Network Fundamentals

,
CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide Instructor Edition
Antoon W. Rufi Priscilla Oppenheimer Belle Woodward Gerlinde Brady

Cisco Press
800 East 96th Street Indianapolis, Indiana 46240 USA

ii

Network Fundamentals, CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide

Network Fundamentals, CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide
Instructor Edition Antoon W. Rufi, Priscilla Oppenheimer, Belle Woodward, and Gerlinde Brady
Copyright© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. Published by: Cisco Press 800 East 96th Street Indianapolis, IN 46240 USA All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without written permission from the publisher, except for the inclusion of brief quotations in a review. Printed in the United States of America First Release January 2008 ISBN-10: 1-58705-583-X ISBN-13: 978-1-58705-583-6

Publisher Paul Boger Associate Publisher Dave Dusthimer Cisco Representative Anthony Wolfenden Cisco Press Program Manager Jeff Brady Executive Editor Mary Beth Ray Production Manager Patrick Kanouse Development Editor Dayna Isley Project Editors Patrick Kanouse Jennifer Gallant Copy Editors Gayle Johnson Keith Cline Technical Editors Cindy G. Layman Michael Duane Taylor Tony Chen Editorial Assistant Vanessa Evans Book and Cover Designer Louisa Adair Composition Mark Shirar Proofreader Leslie Joseph

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Warning and Disclaimer
This book is designed to provide information about the Network Fundamentals course of the Cisco Network Academy CCNA Exploration curriculum. Every effort has been made to make this book as complete and as accurate as possible, but no warranty or fitness is implied. The information is provided on an “as is” basis. The authors, Cisco Press, and Cisco Systems, Inc. shall have neither liability nor responsibility to any person or entity with respect to any loss or damages arising from the information contained in this book or from the use of the discs or programs that may accompany it. The opinions expressed in this book belong to the author and are not necessarily those of Cisco Systems, Inc.

Trademark Acknowledgments
All terms mentioned in this book that are known to be trademarks or service marks have been appropriately capitalized. Cisco Press or Cisco Systems, Inc. cannot attest to the accuracy of this information. Use of a term in this book should not be regarded as affecting the validity of any trademark or service mark.

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Network Fundamentals, CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide

About the Authors
Antoon “Tony” W. Rufi currently is the associate dean of computer and information science for all the ECPI College of Technology campuses. He also teaches the Cisco Networking Academy CCNA, CCNP, Network Security, Fundamentals of Wireless LAN, and IP Telephony curricula. Before becoming an instructor for ECPI, he spent almost 30 years in the U.S. Air Force, working on numerous electronic projects and computer programs. Tony has a master’s degree in information science from the University of Maryland and a bachelor’s degree in industrial technology from Southern Illinois University. Priscilla Oppenheimer is an author and network consultant with more than 25 years of experience in the computer industry. Priscilla has a master’s degree in information science from the University of Michigan and has worked at such big-name companies as Apple Computer and Cisco Systems. She currently teaches at Southern Oregon University and provides network consulting to companies in her hometown of Ashland, Oregon, and elsewhere. Belle Woodward, CCNA, CCAI, CCNP, is an assistant professor in the School of Information Systems and Applied Technologies in the College of Applied Sciences and Arts at Southern Illinois University (SIU) in Carbondale, Illinois. She has more than nine years experience in the networking and network security field. Belle teaches network security, advanced networking, and telecommunications. After redesigning the networking and network security undergraduate curriculum, her students took first place at the 2006 Regional Midwestern Collegiate Cyber Defense Competition (CCDC) and fourth place at the national CCDC. In addition to publishing several journal articles in the network security discipline, Belle has also contributed several chapters included in published network security and networking books. Gerlinde Brady has been teaching Cisco CCNA and CCNP courses at Cabrillo College, a Cisco Regional Networking Academy, since 1999. She holds a master’s degree in education from the University of Hannover, Germany, and a master’s degree in translation (English/German) from the Monterey Institute of International Studies. Her IT industry experience includes LAN design, network administration, technical support, and training.

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About the Technical Reviewers
Cindy G. Layman has been an instructor at Itawamba Community College in Tupelo, Mississippi, for more than 10 years. She has been teaching programming, computer servicing, and networking courses, including the full CCNA curriculum in the Cisco Networking Academy. Cindy has a bachelor of science degree in mathematics and a bachelor of science degree in computer science, both from Mississippi State University. Before teaching at ICC, she was a programmer analyst for nine years. Michael Duane Taylor is department head of computer information sciences at the Raleigh Campus of ECPI College of Technology. He has more than seven years of experience teaching introductory networking and CCNA-level curriculum and was awarded the Instructor of the Year Award. Previously, Michael was a lab supervisor with Global Knowledge working with router hardware configuration and repair. He holds a bachelor’s degree in business administration from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and a master of science degree in industrial technology/computer network management from East Carolina University. His certifications include CCNA, CCNP-router, and MCSE.

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Network Fundamentals, CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide

Dedications
I would like to dedicate this book to my wife, Linda, who is instrumental in getting me to apply myself. Always supportive, she has been the catalyst that has kept me going. —Tony Rufi This book is dedicated to my hard-working students who have inspired me to be a better teacher. — Priscilla Oppenheimer This book is dedicated to my husband, Jeff, and son, Alan, whose tireless support helped see me through another project. —Belle Woodward To my wonderful husband, Paddy, and my daughters Fiona, Teresita, and Ejay, who let me take time away from them to be a part of this project. —Gerlinde Brady

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Acknowledgments
From Tony Rufi: I’d like to give special recognition to Mike Taylor for his diligent approach to tech editing. He has provided a tremendous amount of input to get the technical aspects of this endeavor correct. I have enjoyed working with him. I also want to thank Mary Beth Ray; she has been instrumental in allowing me to pursue the dream of authoring a book. A special thank you to ECPI College of Technology, specifically President Mark Dreyfus, Vice President of Academic Affairs John Olson, and Director of Operations Barbara Larar. Without their support, I would not have been able to write this book. From Priscilla Oppenheimer: I’d like to thank Cisco Press for giving me the opportunity to work on this project. I especially want to thank Mary Beth Ray and Dayna Isley for turning this complex project into a success. Thanks also go to our technical reviewers for their persistence and attention to detail. Finally, I’d like to thank the Cisco Networking Academy for developing courses that inspire students to do amazing things with networks. From Belle Woodward: It has been a great pleasure to be part of such an outstanding group of professionals, and to these people and everyone on the team I extend my heartfelt thanks. Dayna Isley, thanks for all your help and patience. Cindy and Michael, thanks for providing your expert technical knowledge in editing the book. I want to give special recognition to Susanne Ashby, a great friend, who has always been willing to read and edit my work. From Gerlinde Brady: I would like to thank Dayna Isley and Mary Beth Ray for their unending patience. A special thanks goes to the technical editors, Cindy Layman, Mike Taylor, and Tony Chen, for their diligence and expertise.

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Network Fundamentals, CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide

Contents at a Glance
Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Chapter 10 Chapter 11 Living in a Network-Centric World Communicating over the Network 1 33 63

Application Layer Functionality and Protocols OSI Transport Layer OSI Network Layer 91 125 151

Addressing the Network: IPv4 OSI Data Link Layer OSI Physical Layer Ethernet 231 199 217

Planning and Cabling Networks

263 297

Configuring and Testing Your Network

4.1.3) 13 Task 1: Locate the SANS Resources Task 2: Review the SANS Resources Task 3: Collect Data Task 4: Reflection 15 16 14 15 Task 5: Challenge 16 Lab 1-1: Using Collaboration Tools: IRC and IM (1.1.5.4) 11 11 11 Task 3: Navigate the Google Earth Interface Task 5: Challenge 13 Activity 1-2: Identifying Top Security Vulnerabilities (1.ix Contents Chapter 1 Living in a Network-Centric World Concept Questions 1 2 2 1 1 Communicating in a Network-Centric World Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Concept Questions 2 3 Communication: An Essential Part of Our Lives The Network as a Platform Vocabulary Exercise: Define Vocabulary Exercise: Identify 3 3 4 4 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Concept Questions 5 The Architecture of the Internet 5 Vocabulary Exercise: Define Concept Questions 6 5 7 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Trends in Networking 8 Multiple-Choice Questions Task 1: Install Google Earth Task 2: Run Google Earth Task 4: Reflection Task 6: Clean Up 13 13 8 10 Activity 1-1: Using Google Earth to View the World (1.1) 16 Task 1: Configure the Chat Client Task 2: Connect to the Chat Server Task 3: Consider the Chat Session Task 4: Reflection Task 6: Clean Up 21 22 Task 5: Challenge 22 19 20 21 .1.6.

3) 28 Task 1: Explore the PT Interface Task 2: Explore PT Operations Task 4: Reflection Chapter 2 32 30 30 32 Task 3: Review the Standard Lab Setup Communicating over the Network The Platform for Communications 33 33 Concept Questions 33 34 34 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching LANs.2. and Internetworks Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Protocols 36 34 35 36 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Concept Questions Using Layered Models 36 37 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Network Addressing 38 37 38 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Multiple-Choice Questions 38 Activity 2-1: Using NeoTrace to View Internetworks (2.1.6.1) 22 Task 1: Define the Terms Wiki and Blog Task 3: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 28 28 22 23 Task 2: Explore Wiki Features with the TWiki Tutorial Task 4: Challenge 28 Skills Integration Challenge: Introduction to Packet Tracer (1.2.6.1) 42 Task 1: Create a Peer-to-Peer Network Task 3: Cable the Peer-to-Peer Network Task 5: Reflection 48 43 43 47 43 Task 2: Identify the Cables Used in a Network Task 4: Connect Your Workstations to the Classroom Lab Switch Packet Tracer Companion: Topology Orientation and Building a Small Network (2.x Network Fundamentals.5. WANs.1) 39 Task 1: Trace Route to Remote Server Task 2: Trace Route Using NeoTrace Task 3: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 41 41 Task 4: Challenge 41 40 41 Lab 2-1: Topology Orientation and Building a Small Network (2.2) 48 .6.1. CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide Lab 1-2: Using Collaboration Tools: Wikis and Web Logs (1.1.7.

1) 69 69 70 Task 2: Observe the Properties of the Audio File Lab 3-1: Managing a Web Server (3.2) 59 Skills Integration Challenge: Examining Packets (2.1) Task 1: Configure the Pod Host Computer for E-mail Service 81 Task 2: Capture and Analyze E-mail Communication Between the Pod Host Computer and an E-mail Server 84 .4. and Verify the Apache Web Server Task 2: Verify the Default Web Server Configuration File Task 3: Capture and Analyze HTTP Traffic with Wireshark Task 4: Challenge 78 Task 5: Reflection Task 6: Clean Up 78 79 79 73 77 76 Lab 3-2: E-mail Services and Protocols (3.xi Lab 2-2: Using Wireshark to View Protocol Data Units (2.3.1.1.7.1) 71 Task 1: Download.2.4.1) 49 Task 1: Ping PDU Capture 53 Task 2: FTP PDU Capture 56 Task 3: HTTP PDU Capture 58 Task 4: Reflection Task 6: Cleanup 58 59 Task 5: Challenge 58 Packet Tracer Companion: Using Packet Tracer to View Protocol Data Units (2.2.6.3) 59 Task 1: Complete the Topology 60 61 61 61 Task 2: Add Simple PDUs in Real-Time Mode Task 3: Analyze PDUs in Simulation Mode (Packet Tracing) Task 4: Experiment with the Model of the Standard Lab Setup Task 5: Reflection CHapter 3 61 63 63 Application Layer Functionality and Protocols Applications: The Interface Between the Networks Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Concept Questions 64 64 Making Provisions for Applications and Services 65 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Multiple-Choice Questions 65 65 Application Layer Protocols and Services Examples 66 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Multiple-Choice Questions Task 1: Create a Sound File Task 3: Reflection Task 4: Clean Up 71 71 67 66 66 Activity 3-1: Data Stream Capture (3.6. Install.2.4.

3) Task 1: “Repair” and Test the Topology Task 3: Reflection Chapter 4 89 91 91 88 89 Task 2: Explore How DNS and HTTP Work Together OSI Transport Layer Roles of the Transport Layer Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Concept Questions 92 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Port Type Ranges Exercise Concept Questions 93 92 91 92 The TCP Protocol: Communicating with Reliability 92 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Managing TCP Sessions 93 93 Internet Research Exercise Concept Questions 94 93 The UDP Protocol: Communicating with Low Overhead 94 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion 94 95 Lab 4-1: Observing TCP and UDP Using netstat (4.xii Network Fundamentals.5.1) Task 1: Identify TCP Header Fields and Operation Using a Wireshark FTP Session Capture 102 Task 2: Identify UDP Header Fields and Operation Using a Wireshark TFTP Session Capture 108 Task 3: Reflection Task 5: Cleanup 110 111 111 Task 4: Challenge 111 Lab 4-3: Application and Transport Layer Protocols (4. CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide Task 3: Challenge 86 Task 4: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 86 86 87 Skills Integration Challenge: Configuring Hosts and Services (3.5.1) Task 1: Configure the Pod Host Computer to Capture Application Layer Protocols 113 Task 2: Capture and Analyze HTTP Communication Between the Pod Host Computer and a Web Server 114 Task 3: Capture and Analyze FTP Communication Between the Pod Host Computer and a Web Server 116 .2.1.1) Task 1: Explain Common netstat Command Parameters and Outputs 96 Task 2: Use netstat to Examine Protocol Information on a Pod Host Computer 98 Task 3: Reflection Task 5: Cleanup 100 100 100 Task 4: Challenge 100 Lab 4-2: TCP/IP Transport Layer Protocols.5.5. TCP and UDP (4.3.1.

6.1.5.5.3.1) 138 136 Task 1: Use the route Command to Modify a Windows Computer Routing Table 139 Task 2: Use a Windows Telnet Client Command telnet to Connect to a Cisco Router 144 Task 3: Examine Router Routes Using Basic Cisco IOS Commands Task 4: Reflection Task 6: Clean Up 147 147 147 Task 5: Challenge 147 Packet Tracer Companion: Examining a Route (5. UDP. HTTP.xiii Task 4: Reflection Task 6: Clean Up 121 122 Task 5: Challenge 121 Packet Tracer Companion: Application and Transport Layer Protocols Examination (4.1.2) Lab 5-2: Examining a Route (5.1. and TCP Work Together 124 125 125 126 126 127 Concept Questions Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Vocabulary Exercise: Define Internet Research Exercise Networks: Dividing Hosts into Groups 127 127 127 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Concept Questions 127 128 Routing: How Our Data Packets Are Handled Vocabulary Exercise: Define Routing Processes: How Routes Are Learned 129 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion 129 130 Lab 5-1: Examining a Device’s Gateway (5.2.5.2) 145 .1) Task 1: Understand and Explain the Purpose of a Gateway Address 132 Task 2: Understand How Network Information Is Configured on a Windows Computer 134 Task 3: Troubleshoot a Hidden Gateway Address Problem Task 4: Reflection Task 6: Clean Up 137 137 137 Task 5: Challenge 137 Packet Tracer Companion: Examining a Device’s Gateway (5.3) 122 Task 1: Repair and Test the Topology Task 3: Reflection Chapter 5 OSI Network Layer IPv4 125 123 124 Task 2: Explore How DNS.2.5.2) 122 Skills Integration Challenge: Analyzing the Application and Transport Layers (4.5.

1.xiv Network Fundamentals.6.1.7.1) Task 1: Use the ping Command to Verify Simple TCP/IP Network Connectivity 160 Task 2: Use the tracert Command to Verify TCP/IP Connectivity Task 3: Challenge 166 Task 4: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 168 168 168 164 Packet Tracer Companion: ping and traceroute (6.7.2) Lab 6-2: Examining ICMP Packets (6.2. CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide Skills Integration Challenge: Routing IP Packets (5.3) 148 Task 1: Configure a Router Interface Task 2: Examining Routes 149 149 150 150 Task 3: Configure a Route Using a GUI Task 5: Reflection Chapter 6 150 151 Task 4: Examine the Routing of the IP Packet Addressing the Network: IPv4 IPv4 Addresses 151 Concept Questions 151 152 152 Binary-to-Decimal Conversion Exercise Decimal-to-Binary Conversion Exercise Addresses for Different Purposes 152 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Internet Research Exercise Vocabulary: Completion Concept Questions Assigning Addresses 152 153 153 153 154 Internet Research Exercises Concept Questions Is It on My Network? 154 154 155 Binary Matching Exercise Concept Questions 156 Internet Research Exercise Calculating Addresses 156 155 156 Concept Questions 156 157 157 Multiple-Choice Questions Testing the Network Layer Concept Questions 157 158 159 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Lab 6-1: Ping and Traceroute (6.1.7.1) 169 Task 1: Understand the Format of ICMP Packets Task 3: Challenge 177 170 173 Task 2: Use Wireshark to Capture and Examine ICMP Messages .

7. Determine Network Information Task 2: Challenge 180 Task 3: Clean Up 182 183 Activity 6-2: IPv4 Address Subnetting.1) Task 1: Subnet the Address Space 192 193 193 Task 2: Determine Interface Addresses Task 4: Verify the Configurations Task 5: Reflection 194 193 Task 3: Configure the Serial and FastEthernet Addresses Packet Tracer Companion: Subnet and Router Configuration (6.7.8.7.2.3) 194 Task 1: IP Subnet Planning 195 196 196 Task 2: Finish Building the Network in Packet Tracer Task 3: Configure the Network Task 4: Test the Network Task 5: Reflection chapter 7 OSI Data Link Layer 197 199 199 197 Data Link Layer: Accessing the Media Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Concept Questions 199 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Media Access Control Techniques 199 200 200 Concept Questions 200 201 201 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Concept Questions 202 Media Access Control: Addressing and Framing Data 201 Putting It All Together: Follow Data Through an Internetwork 203 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Lab 7-1: Frame Examination (7.7.2) 194 Skills Integration Challenge: Planning Subnets and Configuring IP Addresses (6. Determine Subnet Information 184 Task 2: Challenge 188 Task 3: Clean Up 191 192 Lab 6-3: Subnet and Router Configuration (6.1) 178 Task 1: For a Given IP Address. Part 1 (6.3.1) Task 1: For a Given IP Address and Subnet Mask.5.1.1) 203 205 Task 1: Explain the Header Fields in an Ethernet II Frame 206 209 Task 2: Use Wireshark to Capture and Analyze Ethernet II Frames .xv Task 4: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 177 177 177 178 Packet Tracer Companion: Examining ICMP Packets (6.7.4.2.5. Part 2 (6.2) Activity 6-1: IPv4 Address Subnetting.5.

CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide Task 3: Challenge 212 Task 4: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 212 213 213 Skills Integration Challenge: Data Link Layer Issues (7.5.1.1) Task 1: Become Familiar with the Most Common Functions of a Cable Tester 221 Task 2: Test Different Cables for Type and Wiring Problems Task 4: Verify Cable Length Task 5: Reflection Task 7: Clean Up 226 226 Task 6: Challenge 226 226 223 224 Task 3: Perform Initial Configuration of the Fluke LinkRunner Skills Integration Challenge: Connecting Devices and Exploring the Physical View (8.4.3) 227 Task 1: Connect the Devices in the Standard Lab Setup 228 228 Task 2: View the Standard Lab Setup in the Physical Workspace chapter 9 Ethernet 231 231 Overview of Ethernet Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Concept Questions 232 231 Ethernet: Communication Through the LAN 232 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Concept Questions 233 232 .xvi Network Fundamentals.6.3) Task 1: IP Subnet Planning 214 Task 2: Finish Building the Network in Packet Tracer.1. Attending to Some Layer 2 Issues 215 Task 3: Configure the Network Task 4: Test the Network Task 5: Reflection Chapter 8 OSI Physical Layer 216 217 217 215 216 The Physical Layer: Communication Signals Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Concept Questions Concept Questions 217 217 Physical Signaling and Encoding: Representing Bits 218 218 218 218 219 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Concept Questions 219 Physical Media: Connecting Communication Vocabulary Exercise: Matching 219 220 Lab 8-1: Media Connectors Lab Activity (Lab 8.1.

8.2.9.3.2.2) 253 Lab 9-3: Intermediary Device as an End Device (9.2) Lab 9-2: Cisco Switch MAC Table Examination (9.1) 249 248 Task 1: Use the Telnet Protocol to Log in to a Cisco Switch 251 Task 2: Use the Cisco IOS show mac-address-table Command to Examine MAC Addresses and Port Associations 251 Task 3: Challenge 253 Task 4: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 253 253 Packet Tracer Companion: Cisco Switch MAC Table Examination (9.1.3.1.3) 259 256 Task 1: IP Subnet Planning 260 261 Task 2: Repair Problems with the Ethernet Switched LAN .1.8.1) Task 1: Use the Windows arp Command Task 3: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 248 248 242 246 Task 2: Use Wireshark to Examine ARP Exchanges Task 4: Challenge 248 Packet Tracer Companion: Address Resolution Protocol (9.8.8.8.1) 253 Task 1: Use Wireshark to Capture and Analyze Frames Originating from Network Nodes 255 Task 2: Examine the Origination of Frames in a Small Network Task 3: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 258 259 Task 4: Challenge 259 Packet Tracer Companion: An Intermediary Device as an End Device (9.8.xvii The Ethernet Frame 233 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Multiple-Choice Questions Concept Questions 235 234 233 Ethernet Media Access Control 235 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Concept Questions 236 236 235 Ethernet Physical Layer Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Hubs and Switches 237 236 237 237 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Concept Question 238 Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) 238 Multiple-Choice Questions 238 240 Lab 9-1: Address Resolution Protocol (9.2) 259 Skills Integration Challenge: Switched Ethernet (9.

2) Task 1: Connect a Router and Computer with a Console Cable Lab 10-3: Establishing a Console Session with HyperTerminal (10.1) 282 Task 2: Configure HyperTerminal to Establish a Console Session with a Cisco IOS Router 283 .xviii Network Fundamentals.2.2) Task 1: Determine the Number of Subnets in Topology Diagram A 269 Task 2: Record Subnet Information Task 4: Record Subnet Information Task 6: Record Subnet Information Task 8: Record Subnet Information Task 9: Reflection 273 274 270 270 271 272 271 272 273 Task 3: Determine the Number of Subnets in Topology Diagram B Task 5: Determine the Number of Subnets in Topology Diagram C Task 7: Determine the Number of Subnets in Topology Diagram D Lab 10-2: Creating a Small Lab Topology (10.2.6.1.1.6.6.1) Task 1: Design the Logical Network 276 278 Task 2: Configure the Physical Lab Topology 278 Task 3: Configure the Logical Topology Task 4: Verify Network Connectivity Task 5: Reflection Task 7: Clean Up 281 281 281 282 280 Task 6: Challenge 281 Packet Tracer Companion: Creating a Small Topology (10. CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide Task 3: Test the Network Task 4: Reflection Chapter 10 261 261 Planning and Cabling Networks Concept Questions 263 264 263 263 LANs: Making the Physical Connection Multiple-Choice Questions Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Device Interconnections 264 264 Concept Questions 264 265 265 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Developing an Addressing Scheme Concept Questions 266 266 266 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Multiple-Choice Questions Calculating the Subnets 267 Concept Questions Concept Question 267 267 Device Interconnections 268 268 269 Multiple-Choice Questions Lab 10-1: How Many Networks? (10.3.

3.6.7.xix Task 3: Configure HyperTerminal to Establish a Console Session with a Cisco IOS Switch 285 Task 3: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 286 286 287 Task 4: Challenge 286 Lab 10-3 (Alternative): Establishing a Console Session with TeraTerm Task 1: Connect a Router and Computer with a Console Cable 287 Task 2: Configure TeraTerm Web to Establish a Console Session with the Router 288 Task 3: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 288 289 Task 4: Challenge 289 Packet Tracer Companion: Establishing a Console Session with PT Terminal (10.2.6.2) 289 Lab 10-4: Establishing a Console Session with Minicom (10.3) 293 Task 1: Build the Network Topology Task 3: Interface Configuration Task 4: Testing Connectivity Chapter 11 295 294 294 Task 2: Create and Assign an Addressing Scheme 295 297 Configuring and Testing Your Network Configuring Cisco Devices: IOS Basics 297 Concept Questions 297 298 298 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Cisco IOS Command Exercises Test Your Knowledge 299 Applying a Basic Configuration Using Cisco IOS 299 Concept Questions 300 300 301 Multiple-Choice Questions Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Verifying Connectivity 301 Test Your Knowledge 301 Concept Question 301 .1.1) 290 Task 1: Connect a Router and Computer with a Console Cable 290 Task 2: Configure Minicom to Establish a Console Session with the Router 291 Task 3: Perform Basic Commands Task 4: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 292 293 292 Skills and Integration Challenge: Planning and Cabling Networks (10.

2.4.3.3.2) Lab 11-4: Configure Host Computers for IP Networking (11.3) 302 Task 1: Use the ping Command to Document Network Latency Task 3: Measure Delay Effects from Larger Datagrams Task 4: Reflection 308 Task 5: Challenge 309 Lab 11-2: Basic Cisco Device Configuration (11.1) 327 326 Task 1: Configure Network Connectivity Task 3: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 333 335 328 329 Task 2: Use TFTP to Save and Restore a Cisco IOS Configuration Task 4: Challenge 333 Packet Tracer Companion: Managing Device Configuration (11.5.1) 335 336 Task 1: Design the Logical Lab Topology Task 3: Configure the Logical Topology Task 4: Verify Network Connectivity Task 5: Reflection Task 7: Clean Up 341 341 342 337 338 Task 2: Configure the Physical Lab Topology 338 340 Task 6: Challenge 341 Lab 11-5: Network Testing (11.5.2.4.5. CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide Lab 11-1: Network Latency Documentation with ping (11.1) 310 303 Task 2: Compute Various Statistics on the Output of a ping Capture 304 306 Task 1: Configure Cisco Router Global Configuration Settings Task 2: Configure Cisco Router Password Access Task 3: Configure Cisco Router Interfaces Task 4: Save the Router Configuration Files Task 5: Configure a Cisco Switch Task 6: Reflection Task 8: Clean Up 323 325 Task 7: Challenge 324 320 317 319 315 312 Packet Tracer Companion: Basic Cisco Device Configuration (11.2) Lab 11-3: Managing Device Configuration (11.5.1.5.xx Network Fundamentals.1) Task 1: Design the Logical Lab Topology Task 3: Configure the Logical Topology Task 4: Verify Network Connectivity Task 5: Reflection Task 7: Clean Up 350 351 Task 6: Challenge 350 343 345 Task 2: Configure the Physical Lab Topology 345 349 .5.1.

6.1) 352 Task 1: Design the Logical Lab Topology Task 3: Configure the Logical Topology Task 4: Verify Network Connectivity Task 5: Document the Network Task 6: Reflection Task 8: Clean Up 358 359 Task 7: Challenge 358 357 353 354 Task 2: Configure the Physical Lab Topology 354 356 Lab 11-7: Case Study: Datagram Analysis with Wireshark (11.5.5.6.xxi Lab 11-6: Network Documentation with Utility Commands (11.1) 366 Task 1: Prepare the Lab 367 368 370 372 Task 2: Review the Process of Data Flowing Through the Network Task 3: Analyze Captured Packets Task 4: Complete the Final Analysis Task 5: Conclusion Task 6: Summary 373 374 Skills Integration Challenge: Configuring and Analyzing Networks (11.1.3) 374 Task 1: Plan 375 376 Task 2: Build and Configure the Network Task 3: Test and Analyze 377 Task 4: Reflection 377 .5.

Vertical bars (|) separate alternative. Braces { } indicate a required choice. CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide Icons Used in This Book Desktop Computer Laptop Firewall Packet Streaming Video IP Phone Switch Router Route/Switch Processor Phone Server Cloud Wireless Router Hub Printer Wireless Media LAN Media WAN Media Command Syntax Conventions The conventions used to present command syntax in this book are the same conventions used in the IOS Command Reference. mutually exclusive elements. The Command Reference describes these conventions as follows: ■ Boldface indicates commands and keywords that are entered literally as shown. Square brackets [ ] indicate optional elements. In actual configuration examples and output (not general command syntax). Braces within brackets [{ }] indicate a required choice within an optional element. boldface indicates commands that are manually input by the user (such as a show command). Italics indicate arguments for which you supply actual values. ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ .xxii Network Fundamentals.

Each chapter also includes a culminating activity called the Packet Tracer Skills Integration Challenge.com/go/certifications. This Labs and Study Guide is just such a collection of tools. These activities require you to pull together several skills learned from the chapter—and previous chapters and courses—to successfully complete one comprehensive exercise. The Study Guide sections of this book offer dozens of exercises to help you learn the concepts crucial to your success as a CCNA exam candidate. online assessment. it will help you gain knowledge and practice the skills associated with the content areas of the CCNA Exploration Network Fundamentals course. and troubleshoot these technologies. student performance tracking. this book is designed to help you learn all the required materials of the first course in the Networking Academy CCNA Exploration curriculum. where you can use Packet Tracer to complete a simulation of the lab.xxiii Introduction The Cisco Networking Academy is a comprehensive e-learning program that provides students with Internet technology skills. Each chapter is slightly different and includes multiplechoice. CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide is a supplement to your classroom and laboratory experience with the Cisco Networking Academy. In other words. you will be better prepared to move on to the rest of the CCNA Exploration curriculum and ultimately to pass the CCNA certification exam (640-802). . You can view the exam topics any time at http://www. Many of the hands-on labs include Packet Tracer companion activities. Network Fundamentals. Used to its fullest extent. Passing this foundation exam means that you not only have the required knowledge of the technologies covered by the exam. The CCNA Exploration curriculum includes four courses oriented around the topics of the Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA) certification. A Networking Academy delivers web-based content. and open-ended questions designed to help you ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Review vocabulary Strengthen troubleshooting skills Boost networking skills Reinforce concepts Research topics Each chapter also includes a Labs and Activities section that includes the online curriculum labs and a Packet Tracer Skills Integration Challenge activity. To be successful on the exam and achieve your CCNA certification. you should do everything in your power to arm yourself with a variety of tools and training materials to support your learning efforts. Goals and Methods First and foremost. matching. and hands-on labs to prepare students for industry-standard certifications. implement. these exams are rigorously application based. By establishing a firm foundation in the fundamental topics taught in this course. design. fill-in-the-blank. operate.cisco. but also that you can plan.

Although Packet Tracer is not a substitute for real equipment. . it allows students to practice using a command-line interface.x is available only to Cisco Networking Academies through the Academy Connection website. Lab activities are an important part of networking education. and have the option to work from home.xxiv Network Fundamentals. Packet Tracer provides a visual simulation of equipment and network processes to offset the challenge of limited equipment. The top-down approach adopted in the Network Fundamentals course enables students to set up and implement application layer services in a network lab environment. However. Many of the hands-on labs in Network Fundamentals are based on an Internet model that uses a local server to provide a range of network services and applications that students can experiment with in the lab environment. Your instructor needs to follow those instructions to set up the labs for you accordingly. lab equipment can be a scarce resource. The Eagle Server provides the following network services: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ DNS Web server FTP TFTP SSH Instant messaging Wiki server E-mail The Eagle Server is required to complete most of the labs in CCNA Exploration. CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide A Word About Packet Tracer Packet Tracer is a self-paced. visual. Students can spend as much time as they like completing standard lab exercises through Packet Tracer. A Word About Eagle Server The CCNA Exploration courses are designed to provide a hands-on learning approach to networking. interactive teaching and learning tool developed by Cisco. The Eagle Server software and complete FAQ documentation can be downloaded by your instructor from the Tools section of Academy Connection. This “e-doing” capability is a fundamental component of learning how to configure routers and switches from the command line. Packet Tracer version 4. The Eagle Server is developed by the Cisco Networking Academy to provide network services and applications that are typically accessed over the Internet in an isolated lab environment.

