Impact heading are several values. Source: Answers will vary. Failure to change the default password on these devices can lead to compromise and vulnerability by attackers. Task 3: Collect Data The remainder of this lab walks you through a vulnerability investigation and solution. Using the hyperlinks. The link should open a new web browser connected to http://nvd. Step 2. Impact Type: Answers will vary.

unread e-mail may go unnoticed for a long period of time.1) Upon completion of this lab. Lab 1-1: Using Collaboration Tools: IRC and IM (1. and transfer files. If you want to communicate with more than one person at a time. IRC. It will also give representatives of the organization an opportunity to meet the class and conduct informal intern interviews. however. often called a Buddy List. Think about user habits that create security risks. Use IRC to demonstrate collaboration. a brief hands-on lab will demonstrate the ease of IRC. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ ■ Define Internet Relay Chat (IRC) and Instant Messaging (IM). the telephone cannot be used to transfer files. one person needs to “invite” another. Chat also provides a degree of anonymity. but this will provide beneficial information about how vulnerability mitigation is accomplished in the world. and data continues to increase. . It remains the responsibility of the end user to implement the solution. When you join. for security reasons.” In the chat room. Each of these windows represents a two-person communication. List several misuses of and data security issues involving IM. Task 5: Challenge Try to identify an organization that will meet with you to explain how vulnerabilities are tracked and solutions are applied. List several collaborative uses of IM. IM clients allow you to have an approved list of users. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 4: Reflection The number of vulnerabilities for computers. IRC and IM fit nicely into these requirements. share ideas. The recipient of the invitation knows about—and accepts—the IM session based on the other user’s screen name. However. What collaborators need for communication in the human network is a tool that has the flexibility of e-mail with the responsiveness of the telephone. you are said to “join a room. To initiate an instant message. IM provides one-on-one communication with “accepted” individuals. you typically create your own identity and can give as little information about yourself as you choose. unless the user constantly monitors the e-mail account. users can easily exchange ideas and files. Finding an organization willing to do this may be difficult. Governments have dedicated significant resources to coordinating and disseminating information about the vulnerability and possible solutions. on the other hand. Background E-mail permits multiple users to collaborate. networks.1. Although the following discussion focuses primarily on IM. allows multiple people to interact.16 Network Fundamentals.6. When people have wanted immediate contact. To start chatting. the telephone has been the technology of choice. Unfortunately. Think of ways that users can help strengthen security. you can open additional IM windows. Using the Internet or a private corporate network. IMing and chatting are both methods of real-time communication. they are implemented differently. you establish a connection to a Chat server and join a discussion on a particular topic.

This relationship is called an IM network. Voice over IP (VoIP). Text messaging between clients is possible and can be logged. The users on the end devices. notably with Session Initiation Protocol (SIP). Throughout this course we will learn about many different protocols. each with a dedicated following of users. can differentiate between the various IM network protocols. This arrangement is called a client/server relationship. such as Gaim and Trillian. Some IM networks offer audio services. Popular IM networks include America OnLine (AOL) Instant Messenger (AIM). called a protocol. The IETF formalized an open standard. ■ ■ ■ ■ Protocols Each IM network uses an agreed-upon method of communication. AIM and ICQ (purchased by AOL) use the proprietary Open System for Communication in Real Time (OSCAR) protocol. Yahoo! Messenger. Social misuse of IM has been a concern for parents. The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) has attempted to standardize IM protocols. and many IM networks encourage parental control. Windows Live Messenger (MSN). Figure 1-5 shows the AIM client application connected to the AIM network. Both Microsoft and Yahoo! have proprietary protocols but have partnered services for joint connectivity. use a piece of software called the Instant Messenger Client. numerous open-source protocols exist. desktop sharing. web conferencing. Figure 1-5 AIM Client Features IM services have several common features: ■ When an IM client connects to the IM network. This device is called the Instant Messenger Server. Applicable IETF references are RFC 3920 and RFC 3921. As with proprietary IM protocols. Newer services that some IM networks are beginning to provide include videoconferencing. any existing connections can be alerted through a contact list—a list of other people that you communicate with through the IM client.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 17 IM requires a device providing services that allows users to communicate. Some IM client applications. Child restrictions include limiting IM contacts and providing supervision while online. such as a computer. SIPv2 was originally defined in RFC 2543 and was made obsolete by RFC 3261. Many different IM networks are available. and the server joins clients. Jabber. based on the Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (EMPP). Many of the IM networks use proprietary protocols. IM servers can also incorporate this support. IM clients connect to an IM server. Encrypted communication is supported. File sharing between IM clients enables work collaboration. and even IP radio and IPTV. AIM and . and ICQ (I Seek You).

online time limits. providing IM services to handheld cellular phones. Even legitimate users can congest network throughput by transferring large files.4 How to Protect Against IM Vulnerabilities and Unauthorized IM Usage ■ Establish policies for acceptable use of IM. Another popular handheld appli- . Appropriately configure intrusion detection and prevention systems. Internet surfing. chat room blocking. ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ The Future of IM The future of IM is promising. viruses.) Monitor using an Intrusion Detection/Prevention system for users creating tunnels for IM or bypassing proxies. For example. IM clients and IM servers have experienced application vulnerabilities. categorized as malware. create a separate account to be used for his or her daily office functions. Do not rely on external IM servers for internal use of IM. Some parental supervision tools include background logging. If a user must have Administrative or Power User privileges. Standard users should not be permitted to install software. Computer worms. Employ antivirus and antispyware products. many organizations either limit or block IM from entering the corporate network. Without strong security methods. Create secure communication paths when using IM with trusted business partners. As a result. (Note: This offers only partial protection because of the number of potential protocols and associated ports and the ability of applications to bypass port restrictions. Ensure that all users are aware of those policies and clearly understand the potential risks. Filter all HTTP traffic through an authenticating proxy server to provide additional capabilities of filtering and monitoring IM traffic.sans. Restrict Administrative and Power User level privileges to support personnel acting in their support capacity. and the underlying operating system.org/top20/#c4: C4. Most popular cellular phone manufacturers have their own form of mobile IM. Ensure that vendor patches are promptly applied to IM software. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Yahoo! Messenger provide free supervision software tools. and online communication. The following list is from the SANS website at http://www. and disabling certain functions of the client. Understand that many IM applications can enable associated communications to masquerade as otherwise legitimate traffic (for example. The SANS Institute recommends several countermeasures that system administrators can use to protect their networks from IM vulnerabilities and misuse. which have resulted in vulnerable computers. Block access to known public IM servers that have not been explicitly authorized. HTTP). information exchanged between users can be captured and disclosed. provide a commercial-grade IM proxy or internal IM server. interrelated applications. enabling users to adapt new technologies for collaboration. Consider deploying products specifically designed for IM security. have been transferred to IM client computers. (Note: This offers only partial protection because of the number of potential external servers. Security Multiple security issues have been identified with IM.) Block popular IM ports. blocking specific users. mobile IM supports mobile users.18 Network Fundamentals. and Trojan horses.

a cloud is often used to symbolize a more complex network. such as the Internet. Step 2: Open the Accounts window. Open Gaim and select the Login window. and web browsing. but any IRC client may be used if available. If not. In this lab. In subsequent chapters you will study in great detail the devices and protocols that are inside the cloud. originally described in RFC 1459.” In networking. This lab uses Gaim as the IRC client. The BlackBerry supports common IM tools. telephony.com/pub. Figure 1-7 Gaim Accounts Window In the Accounts window. the cloud represents the network and networking devices between an IRC client and a server called eagle-server. download and install gaim-1. After verifying that the Gaim chat client is installed. Some of the labs in this book. icon Accounts. Figure 1-6 Topology for Lab 1-1 Eagle Server Pod#A Estimated completion time is 45 minutes. such as text messaging. Accept the default settings during the installation. Scenario Figure 1-6 shows two computers connected to a “cloud. click Add. follow the next steps to configure Gaim. Task 1: Configure the Chat Client The IRC protocol is an open standard. as well as push e-mail. Note: Eagle Server is a component of the Cisco Networking Academy. including this one.com. Step 1: Verify that an IRC client is on the lab computer. An IRC client is available for download from eagle-server at http://eagleserver. The Accounts window is shown in Figure 1-7.example.example.example. . for communicating across plain-text links.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 19 ance is the BlackBerry.exe (a Windows executable) from ftp://eagleserver.5. assume that a Cisco Networking Academy instructor has already set up Eagle Server and named it eagleserver.com/pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter1.0. which is not the current focus of this discussion.

In the Add Account window.example. used for chatting or IM. Return to the Login window. where the new account to eagle-server should be visible. Close the Accounts window. Figure 1-9 shows the IRC Connect Status window. Fill in required information. expand the Show more options option. as shown in Figure 1-8: ■ ■ ■ ■ Protocol: IRC Screen Name: (how others will know you) Server: eagle-server.20 Network Fundamentals. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Step 3: Add a new account. Click Sign-on. Figure 1-9 IRC Connect Status Window Figure 1-10 Gaim IRC Client Window .com Proxy type: No Proxy Gaim Add Account Window Figure 1-8 When you’re finished. Task 2: Connect to the Chat Server Step 1: Sign on. Two windows should open. click Save. Figure 1-10 shows the main Gaim IM client window.

you should understand the social and security issues with IM and IRC. the Channel name must start with #. you will be in a chat room alone (unless other students made a similar error). Most teenagers and young adults today are familiar with IMing between friends and sharing files. As a future network engineer. Answers will vary. Figure 1-12 Participating in a Chat During the chat. Click Chat. If the Channel name is incorrect. Multiple students can join and interact with each other. . as shown in Figure 1-11. the status window closes. Task 4: Reflection On a network with an Internet connection. but you might not understand the communication between the client and server. consider how you—as a parent or network administrator—would manage this type of connection. Task 3: Consider the Chat Session Figure 1-12 shows a brief chat between users root and student2.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 21 Step 2: Join the chat. the Gaim IM client can be used to connect to several different IM providers. When the IRC client connects to the IRC server. and a Buddy List window appears. Figure 1-11 Joining a Chat Note: For you to join a chat channel.

you explore the TWiki wiki server installed on Eagle Server in this lab. a cloud is often used to symbolize a more complex network that is not the current focus of discussion. If there are connectivity issues with the lab computer connecting to Eagle Server. Observe the response time before and during the file transfer. In subsequent chapters you will study in great detail the devices and protocols that are inside the cloud. A wiki can be installed for . Background The lab topology shown in Figure 1-13 should be configured and ready for use. files. Explore wiki features.2.1) Upon completion of this lab. Lab 1-2: Using Collaboration Tools: Wikis and Web Logs (1. or graphics to a common site for other users to read and modify. In this lab.” In networking. Figure 1-13 shows two computers connected to a “cloud. A wiki lets you access a home page (first page) that provides a search tool to assist you in locating the articles that interest you. To gain experience with a wiki. Write a brief description of the network response time—during file transfers and without file transfers. In networking terms. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 5: Challenge While you are connected in chat. you will be able to ■ ■ Define the terms wiki and blog. Figure 1-13 Topology for Lab 1-2 Eagle Server Pod#A Note to Instructor: The lab should be preconfigured for students. transfer files between partners. Use a continuous ping from the host to Eagle Server to monitor network throughput. If you have ever used Wikipedia. Task 6: Clean Up Check with your instructor before removing Gaim and shutting down the computer. ask the instructor for assistance. you will use a host computer that connects across the cloud to access the TWiki wiki server.22 Network Fundamentals. Scenario In this lab.6. you have the opportunity to learn about the different parts of a wiki. you are probably familiar with the look and feel of a wiki. Use the Orientation lab to configure and test connectivity before students arrive in class. Task 1: Define the Terms Wiki and Blog Wiki is a Hawaiian-language word that means fast. a wiki is a web-based collaboration tool that permits almost anyone to immediately post information.

visit the following URLs outside of class: http://www. Check out TWiki users. Task 2: Explore Wiki Features with the TWiki Tutorial The TWiki tutorial explores some of the more common features of a wiki. defining who is permitted to edit content. Get set. Edit and auto links are available to edit a page and automatically link pages. Note that you won’t be able to carry out the instructions in the “3. Point one browser at the TWiki URL. Change a page and create a new one.org/wiki. 7. Use your browser to upload files as page attachments. Get e-mail alerts whenever pages are changed.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 23 the Internet community or behind a corporate firewall for employee use. and e-mail has not been configured on the lab host computers. It covers the following major topics: 1. Some blogs permit users to leave comments and provide feedback to the author. 6.wikispaces. TWiki requires e-mail verification for new accounts. 5. Test the page controls. Instead. The power of a wiki is in the rich hyperlink content. Open a private account” topic. As you investigate each topic in the tutorial.wiki. The user not only reads wiki contents but also participates by creating content within a web browser. Open a private account. is similar to a wiki in that users create and post content for others to read. A wiki web is a grouping of pages with different collaboration groups. Free Internet blog hosting is available. 2. the following common features have been formalized into every wiki: ■ ■ Any web browser can be used to edit pages or create new content.. similar to a free website or e-mail account. Although many different wiki servers are available.com.cgi?WhatIsWiki http://www. 3.. Blogs are normally the creation of a single person. 8.com/ A web log. Access control can be set by the topic creator. ■ ■ ■ For more information on wikis. users have already been created for steps that require login privileges. Take a quick tour.blogger. complete the questions in this task. from such providers as www. It is recommended that you open two browsers. groups. but others are more restrictive. A search engine is used for quick content location. and the blog owner controls blog content. 4. called a blog. Text formatting is similar to creating an e-mail. and . Following hyperlinks can present continuity problems.

made up of two or more words with initial capital letters. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide use the other browser for “working” pages. so enter it exactly as shown. How many results are returned from a search of WebSearch? 5 Refer to the tutorial. Any external links that are selected will result in an error. First. Adjust the browser window sizes so that instructions can be viewed in one browser and actions can be performed in the other.. highlighted in Figure 1-14. you will not be able to register. Click the TWiki Tutorial link. that hyperlinks to the topic. The Sandbox.. “Open a private account.” E-mail is not possible at this time. The URL name is case-sensitive.” and topic 2. The key point to understand about this step is that registration is a two-part process. Figure 1-14 TWiki Sandbox Web Step 2: Open the TWiki Tutorial. List the mandatory information required for registration: First Name Last Name E-mail address Your password Retype password Organization name Country . topic 3. Refer to the tutorial.example.24 Network Fundamentals. user IDs have been created for you to use later in this lab. Step 3: Complete the TWiki tutorial. shown in Figure 1-14. “Take a quick tour. “Get set. topic 1. answer the following questions: What is a WikiWord? A WikiWord is a topic name.com/twiki/bin/view/Sandbox/WebHome. therefore.” After completing the first two tutorial sections. is a web topic designed to test wiki features. Instead. to open the wiki tutorial page. Open a web browser and connect to the TWiki Sandbox at http://eagleserver. Step 1: Establish a web client connection to the Eagle Server wiki. users fill in registration information and submit the form to TWiki.

such as who changed what and when View a previous version of the topic or the difference between two versions Goes to a stripped-down version of the page. Tutorial topic 5. r3 > r2 > r1.” is an opportunity for you to add content to the wiki. “Change a page and create a new one. and Raw View. memorable password. Backlinks. answer the following questions related to user and group issues: How is a user’s password reset? The user selects WikiWord “Reset Password” and enters the login ID. After completing this tutorial section. More. “Check out TWiki users.” makes you familiar with page-editing commands. At this time. Place the following action links: Attach. Table 1-4 Description Action Links Action Link Add to or edit the topic Show the source text without editing the topic Attach files to a topic Find out what other topics link to this topic (reverse link) Additional controls. History. Recognize the student who has the best topic page! . Edit.” A list of TWiki users and groups is displayed. Refer to the tutorial. place the correct action link next to the descriptions of page controls. The second part of the registration process is when the user either enters the code in the activation window or responds with e-mail by clicking the TWiki response link. Complete this tutorial. version control. Note to Instructor: This tutorial is an opportunity for the student to create a personalized page. Printable. topic 4. groups. and setting the topic’s parent Topics are under revision control—shows the topic’s complete change history. How can inappropriate changes be fixed in a wiki topic? A topic revision can be undone by a member of the TWikiAdminGroup. good for printing Edit Raw View Attach Backlinks More History r3 > r2 > r1 Printable Tutorial topic 6. The user logs in with the new password and creates a new.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 25 TWiki responds to a registration request by sending an e-mail to the user that contains a unique activation code. using Table 1-5 to log in to the wiki server. After completing this tutorial section. “Test the page controls. The TWiki system generates a new password and sends it to the user’s e-mail account. such as rename/move. the user account is added to the TWiki database. answer the following question: What is the latest revision number? 15 In Table 1-4.

You should use the account that reflects your pod and host computer number. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide On Eagle Server. All accounts have the same password. a group with private accounts has been created to allow participation in a private TWiki topic. located in the upper-left corner of the page. cisco. These accounts are StudentCcna1 through StudentCcna22. click the Log In link.26 Network Fundamentals. Refer to Table 1-5. Table 1-5 Account Logins Account Login ID (Case-Sensitive) Lab pod#host# Pod1host1 Pod1host2 Pod2host1 Pod2host2 Pod3host1 Pod3host2 Pod4host1 Pod4host2 Pod5host1 Pod5host2 Pod6host1 Pod6host2 Pod7host1 Pod7host2 Pod8host1 Pod8host2 Pod9host1 Pod9host2 Pod10host1 Pod10host2 Pod11host1 Pod11host2 StudentCcna1 StudentCcna2 StudentCcna3 StudentCcna4 StudentCcna5 StudentCcna6 StudentCcna7 StudentCcna8 StudentCcna9 StudentCcna10 StudentCcna11 StudentCcna12 StudentCcna13 StudentCcna14 StudentCcna15 StudentCcna16 StudentCcna17 StudentCcna18 StudentCcna19 StudentCcna20 StudentCcna21 StudentCcna22 From the lab Wiki Welcome Screen. See Figure 1-15. .

“Use your browser to upload files as page attachments. similar to the one shown in Figure 1-17.” details how to receive e-mail alerts whenever a particular page has been updated. “Get e-mail alerts whenever pages are changed. Both the username and password are case-sensitive. To complete this tutorial. Sometimes it is not convenient to return regularly to a . Figure 1-16 Login Box This should bring up your wiki topic page. What is the default maximum file size that can be transferred? 10 MB Tutorial topic 8. Enter the applicable TWiki username and password cisco.” describes the process of uploading files into the wiki. Figure 1-17 Wiki Topic Page Tutorial topic 7. create a document using Notepad. and upload it to the wiki server.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 27 Figure 1-15 Log In Link A login box similar to the one shown in Figure 1-16 should appear.

Internet access is required. Because e-mail is not configured on the host computer.org/wiki/Network_Plus_Certification/Study_Guide Network Dictionary: http://wiki.org/ Task 4: Challenge Depending on the type of Eagle Server installation.com: CiscoStudentsStuff Task 3: Reflection This lab presented the mechanics of a wiki. ] wikiName : topics ° ccna1@example. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide wiki simply to check for updates to postings. and Table 1-6 reflects the addressing information.nyetwork. Packet Tracer Challenge Skills Integration Challenge: Introduction to Packet Tracer (1.org/wiki/CCNA_Certification Cisco Systems corporate history: http://en. Answers will vary.1. Edit the WebNotify page.com/index. Task 5: Clean Up Close all web browsers and shut down the computer unless instructed otherwise. Here are some wikis of possible interest: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ CCNA: http://en.php/Main_Page Wireshark network protocol analyzer: http://wiki.wikipedia.7. alerts are not sent. Usefulness and collaboration will not be realized until you actually join a wiki. ] wikiName three spaces * SMTP mail address three spaces * SMTP mail address : topics three spaces * [ webname . and add the web name and your e-mail address. Create a personal blog of your network education experience. Here’s a possible format: three spaces * [ webname . the class may be able use the TWiki wiki server to post interesting topics related to computer network theory and class progress.wikibooks. .networkdictionary.org/wiki/Cisco Network+: http://en. ] wikiName . Describe how you could receive e-mail notifications whenever a topic changes.3) Figure 1-18 shows the topology for this challenge.SMTP mail address three spaces * [ webName .wireshark.org/wiki/Cisco_Systems Wiki web about Cisco equipment and technology: http://www.wikibooks.28 Network Fundamentals.

10. Review the standard lab setup.6 10.255.0 255.1.16.16.255.254 172.254.16.0 255.255. Describe the devices.255. Explore the Logical Workplace.254 192.168.16.5 172.10.1.255.254.255.252 255.255.0 255.253 10.6 172.0.254 172.252 255. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Explore Packet Tracer Real-time mode.0.0.255.10. Connect devices.6 172.255.1 172.0.255.254 255. .16.1 172. Explore Packet Tracer operation.168.0 255.254.16.255.10.255.16.254 10.10.2 192. Examine a device configuration.255.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 29 Figure 1-18 Topology for Skills Integration Challenge 1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server 2960-24TT S1-Central 1841 R2-Central PC-PT 1A PC-PT 1B Table 1-6 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP R2-Central S1-Central PC 1A PC 1B Eagle Server Fa0/0 S0/0/0 Fa0/0 S0/0/0 VLAN 1 NIC NIC NIC 192.10.168.255.254.10.0 255.255.10.0 — — 10.255.253 Upon completion of this activity.

pkt files (network simulation model files) and . a description of the device appears in the text box below the specific devices.pka files (activity files for practice). is the portion of the interface that you use to select and place devices into the Logical Workplace. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Background Throughout the course you will use a standard lab setup created from actual PCs. This is the large area where devices are placed and connected. When you launched this activity from the curriculum. Click the connections group symbol. the specific devices in the group appear in the box to the right. routers. . As you move the mouse pointer over these symbols. Packet Tracer is a supplement and not a replacement for experience with real equipment. You are encouraged to compare the results obtained from Packet Tracer network models with the behavior of real equipment. As you point to the specific devices. They are the result of the . Task 2: Explore PT Operations Step 1: Connect the devices using auto connect. equipment. When you click this symbol. and features but only a fraction of what is possible with real equipment. Open the file LSG01-PTSkills1. and switches to learn networking concepts. below the yellow bar. Because equipment and time are limited. automatically selects the connection type based on the interfaces available on the devices.pkt file format.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to perform this exercise using Packet Tracer. You are also encouraged to examine the Help files built into Packet Tracer. When Packet Tracer starts. these instructions appeared.pka Packet Tracer activity file format. This method provides the widest range of features and the most realistic experience. The lower-left portion of the PT interface. When you click one of these symbols. this experience can be supplemented by a simulated environment. The specific connection symbols provide different cable types that can be used to connect devices. Reset Activity restarts the activity if you want to clear your work or get more practice. The main part of the PT interface is the Logical Workplace. servers.30 Network Fundamentals. Task 1: Explore the PT Interface Step 1: Examine the Logical Workplace.” tutorials. Click each group. the pointer resembles a cable connector. and information on the strengths and limitations of using Packet Tracer to model networks. Step 2: Explore symbols navigation. The first specific type. Packet Tracer can create two file formats: . This activity gives you an opportunity to explore the standard lab setup using the Packet Tracer simulator. At the bottom of these instructions are two buttons: ■ ■ Check Results gives you feedback on how much of the activity you have completed. Packet Tracer provides a set of protocols. which include an extensive “My First PT Lab. it presents a logical view of the network in realtime mode. the name of the group appears in the text box in the center. When you create your own networks in Packet Tracer. you will often use the . the gold lightning bolt. or modify existing files from your instructor or your peers. The simulator that is used in this course is Packet Tracer. The first box in the lower left contains symbols that represent groups of devices. and study the various devices that are available and their symbols.

The Desktop tab allows the user to configure IP address. New modules can also be added using this tab. . port status. Click each device type found in the Logical Workplace to view the device configuration: ■ Router and Switch devices contain three tabs—Physical. click the auto connection symbol. PC displays IP address. and VLAN membership. As you move the mouse pointer over these symbols. MAC address. A terminal emulator. subnet mask. New modules can also be added using this tab. port status. Connect PC-PT 1A to the S1-Central switch. the device configurations appear in a text box: ■ Router displays port configuration information. ■ Server and Hub devices contain two tabs—Physical and Config. such as device name. the command prompt. and MAC address. and CLI (command-line interface). click the first device. Config. including IP address. Config. Switch displays port configuration information. and gateway information. make the following connection: ■ ■ Connect Eagle Server to the R1-ISP router. The CLI tab allows the user to configure the device using the command-line interface. Step 2: Examine device configuration with a mouseover. The Physical tab displays components of the device. such as modules. The Physical tab displays components of the device. DNS. dialup. ■ ■ ■ Step 3: Examine device configuration. including IP address. MAC address. subnet mask. DNS server. such as device name. ■ PC devices contain three tabs—Physical. Server displays IP address. default gateway. The Config tab displays the general information. and Desktop.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 31 To connect two devices. and then click the second device. and wireless. IP address. Using the auto connection symbol. The Physical tab displays physical components of the device. The Config tab displays the device name. and gateway information. and a simulated web browser can also be accessed using the Desktop tab. Move the mouse over the devices found in the Logical Workplace. such as ports. and gateway information. The Config tab displays the general configuration information. New modules can also be added using this tab. MAC address.

and connections. IP addresses. Each of these devices is preconfigured with such information as device names. Task 4: Reflection You have completed your first Packet Tracer lab. gateways. You are encouraged to obtain Packet Tracer from your instructor or Academy Connections. if you have not done so already. . one switch. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 3: Review the Standard Lab Setup The standard lab setup consists of two routers. one server. and two PCs.32 Network Fundamentals.

3. use Chapter 2 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum or use the corresponding Chapter 2 in the Networking Fundamentals. What is the process used to allow many different conversations to be interleaved on a network called? Multiplexing 4. matching. Concept Questions 1. ■ ■ ■ What are the three elements of communication? Message source or sender Destination or receiver Channel or media What is the process of breaking large messages. fill-in-the-blank. that must be sent from one individual or device to another. hands-on skills needed to use some critical tools to help evaluate network communications. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide. All of these methods have three elements in common.CHAPTER 2 Communicating over the Network The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of multiple-choice. for assistance. or information. easier-to-manage pieces called? Segmentation 2. People exchange ideas using many different communication methods. What are these three types? Metallic wires within cables Glass or plastic fibers (fiber-optic cable) Wireless transmission ■ ■ ■ . As you work through this chapter. into smaller. and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of how devices communicate over the network. or flow of data. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum activities and labs to further reinforce that you have mastered the practical. Modern networks primarily use three types of media to interconnect devices. Study Guide The Platform for Communications Communication begins with a message.

WANs. and is designed to be accessible only by the organization’s members. Computer. . Cat5 cable. or others with authorization. web browser In Table 2-2. PDAs) Network access devices (hubs. Services b. router c. wireless connection. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks for the following statements. web servers) Mobile handheld devices (such as wireless barcode scanners. file servers. match the definition on the right with a term on the left. WANs. and wireless access points) Network printers Internetworking devices (routers) VoIP phones Communication servers and modems Security cameras Security devices (firewalls) End devices End devices Intermediary device End devices Intermediary device End devices Intermediary device End devices Intermediary device LANs. 1.34 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 2-1. and internetworks. switches. E-mail. and Internetworks Network infrastructures can vary greatly in terms of the following: ■ ■ ■ The size of the area covered The number of users connected The number and types of services available This section tests your knowledge of the differences between LANs. laptops. employees. The term intranet is often used to refer to a private connection of LANs and WANs that belongs to an organization. switch. Devices b. Table 2-2 Definition End or Intermediary Device Device Type Computers (work stations. Media c. Table 2-1 Term Components of the Network Definition a. identify the definition on the left with either end devices or intermediary devices on the right. fiber-optic cable a.

it might be necessary to use a telecommunications service provider (TSP) to interconnect the LANs at the different locations. a. The media connecting the PC to the networking device plugs directly into the NIC. b.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 35 2. match the term on the left with the correct symbol number from Figure 2-1. Internetworks In Table 2-4. 3. Table 2-4 Device LANs. WANs. WANs c. campus. and Internetworks Number Router Firewall Wireless access point LAN hub LAN switch IP phone Wireless router Wireless media Server Laptop LAN media Desktop computer WAN media 1 7 9 3 2 8 10 13 4 6 12 5 11 . 4. or region. A global mesh of interconnected networks. and Internetworks Definition a. Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 2-3. providing services and applications to people within a common organizational structure. Table 2-3 Term LANs. An individual network usually spans a single geographic area. WANs use specifically designed network devices to make the interconnections between LANs. WANs. match the definition on the right with a term on the left. such as a single business. c. LANs b. A LAN is usually administered by a single organization. When a company or organization has locations that are separated by large geographic distances.

2. 4. is governed by predetermined rules called protocols. whether face to face or over a network. Concept Questions 1. Successful communication between hosts on a network requires the interaction of many different protocols. 1. A group of interrelated protocols that are necessary to perform a communication function is called a protocol suite. ■ What processes do networking protocol suites describe? The process by which networking devices share information about pathways with other networks How and when error and system messages are passed between devices The setup and termination of data transfer sessions ■ ■ . These protocols are specific to the characteristics of the conversation. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks for the following statements. whether face to face or over a network. The most common internetwork protocol is Internet Protocol (IP). is governed by predetermined rules called protocols.36 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 2-1 Common Data Network Symbols 1 7 2 IP 8 3 9 4 10 11 5 12 6 13 Protocols All communication. All communication. A standard is a process or protocol that has been endorsed by the networking industry and ratified by a standards organization. 3.

Transport layer e. Protocols describe methods for exchanging data frames between devices over a common media. and deactivate physical connections for bit transmission to and from a network device. g. and the interaction with the layers above and below it. Provides services to the presentation layer to organize its dialogue and to manage data exchange. Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 2-5. Uses packet sequencing and application mapping through port numbers a. Table 2-5 Term TCP/IP Model Definition a. Internet layer d. c. Network layer . ■ What are some benefits to using a layered model to describe network protocols and operations? Assists in protocol design. Provides the means for end-to-end connectivity between individuals in the human network using data networks. match the definition on the right with a term on the left. Network access layer b. maintain. and procedural means to activate. match the definition on the right with a term on the left. Controls the hardware devices and media that make up the network c. Table 2-6 Term OSI Model Definition a. A layered model depicts the operation of the protocols occurring within each layer. Application layer b. b. Presentation layer c. because protocols that operate at a specific layer have defined information that they act upon and a defined interface to the layers above and below Fosters competition because products from different vendors can work together Prevents technology or capability changes in one layer from affecting other layers above and below Provides a common language to describe networking functions and capabilities ■ ■ ■ Using Layered Models To visualize the interaction between various protocols. it is common to use a layered model. Determines the best path through the network In Table 2-6. Session layer f. Transport layer c. a. Describes the mechanical. Provides for common representation of the data transferred between application layer services. Application layer b. Represents data to the user plus encoding and dialog control d. electrical.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 37 2. continues d. functional. Ensures that loss of connection can be recovered and reset if data flow is interrupted before all data is received.

Hubs d. Multiple-Choice Questions Choose the best answer for each of the questions that follow. Data link layer g. Layer 2 c. Which devices make Layer 3 decisions? a. What kind of protocols are primarily designed to move data from one local network to another local network within an internetwork? a. 1. the host physical address. is contained in the header of the Layer 2 protocol data unit (PDU). Using the OSI model as a guide. d. and reassemble the data for individual communications between the end devices. A unique dialogue between devices is identified with a pair of Layer 4 source and destination port numbers that are representative of the two communicating applications. Layer 4 2. 1. Layer 1 b. The first identifier. The Layer 2 address is unique on the local network and represents the address of the end device on the physical media. this address is called the Media Access Control (MAC) address. Switches c. Physical layer e. transfer. Provides connectivity services that route packets from source network to destination network. Layer 3 d. 2. Layer 2 is concerned with the delivery of messages on a single local network.38 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 2-6 Term OSI Model continued Definition f. Servers . Routers b. called a frame. In a LAN using Ethernet. Network Addressing Various types of addresses must be included in a packet to successfully deliver the data from a source application running on one host to the correct destination application running on another. you can see the different addresses and identifiers that are necessary at each layer. Defines services to segment. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks for the following statements.

If multiple websites (mirrors) are available for the same file of data. NeoTrace uses available online information to graphically display the route traced on a global map. Each router represents a point where one network connects to another network and the packet was forwarded through. First. you might have to turn your firewalls off for this lab. for example. Note. . and then the more enhanced NeoTrace program. two trace routes between the same source and destination conducted some time apart might produce different results. such as tracert and NeoTrace. This lab assumes the installation of NeoTrace.5. Remember. The displayed list can help identify data-flow problems when trying to access a service such as a website. The number of routers is known as the number of “hops” the data traveled from source to destination. This network tool is typically executed in UNIX and similar systems at the command line as follows: traceroute <destination network name or end device address> This network tool is typically executed in Microsoft Windows systems at the command line as follows: tracert <destination network name or end device address> This tool determines the route taken by packets across an IP network. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ Explain the use of route tracing programs. you use two route-tracing programs to examine the Internet pathway to destination networks. Background Route-tracing software is a utility that lists the networks data has to traverse from the user’s originating device to a distant destination network device. By showing a list of routers traversed. one can trace each mirror to get a good idea of which mirror would be the fastest to use. It can also be useful when performing tasks such as downloading data.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 39 Labs and Activities Activity 2-1: Using NeoTrace to View Internetworks (2.2.1) Upon completion of this activity. that because of the “meshed” nature of the interconnected networks that make up the Internet and IP’s capability to select different pathways over which to send packets. Scenario Using an Internet connection. Tools such as traceroute/tracert are usually embedded within the operating system of the end device. some computers running Windows XP might have firewall programs enabled that might prevent tracert and NeoTrace from operating. it enables the user to identify the path taken to reach a particular destination on the network or across internetworks. however. You should perform this activity on a computer that has Internet access and access to a command line. Describe the interconnected and global nature of the Internet with respect to data flow. you use the Windows embedded tracert utility. The traceroute (or tracert) tool is often used for network troubleshooting. Use tracert and NeoTrace to trace a route from its PC to a distant server. Others such as NeoTrace are proprietary programs that provide extra information.

br1.sprintlink.LON3.net [195.g-win.g-win.16.11] 194.dillingen. Example 2-1 tracert Output C:\> tracert www.gblx.de [188.69] sl-bb20-rly-15-1.95.com [128.sprintlink.net [208.de [188. Without this name resolution.5] sjck-sdf-ciod-gw1.3.133.FRA2.FRA2.219.14] sjck-dirty-gw1.25] Over a maximum of 30 hops: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 <10 ms <10 ms 20 ms <10 ms <10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 30 ms 30 ms 30 ms 100 ms 110 ms 171 ms 161 ms 160 ms 170 ms 170 ms 160 ms 160 ms 10 ms <10 ms <10 ms <10 ms <10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 30 ms 30 ms 30 ms 100 ms <10 ms <10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 20 ms 20 ms 31 ms 90 ms 10-37-00-1.44. Examine the output displayed.174] pos1-0-622M. Step 2.net [144.dfn.internal.cr1.net [144.alp. .sprintlink.228.134] sl-ciscopsn2-11-0-0.37.de [188.net [144.sprintlink.net [144.73] so0-0-0-2488M.ar2. because this tool operates at the TCP/IP layers.cisco.de [10. enter tracert www.dfn.3.net [62.48.74.232.gblx. If DNS is not available.18.g-win.317.cisco.dfn.cisco.gblx.com [198.com [198.25] 110 ms 110 ms 160 ms 170 ms 160 ms 170 ms 181 ms 160 ms 151 ms 160 ms 151 ms 160 ms 160 ms 161 ms 150 ms 161 ms Trace complete.232.cisco. The first output line should show the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) followed by the IP address.1.141] pos3-0-622M.239.sprintllink.133.1.239.232.107. To trace the route to a distant network.207.1.cisco.81] so-6-0-0.131. which understand valid IP addresses only.net [144.de [188.694] sl-bb22-sj-5-1. How many hops between the source and destination? Answer varies based on location Example 2-1 shows the successful result when running tracert www.dfn.32.210] sl-gw11-sj-10-0.cr2.23.net [144.com [128.145] ar-augsburg1. the PC being used must have a working connection to the class/lab network.1.107.net [213.com from a location in Bavaria.106] www. the tracert would have failed. Step 3. Germany. At the command-line prompt.232.8. the IP address of the destination device rather than the server name has to be entered after the tracert command.gblx.0.74.219.8. The lab Domain Name Service (DNS) server was able to resolve the name to an IP address.96.cisco.g-win.19.com.25] sl-bb20-msq-10-0.40 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 1: Trace Route to Remote Server Step 1.sprintlink.LON3.net [195.sprintlink.33] cr-frankfurt1.96.9.232.193] cr-muenchen1.19.189] sl-bb21-lon-5-0.cisco.com Tracing route to www. Trace the route to a distant network.206.125] sl-bb25-sj-12-0.11 ar-augsburg2.

Step 2. and examine your output. Step 4. Try the same trace route on a PC connected to the Internet and examine your output: Number of hops to www.cisco. you can click the Advanced button. and in the Home Location section click the Set Home Location button. followed by the IP address. a DNS server was able to resolve the name to an IP address.com: Answer varies based on location Step 5. Step 5. From the View menu. Destination URL: Answer varies based on URL Destination IP address: Answer varies based on URL Task 2: Trace Route Using NeoTrace Step 1. Step 6. Task 4: Challenge Consider and discuss possible network security issues that could arise from the use of programs such as traceroute and NeoTrace. On the View menu. . properly shut down the computer. Map View from the View menu displays the links and routers in their geographic location on a global map. Click the Map tab. Unless instructed otherwise by your instructor. Launch the NeoTrace program. Try a number of different URLs and view the routes to those destinations. Alternatively. Task 3: Reflection Review the purpose and usefulness of route-tracing programs. Step 7. Consider which technical details are revealed and how this information could perhaps be misused.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 41 The first output line shows the FQDN. Step 4.cisco. Select each view in turn and note the differences and similarities. Relate the displays of the output of NeoTrace to the concept of interconnected networks and the global nature of the Internet. List View displays the list of routers similar to tracert. choose Options. which enables you to enter the precise latitude and longitude of your location. Step 3. Task 5: Clean Up Exit the NeoTrace program. Then. Node View from the View menu displays the connections graphically with symbols. Enter www. there are listings of all routers through which the tracert requests had to pass to get to the destination. Follow the instructions to select your country and location within your country. Try another trace route on the same PC. Therefore.com in the Target field and click Go.

two or more devices communicate through an address.6. you need to understand clearly which cables to use for your network connections.1. which allows the data to reach the appropriate destination device. Verify basic connectivity on each network. Physically cable a peer-to-peer and switched network. Addressing for this lab is applied to the workstations and is used to enable communication between the devices. In addition. as shown in Figure 2-2. The type of media required depends on the type of device being connected.42 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Lab 2-1: Topology Orientation and Building a Small Network (2. The network layer (Layer 3) requires a unique address (also known as a logical address or IP address). Figure 2-2 Topology for Lab 2-1 Peer-to-Peer Network Switched Network . In the basic portion of this lab. Background Many network problems can be fixed at the physical layer of a network. Scenario This lab starts with the simplest form of networking (peer to peer) and ends with the lab connecting through a switch. Therefore. At the physical layer (Layer 1) of the OSI model.1) Upon completion of this lab. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ Correctly identify cables for use in the network. you use straight-through or patch cables to connect workstations and switches. end devices must be connected by media (cables).

Note: These steps must be completed on each workstation. The instructions are for Windows XP. with icons showing the different network connections. On your computer. Figure 2-3 Peer-to-Peer Cabling Which cable did you use? Crossover cable Step 2. right-click My Network Places. Connect two workstations. This is an Ethernet cable. a. use the following step-by-step instructions. Use a crossover cable to connect two workstations to each other through their network interface card (NIC) Ethernet port. The Network Connections window should appear. See Figure 2-4. Select a lab partner. Notice when you look at the plug that the orange and green wires are in opposite positions on each end of the cable. Steps may differ slightly if you are using a different operating system. and then click Properties.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 43 Task 1: Create a Peer-to-Peer Network Step 1. Step 2. connect two workstations together. Using the correct Ethernet cable. Use a straight-through cable to connect the router’s Ethernet port to a switch port or a workstation to a switch port. . Notice when you look at the plug that both ends of the cable are exactly the same in each pin position. This is also an Ethernet cable. as shown in Figure 2-3. Task 3: Cable the Peer-to-Peer Network Step 1. Apply a Layer 3 address to the workstations. The cables used in this lab are crossover and straight-through. click Start. To complete this task. Connect one end of the cable to the NIC port on PC1 and the other end of the cable to PC2. Obtain the following equipment and resources for the lab: ■ ■ ■ ■ Two workstations Two straight-through (patch) cables One crossover cable One switch (or hub) Task 2: Identify the Cables Used in a Network Before the devices can be cabled. you must identify the types of media you intend to use.

1. e. Enter the IP address 192. In the IP address box.2 for PC1. . select the Use the following IP address option. c. On the General tab of the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties window. Select the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) item as shown in Figure 2-5.44 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 2-4 Network Connections b.1.168. Right-click the Local Area Connection and click Properties.168. enter the IP address 192.3 for PC2. Figure 2-5 Local Area Connection Properties d. and then click the Properties button.

You can enter DOS commands using this window. . If this address is not automatically listed.0. and then click OK.255. the subnet mask lists automatically. enter the address manually. Figure 2-7 Run Command Enter cmd in the Open box. For the purposes of this lab.255. On your computer. Verify connectivity. The subnet address should be 255. Figure 2-6 Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties g. h. and then click Run. you enter basic network commands to test your computer connections. The dialog box shown in Figure 2-7 appears. Close the Local Area Connection Properties window. click Start.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 45 f. Step 3. The DOS command (cmd.exe) window will appear as shown in Figure 2-8. Click OK. Press the Tab key. as shown in Figure 2-6.

1.168.1.3: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 192. enter ping 192. troubleshoot as necessary. Step 4.1.168. server. router.1.3: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 192.168.168.168. From the PC1 DOS command prompt.3: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 192.1. What is the output of the ping command? Answer for PC1: Reply from 192.168.168.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 192. From the PC2 DOS command prompt. Use the ping command to verify that PC1 can reach PC2 and PC2 can reach PC1.1.168.1.1.2.1.3. Possible areas to troubleshoot include the following: ■ Verifying the correct IP addresses on both workstations .2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 If the ping command displays an error message or doesn’t receive a reply from the other workstation.1. enter ping 192.46 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 2-8 cmd Command The ping command is a computer network tool used to test whether a host (workstation.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 192.3: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Answer for PC2: Reply from 192.168.168.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 192. and so on) is reachable across an IP network.

as shown in Figure 2-9. Connect the workstation to a switch. Figure 2-9 Switched Network 1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server 2960-24TT S1-Central 1841 R2-Central PC-PT 1A PC-PT 1B Step 2. Using the correct cable. Repeat this process for each workstation on your network.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 47 ■ Ensuring that the correct type of cable is used between the workstations What is the output of the ping command if you unplug the network cable and ping the other workstation? Answer for PC1: Destination host unreachable Destination host unreachable Destination host unreachable Destination host unreachable Task 4: Connect Your Workstations to the Classroom Lab Switch Step 1. connect one end of the cable to the NIC port on the workstation and the other end to a port on the switch. Which cable did you use? Straight-through cable .

When you can see it and work with the file. A hand symbol will appear under the icon. switch powered off Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Topology Orientation and Building a Small Network (2. Verify connectivity. The test folder should appear. Right-click the folder and click Sharing and Security.3: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 192.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab2612. Share a document between PCs.1. On your desktop. double-click My Network Places and then Computers Near Me. and media disconnected What could prevent the ping from being sent to the workstations when they are connected through the switch? Wrong IP address. Verify network connectivity by using the ping command to reach the other workstations attached to the switch. pinging wrong IP address.168. Place a file in the folder.48 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Step 3.168.168. On the desktop. Remember.1. Task 5: Reflection What could prevent a ping from being sent between the workstations when they are directly connected? Wrong IP address on workstation. Double-click the workstation icon. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity. however. create a new folder and name it test. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment.1. .pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer.168. media disconnected. you have access through all seven layers of the OSI model.3: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 192.3: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 192.1. What is the output of the ping command? Answer for PC1: Reply from 192.3: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 What is the output of the ping command if you ping an address that is not connected to this network? Answer for PC1: Request timed out Request timed out Request timed out Request timed out Step 4. You can access this folder across the network.1.6. or a misconfiguration of the switch.

org.1) Upon completion of this lab. and Wireshark must be running before any data can be captured. software and protocol development.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 49 Lab 2-2: Using Wireshark to View Protocol Data Units (2. go to http://www. Scenario To capture PDUs.Wireshark. the sniffer “captures” each protocol data unit (PDU) and can decode and analyze its content according to the appropriate RFC or other specifications. Wireshark was known as Ethereal. A packet sniffer (also known as a network analyzer or protocol analyzer) is computer software that can intercept and log data traffic passing over a data network. It is a useful tool for anyone working with networks and can be used with most labs in the CCNA courses for data analysis and troubleshooting. and education. the computer on which Wireshark is installed must have a working connection to the network. analysis. This enables it to display the encapsulation and individual fields of a PDU and interpret their meaning. Experiment with Wireshark features and options such as PDU capture and display filtering. For information and to download the program.2. Perform basic PDU capture using Wireshark. As data streams travel back and forth over the network. the screen shown in Figure 2-10 displays. When Wireshark is launched. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ ■ Explain the purpose of a protocol analyzer (Wireshark). or “packet sniffer” application.6. Figure 2-10 Wireshark Opening Screen . Perform basic PDU analysis on straightforward network data traffic. Wireshark is programmed to recognize the structure of different network protocols. Before June 2006. Background Wireshark is a software protocol analyzer. used for network troubleshooting.

select the network adapter in use. Figure 2-12 Wireshark Capture Options . Typically. From the Interface dropdown list. Among those available in the Capture Options dialog box.50 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide To start data capture. you can set the other options. you must ensure that Wireshark is set to monitor the correct interface. Figure 2-11 Wireshark: Capture Options Dialog Box First. Then. the two highlighted in Figure 2-12 deserve examination. select Options from the Capture menu. The Capture Options dialog box. provides a range of settings and filters to determine which and how much data traffic is captured. for a computer this is the connected Ethernet adapter. shown in Figure 2-11.

Figure 2-13 Wireshark Capture Start As data PDUs are captured. Wireshark also provides a number of other capture-filtering and capture-process settings. the types and number are indicated in the message box. Although this is a useful feature. only PDUs destined for this computer will be captured.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 51 If the Capture packets in promiscuous mode feature is not checked. the name-resolution process might add extra PDUs to your captured data. Clicking the Start button starts the data-capture process. you will experience the different Wireshark results. If this feature is checked. and a message box displays the progress of this process (as shown in Figure 2-13). . routers) throughout these courses. The examples in Figure 2-14 show the capture of a ping process (box on left) and then accessing a web page (box on right). The Enable transport name resolution option allows you to control whether Wireshark translates network addresses found in PDUs into names. those that “pass by” the NIC but are not destined for the computer) are captured. perhaps distorting the analysis. switches. all PDUs destined for this computer and all those detected by the computer NIC on the same network segment (that is. Note: The capturing of these other PDUs depends on the intermediary device connecting the end-device computers on this network. As you use different intermediary devices (hubs.

Figure 2-15 Wireshark Capture Main Panes The PDU (or packet) list pane at the top of Figure 2-15 displays a summary of each packet captured. more details will display in the packet details pane and in the packet bytes pane.org was accessed.52 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 2-14 Wireshark Capture Output When the Stop button is clicked. Packet number one is selected in this pane. The PDU (or packet) details pane in the middle of Figure 2-15 displays the packet selected in the packet list pane in more detail. as shown in Figure 2-15. you control what displays in the other two panes. If you select a line in this pane. Each line in the packet list corresponds to one PDU or packet of the captured data.Wireshark. The packet details pane shows the current packet (selected in the pack- . By clicking packets in this pane. The example in Figure 2-15 shows the PDUs captured when the ping utility was used and http://www. the capture process is terminated and the main screen displays. This main display window of Wireshark has three panes.

254. this pane is not examined in detail. In this lab. a prompt asks whether you want to save the captured PDUs. After ensuring that the standard lab topology and configuration is correct. The PDU (or packet) bytes pane at the bottom of Figure 2-15 displays the actual data (in hexadecimal form representing the actual binary) from the packet selected in the packet list pane. stop the packet capture. The information displayed when a capture file is opened is the same as the original capture. Figure 2-16 Wireshark Save Option Clicking Continue without Saving closes the file and exits Wireshark without saving the captured data. After receiving the successful replies to the ping in the command-line window.168.254. ping the IP address of another network-connected and poweredon end device in the lab topology. In this case. Task 1: Ping PDU Capture Step 1. The packet list pane on Wireshark should now look something like Figure 2-17. which you can expand and collapse. This pane shows the protocols and protocol fields of the selected packet. you will find this displayed information useful for examining the binary values and content of PDUs. and highlights the field selected in the packet details pane. The protocols and fields of the packet display in a tree form. When closing a data-capture screen or exiting Wireshark.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 53 et list pane) in a more detailed form. ping the Eagle Server using the command ping 192. Step 2. launch Wireshark on a computer in a lab pod. . and then start the capture process. However. and then open this file in Wireshark for later analysis without having to recapture the same data traffic. Examine the packet list pane. The packet bytes pane shows the data of the current packet (selected in the packet list pane) in what is known as hexdump style. when a more in-depth analysis is required. Set the capture options as described in the preceding section. From the command line. as shown in Figure 2-16. You can save the information captured for the data PDUs in a file.

The packet details pane will now display something similar to Figure 2-18. the source address is my computer. 11. Yes. Step 3. and the destination is the Eagle Server. 9.54 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 2-17 Wireshark Packet List Pane Look at the packets listed in Figure 2-17. 12. particularly packet numbers 6. match the messages displayed in the command-line window when the ping was issued with the six packets captured by Wireshark. answer the following: What protocol is used by ping? ICMP What is the full protocol name? Internet Control Message Protocol What are the names of the two ping messages? Echo Request Echo Reply Are the listed source and destination IP addresses what you expected? Why? Answers may vary. Select (highlight) the first echo request packet on the list. From the Wireshark packet list. 8. 7. . If you performed Step 1. Locate the equivalent packets on the packet list on your computer. and 15. 14.

make a note of the information you do recognize. you can further expand the details for each section and protocol. The packet details pane will now display something similar to Figure 2-19. and the Internet Protocol shows the IP addresses. Although at this stage of the course you might not fully understand the displayed information. For example. What protocols are in the Ethernet frame? eth:ip:icmp:data As you select a line in the packet details pane. Figure 2-19 Wireshark Packet Details Pane.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 55 Figure 2-18 Wireshark Packet Details Pane Click each of the four plus sign (+) buttons to expand the information. Spend some time scrolling through this information. . the bytes pane highlights the corresponding values. Locate the two different types of “source” and “destination. all or part of the information in the packet bytes pane also becomes highlighted. if you select (highlight) the second line (+ Ethernet II) in the details pane. as shown in Figure 2-20.” Why are there two types? The Ethernet II shows the MAC addresses. Expanded As you can see.

Example 2-2 Eagle Server Output C:\Documents and Settings\ccna1>ftp eagle-server. Password:<ENTER> 230 Login successful. enter anonymous as the user without a password.0. When successfully logged in. When the connection is established.56 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 2-20 Wireshark Packet Expanded.example.0. At this stage of the course. ftp> get /pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter1/gaim-1.exe 200 PORT command successful. as follows: ftp> quit 221 Goodbye. .exe (6967072 bytes). Step 4.0.254.com.example. Highlighted Pane This line shows the particular binary values that represent that information in the PDU. 150 Opening BINARY mode data connection for pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter1/gaim1. Task 2: FTP PDU Capture Step 1. User (eagle-server.example.59Seconds 11729. ftp: 6967072 bytes received in 0. enter quit. enter ftp 192. start packet capture by clicking the Start option on the Capture menu of Wireshark.08Kbytes/sec. 226 File send OK. Start packet capture.5.254.5. The output will look similar to Example 2-2. Go to the File menu and select Close.exe and press the Enter key <ENTER> to start downloading the file from the FTP server.com Connected to eagle-server. Consider using PASV. it is not necessary to understand this information in detail.5. 220 Welcome to the eagle-server FTP service.com:(none)): anonymous 331 Please specify the password. C:\Documents and Settings\ccna1> When the file has successfully downloaded. Assuming Wireshark is still running from the previous steps.168. stop the PDU capture in Wireshark. enter get /pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter1/gaim-1. When the file download is complete. as follows: Userid: anonymous Password: <ENTER> You may alternatively log in with userid cisco and password cisco. At the command line on your computer running Wireshark. Click Continue without Saving when the message box shown in Figure 2-16 appears.

ACK].] Locate recurring TCP exchanges throughout the FTP process. Examine the highlighted portion in the packet bytes pane. Response: 220 Welcome to the eagle-server FTP service. TCP. Examine packet details. . Highlight a packet associated with the second phase. note the plain text visible in the bytes pane. List examples of messages exchanged in this phase. the actual download request and the data transfer). If you performed Step 2. match the packets with the messages and prompts in the FTP command-line window. Answers will vary. What protocols are encapsulated in the frame? Eth:ip:tcp:ftp-data Highlight the packets containing the username and password. These will be the PDUs from the Layer 4 protocol.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 57 Step 2. Request:QUIT. Answers will vary. locate the packet containing the filename. FTP. Request: User anonymous.exe. 1294 > ftp-data [ACK. Response: 221 Goodbye. Locate and note those PDUs associated with the file download. What does this indicate about the security of this FTP login process? Security isn’t high because the name and password are visible. The first group is associated with the “connection” phase and logging in to the server. 1292 > ftp [FIN. FTP Data: 1448 bytes. From any pane. Highlight a packet containing the actual file content. In the details and bytes panes. ACK. 1292 > ftp [SYN]. Increase the size of the Wireshark packet list pane and scroll through the PDUs listed. and the Layer 7 protocol. ACK]. 1292 > ftp [ACK]. Response: 331 Please specify the password. Locate and list examples of messages exchanged in the second phase (that is.0.5. View the packet details in the details pane. Select (highlight) a packet on the list associated with the first phase of the FTP process. Answers will vary. What feature of TCP does this indicate? Send and receipt of data Step 3.” List examples of messages exchanged during this process. The filename is gaim-1. FTP > 1292 [SYN. Identify the three groups of PDUs associated with the file transfer.] The third group of PDUs relate to logging out and “breaking the connection. Request: Pass. ftp >1292 [FIN. highlight and examine some packets exchanged in the third phase of the file download.

Step 3. Launch a web browser on the computer that is running Wireshark. close the Wireshark file and continue without saving. Step 2.254. click the + box next to Line-based text data: html. ACK] is issued to close the connection. When this information expands. This shows the HTML data carried by the packet.58 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Which features distinguish the content of these packets? A [FIN. When finished. Task 5: Challenge Discuss how you could use a protocol analyzer such as Wireshark to troubleshoot the failure of a web page to download successfully to a browser on a computer. Task 4: Reflection Consider the encapsulation information pertaining to captured network data Wireshark can provide. Locate and identify the TCP and HTTP packets associated with the downloaded web page. stop the Wireshark packet capture. highlight an HTTP packet that has the notation “(text/html)” in the Info column. Assuming Wireshark is still running from the previous steps. Note: Capture options do not have to be set if you are continuing from previous steps of this lab. After the web page has fully downloaded. Enter the URL of the Eagle Server as example. identify data traffic on a network that is requested by users. Increase the size of the Wireshark packet list pane and scroll through the PDUs listed. User traffic could be monitored to identify errors in source or destination. Note the similarity between this message exchange and the FTP exchange. Answers may vary. Start packet capture. Task 3: HTTP PDU Capture Step 1. start packet capture by clicking the Start option on the Capture menu of Wireshark. When you have finished. . It is important that you can recognize and link both the protocols represented and the protocol layer and encapsulation types of the models with the information provided by Wireshark.com or enter the IP address 192. Relate this to the OSI and TCP/IP layer models. In the packet list pane. close the Wireshark file and continue without saving.168. In the packet details pane. Wireshark could show when a request for a web page failed because of an incorrect URL. Also.254. what is displayed? HTML code for the web page Examine the highlighted portion of the bytes pane.

that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab2622.3) In this activity. however. exit Wireshark and properly shut down the computer.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 59 Task 6: Cleanup Unless instructed otherwise by your instructor. Figure 2-21 shows the topology for this challenge.7.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer.2. you start building. Remember. and analyzing a model of the Exploration lab network. Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Using Packet Tracer to View Protocol Data Units (2. Figure 2-21 Topology for Challenge 1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server 2960-24TT S1-Central 1841 R2-Central PC-PT 1A PC-PT 1B . that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to do the challenge lab using Packet Tracer.6. Remember. Skills Integration Challenge: Examining Packets (2. You can now open the file LSG01-PTSkills2. however. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity. and Table 2-7 reflects the addressing information.1. testing.

0.255.10.254.0.0.0. Two buttons appear at the bottom of these instructions: Check Results (which gives you feedback on how much of the activity you have completed) and Reset Activity (which starts the activity over.253 10. or modify existing files from your instructor or your peers.255. Packet Tracer can create two file formats: PKT files (network simulation model files) and PKA files (activity files for practice).1 172. and switches to learn networking concepts. Analyze PDUs in simulation mode.10.6 172. Background Throughout the course. In this activity.254. If you have not done so already.168. you will be using a standard lab setup created from actual PCs.255.255.252 255.168.10.60 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 2-7 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP Fa0/0 S0/0/0 192. Connect PC 1B to the Fa0/2 port of the S1-Central Switch and check your work with the Check Results button to see that the topology is complete. default gateway 172.10. and information about the strengths and weaknesses of using Packet Tracer to model networks. servers.10.10.255. Configure it using the following parameters: IP address 172.255.255.255.0 255.255.0 255.254 10.16. When you launched this activity from the curriculum.16.254 255. .255.16.255.5 172. routers.2.1. Task 1: Complete the Topology Add a PC to the workspace.254.252 255. these instructions appeared.168. subnet mask 255.255.1.6 172. Resources include a “My First PT Lab” to help you learn the basic operation of Packet Tracer.0 255.16.255. tutorials to guide you through various tasks. you will often use the PKT file format.1.254.255.255. you continue learning how to build and analyze this standard lab topology.0 255.254 192.255.254 172. Add simple PDUs in real-time mode.0.254 172. Experiment with the model of the standard lab setup.16.254. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ ■ Complete the topology. in case you want to clear your work or gain more practice).0 255.168.10. you are encouraged to examine the Help files available from the Help pull-down menu at the top of the Packet Tracer GUI.16.1 172.2 192.0. display name 1B.10.0 N/A N/A 10.16.253 R2-Central Fa0/0 S0/0/0 S1-Central PC 1A PC 1B Eagle Server VLAN 1 NIC NIC NIC Upon completion of this activity.255. When you create your own networks in Packet Tracer.16.16.254.255. This activity provides an opportunity to explore the standard lab setup using the Packet Tracer simulator.6 10.254. DNS server 192. They are the result of the PKA Packet Tracer activity file format.

Each of these devices is preconfigured. one server. send a test message: one between PC 1B and Eagle Server. to examine the packet at each step in its journey. or click the colored square in the Info column of the event list. Use the Capture / Forward button to move the packet through the network. and two PCs. Task 5: Reflection If you have not already done so. Task 3: Analyze PDUs in Simulation Mode (Packet Tracing) Switch to simulation mode. . Double-click the red “Fire” button in the User-Created PDU window. Note that this packet will appear in the event list as something that was “detected” or “sniffed” on the network. Try creating different combinations of test packets and analyzing their journey through the network. Click the packet envelope.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 61 Task 2: Add Simple PDUs in Real-Time Mode Using the Add Simple PDU. one switch. and in the lower right as a user-created PDU that can be manipulated for testing purposes. you are encouraged to obtain Packet Tracer from your instructor and complete My First PT Lab (available by accessing the Help pull-down menu and choosing Contents). Task 4: Experiment with the Model of the Standard Lab Setup The standard lab setup will consist of two routers.

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Figure 3-1 OSI and TCP/IP Models OSI Model 7 Application 6 Presentation 5 4 3 2 1 Session Transport Network Data Link Physical Application Layers TCP/IP Model Domain Name System Application Hypertext Transfer Protocol Simple Mail Transfer Protocol Post Office Protocol Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol Transport Internet Data Flow Layers Network Access . or use the corresponding Chapter 3 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration Companion Guide. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum labs to further reinforce that you have mastered the practical. and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of the TCP/IP model application layer and the OSI model application. presentation. the OSI and TCP/IP models provide a means by which you can visualize and discuss the flow of networking. matching. as shown in Figure 3-1. Study Guide Applications: The Interface Between the Networks Visualizing the mechanisms that enable communication across the network is easier if you use the layered framework of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model. How the human network generates data and how that data then enters the computer network is discussed. As you work through this chapter. and session layers. In this section you explore the upper layers of both the OSI and TCP/IP models.CHAPTER 3 Application Layer Functionality and Protocols The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of multiple-choice. hands-on skills needed to work with the application layer of the OSI model. Application layer software and application layer services and protocols are examined in the labs. When placed side by side. fill-in-the-blank. for assistance. use Chapter 3 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum.