Chapter 6.xxv Audience for This Book This book’s main audience is anyone taking the CCNA Exploration Network Fundamentals course of the Cisco Networking Academy curriculum. Many academies use this textbook as a required tool in the course. The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses different types of questions to test your knowledge of how devices communicate over the network. Chapter 3. The questions and labs help you reinforce important concepts related to addressing.” introduces you to the top network model layer. such as ping and trace. and network collaboration tools. Chapter 2.” introduces the concepts of routing packets from a device on one network to a device on a different network. the application layer. and Packet Tracer.” focuses on network addressing in detail and tests your knowledge of how to use the address mask. Chapter 4. You learn how TCP and UDP apply to common applications. presentation. to determine the number of subnetworks and hosts in a network. media. This book has 11 chapters. “Communicating over the Network.” provides exercises and labs to supplement your study of the basics of communication and how networks support the way we live. Chapter 5. Work through the different types of questions to test your knowledge of the TCP/IP application and OSI application. data packets. The book covers the major topic headings in the same sequence as the online curriculum for the CCNA Exploration Network Fundamentals course. “OSI Transport Layer. The labs further reinforce that you have mastered the skills needed to work with the application layer of the OSI model. network components. “OSI Network Layer. and IP. “Application Layer Functionality and Protocols. The Lab Exercises portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum labs to further reinforce that you have mastered the practical. while other academies recommend the Companion Guides as an additional source of study and practice materials. and protocols that enable network communication. wikis. The questions in the chapter focus on network architectures. beginning with Chapter 1. path determination. such as Wireshark. “Living in a Network-Centric World. Activities and labs let you practice your skills using and configuring network applications such as Google Earth. quality of service (QoS). Internet Relay Chat. to help evaluate network communications. with the same numbers and similar names as the online course chapters. blogs. you should work through this Lab Study Guide in order. Chapters and Topics The book has 11 chapters. as follows: ■ Chapter 1. “Addressing the Network: IPv4. hands-on skills needed to use some critical tools. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide and the online curriculum is sequential.” introduces the devices. scalability. or prefix length. ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ .” provides exercises and labs that focus on the role of the transport layer as it provides the end-to-end transfer of data between applications. This chapter also includes questions and labs related to Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) tools. How This Book Is Organized Because the content of Network Fundamentals. security issues. and session layer.

and you then gain access to exclusive deals on other resources from Cisco Press.ciscopress.asp and enter the book’s ISBN.” supplements your study of how the OSI data link layer prepares network layer packets for transmission. how to connect devices. challenging labs that ask you to connect and configure a small network using basic Cisco IOS commands for routers and switches. “Planning and Cabling Networks. The files will be updated to cover any subsequent releases of Packet Tracer.” provides questions and labs that explore the functions. A Packet Tracer skills integration lab provides an opportunity to practice IP subnetting. Chapter 10.com/title/1587132036. and Packet Tracer Challenge files that are referenced throughout the book as indicated by the Packet Tracer Activity. ■ ■ ■ ■ About the CD-ROM The CD-ROM included with this book has all the Packet Tracer Activity. The chapter also helps you study Media Access Control (MAC) and MAC addressing. standards. with a focus on ARP frames. This chapter tests your ability to describe the encapsulation processes that occur as data travels across a LAN and a WAN.” focuses on designing and cabling a network.” examines the technologies and operation of Ethernet.com website. Use this chapter to reinforce that you have mastered the practical. . MAC. You will configure Cisco routers and switches for basic network operations. a link to any supplemental content will be listed on your My Registered Books page.com to continue registration. connecting it to a switch. This chapter continues the examination of Ethernet frames that you started in Chapter 7. About the Cisco Press Website for This Book Cisco Press may provide additional content that can be accessed by registering your individual book at the Ciscopress.com/bookstore/register. Becoming a member and registering is free. After you register the book. Packet Tracer Companion. and how to develop an addressing and testing scheme. A hands-on lab lets you practice your skills using Wireshark to capture and analyze Ethernet frames. and Address Resolution Protocol (ARP). Topics include the evolution of Ethernet technologies. CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide ■ Chapter 7. and setting speed and duplex settings. and building and configuring a complex network. Chapter 9. The chapter also helps you develop skills related to examining Cisco switch MAC address tables. “OSI Physical Layer. “Ethernet. hands-on skills needed to understand and work with the OSI physical layer. Chapter 11.ciscopress. You will apply the knowledge and skills developed in the previous chapters to determine the appropriate cables to use. “OSI Data Link Layer. A Packet Tracer skills integration lab lets you simulate the steps of installing an Ethernet card in a PC. “Configuring and Testing Your Network. go to http://www. You’ll then be prompted to log in or join Ciscopress. Packet Tracer Companion. Chapter 8. You can obtain updates to these files from the website for this book. To register this book. which is located on its back cover. and protocols associated with the physical layer (Layer 1).” provides questions and extensive.xxvi Network Fundamentals. and Packet Tracer Challenge icons. http://www.

the printing press. city. the written word. play. telephony. Concept Questions 1. and graphics. Communication was once limited to face-to-face conversations. and education. 2. school. radio. video. As you work through this chapter. In addition to data networks. How has data networking changed your community (your family. movies. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide for assistance. multiple-choice. Early data networks carried character-based messages between computer systems. fill-in-the-blank. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum activities and labs to ensure that you have mastered the practical. and television. what other breakthroughs in communication media have extended the reach of human interactions? Answers will vary but could include smoke signals. 3. ranging from paper to fiber-optic cabling. What types of network traffic do modern networks carry. hands-on skills needed to understand the opportunities and challenges associated with modern networks. text. The addition of all these different types of network traffic has enabled the creation of online communities where geographic distances and physical limitations are no longer major obstacles and where humans around the globe can collaborate in their work.CHAPTER 1 Living in a Network-Centric World The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of matching. newspapers. and how has this changed human interactions? Answers will vary but should mention that modern networks carry voice. . or country?) Answers will vary. and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of the importance of data networks and the major components and characteristics of network architectures. but it has evolved over the years to encompass many types of media. Study Guide Communicating in a Network-Centric World Humans are social animals who need to communicate with each other. telegraphy. use Chapter 1 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum or the corresponding Chapter 1 in Network Fundamentals. High-speed data networks that span the globe with cabling and networking devices have had a profound effect on human communication and will continue to revolutionize how humans interact with each other.

3. A blog is a web page that is easy to update and edit by someone who wants to publish a record of his or her thoughts on a subject. 1. communication networks include rules (or protocols) that help ensure reliable delivery of messages. Communication: An Essential Part of Our Lives Communication helps us work.2 Network Fundamentals. 5. A wiki is a web page that groups of people can edit and view together. and learn. Packet Tracer is a Cisco collaborative learning tool that provides a way to build virtual representations of networks that behave much like actual networks. Concept Questions 1. play. Factors that are external to the message can affect reliability. Instant Messaging (IM) is a form of online real-time communication between two or more people based on entered text. Rules help data networks function despite the many factors that can degrade communication. Because communication is so important. The message’s size The message’s complexity The message’s importance 2. Students should include at least four of the following correct answers: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ The quality of the pathway between the sender and receiver The number of times a message changes form The number of times a message is redirected The number of times a message is readdressed The number of times a message is reformatted The number of other messages sharing the communication pathway Whether a confirmation of the message was returned to the sender The amount of time allotted for successful communication List three internal factors that affect data networks. Podcasting is an audio-based medium that lets people record audio and publish it on a website. 2. List four external factors that affect data networks. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following questions. as can internal factors that are related to aspects of the message itself. 4. .

network experts have standardized many elements and components of a data network. such as a cable or the air for wireless. To achieve the scale. The figure shows a network topology for a typical small company. Vocabulary Exercise: Define Table 1-1 lists the four fundamental elements of a network. Modern networks support fast and reliable message transfer among millions of users across the globe.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 3 The Network as a Platform Data networks provide a platform for humans to communicate and thus play an increasingly important role in the business and personal lives of humans. speed. Engineers use a set of standard icons to refer to the elements. a physical environment. and interpreted A means of interconnecting devices. Figure 1-1 shows some of these icons. Table 1-1 Element Network Element Definitions Definition Rule Medium Message Device An agreement or protocol that governs how messages are sent. in which data is transferred A unit of information that travels from one device to another across a medium Equipment that connects directly to a network Vocabulary Exercise: Identify Networks consist of many elements. Figure 1-1 Network Topology Icons B C A D F G H K IP E I J L . directed. and reliability that are required. received. Fill in the definition for each element. Network engineers often include these elements in network topology drawings.

A device often found in home and small networks that lets laptop computers connect to a network without cabling c. Protocols are the rules that network devices use to communicate. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Provide the name of each element in the network topology shown in Figure 1-1. Router d. Provides network security Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following questions. 1. 2. Serial link f. Table 1-2 Device Network Devices Definition a. e-mail. 4. Switch b. Connects two or more networks and directs messages as they travel across a set of networks b. which carries data in the form of light signals. the terrestrial wireless connection between two ground stations. match the term on the left with its definition on the right. and instant messaging require a network to provide services. Summarizes a group of network elements in topology drawings d. Firewall c. Cloud f. In wired connections. 3. or the communication between devices on Earth and satellites in orbit. which carries data in the form of electrical signals. Network applications such as web browsing. Wireless media include the wireless connection between a wireless router and a computer in a home network. or optical fiber. A Firewall B Router C WAN medium D Network cloud E Server F LAN medium G LAN switch H Wireless router I IP phone J Desktop computer K Wireless media L Laptop computer Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 1-2. . One form of a wide-area network (WAN) connection a. Wireless router e.4 Network Fundamentals. the medium is either copper. Interconnects computers and cabling to form a local-area network (LAN) e.

List the steps that take place on a network when you send an instant message. TCP/IP is a set of standard protocols that is widely used in home and business networks as well as on the Internet. 2. 2. their answers should read something like the following: 1. . The computer converts the message to bits. The Architecture of the Internet A network architecture describes a network’s physical infrastructure and the high-level services and protocols that move messages across that infrastructure. 3. Converged networks have become common because they allow engineers to build one common infrastructure instead of multiple specialized networks. and the Internet must provide fault tolerance. The bits arrive at a router. education networks. What is meant by the term converged network. the bits get converted back into a human-readable format. At their destination. are also hierarchical. Messages must be converted to bits (binary coded digital signals) before they are sent to their destination. including traffic that was once relegated to its own separate network. 5. such as voice or radio. and enable advanced applications such as videoconferencing and online gaming.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 5 5. 4. The Network Interface Card (NIC) converts the bits to electrical or optical signals and places them on the medium. Answers will vary depending on how much students already know. The bits travel through network devices such as switches in the LAN. Business networks. This can save money. Concept Questions 1. and why are converged networks becoming so common? What advantages do converged networks offer? A converged network carries network traffic of many different types. Vocabulary Exercise: Define Table 1-3 lists four fundamental characteristics of network architectures. Many large networks. and security. 6. The Internet’s architecture shares many of the same characteristics of any large network that supports numerous users. which directs them to their destination. simplify troubleshooting. If they are just starting to learn networking and have grasped the information in “Elements of a Network” section in Chapter 1 of the curriculum and the Companion Guide. Fill in the definition for each characteristic. scalability. with different tiers offering different levels of service. quality of service. including the Internet.

The problem of underutilized idle circuits is eliminated. The hierarchical structure also means that network traffic that is destined for a service that is local to the sender does not need to traverse to a central point for distribution. How does the Internet benefit from using a hierarchical architecture? The hierarchical architecture permits Internet service providers (ISP) of different levels. using all available resources. because resources are used dynamically as packets arrive at switching locations. . Messages are divided into small blocks of data (packets) that can travel across many paths to the destination. Why was fault tolerance a major focus of the initial design for the Internet? The United States Department of Defense (DoD) designed the network that evolved into the Internet with fault tolerance because the department was concerned about a military attack or other severe problem that could destroy numerous sites and transmission facilities. Even if no communication is occurring between the sender and receiver. With packet switching. Tier 2 providers are smaller and often provide regional service. Packets are routed according to the best path available at the time and can be routed around problem areas. which improves scalability and fault tolerance. For example. or circuit.6 Network Fundamentals. Tier 3 providers are smaller yet and focus on getting end users on the Internet. The circuit is dedicated to the call for the duration of the call. 3. 2. based on the requirements of the applications and their importance to users Measures taken to guard against unauthorized access to a network and the data traveling on the network Concept Questions 1. Packets from different sources are intermixed. such as AT&T and Verizon. the call is dropped and must be reestablished. The early Internet designers chose packet switching because it provides better fault tolerance and scalability. Why did the Internet designers choose packet switching instead of circuit switching? With circuit switching. A new call requires a new setup process that creates a new circuit. Tier 1 providers. Each tier can optimize its services for its unique role. Compare and contrast circuit switching and packet switching. provide national and international connections and are optimized for carrying huge loads of traffic across the globe. there’s no requirement for call setup. is created through various switching locations between the sender and receiver. the circuit and its resources remain reserved until one end disconnects. If there’s a problem with any device in the path during a call. a call goes through a setup process whereby a temporary path. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 1-3 Network Architecture Characteristics Definition Characteristic Fault tolerance Scalability Quality of service Security The capability of a network to withstand hardware and software failures and recover quickly when failures occur The capability of a network to expand quickly to support new users and applications without degrading performance for existing users A method of providing different priorities for different applications.

and coping with network attacks. Answers will vary. 5. List some consequences of a network security breach. Business transactions can be time-sensitive.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 7 4. 3. The consequences of a lost control signal to an automated piece of heavy machinery. and content security. if their traffic is delayed. which protects devices and cabling. Three fundamental security measures include ensuring confidentiality so that only intended and authorized recipients can read data. and ensuring availability so that timely and reliable access to services is not disrupted by security breaches. Tools to provide security for individual messages must be implemented on top of the underlying protocols. confidentiality. which are the rules that govern how packets are formatted. maintaining integrity to ensure that information is not altered in transmission. Answers will vary. The two types of network security concerns are network infrastructure security. with consequent loss of business Misdirected or lost personal or business funds Stolen company intellectual property (research ideas. 2. or designs. Network firewalls can help ensure system reliability by detecting. for example) Private customer contract details becoming known to competitors or made public. addressed. but here are some examples based on the curriculum: Streaming video and audio are time-sensitive and will appear or sound choppy. could cause death or dismemberment. with lots of starts and stops. patents. repelling. . 4. The consequence of the calls being dropped or delayed include people dying or suffering needlessly with injuries. 1. which protects the information carried in packets and stored on network-attached devices. List some applications that are time-sensitive and the negative consequences of their packets getting dropped or delayed. a stock price could change while a buyer is making a purchase if traffic is delayed. but here are some examples based on the curriculum: A network outage that stops communications and transactions. Production control in factories can be time-sensitive. and integrity Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following questions. resulting in a loss of confidence in the business Loss of sales and eventual company failure because of a loss of public trust in the company’s ability to maintain privacy. For example. Calls to an emergency response center are time-sensitive. and delivered. for example.

and play. Which of the following is most associated with the concept of converged networks? a. Network technician d. The need to protect networks from unauthorized access f. and flexible as users continue to depend on their networks to help them live. More networks that are open and unconcerned with protection from unauthorized access 3. More voice and video transmissions that require a level of consistent quality and uninterrupted delivery c. . Fewer services as networks converge c.8 Network Fundamentals.) a. Networks will need to be scalable. More users wanting to access web pages in character mode b. The increasing number of mobile users b. fault-tolerant. Multiple-Choice Questions Choose the best answer for each of the following questions. Increasing use of simplified network devices e. Which of the following are major trends that are contributing to the current evolution of networks? (Choose two. c. 1. Software engineer 4. d. A fault-tolerant network is built to withstand earthquakes. Which of the following is a relatively new information technology (IT) job title? a. A fault-tolerant network can expand quickly to support new users and applications without causing errors for existing users. A fault-tolerant network limits the impact of hardware or software failures and recovers quick- ly when a failure occurs. Information security officer c. Fewer applications as networks converge d. A fault-tolerant network supports users who have different viewpoints. Modern networks need to be ready to support increasing numbers of users who will make innovative use of the networks to enhance human communication. Programmer b. work. The need to support circuit switching 2. learn. More networks that are locked down so that new applications and services cannot be added d. b. Which of the following best defines a fault-tolerant network? a. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Trends in Networking Data networks continue to evolve quickly.

including skyscrapers and b. Which of the following best defines a scalable network? satellite dishes on mountains.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 9 5. A scalable network ensures that priorities are matched with the type of communication and its importance to an organization. . c. A scalable network supports redundant connections so that alternative paths are available when a device or link fails. A scalable network can expand quickly to support new users and applications without impact- ing the performance of the service being offered to existing users. d. A scalable network is built to support high-altitude environments. a.

Google Earth displays the Earth as a manipulated 2D or 3D image. To use Google Earth. it requires a broadband connection to the Internet. and other support features. version 4. The URL http://earth. the following minimum computer hardware requirements must be met: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Operating system: Microsoft Windows 2000 or Windows XP CPU: Pentium 3 with 500 MHz System memory (RAM): 128 MB Hard disk: 400 MB of free space Network speed: 128 kbps Graphics card: 3D-capable with 16 MB of video RAM (VRAM) Screen: 1024×768 pixels. Use this link to answer the following questions: 1.10 Network Fundamentals. The Google Earth Plus version includes GPS support. is 30 minutes. Experiment with Google Earth to explore continents. . Which Google Earth version supports the highest resolution? Google Earth Pro supports 4800 pixels. depending on network speed. Experiment with Google Earth features such as Help and Tutorial. Explain the hardware and software requirements needed to use Google Earth (free edition).com/product_comparison. 16-bit high-color screen Scenario This activity is to be performed on a computer that has Internet access and on which you can install software.4) Upon completion of this activity. Background Google Earth is a popular application that executes on the desktop of most operating systems. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Labs and Activities Activity 1-1: Using Google Earth to View the World (1. countries. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Explain the purpose of Google Earth. Google Earth.google. Which versions support Tilt and 3D rotation? All versions 2.1. Currently. The version that fits most needs is the free version. The popular world news channel CNN regularly uses Google Earth to show where a news story has occurred. Explain the different versions of Google Earth. a spreadsheet importer.1. Estimated completion time. and places of interest. three versions of Google Earth exist. The Google Earth Pro version is for professional and commercial use.html contains a description of the versions.

com/download-earth. navigation controls. Follow the installation instructions. Before leaving the User’s Guide website. and the Google Earth download should start automatically. They control the image magnification and position. otherwise.html. List the three ways to move the image. The Menu bar is located in the upper-left corner.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 11 Task 1: Install Google Earth If Google Earth is not installed on the computer. Figure 1-2 shows the opening screen for Google Earth. shown in Figure 1-3. This handy feature provides a relative global position of the magnified image. Task 3: Navigate the Google Earth Interface Step 1: Use the Overview Map feature. 2. . What is the purpose of the left mouse button? It rotates the image. you may have to disable any popup blockers on your browser. answer the following questions: 1. mouse. The mouse pointer must be moved close to the controls. Take a few minutes to browse the User’s Guide. Choose View > Overview Map. Placemark. 3. Which mouse control zooms in and out? Right mouse button or scroll wheel. The navigation controls. the opening screen. only a compass is displayed.com/userguide/v4/).google. Remember. choose User Guide to launch a default web browser and bring up the Google Earth User’s Guide (http://earth.google. On the Help menu. you can download the free application from http://earth. Figure 1-2 Google Earth Opening Screen Task 2: Run Google Earth Refer to Figure 1-2. Step 2: Review the navigation controls. are located in the upper-right quadrant.

Try to find your home using the Search > Fly To folder. UK? What data would you need to enter? London. a U. UK Step 5: Use the Fly To feature. minutes. For longitude. Geographic coordinates are displayed in the lower-left quadrant of the image. Using the pointer and coordinates shown in the lower-left quadrant of the image. an image streaming indicator reports when the image resolution is complete. The equator has a 0° latitude.S. Is the resolution for your home the same quality as the Sightseeing location in Step 3? Answers will vary. what are the coordinates of your home? Answers will vary. and tenths. On the left navigation bar. California What if you would like to “Fly To” London. and some location images are older than others. The coordinate measurements are in degrees. zip code. one user commented that he found his home. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 1-3 Google Earth Screen Navigation Tools Tilt. If the resolution for your neighborhood is sufficient. the equator is an imaginary line dividing the globe into a Northern and Southern Hemisphere. Some locations have better resolution than others. Enter 95134. Common graticule is the grid created by the longitude and latitude lines as depicted on a globe. The second number is called the longitude. The Royal Observatory.12 Network Fundamentals. What U. The first number is called the latitude. and double-click that location. it’s the angle east or west of an arbitrary earth point. The image takes you to that site. the reference is North (N) or South (S) of the equator.S. Choose View > Grid to display Google Earth Gridlines. it’s the angle between a point and the equator. United Kingdom. choose a location that you want to see. The combined longitude and latitude are called the common graticule.2D or 3D Zoom Rotate or Move Step 3: Use the Sightseeing feature. For example. . the reference is East (E) or West (W) of the Royal Observatory. Step 6: View geographic coordinates. is the international zero-longitude point. browse the surrounding area to see if you can determine approximately how old the image is. For example. but the new house next door had not yet been built. state and city are displayed? San Jose. seconds. Expand Sightseeing. experiment with the Places > Sightseeing folder. For latitude. Step 4: Experiment with the Search > Fly To folder. When the location has been reached.

Locate and click Google Earth. depending on the slowest speed of all network connections in the path between the database repository and your computer. Use the following URL to learn about different coordinate systems: http://www.5.google. Use the geographic coordinate system to describe your home with as much accuracy and detail as possible.edu/geography/gcraft/notes/coordsys/coordsys. If so. satellite communication with an Earth station transmitted the image of your home to a ground location. turn off the computer. A LAN sent your image request across the Internet. Choose Start > Settings > Control Panel. Some type of database was used to store the image. Double-click Add or Remove Programs. For example.3) Upon completion of this activity. Could the image be displayed faster if data compression techniques were used? Answers will vary. consider what digital communication resources were used. Step 4.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 13 Task 4: Reflection Google Earth can bring the world into your home or office.html. Explain how threats are organized. Click Remove and follow the prompts. Could someone eavesdrop on your network connection? Answers will vary. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ ■ Use the SANS site to quickly identify Internet security threats. Step 3. Task 6: Clean Up You may be required to remove Google Earth from the computer. Task 5: Challenge Google Earth displays image coordinates in the lower-left quadrant of the image. List several recent security vulnerabilities.py?answer=20738&ctx=sibling. Step 2. While enjoying the images. follow these steps: Step 1.4. . Consider network security. Additional removal information is available at http://earth. probably through several WANs and then to another LAN with a computer that returned the image to you. Wikipedia also contains a useful definition of common geographic terms. Activity 1-2: Identifying Top Security Vulnerabilities (1.colorado. Use the SANS links to access other security-related information.com/support/bin/answer. The delay in retrieving the image may have been short or long. Unless instructed otherwise.

instant messaging. switches. You must complete this lab outside of the Cisco lab from a computer with Internet access.org/top20/. each a major contributor to information security. and defense. and numbers separate category topics. Open the SANS Top 20 List.14 Network Fundamentals. Router and switch topics fall under the Network Devices category.org/ and select items from the Resources menu. N. Security. Task 1: Locate the SANS Resources Step 1. go to http://www. VoIP devices Human elements: Security policies. Network. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Background One of the most popular and trusted sites related to defending against computer and network security threats is SANS. understanding.sans. including web. SANS contains several components. Mac Applications: Cross-platform. personnel issues Special section: Security issues not related to any of the preceding categories ■ ■ ■ Scenario This activity introduces you to computer security vulnerabilities.org. Estimated completion time is one hour. as shown in Figure 1-4. Using a web browser. go to http://www. backup software. and management servers Network devices: Network infrastructure devices (routers. There are two major hyperlink topics: ■ ■ N1. VoIP Servers and Phones N2. A letter indicates the category type. and so on). How can a corporate security administrator quickly identify security threats? SANS and the FBI have compiled their list of the top 20 Internet Security Attack Targets at http://www. peer-to-peer. UNIX/Linux. Audit. human behavior. On the resources menu. You will use the SANS website as a tool for threat vulnerability identification. The list is regularly updated with information related to the following: ■ ■ Operating systems: Windows. choose top 20 list.sans. Network and Other Devices Common Configuration Weaknesses .sans. DNS servers. database. For additional information about the SANS site. SANS stands for SysAdmin. media players. Figure 1-4 SANS Menu The SANS Top-20 Internet Security Attack Targets list is organized by category.

and click a sample CVE hyperlink. Using the hyperlinks. Note: Because the CVE list changes. . The link should open a new web browser connected to http://nvd. The Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS) severity is displayed. Review the contents of N2. Answers will vary. Network and Other Devices Common Configuration Weaknesses to jump to this topic. write a brief description of the solution as found on those pages. Range: Answers will vary. Source: Answers will vary. Step 2. Task 2: Review the SANS Resources Step 1. The last line under several topics’ references is Common Vulnerability Exposure (CVE).2 Common Default Configuration Issues. Fill in the following information about the vulnerability: Original release date: Answers will vary.2. Step 1: Choose a topic to investigate. Overview: Answers will vary. Note the CVE references. Solutions.gov/ and the vulnerability summary page for the CVE. Task 3: Collect Data The remainder of this lab walks you through a vulnerability investigation and solution. Authentication: Answers will vary. which contains information about the vulnerability.2 (as of this writing) contains information about threats associated with default accounts and values. Open Google and search on wireless router passwords to return links to multiple sites that publish a list of wireless router default administrator account names and passwords. The next heading. sponsored by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) National Cyber Security Division and US-CERT. and Tools. contains links with information about the vulnerability and possible solutions. Step 2. The CVE name is linked to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) National Vulnerability Database (NVD). Under the Impact heading are several values. Last revised: Answers will vary. N2.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 15 Step 2: Click hyperlink N2. For example. Impact Type: Answers will vary. References to Advisories. Step 3. Fill in information about the vulnerability impact: CVSS Severity: Answers will vary. It contains a value between 1 and 10.nist. the current list may not contain the same vulnerabilities as those that were present at the time of this writing. Failure to change the default password on these devices can lead to compromise and vulnerability by attackers.

Finding an organization willing to do this may be difficult. List several misuses of and data security issues involving IM. Governments have dedicated significant resources to coordinating and disseminating information about the vulnerability and possible solutions. It remains the responsibility of the end user to implement the solution. the telephone cannot be used to transfer files. To start chatting.16 Network Fundamentals. When you join. Each of these windows represents a two-person communication. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ ■ Define Internet Relay Chat (IRC) and Instant Messaging (IM).1. share ideas. To initiate an instant message. a brief hands-on lab will demonstrate the ease of IRC. networks. It will also give representatives of the organization an opportunity to meet the class and conduct informal intern interviews. however. Use IRC to demonstrate collaboration. Think of ways that users can help strengthen security. IRC. on the other hand. they are implemented differently. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 4: Reflection The number of vulnerabilities for computers. but this will provide beneficial information about how vulnerability mitigation is accomplished in the world. you can open additional IM windows. and transfer files. Using the Internet or a private corporate network. for security reasons. Although the following discussion focuses primarily on IM. . you establish a connection to a Chat server and join a discussion on a particular topic. Think about user habits that create security risks. IMing and chatting are both methods of real-time communication. Chat also provides a degree of anonymity. Lab 1-1: Using Collaboration Tools: IRC and IM (1. What collaborators need for communication in the human network is a tool that has the flexibility of e-mail with the responsiveness of the telephone. Background E-mail permits multiple users to collaborate.1) Upon completion of this lab. List several collaborative uses of IM. Task 5: Challenge Try to identify an organization that will meet with you to explain how vulnerabilities are tracked and solutions are applied. the telephone has been the technology of choice. IM provides one-on-one communication with “accepted” individuals. unless the user constantly monitors the e-mail account. When people have wanted immediate contact. Unfortunately. one person needs to “invite” another. IRC and IM fit nicely into these requirements. you typically create your own identity and can give as little information about yourself as you choose. you are said to “join a room. allows multiple people to interact. The recipient of the invitation knows about—and accepts—the IM session based on the other user’s screen name. often called a Buddy List. However. and data continues to increase.” In the chat room. users can easily exchange ideas and files. If you want to communicate with more than one person at a time. IM clients allow you to have an approved list of users. unread e-mail may go unnoticed for a long period of time.6.

File sharing between IM clients enables work collaboration. ■ ■ ■ ■ Protocols Each IM network uses an agreed-upon method of communication. any existing connections can be alerted through a contact list—a list of other people that you communicate with through the IM client. As with proprietary IM protocols. Jabber. such as Gaim and Trillian. each with a dedicated following of users. Applicable IETF references are RFC 3920 and RFC 3921. and even IP radio and IPTV. Figure 1-5 AIM Client Features IM services have several common features: ■ When an IM client connects to the IM network. Text messaging between clients is possible and can be logged. and ICQ (I Seek You).Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 17 IM requires a device providing services that allows users to communicate. Throughout this course we will learn about many different protocols. This arrangement is called a client/server relationship. SIPv2 was originally defined in RFC 2543 and was made obsolete by RFC 3261. The users on the end devices. numerous open-source protocols exist. Some IM client applications. can differentiate between the various IM network protocols. The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) has attempted to standardize IM protocols. use a piece of software called the Instant Messenger Client. Both Microsoft and Yahoo! have proprietary protocols but have partnered services for joint connectivity. Some IM networks offer audio services. IM servers can also incorporate this support. This device is called the Instant Messenger Server. Windows Live Messenger (MSN). AIM and . and the server joins clients. such as a computer. Many of the IM networks use proprietary protocols. based on the Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (EMPP). web conferencing. AIM and ICQ (purchased by AOL) use the proprietary Open System for Communication in Real Time (OSCAR) protocol. This relationship is called an IM network. Voice over IP (VoIP). IM clients connect to an IM server. The IETF formalized an open standard. Encrypted communication is supported. called a protocol. notably with Session Initiation Protocol (SIP). Many different IM networks are available. Popular IM networks include America OnLine (AOL) Instant Messenger (AIM). Social misuse of IM has been a concern for parents. Yahoo! Messenger. and many IM networks encourage parental control. desktop sharing. Figure 1-5 shows the AIM client application connected to the AIM network. Child restrictions include limiting IM contacts and providing supervision while online. Newer services that some IM networks are beginning to provide include videoconferencing.

IM clients and IM servers have experienced application vulnerabilities. mobile IM supports mobile users. create a separate account to be used for his or her daily office functions. Even legitimate users can congest network throughput by transferring large files.4 How to Protect Against IM Vulnerabilities and Unauthorized IM Usage ■ Establish policies for acceptable use of IM.sans. Computer worms.) Monitor using an Intrusion Detection/Prevention system for users creating tunnels for IM or bypassing proxies. Understand that many IM applications can enable associated communications to masquerade as otherwise legitimate traffic (for example. Filter all HTTP traffic through an authenticating proxy server to provide additional capabilities of filtering and monitoring IM traffic. If a user must have Administrative or Power User privileges. blocking specific users.org/top20/#c4: C4. have been transferred to IM client computers. Ensure that vendor patches are promptly applied to IM software. provide a commercial-grade IM proxy or internal IM server. chat room blocking. Employ antivirus and antispyware products. Another popular handheld appli- . Create secure communication paths when using IM with trusted business partners. Security Multiple security issues have been identified with IM. categorized as malware. which have resulted in vulnerable computers. Restrict Administrative and Power User level privileges to support personnel acting in their support capacity. The following list is from the SANS website at http://www. Without strong security methods. Some parental supervision tools include background logging. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Yahoo! Messenger provide free supervision software tools. providing IM services to handheld cellular phones. information exchanged between users can be captured and disclosed. Internet surfing. HTTP). viruses. Ensure that all users are aware of those policies and clearly understand the potential risks. (Note: This offers only partial protection because of the number of potential external servers. For example. Standard users should not be permitted to install software. Appropriately configure intrusion detection and prevention systems. Most popular cellular phone manufacturers have their own form of mobile IM.) Block popular IM ports. interrelated applications. and the underlying operating system. online time limits. enabling users to adapt new technologies for collaboration. Block access to known public IM servers that have not been explicitly authorized. and disabling certain functions of the client. and online communication.18 Network Fundamentals. many organizations either limit or block IM from entering the corporate network. The SANS Institute recommends several countermeasures that system administrators can use to protect their networks from IM vulnerabilities and misuse. (Note: This offers only partial protection because of the number of potential protocols and associated ports and the ability of applications to bypass port restrictions. As a result. Do not rely on external IM servers for internal use of IM. and Trojan horses. ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ The Future of IM The future of IM is promising. Consider deploying products specifically designed for IM security.

Step 1: Verify that an IRC client is on the lab computer. assume that a Cisco Networking Academy instructor has already set up Eagle Server and named it eagleserver. Figure 1-6 Topology for Lab 1-1 Eagle Server Pod#A Estimated completion time is 45 minutes. Scenario Figure 1-6 shows two computers connected to a “cloud.” In networking. If not. .example.5. including this one. Figure 1-7 Gaim Accounts Window In the Accounts window. Note: Eagle Server is a component of the Cisco Networking Academy. An IRC client is available for download from eagle-server at http://eagleserver. In subsequent chapters you will study in great detail the devices and protocols that are inside the cloud.com/pub.example. the cloud represents the network and networking devices between an IRC client and a server called eagle-server. This lab uses Gaim as the IRC client. but any IRC client may be used if available. such as the Internet.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 19 ance is the BlackBerry. In this lab. After verifying that the Gaim chat client is installed.0. Step 2: Open the Accounts window. telephony.exe (a Windows executable) from ftp://eagleserver. and web browsing. Accept the default settings during the installation.example.com. follow the next steps to configure Gaim.com/pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter1. download and install gaim-1. such as text messaging. which is not the current focus of this discussion. Task 1: Configure the Chat Client The IRC protocol is an open standard. a cloud is often used to symbolize a more complex network. icon Accounts. Some of the labs in this book. The Accounts window is shown in Figure 1-7. Open Gaim and select the Login window. as well as push e-mail. originally described in RFC 1459. click Add. The BlackBerry supports common IM tools. for communicating across plain-text links.

click Save.20 Network Fundamentals. Figure 1-9 shows the IRC Connect Status window. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Step 3: Add a new account. Fill in required information. Click Sign-on. expand the Show more options option. Two windows should open. Figure 1-10 shows the main Gaim IM client window. Close the Accounts window. Return to the Login window.example. In the Add Account window. as shown in Figure 1-8: ■ ■ ■ ■ Protocol: IRC Screen Name: (how others will know you) Server: eagle-server. Figure 1-9 IRC Connect Status Window Figure 1-10 Gaim IRC Client Window . used for chatting or IM.com Proxy type: No Proxy Gaim Add Account Window Figure 1-8 When you’re finished. where the new account to eagle-server should be visible. Task 2: Connect to the Chat Server Step 1: Sign on.

As a future network engineer. Task 3: Consider the Chat Session Figure 1-12 shows a brief chat between users root and student2. . Click Chat.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 21 Step 2: Join the chat. but you might not understand the communication between the client and server. you will be in a chat room alone (unless other students made a similar error). and a Buddy List window appears. consider how you—as a parent or network administrator—would manage this type of connection. Task 4: Reflection On a network with an Internet connection. Multiple students can join and interact with each other. the Channel name must start with #. When the IRC client connects to the IRC server. If the Channel name is incorrect. Most teenagers and young adults today are familiar with IMing between friends and sharing files. you should understand the social and security issues with IM and IRC. Figure 1-11 Joining a Chat Note: For you to join a chat channel. the status window closes. the Gaim IM client can be used to connect to several different IM providers. as shown in Figure 1-11. Answers will vary. Figure 1-12 Participating in a Chat During the chat.