The most widely known TCP/IP application layer protocols that provide for the exchange of user information b. These software programs are considered network-aware if they implement the application layer protocols and can communicate directly with the lower layers of the protocol stack. 2. This layer provides coding. It is difficult to generalize about protocols because they vary so greatly in purpose. What does the term network-aware application mean? List a few examples. Layer 7 c. match the term on the left with its definition on the right. but what properties do application protocols display? Answers will vary. SMTP. Network-aware applications are software programs used to communicate over the network. Application layer b. Functions at this layer create and maintain dialogs between source and destination applications f. Protocols define the standards and data formats used. Top layer of the OSI model g. HTTP. Specify what to do with corrupted or improperly formatted messages. such as file transfer or network print spooling. GIF. What is meant by the term application layer services? Why are protocols important when used in conjunction with application layer services? Software programs need the assistance of application layer services to use network resources. . Telnet h. Generally defines the protocols in the TCP/IP suite a. Define how messages are sent and the expected response. Graphic image formats Concept Questions 1. Define the start and end of a message. compression. Presentation layer d. TIFF f. Define processes on either end of the communication. Protocol used to provide remote access to servers and network work devices c. Email clients and web browsers are a couple of examples. Define the types of messages.64 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 3-1. Define the meaning of any informational fields. JPEG. 3. Without protocols. Session layer e. FTP g. Define the format of a message. and encryption e. Request For Comments (RFC) h. Define the syntax of a message. the data network would not have a common way to format and direct data. Table 3-1 Term OSI and TCP/IP Model Comparison Definition a. DNS. Define interaction with the next lower layer. Top layer of both the OSI and TCP/IP models d.

Web services d. cell phone. Can be on a client and/or a server a. Hosted on a web server f. Across the peer-to-server network 2. but not at the same time c. multiple clients requesting services. Two or more computers are connected via a network and can share resources (such as printers and files) without having a dedicated server. simultaneously and as a single transaction . Table 3-2 Term Application Layer Terms Definition a. Across the Internet d. multiple clients requesting services. Client/server networks c. a request to access that information must be made to the device where the data resides. A Telnet server may have _____________. Server c.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 65 Making Provisions for Applications and Services When people attempt to access information on their device. the data may not be physically stored on their device. Multiple-Choice Questions Choose the best answer(s) for each of the following questions.) a. Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 3-2. If that is the case. simultaneously but as separate transactions d. a. Peer-to-peer applications can be used on which of the following? (Choose all that apply. Peer-to-peer networks b. Hosted on a client e. a single client requesting a service b. Telnet services f. Peer-to-peer networks b. or some other device connected to a network. Device requesting information c. Client b. Across the intranet only e. PDA. laptop. multiple clients requesting services. Device responding to the request d. Web browser e. match the term on the left with its definition on the right. whether it is a PC. 1.

Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 3-3. 3. has revolutionized how people communicate through its simplicity and speed. UDP port 67 g. UDP port 110 e. 6. Server programs generally use predefined port numbers that are commonly known by clients. 4. the transport layer uses an addressing scheme called a port number. Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) d. 2. based on the Gnutella protocol. TCP/UDP port 53 b. DHCP allows a host to obtain an IP address dynamically when it connects to the network. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following statements. File Transfer Protocol (FTP) c. typically a web browser. TCP port 23 f. Telnet a. Domain Name System (DNS) f. the web browser establishes a connection to the web service running on the server using the HTTP protocol. TCP port 80 c. Post Office Protocol (POP) e. people can make files on their hard disks available to others for downloading. sends a request message to a server. The e-mail server operates two separate processes: Mail Transfer Agent (MTA) and Mail Delivery Agent (MDA). match the port number on the left with its protocol on the right. DNS uses a hierarchical system to create a name database to provide name resolution. 1. A DNS server provides name resolution using the name daemon.66 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Application Layer Protocols and Services Examples As you will see later in this course. The FTP client is an application that runs on a computer that is used to push files to and pull files from a server. 5. Port numbers identify applications and application layer services that are the source and destination of data. Sharing files over the Internet has become extremely popular. 7. With peer-to-peer applications . TCP ports 20 and 21 b. Table 3-3 Port Number Port Numbers and Protocols Protocol a. 8. TCP port 25 d. When a client. HTTP defines the message types that the client uses to request the web page and also the message types the server uses to respond. Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) g. 9. 10. E-mail. the most popular network service. The Server Message Block (SMB) is a client/server file-sharing protocol. When a web address (or URL) is entered into a web browser.

Download c. Data transfer from a client to a server is referred to as which of the following? a. Multiple-Choice Questions Choose the best answer(s) for each of the following questions. session. The e-mail server operates which two separate processes? a. Upload d. b. Resolve domain names to IP addresses. c. transport. Internet. eBay 3. E-mail c. abstract representation created as a guideline for network protocol design. Internet. and physical b. Which of the following best describes a peer-to-peer network? a. data link. presentation. Mail User Agent (MUA) d. and physical 2. Application. Mail Transfer Agent (MTA) b. Resolve domain names to computer names. data link. d. P2P d. The OSI model divides the networking process into which seven layers? a. Internet. Resolve domain names to MAC addresses. Query b.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 67 11. The Open Systems Interconnection reference model is a layered. network. transport. d. 6. b. session. session. World Wide Web b. Application. The Domain Name System (DNS) was created to do what? a. It centralizes the resources on a network. and physical c. . It decentralizes the resources on a network. Mail Delivery Agent (MDA) 4. Application. network. presentation. 1. and physical d. c. Mail Transfer Bridge (MTB) c. It uses file servers. It uses the client/server model. Application. Pull 5. Resolve domain names to e-mail addresses. network. Telnet provides a standard method of emulating text-based terminal devices over the data network. presentation. transport. data link. transport. presentation. What is the most popular application service? a.

SSH c. DHCP . Telnet d. The different top-level domains represent which of the following? (Choose all correct answers. Type of organization b. HTTP d. the e-mail client can use which of the following protocols? a. which protocol is used to access or post web server information? a. Which service automates the assignment of IP addresses. and other IP networking parameters? a. gateway. STelnet 9. SMTP b. subnet masks. Country of origin c. For secure communication across the Internet. SMTP b. STP d.) a. File server name 8. Company or brand name d. TFTP c. SHTTP c. POP 10.68 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide 7. HTTPS b. To receive e-mail messages from an e-mail server.

or create sounds that the microphone can pick up. Figure 3-2 Sound Recorder Interface Step 2. you can download an audio file to use in this activity from http://newsroom. the sound’s waveform should appear on the Sound Recorder interface. Microsoft Sound Recorder is a Windows accessory. Task 1: Create a Sound File Step 1. Estimated completion time. Speak into the microphone.4. To begin recording. is 30 minutes. you will use a microphone and Microsoft Sound Recorder to capture an audio stream. the data that comprises that file must be stored somewhere.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 69 Labs and Activities Activity 3-1: Data Stream Capture (3. The data can be stored on the end device where it was created. You can find the application in Windows XP by choosing Start > Programs > Accessories > Entertainment > Sound Recorder. . Scenario Perform this activity on a computer that has a microphone and Microsoft Sound Recorder or Internet access so that you can download an audio file.html. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ Capture or download an audio stream. As the audio is recorded. You can find it in Windows XP by choosing Start > Programs > Accessories > Entertainment > Sound Recorder. Record the file’s characteristics.com/dlls/podcasts/audio_feeds. Background When an application creates a file. Record an audio file. depending on network speed. Examine data transfer rates associated with the file.1. If a microphone and Microsoft Sound Recorder are not available.1) Upon completion of this activity. as shown in Figure 3-3. Open the Windows Sound Recorder application.cisco. In this activity. click the Record button on the Sound Recorder interface. or it can be transferred for storage on another device. The Sound Recorder interface is shown in Figure 3-2.

When the file is open. Open the audio file in Windows Media Player. What is the file size in bytes? Answers will vary.com/dlls/podcasts/audio_feeds.wav.cisco. What is the file size in kilobytes? Answers will vary. depending on the file created. Save the audio file to the desktop. Click the Play button to listen to the recording. the speakers. Right-click the audio file and choose Open With > Windows Media Player. as shown in Figure 3-4. close the Sound Recorder application. After saving the file. and attempt to create the recording again. depending on the file created. Task 2: Observe the Properties of the Audio File Step 1. The recording should be played back. Save the audio file. View audio file properties. and the volume settings.html. Right-click the audio file you saved to the desktop. Step 4. . Step 3.70 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 3-3 Recording in Progress Click the Stop button when you are finished. Save to the desktop the audio file you created. and choose Properties from the popup menu. Name the file myaudio. depending on the file created. Step 2. and choose File > Properties from the popup menu. Check the audio file that was recorded. If you are unable to create a recording. and proceed to Task 2. What is the file size in bits? Answers will vary. download an audio file from News@Cisco at http://newsroom. Figure 3-4 Playback If you are unable to hear the recording. check the microphone’s configuration. right-click at the top of the Media Player interface.

All Ethernet frames contain other information. The other half is web server support. and verify a web server application. that is necessary for the frame’s delivery. how long would it take the file transfer to be completed? Answers will vary. Consumers use web browsers to access business websites. Calculate the amount of data per second in the audio file. Answers will vary. However. Task 4: Clean Up You may be required to remove from the computer the audio file you saved.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 71 What is the length of the audio file in seconds? Answers will vary. For example. Web server support is a valuable skill for network administrators. depending on the file created.4. and 95 percent of the bandwidth is left for the data payload. Lab 3-1: Managing a Web Server (3. such as source and destination addresses. Even with an Ethernet connection operating at 100 Mbps. you may want to copy the audio file that you created to another computer or a portable audio device. turn off the computer. and record the result. . Background Web servers are an important part of the business plan for any organization with a presence on the Internet. Verify the default web server configuration file.2. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ Download. Based on a survey by Netcraft in January 2007. Task 3: Reflection Data files do not have to remain on the end devices where they are created. how long would it take for the file transfer to be completed? Answers will vary. web browsers make up only half the communication channel. the data that makes up a file is not transferred at this speed. depending on the file created. If so. If the audio file that you saved to the desktop were to be transferred at a rate of 100 megabits per second (Mbps). Table 3-4 shows the top three web server applications by percentage of use. If the Ethernet overhead uses 5 percent of the available 100 Mbps bandwidth. Capture and analyze HTTP traffic with Wireshark.1) Upon completion of this lab. install. Unless instructed otherwise. delete the file from the desktop. depending on the file created. depending on the file created.

install.72 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 3-4 Web Server Web Server Choices Percent of Use Apache Microsoft Sun Scenario 60 percent 31 percent 1. Analyzing the capture will help you understand how the HTTP protocol operates. Figure 3-5 Topology for Lab 3-1 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 . and configure the popular Apache web server.6 percent In this lab you will download. using Wireshark to capture the communication. You will use a web browser to connect to the server. ask the instructor for assistance before proceeding. If it is not. The lab should be configured as shown in Figure 3-5 and Table 3-5.

31. R1-ISP.254 192.255. Right-click the file. and finally eagle-server.254.255.0.255.255. Verify that all network equipment is powered on and that eagle-server is on. Step 3. Task 1: Download.com.254 172. Take corrective action on devices that fail the ping tests.16. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity.5 172.255.0. Open the folder where the software was saved. If the ping test fails.0.254.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 73 Table 3-5 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP S0/0/0 Fa0/0 10. 10.168. If an individual host computer cannot connect to eagle-server. Step 2.6 192. Verify that the host computer has the correct Gateway IP address.255.10.16.255. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address.1 255. verify that the host has the correct DNS address and that it can ping eagle-server.255. Install the Apache web server on the pod host computer. The next installation step requires customized configuration of the web server. 172.254 R2-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Eagle Server — — Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central — — — Note to Instructor: Depending on the classroom situation.24.254.254 172.255. go to ftp://eagle-server. and that it can ping R2-Central. Using a web browser. and save the software on the pod host computer.2 172. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server. Install. as shown in Table 3-5. and that it can ping R1-ISP.Pod#. Finally.16.253 — 172.255.4 — 192.16.252 255.254.10.16. Choose default values and consent to the licensing agreement.6.16.10.0 255. ping S1Central.0 255.255.com.16. ping eagle-server. Step 2. and Verify the Apache Web Server Step 1.255.255. as shown in Figure 3-6.255.255.168.168. Download the software from Eagle Server.255.252 255.254. and double-click the Apache file to begin installation.253 10.0.255.0 255.10.16. check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central.0 255.com/pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter3 to access and download the software.0 — — 10. . R2-Central.example. troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity: Step 1.255. the lab topology may have been modified before this class.16. From a known good host computer.example.255.0 255.254 172.10.254 172.Pod#.10.1 172. 172.255.10.10.0 255. The Apache web server application is available for download from Eagle Server.254.example.

What is the default installation folder? C:\Program Files\Apache Software Foundation\Apache2. Host B. as shown in Figure 3-7. Table 3-6 Information Apache Server Values Value Network Domain Server Name Administrator’s E-mail Address example.com.com. Note: If a Windows Security Alert is displayed.74 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 3-6 Customized Configuration Screen Use the values shown in Table 3-6. When the installation has finished. close the screen. click Unblock. This permits connections to the web server. if the computer is on Pod 5. Figure 3-7 Windows Security Alert .2\ Accept the default installation folder. Accept the default typical installation. and click Next. Accept the recommended port and service status. and click Install. Click Next. for users 1 through 22. click Next.com The computer’s IP address ccnaxx@example. the administrator’s e-mail address is ccna10@example. For example.

and connect to your computer’s URL.0 /8 network range.0.0. Use the netstat -a command to discover open and connected ports on your computer.0. Test the web server on several different IP addresses from the 127. Verify the web server. Example 3-1 netstat -a Output C:\> netstat -a Active Connections Proto TCP TCP TCP TCP Local Address GW-desktop-hom:http GW-desktop-hom:epmap Foreign Address GW-desktop-hom:0 GW-desktop-hom:0 State LISTENING LISTENING GW-desktop-hom:microsoft-ds GW-desktop-hom:3389 GW-desktop-hom:0 LISTENING LISTENING GW-desktop-hom:0 <output omitted> C:\> Using the command netstat -a. The netstat command displays protocol statistics and connection information for this lab computer. Enter cmd. and then click OK. Open a web browser.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 75 Step 3. The Apache web server monitor icon should be visible on the lower-right side of the screen.0. . as shown in Example 3-1. Figure 3-8 Web Server Default Page The 127. A web page similar to Figure 3-8 appears if the web server is working properly.0. Fill in Table 3-7 with the results. near the time.0.0 /8 network address is reserved and is used for local IP addresses.0 /8 network range. verify that the web server is operating properly on the pod host computer. Choose Start > Run and open a command-line window. The same page should be displayed if the URL is changed to the IP address on the Ethernet interface or to any host IP address in the 127.

conf.1.255.com ServerName 172.0. as shown in Figure 3-9. C:\Program Files\Apache Software Foundation\Apache2. To accept connections from only this host. Scroll down the configuration file.34.76 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 3-7 IP Address Web Server Test Status Description 127. use the IP address:port number. and verify the settings listed in Table 3-8.0. Numerous configuration parameters allow the Apache web server to be fully customizable. Access the httpd.conf file.2\conf\httpd.0. Open the Apache web server configuration file.2:80 DocumentRoot “C:/Program Files/Apache Software Foundation/ Apache2.conf file. ServerAdmin ccna2@example. If there are problems.255.16.1 127.0.56. the web server ignores the comment. A system administrator may need to verify or modify the default configuration file.255.255.0 OK OK Fail Fail Legal host address Legal host address Network broadcast address Network address Task 2: Verify the Default Web Server Configuration File Step 1. change the line to Listen 127.78:80 Listen 80 Listen on TCP port 80 for all incoming connections. For servers without DNS names. This is the root directory for the web server. Review the httpd.0. Figure 3-9 Apache Web Server Configuration File Step 2. Table 3-8 Value Apache Web Server Settings Description #Listen 12.2/htdocs” .0. The # character indicates a comment for system administrators.254 127.1 80.255 127. e-mail the web server at this e-mail address.

html. Modify the web server default page. Be wary of content.0. so you should encourage them to personalize the page. Right-click the file. and connect to another computer with an active web server. access the web server by running Apache from a separate client machine. Although this page is sufficient for testing. The new default page should be displayed.html as the default page. Task 3: Capture and Analyze HTTP Traffic with Wireshark Wireshark will not capture packets sent from or to the 127. From the pulldown list. go to http://127. and refresh the web browser.html should be present. Open a web browser. To complete this task.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 77 Table 3-8 Value Apache Web Server Settings continued Description <IfModule dir_module> DirectoryIndex index.1. Open folder C:\Program Files\Apache Software Foundation\Apache2.com </body></html> Save the file. Example 3-2 htdocs Edit <html><body><h1>Welcome to the Pod1HostB Web Server!!!</h1> <center><bold> Operated by me! </center></bold> Contact web administrator: ccna2@example.0. and set the capture interface to the interface destined for the 172. Figure 3-8 shows the default web page from file index. Why does index. refresh the web browser to view the new content. as shown in Figure 3-10.2\htdocs. choose notepad. however—this is a classroom setting. Change the file content to something similar to Example 3-2. something more personal should be displayed.html if it is present. The interface will not appear. Start Wireshark. If no page is requested from that directory. Step 1.html. Analyze HTTP traffic.0 network on a Windows computer. Some students may already be familiar with creating web pages.16 network. Or. Step 3.html </IfModule> DirectoryIndex sets the file that Apache serves if a directory is requested. . As you make and save changes to index. Deliberately enter a web page that is not on the web server. Note that an error message is displayed in the web browser. and choose Open With. The file index.0.html not have to be entered in the URL for the file contents to be displayed? The web server configuration directive for that server displays index.0. display index.

Therefore. You modified the default web page index.1 error 404 and returned a file not found message to the web browser. Verify with the netstat command that the new web server TCP port is 8080.html and observed the effect on the web browser output. Depending on the organization. test for proper operation. the network or web administrator has the responsibility of maintaining the corporate web server.78 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 3-10 404 Not Found Error Figure 3-11 shows a captured HTTP session. Finally.0.conf by changing the Listen 80 line to Listen 8080. . File index. This lab has demonstrated how to install and configure the Apache web server. you used Wireshark to capture an HTTP session of a file that could not be found. the server sent a 404 error.1:8080.0// EN”> <html><head> <title>404 Not Found</title> </head><body> <h1>Not Found</h1> <p>The requested URL /index.htm was not found on this server. The web browser simply displayed the server response “The page cannot be found. Open a web browser and go to http://127.htm was requested from the web server. but the server did not have it. The web server responded with an HTTP 1. </p> </body></html> Task 4: Challenge Modify the default web server configuration file httpd.0. and identify several key configuration parameters.” Figure 3-11 Wireshark Capture of HTTP Traffic What are the contents of the HTTP session? Line-based text data: text/html <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC “-//IETF//DTD HTML 2. Task 5: Reflection Web servers are an important component of e-commerce.

. consolidates and updates previous e-mail-related RFCs. Capture and analyze e-mail communication between the pod host computer and a mail server. with user accounts that can send and receive external e-mail messages. unsolicited e-mail. To uninstall the web server. You will monitor the communication with Wireshark and analyze the captured packets.1) Upon completion of this lab. Consequently. In network environments where the Mail User Agent (MUA) client must connect to an e-mail server on another network to send and receive e-mail. You will use an e-mail client such as Outlook Express or Mozilla Thunderbird to connect to the eagleserver network service. consuming bandwidth and network resources. ■ ■ E-mail is subject to multiple computer security vulnerabilities.4. Background E-mail is one of the most popular network services that uses a client/server model. IMAP servers listen on well-known TCP port 143. SMTP is used to send e-mail messages from the external e-mail client to the e-mail server. Most Internet service providers (ISP) provide step-by-step instructions for using e-mail services. the following protocols are used: ■ Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) was originally defined in RFC 821 in August 1982. secure versions of both protocols employ Secure Socket Layer/Transport Layer Security (SSL/TLS) for communication. RFC 2821. Earlier versions of both protocols should not be used. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor.3. It should be uninstalled. Post Office Protocol version 3 (POPv3) is used when an external e-mail client wants to receive e-mail messages from the e-mail server. The e-mail client is configured on a user’s computer and is configured to connect to an e-mail server. The SMTP server listens on well-known TCP port 25. Spam attacks flood networks with useless. E-mail servers have had numerous vulnerabilities. from April 2001. Scenario In this lab. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. Lab 3-2: E-mail Services and Protocols (3. you will configure and use an e-mail client application to connect to eagle-server network services. Click Apache Web Server. which have left computers open to compromise. you will be able to ■ ■ Configure the pod host computer for e-mail service. and then click Remove. It has undergone many modifications and enhancements. choose Start > Control Panel > Add or Remove Programs. deliver e-mail to local accounts. Also. Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) is an Internet protocol that allows a central server to provide remote access to e-mail messages.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 79 Task 6: Clean Up During this lab the Apache web server was installed on the pod host computer. and relay e-mail between SMTP servers. In this lab. the typical user may be unaware of the complexities of e-mail or the protocols used. turn off power to the host computers. Eagle-server has SMTP mail services preconfigured. you will use IMAP instead of POPv3 for e-mail delivery to the client. The POPv3 server listens on well-known TCP port 110. and leave the room ready for the next class.

252 255.255.254 R2-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Eagle Server — — Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central — — — .5 172.255.10.255.254 172.Pod#.16.254 172.252 255. If it is not.255.255.255.10.1 172.10.255.16.10.0.254 172.0.255.168.255.255.16.80 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide The lab should be configured as shown in Figure 3-12 and Table 3-9.168.0 255.253 10.255.255. Figure 3-12 Topology for Lab 3-2 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 Table 3-9 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP S0/0/0 Fa0/0 10.254.0 255.10.Pod#.255.1 255.255.255.0 255.254.0.16.168.16.255.10.254. ask the instructor for assistance before proceeding.255.0.253 — 172.16.24.2 172.16.0 255.254.31.254 172.6 192.0 — — 10.4 — 192.254 192.255.0 255.0 255.

172. start Thunderbird. Note: Depending on the connection speed of the link between the two routers and the number of students downloading the file. . Step 3. troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity: Step 1. The download URL is ftp://eagleserver. Fill in the account information. If Thunderbird is not installed on the pod host computer. this download may be slow. check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central.10.10.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 81 Note to Instructors: Depending on the classroom situation.example. From a known good host computer. Finally. and that it can ping R2-Central. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity. If an individual host computer cannot connect to eagle-server. In the New Account Setup. select Email account. double-click the filename and install Thunderbird with the default settings. Download and install Mozilla Thunderbird. the lab topology may have been modified before this class.example. 10. Configure Thunderbird to receive and send e-mail messages. you must configure an e-mail account. If prompted for Import Options. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server. When Thunderbird starts. Verify that the host computer has the correct Gateway IP address. as prompted.com. When the file has downloaded. you can download it from eagleserver.255. as shown in Figure 3-13.254. and then click Next.16.com/pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter3. Step 2. Task 1: Configure the Pod Host Computer for E-mail Service Step 1. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests. ping S1Central. If the ping test fails. R1-ISP.com.example. Figure 3-13 FTP Download for Wireshark Double-click the Thunderbird filename. and that it can ping R1-ISP. 172.example.16. and finally eagle-server.255. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address. verify that the host has the correct DNS address and that it can ping eagle-server. and click Next. select Don’t import anything. with the information shown in Table 3-10. When finished. Step 2.com. R2-Central. Verify that all network equipment is powered on and that eagle-server is on. and then select Save the file to the host pod computer.6. as shown in Table 3-9. ping eagle-server.254.

The Thunderbird client needs to have SMTP server login disabled.com eagle-server.82 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 3-10 Field Account Information Value Account Name The account name is based on the pod and host computer. From the outgoing server screen..com Use the same name as above (see Account name discussion).example.com Your Name E-mail address Type of incoming server you are using Incoming Server (SMTP) Outgoing Server (SMTP) Incoming User Name Account Name When Thunderbird starts. the account name is ccna1.22]. Click Cancel.. the account name is ccna6. To do this.example. labeled ccna[1. If the pod host is on Pod 3. A total of 22 accounts are configured on Eagle Server. If this pod host is on Pod1. shown in Figure 3-14. and so on. your_name@eagle-server.example.com IMAP eagle-server. click Edit. choose Tools > Account Settings > Outgoing Server (SMTP). your_name@eagle-server. Figure 3-14 Thunderbird SMTP Server Settings . Host B.example. Host A. you may be prompted for a password for your e-mail account. Use the same name as the Account Name.

Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 83 On the SMTP Server screen. . and then click OK again. A screen similar to Figure 3-17 appears. uncheck the Use name and password box. Click OK. shown in Figure 3-15. by choosing Tools > Account Settings. as shown in Figure 3-16. Figure 3-16 Thunderbird Account Settings In the left pane of the Account Settings screen. Figure 3-15 SMTP Server Edit You may also want to verify account settings. click Server Settings.

again send and receive e-mail from a classmate. To create and send an e-mail. click the Write icon. Wireshark displays captures based on packet type. Step 3. Ask another student in the class for his or her e-mail name. When the e-mails have been sent. After sending and receiving one e-mail message. you must be logged in. however. Task 2: Capture and Analyze E-mail Communication Between the Pod Host Computer and an E-mail Server Step 1. SMTP listens on TCP port 25. stop the Wireshark capture. Analyze a Wireshark capture session of SMTP. . A partial Wireshark capture of an outgoing e-mail message using SMTP is shown in Figure 3-18. Using the e-mail client. Using the name provided in the preceding task. When you are certain that the e-mail operation is working properly for both sending and receiving.84 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 3-17 Thunderbird Server Settings What is the purpose of the SMTP protocol. the e-mail transactions will be captured. each of you should compose and send an e-mail message to the other. Send an uncaptured e-mail. Start Wireshark captures. To do so. start a Wireshark capture. and what is the well-known TCP port number? The SMTP protocol is used to send e-mail messages to an e-mail server for forwarding to a mail recipient. If you have not previously logged in. enter cisco as the password. check your e-mail. This time. Step 2. Please note that this is the default password that is embedded in the Eagle Server.

.1. and the command may also be HELO or HELLO.com [172. The syntax may vary between clients.1. end with “. In every first SMTP exchange. this is line 7.1 E-mail client applications send commands to e-mail servers. Table 3-11 E-mail Client Response Table E-mail Server MAIL FROM:<ccna1@example. and e-mail servers send responses. Many different types of SMTP servers exist. The e-mail server must respond to the command.1.0 ccna1@example. version 8.com Recipient ok 354 Enter mail.0 mail-serial-number Message accepted for delivery What are the contents of the last message body from the e-mail client? QUIT How does the e-mail server respond? It sends a response to the e-mail client.5 ccna2@example. the e-mail client sends the command EHLO. expand the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol record.16. pleased to meet you\r\n The next exchanges between the e-mail client and server contain e-mail information. 221.com> RCPT TO:<ccna2@example. In Figure 3-18.example.com> DATA (message body is sent) 250 2.com Sender ok 250 2.localdomain Hello host-1.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 85 Figure 3-18 SMTP Capture Highlight the first SMTP capture in the top Wireshark window. What are the SMTP server name and version? Sendmail.1]. Malicious attackers can gain valuable knowledge simply by learning the SMTP server type and version.0. closing connection.” on a line by itself 250 2. fill in the e-mail server responses to the e-mail client commands shown in Table 3-11. What is the SMTP server response to the EHLO command? 250-localhost. Using your Wireshark capture.13. however. In the second Wireshark window.

Are any newer versions available? Task 4: Reflection E-mail is probably the most common network service used. e-mail SMTP server test.5 instructor@example. Good bye.2]. The highlighted lines are what you enter into the blank Telnet window.com. turn off power to the host computers. choose Start > Control Panel > Add or Remove Programs. . and then click Remove.com 250 2. Recipient ok DATA 354 Please start mail input. Sender ok RCPT To: instructor@example..com. Connection to host lost. Sun.16. and begin a Telnet session with the SMTP server. 250 Mail queued for delivery..com 25 220 localhost.86 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 3: Challenge Access a computer that has Internet access. Scroll to and click Thunderbird.1. To remove Thunderbird.0 ccna2@example.. the instructor may want the application removed. 28 Jan 2007 20:41:0 3 +1000 HELO eagle-server.localdomain Hello [172. open the Windows command-line window.1...13. QUIT 221 Closing connection. To test SMTP operation.example. Example 3-3 Telnet Session C:\> telnet eagle-server. . Is the problem with the e-mail client or the e-mail server? One simple way to test SMTP server operation is to use the Windows command-line Telnet utility to telnet into the SMTP server. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. E-mail can also experience configuration issues.example. pleased to meet you MAIL From: ccna2@example.1.localdomain ESMTP Sendmail 8.1.1/8.com 250 localhost. and leave the room ready for the next class. as shown in Example 3-3.. C:\ > Task 5: Clean Up If Thunderbird was installed on the pod host computer for this lab.com 250 2. Understanding the flow of traffic with the SMTP protocol will help you understand how the protocol manages the client/server data connection. Look up the SMTP server name and version for known weaknesses or compromises.13. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor.

and connect hosts and servers. Upon completion of this activity. you will build increasingly larger parts of this topology in Packet Tracer. you will use a standard lab setup created from actual PCs. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ ■ Configure hosts and services.3) Open the file LSG01-PTSkills3.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 87 Packet Tracer Challenge Skills Integration Challenge: Configuring Hosts and Services (3. Figure 3-19 Topology for the Challenge 1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server 2960-24TT S1-Central 1841 R2-Central PC 1A PC 1B . Use simulation mode to view the details of packets generated by DNS and HTTP. Background Throughout the course. Explore how DNS and HTTP work together. configure. and switches to learn networking concepts.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to perform this exercise using Packet Tracer. Figure 3-19 shows the topology for this Skills Integration Challenge. and Table 3-12 shows the corresponding addressing table. servers. routers. Add.1. At the end of each chapter.5.

168.0 Default gateway: 172.10.0.254 172. Double-click the Fire button in the PDU List Window to send this single test ping a second time.0 — — 10.254.10.10.0 255. Note that when you add a simple PDU. it shows Failed because of the ARP process.255.16.254 10.10. and Scenario 1 might test packets between PC 1A and the routers.255.0 255.16. Turn on web services on the server by enabling HTTP.10. Scenario 0 might have one test packet from PC 1B to Eagle Server.2 Subnet mask: 255. You can remove all test packets in a particular scenario by clicking the Delete button. You can create different test packet scenarios by clicking the New button.16. the term scenario means a specific configuration of one or more test packets. This time it succeeds.2 192.” The first time you issue this one-shot ping message.255.254 DNS server: 192. For example.255.168.252 255.255. In Packet Tracer.example. For example. and add a DNS entry that associates eagle-server.16.253 10.16.1.255.255. Configure it with the following settings: ■ ■ ■ ■ IP address: 172.0 255.168.254 172.0.254. .255.16.255.5 172.0 255. Verify your work using feedback from the Check Results button and the Assessment Items tab.16. Connect Eagle Server to the Fa0/0 port on the R1-ISP router.88 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 3-12 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP Fa0/0 S0/0/0 192.255.1 172.254.1.254.254 Connect PC 1B to the Fa0/2 port of the S1-Central switch.16.10.6 172.254.255.0.6 172.6 10. it appears in the PDU List Window as part of “Scenario 0. Enable DNS services.253 R2-Central Fa0/0 S0/0/0 S1-Central PC 1A PC 1B Eagle Server VLAN 1 NIC NIC NIC Task 1: “Repair” and Test the Topology Add a PC with a display name of 1B to the topology.254 255.254 192.0 255. if you use the Delete button for Scenario 0.255.255.0.255.10.252 255.255.1 172. Do this before the next task.com with the server’s IP address.255.255.0.1. Test connectivity in real time by using ADD SIMPLE PDU to test connectivity between PC 1B and the Eagle Server.255.168. the test packet you just created between PC 1B and Eagle Server is removed.10.168.

press Enter. Inbound PDU Details. Task 3: Reflection Can you now explain the process that occurs when you enter a URL into a browser and a web page returns? What types of client/server interactions are involved? If you have not already done so. Open a web browser from the desktop of PC 1B. If you receive a “Buffer Full” message. you should be able to see how DNS and HTTP work together. Enter eagle-server.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 89 Task 2: Explore How DNS and HTTP Work Together Switch from Realtime mode to Simulation mode.example. click the View Previous Events button. especially when the packets are at PC 1B or at Eagle Server. Outbound PDU Details) for each event in the event list. . you are encouraged to obtain Packet Tracer from your instructor and complete My First PT Lab (choose Help > Contents). Examine the Packet contents (PDU Information Window.com. and then use the Capture / Forward button in the Event List to capture the interaction of DNS and HTTP. Even though the processing of the packets by the switch and the routers may not make sense to you yet. Play this animation.

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. surf the web. Data segmentation c. f.CHAPTER 4 OSI Transport Layer The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of multiple-choice. Ensures the application is ready to receive data. c. and check e-mail. use a Voice over IP (VoIP) phone. Study Guide Roles of the Transport Layer The transport layer provides vital control over the network: It enables multiple applications to work at the same time over the same network. Error checking d. a. matching. Ensures segment sequencing so that data can be presented by the session layer to the application layer with all data intact and ready for processing. match the definitions on the right with the terms on the left. Table 4-1 Term Transport Layer Matching Exercise Definition a. Multiple network-aware applications can use the network at the same time. Flow control d. Facilitates data preparation for delivery by the lowest four OSI layers. Multiplexing b. stream video. The transport layer provides for data network needs by ■ ■ ■ ■ Dividing data received from an application into segments Adding a header to identify and manage each segment Using the header information to reassemble the segments back into application data Passing the assembled data to the correct application Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 4-1. b. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum labs to further reinforce that you have mastered the practical. Same order delivery f. use Chapter 4 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum or use the corresponding Chapter 4 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA 1 Exploration Companion Guide for assistance. e. Reliable delivery g. fill-in-the-blank. Means lost segments are present so the data is received complete. That way. hands-on skills needed. Establishing a session e. As you work through this chapter. one computer can use instant messaging. Manages data delivery if there is congestion on the host. and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of the OSI transport layer. g. Performed on the data in the segment to check if the segment was changed during transmission.

each segment header contains a sequence number. Table 4-2 Port Type Port Type Ranges Numbers Well-known ports Registered ports Dynamic or private ports 0 to 1023 1024 to 49151 49152 to 65535 The TCP Protocol: Communicating with Reliability The key distinction between TCP and UDP is reliability. This ensures that the destination application has the data in the exact form the sender intended. A complete TCP conversation requires the establishment of a session between the source and the destination in both directions. Additional functions specified by TCP are same order delivery. Port Type Ranges Exercise Table 4-2 lists port types. How does the transport layer tell the difference between different data segments? To identify each segment of data. 3. In TCP. A TCP segment has 20 bytes of overhead in the header encapsulating the application layer data. 1. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks for the following questions. and flow control. Fill in the port number ranges in the Numbers column. . it knows that the data has been successfully delivered and can quit tracking that data. This sequence number allows the transport layer functions on the destination host to reassemble segments in the order in which they were transmitted. it retransmits that data to the destination. If the source does not receive an acknowledgment within a predetermined amount of time. As the source receives an acknowledgment from the destination. 2.92 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Concept Questions 1. How does the transport layer multiplex different applications’ communication? Dividing data into small parts and sending these parts from the source to the destination enables many different communications to be interleaved (multiplexed) on the same network. This reliability is achieved by having fields in the TCP segment. 2. reliable delivery. whereas each UDP segment only has 8 bytes of overhead. The pieces of communication in UDP are called datagrams. each with a specific function. the transport layer adds to the segment a header containing binary data.

Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 93 Concept Questions 1. Table 4-3 Flags Flag-Matching Exercise Definition a. FIN f. PSH c. Define reliability. No more data from sender Managing TCP Sessions When services send data using TCP. SYN d. URG e. Segment sequence numbers enable reliability by indicating how to reassemble and reorder received segments. or communication stream between the hosts. match the definition on the right with a flag on the left. When the host is using TCP. For the original message to be understood by the recipient. provide the URL. . enter the keywords “TCP segment reassembly. ACK b. Push function f. Synchronize sequence numbers e. Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 4-3. This process ensures that each host is aware of and prepared for the communication. and be prepared to explain or present the information found. 2. Acknowledgment field significant b. Sequence numbers are assigned in the header of each packet to achieve this goal. Using this site. why does the transport layer initiate a process to create a connection with the destination? This connection enables the tracking of a session. Reliability means ensuring that each segment of data that the source sends arrives at the destination.” and find a website that explains it. segments may arrive at their destination out of order. Note to instructor: Answers will vary. Urgent pointer field significant a. RST d. be prepared to share your findings with the class. the data in these segments is reassembled into the original order. A key feature of TCP is its reliability. Internet Research Exercise Using your favorite search engine. This exercise works best if the students are required to present their website to the class or to teach each other in small groups. Reset the connection c. but encourage students to find a website.

If these applications use TCP. simply retry the request if they do not receive a response. The low overhead of UDP makes it very desirable for such applications. Some applications. UDP is said to be transaction based. sequencing. both hosts would have to support selective acknowledgments. can tolerate some loss of data. 3. It has much lower overhead than TCP because it is not connection oriented and does not provide the sophisticated retransmission. 2. What is flow control. 2. 3. and what does it do? Flow control assists the reliability of TCP transmission by adjusting the effective rate of data flow between the two services in the session. These delays would be more detrimental to the application than small data losses.94 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Concept Questions 1. and therefore they do not need TCP to guarantee the message delivery. The UDP Protocol: Communicating with Low Overhead User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is a simple protocol that provides the basic transport layer functions. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following sentences. such as online games and VoIP. What is expectational acknowledgment? Expectational acknowledgment is TCP using the acknowledgment number in segments sent back to the source to indicate the next byte in this session that the receiver expects to receive. For the data returning to the client from the server. the source and destination port numbers in the datagram header are reversed. the same pair of ports is used in the header of all datagrams used in the transaction. such as DNS. and flow-control mechanisms. 1. Some applications. In what case would it be possible for the destination to acknowledge bytes in discontiguous segments and request that the host retransmit only the missing data? In this case. they might experience large delays while TCP detects data loss and retransmits data. . After a client has chosen the source and destination ports.

you examine the netstat command on a pod host computer. Use netstat to examine protocol information on a pod host computer. Background netstat is an abbreviation for the network statistics utility. Figure 4-1 Topology for Lab 4-1 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 .1.1) Upon completion of this lab. and interface statistics. Scenario In this lab. host computer routing table information. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ Explain common netstat command parameters and outputs. available on both Windows and UNIX/Linux computers. Figure 4-1 shows the topology for this lab. and adjust netstat output options to analyze and understand TCP/IP transport layer protocol status. Passing optional parameters with the command will change output information.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 95 Labs and Activities Lab 4-1: Observing TCP and UDP Using netstat (4. netstat displays incoming and outgoing network connections (TCP and UDP).5. Table 4-4 shows the corresponding addressing table.

16.254 172.0 255.6.0 N/A N/A 10.255. 172. as shown here: C:\> netstat /? Use the output of the netstat /? command as reference to fill in the appropriate option that best matches the description in Table 4-5.1 172.255.0.255.6 192.16.254. shown in the preceding logical addressing table. verify that the host has the correct DNS address and can ping eagle-server.254 R2-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Eagle Server N/A N/A Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central N/A N/A N/A Note to instructor: Depending on the classroom situation. the lab topology may have been modified before this class.16.255.254.254. 172.255.10.10.254.254. Verify that all network equipment is powered on.253 10.255.255. If an individual host computer cannot connect to Eagle Server.255.253 N/A 172.com.255.168.168.com. troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity: Step 1.255. R1-ISP.252 255. and can ping R1-ISP.255.255.5 172. Task 1: Explain Common netstat Command Parameters and Outputs Open a terminal window by clicking Start > Run. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests.example.0.16.254 192.255.4 N/A 192. From a known good host computer. ping S1-Central. To display help information about the netstat command. and that Eagle Server is on. R2-Central.example.0.255. ping eagle-server.0. and finally Eagle Server.255. and click OK.16. and can ping R2-Central. If the ping test fails.16.168. Enter cmd. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address.254.2 172.96 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 4-4 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP S0/0/0 Fa0/0 10.255. Finally.0 255.254 172. 10.254 172.com.16.10.Pod#. Verify that the host computer has the correct gateway IP address.Pod#.example.10. Step 2. .10.0 255. Step 3.254 172.255.10.252 255. check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central.16.24. use the /? options.255. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server.0 255.0 255.255.31.16.255. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity.0 255.10.10.1 255.

September 1981. Table 4-6 State Packet State Table Connection Description LISTEN ESTABLISHED TIME-WAIT The local connection is waiting for a connection request from any remote device. The connection is open. . ICMP. Table 4-7 IP Address Packet State Table Description 127.0. Redisplays statistics every 5 seconds. The address of the remote device that has a connection with this computer. the connection passes through a series of states. and will normally last between 30 and 120 seconds.0. Table 4-6 is a summary of TCP states. ICMPv6. or UDPv6. TCPv6. Press Ctrl+C to stop redisplaying statistics. the TCP state is displayed. as reported by netstat. but is waiting for a termination request from the local user. During the life of a TCP connection. TCP. This is the normal state for the data-transfer phase of the connection. CLOSE-WAIT SYN-SENT SYN_RECEIVED IP addresses displayed by netstat fall into several categories. meaning any. as shown in Table 4-7. This is a normal condition.0. IPv6. and data may be exchanged through the connection. A global address. Shows connections for the protocol specified by proto. Transmission Control Protocol. The local connection is waiting a default period of time after sending a connection termination request before closing the connection. The local connection is waiting for a confirming connection request acknowledgment. The connection should transition quickly through this state. -an 30 No options When netstat statistics are displayed for TCP connections. Redisplays all connections and listening ports every 30 seconds. proto may be any of TCP. Displays addresses and port numbers in numeric form. Display only open connections. UDP.0. or UDPv6. The connection should transition quickly through this state. proto may be any of IP. compiled from RFC 793. or this computer.0 Remote Address This address refers to the local host. Multiple connections in SYN_RECEIVED state may indicate a TCP SYN attack. UDP.1 0. This is a tricky problem. The local connection is waiting for a response after sending a connection request. The connection is closed. If used with the –s option to display per-protocol statistics.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 97 Table 4–5 Option netstat Table Description -a -n 5 (interval) -p Displays all connections and listening ports. TCPv6.

0. foreign address.1:139 GW-desktop-hom:ntp 192.0.0.168. Addresses and protocols that can be translated into names are displayed.1:138 GW-desktop-hom:0 0. .254.0. From the terminal window in Task 1. Use netstat to view existing connections.0.1:137 GW-desktop-hom:netbios-dgm 192.168. issue the command netstat –an: C:\> netstat –an Use the window vertical scrollbar to go back and forth between the outputs of the two commands.1:123 GW-desktop-hom:netbios-ns 192.0:0 *:* *:* *:* *:* *:* *:* LISTENING LISTENING LISTENING LISTENING Refer to the following netstat output shown in Example 4-1. and state information.168.0:0 LISTENING LISTENING GW-desktop-hom:microsoft-ds 0. Write down three TCP and three UDP connections from the netstat –a output and the corresponding translated port numbers from the netstat –an output.254.254. issue the command netstat –a: C:\> netstat –a A table will display that lists the protocol (TCP and UDP).0:135 GW-desktop-hom:0 0. Note to instructor: Answers will vary.0:445 TCP UDP UDP UDP GW-desktop-hom:netbios-ssn 192. From the terminal window.0.0:0 GW-desktop-hom:0 0. Table 4-8 Connection Protocol netstat Output Table Local Address Foreign Address State TCP TCP GW-desktop-hom:epmap 0. Table 4-8 provides a list of several common services on a host computer.98 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 2: Use netstat to Examine Protocol Information on a Pod Host Computer Step 1.0. noting how well-known port numbers are changed to names. If fewer than three connections translate. local address. Compare outputs.0.168. note that in Table 4-8.254.0.0. The –n option forces netstat to display output in raw format.

telnet to Eagle Server on port 53.1:1070 State ESTABLISHED ESTABLISHED A new network engineer suspects that his host computer has been compromised by an outside attack against ports 1070 and 1071. telnet on port 21. Establish multiple concurrent TCP connections and record netstat output.0. Microsoft Telnet>. port 25 Telnet: Telnet server. a connection might close before all connections have been made. and UDP cannot build the TCP session. The command for a Telnet connection on port 21 follows: C:\> telnet eagle-server.0.0. telnet on port 25. Open four additional terminal windows. In the first Telnet terminal window. In the third terminal window. approximately 1⁄2 screen width by 1⁄4 screen height. The venerable telnet command is used to access Eagle Server network services. Type quit and press Enter to close the session.com 53 In the large terminal window.0. If typing is slow. port 53 FTP: FTP server. Arrange the windows so that all are visible.example. press the Ctrl+] keys together. thus providing several protocols to examine with netstat. In the second terminal window. You will use the following: ■ ■ ■ ■ DNS: Domain Name System server. .0. How would you respond? Because the foreign address is 127. telnet on port 23.0.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 99 Example 4-1 Netstat Output C:\> netstat –n Active Connections Proto TCP TCP C:\> Local Address 127.1. To close a Telnet connection. The terminal windows that will be used to collect connection information should be 1⁄2 screen width by full screen height.0. several simultaneous connections will be made with Eagle Server.1:1071 Foreign Address 127. Several network services on Eagle Server will respond to a Telnet connection.1:1071 127. Step 2. In this task.0. connections should terminate from inactivity. In the fourth terminal window.1:1070 127.0. port 21 SMTP: SMTP mail server. Eventually. The four terminal windows that will be used for Telnet connections to Eagle Server can be relatively small. That will bring up the t=Telnet prompt. the host computer has made a TCP connection with itself. Output should look similar to the output in Example 4-1.0. record established connections with Eagle Server. port 23 Why should Telnet to UDP ports fail? Telnet is a TCP protocol.

Scenario Using Wireshark capture. UDP provides transport layer support for Domain Name System (DNS) services and Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP). defined in RFC 761.1) Upon completion of this activity.2.exe. file wiresharksetup-0. analyze TCP and UDP protocol header fields for file transfers between the host computer and Eagle Server. Try to view connections in stages different from ESTABLISHED. Task 5: Cleanup Unless directed otherwise by the instructor.168. TCP and UDP (4. and issue the netstat –an command.4. among others. January 1980. Lab 4-2: TCP/IP Transport Layer Protocols.1:1688 192. Task 4: Challenge Close established sessions abruptly (close the terminal window).254.168. Both protocols support upper-layer protocol communication.254.100 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example 4-2 C:\>netstat Proto TCP TCP TCP TCP Eagle Server Output Table Local Address 192. turn off power to the host computers.168. and interface statistics. TCP is used to provide transport layer support for the HTTP and FTP protocols.254.example.com/pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter4/. Identify UDP header fields and operation using a Wireshark TFTP session capture. For example. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ Identify TCP header fields and operation using a Wireshark FTP session capture.254. defined in RFC 768.254. among others.168.254. August 1980.5.168.254:23 State ESTABLISHED ESTABLISHED ESTABLISHED ESTABLISHED Task 3: Reflection The netstat utility displays incoming and outgoing network connections (TCP and UDP). host computer routing table information. Background The two protocols in the TCP/IP transport layer are the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). The ability to understand the parts of the TCP and UDP headers and operation is a critical skill for network engineers.254.1:1691 192. and User Datagram Protocol (UDP).1:1693 192. Ponder the utility of netstat in small and large networks and consider how netstat can help you diagnose problems. you can download it from ftp://eagle-server. If Wireshark has not been loaded on the host pod computer.254:53 192.1:1694 Foreign Address 192.168.254:25 192. Remove anything that was brought into the lab and leave the room ready for the next class.254:21 192.99.168.254. .168.

0.0 255.252 255.16.16.255.255.0 255.254 172.254.255.255.254 172.Pod#.0 255.6 192.168.10.168. and Table 4-9 shows the corresponding addressing table.16.0.253 10.254 172.24.254.255.255.255.0.4 N/A 192.255.255. Figure 4-2 shows the topology for this lab.255.0.16.5 172.253 N/A 172.255.255.1 255.0 N/A N/A 10.2 172.10.254.10.168.255.0 255.1 172.254 R2-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Eagle Server N/A N/A Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central N/A N/A N/A .255.255.255.0 255.16.255.Pod#.254.10.16.254 192.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 101 Windows command-line utilities FTP and TFTP will be used to connect to Eagle Server and download files.252 255.16.255.31.0 255. Figure 4–2 Topology for Lab 4-2 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 Table 4-9 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP S0/0/0 Fa0/0 10.10.254 172.10.

the session capture will be analyzed. In this task.255. 172.254. Step 2. check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central. 10. .example. shown in the preceding logical addressing table. Start an FTP connection to Eagle Server. TCP sessions are well controlled and managed by information exchanged in the TCP header fields. When prompted for a password.16. and the text configuration file for S1-Central from Eagle Server will be downloaded. Figure 4–3 Command-Line Window Start a Wireshark capture on the interface that has IP address 172. ftp. and finally Eagle Server. From a known good host computer. Step 3. R2-Central. Verify that the host computer has the correct gateway IP address. the lab topology might have been modified before this class. Verify that all network equipment is powered on.255.6.example. and then click OK. and can ping R2-Central.10.com When prompted for a user ID. Open a command-line window by clicking Start > Run. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests.com.254. and can ping R1-ISP. ping Eagle Server. and that Eagle Server is on. If an individual host computer cannot connect to Eagle Server. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server. Finally. R1-ISP. type anonymous. press Enter.10. When finished. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity.102 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Note to instructor: Depending on the classroom situation. If the ping test fails.16. A window similar to Figure 4-3 should open. an FTP session is made to Eagle Server. Task 1: Identify TCP Header Fields and Operation Using a Wireshark FTP Session Capture Step 1.example. Capture an FTP session.16. 172. Enter the following command: > ftp eagle-server. Windows computers use the FTP client. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address.[1-2]. ping S1Central. verify that the host has the correct DNS address and can ping eagle-server. troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity using the following steps: Step 1.com.Pod#. type cmd. to connect to the FTP server. /pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter4/s1-central. to the host computer. A command-line window will start the FTP session.

and manage window size. the transport layer protocol TCP created a reliable session. At the conclusion of the data transfer. and move the cursor to the middle window. When the FTP client is connected to the FTP server. verify datagram arrival. Finally. Analyze the TCP fields. You might need to adjust the middle window and expand the TCP record by clicking the protocol expand box. detailed TCP information is available in the middle window. Step 2.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 103 Change the FTP directory to /pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter4/: ftp> cd /pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter4/ Download the file s1-central: ftp> get s1-central When finished. The top window contains summary information for each captured record. Before we delve into TCP packet details. Switch to the Wireshark capture windows. an explanation of the summary information is needed. . a new TCP session is started. Your capture should be similar to the capture shown in Figure 44. Highlight the first TCP datagram from the host computer. Figure 4–4 FTP Capture In Wireshark. TCP is routinely used during a session to control datagram delivery. TCP performs an orderly shutdown and termination. the TCP session is closed. terminate the FTP sessions in each command-line window with the FTP quit command: ftp> quit Close the command-line window with the command exit: > exit Stop the Wireshark capture. when the FTP session is finished. For each exchange of data between the FTP client and FTP server. The expanded TCP datagram should look similar to Example 4-3.

.. on some port above 1023..104 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example 4-3 Wireshark Capture of a TCP Datagram >Transmission Control Protocol... Len: 0 Source Port: 1052 (1052) Destination Port: ftp (21) Sequence number: 0 (relative sequence number) Header length: 28 bytes >Flags: 0x02 (SYN) 0. and contains a SYN flag........ .0... .. ..16.. .. .. Seq: 0. Dst port: ftp (21). 172.... Src Port: 1052 (1052).0 .. = Acknowledge: Not set ...254.... = Reset: Not set ..254...0.1.0 = Fin: Not set Window size: 64240 Checksum: 0xb965 [correct] >Options: (8 bytes) Maximum segment size: 1460 bytes NOP NOP SACK permitted How is the first datagram in a TCP session identified? The initial datagram originates from the host computer.0. = ECN-Echo: Not set . 0. = Urgent: Not set ... to Eagle Server. Code Bits: U A R P S F RCS S Y I GK T HNN Code Bits Window Urgent Pointer Padding 24 TCP Destination Port Number 31 TCP Source Port Number .. = Syn: Set .168. 192. = Congestion Window Reduced (CWR): Not Set .x. = Push: Not set ... port number 21.x. Figure 4-5 0 TCP Packet Fields for Lab 4-2 TCP Segment 4 10 16 Sequence Number Acknowledgment Number HLEN Reserved TCP Checksum Options (If Any) Data Data.. .. Figure 4-5 shows a TCP datagram.

Using the Wireshark capture of the first TCP session start-up (SYN bit set to 1). Among interesting values are ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ACK: Acknowledgment of a segment receipt SYN: Synchronize. Urgent pointer: Is only used with an URG (Urgent) flag (when the sender needs to send urgent data to the receiver). such as Telnet. which is only set when a new TCP session is negotiated during the TCP three-way handshake FIN: Finish. Destination Port) uniquely identifies the session to both sender and receiver. Options: The only option currently defined is the maximum TCP segment size (optional value). * 172. The value is normally a random value above 1023. Code bits: Have a special meaning in session management and in the treatment of segments.1 192.1.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 105 An explanation of each field is provided to refresh your memory: ■ TCP source port number: Belongs to the TCP session host that opened a connection.254. and so on). The quadruple field combination (Source IP Address.16. ■ ■ Table 4-10 TCP Header: SYN Bit Set to 1 Answers Characteristics Source IP address Destination IP address Source port number Destination port number Sequence number Acknowledgment number Header length Window size * May differ from what student enters. TCP destination port number: Is used to identify the upper-layer protocol or application on the remote site. Source Port. fill in information about the TCP header in Table 4-10. HTTP. FTP.168. which is the request to close the TCP session ■ ■ Window size: Is the value of the sliding window (that is. Sequence number: Specifies the number of the last octet in a segment. Destination IP Address. how many octets can be sent before waiting for an acknowledgment).254 *1052 21 0 (relative) N/A 28 bytes * 64240 . Acknowledgment number: Specifies the next octet expected by the receiver. The values in the range of 0 to 1023 represent the so-called well-known ports and are associated with popular services and applications (as described in RFC 1700.

the opening TCP session sends a TCP datagram with the SYN bit set. fill in information about the TCP header in Table 4-11.1 192. A final ACK bit is never sent to finish the TCP handshake. Instead.1.254 *1052 21 1 (relative) 1 20 bytes * 64240 Ignoring the TCP session started when a data transfer occurred. Attackers take advantage of the three-way handshake by initiating a “half-open” connection.254. how many other TCP datagrams contained a SYN bit? None. Table 4–11 TCP Header: SYN and ACK Bits Set to 1 Answers Characteristics Source IP address Destination IP address Source port number Destination port number Sequence number Acknowledgment number Header length Window size * May differ from what student enters 192. a new TCP connection is started in half-open fashion. In this sequence. and the receiver sends a related TCP datagram with the SYN ACK bits set. A crash could involve a loss of networking .168. With sufficient TCP sessions in the half-open state.168. the receiving computer may exhaust resources and crash.254.16. Table 4–12 TCP Header: ACK Bits Set to 1 Answers Characteristics Source IP address Destination IP address Source port number Destination port number Sequence number Acknowledgment number Header length Window size * May differ from what student enters * 172. a SYN bit is only used during the beginning of a TCP session. fill in information about the TCP header in Table 4-12.16.254 * 172.1.1 * 21 1052 0 (relative) 1 28 bytes * 5840 Using the Wireshark capture of the first TCP session start-up (only ACK bit is set to 1).106 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Using the Wireshark capture of the first TCP session start-up (SYN and ACK bits are set to 1).

visible in the Wireshark capture. FTP server.“Quit” FTP Server. such as when the connection is broken. This sequence. In either case. Figure 4–6 TCP Session Management FTP Client FTP Welcome TCP Acknowledgment FTP Userid Sent TCP Acknowledgment FTP Password Response FTP Server When the FTP session has finished. When the originator of the TCP termination. the FTP server TCP session sends a TCP datagram to the FTP client. At this time. The default timeout value varies.“Goodbye” TCP Acknowledgment TCP Session ACK FIN Sent TCP Acknowledgment TCP Session ACK FIN Sent TCP Acknowledgment TCP Session Ends FTP Server Without an orderly termination. the TCP session on the FTP client sends an acknowledgment to the TCP session on Eagle Server. networking service has been stopped on the receiver. receives a duplicate termination. the TCP sessions will wait a certain period of time until closing. the FTP client sends a command to “quit. announcing the termination of the TCP session. Figure 4–7 Orderly TCP Session Termination FTP Client FTP Client.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 107 services or could corrupt the operating system. The FTP client TCP session acknowledges receipt of the termination datagram. and then sends its own TCP session termination. an ACK datagram is sent to acknowledge the termination. but is normally 5 minutes. is shown in Figure 4-6. This is one example of a denial-ofservice (DoS) attack. The FTP client and server communicate with each other. unaware and uncaring that TCP has control and management over the session. . and the TCP session is closed. is shown in Figure 4-7. the attacker has won. visible in the Wireshark capture. When the FTP server sends a Response: 220 to the FTP client. This sequence.” The FTP server acknowledges the FTP termination with a Response: 221 Goodbye.

Student capture should be similar to the capture shown in Figure 4-8. Example 4-4 >tftp –help TFTP Syntax for a Windows TFTP Client Transfers files to and from a remote computer running the TFTP service. Specifies where to transfer the file. to retrieve a file. open a command-line window. Capture a TFTP session. Example 4-4 contains Windows TFTP client syntax. to send a file. byte by byte. Transfers the file destination on the remote host to the file source on the local host. TFTP [-i] host [GET | PUT] source [destination] -i Specifies binary image transfer mode (also called octet). and PUT. The command and syntax to perform this follows: >tftp eagle-server. and then download the s1-central configuration file from Eagle Server with the Windows TFTP client. Following the procedure in Task 1. A TFTP transfer will be used to analyze transport layer UDP operation. For example. GET. No authentication is supported. Destination Start a Wireshark capture. which is different from the directory structure supported by the FTP server. In binary image mode the file is moved literally. Use this mode when transferring binary files. Also. The TFTP server has its own directory on Eagle Server. there are only two commands.108 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 2: Identify UDP Header Fields and Operation Using a Wireshark TFTP Session Capture Step 1.com get s1-central Step 2. host GET Specifies the local or remote host. The TFTP command has a different syntax than FTP. source Specifies the file to transfer. there is no authentication. /tftpboot. Analyze the UDP fields. Switch to the Wireshark capture windows. .example. PUT Transfers the file source on the local host to the file destination on the remote host.

detailed UDP information is available in the middle window. You might have to adjust the middle window and expand the UDP record by clicking the protocol expand box.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 109 Figure 4-8 UDP Session Capture Note: If students point to UDP acknowledgments.. and move the cursor to the middle window. in this case TFTP. . it is the responsibility of the upper-layer protocol. In Wireshark. Figure 4–10 UDP Format UDP Segment 0 UDP Source Port UDP Message Length Data Data. The expanded UDP datagram should look similar to Figure 4-9. Each UDP datagram is identified by the UDP source port and UDP destination port. The checksum value is a hexadecimal (base 16) value. Header information is sparse.. Figure 4–9 UDP Datagram Capture See Figure 4-10. a UDP datagram diagram. explain that the UDP header does not contain an acknowledgment field. denoted by the preceding 0x code. to manage data transfer and receipt information. Instead. This will be shown during the UDP datagram examination. 16 UDP Destination Port UDP Checksum 31 Using the Wireshark capture of the first UDP datagram. however. fill in information about the UDP header in Table 4-13. There are similarities. Highlight the first UDP datagram from the host computer. compared to the TCP datagram.

1 * 32799 * 1038 *524 bytes * 0xc5cf (correct) Notice that the return UDP datagram has a different UDP source port. * 172. the UDP datagram is assumed complete. 192.1. and the datagram checksum value is recomputed upon receipt. only the original source port used to begin the TFTP session is used to maintain the TFTP transfer. however.254. UDP has less overhead and control. but this source port is used for the remainder of the TFTP transfer.16.254 * 172. Table 4-14 UDP Header Information Answers Characteristics Source IP address Destination IP address: 172.___. Because there is no reliable connection.168.168. Both protocols have advantages . Task 3: Reflection This lab provided you with the opportunity to analyze TCP and UDP protocol operations from captured FTP and TFTP sessions.___ Source port number Destination port number UDP message length UDP checksum: 0x * May differ from what student enters. but reliability and guaranteed delivery requires additional control over the communication channel. transport data between clients and servers using application layer protocols and are appropriate for the upper-layer protocol each supports.16. If the computed checksum is identical with the sent checksum. Examine the first packet returned from Eagle Server. and the upper-layer protocol must provide some type of acknowledgment control.110 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 4-13 UDP Header Table Answers Characteristics Source IP address Destination IP address Source port number Destination port number UDP message length UDP checksum * May differ from what student enters.16.254 * 1038 69 * 30 bytes * 0x1f04 (correct) How does UDP verify datagram integrity? A checksum is sent in the UDP datagram.254.1. TCP manages communication much differently from UDP. Both protocols.1 192. Fill in information about the UDP header in Table 4-14.

such as a web server and client. Task 4: Challenge Because neither FTP nor TFTP are secure protocols. passwords. and an FTP server and client.5. There may be several servers on the same end device. all data transferred is sent in clear text. and therefore different transport protocols have been developed to meet these requirements. such as TCP and UDP. Observe TCP establish and manage communication channels with HTTP and FTP connections. and how transport layer protocols TCP and UDP manage the communication channel. This lab examines two popular application layer protocols. and configuration file passwords. but the data field can be examined and configuration user ID and password information extracted. Application layer protocols define the communication between network services. Remove anything that was brought into the lab.1) Upon completion of this lab. Applications are designed to use one protocol or another based on maximizing the advantages while minimizing the disadvantages. Lab 4-3: Application and Transport Layer Protocols (4. Background The primary function of the transport layer is to keep track of multiple application conversations on the same host. Analysis of the upper-layer FTP session will quickly identify the user ID. password. you use client applications to connect to Eagle Server network services. Capture and analyze HTTP communication between the pod host computer and a web server. and the server responds to the client. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. Consider how you would determine which protocol to use if you were designing an application. You monitor the communication with Wireshark and analyze the captured packets. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ ■ Configure the host computer to capture application layer protocols. Capture and analyze FTP communication between the pod host computer and an FTP server. For each network service. A user may open several client applications to the same server. or clear-text file contents. Application layer protocols rely on lower-level TCP/IP protocols. .3. Clients initiate communication to the appropriate server. Also examined are popular client requests and corresponding server responses. turn off power to the host computers. yet each client communicates exclusively with a session established between the client and server. several files were transferred to the host computer and should be removed. and leave the room ready for the next class. different applications have different requirements for their data. a different server is listening on a different port for client connections. Scenario In this lab. Upper-layer TFTP data examination is a bit more complicated. Task 5: Cleanup During this lab. This includes any user IDs. HTTP and FTP. However.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 111 and disadvantages.

waiting to respond to client requests.255.253 N/A 172.168.254 172.254.255.5 172.16.253 10.10.255.255. the underlying communication to the server remains the same.10.0.255.255.255.0 255.1 172.16.0 255.254. The web browser will also be used to examine the FTP protocol.254 172.31.252 255.6 192. ask the instructor for assistance before proceeding.255. This exercise demonstrates that although clients may differ.0.16.10. Figure 4–11 Topology for Lab 4-3 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 Table 4–15 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP R2-Central Eagle Server Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 S0/0/0 Fa0/0 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 10.10.16.16.255.255.255.255.10.254.16.168.1 255.0 N/A N/A 10.24. Eagle Server has several network services preconfigured.Pod#.254 .255.254.254 192.168.Pod#.255. such as HTTP.0.255.0 255.10.255.4 N/A 192.2 172.255. The lab should be configured as shown in Figure 4-11 and Table 4-15.252 255.0.0 255.0 255.16.112 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide A web browser such as Internet Explorer or Firefox will be used to connect to the Eagle Server network service.254 172.255. as will the FTP command-line client.254 172. If it is not.0 255.

172. verify that the host has the correct DNS address and can ping eagle-server. troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity using the following steps: Step 1.254. This is also why the file has no physical size. Wireshark should begin to log data. R2-Central.255. Finally.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 113 Note to instructor: Depending on the classroom situation. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity. When the opening screen appears. 172. and can ping R1-ISP.254.example.255. and finally Eagle Server. and can ping R2-Central.10. Figure 4-12 Wireshark Interface Capture After the file has downloaded. the lab topology might have been modified before this class. Download and install Wireshark. check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central.com.16. If an individual host computer cannot connect to Eagle Server. Task 1: Configure the Pod Host Computer to Capture Application Layer Protocols Step 1. and then save the file to the host pod computer. Step 2. R1-ISP. Stop Wireshark for the moment. Step 3. Verify that the host computer has the correct gateway IP address. The interface with the IP address of the pod host computer is the correct interface.example. If the ping test fails. Start Wireshark and configure the capture interface. Right-click the Wireshark filename. Start Wireshark from Start > All Programs > Wireshark > Wireshark. See Figure 4-12. Step 2. shown in the preceding logical addressing table.16. 10. you can download it from eagleserver. Wireshark will be used in upcoming tasks. ping S1Central.com.com. to another file. and that Eagle Server is on. double-click the filename and install Wireshark with the default settings. Step 3. .10. Verify that all network equipment is powered on.example. From a known good host computer. ping Eagle Server. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server.com/pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter3. the interface is used as the default and does not need to be changed. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address. Thereafter. it is because the file is a link.example. Wireshark can be started by clicking the interface Start button. set the correct capture interface. If Wireshark is not installed on the pod host computer. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests. If students ask why the Wireshark icon is a directory folder. The download URL is ftp://eagleserver. or shortcut.6.

The second session occurred with a refresh action. numbers 10. Step 2.com. Stop Wireshark captures and analyze the captured data. dated 1999. There should be no change to the display in the web client.example.com. The first HTTP session started with a connection to http://eagleserver. A web page similar to Figure 4-13 will display. Step 1. HTTP version 1.example. Open a second web browser. Figure 4-13 Web Server Screen Click the web browser Refresh button. Close the web browsers. . Before HTTP can begin. the TCP session must be created. Wireshark will display captures based on packet type. Start Wireshark captures. Figure 4-15 shows a sample captured HTTP session.example.com/page2. connect to URL http://eagleserver. This is seen in the first three session lines.1 is defined in RFC 2616. relying on lower-level protocols such as TCP to establish and manage the communication channel. Using a web browser such as Internet Explorer or Firefox.html. This part of the lab demonstrates how sessions between multiple web clients and the web server are kept separate. Start the pod host web browser.114 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 2: Capture and Analyze HTTP Communication Between the Pod Host Computer and a Web Server HTTP is an application layer protocol.html.example. 11. This will display a different web page.com/page2. and connect to URL http://eagleserver. The resulting Wireshark data will display. Step 3. Do not close either browser until Wireshark capture is stopped. There were actually at least three HTTP sessions created in Step 2. and 12. The third session occurred when the second web browser accessed http://eagleserver. Do not close this web browser until instructed to do so.

This is the beginning of the TCP three-way handshake. Move into the second (middle) Wireshark window to examine the layered protocols.1. In Figure 4-14. the GET request is on line 13. Which computer initially signaled an end to the HTTP session. Although no page was requested.2 192.1.2 started the HTTP session to 192.254 with the SYN flag set.254.16.168. Table 4–17 HTTP Session Table Answer Characteristics Protocol version Request Method * Request URI Language HTTP/1.2. some web servers are configured to display a default file if one is available. expand the fields. and repeated by 172. Highlight the first line of the HTTP protocol.16. .254 signaled an end to the session with the FIN ACK flags set. and how? 192.168.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 115 Figure 4-14 Captured HTTP Session Fill in Table 4-16 from the information presented in the HTTP session. In the first browser. Which protocol is carried (encapsulated) inside the TCP segment? Hypertext Transfer Protocol Expand the last protocol record and any subfields. Complete Table 4-17 using information from the protocol. Table 4-16 HTTP Session Table Answers Characteristics Web browser IP address Web server IP address Transport layer protocol (UDP/TCP) Web browser port number Web server port number 172.1 GET \ En-us *Request URI is the path to the requested document. This is the actual information sent to the web server. the path is the root directory of the web server. a GET request from the web browser. acknowledged. If necessary.254.254.254 TCP 1056 80 Which computer initiated the HTTP session.16.1.168. and how? 172.

. there are only a few lines of text (web server responses can contain thousands or millions of bytes). The web browser understands and correctly formats the data in the browser window. With a single packet returned for both the initial GET request and refresh. In this reply. in 1971. Crackers sometimes send unknown or garbled requests to web servers in an attempt to stop the server or gain access to the server command line. a request for an unknown web page will result in an error message. The familiar web browser can be used to communicate with more than just the HTTP server. From RFC 2616 What does this response mean? The request has succeeded. the GET request contained the following additional instructions to the web server: If-modified-since: Fri. Highlight the web server response. What is the web server response to the web client GET request? 200 OK. In this task. refresh. In Figure 4-14. However.page tag number (ETAG) What is the ETAG response from the web server? 98072-b8-82da8740 Task 3: Capture and Analyze FTP Communication Between the Pod Host Computer and a Web Server The application layer protocol FTP has undergone significant revision since it first appeared in RFC 114. Scroll down the top window of Wireshark until the second HTTP session. is sent in the response. GET. the bandwidth used is minimal. the web browser and a command-line FTP utility are used to download data from an FTP server. FTP version 5. for an initial response that contains millions of bytes. this is on line 15. Notice the information returned from the server.116 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide The web server responds with the next HTTP packet. Figure 4-15 Captured HTTP Session The significance of the refresh action is in the server response. Open all collapsed subfields of HTTP. dated October 1985. 304 Not Modified. a single reply packet can save significant bandwidth.1 is defined in RFC 959. 26 Jan 2007 06:19:33 GMT\r\n If-None-Match: “98072-b8-82da8740”\r\n <. A response to the web browser is possible because the web server understands the type of request and has a file to return. Figure 4-15 shows a sample capture. Also. Because this web page was saved in the web client’s cache. an entity corresponding to the requested resource. is visible. and then move into the second (middle) window.

A screen similar to Figure 4-16 will display. Step 2. enter cmd. Figure 4-16 Windows Command Line Step 1. refer to Task 1.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 117 In preparation for this task.example. open a command line on the host pod computer.example. Password: <ENTER> 230 Login successful. Start a pod host computer FTP session with the FTP server. as shown in Example 4-5. Start the pod host command-line FTP client. If necessary. To authenticate. To do so.example. type help and press Enter. This means that the FTP client is waiting for a command to send to the FTP server. press Enter. and then click OK. Commands are: FTP Client Commands ! ? append ascii bell binary bye cd close delete debug dir disconnect get glob hash help lcd literal ls mdelete mdir mget mkdir mls mput open prompt put pwd quit quote recv remotehelp rename rmdir send status trace type user verbose .com Connected to eagle-server. use user ID anonymous. 220 Welcome to the eagle-server FTP service. The FTP client prompt is ftp>. Step 2. Start Wireshark captures. Example 4-6 ftp> help Commands may be abbreviated.com. Example 4-5 FTP Eagle Server Example >ftp eagle-server. User (eagle-server. To view a list of FTP client commands. click Start > Run.com:(none)): anonymous 331 Please specify the password. In response to the password prompt. as shown in Example 4-6. using the Windows FTP client utility. to open Wireshark.

prohibiting access outside of the current directory. indicates that the file is a directory. User anonymous has been placed into a root jail.118 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Unfortunately. Consider using PASV. the values are UNIX file permissions. the large number of FTP client commands makes using the command-line utility difficult for a novice. ftp> get “ftptoeagle-server. -rw-r—r— -rw-r—r— -rw-r—r— -rw-r—r— 1 0 100 1 0 100 1 0 100 5853 Jan 12 04:26 ftptoeagle-server. Example 4-7 FTP Directory Output ftp> dir 200 PORT command successful.pcap 4493 Jan 12 04:27 http to eagle-server. This is not the real root directory of the server. The first character. x (access). d.34Seconds 17.12Kbytes/sec. ftp: 5853 bytes received in 0.pcap 1 0 100 15163750 Jan 12 04:30 wireshark-setup-0.pcap (5853 bytes).21Kbytes/sec.254.254. however.04Seconds 8. ftp> dir 200 PORT command successful.4. and world. 150 Here comes the directory listing.exe 226 Directory send OK. Stop Wireshark captures. 226 File send OK. World (anyone) can read and access the directory. and exit.99. drwxr-xr-x 3 0 0 4096 Jan 12 04:32 pub If students ask what the values at the beginning of the line mean. ftp: 333 bytes received in 0. Consider using PASV. 150 Opening BINARY mode data connection for ftptoeagle-server. as shown in Example 4-7. 150 Here comes the directory listing. The FTP client is at the root directory of the FTP server. Close the command-line window with the exit command. Enter the command dir to display the current directory contents. Example 4-8 FTP Subdirectory Example ftp> cd pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter2 250 Directory successfully changed. w (write). Subdirectories can be traversed. Consider using PASV. but only the highest point that user anonymous can access. .pcap 1486 Jan 12 04:27 ping to 192. ftp> quit 221 Goodbye. for the owner. See Example 4-8. and files transferred to the pod host computer. The permissions are arranged as r (read).168. Move into directory pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter2. and save the captures as FTP_Command_Line_Client. download a file. We will only use a few commands for Wireshark evaluation. group.pcap” 200 PORT command successful.

and save the captures as FTP_Web_Browser_Client. and enter the URL ftp://eagle-server. Figure 4-18 Wireshark FTP Capture Move into the middle Wireshark window and expand the FTP protocol. Response: 220. Step 4. similar to HTTP. as shown on the bottom of the Figure 4-17. On the top Wireshark window. open the Wireshark capture FTP_Web_Browser_Client. select the FTP capture that is the first FTP protocol transmission. go down the directories until the URL path is pub/eaglelabs/eagle1/chapter2. Double-click the file ftptoeagle-server. When finished. this is line 23. Start the pod host web browser.com. Stop Wireshark captures. Figure 4-17 Web Browser FTP Client Using the browser. In Figure 4-18. example. A browser window opens with the pub directory displayed. Also. Open a web browser as shown in Figure 4-17. .Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 119 Step 3. the web browser logged in to the FTP server as user anonymous.pcap and save the file. What is the FTP server response 220? Service is ready for a new user. Start Wireshark captures again. close the web browser. FTP communicates using codes. Analyze the captured data. If not already opened.

however. and observe the FTP communication.120 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide When the FTP server issued a Response: 331 Please specify the password. high ports are used on both ends of the connection. The transfer mode can be either active or passive. there are two significant changes. however. First. The FTP server source port number is 20. The Windows FTP client used for this lab did not support the passive transfer mode. a port number above 1023. Compare FTP active and passive transfer modes. In passive mode. Figure 4-19 Active FTP FTP Client FTP Control Connection on TCP Port 21 FTP Server FTP Data Connection From TCP Port 20 on Server to a High Port on the Client. To establish connectivity for data transfer. and the FTP client port number is some number above 1023. Open the Wireshark capture FTP_Web_Browser_Client. What is the FTP data port number used by the FTP server? The port number is 20. the client initiates the data connection to the server. This is called the transfer mode. Although the clients are different. the commands are similar. For data transfer. the port number is 1073. In active mode. the same connection used in the active transfer mode. Both port numbers are above 1023. Step 5. the client opens a new port to the server for data transfer. a client initiates an FTP session with the server on well-known TCP port 21. If possible. a new port is opened. students should be shown a passive transfer mode. what was the web browser reply? IEUSER@ Which port number does the FTP client use to connect to the FTP server port 21? Port number will vary. The implications between the two modes are important from an information security perspective. Second. Unless the FTP client firewall is configured to permit connections from the outside. the server opens a TCP session to the FTP client and transfers data across that port. See Figure 4-19. See Figure 4-20. . a client initiates an FTP session with the server on well-known TCP port 21. the server initiates a connection from well-known TCP port 20 to a client’s high port. In active transfer mode. The transfer mode sets how the data port is configured. In Figure 4-18. data transfer may fail. the FTP client must permit either FTP-related connections (implying stateful packet filtering) or disable blocking. For data transfer. In passive transfer mode. When data is transferred or with simple directory listings.

however. An HTTP session begins when a request is made to the HTTP server and ends when the response has been acknowledged by the HTTP client. data transfer will fail. but each must send and receive messages that can be correctly interpreted. HTTP uses a single protocol to communicate with the HTTP server. TCP manages the connection between client and server to ensure datagram delivery. Telnet. The communication protocol is normally defined in an RFC. Observe the Telnet protocol behavior. Unless the FTP server is configured to permit a connection to a random high port. The FTP server listens on TCP port 21. uses two protocols. An FTP session. The FTP client must authenticate to the FTP server. Issue a GET request and observe the results. and Gopher. lasts until the client signals that it is leaving with the quit command. How is the application layer protocol Telnet similar to HTTP and FTP? How does Telnet differ? Answers will vary. The server listens on port 80 for client connections. Task 4: Reflection Both HTTP and FTP protocols rely on TCP to communicate. guaranteed delivery of datagrams. the server or client may initiate the data connection. All of these services use TCP. but Telnet is similar to HTTP and FTP in that all three use the TCP protocol for connection-oriented. Although only HTTP and FTP were examined here. and consider why UDP is inappropriate for HTTP.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 121 Figure 4-20 Passive FTP FTP Client FTP Control Connection on TCP Port 21 FTP Server FTP Data Connection From the Client High TCP Port to the Server High TCP Port. Task 5: Challenge Enabling Wireshark capture. User anonymous normally has restricted access to the FTP server and cannot upload files. Think about the differences between TCP and UDP. Not all FTP client applications support changes to the transfer mode. The browser acts as a client to the server. even if the authentication is open to the world. FTP. Depending on the transfer mode. as the command line. Telnet and Gopher may also be supported on the browser. . however. A client application may be either a web browser or command-line utility. Multiple application layer protocols can be accessed through a simple web browser. sending requests and processing replies. FTP. use a web browser or command-line Telnet client to connect to a Cisco device such as S1-Central or R2-Central.

turn off power to the host computers. Scroll to the bottom of the list. HTTP. Use simulation mode to visualize the operation of DNS. HTTP. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor.1.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab4532.6. you will be using a standard lab setup created from actual PCs. UDP. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ ■ Configure hosts and services. Explore How DNS. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity. and then click Remove. Background Throughout the course. Upon completion of this activity. You will use the topology in Figure 4-21 and the addressing table in Table 4-18 to document your design. To remove Wireshark.3) Open the file LSG01-PTSkills4. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. Remember. Connect and configure hosts and services on the model of the lab network. Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Application and Transport Layer Protocols Examination (4. and switches to learn networking concepts. routers. right-click Wireshark.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to perform this exercise using Packet Tracer. delete all files retrieved from the FTP server. UDP. Packet Tracer Challenge Skills Integration Challenge: Analyzing the Application and Transport Layers (4.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. .3. however. the instructor may want the application removed. At the end of each chapter. and analyze increasingly more complex protocol interactions. you will build increasingly larger parts of this topology in Packet Tracer. and UDP work together.5. servers. and TCP on the model of the lab network. click Start > Control Panel > Add or Remove Programs. and leave the room ready for the next class.122 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 6: Clean Up If Wireshark was installed on the pod host computer for this lab. If downloaded files need to be removed from the host pod computer.

10.254.255. Then configure it with the following settings: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ IP address 192.5 172.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 123 Figure 4-21 Topology for Challenge 1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server 2960-24TT S1-Central 1841 R2-Central PC 1A PC 1B Table 4-18 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP Fa0/0 S0/0/0 192.255.10.254.253 R2-Central Fa0/0 S0/0/0 S1-Central PC 1A PC 1B Eagle Server VLAN 1 NIC NIC NIC Task 1: Repair and Test the Topology The server has been replaced.16.168.254 Subnet mask 255.254 172.6 172.example.16.254.252 255.0 255.255.255.255.10.255.168.16.1 172.16.168.1 172.254 172.255.255.0.255.255. It must be powered on.1.0 255.0 255.255.10.254.254 10.255.168.254 192.168.253 DNS enabled.255.16.10.16.16.253 10.255.0.0.255.254 255.0 N/A N/A 10.0 255.255.1.254.255.0 Default gateway 192.252 255.10.10.6 10.com with the server’s IP address HTTP enabled .254.0.2 192.10.6 172. with the association of eagle-server.255.0 255.

this is because of the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) process.16. you should be able to see how DNS. Outbound PDU Details) for each event in the event list. This time it will succeed. Make sure Event Filter is set to display DNS.254. UDP. and UDP and TCP. HTTP. If you receive a Buffer Full message. Play this animation and examine the packet contents (PDU Information window. by using the Add Simple PDU to test connectivity between PC 1A and the Eagle Server. please do this before the next task. Task 2: Explore How DNS.124 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Connect the Eagle Server to the Fa0/0 port on the R1-ISP router using a crossover cable.1 Subnet mask 255. in real time. and TCP work together by studying tracing the packets and using the PDU Information window to look “inside” them. and TCP Work Together Switch from real time to simulation mode.0. Configure it with the following settings: ■ ■ ■ ■ IP address 172. UDP. Task 3: Reflection Can you make a diagram of the sequence of protocol events involved in requesting a web page using a URL? Where might things go wrong? Compare and contrast DNS and HTTP. HTTP. if you use the Delete button for Scenario 0.16.255. The first time you issue this one-shot ping message. HTTP. UDP.com. it will show as Failed. Open a web browser from the desktop of 1A.255. and ICMP. Scenario 1 might have test packets between PC 1B and the routers). In Packet Tracer. You can remove all test packets in a particular scenario by using the Delete button. the test packet you just created between PC 1A and Eagle Server will be removed.168. and TCP. especially when the packets are at PC 1A or at the Eagle Server. and then use the Capture / Forward button in the event List to capture the interaction of DNS. it appears in the PDU List window as part of Scenario 0. “Ethernet. Note that when you add a simple PDU.0 Default gateway 172. For example.254 Connect PC 1A to the Fa0/1 port of the S1-Central switch using a straight-through cable. send this single test ping a second time.example. or by clicking the Info column for that packet instance as it is listed in the Event List. Although the processing of the packets at the switch and the routers might not make sense to you yet. press Enter. Inbound PDU Details. TCP. which is explained later in Chapter 9.254 DNS server 192. HTTP. Scenario 0 might have one test packet from PC 1A to Eagle Server. Test connectivity.1. UDP. the term scenario means a specific configuration of one or more test packets.” Double-clicking the Fire button in the PDU List window. . click the View Previous Events button. You can examine the packet in two ways: by clicking the packet envelope as it is displayed in the animation. Verify your work using feedback from the Check Results button and the Assessment Items tab. PC 1A has lost its IP address information. You can create different test packet scenarios by using the New button (for example. Type the URL eagleserver.

hands-on skills needed to understand the opportunities and challenges associated with modern networks. 2. Novell Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX).CHAPTER 5 OSI Network Layer The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of matching. Answers will vary but could include Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4). List three protocols implemented at the network layer that carry user data. As you work through this chapter. What is the most significant difference between the two? Although answers will vary. 3. multiple-choice. and Connectionless Network Service (CLNS/DECNet) 3. IP version 4 (IPv4) is the network layer protocol used as an example throughout this study guide. IPv4 is going to be replaced by IPv6. The data must be packaged so that it can be sent in a manageable size. The address space for IPv4 is 32 bit. use Chapter 5 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum or use the corresponding Chapter 5 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration Companion Guide for assistance. whereas IPv6 is 128 bit. What are the four basic processes used in the network layer to accomplish end-to-end transport? To accomplish end-to-end transport. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum activities and labs to ensure you have mastered the practical. The packet arrives at the destination host and is processed at Layer 3. fill-in-the-blank. Layer 3 uses the following four basic processes: 1. 4. Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6). . AppleTalk. Study Guide IPv4 The network layer provides services to exchange the individual pieces of data over the network between end devices. These fields contain binary values that the IPv4 services reference as they forward packets across the network. 2. Concept Questions 1. The network layer must provide a unique address for these end devices. IPv4 defines many different fields in the packet header. and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of the importance of data networks and the major components and characteristics of network architectures. the most significant difference between IPv4 and IPv6 is length. The most significant network layer protocol is the Internet Protocol (IP). The network layer must provide services to direct these packets to their destination host.

IPv4 is connectionless. There is no error control for data. Any individual IP packet can be communicated electrically over cable. Number of hops before packet is dropped: This value is decremented at each hop to prevent packets being passed around the network in routing loops. 4. IPv4 address of host to receive the packet: enables routers at each hop to forward the packet towards the destination. The header of an IPv4 packet does not include fields required for reliable data delivery. best effort (unreliable). Vocabulary Exercise: Define Table 5-1 lists the six key fields in a typical IPv4 header. These 13 bits allow a receiver to determine the place of a particular fragment in the original IP datagram. and media independent. 5. Fragment offset . usually a router. List three basic characteristics of IPv4. Table 5-1 Field Key Fields of IPv4 Header Purpose IP source address IP destination address Time-to-Live (TTL) Type-of-Service (ToS) Protocol IPv4 address of host sending the packet: enables the destination host to respond to the source if required. as optical signals over fiber. In some cases. What is this process called? Fragmentation Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks for the following questions. because these transport layer protocols manage the receipt of their protocol data units (PDU) differently. 1. which services have to resolve these issues? The upper-layer services resolve these issues. If out-of-order or missing packets create problems for the application using the data. Intermediary devices that connect the networks are called routers. 2. 3. will need to split up a packet when forwarding it from one media to a media with a smaller maximum transmission unit (MTU). an intermediary device. 6. Fill in the purpose of each field. The data payload protocol type: Denotes whether the data is a UDP datagram or TCP segment. or wirelessly as radio signals. Each route that a packet takes to reach the next device is called a hop.126 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide 4. There are no acknowledgments of packet delivery. Data quality of service (QoS) priority: Enables router to give priority to voice and network route information over regular data.

an intermediary device. is needed to send a packet out of the local network. also known as the default gateway. 2. 3. it is a good idea to break the network into groups. To support data communications between networks over internetworks. with the middle level denoting the network addresses and the lower level the individual hosts. 7. The firewall function performed by an intermediary permits only known. Broadcasts are contained within a broadcast domain. The default gateway is a router on a network that serves as an exit from that network. what graphical user interface (GUI) tool do you use to configure the default gateway IPv4 address? The Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties tools . Please be prepared to allot class time for discussions/presentations. they present problems that can be at least partially alleviated by dividing the network into smaller interconnected networks. A broadcast is a message sent from one host to all other hosts on the network. or router.Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 127 Networks: Dividing Hosts into Groups As networks get larger. A hierarchical address uniquely identifies each host. 5. On a Windows computer. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks for the following questions. The gateway. Routing is done packet by packet and hop by hop. 6. Answers will vary. When a host needs to communicate with another network. Dividing large networks so that hosts who need to communicate are grouped together reduces the unnecessary overhead of all hosts needing to know all addresses. network layer addressing schemes are hierarchical. acts as a gateway to the other network. Internet Research Exercise Use your favorite Internet search engine to find a website that describes the advantages to using hierarchical addressing. Be prepared to discuss and present your findings in class. trusted data to access the network. Separating networks is relatively simple if you use hierarchical addressing. Using a hierarchical addressing scheme means that the higher levels of the address can be retained. hosts communicate with each other without the need for any network layer intermediary device. As networks grow larger. Routing: How Our Data Packets Are Handled Within a network or a subnetwork. 4. 1. A router will do one of the following with a packet: ■ ■ ■ Forward it to the next-hop router Forward it to the destination host Drop it Concept Questions 1.

To do this. 3. 5. The default route is used to forward packets for which there is no entry in the routing table for the destination network. 8. For a host on a network. the packet is sent to the gateway. the router will select the most specific route. When forwarding a packet. Routes must have which three main features in a routing table? The three main features that routes must have in a routing table are destination network. A default route is a route that will match all destination networks. the address of the default gateway (router interface) is the next hop for all packets destined for another network. When should you use a default route? A default route is used to forward packets for which there is no entry in the routing table for the destination network. 6. Define each term and write your responses in the definition column. Default route Gateway .0. If the network portion of the destination address of the packet is different from the network of the originating host.0. Vocabulary Exercise: Define Table 5-2 lists some terms about routing. Table 5-2 Terms Routing Terms Definitions Definition Next hop A next hop is the address of the device that will process the packet next. Packets with a destination network address that does not match a more specific route in the routing table are forwarded to the next-hop router associated with the default route.128 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide 2. which route will a router select? When forwarding a packet. and metric. the address 0. Why is Layer 3 addressing hierarchical? The hierarchical nature of Layer 3 addressing means that one route entry could refer to a large general network and another entry could refer to a subnet of that same network. In IPv4 networks.0 is used for this purpose. Can a packet be forwarded without a route? No. a packet cannot be forwarded without a route. What is a default route? A default route is a route that will match all destination networks. 7. if used) portion of their respective addresses. What piece of addressing information should both the IPv4 host address and its default gateway share? The host IPv4 address and gateway address both must have the same network (and subnet. 4. the packet has to be routed outside the original network. Packets with a destination network address that does not match a more specific route in the routing table are forwarded to the next-hop router associated with the default route. The default gateway is needed to send a packet out of the local network. next hop.

Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks for the following questions. Routing is the process of finding a path to a destination host. To ensure that packets are routed to use the best possible next hops. each known destination network needs to either have a route or a default route configured. Because packets are forwarded at every hop. this information is passed on to other routers. Otherwise. or changes to links between routers. or router. When a router receives information about new or changed routes. Out-of-date routing information means that packets might not be forwarded to the most appropriate next hop. . the packet is dropped at that hop. Each router in a path does not need a route to all networks. 1. It only needs to know the next hop on the path to the packet’s destination network. causing delays or packet loss. the routing table needs to represent the most accurate state of network pathways that the router can access. The routing table contains the information that a router uses in its packet-forwarding decisions.Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 129 Routing Processes: How Routes Are Learned Routing requires that every hop. Routing protocols are the set of rules by which routers dynamically share their routing information. along the path to a packet’s destination have a route to forward the packet. For the routing decisions. Static routing is routing that depends on manually entered routes in the routing table. 2. every router must be configured with static routes to next hops that reflect its location in the internetwork. in turn. passes the information to other routers. 3. it updates its own routing table and. As routers become aware of changes to the networks for which they act as the gateway.

A router is assigned the gateway address for all the devices on the LAN. the host portion of the IP address is used as the host identifier. network configuration on a pod host computer will be verified. users will not be able to perform their job. One purpose of a router is to serve as an entry point for packets coming into the network and exit point for packets leaving the network. The network portion of the destination device is the same as the network portion of the host device. However. Background An IP address is composed of a network portion and a host portion. Troubleshoot a hidden gateway address problem. This is called the 80/20 rule. Gateway addresses are important to users. If the pod host computer gateway address is not configured properly. Understand how network information is configured on a Windows computer.1) Upon completion of this lab. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ Understand and explain the purpose of a gateway address.130 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Labs and Activities Lab 5-1: Examining a Device’s Gateway (5.5. . devices on different networks have different source and destination network numbers. The network portion of the IP address is used to identify when a packet must be sent to a gateway address. if a gateway cannot be reached by the LAN devices. connectivity with Eagle Server will fail. Scenario Pod host computers must communicate with Eagle Server. A computer that communicates with another device must first know how to reach the device. Cisco estimates that 80 percent of network traffic will be destined to devices on other networks. and Table 5-3 shows the corresponding addressing table. and only 20 percent of network traffic will go to local devices.1. but Eagle Server is located on a different network. Figure 5-1 shows the topology for this lab. Therefore. By the use of several common utilities. For devices on the same LAN. which is assigned to a network device that forwards packets between distant networks.

168.255.255.254 172.Pod#.16.255.10.254.255.168.255.2 172.254 172.16.253 N/A 172.Pod#.252 255.255.254.16.254 172.1 172.10.24.0 255.16.255.254.255.168.0.0 255.255.31.1 255.253 10.Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 131 Figure 5-1 Topology for Lab 5-1 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 Table 5-3 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP S0/0/0 Fa0/0 10.254.10.254 172.6 192.255.10.0 255.254 192.0 255.252 255.255.0.0 255.10.10.0 N/A N/A 10.255.0.255.6 N/A 192.255.16.5 172.16.255.255.254 R2-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Eagle Server N/A N/A Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central N/A N/A N/A .0.16.255.255.0 255.

255.example. Verify that the host computer has the correct gateway IP address. is automatically assigned to the 127.10.0. 172. The “quad-zero” Network Destination and Netmask values. what is the MAC address of the network device on IP address 172. ping S1Central.255. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity. the gateway address is the address of the Ethernet device. refer to any network not specifically known. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address.254. R1-ISP. check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central. shown in the preceding logical addressing table. this computer will use 172.0. The first highlighted line shows what gateway address is used to forward all network packets destined outside of the LAN.0.6.0) is on the same LAN.0.0. and finally Eagle Server. In Example 5-1. the netstat –r command is used to view the gateway addresses for this computer.com. and can ping R1-ISP.16. More specific networks are reached through other gateway addresses.1.1? 00:10:a4:7b:01:5f Several Windows commands will display a network gateway address.132 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Note to instructor: Depending on the classroom situation. A local interface. ping Eagle Server. 0.254.16. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server. and that Eagle Server is on.254 as the default gateway. The fourth highlighted line displays the information in humanreadable form. Task 1: Understand and Explain the Purpose of a Gateway Address For LAN traffic. the lab topology might have been modified before this class. troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity with the following steps: Step 1.255. 10. Figure 5-2 Communication Between LAN Devices Referring to Figure 5-2.0. Finally. verify that the host has the correct DNS address and can ping eagle-server. This interface is .16.com. Figure 5-2 shows two devices on the same network communicating with the ping command.16. Step 3. If an individual host computer cannot connect to Eagle Server. One popular command is netstat –r.0. 172.10.0.0 and 0. If the ping test fails. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests.16. Step 2. For any nonlocal network. and can ping R2-Central. From a known good host computer. called the loopback interface. 172. Verify that all network equipment is powered on.example.0 network. R2-Central. Any device that has the same network address (in this example.

any device on network 172.1. the IP address for this Ethernet interface.255 is the network broadcast address.255.255.16.16..255 Default Gateway: Netmask 0.255.0. Finally. Use the ping command to verify connectivity with IP address 127. For 127.2 Interface 172...1.255. Was the ping successful? Yes Step 3.255.16. yes.255.255..0.0..255.16.. This entry is the third highlighted line...16.1.0 172.0. Pings are successful to any valid 127.0 host IP address.0. . Pings will fail..2 172. no.255.255.1 172.10.Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 133 used to identify the local host to local network services.255. Use the ping command to ping different IP addresses on the 127. 127. Example 5-1 Output of the netstat Command C:\>netstat –r Route Table ======================================================================= Interface List 0x1 ..1.254 127.255... See the second highlighted entry.255.1. Were responses successful? If not.1. 127..2 127. and 127.0 255.255..10..0.255.16.255 255.0.0 network.16.0.0.2 127.0..0..2 172.1.254 Step 2..0.0.255 172.254 Gateway 172..255. Open a terminal window on a pod host computer.255.0 127.0 255.0. What is the default gateway address? 172.1.16.255.0.1.1 172.1 172.16.0.1.0.0 255.1..0 172...255. MS TCP Loopback interface 0x20005 .0 is accessed through gateway 172.0.0. why? For 127.16.2 127..0.16..255.1 172.255 255.255 255.1.1.16.0.16.0..2.0.0.16.0..2 172.255.1.00 16 76 ac a7 6a Intel(R) 82562V 10/100 Network Connection ======================================================================= ======================================================================= Active Routes: Network Destination 0.16.2 Metric 1 1 20 20 20 1 ======================================================================= Persistent Routes: None C:\> Step 1.

and click the Properties button. and choose Properties. This gateway device. In essence. The MAC address of 192.254.0 differs from 192.168. scroll down the list of items in the pane. A window similar to the one in Figure 5-4 will display. IP address 172. the pod host computer requests the MAC address of the default gateway device.168. select Internet Protocol (TCP/IP).16. for which IP can you not find a MAC address? 192. several tools are available to quickly determine the network configuration for any Windows computer. Figure 5-3 Communication Between Devices on Different Networks Referring to Figure 5-3.168. the Layer 2 MAC addresses will change before the packet reaches its destination. On the General tab. For troubleshooting connectivity issues.2.168.1. Step 1. Examine network properties settings.134 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide A default gateway address permits a network device to communicate with other devices on different networks. The computer composes the Layer 2 header with the destination MAC address of the router and places frames on the wire to the gateway device.254.16. a router. initiates a ping to IP address 192. responds with its MAC address.168. Right-click Local Area Connection.254. what is the MAC address of the gateway device? 00:0c:85:cf:66:40 Referring to Figure 5-3. As shown in Figure 5-3.254. The information cannot be determined from any device on this LAN.0. Click Start > Control Panel > Network Connections.254 is on a different network.254. . Pod host computer 2.0. One method that might prove useful to determine the network interface IP properties is to examine the pod host computer’s Network Properties settings. Because network 172. To access this window. Task 2: Understand How Network Information Is Configured on a Windows Computer Many times connectivity issues are attributed to incorrect network settings. Because IP address 192. All traffic destined to different networks must go through the network device that has the default gateway address. communication between devices on different networks is different than on a LAN.254. it is the door to other networks.254 is only important to the gateway device on the same LAN that must eventually deliver the packet to that IP address.254.

: IP Address. . . a dynamic IP address may be configured. : 172. .254 The first highlight shows the IP address for this pod host computer. . . . . .16.0. . . . The second highlight shows the subnet mask. . . the Network Properties settings window is not very useful for determining IP address information. : 172. .0 . as shown in Figure 5-5. Example 5-2 Output of the ipconfig Command C:\>ipconfig Windows IP Configuration Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection: Connection-specific DNS Suffix . .Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 135 Figure 5-4 Network Interface with Static IP Address However. . The third highlight shows the default gateway address. . In this case.2 Subnet Mask . .1. . as shown in Example 5-2. . . . . . . Figure 5-5 Network Interface with Dynamic IP Address A more consistently reliable method for determining network settings on a Windows computer is to use the ipconfig command.255. Default Gateway .16. : 255.255. .

To show the most information about the network connections. . . .254. . .168. . : No IP Address. who reports that R2-Central has been temporarily brought down for a hardware upgrade. . .1.16. The technician verified the cables and network settings on both computers. . . . .255.136 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Several options are available with the ipconfig command. .0 Default Gateway .0 172.255. . . . . . does not respond to pings. as shown in Example 5-3.0. . . . . Example 5-3 Output of the ipconfig /all Command C:\>ipconfig /all Windows IP Configuration Host Name . . .254 DNS Servers . . : Unknown Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection: Connection-specific DNS Suffix Network Connection Physical Address. ipconfig Table Address Table 5-4 Description IP address Subnet mask Default gateway DNS server 172.example. : . : No . . : 00-16-76-AC-A7-6A Dhcp Enabled. fill in the Table 5-4 with information from your pod host computer. . . . : 172. You check with the corporate network engineer. . . . . As the third-shift help desk Cisco engineer.254. . . .16. . . accessible with the command ipconfig /?.0. . host-11B. : Node Type . . . . . . . . . . .255. . . but nothing unusual was found. . . . . . . . : GW-desktop-hom Primary Dns Suffix IP Routing Enabled WINS Proxy Enabled .2 255.com. . .254 Description . . . .254 192. . . .168. The highlighted line shows the domain name server IP address. . . all other values should be the same as shown. . . . . . a thorough understanding of the network can often assist in identifying the real problem. The technician received a trouble ticket from a user on computer host 1A. . .255. . .1. . . . . Task 3: Troubleshoot a Hidden Gateway Address Problem When troubleshooting network issues. . complaining that computer host 11B. . . . .254 Note to instructors: Only the IP address should be different on a student’s pod host computer. : 172. . : 255. : No . Refer to the network topology in Figure 5-1 and the logical IP address assignments in Table 5-3. . . . . : 192.16. use the command ipconfig /all.16. . . . . . . Using the command ipconfig /all. . . . you are asked for assistance from the help desk technician. . . : Intel (R) 82562V 10/100 Step 2. . . . . .2 Subnet Mask . .

0.254. You instruct the help desk technician to tell the user to use the IP address for host 11B temporarily. R2-Central. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. Packet Tracer Activity Packet Tracer Companion: Examining a Device’s Gateway (5. 172. Observe the communication sequence between network devices. after that.Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 137 Nodding your head in understanding. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment.11. IP network 192. DNS requests from the LAN devices must go through the gateway device. and in some instances LAN devices require a default gateway to communicate with other devices on the LAN. and the pings fail. you ask the technician to ping the gateway IP address. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity. 172. and leave the room ready for the next class. If the gateway is down. What is wrong? Because the DNS server is on a different network than the LAN. the user is able to establish connectivity with the computer. Windows command-line utilities such as netstat –r and ipconfig /all will report gateway settings on host computers. . Task 5: Challenge Use Wireshark to capture a ping between two pod host computers.254. especially the gateway. First.254. Task 6: Clean Up Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. turn off power to the host computers. Task 4: Reflection A gateway address is critical to network connectivity. The pings succeed. use the hostname of the destination pod computer for DNS to reply with the destination IP address.168.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer.1. Remember. Within the hour. LAN computers still have connectivity between each other. capture a ping between network devices using only IP addresses. the gateway router is back on line and normal network operation resumes. You might have to restart the host computer to flush the DNS cache.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab5512.5. Then.16.2 from host 1A. The gateway address should not be needed. you ask the technician to ping the IP address for host 11B. but DNS will not work. however.16. Next.

Figure 5-6 shows the topology for this lab. Background For packets to travel across a network. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ Use the route command to modify a Windows computer routing table. a default gateway IP address is configured that will send traffic to a device that should know about the network. based upon configuration information on the network interface. and then add the default gateway route back to the host table. This lab compares how routes are used in Windows computers and the Cisco router. Use a Windows Telnet client command telnet to connect to a Cisco router. Use a pod host computer to telnet into R2-Central. Figure 5-6 Topology for Lab 5-2 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 . test the connection. For networks that are not directly connected. Scenario Using a pod host computer. Delete the default gateway route. The device considers a network directly connected when it has an IP address and network mask configured. and the network route is automatically entered into the routing table.1) Learning Objectives Upon completion of this lab. examine the routing table with the route command and identify the different routes and gateway IP address for the route.138 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Lab 5-2: Examining a Route (5.5.2. and examine the routing table. a device must know the route to the destination network. Some routes are added to routing tables automatically. Examine router routes using basic Cisco IOS commands. and Table 5-5 shows the corresponding addressing table.

10. and can ping R1-ISP. Ensure that the privileged exec password has been changed from the default value of cisco. the lab topology might have been modified before this class.255.16.com.10.example. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity.10. students telnet into R2-Central and view the routing table.255.0. output from the netstat –r command is useful to determine route and gateway information.16.0 255.16. ping Eagle Server. check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central.255. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server.10.254.5 172.255.24.255.255. From a known good host computer.16.com.254 192.254. 172.2 172. and finally Eagle Server.0 255. troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity using the following steps: Step 1.254. and can ping eagle-server. If the ping test fails.255.255. R2-Central.6.10. 10.255.6 N/A 192.253 10.254 R2-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Eagle Server N/A N/A Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central N/A N/A N/A Note to instructor: Depending on the classroom situation.255.16.168.Pod#.16.0 N/A N/A 10.10.254 172.10.16.254.1 255.168.254 172.example.Pod#. Verify that all network equipment is powered on.0 255. If an individual host computer cannot connect to Eagle Server.255. shown in the preceding logical addressing table.255. 172. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address. ping S1Central. Finally.253 N/A 172.0. Step 3.Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 139 Table 5-5 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP S0/0/0 Fa0/0 10. Step 2.255.31.254. Verify that the host computer has the correct gateway IP address.255.16. and can ping R2-Central. R1-ISP.255.255.168.254 172.0. . Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests.254.0.16. verify that the host has the correct DNS address.255.252 255. and that Eagle Server is on.252 255. Task 1: Use the route Command to Modify a Windows Computer Routing Table Shown in Example 5-4.10. In this lab.255.0 255.1 172.255.255.6 192.0 255.0 255.254 172.

.0.2 172..1 172.0 255..1....16.16.255..1.16.0.0.2 172.16...1 172.0 255.00 16 76 ac a7 6a Intel(R) 82562V 10/100 Network Connection ======================================================================= ======================================================================= Active Routes: Network Destination 0..0.255.16.255.255.0 255.2 172.1 172.255.255.16... Unlike the netstat –r command.0. To view detailed information about the route command..16..140 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example 5-4 Output of the netstat Command C:\>netstat –r Route Table ======================================================================= Interface List 0x1 .2 Metric 1 1 20 20 20 1 ======================================================================= Persistent Routes: None C:\> Step 1.0. Example 5-5 Output of the route Command C:\>route /? An abbreviated option list for the route command is shown below: route PRINT route ADD route DELETE route CHANGE Prints active routes Adds a route: Deletes a route: Modifies an existing route route ADD network MASK mask gateway route DELETE network To view active routes. MS TCP Loopback interface 0x20005 .255.0..16.16. Examine the active routes on a Windows computer.255 255.0 172.255 Default Gateway: Netmask 0.. issue the command route PRINT.255..254 Gateway 172.0 172.16. the route command can be used to view.1..0.0 127.1.1 172.2 Interface 172.255 255. .255.255 255.. add.0.1.255 172.255.. or change routing table entries.255.0..0.16.16.0.2 127.1.0.0.0...1. A useful command to modify the routing table is the route command.255.2 127. delete..2 127..0. use the option route /?.1.0. as shown in Example 5-6.0.254 127. as shown in Example 5-5..

168. How important is the default gateway route? Delete the gateway route..0 ..2 172.0.16.255. Maximum = 0ms.254.255.1.0...254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192..254 Step 2.255 255..2 Interface 172..1..255.0.0 127.255 255.255.1 172.0..1.254 Gateway 172.example.0... Received = 4.254: Packets: Sent = 4.0.0.16..16.0..254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.16.2 Metric 1 1 20 20 20 1 ======================================================================= Verify network connectivity to Eagle Server.255 255. The syntax to remove the default gateway route is this: route DELETE network The full command is as follows: C:/> route DELETE 0.255.2 172.0.0. Average = 0ms C:\> What is the gateway address to eagle-server...1 172.1.0.00 16 76 ac a7 6a .. Lost = 0 (0% loss). Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms.255.255.255..0.1 172.168..255 Default Gateway: Persistent Routes: None C:\> Netmask 0. MS TCP Loopback interface 0x70003 .0 255.168..1 172.1..1..254.0 255.16.com [192.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Ping statistics for 192...254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.254] with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 192.. and try to ping Eagle Server.Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 141 Example 5-6 Output of the route PRINT Command C:\ >route PRINT ======================================================================= Interface List 0x1 ..168.254.254.0.16.0. Delete a route from the Windows computer routing table.255..2 127. as shown in Example 5-7.254.16.255.168.2 127.com? 172.0.0.0 172.2 127.1.Intel(R) 82562V 10/100 Network Connection ======================================================================= Active Routes: Network Destination 0.2 172.255.0.example.com Pinging eagle-server.16.255.16.1.254..16.255 172..16.16.254 127.0. Example 5-7 Output of the ping Command C:\> ping eagle-server.0.168.0 255.0 172.0.16.example.255.

1.16.2 172.0.0..1 172.0 172.255.16.2 172..255..2 172..16... In the following configuration.255 240. If the computer is rebooted..2 127..0....255 255.16.0.0.1.0. there is no default gateway IP address.255..255.0.0.0.0. If the default gateway IP address is removed.16. and verify that the default gateway route has been removed: What is the default gateway IP address? With the default route removed.255.16.1..254 .255.16.1.0.MS TCP Loopback interface 0x70003 ...1 172.1 172.2 Metric 1 20 20 20 20 1 ======================================================================= Try to ping Eagle Server..0 255...example..16.1.1 172..255 224.1.16..com is stored in the computer’s cache.example.Intel(R) 82562V 10/100 Network Connection ======================================================================= ======================================================================= Active Routes: Network Destination 127.0.255 Gateway 127. Removing the default gateway has no effect on LAN connectivity.00 16 76 ac a7 6a .0.16.0..0 255.255.0.1.0.. Can other LAN devices be reached.0 255. use the IP address assigned to your host pod interface. or the cache times out.255.0.254? Yes. Insert a route into the Windows computer routing table.255. how can the DNS server be reached to resolve eagle-server..0 172.com? The IP address for eagle-server.2 172.1.0.1..0 255.16.0 172.0 MASK 0.2 127. Step 3. such as 172.2 172. the name will not be resolved because the DNS server is not on the LAN..16.255.142 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Examine the active routing table. What are the results? Eagle Server cannot be reached.2 Interface 127.0..16.255.0. C:\> route PRINT ======================================================================= Interface List 0x1 .255 Persistent Routes: None C:\> Netmask 255.0.0.255. The syntax to add a route to the Windows computer routing table is this: route ADD network MASK mask gateway-IP address The full command appears is as follows: C:/> route ADD 0.

.0..16.254.0.1.16.0.255 Default Gateway: 172. MS TCP Loopback interface 0x70003 .254.255 255.1 172.255..254 127.16.254.0..254] with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 192.168.1.2 127.. What are the results? Eagle Server can be reached again.1.168.0...0 255..254..com [192.. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms.2 172.255.0..16.168.168.0..254.16.0 127.0.16.16..2 Interface 172.2 172. C:\> ping eagle-server.1..254 ======================================================================= Persistent Routes: None C:\> Try to ping Eagle Server..168.16.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.1.1 172... Maximum = 0ms.255.255.16.255.2 Metric 1 1 20 20 20 1 255.0 255..255...00 16 76 ac a7 6a .0 172..255.0.16.0.0.16.254: Packets: Sent = 4. Average = 0ms C:\> .255.1 172. Received = 4..example.1.2 127.255..254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Ping statistics for 192.0..0.1. Lost = 0 (0% loss).255.255.1.example.Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 143 Examine the active routing table.0.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.16..0.Intel(R) 82562V 10/100 Network Connection ======================================================================= ======================================================================= Active Routes: NetworkDestination 0.0..0 255. Has the default gateway route been restored? Yes C:\ >route PRINT ======================================================================= Interface List 0x1 .0.255 Gateway 172..2 172.0 172.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.255.2 127.com Pinging eagle-server.1 172.254.168..255 Netmask 0.255 255.0.

Open a terminal window by clicking Start > Run. For instructors. Ensure that the privileged exec password has been changed from the default value of cisco. cisco.254 <ENTER> A login window will prompt for a username.255. . Type cmd. Cisco devices have a Telnet server and. The default password should have been changed to something other than cisco. ccna2 is for students on pod 2 computers. Using the Windows Telnet client. and press Enter. Type the password. enter the following command: C:/> telnet 172. Step 1. log in to a Cisco router. the username is instructor. Table 5-6 Pod Number Pod Number Table Username 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 ccna1 ccna2 ccna3 ccna4 ccna5 ccna6 ccna7 ccna8 ccna9 ccna10 ccna11 To start a Telnet session with router R2-Central. Access to the router is restricted. and so on.144 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 2: Use a Windows Telnet Client Command telnet to Connect to a Cisco Router In this task. will permit remote logins. Enter the applicable username. if properly configured. as shown in Example 5-8. For all usernames.16. students telnet into R2-Central and view the routing table. Username ccna1 is for users on pod 1 computers. The router prompt should be visible after a successful login. you telnet into the R2-Central router and use common Cisco IOS commands to examine the router routing table. however. The password for all usernames is cisco. and press Enter. The Telnet utility has several options and can be viewed with the telnet /? command. A terminal window and prompt should be available. the corresponding password is cisco. The username depends on the pod. Table 5-6 shows the pod numbers and the corresponding usernames. A username and password will be required to log in to the router. and then click OK. Note to instructors: In this lab. and requires a username and password.

the router routing table is examined. Similar to the host computer default gateway IP address.mobile. ************************************************************ User Access Verification Username: ccna1 Password: cisco !The password is hidden when typed in R2-Central> At the prompt. Task 3: Examine Router Routes Using Basic Cisco IOS Commands As with any network device. O . The information required of this task.0. This task does not examine Cisco IOS commands in detail.periodic downloaded static route Gateway of last resort is 10. EX . Also similar to a host computer. is not difficult to glean. E2 . IA . it is not possible to modify router settings or view the configuration. Authorized access only.0. In the next task. This is to be expected. The route information displayed is much more detailed than the route information on a host computer. B . The purpose of this task was to establish a Telnet session. S .OSPF NSSA external type 1. a router may also employ a default gateway.EIGRP external.candidate default.Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 145 Example 5-8 Output for R2-Central ************************************************************ This is Eagle 1 lab router R2-Central. L2 .OSPF. The syntax to view the routing table is this: show ip route <ENTER> Enter the command to display the router routing table.per-user static route o .IS-IS inter area. because the job of a router is to route traffic between networks.ODR. but instead uses a common IOS command to view the routing table. * .IS-IS summary. M . su .BGP D . U .IS-IS. L1 . N2 . therefore.OSPF external type 1.10. a router is knowledgeable about directly connected networks. Only limited permissions for ccnax usernames are available. which has been accomplished. R .OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 .IS-IS level-2 ia .EIGRP. however.RIP. R2-Central#.6 to network 0.OSPF external type 2 i . gateway addresses instruct the device about how to reach other networks when no other information is available. Example 5-9 shows the routing table for R2-Central.OSPF inter area N1 . a successful Telnet login has been created.IS-IS level-1.0 .connected.Static.10. Example 5-9 Output of the show ip route Command R2-Central#show ip route Codes: C . P .

L1 . U .IS-IS. .OSPF external type 2 i . If there is no other route in the routing table.periodic downloaded static route Gateway of last resort is 10.0.IS-IS inter area.0/16 is directly connected. 1 subnets C S* 10.EIGRP external.4 is directly connected.4 is directly connected.10.IS-IS level-1. When finished examining the routing table. exit the router with the command exit. O . How is IP mask information displayed in a router routing table? Unlike the pod host computer. Close the terminal window.ODR.IS-IS summary.Static.16. Serial0/2/0 0. Serial0/2/0 0.10.0.168.OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 . N2 . P . S .0/30 is subnetted.0.OSPF external type 1.0.0/0 [1/0] via 10.10. FastEthernet0/0 10. IA .0 C 172.0. 1 subnets C S* 10. B . because the route is “quad-zero”(0.IS-IS level-2 ia . * . IP mask information is displayed as a numeric value (prefix).10.0.EIGRP.146 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example 5-9 Output of the show ip route Command continued C 172.16.0/30 is subnetted.10. E2 .OSPF. What would the router do with packets destined to 192. The asterisk shows the example is a candidate default route.10.connected.per-user static route o . EX . such as /30 or /16.0). which is manually entered by the network administrator. L2 .254? The router will use gateway of last resort IP address to forward packets destined to 192.254. R .254.10.OSPF NSSA external type 1. su .10.6 to network 0.BGP D .10.254.0/0 [1/0] via 10. M .0.6 R2-Central# The Codes section shown in Example 5-10 explains the symbols to the left of each route entry.0.0. FastEthernet0/0 10.0. use the gateway of last resort IP address to forward packets.0.0.mobile. One highlighted line shows S.OSPF inter area N1 . The Telnet client will also close the connection with the Telnet escape sequence Ctrl+] and quit. denoting a static route.10. Example 5-10 Explanation of Codes R2-Central#show ip route Codes:?C .0.6 R2-Central# Two highlighted lines in the example show C.168.0/16 is directly connected.0.RIP.candidate default. which denotes directly connected networks and the interface that supports the connection.

and leave the room ready for the next class. and add route information on the pod host computer. Example 5-11 Output of the show ip interface brief Command R2-Central#show ip interface brief Interface FastEthernet0/0 FastEthernet0/1 Serial0/2/0 Serial0/2/1 R2-Central# IP-Address 172. Similar to the Windows ipconfig command. This technique will be used in other labs to connect to Cisco network devices.254 <output omitted> R2-Central# Task 6: Clean Up Unless directed otherwise by the instructor.255. The route command was used to view.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab5522. R2-Central#show hosts Default domain is not set Name/address lookup uses domain service Name servers are 192.16. delete. however. Routes for directly connected networks.168.5.10. did not display DNS server information.2. Task 5: Challenge You can use other Cisco IOS commands to view IP address information on a router.254. Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Examining a Route (5. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. compare network information output.5 unassigned OK? Method Status YES manual up YES unset Protocol up administratively down down up YES manual up YES unset administratively down down Using Windows commands and the Cisco IOS commands in this lab.Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 147 Task 4: Reflection Two new Windows commands were used in this lab. What was missing? What critical network information was similar? Both devices displayed directly connected routes and a default gateway route. statically assigned routes. The router routing table was examined with the Cisco IOS command show ip route. R2-Central. telnet. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. the Cisco IOS command show ip interface brief shown in Example 511 will display IP address assignments. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity. turn off power to the host computers. and gateway of last resort information are displayed. was used to connect to a lab router. . The Cisco router.254 unassigned 10. Remember.10. however. The Windows Telnet client.

0. You may have noticed that regardless of what application and transport protocols were involved.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to perform this exercise using Packet Tracer.255. Figure 5-7 shows the topology for this skills integration challenge.10. and Telnet.168. At the end of each chapter.255.0.255.148 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Packet Tracer Challenge Skills Integration Challenge: Routing IP Packets (5.255.0.168.254 192.1. Background Throughout the course.10.0 255. In this activity.2 192.255.252 255. you will build increasingly larger parts of this topology in Packet Tracer.255. such as DNS.16. works in the context of a simple example of IP routing.254.254 172. and switches to learn networking concepts.253 10.254.254 172. TFTP.0 255.6 172.10.10.1.16.255.254.1. HTTP. you will be using a standard lab setup created from actual PCs.6.255.16.255. routers.0 N/A N/A 10.10.16.254 10.3) Open the file LSG01-PTSkills5.16.0 255.254. Table 5-7 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP Fa0/0 S0/0/0 192.168. and two transport layer protocols. DHCP. the dominant network layer protocol of the Internet. in Inbound and Outbound PDU Details view they were always encapsulated in IP packets.6 172.254 255.253 R2-Central Fa0/0 S0/0/0 S1-Central PC 1A PC 1B Eagle Server VLAN 1 NIC NIC NIC .255. you will examine how IP.16. and Table 5-7 shows the corresponding addressing table.0 255. You have already studied a variety of application protocols.1 172.0 255.255.255.6 10. servers.0.255.1 172.16.10.255.10. TCP and UDP. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ ■ Configure a router interface using a GUI.255. and analyze increasingly more complex protocol interactions.5 172. Explore a routing table. Explore the routing of IP packets.255.252 255. Upon completion of this activity. Configure a static route using a GUI.10.

and turn the port on. . and note the condition of the Fa0/0 interface (to which switch is connected). the Config tab is easier and will allow you to focus on the basic idea of IP routing. Add the IP address 172. Close the router window.16. you will learn how to use the Cisco IOS command-line interface (CLI) to perform this task. and be turned on to act as the default gateway for the LAN. It appears there is a problem with the router. You will see the router’s directly connected networks. subnet mask.254 with subnet mask 255. Verify that the router interface (port) is now working by using the mouse over. Click router R2-Central and go to the Config tab. At the end of the course.255.Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 149 Figure 5-7 Topology for Challenge 1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server 2960-24TT S1-Central 1841 R2-Central PC 1A PC 1B Task 1: Configure a Router Interface There is a problem on the LAN: PC 1A cannot reach the Eagle Server (verify this in real-time mode).255.0. This interface must have an IP address. What are some possible reasons why? One possible reason Eagle Server cannot be reached is the fact that it is using a static IP and not the default route. FastEthernet0/0. find INTERFACE.0. For now. The request still fails. Try reaching Eagle Server. but there is no way to reach the Eagle Server network. Task 2: Examining Routes Use the Inspect tool (magnifying glass) to examine the routing table of R2-Central. In the list shown. Move your cursor over the R2-Central router.