2.6. you have the opportunity to learn about the different parts of a wiki. transfer files between partners. ask the instructor for assistance. In networking terms. Explore wiki features. In subsequent chapters you will study in great detail the devices and protocols that are inside the cloud. a wiki is a web-based collaboration tool that permits almost anyone to immediately post information. or graphics to a common site for other users to read and modify. A wiki can be installed for .22 Network Fundamentals. Task 1: Define the Terms Wiki and Blog Wiki is a Hawaiian-language word that means fast. Scenario In this lab. a cloud is often used to symbolize a more complex network that is not the current focus of discussion.” In networking. Figure 1-13 shows two computers connected to a “cloud. Use a continuous ping from the host to Eagle Server to monitor network throughput. To gain experience with a wiki. you will use a host computer that connects across the cloud to access the TWiki wiki server. you will be able to ■ ■ Define the terms wiki and blog. Observe the response time before and during the file transfer. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 5: Challenge While you are connected in chat. A wiki lets you access a home page (first page) that provides a search tool to assist you in locating the articles that interest you. Lab 1-2: Using Collaboration Tools: Wikis and Web Logs (1. files. Use the Orientation lab to configure and test connectivity before students arrive in class.1) Upon completion of this lab. Task 6: Clean Up Check with your instructor before removing Gaim and shutting down the computer. you are probably familiar with the look and feel of a wiki. Background The lab topology shown in Figure 1-13 should be configured and ready for use. Figure 1-13 Topology for Lab 1-2 Eagle Server Pod#A Note to Instructor: The lab should be preconfigured for students. In this lab. Write a brief description of the network response time—during file transfers and without file transfers. If you have ever used Wikipedia. If there are connectivity issues with the lab computer connecting to Eagle Server. you explore the TWiki wiki server installed on Eagle Server in this lab.

from such providers as www. Access control can be set by the topic creator. As you investigate each topic in the tutorial.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 23 the Internet community or behind a corporate firewall for employee use.com. Blogs are normally the creation of a single person. Get set. 4. Instead. 7.wikispaces. It is recommended that you open two browsers. Some blogs permit users to leave comments and provide feedback to the author.. users have already been created for steps that require login privileges. Use your browser to upload files as page attachments. Task 2: Explore Wiki Features with the TWiki Tutorial The TWiki tutorial explores some of the more common features of a wiki.wiki. Take a quick tour. Open a private account” topic. Change a page and create a new one. Point one browser at the TWiki URL. similar to a free website or e-mail account. Note that you won’t be able to carry out the instructions in the “3. Although many different wiki servers are available. defining who is permitted to edit content. 2. A search engine is used for quick content location. and e-mail has not been configured on the lab host computers. is similar to a wiki in that users create and post content for others to read. 3. but others are more restrictive. TWiki requires e-mail verification for new accounts. The user not only reads wiki contents but also participates by creating content within a web browser. Text formatting is similar to creating an e-mail. the following common features have been formalized into every wiki: ■ ■ Any web browser can be used to edit pages or create new content. and . A wiki web is a grouping of pages with different collaboration groups. 6. and the blog owner controls blog content. Get e-mail alerts whenever pages are changed. visit the following URLs outside of class: http://www. groups. Check out TWiki users. Test the page controls. The power of a wiki is in the rich hyperlink content. 5. Edit and auto links are available to edit a page and automatically link pages..com/ A web log. complete the questions in this task.org/wiki. Open a private account. Following hyperlinks can present continuity problems. It covers the following major topics: 1. 8. Free Internet blog hosting is available.blogger.cgi?WhatIsWiki http://www. called a blog. ■ ■ ■ For more information on wikis.

that hyperlinks to the topic. The URL name is case-sensitive. Click the TWiki Tutorial link.24 Network Fundamentals. users fill in registration information and submit the form to TWiki.” E-mail is not possible at this time. Instead. Adjust the browser window sizes so that instructions can be viewed in one browser and actions can be performed in the other.com/twiki/bin/view/Sandbox/WebHome. answer the following questions: What is a WikiWord? A WikiWord is a topic name. List the mandatory information required for registration: First Name Last Name E-mail address Your password Retype password Organization name Country . Step 1: Establish a web client connection to the Eagle Server wiki. The Sandbox. First.example. Open a web browser and connect to the TWiki Sandbox at http://eagleserver. to open the wiki tutorial page. The key point to understand about this step is that registration is a two-part process. is a web topic designed to test wiki features. topic 1. shown in Figure 1-14. you will not be able to register. “Get set. Refer to the tutorial. made up of two or more words with initial capital letters. topic 3. user IDs have been created for you to use later in this lab. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide use the other browser for “working” pages. highlighted in Figure 1-14.” After completing the first two tutorial sections. Step 3: Complete the TWiki tutorial.. therefore.” and topic 2. “Open a private account. “Take a quick tour. Any external links that are selected will result in an error.. How many results are returned from a search of WebSearch? 5 Refer to the tutorial. Figure 1-14 TWiki Sandbox Web Step 2: Open the TWiki Tutorial. so enter it exactly as shown.

answer the following question: What is the latest revision number? 15 In Table 1-4. The second part of the registration process is when the user either enters the code in the activation window or responds with e-mail by clicking the TWiki response link. The TWiki system generates a new password and sends it to the user’s e-mail account. using Table 1-5 to log in to the wiki server. Backlinks. Tutorial topic 5. “Test the page controls. Recognize the student who has the best topic page! . “Check out TWiki users. Note to Instructor: This tutorial is an opportunity for the student to create a personalized page. and setting the topic’s parent Topics are under revision control—shows the topic’s complete change history. memorable password. good for printing Edit Raw View Attach Backlinks More History r3 > r2 > r1 Printable Tutorial topic 6. Edit.” A list of TWiki users and groups is displayed. r3 > r2 > r1. and Raw View. How can inappropriate changes be fixed in a wiki topic? A topic revision can be undone by a member of the TWikiAdminGroup. version control. After completing this tutorial section. such as who changed what and when View a previous version of the topic or the difference between two versions Goes to a stripped-down version of the page. such as rename/move. Printable. Complete this tutorial. the user account is added to the TWiki database. Table 1-4 Description Action Links Action Link Add to or edit the topic Show the source text without editing the topic Attach files to a topic Find out what other topics link to this topic (reverse link) Additional controls. groups. Place the following action links: Attach. Refer to the tutorial.” is an opportunity for you to add content to the wiki. place the correct action link next to the descriptions of page controls. History. After completing this tutorial section.” makes you familiar with page-editing commands. answer the following questions related to user and group issues: How is a user’s password reset? The user selects WikiWord “Reset Password” and enters the login ID. topic 4. At this time. “Change a page and create a new one. More.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 25 TWiki responds to a registration request by sending an e-mail to the user that contains a unique activation code. The user logs in with the new password and creates a new.

Table 1-5 Account Logins Account Login ID (Case-Sensitive) Lab pod#host# Pod1host1 Pod1host2 Pod2host1 Pod2host2 Pod3host1 Pod3host2 Pod4host1 Pod4host2 Pod5host1 Pod5host2 Pod6host1 Pod6host2 Pod7host1 Pod7host2 Pod8host1 Pod8host2 Pod9host1 Pod9host2 Pod10host1 Pod10host2 Pod11host1 Pod11host2 StudentCcna1 StudentCcna2 StudentCcna3 StudentCcna4 StudentCcna5 StudentCcna6 StudentCcna7 StudentCcna8 StudentCcna9 StudentCcna10 StudentCcna11 StudentCcna12 StudentCcna13 StudentCcna14 StudentCcna15 StudentCcna16 StudentCcna17 StudentCcna18 StudentCcna19 StudentCcna20 StudentCcna21 StudentCcna22 From the lab Wiki Welcome Screen. Refer to Table 1-5. See Figure 1-15. You should use the account that reflects your pod and host computer number. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide On Eagle Server. a group with private accounts has been created to allow participation in a private TWiki topic. . cisco. located in the upper-left corner of the page.26 Network Fundamentals. These accounts are StudentCcna1 through StudentCcna22. click the Log In link. All accounts have the same password.

Sometimes it is not convenient to return regularly to a . To complete this tutorial. Both the username and password are case-sensitive.” describes the process of uploading files into the wiki. What is the default maximum file size that can be transferred? 10 MB Tutorial topic 8. “Get e-mail alerts whenever pages are changed. create a document using Notepad. Figure 1-16 Login Box This should bring up your wiki topic page. Figure 1-17 Wiki Topic Page Tutorial topic 7.” details how to receive e-mail alerts whenever a particular page has been updated. and upload it to the wiki server. Enter the applicable TWiki username and password cisco. “Use your browser to upload files as page attachments. similar to the one shown in Figure 1-17.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 27 Figure 1-15 Log In Link A login box similar to the one shown in Figure 1-16 should appear.

Packet Tracer Challenge Skills Integration Challenge: Introduction to Packet Tracer (1.SMTP mail address three spaces * [ webName .com/index.com: CiscoStudentsStuff Task 3: Reflection This lab presented the mechanics of a wiki. and Table 1-6 reflects the addressing information. Describe how you could receive e-mail notifications whenever a topic changes. Edit the WebNotify page. ] wikiName : topics ° ccna1@example. Because e-mail is not configured on the host computer.28 Network Fundamentals. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide wiki simply to check for updates to postings. ] wikiName three spaces * SMTP mail address three spaces * SMTP mail address : topics three spaces * [ webname . Internet access is required. Here’s a possible format: three spaces * [ webname .org/wiki/Network_Plus_Certification/Study_Guide Network Dictionary: http://wiki. Here are some wikis of possible interest: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ CCNA: http://en.wireshark. Task 5: Clean Up Close all web browsers and shut down the computer unless instructed otherwise.wikibooks. Answers will vary. the class may be able use the TWiki wiki server to post interesting topics related to computer network theory and class progress. and add the web name and your e-mail address.3) Figure 1-18 shows the topology for this challenge.org/wiki/Cisco_Systems Wiki web about Cisco equipment and technology: http://www.org/wiki/Cisco Network+: http://en. ] wikiName . alerts are not sent.nyetwork.1.org/ Task 4: Challenge Depending on the type of Eagle Server installation. .7.networkdictionary.php/Main_Page Wireshark network protocol analyzer: http://wiki.org/wiki/CCNA_Certification Cisco Systems corporate history: http://en.wikibooks. Create a personal blog of your network education experience.wikipedia. Usefulness and collaboration will not be realized until you actually join a wiki.

254 10.0. Examine a device configuration. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Explore Packet Tracer Real-time mode.168.0 255.255.1. Describe the devices. .255.0.6 172.0 255.254.16.1 172.255.255.254 192.2 192.10.254 172.16.0 — — 10. Explore the Logical Workplace.252 255.16.255.16.10.253 10.16. Explore Packet Tracer operation.255.1 172.255.255.255.255.10.255.254.16.254 172.0.16.0 255.0 255.0 255.6 10.255.10. Review the standard lab setup.254.254.255.255.5 172.6 172.168.254 255.168.1.10.10.10.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 29 Figure 1-18 Topology for Skills Integration Challenge 1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server 2960-24TT S1-Central 1841 R2-Central PC-PT 1A PC-PT 1B Table 1-6 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP R2-Central S1-Central PC 1A PC 1B Eagle Server Fa0/0 S0/0/0 Fa0/0 S0/0/0 VLAN 1 NIC NIC NIC 192. Connect devices.255.253 Upon completion of this activity.10.252 255.0.255.

Task 2: Explore PT Operations Step 1: Connect the devices using auto connect. routers.pka files (activity files for practice). the specific devices in the group appear in the box to the right. Click each group. below the yellow bar.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to perform this exercise using Packet Tracer. The first specific type. Click the connections group symbol. At the bottom of these instructions are two buttons: ■ ■ Check Results gives you feedback on how much of the activity you have completed. this experience can be supplemented by a simulated environment. When you click this symbol. The main part of the PT interface is the Logical Workplace. and information on the strengths and limitations of using Packet Tracer to model networks. and switches to learn networking concepts. When you launched this activity from the curriculum. The specific connection symbols provide different cable types that can be used to connect devices. You are encouraged to compare the results obtained from Packet Tracer network models with the behavior of real equipment. When Packet Tracer starts. . Packet Tracer provides a set of protocols.pkt file format. and features but only a fraction of what is possible with real equipment. you will often use the . or modify existing files from your instructor or your peers. Packet Tracer can create two file formats: . When you click one of these symbols. The first box in the lower left contains symbols that represent groups of devices. equipment. servers. the gold lightning bolt. When you create your own networks in Packet Tracer. the name of the group appears in the text box in the center.30 Network Fundamentals. which include an extensive “My First PT Lab. They are the result of the . it presents a logical view of the network in realtime mode. This activity gives you an opportunity to explore the standard lab setup using the Packet Tracer simulator. the pointer resembles a cable connector. The simulator that is used in this course is Packet Tracer. these instructions appeared. This method provides the widest range of features and the most realistic experience. This is the large area where devices are placed and connected. The lower-left portion of the PT interface. a description of the device appears in the text box below the specific devices.pkt files (network simulation model files) and . As you move the mouse pointer over these symbols. and study the various devices that are available and their symbols. Task 1: Explore the PT Interface Step 1: Examine the Logical Workplace. Open the file LSG01-PTSkills1.pka Packet Tracer activity file format. As you point to the specific devices. Packet Tracer is a supplement and not a replacement for experience with real equipment. Step 2: Explore symbols navigation. Because equipment and time are limited. automatically selects the connection type based on the interfaces available on the devices.” tutorials. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Background Throughout the course you will use a standard lab setup created from actual PCs. is the portion of the interface that you use to select and place devices into the Logical Workplace. You are also encouraged to examine the Help files built into Packet Tracer. Reset Activity restarts the activity if you want to clear your work or get more practice.

Config. The Config tab displays the general configuration information. such as device name. and gateway information. and then click the second device. and wireless. Move the mouse over the devices found in the Logical Workplace. Using the auto connection symbol. Click each device type found in the Logical Workplace to view the device configuration: ■ Router and Switch devices contain three tabs—Physical. Switch displays port configuration information. such as modules.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 31 To connect two devices. and gateway information. subnet mask. such as device name. The CLI tab allows the user to configure the device using the command-line interface. DNS. MAC address. and MAC address. port status. As you move the mouse pointer over these symbols. and CLI (command-line interface). including IP address. MAC address. Config. The Physical tab displays components of the device. MAC address. and a simulated web browser can also be accessed using the Desktop tab. click the auto connection symbol. including IP address. The Physical tab displays components of the device. the command prompt. such as ports. port status. click the first device. and gateway information. and VLAN membership. DNS server. ■ Server and Hub devices contain two tabs—Physical and Config. the device configurations appear in a text box: ■ Router displays port configuration information. dialup. PC displays IP address. . The Config tab displays the device name. The Config tab displays the general information. ■ ■ ■ Step 3: Examine device configuration. Server displays IP address. The Physical tab displays physical components of the device. default gateway. subnet mask. Step 2: Examine device configuration with a mouseover. A terminal emulator. and Desktop. ■ PC devices contain three tabs—Physical. New modules can also be added using this tab. make the following connection: ■ ■ Connect Eagle Server to the R1-ISP router. The Desktop tab allows the user to configure IP address. New modules can also be added using this tab. New modules can also be added using this tab. IP address. Connect PC-PT 1A to the S1-Central switch.

IP addresses. and two PCs. one server. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 3: Review the Standard Lab Setup The standard lab setup consists of two routers. if you have not done so already. Each of these devices is preconfigured with such information as device names. gateways.32 Network Fundamentals. and connections. Task 4: Reflection You have completed your first Packet Tracer lab. one switch. You are encouraged to obtain Packet Tracer from your instructor or Academy Connections. .

The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum activities and labs to further reinforce that you have mastered the practical. matching. What are these three types? Metallic wires within cables Glass or plastic fibers (fiber-optic cable) Wireless transmission ■ ■ ■ . and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of how devices communicate over the network. fill-in-the-blank. What is the process used to allow many different conversations to be interleaved on a network called? Multiplexing 4. All of these methods have three elements in common. or information. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide. Study Guide The Platform for Communications Communication begins with a message. Modern networks primarily use three types of media to interconnect devices. for assistance.CHAPTER 2 Communicating over the Network The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of multiple-choice. Concept Questions 1. ■ ■ ■ What are the three elements of communication? Message source or sender Destination or receiver Channel or media What is the process of breaking large messages. 3. People exchange ideas using many different communication methods. As you work through this chapter. hands-on skills needed to use some critical tools to help evaluate network communications. into smaller. or flow of data. that must be sent from one individual or device to another. easier-to-manage pieces called? Segmentation 2. use Chapter 2 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum or use the corresponding Chapter 2 in the Networking Fundamentals.

and is designed to be accessible only by the organization’s members. PDAs) Network access devices (hubs. . match the definition on the right with a term on the left. and Internetworks Network infrastructures can vary greatly in terms of the following: ■ ■ ■ The size of the area covered The number of users connected The number and types of services available This section tests your knowledge of the differences between LANs. laptops. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks for the following statements. web servers) Mobile handheld devices (such as wireless barcode scanners. WANs. file servers. web browser In Table 2-2.34 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 2-1. or others with authorization. wireless connection. Table 2-2 Definition End or Intermediary Device Device Type Computers (work stations. and internetworks. E-mail. identify the definition on the left with either end devices or intermediary devices on the right. switch. Cat5 cable. 1. WANs. and wireless access points) Network printers Internetworking devices (routers) VoIP phones Communication servers and modems Security cameras Security devices (firewalls) End devices End devices Intermediary device End devices Intermediary device End devices Intermediary device End devices Intermediary device LANs. fiber-optic cable a. Devices b. employees. Table 2-1 Term Components of the Network Definition a. router c. The term intranet is often used to refer to a private connection of LANs and WANs that belongs to an organization. switches. Services b. Computer. Media c.

An individual network usually spans a single geographic area. Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 2-3. The media connecting the PC to the networking device plugs directly into the NIC. A LAN is usually administered by a single organization. or region. A global mesh of interconnected networks. and Internetworks Definition a. Internetworks In Table 2-4. b. a. providing services and applications to people within a common organizational structure. When a company or organization has locations that are separated by large geographic distances. it might be necessary to use a telecommunications service provider (TSP) to interconnect the LANs at the different locations. Table 2-3 Term LANs. c. match the term on the left with the correct symbol number from Figure 2-1. Table 2-4 Device LANs.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 35 2. 3. 4. WANs. WANs. WANs use specifically designed network devices to make the interconnections between LANs. such as a single business. and Internetworks Number Router Firewall Wireless access point LAN hub LAN switch IP phone Wireless router Wireless media Server Laptop LAN media Desktop computer WAN media 1 7 9 3 2 8 10 13 4 6 12 5 11 . LANs b. WANs c. match the definition on the right with a term on the left. campus.

2. whether face to face or over a network. 3. is governed by predetermined rules called protocols. ■ What processes do networking protocol suites describe? The process by which networking devices share information about pathways with other networks How and when error and system messages are passed between devices The setup and termination of data transfer sessions ■ ■ .36 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 2-1 Common Data Network Symbols 1 7 2 IP 8 3 9 4 10 11 5 12 6 13 Protocols All communication. whether face to face or over a network. is governed by predetermined rules called protocols. A standard is a process or protocol that has been endorsed by the networking industry and ratified by a standards organization. The most common internetwork protocol is Internet Protocol (IP). Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks for the following statements. All communication. A group of interrelated protocols that are necessary to perform a communication function is called a protocol suite. 1. Concept Questions 1. Successful communication between hosts on a network requires the interaction of many different protocols. These protocols are specific to the characteristics of the conversation. 4.

functional. Presentation layer c. Represents data to the user plus encoding and dialog control d. Uses packet sequencing and application mapping through port numbers a. Provides the means for end-to-end connectivity between individuals in the human network using data networks. Transport layer c. match the definition on the right with a term on the left. Internet layer d. Session layer f. Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 2-5. ■ What are some benefits to using a layered model to describe network protocols and operations? Assists in protocol design. and the interaction with the layers above and below it. Application layer b. Network access layer b. maintain. Table 2-5 Term TCP/IP Model Definition a. match the definition on the right with a term on the left. Application layer b. Ensures that loss of connection can be recovered and reset if data flow is interrupted before all data is received. it is common to use a layered model. g. Protocols describe methods for exchanging data frames between devices over a common media. Table 2-6 Term OSI Model Definition a. a. A layered model depicts the operation of the protocols occurring within each layer. Network layer .Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 37 2. Provides for common representation of the data transferred between application layer services. because protocols that operate at a specific layer have defined information that they act upon and a defined interface to the layers above and below Fosters competition because products from different vendors can work together Prevents technology or capability changes in one layer from affecting other layers above and below Provides a common language to describe networking functions and capabilities ■ ■ ■ Using Layered Models To visualize the interaction between various protocols. Describes the mechanical. Controls the hardware devices and media that make up the network c. and deactivate physical connections for bit transmission to and from a network device. Determines the best path through the network In Table 2-6. Provides services to the presentation layer to organize its dialogue and to manage data exchange. and procedural means to activate. b. Transport layer e. continues d. electrical. c.

and reassemble the data for individual communications between the end devices. What kind of protocols are primarily designed to move data from one local network to another local network within an internetwork? a. A unique dialogue between devices is identified with a pair of Layer 4 source and destination port numbers that are representative of the two communicating applications. Provides connectivity services that route packets from source network to destination network. this address is called the Media Access Control (MAC) address. Data link layer g. 1.38 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 2-6 Term OSI Model continued Definition f. Defines services to segment. Hubs d. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks for the following statements. Layer 1 b. is contained in the header of the Layer 2 protocol data unit (PDU). In a LAN using Ethernet. Using the OSI model as a guide. d. Multiple-Choice Questions Choose the best answer for each of the questions that follow. Servers . The Layer 2 address is unique on the local network and represents the address of the end device on the physical media. Layer 2 is concerned with the delivery of messages on a single local network. Layer 3 d. 1. Layer 2 c. Which devices make Layer 3 decisions? a. 2. Routers b. Physical layer e. Network Addressing Various types of addresses must be included in a packet to successfully deliver the data from a source application running on one host to the correct destination application running on another. transfer. The first identifier. Layer 4 2. the host physical address. you can see the different addresses and identifiers that are necessary at each layer. called a frame. Switches c.

you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ Explain the use of route tracing programs. First. you use two route-tracing programs to examine the Internet pathway to destination networks. . however. you might have to turn your firewalls off for this lab. Tools such as traceroute/tracert are usually embedded within the operating system of the end device. one can trace each mirror to get a good idea of which mirror would be the fastest to use.2. Background Route-tracing software is a utility that lists the networks data has to traverse from the user’s originating device to a distant destination network device. for example. The displayed list can help identify data-flow problems when trying to access a service such as a website. The traceroute (or tracert) tool is often used for network troubleshooting. The number of routers is known as the number of “hops” the data traveled from source to destination. it enables the user to identify the path taken to reach a particular destination on the network or across internetworks. Each router represents a point where one network connects to another network and the packet was forwarded through. such as tracert and NeoTrace. This network tool is typically executed in UNIX and similar systems at the command line as follows: traceroute <destination network name or end device address> This network tool is typically executed in Microsoft Windows systems at the command line as follows: tracert <destination network name or end device address> This tool determines the route taken by packets across an IP network. Scenario Using an Internet connection. You should perform this activity on a computer that has Internet access and access to a command line.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 39 Labs and Activities Activity 2-1: Using NeoTrace to View Internetworks (2. Use tracert and NeoTrace to trace a route from its PC to a distant server. It can also be useful when performing tasks such as downloading data. NeoTrace uses available online information to graphically display the route traced on a global map. Describe the interconnected and global nature of the Internet with respect to data flow. If multiple websites (mirrors) are available for the same file of data. that because of the “meshed” nature of the interconnected networks that make up the Internet and IP’s capability to select different pathways over which to send packets. Remember. By showing a list of routers traversed. you use the Windows embedded tracert utility. some computers running Windows XP might have firewall programs enabled that might prevent tracert and NeoTrace from operating. and then the more enhanced NeoTrace program. Note.5. Others such as NeoTrace are proprietary programs that provide extra information. two trace routes between the same source and destination conducted some time apart might produce different results. This lab assumes the installation of NeoTrace.1) Upon completion of this activity.

8.cisco.134] sl-ciscopsn2-11-0-0.25] sl-bb20-msq-10-0.189] sl-bb21-lon-5-0.ar2.694] sl-bb22-sj-5-1.125] sl-bb25-sj-12-0.gblx.cisco.74.1.gblx.11] 194.145] ar-augsburg1.219.net [195.3. At the command-line prompt.com [128.alp.de [188.106] www. Step 2.LON3.dfn. Trace the route to a distant network.107. enter tracert www.317.0. To trace the route to a distant network.FRA2.sprintllink.40 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 1: Trace Route to Remote Server Step 1.cisco.net [144.net [144.11 ar-augsburg2.48.232.1.net [208.133.net [213.9. the tracert would have failed.133.sprintlink.de [188.cisco.193] cr-muenchen1.81] so-6-0-0. which understand valid IP addresses only.sprintlink.44.25] Over a maximum of 30 hops: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 <10 ms <10 ms 20 ms <10 ms <10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 30 ms 30 ms 30 ms 100 ms 110 ms 171 ms 161 ms 160 ms 170 ms 170 ms 160 ms 160 ms 10 ms <10 ms <10 ms <10 ms <10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 30 ms 30 ms 30 ms 100 ms <10 ms <10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 20 ms 20 ms 31 ms 90 ms 10-37-00-1.cr2.com Tracing route to www.73] so0-0-0-2488M.g-win.cisco.internal.gblx.206.FRA2.dfn. How many hops between the source and destination? Answer varies based on location Example 2-1 shows the successful result when running tracert www.96.207. the IP address of the destination device rather than the server name has to be entered after the tracert command.232.dillingen.74.69] sl-bb20-rly-15-1.1.de [188. Examine the output displayed.96.net [144.210] sl-gw11-sj-10-0. The first output line should show the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) followed by the IP address.25] 110 ms 110 ms 160 ms 170 ms 160 ms 170 ms 181 ms 160 ms 151 ms 160 ms 151 ms 160 ms 160 ms 161 ms 150 ms 161 ms Trace complete.com from a location in Bavaria.net [195.de [10. The lab Domain Name Service (DNS) server was able to resolve the name to an IP address.net [144. Example 2-1 tracert Output C:\> tracert www.cisco.sprintlink.33] cr-frankfurt1. If DNS is not available.228.cisco. Step 3. .107.37.232.br1.net [144.com.de [188. Germany.g-win.LON3. Without this name resolution.net [62.1.239.dfn.174] pos1-0-622M.com [128.16.219.131.sprintlink.19.gblx.239.cr1.g-win.18.95.14] sjck-dirty-gw1.5] sjck-sdf-ciod-gw1.com [198.23.232. because this tool operates at the TCP/IP layers.dfn.g-win.232.3.com [198.sprintlink.19.141] pos3-0-622M.net [144.32.8.sprintlink. the PC being used must have a working connection to the class/lab network.

Task 5: Clean Up Exit the NeoTrace program. and examine your output. properly shut down the computer.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 41 The first output line shows the FQDN. Click the Map tab. Then. Step 4. Unless instructed otherwise by your instructor. Step 2.com: Answer varies based on location Step 5. you can click the Advanced button. Consider which technical details are revealed and how this information could perhaps be misused. Enter www.cisco. followed by the IP address. On the View menu. . Map View from the View menu displays the links and routers in their geographic location on a global map. Task 3: Reflection Review the purpose and usefulness of route-tracing programs. Node View from the View menu displays the connections graphically with symbols. choose Options. Try the same trace route on a PC connected to the Internet and examine your output: Number of hops to www. and in the Home Location section click the Set Home Location button. From the View menu. Therefore.com in the Target field and click Go. a DNS server was able to resolve the name to an IP address. Task 4: Challenge Consider and discuss possible network security issues that could arise from the use of programs such as traceroute and NeoTrace. Relate the displays of the output of NeoTrace to the concept of interconnected networks and the global nature of the Internet. Try a number of different URLs and view the routes to those destinations.cisco. Follow the instructions to select your country and location within your country. Destination URL: Answer varies based on URL Destination IP address: Answer varies based on URL Task 2: Trace Route Using NeoTrace Step 1. Step 6. List View displays the list of routers similar to tracert. which enables you to enter the precise latitude and longitude of your location. there are listings of all routers through which the tracert requests had to pass to get to the destination. Alternatively. Step 3. Step 5. Launch the NeoTrace program. Try another trace route on the same PC. Step 4. Step 7. Select each view in turn and note the differences and similarities.

1) Upon completion of this lab. In the basic portion of this lab.42 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Lab 2-1: Topology Orientation and Building a Small Network (2.6. Therefore. Physically cable a peer-to-peer and switched network. as shown in Figure 2-2. The type of media required depends on the type of device being connected. The network layer (Layer 3) requires a unique address (also known as a logical address or IP address). Verify basic connectivity on each network. Background Many network problems can be fixed at the physical layer of a network. which allows the data to reach the appropriate destination device. end devices must be connected by media (cables). Scenario This lab starts with the simplest form of networking (peer to peer) and ends with the lab connecting through a switch. Figure 2-2 Topology for Lab 2-1 Peer-to-Peer Network Switched Network . In addition. you use straight-through or patch cables to connect workstations and switches. two or more devices communicate through an address. you need to understand clearly which cables to use for your network connections. Addressing for this lab is applied to the workstations and is used to enable communication between the devices. At the physical layer (Layer 1) of the OSI model.1. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ Correctly identify cables for use in the network.

right-click My Network Places. Notice when you look at the plug that the orange and green wires are in opposite positions on each end of the cable. with icons showing the different network connections.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 43 Task 1: Create a Peer-to-Peer Network Step 1. The instructions are for Windows XP. Use a straight-through cable to connect the router’s Ethernet port to a switch port or a workstation to a switch port. Connect one end of the cable to the NIC port on PC1 and the other end of the cable to PC2. Connect two workstations. . This is also an Ethernet cable. and then click Properties. as shown in Figure 2-3. click Start. On your computer. Note: These steps must be completed on each workstation. The cables used in this lab are crossover and straight-through. Obtain the following equipment and resources for the lab: ■ ■ ■ ■ Two workstations Two straight-through (patch) cables One crossover cable One switch (or hub) Task 2: Identify the Cables Used in a Network Before the devices can be cabled. use the following step-by-step instructions. Using the correct Ethernet cable. Figure 2-3 Peer-to-Peer Cabling Which cable did you use? Crossover cable Step 2. Task 3: Cable the Peer-to-Peer Network Step 1. connect two workstations together. Notice when you look at the plug that both ends of the cable are exactly the same in each pin position. Select a lab partner. The Network Connections window should appear. a. Use a crossover cable to connect two workstations to each other through their network interface card (NIC) Ethernet port. To complete this task. This is an Ethernet cable. Step 2. you must identify the types of media you intend to use. Apply a Layer 3 address to the workstations. See Figure 2-4. Steps may differ slightly if you are using a different operating system.

44 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 2-4 Network Connections b. c. e. Right-click the Local Area Connection and click Properties.1.1. enter the IP address 192. Enter the IP address 192. Figure 2-5 Local Area Connection Properties d. . Select the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) item as shown in Figure 2-5. In the IP address box.168. On the General tab of the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties window.2 for PC1.168.3 for PC2. and then click the Properties button. select the Use the following IP address option.

and then click OK. . Step 3. Figure 2-7 Run Command Enter cmd in the Open box. Press the Tab key. enter the address manually. For the purposes of this lab. and then click Run.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 45 f. Figure 2-6 Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties g. you enter basic network commands to test your computer connections.255. h. the subnet mask lists automatically. On your computer.255. The DOS command (cmd. Close the Local Area Connection Properties window. Click OK. as shown in Figure 2-6. Verify connectivity.exe) window will appear as shown in Figure 2-8. The dialog box shown in Figure 2-7 appears. If this address is not automatically listed.0. You can enter DOS commands using this window. click Start. The subnet address should be 255.

enter ping 192.3: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 192.168.46 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 2-8 cmd Command The ping command is a computer network tool used to test whether a host (workstation.168.3.1. From the PC1 DOS command prompt.168.168.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 192.1.1.3: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 192.168.168.1.168. From the PC2 DOS command prompt.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 192.3: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Answer for PC2: Reply from 192.1.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 If the ping command displays an error message or doesn’t receive a reply from the other workstation. Step 4.168. Possible areas to troubleshoot include the following: ■ Verifying the correct IP addresses on both workstations .1. Use the ping command to verify that PC1 can reach PC2 and PC2 can reach PC1. troubleshoot as necessary.3: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 192.1. router.168.1. and so on) is reachable across an IP network. enter ping 192. server.168.2.1. What is the output of the ping command? Answer for PC1: Reply from 192.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 192.1.

Figure 2-9 Switched Network 1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server 2960-24TT S1-Central 1841 R2-Central PC-PT 1A PC-PT 1B Step 2. connect one end of the cable to the NIC port on the workstation and the other end to a port on the switch. Which cable did you use? Straight-through cable . Connect the workstation to a switch. as shown in Figure 2-9.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 47 ■ Ensuring that the correct type of cable is used between the workstations What is the output of the ping command if you unplug the network cable and ping the other workstation? Answer for PC1: Destination host unreachable Destination host unreachable Destination host unreachable Destination host unreachable Task 4: Connect Your Workstations to the Classroom Lab Switch Step 1. Using the correct cable. Repeat this process for each workstation on your network.

Place a file in the folder.6.168.1. Right-click the folder and click Sharing and Security.1. On your desktop. Verify connectivity.3: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 192. you have access through all seven layers of the OSI model.3: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 What is the output of the ping command if you ping an address that is not connected to this network? Answer for PC1: Request timed out Request timed out Request timed out Request timed out Step 4. create a new folder and name it test. switch powered off Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Topology Orientation and Building a Small Network (2.3: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 192. Double-click the workstation icon. or a misconfiguration of the switch. On the desktop.48 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Step 3.168. media disconnected. A hand symbol will appear under the icon.3: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 192. Task 5: Reflection What could prevent a ping from being sent between the workstations when they are directly connected? Wrong IP address on workstation. The test folder should appear. What is the output of the ping command? Answer for PC1: Reply from 192.168. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity. When you can see it and work with the file. and media disconnected What could prevent the ping from being sent to the workstations when they are connected through the switch? Wrong IP address. Remember.168. pinging wrong IP address. . that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. Verify network connectivity by using the ping command to reach the other workstations attached to the switch.1.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. however.1.1. You can access this folder across the network.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab2612. double-click My Network Places and then Computers Near Me. Share a document between PCs.

A packet sniffer (also known as a network analyzer or protocol analyzer) is computer software that can intercept and log data traffic passing over a data network.Wireshark.1) Upon completion of this lab.2. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ ■ Explain the purpose of a protocol analyzer (Wireshark). Perform basic PDU capture using Wireshark. For information and to download the program.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 49 Lab 2-2: Using Wireshark to View Protocol Data Units (2. Wireshark is programmed to recognize the structure of different network protocols. used for network troubleshooting. Background Wireshark is a software protocol analyzer. Experiment with Wireshark features and options such as PDU capture and display filtering. and education. Scenario To capture PDUs.6. the computer on which Wireshark is installed must have a working connection to the network. As data streams travel back and forth over the network. This enables it to display the encapsulation and individual fields of a PDU and interpret their meaning. Figure 2-10 Wireshark Opening Screen . or “packet sniffer” application. Before June 2006. analysis. go to http://www. the sniffer “captures” each protocol data unit (PDU) and can decode and analyze its content according to the appropriate RFC or other specifications. It is a useful tool for anyone working with networks and can be used with most labs in the CCNA courses for data analysis and troubleshooting. Perform basic PDU analysis on straightforward network data traffic. Wireshark was known as Ethereal. the screen shown in Figure 2-10 displays. and Wireshark must be running before any data can be captured. software and protocol development. When Wireshark is launched.org.

provides a range of settings and filters to determine which and how much data traffic is captured. From the Interface dropdown list. Typically. Figure 2-12 Wireshark Capture Options .50 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide To start data capture. The Capture Options dialog box. select Options from the Capture menu. shown in Figure 2-11. Figure 2-11 Wireshark: Capture Options Dialog Box First. you must ensure that Wireshark is set to monitor the correct interface. for a computer this is the connected Ethernet adapter. Then. Among those available in the Capture Options dialog box. the two highlighted in Figure 2-12 deserve examination. you can set the other options. select the network adapter in use.