16.0 /16 LAN are destined. a one-shot ping. Task 5: Reflection What data can an IP packet contain? What is meant by the phrase “the IP packet is routed”? What is a route? Where might things go wrong? . The PDU.10. double-click Fire to send it again.0. by using Add Simple PDU to test connectivity between PC 1A and the Eagle Server. Static.0. too. You should now see the route you configured in the routing table.0.0.150 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 3: Configure a Route Using a GUI Click router R2-Central and go to the Config tab. Test connectivity.6 (the S0/0/0 interface on the R1-ISP router) and click the Add button. Using the PDU you created in Task 3. they will go to the R1-ISP router.10. in real time. click the Save button to save the interface and route configuration you have just done to NVRAM (in case the router is power cycled). Under GLOBAL. and the next hop of 10. find ROUTING. using the address 0. Trace the packet’s journey from PC 1A to Eagle Server and back using the Capture / Forward button and examining the packet’s contents by either clicking the envelope or clicking the colored square in the Info column of the event list. Configure what is known as a default static route. In the list shown. will appear in the User Created PDU list for future use. Settings.0.0. Verify your work using feedback from the Check Results button and the Assessment Items tab. This route is configured so that wherever packets from the 172. Task 4: Examine the Routing of the IP Packet Switch to simulation mode. mask 0.0. Use the Inspect tool (magnifying glass) to examine the routing table of R2-Central again.

for assistance. 4. These addresses are used in the data network as binary patterns. 2. some portion of the high-order bits represents the network address. For each IPv4 address. fill-in-the-blank. What does IPv4 provide for packets that carry data? Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) provides hierarchical addressing for packets that carry data. 3. What is another name for digital logic? Boolean logic. What is another way to refer to 1 byte or 8 bits? Octet. or use the corresponding Chapter 6 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration Companion Guide. Study Guide IPv4 Addresses With IPv4. . and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of network addressing. we define a network as a group of hosts that have identical bit patterns in the network address portion of their addresses. multiple-choice. hands-on skills needed to understand the opportunities and challenges associated with IPv4. we refer to binary as it relates to IPv4 addressing. Data that appears in binary may represent many different forms of data to the human network. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum activities and labs to ensure you have mastered the practical. Concept Questions 1. What is the format used for IP addresses called? Dotted decimal. As you work through this chapter. At Layer 3. use Chapter 6 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum. In this chapter.CHAPTER 6 Addressing the Network: IPv4 The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of matching. This means that we look at each byte as a decimal number in the range of 0 to 255. each packet has a 32-bit source address and a 32-bit destination address in the Layer 3 header.

Host address B. Unicast B.20 Binary number: 10101100000100000000010100010100 Addresses for Different Purposes Within the address range of each IPv4 network are three types of addresses: ■ ■ ■ Network addresses Broadcast addresses Host addresses Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 6-1. Broadcast C. Convert each octet to decimal. An address assigned to an end device in the network A. match the type of communication on the left to its definition on the right. The process of sending a packet from one host to all hosts in the network C. IP address: 172.5.152 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Binary-to-Decimal Conversion Exercise Convert the following 32-bit binary number into an IP address. Network address B.4. The address by which we refer to the network In Table 6-2. The process of sending a packet from one host to an individual host . Table 6-1 Network Address Type Matching Exercise Definition Address Type A. The process of sending a packet from one host to a selected group of hosts A.20 Decimal-to-Binary Conversion Exercise Convert the following IP address into a 32-bit binary number. Multicast B. Binary number: 10101100000100000000010000010100 IP address: 172.16. A special address used to send data to all hosts in the network C. Add a “dot” between each decimal. match the type of network address on the left to its definition on the right. Table 6-2 Communication Type Matching Exercise Communication Type Definition A. keeping in mind the following: ■ ■ ■ Divide the 32 bits into four octets.16. Broadcast address C.

0.0 to 239. Which addresses in a network cannot be assigned to hosts? The first (network address) and last (broadcast address).0 to 238. Vocabulary: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following sentences.255.0. What block of addresses is designated “TEST-NET”? 192.0 to 127.254.0.255.255.255. What is the prefix length? The prefix length is the number of bits in the address that gives us the network portion. What is the reserved block for default routing? 0. 3.255 (10.0 /8) 172.168.0. 7. The globally scoped multicast addresses are 224.0.255.0.255. look up a website detailing the utility of calculating addresses by hand.0.0.1.255.0 to 169.31.255. Answers will vary.16. Currently.0 /16) 8.255.0.0 to 255. Expressed in dotted-decimal format.254.255 (192. How do you know how many bits represent the network portion and how many bits represent the host portion? When we express an IPv4 network address. What is the loopback address. or find a calculator for the three address types.2.0.0 /16) 4.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 153 Internet Research Exercise Using any search engine available on the Internet. and what block is reserved for loopback? Although only the single 127. we add a prefix length to the network address.255. 1.0 to 192. these addresses are listed as reserved for future use (RFC 3330).255.255 (192.0.0. What block of addresses is designated “link-local”? 169.0.0.0.0.1 address is used. 3.0 /12) 192.255.255.0.255.0. Be sure to include class time for presentations or discussions.2.255 (0. addresses 127. the IPv4 address range is 0.0 /8) 6.168.255 (172. Another major block of addresses reserved for special purposes is the IPv4 multicast address range 224.0 to 192.16.255.0 to 10.254. 4.255 (169.255.255. 2.254.255 are reserved. What are the private address blocks? 10. 5.0 to 255.0.2. 2.0.255.0.0.255.255.0 to 172. Concept Questions 1. One major block of addresses reserved for special purposes is the IPv4 experimental address range 240.0.0 /24) .0.168.0.0.

Be prepared to discuss your opinions of the IANA with the class. Define classless addressing. 2. Describe the pros and cons of static addressing. routers. Static addresses are useful for printers. search for an example of an IPv4 addressing scheme or an article about IPv4’s addressing. List four types of devices that work best using static IP addresses. and other networking devices that need to be accessible to clients on the network. are acceptable: Servers. Answers will vary. The allocation of these addresses inside the networks should be planned and documented for the following reasons: ■ ■ ■ Preventing duplication of addresses Providing and controlling access Monitoring security and performance Internet Research Exercises Using your favorite search engine. Go to the IANA website at http://www. Assigning Addresses The allocation of network layer address space within the corporate network needs to be well designed. Concept Questions 1. static assignment of addressing information can provide increased control over network resources. DHCP generally is the preferred method of assigning IP addresses to hosts on large networks because it reduces the burden on network support staff and virtually eliminates entry errors. hosts that are accessible from the Internet. . 3. If the host is powered down or taken off the network. Another benefit of DHCP is that an address is not permanently assigned to a host but is only “leased” for a period of time. it would cause problems if that address changed. address blocks appropriate to the number of hosts are assigned to companies or organizations without regard to the unicast class.154 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide 9. Answers will vary. Network administrators should not randomly select the addresses used in their networks. Any of the following. and spend a few minutes familiarizing yourself with the site. Describe the pros and cons of using DHCP for addressing. If hosts normally access a server at a particular IP address. With the classless system. servers. intermediary devices. it can be time-consuming to enter the information on each host. the address is returned to the pool for reuse. Answers will vary. in any order.iana.org. However. Nor should address assignment within the network be random. Answers will vary for both exercises. This feature is especially helpful for mobile users who come and go on a network. peripherals. Additionally. Be sure to include class time for presentations or discussions. Be prepared to present your findings. firewalls.

We express the subnet mask in the same dotted-decimal format as the IPv4 address. Tier 2: Tier 2 ISPs generally focus on business customers. 252 h. 11000000 d. QoS mechanisms. 192 d. The prefix and the subnet mask are different ways of representing the same thing—the network portion of an address. 240 a. 5. 128-bit hierarchical addressing. 11111000 g. 255 g. 224 f. 00000000 b. 11111100 h. header format simplification. Tier 3: The focus of these ISPs is the retail and home markets in a specific locale. match the binary number to its numeric value. improved support for extensions and options.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 155 4. In Table 6-3. flow labeling capability. and any of these may appear in any order: Improved packet handling. Is It on My Network? To define the network and host portions of an address. 11111111 c. 0 i. Table 6-3 IPv4 Binary Matching Exercise Numeric Value Binary Number a. authentication and privacy capabilities. List some improvements that IPv6 will provide. 128 . 11100000 e. What is the primary focus of each of the three tiers of ISPs? Tier 1: The primary focus of Tier 1 ISPs is reliability and/or speed. increased scalability and longevity. 11111110 i. 11110000 f. the devices use a separate 32-bit pattern called a subnet mask. Binary Matching Exercise There are a limited number of subnet mask octets. 254 b. 10000000 c. 248 e. Answers will vary. integrated security.

3. Basically. 2. the more students understand and can predict the operation of a network. Internet Research Exercise Using your favorite search engine. Answers will vary. How does ANDing help an originating host? An originating host must determine if a packet should be sent directly to a host in the local network or be directed to the gateway. 4. research ANDing (be sure to specify that you mean in IPv4 networks). Because we use a router to connect these networks. Calculating Addresses Subnetting lets you create multiple logical networks from a single address block. What is the formula to calculate the number of subnets? 2^n. why do you need to learn how to AND? Answers will vary. What are the two most useful tools in designing a network? A network diagram and a spreadsheet of IP addresses are the two most useful tools. Why do routers use ANDing? Routers use ANDing to determine an acceptable route for an incoming packet.156 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Concept Questions 1. How is a subnet mask created? The subnet mask is created by placing a binary 1 in each bit position that represents the network portion and placing a binary 0 in each bit position that represents the host portion. Allow class time for presentations or discussions. . 2. Concept Questions 1. the more equipped they are to design and administer one. Be prepared to present your findings. Using VLSM makes it easier to group networks around what commonalities? VLSM makes it easier to group based on common geographic location. to group based on ownership. and to group hosts used for specific purposes. where n = the number of bits borrowed. 3. each interface on a router must have a unique network ID. Every node on that link is on the same network. If the routers and end devices calculate these processes without your intervention.

ping gives up and sends a message indicating that a response was not received. What does a response from 127. Ping uses a Layer 3 protocol that is a part of the TCP/IP suite called Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP). it responds with an ICMP Echo Reply datagram. traceroute d. Ping has a timeout value for the response. Variable-Length Subnet Mask 3. Using a chart makes calculating VLSM easier. d.1 indicate? A response from 127. As each response is received. Concept Questions 1. 2. This method prevents addresses from being allocated.0. Configmaker Testing the Network Layer Ping is a utility for testing IP connectivity between hosts. If the host at the specified address receives the Echo request.0. This method lets you assign addresses that have already been allocated. How does ping work? Be as specific as you can. For what is VLSM an acronym? a. This method helps prevent assigning addresses that have already been allocated. SNMP c. 2. If a response is not received within that timeout.0. Variant Language Superior Model c. Ping sends out requests for responses from a specified host address. Why would you use a VLSM chart? a. What utility attempts to trace the path that a packet takes through the network? a. Ping uses an ICMP Echo Request datagram. After all the requests have been sent. ping b.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 157 Multiple-Choice Questions 1.0. the ping utility provides output that summarizes the responses. Very Long String of Marbles b. ping measures the time required for the reply.1 indicates that IP is properly installed on the host. c. Variable-Length Subsidiary Mode d. For each packet sent. This is a measure of the network performance. This output includes the success rate and average round-trip time to the destination. ping displays the time between when the ping was sent and the response was received. . b.

Unreachable Destination or Service. 5. Another possibility is that the router interface might be fully operational but might have security applied to it that is preventing it from processing or responding to ping requests. 6. If a router does not have enough buffer space to receive incoming packets. What does TTL stand for? Time to Live 8. Many network administrators limit or prohibit the entry of ICMP datagrams into the corporate network. 1. .158 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide 3. Source Quench. The following may be in any order. Assume that you ping your gateway. If the gateway does not respond. Why is ping not always the most reliable test for connectivity on a network? Answers will vary. One possibility is that we have the wrong address for the gateway. It is also possible that other hosts may have the same security restriction applied. not by nonoperational network elements. 4. Name the different ICMP message types. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following statements. Route Redirection. What do the first four Destination Unreachable codes mean? 0 = Net unreachable 1 = Host unreachable 2 = Protocol unreachable 3 = Port unreachable 2. Host Confirmation. What does traceroute do? Traceroute (tracert) is a utility that lets you observe the path between hosts. Therefore. A destination host may also send a source quench message if datagrams arrive too fast to be processed. the router discards these packets. what sort of problem could this indicate? Answers will vary. This could indicate a problem with the router’s interface serving as the gateway. What does RTT stand for? Round-Trip Time 7. the lack of a ping response could be caused by security restrictions. Time Exceeded. but another host does. but any of the following are correct.

0 255.16. it tests network connectivity.0.7.168.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 159 Labs and Activities Lab 6-1: Ping and Traceroute (6.31.1 255.255.255. and Cisco IOS.255. Scenario This lab examines the ping and tracert commands. Table 6-4 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP S0/0/0 Fa0/0 10. and Table 6-4 is the corresponding addressing table.5 172. The tracert utility is available on Windows.6 — 192. Measured delay time will probably be less than that on a production network.255.254 172.255.10.254. In a complex network.16. Linux. it usually depends on the experience of the network engineer and familiarity with the network.16. the tracert command would be used. traceroute.10.Pod#.0. Background Two tools that are indispensable when testing TCP/IP network connectivity are ping and tracert.255. Figure 6-1 shows the topology for this lab.0 255. you will be able to ■ ■ Use the ping command to verify simple TCP/IP network connectivity.16.255. A network engineer may use the ping command to test for local network connectivity or connections where there are few devices.255.255.255. ICMP message types were later expanded in RFC 1700.254. This is because the Eagle Server lab has little network traffic.254 172. Use the tracert/traceroute command to verify TCP/IP connectivity.255.10.1 172. Both ping and tracert use Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) to send messages between devices.10.0.1.0 255.254 192. and a similar utility. To familiarize you with the use of the commands. when a web browser fails to connect to a web server. The ping utility is available on Windows.254 R2-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Eagle Server — — Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central — — — .254.168.16.255.255.255.255.253 10.2 172. first defined in RFC 792 in September 1981.0 255.0 255.0 255. tracert can be used to check for network latency.Pod#. In addition to testing for connectivity.6 192.255. Command options will be used to modify the command behavior.24.255. the problem can be anywhere between the client and the server.254 172. ICMP is a TCP/IP network layer protocol.252 255.16. devices in the Cisco lab will be tested.1) Upon completion of this lab.252 255.168.10.253 — 172.254 172.255. For example.0 — — 10. is available on Linux and Cisco IOS.16.10. Where to begin connectivity tests has been the subject of much debate.0.254.

ping S1Central. Finally. 172.example. R2-Central.160 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 6-1 Topology for Lab 6-1 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 Note to Instructor: Depending on the classroom situation. Task 1: Use the ping Command to Verify Simple TCP/IP Network Connectivity The ping command is used to verify TCP/IP network layer connectivity on the local host computer or another device in the network. and that it can ping R1-ISP. For this . R1-ISP.10. Verify that the host computer has the correct Gateway IP address.10. and finally eagle-server.6.example.com. and that it can ping R2-Central. Step 2.255. to test Domain Name System (DNS) functionality. 172.16.16. If the ping test fails. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address. check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central. 10. This command can be used with a destination IP address or qualified name. Step 3. the lab topology may have been modified before this class. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity.com. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests. troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity with the following steps: Step 1.254.example. verify that the host has the correct DNS address and that it can ping eagle-server.254.255. Verify that all network equipment is powered on and that eagle-server is on. If an individual host computer cannot connect to eagle-server. such as eagle-server. as shown in Table 6-4. From a known good host computer.com. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server. ping eagle-server.

. only the IP address may differ. .0 172. Example 6-1 C:\> ipconfig Output of the ipconfig Command Windows IP Configuration Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection: Connection-specific DNS Suffix . a router may respond with an ICMP message that the host is unknown or the destination network is unknown. . as shown in Example 6-1.255. . . The destination responds with an echo reply. Record local TCP/IP network information in Table 6-5. only IP addresses are used. By default. Example 6-2 Output of the ping Command on the Local TCP/IP Stack C:\> ping 172. . .16. . .1.1. and reply information is received. Open a Windows terminal and determine the IP address of the pod host computer with the ipconfig command. . . : 172. .254 C:\> The output should look the same except for the IP address. : 172.16. .Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 161 lab. . . : 255.255. . . .2 Subnet Mask .2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 172. If the information is missing or if the subnet mask and default gateway are different.16. .2 Pinging 172.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 .16.0.0 Default Gateway . 255. The output should look similar to that shown in Example 6-2. . . Table 6-5 TCP/IP Information Value TCP/IP Information IP address Subnet mask Default gateway Depends on the pod host computer.1. : IP Address.0.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 172.16.254 Use the ping command to verify TCP/IP network layer connectivity on the local host computer. .255.1 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 172. If there is a break between the source and destination.1. Verify TCP/IP network layer connectivity on the local host computer.1.16.16. . .255. Each pod host computer should have the same network mask and default gateway address. reconfigure the TCP/IP settings to match the settings for this pod host computer.16.1. . The ping operation is straightforward. .16.1.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 172. Step 1. . The source computer sends an ICMP echo request to the destination. four ping requests are sent to the destination. . .

measured in milliseconds. Lost = 0 (0% loss). In Table 6-6. four packets are sent. The results should be similar to those shown in Example 6-3.2: Packets: Sent = 4. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms. TTL: Default TTL value of the destination device. Packets lost: The difference between the number of packets sent and received. fill in the results of the ping command on your computer. Packets received: The number of packets received. Use the ping command to verify TCP/IP network layer connectivity to the default gateway. Time: Elapsed time between transmission and reply. . By default. Example 6-2 also shows information about the delay in replies.16. and the Linux computer is 64. The second highlighted entry shows the following reply information: ■ ■ ■ Bytes: Size of the ICMP packet. The third highlighted line shows summary information about the replies: ■ ■ ■ Packets sent: The number of packets transmitted. set to the IP address of the local computer. Table 6-6 Field Field Information Value Size of packet Number of packets sent Number of replies Number of lost packets Minimum delay Maximum delay Average delay Step 2. The default TTL value of the Windows XP computer is 128. Received = 4. minus the number of routers in the path. Average = 0ms C:\> The first highlighted line shows the destination address. Values faster than 10 milliseconds display 0. A computer timer is set to 10 milliseconds. For newer Windows machines the default value is 128.162 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example 6-2 Output of the ping Command on the Local TCP/IP Stack continued Ping statistics for 172.1. Lower round-trip times indicate faster links. The maximum TTL value is 255. Cisco IOS is 255. Maximum = 0ms. 32 bytes 4 4 0 0 ms 0 ms 0 ms Verify TCP/IP network layer connectivity on the LAN. Students may ask why default TTL values differ when different devices are accessed.

16.16.16. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms.168. Verify TCP/IP network layer connectivity to a remote network. Because the router was not crossed.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=62 . Eagle Server is used.255.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=255 Reply from 172. Use the ping command to verify TCP/IP network layer connectivity to a device on a remote network. Example 6-4 Output of the ping Command to Eagle Server C:\> ping 192.254.254.255. Lost = 0 (0% loss).255. Received = 4.254.254.168.254 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 192. In reality.254 Pinging 192. the TTL value returned is 255. Maximum = 1ms. users may complain that the Eagle Server web server is down.254 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 172.16.168. In Table 6-7.254: bytes=32 time=1ms TTL=255 Reply from 172. For example.254: Packets: Sent = 4. In this case.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 163 Example 6-3 Output of the ping Command to the Default Gateway C:\> ping 172.254 Pinging 172.255. Table 6-7 Field Field Information Value Size of packet Number of packets sent Number of replies Number of lost packets Minimum delay Maximum delay Average delay 32 bytes 4 4 0 0 ms 0 ms 0 ms What would be the result of a loss of connectivity to the default gateway? No external networks would be reachable. Step 3.255.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=255 Reply from 172. Average = 0ms C:\> The Cisco IOS default TTL value is set to 255.168.255. fill in the results of the ping command to the default gateway. it is the default Gateway that has failed or that has misconfigured TCP/IP network settings.16. The results should be similar to those shown in Example 6-4.255.168.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=62 Reply from 192.16.16.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=255 Ping statistics for 172.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=62 Reply from 192.

you can use the tracert command. Lost = 0 (0% loss). Request timed out. Received = 4. fill in the results of the ping command on your computer. Lost = 4 (100% loss). can display network latency and path information.254. Average = 0ms C:\> The Linux default TTL value is set to 64.254.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=62 Ping statistics for 192. Maximum = 0ms. Instead of using the ping command to test the connectivity of each device to the destination. However. examined next. therefore. . Example 6-5 Output of the ping Command to the Lost Packets C:\> ping 192.168.168. there are limitations. Received = 0.168. the output shows that a user cannot reach Eagle Server. Table 6-8 Field Field Information Value Size of packet Number of packets sent Number of replies Number of lost packets Minimum delay Maximum delay Average delay 32 bytes 4 4 0 0 ms 0 ms 0 ms The ping command is extremely useful when you’re troubleshooting network connectivity.254.254.168. Ping statistics for 192. Two routers were crossed to reach Eagle Server. C:\> Task 2: Use the tracert Command to Verify TCP/IP Connectivity The tracert command is useful for learning about network latency and path information. one by one.254: Packets: Sent = 4.254 with 32 bytes of data: Request timed out. the returned TTL value is 62.254 Pinging 192. In Example 6-5. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms.254: Packets: Sent = 4. Request timed out.164 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example 6-4 Output of the ping Command to Eagle Server continued Reply from 192. Step 4: In Table 6-8.168. Request timed out. Is the problem with Eagle Server or a device in the path? The tracert command.

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On Linux and Cisco IOS devices, the equivalent command is traceroute.
Step 1.

Verify TCP/IP network layer connectivity with the tracert command. Open a Windows terminal, and issue the following command: C:\> tracert 192.168.254.254 The output from the tracert command should be similar to that shown in Example 6-6.

Example 6-6

Output of the tracert Command to Eagle Server

C:\> tracert 192.168.254.254 Tracing route to 192.168.254.254 over a maximum of 30 hops 1 2 3 <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms 172.16.255.254 10.10.10.6 192.168.254.254

Trace complete. C:\>

Record your results in Table 6-9.
Table 6-9 Field Field Information Value

Maximum number of hops First router IP address Second router IP address Destination reached?
Step 2.

30 172.16.255.254 10.10.10.6 Yes

Observe tracert output to a host that lost network connectivity. S1-Central is a switch and does not decrement the packet TTL value. If there is a loss of connectivity to an end device such as Eagle Server, the tracert command can give you valuable clues about the source of the problem. The ping command would show the failure but not any other kind of information about the devices in the path. Referring to the topology diagram shown in Figure 6-1, both R2-Central and R1-ISP are used for connectivity between the pod host computers and Eagle Server. Refer to Example 6-7. Options are used with the tracert command to reduce wait time (in milliseconds), -w 5, and maximum hop count, -h 4. If Eagle Server were disconnected from the network, the default gateway would respond correctly, as well as R1-ISP. The problem must be on the 192.168.254.0/24 network. In this example, Eagle Server has been turned off.

Example 6-7

Output of the tracert Command

C:\> tracert -w 5 -h 4 192.168.254.254 Tracing route to 192.168.254.254 over a maximum of 4 hops 1 2 <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms 172.16.255.254 10.10.10.6

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Example 6-7
3 4 * *

Output of the tracert Command
* * * *

continued

Request timed out. Request timed out.

Trace complete. C:\>

What would the tracert output be if R1-ISP failed? Connectivity would stop after R2-Central. What would the tracert output be if R2-Central failed? There would be no connectivity.

Task 3: Challenge
The default values for the ping command normally work for most troubleshooting scenarios. There are times, however, when fine-tuning ping options may be useful. Issuing the ping command without any destination address displays the options shown in Example 6-8.
Example 6-8
C:\> ping

Output of a ping Command with No Destination Address

Usage: ping [-t] [-a] [-n count] [-l size] [-f] [-i TTL] [-v TOS] [-r count] [-s count] [[-j host-list] | [-k host-list]] [-w timeout] target_name

Options: -t Ping the specified host until stopped. To see statistics and continue - type Control-Break; To stop - type Control-C. -a -n count -l size -f -i TTL -v TOS -r count -s count -j host-list -k host-list -w timeout C:\> Resolve addresses to hostnames. Number of echo requests to send. Send buffer size. Set Don’t Fragment flag in packet. Time To Live. Type Of Service. Record route for count hops. Timestamp for count hops. Loose source route along host-list. Strict source route along host-list. Timeout in milliseconds to wait for each reply.

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The most useful options are highlighted. Some options do not work together, such as the -t and -n options. Other options can be used together. Experiment with those described in this section. To ping the destination address until stopped, use the -t option, as shown in Example 6-9. To stop the output, press Ctrl-C.
Example 6-9 Output of a ping Command Using the -t Option

C:\> ping -t 192.168.254.254 Pinging 192.168.254.254 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 192.168.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.168.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.168.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.168.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.168.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.168.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Ping statistics for 192.168.254.254: Packets: Sent = 6, Received = 6, Lost = 0 (0% loss), Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms, Maximum = 0ms, Average = 0ms Control-C ^C C:\>

To ping the destination once and record router hops, use the -n and -r options, as shown in Example 6-10.
Note: Not all devices honor the -r option. Example 6-10 Output of a ping Command Using the -n and -r Options

C:\> ping -n 1 -r 9 192.168.254.254 Pinging 192.168.254.254 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 192.168.254.254: bytes=32 time=1ms TTL=63 Route: 10.10.10.5 -> 192.168.254.253 -> 192.168.254.254 -> 10.10.10.6 -> 172.16.255.254 Ping statistics for 192.168.254.254: Packets: Sent = 1, Received = 1, Lost = 0 (0% loss), Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 1ms, Maximum = 1ms, Average = 1ms C:\>

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Task 4: Reflection
Network engineers use both ping and tracert to test network connectivity. For basic network connectivity, the ping command works best. To test latency and the network path, the tracert command is preferred. The ability to accurately and quickly diagnose network connectivity issues is a skill expected from a network engineer. Knowledge about the TCP/IP protocols and practice with troubleshooting commands will build that skill.

Task 5: Clean Up
Unless directed otherwise by the instructor, turn off power to the host computers. Remove anything that was brought into the lab, and leave the room ready for the next class.
Packet Tracer Companion

Packet Tracer Companion: ping and traceroute (6.7.1.2)
You can now open the file LSG01-Lab6712.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. Remember, however, that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. The instructions are summarized within the activity.

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Lab 6-2: Examining ICMP Packets (6.7.2.1)
Upon completion of this lab, you will be able to
■ ■

Understand the format of ICMP packets. Use Wireshark to capture and examine ICMP messages.

Background Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) was first defined in RFC 792 in September 1981. ICMP message types were later expanded in RFC 1700. ICMP operates at the TCP/IP network layer and is used to exchange information between devices. ICMP packets serve many uses in today’s computer networks. When a router cannot deliver a packet to a destination network or host, an informational message is returned to the source. Also, the ping and tracert commands send ICMP messages to destinations, and destinations respond with ICMP messages. Scenario Using Eagle Server, Wireshark captures will be made of ICMP packets between network devices. Figure 6-2 shows the topology for this lab, and Table 6-10 is the corresponding addressing table.
Figure 6-2 Topology for Lab 6-2

R1-ISP

S0/0/0 DCE

Eagle Server

S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24

S1-Central

R2-Central

1A

1B

11A

11B

Pod#1

Pod#11

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Table 6-10 Device

Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway

R1-ISP

S0/0/0 Fa0/0

10.10.10.6 192.168.254.253 10.10.10.5 172.16.255.254 192.168.254.254 172.31.24.254 172.16.Pod#.1 172.16.Pod#.2 172.16.254.1

255.255.255.252 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.252 255.255.0.0 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.0.0

— — 10.10.10.6 — 192.168.254.253 — 172.16.255.254 172.16.255.254 172.16.255.254

R2-Central

S0/0/0 Fa0/0

Eagle Server

— —

Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central

— — —

Note to Instructor: Depending on the classroom situation, the lab topology may have been modified before this class. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server.example.com, troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity using the following steps:
Step 1. Step 2.

Verify that all network equipment is powered on and that eagle-server is on. From a known good host computer, ping eagle-server. If the ping test fails, ping S1Central, R2-Central, R1-ISP, and finally eagle-server. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests. If an individual host computer cannot connect to eagle-server, check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address, as shown in Table 6-10, and that it can ping R2-Central, 172.16.255.254. Verify that the host computer has the correct Gateway IP address, 172.16.255.254, and that it can ping R1-ISP, 10.10.10.6. Finally, verify that the host has the correct DNS address and that it can ping eagle-server.example.com.

Step 3.

Task 1: Understand the Format of ICMP Packets
Refer to Figure 6-3, which shows the ICMP header fields common to all ICMP message types. Each ICMP message starts with an 8-bit Type field, an 8-bit Code field, and a computed 16-bit Checksum. The ICMP message type describes the remaining ICMP fields. Table 6-11 shows ICMP message types from RFC 792.
Figure 6-3
0 Type

ICMP Message Header
7 8 Code 16 24 Checksum 31

Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4

171

Table 6-11 Value

ICMP Message Types Meaning

0 3 4 5 8 11 12 13 14 15 16

Echo Reply Destination Unreachable Source Quench Redirect Echo Time Exceeded Parameter Problem Timestamp Timestamp Reply Information Request Information Reply

Codes provide additional information to the Type field. For example, if the Type field is 3, Destination Unreachable, additional information about the problem is returned in the Code field. Table 6-12 shows message codes for an ICMP Type 3 message, Destination Unreachable, from RFC 1700.
Table 6-12 Code Value ICMP Type 3 Message Codes Meaning

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Net Unreachable Host Unreachable Protocol Unreachable Port Unreachable Fragmentation Needed and Don’t Fragment Was Set Source Route Failed Destination Network Unknown Destination Host Unknown Source Host Isolated Communication with Destination Network Is Administratively Prohibited Communication with Destination Host Is Administratively Prohibited Destination Network Unreachable for Type of Service Destination Host Unreachable for Type of Service

172

Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide

Using the ICMP message capture shown in Example 6-11, fill in the fields in Figure 6-4 for the ICMP packet echo request. Values beginning with 0x are hexadecimal numbers.
Example 6-11 ICMP Packet Echo Request

Internet Control Message Protocol Type: 8 (Echo (Ping) request) Code: 0 Checksum: 0x365c [correct] Identifier: 0x0200 Sequence number: 0x1500 Data (32 bytes)

Figure 6-4
0

ICMP Packet Echo Request
7 8 16 24 31

Data...

Using the ICMP message capture shown in Example 6-12, fill in the fields in Figure 6-5 for the ICMP packet echo reply.
Example 6-12 ICMP Packet Echo Reply

Internet Control Message Protocol Type: 0 (Echo (Ping) reply) Code: 0 Checksum: 0x3e5c [correct] Identifier: 0x0200 Sequence number: 0x1500 Data (32 bytes)

Figure 6-5
0

ICMP Packet Echo Reply
7 8 16 24 31

Data...

At the TCP/IP network layer, communication between devices is not guaranteed. However, ICMP does provide minimal checks for a reply to match the request. From the information provided in the ICMP messages just shown, how does the sender know that the reply is to a specific echo? The identifier is used to identify this host computer, and the sequence number is used to identify this echo request.

254. Figure 6-6 Wireshark Capture of ping Requests and Replies . Open a Windows terminal on the pod host computer. and save the file to the pod host computer. you can download it from Eagle Server: 1. When the file has been downloaded.254] with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 192. Capture and evaluate ICMP echo messages to Eagle Server. There should be a total of four ICMP echo requests and matching echo replies. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms. open and install Wireshark.168.com [192. Lost = 0 (0% loss).254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192. Received = 4. you use Wireshark to examine ICMP echo messages. When ready. similar to those shown in Figure 6-6.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.254.254: Packets: Sent = 4. In this step.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Ping statistics for 192.example. Maximum = 0ms.example. Example 6-13 Successful ping Replies from Eagle Server C:\> ping eagle-server.example. as shown in Example 6-13. Step 1. Open a web browser and go to ftp://eagle-server. choose Save Link As. Right-click the Wireshark filename.168.com Pinging eagle-server. start the Wireshark capture. 2. From the Windows terminal.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192. 3. ping Eagle Server.168.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 173 Task 2: Use Wireshark to Capture and Examine ICMP Messages If Wireshark has not been loaded on the pod host computer.254.168.168.254.com/pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter6. You should receive four successful replies.168.254. Average = 0ms C:\> Stop the Wireshark capture.254.

174 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Which network device responds to the ICMP echo request? The destination device Expand the middle window in Wireshark. record information from the first echo request packet to Eagle Server. In Table 6-15. if any. The bottom window also is needed to examine the Data field. fill in information from each new ping. record information from the first echo reply packet from Eagle Server. Continue to evaluate the remaining echo requests and replies. In Table 6-13. For example. depending on the operating system. . Table 6-13 Field Ping Echo Request Fields Value Type Code Checksum Identifier Sequence number Data 8 (Echo (ping) request) 0 Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwabcdefghi Are there 32 bytes of data? Yes In Table 6-14. and expand the Internet Control Message Protocol record until all fields are visible. Table 6-14 Field Ping Echo Reply Fields Value Type Code Checksum Identifier Sequence number Data 0 (Echo (ping) reply) 0 Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary acdefghijklmnopqrstuvwabcdefghi Which fields. but Windows keeps the Identifier field the same. Cisco IOS increments the Identifier field by 1. changed from the echo request? Type field and Checksum field Note: The Identifier field may change for subsequent echo request messages.

Reply from 172.1. Reply from 172.168.168.1 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 172. pings are sent to a fictitious network and host.254: Destination host unreachable. Lost = 0 (0% loss).168. Try to ping IP address 192. C:\> ping 192. an echo response occurs. Average = 0ms C:\> What network device responds to pings to a fictitious destination? The gateway router Figure 6-7 shows Wireshark captures to a fictitious destination.254: Destination host unreachable.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 175 Table 6-15 Packet Ping Echo Requests and Replies Checksum Identifier Sequence Number Request #2 Reply #2 Request #3 Reply #3 Request #4 Reply #4 Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Same as request #2 Same as request #2 Same as request #2 Same as request #2 Same as request #2 Answers will vary Same as request #2 Answers will vary Same as request #3 Answers will vary Same as request #4 Why do the Checksum values change with each new request? The Identifier remains the same. Capture and evaluate ICMP echo messages to 192.253. Example 6-14 Ping Results from a Fictitious Destination C:\> ping 192.16. Expand the middle Wireshark window and the Internet Control Message Protocol record.253. . Ping statistics for 192.1. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms.255.255.253.253. Reply from 172.1 See Example 6-14. The results from the Wireshark capture are evaluated.168.254: Destination host unreachable. but the sequence number changes.1 Pinging 192. Received = 4. Instead of a request timeout. Maximum = 0ms.253.1: Packets: Sent = 4.254: Destination host unreachable.255.16.16.168.253. In this step. Step 2.168.255.16.

254.254: TTL expired in transit.255.254 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 172.254 Pinging 192.255. Lost = 0 (0% loss). Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms.254: TTL expired in transit.16. Reply from 172. simulating an unreachable destination.254: TTL expired in transit.255. Capture and evaluate ICMP echo messages that exceed the TTL value. Received = 4.254: Packets: Sent = 4.254. Example 6-15 Ping Results for an Exceeded TTL C:\> ping -i 1 192. Maximum = 0ms.254.16. and set the TTL value to 1: C:\> ping -i 1 192. Host Unreachable Step 3.16.254: TTL expired in transit. Figure 6-8 Wireshark Capture of TTL Value Exceeded .255. Ping Eagle Server.168.168. Average = 0ms C:\> What network device responds to pings that exceed the TTL value? The gateway router Figure 6-8 shows Wireshark captures to a fictitious destination.254.168.254 Example 6-15 shows ping replies when the TTL value has been exceeded.168. Ping statistics for 192. Reply from 172. pings are sent with a low TTL value.16.176 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 6-7 Wireshark Capture from a Fictitious Destination Which ICMP message type is used to return information to the sender? Type 3 message What code is associated with the message type? Code 1. Expand the middle Wireshark window and the Internet Control Message Protocol record. Reply from 172. In this step.

Task 4: Reflection The ICMP protocol is very useful when troubleshooting network connectivity issues. turn off power to the host computers. Examine the ICMP TTL exceeded message. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. however. and follow the uninstall instructions. Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Examining ICMP Packets (6.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab6722. a sender has no way to tell why a destination connection failed. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. Task 3: Challenge Use Wireshark to capture a tracert session to Eagle Server and then to 192.254. This demonstrates how the tracert command traces the network path to the destination. Without ICMP messages.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 177 Which ICMP message type is used to return information to the sender? Type 11 message What code is associated with the message type? Code 0. click Remove. Task 5: Clean Up Wireshark may have been loaded on the pod host computer. and scroll down to Wireshark. The instructions are summarized within the activity.251. Remember.2.7. Time to live exceeded in transit Which network device is responsible for decrementing the TTL value? Routers decrement the TTL value.168. Click the filename. and leave the room ready for the next class. . Remove anything that was brought into the lab. If the program must be removed.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. Remove any Wireshark pcap files that were created on the pod host computer. you can capture and evaluate different ICMP message type values. choose Start > Control Panel > Add or Remove Programs. Using the ping command.

250 Network mask: 255. you will be able to determine network information for a given IP address and network mask. convert the host IP address and network mask into binary.25.178 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Activity 6-1: IPv4 Address Subnetting.7. In Table 6-16.0.3.1) Upon completion of this activity. Table 6-16 Decimal-to-Binary Conversion 172 25 114 250 IP address Network mask 10101100 11111111 255 00011001 11111111 255 01110010 00000000 0 11111010 00000000 0 . Part 1 (6. Background This activity is designed to teach you how to compute network IP address information from a given IP address. Scenario When given an IP address and network mask.255. such as ■ ■ ■ ■ Network address Network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts Task 1: For a Given IP Address.114.0 (/16) you will determine the following information in this task: ■ ■ ■ ■ Network address Network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts Translate the host IP address and network mask into binary notation. Determine Network Information Given the following information: ■ ■ Host IP address: 172. Step 1. you will be able to determine other information about the IP address.

534 (addresses that cannot use the all-0s address [the network address] or the all-1s address [the broadcast address]) Add this information to Table 6-19. Table 6-18 Broadcast Information 172 25 0 0 Network address Subnet mask 10101100 11111111 11001000 11111111 11001000 25 00000000 00000000 11111111 255 00000000 00000000 11111111 255 Broadcast address 10101100 172 By counting the number of host bits.0. In Table 6-18. perform the following tasks: ■ ■ Draw a line under the mask. ■ Express the result in dotted-decimal notation.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 179 Step 2. In Table 6-17. Perform a bitwise AND operation on the IP address and subnet mask. The result is the network address for this host IP address.25. and the broadcast address has all 1s in the host portion of the address.536 – 2 = 65.0. Host bits: 16 Total number of hosts: 216 = 65. which is 172. determine the broadcast address for the network address. Note: 1 AND 1 results in a 1.536 65. 0 AND anything results in a 0. you can determine the total number of usable hosts for this network. The network mask separates the network portion of the address from the host portion. The network address has all 0s in the host portion of the address. AND Operation 172 25 114 250 Table 6-17 IP address Subnet mask 10101100 11111111 00011001 11111111 00011001 25 01110010 00000000 00000000 0 11111010 00000000 00000000 0 Network address 10101100 172 Step 3. . Determine the network address.

255.0.536 total hosts 65.534 Value Host IP address Network mask Network address Network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts 172.0 172.0.30.25.33 255. Table 6-20 Field Problem 1 Value Host IP address Network mask Network address Network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts Table 6-21 shows Problem 2.536 – 2 = 65.1.30.536 – 2 = 65.0 172.33 255.255.255 16 bits or 216 or 65.0 172.30.30.255.30.114.0 172.255.255 16 bits 65.0 (/16) 172.1.534 usable hosts Task 2: Challenge For all problems.0.0 172.250 255. create a subnetting worksheet to show and record all work for each problem.255.25.255 8 bits 256 – 2 = 254 . Table 6-21 Field Problem 2 172. Table 6-20 shows Problem 1.0.1.255.30.25.180 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 6-19 Field Host Bits: Information on the Number of Hosts Value Host IP address Network mask Network address Network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts 172.1.

255 16 bits 65.3.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 181 Table 6-22 shows Problem 3.255.0 192.536 – 2 = 65.255. Table 6-23 Field Problem 4 192.17.534 .255.10.99.71 255.219 255.0.234 255.168.0 192.0 172.168.168.255.17.10. Table 6-22 Field Problem 3 Value Host IP address Network mask Network address Network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts Table 6-23 shows Problem 4.0.168.0 192.168.168.536 – 2 = 65.0.10.534 Value Host IP address Network mask Network address Network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts 192.255.255.0 192.0.255 8 bits 256 – 2 = 254 Value Host IP address Network mask Network address Network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts Table 6-24 shows Problem 5. Table 6-24 Field Problem 5 172.255 16 bits 65.0 172.17.

255.3.3. and leave the room ready for the next class.224 192.223 5 bits 32 – 2 = 30 Task 3: Clean Up Remove anything that was brought into the lab.3. Table 6-25 Field Problem 6 Value Host IP address Network mask Network address Network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts 192.182 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 6-25 shows Problem 6. .255.168.168.192 192.168.219 255.

Table 6-27 Decimal Decimal-to-Binary Conversion Binary 255 254 252 248 240 224 192 128 0 11111111 11111110 11111100 11111000 11110000 11100000 11000000 10000000 00000000 . Using the chart shown in Table 6-26.024 9 512 8 256 7 128 6 64 5 32 4 16 3 8 2 4 1 2 1 1 Remember. Because subnet masks must be contiguous 1s followed by contiguous 0s. it is easy to determine how many bits must be borrowed. Part 2 (6. the converted dotted-decimal notation can contain one of a certain number of values. you learn how to determine subnet information for a given IP address and subnetwork mask. as shown in Table 6-27.7.4.024 29 512 28 256 27 128 26 64 25 32 24 16 23 8 22 4 21 2 20 1 Number of bits borrowed: 10 1. Table 6-26 Hosts or Subnets 210 1. Background Determine how many bits must be allocated to create a certain number of subnets or a certain number of hosts per subnet. subtract 2 for the usable number of hosts per subnet—one for the subnet address and one for the subnet’s broadcast address.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 183 Activity 6-2: IPv4 Address Subnetting.1) In this activity.

255.0 (/16) Subnet mask: 255.25.255. network mask. Translate Host IP Addresses Value Step 1.114. and subnetwork mask. you will be able to determine other information about the IP address: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ The subnet address of this subnet The broadcast address of this subnet The range of host addresses for this subnet The maximum number of subnets for this subnet mask The number of hosts for each subnet The number of subnet bits The number of this subnet Task 1: For a Given IP Address and Subnet Mask.184 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Scenario When given an IP address.255. Determine Subnet Information Given the following information: ■ ■ ■ Host IP address: 172. Table 6-28 Field IP address 172 10101100 25 00011001 11111111 255 114 01110010 11111111 255 250 11111010 11000000 192 Subnet mask 11111111 255 .250 Network mask: 255.0.192 (/26) you will determine the following information in this task: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Number of subnet bits Number of subnets Number of host bits per subnet Number of usable hosts per subnet Subnet address for this IP address IP address of the first host on this subnet IP address of the last host on this subnet Broadcast address for this subnet Translate the host IP address and subnet mask into binary notation in Table 6-28.

which is 172..114.D. which in this case is 10 bits.D. This range contains the bits that are being incremented to create the subnet numbers or addresses.D.D. The network information ends where the 1s in the mask end.255. S. . Draw a line under the mask. Perform a bitwise AND operation on the IP address and subnet mask. Figure 6-9 Major Divide/Subnet Divide M.) as a straight line where the 1s in the given subnet mask end. draw the major divide (M.0. Step 3.D.25. 10101110 11111111 10001010 11001000 11111111 11001000 11 111010 11 000000 11 000000 Draw the subnet divide (S. and the S.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 185 Step 2. 01110010 11111111 01110010 10 Bits IP Address Subnet Mask Subnet Add. In this example. the major network mask is 255.D. or the first 16 leftmost bits. In Table 6-29. As shown in Figure 6-10. Step 4. Determine the bit ranges for subnets and hosts. determine the network (or subnet) where this host address belongs. which can be determined by simply counting the number of bits between the M. and S. label the subnet counting range between the M. The result is the subnet address of this subnet. The result is the number of subnet bits.192.D. Determine which bits in the address contain network information and which contain host information. As shown in Figure 6-9. Table 6-29 Determine the Network 172 25 114 250 IP address Subnet mask Subnet address 10101100 11111111 10101100 172 11001000 11111111 11001000 25 01110010 11111111 01110010 114 11111010 11000000 11000000 192 Note: 1 AND 1 results in a 1. 0 AND anything else results in a 0.D. Express the result in dotted-decimal notation.0.) as a wavy line where the 1s in the major network mask end (also the mask if there was no subnetting).

25. make the host bits all 0s except for the rightmost bit (or least-significant bit). .25. Subnet Counting Range and Host Counting Range M. 11 111010 11 000000 11 000000 Host Counting Range First Host 10101100 172 11001000 25 11001000 25 11001000 25 01110010 114 01110010 114 01110010 114 11 000001 193 11 111110 254 11 111111 255 Last Host 10101100 172 Broadcast 10101100 172 Write down all the network/subnet bits of the network address (that is. which in the example is 172. This range contains the bits that are being incremented to create the host numbers or addresses. This gives us the broadcast IP address on this subnet.). in the host portion (to the right of the S.193. 10101110 11111111 10001010 11001000 11111111 11001000 11 111010 11 000000 11 000000 Host Counting Range Label the host counting range between the S.D.D.).254.D.D.D. which you make a 0. In the host portion (to the right of the S.255.D.114. which in the example is 172.). Step 5. which in the example is 172. which is the last part of the result for Range of Host Addresses for This Subnet. 01110010 11111111 01110010 Subnet Counting Range IP Address Subnet Mask Subnet Add. which is the first part of the result for Range of Host Addresses for This Subnet.114. and the last bits at the end on the right.114.25.D. make the host bits all 1s.). This gives us the last host IP address on this subnet.186 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 6-10 Bit Ranges for Subnets and Hosts M. Next.D. 10101100 11111111 10101100 11001000 11111111 11001000 01110010 11111111 01110010 Subnet Counting Range Figure 6-11 S. S. make the host bits all 1s except for the rightmost bit (or least-significant bit).D. This gives us the first host IP address on this subnet. This is the result for Broadcast Address of This Subnet. In the host portion (to the right of the S. which you make a 1. all bits before the S. Use Figure 6-11 to determine the range of host addresses available on this subnet and the broadcast address on this subnet. IP Address Subnet Mask Subnet Add.

25. all 1s not used): 210 = 1024 subnets Step 7. Use the formula 2n.25. 255.25.25.193 172. 210 = 1024 Number of subnet bits: 10 bits Number of subnets (all 0s used. The number of subnets is determined by how many bits are in the subnet counting range (in this example.0 172.25.250 255.25.192 (/26) 26 bits 210 = 1024 subnets 6 bits 26 – 2 = 64 – 2 = 62 hosts per subnet 172.114.255.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 187 Add the missing information to Table 6-30.114.114. Determine the number of usable hosts per subnet. where n is the number of bits in the subnet counting range. 6 bits) minus 2 (1 for the subnet address and 1 for the broadcast address of the subnet).0 (/16) 172.255 Determine the number of subnets. 10 bits).255 16 bits or 216 or 65.0. Table 6-30 Field Fill in the Missing Information Value Host IP address Major network mask Major (base) network address Major network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts 172.192 172.114.255.255.114. The number of hosts per subnet is determined by the number of host bits (in this example.254 172.536 – 2 = 65.536 total hosts 65.0.534 usable hosts Subnet mask Number of subnet bits Number of subnets Number of host bits per subnet Number of usable hosts per subnet Subnet address for this IP address IP address of the first host on this subnet IP address of the last host on this subnet Broadcast address for this subnet Step 6.255. 26 – 2 = 64 – 2 = 62 hosts per subnet Number of host bits per subnet: 6 bits Number of usable hosts per subnet: 26 – 2 = 64 – 2 = 62 hosts per subnet .25.

Final Answers Value Table 6-31 Field Host IP address Subnet mask Number of subnet bits Number of subnets Number of host bits per subnet Number of usable hosts per subnet Subnet address for this IP address IP address of the first host on this subnet IP address of the last host on this subnet Broadcast address for this subnet 172.0 8 bits 256 – 2 = 254 8 bits 256 – 2 = 254 172.25.33 255.255.192 172.30.188 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Step 8.1 172.255 . Review the final answers in Table 6-31.25.1.114.25.30.255 Task 2: Challenge For all problems.30.0 172.1.25.114.192 (/26) 26 bits 210 = 1024 subnets 6 bits 26 – 2 = 64 – 2 = 62 hosts per subnet 172.254 172.114. Table 6-32 shows Problem 1.255.255.114.1.255.25.250 255.114.30.30.254 172.1. create a subnetting worksheet to show and record all work for each problem. Table 6-32 Field Problem 1 Value Host IP address Subnet mask Number of subnet bits Number of subnets Number of host bits per subnet Number of usable hosts per subnet Subnet address for this IP address IP address of the first host on this subnet IP address of the last host on this subnet Broadcast address for this subnet 172.193 172.1.

30.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 189 Table 6-33 shows Problem 2.30.30.35 Value Host IP address Subnet mask Number of subnet bits Number of subnets Number of host bits per subnet Number of usable hosts per subnet Subnet address for this IP address IP address of the first host on this subnet IP address of the last host on this subnet Broadcast address for this subnet 192.32 172.255.255.192.10.234 255.10.30.255 .254 192.382 4–2=2 2 172.34 172.0 24 bits 224 8 bits 256 – 2 = 254 192.252 14 bits 16.192.1.1.384 – 2 = 16.1.1.0 192.33 255.255. Table 6-33 Field Problem 2 Value Host IP address Subnet mask Number of subnet bits Number of subnets Number of host bits per subnet Number of usable hosts per subnet Subnet address for this IP address IP address of the first host on this subnet IP address of the last host on this subnet Broadcast address for this subnet Table 6-34 shows Problem 3.10.1.255. Table 6-34 Field Problem 3 172.192.30.192.10.1 192.33 172.10.192.

3.168.3.255.190 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 6-35 shows Problem 4.17.17.168.255 Value Host IP address Subnet mask Number of subnet bits Number of subnets Number of host bits per subnet Number of usable hosts per subnet Subnet address for this IP address IP address of the first host on this subnet IP address of the last host on this subnet Broadcast address for this subnet 192.17.168.255.17.219 255.168. Table 6-36 Field Problem 5 172.1 192.3.254 192.255.255.254 172.0 172.0 24 bits 224 8 bits 256 – 2 = 254 192.0.255.3.0.71 255.0.168. Table 6-35 Field Problem 4 Value Host IP address Subnet mask Number of subnet bits Number of subnets Number of host bits per subnet Number of usable hosts per subnet Subnet address for this IP address IP address of the first host on this subnet IP address of the last host on this subnet Broadcast address for this subnet Table 6-36 shows Problem 5.255 .0 192.3.99.0 16 bits 216 – 2 16 bits 256 – 2 = 254 172.17.1 172.

3. Table 6-37 Field Problem 6 Value Host IP address Subnet mask Number of subnet bits Number of subnets Number of host bits per subnet Number of usable hosts per subnet Subnet address for this IP address IP address of the first host on this subnet IP address of the last host on this subnet Broadcast address for this subnet 192. .255.252 6 bits 64 – 2 = 62 4–2=2 2 192.217 192.3.168.168.168.216 192.218 192.255.3.3.219 Task 3: Clean Up Remove anything that was brought into the lab.218 255.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 191 Table 6-37 shows Problem 6. and leave the room ready for the next class.3.168.168.

1.192 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Lab 6-3: Subnet and Router Configuration (6. Test and verify configurations. Consider the following questions when creating your network design: ■ ■ ■ ■ How many subnets are needed for this network? 3 What is the subnet mask for this network in dotted-decimal format? 255.32/27 Fa0/0 192.1.0/24 address space to use in your network design.5. Figure 6-12 Topology for Lab 6-3 192.168. The network consists of the following segments: ■ ■ ■ The network connected to router R1 requires enough IP addresses to support 15 hosts. The network connected to router R2 requires enough IP addresses to support 30 hosts. you design and apply an IP addressing scheme for the topology shown in Figure 612.96/27 Fa0/0 PC1 S0/0/0 R1 S0/0/0 DCE PC2 R2 Task 1: Subnet the Address Space Step 1. Assign subnetwork addresses to the topology diagram shown in Figure 6-12: ■ ■ ■ Assign subnet 1 to the network attached to R1. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Subnet an address space given requirements.255.224 What is the subnet mask for the network in slash format? /27 How many usable hosts are there per subnet? 30 Step 3. Assign subnet 3 to the network attached to R2.7. Reflect on and document the network implementation.1) Upon completion of this lab.1. The link between router R1 and router R2 requires IP addresses at each end of the link. Examine the network requirements. . You have been given the 192.168. Assign appropriate addresses to interfaces and document them. verify that the network is working properly.168. The routers then will be ready for interface address configuration according to your IP addressing scheme. Assign subnet 2 to the link between R1 and R2. You are given one address block that you must subnet to provide a logical addressing scheme for the network.255. Configure and activate serial and FastEthernet interfaces.168. Scenario In this lab activity. When the configuration is complete. Step 2.64/27 192.1.

224 255.65 192. Assign the first valid host address in subnet 2 to the WAN interface on R1.224 255. Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway Table 6-38 Device R1 Fa0/0 S0/0/0 192.255. Assign the last valid host address in subnet 1 to PC1.255. can you ping the Serial 0/0/0 interface of R1? Yes . Configure the router interfaces.168.126 255.168. Assign the last valid host address in subnet 2 to the WAN interface on R2. document the addresses to be used.168.1. can you ping the Serial 0/0/0 interface of R2? Yes From the router R2. can you ping the default gateway? Yes From the host attached to R2.1.255.255.1.62 192. Assign the first valid host address in subnet 3 to the LAN interface on R2. can you ping the default gateway? Yes From the router R1.224 255. Note that to complete the activity in Packet Tracer.97 R2 Fa0/0 S0/0/0 PC1 PC2 NIC NIC Task 3: Configure the Serial and FastEthernet Addresses Step 1. you will use the Config tab. When you have finished.255.224 — — — — 192.255.97 192. Configure the interfaces on the R1 and R2 routers with the IP addresses from your network design. Assign the last valid host address in subnet 3 to PC2.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 193 Task 2: Determine Interface Addresses Step 1.224 255.33 192.1. be sure to save the running configuration to the router’s NVRAM.94 192.255.255. Step 2.1.255. Configure the PC interfaces. Step 2.1.168. In Table 6-38. Task 4: Verify the Configurations Answer the following questions to verify that the network is operating as expected: ■ ■ ■ ■ From the host attached to R1. Configure the Ethernet interfaces of PC1 and PC2 with the IP addresses and default gateways from your network design.224 255.168.168.33 192.1.168. Assign appropriate addresses to the device interfaces: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Assign the first valid host address in subnet 1 to the LAN interface on R1.255.168.255.1.255.

The instructions are summarized within the activity.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. Configure the network: Apply your subnetting scheme to servers. check the physical connections and configurations. Upon completion of this lab.7.5. PCs. and router interfaces. trace. Test the network: Using ping. configure services and static routing. Packet Tracer Challenge Skills Integration Challenge: Planning Subnets and Configuring IP Addresses (6.194 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Note: The answers to the preceding questions should be yes. Task 5: Reflection Are there any devices on the network that cannot ping each other? Answers will vary What is missing from the network that is preventing communication between these devices? Answers will vary Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Subnet and Router Configuration (6. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ Do IP subnet planning: Practice your subnetting skills.1.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab6752. however.8. Build the network: Connect devices with Ethernet and serial cables. but with a new IP addressing scheme. ■ Background You have been asked to implement the standard lab topology. . Remember. If any of the pings failed. web traffic. and Inspect tools.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to perform this exercise using Packet Tracer.3) Open the file LSG01-PTSkills6.

192 255.23.23.23.23.168.168.255.255.62 192.23.255.23. Fill in your answers in Table 6-39. You must provide for existing networks as well as future growth.168.168.255.23.255.168.23.23.192 255.0 /24.1 192.252 — — 192.255.168.109 255. Figure 6-13 shows the topology for this lab.168.62 192.168.255.255.255.23.130 192.252 255.130 192. up to 28 hosts . up to 60 hosts Second subnet.23.255. Figure 6-13 Topology for Challenge 1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server 2960-24TT S1-Central 1841 R2-Central PC-PT 1A PC-PT 1B Task 1: IP Subnet Planning You have been given an IP address block of 192. existing student LAN (off of router R2-Central). Table 6-39 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP Fa0/0 S0/0/0 192.255.23.255. future student LAN.130 192.168.240 255.23.255.129 192.255.168.168.62 192.168.168.110 192.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 195 You will use many of the skills you have learned to this point in the course.2 192.192 255.252 255.110 R2-Central Fa0/0 S0/0/0 PC 1A PC 1B Eagle Server NIC NIC NIC Subnet assignments: ■ ■ First subnet.

You do not need to configure the switch. and the two PCs. existing WAN. both routers. nor do you need the IOS CLI to configure the routers. For the R1-ISP router serial interface. For R2-Central’s S0/0/0 interface. R2-Central’s serial interface. No clock rate is needed on the DTE side—in this case. and enable HTTP services.example. use the highest usable address on the existing student LAN subnet.com. in addition to IP configuration. For R2-Central’s Fa0/0 interface. ■ ■ Task 2: Finish Building the Network in Packet Tracer Add cables where they are missing: ■ ■ ■ ■ Connect a serial DCE cable to R1-ISP S0/0/0. For all devices. For R1-ISP’s S0/0/0 interface. use the domain name eagle-server. point-to-point link Sixth subnet. Connect interface Fa0/0 on router R2-Central to the highest FastEthernet port on switch S1Central. use the lowest usable address on the existing WAN subnet. configure the second-highest usable IP address on the existing ISP LAN subnet. point-to-point link Seventh subnet. All you must do is configure the static routes and the interfaces via the GUI. The static route on R1-ISP should point to the existing student LAN subnet via R2-Central’s . Part of the router configuration has already been done for you. you need to set the clock rate (a timing mechanism required on the DCE end of serial links) to 64000. ■ ■ ■ ■ Additional configurations: ■ ■ For PCs 1A and 1B. up to 12 hosts Fourth subnet. For the server. up to 8 hosts Fifth subnet. use the first two IP addresses (the two lowest usable addresses) on the existing student LAN subnet.196 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Third subnet. future ISP LAN. enable DNS services. For hosts 1A and 1B. Connect PC 1A to the first FastEthernet port on switch S1-Central. future WAN. configure the highest usable address on the existing WAN subnet. point-to-point link Interface IP addresses: ■ ■ For the server. For R1-ISP’s Fa0/0 interface. configure them to use DNS services. configure the highest usable IP address on the existing ISP LAN subnet. future WAN. make sure the power is on to the device and the interfaces. with the other end to R2-Central S0/0/0. existing ISP LAN. Connect PC 1B to the second FastEthernet port on switch S1-Central. ■ Task 3: Configure the Network You need to configure the server.

trace. These procedures were explained in the Chapter 5 Skills Integration Challenge. and ICMP viewable. Trace packet flow in simulation mode. to test your understanding of how the network is operating. DNS. with HTTP. Task 4: Test the Network Use ping. TCP.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 197 serial interface IP address. configuration. UDP. and the Inspect tool. . The static route on R2-Central should be a default static route that points to R1-ISP’s serial interface IP address. Task 5: Reflection Reflect on how much you have learned so far! Practicing IP subnetting skills and network building. web traffic. and testing skills will serve you well throughout your networking courses.

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As you work through this chapter. Table 7-1 Term Data Link Layer Terms Definition a. because it is the layer that accesses the physical medium and causes network traffic to traverse different physical media. including copper cabling.CHAPTER 7 OSI Data Link Layer The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of matching. It also controls how data is placed on and received from media. use Chapter 7 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum. A layer of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model that frames upper-layer data and controls how data is placed on a medium b. Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 7-1. Data link d. . What are the two main jobs of the data link layer? The data link layer allows upper layers to access media. fill-in-the-blank. Node c. The media can consist of many different types. Study Guide Data Link Layer: Accessing the Media The data link layer plays a major role in networks. and the air in the case of wireless. The protocol data unit (PDU) used in Layer 2 of the OSI model Concept Questions 1. and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of the data link layer. or use the corresponding Chapter 7 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration Companion Guide. hands-on skills you need to work with the data link layer. Network e. A device on a network c. match the term on the left to its definition on the right. 2. Two or more devices connected to a common medium e. Media d. The physical means used to carry data signals a. optical fibers. The data link layer hides the details of these media from the upper layers and takes on the job of transmitting data across each network segment. Frame b. for assistance. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum activities and labs to ensure that you have mastered the practical. The data link layer defines the physical network as a set of devices on a common medium. What is the difference between a logical network and a physical network? The network layer defines the logical network using a hierarchical addressing scheme.

An intermediary device. depending on the medium and the data link layer protocols in use. Some methods are complicated and add overhead to the process. has physical interfaces that can encapsulate a packet into the appropriate frame and handle the media access control method to access each link. but it can be inefficient because a device has to wait its turn before it can use the medium. a node uses an adapter. in sequence. IP or other network layer protocols would need to make provisions for connecting every type of media that could exist along a delivery path. . the probability of successful access without a data collision decreases. With contention-based media access control. If the data link layer didn’t exist. 1. to access the medium. Other methods are less complicated but may not scale as well. all nodes compete for the use of the medium. Network devices take turns. deterministic throughput. and place the frame on the medium of the next link in the network. 4. Media Access Control Techniques Media access control regulates the placement of data frames on a medium. With controlled media access control. such as a router. The technique for getting a frame on and off a medium is called the media access control method. A router uses data link layer services to receive a frame from one medium. IP would need to change every time a new network technology or medium were developed. encapsulate the Layer 3 PDU into a new frame. As more nodes try to access the network to send data.200 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide 3. decapsulate the frame to the Layer 3 PDU. This disadvantage is avoided by using a layered model for networking and by giving the data link layer the job of placing data on a medium and controlling access to the medium. such as a Network Interface Card (NIC) on a local-area network (LAN). Any device can try to access the medium whenever it has data to send. each node has its own time to use the medium. There are different ways to accomplish this regulation. Compare and contrast controlled media access control and contention-based media access control. 2. The controlled method provides predictable. Moreover. To connect to a network. what changes would be required of a network layer protocol such as Internet Protocol (IP)? Without a data link layer. 3. The adapter manages the framing and media access control. Concept Questions 1. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following statements. The contention-based method has less overhead but does not scale well under heavy use.

For example. Most Layer 2 frames also have addressing fields in the header that identify the sender and receiver. List the steps in the carrier sense multiple access collision detect (CSMA/CD) process. Media Access Control: Addressing and Framing Data A fundamental job of the data link layer is to encapsulate a Layer 3 PDU into a Layer 2 PDU. You will learn more about CSMA/CD in Chapter 9. only one device can transmit at any given time. 1. Receiving data while transmitting is not allowed. At this point. Data link layer rules (also called protocols) specify the media access control method that is used for a particular technology. 2. What is the difference between full-duplex communication and half-duplex communication? With full-duplex communication.Chapter 7: OSI Data Link Layer 201 2. data field. 3. Match the field on the left to its definition on the right. If another node is also transmitting. Three media access control methods used by logical multiaccess topologies include carrier sense multiple access collision detect. you can keep the list simple. both devices can transmit and receive on the medium at the same time. and trailer. 3. Having many nodes share access to the medium requires a data link layer media access control method to regulate the transmission of data. Receiving data while transmitting is allowed. 4. stop transmitting and wait a random amount of time before trying again. wait and try again later. With half-duplex communication. Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Table 7-2 lists some typical fields that appear in frame headers. While transmitting. . 3. “Ethernet. Although different protocols place different fields in a frame. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following statements. 2. A logical multiaccess topology enables a number of nodes to communicate by using the same shared medium. 1. monitor the medium for the presence of another node’s signal. carrier sense multiple access collision avoidance. If a carrier signal from another node is detected. transmit the data. and token passing. 4. If a carrier signal is not detected. 5.” Sense whether the medium is free. Ethernet uses CSMA/CD. most protocols specify that the frame should have a header. The Layer 2 PDU is called a frame.

Address c. Ethernet b. Establishes a logical connection (session) between two nodes a. Identifies the sender and receiver e. Includes specifications for operation at 10. Point-to-Point Protocol c. Uses a flag field at the beginning of the frame c. on the other hand. Layer 2 addresses use a flat addressing scheme and do not indicate on what network a device is located. If a device is moved to another network. Layer 3 addresses use a hierarchical addressing scheme and indicate a network number and host identifier. are carried from source to destination host across an internetwork. Length e. Used to indicate overloading on the medium f. Tells other devices on the network that a frame is coming along the medium b. Indicates a particular type of communication service for special processing Table 7-3 lists three major data link layer protocols. Defined by the IEEE 802. Flow control g. Congestion control g. Priority f. Layer 3 addresses. Table 7-3 Protocol Data Link Layer Protocols Specification a. .3 standard a. and 10. When a packet crosses an internetwork. Defined in a Request For Comments (RFC) document b. Uses an acknowledgment to confirm that a frame was received successfully Concept Questions 1. 802. Layer 2 addresses are used only for local delivery when transporting a frame across a shared local medium. Match each protocol on the left to its specifications on the right.11 c. Provides unacknowledged connectionless service over a shared medium using CSMA/CD b. Start frame b. 100. A protocol for wireless networks that uses CSMA/CA a. Indicates the upper-layer service contained in the frame a. its Layer 2 address does not need to change.000 Mbps b. Type d. Uses a preamble field at the beginning of the frame b.202 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 7-2 Field Frame Header Fields Definition a. Used to start and stop traffic when overloading occurs d. 1000. it gets encapsulated in a new data link layer header with new Layer 2 addresses for each hop it takes. Often found on WANs a. Specifies the number of bytes in the data part of the frame c. Compare and contrast Layer 2 addresses with Layer 3 addresses.

an IP packet is constructed to identify the source and destination hosts.Chapter 7: OSI Data Link Layer 203 2. The recipient router forwards the data onto an Ethernet LAN where the server resides. The transport layer places a destination port number of 80 in the TCP segment to indicate the WWW service. The transport layer identifies the upper-layer service that the user wants to reach as the HTTP (or World Wide Web [WWW]) service. 5. 3. The router sends the data to another router across a PPP WAN link. The client builds an Ethernet II frame to transport the IPv4 packet across the local medium. It uses its own IPv4 address as the source address. 2. At the network layer. a number of packets are generated and encapsulated in Layer 2 frames. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following statements that describe a user accessing a web page stored on a web server that is located on a remote network. The transport layer also places the source port number for this session in the segment. 3. The user is on an Ethernet LAN. a frame has only one place to go (to the other device). 1. What is the purpose of the Frame Check Sequence (FCS) in a frame trailer? The FCS field is used to determine if errors occurred in the transmission and receipt of a frame. TCP adds an acknowledgment number that tells the web server the sequence number that TCP expects in the next segment it receives. A TCP three-way handshake sets up a connection with the server. the client uses the IP address associated with the WWW server’s hostname. or loss that would change the bit values that those signals represent. . The data link layer refers to the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) cache to determine the Media Access Control (MAC) address that is associated with the Ethernet interface on the client’s router. you should now be able to put together at a high level the events that take place on a network when a user accesses a service. The user starts by clicking a link or URL on a web page. The FCS field is necessary because the signals on the medium are subject to interference. The application layer adds a Layer 7 header. For the destination address. Putting It All Together: Follow Data Through an Internetwork When a user on a LAN wants to access a service. Only two devices are connected. If you have done the reading in Chapter 7 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum or if you have used the corresponding Chapter 7 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration Companion Guide. 4. The user sends data to a router on that Ethernet LAN. Why are Layer 2 addresses not needed in point-to-point topologies? Layer 2 addresses are not needed in point-to-point topologies because there can be no confusion about the frame’s destination. 6. The user’s web browser initiates a Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) GET request. After it is on the medium. distortion.

The router that receives the frame checks the FCS at the end of the frame to determine if the frame was received intact without any errors. This is done by examining the source and destination ports. and the router determines that the next hop for the packet is a router at the other end of a PPP WAN link. It then builds an Ethernet II frame to transport the IPv4 packet to the server. The frame begins with a Preamble field and ends with an FCS field for error detection. Eventually. 21. an IPv4 packet is encapsulated. The physical layer transmits the frame onto the medium bit by bit. The router includes a Protocol field in the PPP header with a value of 0x0021 to indicate that 13. the destination IPv4 address in the packet is compared to the routes in the 11. The router removes the data link header and pushes the packet up to the network layer. The recipient router checks the FCS to determine if the frame was received intact without any errors. 15. The client uses the CSMA/CD media access control method to verify that the medium is not already in use. The router consults its ARP cache to determine the MAC address of the web server. The 22 steps reverse themselves. A match is found. Because it matches. It checks the FCS to determine if the frame was received intact 19. The PPP session has already been established. and a packet flows back to the client. The router determines that the packet should be sent out an Ethernet network to the web server. 9. The server examines the TCP segment to determine the session to which the data belongs. Because the IP network layer header identified the upper-layer protocol as 0x06. The server compares the destination MAC address in the frame to the MAC address of the NIC in the server. At the network layer. The server examines the frame. the server removes the network layer header and pushes the data to the transport layer. 10. At the network layer. 8. the destination IPv4 address in the packet is compared to routes in the routing table. as soon as all the necessary packets have been sent and received. 20. so the physical layer begins transmitting the frame onto the WAN medium bit by bit. 17. the server removes the data link header and pushes the packet up to the network layer. The server compares the destination IPv4 address in the packet to its own IPv4 address. 18. the HTTP GET request is delivered to the WWW service. without any errors. 22. Because it matches.204 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide 7. The router removes the data link header and pushes the packet up to the network layer. It uses CSMA/CD to verify that the medium is not already in use. The Physical layer transmits the frame onto the medium bit by bit. At the application layer. the user sees a web page. can now form a response. 16. The service . The router creates a PPP frame to transport the packet across the WAN. the server pushes the data to TCP. routing table. The data link layer frame indicates that the upper-layer data is IPv4 by placing 0x0800 in the Type field of the Ethernet II header. 14. The TCP sequence number is used to place this segment in the proper order to be sent upward to the application layer. 12.

you will be able to ■ ■ Explain the header fields in an Ethernet II frame. it is helpful to analyze frame header information. For example.2. The frame composition depends on the media access type. the Layer 2 frame encapsulation is Ethernet II. The file is wireshark-setup-0. Use Wireshark to capture and analyze Ethernet II frames.4. Ethernet II frames can support various upper-layer protocols.exe. The Ethernet II frame header is examined in this lab. you can download it from ftp://eagleserver. Background When upper-layer protocols communicate with each other. and Table 7-4 is the corresponding addressing table. Figure 7-1 Topology for Lab 7-1 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 .1) Upon completion of this lab. Figure 7-1 shows the topology for this lab. data flows down the OSI layers and is encapsulated in a Layer 2 frame. When learning about Layer 2 concepts. if the upper-layer protocol is TCP/IP and the media access is Ethernet. such as TCP/IP. The Windows ping command will be used to generate network traffic for Wireshark to capture.5.example.Chapter 7: OSI Data Link Layer 205 Labs and Activities Lab 7-1: Frame Examination (7.com/pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter7/. Scenario Wireshark will be used to capture and analyze Ethernet II frame header fields.99. If Wireshark has not been loaded on the host pod computer.

troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity by following these steps: Step 1.16.168. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server.254 172. verify that the host has the correct DNS address and that it can ping eagle-server.0.254 192.255. 172.10.16.255.255.example. ping S1Central.0 255.252 255.example. Step 2.254 172.255.16.Pod#. followed by a DNS query.255.0 255.255. 172.10.206 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 7-4 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP S0/0/0 Fa0/0 10. Verify that the host computer has the correct Gateway IP address.16.255.253 10.254 172. and finally eagle-server. the ping command issues echo requests. shown in the logical addressing table.10. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity.0 255.6.0. and that it can ping R2-Central. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address.5 172.16.254.255.0 255.com. 10.168.255.1 255. If an individual host computer cannot connect to eagle-server.Pod#.0 255. R1-ISP.24.254. Step 3.255.254.255. the Panel List window shows a Wireshark capture of the ping command between a pod host computer and Eagle Server.16. From a known good host computer.255.252 255. check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central.254 172.255.10.10. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests.254.254 R2-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Eagle Server — — Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central — — — Note to Instructor: Depending on the classroom situation. ping eagle-server.0 — — 10.6 — 192.0 255.16.1 172.16. Task 1: Explain the Header Fields in an Ethernet II Frame Figure 7-2 shows the format for an Ethernet II frame.0.255. Figure 7-2 Ethernet II Frame Format Destination Address Source Address Frame Type 2 Octets Preamble Data FCS 8 Octets 6 Octets 6 Octets 46–1500 Octets 4 Octets In Figure 7-3. R2-Central. Finally. and that it can ping R1-ISP. The session begins with the ARP protocol querying for the MAC address of the Gateway router. Finally.10.255.255.6 192.0. If the ping test fails. Verify that all network equipment is powered on and that eagle-server is on.255.168.10.254.255.31.2 172.com. the lab topology may have been modified before this class.253 — 172.10.254.16.255.255. .

Chapter 7: OSI Data Link Layer 207 Figure 7-3 Wireshark Capture of the ping Command In Figure 7-3. Using this window. Source Address Frame Type 00:16:76:ac:a7:6a 0x0806 For Ethernet II frames. or 6 bytes. The first six hex numbers indicate the manufacturer of the network interface card (NIC). Here are two common frame types: Value Description 0x0800 IPv4 protocol 0x0806 Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) Contains the encapsulated upper-layer protocol. are the serial number of the NIC. Data ARP . processed by the NIC hardware.org/forum/macid. Each address is 48 bits long.neotechcc. Refer to http://www. A common format is 12:34:56:78:9A:BC. Table 7-5 Field Ethernet II Frame Header Value Description Preamble Destination Address Not shown in the capture ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff This field contains synchronizing bits. Layer 2 addresses for the frame. The last six hex digits. The Data field is between 46 and 1500 bytes. this field contains a hexadecimal value that is used to indicate the type of upper-layer protocol in the data field. A to F.htm for a list of vendor codes. or unicast. ac:a7:6a. expressed as 12 hexadecimal digits. Ethernet II supports numerous upper-layer protocols. you can obtain Ethernet II frame information. The source address is always unicast. the Packet Details window shows Frame 1 detail information. Table 7-5 shows the information you can obtain. 0 to 9. The destination address may be a broadcast that contains all 1s.

answer the following questions about the destination and source MAC address. and data field. answer the following questions about the destination and source MAC address. All computers on the LAN receive the frame. encompassing frame addresses. The value is computed by the sending machine. What is the significance of all 1s in the destination address field? This is a broadcast address. used by the NIC to identify errors during transmission.208 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 7-5 Field Ethernet II Frame Header Value continued Description FCS Not shown in the capture Frame Check Sequence. From the information contained in the Packet List window for the first frame. . Destination Address MAC address: 00:16:76:ac:a7:6a NIC manufacturer: Intel NIC serial number: ac:a7:6a Source Address MAC address: 00:0c:85:cf:66:40 NIC manufacturer: Cisco NIC serial number: cf:66:40 Figure 7-4 is an expanded view of Frame 3 from the Wireshark capture. Destination Address MAC address: ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff NIC manufacturer: Does not apply NIC serial number: Does not apply Source Address MAC address: 00:16:76:ac:a7:6a NIC manufacturer: Intel NIC serial number: ac:a7:6a From the information contained in the Packet List window for the second frame. It is verified by the receiver. and the computer with the corresponding IP address sends a unicast reply to the source. type.

you use Wireshark to capture and analyze packets captured on the pod host computer.16. Step 2.com. and click OK. and capture the session. Choose Start > Run. enter cmd. When the command has finished executing.example. Prepare Wireshark for captures. Open a Windows terminal window.Chapter 7: OSI Data Link Layer 209 Figure 7-4 Frame 3 Fields Use the information shown in Figure 7-4 to complete Table 7-6. Choose Capture > Interfaces. as shown in Example 7-1. Step 1. and then click the start button that corresponds to the 172. . Ping eagle-server.y interface IP address. stop the Wireshark capture. Table 7-6 Field Ethernet II Frame Header Completion Value Preamble Destination Address Source Address Frame Type Data FCS Not shown in the capture 00:0c:85:cf:66:40 00:16:76:ac:a7:6a 0x0800 IP Not shown in the capture Task 2: Use Wireshark to Capture and Analyze Ethernet II Frames In this task. This begins the packet capture. Configure Wireshark for packet captures.x. Start a ping to Eagle Server.

0x30004 Internet Address 172.com [192.example.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=62 Reply from 192.168. The Wireshark Packet List window should start with an ARP request and reply for the Gateway’s MAC address.com Pinging eagle-server.254.254 C:\> arp -d * C:\> arp -a No ARP Entries Found C:\> Physical Address 00-0c-85-cf-66-40 Type dynamic If you do not see a DNS query.210 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example 7-1 Pinging Eagle Server Microsoft Windows XP [Version 5. Maximum = 0ms.168.com is stored in the DNS cache. as shown in Example 7-2.com.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=62 Reply from 192.16.1.2600] Copyright 1985-2001 Microsoft Corp. Next. Example 7-2 Displaying and Flushing the ARP Cache C:\> arp -a Interface: 172.254.168. it is because the DNS record for eagle-server. C:\> ping eagle-server.16. Lost = 0 (0% loss).168. you can flush the ARP cache using the arp -d * command. Average = 0ms C:\> Step 3. Finally. Received = 4.168. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms. a DNS request is made for the IP address of eagleserver.example. Your capture should look similar to the one shown in Figure 7-3.168.example. the ping command is executed.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=62 Reply from 192.1.254.255.254: Packets: Sent = 4. If you don’t see an ARP exchange.254.example.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=62 Ping statistics for 192.1 --. . Analyze the Wireshark capture. as shown in Example 7-3. Use the Windows XP ipconfig /flushdns command to clear the DNS cache.254.254] with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 192.254.

. . . . . . . . . .in-addr.254 localhost --------------------------------------Record Name . . . .example. . . . .arpa.0. . : 12 Time To Live .in-addr. : 1 Time To Live .1 C:\> .Chapter 7: OSI Data Link Layer 211 Example 7-3 Displaying and Flushing the DNS Cache C:\> ipconfig /displaydns Windows IP Configuration 1. . . . : 127. : 4 Section . . . . . .127. . . . . . . .0.0. .0. .arpa --------------------------------------Record Name . . . . . .arpa ---------------------------------------Record Name .0.0. . . . . : 86386 Data Length . .0.0. . . . . . . : 4 Section . . .com ---------------------------------------Record Name . . : localhost Record Type . : 549013 Data Length . . . . . . . . : localhost Record Type . . : Answer A (Host) Record . . . . .127. . . . . . . .0. : 4 Section . : 549045 Data Length . . . . . : Answer PTR Record . Record Type . . : Answer A (Host) Record . . : 1 Time To Live . .0. .168. . . : localhost eagle-server. : 12 Time To Live . . . . : 4 Section .0. .in-addr. . . . . . . C:\> ipconfig /displaydns Windows IP Configuration 1. . . . : 127. : 1. .com Record Type . : Answer PTR Record localhost --------------------------------------Record Name . . : 192. Record Type . : localhost . . : Answer A (Host) Record . . : 4 Section .arpa. : 549045 Data Length . . .0. . . : 1 Time To Live .254. .1 C:\> ipconfig /flushdns Windows IP Configuration Successfully flushed the DNS Resolver Cache. . . : eagle-server. . .example.127. . . .127. : 549013 Data Length . .in-addr. . . . . . : 1. .

What would you tell the student? MAC addresses are visible only on the LAN and are different for each LAN. Destination and source MAC addresses each contain 12 hex digits. Task 4: Reflection In this lab. A student from another school wants to know the MAC address for Eagle Server. DNS is encapsulated in an IP packet. The first six hex digits contain the manufacturer of the NIC. What is the Ethernet II frame type value for an ARP Request? 0x0806. different from the identifier for IP. it must have a unique identifier. 10101011. Because ARP is not encapsulated inside an IP packet. and the last six hex digits contain the NIC serial number. the destination MAC address contains all 1s. If the frame is a broadcast. NIC serial number: Answers will vary. NIC manufacturer: Cisco NIC serial number: Answers will vary. NIC manufacturer: Answers will vary. such as FTP and HTTP. Because the student’s Eagle Server is on a different LAN than yours. the information cannot be obtained from a Wireshark capture on your LAN. and verify that the Ethernet II frame type remains 0x0800. Again. Analyze the captured packets. A preamble field contains 7 bytes of alternating 1010 sequences and 1 byte that signals the beginning of the frame. What is the Ethernet II frame type value for a DNS query response? 0x0800 What is the Ethernet II frame type value for an ICMP echo? 0x0800. ICMP is encapsulated in the IP packet.212 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Use your Wireshark capture of the ping command to answer the following questions. R2-Central MAC address information MAC address: Answers will vary. 0x0800 is the frame type for IP. A 2-byte frame type field contains a value that indicates the . 0x0800 is the frame type for IP. Pod computer MAC address information MAC address: Answers will vary. What is the Ethernet II frame type value for an ICMP echo reply? 0x0800 Task 3: Challenge Use Wireshark to capture sessions from other TCP/IP protocols. Ethernet II frame header information was examined. What is the Ethernet II frame type value for an ARP Reply? 0x0806 What is the Ethernet II frame type value for a DNS query? 0x0800.

Chapter 7: OSI Data Link Layer 213 protocol in the data field. consider why the preamble field is necessary and why it consists of alternating 1s and 0s. Build the network. before the source address. If Wireshark needs to be uninstalled. Remove any files created on the pod host computer during the lab. ■ ■ Background Network Interface Cards (NIC) are sometimes thought of as Layer 2 and Layer 1 devices (or as Layer 2 and Layer 1 components of devices that function at all seven layers). Also reflect on the destination and source addresses. Reflect on the necessity and formatting of each of these fields. Upon completion of this activity. The data field is variable and contains the encapsulated upper-layer protocol. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. you have been asked to implement a new IP addressing scheme for the Exploration lab topology. Sometimes the NIC for a serial connection.1. Click Add or Remove Programs. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Practice your IP subnet planning skills. and Table 7-7 is the corresponding addressing table.3) Open file LSG01-PTSkills7. and leave the room ready for the next class. For IPv4. is called a WAN interface card (WIC). At the end of a frame.6. Packet Tracer Challenge Skills Integration Challenge: Data Link Layer Issues (7. Figure 7-5 shows the topology for this lab. Connect devices with Ethernet and serial cables. PCs. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. choose Start > Control Panel. . In addition. trace. Choose Wireshark. Configure the network.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to perform this exercise using Packet Tracer. typically used in WAN connections. Practice your subnetting skills. In this challenge you must add a WIC to a device to complete the network. Apply your subnetting scheme to server. and configure services and static routing. For example. and the Inspect tool. Use ping. Task 5: Clean Up Wireshark was installed on the pod host computer. Test the network. web traffic. and consider why the developers of Ethernet chose to place the destination address first. and router interfaces. the value is 0x0800. and click Remove. a 4-byte FCS value is used to verify that there were no errors during transmission. turn off power to the host computers.

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Figure 7-5

Topology for the Challenge
1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server

2960-24TT S1-Central

1841 R2-Central

PC-PT 1A

PC-PT 1B

Table 7-7 Device

Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway (Route)

R1-ISP

Fa0/0 S0/0/0

172.16.3.62 172.16.3.98 172.16.1.254 172.16.3.97 172.16.0.1 172.16.0.2 172.16.3.61

255.255.255.192 255.255.255.252 255.255.254.0 255.255.255.252 255.255.254.0 255.255.254.0 255.255.255.192

— — 172.16.3.98 172.16.3.98 172.16.1.254 172.16.1.254 172.16.3.62

R2-Central

Fa0/0 S0/0/0

PC 1A PC 1B Eagle Server

NIC NIC NIC

Task 1: IP Subnet Planning
You have been given an IP address block of 172.16.0.0/22. You must provide for existing networks as well as future growth. Subnet assignments:
■ ■ ■

First subnet, existing student LAN, up to 400 hosts (Fa0/0 on R2-Central) Second subnet, future student LAN, up to 180 hosts (not yet implemented) Third subnet, existing ISP LAN, up to 40 hosts (Fa0/0 on R1-ISP)

Chapter 7: OSI Data Link Layer

215

■ ■ ■ ■

Fourth subnet, future ISP LAN, up to 18 hosts (not yet implemented) Fifth subnet, existing WAN, point-to-point link (S0/0/0 on R1-ISP and R2-Central) Sixth subnet, future WAN, point-to-point link (not yet implemented) Seventh subnet, future WAN, point-to-point link (not yet implemented)

Interface IP addresses:
■ ■

For the server, configure the second-highest usable IP address on the existing ISP LAN subnet. For R1-ISP’s Fa0/0 interface, configure the highest usable IP address on the existing ISP LAN subnet. For R1-ISP’s S0/0/0 interface, configure the highest usable address on the existing WAN subnet. For R2-Central’s S0/0/0 interface, use the lowest usable address on the existing WAN subnet. For R2-Central’s Fa0/0 interface, use the highest usable address on the existing student LAN subnet. For PCs 1A and 1B, use the first two IP addresses (the two lowest usable addresses) on the existing student LAN subnet.

■ ■

Additional configurations:
■ ■

For PCs 1A and 1B, in addition to IP configuration, configure them to use DNS services. For the server, enable DNS services, use the domain name eagle-server.example.com, and enable HTTP services.

Task 2: Finish Building the Network in Packet Tracer, Attending to Some Layer 2 Issues
On the R2-Central router, a NIC is missing for the serial connection to R1-ISP. Add a WIC-2T in the slot on the right. Also on R2-Central, Fa0/0 is shut down; turn it on. Connect a serial DCE cable to R1-ISP S0/0/0, with the other end connected to R2-Central S0/0/0. For all devices, make sure the power is on.

Task 3: Configure the Network
You need to configure the server, both routers, and the two PCs. You do not need to configure the switch, nor do you need the IOS CLI to configure the routers. Part of the router configuration has already been done for you; all you must do is configure the static routes and the interfaces via the GUI. The static route on R1-ISP should point to the existing student LAN subnet via R2-Central’s serial interface IP address. The static route on R2-Central should be a default static route that points to R1-ISP’s serial interface IP address. These procedures were explained in the Chapter 5 Skills Integration Challenge, and you practiced them in the Chapter 6 Skills Integration Challenge.

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Task 4: Test the Network
Use ping, trace, web traffic, and the Inspect tool. Trace packet flow in simulation mode, with HTTP, DNS, TCP, UDP, and ICMP viewable, to test your understanding of how the network is operating. Note in particular what Layer 2 encapsulation is used in each step of a packet’s journey, and how the headers on the Layer 2 PDUs change.

Task 5: Reflection
Consider an ICMP echo request packet sent from PC 1A to Eagle Server and the ICMP echo reply packet that results. Reflect on which addresses stay the same in this situation and which ones change.

CHAPTER 8

OSI Physical Layer

The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of multiple-choice, matching, fill-in-the-blank, and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of the OSI physical layer. The Lab Exercises portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum labs to further reinforce that you have mastered the practical, hands-on skills needed to understand and work with the physical layer. As you work through this chapter, use Chapter 8 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum or use the corresponding Chapter 8 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration Companion Guide for assistance.

Study Guide
The Physical Layer: Communication Signals
The role of the OSI physical layer is to encode the binary digits that represent data link layer frames into signals and to transmit and receive these signals across the physical media (copper wires, optical fiber, and wireless) that connect network devices.

Vocabulary Exercise: Completion
Fill in the blanks for the following statements.
1.

The purpose of the physical layer is to create the electrical, optical, or microwave signal that represents the bits in each frame. Manchester encoding indicates a 0 by a high-to-low voltage transition in the middle of the bit time. For a 1, there is a low-to-high voltage transition in the middle of the bit time.

2.

Concept Questions
1.

What are the three basic forms of network media on which data is represented? Copper cable, fiber, and wireless

2.

Physical layer standards cover what four areas? Physical and electrical properties of the media Mechanical properties (materials, dimensions, pinouts) of the connectors Bit representation by the signals (encoding) Definition of control information signals

3.

What are the three fundamental functions of the physical layer? The physical components Data encoding Signaling

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Physical Signaling and Encoding: Representing Bits
Eventually, all communication from the human network becomes binary digits, which are transported individually across the physical media.

Concept Questions
1.

Bits are represented on the medium by changing one or more of the following characteristics of a signal: Amplitude Frequency Phase

2.

Different physical media support the transfer of bits at different speeds. Data transfer can be measured in three ways: Bandwidth Throughput Goodput

Vocabulary Exercise: Completion
Fill in the blanks in the following statements.
1.

The capacity of a medium to carry data is described as the raw data bandwidth of the media. Digital bandwidth measures the amount of information that can flow from one place to another in a given amount of time. Throughput is the measure of the transfer of bits across the media over a given period of time. Goodput is the measure of usable data transferred over a given period of time, and is therefore the measure that is of most interest to network users.

2. 3.

Vocabulary Exercise: Matching
In Table 8-1, match the definition on the right with a term on the left.
Table 8-1 Term Signaling and Encoding Definition

a. NRZ signaling b. Manchester encoding

b. Bit values are represented as voltage transitions. a. Uses bandwidth inefficiently and is susceptible to electromagnetic interference. In addition, the boundaries between individual bits can be lost when long strings of 1s or 0s are transmitted consecutively. c. Each byte to be transmitted is broken into 4-bit pieces or nibbles and encoded as 5-bit values known as symbols. These symbols represent the data to be transmitted and a set of codes that help control transmission on the media.

c. 4B/5B

Chapter 8: OSI Physical Layer

219

Physical Media: Connecting Communication
The physical layer is concerned with network media and signaling. This layer produces the representation and groupings of bits as voltages, radio frequencies, or light pulses. Various standards organizations have contributed to the definition of the physical, electrical, and mechanical properties of the media available for different data communications.

Concept Questions
1.

Standards for copper media are defined by what criteria? Type of copper cabling used Bandwidth of the communication Type of connectors used Pinout and color codes of connections to the media Maximum distance of the media

2.

What can limit the susceptibility of copper cables to electronic noise? Selecting the cable type or category most suited to protect the data signals in a given networking environment Designing a cable infrastructure to avoid known and potential sources of interference in the building structure Using cabling techniques that include the proper handling and termination of the cables

Vocabulary Exercise: Matching
In Table 8-2, match a connector on the right with a media (cable) on the left.
Table 8-2 Media and Connectors Connector

Media (Cable)

a. Unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) cabling b. Coaxial cable c. Multimode optical fiber d. Single-mode optical fiber

c. Straight-Tip (ST) a. RJ-45 d. Subscriber Connector (SC) b. BNC

In Table 8-3, match the speed on the right with the wireless standard on the left.
Table 8-3 Wireless Media Speed

Wireless Standard

a. Bluetooth 802.15 b. 802.11(a,b,g,n), HiperLAN 2 c. 802, 11, MMDS, LMDS d. GSM, GPRS, CDMA, 2.5-3G

c. 22+ Mbps a. < 1 Mbps d. 10[nd]384 Kbps b. 1[nd]54+ Mbps

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Labs and Activities
Lab 8-1: Media Connectors Lab Activity (Lab 8.4.1.1)
Upon completion of this lab, you will be able to do the following:
■ ■ ■

Test cables using a Fluke 620 LAN CableMeter and a Fluke LinkRunner. Become familiar with the most common functions of a cable tester. Test different cables for type and wiring problems.

Background Category 5 (Cat 5) unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) cables are wired according to function. End devices, such as routers and host computers, connect to switches with Cat 5 straight-through cables. When connected together, however, a Cat 5 crossover cable must be used. This is also true of switches. When connecting one switch to another, a Cat 5 crossover cable is used again. Problems related to cables are one of the most common causes of network failure. Basic cable tests can prove helpful in troubleshooting cabling problems with UTP. The quality of cabling components used, the routing and installation of the cable, and the quality of the connector terminations will be the main factors in determining how trouble-free the cabling will be.
Note to instructor: Before starting the lab, the teacher or lab assistant should have several correctly

wired Cat 5 cables that are used by the student to learn cable tester operation. The cables should be both straight-through and crossover. There should also be several Cat 5 cables available with problems. Cables should be numbered to simplify the testing process and to maintain consistency. The following resources are required:
■ ■

Good Cat 5 straight-through and crossover wired cables of different colors Cat 5 straight-through and crossover wired cables with open wire connections in the middle or one or more conductors shorted at one end that are different colors and different lengths Fluke 620 LAN CableMeter or equivalent (see Figure 8-1) Fluke LinkRunner
Fluke 620 LAN CableMeter

■ ■

Figure 8-1

Chapter 8: OSI Physical Layer

221

Scenario First, you will visually determine whether the Cat 5 cable type is crossover or straight-through. Next, you use the cable tester to verify the cable type and common features available with the tester. Finally, you use the cable tester to test for bad cables that cannot be determined with a visual inspection.

Task 1: Become Familiar with the Most Common Functions of a Cable Tester
Figure 8-2 shows the TIA/EIA 568B Cat 5 UTP wire positioning for a straight-through and a crossover cable. When Cat 5 connectors are held together, wire color is a quick way to determine the cable type. TIA/EIA 568B is different from TIA/EIA 568A wiring. TIA/EIA 568A straight-through cables can be identified by the color coding.
Figure 8-2 TIA/EIA 568B Cat 5 UTP
TIA/EIA 568B CAT 5 UTP Straight Through 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 TIA/EIA 568B CAT 5 UTP Crossover 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Step 1.

Visually determine cable types.

Note to instructor: Students should be given a functional straight-through and crossover cable. These

cables will be used to learn cable tester features and build confidence in cable tester accuracy. There should be two numbered cables available. Perform a visual inspection of the cables and then fill out the chart in Table 8-4 with the cable color, type, and use.
Table 8-4 Cable Number Cable Types Cable Color Cable Type (StraightThrough or Crossover) Cable Use (Circle correct device)

1 2

Answers will vary Answers will vary

Answers will vary Answers will vary

Switch to: host / switch Switch to: host / switch

It is now time to verify the cable type and learn about the common features of the cable tester.

and then insert the cable identifier into the other side of the coupler. Press the up. Press Enter to accept that setting and go to the next one. The first option should be Cable. Press the Setup button to enter the setup mode.or down-arrow buttons until the desired cable type of UTP is selected. . shown in Figure 8-3. The coupler and the cable identifier are accessories that come with the Fluke 620 LAN CableMeter. Turn the rotary switch selector on the tester to the WIRE MAP position.222 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Step 2. Continue pressing the up/down-arrow buttons and pressing Enter until the tester is set to the cabling settings in Table 8-5. and the bottom set of numbers refers to the far end. Use the following procedure to test each cable with the LAN cable coupler and cable identifier. Figure 8-3 Cable Coupler and Cable Identifier cable coupler cable identifier Place the near end of the cable into the RJ-45 jack labeled UTP/FTP on the tester. Step 3. Table 8-5 Tester Option Cable Tester Settings for UTP Desired Setting: UTP Cable Wiring Category Wire size CAL to Cable? Beeping LCD contrast UTP 10Base-T or EIA/TIA 4PR Category 5 AWG 24 No On or Off From 1 through 10 (brightest) When satisfied with the correct settings. The top set of numbers displayed on the LCD screen refers to the near end. press the Setup button to exit setup mode. and observe the LCD screen on the tester. Perform initial configuration of the Fluke 620 LAN CableMeter. The wire map function displays which pins on one end of the cable are connected to which pins on the other end. Verify the cable wire map. Place the RJ-45 to RJ-45 female coupler on the far end of the cable. The wiring of both the near and far end of the cable will be displayed.

and complete Table 8-7 based on the results. Table 8-7 Results of Basic Cable Test Cable Color Cable Length Cable Number 1 2 Answers will vary Answers will vary Note any problems encountered during this test: Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Repeat these steps until you are comfortable using the cable tester. and whether the cable is straight-through or crossover. the tester screen test results. Perform a basic cable test on each of the cables. whether the cable is straight-through or crossover. the tester screen test results. Table 8-6 Cable Tester Settings for UTP Cable Color Cable Type (Straight-Through or Crossover) Cable Number 1 2 Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Note any problems encountered during this test: Answers will vary Step 4.Chapter 8: OSI Physical Layer 223 Perform a wire map test on each of the cables provided. For each cable. If power was cycled. For each cable. write down the number and color. Task 2: Test Different Cables for Type and Wiring Problems Obtain at least five different cables from your instructor. In the next task. and any problem. and fill in Table 8-6 based on the results. perform a wire map test on each of the cables provided. Using the cable tester Wire Map function. . The tester Length function displays the length of the cable. Move the rotary switch selector on the tester to the Wire Map position. Then fill in Table 8-8 based on the result for each Cat 5 cable tested. repeat the setup steps described in Step 2. Verify the cable length. For each cable. Step 2. and what the problem is (if one exists). If power was cycled. Move the rotary switch selector on the tester to the Length position. write down the number and color. write down the number and color. the cable length. unknown cables are tested. repeat the setup steps described in Task 1.

Press the green button on the lower right to turn it back off. and 5 show examples of cable problems.224 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 8-8 Results of Wire Map Test Cable Color Cable type (Straight-Through or Crossover) *Test Results Problem Description Cable Cable Type Number (Visual Inspection) 1 2 3 Answers will vary Answers will vary. and will vary. Task 3: Perform Initial Configuration of the Fluke LinkRunner Step 1. Answers will vary Straight-through Crossover Crossover Top: 12364578 Bottom: 12364578 Top: 12364578 Bottom: 36124578 Top: 12oo4578 Bottom: 36124578 None None Pins 3 and 6 are open somewhere in the first half of the cable Pin 5 is shorted in the last half of the cable Miswire 4 Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Straight-through Top: 12364578 Bottom: 12364s78 Top: 12365478 Bottom: 12364578 5 Straight-through *Refer to the Fluke manual for a detailed description of test results for wire map. which is shown in Figure 8-4. . Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary. and press the green button on the lower right along with the blue button to the left. Step 3. Answers are examples only. Place both ends of the cable into the LAN and MAP ports located on top of the LinkRunner. Figure 8-4 Turn on the Fluke LinkRunner. Fluke LinkRunner Step 2. 4. Rows 3.

as shown in Figure 8-7. Figure 8-6 Fluke LinkRunner: Crossover Cable If it is a bad cable.Chapter 8: OSI Physical Layer 225 If it is a correct straight-through cable. the triangle with an exclamation mark in the center will appear and details will display. Figure 8-5 Fluke LinkRunner: Straight-Through Cable If it is a correct crossover cable. two intersecting lines (as shown in Figure 8-6) will appear in the upper-left corner of the screen. Figure 8-7 Fluke LinkRunner: Bad Cable . two parallel lines (as shown in Figure 8-5) will appear in the upper-left corner of the screen.

Network technicians should be able to determine when to use Cat 5 UTP straight-through and crossover cables. Task 7: Clean Up The cable tester is expensive and should never be left unattended. Task 6: Challenge Look for opportunities to test other cables with the Fluke 620 LAN CableMeter. and is part of the learning process. Skills learned in this lab will enable you to quickly troubleshoot wrong cable types and broken cables.226 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 4: Verify Cable Length Note: The instructions to test a cable are the same as determining cable length. Place both ends of the cable into the LAN and MAP ports located on top of the LinkRunner. Step 3. Fluke LinkRunner: Cable Length Step 2. Step 4. Step 1. length. Store the cables neatly for the next class. and press the green button on the lower right along with the blue button to the left. cables are constantly moved and reconnected. Return the cable tester to the instructor when finished. In a lab environment. Locate the length of the cable below the icon indicating the type of cable (as shown in Figure 8-8). and wire map. A properly functioning cable today may be broken tomorrow. Ask the instructor where to return used cables. Turn on the Fluke LinkRunner by pressing the green button on the lower right along with the blue button on the right. This isn’t unusual. A cable tester is used to determine cable type. . Figure 8-8 Task 5: Reflection Problems related to cables are one of the most common causes of network failure. Press the green button on the lower right to turn it back off.

This activity also explores the physical view of the network in Packet Tracer.5. or in a corporate setting. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Connect the devices in the standard lab setup. This activity examines device configurations in Packet Tracer. Enter and view the physical workspace. Verify connectivity. View the standard lab setup at the various levels of the physical workspace. and Table 8-9 shows the corresponding addressing table. View the standard lab setup in the physical workspace. and how to properly connect devices. Figure 8-9 Topology for Challenge 1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server 2960-24TT S1-Central 1841 R2-Central PC 1A PC 1B .Chapter 8: OSI Physical Layer 227 Packet Tracer Challenge Skills Integration Challenge: Connecting Devices and Exploring the Physical View (8.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to perform this exercise using Packet Tracer. Background When working in Packet Tracer.1. it is important to know how to select the proper cable. in a lab environment. selecting the proper cable based on the configuration. Connect the devices. and connecting the devices.3) Open the file LSG01-PTSkills8. Figure 8-9 shows the topology for this skills integration challenge. Upon completion of this activity.

16.6 172.255.254.168.16.10.255. Most of our work in Packet Tracer has been done in the logical workspace.0 N/A N/A 10.255.253 R2-Central Fa0/0 S0/0/0 S1-Central PC 1A PC 1B Eagle Server VLAN 1 NIC NIC NIC Task 1: Connect the Devices in the Standard Lab Setup Step 1. If the pings fail.255. Click router R1-ISP and examine the configuration using the Config tab. the IP address of Eagle Server.10.0.10.254 255. from across the street to across the globe. routers may be in different sites.255.168.16. Click router R2-Central and examine the configuration using the Config tab.254 10.1.168.0 255.10. Connect the proper interface on the router to interface FastEthernet0/24 on switch S1Central using the proper cable.10. Click both routers and examine the configuration using the Config tab. Connect the proper interface on the router to the proper interface on Eagle Server using the proper cable. check your connections and troubleshoot until the pings succeed. . Connect PC 1A to the first port on switch S1-Central and PC 1B to the second port on switch S1-Central using the proper cable.228 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 8-9 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP Fa0/0 S0/0/0 192.254 172.255.0 255. Task 2: View the Standard Lab Setup in the Physical Workspace Step 1.252 255.255.1 172.254 192.10.255.254.0 255.254. Connect the devices.6 172.168. Verify connectivity.255. The serial link between the routers represents a dedicated leased line between two locations consisting of a DTE (data terminal equipment). Enter and view the physical workspace.255.254.0. The physical workspace enables you to see these relationships more clearly.1 172.16.10.0 255. and the connections are repeated at the other end of the link. Check your configuration by clicking the Check Results button.16.255. From the command prompt on the desktop of both PCs.255.0.255. such as a channel/data service unit (CSU/DSU) or modem. Step 2. In an internetwork.1.254.6 10. The DCE connects to a service provider’s local loop.255.10.16.255. Connect the routers together using the proper interfaces and the proper cable.254 172. issue the command ping 192.0.252 255.0 255.254. connected to a DCE (data communication equipment).5 172.2 192.253 10.168.255. such as a router.

Click the central office building. . You will see a physical representation of the equipment installed in the wiring closet and the cabling that connects the equipment. You will see the city and the location of the central office building. It shows the connection between Central City and ISP City. Step 2. Click Intercity on the navigation bar. View the standard lab setup at the various levels of the physical workspace. Repeat the steps to view the equipment installed in ISP City. Click Central City. Examine this view of the topology. Click the wiring closet. You will see the floor plan of the building and the location of the wiring closet.Chapter 8: OSI Physical Layer 229 Enter the physical workspace by clicking the tab in the upper-left corner of the workspace.

.

MAC a. Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 9-1. The upper sublayer of the data link layer. Internet Protocol (IP). In addition. Ethernet’s success can also be attributed to the fact that it was adopted by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and standardized as IEEE 802.3. hands-on skills needed to work with Ethernet.CHAPTER 9 Ethernet The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of matching. Ethernet operates at the OSI physical and data link layers. Using IEEE terminology. fill-in-the-blank. Provides an interface to the upper layers b. use Chapter 9 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum. Logical Link Control (LLC) or IEEE 802. Controls the placement of a frame on the medium a. Adds a frame delimiter b. LLC b. Ethernet has been so successful because it has evolved over time to incorporate new technologies such as higher speeds and fiber-optic cabling.2. match the function on the right with the correct IEEE sublayer of the data link layer. or use the corresponding Chapter 9 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration Companion Guide. Remains relatively independent of the physical equipment b. Provides a unique source and destination address . Ethernet (without LLC) is the frame encapsulation method used for the most popular network layer protocol in use today. Table 9-1 Sublayer Data Link Layer Sublayers Function a. and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of Ethernet. for assistance. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum activities and labs to ensure you have mastered the practical. As you work through this chapter. Study Guide Overview of Ethernet Ethernet is the predominant LAN technology in use today. Ethernet operates at the physical layer and the Media Access Control (MAC) sublayer of the data link layer. multiple-choice. can give upper-layer protocols access to Ethernet.

Why has Ethernet been so successful? Ethernet has been so successful because it has evolved with the times to incorporate new technologies. What functions does data encapsulation provide? Data encapsulation provides frame delimiting. the fact that the Ethernet frame has remained relatively unchanged over the years has allowed applications to keep running over Ethernet even as it evolved. The node places the CRC result in the Frame Check Sequence (FCS) field in the trailer part of the Ethernet frame. educational. DIX V2. and error detection. to a shared hub-based network. Robert M. Intel. How does Ethernet handle error detection? The sending node calculates a Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) of the bits in the frame. proposing the name for their prototype network. and government networks. and standardization by the IEEE. match the description on the right with the correct Ethernet term on the left. a receiving node calculates its own CRC to compare to the one in the frame.0 standard for Ethernet. Today.232 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Concept Questions 1. Isolates each port and sends a frame only to its proper destination (if the destination is known) e. Hub d.0. 10BASE2 c. Ethernet’s success also can be attributed to its simplicity. Uses 185 meters of thin coaxial cable f. allowing the network to see a group of nodes as a single unit b. Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 9-2. ease of maintenance. the recipient assumes that the frame arrived without error. Digital Equipment Corporation. Switch d. Full duplex f. Both ends of a connection can send at the same time a. addressing. 10BASE5 b. Ethernet has evolved from a shared coaxial medium. was released in 1982. 2. reliability. Metcalfe of the Xerox Corporation circulated a memo to his colleagues.3 standard for Ethernet in 1985. In addition. also known as Ethernet II. Ethernet forms the foundation of most industrial. Its original speed of 3 Mbps evolved to 10 Mbps. The name reflects the goal that Ethernet become ubiquitous. The IEEE published the 802. In 1980. Ethernet: Communication Through the LAN The term Ethernet first appeared in 1973 when Dr. low cost of installation and upgrading. and then to 100 Mbps and 1 Gbps. The cabling has also evolved from coaxial to unshielded twisted pair to fiber-optic. After receiving a frame. If the two CRC results match. Uses 500 meters of thick coaxial cable . Concentrates connections. 3. much like the ether substance that scientists in the 1800s believed filled space and matter. Half duplex e. Table 9-2 Term Ethernet Implementations Description a. Metcalfe’s goal that Ethernet become ubiquitous has been achieved. and finally to a selective-forwarding environment with high-speed switches. and now 10 Gbps. Only one station at a time can transmit c. Since 1985. and Xerox published the DIX V1.

data field. Length/type f. Ethernet follows these conventions. Destination address d. The Layer 2 PDU is called a frame. Start of frame delimiter c. but the center of the star is a switch rather than a hub these days. Data g. Frame check sequence g. Switches are capable of full duplex because they consider each connection a separate communication channel. Compare and contrast half duplex and full duplex. a switch port and the connected device can send at the same time. Although different protocols place different fields in a frame. which is a shared device. Although the cabling could have supported full duplex.Chapter 9: Ethernet 233 Concept Questions 1. Match the field on the left with the definition on the right. Full duplex means that each end of a communications channel can send at the same time. Transmitting and receiving simultaneously is not allowed. Preamble b. Source address e. Table 9-3 Field Frame Header Fields Definition a. When Ethernet was upgraded to run on hubs with twisted-pair cabling. The Ethernet Frame A fundamental job of the data link layer is to encapsulate a Layer 3 Protocol Data Unit (PDU) into a Layer 2 PDU. Specifies the number of bytes in the data part of the frame or specifies the type of data (the upper-layer protocol) f. Half duplex is used on a medium that can carry only one signal at a time. unlike a hub. Carries the upper-layer data b. Fiber-optic is reserved mostly for data centers. When Ethernet ran on coaxial cable. Only one device can send at any time. Specifies the frame’s sender c. the hub was still a shared medium. The Ethernet frame has remained relatively unchanged. it used half-duplex communication. What aspects of Ethernet have remained relatively unchanged over the years. and trailer. The cabling for Ethernet has evolved from coaxial to unshielded twisted pair to fiber-optic. For example. Used for error detection a. links between switches. most protocols specify that the frame should have a header. 2. Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Table 9-3 lists the fields that appear in an IEEE 802. and what aspects have changed? Ethernet’s simplicity and ease of use and installation have remained unchanged. Used for synchronization e. Most Layer 2 frames also have addressing fields in the header that identify the sender and receiver. and high-end devices. Ethernet is still usually connected in a star topology.3 header and trailer. Tells other devices on the network that a frame is coming along the medium d. Unshielded twisted pair is still widely used. Specifies the frame’s intended recipient . it still used half-duplex communication.

c.3ac standard? a. The recipient sends a query to the sender to determine how the field should be interpreted. Why is padding sometimes added to the data part of an Ethernet frame? a. d. If the value is equal to or greater than 0x0600. b. 72 bytes d. What does a receiving device do if it receives a frame that is less than the allowed minimum size or greater than the allowed maximum size? a. b. The sender backs off and waits a random amount of time before trying again. To specify the Portable Application Description (PAD) that describes the encapsulated data. 5. How does a recipient device know if the sender used the Length/Type field to specify a length or a type? a. 128 bytes c. The receiving device reports a collision. To provide synchronization. The sender notices the missing acknowledgment and retransmits the frame. 1522 bytes b. c. 4. 64 bytes 2. a. the field specifies a type. The recipient requests a retransmission. 1024 bytes d. The receiving device drops the frame. What is the minimum size of an Ethernet frame? a. b. d. The receiving device sends back a negative acknowledgment to the sender. d. c. the field specifies a type. What is the maximum size of an Ethernet frame according to the IEEE 802. . d. The recipient calculates a CRC that differs from the CRC in the FCS field and drops the b. The receiving device requests a retransmission. 1518 bytes c. 1. The recipient bases the decision on whether it’s been configured for Ethernet II or IEEE 802. What happens if a frame arrives damaged? frame. 64 bytes 3. 1522 bytes b. If the value is equal to or less than 1536. To ensure that the frame is at least 64 bytes. 6. To ensure that the frame is protected from damage. c.3.234 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Multiple-Choice Questions Choose the best answer for each of the following questions.

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7.

How long is a MAC address?

a. Six hexadecimal digits b. 32 bits c. 48 bits d. 8 bytes

Concept Questions
1.

Compare and contrast MAC addresses with IP addresses. MAC addresses operate at the OSI data link layer (Layer 2). Layer 2 addresses are used only for local delivery when transporting a frame across a local medium. These addresses use a flat addressing scheme and do not indicate on what network a device is located. If a device is moved to another network, its Layer 2 address does not need to change. IP addresses operate at the OSI network layer (Layer 3). Layer 3 addresses are carried from source to destination host across an internetwork. Layer 3 addresses use a hierarchical addressing scheme and indicate a network number and host identifier.

2.

Compare and contrast unicast, broadcast, and multicast communications at the MAC sublayer. Unicast, broadcast, and multicast are all 48-bit MAC address types. All of them can be destination MAC addresses. Only unicast can be a source address. A unicast address is a unique address used when a frame is sent from a single transmitting device to a single destination device. In the case of a broadcast, the frame is destined for all devices in the broadcast domain and is addressed to a MAC broadcast address of 48 1s (or FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF in hexadecimal). With multicast, a source can send to a group of devices. The low-order bit of the first byte must be a 1 for the address to be a multicast. If the multicast is also an IP multicast, the first 24 bits of the MAC address are 01-00-5E in hexadecimal.

Ethernet Media Access Control
In a shared medium, all devices have guaranteed access to the medium, but they must fairly share the medium and not interfere with each other. If more than one device transmits at the same time, the physical signals collide, and the data is damaged. Both transmitters must recognize that their data has been damaged and resend it. Ethernet uses carrier sense multiple access collision detect (CSMA/CD) to detect and handle collisions and regulate use of the shared medium.

Vocabulary Exercise: Completion
Fill in the blanks for the following statements that discuss CSMA/CD.
1.

Because devices using coaxial or hub-based Ethernet send their messages on a shared medium, a protocol (or coordination scheme or media access control method) is used to determine if the medium is already in use before a sender transmits. When a device detects that no other computer is sending a frame, the device transmits if it has something to send. All devices that have messages to send must listen before transmitting.

2.

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3. 4.

If a device detects a signal from another device, it waits before attempting to transmit. When no traffic is detected, a device transmits its message. While transmitting, the device continues to listen for traffic from another device. If another device is sending at the same time, a collision has occurred. If a collision happens, the sending devices continue to send for the time it takes to send a jam signal and then stop sending. The devices invoke a backoff algorithm that causes them to wait a random amount of time before trying to send again.

5.

Concept Questions
1.

What is interframe spacing, and why does Ethernet use it? Interframe spacing is the required time between frames on an Ethernet network. After a frame has been sent, all devices are required to wait a minimum of 96 bit times (the time it takes to send 96 bits). This gives the medium time to stabilize after transmitting a frame.

2.

Why is the backoff timing random when an Ethernet collision occurs? The backoff waiting period is intentionally designed to be random so that two stations do not delay for the same amount of time before retransmitting, which would result in more collisions.

Ethernet Physical Layer
The many implementations of Ethernet include Classic Ethernet, Fast Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet, and 10 Gigabit Ethernet. The differences occur at the physical layer, often called the Ethernet PHY. Four data rates are currently defined for operation over optical-fiber and twisted-pair cables:
■ ■ ■ ■

10 Mbps: 10BASE-T Classic Ethernet 100 Mbps: Fast Ethernet 1000 Mbps: Gigabit Ethernet 10 Gbps: 10 Gigabit Ethernet

Vocabulary Exercise: Completion
Fill in the blanks for the following statements that describe Ethernet physical layer options.
1.

10BASE-T uses two pairs of a four-pair cable and is terminated at each end with an eight-pin RJ-45 connector. The pair connected to pins 1 and 2 is used for transmitting, and the pair connected to pins 3 and 6 is used for receiving. Replacing hubs with switches in 10BASE-T networks has greatly increased the bandwidth available to these networks and has helped Ethernet maintain its dominance in the LAN market. The 10BASE-T links connected to a switch can support either half-duplex or full-duplex operation. The most popular implementations of 100 Mbps Ethernet are 100BASE-TX, which uses Category 5 or later UTP cable, and 100BASE-FX, which uses fiber-optic cable. 1000BASE-T Ethernet provides full-duplex transmission using four pairs of Category 5 or later UTP cable.

2.

3.

4.

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5.

The two fiber versions of Gigabit Ethernet are 1000BASE-SX and 1000BASE-LX. Fiber-optic cabling offers better noise immunity than UTP, a smaller physical size, and higher distances and bandwidth. A difference between 1000BASE-SX and 1000BASE-LX is the wavelength of the optical signal. The IEEE 802.3ae standard was adapted to include 10-Gbps, full-duplex transmission over fiber-optic cable. 10-Gigabit Ethernet is evolving for use not only in LANs, but also in MANs and WANs. Although Gigabit Ethernet is now widely available and 10-Gigabit products are becoming more available, the IEEE and the 10-Gigabit Ethernet Alliance are working on 40-, 100-, and even 160-Gbps standards.

6.

7.

8.

Hubs and Switches
In the 1970s and 1980s, Ethernet networks were connected in a bus topology using coaxial cable. The coaxial cable provided a shared medium. In the 1990s, administrators started connecting nodes to the shared network in a star topology using twisted-pair cabling and hubs. During the 1990s, to improve performance, administrators upgraded their hubs to switches. Switches divide collision domains into smaller domains, sometimes so small that collisions are no longer an issue. For example, in the common case where a single device is connected to a port on a switch, both ends of the communications channel can send and receive at the same time, and collisions don’t occur. Switches forward broadcast and multicast traffic to all members of a LAN but provide selective forwarding for unicast traffic. The selective forwarding greatly reduces collisions and improves performance.

Vocabulary Exercise: Matching
In Table 9-4, match the characteristic on the right with the correct term on the left.
Table 9-4 Term Characteristics of Hubs and Switches Characteristic

a. Hub b. Switch

b. Divides collision domains a. Forwards received bits out every port b. Supports full-duplex communication a. Simplifies network cabling but doesn’t have any performance benefits a. When many nodes that transmit frequently are connected to this device, latency increases, because each node must wait for an opportunity to transmit b. Provides an alternative to contention-based Ethernet b. Maintains a table that maps each MAC address to a port

Vocabulary Exercise: Completion
Fill in the blanks for the following statements that describe the selective forwarding service provided by switches.
1.

A switch selectively forwards a frame that it receives on a port to the port where the destination node is connected.

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2.

Switches use store-and-forward switching, whereby the switch receives an entire frame, checks the FCS field for errors, and forwards the frame to the appropriate port. A switch maintains a table, called the MAC table (also called MAC address table, CAM table, switch table, bridge table, filter table), that matches a MAC address with the port used to connect the node with that address.

3.

Concept Question
List and describe the five basic operations of an Ethernet LAN switch. Learning. A switch populates the MAC table by learning which port it should use to reach each MAC address. As a frame enters the switch, the switch examines the MAC source address. If no entry exists in the table for this address, the switch creates a new entry that pairs the source address with the port on which the frame arrived. The switch can now use this mapping to forward frames to the node with the MAC address in the table entry. Aging. A switch tracks how long an entry has been in the MAC table. If the entry reaches a certain age without being refreshed by a new frame from the same node on the same port, the entry is removed. Flooding. If a switch has not yet learned which port it should use to forward a frame to a destination, the switch sends the frame to all ports, except the port on which the frame arrived. Selective forwarding. A switch examines the destination MAC address in a frame and forwards the frame out the appropriate port. Filtering. After a switch has learned the address or addresses that map to a port, it filters frames from going out that port that include a destination address that is not mapped to the port.

Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
To send an IP packet to a recipient, a sender needs to learn the recipient’s MAC address. ARP provides a means for a sender to broadcast a message to find the MAC address for a known IP address.

Multiple-Choice Questions
Choose the best answer for each of the following questions.
1.

What is a basic job of ARP?

a. Resolve IPv4 addresses to MAC addresses b. Build a table that maps MAC addresses to ports c. Build a loop-free LAN from redundantly connected switches d. Provide a resource protocol for finding applications 2.

If a node has recently sent a frame to another node, where is the mapping of IPv4 address to MAC address stored?

a. MAC table b. ARP cache c. Routing table d. NVRAM

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3.

When a node has not recently sent a frame to another node, how does the node discover the correct MAC address to use for the IPv4 address of the destination node?

a. The sender sends an IPv4 query to the destination node to ask the node for its MAC address. b. The sender broadcasts an ARP request. c. The sender monitors traffic until it discovers the correct MAC address to use. d. The sender transmits a TCP SYN to the destination node. 4.

What type of header does an ARP frame contain?

a. IP b. Ethernet c. TCP d. UDP 5.

When an Ethernet transmitter sends to a destination not on its local network, what MAC destination address does it use, and how does it discover this address? request.

a. The transmitter uses the MAC address of the destination, which it discovers with an ARP b. The transmitter uses the MAC address of the local router interface, which it discovers with an

ARP request.
c. The transmitter uses the MAC address of the destination, which it discovers with a proxy ARP

request.
d. The transmitter doesn’t need a MAC address for the destination and relies on the IP destination

address to provide enough information for routers to forward the frame.
6.

What is the destination address in the frame when a node sends an ARP request to find the MAC address associated with a known IP address?

a. 255.255.255.255 b. The address of the local router interface c. The recipient’s address d. FF:FF:FF:FF:FF:FF

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Labs and Activities
Lab 9-1: Address Resolution Protocol (9.8.1.1)
Upon completion of this lab, you will be able to
■ ■

Use the Windows arp command. Use Wireshark to examine ARP exchanges.

Background TCP/IP uses ARP to map a Layer 3 IP address to a Layer 2 MAC address. When a frame is placed on the network, it must have a destination MAC address. To dynamically discover the MAC address of the destination device, an ARP request is broadcast on the LAN. The device that contains the destination IP address responds, and the MAC address is recorded in the ARP cache. Every device on the LAN keeps its own ARP cache, which is a small area in RAM that holds ARP results. An ARP cache timer removes ARP entries that have not been used for a certain period of time. Depending on the device, the times differ. For example, some Windows operating systems store ARP cache entries for 2 minutes. If the entry is used again during that time, the ARP timer for that entry is extended to 10 minutes. ARP is an excellent example of a performance trade-off. With no cache, ARP must continually request address translations each time a frame is placed on the network. This adds latency to the communication and could congest the LAN. Conversely, unlimited hold times could cause errors with devices that leave the network or change the Layer 3 address. A network engineer needs to be aware of ARP but may not interact with the protocol on a regular basis. ARP is a protocol that enables network devices to communicate with the TCP/IP protocol. Without ARP, no efficient method exists to build the datagram Layer 2 destination address. ARP is a potential security risk. ARP spoofing, or ARP poisoning, is a technique used by an attacker to inject the wrong MAC address association into a network. An attacker forges a device’s MAC address, and frames are sent to the wrong destination. Manually configuring static ARP associations is one way to prevent ARP spoofing. In addition, an authorized MAC address list may be configured in Cisco devices to restrict network access to only approved devices. Scenario With a pod host computer, use the Windows arp utility command to examine and change ARP cache entries. In Task 2, you will use Wireshark to capture and analyze ARP exchanges between network devices. If Wireshark has not been loaded on the host pod computer, you can download it from ftp://eagleserver.example.com/pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter9/. The file is wireshark-setup-0.99.4.exe. Figure 9-1 shows the topology for this lab, and Table 9-5 is the corresponding addressing table.