Note: The capturing of these other PDUs depends on the intermediary device connecting the end-device computers on this network. Although this is a useful feature. and a message box displays the progress of this process (as shown in Figure 2-13). If this feature is checked. The Enable transport name resolution option allows you to control whether Wireshark translates network addresses found in PDUs into names. Clicking the Start button starts the data-capture process. you will experience the different Wireshark results. Wireshark also provides a number of other capture-filtering and capture-process settings. only PDUs destined for this computer will be captured. the name-resolution process might add extra PDUs to your captured data. switches. As you use different intermediary devices (hubs. all PDUs destined for this computer and all those detected by the computer NIC on the same network segment (that is.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 51 If the Capture packets in promiscuous mode feature is not checked. perhaps distorting the analysis. those that “pass by” the NIC but are not destined for the computer) are captured. Figure 2-13 Wireshark Capture Start As data PDUs are captured. routers) throughout these courses. the types and number are indicated in the message box. . The examples in Figure 2-14 show the capture of a ping process (box on left) and then accessing a web page (box on right).

This main display window of Wireshark has three panes. By clicking packets in this pane. The PDU (or packet) details pane in the middle of Figure 2-15 displays the packet selected in the packet list pane in more detail. Figure 2-15 Wireshark Capture Main Panes The PDU (or packet) list pane at the top of Figure 2-15 displays a summary of each packet captured. more details will display in the packet details pane and in the packet bytes pane. The example in Figure 2-15 shows the PDUs captured when the ping utility was used and http://www. The packet details pane shows the current packet (selected in the pack- . Each line in the packet list corresponds to one PDU or packet of the captured data.52 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 2-14 Wireshark Capture Output When the Stop button is clicked.org was accessed. If you select a line in this pane. as shown in Figure 2-15.Wireshark. the capture process is terminated and the main screen displays. you control what displays in the other two panes. Packet number one is selected in this pane.

When closing a data-capture screen or exiting Wireshark.254. this pane is not examined in detail. After receiving the successful replies to the ping in the command-line window.168. ping the IP address of another network-connected and poweredon end device in the lab topology. when a more in-depth analysis is required. You can save the information captured for the data PDUs in a file. In this case. Step 2. The information displayed when a capture file is opened is the same as the original capture. and then open this file in Wireshark for later analysis without having to recapture the same data traffic. which you can expand and collapse. . as shown in Figure 2-16. Figure 2-16 Wireshark Save Option Clicking Continue without Saving closes the file and exits Wireshark without saving the captured data. ping the Eagle Server using the command ping 192. From the command line. stop the packet capture. In this lab. and highlights the field selected in the packet details pane. The packet list pane on Wireshark should now look something like Figure 2-17. a prompt asks whether you want to save the captured PDUs.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 53 et list pane) in a more detailed form. After ensuring that the standard lab topology and configuration is correct. Set the capture options as described in the preceding section. This pane shows the protocols and protocol fields of the selected packet. The packet bytes pane shows the data of the current packet (selected in the packet list pane) in what is known as hexdump style. you will find this displayed information useful for examining the binary values and content of PDUs. launch Wireshark on a computer in a lab pod. However. The PDU (or packet) bytes pane at the bottom of Figure 2-15 displays the actual data (in hexadecimal form representing the actual binary) from the packet selected in the packet list pane. Examine the packet list pane.254. and then start the capture process. Task 1: Ping PDU Capture Step 1. The protocols and fields of the packet display in a tree form.

and 15.54 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 2-17 Wireshark Packet List Pane Look at the packets listed in Figure 2-17. Step 3. match the messages displayed in the command-line window when the ping was issued with the six packets captured by Wireshark. particularly packet numbers 6. 7. 11. Yes. answer the following: What protocol is used by ping? ICMP What is the full protocol name? Internet Control Message Protocol What are the names of the two ping messages? Echo Request Echo Reply Are the listed source and destination IP addresses what you expected? Why? Answers may vary. 14. Select (highlight) the first echo request packet on the list. and the destination is the Eagle Server. . 9. From the Wireshark packet list. the source address is my computer. Locate the equivalent packets on the packet list on your computer. 12. The packet details pane will now display something similar to Figure 2-18. 8. If you performed Step 1.

The packet details pane will now display something similar to Figure 2-19.” Why are there two types? The Ethernet II shows the MAC addresses. as shown in Figure 2-20. What protocols are in the Ethernet frame? eth:ip:icmp:data As you select a line in the packet details pane. make a note of the information you do recognize. .Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 55 Figure 2-18 Wireshark Packet Details Pane Click each of the four plus sign (+) buttons to expand the information. Expanded As you can see. Locate the two different types of “source” and “destination. all or part of the information in the packet bytes pane also becomes highlighted. For example. Figure 2-19 Wireshark Packet Details Pane. you can further expand the details for each section and protocol. the bytes pane highlights the corresponding values. if you select (highlight) the second line (+ Ethernet II) in the details pane. Although at this stage of the course you might not fully understand the displayed information. Spend some time scrolling through this information. and the Internet Protocol shows the IP addresses.

0. Highlighted Pane This line shows the particular binary values that represent that information in the PDU. ftp> get /pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter1/gaim-1.example. Go to the File menu and select Close.56 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 2-20 Wireshark Packet Expanded.example.exe 200 PORT command successful. Click Continue without Saving when the message box shown in Figure 2-16 appears. .com Connected to eagle-server.254. Consider using PASV. as follows: Userid: anonymous Password: <ENTER> You may alternatively log in with userid cisco and password cisco. User (eagle-server.com:(none)): anonymous 331 Please specify the password. Task 2: FTP PDU Capture Step 1.0. 220 Welcome to the eagle-server FTP service. 226 File send OK. Password:<ENTER> 230 Login successful.168. At this stage of the course.59Seconds 11729. enter anonymous as the user without a password.08Kbytes/sec.5.example.exe and press the Enter key <ENTER> to start downloading the file from the FTP server.0. 150 Opening BINARY mode data connection for pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter1/gaim1. start packet capture by clicking the Start option on the Capture menu of Wireshark. When the connection is established. Step 4. When the file download is complete. Start packet capture.5. Example 2-2 Eagle Server Output C:\Documents and Settings\ccna1>ftp eagle-server. enter ftp 192. as follows: ftp> quit 221 Goodbye. stop the PDU capture in Wireshark. Assuming Wireshark is still running from the previous steps. it is not necessary to understand this information in detail.5. The output will look similar to Example 2-2.exe (6967072 bytes). At the command line on your computer running Wireshark. When successfully logged in.254. enter quit. enter get /pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter1/gaim-1.com. C:\Documents and Settings\ccna1> When the file has successfully downloaded. ftp: 6967072 bytes received in 0.

] The third group of PDUs relate to logging out and “breaking the connection. List examples of messages exchanged in this phase. From any pane.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 57 Step 2. ACK]. Answers will vary. In the details and bytes panes. FTP > 1292 [SYN. FTP Data: 1448 bytes. Highlight a packet containing the actual file content. the actual download request and the data transfer).5. Request:QUIT. note the plain text visible in the bytes pane. Response: 221 Goodbye. Locate and note those PDUs associated with the file download. What protocols are encapsulated in the frame? Eth:ip:tcp:ftp-data Highlight the packets containing the username and password. Examine packet details.exe. 1294 > ftp-data [ACK. 1292 > ftp [ACK]. locate the packet containing the filename. Select (highlight) a packet on the list associated with the first phase of the FTP process. 1292 > ftp [SYN]. What does this indicate about the security of this FTP login process? Security isn’t high because the name and password are visible. These will be the PDUs from the Layer 4 protocol. ACK]. Identify the three groups of PDUs associated with the file transfer. FTP. highlight and examine some packets exchanged in the third phase of the file download. Increase the size of the Wireshark packet list pane and scroll through the PDUs listed. The first group is associated with the “connection” phase and logging in to the server. and the Layer 7 protocol. Highlight a packet associated with the second phase. 1292 > ftp [FIN.” List examples of messages exchanged during this process. .0. The filename is gaim-1. ACK. match the packets with the messages and prompts in the FTP command-line window.] Locate recurring TCP exchanges throughout the FTP process. Response: 220 Welcome to the eagle-server FTP service. Answers will vary. Request: Pass. View the packet details in the details pane. ftp >1292 [FIN. Examine the highlighted portion in the packet bytes pane. TCP. Response: 331 Please specify the password. Request: User anonymous. What feature of TCP does this indicate? Send and receipt of data Step 3. Answers will vary. Locate and list examples of messages exchanged in the second phase (that is. If you performed Step 2.

Task 3: HTTP PDU Capture Step 1. It is important that you can recognize and link both the protocols represented and the protocol layer and encapsulation types of the models with the information provided by Wireshark. Increase the size of the Wireshark packet list pane and scroll through the PDUs listed. Note: Capture options do not have to be set if you are continuing from previous steps of this lab. Step 2. . ACK] is issued to close the connection. Also. Locate and identify the TCP and HTTP packets associated with the downloaded web page. Start packet capture.168. Step 3. When this information expands. Wireshark could show when a request for a web page failed because of an incorrect URL.com or enter the IP address 192.254. In the packet details pane. identify data traffic on a network that is requested by users. Assuming Wireshark is still running from the previous steps. When you have finished. After the web page has fully downloaded. what is displayed? HTML code for the web page Examine the highlighted portion of the bytes pane. Launch a web browser on the computer that is running Wireshark.58 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Which features distinguish the content of these packets? A [FIN.254. Relate this to the OSI and TCP/IP layer models. stop the Wireshark packet capture. Answers may vary. highlight an HTTP packet that has the notation “(text/html)” in the Info column. close the Wireshark file and continue without saving. click the + box next to Line-based text data: html. close the Wireshark file and continue without saving. Enter the URL of the Eagle Server as example. This shows the HTML data carried by the packet. User traffic could be monitored to identify errors in source or destination. When finished. In the packet list pane. start packet capture by clicking the Start option on the Capture menu of Wireshark. Task 5: Challenge Discuss how you could use a protocol analyzer such as Wireshark to troubleshoot the failure of a web page to download successfully to a browser on a computer. Note the similarity between this message exchange and the FTP exchange. Task 4: Reflection Consider the encapsulation information pertaining to captured network data Wireshark can provide.

however. and analyzing a model of the Exploration lab network.3) In this activity. however. and Table 2-7 reflects the addressing information.1. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity. exit Wireshark and properly shut down the computer. testing.6.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab2622.2. Figure 2-21 Topology for Challenge 1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server 2960-24TT S1-Central 1841 R2-Central PC-PT 1A PC-PT 1B . Figure 2-21 shows the topology for this challenge. Remember. Skills Integration Challenge: Examining Packets (2.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to do the challenge lab using Packet Tracer. You can now open the file LSG01-PTSkills2. Remember. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity. you start building.7. Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Using Packet Tracer to View Protocol Data Units (2.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 59 Task 6: Cleanup Unless instructed otherwise by your instructor.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment.

6 10. you are encouraged to examine the Help files available from the Help pull-down menu at the top of the Packet Tracer GUI.254 172.2 192.16.255. If you have not done so already.254 192.10.255.254.255. Configure it using the following parameters: IP address 172. default gateway 172. or modify existing files from your instructor or your peers.255.0.16.252 255.6 172. In this activity. Two buttons appear at the bottom of these instructions: Check Results (which gives you feedback on how much of the activity you have completed) and Reset Activity (which starts the activity over.255.16.254 172. Connect PC 1B to the Fa0/2 port of the S1-Central Switch and check your work with the Check Results button to see that the topology is complete. and switches to learn networking concepts.16.0 N/A N/A 10. Experiment with the model of the standard lab setup. subnet mask 255. these instructions appeared.255.253 R2-Central Fa0/0 S0/0/0 S1-Central PC 1A PC 1B Eagle Server VLAN 1 NIC NIC NIC Upon completion of this activity. in case you want to clear your work or gain more practice).1.255.254 10. Add simple PDUs in real-time mode.0 255. When you create your own networks in Packet Tracer.255.0 255. servers.2. you will often use the PKT file format.0 255. DNS server 192.0.1.0 255. When you launched this activity from the curriculum.255.60 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 2-7 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP Fa0/0 S0/0/0 192.255. Background Throughout the course.254.255.254. tutorials to guide you through various tasks. Packet Tracer can create two file formats: PKT files (network simulation model files) and PKA files (activity files for practice).254. Resources include a “My First PT Lab” to help you learn the basic operation of Packet Tracer.16.1 172.10.254.255. Task 1: Complete the Topology Add a PC to the workspace.16.254.10.0 255.254 255.0.255. you will be using a standard lab setup created from actual PCs. you continue learning how to build and analyze this standard lab topology.0.10.168.1 172. routers.6 172. They are the result of the PKA Packet Tracer activity file format.1.255. This activity provides an opportunity to explore the standard lab setup using the Packet Tracer simulator.168.10.0.16.10. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ ■ Complete the topology.254. and information about the strengths and weaknesses of using Packet Tracer to model networks.168.5 172.16.168.255.252 255.10. Analyze PDUs in simulation mode.255.253 10.255.0. .16.255.10. display name 1B.

Try creating different combinations of test packets and analyzing their journey through the network. Double-click the red “Fire” button in the User-Created PDU window. Task 4: Experiment with the Model of the Standard Lab Setup The standard lab setup will consist of two routers. one server. you are encouraged to obtain Packet Tracer from your instructor and complete My First PT Lab (available by accessing the Help pull-down menu and choosing Contents). or click the colored square in the Info column of the event list. and two PCs. Note that this packet will appear in the event list as something that was “detected” or “sniffed” on the network.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 61 Task 2: Add Simple PDUs in Real-Time Mode Using the Add Simple PDU. Task 3: Analyze PDUs in Simulation Mode (Packet Tracing) Switch to simulation mode. and in the lower right as a user-created PDU that can be manipulated for testing purposes. Use the Capture / Forward button to move the packet through the network. Click the packet envelope. Task 5: Reflection If you have not already done so. . one switch. Each of these devices is preconfigured. to examine the packet at each step in its journey. send a test message: one between PC 1B and Eagle Server.

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presentation. Study Guide Applications: The Interface Between the Networks Visualizing the mechanisms that enable communication across the network is easier if you use the layered framework of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model. and session layers. When placed side by side.CHAPTER 3 Application Layer Functionality and Protocols The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of multiple-choice. hands-on skills needed to work with the application layer of the OSI model. use Chapter 3 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum. fill-in-the-blank. How the human network generates data and how that data then enters the computer network is discussed. the OSI and TCP/IP models provide a means by which you can visualize and discuss the flow of networking. as shown in Figure 3-1. Figure 3-1 OSI and TCP/IP Models OSI Model 7 Application 6 Presentation 5 4 3 2 1 Session Transport Network Data Link Physical Application Layers TCP/IP Model Domain Name System Application Hypertext Transfer Protocol Simple Mail Transfer Protocol Post Office Protocol Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol Transport Internet Data Flow Layers Network Access . matching. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum labs to further reinforce that you have mastered the practical. As you work through this chapter. for assistance. Application layer software and application layer services and protocols are examined in the labs. In this section you explore the upper layers of both the OSI and TCP/IP models. and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of the TCP/IP model application layer and the OSI model application. or use the corresponding Chapter 3 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration Companion Guide.

Define processes on either end of the communication. These software programs are considered network-aware if they implement the application layer protocols and can communicate directly with the lower layers of the protocol stack. Email clients and web browsers are a couple of examples. Define the meaning of any informational fields. SMTP. Table 3-1 Term OSI and TCP/IP Model Comparison Definition a. Session layer e. GIF. Graphic image formats Concept Questions 1. Layer 7 c. It is difficult to generalize about protocols because they vary so greatly in purpose. What is meant by the term application layer services? Why are protocols important when used in conjunction with application layer services? Software programs need the assistance of application layer services to use network resources. and encryption e. Protocol used to provide remote access to servers and network work devices c. 3. such as file transfer or network print spooling. Generally defines the protocols in the TCP/IP suite a. HTTP. The most widely known TCP/IP application layer protocols that provide for the exchange of user information b. match the term on the left with its definition on the right. Telnet h. Specify what to do with corrupted or improperly formatted messages. Define the format of a message. Define the types of messages. What does the term network-aware application mean? List a few examples. Define the syntax of a message. Define the start and end of a message. but what properties do application protocols display? Answers will vary. This layer provides coding. Protocols define the standards and data formats used. Without protocols. Top layer of both the OSI and TCP/IP models d. Define how messages are sent and the expected response. Top layer of the OSI model g. 2. DNS. . the data network would not have a common way to format and direct data. Presentation layer d. TIFF f. FTP g. Application layer b.64 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 3-1. JPEG. Define interaction with the next lower layer. Request For Comments (RFC) h. Network-aware applications are software programs used to communicate over the network. Functions at this layer create and maintain dialogs between source and destination applications f. compression.

Across the peer-to-server network 2. Hosted on a client e. Client b. or some other device connected to a network. a. Across the Internet d. a request to access that information must be made to the device where the data resides. cell phone. Web services d. simultaneously but as separate transactions d. Device requesting information c. Server c. Client/server networks c. Device responding to the request d. If that is the case. simultaneously and as a single transaction . match the term on the left with its definition on the right. Telnet services f. the data may not be physically stored on their device. laptop. 1. A Telnet server may have _____________. Peer-to-peer applications can be used on which of the following? (Choose all that apply. PDA. whether it is a PC.) a. Hosted on a web server f. Web browser e. Table 3-2 Term Application Layer Terms Definition a. a single client requesting a service b. Peer-to-peer networks b. Peer-to-peer networks b. Two or more computers are connected via a network and can share resources (such as printers and files) without having a dedicated server. Can be on a client and/or a server a.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 65 Making Provisions for Applications and Services When people attempt to access information on their device. multiple clients requesting services. multiple clients requesting services. multiple clients requesting services. Across the intranet only e. Multiple-Choice Questions Choose the best answer(s) for each of the following questions. Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 3-2. but not at the same time c.

has revolutionized how people communicate through its simplicity and speed. Table 3-3 Port Number Port Numbers and Protocols Protocol a. TCP/UDP port 53 b. 9. based on the Gnutella protocol. 8. TCP port 23 f. Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) g. 5. Domain Name System (DNS) f. 4. Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 3-3. The FTP client is an application that runs on a computer that is used to push files to and pull files from a server. the transport layer uses an addressing scheme called a port number. 10. UDP port 67 g. people can make files on their hard disks available to others for downloading. 2. the most popular network service. Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) d. Port numbers identify applications and application layer services that are the source and destination of data. The e-mail server operates two separate processes: Mail Transfer Agent (MTA) and Mail Delivery Agent (MDA). A DNS server provides name resolution using the name daemon. Telnet a. 7. File Transfer Protocol (FTP) c. TCP port 80 c. DHCP allows a host to obtain an IP address dynamically when it connects to the network. 6. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following statements. 1. DNS uses a hierarchical system to create a name database to provide name resolution. Sharing files over the Internet has become extremely popular. When a client. With peer-to-peer applications . When a web address (or URL) is entered into a web browser. The Server Message Block (SMB) is a client/server file-sharing protocol.66 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Application Layer Protocols and Services Examples As you will see later in this course. UDP port 110 e. TCP port 25 d. HTTP defines the message types that the client uses to request the web page and also the message types the server uses to respond. sends a request message to a server. match the port number on the left with its protocol on the right. Post Office Protocol (POP) e. the web browser establishes a connection to the web service running on the server using the HTTP protocol. TCP ports 20 and 21 b. Server programs generally use predefined port numbers that are commonly known by clients. 3. typically a web browser. E-mail.

b. Application. presentation. data link. c. c. Internet. Download c. The OSI model divides the networking process into which seven layers? a. and physical 2. and physical d. Data transfer from a client to a server is referred to as which of the following? a. Which of the following best describes a peer-to-peer network? a. presentation. Upload d. and physical b. presentation. abstract representation created as a guideline for network protocol design. Telnet provides a standard method of emulating text-based terminal devices over the data network. Application. network. Mail Transfer Agent (MTA) b. The e-mail server operates which two separate processes? a. d. Pull 5. . b. It uses the client/server model. Resolve domain names to computer names. data link. Query b. transport. P2P d. Resolve domain names to IP addresses. 1. session. What is the most popular application service? a. and physical c. Mail Delivery Agent (MDA) 4. Multiple-Choice Questions Choose the best answer(s) for each of the following questions. transport. session. network. E-mail c. presentation.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 67 11. eBay 3. Mail User Agent (MUA) d. The Domain Name System (DNS) was created to do what? a. network. Resolve domain names to MAC addresses. It decentralizes the resources on a network. d. session. It uses file servers. World Wide Web b. transport. data link. Application. Application. Internet. transport. It centralizes the resources on a network. Internet. Mail Transfer Bridge (MTB) c. Resolve domain names to e-mail addresses. The Open Systems Interconnection reference model is a layered. 6.

) a. Country of origin c. STelnet 9. Which service automates the assignment of IP addresses. and other IP networking parameters? a. SHTTP c. Type of organization b. STP d. To receive e-mail messages from an e-mail server. File server name 8. Company or brand name d. SMTP b. HTTPS b. POP 10. gateway.68 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide 7. The different top-level domains represent which of the following? (Choose all correct answers. For secure communication across the Internet. TFTP c. HTTP d. SMTP b. subnet masks. which protocol is used to access or post web server information? a. DHCP . SSH c. Telnet d. the e-mail client can use which of the following protocols? a.

You can find it in Windows XP by choosing Start > Programs > Accessories > Entertainment > Sound Recorder. As the audio is recorded. or create sounds that the microphone can pick up.1) Upon completion of this activity. is 30 minutes. depending on network speed. Scenario Perform this activity on a computer that has a microphone and Microsoft Sound Recorder or Internet access so that you can download an audio file.html. Open the Windows Sound Recorder application.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 69 Labs and Activities Activity 3-1: Data Stream Capture (3. Record an audio file. Speak into the microphone.1. as shown in Figure 3-3. click the Record button on the Sound Recorder interface. you can download an audio file to use in this activity from http://newsroom. or it can be transferred for storage on another device. Task 1: Create a Sound File Step 1.com/dlls/podcasts/audio_feeds.4. Figure 3-2 Sound Recorder Interface Step 2.cisco. The Sound Recorder interface is shown in Figure 3-2. If a microphone and Microsoft Sound Recorder are not available. Examine data transfer rates associated with the file. Microsoft Sound Recorder is a Windows accessory. The data can be stored on the end device where it was created. Background When an application creates a file. the data that comprises that file must be stored somewhere. you will use a microphone and Microsoft Sound Recorder to capture an audio stream. To begin recording. the sound’s waveform should appear on the Sound Recorder interface. . Estimated completion time. In this activity. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ Capture or download an audio stream. You can find the application in Windows XP by choosing Start > Programs > Accessories > Entertainment > Sound Recorder. Record the file’s characteristics.

Step 2.wav. close the Sound Recorder application. When the file is open.com/dlls/podcasts/audio_feeds.html. What is the file size in kilobytes? Answers will vary. depending on the file created. download an audio file from News@Cisco at http://newsroom. Save the audio file. depending on the file created. Click the Play button to listen to the recording. and choose File > Properties from the popup menu. the speakers. Save the audio file to the desktop. If you are unable to create a recording. Right-click the audio file you saved to the desktop. depending on the file created. Check the audio file that was recorded. Step 3.70 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 3-3 Recording in Progress Click the Stop button when you are finished. After saving the file. and choose Properties from the popup menu. What is the file size in bits? Answers will vary. as shown in Figure 3-4. Name the file myaudio. right-click at the top of the Media Player interface. Task 2: Observe the Properties of the Audio File Step 1. Figure 3-4 Playback If you are unable to hear the recording. and the volume settings. Open the audio file in Windows Media Player. and proceed to Task 2.cisco. check the microphone’s configuration. Step 4. View audio file properties. Right-click the audio file and choose Open With > Windows Media Player. What is the file size in bytes? Answers will vary. The recording should be played back. Save to the desktop the audio file you created. and attempt to create the recording again. .

Table 3-4 shows the top three web server applications by percentage of use. delete the file from the desktop. Background Web servers are an important part of the business plan for any organization with a presence on the Internet. All Ethernet frames contain other information. Task 4: Clean Up You may be required to remove from the computer the audio file you saved. you may want to copy the audio file that you created to another computer or a portable audio device. that is necessary for the frame’s delivery. Consumers use web browsers to access business websites. and record the result. Unless instructed otherwise. and 95 percent of the bandwidth is left for the data payload. For example. Task 3: Reflection Data files do not have to remain on the end devices where they are created. depending on the file created. install.1) Upon completion of this lab. . Answers will vary. how long would it take the file transfer to be completed? Answers will vary. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ Download. Calculate the amount of data per second in the audio file. Lab 3-1: Managing a Web Server (3. Even with an Ethernet connection operating at 100 Mbps. Based on a survey by Netcraft in January 2007. However.4. Web server support is a valuable skill for network administrators.2. If the audio file that you saved to the desktop were to be transferred at a rate of 100 megabits per second (Mbps). web browsers make up only half the communication channel. The other half is web server support. If so. the data that makes up a file is not transferred at this speed. If the Ethernet overhead uses 5 percent of the available 100 Mbps bandwidth. Verify the default web server configuration file. depending on the file created. turn off the computer. depending on the file created. how long would it take for the file transfer to be completed? Answers will vary. depending on the file created.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 71 What is the length of the audio file in seconds? Answers will vary. Capture and analyze HTTP traffic with Wireshark. and verify a web server application. such as source and destination addresses.

If it is not. The lab should be configured as shown in Figure 3-5 and Table 3-5. using Wireshark to capture the communication. and configure the popular Apache web server. install. Analyzing the capture will help you understand how the HTTP protocol operates.6 percent In this lab you will download.72 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 3-4 Web Server Web Server Choices Percent of Use Apache Microsoft Sun Scenario 60 percent 31 percent 1. You will use a web browser to connect to the server. Figure 3-5 Topology for Lab 3-1 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 . ask the instructor for assistance before proceeding.

255.168.253 — 172. Verify that all network equipment is powered on and that eagle-server is on.254 172. Download the software from Eagle Server.0.10.0 255. The Apache web server application is available for download from Eagle Server.0 255.255.24.254 192. check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central.10.254.255.16. Take corrective action on devices that fail the ping tests. Open the folder where the software was saved.com.16. and Verify the Apache Web Server Step 1.254 172. R2-Central.0 255.255.254 172.Pod#.0 — — 10.255.255.16.255.254.255. and that it can ping R2-Central.10.31.254 R2-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Eagle Server — — Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central — — — Note to Instructor: Depending on the classroom situation.254 172. 172.10. 172.253 10.254.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 73 Table 3-5 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP S0/0/0 Fa0/0 10.16. Install.16. .255.10. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address.255.1 255. Verify that the host computer has the correct Gateway IP address.254. R1-ISP.0 255. Choose default values and consent to the licensing agreement.255. as shown in Table 3-5.16.255.168.255.com/pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter3 to access and download the software. verify that the host has the correct DNS address and that it can ping eagle-server. the lab topology may have been modified before this class.5 172.6.0 255. and double-click the Apache file to begin installation.example.168.255.0 255.0.example. go to ftp://eagle-server. Step 3.0. as shown in Figure 3-6.255. Right-click the file. and save the software on the pod host computer.255.252 255.254.10. Task 1: Download. troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity: Step 1. The next installation step requires customized configuration of the web server. Finally.2 172.16.Pod#.16. ping eagle-server. Step 2.example.255.255.10. If an individual host computer cannot connect to eagle-server. ping S1Central.252 255.0.10. Install the Apache web server on the pod host computer. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity. Using a web browser.254.255. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server. and that it can ping R1-ISP.6 192.com. and finally eagle-server. From a known good host computer.1 172. 10.255.16.4 — 192. If the ping test fails. Step 2.

for users 1 through 22.74 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 3-6 Customized Configuration Screen Use the values shown in Table 3-6. Note: If a Windows Security Alert is displayed. and click Install. For example. Click Next. Accept the recommended port and service status. the administrator’s e-mail address is ccna10@example. Accept the default typical installation. if the computer is on Pod 5. Host B.2\ Accept the default installation folder. click Next. click Unblock. Figure 3-7 Windows Security Alert . close the screen. When the installation has finished. as shown in Figure 3-7. This permits connections to the web server. What is the default installation folder? C:\Program Files\Apache Software Foundation\Apache2. Table 3-6 Information Apache Server Values Value Network Domain Server Name Administrator’s E-mail Address example.com The computer’s IP address ccnaxx@example.com.com. and click Next.

Example 3-1 netstat -a Output C:\> netstat -a Active Connections Proto TCP TCP TCP TCP Local Address GW-desktop-hom:http GW-desktop-hom:epmap Foreign Address GW-desktop-hom:0 GW-desktop-hom:0 State LISTENING LISTENING GW-desktop-hom:microsoft-ds GW-desktop-hom:3389 GW-desktop-hom:0 LISTENING LISTENING GW-desktop-hom:0 <output omitted> C:\> Using the command netstat -a. Use the netstat -a command to discover open and connected ports on your computer. as shown in Example 3-1.0 /8 network range.0 /8 network range. The same page should be displayed if the URL is changed to the IP address on the Ethernet interface or to any host IP address in the 127.0 /8 network address is reserved and is used for local IP addresses. Choose Start > Run and open a command-line window. verify that the web server is operating properly on the pod host computer. Fill in Table 3-7 with the results. The netstat command displays protocol statistics and connection information for this lab computer. Enter cmd.0. Figure 3-8 Web Server Default Page The 127.0. A web page similar to Figure 3-8 appears if the web server is working properly.0.0. Test the web server on several different IP addresses from the 127. and connect to your computer’s URL.0. and then click OK.0.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 75 Step 3. near the time. Verify the web server. The Apache web server monitor icon should be visible on the lower-right side of the screen. Open a web browser. .

conf file.conf file. Review the httpd. The # character indicates a comment for system administrators.255.2/htdocs” . This is the root directory for the web server.255.34.76 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 3-7 IP Address Web Server Test Status Description 127. Figure 3-9 Apache Web Server Configuration File Step 2.254 127. A system administrator may need to verify or modify the default configuration file.255 127. ServerAdmin ccna2@example. To accept connections from only this host.conf. For servers without DNS names.0.1. Table 3-8 Value Apache Web Server Settings Description #Listen 12.78:80 Listen 80 Listen on TCP port 80 for all incoming connections.255.2:80 DocumentRoot “C:/Program Files/Apache Software Foundation/ Apache2.0 OK OK Fail Fail Legal host address Legal host address Network broadcast address Network address Task 2: Verify the Default Web Server Configuration File Step 1. Access the httpd.com ServerName 172.0. If there are problems. change the line to Listen 127.1 127. as shown in Figure 3-9.1 80.0.0. the web server ignores the comment.0. Numerous configuration parameters allow the Apache web server to be fully customizable.255. e-mail the web server at this e-mail address.16.56. C:\Program Files\Apache Software Foundation\Apache2. use the IP address:port number.2\conf\httpd. Scroll down the configuration file.0. Open the Apache web server configuration file. and verify the settings listed in Table 3-8.

and refresh the web browser. Step 1. Deliberately enter a web page that is not on the web server.html.html as the default page. display index. Right-click the file. To complete this task.2\htdocs.html if it is present. go to http://127. The file index. refresh the web browser to view the new content. From the pulldown list.html not have to be entered in the URL for the file contents to be displayed? The web server configuration directive for that server displays index. access the web server by running Apache from a separate client machine.0. however—this is a classroom setting. Why does index.0. Figure 3-8 shows the default web page from file index.0 network on a Windows computer. as shown in Figure 3-10. Note that an error message is displayed in the web browser. Modify the web server default page. The new default page should be displayed. Be wary of content. Step 3. so you should encourage them to personalize the page. and connect to another computer with an active web server. and choose Open With. Some students may already be familiar with creating web pages.16 network.html should be present. and set the capture interface to the interface destined for the 172.0. If no page is requested from that directory. Open a web browser.com </body></html> Save the file.html </IfModule> DirectoryIndex sets the file that Apache serves if a directory is requested.1. Although this page is sufficient for testing. Or. Open folder C:\Program Files\Apache Software Foundation\Apache2. . something more personal should be displayed. Analyze HTTP traffic. As you make and save changes to index. Change the file content to something similar to Example 3-2. Task 3: Capture and Analyze HTTP Traffic with Wireshark Wireshark will not capture packets sent from or to the 127. Start Wireshark. Example 3-2 htdocs Edit <html><body><h1>Welcome to the Pod1HostB Web Server!!!</h1> <center><bold> Operated by me! </center></bold> Contact web administrator: ccna2@example.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 77 Table 3-8 Value Apache Web Server Settings continued Description <IfModule dir_module> DirectoryIndex index. The interface will not appear.html.0. choose notepad.

78 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 3-10 404 Not Found Error Figure 3-11 shows a captured HTTP session. The web server responded with an HTTP 1. Depending on the organization. the network or web administrator has the responsibility of maintaining the corporate web server. and identify several key configuration parameters.0. Therefore.” Figure 3-11 Wireshark Capture of HTTP Traffic What are the contents of the HTTP session? Line-based text data: text/html <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC “-//IETF//DTD HTML 2.conf by changing the Listen 80 line to Listen 8080.1 error 404 and returned a file not found message to the web browser.0. Task 5: Reflection Web servers are an important component of e-commerce. but the server did not have it. You modified the default web page index. test for proper operation. you used Wireshark to capture an HTTP session of a file that could not be found. the server sent a 404 error. </p> </body></html> Task 4: Challenge Modify the default web server configuration file httpd.htm was not found on this server. This lab has demonstrated how to install and configure the Apache web server.html and observed the effect on the web browser output.htm was requested from the web server. The web browser simply displayed the server response “The page cannot be found.0// EN”> <html><head> <title>404 Not Found</title> </head><body> <h1>Not Found</h1> <p>The requested URL /index.1:8080. Open a web browser and go to http://127. File index. Finally. Verify with the netstat command that the new web server TCP port is 8080. .