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Figure 9-1

Topology for Lab 9-1

R1-ISP

S0/0/0 DCE

Eagle Server

S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24

S1-Central

R2-Central

1A

1B

11A

11B

Pod#1

Pod#11

Table 9-5 Device

Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway

R1-ISP

S0/0/0 Fa0/0

10.10.10.6 192.168.254.253 10.10.10.5 172.16.255.254 192.168.254.254 172.31.24.254 172.16.Pod#.1 172.16.Pod#.2 172.16.254.1

255.255.255.252 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.252 255.255.0.0 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.0.0

— — 10.10.10.6 — 192.168.254.253 — 172.16.255.254 172.16.255.254 172.16.255.254

R2-Central

S0/0/0 Fa0/0

Eagle Server

— —

Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central

— — —

Note to Instructor: Depending on the classroom situation, the lab topology may have been modified before this class. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server.example.com, troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity:
Step 1.

Verify that all network equipment is powered on and that eagle-server is on.

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Step 2.

From a known good host computer, ping eagle-server. If the ping test fails, ping S1Central, R2-Central, R1-ISP, and finally eagle-server. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests. If an individual host computer cannot connect to eagle-server, check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address, shown in Table 9-5, and that it can ping R2-Central, 172.16.255.254. Verify that the host computer has the correct Gateway IP address, 172.16.255.254, and that it can ping R1-ISP, 10.10.10.6. Finally, verify that the host has the correct DNS address and that it can ping eagle-server.example.com.

Step 3.

Task 1: Use the Windows arp Command
Step 1.

Access the Windows terminal. Open a Windows terminal by choosing Start > Run. Enter cmd, and click OK. With no options, the arp command displays useful help information. Issue the arp command on the pod host computer, and examine the output. It should look like Example 9-1.

Example 9-1

Using the arp Command

C:\> arp Displays and modifies the IP-to-Physical address translation tables used by address resolution protocol (ARP). ARP -s inet_addr eth_addr [if_addr] ARP -d inet_addr [if_addr] ARP -a [inet_addr] [-N if_addr] -a Displays current ARP entries by interrogating the current protocol data. If inet_addr is specified, the IP and Physical addresses for only the specified computer are displayed. If more than one network interface uses ARP, entries for each ARP table are displayed. -g Same as -a. Specifies an internet address. inet_addr

-N if_addr Displays the ARP entries for the network interface specified by if_addr. -d Deletes the host specified by inet_addr. inet_addr may be wildcarded with * to delete all hosts. -s Adds the host and associates the Internet address inet_addr with the Physical address eth_addr. The Physical address is given as 6 hexadecimal bytes separated by hyphens. The entry is permanent. eth_addr if_addr interface Specifies a physical address. If present, this specifies the Internet address of the

whose address translation table should be modified. If not present, the first applicable interface will be used.

By accessing other devices.1.16. as shown in Example 9-3. the ARP cache should be empty. Maximum = 0ms.1. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms.16. Using the arp Command with the -a Option Example 9-2 C:\> arp -a No ARP Entries Found C:\> Without any network communication.16. Displays the arp Answer the following questions about the arp command: ■ What command is used to display all entries in the ARP cache? arp -a ■ What command is used to delete all ARP cache entries (flush the ARP cache)? arp -d * ■ What command is used to delete the ARP cache entry for 172.255. Step 3. Lost = 0 (0% loss).2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 172.254? arp -d 172. Example 9-3 Using the ping Command C:\> ping 172.. ARP associations are dynamically added to the ARP cache.55. what were the results? The ARP cache should be empty..1. Use the ping command to dynamically add entries to the ARP cache.16.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 172.254 Step 2. C:\> .2 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 172. Use the arp command to examine the local ARP cache.16. When you issued the command that displays ARP entries. Any entry indicates communication between the pod host computer and other network devices. as shown in Example 9-2.1..16.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 172.16.2: Packets: Sent = 4.16. Received = 4. .1.1.212 00-aa-00-62-c6-09 > arp -a table.255. The ping command can be used to test network connectivity.85.. Average = 0ms C:\> C:\> arp -a ..1.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Ping statistics for 172. Adds a static entry.Chapter 9: Ethernet 243 Example 9-1 Using the arp Command continued Example: > arp -s 157.2 Pinging 172.16..

Was the ARP cache entry cleared? Yes If the entry was not cleared. Wait between 2 and 3 minutes. eagle-server. First. Examine the ARP cache entry. Examine the ARP cache entry.254 What is the physical address of the Gateway? Answers will vary. How was the ARP entry added to the ARP cache? Hint: Review the Type column. Because Eagle Server is on a different network.2 C:\> Physical Address 00-10-a4-7b-01-5f Type dynamic Use the command ipconfig /all to verify another pod host computer’s Layer 2 and Layer 3 information.com.0x60004 Internet Address 172.16.1.16. which will retain the cache entry for approximately 10 minutes.example. Or. Manually adjust entries in the ARP cache. It may be easier to ping both devices more than once. and check the ARP cache again.1. a couple explanations are possible. What is the IP address of the Gateway? 172.1 —. Issue the ping command to that pod host computer. What is the physical address of the destination pod host computer? Answers will vary. Dynamically What is the IP address of the destination pod host computer? Answers will vary. only the Gateway MAC address is displayed. you did not wait 2 minutes. you accessed the destination device more than once and caused the ARP timeout for the entry to rise to 10 minutes. How was the address discovered? Dynamically Issue the ping command to Eagle Server. R2-Central. Issue the ping command to the Gateway.244 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example 9-3 Using the ping Command continued Interface: 172. which is how long the ARP cache stores an initial entry. What is the physical address of Eagle Server? It cannot be determined. .16. Step 4. Verify that the ARP cache contains two entries: one for the Gateway and one for the destination pod host computer. Record the two ARP cache entries using Table 9-6.255. Do not send any traffic to the computer accessed previously.

2 172.254 Answers will vary Answers will vary Dynamically Dynamically Next.255.1.254 C:\> arp -a Interface: 172.1.0x60004 Internet Address 172.0x60004 Internet Address 172. Table 9-7 Device Remaining ARP Cache Entry IP Address Physical Address How Is It Discovered? Gateway 172. .2 C:\> Physical Address 00-10-a4-7b-01-5f Type dynamic Physical Address 00-10-a4-7b-01-5f 00-0c-85-cf-66-40 Type dynamic dynamic What command deletes the entry for the pod host computer? arp -d inet-addr Record the remaining ARP cache entry in Table 9-7. Dynamically Simulate removing all entries.1.16.255. What is one layer of security that can be applied to ARP cache entries to help counter ARP spoofing? Add a static ARP entry for the Gateway.254 C:\> C:\> arp -d 172.16.255.16. What command deletes all entries in the ARP cache? arp -d * Issue the command to remove all entries in the ARP cache on your pod host computer. or you can delete all entries using the wildcard *.16. Example 9-4 shows how to manually delete an ARP cache entry.16. delete the entry for the pod host computer. You can delete addresses individually by specifying the IP address. and examine the ARP cache with the arp -a command. Consider a secure environment where the Gateway controls access to a web server that contains top-secret information.16. issue the arp -d {inet-addr | *} command.Chapter 9: Ethernet 245 Table 9-6 Device Initial ARP Cache Entries IP Address Physical Address How Is It Discovered? Pod host computer Gateway Answers will vary 172. Example 9-4 Manually Deleting an ARP Cache Entry C:\> arp -a Interface: 172. All entries should be removed. To delete entries in the ARP cache.16.16.1 —.254 Answers will vary.1 —.255.1.

Afterward.255. What command adds a static ARP entry for the Gateway to the ARP cache? arp -s 172. Do not close the Windows terminal. Send one ping request to Eagle Server.254 MAC-address Issue the command on your pod host computer. . Step 2. this will require ARP to rediscover address maps. and examine the ARP cache again. Wireshark will be used to capture and examine an ARP exchange. and click OK. Choose Capture > Options.255.254. the Wireshark capture is stopped. The Packet Details window shows ARP protocol contents. This begins the packet capture. Select the interface that corresponds to the LAN.254. one ping request is sent to the Gateway. and one ping request is sent to Eagle Server.246 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Simulate adding a static entry for the Gateway. provide answers to these questions: ■ ■ ■ What is the IP address of the Gateway? 172.16. open a Windows terminal window by choosing Start > Run.16.254. Enter cmd.254 What is the physical address of the Gateway? Answers will vary. The Wireshark Packet List window displays the number of packets captured. Now. Task 2: Use Wireshark to Examine ARP Exchanges Step 1. Check the box to update the list of packets in real time. Configure Wireshark for packet captures. Click Start. Capture and evaluate ARP communication. You should see a Wireshark screen similar to the one shown in Figure 9-2.255. and the ARP communication is evaluated. If you haven’t already done so.168. In this step. using the command ping -n 1 192. Prepare the pod host computer for ARP captures. What is the type of the ARP entry? Static For the next task. using the command ping -n 1 172. Send one ping request to the Gateway. Stop Wireshark and evaluate the communication. Prepare Wireshark for captures. Flush the ARP cache. What command did you use? arp -d * Step 3.16. you will use it to view the ARP cache.

.16.255. why does the target MAC address contain all 0s? The ARP protocol has no value yet to put in the field.255. answer the following questions: ■ ■ What is the first ARP packet? A request What is the second ARP packet? A reply Fill in Table 9-8 with information about the first ARP packet. Table 9-8 Field First ARP Packet Value Sender MAC address Sender IP address Target MAC address Target IP address Answers will vary Answers will vary 00:00:00:00:00:00 172.254 Answers will vary Answers will vary If the Ethernet II frame for an ARP request is a broadcast.Chapter 9: Ethernet 247 Figure 9-2 Wireshark Screen Using your Wireshark capture.16. Table 9-9 Field Second ARP Packet Value Sender MAC address Sender IP address Target MAC address Target IP address Answers will vary 172.254 Fill in Table 9-9 with information about the second ARP packet.

If Wireshark needs to be uninstalled. Click Add or Remove Programs. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity. perform a search on ARP spoofing. but the Layer 3 address never changes. because the cache entry was accessed within the 2-minute cache timeout. . turn off power to the host computers. This sets the new timeout value to 10 minutes.1. Task 3: Reflection The ARP protocol maps Layer 3 IP addresses to Layer 2 MAC addresses.8. Remember. discuss the advantages of configuring MAC address restrictions for wireless networks. choose Start > Control Panel. Task 5: Clean Up Wireshark was installed on the pod host computer. How long should the Gateway mapping be stored in the ARP cache on the pod host computer? Why? 10 minutes. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. Most wireless routers support a network administrator manually adding a list of MAC addresses to the router that are permitted access to the wireless network. and leave the room ready for the next class. Using outside resources. and click Remove. The ARP cache stores ARP address mappings.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. Choose Wireshark. the Layer 2 MAC address changes with each hop across a router. Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Address Resolution Protocol (9. Task 4: Challenge Using outside resources.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab9812. If the entry was manually inserted in the ARP cache. Discuss ways in which attackers can circumvent this security. Discuss several techniques used to counter this type of attack. it will eventually be deleted from cache. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. which is used to forward the packet outside the LAN. it is a static entry and remains until the computer is turned off or the ARP cache is manually flushed. Remove any files created on the pod host computer during the lab.248 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Why was there no ARP request for the ping to Eagle Server? The TCP/IP protocol already had the MAC address for the Gateway. If a packet must move across networks. however. If the entry was learned dynamically. Remove anything that was brought into the lab.

Cisco IOS devices provide a default Telnet server. and Table 9-10 is the corresponding addressing table. If the network is not secure. or the frame is a broadcast. In this lab. and operating systems such as Windows have built-in Telnet clients. If a switch does not know which port to use to route the frame. Using Telnet. For secure networks. you will be able to ■ ■ Use the Telnet protocol to log into a Cisco switch. and the corresponding port is used to route the frame out the switch. You will do the following: ■ ■ ■ Telnet to S1-Central. network connectivity can be established through two means. it is denied. Log in with your student account. the frame is routed out all ports except the port where it originated. Use the Cisco show mac-address-table command to examine MAC address and port associations. Figure 9-3 shows the topology for this lab. . In this course. Using the Windows hyperterm utility. network engineers can log into network devices from anywhere across a secure network. limited privileges have been configured for student use. the Cisco device can be configured for a Telnet session.Chapter 9: Ethernet 249 Packet Tracer Challenge Lab 9-2: Cisco Switch MAC Table Examination (9. For devices physically distant from the network engineer.1) Upon completion of this lab. Background Switches maintain a table of MAC addresses and associated switch ports. otherwise.8. When a switch receives a frame. Access to Cisco devices can be accomplished through several means. a serial connection can be established. Use the show mac-address-table command to examine the MAC addresses and association to ports. Scenario Telnet is a network service that uses a client/server model. the destination MAC address is checked against the table. you will connect to the switch via a Telnet session.2. A console port can be used if the Cisco router or switch is within proximity of a computer. a modem configured on the AUX port enables telephone access. The Cisco device must be configured for Telnet access.

the lab topology may have been modified before this class.254.255.255.Pod#.254 172.6 192.255. Step 2.255.2 172.255.10.0.255.16.10.252 255.6 — 192.16.255.0.example.0 255.16.24.1 255. .255.255.Pod#. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server.255.com.255.254 172.255.10.255.10.16.168.1 172.0 255. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity.254 R2-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Eagle Server — — Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central — — — Note to Instructor: Depending on the classroom situation.252 255. Take corrective action on devices that fail the ping tests.255. ping eagle-server.254 192. ping S1Central.254.255.16.0 255. From a known good host computer.31.16.10.254.255.5 172.0.253 — 172.0 255.254 172.0 255.0. R2-Central.0 — — 10.250 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 9-3 Topology for Lab 9-2 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 Table 9-10 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP S0/0/0 Fa0/0 10. Verify that all network equipment is powered on and that eagle-server is on. If the ping test fails.254 172. and finally eagle-server.10.254.253 10.16. R1-ISP. troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity: Step 1.0 255.255.255.168.168.

If an individual host computer cannot connect to eagle-server. use user ID ccna1. Unless directed otherwise by your instructor.10. Examine the switch MAC address table.254. Step 2. Example 9-5 Switch Access Prompt ******************************************************************* This is Lab switch S1-Central.1 An access prompt is displayed.16. ccna1 through ccna11.255. verify that the host has the correct DNS address and that it can ping eagle-server.255.254. and that it can ping R2-Central. Use the Windows Telnet client to access S1-Central. ******************************************************************* User Access Verification Username: ccna1 Password: cisco S1-Central# (*hidden*) Task 2: Use the Cisco IOS show mac-address-table Command to Examine MAC Addresses and Port Associations Step 1. Task 1: Use the Telnet Protocol to Log in to a Cisco Switch Step 1.16. for host computers on pod 1.6. and that it can ping R1-ISP.16. 172. use the user ID corresponding to your pod. For example. check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central. Finally. From the Windows terminal.example. .Chapter 9: Ethernet 251 Step 3. the password is cisco. Use Table 9-11 to fill in a description for each command option. 10. similar to the one shown in Example 9-5. This outputs all options for the command. 172. Enter cmd. To provide access to each student. Verify that the host computer has the correct Gateway IP address. issue the Telnet command telnet destination-ip-address: C:/> telnet 172. shown in Table 9-10.254. Access the Windows terminal. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address. Authorized access only. Issue the show mac-address-table ? command.com. S1-Central has been configured with 11 student accounts.10. Open a Windows terminal by choosing Start > Run. and click OK.

entries. Use Table 9-12 to list the MAC addresses and corresponding switch ports. Table 9-12 MAC Addresses and Ports Switch Port MAC Address Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Suppose that a hub with five active hosts is connected to switch port gi0/0.252 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 9-11 Option Show Mac-Address-Table Command Options Description address aging-time count dynamic interface multicast notification static vlan | <cr> Step 2. This command displays static (CPU) and dynamic. Issue the show mac-address-table command. How many MAC addresses are listed for switch port gi0/0? 5 . Address keyword Aging-time keyword Count keyword Dynamic entry type Interface keyword Multicast information for the selected wildcard MAC notification parameters and history table Static entry type VLAN keyword Output modifiers Carriage return Examine dynamic MAC address table entries. or learned.

network engineers can access Cisco devices remotely across secure LANs. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ Use Wireshark to capture and analyze frames originating from network nodes. . that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. What is the default aging time for VLAN 1? 300 Task 3: Challenge What would be the result if the MAC address table were flushed of dynamic entries? The switch would broadcast frames out each port except the originating port until the switch learned all the MAC addresses connected to the switch. This command displays the default amount of time. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity. Task 5: Clean Up Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. This has the benefit of permitting access to remote devices for troubleshooting and monitoring purposes.8.8. Lab 9-3: Intermediary Device as an End Device (9. Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Cisco Switch MAC Table Examination (9.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab9822. When a frame enters the switch. Without a MAC address table.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer.2. in seconds. turn off power to the host computers. the switch would have to flood the frame out each port.Chapter 9: Ethernet 253 Step 3. however. Remove anything that was brought into the lab.1) Upon completion of this lab. If a match occurs in the MAC address table. Examine MAC address table aging time. A switch contains a MAC address table that lists the MAC address connected to each switch port. the switch performs a lookup of the frame destination MAC address. Examine the origination of frames in a small network.3. Copy and paste data captured by Wireshark into Notepad for further analysis. that MAC address entries are stored. and leave the room ready for the next class. Task 4: Reflection Using the Telnet protocol. Remember. the frame is routed out the corresponding port. Issue the show mac-address-table aging-time command.

16. If Wireshark has not been loaded on the host pod computer. a switch efficiently passes frames from one device to another in a LAN.exe.10. you can download it from ftp://eagleserver.168. Figure 9-4 shows the topology for this lab.16.255.253 10.254 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Background A switch is used to forward frames between network devices.255.255.255.10.0 255.254.255.254 192. you will see the switch originating frames.10.Pod#. Scenario You will use Wireshark to capture and analyze Ethernet frames.252 255.255. A switch normally does not originate frames to node devices.252 255.1 255.168.254 172.16.254. In this lab.255.24.0 255.0 255.31.1 172.10.16.255.255.253 — 172.0.Pod#. because you will use Telnet to directly access the switch. Rather.4.254 172.255.255.16.0.6 — 192.0 — — 10.16. Figure 9-4 Topology for Lab 9-3 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 Table 9-13 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP S0/0/0 Fa0/0 10.99.0 255.example.255.254 172.com/pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter9/.6 192.0.255.255.10.2 172.16.255.254 R2-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Eagle Server — — Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central — — — .254.5 172.254 172.255.255.10.0 255. and Table 9-13 is the corresponding addressing table. The file is wireshark-setup-0.255.168.0 255. however.0.254.

Click Start.254.Chapter 9: Ethernet 255 Note to Instructor: Depending on the classroom situation. If an individual host computer cannot connect to eagle-server.16. For example. ping S1Central. and that it can ping R1-ISP. Choose Capture > Options.255. ccna1 through ccna11.16. and finally eagle-server.255. Select the interface that corresponds to the LAN. R2-Central. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address. Use the Windows Telnet client to access S1-Central. Write down the IP address and port connection on S1-Central for the neighbor’s pod host computer: ■ ■ IP address: Answers will vary S1-Central port number: Answers will vary Task 1: Use Wireshark to Capture and Analyze Frames Originating from Network Nodes Step 1. ping eagle-server. issue the Telnet command telnet 172. Enter the appropriate username and password. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity. 10.254. Examine the switch MAC address table with the show mac-address-table command. In addition to several static CPU entries. If the ping test fails. check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server. R1-ISP. S1-Central has been configured with 11 student accounts. To provide access to each student. the lab topology may have been modified before this class. Enter enable to enter privileged mode. 172. Step 3.10. 172. making analysis a bit tedious. shown in Table 9-13.com. The critical Telnet conversation between the pod host computer and S1-Central will be easy to filter. however. Unless directed otherwise by your instructor. Step 2. Configure Wireshark for packet capture. use user ID ccna1. Use Table 9-14 to list the dynamic MAC address entries. the password is cisco. Step 3.254. verify that the host has the correct DNS address and that it can ping eagle-server.6. Verify that the host computer has the correct Gateway IP address. cisco. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests. and that it can ping R2-Central.example. use the user ID corresponding to your pod. From a known good host computer. In this lab you will ping a neighbor’s pod host computer.1. Finally. Check the box to update the list of packets in real time.example. numerous dynamic address table entries should be listed. Verify that all network equipment is powered on and that eagle-server is on. S1-Central#. .10.16. This begins the packet capture. Step 2. During this capture there will probably be more than 200 packets. Examine and clear the MAC address table. for host computers on pod 1. should be returned. From the Windows terminal. troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity: Step 1.com. The S1-Central prompt.

examine the Telnet session to S1-Central. because R2-Router sends Ethernet keepalive frames every 10 seconds. This stops the 10-second Ethernet heartbeat. From Wireshark. which was recorded earlier: C:>\ ping -n 1 ip-address The MAC address for your neighbor’s computer should be dynamically added in the S1Central MAC address table. Open a second terminal window. A stream content window opens. using ASCII as the default display. You can use the show mac-address-table command again to verify that the address is added. This is normal. switch to HEX Dump.256 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 9-14 Dynamic MAC Address Entries Switch Port MAC Address Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary To clear dynamic MAC address table entries. use the clear mac-address-table dynamic command. Ping your neighbor’s IP address. Task 2: Examine the Origination of Frames in a Small Network Step 1. You can use the show mac-address-table command again to verify that the dynamic entries have been cleared. Highlight one of the Telnet session packets. choose Analyze > Follow TCP Stream. Note to Instructor: Fa 0/24. To prove this to students. Use Table 9-15 to list the dynamic MAC address entries. on R2-Router interface Fa 0/0. issue the Cisco IOS interface configuration command no keepalive. . Table 9-15 Dynamic MAC Address Entries Switch Port MAC Address Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary What conclusion can you make about how a switch learns MAC addresses connected to switch interfaces? A switch does not learn about connected devices until traffic originates from the device. If the username and passwords are not visible. In Wireshark. R2-Router. Stop the Wireshark capture. may be read within 10 seconds after flushing the MAC address table. You will analyze the capture in the next task.

In the top Wireshark Packet List pane. Right-click telnet and choose Copy Bytes (Printable Text Only). choose Edit > Paste to copy and paste the Telnet data into Notepad. write down the dynamic MAC address and port number displayed in the output. Step 2. scroll down to the captured ICMP request that was generated when you pinged. Examine output of the show mac-address-table command.cccc 0100. You will copy and paste data into Notepad for analysis.cccd 0100.dddd 0010. In Notepad.0ccc.RPC —————————————————————Vlan —— All All All All 1 Mac Address —————000f.015f Type ———— STATIC STATIC STATIC STATIC DYNAMIC Ports ——CPU CPU CPU CPU Fa0/1 Total Mac Addresses for this criterion: 5 S1-Central# In Table 9-16.f79f.0ccc. View the packet in the Packet Details window pane.6cc0 0100. click the Filter button at the top-left corner of the screen and remove the filter string.0cdd. You should see a dynamic mapping for your own computer similar to the output shown in Example 9-6. Figure 9-5 Wireshark Capture of Telnet Select the last Telnet data packet from S1-Central before the ping command.Chapter 9: Ethernet 257 Verify the username and password that you entered: ■ ■ Username: Answers will vary Password: cisco Close the stream content window. Example 9-6 MAC Address Table Before the Ping Mac Address Table {_lEMaNL. Open Notepad. To remove any display filters. Does the switch port correspond to your pod host computer? Yes .a47b. Figure 9-5 shows partial output of a Wireshark capture.

Select the last Telnet data packet following the ping reply.76ac. The text should be similar to Example 9-7.VP —————————————————————Vlan —— All All All All 1 1 Mac Address —————000f.0ccc. write down the MAC address and port number for the second dynamic entry displayed in the output. despite having been cleared? This is the connection for the pod host computer that is telnetted into S1-Central.cccc 0100. Example 9-7 MAC Address Table After the Ping Mac Address Table {_lEPaNM.f79f. . Does the switch port correspond to your neighbor’s pod host computer? Yes Table 9-17 Dynamic MAC Address Entry Type Port MAC Address Answers will vary Dynamic Answers will vary Task 3: Reflection The Wireshark capture of a Telnet session between a pod host computer and S1-Central was analyzed to show how a switch dynamically learns about nodes directly connected to it.258 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 9-16 Dynamic MAC Address Entry Type Port MAC Address Answers will vary Dynamic Answers will vary Why is your pod host computer mapping still in the MAC address table.a76a Type ———— STATIC STATIC STATIC STATIC DYNAMIC DYNAMIC Ports ——CPU CPU CPU CPU Fa0/1 Fa0/2 Total Mac Addresses for this criterion: 6 S1-Central# In Table 9-17.a47b.015f 0016.0ccc. Right-click TELNET and choose Copy Bytes (Printable Text Only). Next.0cdd.dddd 0010. In Notepad.cccd 0100.6cc0 0100. choose Edit > Paste to copy and paste the Telnet data into Notepad. view the packet in the Packet Details window pane.

and lively discussions should be encouraged. Task 5: Clean Up Wireshark was installed on the pod host computer. however.8. If Wireshark needs to be uninstalled. SSH is one way to encrypt communications between devices. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to perform this exercise using Packet Tracer. Choose Wireshark.1. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. Point out that because the TCP session may be captured. Remove any files created on the pod host computer during the lab.3) Open file LSG01-PTSkills9. and click Remove. and no one solution is a guarantee against compromise. any clear-text password can be viewed and used by an attacker.Chapter 9: Ethernet 259 Task 4: Challenge Use Wireshark to capture and analyze a Telnet session between the pod host computer and the Cisco switch. Student answers will vary on how to secure the communication channel. . Click Add or Remove Programs. Background You have been asked to repair some problems in the network model related to the Ethernet LAN connected to R2-Central. Figure 9-6 shows the topology for this Skills Integration Challenge. How secure is the Telnet protocol? What can be done to make communication with Cisco devices more secure? The Telnet protocol is very insecure and should never be used outside of secure networks. choose Start > Control Panel. Packet Tracer Challenge Skills Integration Challenge: Switched Ethernet (9. Test the network. passwords of more than nine characters.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab9832. For example. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ Determine IP subnet plans. and leave the room ready for the next class. Remember. turn off power to the host computers. Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: An Intermediary Device as an End Device (9. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. Repair Ethernet-related network issues. choose Analyze > Follow TCP Stream to view the login user ID and password. From Wireshark.9. one recommendation may be to require passphrases—that is. and Table 9-18 is the corresponding addressing table. Upon completion of this activity.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer.3. Emphasize that security should be employed in layers.

existing student LAN.128 255.255.260 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 9-6 Topology for the Challenge 1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server 2960-24TT S1-Central 1841 R2-Central PC 1A PC 1B Table 9-18 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP Fa0/0 S0/0/0 192.128 255.1 192.168.111.126 192.168.133 255. point-to-point link (already configured) .111.111.168.111.2 192.255.248 255.255.255.111.255.255.111.168.111.252 255.168.168. up to five hosts (already configured) Third subnet.134 R2-Central Fa0/0 S0/0/0 PC 1A PC 1B Eagle Server NIC NIC NIC Task 1: IP Subnet Planning You have been given an IP address block of 192.128 255.168.255.248 — — 192.168.168.111.111.111.255. existing WAN. You must provide for the three existing networks.252 255.255.168.111.255.168. existing ISP LAN. up to 100 hosts (Fa0/0 on R2-Central) Second subnet.134 192.0/24.168. The subnet assignments are as follows: ■ ■ ■ First subnet.255.111.255.126 192.111.126 192.138 192.138 192.138 192.255.137 192.168.255.

Compare and contrast the serial connection with Ethernet. These procedures were explained in the Chapter 5 and 6 Skills Integration Challenges. and the Inspect tool to trace packet flow in simulation mode. UDP. Connect PC 1A to the Fa0/1 interface on the switch. Task 3: Test the Network Use ping. Add the Fast Ethernet Interface card PT-HOST-NM-1CFE to PC 1B. For hosts 1A and 1B. use the first two IP addresses (the two lowest usable addresses) on the existing student LAN subnet. to test your understanding of how the network is operating. ICMP. the S1-Central switch interfaces (Fa0/1. Remove the wireless card from PC 1B. and the PC 1A interfaces are incorrect. and R2-Central’s serial interface have already been configured. DNS. The next-hop router (to which the default route should point). The static route on R2-Central should be a default static route that points to R1-ISP’s serial interface IP address. Apparently the Ethernet speed and duplex settings for the R2-Central Fa0/0 interface.111. Task 4: Reflection The two Layer 2 and Layer 1 technologies in this model are a serial connection (between the routers) and the Ethernet LANs (for the ISP server and with the S1-Central switch). R1-ISP. For hosts 1A and 1B. with HTTP. Fa0/2. Assign the highest usable subnet address to the gateway and the two lowest usable addresses to the PCs. In a future course you will learn much more about switched Ethernet technologies. Set all Ethernet interfaces to autonegotiate speed and duplex (which will achieve full-duplex 100-Mbps operation if both ends of the link can support it). Add IP addresses to the router Fa0/0 interface and to the two PCs.168. trace. For R2-Central’s Fa0/0 interface. TCP. Connect this newly installed Fast Ethernet NIC to the Fa0/2 interface on the switch. use the highest usable address on the existing student LAN subnet.133 /29.111. Connect the Fa0/24 interface on the switch to the R2-Central Fa0/0 interface. R1-ISP. the DNS server is 192. make sure that the power is on to the device and to the interfaces (make sure that the Ethernet interfaces are not shut down). has an IP address of 192. web traffic.168.138 /30. and Fa0/24). ■ ■ ■ Task 2: Repair Problems with the Ethernet Switched LAN PC 1B has a wireless card and cannot be connected to the switch. . and ARP viewable. For all devices.Chapter 9: Ethernet 261 Interface IP addresses: ■ ■ The server.

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this up-front investment might save money. A hub is a Layer 1 device. In the long run. To allow for growth. and manageability. Hubs are less expensive and less efficient than switches. Each switch port is its own collision domain. Explain the advantage of one device over the other. The design of an IP addressing scheme is presented and then practiced with the help of concept questions and the hands-on labs. you identify the cables needed to make successful LAN and WAN connections and learn how to use device management connections. and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of planning and cabling networks. Switches are Layer 2 devices. Growth consists of more user devices. They flood all the frames they receive on one port out all other ports. It is essential that you have knowledge of the different media types and the distinct roles they play with the devices that they connect. you need to be familiar with the different device selection factors. They filter frames. Be as detailed as possible. types. whereas a switch is a Layer 2 device. including cost. though. use Chapter 10 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum or use the corresponding Chapter 10 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration Companion Guide for assistance.CHAPTER 10 Planning and Cabling Networks The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of multiple-choice. That affects the cost calculation because the costs will seem high compared to the current network needs. As you work through this chapter. . supported speeds. In this chapter. As a networking professional. expandability. Routers. and capabilities. Devices need to have empty slots that allow the addition of modules that have more capabilities or that support new technologies. more speed. and speeds of different ports and interfaces. Hubs should be used in small LANs. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum labs to further reinforce that you have mastered the practical. All of the ports of a hub are part of one collision domain. fill-in-the-blank. and also new technology. Concept Questions 1. Compare and contrast the function of hubs and switches. devices will need to be selected that go beyond the current need of the LAN in terms of number of ports. and switches are common network devices. more capabilities. They also allow for the interconnection of segments with different speeds. How does this affect the cost calculations? When selecting devices for a LAN it is important to allow for future growth. Explain how adaptability to new technologies can be taken into consideration when selecting devices for a LAN. Hubs do not segment networks. Study Guide LANs: Making the Physical Connection A networking professional needs to know how to select and interconnect the proper devices for a network. hands-on skills needed. Switches are more expensive than hubs but use bandwidth more efficiently. 2. hubs. Hubs do not filter frames. matching. Switches segment networks into multiple collision domains.

there are several physical areas to consider. they remain in a single collision domain. Device Interconnections When planning the installation of LAN cabling. 3. . By providing multiple interconnections between a number of switches d. By delpoying gigabit switches only 2. The transmit wires of the cables will be connected to the transmit pins on the router and the computer. Each area has its unique requirements and standards. which can increase LAN performance. How can redundancy be provided in a switched network? a. Pins 3 and 6 of both devices will be connected in the same way. Switches regenerate each bit of the frames they receive. 1. By allowing the interconnection of segments with different speeds. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks for the following statements. Concept Questions 1. By using a special cable type to connect to the devices on its ports. a. The straight-through cable will connect with its pins 1 and 2 to pins 1 and 2 of the computer. 1. A swich is used to segment a network into multiple collision domains. Explain what will happen when you use a straight-through cable to connect your computer to the Fast Ethernet interface of a router. Even though hubs can be interconnected. d. The computer and the router both have Medium Dependent Interface (MDI) connections with pins 1 and 2 for transmitting and pins 3 and 6 for receiving. and no data transfer will be possible. How do switches create collision domains? port. By deploying one central switch with a high port density b. A switch provides dedicated bandwidth on each port. By using high-speed fiber-optic media c. 2.264 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Multiple-Choice Questions Choose the best possible answer for each of the following questions. Each switch port creates a point-to-point dedicated connection to the devices connected to that b. c. A network administrator needs to be familiar with the different standards that define devices and cabling in these areas.

routers. . 4. lighting. patch cables. there is no service provider. patch cables. Work area: Work areas are dedicated to end devices. It is extremely important that you understand IP addressing.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 265 2. Developing an Addressing Scheme Developing an IP addressing scheme is one of the most important tasks that you will have to perform as a network professional. In the lab setting. one router will act as the DCE and uses a DCE cable. There are four physical areas to consider when planning the installation of LAN cabling. high-bandwidth cabling that connects the telecommunications room with the work area. sometimes servers Backbone cabling: Cabling that connects the telecommunications room to the equipment room Distribution/horizontal cabling: Typically. Main components are jacks to connect individual devices to the network. Signal attenuation and exposure to possible interference increase with cable length. 3. Typically. The Data Communications Equipment (DCE) is a device that supplies the clocking services to another device. Telecommunications room: hubs. This knowledge is vital in designing. 1. 2. Answers may vary. Attenuation is the decrease in signal strength along an electrical or optical cable. Interference can be produced by electrical machines. configuring. This is where the users access the network. this device is at the WAN access provider end of the link. cabling to access outside resources. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks for the following statements that discuss features and issues related to different types of media. This router will provide the clocking that is usually provided by the service provider’s equipment. hubs. 3. data service units (DSU). and troubleshooting networks. The ANSI/TIA/EIA-568-B standard specifies the maximum cable length in UTP installations. Therefore. The routers are connected back to back. Data Circuit-Terminal Equipment (DTE) is a device that receives clocking services from another device and adjusts accordingly. switches. A router is considered a DTE device. 5. Explain how the serial connection to a WAN service provider differs from the way the serial connections are set up for the curriculum labs. or connects telecommunications rooms. patch panels. including computers and radio equipment. and other communications devices. this device is at the WAN customer or user end of the link. List these four areas and their main components. UTP cabling uses RJ-45 connectors. and switches. Typically.

266 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Concept Questions 1. Network devices that require IP addresses for management purposes include switches and wireless access points. IP phones. Which formula is used to calculate the number of hosts per network or subnet? Use n to represent the number of bits. Broadcast address d. A systematic allocation of IP addresses makes troubleshooting and the addition of new hosts easier. You also need to consider network devices such as router LAN interfaces and router WAN (serial) interfaces. departments. a. administrator computers. 3. and IP cameras. It is good practice to use IP addresses that fit a common pattern across all subnets. special users. (2^n – 1) b. Network address c. and other end devices such as printers. Some common categories are general users. Management address b. Subnets divide broadcast domains into a number of smaller domains. router LAN and WAN interfaces. (n – 2) . Multiple-Choice Questions Choose the best possible answer(s) for the following questions. What devices do you need to consider when counting devices in your network that need IP addresses. Why does each connection between routers count as a separate subnet if there are no hosts connected? The router interfaces on the link connecting the two routers need to have IP addresses. 1. Network devices requiring an IP address for management purposes are switches and wireless access points. servers. 2. Gateway address 2. 1. Which addresses cannot be assigned to hosts? Choose all that apply. 3. network resources. a. You need to consider end devices such as user computers. 2^n c. What are some common categories that you can use to allocate IP addresses? Explain why you should use address schemes that fit a common pattern across your network. and server addresses. Each subnet requires a router interface as the gateway for that subnet. management subnets. (2^n – 2) d. 2. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks for the following statements dealing with IP addressing and subnetting.

255.0 and you need to create 64 subnets. This way. a. Smaller broadcast domains c. It is important to understand the different types of interfaces and know the types of cable required to connect to the interfaces. Variable-length subnet masking (VLSM) assigns the prefix and host bits to each network based on the number of hosts in that network.16.252.255. Network 3 needs to support 2 host addresses. Larger collision domains Calculating the Subnets Two different methods can be used for allocating addresses to an Internetwork. If your network uses the address 172. . a serial link. It allows a subnet to be subnetted.0. Concept Questions 1. what will be the subnet mask for your network? 255.255. and other subnets that require more host addresses can use different bit masks. You have the following network requirements: Network 1 needs to support 32 host addresses. Device Interconnections Cisco devices. VLSM allows different subnet masks within one network.0 2. Network 5 needs to support 128 host addresses. routers.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 267 3.252. Which addressing method will allow you to design an IP addressing scheme without wasting any host addresses? How is the efficiency of this method achieved? The method that allows for the most efficient IP addressing design without wasting any addresses is called variable-length subnet masking (VLSM). can use a bit mask of 255. Network 4 needs to support 52 host addresses. LAN and WAN interfaces require different cabling and configuration. What are advantages of dividing networks into subnets? Choose all that apply. and switches have several different types of interfaces associated with them. Implementation of different levels of security d. The non-VLSM approach uses the same prefix length and the same number of host bits for each subnet. which requires only two IP addresses. Network 2 needs to support 64 host addresses. These interfaces are also referred to as ports. Decreased costs b.

1. Multiple-Choice Questions Choose the best possible answers(s) for the following questions dealing with interface types. To make a back-to-back connection between routers in the lab d. a.268 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Concept Question List the four types of interfaces on Cisco routers and switches. Auxiliary interface: This interface provides remote management for the router. The console interface d. To connect the router to a terminal for configuration purposes b. They can also connect to other routers. Serial interface: This is the WAN interface. a. To connect to LAN devices such as computers and switches c. WAN interfaces are used for connecting WAN devices to the CSU/DSU. It provides physical access to the router for troubleshooting. The Ethernet interface b. To establish a WAN connection b. It connects to LAN devices such as computers or switches. What are serial interfaces used for? Choose all that apply. Ethernet interface: This is the LAN interface of a router or a switch. To connect to a terminating device such as a switch or a computer . Briefly describe the function of each of these interfaces. The serial interface 3. The Telnet interface c. Console interface: This is the primary interface for initial configuration of a Cisco device. Which interface is the primary interface for the initial configuration of a Cisco device such as a router or a switch? a. To connect to other routers d. A CSU/DSU is a device used to make the physical connection between data networks and WAN provider’s circuits. To connect the router to the DSU/CSU 2. To establish communication with a router via a console on a remote WAN c. What can Ethernet interfaces be used for? Choose all that apply.

Figure 10-1 Topology Diagram A Fa0/0 S0/0/0 S0/0/0 B1 B2 How many networks are shown in Figure 10-1? 2 How many bits should you allocate to create the required number of subnets? 1 How many usable host addresses did this give you? 126 What is the new subnet mask in decimal form? 255. Examine the use of the available network address space.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 269 Labs and Activities Lab 10-1: How Many Networks? (10.3. In this example. Design an appropriate addressing scheme.26. Place the correct address and mask in the addressing table.1128 How many subnets are available for future use? 0 . you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ ■ Determine the number of subnets.2) Upon completion of this lab. You are only required to determine the number of subnets per topology example.255. you have been given the network address 192. Assign addresses and subnet mask pairs to device interfaces.168.255. Scenario In this lab. the number of hosts is not important.2.0/24 to subnet and provide the IP addressing for the networks shown in the topology diagrams. Task 1: Determine the Number of Subnets in Topology Diagram A Use the topology in Figure 10-1 to answer the questions that follow. You must determine the number of networks needed then design an appropriate addressing scheme.

270 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 2: Record Subnet Information Fill in Table 10-1 with the subnet information.168.168.128 192.1 192.26.255.255 Task 3: Determine the Number of Subnets in Topology Diagram B Use the topology in Figure 10-2 to answer the questions that follow.255.168.26.127 192.0 192. Table 10-1 Subnet Information Subnet Address First Usable Host Address Last Usable Host Address Broadcast Address Subnet Number 0 1 192.168.192 How many subnets are available for future use? 0 .26.168.26. Figure 10-2 Topology Diagram B Fa0/0 S0/0/1 HQ S0/0/0 S0/0/1 S0/0/0 B1 B2 How many networks are there? 4 How many bits should you allocate to create the required number of subnets? 2 How many usable host addresses did this give you? 30 What is the new subnet mask in decimal form? 255.129 192.168.126 192.168.168.254 192.26.26.26.26.

126 192.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 271 Task 4: Record Subnet Information Fill in Table 10-2 with the subnet information.26.168.62 192.168.168.168. Table 10-2 Subnet Information Subnet Address First Usable Host Address Last Usable Host Address Broadcast Address Subnet Number 0 1 2 3 192.26.168.26.26.1 192.26.26.168.168.0 192.168.26.190 192.26.255 Task 5: Determine the Number of Subnets in Topology Diagram C Use the topology in Figure 10-3 to answer the questions that follow.127 192.26.26.168.255.224 How many subnets are available for future use? 2 .168.255.26.168.64 192.168.128 192.26. Figure 10-3 Topology Diagram C S0/0/1 S0/0/0 B1 S0/0/0 S0/0/1 HQ S0/1/0 S0/0/0 B2 S0/0/1 S0/1/0 S0/0/0 S0/0/1 B3 Fa0/0 How many networks are there? 6 How many bits should you allocate to create the required number of subnets? 3 How many usable host addresses did this give you? 30 What is the new subnet mask in decimal form? 255.168.65 192.26.191 192.63 192.168.26. Use the subnet mask from Step 4.192 192.254 192.26.193 192.26.168.168.129 192.

62 192.129 192.168.30 192.168.26.168.168.63 192.26.26.168.26.168.26.97 192.26.33 192.26.168.168.126 192.26.168.168.168.168.26.26.168.168.26.26.26.191 192.254 192.0 192.26. Figure 10-4 Topology Diagram D Fa0/0 Fa0/0 S0/0/0 S0/0/1 Fa0/0 S0/0/0 S0/0/1 S0/0/1 S0/1/1 B1 S0/0/1 HQ B2 S0/0/0 S0/0/1 S0/0/0 S0/0/1 S0/0/0 B3 Fa0/0 B4 Fa0/0 Fa0/0 B5 .168.159 192.1 192.272 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 6: Record Subnet Information Fill in the Table 10-3 with the subnet information.26.168.223 192.26.168.161 192.168.168.26.168.190 192.168.168.26.96 192.127 192.94 192.255 Task 7: Determine the Number of Subnets in Topology Diagram D Use the topology in Figure 10-4 to answer the questions that follow.168.225 192.26.168.26.222 192.95 192. Table 10-3 Subnet Information Subnet Address First Usable Host Address Last Usable Host Address Broadcast Address Subnet Number 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 192.168.65 192.26.168.168.26.32 192.31 192.160 192.26.26.168.168.26.224 192.168.158 192.193 192.26.168.26.128 192.168.26.26.26.64 192.26.192 192.26.

16 192.168.168.168.168.168.168.191 192.26.255.65 192.168.168.223 192.168.168. Table 10-4 Subnet Information Subnet Address First Usable Host Address Last Usable Host Address Broadcast Address Subnet Number 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 192.26.26.48 192.168.26.17 192.168.142 192.168.26.168.168.240 192.168.15 192.26.26.255 Task 9: Reflection What information is needed when determining an appropriate addressing scheme for a network? When determining an appropriate addressing scheme for a network.168.26.168.143 192.79 192.224 192.26.168.47 192.26.0 192.168.168.26.144 192.254 192.26.168.97 192.127 192.168.26.26.26.26.168.26.26.174 192.26.26.96 192.255.14 192.26.26.168.26.168.168.26.145 192.1 192.168.26.26.168.26.31 192.26.168.26.168.26.239 192.168.168.209 192.240 How many subnets are available for future use? 4 Task 8: Record Subnet Information Fill in Table 10-4 with the subnet information.176 192.26.168.26.26.26.241 192.168.111 192.168.30 192.168.26.168.168.63 192.26.26.26.190 192.160 192.129 192.168.33 192.168.26.26.26.26.168.168.158 192.177 192.112 192.168.46 192.26.168.168.81 192.193 192.26.26. you need the number of networks and hosts.2222 192.95 192.206 192.26.159 192.26.175 192.26.26.113 192.26.168.26.192 192.26.168. .128 192.161 192.168.32 192.168.110 192.168.26.26.26.168.168.168.168.62 192.207 192.168.168.64 192.26.26.94 192.168.208 192.26.238 192.168.126 192.168.26.168.26.49 192.26.26.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 273 How many networks are there? 12 How many bits should you allocate to create the required number of subnets? 4 How many usable host addresses did this give you? 14 What is the new subnet mask in decimal form? 255.168.80 192.78 192.168.225 192.26.26.168.

as shown in Figure 10-5. you create a small network that requires connecting network devices and configuring host computers for basic network connectivity. Table 10-5 Hardware Equipment and Hardware for Lab Quantity Description Cisco Router Cisco Switch Computer (host) Cat5 better straight-through UTP cable Cat5 crossover UTP cable Scenario 1 1 3 3 1 Part of CCNA Lab bundle Part of CCNA Lab bundle Lab computer Connects Router 1 and computers Host1 and Host2 to Switch1 Connects computer Host1 to Router1 In this lab.1) Upon completion of this lab. Configure the physical lab topology. Subnet zero will be used. Figure 10-5 Topology for Lab 10-2 Subnet A Fa0/0 Fa0/1 Subnet B Fa0/1 1 R1 Fa0/2 S1 Fa0/3 Subnet C Subnet D 2 3 Note: The CD-ROM accompanying this book contains a subnet chart for the last IP address octet.6. . Configure the logical LAN topology.274 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Lab 10-2: Creating a Small Lab Topology (10. Verify LAN connectivity. Subnet C and Subnet D are anticipated subnets.1. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ ■ Design the logical network. Background Table 10-5 shows the equipment and hardware requirements for this lab. Gather the necessary equipment and cables. Subnet A and Subnet B are subnets that are currently needed. not yet connected to the network.

255.0. consider configuring a loopback interface as an alternative to the FastEthernet 0/1. Authorized access only. For this lab. students will learn how to configure a router.248 172.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 275 Note to instructor: In Chapter 11 labs. Another alternative is to use two routers connected through a serial connection and use the Fast Ethernet interfaces from each router. ******************************************************************* % ! .198 255.0. the router should be configured for students. If you do not have a router that has two Fast Ethernet interfaces.255.255.20.252 This is Eagle 1 lab router Router1. The following example contains a basic configuration for Router 1.202 255.255.20. Example Router 1 Configuration Router1 configuration ! service timestamps debug uptime service timestamps log uptime no service password-encryption ! no ip domain-lookup ! hostname Router1 ! enable secret cisco ! ! interface FastEthernet0/0 description connection to Host1 ip address no shutdown ! interface FastEthernet0/1 description connection LAN ip address no shutdown ! ip classless ip http server ! banner motd % ******************************************************************* 172.

Table 10-7 Subnet D IP Address Information Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast Network Address 172. Refer to the subnet chart on the CD-ROM.11111111.10000000 . Fill in Table 10-7 with IP address information for Subnet D. and pick the first address block that will support Subnet D.0.128 What is the bit mask? 172.1 172. Router interfaces will use the last available IP address in the address block.20. Design Subnet D address block. Begin the logical network design by satisfying the requirement of Subnet D.255.127 11111111.1 172.20.255. Step 1.1111111.0. Table 10-6 Subnet Subnet Requirements Number of Hosts Subnet A Subnet B Subnet C Subnet D 2 6 47 125 Host computers from each subnet will use the first available IP address in the address block.0.20.0/24 (address / mask).0.0 255. design an IP addressing scheme that satisfies the requirements listed in Table 10-6.0. which requires the largest block of IP addresses.20.20.276 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide line con 0 password cisco ! line con 0 password cisco login line aux 0 line vty 0 4 password cisco login ! end Task 1: Design the Logical Network Given an IP address and mask of 172.

Refer to the subnet chart on the CD-ROM.0. and pick the next available address block that will support Subnet B.255.248 172.193 172.20.11111111.199 What is the bit mask? 11111111. Table 10-10 Subnet A IP Address Information Network Address Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast 172.20. Fill in Table 10-10 with IP address information for Subnet A. Table 10-9 Subnet B IP Address Information Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast Network Address 172. Satisfy the requirement of Subnet A.20.203 What is the bit mask? 11111111. the next largest IP address block.0.0.1111111.11111111. and pick the next available address block that will support Subnet C. Design Subnet B address block. Table 10-8 Subnet C IP address information Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast Network Address 172.255.0.20.198 172.255.20.201 172.202 172.200 255.192 255. Refer to the subnet chart on the CD-ROM. Satisfy the requirement of Subnet B.20.20. Design Subnet D address block.11111111.191 What is the bit mask? 11111111.255.0.190 172.0.20.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 277 Step 2. Refer to the subnet chart on the CD-ROM. and pick the next available address block that will support Subnet A.11111100 .0.0.11111000 Step 4.255.0. the next largest address block.255. Fill in Table 10-9 with IP address information for Subnet B.128 255.0. Satisfy the requirement for Subnet C.0.20.20. Fill in Table 10-8 with IP address information for Subnet C.129 172.20.0.192 172.252 172.11000000 Step 3.1111111.20. Design Subnet A address block.11111111.

write down the IP address information for each computer in the tables that follow. Visually inspect network connections. Cable the network devices as shown in Figure 10-5. Ensure that all switch connections show green.255. If not already enabled. Confirm that the power is applied to the connected device. and why? Both devices have similar network interfaces. Step 2. . In Table 10-11. enter addressing information for Host 2.20. take a moment to verify the connections. the gateway address is the IP address assigned to the router interface for that subnet. Any switch connection that does not transition from amber to green should be investigated. Host 2. and why? The switch ports are dissimilar to the router and computer network interfaces. turn power on to all devices. Document logical network settings. and the correct cable is functional. What cable type is needed to connect Host 1 to Router 1.278 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 2: Configure the Physical Lab Topology Step 1. Therefore.252 172. From the IP address information recorded in Task 1.202 In Table 10-12. and like devices require a crossover cable. and Router 1 to Switch 1. The host computer gateway IP address is used to send IP packets to other networks. enter the information for Host 1.255. Table 10-11 Host 1 Address Type Address IP address IP mask Gateway address 172.201 255. After cabling the network devices.0. Physically connect devices. What cable type is needed to connect Host 1.20.0. What type of cable connects Router1 interface Fa0/0 to Host 1? Crossover cable What type of cable connects Router 1 interface Fa0/1 to Switch 1? Straight-through cable What type of cable connects Host 2 to Switch 1? Straight-through cable What type of cable connects Host 3 to Switch 1? Straight-through cable Is all equipment turned on? Yes Task 3: Configure the Logical Topology Step 1. straight-through cables are required. the correct cable is used. Attention to detail now will minimize the time required to troubleshoot network connectivity issues later. Therefore.

20.0.0.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 279 Table 10-12 Host 2 Address Type Address IP address IP mask Gateway address 172. 172. On the General tab.248 172.198 Configure the Host 1 computer. enter addressing information for Host 3. recorded in the preceding Step 1: ■ ■ ■ IP address: Host1 IP address Subnet mask: Host1 subnet mask Default gateway: Gateway IP address Figure 10-6 Host 1 IP Addressing and Gateway Settings .255.255.194 255. On Host 1. Manually enter the following information.20.20.255.193 255.0. Right-click the Local Area Connection device icon and choose Properties. click Start > Control Panel > Network Connections.20.0.198 In Table 10-13. and then click the Properties button.255. Figure 10-6 shows Host 1 IP address and gateway settings. select Internet Protocol (TCP/IP).248 172. Table 10-13 Host 3 Address Type Address IP address IP mask Gateway address Step 2.

193 172.0. using the IP address information for those computers. Repeat Step 2 for computers Host 2 and Host 3.0.20. Depending on the Windows operating system.202 172.20. Close the Local Area Connection window. the topology diagram shown in Figure 10-5 can prove extremely helpful. If your computer’s operating system is Windows XP SP2. disable the firewall (for your ping tests to work).198 172.201 172. Switch 1 should have a default configuration. Task 4: Verify Network Connectivity Verify with your instructor that Router 1 has been configured. and then press Enter.20.20.0.20.0.0.20. Fa0/1 Host 2 Host 3 Host 3 Gateway (Router 1.0.20.0.0.202 172.201 Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Note any break in connectivity. Fa0/0 Host 1 172.20.280 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide When finished. When troubleshooting connectivity issues. Use Table 10-14 to methodically verify and record connectivity with each network device. how can you detect a malfunctioning gateway? If Host 2 and Host 3 can successfully ping each other but not Host 1. Table 10-14 Network Connectivity Test Results From To IP Address Ping Results Host 1 Host 1 Host 1 Host 1 Host 2 Host 2 Host 2 Host 2 Host 3 Host 3 Host 3 Host 3 Gateway (Router 1.194 172. Remember that the default gateway address on the computers is the IP address of the Fast Ethernet interface of the router that the computers connect to via the switch.193 172.202 172. Step 3. Network connectivity can be verified with the Windows ping command.0. it might be a gateway issue.0. Try to disable and then reenable the network interface card (NIC) by right-clicking the NIC in the Local Area Connection Properties window.198 172.0. Fa0/0 Host 1 Host 2 Gateway (Router 1.20. close the Internet Protocols (TCP/IP) Properties window by clicking OK. Fa0/1) Router 1.20. Type cmd.194 172. Otherwise. . Fa0/1) Router1. Configure Host 2 and Host 3 computers. In this scenario.0. connectivity will be broken between LANs.198 172. Fa0/0) Router 1.20.20. Open a terminal window by clicking Start > Run. the computer might require a reboot for changes to be effective. Take corrective action to establish connectivity if a test fails.

Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Creating a Small Topology (10. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. Step 1. Look for green link lights on Switch 1. Answers may vary. you configured host computers with network addresses and tested them for connectivity. This is a particularly important lab. Check cabling. It is best to practice host computer configuration and verification several times. and leave the room ready for the next class. follow these steps: Note to instructors: A simple way to introduce problems is to switch the Fast Ethernet connections. Perform a good visual inspection. Use the table provided in Task 3 to identify failed connectivity. and then turn off power to the host computers. Be sure that you have a thorough understanding of the procedures used to verify network connectivity.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. Task 6: Challenge Ask your instructor or another student to introduce one or two problems in your network when you aren’t looking or are out of the lab room. A summary of the instructions is provided within the Packet Tracer activity. Test your solution. Hosts cannot ping the router. If the solution fixed the problem. If the solution did not fix the problem. keep in mind that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. This will reinforce the skills you learned in this lab and make you a better network technician. Reconnect cables that were disconnected for this lab. Step 3. However. Step 2. continue troubleshooting. restore host computer network connectivity. In addition to practicing IP subnetting. . Carefully remove cables and return them neatly to their storage. To fix the problems. Problems can be either physical (wrong UTP cable) or logical (wrong IP address or gateway). Check the default gateways on the hosts.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 281 Task 5: Reflection Review any physical or logical configuration problems encountered during this lab.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab10612. List the problems. Hosts 1 and 2 cannot ping Host 3. Step 4. Write down your proposed solution(s).1. Task 7: Clean Up Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. Check the IP address configuration.6. Answers may vary. document the solution.

Scenario Set up a network similar to the one in Figure 10-7. Any router that meets the interface requirements may be used. 2600 routers. A serial interface on a computer is connected to the Cisco device via a rollover cable. Connect the other cable end to the host computer with a DB-9 or DB-25 adapter to the COM 1 port. .1) Upon completion of this lab. 2500.282 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Lab 10-3: Establishing a Console Session with HyperTerminal (10. Background HyperTerminal is a simple Windows-based terminal emulation program for serial communication that can be used to connect to the console port on Cisco IOS devices. Figure 10-7 Establishing a Console Session with HyperTerminal Straight-Through Cable Serial Cable Console (Rollover) Crossover Cable The following resources are required: ■ ■ ■ Computer with a serial interface and HyperTerminal loaded Cisco router Console (rollover) cable for connecting the workstation to the router Task 1: Connect a Router and Computer with a Console Cable Step 1. 1700. Configure HyperTerminal to establish a console session with a Cisco IOS switch. Another popular serial communication utility is TeraTerm Web. 1600. Using HyperTerminal is the most basic way to access a router for checking or changing its configuration. Instructions for TeraTerm Web use are contained in the section “Lab 10-3 (Alternative): Establishing a Console Session with TeraTerm” later in this chapter. Possible routers include 800. Connect the console (rollover) cable to the console port on the router.2.6. or a combination. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ Connect a router and computer using a console cable. Configure HyperTerminal to establish a console session with a Cisco IOS router. Set up the basic physical connection.

Figure 10-9 HyperTerminal Connection Type . Click OK. Select an appropriate icon. At the Connection Description window. Configure HyperTerminal. the program prompts for an area code/phone number. in the Connect using field. you might have to use an USB connection rather than the COM port. or leave the default. Click OK. You need to fill in a number to be able to continue. start the HyperTerminal program by clicking Start > All Programs > Accessories > Communications > HyperTerminal. enter a session name in the Name field. Power on the devices. Figure 10-8 HyperTerminal Connection Description Window In the Connect To window shown in Figure 10-9. Note to instructors: On newer systems. Start the HyperTerminal application.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 283 Step 2. Figure 10-8 shows an example of the opening HyperTerminal configuration window. COM 1. Task 2: Configure HyperTerminal to Establish a Console Session with a Cisco IOS Router Step 1. Step 2. enter the appropriate connection type. If not already powered on. If you are accessing HyperTerminal for the first time. From the Windows taskbar. enable power to the computer and router.

click Cancel.284 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide In the COM 1 Properties box shown in Figure 10-10. Figure 10-10 HyperTerminal COM 1 Port Settings Table 10-15 HyperTerminal Port Settings Settings Value Bits per second Data bits Parity Stop bits Flow control Click OK. Step 4. Click File > Open. There should be a response from the router. troubleshoot as necessary. verify that the router has power. Step 3. close the HyperTerminal session. Enter a name for the session. Use this technique to reconnect the HyperTerminal session to a Cisco device without reconfiguring a new session. When finished. and then click Open. Step 1. This time. If there is no connection. Reopen the HyperTerminal session as described in Task 2. Close HyperTerminal. For example. when the Connection Description window opens. When asked whether to save the session. this indicates that connection has been successfully completed. When finished. press the Enter key. 9600 8 None 1 None When the HyperTerminal session window comes up. Check the connection to the correct COM 1 port on the PC and the console port on the router. Reconnect the HyperTerminal session. exit HyperTerminal. . Click File > Exit. Select the saved session. ask the instructor for assistance. click Yes. change port settings to the values in Table 10-15. If there is still no connection.

See Figure 10-11. COM 1. At the opening HyperTerminal Connection Description window. Use the procedure described in Task 2. to configure HyperTerminal. Step 2. Start the HyperTerminal application. enter a session name in the Name field. If not already powered on. enter the appropriate connection type. Step 1.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 285 Task 3: Configure HyperTerminal to Establish a Console Session with a Cisco IOS Switch Serial connections between Cisco IOS routers and switches are similar. Figure 10-11 Serial Connection Between a Host Computer and Cisco Switch 1 S1 Step 2. Connect the other cable end to the host computer with a DB-9 or DB-25 adapter to the COM 1 port. From the Windows taskbar. enable power to the computer and switch. Set up the basic physical connection. you make a serial connection between the host computer and a Cisco IOS switch. Configure HyperTerminal. 9600 8 None 1 None . Click OK. start the HyperTerminal program by clicking Start > Programs > Accessories > Communications > HyperTerminal. Click OK. In the COM 1 Properties window. Step 4. Select an appropriate icon. change port settings to the values shown in Table 10-16. In this task. Power on the devices. In the Connect To window. or leave the default. in the Connect using field. Table 10-16 Port Settings Settings Value Bits per second Data bits Parity Stop bits Flow control Click OK. Step 3. Connect the console (rollover) cable to the console port on the router.

If there is no connection. There should be a response from the switch. verify that the switch has power. Task 5: Clean Up Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. Remove the rollover cable. Task 3: Reflection This lab provided information for establishing a console connection to a Cisco IOS router and switch. When finished. Check the connection to the correct COM 1 port on the PC and the console port on the switch. Click File > Exit. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. close the HyperTerminal session. troubleshoot as necessary. . You will only be able to connect to the router if you are using the proper settings. When asked whether to save the session. press the Enter key. turn off power to the host computer and router. For example. click No. Compare the differences. and leave the room ready for the next class. Close HyperTerminal. and be able to identify the different cable types.286 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide When the HyperTerminal session window comes up. Step 5. Be sure to remember the correct HyperTerminal port settings. this indicates that connection has been successfully completed. ask the instructor for assistance. If there is still no connection. Task 4: Challenge Draw the pin connections for the rollover cable and straight-through cable.

Scenario Cable a network similar to Figure 10-12.com/teraterm/. Any router that meets the interface requirements may be used. Configure TeraTerm to establish a console session with the router.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 287 Lab 10-3 (Alternative): Establishing a Console Session with TeraTerm Upon completion of this lab. 1600. Connect the console (rollover) cable to the console port on the router. Note to instructor: TeraTerm is not available on the Eagle Server. Background TeraTerm Web is another simple Windows-based terminal emulation program for serial communication that can be used to connect to the console port on Cisco IOS devices. Ensure that power is turned off on the computer and Cisco router. Step 2. 1700. Figure 10-12 Establishing a Console Session with TeraTerm Straight-Through Cable Serial Cable Console (Rollover) Crossover Cable The following resources are required: ■ ■ ■ Computer with a serial interface and TeraTerm Pro loaded Cisco router Console (rollover) cable for connecting the workstation to the router Task 1: Connect a Router and Computer with a Console Cable Step 1. or a combination. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ Connect a router and computer using a console cable. Set up the basic physical connection. . Power on the devices. Connect the other cable end to the PC with a DB-9 or DB-25 adapter to the COM 1 port. Possible routers include 800. but it can be downloaded from the following http://www. 2500. 2600 routers. Enable power to the computer and router.ayera.

Step 3. close the TeraTerm Web session. When finished. Click OK. Click File > Exit. Cisco switches are accessed in the same way. Remember that you must use the correct serial port configurations to connect to the Cisco device via Minicom. and starting the TeraTerm Web application. Use this technique to reconnect the TeraTerm Web session to a Cisco device without reconfiguring a new session. From the Windows taskbar. when the New Description window opens (see Figure 10-13). Step 2. Start TeraTerm Web application. If there is no connection. Step 4. Figure 10-13 TeraTerm Web Connection Configuration Window When the TeraTerm Web session window comes up. click Cancel. Close TeraTerm Web. Configure TeraTerm Web Click File > New Connection. Reconnect the TeraTerm Web session. Select the appropriate serial COM port. start the TeraTerm Web program by opening the TeraTerm Web folder. click Yes. Refer to Figure 10-13. Step 1. Enter a name for the session. This time. Task 3: Reflection This lab provided information for establishing a console connection to a Cisco router. and then click Open. troubleshoot as necessary. verify that the router has power. ask the instructor for assistance.288 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 2: Configure TeraTerm Web to Establish a Console Session with the Router Step 1. For example. Check the connection to the COM 1 port on the PC and the console port on the router. ttermpro. . When asked whether to save the session. If there is still no connection. this indicates that the connection has been successfully completed. press the Enter key. Select the saved session. There should be a response from the router. Reopen the TeraTerm Web session as described in Task 2. Click File > Open.

pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. . and be able to identify the different cable types. A summary of the instructions is provided within the Packet Tracer activity. and leave the room ready for the next class. turn off power to the host computer and router.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab10622.6.2. Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Establishing a Console Session with PT Terminal (10. However. keep in mind that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. Remove the rollover cable. Task 5: Clean Up Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. Compare the differences. Remove anything that was brought into the lab.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 289 Task 4: Challenge Draw the pin connections for the rollover cable and straight-through cable.

such as controlling a modem or accessing a Cisco router through the serial console connection. similar to the Windows HyperTerminal program. Perform basic commands.290 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Lab 10-4: Establishing a Console Session with Minicom (10. . Any router that meets the interface requirements may be used.3. 2500. Set up the basic physical connection. Ensure that power is turned off on the computer and Cisco router. Power on the devices. Figure 10-14 Topology for Lab 10-4 Straight-Through Cable Serial Cable Console (Rollover) Crossover Cable The following resources are required: ■ ■ ■ Linux/UNIX computer with a serial interface and Minicom loaded Cisco router Console (rollover) cable for connecting the workstation to the router Task 1: Connect a Router and Computer with a Console Cable Step 1. 2600 routers.6. Background Minicom is a text-based UNIX terminal emulation program. The Linux or UNIX operating system is required. 1700. Enable power to the computer and router.1) Upon completion of this lab. or a combination. Scenario Set up a network similar to the one in Figure 10-14. Minicom can be used for many purposes. 1600. Connect the other cable end to the PC with a DB-9 or DB-25 adapter to the COM 1 port. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ Connect a router and computer using a console cable. Configure Minicom to establish a console session with the router. Connect the console (rollover) cable to the console port on the router. Step 2. Possible routers include 800.

root access is required. Press Enter. From the Linux command prompt. Figure 10-15 shows the main configuration window. Figure 10-16 Serial Port Configuration Window Table 10-17 Serial Port Settings Option Field Value A Serial Device Dev/ttyS0 for COM 1 /dev/ttyS1 for COM 2 E Bps/Par/Bits Bps: 9600 Par: None Bits: 8 Stop bits: 1 (or. This starts Minicom in configuration mode: [root]# minicom –s <ENTER> Step 2. Note: To configure Minicom. Configure Minicom for serial communications. Figure 10-15 Main Configuration Window Figure 10-16 shows the serial port configuration window. Use the letter by the field to change a setting. scroll down the configuration list and select Serial port setup. . to start Minicom.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 291 Task 2: Configure Minicom to Establish a Console Session with the Router Step 1. To configure the serial port. Table 10-17 shows the correct values. select option Q) F G Hardware Flow Control Software Flow Control Toggle: No Toggle: No Return to the Configuration menu by pressing Enter or Esc. enter the minicom command with the –s option. Start the Minicom application in configuration mode.

select Save setup as dfl (default file). However. . press <Ctrl> A. followed by Z. To quit Minicom. use <Ctrl> A. as follows: [root]# minicom <ENTER> When the session window starts. Check the connection to the correct COM 1 port on the PC and the console port on the router. this indicates that a connection has been successfully completed. Basic commands are not intuitive. For example. Figure 10-18 shows a list of functions and corresponding keys. the default values will be reloaded. users communicate with remote devices within the terminal window. For example. troubleshoot as necessary. If there is no connection. Select Exit from Minicom. Figure 10-17 Serial Port Configuration Window Step 3. To get help. serial communication utility. When Minicom is restarted. press the Enter key. close the Minicom session.292 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide In the window shown in Figure 10-17. followed by either Q or X. press <Ctrl> A. to control the utility. Task 3: Perform Basic Commands Minicom is a text-based. There should be a response from the router. Cisco switches are accessed in the same fashion. When finished. Figure 10-18 Minicom Command Summary Screen Task 4: Reflection This lab provided information for establishing a console connection to a Cisco router using Minicom. Restart the Minicom session. menu-driven. Step 4. Close Minicom. verify that the router has power.

94 R2 Fa0/0 Fa0/1 S0/0/0 S0/0/1 R3 Fa0/0 S0/0/0 S0/0/1 PC1-A PC2-A PC3-A Eagle-Server NIC NIC NIC NIC . Packet Tracer Challenge Skills and Integration Challenge: Planning and Cabling Networks (10.137 192.255.255.1.168. Remove the rollover cable.255. turn off power to the host computer and router.1.1.168. However.110 192.1.168.133 192.255.252 255.94 192.130 192.255.255.255.1.1.252 255.168.192 255.1.7.1. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity.168.255.110 192.62 192.168.255.168. Table 10-18 Addressing Table Device Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1 Fa0/0 S0/0/0 S0/0/1 192.255.255. keep in mind that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment.1. Plan the IP addresses.1.1.1.252 255.255.255.1.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 293 Task 5: Clean Up Unless directed otherwise by the instructor.240 255.1. Background Table 10-18 shows the addressing for this lab.255.134 192.1 192.224 255.192 255.168.126 192.113 192.168. Test the network.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer.240 255.1.252 255.168.255.255.240 255.255.3) You can now open the file LSG01-PTSkills10.168.255.255.168.168.252 255. Remove anything that was brought into the lab.255.62 192.1.255.126 192.255. Upon completion of this lab.1.252 255.255.1.255.97 192.255. Configure router and PC interfaces.255.240 255. and leave the room ready for the next class.93 255.168.168.168.255.129 192.138 192.255.224 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 192. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ ■ Build the network topology.168.168.1.

Task 1: Build the Network Topology Use the following tables and the devices in the device pool to create the topology.1.294 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Practice your network building.0 /24 address space. Use Table 10-21 and Table 10-22 to create an effective addressing scheme. Seven total networks are required. Table 10-19 shows the router information. and configuration skills. assign the networks in decreasing order of number of hosts required for efficient use of address space. planning. Table 10-21 LAN Hostname Interface Number of Hosts R1 R2 Fa0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/1 60 10 30 7 R3 Fa0/0 .168. Table 10-19 Routers Hostname Interface Connects To Interfaces R1 R1 R1 R2 R2 R2 R3 Fa0/0 S0/0/0 (DCE) S0/0/1 (DCE) Fa0/0 S0/0/1 (DCE) Fa0/1 Fa0/0 SW-1 R2 R3 SW-2A R3 SW-2B SW-3 Fa0/1 S0/0/0 S0/0/1 Fa0/1 S0/0/0 Fa0/1 Fa0/1 Table 10-20 shows the switch information. Device names and routing have already been configured. Table 10-20 Switches Hostname Interface Connects To Interfaces SW-1 SW-2A SW-2B SW-3 Fa0/2 Fa0/2 Fa0/2) Fa0/2 PC-1A PC-1B Eagle-Server PC-1C FastEthernet FastEthernet FastEthernet FastEthernet Task 2: Create and Assign an Addressing Scheme You are asked to use the 192.

and the server according to the preceding addressing scheme. other PCs. R1 and R2 DCE interfaces should have clock rates of 56000. R2. the server will use the second to last host address in its subnet. All Fast Ethernet ports on a router will use the last host address of the assigned subnet. Task 4: Testing Connectivity Make sure all PCs can ping their gateways. the PCs. The R1–R2 link will use the first WAN subnet. ■ ■ Task 3: Interface Configuration Perform interface configuration of the R1. the R1–R3 link will use the second WAN subnet.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 295 Table 10-22 WAN Hostname Address to be Assigned Number of Hosts R1–R3 R1–R3 R2–R3 R1–First host address R1–First host address R2–First host address 2 2 2 Use the following rules to assign IP addresses: ■ PCs will use the first host address in the subnet. and R3 routers. . and the R2–R3 link will use the third WAN subnet. and the server.

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When an AUX port is available. addressing. SSH uses more secure password authentication and encrypts the data for transport. just like the console port.CHAPTER 11 Configuring and Testing Your Network The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of matching. Not all devices have an AUX port. security. It is important to configure the console port with a password and prevent physical access to the router by keeping it in a locked room. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum activities and labs to ensure you have mastered the practical. multiple-choice. Discuss when and why you would use a certain method. or use the corresponding Chapter 11 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration Companion Guide. Telnet and SSH provide remote access to the device and require network services. SSH is preferred over Telnet. As you work through this chapter. Study Guide Configuring Cisco Devices: IOS Basics Routers and switches need an operating system to function. use Chapter 11 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum. such as routing and switching. troubleshooting. and quality of service. and password recovery. Access through the AUX port does not require network services on the device. it is important to protect it with a password. Understanding these functions and being able to access them is essential for network administrators and technicians. The AUX port can be used to access the device either locally or through a dialup connection. disaster recovery. . Describe the different access methods for Cisco devices. What security concerns do you need to consider for the different access methods? Answers will vary. The operating system on most Cisco devices is the Cisco IOS. It provides a number of network services. Concept Questions 1. for assistance. hands-on skills you need. The console port provides a low-speed serial connection and is used mainly when network services are unavailable on the device—during initial configuration. fill-in-the-blank. and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of configuring and testing networks. For security reasons.

It is important to save changes that need to be permanent. Interface configuration mode Cisco IOS Command Exercises Answer these questions based on the following command: Router#show ip interface brief 1. The startup configuration file is stored in nonvolatile RAM (NVRAM). Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 11-1. Switch> b. Describe the advantage of the hierarchical modal structure. 2. A network technician might be allowed to look at configurations but not change them. the network administrator can grant different personnel different levels of access. because this file is stored in RAM. 3. Global configuration mode a. location. These changes are active immediately. Authentication can be configured for different modes. User EXEC mode d. these changes are not permanent unless they are written to the startup configuration file in NVRAM. Any configuration changes that are made to the device are written to the running configuration file. Answers may vary. Router(config)# d. Switch(config-if)# b. Each time a device is started or reloaded. and how they relate to each other. Privileged EXEC mode c. What is the name of the command? show Does this command use arguments or keywords? Keywords . Because this file is in RAM. Therefore. Table 11-1 Prompt IOS Configuration Modes IOS Configuration Mode a. match the device prompt on the left with the correct IOS configuration mode on the right. Compare and contrast the two main configuration files on Cisco devices in terms of function. Router# c. After it is loaded into RAM. The main advantage is the controlled access or security. the startup configuration file loads into RAM. The running configuration file is lost when the device is powered down.298 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide 2. it becomes the running configuration file—the file that is used to operate the device. which is volatile memory. Answers may vary. For example. the startup configuration file stays intact when the device is powered off.

passwords. Possible locations are RAM. the network administrator needs to exercise proper file management by saving changes to the configuration and by backing up configuration files. Table 11-2 Key IOS Command-Line Help Function Tab Ctrl-R Ctrl-Z Up arrow Down arrow Ctrl-D Ctrl-C Ctrl-Shift-6 Backspace exit Autocomplete: completes the remainder of the command or keyword Redisplays a line Exits configuration mode and returns to privileged EXEC mode Scrolls backwards through previously entered commands Scrolls forward through previously entered commands Deletes the character to the right of the cursor Aborts the current command and exits configuration mode Interrupts an IOS process such as ping or traceroute Deletes the character to the left of the cursor A command to move up one level in the configuration mode hierarchy Applying a Basic Configuration Using Cisco IOS All networking devices need a basic configuration to be functional. Where do the following commands get the information they display? Name the file if applicable and the storage location of this information. and flash. ROM. Hostnames are important for network documentation and remote access. show version: IOS information in RAM show startup-config: Backup configuration file in NVRAM show running-config: Active configuration file in RAM show flash: Operating systems stored in flash Test Your Knowledge Use Table 11-2 to test your knowledge of the command-line interface (CLI) shortcuts and hot keys. Because configuration files are critical. and the IP addresses and descriptions on the interface.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 299 3. The most important initial configuration parameters include hostnames. NVRAM. and IP addresses are needed to establish connectivity with other devices on the network. Passwords establish basic security at the local level. .

300 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Concept Questions 1. Router(config)# interface 0/1/0 b. a logical naming scheme that includes version control is critical. and explain why they should contain some type of warning message. Explain how good management of configuration files can be implemented. They are visible to anyone who logs on to the system. 3. Answers will vary. Answers will vary. It is good practice to advise against unauthorized access with the help of banners. Which of the following steps are required to configure an Ethernet interface? (Choose all that apply. c. There should always be backup copies of files to aid in disaster recovery. Enter global configuration mode. Enter interface configuration mode. This can prove helpful if somebody breaks into the system and a legal case arises. The administrator needs to have fast access to the desired files. Explain why the hostname is an extremely important feature for networking devices. Hostnames. Router# interface s0 c. Banners provide a method for declaring that only authorized personnel should have access to the devices. Backing up configuration files is part of good file management. Router(config)# interface s0/1/0 d. Most networking devices. Specify the interface address and subnet mask. and they need to be worded carefully. Including dates in the naming convention can be helpful. Briefly explain the purpose of banners. Answers may vary. proper file management is very important. such as from an office. . 1. because this lets you sort files by date if needed. 2. Therefore. such as routers and switches. d. Be specific in your answer.) a. The filename also needs to indicate the hostname of the device it belongs to. help the administrator know what device he or she is connected to. b. together with up-to-date documentation. Router(config)> interface s0/1/0 2. The directory structure needs to be logical and should be documented. Multiple-Choice Questions Choose the best possible answer(s) for the following questions dealing with interface configuration network testing. This means that the administrator connects to the networking devices via the network. The administrator does not have the physical devices in front of him or her to make sure they are attached to the correct piece of equipment. Therefore. Hostnames are a vital part of network management. Filenaming conventions are extremely important. are managed remotely. Enable the interface. Which of the following interface commands allows you to enter interface configuration mode to configure a router’s interface? a. Network configuration files are extremely important on a production network.

Like other hosts. 2. Test Your Knowledge The ping utility yields useful indicators that can be used for troubleshooting. Because the ping test tests all the layers of the TCP/IP model. It is also possible that the ping was blocked by security measures. Why is the ping test also called testing the protocol stack? a. show running-configuration d.1 command can be used to test the local host IP configuration. d. A connectivity problem has occurred along the path. 2. It is possible that a router along the path did not have a route to the destination and did not send an ICMP destination unreachable message. show IP interface brief b. Because it uses a protocol stack to perform connectivity testing. Time to Live (TTL) defines the number of hops that the ping packet has remaining before it will be dropped. Exclamation mark (!): The ping completed successfully.) a. Concept Question Explain how the internal IP configuration on the local host can be tested. It verifies the proper operation of the protocol stack from the network layer to the physical layer (and back) without putting a signal on the medium. show interface description 4. b. The letter U: A router along the path did not have a route to the destination address and responded with an ICMP unreachable message. and 1 of the OSI model. A network administrator needs to be familiar with the different testing utilities such as ping and traceroute and the different show commands.0. a switch needs a default gateway address defined to communicate with hosts outside the local network. Describe the following indicators. 3. Verifying Connectivity A network needs full connectivity to converge. Answers may vary. Because it tests all the layers of the OSI model.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 301 3. . The ping 127. 1. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following sentences. and Layer 3 connectivity has been established. show interfaces c.): The ping timed out. The output of which of the following commands shows the interface description? (Choose all that apply. Testing network connectivity is a very important task. c. One effective way to test network connectivity is to use the ping command. The output provided by the utilities and the show commands provides useful information for troubleshooting. Period (. Because it tests connectivity at Layers 3.0.

The purpose of this lab is to measure and evaluate network latency over time. Network engineers routinely rely on networks outside of local administration for connectivity to external networks. You will note the latency value at the center of the ordered range of latency points (median) and identify the most frequently occurring delay (mode). you will be able to ■ ■ ■ Use the ping command to document network latency.3) Upon completion of this lab. You will also measure delay when the ICMP datagram size increases. and some private networks block transit ICMP echo datagrams. Measure delay effects from larger datagrams. Scenario In the topology diagram shown in Figure 11-1.4. a sufficiently distant destination should be chosen. to capture a representative sample of typical network activity. You will summarize return delay times. Background To obtain realistic network latency statistics. measured in milliseconds. Normally these devices are the ones that introduce network latency. otherwise. For this experiment to be interesting. Figure 11-1 Topology for Lab 11-1 Server Computer Network Cloud Student Computer . If you’re patient. and during different periods of the day. by computing the average latency (mean). Destinations on the same LAN or within a few hops may return an unrepresentative low latency. Monitoring path latency provides some measure of administrative diligence. You will accomplish this by analyzing the return delay from a distant computer using the ping command.302 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Labs and Activities Lab 11-1: Network Latency Documentation with ping (11. Compute various statistics on the output of a ping capture. Some computers have this feature disabled through a firewall. Be sure to check with your instructor for any local security restrictions on using the ping command on the network. The destination server computer must return ICMP echo replies.3. You will perform statistical analysis of throughput delay with the assistance of a spreadsheet application such as Microsoft Excel. the network cloud represents all the network devices and cabling between the student computer and the destination server computer. which may be used in decision-making when evaluating suitable applications for wide-area network (WAN) deployment. delay cannot be computed. you can find a suitable destination. this lab must be performed on a live network.

191. Task 1: Use the ping Command to Document Network Latency Step 1. Note to Instructor: Answers will vary. depending on the destination server computer students choose.5: Packets: Sent = 1. one test should be done in the early morning. When you’re done.191.com.yahoo. one around midday. and one in the evening. depending on the destination address. and write down the results: Packets sent: _____________ Packets received: _________ Packets lost: _____________ Answers will vary.net [209. Use the ping command to verify connectivity with the destination.52: bytes=32 time=304ms TTL=52 Ping statistics for 209. Average = 304 ms Use the ping /? command to answer the following questions: What is the purpose of the -n option and argument 1? The -n option determines the number of echo requests to send. The idea is to note and document latency differences that occur at different times of the day. and write down the name: Answers will vary. use another destination. for example. Received = 1. Example 11-1 Ping Test C:\> ping -n 1 www.52] with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 209. Lost = 0 (0% loss) Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 304ms.com Pinging www.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 303 This lab requires five days of testing. Students might decide to ping google. The ping command might fail or succeed.93. Open a terminal window by choosing Start > Run. as shown in Example 11-1. you will have 15 sets of data.yahoo-ht3. such as www. Enter cmd.93. and then click OK.93. you will send and analyze increasingly larger ICMP datagrams.com or yahoo. Maximum = 304ms .com.191. . Attempt to ping a suitably distant destination.akadns. To understand the delay effects from larger datagrams. Preferably. Three tests will be performed each day. If packets were lost. and retest. Verify connectivity between the student computer and the destination server computer.yahoo. What option and argument would change the default size to 100 bytes? ping IP Address -l 100 Decide on a destination server computer.

Save the file using the name format day-sample#. When the input formatting is satisfactory. click Finish. median. and mode delay values. Task 2: Compute Various Statistics on the Output of a ping Capture Step 1. In Step 2. start Microsoft Excel. Alternatively. If the spreadsheet has numbers in different fields.304 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Step 2. Choose File > Open. ensure that all numeric values are separated from text characters. where day is the day the test was performed (1 through 5) and sample# is the sample period (1 through 3). After the spreadsheet has been opened. Click Browse to move to the directory that holds the text file. manually fix the numbers. Perform a delay test. Write down the command that sends 100 echo requests to the destination: ping -n 100 Use the ping command to send 100 echo requests to your destination. Bring the text file into the Microsoft Excel spreadsheet application. you should have a spreadsheet that looks similar to Figure 11-3. When you’re done. In the Text Import wizard. Step 1. shown in Figure 11-2. format the columns so that they are more readable. Note: The terminal remains blank until the command has finished. To format a text file for use within Excel. choose Fixed Width. copy the replies into Notepad.txt to the end of the ping command. If it isn’t already open. Highlight the filename and click Open. Compute the mean. Choose Start > Programs > Accessories > Notepad. The command syntax is ping [options] >day-sample#. Figure 11-2 Excel Text Import Wizard Step 2. you can redirect output to a file by appending >day-sample#. . follow the instructions to separate numeric values from text values.txt.txt. When you’re finished.

Select the column that contains the Delay values. Figure 11-4 shows a partial spreadsheet highlighted and the Data dialog box opened. When you’re finished. If a header row was highlighted. click OK. Highlight all the data fields. In Figure 11-4 it is Column G. Dropped packets have a consistently large delay value. click the Header row radio button. Finally.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 305 Figure 11-3 Partial Spreadsheet Record the number of dropped packets in the column Dropped Packets. Figure 11-4 Ordering on the Delay Column . You do this by choosing Data > Sort. the delay values must be ordered (sorted) when computing the median and mode values.

destination is the destination. 20 datagrams will be incremented by 100 bytes per ping request. Record this number in your chart in the Mode column. as shown in the following command. In this analysis. Perform a variable-sized delay test. this would equate to the formula in cell G102: =average(G2:G101). The normal redirect operator.2000) DO ping -n 1 -l %i destination >> variablesizedelay.txt Note: The terminal remains blank until the command has finished. For the mode value. you will send increasingly larger ICMP echo requests to the destination. use the redirect append operator. >>. Perform a quick visual inspection to verify that your mean value is approximately the value shown. Record this number in your chart in the Mean column. Perform a quick visual inspection to verify that your median value is similar to what is shown midway in the data range.step. You will create a spreadsheet with the reply results.end) DO command [command-parameters] The set is a sequence of numbers from start to end. overwrites the file each time the ping command is executed.1) would generate the sequence (5 4 3 2 1). The syntax is FOR /L %variable IN (start. To redirect output to a file. The output of one line is shown in Example 11-2. So (1.306 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide The formula used to compute the mean.100.–1. or the delay value in the center of the ordered range. and (5.1.2000) DO ping -n 1 -l %i destination Copy the output into Notepad. and only the last reply is saved. delay is the sum of the delays divided by the number of measurements. You may either save or discard the new spreadsheet file.txt. is similar to the average formula. Issue this command: FOR /L %i IN (100. or the delay value that occurs the most frequently. . Perform a quick visual inspection to verify that your mode value is the most frequently occurring value in the data range. FOR /L %i IN (100. the formula in cell G103 would be =median(G2:G101). The formula used to compute the modal delay. is also similar. Task 3: Measure Delay Effects from Larger Datagrams To determine if larger datagrams affect delay. For the median value.100. All 20 replies are arranged similarly. The easiest way to accomplish this task is to use the Windows built-in FOR loop command. In the following command. Step 1. and save the file using the name variablesizedelay. >. by step amount. or average. For this spreadsheet. Record this number in your chart in the Median column. but you should retain the data text file. The formula used to compute the median delay. as well as a chart that plots size versus delay. the formula in cell G104 would be =mode(G2:G101).5) would generate the sequence 1 2 3 4 5.

Step 3. and submit them to your instructor with the final delay analysis. Figure 11-5 Excel Text Import Wizard The difference between this file and the previous one is that the variable-size file has much more information than is really needed.93. but there is room for individual creativity. Open the new text file in Excel. Format the spreadsheet.93. When you’re finished.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 307 Example 11-2 Variable-Size Delay Test C:\> FOR /L %i IN (100.52: Packets: Sent = 1. A number of charts can be used to display delay data.yahoo.yahoo-ht3. the spreadsheet should look similar to Figure 11-6. .com >>variablesizedelay.191.net [209.2000) DO ping -n 1 -l %i www. Maximum = 383ms. Average = 383ms Step 2. Received = 1. Step 4.akadns.93. Bytes and Delay. Highlight the Delay column data and choose Insert > Chart. Clean up and organize the spreadsheet data into two columns. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 383ms.100. as shown in Figure 11-5. a delay might occur.52: bytes=100 time=383ms TTL=52 Ping statistics for 209.191. depending on available bandwidth and other traffic on the network.txt C:\> ping -n 1 -l 100 Pinging www. When larger datagrams are sent.52] with 100 bytes of data: Reply from 209. Bring the text file into the Excel spreadsheet application. A chart should be clear. The chart shown in Figure 11-7 is a stacked line chart. Create a chart of the data. When you’re finished. Lost = 0 (0% loss).191. save your spreadsheet and chart. Can you make any assumptions about delay when larger datagrams are sent across a network? Answers may vary.

Careful delay analysis over successive days and at different times of the day can alert the network engineer to changes in network performance. When these file-sharing applications are active. For example. subscribing with a different or additional Internet service provider (ISP) may prove beneficial. If that does not work. valuable bandwidth is diverted from critical business applications. network devices may become overwhelmed during certain times of the day. When the source originates from external networks not under the control of the organization. when delay is less. Also. routine data transfers should be scheduled during off-peak times. In this case. and corrective action can be taken.308 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 11-6 Formatted Spreadsheet Figure 11-7 Plot of Delay Versus Datagram Size Task 4: Reflection The ping command can provide important network latency information. and network delay spikes. try to work out the problem with the ISP first. If delays are caused by events within the organization. many users subscribe to peer-to-peer applications such as Kazaa and Napster. network analysis tools can be used to determine the source. .

Write a one. .or two-paragraph analysis that compares these delay results against a measurement made without the download.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 309 Task 5: Challenge If permitted. and perform a separate delay test while the file is downloading. download a large file.

. Configure a Cisco switch.5. To configure the lab. access passwords. Save the router configuration file. Common configuration tasks include setting the hostname. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Configure Cisco router global configuration settings.1.310 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Lab 11-2: Basic Cisco Device Configuration (11. Figure 11-8 Topology for Lab 11-2 1 Fa0/0 Fa0/1 Fa0/1 R1 Fa0/2 S1 Fa0/3 2 3 Gather the necessary equipment and cables. consider configur- ing a loopback interface as an alternative to the FastEthernet 0/1.1) Learning Objectives Upon completion of this lab. Background Figure 11-8 shows the topology for this lab. Table 11-3 Hardware Equipment and Hardware Requirements Quantity Description Cisco router Cisco switch Computer (host) Console (rollover) cable Crossover cable Straight-through cable 1 1 3 3 1 3 Part of the CCNA Lab bundle Part of the CCNA Lab bundle Lab computer Connects computer Host1 to the router console port Connects the computer to the router LAN interface FA0/0 Connects computer hosts to the switch and the switch to the router Note to Instructor: If you do not have a router that has two FastEthernet interfaces. Configure Cisco router interfaces. Configure Cisco router password access. and message-of-the-day (MOTD) banner. Another alternative would be to use two routers connected through a serial connection and use the FastEthernet interfaces from each router. make sure that the equipment listed in Table 11-3 is available.

219.64 192.240 First host address Last Host Address Broadcast IP address: 192.17 192.219.126 192.133.133.219.144 192.81 192.97 192.31 192.96 192.219.133.219.133. Configuration changes take effect immediately.207 192.219.133.133.160 192.0 # Subnet 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 192.219. Configuration changes may also be saved offline in a text file for auditing or device replacement.133.219.219.133.219.219.133.14 192.133.219.219.133.47 192.133.133.133.219.133.133.219.174 192.176 192.133.46 192. Scenario In this lab.133.133.133.0/24.133.219.219.133.239 192.133. Maximum number of usable subnets (including the 0th subnet): 16 Number of usable hosts per subnet: 14 Table 11-4 Subnet Address Table Subnet mask: 255.142 192.133.219.238 192.219.133.133.219.133.133.219.133.219.225 192.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 311 Interface configuration is extremely important.219.133. fill in Table 11-4.16 192.133.219.145 192.95 192. Given an IP address of 198.219 192.133.219. The changes must be saved in NVRAM to be persistent across reboot.0 192.219.219.219.133.133.219.219.133.80 192.219.222 192.254 192.219.219.129 192.133.177 192.219.158 192.1 192.208 192.133.133.219.209 192.219.190 192.63 192.) Note to Instructor: To reinforce student cable identification.133.219.219. straight-through.241 192.224 192. Address information is easy to compute with the subnet number filled in first.255 .219.133.207 192.219.240 192.219.33 192. Cisco IOS switch configuration is similar to Cisco IOS router configuration.219.219.133.143 192.133. (Hint: fill in the subnet number and then the host address.219.133.133.79 192.191 192.62 192. have several different types of cables available for the students.15 192.219.219.219.133.133.32 192. and rollover cables.219.193 192.133.255.219.113 192. you will configure common settings on a Cisco router and Cisco switch.133.219.133.95 192.48 192.219.133.133.219. Students should be able to identify the proper cable type based on a visual inspection.133.112 192.219.133. In addition to assigning a Layer 3 IP address.161 192.133.133.219.192 192.65 192.133.219. Mix crossover. with 4 bits borrowed for subnets.219.133.219.127 192.133.111 192.159 192.133.133.219.175 192.219.133.219.223 192.133.219.133.219.133.255.133.219.128 192.78 192.219.110 192.30 192.219.133. entering a description that describes the destination connection decreases troubleshooting time.

start the HyperTerminal program by choosing Start > Programs > Accessories > Communications > HyperTerminal. Physically connect the devices. Connect the console or rollover cable to the console port on the router. Give each team of students a subnetwork number. verify your addresses with the instructor. press the Enter key until the router responds. switch.312 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Before proceeding. Connect the other end of the cable to the host computer using a DB-9 adapter to the COM 1 port. Ensure that power has been applied to the host computer. . and router. Connect host computer through HyperTerminal. From the Widows taskbar. Figure 11-9 shows the cabling for this lab. Figure 11-9 Lab Cabling 1 Fa0/0 Fa0/1 R1 Straight-Through Cable Serial Cable Console (Rollover) Crossover Cable Step 2. Task 1: Configure Cisco Router Global Configuration Settings Step 1. Connect a straight-through cable between the Router interface Fa0/1 and any of the switch’s interfaces (1 through 24). Configure HyperTerminal with the proper settings: ■ ■ Name the connection description: Lab 11_5_1 Connect using: COM1 (or an appropriate COM port) Configure the COM1 properties: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Bits per second: 9600 Data bits: 8 Parity: None Stop bits: 1 Flow control: None When the HyperTerminal session window comes up. Connect the crossover cable between the host computer’s network interface card (NIC) and Router interface Fa0/0. The instructor will assign subnetworks.

release.255) % Press Ctrl-Shift-6. enter privileged EXEC mode: Router> enable Router# Verify a clean configuration file using the privileged EXEC command show runningconfig. Because no domain server is configured..255. If your router does not have a default configuration. apply the global configuration command no ip domain-lookup. Depending on the router’s model and the IOS version. This can take from several seconds to several minutes. release. The following shows a user mistyping a command and the router attempting a domain name lookup: Router>enabel Translating “enabel”. Step 3. What two commands may be used to leave privileged EXEC mode? exit or end What shortcut command can you use to enter privileged EXEC mode? en Examine the different configuration modes that can be entered with the command configure?.255. This results in the following: Name lookup aborted Router> To disable name translation attempts. If a configuration file was previously saved. and then press X. it must be removed. and describe them: confirm: Confirms replacement of running-config with a new config file memory: Configures from nonvolatile memory network: Configures from a TFTP network host overwrite-network: Overwrites nonvolatile memory from the TFTP network host replace: Replaces the running-config with a new config file terminal: Configures from the terminal <cr> . press Ctrl-Shift-6. your configuration may look slightly different from a typical default router’s configuration. ask the instructor to remove the configuration.domain server (255. However. Write down the list of configuration modes. exit by entering no: Would you like to enter the initial configuration dialog? [yes/no]: no Press RETURN to get started! Router> In privileged EXEC command mode. it should have no configured passwords or IP addresses. a delay occurs while the request times out.. To terminate the domain name lookup process. the router attempts to translate any misspelled or unrecognized commands as a domain name. and then press X. Configure global configuration hostname settings.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 313 If the router terminal is in configuration mode. From user EXEC mode.

and applicable local laws. Configure the MOTD banner. and Ctrl-Z What shortcut command can be used to enter global configuration mode? config t Set the device hostname to Router1: router(config)# hostname Router1 Router1(config)# How can the hostname be removed? no hostname Router1 Step 4. Router1(config)# banner ? LINE: c banner-text c. penalties for unauthorized access. Unauthorized access is prohibited and will be prosecuted. Unauthorized access will be prosecuted. exec: Sets the EXEC process creation banner incoming: Sets the incoming terminal line banner login: Sets the login banner motd: Sets the message-of-the-day banner prompt-timeout: Sets the message for the login authentication timeout slip-ppp: Sets the message for SLIP/PPP . connection logging. and describe them. suppose you are connected to an ABC network device. A banner should include information about authorization. where ‘c’ is a delimiting character Examine the different banner modes that can be entered. Create a suitable MOTD banner.314 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide From privileged EXEC mode. Write down the list of banner modes. enter global configuration mode: Router# configuration terminal Router(config)# What three methods may be used to leave global configuration mode and return to privileged EXEC mode? The exit command. and all connection information will be logged. Only system administrators of the ABC Company are authorized users. Access is granted to only current ABC system administrators with prior written approval. For example. the end command. The corporate security policy should cover all banner messages. For example. a court might interpret a friendly “Welcome” message as permission for an attacker to hack into the router. In production networks. All connections are continuously logged. banner content may have a significant legal impact on the organization.

as shown in Example 11-3. it is impossible to recover an enable secret based on the contents of a configuration file (other than by obvious dictionary attacks). End with the character %’ ***You are connected to an ABC network device. One command. The privileged EXEC mode password is the most critical password. Access is granted to only current ABC company system administrators with prior written approval. The MOTD banner is displayed on all connections before the login prompt. contains no encryption or weak cryptography and should never be used if the enable secret command is available. The following is a banner made from ASCII art that can be copied into the router: ( o o ) +------------------. Cisco says “As far as anyone at Cisco knows. enable password. because it controls access to configuration mode.oooO ( ) Oooo. The enable secret command uses a very secure MD5 cryptographic hash algorithm. Use the terminating character on a blank line to end the MOTD entry. Example 11-3 banner motd Output Router1(config)# banner motd % Enter TEXT message.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 315 Choose a terminating character that will not be used in the message text. )--------------------+ ) / (_/ | | | +---------------------\ (----( \_) Task 2: Configure Cisco Router Password Access Access passwords are set for privileged EXEC mode and the user entry point such as console. and will be prosecuted. *** *** Unauthorized access is prohibited. *** % Router1(config)# What is the global configuration command to remove the MOTD banner? no banner motd Personal banners on nonproduction devices can be entertaining. and virtual lines.------------------+ | | | . Configure the MOTD banner. Step 1. Configure the privileged EXEC password.oooO--(_)--Oooo. such as % (percent).” Password security relies on the password . aux. *** All connections are continuously logged. Cisco IOS supports two commands that set access to privileged EXEC mode.

Router1(config-line)# line vty 0 4 Router1(config-line)# password cisco Router1(config-line)# login There are three ways to exit line configuration mode. Fill in Table 11-5 with the correct answers. Router1(config)# line console 0 Router1(config-line)# password cisco Router1(config-line)# login What is the command to remove the console password? no password cisco Step 3. we will use weak passwords. only five virtual lines could be set—0 through 4. The virtual line password controls Telnet access to the router. What is the router prompt? What is the mode? Router1# Privileged EXEC mode . Set the virtual line access password to cisco. Configure the console password. In early Cisco IOS versions. A strong password consists of at least nine characters of uppercase and lowercase letters. strong passwords should be used at all times. In production environments. access on that virtual line is blocked. In newer Cisco IOS versions. Unless a Telnet password is set. Set the console access password to cisco. In a lab environment. Exits the configuration and returns to privileged EXEC mode. and symbols. Issue the command exit. What is the router prompt? What is the mode? Router1(config-line)# exit Router1(config)# Global configuration mode Issue the command end. Table 11-5 Command Ways to Exit Line Configuration Mode Effect exit end Ctrl-Z Returns to global configuration mode. The console password controls console access to the router. numbers. Set the privileged EXEC password to class: Router1(config)# enable secret class Router1(config)# Step 2. the number has been expanded. Configure the virtual line password.316 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide algorithm and the password.

1.168. Apply the description on the router interface with the interface configuration command description. Write down the last IP address: Answers will vary. depending on which subnet students choose from Table 11-4. interface Fa0/0.1 The last IP address will be used to configure the router fa0/0 interface.255. Configure the router interface Fa0/0.1. the maximum description length is 240 characters.14 Step 1. 192.255. 192.240 The first IP address will be used to configure the host computer LAN. Example 11-4 Interface Configuration Router1(config)# interface fa0/0 Router1(config-if)# description Connection to Host1 with crossover cable Router1(config-if)# ip address address mask Router1(config-if)# no shutdown Router1(config-if)# end Router1# .1. Write a short description for the connections on Router1: Fa0/0 -> Connection to Host1 with crossover cable.168. Write down the first IP address: Answers will vary. Figure 11-10 shows a network topology in which a host computer is connected to Router 1.0 255. as shown in Example 11-4. Figure 11-10 Network Topology 1 Fa0/0 Fa0/1 R1 Straight-Through Cable Serial Cable Console (Rollover) Crossover Cable Write down your subnet number and mask: Answers will vary. On newer Cisco IOS versions.168.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 317 Task 3: Configure Cisco Router Interfaces All cabled interfaces should contain documentation about the connection. 192.

changed state to up Step 3. and choose Properties. Write a short description for the connections on Router1: Fa0/1 -> Apply the description on the router interface with the interface configuration command description. What Cisco IOS command can you use to verify the interface status? show interface fa0/0 and show interface fa0/1 What Windows command can you use to verify host computer configuration? ipconfig What is the correct LAN cable between Host1 and Router1? Crossover .318 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Look for the interface to become active: *Mar 24 19:58:59. Step 4. and choose Properties. Fill in the following fields: ■ ■ ■ IP Address: The first host address Subnet Mask: The subnet mask Default Gateway: The router’s IP address Click OK. Configure the host computer.602: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet0/0. Use the ping command to verify network connectivity with the router. Open a Windows command window. and verify network settings with the ipconfig command. Verify network connectivity. and then click Close. Highlight the Internet Protocol field. as shown in Example 11-5. changed state to up Step 2. Configure the host computer for LAN connectivity. Rightclick the LAN icon. Example 11-5 Interface Configuration Router1(config)# interface fa0/1 Router1(config-if)# description Connection to switch with straightthrough cable Router1(config-if)# ip address address mask Router1(config-if)# no shutdown Router1(config-if)# end Router1# Look for the interface to become active: *Mar 24 19:58:59. Recall that you access the LAN configuration window by choosing Start > Control Panel > Network Connections. If ping replies are not successful.602: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet0/1. Configure the router interface Fa0/1. troubleshoot the connection.

Example 11-6 Missing NVRAM Router1# show startup-config startup-config is not present Router1# Display the contents of RAM. NVRAM must be manually updated after any changes are made. . Step 1. contains the hash algorithm type—in this case. JnEnON09QjpibV33dJXBI0. Use the Cisco IOS show command to view RAM and NVRAM configurations. Sg/E.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 319 Task 4: Save the Router Configuration Files Cisco IOS calls RAM configuration storage the running configuration. If all students used cisco as the enable secret password. the RAM configuration must be copied into NVRAM. as shown in Example 11-6. (Answers will vary. The answer is beyond the scope of this curriculum. The second field. or random value. The first field. If the output of NVRAM is missing. to compute the MD5 hash. and it calls nonvolatile RAM (NVRAM) configuration storage the startup configuration. Router1# show running-config Use the output to answer the following questions: How large is the configuration file? The current configuration is 935 bytes. Because the salts are different. A line containing — more — indicates that there is additional information to display. MD5. The configuration is displayed one screen at a time. This does not occur automatically. Table 11-6 Key Key Responses Description Spacebar Enter Q Ctrl-C Displays the next page Displays the next line Quits Quits Write down one possible shortcut command that displays the contents of NVRAM: show start Use this command to show the contents of NVRAM. The cryptotext $1$Sg/E$JnEnON09QjpibV33dJXBI0 is actually composed of three fields. For configurations to survive rebooting or power restarts. it is because there is no saved configuration. separated by $. the resulting hash is different. is called the salt.) What is the enable secret password? enable secret 5 $1$Sg/E$JnEnON09QjpibV33dJXBI0 Ask students to compare their passwords. Compare router RAM and NVRAM configurations. 1. that is used with the password. someone is bound to ask why the cryptotext is different. cisco. but a short answer to intrigue students may lead to independent research. but they will be close to 1000 bytes. Table 11-6 describes acceptable key responses.

there should be no configured passwords. ask the instructor to remove the configuration. cable to the console port on the switch. Task 5: Configure a Cisco Switch Cisco IOS switch configuration is similar to configuring a Cisco IOS router. Connect the host to the switch. In HyperTerminal. Save the RAM configuration to NVRAM. your configuration may look slightly different from the typical default switch configuration.. Configure the global configuration hostname setting. Save the RAM configuration to NVRAM. wr Review the contents of NVRAM. [OK] Router1# Write down one possible shortcut command that will copy the RAM configuration to NVRAM. copy run start. Ensure that power has been applied to the switch. sh run. wr mem. Depending on the switch model and IOS version. enter global configuration mode: Switch> en Switch# config t Switch(config)# Set the device hostname to Switch1: Switch(config)# hostname Switch1 Switch1(config)# . For a configuration to be used the next time the router is powered on or reloaded. or rollover. The contents should be the same. From user EXEC mode. write mem. The benefit of learning IOS commands is that they are similar to many different devices and IOS versions. write terminal Step 2.320 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide ■ ■ ■ Does your MOTD banner contain the information you entered earlier? Yes Do your interface descriptions contain the information you entered earlier? Yes Write down one possible shortcut command that will display the contents of RAM.. Step 1. press Enter until the switch responds. Example 11-7 Saving the RAM Configuration Router1# copy running-config startup-config Destination filename [startup-config]? <ENTER> Building configuration. Step 2. Move the console. it must be manually saved in NVRAM. However. as shown in Example 11-7. and verify that the configuration is the same as the configuration in RAM. If your switch does not have a default configuration.

0 through 15: Switch1(config-line)# line vty 0 15 Switch1(config-line)# password class Switch1(config-line)# login Step 7. Only system administrators of the ABC company are authorized users. . and all connection information will be logged. For assistance. Configure the MOTD banner: Switch1(config)# banner motd % The MOTD banner is displayed on all connections before the login prompt. Switch1 interface Fa0/2 is connected to host computer 2. Unauthorized access will be prosecuted. interface Fa0/1. review the similar step for configuring a switch MOTD banner. Configure the virtual line password. Create a suitable MOTD banner. Sixteen virtual lines can be configured on a Cisco IOS switch. Access is granted to only current ABC system administrators with prior written approval.% Step 4. Use the terminating character on a blank line to end the MOTD entry.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 321 Step 3. and will be prosecuted. and interface Fa0/3 is connected to host computer 3. All connections are continuously logged. Configure the console password. Figure 11-11 shows a network topology in which Router1 is connected to Switch1. Set the privileged EXEC password to cisco: Switch1(config)# enable secret cisco Switch1(config)# Step 5. Configure the privileged EXEC password. Configure the interface description. Unauthorized access is prohibited. Configure the MOTD banner. Set the console access password to class: Switch1(config)# line console 0 Switch1(config-line)# password class Switch1(config-line)# login Step 6. Set the virtual line access password to class. Switch1(config)# banner motd % You are connected to an ABC network device.

Table 11-7 Interface Description Description Switch1 Interface Fa0/1 Fa0/2 Fa0/3 Connection to Router 1 Connection to host computer 2 Connection to host computer 3 Apply the descriptions on the switch interface using the interface configuration command description. Example 11-9 Saving the Configuration Switch1# copy run start Destination filename [startup-config]? <ENTER> Building configuration. Save the RAM configuration to NVRAM. write a short description for the connections on Switch1. [OK] Switch1# Review the contents of NVRAM. and verify that the configuration is the same as the configuration in RAM. For a configuration to be used the next time the switch is powered on or reloaded... Example 11-8 Interface Description Switch1(config)# interface fa0/1 Switch1(config-if)# description Connection to Router1 Switch1(config)# interface fa0/2 Switch1(config-if)# description Connection to host computer 2 Switch1(config)# interface fa0/3 Switch1(config-if)# description Connection to host computer 3 Switch1(config-if)# end Switch1# Step 8. Save the RAM configuration to NVRAM as shown in Example 11-9. it must be manually saved in NVRAM.322 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 11-11 Network Topology 1 Fa0/0 Fa0/1 Fa0/1 R1 Fa0/2 S1 Fa0/3 2 3 In Table 11-7. The contents should be the same. as shown in Example 11-8. .

Table 11-8 Action Commands Covered in This Lab Command Enter global configuration mode. enable secret password Example: Router(config)# enable secret cisco Router(config)# password password login Example: Router(config)# line con 0 Router(config-line)# password class Router(config-line)# login Router(config-line)# Specify a password to prevent unauthorized Telnet access. Router vty lines: 0 4 password password login Example: Router(config)# line vty 0 4 Router(config-line)# password class Router(config-line)# login Router(config-line)# continues . but an experienced network engineer does not need a cheat sheet to perform common configuration tasks. configure terminal Example: Router> enable Router# configure terminal Router(config)# Specify the router’s name. Specify a password to prevent unauthorized access to the console. It is perfectly acceptable to use notes at first to help configure a device. hostname name Example: Router(config)# hostname Router1 Router1(config)# Specify an encrypted password to prevent unauthorized access to privileged EXEC mode. Table 118 lists the commands covered in this lab. the faster you will become at configuring a Cisco IOS router and switch.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 323 Task 6: Reflection The more you practice the commands.

324 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 11-8 Action Commands Covered in This Lab continued Command Configure the MOTD banner. banner motd % Example: Router(config)# banner motd % banner text % Router(config)# Configure an interface. Router: Interface is off by default Switch: Interface is on by default interface type/port Example: Router(config)# interface fa0/0 Router(config-if)# description description Router(config-if)# ip address address mask Router(config-if)# no shutdown Router(config-if)# Save the configuration to NVRAM. One way to do so is to choose Transfer > Capture Text from HyperTerminal. from HyperTerminal choose Transfer > Capture Text. to save the configuration file to an offline text file. copy running-config startup-config Example: Router# copy running-config startup-config Router# Task 7: Challenge It is often necessary. as shown in Figure 11-12. and always handy. Figure 11-12 HyperTerminal Capture Menu All communication between the host computer and router is saved to a file. It also can be copied and pasted into a router. and click Start. . The file can be edited and saved. Enter a path and filename. Step 1. To start a capture.

Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 325 Step 2. highlight the lines and choose Edit > Copy from Notepad. Stop the capture. Otherwise. and press Spacebar until all the configuration has been displayed. restore host computer network connectivity. Task 8: Clean Up Before turning off power to the router and switch. Each message must be investigated and corrected. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. Issue the privileged EXEC command show running-config. Verify the configuration. This places the configuration in host computer memory. and leave the room ready for the next class. Highlighting the HyperTerminal text and copying may also bring the configuration into memory. Remove any lines that are not configuration commands. Delete any configuration files saved on the host computers. and save to NVRAM. After the reload is complete. To load the configuration file. Choose Transfer > Capture Text > Stop. it is always a best practice to begin with a clean RAM configuration. . manually enable the interfaces by issuing the no shutdown command in interface configuration mode. The configuration is quickly loaded to the router. remove the NVRAM configuration file from each device using the privileged EXEC command erase startup-config. Step 4. Erase the NVRAM configuration file: Router1# erase start Erasing the nvram filesystem will remove all configuration files! Continue? [confirm] <ENTER> [OK] Erase of nvram: complete Step 3. The important point is to closely examine the configuration for any errors before reloading. and then turn off power to the host computers. After checking the configuration file. Manually correct any lines that were scrambled or places where several lines occupy the same line. Watch closely for error messages. Open the text file and review the contents. such as the — more — prompt. Reload the router: Router1# reload Proceed with reload? [confirm] <ENTER> When the router reboots. stale configuration commands may survive a paste action and have unintended consequences. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. enter global configuration mode: Router> en Router# config t Router(config)# Right-click inside the HyperTerminal window and choose Paste To Host.

however.1.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity.326 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Basic Cisco Device Configuration (11. . Remember.2) You can now open the file LSG1-Lab11512. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment.5.

0/24 and additional 6 bits for subnets. and then restore the configuration from a TFTP server.aspx or from any freeware or shareware website.250.com/products/freetools/free_tftp_server. You are given an IP address of 10.250. Host1 should use the first valid host address.5. Use TFTP to save and restore a Cisco IOS configuration. .2. SolarWinds is a free TFTP application for Windows. Table 11-9 Hardware Lab Equipment and Hardware Requirements Quantity Description Cisco router Computer (host) Console (rollover) cable Crossover cable 1 1 1 1 Part of the CCNA Lab bundle Lab computer Connects computer Host1 to the router console port Connects the Host1 NIC to Router1 Fa0/0 The host computer will be used as a TFTP server.solarwinds.1) Upon completion of this lab. Use the last valid subnet. you will configure common settings on a Cisco router.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 327 Lab 11-3: Managing Device Configuration (11. This lab requires the use of SolarWinds TFTP server software. You may download a free copy of the SolarWinds TFTP server software from www. Figure 11-13 Topology for Lab 11-3 1 Fa0/0 R1 Straight-Through Cable Serial Cable Console (Rollover) Crossover Cable Table 11-9 lists the lab equipment and hardware requirements for this lab. Scenario In this lab. you will be able to ■ ■ Configure network connectivity. save the configuration to a TFTP server. and Router1 should use the last valid host address. Background Figure 11-13 shows the topology for this lab.

cable to the console port on the router.250.249 10.250.255. subnet mask. Mix crossover. Issue the no shutdown command. Table 11-10 IP Addressing IP address: 10.251 To reinforce student cable identification.250. and default gateway.250. The configuration tasks for Router1 are as follows: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Specify the router name: Router1 Specify an encrypted privileged EXEC password: cisco Specify a console access password: class Specify a Telnet access password: class Configure the MOTD banner. Logically connect the devices.255. Caution: Do not save the configuration in NVRAM. Connect the console.0 Subnet Subnet mask: 255.250. and rollover cables. have several different types of cables available for the students.250. Using the IP address information from the scenario. configure the Host1 computer with an IP address. Step 2. Connect the other cable end to the host computer with a DB-9 adapter to the COM 1 port. Refer to Figure 11-13. When the HyperTerminal session window opens. start the HyperTerminal program by choosing Start > Programs > Accessories > Communications > HyperTerminal.252 Last Host Address Broadcast First Host Address 10.250 10. Connect the host computer to the router through HyperTerminal. Students should be able to identify the proper cable type based on a visual inspection. Ensure that power has been applied to both the host computer and the router. From the Widows taskbar.250.250.250. . Set the Layer 3 address. Physically connect the devices. Task 1: Configure Network Connectivity Step 1. Step 3.250. Step 4. Configure the Router1 interface Fa0/0: ■ ■ ■ Set the description. straight-through. Configure Router1.248 10.328 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Use Table 11-10 to record your addressing. or rollover. In this lab you practice transferring a configura- tion file to a router that does not have a configuration file in NVRAM. press the Enter key until the router responds.

Configure the TFTP server. as shown in Example 11-10. Verify connectivity.!!!! Success rate is 80 percent (4/5).Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 329 Step 5. After SolarWinds has finished the installation. click Finish.249. as shown in Figure 11-15. Double-click the SolarWinds TFTP application to begin the installation. round-trip min/avg/max = 1/1/1 ms Router1# Task 2: Use TFTP to Save and Restore a Cisco IOS Configuration Step 1.250. Figure 11-14 TFTP Server Window Start the TFTP server by choosing Start > Programs > SolarWinds Free Tools > TFTP Server. choose File > Configure. Step 3. . Sending 5. Verify connectivity between Host1 and Router1. Figure 11-14 shows an active TFTP server window. Install the SolarWinds TFTP application. as shown in Table 11-11. Click Next.249 Type escape sequence to abort. and accept the default settings. 100-byte ICMP Echos to 10. Agree to the license agreement. Start the TFTP server. Step 2. To configure the TFTP server. timeout is 2 seconds: . Verify the settings.250.250.250. Example 11-10 Verify Connectivity Router1# ping 10.

249 Destination filename [router1-confg]? <ENTER> !! 1081 bytes copied in 2. The contents should be similar to the configuration shown in Example 11-12.250. When you’re finished. begin a TFTP upload to the TFTP server. The contents should be similar to the following: 3/25/2007 12:29 :Receiving router1-confg from (10.250. Step 4.008 secs (538 bytes/sec) Router1# Verify a successful upload transfer.250. . as shown in Example 11-11.250. click OK.250.250.250.250.250 Never Enable Log Requests to the Following File.250 To 10. Open Log file c:\Program Files\SolarWinds\Free Tools\TFTP-Server.250) 3/25/2007 12:29 :Received router1-confg from (10.250. Example 11-11 Saving the Router Configuration to the TFTP Server Router1#copy running-config tftp: Address or name of remote host []? 10. Leave the default file. 1081 bytes Verify the transferred file.250.330 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 11-15 Active TFTP Server Window Table 11-11 TFTP Server Settings Setting Value TFTP Root Directory Security Advanced Security Auto-Close Log TFTP-Root Transmit and Receive Files 10. Save the Router1 configuration to the TFTP server. From HyperTerminal. Use Microsoft Word or WordPad to examine the contents of the file c:\TFTP-Root\router1-confg.txt.250).

! no aaa new-model ip cef ! interface FastEthernet0/0 description connection to host1 ip address 10.250.255.255.250 255.250.4 service timestamps debug datetime msec service timestamps log datetime msec no service password-encryption ! hostname Router1 ! boot-start-marker boot-end-marker ! enable secret 5 $1$D02B$AuX05n0HPT239yYRoQ0oE.252 duplex auto speed auto ! interface FastEthernet0/1 no ip address shutdown duplex auto speed auto ! interface Serial0/1/0 no ip address shutdown no fair-queue ! interface Serial0/1/1 no ip address shutdown clock rate 2000000 ! ip http server no ip http secure-server ! control-plane ! banner motd *** ABC COMPANY NETWORK DEVICE **** *** Authorized access only ***** *** Logging is enabled **** .Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 331 Example 11-12 Configuration File ! version 12.

095: %SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from console by console *Mar 25 16:43:04. as shown in Example 11-16.250. Verify that NVRAM is clear. Example 11-13 Verify Empty NVRAM Router1# show startup-config startup-config is not present Router1# reload Proceed with reload? [confirm] <ENTER> Connectivity must be established with the TFTP server. as shown in Example 11-14.250.250 255. as shown in Example 11-15. one per line. Router1 fa0/0 must be configured with an IP address. changed state to up End with CNTL/Z.252 Router(config-if)# no shutdown Router(config-if)# exit *Mar 25 16:43:03.255. as shown in Example 11-13. and then reboot Router1. Example 11-14 Interface Configuration Router> enable Router# conf t Enter configuration commands. Restore the Router1 configuration from the TFTP server. and the interface must be enabled.967: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet0/0. .332 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example 11-12 Configuration File ! line con 0 password class login line aux 0 line vty 0 4 password class login ! continued scheduler allocate 20000 1000 End Step 5. Router(config)# interface fa0/0 Router(config-if)# ip address 10.255. Configure the hostname of the router to TEST. Example 11-15 Hostname Configuration Router(config-if)# exit Router(config)# hostname TEST Test(config-if)# end TEST# Verify connectivity using the ping command.

250. 1841 Software (C1841-ADVIPSERVICESK9-M). Version 12. Inc. and the router’s hostname should now be Router1. the IOS can also be stored offline for future use.. The configuration should be the same as what was configured in Task 1.249/router1-confg. Compiled Fri 19-Jan-07 15:15 by prod_rel_team . Sending 5. Select no at the prompt that says “Configuration has been modified. The filename is highlighted in Example 11-18.250.250. Task 4: Challenge Similar to uploading a configuration file.250. as shown in Example 11-17.4(10b).1081 bytes] 1081 bytes copied in 9. Step 4.364 secs (115 bytes/sec) Router1# *Mar 25 16:55:26. Example 11-17 File Transfer from the TFTP Server Test# copy tftp startup-config Address or name of remote host []? 10.250. Loading router1-confg from 10.249/router1-confg by console Router1# View the configuration in NVRAM to verify an accurate transfer. Example 11-18 IOS Filename in Flash Router1# show version Cisco IOS Software.250.250.249. issue the Cisco IOS command show version.249 (via FastEthernet0/0): ! [OK . 100-byte ICMP Echos to 10.375: %SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from tftp://10..250. efficient way to save and load Cisco IOS configuration files.!!!! Success rate is 80 percent(4/5).250.249 Type escape sequence to abort. timeout is 2 seconds: . RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc3) Technical Support: http://www.249 Source filename []? router1-confg Destination filename [startup-config]? <ENTER> Accessing tftp://10.250.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 333 Example 11-16 Ping Test Test# ping 10.” The previous configuration should be restored.250.com/techsupport Copyright (c) 1986-2007 by Cisco Systems.cisco. Reload the router. Task 3: Reflection TFTP is a fast. round-trip min/avg/max = 1/1/1ms Router# Download the Router1 configuration file from the TFTP server.250. To discover the IOS filename.

contact Cisco by sending email to export@cisco. export. Importers.250. RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1) Router1 uptime is 17 minutes System returned to ROM by reload at 16:47:54 UTC Sun Mar 25 2007 System image file is “flash:c1841-advipservicesk9-mz.com/wwl/export/crypto/tool/stqrg.S.0) with 174080K/22528K bytes of memory.html If you require further assistance. If you are unable to comply with U. and local country laws.S. Delivery of Cisco cryptographic products does not imply third-party authority to import.334 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example 11-18 IOS Filename in Flash continued ROM: System Bootstrap. Version 12. 62720K bytes of ATA CompactFlash (Read/Write) Configuration register is 0x2102 Router1# The commands to upload the IOS are similar to uploading the configuration file.4(13r)T.249 Destination filename [c1841-advipservicesk9-mz.250. A summary of U. export. and local laws. Cisco 1841 (revision 6.124-10b.564 secs (370412 bytes/sec) Router1# . distribute or use encryption.124-10b. laws governing Cisco cryptographic products may be found at: http://www.cisco. exporters.bin” This product contains cryptographic features and is subject to United States and local country laws governing import.bin]? !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!! 22063220 bytes copied in 59. 191K bytes of NVRAM.124-10b. Example 11-19 File Transfer to TFTP Server Router1# copy flash tftp Source filename []? c1841-advipservicesk9-mz.bin Address or name of remote host []? 10. transfer and use.S. distributors and users are responsible for compliance with U. Processor board ID FHK110918KJ 2 Serial(sync/async) interfaces DRAM configuration is 64 bits wide with parity disabled.com. return this product immediately. By using this product you agree to comply with applicable laws and regulations. as shown in Example 11-19.