■ ■ E-mail is subject to multiple computer security vulnerabilities. RFC 2821. Spam attacks flood networks with useless. Capture and analyze e-mail communication between the pod host computer and a mail server. The POPv3 server listens on well-known TCP port 110. turn off power to the host computers.4. It should be uninstalled. unsolicited e-mail. Consequently. with user accounts that can send and receive external e-mail messages. you will use IMAP instead of POPv3 for e-mail delivery to the client. . choose Start > Control Panel > Add or Remove Programs.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 79 Task 6: Clean Up During this lab the Apache web server was installed on the pod host computer. Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) is an Internet protocol that allows a central server to provide remote access to e-mail messages. Scenario In this lab. To uninstall the web server. secure versions of both protocols employ Secure Socket Layer/Transport Layer Security (SSL/TLS) for communication. Most Internet service providers (ISP) provide step-by-step instructions for using e-mail services.1) Upon completion of this lab. you will configure and use an e-mail client application to connect to eagle-server network services. Background E-mail is one of the most popular network services that uses a client/server model. In this lab. Eagle-server has SMTP mail services preconfigured. SMTP is used to send e-mail messages from the external e-mail client to the e-mail server. and relay e-mail between SMTP servers. It has undergone many modifications and enhancements. the typical user may be unaware of the complexities of e-mail or the protocols used.3. which have left computers open to compromise. Also. Lab 3-2: E-mail Services and Protocols (3. Post Office Protocol version 3 (POPv3) is used when an external e-mail client wants to receive e-mail messages from the e-mail server. and then click Remove. You will monitor the communication with Wireshark and analyze the captured packets. E-mail servers have had numerous vulnerabilities. The SMTP server listens on well-known TCP port 25. In network environments where the Mail User Agent (MUA) client must connect to an e-mail server on another network to send and receive e-mail. from April 2001. Click Apache Web Server. and leave the room ready for the next class. consolidates and updates previous e-mail-related RFCs. you will be able to ■ ■ Configure the pod host computer for e-mail service. deliver e-mail to local accounts. the following protocols are used: ■ Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) was originally defined in RFC 821 in August 1982. You will use an e-mail client such as Outlook Express or Mozilla Thunderbird to connect to the eagleserver network service. consuming bandwidth and network resources. Earlier versions of both protocols should not be used. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. The e-mail client is configured on a user’s computer and is configured to connect to an e-mail server. IMAP servers listen on well-known TCP port 143. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor.

253 — 172.254 172.0 255.252 255.10.252 255.168.255.253 10.0 255.16.Pod#.255.255.255.254.168.10.254 172.255.0 255.255.255.10.168.255.24.255.255.255.254.0 — — 10.255.255.2 172.0 255.10.80 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide The lab should be configured as shown in Figure 3-12 and Table 3-9.10.0 255.16.254 172.0.16.255. If it is not.16. Figure 3-12 Topology for Lab 3-2 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 Table 3-9 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP S0/0/0 Fa0/0 10.16.10.254.254 172.0.6 192.254.255.31.0. ask the instructor for assistance before proceeding.0.1 255.16.0 255.255.5 172.254 R2-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Eagle Server — — Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central — — — .255.255.254 192.1 172.Pod#.16.4 — 192.

as prompted. and that it can ping R1-ISP.10. R2-Central.example. Step 3. and then select Save the file to the host pod computer. ping eagle-server. double-click the filename and install Thunderbird with the default settings. and click Next. as shown in Table 3-9. select Email account. If prompted for Import Options.com. and then click Next. check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central.com. Task 1: Configure the Pod Host Computer for E-mail Service Step 1. verify that the host has the correct DNS address and that it can ping eagle-server. From a known good host computer. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server.10. When finished. the lab topology may have been modified before this class. Configure Thunderbird to receive and send e-mail messages. as shown in Figure 3-13. 172. R1-ISP. . Verify that all network equipment is powered on and that eagle-server is on. and that it can ping R2-Central. Step 2. and finally eagle-server. with the information shown in Table 3-10. If the ping test fails.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 81 Note to Instructors: Depending on the classroom situation. select Don’t import anything. Step 2. Verify that the host computer has the correct Gateway IP address. Download and install Mozilla Thunderbird. Figure 3-13 FTP Download for Wireshark Double-click the Thunderbird filename.com. When Thunderbird starts. Fill in the account information. When the file has downloaded. Note: Depending on the connection speed of the link between the two routers and the number of students downloading the file.16. In the New Account Setup.254.example. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address.example.example.com/pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter3. 172. Finally. If an individual host computer cannot connect to eagle-server. troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity: Step 1. you can download it from eagleserver. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests.254.255. this download may be slow. you must configure an e-mail account. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity. 10. start Thunderbird.16. The download URL is ftp://eagleserver.255.6. ping S1Central. If Thunderbird is not installed on the pod host computer.

and so on. A total of 22 accounts are configured on Eagle Server.com eagle-server. To do this.82 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 3-10 Field Account Information Value Account Name The account name is based on the pod and host computer. shown in Figure 3-14.com Your Name E-mail address Type of incoming server you are using Incoming Server (SMTP) Outgoing Server (SMTP) Incoming User Name Account Name When Thunderbird starts.22].example. labeled ccna[1.example.example. your_name@eagle-server. choose Tools > Account Settings > Outgoing Server (SMTP). click Edit. the account name is ccna1. Click Cancel.. you may be prompted for a password for your e-mail account.com IMAP eagle-server. Use the same name as the Account Name. the account name is ccna6. Figure 3-14 Thunderbird SMTP Server Settings . If the pod host is on Pod 3.example. your_name@eagle-server. From the outgoing server screen. Host A. If this pod host is on Pod1. Host B. The Thunderbird client needs to have SMTP server login disabled.com Use the same name as above (see Account name discussion)..

. as shown in Figure 3-16. by choosing Tools > Account Settings. and then click OK again. uncheck the Use name and password box. Click OK. shown in Figure 3-15. Figure 3-16 Thunderbird Account Settings In the left pane of the Account Settings screen. Figure 3-15 SMTP Server Edit You may also want to verify account settings. A screen similar to Figure 3-17 appears.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 83 On the SMTP Server screen. click Server Settings.

If you have not previously logged in. Start Wireshark captures. After sending and receiving one e-mail message. This time. Analyze a Wireshark capture session of SMTP. however. A partial Wireshark capture of an outgoing e-mail message using SMTP is shown in Figure 3-18. Please note that this is the default password that is embedded in the Eagle Server. Using the name provided in the preceding task. SMTP listens on TCP port 25. When the e-mails have been sent. check your e-mail. Step 3.84 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 3-17 Thunderbird Server Settings What is the purpose of the SMTP protocol. Using the e-mail client. . Ask another student in the class for his or her e-mail name. Task 2: Capture and Analyze E-mail Communication Between the Pod Host Computer and an E-mail Server Step 1. When you are certain that the e-mail operation is working properly for both sending and receiving. and what is the well-known TCP port number? The SMTP protocol is used to send e-mail messages to an e-mail server for forwarding to a mail recipient. click the Write icon. again send and receive e-mail from a classmate. stop the Wireshark capture. start a Wireshark capture. Wireshark displays captures based on packet type. To create and send an e-mail. Step 2. To do so. Send an uncaptured e-mail. each of you should compose and send an e-mail message to the other. enter cisco as the password. the e-mail transactions will be captured. you must be logged in.

In Figure 3-18.localdomain Hello host-1. Malicious attackers can gain valuable knowledge simply by learning the SMTP server type and version.0 ccna1@example.13.0 mail-serial-number Message accepted for delivery What are the contents of the last message body from the e-mail client? QUIT How does the e-mail server respond? It sends a response to the e-mail client.com [172.5 ccna2@example. 221.1.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 85 Figure 3-18 SMTP Capture Highlight the first SMTP capture in the top Wireshark window. version 8.com> RCPT TO:<ccna2@example.0. the e-mail client sends the command EHLO.com> DATA (message body is sent) 250 2. What is the SMTP server response to the EHLO command? 250-localhost.” on a line by itself 250 2. end with “.16.com Recipient ok 354 Enter mail.com Sender ok 250 2.1 E-mail client applications send commands to e-mail servers.1. In the second Wireshark window. What are the SMTP server name and version? Sendmail. and the command may also be HELO or HELLO. Many different types of SMTP servers exist. The e-mail server must respond to the command. however. this is line 7. expand the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol record. In every first SMTP exchange. closing connection.example. Using your Wireshark capture. and e-mail servers send responses. pleased to meet you\r\n The next exchanges between the e-mail client and server contain e-mail information.1]. Table 3-11 E-mail Client Response Table E-mail Server MAIL FROM:<ccna1@example. fill in the e-mail server responses to the e-mail client commands shown in Table 3-11.1. The syntax may vary between clients. .

Example 3-3 Telnet Session C:\> telnet eagle-server.1. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor.com 250 2.5 instructor@example..1.com 25 220 localhost. To test SMTP operation. E-mail can also experience configuration issues. and begin a Telnet session with the SMTP server.. and leave the room ready for the next class.com.. pleased to meet you MAIL From: ccna2@example. . Remove anything that was brought into the lab.example. QUIT 221 Closing connection.16.1. and then click Remove.2]. the instructor may want the application removed.13. open the Windows command-line window. choose Start > Control Panel > Add or Remove Programs. 28 Jan 2007 20:41:0 3 +1000 HELO eagle-server. Sender ok RCPT To: instructor@example. Scroll to and click Thunderbird. Understanding the flow of traffic with the SMTP protocol will help you understand how the protocol manages the client/server data connection. To remove Thunderbird.example.1. as shown in Example 3-3.localdomain Hello [172. Sun.localdomain ESMTP Sendmail 8. Good bye.com 250 localhost... Look up the SMTP server name and version for known weaknesses or compromises..com.86 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 3: Challenge Access a computer that has Internet access. e-mail SMTP server test. Connection to host lost. turn off power to the host computers. C:\ > Task 5: Clean Up If Thunderbird was installed on the pod host computer for this lab. Is the problem with the e-mail client or the e-mail server? One simple way to test SMTP server operation is to use the Windows command-line Telnet utility to telnet into the SMTP server.0 ccna2@example. Are any newer versions available? Task 4: Reflection E-mail is probably the most common network service used. Recipient ok DATA 354 Please start mail input. .13. 250 Mail queued for delivery.1/8.com 250 2. The highlighted lines are what you enter into the blank Telnet window.

Figure 3-19 Topology for the Challenge 1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server 2960-24TT S1-Central 1841 R2-Central PC 1A PC 1B . Use simulation mode to view the details of packets generated by DNS and HTTP. you will build increasingly larger parts of this topology in Packet Tracer.1.3) Open the file LSG01-PTSkills3.5. Add. Explore how DNS and HTTP work together. and connect hosts and servers. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ ■ Configure hosts and services. and switches to learn networking concepts. you will use a standard lab setup created from actual PCs.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 87 Packet Tracer Challenge Skills Integration Challenge: Configuring Hosts and Services (3. servers.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to perform this exercise using Packet Tracer. Figure 3-19 shows the topology for this Skills Integration Challenge. routers. Upon completion of this activity. Background Throughout the course. configure. and Table 3-12 shows the corresponding addressing table. At the end of each chapter.

88 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 3-12 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP Fa0/0 S0/0/0 192.255.16.10.16. it appears in the PDU List Window as part of “Scenario 0.254 Connect PC 1B to the Fa0/2 port of the S1-Central switch.0.168.254 172.1.254.0.255. You can create different test packet scenarios by clicking the New button.254. In Packet Tracer.255.255.2 192.254 172.0.2 Subnet mask: 255.10. Scenario 0 might have one test packet from PC 1B to Eagle Server.255.0 255.255.254 192.example.252 255.5 172.0 255.168.0 — — 10. Configure it with the following settings: ■ ■ ■ ■ IP address: 172.16.16.10.1 172.6 10.255. . Test connectivity in real time by using ADD SIMPLE PDU to test connectivity between PC 1B and the Eagle Server.16.255.16.254 255.” The first time you issue this one-shot ping message.255.10.0 255.10.0 Default gateway: 172.255.168.255.10.255.1.16.255. and Scenario 1 might test packets between PC 1A and the routers.com with the server’s IP address. the test packet you just created between PC 1B and Eagle Server is removed. and add a DNS entry that associates eagle-server.255.252 255.16. For example. Note that when you add a simple PDU. it shows Failed because of the ARP process.1 172. Do this before the next task.10.0.254. You can remove all test packets in a particular scenario by clicking the Delete button. Connect Eagle Server to the Fa0/0 port on the R1-ISP router.10. This time it succeeds. Enable DNS services.1.0. if you use the Delete button for Scenario 0. Turn on web services on the server by enabling HTTP. Verify your work using feedback from the Check Results button and the Assessment Items tab.168. the term scenario means a specific configuration of one or more test packets.0 255.255.6 172.254 DNS server: 192.253 10.0 255.255. For example.253 R2-Central Fa0/0 S0/0/0 S1-Central PC 1A PC 1B Eagle Server VLAN 1 NIC NIC NIC Task 1: “Repair” and Test the Topology Add a PC with a display name of 1B to the topology.254 10.255.255.168.254.254.6 172. Double-click the Fire button in the PDU List Window to send this single test ping a second time.

Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 89 Task 2: Explore How DNS and HTTP Work Together Switch from Realtime mode to Simulation mode. and then use the Capture / Forward button in the Event List to capture the interaction of DNS and HTTP.com. Examine the Packet contents (PDU Information Window.example. you should be able to see how DNS and HTTP work together. press Enter. Enter eagle-server. click the View Previous Events button. Play this animation. especially when the packets are at PC 1B or at Eagle Server. . If you receive a “Buffer Full” message. Inbound PDU Details. Task 3: Reflection Can you now explain the process that occurs when you enter a URL into a browser and a web page returns? What types of client/server interactions are involved? If you have not already done so. Open a web browser from the desktop of PC 1B. Outbound PDU Details) for each event in the event list. you are encouraged to obtain Packet Tracer from your instructor and complete My First PT Lab (choose Help > Contents). Even though the processing of the packets by the switch and the routers may not make sense to you yet.

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Study Guide Roles of the Transport Layer The transport layer provides vital control over the network: It enables multiple applications to work at the same time over the same network. Reliable delivery g. Table 4-1 Term Transport Layer Matching Exercise Definition a. Flow control d. and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of the OSI transport layer. Same order delivery f.CHAPTER 4 OSI Transport Layer The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of multiple-choice. Ensures the application is ready to receive data. stream video. Multiplexing b. Error checking d. Establishing a session e. . b. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum labs to further reinforce that you have mastered the practical. c. hands-on skills needed. Performed on the data in the segment to check if the segment was changed during transmission. Manages data delivery if there is congestion on the host. e. Facilitates data preparation for delivery by the lowest four OSI layers. a. and check e-mail. fill-in-the-blank. Data segmentation c. match the definitions on the right with the terms on the left. That way. one computer can use instant messaging. f. Multiple network-aware applications can use the network at the same time. Ensures segment sequencing so that data can be presented by the session layer to the application layer with all data intact and ready for processing. Means lost segments are present so the data is received complete. As you work through this chapter. surf the web. use Chapter 4 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum or use the corresponding Chapter 4 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA 1 Exploration Companion Guide for assistance. use a Voice over IP (VoIP) phone. g. matching. The transport layer provides for data network needs by ■ ■ ■ ■ Dividing data received from an application into segments Adding a header to identify and manage each segment Using the header information to reassemble the segments back into application data Passing the assembled data to the correct application Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 4-1.

. In TCP. This sequence number allows the transport layer functions on the destination host to reassemble segments in the order in which they were transmitted. Additional functions specified by TCP are same order delivery.92 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Concept Questions 1. Port Type Ranges Exercise Table 4-2 lists port types. 3. A TCP segment has 20 bytes of overhead in the header encapsulating the application layer data. 2. the transport layer adds to the segment a header containing binary data. How does the transport layer multiplex different applications’ communication? Dividing data into small parts and sending these parts from the source to the destination enables many different communications to be interleaved (multiplexed) on the same network. This reliability is achieved by having fields in the TCP segment. whereas each UDP segment only has 8 bytes of overhead. How does the transport layer tell the difference between different data segments? To identify each segment of data. reliable delivery. 1. and flow control. This ensures that the destination application has the data in the exact form the sender intended. As the source receives an acknowledgment from the destination. each with a specific function. it knows that the data has been successfully delivered and can quit tracking that data. A complete TCP conversation requires the establishment of a session between the source and the destination in both directions. Fill in the port number ranges in the Numbers column. each segment header contains a sequence number. it retransmits that data to the destination. Table 4-2 Port Type Port Type Ranges Numbers Well-known ports Registered ports Dynamic or private ports 0 to 1023 1024 to 49151 49152 to 65535 The TCP Protocol: Communicating with Reliability The key distinction between TCP and UDP is reliability. The pieces of communication in UDP are called datagrams. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks for the following questions. If the source does not receive an acknowledgment within a predetermined amount of time. 2.

segments may arrive at their destination out of order. This process ensures that each host is aware of and prepared for the communication. the data in these segments is reassembled into the original order. No more data from sender Managing TCP Sessions When services send data using TCP. When the host is using TCP. or communication stream between the hosts. ACK b. RST d. SYN d. Define reliability. Push function f. why does the transport layer initiate a process to create a connection with the destination? This connection enables the tracking of a session. A key feature of TCP is its reliability. Acknowledgment field significant b. Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 4-3. This exercise works best if the students are required to present their website to the class or to teach each other in small groups. Urgent pointer field significant a. For the original message to be understood by the recipient. Synchronize sequence numbers e. URG e. Reset the connection c. Using this site. .” and find a website that explains it. Note to instructor: Answers will vary. FIN f. Internet Research Exercise Using your favorite search engine. be prepared to share your findings with the class. match the definition on the right with a flag on the left. Sequence numbers are assigned in the header of each packet to achieve this goal. Segment sequence numbers enable reliability by indicating how to reassemble and reorder received segments. Reliability means ensuring that each segment of data that the source sends arrives at the destination. 2. but encourage students to find a website. enter the keywords “TCP segment reassembly. and be prepared to explain or present the information found. PSH c. provide the URL.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 93 Concept Questions 1. Table 4-3 Flags Flag-Matching Exercise Definition a.

can tolerate some loss of data. such as DNS. In what case would it be possible for the destination to acknowledge bytes in discontiguous segments and request that the host retransmit only the missing data? In this case. the same pair of ports is used in the header of all datagrams used in the transaction. These delays would be more detrimental to the application than small data losses. and flow-control mechanisms. UDP is said to be transaction based.94 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Concept Questions 1. The low overhead of UDP makes it very desirable for such applications. sequencing. 1. 2. What is flow control. the source and destination port numbers in the datagram header are reversed. simply retry the request if they do not receive a response. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following sentences. After a client has chosen the source and destination ports. 2. 3. they might experience large delays while TCP detects data loss and retransmits data. and what does it do? Flow control assists the reliability of TCP transmission by adjusting the effective rate of data flow between the two services in the session. such as online games and VoIP. Some applications. The UDP Protocol: Communicating with Low Overhead User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is a simple protocol that provides the basic transport layer functions. What is expectational acknowledgment? Expectational acknowledgment is TCP using the acknowledgment number in segments sent back to the source to indicate the next byte in this session that the receiver expects to receive. both hosts would have to support selective acknowledgments. . 3. If these applications use TCP. and therefore they do not need TCP to guarantee the message delivery. Some applications. For the data returning to the client from the server. It has much lower overhead than TCP because it is not connection oriented and does not provide the sophisticated retransmission.

Scenario In this lab. Table 4-4 shows the corresponding addressing table. Passing optional parameters with the command will change output information. available on both Windows and UNIX/Linux computers. and interface statistics. Background netstat is an abbreviation for the network statistics utility. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ Explain common netstat command parameters and outputs. netstat displays incoming and outgoing network connections (TCP and UDP). host computer routing table information.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 95 Labs and Activities Lab 4-1: Observing TCP and UDP Using netstat (4. you examine the netstat command on a pod host computer.1. Figure 4-1 Topology for Lab 4-1 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 .5. Use netstat to examine protocol information on a pod host computer.1) Upon completion of this lab. and adjust netstat output options to analyze and understand TCP/IP transport layer protocol status. Figure 4-1 shows the topology for this lab.

If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server.6.254.10.4 N/A 192.255.24.255.255. To display help information about the netstat command.255.6 192. Step 2.0.1 172. troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity: Step 1.10.16.0.255. 10. and that Eagle Server is on.255.com.255.10. shown in the preceding logical addressing table. R2-Central. Step 3.253 N/A 172.example.252 255.254. check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central.Pod#.255.16.example.254 172.254.16.255.example.252 255.16. Enter cmd.5 172.com.255. as shown here: C:\> netstat /? Use the output of the netstat /? command as reference to fill in the appropriate option that best matches the description in Table 4-5.254.10.254 172.0 255. 172.10. From a known good host computer. verify that the host has the correct DNS address and can ping eagle-server. use the /? options. 172. R1-ISP. If an individual host computer cannot connect to Eagle Server. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity.255.16.255.16.254 172.0. and click OK. and can ping R2-Central.16. If the ping test fails. Finally.255.96 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 4-4 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP S0/0/0 Fa0/0 10. the lab topology may have been modified before this class.0 255.254. ping eagle-server.255.0 255.16. and can ping R1-ISP. Task 1: Explain Common netstat Command Parameters and Outputs Open a terminal window by clicking Start > Run.0 255.255.255.10. ping S1-Central.255.254 172. Verify that the host computer has the correct gateway IP address.1 255.2 172.168.0.31.253 10. Verify that all network equipment is powered on.254.com.168.0 N/A N/A 10.254 192. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests.0 255.168. and finally Eagle Server.255. .16.Pod#.255.10.10. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address.255.0 255.254 R2-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Eagle Server N/A N/A Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central N/A N/A N/A Note to instructor: Depending on the classroom situation.

September 1981. and data may be exchanged through the connection. Shows connections for the protocol specified by proto. IPv6. The local connection is waiting for a confirming connection request acknowledgment. meaning any. Transmission Control Protocol. The connection is closed. The connection should transition quickly through this state. -an 30 No options When netstat statistics are displayed for TCP connections. The local connection is waiting a default period of time after sending a connection termination request before closing the connection. The connection is open. The address of the remote device that has a connection with this computer.1 0. the connection passes through a series of states. the TCP state is displayed.0. If used with the –s option to display per-protocol statistics. and will normally last between 30 and 120 seconds. Table 4-7 IP Address Packet State Table Description 127.0. Table 4-6 State Packet State Table Connection Description LISTEN ESTABLISHED TIME-WAIT The local connection is waiting for a connection request from any remote device. TCPv6. This is a normal condition. Multiple connections in SYN_RECEIVED state may indicate a TCP SYN attack. proto may be any of IP. This is a tricky problem. Press Ctrl+C to stop redisplaying statistics. compiled from RFC 793.0. Redisplays statistics every 5 seconds. . A global address. Table 4-6 is a summary of TCP states. Display only open connections. or UDPv6. as shown in Table 4-7. TCP. or this computer. ICMP. UDP. TCPv6. proto may be any of TCP. Redisplays all connections and listening ports every 30 seconds. as reported by netstat.0 Remote Address This address refers to the local host. or UDPv6. UDP.0. ICMPv6. The local connection is waiting for a response after sending a connection request.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 97 Table 4–5 Option netstat Table Description -a -n 5 (interval) -p Displays all connections and listening ports. CLOSE-WAIT SYN-SENT SYN_RECEIVED IP addresses displayed by netstat fall into several categories. This is the normal state for the data-transfer phase of the connection. During the life of a TCP connection. Displays addresses and port numbers in numeric form. but is waiting for a termination request from the local user. The connection should transition quickly through this state.

0.1:138 GW-desktop-hom:0 0.1:123 GW-desktop-hom:netbios-ns 192.0. Compare outputs.0.0.0:0 GW-desktop-hom:0 0.0. Use netstat to view existing connections.254. Write down three TCP and three UDP connections from the netstat –a output and the corresponding translated port numbers from the netstat –an output.254. .168. The –n option forces netstat to display output in raw format. local address. note that in Table 4-8.0. Table 4-8 provides a list of several common services on a host computer.0:135 GW-desktop-hom:0 0.0:0 *:* *:* *:* *:* *:* *:* LISTENING LISTENING LISTENING LISTENING Refer to the following netstat output shown in Example 4-1.1:137 GW-desktop-hom:netbios-dgm 192. From the terminal window in Task 1.168. issue the command netstat –a: C:\> netstat –a A table will display that lists the protocol (TCP and UDP). Note to instructor: Answers will vary. Addresses and protocols that can be translated into names are displayed.0. Table 4-8 Connection Protocol netstat Output Table Local Address Foreign Address State TCP TCP GW-desktop-hom:epmap 0.0. foreign address. noting how well-known port numbers are changed to names.0. issue the command netstat –an: C:\> netstat –an Use the window vertical scrollbar to go back and forth between the outputs of the two commands.0.254. From the terminal window. and state information.0:0 LISTENING LISTENING GW-desktop-hom:microsoft-ds 0.0:445 TCP UDP UDP UDP GW-desktop-hom:netbios-ssn 192.168. If fewer than three connections translate.254.98 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 2: Use netstat to Examine Protocol Information on a Pod Host Computer Step 1.168.1:139 GW-desktop-hom:ntp 192.

To close a Telnet connection. In this task. The command for a Telnet connection on port 21 follows: C:\> telnet eagle-server. Eventually. In the second terminal window. Type quit and press Enter to close the session. and UDP cannot build the TCP session.1:1071 Foreign Address 127. That will bring up the t=Telnet prompt. . Step 2. port 53 FTP: FTP server.example. the host computer has made a TCP connection with itself.0. a connection might close before all connections have been made. You will use the following: ■ ■ ■ ■ DNS: Domain Name System server. Output should look similar to the output in Example 4-1. port 25 Telnet: Telnet server. In the third terminal window. If typing is slow.1:1070 State ESTABLISHED ESTABLISHED A new network engineer suspects that his host computer has been compromised by an outside attack against ports 1070 and 1071.1. thus providing several protocols to examine with netstat. Microsoft Telnet>. Establish multiple concurrent TCP connections and record netstat output.0. How would you respond? Because the foreign address is 127. Arrange the windows so that all are visible. record established connections with Eagle Server. port 23 Why should Telnet to UDP ports fail? Telnet is a TCP protocol. The four terminal windows that will be used for Telnet connections to Eagle Server can be relatively small. approximately 1⁄2 screen width by 1⁄4 screen height.0. telnet on port 21. In the fourth terminal window.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 99 Example 4-1 Netstat Output C:\> netstat –n Active Connections Proto TCP TCP C:\> Local Address 127. connections should terminate from inactivity. telnet to Eagle Server on port 53.0.0.0. several simultaneous connections will be made with Eagle Server. telnet on port 23.com 53 In the large terminal window.1:1070 127.0. In the first Telnet terminal window. The venerable telnet command is used to access Eagle Server network services. press the Ctrl+] keys together. telnet on port 25.0. The terminal windows that will be used to collect connection information should be 1⁄2 screen width by full screen height. Several network services on Eagle Server will respond to a Telnet connection. port 21 SMTP: SMTP mail server. Open four additional terminal windows.1:1071 127.0.0.

TCP and UDP (4. January 1980. Try to view connections in stages different from ESTABLISHED.1:1693 192.168. TCP is used to provide transport layer support for the HTTP and FTP protocols.1:1694 Foreign Address 192.254.254. August 1980. UDP provides transport layer support for Domain Name System (DNS) services and Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP).168. If Wireshark has not been loaded on the host pod computer.168. .254. turn off power to the host computers.example.168. defined in RFC 761. and User Datagram Protocol (UDP). Both protocols support upper-layer protocol communication. host computer routing table information.com/pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter4/.254.168.254.1:1688 192. For example.254:21 192.168. Remove anything that was brought into the lab and leave the room ready for the next class.100 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example 4-2 C:\>netstat Proto TCP TCP TCP TCP Eagle Server Output Table Local Address 192.exe. Background The two protocols in the TCP/IP transport layer are the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). defined in RFC 768. and interface statistics.254. Ponder the utility of netstat in small and large networks and consider how netstat can help you diagnose problems. analyze TCP and UDP protocol header fields for file transfers between the host computer and Eagle Server.4. among others. among others.1) Upon completion of this activity.99.254.254.2. and issue the netstat –an command. file wiresharksetup-0.1:1691 192. Task 4: Challenge Close established sessions abruptly (close the terminal window).254:53 192. Task 5: Cleanup Unless directed otherwise by the instructor.168.254:23 State ESTABLISHED ESTABLISHED ESTABLISHED ESTABLISHED Task 3: Reflection The netstat utility displays incoming and outgoing network connections (TCP and UDP).5. The ability to understand the parts of the TCP and UDP headers and operation is a critical skill for network engineers. Scenario Using Wireshark capture. Identify UDP header fields and operation using a Wireshark TFTP session capture. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ Identify TCP header fields and operation using a Wireshark FTP session capture.254:25 192.168. you can download it from ftp://eagle-server. Lab 4-2: TCP/IP Transport Layer Protocols.

254.6 192.0 255.254 172.0.255. Figure 4–2 Topology for Lab 4-2 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 Table 4-9 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP S0/0/0 Fa0/0 10.254 R2-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Eagle Server N/A N/A Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central N/A N/A N/A . and Table 4-9 shows the corresponding addressing table.255.255.10.2 172.0 255.16.255.254.5 172.168.0.168.31.Pod#.255.0 N/A N/A 10.253 10.255.16. Figure 4-2 shows the topology for this lab.254 172.255.Pod#.255.4 N/A 192.253 N/A 172.10.255.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 101 Windows command-line utilities FTP and TFTP will be used to connect to Eagle Server and download files.0 255.255.0 255.255.254 172.0.1 255.255.254.1 172.0.255.254 172.254.255.16.10.252 255.254 192.10.10.16.16.0 255.0 255.168.255.16.255.252 255.255.10.24.255.16.

When prompted for a password. and the text configuration file for S1-Central from Eagle Server will be downloaded.102 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Note to instructor: Depending on the classroom situation. Step 2. When finished. Verify that the host computer has the correct gateway IP address.com When prompted for a user ID. 172.16. Capture an FTP session. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity. and can ping R1-ISP.255. R2-Central. ftp.16.com.16. Enter the following command: > ftp eagle-server. A command-line window will start the FTP session. shown in the preceding logical addressing table.6. and that Eagle Server is on. Step 3.254. Open a command-line window by clicking Start > Run. Verify that all network equipment is powered on. to the host computer. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server. type anonymous.10. troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity using the following steps: Step 1. . ping S1Central. the lab topology might have been modified before this class. Windows computers use the FTP client. A window similar to Figure 4-3 should open. to connect to the FTP server. Finally.example. From a known good host computer. TCP sessions are well controlled and managed by information exchanged in the TCP header fields. ping Eagle Server. Task 1: Identify TCP Header Fields and Operation Using a Wireshark FTP Session Capture Step 1. verify that the host has the correct DNS address and can ping eagle-server. type cmd.254.Pod#. an FTP session is made to Eagle Server.[1-2]. In this task.example. 10. If an individual host computer cannot connect to Eagle Server. the session capture will be analyzed. /pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter4/s1-central. Start an FTP connection to Eagle Server. Figure 4–3 Command-Line Window Start a Wireshark capture on the interface that has IP address 172. check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central.255. press Enter. and finally Eagle Server. If the ping test fails.10. and can ping R2-Central. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address.com. 172. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests. R1-ISP. and then click OK.example.

Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 103 Change the FTP directory to /pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter4/: ftp> cd /pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter4/ Download the file s1-central: ftp> get s1-central When finished. the transport layer protocol TCP created a reliable session. verify datagram arrival. Switch to the Wireshark capture windows. terminate the FTP sessions in each command-line window with the FTP quit command: ftp> quit Close the command-line window with the command exit: > exit Stop the Wireshark capture. the TCP session is closed. TCP is routinely used during a session to control datagram delivery. an explanation of the summary information is needed. Highlight the first TCP datagram from the host computer. Step 2. The expanded TCP datagram should look similar to Example 4-3. a new TCP session is started. and move the cursor to the middle window. You might need to adjust the middle window and expand the TCP record by clicking the protocol expand box. TCP performs an orderly shutdown and termination. Before we delve into TCP packet details. The top window contains summary information for each captured record. Analyze the TCP fields. At the conclusion of the data transfer. For each exchange of data between the FTP client and FTP server. Your capture should be similar to the capture shown in Figure 44. . Figure 4–4 FTP Capture In Wireshark. detailed TCP information is available in the middle window. and manage window size. When the FTP client is connected to the FTP server. Finally. when the FTP session is finished.

.0....0 = Fin: Not set Window size: 64240 Checksum: 0xb965 [correct] >Options: (8 bytes) Maximum segment size: 1460 bytes NOP NOP SACK permitted How is the first datagram in a TCP session identified? The initial datagram originates from the host computer... and contains a SYN flag.. = Acknowledge: Not set .. Seq: 0. = Push: Not set . Dst port: ftp (21)..x.16..104 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example 4-3 Wireshark Capture of a TCP Datagram >Transmission Control Protocol..... = Syn: Set . Figure 4-5 0 TCP Packet Fields for Lab 4-2 TCP Segment 4 10 16 Sequence Number Acknowledgment Number HLEN Reserved TCP Checksum Options (If Any) Data Data. Code Bits: U A R P S F RCS S Y I GK T HNN Code Bits Window Urgent Pointer Padding 24 TCP Destination Port Number 31 TCP Source Port Number . port number 21. .0 ...x..0. = Congestion Window Reduced (CWR): Not Set ... 0. Figure 4-5 shows a TCP datagram... = Reset: Not set .168.254. ... on some port above 1023. 192.. Src Port: 1052 (1052).254..0... = Urgent: Not set . . Len: 0 Source Port: 1052 (1052) Destination Port: ftp (21) Sequence number: 0 (relative sequence number) Header length: 28 bytes >Flags: 0x02 (SYN) 0. to Eagle Server... .. 172.... = ECN-Echo: Not set .. .1..... .

TCP destination port number: Is used to identify the upper-layer protocol or application on the remote site. FTP. Source Port. Destination Port) uniquely identifies the session to both sender and receiver. HTTP. and so on).254. Options: The only option currently defined is the maximum TCP segment size (optional value).168. Using the Wireshark capture of the first TCP session start-up (SYN bit set to 1). Code bits: Have a special meaning in session management and in the treatment of segments. such as Telnet. Among interesting values are ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ACK: Acknowledgment of a segment receipt SYN: Synchronize. Acknowledgment number: Specifies the next octet expected by the receiver. * 172. which is only set when a new TCP session is negotiated during the TCP three-way handshake FIN: Finish. how many octets can be sent before waiting for an acknowledgment).1 192. Sequence number: Specifies the number of the last octet in a segment.16. fill in information about the TCP header in Table 4-10. which is the request to close the TCP session ■ ■ Window size: Is the value of the sliding window (that is. The values in the range of 0 to 1023 represent the so-called well-known ports and are associated with popular services and applications (as described in RFC 1700. The quadruple field combination (Source IP Address.254 *1052 21 0 (relative) N/A 28 bytes * 64240 . Urgent pointer: Is only used with an URG (Urgent) flag (when the sender needs to send urgent data to the receiver).Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 105 An explanation of each field is provided to refresh your memory: ■ TCP source port number: Belongs to the TCP session host that opened a connection. The value is normally a random value above 1023. ■ ■ Table 4-10 TCP Header: SYN Bit Set to 1 Answers Characteristics Source IP address Destination IP address Source port number Destination port number Sequence number Acknowledgment number Header length Window size * May differ from what student enters. Destination IP Address.1.