2) You can now open the file LSG1-Lab11522.5. Remember. Use the privileged EXEC command erase startup-config. Click Add or Remove Applications. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. however. Delete any configuration files saved on the host computers. Choose SolarWinds and click Remove.2. Choose Start > Control Panel. and leave the room ready for the next class. and then turn off power to the host computers. Remove the SolarWinds TFTP server from the host computer.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Managing Device Configuration (11. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. Accept the defaults. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 335 Task 5: Clean Up Before turning off power to the router. restore host computer network connectivity. . remove the NVRAM configuration file if it was loaded.

Configure the physical lab topology. Figure 11-16 Topology for Lab 11-4 S1 Fa0/1 Fa0/2 1 2 Gather the necessary equipment and cables. Table 11-12 Lab Equipment and Hardware Requirements Hardware Quantity Description Cisco router Cisco switch Computer (host) Category 5 or better straight-through UTP cables 1 1 2 2 Part of the CCNA Lab bundle Part of the CCNA Lab bundle Lab computer Connects computers Host1 and Host2 to Switch1 Scenario In this lab you will create a small network that requires connecting network devices and configuring host computers for basic network connectivity. Table 11-12 lists the lab equipment and hardware requirements. To reinforce student cable identification. Students should be able to identify the proper cable type based on a visual inspection. Mix crossover. Verify LAN connectivity. Background Figure 11-16 shows the topology diagram for this lab.336 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Lab 11-4: Configure Host Computers for IP Networking (11. straight-through.3.5.1) Upon completion of this lab. and rollover cables. Configure the logical LAN topology. . have several different types of cables available for the students. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ ■ Design the logical lab topology.

254.49 192.14 192.254.168.168.254.54 192.168.254.168.254.151 192.254.254.254.168.254.161 192.120 192.168.168.168.168.254.126 192.254.168.254.87 192.168.254.168.254.56 192.168.254.168.168.129 192.168.254.168.46 192.168.121 192.254.86 192.168.254.88 192.254.25 192.254.0 Subnet First Host Address Subnet mask: 255.168.254.73 192.168.168.72 192.168.168.168.254.103 192.168.143 192.168 192.254.254.145 192.254.30 192.168.81 192.168.254.128 192.142 192.254.168.248 Last Host Address Broadcast 192.48 192.168.254.135 192.168.168.254.102 192.38 192.254.254.254.175 192.168.254.168.168.159 192.97 192.168.254.254.168.63 192.168.144 192. Table 11-13 Addressing Table IP address: 192.168.150 192.254.254.183 continues .168.254.168.22 192.254.113 192.9 192.176 192.168.168.168.254.254.119 192.254.168.168.254.168.254.168.168.168.254.71 192.168.168.254.168.254.89 192.254.254.254.136 192.168.96 192.112 192.254.6 192.33 192.254.168.57 192.62 192.168.24 192.105 192.168.168.254.177 192.168.94 192. and 5 bits used for subnets.254.168.168.254.168.168.168.8 192.254.255.254.168.16 192.55 192.152 192.118 192.254.254.182 192.168.168.168.254.168.158 192.254.153 192.168.254.168.39 192.254.254.168.168.168.254.254.254.174 192.160 192.80 192.7 192.32 192.254.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 337 Task 1: Design the Logical Lab Topology Given an IP address of 192.254.254.168.168.134 192.254.78 192.168.254.168.255.254.168.168.111 192.254.169 192.168.254.168.168.168.167 192.168.254.110 192.70 192.168.168.254.254.254.41 192.254.40 192.23 192.47 192.168.79 192.127 192.254.17 192.168.168.254.168.254.254.254.166 192.168.0/24.254.0 192.254.64 192.15 192. fill in the following information: Maximum number of usable subnets (including the 0th subnet): 31 Number of usable hosts per subnet: 6 Use Table 11-13 to record the addressing scheme.168.104 192.65 192.254.1 192.31 192.168.254.254.254.254.95 192.254.137 192.254.

254.224 192.168. Document logical network settings.254.254.254.254.241 192.254.222 192.168.254. Write down the IP address information for each device in Table 11-14.254.168.238 192.200 192.239 192. verify your addresses with the instructor.168.168.168.254.191 192. turn on power to all devices.206 192.168.168.254.255 Before proceeding.247 192.338 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 11-13 Addressing Table IP address: 192.254.254.217 192.254.168.168.232 192.254. Because computers and the switch are not wired the same for networking.184 192.168.168. Task 2: Configure the Physical Lab Topology Step 1.254.254. Attention to detail now will minimize the time required to troubleshoot network connectivity issues later.246 192.215 192.254.198 192.254.216 192.168.231 192.254.168.254.168. Task 3: Configure the Logical Topology Step 1. .168.254. Visually inspect network connections. Cable the network devices as shown earlier in Figure 11-16.185 192. Physically connect the devices.168.230 192.168.233 192.254 192.168.168.192 192.168.254.240 192.168.168.255.168.255.168.168.168.209 192.225 192.254.168.248 192.248 Last Host Address Broadcast First Host Address 192.254. Host computers will use the first two IP addresses in the subnetwork.0 Subnet continued Subnet mask: 255.254.168.254.254.190 192.254.168.249 192.254. The instructor will assign one subnetwork per student or team.168.214 192.168.254.201 192. Is a crossover cable needed to connect host computers to the switch? Why or why not? No.254. If it’s not already enabled.168.168.223 192. straightthrough cables are used.254.254. After cabling the network devices.254.168.168.199 192. Step 2. take a moment to verify the connections.254.207 192.193 192.208 192.254.254.168.

255. Figure 11-17 Host IP Address and Gateway Settings When you’re finished. and then click Close.255. Verify proper configuration of Host1 with the ipconfig /all command.255.248 255. choose Start > Control Panel > Network Connections. choose Internet Protocol (TCP/IP). Refer to Figure 11-17 for Host1 IP address and gateway settings. and then click the Properties button. Answers will vary 255.255. .248 From the information given in Table 11-15. Right-click the LAN icon. Record the output in Table 11-16.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 339 Table 11-14 Logical Topology Device Subnetwork IP Address Mask Host1 Host2 Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary 255. click OK. and choose Properties.255. The computer may require a reboot for changes to be effective. On Computer1.248 Configure the Host1 computer. Table 11-15 Host Addressing Table Host1 IP address IP mask Host2 IP address IP mask Step 2.255. On the General tab.248 Answers will vary 255.255.255. write down the IP network addressing for each computer.

Verify proper configuration. Use Table 11-18 to methodically verify connectivity with each network device.248 Unassigned Task 4: Verify Network Connectivity Network connectivity can be verified with the Windows ping command.340 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 11-16 ipconfig Output Setting Value Ethernet device Physical address IP address Subnet mask Default gateway Step 3. Table 11-18 Ping Results From To IP Address Ping Result Host1 Host2 Host2 Host1 Answers will vary Answers will vary Should be successful Should be successful Take corrective action to establish connectivity if a test fails. Record the output in Table 11-17. which you filled out in Step 1. Table 11-17 Host ipconfig Output Setting Value Ethernet device Physical address IP address Subnet mask Default gateway Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary 255. choose Start > Control Panel > Windows Firewall. . and retest. Repeat Step 2 for Host2 using IP address information from Table 11-15. Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary 255. click Off.255. Note: If pings to host computers fail.255. To disable a Windows firewall. temporarily disable the computer firewall.248 Unassigned Configure Host2. and then click OK.255.255.

and leave the room ready for the next class. If the solution did not fix the problem. and then turn off power to the host computers. Replace the cable. perform a good visual inspection. To fix the problems. Correct the IP address configuration. Look for green link lights on Switch1. Possible problems: IP addresses on different subnets Incorrect or faulty cable Faulty NIC Write down your proposed solution(s). Task 6: Challenge Ask your instructor or another student to introduce one or two problems in your network when you aren’t looking or are out of the lab room. Make sure you have a thorough understanding of the procedures used to configure a Windows host computer. continue troubleshooting. Test your solution. Remove anything that was brought into the lab.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 341 Task 5: Reflection Review any physical or logical configuration problems encountered during this lab. If the solution fixed the problem. Problems can be either physical (the wrong UTP cable) or logical (the wrong IP address). document the solution. restore the host computer network connectivity. List the problems. . Task 7: Clean Up Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. Use Table 11-18 to identify failed connectivity. Replace the computer with the faulty NIC. and configure the IP address on the replacement computer.

you will be able to ■ ■ ■ ■ Design the logical lab topology. Figure 11-18 Topology for Lab 11-5 Subnet A Fa0/0 Fa0/1 Subnet B Fa0/1 1 R1 Fa0/2 S1 Fa0/3 Subnet C Subnet D Subnet E Subnet F 2 3 Gather the necessary equipment and cables.342 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Lab 11-5: Network Testing (11. Another alternative would be to use two routers connected through a serial connection and use the FastEthernet interfaces from each router.4. . consider configuring a loopback interface as an alternative to the FastEthernet 0/1. Background Figure 11-18 shows the topology for this lab.5. Configure the physical lab topology. Table 11-19 Lab Equipment and Hardware Requirements Hardware Quantity Description Cisco router Cisco switch Computer (host) Category 5 or better straight-through UTP cables Category 5 crossover UTP cable Console (rollover) cable 1 1 3 3 1 1 Part of the CCNA Lab bundle Part of the CCNA Lab bundle Lab computer Connects Router1. Table 11-19 lists the equipment and hardware requirements for this lab.1) Upon completion of this lab. Host2. Configure the logical LAN topology. Verify LAN connectivity. and Host3 to Switch1 Connects Host1 to Router1 Connects Host1 to the Router1 console If you do not have a router that has two FastEthernet interfaces.

0. Satisfy the requirements of Subnet C. Step 1. Using binary numbers to create your subnet chart. Subnet C.20. Subnet E. To reinforce student cable identification. Therefore. pick the next available address block that will support Subnet C.126 172. The 0th subnet will be used. Fill in Table 11-22 with the IP address information for Subnet C.1 172. Design the Subnet B address block. Subnet A and Subnet B are subnets that are currently needed.0.0.20. the next-largest IP address block. Table 11-21 Subnet B IP Address Information Network Address Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast 172. Begin the logical network design by satisfying the requirements of Subnet B. 255.20. Table 11-20 Addressing Requirements Subnet Number of Hosts Subnet A Subnet B Subnet C Subnet D Subnet E Subnet F As shown in the topology diagram Between 80 and 100 Between 40 and 52 Between 20 and 29 12 5 Note: Always start with the subnet that has the largest number of hosts. Mix crossover. have several different types of cables available for the students. and Subnet F are anticipated subnets.0. pick the first address block that will support Subnet B.128 172. not yet connected to the network. you will create a small network that requires connecting network devices and configuring host computers for basic network connectivity. Task 1: Design the Logical Lab Topology Given an IP address and mask of 172.0 Step 2.255. straight-through.127 Design the Subnet C address block. and work your way down.0.255. which requires the largest block of IP addresses. .0/24 (address/mask).20.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 343 Scenario In this lab. and rollover cables. Students should be able to identify the proper cable type based on a visual inspection. Using binary numbers to create your subnet chart. Subnet D. Fill in Table 11-21 with the IP address information for Subnet B. design an IP addressing scheme that satisfies the requirements listed in Table 11-20. you should start with Subnet B and finish with Subnet A.20.

Satisfy the requirements of Subnet D.344 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 11-22 Subnet C IP Address Information Network Address Mask First Host Last Host Broadcast 172. Fill in Table 11-25 with the Subnet F IP address information. pick the next available address block that will support Subnet F.0.20.223 What is the bit mask? 11111111.11111111.192 172. Using binary numbers to create your subnet chart.11110000 Step 5.11111111.0.20.20.225 172.239 What is the bit mask? 11111111. Fill in Table 11-24 with the Subnet E IP address information. Using binary numbers to create your subnet chart.0.1111111.1111111.20.224 255.0.128 255.129 172.255.20. the next-largest IP address block.222 172.192 255. Table 11-24 Subnet E IP Address Information Network Address Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast 172. the next-largest IP address block. . Satisfy the requirements of Subnet E. the next-largest IP address block.20. pick the next available address block that will support Subnet D.0.20.255.255.20. Design the Subnet D address block. Design the Subnet F address block.11000000 Step 3. pick the next available address block that will support Subnet E.0.20.193 172. Satisfy the requirements of Subnet F.191 What is the bit mask? 11111111. Table 11-23 Subnet D IP Address Information Network Address Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast 172.11111111.224 172.190 172.11100000 Step 4. Using binary numbers to create your subnet chart.0.255. Design the Subnet E address block.20.20.0.0.238 172.0.20.1111111.255.0.240 172.255. Fill in Table 11-23 with the Subnet D IP address information.0.

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Table 11-25 Subnet F IP Address Information Network Address Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast

172.20.0.240

255.255.255.248

172.20.0.241

172.20.0.246

172.20.0.24

What is the bit mask? 11111111.1111111.11111111.11111000
Step 6.

Design the Subnet A address block. Satisfy the requirements of Subnet A, the smallest IP address block. Using binary numbers to create your subnet chart, pick the next available address block that will support Subnet A. Fill in Table 11-26 with the Subnet A IP addressing table.

Table 11-26 Subnet A IP Addressing Table Network Address Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast

172.20.0.248

255.255.255.252

172.20.0.249

172.20.0.250

172.20.0.251

What is the bit mask? 11111111.1111111.11111111.11111100

Task 2: Configure the Physical Lab Topology
Step 1.

Physically connect the lab devices. Cable the network devices as shown earlier, in Figure 11-18. Pay special attention to the crossover cable required between Host1 and Router1. If it’s not already enabled, turn on power to all devices.

Step 2.

Visually inspect the network connections. After cabling the network devices, take a moment to verify the connections. Attention to detail now will minimize the time required to troubleshoot Layer 1 connectivity issues later.

Task 3: Configure the Logical Topology
Step 1.

Document logical network settings. On Subnet A, Host1 uses the first IP address in the subnet. Router1, interface Fa0/0, uses the last host address. On Subnet B, host computers use the first and second IP addresses in the subnet, respectively. Router1, interface Fa0/1, uses the last network host address. To properly route Layer 2 frames between LAN devices, Switch1 does not require Layer 3 configuration. The IP address assigned to Switch1, interface VLAN 1, is used to establish Layer 3 connectivity between external devices and the switch. Without an IP address, upper-layer protocols such as Telnet and HTTP will not work. The default gateway address

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permits the switch to respond to protocol requests from devices on distant networks. For example, the IP gateway address extends Layer 3 connectivity beyond Subnet B. Switch1 uses the next-to-last host address. Write down the IP address information for each device listed in Table 11-27.
Table 11-27 IP Address Information Device Subnet IP Address Mask Gateway

Host1 Router1-Fa0/0 Host2 Host3 Switch1 Router1-Fa0/1
Step 2.

172.20.0.248 172.20.0.248 172.20.0.0 172.20.0.0 172.20.0.0 172.20.0.0

172.20.0.249 172.20.0.250 172.20.0.1 172.20.0.2 172.20.0.125 172.20.0.126

255.255.255.252 255.255.255.252 255.255.255.128 255.255.255.128 255.255.255.128 255.255.255.128

172.20.0.250 — 172.20.0.126 172.20.0.126 172.20.0.126 —

Configure host computers. On each computer, in turn, choose Start > Control Panel > Network Connections. Right-click the LAN icon, and choose Properties. On the General tab, choose Internet Protocol (TCP/IP), and then click the Properties button. Verify that the Host1 Layer 3 IP address is on a different subnet than Host2 and Host3. Configure each host computer using the IP address information recorded in Step 1. Verify proper configuration of each host computer with the ipconfig command, and fill in Table 11-28.

Table 11-28 Host Configuration Device IP Address Mask Default Gateway

Host1 Host2 Host3
Step 3.

172.20.0.249 172.20.0.1 172.20.0.2 Configure Router1.

255.255.255.252 255.255.255.128 255.255.255.128

172.20.0.250 172.20.0.126 172.20.0.126

From the Windows taskbar, start the HyperTerminal program by choosing Start > Programs > Accessories > Communications > HyperTerminal. Configure HyperTerminal for access to Router1. Configuration for Router1 includes the following tasks:
■ ■ ■ ■ ■

Specify the router name: Router1 Specify an encrypted privileged EXEC password: cisco Specify a console access password: class Specify a Telnet access password: class Configure the MOTD banner.

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Configure Router1 interface Fa0/0:
■ ■ ■

Set the description. Set the Layer 3 address. Issue the no shutdown command.

Configure Router1 interface Fa0/1:
■ ■ ■

Set the description. Set the Layer 3 address. Issue the no shutdown command.

Save the configuration in NVRAM. What command do you use to display the contents of RAM? show running-config Record the configuration specifications:
■ ■ ■ ■ ■

Hostname: Router1 Enable secret password: cisco Console access password: class Telnet access password: class MOTD banner: Answers will vary

What command do you use to display configuration information for interface Fa0/0? show interface Fa0/0 Record the configuration specifications:
■ ■ ■

FastEthernet 0/0 status (up/down): Should be up Line protocol: Should be up MAC address: Answers will vary

What command do you use to display configuration information for interface Fa0/1? show interface Fa0/1 Record the configuration specifications:
■ ■ ■

FastEthernet 0/0 status (up/down): Should be up Line protocol: Should be up MAC address: Answers will vary

What command do you use to display brief IP address information about each interface? show ip interface brief Record the configuration specifications:
Interface FastEthernet0/0 FastEthernet0/1 IP-Address 172.20.0.250 172.20.0.126 OK? Method Status YES manual up YES manual up Protocol up up

Take corrective action with any problems, and retest.

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Step 4.

Configure Switch1. Move the console cable from Router1 to Switch1. Press Enter until you receive a response. Configuration for Switch1 includes the following:
■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■

Specify a switch name: Switch1 Specify an encrypted privileged EXEC password: cisco Specify a console access password: class Specify a Telnet access password: class Configure the MOTD banner. Configure Switch1 interface Fa0/1:

Set the description.

Configure Switch1 interface Fa0/2:

Set the description.

Configure Switch1 interface Fa0/3:

Set the description.

Configure the management VLAN1 IP address:
■ ■ ■

Set the description. Set the Layer 3 address. Issue the no shutdown command.

Configure the default IP gateway address.

What command do you use to display the contents of RAM? show running-config Write the configuration specifications:
■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■

Hostname: Switch1 Enable secret password: cisco Console access password: class Telnet access password: class MOTD banner: Answers will vary Interface VLAN 1: 172.20.0.125 Default IP gateway address: 172.20.0.126

What command do you use to display configuration information for interface VLAN 1? show interface vlan1
■ ■

VLAN 1 status (up/down): Should be up Line protocol: Should be up

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Task 4: Verify Network Connectivity
Step 1.

Use the ping command to verify network connectivity. You can verify network connectivity using the ping command. It is very important that connectivity exist throughout the network. Corrective action must be taken if a failure occurs. Use Table 11-29 to methodically verify connectivity with each network device.

Table 11-29 Connectivity Testing From To IP Address Ping Result

Host1 Host1 Host1 Host1 Host1 Host1 Host1 Host2 Host2 Host2 Host2 Host2 Host2 Host2 Host3 Host3 Host3 Host3 Host3 Host3

LocalHost (127.0.0.1) NIC IP address Gateway (Router1, Fa0/0 Router1, Fa0/1 Switch1 Host2 Host3 LocalHost (127.0.0.1) NIC IP address Host3 Switch1 Gateway (Router1, Fa0/1) Router1, Fa0/0 Host1 LocalHost (127.0.0.1) NIC IP address Host2 Switch1 Gateway (Router1, Fa0/1) Router1, Fa0/0

127.0.0.1 172.20.0.249 172.20.0.250 172.20.0.126 172.20.0.125 172.20.0.1 172.20.0.2 127.0.0.1 172.20.0.1 172.20.0.2 172.20.0.125 172.20.0.126 172.20.0.250 172.20.0.249 127.0.0.1 172.20.0.2 172.20.0.1 172.20.0.125 172.20.0.126 172.20.0.250

Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful

Take corrective action to establish connectivity if a test fails.
Note: If pings to host computers fail, temporarily disable the computer firewall, and retest. To disable a Windows firewall, choose Start > Control Panel > Windows Firewall, click Off, and then click OK.

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Step 2.

Use the tracert command to verify local connectivity. From Host1, issue the tracert command to Host2 and Host3. Record the results:
■ ■

From Host1 to Host2: Answers should show success From Host1 to Host3: Answers should show success

Step 3.

Verify Layer 2 connectivity. If it’s not already connected, move the console cable from Router1 to Switch1. Press the Enter key until Switch1 responds. Issue the command show mac-address-table. This command displays static (CPU) and dynamic, or learned, entries. List the dynamic MAC addresses and their corresponding switch ports in Table 11-30.

Table 11-30 MAC Address Table MAC Address Switch Port

Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary

Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary

Verify that there are three dynamically learned MAC addresses—one each from Fa0/1, Fa0/2, and Fa0/3.

Task 5: Reflection
Review any physical or logical configuration problems encountered during this lab. Make sure you have a thorough understanding of the procedures used to verify network connectivity.

Task 6: Challenge
Ask your instructor or another student to introduce one or two problems in your network when you aren’t looking or are out of the lab room. Problems can be either physical (the wrong UTP cable) or logical (the wrong IP address or gateway). To fix the problems, perform a good visual inspection. Look for green link lights on Switch1. Use Table 11-18 to identify failed connectivity. List the problems. Possible answers include incorrect IP addressing and incorrect cabling. Write down your proposed solution(s). Possible solutions include correcting the IP address configuration and replacing the cable. Test your solution. If the solution fixed the problem, document the solution. If the solution did not fix the problem, continue troubleshooting.

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Task 7: Clean Up
Unless directed otherwise by the instructor, restore host computer network connectivity, and then turn off power to the host computers. Before turning off power to the router and switch, remove the NVRAM configuration file from each device with the privileged EXEC command erase startup-config. Carefully remove the cables, and return them neatly to their storage. Reconnect cables that were disconnected for this lab. Remove anything that was brought into the lab, and leave the room ready for the next class.

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Lab 11-6: Network Documentation with Utility Commands (11.5.5.1)
Upon completion of this lab, you will be able to
■ ■ ■ ■ ■

Design the logical lab topology. Configure the physical lab topology. Design and configure the logical LAN topology. Verify LAN connectivity. Document the network.

Background Figure 11-19 shows the topology for this lab.
Figure 11-19 Topology for Lab 11-6
Subnet A
Fa0/0 Fa0/1

Subnet B
Fa0/1

1

R1
Fa0/2

S1
Fa0/3

Subnet C

2

3

Gather the necessary equipment and cables. Table 11-31 lists the equipment and hardware requirements for this lab.
Table 11-31 Equipment and Hardware Requirements Hardware Quantity Description

Cisco router Cisco switch Computer (host) Category 5 or better straight-through UTP cables Category 5 crossover UTP cable Console (rollover) cable

1 1 3 3 1 1

Part of the CCNA Lab bundle Part of the CCNA Lab bundle Lab computer Connects Router1, Host1, and Host2 to Switch1 Connects Host1 to Router1 Connects Host1 to the Router1 console

If you do not have a router that has two FastEthernet interfaces, consider configuring a loopback interface as an alternative to FastEthernet 0/1. Another alternative would be to use two routers connected through a serial connection and use the FastEthernet interfaces from each router.

1111111. Scenario Network documentation is a very important tool for the organization.200.165. Using binary numbers to create your subnet chart.224/27 (address/mask). design an IP addressing scheme that satisfies the requirements listed in Table 11-32. have several different types of cables available for the students.11110000 Step 2.200.225 209. Fill in Table 11-33 with the IP address information for Subnet C. The 0th subnet will be used.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 353 In this lab. Using binary numbers to create your subnet chart. Subnet A and Subnet B are subnets that are currently needed.238 209.165. Begin the logical network design by satisfying the requirements of Subnet C. Table 11-33 Subnet C IP Address Information Network Address Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast 209.165. pick the next available address block that will support Subnet C.165.255.200. 2 Between 2 and 6 Between 10 and 12 Design the Subnet C address block.200.255.165. Students should be able to identify the proper cable type based on a visual inspection. straight-through.11111111. Table 11-32 IP Addressing Requirements Subnet Number of Hosts Subnet A Subnet B Subnet C Step 1.200. Design the Subnet B address block. the next-largest block of IP addresses. Task 1: Design the Logical Lab Topology Given an IP address of 209. In this lab you will create a small network that requires connecting network devices and configuring host computers for basic network connectivity. router and host output will be copied from the devices and into Notepad for use in network documentation.224 255. To reinforce student cable identification. A well-documented network enables network engineers to save significant time in troubleshooting and planning future growth. pick the first address block that will support Subnet B. and rollover cables. not yet connected to the network. Satisfy the requirements of Subnet B.239 What is the bit mask? 11111111. the largest IP address block. Subnet C is an anticipated subnet.240 209. . Mix crossover.

Write down the IP address information for each device in Table 11-36.249 209.1111111. If it’s not already enabled.200.255.200.251 What is the bit mask? 11111111. Fill in Table 11-35 with the IP address information for Subnet A. Design the Subnet A address block.165.354 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Fill in Table 11-34 with the IP address information for Subnet B. After cabling the network devices.165.240 209. Step 2.200.11111111.246 209. turn on power to all devices. Attention to detail now will minimize the time required to troubleshoot network connectivity issues later.165.200.165. Pay special attention to the crossover cable required between Host1 and Router1.200. The network router uses the last network host address.240 255.165. Visually inspect the network connections. Table 11-34 Subnet B IP Address Information Network Address Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast 209. the smallest IP address block. Satisfy the requirements of Subnet A. take a moment to verify the connections.11111100 Task 2: Configure the Physical Lab Topology Step 1. Table 11-35 Subnet A IP Address Information Network Address Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast 209.200.248 209. Document the logical network settings.255.247 What is the bit mask? 11111111. Physically connect lab devices.248 255.165. Using binary numbers to create your subnet chart.250 209. .200.255.165. Task 3: Configure the Logical Topology Step 1. pick the next available address block that will support Subnet A. Cable the network devices as shown in Figure 11-19.165. Host computers use the first two IP addresses in the subnetwork.200.11111111.255.111111000___ Step 3.1111111.252 209.

165.200. Issue the no shutdown command.165.165. Record your information in a separate document.165.240 — 209. Set the Layer 3 address.252 255. Set the Layer 3 address.165.248 255.250 — 209.200.246 209.250 209.165.165.248 209. and choose Properties.240 209.255.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 355 Table 11-36 IP Address Information Device Subnet IP Address Mask Gateway Router1 -FA0/0 Host1 Router1 -FA0/1 Host2 Host2 Switch Step 2.165.255.165.200.165.165. and choose Properties.255. Highlight the Local Area Connection device icon.249 209. ■ Configure Router1 interface Fa0/1: ■ ■ ■ Set the description. .246 209. Configure HyperTerminal for access to Router1. and name it Documentation_Lab11-6.255.200.200.200.248 255.200. Verify that the Host1 Layer 3 IP address is on a different subnetwork than Host2 and Host3. On each computer in turn. Configure Router1 interface Fa0/0: ■ ■ ■ Set the description.165.252 255.200.200.255. These are the configuration tasks for Router1: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Specify the router name: Router1 Specify an encrypted privileged EXEC password: cisco Specify a console access password: class Specify a Telnet access password: class Configure the MOTD banner. Configure Router1.200.246 — Configure the host computers.255. choose Start > Control Panel > Network Connections. 209.255. Configure each host computer using the IP address information recorded in Step 1.241 209.248 209. Highlight Internet Protocol (TCP/IP). right-click. From the Windows taskbar.242 — 255.200.248 — — 209. Verify proper configuration of each host computer using the ipconfig /all command.240 209.255. start the HyperTerminal program by choosing Start > Programs > Accessories > Communications > HyperTerminal.200.255.255.165. Issue the no shutdown command. Step 3.200.

Note: If pings to host computers fail. ■ Configure Switch1 interface Fa0/2: ■ Set the description. Task 4: Verify Network Connectivity Step 1. Use Table 11-37 to methodically verify connectivity with each network device. Configure Switch1. Use the ping command to verify network connectivity. Step 4. and retest. temporarily disable the computer firewall. Copy the output of the show interface fa0/0 and show interface fa0/1 commands into your document named Documentation_Lab11-6. It is very important that connectivity exist throughout the network. ■ Configure Switch1 interface Fa0/3: ■ Set the description. To disable a Windows firewall. Configuration tasks for Switch1 are as follows: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Specify the switch name: Switch1 Specify an encrypted privileged EXEC password: cisco Specify a console access password: class Specify a Telnet access password: class Configure the MOTD banner. Copy the output of the show mac address-table command to your document named Documentation_Lab11-6. and click OK. Corrective action must be taken if a failure occurs. Press Enter until you receive a response. . Copy the output of the show ip interface brief command to your document named Documentation_Lab11-6. Network connectivity can be verified with the ping command. Move the console cable from Router1 to Switch1.356 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Specify the command you use to save the configuration in NVRAM: copy run start Specify the command you use to display the contents of RAM: show running-configuration Save the output of the configuration to your document named Documentation_Lab11-6. Configure Switch1 interface Fa0/1: ■ Set the description. click OFF. Specify the command you use to display the contents of RAM: show running-configuration Copy the output of the configuration to your document named Documentation_Lab11-6. choose Start > Control Panel > Windows Firewall. Take corrective action to establish connectivity if a test fails.

it would seem that there is nothing left to do.1) NIC IP address Host2 Gateway (Router1. From Host1. Record the results in your document named Documentation_Lab11-6.265.200.200.165.200. In addition to connectivity testing.1) NIC IP Address Gateway (Router1.249 Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Use the tracert command to verify local connectivity.200.200. Host2.1 209. Record the results in your document named Documentation_Lab11-6.200.241 209. From Host2.165.265. Fa0/1 Host2 Host3 LocalHost (127.265.0. tracert results can be compared against periods of high traffic.0.243 209.200. From Host3.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 357 Table 11-37 Connectivity Testing From To IP Address Ping Result Host1 Host1 Host1 Host1 Host1 Host1 Host2 Host2 Host2 Host2 Host2 Host2 Host3 Host3 Host3 Host3 Host3 Host3 Step 2.250 209.0.0. The network was physically and logically configured and verified.0. Fa0/1) Router1.200.200.246126 209. issue the tracert command to Router1.1 209.0.0.241 209.200.265.1 209.265.250 209.242 209. issue the tracert command to Host3. Fa0/1) Router1.249 127.265.265.200. and Host1. Router1.246 209. That is.249 209. and Host3.242 127.0. and Host1. with minimal traffic. Router1.0.0.0. .165.265.200. Results can be used to justify equipment upgrades or new purchases. LocalHost (127. issue the tracert command to Host2.241 209.200. Fa0/0 Router1. Task 5: Document the Network With all the work performed so far. Fa0/0 Host1 LocalHost (127.265.265.0.265.265. the tracert command may be used as a crude throughput tester for network baselining. and command output was copied into tables.250 209.200. Record the results in your document named Documentation_Lab11-6. Fa0/0 Host1 127.200.1) NIC IP Address Host3 Gateway (Router1.246 209.

) Who wrote the documentation? (Talent like this needs to be tracked. Ensure that you understand the procedures used to verify network connectivity. think about what might be needed six months or a year from now. continue troubleshooting. default gateways. Use your network documentation to troubleshoot and remedy the problems. or cables. Task 7: Challenge Ask your instructor or another student to introduce one or two problems in your network when you aren’t looking or are out of the lab room. If the solution did not fix the problem. subnet masks. If the solution fixed the problem. answer the following questions in the documentation. Note to Instructor: You could introduce problems into the network by changing IP addresses. Answers will vary . Perform a good visual inspection. Problems can be either physical (cables moved on the switch) or logical (the wrong IP address or gateway). As you organize.358 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide The last step in network documentation is to organize your output. and submit it to your instructor. document the solution. Task 6: Reflection Review any physical or logical configuration problems you encountered during this lab.) Be sure to include the following information: ■ ■ A copy of the physical topology A copy of the logical topology Prepare your documentation in a professional format. Use your network documentation to make sure your configurations are correct: Answers will vary Write down your proposed solution(s): Answers will vary Test your solution. Look for green link lights on Switch1. For example. perhaps in a cover letter: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ When was the network created? When was the network documented? Were any significant challenges overcome? Who performed the configuration? (Talent like this needs to be tracked.

4 service timestamps debug datetime msec service timestamps log datetime msec no service password-encryption ! hostname Router1 ! boot-start-marker boot-end-marker ! enable secret 5 $1$sqIx$iKGfkjNa6IlaBVnPnGrVR0 ! no aaa new-model ip cef ! interface FastEthernet0/0 description connection to Host1 ip address 209.248 duplex auto speed auto . Reconnect cables that were disconnected for this lab.165. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. Example Router 1 Configuration Router1 Configuration Current configuration : 1138 bytes ! version 12.252 duplex auto speed auto ! interface FastEthernet0/1 description connection to Switch1 ip address 209. then turn off power to the host computers. Before turning off power to the router and switch.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 359 Task 8: Clean Up Unless directed otherwise by the instructor.250 255. remove the NVRAM configuration file from each device using the privileged EXEC command erase startup-config. and leave the room ready for the next class.255.246 255.255. restore host computer network connectivity. Instructors may find the following configuration examples helpful.165.200. Carefully remove the cables. and return them neatly to their storage.255.200.255.

line protocol is up Hardware is Gt96k FE.cdee) Description: connection to Host1 .530c. address is 001b.cdee (bia 001b.530c.360 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example ! Router 1 Configuration continued interface Serial0/1/0 no ip address shutdown no fair-queue ! interface Serial0/1/1 no ip address shutdown clock rate 2000000 ! interface Vlan1 no ip address ! ip http server no ip http secure-server ! control-plane ! banner motd ^C **** ABC network device **** **** Authorized access only **** **** Logging is enabled ***** ^C ! line con 0 password class login line aux 0 line vty 0 4 password class login ! scheduler allocate 20000 1000 end Example Router 1 Interface Fa0/0 Configuration Router1# show interface fa0/0 Router1#sh int fa0/0 FastEthernet0/0 is up.

0 deferred 0 lost carrier. 0 packets/sec 5 minute output rate 0 bits/sec. rxload 1/255 Encapsulation ARPA.165. Total output drops: 0 Queueing strategy: fifo Output queue: 0/40 (size/max) 5 minute input rate 0 bits/sec. 0 ignored 0 watchdog 0 input packets with dribble condition detected 277 packets output. 8915 bytes Received 44 broadcasts.246/29 MTU 1500 bytes. 0 packets/sec . txload 1/255. 100BaseTX/FX ARP type: ARPA. DLY 100 usec. BW 100000 Kbit. output hang never Last clearing of “show interface” counters never Input queue: 0/75/0/0 (size/max/drops/flushes). ARP Timeout 04:00:00 Last input 00:01:27.530c. line protocol is up Hardware is Gt96k FE.200. 4 interface resets 0 babbles. output 00:00:02. DLY 100 usec.cdef) Description: connection to Switch1 Internet address is 209. 0 collisions. reliability 255/255.200. 88733 bytes. BW 100000 Kbit. reliability 255/255. 0 late collision.165.cdef (bia 001b. 0 runts. txload 1/255. 0 CRC. loopback not set Keepalive set (10 sec) Full-duplex. 0 throttles 0 input errors. Total output drops: 0 Queueing strategy: fifo Output queue: 0/40 (size/max) 5 minute input rate 0 bits/sec. 0 overrun. ARP Timeout 04:00:00 Last input never.250/30 MTU 1500 bytes. 100BaseTX/FX ARP type: ARPA. output hang never Last clearing of “show interface” counters never Input queue: 0/75/0/0 (size/max/drops/flushes).530c. 0 packets/sec 54 packets input. output never. loopback not set Keepalive not set Auto-duplex. address is 001b.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 361 Example Router 1 Interface Fa0/0 Configuration continued Internet address is 209. 0 frame. 0 output buffers swapped out Example Router 1 Interface Fa0/1 Configuration Router1# show interface fa0/1 FastEthernet0/1 is up. 0 underruns 0 output errors. 0 no carrier 0 output buffer failures. Auto Speed. rxload 1/255 Encapsulation ARPA. 0 giants. 0 packets/sec 5 minute output rate 0 bits/sec. 100Mb/s.

0 collisions.200. loopback service timestamps debug uptime service timestamps log uptime no service password-encryption ! hostname Switch1 ! enable secret 5 $1$X9tO$93NSNcI66s8ESanQ/o3A60 ! interface FastEthernet0/1 description connection to Router1 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/2 description connection to Host2 no ip address . 0 no carrier 0 output buffer failures.165. 0 late collision.246 YES manual up unassigned unassigned YES unset YES unset administratively down down administratively down down Example Switch 1 Configuration Building configuration.362 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example Router 1 Interface Fa0/1 Configuration continued 0 packets input. Current configuration : 1862 bytesad 1/255 ! version 12. 0 output buffers swapped out Example Router 1 IP Address Configuration Router1# sh ip int brief Interface FastEthernet0/0 FastEthernet0/1 Serial0/1/0 Serial0/1/1 IP-Address OK? Method Status Protocol up up 209. 0 deferred 0 lost carrier. 14481 bytes. 0 runts. 1 interface resets 0 babbles.1 no service padARPA. 0 giants.165.. 0 ignored 0 watchdog 0 input packets with dribble condition detected 91 packets output.200. 0 throttles 0 input errors.. 0 underruns 0 output errors.250 YES manual up 209. 0 bytes Received 0 broadcasts. 0 overrun. 0 frame. 0 CRC.

Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 363 Example ! Switch 1 Configuration continued interface FastEthernet0/3 description connection to Host3 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/4 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/5 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/6 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/7 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/8 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/9 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/10 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/11 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/12 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/13 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/14 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/15 no ip address ! .

364 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example Switch 1 Configuration continued interface FastEthernet0/16 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/17 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/18 no ip address ! Interface FastEthernet0/19 no ip address ! Interface FastEthernet0/20 no ip address ! Interface FastEthernet0/21 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/22 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/23 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/24 no ip address ! interface GigabitEthernet0/1 no ip address !s interface GigabitEthernet0/2 no ip address ! ip http server ! banner motd ^C **** ABC network device **** **** Authorized access only **** **** Logging is enabled ***** .

200.241 Trace complete.cdef Type -------STATIC STATIC STATIC STATIC DYNAMIC DYNAMIC DYNAMIC Ports ----CPU CPU CPU CPU Fa0/3 Fa0/2 Fa0/1 Total Mac Addresses for this criterion: 7 Switch1# Example Traceroute Results Host1 C:\> tracert 209.0ccc.8bb4.165.250 over a maximum of 30 hops 1 <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms 209.241 over a maximum of 30 hops 1 2 <1 ms 1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms 209.165.250 209.200. C:\> .cccd 0100.0cdd.165.242 over a maximum of 30 hops 1 2 <1 ms 1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms 209.f79f.200.dddd 0016.200.200.200.241 Tracing route to 209.165. C:\> tracert 209.6cc0 0100.76ac.200.200.242 Tracing route to 209.165.165.165.165. C:\> tracert 209.250 Tracing route to 209.165.530c.250 209.200.0ccc.3c3a 001b.200.cccc 0100.250 Trace complete.242 Trace complete.a76a 0018.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 365 Example Switch 1 MAC Address Table Mac Address Table ------------------------------------------Vlan ---All All All All 1 1 1 Mac Address ----------000f.165.165.200.

1/24 LAN: MAC Address: 00:0c:85:cf:66:41 IP Address: 10.2. Figure 11-20 shows the topology for this lab. a network protocol analyzer. and explain the segment fields. Background This lab requires two captured packet files and Wireshark. Understanding the process involved in sequentially placing packets on the network will help you logically troubleshoot network failures when connectivity breaks.1. PC_Client.2. and a web server.5. network packet noise has been omitted from the captures. For brevity and clarity.pcap (discussed) eagle1_web_server. and explain the frame fields. Download the following files from Eagle Server.2.example.250/24 DNS Server .1.251/24 R1 LAN: MAC Address: 00:0c:85:cf:66:40 IP Address: 10.com. be sure to get permission in writing.255/24 Server S1 LAN: MAC Address: 00:0f:f7:9f:6c:c9 IP Address: 10.1. How an Ethernet II frame is constructed.2.1.1.254/24 LAN: MAC Address: 00:0c:29:63:17:a5 IP Address: 10.exe Scenario This exercise details the sequence of datagrams that are created and sent across a network between a web client.366 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Lab 11-7: Case Study: Datagram Analysis with Wireshark (11.1. How an IP packet is constructed.1) Upon completion of this exercise. and install Wireshark on your computer if it is not already installed: ■ ■ ■ eagle1_web_client. eagle1.6. Figure 11-20 Topology for Lab 11-7 Client LAN: MAC Address: 00:02:3f:7e:37:da IP Address: 10. and explain the packet fields.pcap (reference only) wireshark. Before executing a network protocol analyzer on a network that belongs to someone else. you will be able to demonstrate ■ ■ ■ ■ How a TCP segment is constructed. The contents of an Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) Request and ARP Reply.

example. . . . .254 DNS Servers . . . . . .1. Filter Toolbar. . . . . . . and the URL eagle1. . : 255. . . . . . . : 10. .1. Refer to Figure 11-22 for changes to the default output. . . : 10. . . . . . . . . To ensure that there is no automatic translation in MAC addresses.1. Refer to Example 11-20. . . Verify that Packet List and Packet Details are checked.250 C: > arp -a No ARP Entries Found C: > A web client is started. . . . and it’s where the captured packets start. . : 00:02:3f:7e:37:da Dhcp Enabled. . . . .1. . . . Example 11-20 PC Client Initial Network State C: > ipconfig / all Windows IP Configuration Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection: Connection-specific DNS Suffix . . . . .com is entered. . . . : Intel(R) PRO/1000 MT Network Connection Physical Address. : No IP Address. .255. .1 Subnet Mask . . . . . Uncheck Main Toolbar. . . and Packet Bytes. . This begins the communication process to the web server.1.0 Default Gateway . .1. Start Wireshark on your computer. you can display IP configuration information and the contents of the ARP cache. : 10. as shown in Figure 11-21. . Figure 11-21 PC Client with Web Browser Task 1: Prepare the Lab Step 1. . : Description .Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 367 Using Microsoft command-line tools. . . uncheck Name Resolution for MAC Layer and Transport Layer.255. .

The bottom window contains packet details. In the bottom window. PC_Client generates an internal TCP port address—in this conversation. eagle1_web_client. . so it must be discovered using other network protocols.pcap Task 2: Review the Process of Data Flowing Through the Network Step 1. Load the web client capture. Likewise. Consider the TCP segment shown in Figure 11-24. Various pull-down menus and submenus are available. At each layer.example. provided by the application layer. Data is included. When PC_Client builds the datagram for a connection with eagle1. the transport layer protocol is TCP. 80. A screen similar to Figure 11-23 appears. There are also two separate data windows. Figure 11-23 Wireshark with eagle1_web_client. a sequence number has been internally generated.368 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 11-22 Wireshark Default View Changes Step 2. each line that contains a plus sign next to it indicates that additional information is available.com. Because this communication is from a web client. Review transport layer operation. important header information is added. Some information is unknown to PC_Client. The top Wireshark window lists all captured packets.pcap. the datagram travels down the various network layers. 1085—and knows the well-known web server port address.

the IPv4 (IP) packet has several fields ready with information. as well as the source IP address. Review data link layer operation.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 369 Figure 11-24 TCP Segment Field TCP Segment 0 4 7 Source Port Sequence Number Acknowledgment Number Data Offset Reserved ECN Checksum Options and Padding Data Control Bits Window Urgent Pointer 10 16 Destination Port 31 There is no acknowledgment number. Before this segment can move to the network layer. The corresponding IP address must be discovered through Domain Name System (DNS). Figure 11-26 Ethernet II Frame Fields Ethernet II Frame Format Source Frame Address Type 2 Octets Preamble Destination Address Data CRC 8 Octets 6 Octets 6 Octets 46–1500 Octets 4 Octets . the packet version (IPv4) is known.example. At the network layer. fields related to the upper-layer protocols are empty. Step 3. For example. Figure 11-25 IP Packet Fields IP Packet 0 Version 4 IHL Identification TTL Protocol Source IP Address Destination IP Address Data 8 10 TOS Flags 16 Total Length Fragment Offset Header Checksum 31 The destination for this packet is eagle1. Before the datagram is placed on the physical medium. as shown in Figure 11-26.com. Until the upper-layer datagram is received. as shown in Figure 11-25. Review network layer operation. the TCP three-way handshake must be performed. but it must discover the destination MAC address. it must be encapsulated inside a frame. Step 2. PC_Client knows the source MAC address.

The ARP protocol is broadcast on the LAN to discover the MAC address for the DNS server. because the MAC address for the DNS server is unknown.1. A review of missing information will be helpful in following the captured packet sequence: ■ The TCP segment cannot be constructed because the acknowledgment field is blank. What is the source MAC address for the ARP Reply? 00:0c:29:63:17:a5 What is the destination MAC address for the ARP Request? 00:02:31:7e:73:da What is the Ethernet II frame type? 0x0806 (ARP) What is the destination IP address in the ARP Reply? 10.1. Review the data flow sequence.1.250 What is the Ethernet II frame type? 0x0806 (ARP) Step 3. Why didn’t the DNS server have to send an ARP Request for the PC_Client MAC address? When an ARP Request is received. What is the source MAC address for the ARP Request? 00:02:31:7e:73:da What is the destination MAC address for the ARP Request? ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff What is the unknown IP address in the ARP Request? 10. This is resolved with a DNS request from PC_Client to the DNS server. The DNS server sent an ARP Reply. No.example. No. You can view the contents of the Ethernet II frame by clicking the checkbox in the second line of the Packet Details window. what can you infer about an ARP Request destination address and an ARP Reply destination address? The destination address for an ARP Request is a broadcast address.example. The ARP protocol is broadcast on the LAN to learn the destination MAC address for eagle1. Examine the ARP request.com. Refer to Wireshark’s Packet List window. The captured frame is an ARP Request. .com is unknown. Examine the ARP reply.example. The MAC address for eagle1. The TCP three-way handshake cannot occur. You can view the contents of the ARP Request by clicking the ARP Request line in the Packet Details window.com must first be completed.1 Based on the observation of the ARP protocol.com. The DNS server cannot be queried. the source MAC address of the request is stored in the receiver’s ARP cache. ■ ■ ■ Step 2.370 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 3: Analyze Captured Packets Step 1. A TCP three-way handshake with eagle1. 1. and the destination address for an ARP Reply is a unicast address. Refer to Wireshark’s Packet List window. 2.example. because PC_Client does not know the IP address for eagle1.1.

Refer to Wireshark’s Packet List window.2. Because 10. Step 6. PC_Client sent a DNS query to the DNS server. If all UDP packets were dropped at the firewall. No. The ARP Reply was from the Gateway.example respond with an acknowledgment of 1? TCP employs expectational acknowledgments. MSS is computed to be the maximum size of an IPv4 datagram minus 40 bytes. This means that the TCP acknowledgment number sent is for the expected sequence number of the next packet.2. along with an acknowledgment of 1 and a sequence of 0.0/24. eagle1. 4. What is your response? DNS uses UDP for name translation. sequence number 0. Examine the DNS query.2. port 1043 What is the IP address for eagle1.com? Explain. PC_Client sent an ARP Request to IP address 10.com? 10. Examine the DNS query response.example.251 One of your colleagues. If the initial TCP sequence value from PC_Client is 0. These captures contain the TCP three-way handshake between PC_Client and eagle1. employees could not translate names to IP addresses. PC_Client must have the ARP address to the Gateway. Refer to Wireshark’s Packet List window. port 53 Step 5.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 371 Step 4. MSS=1460. Examine the TCP three-way handshake.1. 6. Yes. 3. Refer to Wireshark’s Packet List window.example. answer the following questions: What is the Ethernet II frame type? 0x0800 (IP) What is the transport layer protocol. 7. answer the following questions: What is the Ethernet II frame type? 0x0800 (IP) What is the transport layer protocol. This value is sent during connection startup. When a TCP segment is transported over IPv4. No.com responds with the TCP ACK and SYN flags set.254. A better approach would be to employ a stateful packet filter and create rules that permit established and related traffic through the firewall. MSS stands for maximum segment size.example. . Examine the ARP Request. This is also when TCP sliding windows are negotiated. Refer to Wireshark’s Packet List window. only the TCP SYN flag is set on the datagram sent from PC_Client. Using the Packet Details window. 8. No. Step 7. Initially.example.1.251 is on a different network than 10. No. why did eagle1. and 9. asks you if you can think of any reason why all UDP packets should not be blocked from entering the internal network. In the Packet List window is an unexplained value. and what is the destination port number? UDP.1.1. Using the Packet Details window. Is this IP address different from the IP address for eagle1.com. and what is the destination port number? UDP. 5 and No. The DNS server sent a DNS query response to PC_Client.2. a firewall administrator.

Gateway. . . Don’t fragment (set) 0 .0. . . . Fill in the correct Wireshark Packet List window number that satisfies each of the following missing entries: ■ The TCP segment cannot be constructed because the acknowledgment field is blank. . . . The ARP protocol is broadcast on the LAN to discover the MAC address for the DNS server.0 Congestion Window Reduced ECN Echo Urgent ACK PSH SYN FIN Task 4: Complete the Final Analysis Step 1. Reserved (not set) 1 .com. . More fragments (not set) When PC_Client completes the TCP three-way handshake. 8. . .example. . and eagle1. . DNS server.com must first be completed.com. .example.example. the ARP response from the DNS server ■ ■ . No. It has taken a total of nine datagrams sent between PC_Client. . 9.com? Table 11-38 shows the TCP flag states. . . . . This is shown in Wireshark’s Packet List. where PC_Client sent a web protocol GET request. No. . what does the IP flag value of 0x04 mean? IP flag values: 8421 0 .example. . .0. No. . . Wireshark’s Packet List.com. Table 11-38 TCP Flag States Bit Position Flag 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0. A TCP three-way handshake with eagle1. . . No. .1.example. 2. No. . .example. . 4. . 9. 10.example.0. .0. Match the Wireshark output to the process. the DNS query response The DNS server cannot be queried because the MAC address for the DNS server is unknown.372 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide In eagle1. . .com The TCP three-way handshake cannot occur because PC_Client does not know the IP address for eagle1. . what TCP flag states are returned to eagle1. This is resolved with a DNS request from PC_Client to the DNS server. .com before PC_Client has sufficient information to send the original web client request to eagle1. No. the TCP ACK response to eagle1. . . .

Wireshark Packet List No. A window similar to the one shown in Figure 11-27 appears. 14 is a response to which datagram from eagle1. 10. Next. When PC_Client is finished.example. eagle1. Wireshark Packet List No. 14. first select a TCP datagram from the Wireshark Packet List. if a web browser could not connect to a web server. Wireshark includes an option that constructs the TCP stream in a separate window.com responds with a TCP ACK.com to the PC_Client GET request. Review the information in the [SEQ/ACK analysis] frame.com. Analyzing packet contents can be a daunting experience—time-consuming and errorprone. The ACK datagram for Wireshark Packet List No. To use this feature. . The ARP protocol is broadcast on the LAN to learn the destination MAC address for the gateway. To verify the ACK. and unacknowledged packets. scroll down to the bottom of the Detail List window. highlight Wireshark Packet List No.example. 17 datagram is sent from PC_Client to eagle1. 13 The Wireshark Packet List No. Wireshark Packet List No. unsuccessful DNS queries. A protocol analyzer shows unsuccessful ARP requests.com? No. as shown in Wireshark Packet List No. No. and 15 are TCP segments from eagle1. TCP ACK and FIN flags are sent. What is the purpose of this datagram? This datagram is a TCP window update to expand the window size. the ARP response from the Gateway Wireshark Packet List No. 13. Use the Wireshark TCP stream. 6. the same protocol analyzer can become an effective troubleshooting tool when the network fails. Figure 11-27 Output of TCP Stream Task 5: Conclusion Using a network protocol analyzer can be an effective learning tool for understanding critical elements of network communication.example.com is unknown. As soon as the network administrator is familiar with communication protocols.com. For example.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 373 ■ The MAC address for the gateway to reach eagle1. 12. there could be multiple causes.example. 14 and 16 are ACK datagrams from PC_Client. and the TCP session is closed. Next. choose Analyze > Follow TCP Stream. from Wireshark. and expand the [SEQ/ACK analysis] frame. 11 is an acknowledgment from eagle1.example. Step 2.example. 18.

UDP. Analyze the events involved in ■ ■ Requesting a web page (DNS. the TCP three-way handshake must build a reliable path and supply both communicating ends with initial TCP header information. Ethernet. Packet Tracer Challenge Skills Integration Challenge: Configuring and Analyzing Networks (11. the TCP session is destroyed in an orderly manner. IP. Behind-the-scenes protocols such as DNS and ARP are used to fill in missing parts of IP packets and Ethernet frames. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ Build. Upon completion of this activity. Finally.1. TCP. configuring.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to perform this exercise using Packet Tracer. See if you can complete this entire challenge (approximately 100 configurable components. Figure 11-28 shows the topology for this lab. respectively. Integrate skills from throughout the course. Here is an opportunity to test yourself. and configure the entire lab network. Ethernet. HDLC) Tracing the route to the web server (DNS.6. ARP. ICMP. you have been developing network planning.3) Open file LSG01-PTSkills11. and testing skills. building. although some are quite easy) in less than 30 minutes. test. You have also developed a conceptual understanding of networking protocols and device algorithms. with the client issuing a TCP FIN flag. ARP.374 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 6: Summary In this exercise you have learned how a web client and web server communicate. HDLC) Background Throughout this course. Before a TCP session can begin. Figure 11-28 Skills Integration Lab Topology 1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server 2960-24TT S1-Central 1841 R2-Central PC-PT 1A PC-PT 1B . HTTP. IP.

up to 28 hosts (Fa0/0 on R2-Central. For R1-ISP’s Fa0/0 interface.168. You have been given an IP address block of 192. For R2-Central’s Fa0/0 interface. point-to-point link (S0/0/0 on R1-ISP and S0/0/0 on R2-Central) ■ ■ ■ ■ IP address assignments: ■ ■ ■ For the server. up to seven hosts (not yet implemented) Fifth subnet. all strings (names. For the switch management interface. configure the highest usable IP address on the ISP LAN subnet. installed in the slot on the right—one named R1-ISP. configure the highest usable address on the existing WAN subnet. For hosts 1A and 1B. and one named R2-Central. use the lowest usable address on the existing WAN subnet. use the highest usable address on the existing student LAN subnet. You must provide for existing networks as well as future growth. . which has a serial DCE WAN connection to R1ISP and an Fa0/0 LAN connection to S1-Central One 2960TT switch (S1-Central) Two PCs named 1A and 1B A server named Eagle_Server ■ ■ ■ Note that both the display names and hostnames for all devices must be configured exactly. For R2-Central’s S0/0/0 interface. In general. connected to Fa0/24 on S1-Central) Second subnet. passwords.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 375 Task 1: Plan Use the standard Exploration lab topology as you plan your IP addressing scheme: ■ Two 1841 routers with WIC-2T interface cards.3. and connect them to the Fa0/1 and Fa0/2 interfaces on S1Central. existing student LAN. existing WAN. up to 28 hosts (not yet implemented) Third subnet. For R1-ISP’s S0/0/0 interface. which has a serial DCE WAN connection to R2-Central and an Fa0/0 LAN connection to Eagle_Server. and connect it to the Fa0/24 interface on S1-Central. ■ ■ ■ ■ Use Table 11-39 to record your address information.0 /24. banners) should be entered exactly as specified in these instructions for the grading to work properly. configure the second-highest usable IP address on the ISP LAN subnet. future ISP LAN. Subnet assignments: ■ First subnet. up to 14 hosts (Fa0/0 on R1-ISP) Fourth subnet. future student LAN. use the second-highest usable address on the student subnet. use the first two IP addresses (the two lowest usable addresses) on the existing student LAN subnet. existing ISP LAN.

console.168. interfaces (FastEthernet and serial).1 192. The static route on R1-ISP should point to the existing Student LAN subnet via R2-Central’s serial interface IP address. use the domain name eagle-server. use ip route global configuration mode.168. use a clock rate of 64000 on the R1ISP S0/0/0 interface. enable DNS services. banner). and Telnet. in addition to IP configuration. and management interface (int vlan1).77 255.3. Configure the routers using the CLI to practice your skills.3. and enable HTTP services.168.255.3.3.255.2 192.255.3.168. Configure both routers.3.224 255. passwords. be sure to save your configuration. Whenever you configure a Cisco IOS device.168.255. Students need to understand these concepts to successfully complete this lab.255. Hint: To configure static routes. configure them to use DNS services.78 R2-Central Fa0/0 S0/0/0 PC-1A PC-1B Eagle-Server NIC NIC NIC Task 2: Build and Configure the Network Build the network.98 192. banner (**This is lab switch S1-Central. The router configuration must include “housekeeping” (display name.3.168. use “Reset Activity” and retime yourself doing the entire configuration again. and routing (static route on R1-ISP. For Hosts 1A and 1B. Authorized access only.**). console.168.30 192.97 192.168.98 192.255.3. and the two PCs.255.252 255. The banners should say **This is lab router R1ISP.168. You can use the CLI help function to determine the command syntax.98 192.3. hostname. and Telnet passwords all set to cisco). the server.30 192.255. .252 255. hostname. taking care to make connections as specified. default route on R2-Central). use “Check Results” to see what components still need to be configured.30 192.78 192. Authorized access only. As you work.com. The following login passwords should all be set to cisco: enable.3.376 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 11-39 Addressing Table Device Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP Fa0/0 S0/0/0 192.** The interfaces should be configured as specified in Table 11-39.3.224 255.224 255.168.255. configure the display name. On the switch. be sure to save your configuration. Authorized access only.240 — — 192.3. Note to Instructor: You might want to introduce students to the concepts of static routes and discuss the command syntax and default routes.255.** and **This is lab router R2-Central. login passwords for access (enable.255.example. The static route on R2-Central should be a default static route that points via R1-ISP’s serial interface IP address.168.240 255.255.168. For the server. the switch.255. If you want more practice.255. Whenever you configure a Cisco IOS device.

Explain the entire process to a peer. issue a traceroute to the server from one of the PCs. As soon as you are convinced that your network is working. Also note the algorithms used by hosts. Telnet. especially how IP is involved in everything. Examine the packets as they are processed by the devices to study protocol behavior. UDP.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 377 Task 3: Test and Analyze It is good practice to test connectivity through ping and Telnet. HTTP. TCP. Again explain the entire process to a peer. also in simulation mode. switches. make sure you have saved your configurations on the Cisco IOS devices. ICMP. and to examine routing tables. Power-cycle the devices to clear the network again and. Examine how the trace is built from ICMP echo requests. request a web page while making the following protocols visible in the event list: DNS. Then power-cycle the devices and reset the network. ARP. and routers. Task 4: Reflection Relate the processes observed in Task 3 to the TCP/IP Protocol Graph. . In simulation mode. Your skills at modeling networks in Packet Tracer will serve you well in subsequent courses.

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