A crash could involve a loss of networking . a SYN bit is only used during the beginning of a TCP session.16. the opening TCP session sends a TCP datagram with the SYN bit set.1. and the receiver sends a related TCP datagram with the SYN ACK bits set. With sufficient TCP sessions in the half-open state.106 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Using the Wireshark capture of the first TCP session start-up (SYN and ACK bits are set to 1). fill in information about the TCP header in Table 4-11.1 192. Attackers take advantage of the three-way handshake by initiating a “half-open” connection. Instead.254 * 172. A final ACK bit is never sent to finish the TCP handshake. In this sequence.1 * 21 1052 0 (relative) 1 28 bytes * 5840 Using the Wireshark capture of the first TCP session start-up (only ACK bit is set to 1). Table 4–12 TCP Header: ACK Bits Set to 1 Answers Characteristics Source IP address Destination IP address Source port number Destination port number Sequence number Acknowledgment number Header length Window size * May differ from what student enters * 172. the receiving computer may exhaust resources and crash.254. a new TCP connection is started in half-open fashion.16.254. how many other TCP datagrams contained a SYN bit? None.168.254 *1052 21 1 (relative) 1 20 bytes * 64240 Ignoring the TCP session started when a data transfer occurred. fill in information about the TCP header in Table 4-12.168.1. Table 4–11 TCP Header: SYN and ACK Bits Set to 1 Answers Characteristics Source IP address Destination IP address Source port number Destination port number Sequence number Acknowledgment number Header length Window size * May differ from what student enters 192.

but is normally 5 minutes. the TCP sessions will wait a certain period of time until closing.“Quit” FTP Server. visible in the Wireshark capture. announcing the termination of the TCP session. is shown in Figure 4-6. The default timeout value varies. unaware and uncaring that TCP has control and management over the session. the attacker has won.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 107 services or could corrupt the operating system. This sequence. the TCP session on the FTP client sends an acknowledgment to the TCP session on Eagle Server. such as when the connection is broken. When the FTP server sends a Response: 220 to the FTP client. Figure 4–6 TCP Session Management FTP Client FTP Welcome TCP Acknowledgment FTP Userid Sent TCP Acknowledgment FTP Password Response FTP Server When the FTP session has finished. networking service has been stopped on the receiver. and the TCP session is closed.” The FTP server acknowledges the FTP termination with a Response: 221 Goodbye. The FTP client and server communicate with each other. This sequence. is shown in Figure 4-7. When the originator of the TCP termination. FTP server. the FTP client sends a command to “quit. receives a duplicate termination.“Goodbye” TCP Acknowledgment TCP Session ACK FIN Sent TCP Acknowledgment TCP Session ACK FIN Sent TCP Acknowledgment TCP Session Ends FTP Server Without an orderly termination. This is one example of a denial-ofservice (DoS) attack. . visible in the Wireshark capture. At this time. the FTP server TCP session sends a TCP datagram to the FTP client. and then sends its own TCP session termination. an ACK datagram is sent to acknowledge the termination. The FTP client TCP session acknowledges receipt of the termination datagram. In either case. Figure 4–7 Orderly TCP Session Termination FTP Client FTP Client.

Also. source Specifies the file to transfer. Switch to the Wireshark capture windows. Specifies where to transfer the file. A TFTP transfer will be used to analyze transport layer UDP operation. host GET Specifies the local or remote host. The TFTP server has its own directory on Eagle Server. For example. Transfers the file destination on the remote host to the file source on the local host. PUT Transfers the file source on the local host to the file destination on the remote host. which is different from the directory structure supported by the FTP server. and then download the s1-central configuration file from Eagle Server with the Windows TFTP client. GET. there are only two commands. Analyze the UDP fields. In binary image mode the file is moved literally.108 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 2: Identify UDP Header Fields and Operation Using a Wireshark TFTP Session Capture Step 1. The TFTP command has a different syntax than FTP. Destination Start a Wireshark capture. No authentication is supported. TFTP [-i] host [GET | PUT] source [destination] -i Specifies binary image transfer mode (also called octet). to send a file. Student capture should be similar to the capture shown in Figure 4-8. /tftpboot. there is no authentication. Example 4-4 contains Windows TFTP client syntax. Example 4-4 >tftp –help TFTP Syntax for a Windows TFTP Client Transfers files to and from a remote computer running the TFTP service.com get s1-central Step 2. Capture a TFTP session. Use this mode when transferring binary files. Following the procedure in Task 1. The command and syntax to perform this follows: >tftp eagle-server.example. to retrieve a file. open a command-line window. . and PUT. byte by byte.

Instead. it is the responsibility of the upper-layer protocol. 16 UDP Destination Port UDP Checksum 31 Using the Wireshark capture of the first UDP datagram. This will be shown during the UDP datagram examination. and move the cursor to the middle window. Highlight the first UDP datagram from the host computer.. You might have to adjust the middle window and expand the UDP record by clicking the protocol expand box.. There are similarities. The expanded UDP datagram should look similar to Figure 4-9.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 109 Figure 4-8 UDP Session Capture Note: If students point to UDP acknowledgments. a UDP datagram diagram. detailed UDP information is available in the middle window. to manage data transfer and receipt information. compared to the TCP datagram. The checksum value is a hexadecimal (base 16) value. Header information is sparse. however. explain that the UDP header does not contain an acknowledgment field. Figure 4–9 UDP Datagram Capture See Figure 4-10. In Wireshark. . denoted by the preceding 0x code. fill in information about the UDP header in Table 4-13. Figure 4–10 UDP Format UDP Segment 0 UDP Source Port UDP Message Length Data Data. Each UDP datagram is identified by the UDP source port and UDP destination port. in this case TFTP.

___ Source port number Destination port number UDP message length UDP checksum: 0x * May differ from what student enters.1.110 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 4-13 UDP Header Table Answers Characteristics Source IP address Destination IP address Source port number Destination port number UDP message length UDP checksum * May differ from what student enters. Task 3: Reflection This lab provided you with the opportunity to analyze TCP and UDP protocol operations from captured FTP and TFTP sessions. and the datagram checksum value is recomputed upon receipt. but this source port is used for the remainder of the TFTP transfer.254. Fill in information about the UDP header in Table 4-14. only the original source port used to begin the TFTP session is used to maintain the TFTP transfer. If the computed checksum is identical with the sent checksum.168.254 * 1038 69 * 30 bytes * 0x1f04 (correct) How does UDP verify datagram integrity? A checksum is sent in the UDP datagram. Table 4-14 UDP Header Information Answers Characteristics Source IP address Destination IP address: 172. TCP manages communication much differently from UDP. Both protocols have advantages . UDP has less overhead and control. 192.16. however.254.1 192.1.16. transport data between clients and servers using application layer protocols and are appropriate for the upper-layer protocol each supports. * 172. Examine the first packet returned from Eagle Server. Both protocols.16.168. and the upper-layer protocol must provide some type of acknowledgment control. the UDP datagram is assumed complete.254 * 172.___.1 * 32799 * 1038 *524 bytes * 0xc5cf (correct) Notice that the return UDP datagram has a different UDP source port. but reliability and guaranteed delivery requires additional control over the communication channel. Because there is no reliable connection.

For each network service. and leave the room ready for the next class. password. you use client applications to connect to Eagle Server network services. turn off power to the host computers. such as TCP and UDP. Consider how you would determine which protocol to use if you were designing an application. However. Application layer protocols rely on lower-level TCP/IP protocols. Scenario In this lab. Capture and analyze HTTP communication between the pod host computer and a web server. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. . passwords. yet each client communicates exclusively with a session established between the client and server. Observe TCP establish and manage communication channels with HTTP and FTP connections. This lab examines two popular application layer protocols. and therefore different transport protocols have been developed to meet these requirements. Analysis of the upper-layer FTP session will quickly identify the user ID. several files were transferred to the host computer and should be removed. Capture and analyze FTP communication between the pod host computer and an FTP server. and configuration file passwords. You monitor the communication with Wireshark and analyze the captured packets. and an FTP server and client. all data transferred is sent in clear text. There may be several servers on the same end device.3. but the data field can be examined and configuration user ID and password information extracted. different applications have different requirements for their data. This includes any user IDs. A user may open several client applications to the same server. Application layer protocols define the communication between network services. and how transport layer protocols TCP and UDP manage the communication channel. Task 4: Challenge Because neither FTP nor TFTP are secure protocols.1) Upon completion of this lab. a different server is listening on a different port for client connections. HTTP and FTP. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ ■ Configure the host computer to capture application layer protocols. Task 5: Cleanup During this lab. Upper-layer TFTP data examination is a bit more complicated. Background The primary function of the transport layer is to keep track of multiple application conversations on the same host.5.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 111 and disadvantages. Also examined are popular client requests and corresponding server responses. Clients initiate communication to the appropriate server. and the server responds to the client. Lab 4-3: Application and Transport Layer Protocols (4. such as a web server and client. or clear-text file contents. Applications are designed to use one protocol or another based on maximizing the advantages while minimizing the disadvantages.

0 255.255.254 172.168.253 N/A 172.255.16.254.1 172.252 255.254 .112 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide A web browser such as Internet Explorer or Firefox will be used to connect to the Eagle Server network service. This exercise demonstrates that although clients may differ.16.252 255.0 255.0 255.255.0.255.4 N/A 192.255. The lab should be configured as shown in Figure 4-11 and Table 4-15.Pod#.0 255.254 172.255.16.0 255.6 192.254 192.0.2 172.5 172.168.10.Pod#.255.1 255.0 N/A N/A 10.10. Eagle Server has several network services preconfigured.10.255.10. If it is not.0 255.0.10.16.255.24. such as HTTP.254 172. as will the FTP command-line client.255.254. waiting to respond to client requests.255.16.16.253 10.255. ask the instructor for assistance before proceeding.255.254 172.254.168. The web browser will also be used to examine the FTP protocol.254. Figure 4–11 Topology for Lab 4-3 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 Table 4–15 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP R2-Central Eagle Server Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 S0/0/0 Fa0/0 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 10.255.0.255.255.10.255.31. the underlying communication to the server remains the same.255.16.

Verify that all network equipment is powered on. If the ping test fails. Wireshark should begin to log data. Wireshark will be used in upcoming tasks. The interface with the IP address of the pod host computer is the correct interface. shown in the preceding logical addressing table. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 113 Note to instructor: Depending on the classroom situation. and that Eagle Server is on. R1-ISP. or shortcut.255.com/pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter3. 172. and can ping R2-Central. Thereafter. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests. Verify that the host computer has the correct gateway IP address.example. check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central. If students ask why the Wireshark icon is a directory folder. Step 2. double-click the filename and install Wireshark with the default settings. Figure 4-12 Wireshark Interface Capture After the file has downloaded.example.com.16. you can download it from eagleserver.6. the lab topology might have been modified before this class. 172.com. If an individual host computer cannot connect to Eagle Server. This is also why the file has no physical size. Right-click the Wireshark filename. ping S1Central. R2-Central. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity. From a known good host computer. If Wireshark is not installed on the pod host computer. Start Wireshark from Start > All Programs > Wireshark > Wireshark.16. ping Eagle Server.254. troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity using the following steps: Step 1. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address.example. When the opening screen appears. set the correct capture interface. and then save the file to the host pod computer. Task 1: Configure the Pod Host Computer to Capture Application Layer Protocols Step 1. the interface is used as the default and does not need to be changed.254. Step 3. to another file. and can ping R1-ISP.com. Step 3. The download URL is ftp://eagleserver. and finally Eagle Server. Finally.255. . See Figure 4-12. it is because the file is a link. Start Wireshark and configure the capture interface. Download and install Wireshark.example. verify that the host has the correct DNS address and can ping eagle-server. Wireshark can be started by clicking the interface Start button.10.10. 10. Stop Wireshark for the moment. Step 2.

Do not close either browser until Wireshark capture is stopped. Before HTTP can begin. The first HTTP session started with a connection to http://eagleserver.html. Step 1. dated 1999. and 12. Open a second web browser. Start the pod host web browser.1 is defined in RFC 2616. . Figure 4-15 shows a sample captured HTTP session. 11. This part of the lab demonstrates how sessions between multiple web clients and the web server are kept separate. Using a web browser such as Internet Explorer or Firefox.example. The third session occurred when the second web browser accessed http://eagleserver. The second session occurred with a refresh action.html.114 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 2: Capture and Analyze HTTP Communication Between the Pod Host Computer and a Web Server HTTP is an application layer protocol.com. connect to URL http://eagleserver. numbers 10. the TCP session must be created. This will display a different web page. There were actually at least three HTTP sessions created in Step 2. The resulting Wireshark data will display. and connect to URL http://eagleserver. relying on lower-level protocols such as TCP to establish and manage the communication channel. Step 2. This is seen in the first three session lines. Close the web browsers. There should be no change to the display in the web client. A web page similar to Figure 4-13 will display. Start Wireshark captures. Figure 4-13 Web Server Screen Click the web browser Refresh button.example. Wireshark will display captures based on packet type.example. Step 3. Stop Wireshark captures and analyze the captured data.com/page2.com. HTTP version 1.com/page2.example. Do not close this web browser until instructed to do so.

the GET request is on line 13. and how? 192.254.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 115 Figure 4-14 Captured HTTP Session Fill in Table 4-16 from the information presented in the HTTP session. This is the actual information sent to the web server.1. Highlight the first line of the HTTP protocol. Which computer initially signaled an end to the HTTP session. This is the beginning of the TCP three-way handshake. Table 4–17 HTTP Session Table Answer Characteristics Protocol version Request Method * Request URI Language HTTP/1. If necessary.168.1.168. and how? 172. .168.2 started the HTTP session to 192. Move into the second (middle) Wireshark window to examine the layered protocols. and repeated by 172.1 GET \ En-us *Request URI is the path to the requested document.254 with the SYN flag set. expand the fields.254. Table 4-16 HTTP Session Table Answers Characteristics Web browser IP address Web server IP address Transport layer protocol (UDP/TCP) Web browser port number Web server port number 172.16. In Figure 4-14. acknowledged. In the first browser.254. Complete Table 4-17 using information from the protocol. Although no page was requested.254 signaled an end to the session with the FIN ACK flags set. the path is the root directory of the web server.16.1.16.2 192. a GET request from the web browser. Which protocol is carried (encapsulated) inside the TCP segment? Hypertext Transfer Protocol Expand the last protocol record and any subfields. some web servers are configured to display a default file if one is available.254 TCP 1056 80 Which computer initiated the HTTP session.2.

In this task. a request for an unknown web page will result in an error message. Also. . in 1971. In Figure 4-14.116 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide The web server responds with the next HTTP packet. GET. Figure 4-15 Captured HTTP Session The significance of the refresh action is in the server response. 304 Not Modified. is visible. With a single packet returned for both the initial GET request and refresh. this is on line 15. there are only a few lines of text (web server responses can contain thousands or millions of bytes). Figure 4-15 shows a sample capture. A response to the web browser is possible because the web server understands the type of request and has a file to return. the bandwidth used is minimal. However. In this reply.page tag number (ETAG) What is the ETAG response from the web server? 98072-b8-82da8740 Task 3: Capture and Analyze FTP Communication Between the Pod Host Computer and a Web Server The application layer protocol FTP has undergone significant revision since it first appeared in RFC 114. dated October 1985.1 is defined in RFC 959. Open all collapsed subfields of HTTP. 26 Jan 2007 06:19:33 GMT\r\n If-None-Match: “98072-b8-82da8740”\r\n <. the GET request contained the following additional instructions to the web server: If-modified-since: Fri. refresh. Scroll down the top window of Wireshark until the second HTTP session. From RFC 2616 What does this response mean? The request has succeeded. What is the web server response to the web client GET request? 200 OK. Notice the information returned from the server. The familiar web browser can be used to communicate with more than just the HTTP server. Highlight the web server response. for an initial response that contains millions of bytes. is sent in the response. and then move into the second (middle) window. the web browser and a command-line FTP utility are used to download data from an FTP server. Crackers sometimes send unknown or garbled requests to web servers in an attempt to stop the server or gain access to the server command line. FTP version 5. The web browser understands and correctly formats the data in the browser window. Because this web page was saved in the web client’s cache. an entity corresponding to the requested resource. a single reply packet can save significant bandwidth.

refer to Task 1. Figure 4-16 Windows Command Line Step 1. as shown in Example 4-6. press Enter.example. To do so. If necessary.example. In response to the password prompt. open a command line on the host pod computer. Start the pod host command-line FTP client.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 117 In preparation for this task. enter cmd. A screen similar to Figure 4-16 will display.com.example. Commands are: FTP Client Commands ! ? append ascii bell binary bye cd close delete debug dir disconnect get glob hash help lcd literal ls mdelete mdir mget mkdir mls mput open prompt put pwd quit quote recv remotehelp rename rmdir send status trace type user verbose . Example 4-6 ftp> help Commands may be abbreviated. type help and press Enter. and then click OK. This means that the FTP client is waiting for a command to send to the FTP server. To view a list of FTP client commands. as shown in Example 4-5. Start Wireshark captures. Step 2. To authenticate.com Connected to eagle-server. using the Windows FTP client utility. Password: <ENTER> 230 Login successful. to open Wireshark. 220 Welcome to the eagle-server FTP service. use user ID anonymous. click Start > Run. User (eagle-server. The FTP client prompt is ftp>. Example 4-5 FTP Eagle Server Example >ftp eagle-server. Step 2.com:(none)): anonymous 331 Please specify the password. Start a pod host computer FTP session with the FTP server.

x (access). User anonymous has been placed into a root jail. 150 Opening BINARY mode data connection for ftptoeagle-server. -rw-r—r— -rw-r—r— -rw-r—r— -rw-r—r— 1 0 100 1 0 100 1 0 100 5853 Jan 12 04:26 ftptoeagle-server. 226 File send OK.118 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Unfortunately. Subdirectories can be traversed.pcap (5853 bytes).pcap 1 0 100 15163750 Jan 12 04:30 wireshark-setup-0. for the owner. w (write). ftp> quit 221 Goodbye. ftp: 5853 bytes received in 0. The permissions are arranged as r (read). d. ftp> dir 200 PORT command successful. ftp> get “ftptoeagle-server. Consider using PASV. The first character. prohibiting access outside of the current directory. Example 4-7 FTP Directory Output ftp> dir 200 PORT command successful. as shown in Example 4-7.04Seconds 8. the values are UNIX file permissions. and exit. Consider using PASV. and files transferred to the pod host computer. Example 4-8 FTP Subdirectory Example ftp> cd pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter2 250 Directory successfully changed.pcap” 200 PORT command successful. drwxr-xr-x 3 0 0 4096 Jan 12 04:32 pub If students ask what the values at the beginning of the line mean. See Example 4-8. indicates that the file is a directory. This is not the real root directory of the server.pcap 4493 Jan 12 04:27 http to eagle-server. and save the captures as FTP_Command_Line_Client. group.12Kbytes/sec. the large number of FTP client commands makes using the command-line utility difficult for a novice.254. World (anyone) can read and access the directory. Close the command-line window with the exit command. but only the highest point that user anonymous can access.pcap 1486 Jan 12 04:27 ping to 192. .99. Consider using PASV.254.168. Enter the command dir to display the current directory contents.34Seconds 17. however. 150 Here comes the directory listing. The FTP client is at the root directory of the FTP server.4. 150 Here comes the directory listing. Move into directory pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter2. We will only use a few commands for Wireshark evaluation. download a file.exe 226 Directory send OK. and world. ftp: 333 bytes received in 0.21Kbytes/sec. Stop Wireshark captures.

Open a web browser as shown in Figure 4-17. and save the captures as FTP_Web_Browser_Client. Double-click the file ftptoeagle-server. example. Figure 4-17 Web Browser FTP Client Using the browser. In Figure 4-18. this is line 23.com. Stop Wireshark captures. go down the directories until the URL path is pub/eaglelabs/eagle1/chapter2. When finished. . Start the pod host web browser. close the web browser. select the FTP capture that is the first FTP protocol transmission. and enter the URL ftp://eagle-server. as shown on the bottom of the Figure 4-17. A browser window opens with the pub directory displayed. On the top Wireshark window. Response: 220.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 119 Step 3. similar to HTTP. If not already opened. open the Wireshark capture FTP_Web_Browser_Client. FTP communicates using codes. Step 4. Analyze the captured data. Start Wireshark captures again. Also. Figure 4-18 Wireshark FTP Capture Move into the middle Wireshark window and expand the FTP protocol.pcap and save the file. What is the FTP server response 220? Service is ready for a new user. the web browser logged in to the FTP server as user anonymous.

the server opens a TCP session to the FTP client and transfers data across that port. The implications between the two modes are important from an information security perspective. a client initiates an FTP session with the server on well-known TCP port 21. and the FTP client port number is some number above 1023. See Figure 4-19. When data is transferred or with simple directory listings. To establish connectivity for data transfer. Open the Wireshark capture FTP_Web_Browser_Client. What is the FTP data port number used by the FTP server? The port number is 20. In active mode. the same connection used in the active transfer mode. Step 5. students should be shown a passive transfer mode. In passive transfer mode. the client opens a new port to the server for data transfer. the commands are similar. Compare FTP active and passive transfer modes. the port number is 1073. there are two significant changes. For data transfer. a client initiates an FTP session with the server on well-known TCP port 21. Unless the FTP client firewall is configured to permit connections from the outside. For data transfer. the client initiates the data connection to the server. Figure 4-19 Active FTP FTP Client FTP Control Connection on TCP Port 21 FTP Server FTP Data Connection From TCP Port 20 on Server to a High Port on the Client. In passive mode. what was the web browser reply? IEUSER@ Which port number does the FTP client use to connect to the FTP server port 21? Port number will vary. In Figure 4-18. Both port numbers are above 1023. Second. and observe the FTP communication. If possible. a new port is opened. however.120 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide When the FTP server issued a Response: 331 Please specify the password. the FTP client must permit either FTP-related connections (implying stateful packet filtering) or disable blocking. Although the clients are different. The Windows FTP client used for this lab did not support the passive transfer mode. high ports are used on both ends of the connection. The transfer mode sets how the data port is configured. data transfer may fail. This is called the transfer mode. however. The transfer mode can be either active or passive. First. the server initiates a connection from well-known TCP port 20 to a client’s high port. See Figure 4-20. In active transfer mode. The FTP server source port number is 20. a port number above 1023. .

Telnet and Gopher may also be supported on the browser. use a web browser or command-line Telnet client to connect to a Cisco device such as S1-Central or R2-Central. Observe the Telnet protocol behavior.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 121 Figure 4-20 Passive FTP FTP Client FTP Control Connection on TCP Port 21 FTP Server FTP Data Connection From the Client High TCP Port to the Server High TCP Port. FTP. FTP. The browser acts as a client to the server. Depending on the transfer mode. guaranteed delivery of datagrams. . but Telnet is similar to HTTP and FTP in that all three use the TCP protocol for connection-oriented. TCP manages the connection between client and server to ensure datagram delivery. Although only HTTP and FTP were examined here. Task 5: Challenge Enabling Wireshark capture. uses two protocols. Issue a GET request and observe the results. however. The FTP server listens on TCP port 21. even if the authentication is open to the world. A client application may be either a web browser or command-line utility. How is the application layer protocol Telnet similar to HTTP and FTP? How does Telnet differ? Answers will vary. Think about the differences between TCP and UDP. Multiple application layer protocols can be accessed through a simple web browser. as the command line. Telnet. User anonymous normally has restricted access to the FTP server and cannot upload files. Task 4: Reflection Both HTTP and FTP protocols rely on TCP to communicate. but each must send and receive messages that can be correctly interpreted. HTTP uses a single protocol to communicate with the HTTP server. and Gopher. An HTTP session begins when a request is made to the HTTP server and ends when the response has been acknowledged by the HTTP client. All of these services use TCP. however. and consider why UDP is inappropriate for HTTP. Unless the FTP server is configured to permit a connection to a random high port. Not all FTP client applications support changes to the transfer mode. sending requests and processing replies. The communication protocol is normally defined in an RFC. The server listens on port 80 for client connections. the server or client may initiate the data connection. data transfer will fail. An FTP session. lasts until the client signals that it is leaving with the quit command. The FTP client must authenticate to the FTP server.

. HTTP. Use simulation mode to visualize the operation of DNS.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. and leave the room ready for the next class. the instructor may want the application removed. To remove Wireshark. you will be using a standard lab setup created from actual PCs. Upon completion of this activity. servers. Background Throughout the course. Explore How DNS.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to perform this exercise using Packet Tracer.122 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 6: Clean Up If Wireshark was installed on the pod host computer for this lab.3. you will build increasingly larger parts of this topology in Packet Tracer. routers.1. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. and switches to learn networking concepts. At the end of each chapter.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab4532. click Start > Control Panel > Add or Remove Programs. UDP.3) Open the file LSG01-PTSkills4.6. and UDP work together. UDP. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity. Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Application and Transport Layer Protocols Examination (4. You will use the topology in Figure 4-21 and the addressing table in Table 4-18 to document your design. Remember. Packet Tracer Challenge Skills Integration Challenge: Analyzing the Application and Transport Layers (4. delete all files retrieved from the FTP server. and analyze increasingly more complex protocol interactions. and TCP on the model of the lab network. Connect and configure hosts and services on the model of the lab network. HTTP. If downloaded files need to be removed from the host pod computer. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. however.5. right-click Wireshark. and then click Remove. Scroll to the bottom of the list. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ ■ Configure hosts and services. turn off power to the host computers.

16.16.253 R2-Central Fa0/0 S0/0/0 S1-Central PC 1A PC 1B Eagle Server VLAN 1 NIC NIC NIC Task 1: Repair and Test the Topology The server has been replaced.16.10.253 10.2 192.168.255.253 DNS enabled.255.com with the server’s IP address HTTP enabled .255.254.255.16.254.252 255.1.168.6 10.254.example.255.16.1 172.6 172.255.254.10.0.0 255.255.254.10.255. with the association of eagle-server. It must be powered on.252 255.254.10.10.0 255.255.0.255.255.168.16.254 172.0 255.0.254 192.16.254 10.255.1 172.168.255. Then configure it with the following settings: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ IP address 192.0.168.255.254 172.5 172.0 N/A N/A 10.255.1.10.0 Default gateway 192.255.254 Subnet mask 255.0 255.10.6 172.10.255.254 255.255.0 255.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 123 Figure 4-21 Topology for Challenge 1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server 2960-24TT S1-Central 1841 R2-Central PC 1A PC 1B Table 4-18 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP Fa0/0 S0/0/0 192.

” Double-clicking the Fire button in the PDU List window. which is explained later in Chapter 9. UDP. You can create different test packet scenarios by using the New button (for example. and then use the Capture / Forward button in the event List to capture the interaction of DNS. please do this before the next task.16. Type the URL eagleserver.255. HTTP. UDP. In Packet Tracer. especially when the packets are at PC 1A or at the Eagle Server. Configure it with the following settings: ■ ■ ■ ■ IP address 172. and ICMP.1. UDP.com. Inbound PDU Details. Play this animation and examine the packet contents (PDU Information window.0 Default gateway 172. Make sure Event Filter is set to display DNS. Scenario 1 might have test packets between PC 1B and the routers). PC 1A has lost its IP address information. Test connectivity. Task 2: Explore How DNS. .16. If you receive a Buffer Full message.254. this is because of the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) process. you should be able to see how DNS.124 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Connect the Eagle Server to the Fa0/0 port on the R1-ISP router using a crossover cable. or by clicking the Info column for that packet instance as it is listed in the Event List.0. Task 3: Reflection Can you make a diagram of the sequence of protocol events involved in requesting a web page using a URL? Where might things go wrong? Compare and contrast DNS and HTTP. press Enter. Open a web browser from the desktop of 1A. the test packet you just created between PC 1A and Eagle Server will be removed. click the View Previous Events button. and TCP Work Together Switch from real time to simulation mode. HTTP.254 Connect PC 1A to the Fa0/1 port of the S1-Central switch using a straight-through cable. The first time you issue this one-shot ping message. send this single test ping a second time. Scenario 0 might have one test packet from PC 1A to Eagle Server. Note that when you add a simple PDU. in real time. if you use the Delete button for Scenario 0. the term scenario means a specific configuration of one or more test packets. it appears in the PDU List window as part of Scenario 0.254 DNS server 192. and TCP. HTTP. it will show as Failed. “Ethernet. and TCP work together by studying tracing the packets and using the PDU Information window to look “inside” them. by using the Add Simple PDU to test connectivity between PC 1A and the Eagle Server. and UDP and TCP. HTTP. This time it will succeed.example. UDP. Outbound PDU Details) for each event in the event list. For example.255.1 Subnet mask 255. Verify your work using feedback from the Check Results button and the Assessment Items tab. You can examine the packet in two ways: by clicking the packet envelope as it is displayed in the animation. TCP. Although the processing of the packets at the switch and the routers might not make sense to you yet.168. You can remove all test packets in a particular scenario by using the Delete button.

IP version 4 (IPv4) is the network layer protocol used as an example throughout this study guide.CHAPTER 5 OSI Network Layer The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of matching. . List three protocols implemented at the network layer that carry user data. The packet arrives at the destination host and is processed at Layer 3. The network layer must provide services to direct these packets to their destination host. use Chapter 5 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum or use the corresponding Chapter 5 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration Companion Guide for assistance. As you work through this chapter. Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6). The most significant network layer protocol is the Internet Protocol (IP). Layer 3 uses the following four basic processes: 1. AppleTalk. whereas IPv6 is 128 bit. 4. The address space for IPv4 is 32 bit. the most significant difference between IPv4 and IPv6 is length. What are the four basic processes used in the network layer to accomplish end-to-end transport? To accomplish end-to-end transport. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum activities and labs to ensure you have mastered the practical. fill-in-the-blank. 2. and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of the importance of data networks and the major components and characteristics of network architectures. Answers will vary but could include Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4). Novell Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX). These fields contain binary values that the IPv4 services reference as they forward packets across the network. Concept Questions 1. The data must be packaged so that it can be sent in a manageable size. and Connectionless Network Service (CLNS/DECNet) 3. IPv4 defines many different fields in the packet header. multiple-choice. hands-on skills needed to understand the opportunities and challenges associated with modern networks. 3. The network layer must provide a unique address for these end devices. Study Guide IPv4 The network layer provides services to exchange the individual pieces of data over the network between end devices. 2. What is the most significant difference between the two? Although answers will vary. IPv4 is going to be replaced by IPv6.

Table 5-1 Field Key Fields of IPv4 Header Purpose IP source address IP destination address Time-to-Live (TTL) Type-of-Service (ToS) Protocol IPv4 address of host sending the packet: enables the destination host to respond to the source if required. IPv4 address of host to receive the packet: enables routers at each hop to forward the packet towards the destination. 6. 4. Each route that a packet takes to reach the next device is called a hop. List three basic characteristics of IPv4.126 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide 4. 3. will need to split up a packet when forwarding it from one media to a media with a smaller maximum transmission unit (MTU). best effort (unreliable). There are no acknowledgments of packet delivery. 1. If out-of-order or missing packets create problems for the application using the data. The header of an IPv4 packet does not include fields required for reliable data delivery. which services have to resolve these issues? The upper-layer services resolve these issues. 5. 2. What is this process called? Fragmentation Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks for the following questions. or wirelessly as radio signals. because these transport layer protocols manage the receipt of their protocol data units (PDU) differently. as optical signals over fiber. The data payload protocol type: Denotes whether the data is a UDP datagram or TCP segment. Fragment offset . Any individual IP packet can be communicated electrically over cable. an intermediary device. IPv4 is connectionless. usually a router. Intermediary devices that connect the networks are called routers. and media independent. Fill in the purpose of each field. Number of hops before packet is dropped: This value is decremented at each hop to prevent packets being passed around the network in routing loops. These 13 bits allow a receiver to determine the place of a particular fragment in the original IP datagram. Vocabulary Exercise: Define Table 5-1 lists the six key fields in a typical IPv4 header. There is no error control for data. Data quality of service (QoS) priority: Enables router to give priority to voice and network route information over regular data. In some cases.

The default gateway is a router on a network that serves as an exit from that network. Routing is done packet by packet and hop by hop. network layer addressing schemes are hierarchical. Using a hierarchical addressing scheme means that the higher levels of the address can be retained. is needed to send a packet out of the local network. A hierarchical address uniquely identifies each host. Please be prepared to allot class time for discussions/presentations. 2. The firewall function performed by an intermediary permits only known. what graphical user interface (GUI) tool do you use to configure the default gateway IPv4 address? The Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties tools . The gateway. When a host needs to communicate with another network. 3. an intermediary device. acts as a gateway to the other network. Internet Research Exercise Use your favorite Internet search engine to find a website that describes the advantages to using hierarchical addressing. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks for the following questions. it is a good idea to break the network into groups. 5. with the middle level denoting the network addresses and the lower level the individual hosts. 6. or router. Answers will vary. Dividing large networks so that hosts who need to communicate are grouped together reduces the unnecessary overhead of all hosts needing to know all addresses. To support data communications between networks over internetworks. A broadcast is a message sent from one host to all other hosts on the network. hosts communicate with each other without the need for any network layer intermediary device. trusted data to access the network. A router will do one of the following with a packet: ■ ■ ■ Forward it to the next-hop router Forward it to the destination host Drop it Concept Questions 1. 1. they present problems that can be at least partially alleviated by dividing the network into smaller interconnected networks. Separating networks is relatively simple if you use hierarchical addressing. 4.Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 127 Networks: Dividing Hosts into Groups As networks get larger. Routing: How Our Data Packets Are Handled Within a network or a subnetwork. 7. also known as the default gateway. Be prepared to discuss and present your findings in class. As networks grow larger. Broadcasts are contained within a broadcast domain. On a Windows computer.

The default route is used to forward packets for which there is no entry in the routing table for the destination network. The default gateway is needed to send a packet out of the local network. and metric. Packets with a destination network address that does not match a more specific route in the routing table are forwarded to the next-hop router associated with the default route. the router will select the most specific route. Define each term and write your responses in the definition column. In IPv4 networks. Routes must have which three main features in a routing table? The three main features that routes must have in a routing table are destination network. To do this. 6. Packets with a destination network address that does not match a more specific route in the routing table are forwarded to the next-hop router associated with the default route.128 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide 2. A default route is a route that will match all destination networks. the address 0.0 is used for this purpose. What is a default route? A default route is a route that will match all destination networks. if used) portion of their respective addresses. the packet has to be routed outside the original network. 8. For a host on a network. next hop. 3.0. 7. Why is Layer 3 addressing hierarchical? The hierarchical nature of Layer 3 addressing means that one route entry could refer to a large general network and another entry could refer to a subnet of that same network. When should you use a default route? A default route is used to forward packets for which there is no entry in the routing table for the destination network. a packet cannot be forwarded without a route. 5. which route will a router select? When forwarding a packet. When forwarding a packet. What piece of addressing information should both the IPv4 host address and its default gateway share? The host IPv4 address and gateway address both must have the same network (and subnet. If the network portion of the destination address of the packet is different from the network of the originating host. Table 5-2 Terms Routing Terms Definitions Definition Next hop A next hop is the address of the device that will process the packet next. Default route Gateway . Vocabulary Exercise: Define Table 5-2 lists some terms about routing. 4. the address of the default gateway (router interface) is the next hop for all packets destined for another network. the packet is sent to the gateway. Can a packet be forwarded without a route? No.0.

Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 129 Routing Processes: How Routes Are Learned Routing requires that every hop. or router. 3. Each router in a path does not need a route to all networks. . To ensure that packets are routed to use the best possible next hops. each known destination network needs to either have a route or a default route configured. the packet is dropped at that hop. passes the information to other routers. along the path to a packet’s destination have a route to forward the packet. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks for the following questions. Routing protocols are the set of rules by which routers dynamically share their routing information. 1. or changes to links between routers. this information is passed on to other routers. every router must be configured with static routes to next hops that reflect its location in the internetwork. Static routing is routing that depends on manually entered routes in the routing table. Out-of-date routing information means that packets might not be forwarded to the most appropriate next hop. It only needs to know the next hop on the path to the packet’s destination network. it updates its own routing table and. Because packets are forwarded at every hop. Routing is the process of finding a path to a destination host. causing delays or packet loss. in turn. The routing table contains the information that a router uses in its packet-forwarding decisions. 2. For the routing decisions. the routing table needs to represent the most accurate state of network pathways that the router can access. As routers become aware of changes to the networks for which they act as the gateway. When a router receives information about new or changed routes. Otherwise.

130 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Labs and Activities Lab 5-1: Examining a Device’s Gateway (5. network configuration on a pod host computer will be verified. Background An IP address is composed of a network portion and a host portion. This is called the 80/20 rule. users will not be able to perform their job. connectivity with Eagle Server will fail. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ Understand and explain the purpose of a gateway address. If the pod host computer gateway address is not configured properly. . the host portion of the IP address is used as the host identifier. One purpose of a router is to serve as an entry point for packets coming into the network and exit point for packets leaving the network. The network portion of the destination device is the same as the network portion of the host device. Figure 5-1 shows the topology for this lab.1) Upon completion of this lab. Therefore. Understand how network information is configured on a Windows computer. Gateway addresses are important to users. Scenario Pod host computers must communicate with Eagle Server. Troubleshoot a hidden gateway address problem. if a gateway cannot be reached by the LAN devices.1. Cisco estimates that 80 percent of network traffic will be destined to devices on other networks. A router is assigned the gateway address for all the devices on the LAN. A computer that communicates with another device must first know how to reach the device. which is assigned to a network device that forwards packets between distant networks. and Table 5-3 shows the corresponding addressing table. and only 20 percent of network traffic will go to local devices.5. but Eagle Server is located on a different network. devices on different networks have different source and destination network numbers. By the use of several common utilities. However. For devices on the same LAN. The network portion of the IP address is used to identify when a packet must be sent to a gateway address.

0.6 N/A 192.31.0 N/A N/A 10.253 N/A 172.254.254 172.254 172.255.0 255.255.16.255.Pod#.252 255.255.255.16.16.10.24.10.Pod#.16.255.254.255.0.254 172.1 172.1 255.5 172.168.252 255.254 192.16.255.2 172.254 172.168.16.10.0 255.255.0 255.255.254.6 192.255.0 255.10.10.0.168.255.0 255.255.254.16.10.0 255.253 10.255.255.255.255.255.Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 131 Figure 5-1 Topology for Lab 5-1 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 Table 5-3 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP S0/0/0 Fa0/0 10.0.254 R2-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Eagle Server N/A N/A Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central N/A N/A N/A .

0.0.com. If an individual host computer cannot connect to Eagle Server. and that Eagle Server is on. Finally. For any nonlocal network.254 as the default gateway.example. this computer will use 172.10. Step 3. verify that the host has the correct DNS address and can ping eagle-server. and finally Eagle Server. the lab topology might have been modified before this class. This interface is .6.0.0 network. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity. Step 2.1? 00:10:a4:7b:01:5f Several Windows commands will display a network gateway address. The fourth highlighted line displays the information in humanreadable form. Verify that the host computer has the correct gateway IP address.0 and 0. refer to any network not specifically known. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server. 172.0. the netstat –r command is used to view the gateway addresses for this computer. is automatically assigned to the 127. A local interface.16.0. 172.16.com.254.255. ping Eagle Server.0. Task 1: Understand and Explain the Purpose of a Gateway Address For LAN traffic. One popular command is netstat –r.1. 10. If the ping test fails.16. troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity with the following steps: Step 1. In Example 5-1. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address. Figure 5-2 shows two devices on the same network communicating with the ping command. 0.255. From a known good host computer. called the loopback interface.132 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Note to instructor: Depending on the classroom situation. the gateway address is the address of the Ethernet device.0) is on the same LAN. check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central. ping S1Central.0. Verify that all network equipment is powered on. The “quad-zero” Network Destination and Netmask values. and can ping R1-ISP. what is the MAC address of the network device on IP address 172.255. More specific networks are reached through other gateway addresses.16.10. shown in the preceding logical addressing table. R2-Central. and can ping R2-Central. R1-ISP. Figure 5-2 Communication Between LAN Devices Referring to Figure 5-2.0.example. 172.16. The first highlighted line shows what gateway address is used to forward all network packets destined outside of the LAN. Any device that has the same network address (in this example. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests.254.

0 255. no.254 Gateway 172.16.0.0.10.0.255.255..1.0 is accessed through gateway 172.2 127.0 255.255..0. why? For 127.2 172.1.. Use the ping command to ping different IP addresses on the 127.255.16.16.0.255.1 172.255.255 255.00 16 76 ac a7 6a Intel(R) 82562V 10/100 Network Connection ======================================================================= ======================================================================= Active Routes: Network Destination 0.16.2 172.2.1. See the second highlighted entry.255..0.255.16.255.16.0.1.16.2 127.255.254 Step 2.255.0..255. and 127.255 is the network broadcast address.0.0.0.16.255.1.2 127.16. What is the default gateway address? 172.255.16.0 255..16.1.16..255 255.0 host IP address..16.255...0 127.255..2 Metric 1 1 20 20 20 1 ======================================================================= Persistent Routes: None C:\> Step 1.. any device on network 172.....0. This entry is the third highlighted line..255 Default Gateway: Netmask 0. For 127.0. Pings are successful to any valid 127.. 127.0 network.255.0 172.0.1.0.254 127..1.1 172. .0.2 172.255.0..255 255.0.16.255 172. MS TCP Loopback interface 0x20005 .0.1.0.1. 127..1 172. Finally.. Example 5-1 Output of the netstat Command C:\>netstat –r Route Table ======================================================================= Interface List 0x1 .Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 133 used to identify the local host to local network services.1. Pings will fail.0..0 172.2 Interface 172. Were responses successful? If not.1.0. Was the ping successful? Yes Step 3.. yes. Open a terminal window on a pod host computer.1.0.10.255.1.255. Use the ping command to verify connectivity with IP address 127. the IP address for this Ethernet interface.1 172..0.0.255..16.

and click the Properties button. On the General tab. for which IP can you not find a MAC address? 192. Examine network properties settings.254. To access this window. Click Start > Control Panel > Network Connections.16. The information cannot be determined from any device on this LAN. Because IP address 192.0 differs from 192.134 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide A default gateway address permits a network device to communicate with other devices on different networks. Figure 5-3 Communication Between Devices on Different Networks Referring to Figure 5-3.254.254. initiates a ping to IP address 192. and choose Properties.168.2.254.1.254. IP address 172.16. This gateway device. Right-click Local Area Connection.254 is on a different network.254 is only important to the gateway device on the same LAN that must eventually deliver the packet to that IP address. As shown in Figure 5-3. The computer composes the Layer 2 header with the destination MAC address of the router and places frames on the wire to the gateway device.254. Task 2: Understand How Network Information Is Configured on a Windows Computer Many times connectivity issues are attributed to incorrect network settings.168.168. Because network 172. the pod host computer requests the MAC address of the default gateway device. several tools are available to quickly determine the network configuration for any Windows computer. it is the door to other networks. Pod host computer 2.0.168. responds with its MAC address. communication between devices on different networks is different than on a LAN.254. For troubleshooting connectivity issues. All traffic destined to different networks must go through the network device that has the default gateway address. . The MAC address of 192. One method that might prove useful to determine the network interface IP properties is to examine the pod host computer’s Network Properties settings. a router. what is the MAC address of the gateway device? 00:0c:85:cf:66:40 Referring to Figure 5-3. A window similar to the one in Figure 5-4 will display. In essence.0. select Internet Protocol (TCP/IP). Step 1. scroll down the list of items in the pane. the Layer 2 MAC addresses will change before the packet reaches its destination.168.

Example 5-2 Output of the ipconfig Command C:\>ipconfig Windows IP Configuration Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection: Connection-specific DNS Suffix .255. In this case. . as shown in Example 5-2. . . The third highlight shows the default gateway address. a dynamic IP address may be configured.255. . . . . : 172. .16. : 255. : IP Address. . . . as shown in Figure 5-5. Figure 5-5 Network Interface with Dynamic IP Address A more consistently reliable method for determining network settings on a Windows computer is to use the ipconfig command. . .Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 135 Figure 5-4 Network Interface with Static IP Address However. . .1.2 Subnet Mask . .254 The first highlight shows the IP address for this pod host computer. Default Gateway . the Network Properties settings window is not very useful for determining IP address information. . .0 . . . The second highlight shows the subnet mask. . . . .0.16. . . : 172.

all other values should be the same as shown. . : Node Type . . .0.254. . : 00-16-76-AC-A7-6A Dhcp Enabled.0. . . . you are asked for assistance from the help desk technician. . . host-11B. use the command ipconfig /all. accessible with the command ipconfig /?. . . : GW-desktop-hom Primary Dns Suffix IP Routing Enabled WINS Proxy Enabled . The highlighted line shows the domain name server IP address.254. . . . . : 172. . but nothing unusual was found. . . as shown in Example 5-3. .254 192. . ipconfig Table Address Table 5-4 Description IP address Subnet mask Default gateway DNS server 172. : 255. .16.255.example.1. Refer to the network topology in Figure 5-1 and the logical IP address assignments in Table 5-3. . .16. . . . . : Unknown Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection: Connection-specific DNS Suffix Network Connection Physical Address. .168. . . . . . . . .1. .255. The technician verified the cables and network settings on both computers. Example 5-3 Output of the ipconfig /all Command C:\>ipconfig /all Windows IP Configuration Host Name . . . who reports that R2-Central has been temporarily brought down for a hardware upgrade.255. fill in the Table 5-4 with information from your pod host computer. .0 Default Gateway . . . . . does not respond to pings. . : . . . . . The technician received a trouble ticket from a user on computer host 1A. To show the most information about the network connections. . . . : No .16. .254 DNS Servers . . . . . You check with the corporate network engineer.2 Subnet Mask . . . .16. . . . . . . .2 255. : 172.254 Description . . . . . : 192. : No . . . . . . . : Intel (R) 82562V 10/100 Step 2. . . complaining that computer host 11B. a thorough understanding of the network can often assist in identifying the real problem. . Task 3: Troubleshoot a Hidden Gateway Address Problem When troubleshooting network issues. . : No IP Address. . .255. . . .com. . Using the command ipconfig /all.168. . . .0 172. . . .136 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Several options are available with the ipconfig command. . . . . . . . . . .254 Note to instructors: Only the IP address should be different on a student’s pod host computer. . . . As the third-shift help desk Cisco engineer. . .

172. Remember.0.16. 172. You instruct the help desk technician to tell the user to use the IP address for host 11B temporarily. DNS requests from the LAN devices must go through the gateway device. turn off power to the host computers. Next. Task 6: Clean Up Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. R2-Central.16. you ask the technician to ping the IP address for host 11B. What is wrong? Because the DNS server is on a different network than the LAN. Then. especially the gateway. and in some instances LAN devices require a default gateway to communicate with other devices on the LAN.254. and leave the room ready for the next class.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab5512. Within the hour. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. IP network 192.Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 137 Nodding your head in understanding. use the hostname of the destination pod computer for DNS to reply with the destination IP address. Task 5: Challenge Use Wireshark to capture a ping between two pod host computers. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity.2 from host 1A. First. . capture a ping between network devices using only IP addresses.5. You might have to restart the host computer to flush the DNS cache.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. and the pings fail.254. LAN computers still have connectivity between each other. the gateway router is back on line and normal network operation resumes. Task 4: Reflection A gateway address is critical to network connectivity. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. but DNS will not work.254. you ask the technician to ping the gateway IP address. Observe the communication sequence between network devices. Windows command-line utilities such as netstat –r and ipconfig /all will report gateway settings on host computers. after that. If the gateway is down.168.11. the user is able to establish connectivity with the computer. The gateway address should not be needed. however.1. The pings succeed. Packet Tracer Activity Packet Tracer Companion: Examining a Device’s Gateway (5.

For networks that are not directly connected. The device considers a network directly connected when it has an IP address and network mask configured. Some routes are added to routing tables automatically. examine the routing table with the route command and identify the different routes and gateway IP address for the route. and Table 5-5 shows the corresponding addressing table. Figure 5-6 shows the topology for this lab. test the connection. Scenario Using a pod host computer.2. based upon configuration information on the network interface. a device must know the route to the destination network. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ Use the route command to modify a Windows computer routing table. Examine router routes using basic Cisco IOS commands. Use a pod host computer to telnet into R2-Central. Use a Windows Telnet client command telnet to connect to a Cisco router. Background For packets to travel across a network.5. Figure 5-6 Topology for Lab 5-2 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 .1) Learning Objectives Upon completion of this lab. and then add the default gateway route back to the host table. This lab compares how routes are used in Windows computers and the Cisco router. and the network route is automatically entered into the routing table. and examine the routing table. a default gateway IP address is configured that will send traffic to a device that should know about the network.138 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Lab 5-2: Examining a Route (5. Delete the default gateway route.

16. students telnet into R2-Central and view the routing table.6. Verify that all network equipment is powered on. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity. 10. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests.1 255. 172. check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central. R2-Central.252 255. Finally.168.0.10.0 255.254.0 255. and can ping eagle-server.0.255.254.31.255.0.10.255.254 172.2 172.252 255.255.5 172.24.16. Verify that the host computer has the correct gateway IP address.254. and can ping R2-Central.16. Step 2. output from the netstat –r command is useful to determine route and gateway information.255.10.255. and can ping R1-ISP. shown in the preceding logical addressing table.0 255.255.1 172.10. In this lab.254. . verify that the host has the correct DNS address. 172.10.254 192. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server. the lab topology might have been modified before this class. If an individual host computer cannot connect to Eagle Server. Step 3.10. Ensure that the privileged exec password has been changed from the default value of cisco.Pod#.16.255.254.254 172.com.255.0.255.0 255.16.168.255.255. troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity using the following steps: Step 1.255.254.0 N/A N/A 10. If the ping test fails. and finally Eagle Server.255.16.254 172.254 172.168.16.255. ping S1Central.254 R2-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Eagle Server N/A N/A Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central N/A N/A N/A Note to instructor: Depending on the classroom situation. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address.10. ping Eagle Server.16. and that Eagle Server is on.6 192.255.255.16.255.10.6 N/A 192.example.0 255.255. R1-ISP.Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 139 Table 5-5 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP S0/0/0 Fa0/0 10.253 N/A 172. From a known good host computer.Pod#.253 10. Task 1: Use the route Command to Modify a Windows Computer Routing Table Shown in Example 5-4.255.example.0 255.com.

. Example 5-5 Output of the route Command C:\>route /? An abbreviated option list for the route command is shown below: route PRINT route ADD route DELETE route CHANGE Prints active routes Adds a route: Deletes a route: Modifies an existing route route ADD network MASK mask gateway route DELETE network To view active routes.16.2 127...255 Default Gateway: Netmask 0.16.1.255 255.1.255....0 255.0.255..0 255.16.254 127.16.16.255.255.255 172.16...255...1.1 172.. as shown in Example 5-5.255.0 172.0 255.1 172.2 Metric 1 1 20 20 20 1 ======================================================================= Persistent Routes: None C:\> Step 1..00 16 76 ac a7 6a Intel(R) 82562V 10/100 Network Connection ======================================================================= ======================================================================= Active Routes: Network Destination 0...0.0.2 127.255. add. or change routing table entries.1 172.1.16.0.. Examine the active routes on a Windows computer.255... the route command can be used to view. use the option route /?. A useful command to modify the routing table is the route command.255..254 Gateway 172.0.0 127.0.1.0.0.16.1 172.255 255.255..0..0. delete.255. MS TCP Loopback interface 0x20005 .16.2 127.16.2 172.2 172.. as shown in Example 5-6.1.0.255. Unlike the netstat –r command.0..0.1.0. .140 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example 5-4 Output of the netstat Command C:\>netstat –r Route Table ======================================================================= Interface List 0x1 .0 172..1. issue the command route PRINT.16.2 172.0.0.16..255 255.2 Interface 172.0. To view detailed information about the route command.0..

0 127.1..254...16.254] with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 192.255 255.0 255.0.168.168.0.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192..255.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.2 172.255.16.0 172.16.255.0 ..254 Step 2..0.com? 172. How important is the default gateway route? Delete the gateway route. The syntax to remove the default gateway route is this: route DELETE network The full command is as follows: C:/> route DELETE 0.0. MS TCP Loopback interface 0x70003 .254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.0. Maximum = 0ms.0...0.16.2 172.254.0.0.0.255..2 Metric 1 1 20 20 20 1 ======================================================================= Verify network connectivity to Eagle Server.00 16 76 ac a7 6a .255.16.254: Packets: Sent = 4.16.255. Example 5-7 Output of the ping Command C:\> ping eagle-server.0.0.0 255.255..16. Average = 0ms C:\> What is the gateway address to eagle-server.2 Interface 172.2 127.254.255 255.1.168.16...0.1..255.. and try to ping Eagle Server....Intel(R) 82562V 10/100 Network Connection ======================================================================= Active Routes: Network Destination 0.254 127.0..0...1.com [192.. Delete a route from the Windows computer routing table.1 172.1.1.0.255. Lost = 0 (0% loss).255 172.168.255..254.16.255 Default Gateway: Persistent Routes: None C:\> Netmask 0.0.16.16..2 172.254.1 172.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Ping statistics for 192. as shown in Example 5-7.0 255.0..255 255.0.254.16.example. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms.168...com Pinging eagle-server.1.168.Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 141 Example 5-6 Output of the route PRINT Command C:\ >route PRINT ======================================================================= Interface List 0x1 ..example.255.2 127.1 172.0.1 172.16. Received = 4.254 Gateway 172.2 127.1.255.0 172.255..example.

255. Insert a route into the Windows computer routing table.0.255.254? Yes.255.142 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Examine the active routing table.0 MASK 0..255.0.1 172.0 255. use the IP address assigned to your host pod interface.16.255 Gateway 127.2 172..00 16 76 ac a7 6a ..com? The IP address for eagle-server.2 127.example. The syntax to add a route to the Windows computer routing table is this: route ADD network MASK mask gateway-IP address The full command appears is as follows: C:/> route ADD 0.1.1 172.2 172.255.0.example..255..255 255.255 224..2 127.0.255 Persistent Routes: None C:\> Netmask 255.MS TCP Loopback interface 0x70003 ..2 Interface 127.0 255.0 172.16.0.255.. how can the DNS server be reached to resolve eagle-server.0...0 172..0..16.0.255.. Step 3.2 172.0.0. If the computer is rebooted. Can other LAN devices be reached.0.16.2 Metric 1 20 20 20 20 1 ======================================================================= Try to ping Eagle Server.254 .255.16.255. In the following configuration.16.16.16...2 172. What are the results? Eagle Server cannot be reached.0.com is stored in the computer’s cache.0 172.0.16..1.0.0.0.1. C:\> route PRINT ======================================================================= Interface List 0x1 .1.0.. such as 172..16.255 240.1 172.Intel(R) 82562V 10/100 Network Connection ======================================================================= ======================================================================= Active Routes: Network Destination 127. the name will not be resolved because the DNS server is not on the LAN..0. or the cache times out..1.1 172. there is no default gateway IP address.0. and verify that the default gateway route has been removed: What is the default gateway IP address? With the default route removed..16.1..1.0.0 255.0 255.1..1.255. Removing the default gateway has no effect on LAN connectivity... If the default gateway IP address is removed.255..16.0.0..2 172.16.

.0 255.254: Packets: Sent = 4. Maximum = 0ms..0.168.16. Average = 0ms C:\> .0.255.0. Lost = 0 (0% loss).16.16.1 172.16.254 127.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Ping statistics for 192.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.16. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms..168.com [192.Intel(R) 82562V 10/100 Network Connection ======================================================================= ======================================================================= Active Routes: NetworkDestination 0. MS TCP Loopback interface 0x70003 .1.16.2 127.255.0 255.1. What are the results? Eagle Server can be reached again.254.1.1 172..16..2 172..168..168.0.2 127.2 127.0.0..2 Interface 172.16.16.254.0.16. Received = 4.0.16.0 172..254 ======================================================================= Persistent Routes: None C:\> Try to ping Eagle Server.255.255 255.0.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.255..255 Gateway 172..2 172.254..255 Netmask 0. C:\> ping eagle-server.1.168.0..com Pinging eagle-server.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.0..1.255.255 Default Gateway: 172...Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 143 Examine the active routing table....0 172.2 172.0...0.0.255.00 16 76 ac a7 6a ..1. Has the default gateway route been restored? Yes C:\ >route PRINT ======================================================================= Interface List 0x1 ..255..2 Metric 1 1 20 20 20 1 255.0 127...168.255.1..0.example.16.0..1 172.255.example.255 255.1.254.255.255.0.254.255.254] with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 192.0 255.254.0.1 172.

For instructors. will permit remote logins. The password for all usernames is cisco. and so on. Enter the applicable username. A username and password will be required to log in to the router. The username depends on the pod. Table 5-6 shows the pod numbers and the corresponding usernames. and press Enter. The default password should have been changed to something other than cisco. For all usernames. The router prompt should be visible after a successful login. and press Enter.254 <ENTER> A login window will prompt for a username. Type the password. as shown in Example 5-8. ccna2 is for students on pod 2 computers. Ensure that the privileged exec password has been changed from the default value of cisco. The Telnet utility has several options and can be viewed with the telnet /? command.255. enter the following command: C:/> telnet 172. Table 5-6 Pod Number Pod Number Table Username 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 ccna1 ccna2 ccna3 ccna4 ccna5 ccna6 ccna7 ccna8 ccna9 ccna10 ccna11 To start a Telnet session with router R2-Central. however. Access to the router is restricted.144 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 2: Use a Windows Telnet Client Command telnet to Connect to a Cisco Router In this task. Type cmd. you telnet into the R2-Central router and use common Cisco IOS commands to examine the router routing table.16. Open a terminal window by clicking Start > Run. . A terminal window and prompt should be available. Step 1. Note to instructors: In this lab. if properly configured. cisco. Cisco devices have a Telnet server and. students telnet into R2-Central and view the routing table. Username ccna1 is for users on pod 1 computers. Using the Windows Telnet client. and requires a username and password. the corresponding password is cisco. the username is instructor. log in to a Cisco router. and then click OK.

therefore. M .Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 145 Example 5-8 Output for R2-Central ************************************************************ This is Eagle 1 lab router R2-Central. Similar to the host computer default gateway IP address. B . is not difficult to glean. R2-Central#. This task does not examine Cisco IOS commands in detail. * . Example 5-9 shows the routing table for R2-Central.OSPF. Only limited permissions for ccnax usernames are available. su .candidate default. L2 . The information required of this task. Also similar to a host computer.0 . N2 . IA .IS-IS. Authorized access only.OSPF external type 2 i .OSPF NSSA external type 1. S .IS-IS level-1.IS-IS level-2 ia . however.OSPF external type 1.Static.10. but instead uses a common IOS command to view the routing table. U . The route information displayed is much more detailed than the route information on a host computer.10.IS-IS inter area. a router may also employ a default gateway. P .EIGRP external.OSPF inter area N1 . which has been accomplished.per-user static route o . The syntax to view the routing table is this: show ip route <ENTER> Enter the command to display the router routing table.ODR. the router routing table is examined.IS-IS summary.mobile. The purpose of this task was to establish a Telnet session.6 to network 0.0. O . E2 .periodic downloaded static route Gateway of last resort is 10. ************************************************************ User Access Verification Username: ccna1 Password: cisco !The password is hidden when typed in R2-Central> At the prompt. Example 5-9 Output of the show ip route Command R2-Central#show ip route Codes: C .RIP. EX .OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 .BGP D . R . gateway addresses instruct the device about how to reach other networks when no other information is available. In the next task. This is to be expected. a router is knowledgeable about directly connected networks. because the job of a router is to route traffic between networks.EIGRP.connected. a successful Telnet login has been created. it is not possible to modify router settings or view the configuration. Task 3: Examine Router Routes Using Basic Cisco IOS Commands As with any network device.0. L1 .

L2 .0.0/0 [1/0] via 10. Serial0/2/0 0. because the route is “quad-zero”(0. FastEthernet0/0 10.10.0.Static. su . M .254. Example 5-10 Explanation of Codes R2-Central#show ip route Codes:?C . L1 .OSPF NSSA external type 1.0/16 is directly connected. use the gateway of last resort IP address to forward packets. exit the router with the command exit.10.IS-IS level-2 ia .ODR.10.0.254. 1 subnets C S* 10. FastEthernet0/0 10.10.RIP.0. One highlighted line shows S.0. S .0/0 [1/0] via 10. U . The asterisk shows the example is a candidate default route.mobile. . IA .10.connected. 1 subnets C S* 10.10. P .6 R2-Central# Two highlighted lines in the example show C.6 R2-Central# The Codes section shown in Example 5-10 explains the symbols to the left of each route entry. EX .0/30 is subnetted.10. * .6 to network 0. What would the router do with packets destined to 192.0 C 172. which denotes directly connected networks and the interface that supports the connection.0.IS-IS summary.168.10.per-user static route o .IS-IS inter area.OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 .OSPF.168. IP mask information is displayed as a numeric value (prefix). such as /30 or /16.0.0.254.146 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example 5-9 Output of the show ip route Command continued C 172. which is manually entered by the network administrator.0.0/30 is subnetted.10.10. N2 . R .0. If there is no other route in the routing table.candidate default.0). Serial0/2/0 0.EIGRP.periodic downloaded static route Gateway of last resort is 10.16.IS-IS.16.0/16 is directly connected. When finished examining the routing table.0. Close the terminal window. denoting a static route.EIGRP external.4 is directly connected.0.0.BGP D . E2 . O .OSPF external type 1. How is IP mask information displayed in a router routing table? Unlike the pod host computer.OSPF inter area N1 . B .254? The router will use gateway of last resort IP address to forward packets destined to 192.OSPF external type 2 i .0.IS-IS level-1. The Telnet client will also close the connection with the Telnet escape sequence Ctrl+] and quit.4 is directly connected.

254 <output omitted> R2-Central# Task 6: Clean Up Unless directed otherwise by the instructor.10.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. Routes for directly connected networks. telnet. The router routing table was examined with the Cisco IOS command show ip route.2. Task 5: Challenge You can use other Cisco IOS commands to view IP address information on a router. however.16. Example 5-11 Output of the show ip interface brief Command R2-Central#show ip interface brief Interface FastEthernet0/0 FastEthernet0/1 Serial0/2/0 Serial0/2/1 R2-Central# IP-Address 172.10. R2-Central. Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Examining a Route (5. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity.5. Remember.5 unassigned OK? Method Status YES manual up YES unset Protocol up administratively down down up YES manual up YES unset administratively down down Using Windows commands and the Cisco IOS commands in this lab. the Cisco IOS command show ip interface brief shown in Example 511 will display IP address assignments. compare network information output. This technique will be used in other labs to connect to Cisco network devices. The Windows Telnet client.168. and add route information on the pod host computer. was used to connect to a lab router. What was missing? What critical network information was similar? Both devices displayed directly connected routes and a default gateway route. Similar to the Windows ipconfig command. R2-Central#show hosts Default domain is not set Name/address lookup uses domain service Name servers are 192.254 unassigned 10. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment.255. did not display DNS server information. statically assigned routes. The route command was used to view. .254. The Cisco router. however. delete.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab5522. and gateway of last resort information are displayed. turn off power to the host computers. Remove anything that was brought into the lab.Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 147 Task 4: Reflection Two new Windows commands were used in this lab. and leave the room ready for the next class.

6 10. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ ■ Configure a router interface using a GUI.255.255.0 255.16.2 192. you will be using a standard lab setup created from actual PCs. such as DNS.16. You have already studied a variety of application protocols.10. DHCP.168.0 255.255.6 172. HTTP.254. in Inbound and Outbound PDU Details view they were always encapsulated in IP packets.6.5 172.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to perform this exercise using Packet Tracer.10. Background Throughout the course.254.252 255. and Telnet. In this activity.0 255.254 172.16. Explore a routing table.255. you will build increasingly larger parts of this topology in Packet Tracer.255. TCP and UDP.0.252 255.10.1. routers. Configure a static route using a GUI.254 192.254.10.254 10.10.168. the dominant network layer protocol of the Internet.255.255. and two transport layer protocols. Table 5-7 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP Fa0/0 S0/0/0 192. and Table 5-7 shows the corresponding addressing table. and switches to learn networking concepts.1. You may have noticed that regardless of what application and transport protocols were involved.16.16.255. Figure 5-7 shows the topology for this skills integration challenge.0. TFTP.16.10.10.3) Open the file LSG01-PTSkills5.1.255.254 172.168. servers.253 R2-Central Fa0/0 S0/0/0 S1-Central PC 1A PC 1B Eagle Server VLAN 1 NIC NIC NIC .255.16.0 N/A N/A 10.255. Upon completion of this activity.253 10. you will examine how IP. Explore the routing of IP packets.1 172.255.255.254. and analyze increasingly more complex protocol interactions.254 255.6 172.0 255. works in the context of a simple example of IP routing.255.10.0 255.0. At the end of each chapter.255.148 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Packet Tracer Challenge Skills Integration Challenge: Routing IP Packets (5.255.0.1 172.

At the end of the course. and turn the port on. you will learn how to use the Cisco IOS command-line interface (CLI) to perform this task. but there is no way to reach the Eagle Server network.Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 149 Figure 5-7 Topology for Challenge 1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server 2960-24TT S1-Central 1841 R2-Central PC 1A PC 1B Task 1: Configure a Router Interface There is a problem on the LAN: PC 1A cannot reach the Eagle Server (verify this in real-time mode). You will see the router’s directly connected networks.0. Close the router window. Move your cursor over the R2-Central router. Add the IP address 172.255. find INTERFACE. and note the condition of the Fa0/0 interface (to which switch is connected). Try reaching Eagle Server. . FastEthernet0/0. The request still fails.255. What are some possible reasons why? One possible reason Eagle Server cannot be reached is the fact that it is using a static IP and not the default route. subnet mask. It appears there is a problem with the router. For now. In the list shown. Task 2: Examining Routes Use the Inspect tool (magnifying glass) to examine the routing table of R2-Central. Verify that the router interface (port) is now working by using the mouse over. Click router R2-Central and go to the Config tab.16.0. This interface must have an IP address. the Config tab is easier and will allow you to focus on the basic idea of IP routing.254 with subnet mask 255. and be turned on to act as the default gateway for the LAN.

Settings.0.0. In the list shown. You should now see the route you configured in the routing table.6 (the S0/0/0 interface on the R1-ISP router) and click the Add button. Task 4: Examine the Routing of the IP Packet Switch to simulation mode. The PDU. by using Add Simple PDU to test connectivity between PC 1A and the Eagle Server. Under GLOBAL.10. they will go to the R1-ISP router.150 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 3: Configure a Route Using a GUI Click router R2-Central and go to the Config tab. This route is configured so that wherever packets from the 172. Test connectivity.0. find ROUTING. double-click Fire to send it again. Static. Configure what is known as a default static route.0 /16 LAN are destined. and the next hop of 10.0. Use the Inspect tool (magnifying glass) to examine the routing table of R2-Central again. Using the PDU you created in Task 3.0. Task 5: Reflection What data can an IP packet contain? What is meant by the phrase “the IP packet is routed”? What is a route? Where might things go wrong? . in real time.10. Trace the packet’s journey from PC 1A to Eagle Server and back using the Capture / Forward button and examining the packet’s contents by either clicking the envelope or clicking the colored square in the Info column of the event list. using the address 0.0. too. will appear in the User Created PDU list for future use.16. a one-shot ping. Verify your work using feedback from the Check Results button and the Assessment Items tab. click the Save button to save the interface and route configuration you have just done to NVRAM (in case the router is power cycled).0. mask 0.

CHAPTER 6 Addressing the Network: IPv4 The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of matching. 2. use Chapter 6 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum. each packet has a 32-bit source address and a 32-bit destination address in the Layer 3 header. for assistance. What is another way to refer to 1 byte or 8 bits? Octet. we refer to binary as it relates to IPv4 addressing. What is another name for digital logic? Boolean logic. some portion of the high-order bits represents the network address. fill-in-the-blank. What is the format used for IP addresses called? Dotted decimal. Concept Questions 1. we define a network as a group of hosts that have identical bit patterns in the network address portion of their addresses. hands-on skills needed to understand the opportunities and challenges associated with IPv4. Study Guide IPv4 Addresses With IPv4. In this chapter. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum activities and labs to ensure you have mastered the practical. This means that we look at each byte as a decimal number in the range of 0 to 255. These addresses are used in the data network as binary patterns. or use the corresponding Chapter 6 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration Companion Guide. . multiple-choice. At Layer 3. Data that appears in binary may represent many different forms of data to the human network. For each IPv4 address. What does IPv4 provide for packets that carry data? Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) provides hierarchical addressing for packets that carry data. 4. 3. and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of network addressing. As you work through this chapter.

The process of sending a packet from one host to a selected group of hosts A. An address assigned to an end device in the network A. Broadcast address C. A special address used to send data to all hosts in the network C.152 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Binary-to-Decimal Conversion Exercise Convert the following 32-bit binary number into an IP address. Unicast B. match the type of communication on the left to its definition on the right. The address by which we refer to the network In Table 6-2. Network address B.5. Binary number: 10101100000100000000010000010100 IP address: 172. Host address B. Broadcast C. IP address: 172.20 Decimal-to-Binary Conversion Exercise Convert the following IP address into a 32-bit binary number. Add a “dot” between each decimal. keeping in mind the following: ■ ■ ■ Divide the 32 bits into four octets. The process of sending a packet from one host to all hosts in the network C. Table 6-2 Communication Type Matching Exercise Communication Type Definition A.4. match the type of network address on the left to its definition on the right. The process of sending a packet from one host to an individual host .20 Binary number: 10101100000100000000010100010100 Addresses for Different Purposes Within the address range of each IPv4 network are three types of addresses: ■ ■ ■ Network addresses Broadcast addresses Host addresses Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 6-1. Multicast B. Convert each octet to decimal. Table 6-1 Network Address Type Matching Exercise Definition Address Type A.16.16.

0 /12) 192. Be sure to include class time for presentations or discussions. Concept Questions 1.0.0 to 169.0 to 127. What is the reserved block for default routing? 0.2.0 /24) .0. The globally scoped multicast addresses are 224.255.254.0. What is the prefix length? The prefix length is the number of bits in the address that gives us the network portion.255. 2.0 to 238.168.16. Which addresses in a network cannot be assigned to hosts? The first (network address) and last (broadcast address).0.0.0. How do you know how many bits represent the network portion and how many bits represent the host portion? When we express an IPv4 network address.0.254.254.255.255. addresses 127.0 to 239.1 address is used.2. Another major block of addresses reserved for special purposes is the IPv4 multicast address range 224.0.0.255.0 to 255. 4.255. the IPv4 address range is 0.255.255. look up a website detailing the utility of calculating addresses by hand.168.0.0 /8) 6.255. Answers will vary.0.0.255 are reserved.0.255.255.0.0.255.255. 1. One major block of addresses reserved for special purposes is the IPv4 experimental address range 240. Expressed in dotted-decimal format.0 to 172.0.0.255.0. What are the private address blocks? 10.0 to 192. 5.0.0.0 to 10.255.255 (192. 3.0. 7. or find a calculator for the three address types. 2.255.254. What is the loopback address. and what block is reserved for loopback? Although only the single 127.0.255.16.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 153 Internet Research Exercise Using any search engine available on the Internet.255 (169.1.0 /8) 172.0. these addresses are listed as reserved for future use (RFC 3330). What block of addresses is designated “TEST-NET”? 192.0 /16) 8.255 (192.0.255 (0. we add a prefix length to the network address.255 (10. Currently.168.255 (172.31.0.255.255.0 to 192. Vocabulary: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following sentences.255. What block of addresses is designated “link-local”? 169.0 /16) 4. 3.0 to 255.2.0.

the address is returned to the pool for reuse. 3. Go to the IANA website at http://www. Answers will vary. . With the classless system. However. Concept Questions 1. address blocks appropriate to the number of hosts are assigned to companies or organizations without regard to the unicast class. This feature is especially helpful for mobile users who come and go on a network. in any order. If hosts normally access a server at a particular IP address. If the host is powered down or taken off the network. hosts that are accessible from the Internet. it can be time-consuming to enter the information on each host. List four types of devices that work best using static IP addresses. DHCP generally is the preferred method of assigning IP addresses to hosts on large networks because it reduces the burden on network support staff and virtually eliminates entry errors.iana. Assigning Addresses The allocation of network layer address space within the corporate network needs to be well designed. Any of the following.154 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide 9. Be prepared to discuss your opinions of the IANA with the class. Another benefit of DHCP is that an address is not permanently assigned to a host but is only “leased” for a period of time. routers. Nor should address assignment within the network be random. and other networking devices that need to be accessible to clients on the network. Be sure to include class time for presentations or discussions. Answers will vary for both exercises. Static addresses are useful for printers. search for an example of an IPv4 addressing scheme or an article about IPv4’s addressing. Be prepared to present your findings. intermediary devices. Define classless addressing. Describe the pros and cons of using DHCP for addressing.org. are acceptable: Servers. 2. and spend a few minutes familiarizing yourself with the site. static assignment of addressing information can provide increased control over network resources. firewalls. Describe the pros and cons of static addressing. The allocation of these addresses inside the networks should be planned and documented for the following reasons: ■ ■ ■ Preventing duplication of addresses Providing and controlling access Monitoring security and performance Internet Research Exercises Using your favorite search engine. peripherals. Additionally. Answers will vary. servers. it would cause problems if that address changed. Answers will vary. Network administrators should not randomly select the addresses used in their networks.

List some improvements that IPv6 will provide. integrated security. 11111110 i. authentication and privacy capabilities. 254 b. 224 f. 5. 11110000 f. match the binary number to its numeric value.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 155 4. 192 d. 11111111 c. Table 6-3 IPv4 Binary Matching Exercise Numeric Value Binary Number a. 11111000 g. What is the primary focus of each of the three tiers of ISPs? Tier 1: The primary focus of Tier 1 ISPs is reliability and/or speed. Is It on My Network? To define the network and host portions of an address. The prefix and the subnet mask are different ways of representing the same thing—the network portion of an address. and any of these may appear in any order: Improved packet handling. 252 h. 128-bit hierarchical addressing. 11100000 e. header format simplification. improved support for extensions and options. the devices use a separate 32-bit pattern called a subnet mask. 248 e. 00000000 b. 11111100 h. increased scalability and longevity. 255 g. Tier 2: Tier 2 ISPs generally focus on business customers. Tier 3: The focus of these ISPs is the retail and home markets in a specific locale. Binary Matching Exercise There are a limited number of subnet mask octets. 10000000 c. 0 i. 11000000 d. Answers will vary. flow labeling capability. 240 a. In Table 6-3. QoS mechanisms. We express the subnet mask in the same dotted-decimal format as the IPv4 address. 128 .

the more students understand and can predict the operation of a network. Answers will vary. Basically. What are the two most useful tools in designing a network? A network diagram and a spreadsheet of IP addresses are the two most useful tools. 2. research ANDing (be sure to specify that you mean in IPv4 networks). Concept Questions 1. Be prepared to present your findings. to group based on ownership. Why do routers use ANDing? Routers use ANDing to determine an acceptable route for an incoming packet. Because we use a router to connect these networks. 4. If the routers and end devices calculate these processes without your intervention. why do you need to learn how to AND? Answers will vary.156 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Concept Questions 1. each interface on a router must have a unique network ID. Using VLSM makes it easier to group networks around what commonalities? VLSM makes it easier to group based on common geographic location. the more equipped they are to design and administer one. 3. Every node on that link is on the same network. 3. Allow class time for presentations or discussions. What is the formula to calculate the number of subnets? 2^n. where n = the number of bits borrowed. How does ANDing help an originating host? An originating host must determine if a packet should be sent directly to a host in the local network or be directed to the gateway. Internet Research Exercise Using your favorite search engine. and to group hosts used for specific purposes. Calculating Addresses Subnetting lets you create multiple logical networks from a single address block. How is a subnet mask created? The subnet mask is created by placing a binary 1 in each bit position that represents the network portion and placing a binary 0 in each bit position that represents the host portion. 2. .

This output includes the success rate and average round-trip time to the destination.0. 2. . Variable-Length Subsidiary Mode d. Ping has a timeout value for the response. Very Long String of Marbles b. This method helps prevent assigning addresses that have already been allocated. Configmaker Testing the Network Layer Ping is a utility for testing IP connectivity between hosts. the ping utility provides output that summarizes the responses. SNMP c. it responds with an ICMP Echo Reply datagram. b. This is a measure of the network performance. Ping uses a Layer 3 protocol that is a part of the TCP/IP suite called Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP). For what is VLSM an acronym? a. d. Why would you use a VLSM chart? a. Ping sends out requests for responses from a specified host address. ping measures the time required for the reply. Variable-Length Subnet Mask 3.0. After all the requests have been sent. 2. If a response is not received within that timeout. If the host at the specified address receives the Echo request. For each packet sent.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 157 Multiple-Choice Questions 1. traceroute d. What utility attempts to trace the path that a packet takes through the network? a. Variant Language Superior Model c. ping displays the time between when the ping was sent and the response was received.1 indicate? A response from 127. What does a response from 127. Concept Questions 1.0. How does ping work? Be as specific as you can. As each response is received. c. ping b.0. Ping uses an ICMP Echo Request datagram. This method lets you assign addresses that have already been allocated. Using a chart makes calculating VLSM easier. This method prevents addresses from being allocated.1 indicates that IP is properly installed on the host. ping gives up and sends a message indicating that a response was not received.

What do the first four Destination Unreachable codes mean? 0 = Net unreachable 1 = Host unreachable 2 = Protocol unreachable 3 = Port unreachable 2. Many network administrators limit or prohibit the entry of ICMP datagrams into the corporate network. This could indicate a problem with the router’s interface serving as the gateway. 5. What does traceroute do? Traceroute (tracert) is a utility that lets you observe the path between hosts. the lack of a ping response could be caused by security restrictions. Source Quench. 6. If the gateway does not respond. what sort of problem could this indicate? Answers will vary. but any of the following are correct. Another possibility is that the router interface might be fully operational but might have security applied to it that is preventing it from processing or responding to ping requests. the router discards these packets. Time Exceeded. but another host does. Unreachable Destination or Service. . Name the different ICMP message types. 4. If a router does not have enough buffer space to receive incoming packets. A destination host may also send a source quench message if datagrams arrive too fast to be processed. Host Confirmation. The following may be in any order. not by nonoperational network elements. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following statements. One possibility is that we have the wrong address for the gateway. Assume that you ping your gateway. What does RTT stand for? Round-Trip Time 7. It is also possible that other hosts may have the same security restriction applied. Route Redirection. Therefore.158 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide 3. Why is ping not always the most reliable test for connectivity on a network? Answers will vary. What does TTL stand for? Time to Live 8. 1.

16. traceroute. Command options will be used to modify the command behavior.255.0 255. ICMP is a TCP/IP network layer protocol.255. tracert can be used to check for network latency.Pod#.254 172. The ping utility is available on Windows.255.168.10.0 255. and Table 6-4 is the corresponding addressing table. and Cisco IOS. the tracert command would be used.10.0 255.2 172. Scenario This lab examines the ping and tracert commands. To familiarize you with the use of the commands. first defined in RFC 792 in September 1981. is available on Linux and Cisco IOS.253 — 172.6 192.0 255. you will be able to ■ ■ Use the ping command to verify simple TCP/IP network connectivity.31.253 10.0.252 255.255. Measured delay time will probably be less than that on a production network.16.255.255.10.255. The tracert utility is available on Windows. For example. Table 6-4 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP S0/0/0 Fa0/0 10.16.255.255.16. Both ping and tracert use Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) to send messages between devices. when a web browser fails to connect to a web server.10.1 172.255.0 255.0 255. it tests network connectivity.5 172.255. Where to begin connectivity tests has been the subject of much debate.0. it usually depends on the experience of the network engineer and familiarity with the network.16.6 — 192.254.10.0. Use the tracert/traceroute command to verify TCP/IP connectivity. and a similar utility.254 172. In a complex network.168.16.10.254 172.255. devices in the Cisco lab will be tested.0 — — 10.255.254.255.1.255.Pod#. A network engineer may use the ping command to test for local network connectivity or connections where there are few devices.255.254 172.255.0. Background Two tools that are indispensable when testing TCP/IP network connectivity are ping and tracert. Figure 6-1 shows the topology for this lab.254 R2-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Eagle Server — — Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central — — — .252 255. ICMP message types were later expanded in RFC 1700.1 255.7.168. This is because the Eagle Server lab has little network traffic.24. Linux.255. In addition to testing for connectivity.254.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 159 Labs and Activities Lab 6-1: Ping and Traceroute (6.254.254 192. the problem can be anywhere between the client and the server.1) Upon completion of this lab.16.

R1-ISP. to test Domain Name System (DNS) functionality.255.com.example.example.com. as shown in Table 6-4. and that it can ping R1-ISP. Step 3. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server. R2-Central. troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity with the following steps: Step 1. 172. Task 1: Use the ping Command to Verify Simple TCP/IP Network Connectivity The ping command is used to verify TCP/IP network layer connectivity on the local host computer or another device in the network.160 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 6-1 Topology for Lab 6-1 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 Note to Instructor: Depending on the classroom situation.10.6. Finally. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address. Verify that the host computer has the correct Gateway IP address.255. such as eagle-server. If an individual host computer cannot connect to eagle-server.10.example. Verify that all network equipment is powered on and that eagle-server is on. 172.16. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity.254. Step 2. and finally eagle-server. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests. verify that the host has the correct DNS address and that it can ping eagle-server. and that it can ping R2-Central. This command can be used with a destination IP address or qualified name. the lab topology may have been modified before this class. From a known good host computer.254. ping eagle-server. check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central. ping S1Central. For this . If the ping test fails.16.com. 10.

: 172. The ping operation is straightforward.16. . 255.16. Example 6-2 Output of the ping Command on the Local TCP/IP Stack C:\> ping 172. Record local TCP/IP network information in Table 6-5.1. as shown in Example 6-1.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 172.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 172. .1. The source computer sends an ICMP echo request to the destination.1. Each pod host computer should have the same network mask and default gateway address. . : IP Address.0 172. . a router may respond with an ICMP message that the host is unknown or the destination network is unknown.255.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 . . . .16. Open a Windows terminal and determine the IP address of the pod host computer with the ipconfig command. Step 1. : 255. . Table 6-5 TCP/IP Information Value TCP/IP Information IP address Subnet mask Default gateway Depends on the pod host computer. reconfigure the TCP/IP settings to match the settings for this pod host computer. By default.1.16.0. . . .255.254 C:\> The output should look the same except for the IP address.1. Verify TCP/IP network layer connectivity on the local host computer. and reply information is received. . . .255. If the information is missing or if the subnet mask and default gateway are different.255. only IP addresses are used.2 Pinging 172.16. . . .0 Default Gateway .2 Subnet Mask .1 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 172. : 172.16. only the IP address may differ. .Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 161 lab. .16. .1.254 Use the ping command to verify TCP/IP network layer connectivity on the local host computer.16. . The output should look similar to that shown in Example 6-2. Example 6-1 C:\> ipconfig Output of the ipconfig Command Windows IP Configuration Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection: Connection-specific DNS Suffix . four ping requests are sent to the destination. If there is a break between the source and destination. . . The destination responds with an echo reply. . . . .16. .2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 172.0. .1.

and the Linux computer is 64. Use the ping command to verify TCP/IP network layer connectivity to the default gateway. Lost = 0 (0% loss). Average = 0ms C:\> The first highlighted line shows the destination address. Maximum = 0ms. Students may ask why default TTL values differ when different devices are accessed. fill in the results of the ping command on your computer. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms.16. four packets are sent. Packets lost: The difference between the number of packets sent and received. minus the number of routers in the path. 32 bytes 4 4 0 0 ms 0 ms 0 ms Verify TCP/IP network layer connectivity on the LAN. Packets received: The number of packets received. Table 6-6 Field Field Information Value Size of packet Number of packets sent Number of replies Number of lost packets Minimum delay Maximum delay Average delay Step 2.162 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example 6-2 Output of the ping Command on the Local TCP/IP Stack continued Ping statistics for 172. set to the IP address of the local computer. . In Table 6-6. Received = 4. The results should be similar to those shown in Example 6-3. The second highlighted entry shows the following reply information: ■ ■ ■ Bytes: Size of the ICMP packet. Values faster than 10 milliseconds display 0. measured in milliseconds. Time: Elapsed time between transmission and reply. For newer Windows machines the default value is 128. The maximum TTL value is 255. By default. Cisco IOS is 255. Example 6-2 also shows information about the delay in replies. TTL: Default TTL value of the destination device. The default TTL value of the Windows XP computer is 128. The third highlighted line shows summary information about the replies: ■ ■ ■ Packets sent: The number of packets transmitted. A computer timer is set to 10 milliseconds. Lower round-trip times indicate faster links.2: Packets: Sent = 4.1.

Eagle Server is used.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=62 Reply from 192.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 163 Example 6-3 Output of the ping Command to the Default Gateway C:\> ping 172.254 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 172.254.255. Step 3. Because the router was not crossed. it is the default Gateway that has failed or that has misconfigured TCP/IP network settings.254 Pinging 192.16. Example 6-4 Output of the ping Command to Eagle Server C:\> ping 192. Received = 4.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=62 .168.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=255 Reply from 172. Verify TCP/IP network layer connectivity to a remote network.16.16.254 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 192. Average = 0ms C:\> The Cisco IOS default TTL value is set to 255. Maximum = 1ms.168. In this case. fill in the results of the ping command to the default gateway.255. For example. Table 6-7 Field Field Information Value Size of packet Number of packets sent Number of replies Number of lost packets Minimum delay Maximum delay Average delay 32 bytes 4 4 0 0 ms 0 ms 0 ms What would be the result of a loss of connectivity to the default gateway? No external networks would be reachable. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms.255.255.254: Packets: Sent = 4. In Table 6-7.168.254.255.16.254.16.16.168.254: bytes=32 time=1ms TTL=255 Reply from 172. In reality. Lost = 0 (0% loss).254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=255 Ping statistics for 172.254.254 Pinging 172.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=62 Reply from 192.254. The results should be similar to those shown in Example 6-4. Use the ping command to verify TCP/IP network layer connectivity to a device on a remote network.255.168.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=255 Reply from 172.255. users may complain that the Eagle Server web server is down.16. the TTL value returned is 255.

Ping statistics for 192.254 with 32 bytes of data: Request timed out. the returned TTL value is 62. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms. Instead of using the ping command to test the connectivity of each device to the destination.168.254. examined next.254 Pinging 192. Request timed out. can display network latency and path information. Example 6-5 Output of the ping Command to the Lost Packets C:\> ping 192. However. Received = 0. Average = 0ms C:\> The Linux default TTL value is set to 64. fill in the results of the ping command on your computer.168. Lost = 0 (0% loss). Request timed out. therefore.168. one by one.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=62 Ping statistics for 192.254. there are limitations.168.168.254: Packets: Sent = 4. Step 4: In Table 6-8.254.254: Packets: Sent = 4. Received = 4. Maximum = 0ms.254. Request timed out. you can use the tracert command. In Example 6-5.254.164 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example 6-4 Output of the ping Command to Eagle Server continued Reply from 192. C:\> Task 2: Use the tracert Command to Verify TCP/IP Connectivity The tracert command is useful for learning about network latency and path information. Table 6-8 Field Field Information Value Size of packet Number of packets sent Number of replies Number of lost packets Minimum delay Maximum delay Average delay 32 bytes 4 4 0 0 ms 0 ms 0 ms The ping command is extremely useful when you’re troubleshooting network connectivity. . Is the problem with Eagle Server or a device in the path? The tracert command. Lost = 4 (100% loss). Two routers were crossed to reach Eagle Server. the output shows that a user cannot reach Eagle Server.

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On Linux and Cisco IOS devices, the equivalent command is traceroute.
Step 1.

Verify TCP/IP network layer connectivity with the tracert command. Open a Windows terminal, and issue the following command: C:\> tracert 192.168.254.254 The output from the tracert command should be similar to that shown in Example 6-6.

Example 6-6

Output of the tracert Command to Eagle Server

C:\> tracert 192.168.254.254 Tracing route to 192.168.254.254 over a maximum of 30 hops 1 2 3 <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms 172.16.255.254 10.10.10.6 192.168.254.254

Trace complete. C:\>

Record your results in Table 6-9.
Table 6-9 Field Field Information Value

Maximum number of hops First router IP address Second router IP address Destination reached?
Step 2.

30 172.16.255.254 10.10.10.6 Yes

Observe tracert output to a host that lost network connectivity. S1-Central is a switch and does not decrement the packet TTL value. If there is a loss of connectivity to an end device such as Eagle Server, the tracert command can give you valuable clues about the source of the problem. The ping command would show the failure but not any other kind of information about the devices in the path. Referring to the topology diagram shown in Figure 6-1, both R2-Central and R1-ISP are used for connectivity between the pod host computers and Eagle Server. Refer to Example 6-7. Options are used with the tracert command to reduce wait time (in milliseconds), -w 5, and maximum hop count, -h 4. If Eagle Server were disconnected from the network, the default gateway would respond correctly, as well as R1-ISP. The problem must be on the 192.168.254.0/24 network. In this example, Eagle Server has been turned off.

Example 6-7

Output of the tracert Command

C:\> tracert -w 5 -h 4 192.168.254.254 Tracing route to 192.168.254.254 over a maximum of 4 hops 1 2 <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms 172.16.255.254 10.10.10.6

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Example 6-7
3 4 * *

Output of the tracert Command
* * * *

continued

Request timed out. Request timed out.

Trace complete. C:\>

What would the tracert output be if R1-ISP failed? Connectivity would stop after R2-Central. What would the tracert output be if R2-Central failed? There would be no connectivity.

Task 3: Challenge
The default values for the ping command normally work for most troubleshooting scenarios. There are times, however, when fine-tuning ping options may be useful. Issuing the ping command without any destination address displays the options shown in Example 6-8.
Example 6-8
C:\> ping

Output of a ping Command with No Destination Address

Usage: ping [-t] [-a] [-n count] [-l size] [-f] [-i TTL] [-v TOS] [-r count] [-s count] [[-j host-list] | [-k host-list]] [-w timeout] target_name

Options: -t Ping the specified host until stopped. To see statistics and continue - type Control-Break; To stop - type Control-C. -a -n count -l size -f -i TTL -v TOS -r count -s count -j host-list -k host-list -w timeout C:\> Resolve addresses to hostnames. Number of echo requests to send. Send buffer size. Set Don’t Fragment flag in packet. Time To Live. Type Of Service. Record route for count hops. Timestamp for count hops. Loose source route along host-list. Strict source route along host-list. Timeout in milliseconds to wait for each reply.

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The most useful options are highlighted. Some options do not work together, such as the -t and -n options. Other options can be used together. Experiment with those described in this section. To ping the destination address until stopped, use the -t option, as shown in Example 6-9. To stop the output, press Ctrl-C.
Example 6-9 Output of a ping Command Using the -t Option

C:\> ping -t 192.168.254.254 Pinging 192.168.254.254 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 192.168.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.168.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.168.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.168.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.168.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.168.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Ping statistics for 192.168.254.254: Packets: Sent = 6, Received = 6, Lost = 0 (0% loss), Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms, Maximum = 0ms, Average = 0ms Control-C ^C C:\>

To ping the destination once and record router hops, use the -n and -r options, as shown in Example 6-10.
Note: Not all devices honor the -r option. Example 6-10 Output of a ping Command Using the -n and -r Options

C:\> ping -n 1 -r 9 192.168.254.254 Pinging 192.168.254.254 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 192.168.254.254: bytes=32 time=1ms TTL=63 Route: 10.10.10.5 -> 192.168.254.253 -> 192.168.254.254 -> 10.10.10.6 -> 172.16.255.254 Ping statistics for 192.168.254.254: Packets: Sent = 1, Received = 1, Lost = 0 (0% loss), Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 1ms, Maximum = 1ms, Average = 1ms C:\>

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Task 4: Reflection
Network engineers use both ping and tracert to test network connectivity. For basic network connectivity, the ping command works best. To test latency and the network path, the tracert command is preferred. The ability to accurately and quickly diagnose network connectivity issues is a skill expected from a network engineer. Knowledge about the TCP/IP protocols and practice with troubleshooting commands will build that skill.

Task 5: Clean Up
Unless directed otherwise by the instructor, turn off power to the host computers. Remove anything that was brought into the lab, and leave the room ready for the next class.
Packet Tracer Companion

Packet Tracer Companion: ping and traceroute (6.7.1.2)
You can now open the file LSG01-Lab6712.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. Remember, however, that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. The instructions are summarized within the activity.

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Lab 6-2: Examining ICMP Packets (6.7.2.1)
Upon completion of this lab, you will be able to
■ ■

Understand the format of ICMP packets. Use Wireshark to capture and examine ICMP messages.

Background Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) was first defined in RFC 792 in September 1981. ICMP message types were later expanded in RFC 1700. ICMP operates at the TCP/IP network layer and is used to exchange information between devices. ICMP packets serve many uses in today’s computer networks. When a router cannot deliver a packet to a destination network or host, an informational message is returned to the source. Also, the ping and tracert commands send ICMP messages to destinations, and destinations respond with ICMP messages. Scenario Using Eagle Server, Wireshark captures will be made of ICMP packets between network devices. Figure 6-2 shows the topology for this lab, and Table 6-10 is the corresponding addressing table.
Figure 6-2 Topology for Lab 6-2

R1-ISP

S0/0/0 DCE

Eagle Server

S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24

S1-Central

R2-Central

1A

1B

11A

11B

Pod#1

Pod#11

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Table 6-10 Device

Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway

R1-ISP

S0/0/0 Fa0/0

10.10.10.6 192.168.254.253 10.10.10.5 172.16.255.254 192.168.254.254 172.31.24.254 172.16.Pod#.1 172.16.Pod#.2 172.16.254.1

255.255.255.252 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.252 255.255.0.0 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.0.0

— — 10.10.10.6 — 192.168.254.253 — 172.16.255.254 172.16.255.254 172.16.255.254

R2-Central

S0/0/0 Fa0/0

Eagle Server

— —

Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central

— — —

Note to Instructor: Depending on the classroom situation, the lab topology may have been modified before this class. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server.example.com, troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity using the following steps:
Step 1. Step 2.

Verify that all network equipment is powered on and that eagle-server is on. From a known good host computer, ping eagle-server. If the ping test fails, ping S1Central, R2-Central, R1-ISP, and finally eagle-server. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests. If an individual host computer cannot connect to eagle-server, check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address, as shown in Table 6-10, and that it can ping R2-Central, 172.16.255.254. Verify that the host computer has the correct Gateway IP address, 172.16.255.254, and that it can ping R1-ISP, 10.10.10.6. Finally, verify that the host has the correct DNS address and that it can ping eagle-server.example.com.

Step 3.

Task 1: Understand the Format of ICMP Packets
Refer to Figure 6-3, which shows the ICMP header fields common to all ICMP message types. Each ICMP message starts with an 8-bit Type field, an 8-bit Code field, and a computed 16-bit Checksum. The ICMP message type describes the remaining ICMP fields. Table 6-11 shows ICMP message types from RFC 792.
Figure 6-3
0 Type

ICMP Message Header
7 8 Code 16 24 Checksum 31

Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4

171

Table 6-11 Value

ICMP Message Types Meaning

0 3 4 5 8 11 12 13 14 15 16

Echo Reply Destination Unreachable Source Quench Redirect Echo Time Exceeded Parameter Problem Timestamp Timestamp Reply Information Request Information Reply

Codes provide additional information to the Type field. For example, if the Type field is 3, Destination Unreachable, additional information about the problem is returned in the Code field. Table 6-12 shows message codes for an ICMP Type 3 message, Destination Unreachable, from RFC 1700.
Table 6-12 Code Value ICMP Type 3 Message Codes Meaning

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Net Unreachable Host Unreachable Protocol Unreachable Port Unreachable Fragmentation Needed and Don’t Fragment Was Set Source Route Failed Destination Network Unknown Destination Host Unknown Source Host Isolated Communication with Destination Network Is Administratively Prohibited Communication with Destination Host Is Administratively Prohibited Destination Network Unreachable for Type of Service Destination Host Unreachable for Type of Service

172

Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide

Using the ICMP message capture shown in Example 6-11, fill in the fields in Figure 6-4 for the ICMP packet echo request. Values beginning with 0x are hexadecimal numbers.
Example 6-11 ICMP Packet Echo Request

Internet Control Message Protocol Type: 8 (Echo (Ping) request) Code: 0 Checksum: 0x365c [correct] Identifier: 0x0200 Sequence number: 0x1500 Data (32 bytes)

Figure 6-4
0

ICMP Packet Echo Request
7 8 16 24 31

Data...

Using the ICMP message capture shown in Example 6-12, fill in the fields in Figure 6-5 for the ICMP packet echo reply.
Example 6-12 ICMP Packet Echo Reply

Internet Control Message Protocol Type: 0 (Echo (Ping) reply) Code: 0 Checksum: 0x3e5c [correct] Identifier: 0x0200 Sequence number: 0x1500 Data (32 bytes)

Figure 6-5
0

ICMP Packet Echo Reply
7 8 16 24 31

Data...

At the TCP/IP network layer, communication between devices is not guaranteed. However, ICMP does provide minimal checks for a reply to match the request. From the information provided in the ICMP messages just shown, how does the sender know that the reply is to a specific echo? The identifier is used to identify this host computer, and the sequence number is used to identify this echo request.

From the Windows terminal. Received = 4.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192. start the Wireshark capture. 2. Step 1.254. Maximum = 0ms.com/pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter6.168. 3. ping Eagle Server. and save the file to the pod host computer. Figure 6-6 Wireshark Capture of ping Requests and Replies .254. Right-click the Wireshark filename.168.example.254. In this step. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms. There should be a total of four ICMP echo requests and matching echo replies. you can download it from Eagle Server: 1.168.254: Packets: Sent = 4.254.example.com [192.example.168. Average = 0ms C:\> Stop the Wireshark capture. When the file has been downloaded. open and install Wireshark. When ready. You should receive four successful replies.254. choose Save Link As. Open a Windows terminal on the pod host computer.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Ping statistics for 192.254] with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 192.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 173 Task 2: Use Wireshark to Capture and Examine ICMP Messages If Wireshark has not been loaded on the pod host computer. similar to those shown in Figure 6-6.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.168.com Pinging eagle-server.254. Capture and evaluate ICMP echo messages to Eagle Server. as shown in Example 6-13.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192. Open a web browser and go to ftp://eagle-server.168. you use Wireshark to examine ICMP echo messages. Lost = 0 (0% loss). Example 6-13 Successful ping Replies from Eagle Server C:\> ping eagle-server.

but Windows keeps the Identifier field the same. In Table 6-13. In Table 6-15. fill in information from each new ping. record information from the first echo request packet to Eagle Server. Table 6-13 Field Ping Echo Request Fields Value Type Code Checksum Identifier Sequence number Data 8 (Echo (ping) request) 0 Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwabcdefghi Are there 32 bytes of data? Yes In Table 6-14. The bottom window also is needed to examine the Data field. Continue to evaluate the remaining echo requests and replies. For example. and expand the Internet Control Message Protocol record until all fields are visible. Table 6-14 Field Ping Echo Reply Fields Value Type Code Checksum Identifier Sequence number Data 0 (Echo (ping) reply) 0 Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary acdefghijklmnopqrstuvwabcdefghi Which fields. changed from the echo request? Type field and Checksum field Note: The Identifier field may change for subsequent echo request messages. Cisco IOS increments the Identifier field by 1. if any.174 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Which network device responds to the ICMP echo request? The destination device Expand the middle window in Wireshark. depending on the operating system. record information from the first echo reply packet from Eagle Server. .

168.1 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 172. Example 6-14 Ping Results from a Fictitious Destination C:\> ping 192.253. Expand the middle Wireshark window and the Internet Control Message Protocol record.255.168.253.168. but the sequence number changes.1: Packets: Sent = 4.16. pings are sent to a fictitious network and host. Capture and evaluate ICMP echo messages to 192. Reply from 172.16.1. Ping statistics for 192. Average = 0ms C:\> What network device responds to pings to a fictitious destination? The gateway router Figure 6-7 shows Wireshark captures to a fictitious destination.254: Destination host unreachable.1 See Example 6-14. C:\> ping 192. Maximum = 0ms.255. Reply from 172.1. Received = 4. Try to ping IP address 192.16.255.254: Destination host unreachable.1 Pinging 192.168. Reply from 172.168.255.253. The results from the Wireshark capture are evaluated. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms. an echo response occurs.253. Step 2. Instead of a request timeout.16.254: Destination host unreachable. Lost = 0 (0% loss). .Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 175 Table 6-15 Packet Ping Echo Requests and Replies Checksum Identifier Sequence Number Request #2 Reply #2 Request #3 Reply #3 Request #4 Reply #4 Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Same as request #2 Same as request #2 Same as request #2 Same as request #2 Same as request #2 Answers will vary Same as request #2 Answers will vary Same as request #3 Answers will vary Same as request #4 Why do the Checksum values change with each new request? The Identifier remains the same.254: Destination host unreachable.253. In this step.253.168.

254.255.254. Host Unreachable Step 3. Reply from 172.168.254: TTL expired in transit.254: TTL expired in transit.255.254.255.254: Packets: Sent = 4.16. Reply from 172. Expand the middle Wireshark window and the Internet Control Message Protocol record. Ping Eagle Server. Example 6-15 Ping Results for an Exceeded TTL C:\> ping -i 1 192. Lost = 0 (0% loss). Received = 4. Maximum = 0ms.254 Pinging 192.168.254: TTL expired in transit.16. pings are sent with a low TTL value. In this step.16.254 Example 6-15 shows ping replies when the TTL value has been exceeded. Average = 0ms C:\> What network device responds to pings that exceed the TTL value? The gateway router Figure 6-8 shows Wireshark captures to a fictitious destination. and set the TTL value to 1: C:\> ping -i 1 192. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms.254: TTL expired in transit. Ping statistics for 192.255. Capture and evaluate ICMP echo messages that exceed the TTL value. Figure 6-8 Wireshark Capture of TTL Value Exceeded .168.168.16. simulating an unreachable destination. Reply from 172.254.254 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 172.176 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 6-7 Wireshark Capture from a Fictitious Destination Which ICMP message type is used to return information to the sender? Type 3 message What code is associated with the message type? Code 1.

however.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. Time to live exceeded in transit Which network device is responsible for decrementing the TTL value? Routers decrement the TTL value.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab6722. Examine the ICMP TTL exceeded message. This demonstrates how the tracert command traces the network path to the destination. turn off power to the host computers. and follow the uninstall instructions. Without ICMP messages. Click the filename. . Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Examining ICMP Packets (6. Remember. The instructions are summarized within the activity. If the program must be removed. Using the ping command. Task 4: Reflection The ICMP protocol is very useful when troubleshooting network connectivity issues. and leave the room ready for the next class.254.251. you can capture and evaluate different ICMP message type values.2. click Remove. Task 3: Challenge Use Wireshark to capture a tracert session to Eagle Server and then to 192.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 177 Which ICMP message type is used to return information to the sender? Type 11 message What code is associated with the message type? Code 0. choose Start > Control Panel > Add or Remove Programs. and scroll down to Wireshark. Remove any Wireshark pcap files that were created on the pod host computer.168.7. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. Task 5: Clean Up Wireshark may have been loaded on the pod host computer. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. a sender has no way to tell why a destination connection failed.

1) Upon completion of this activity.0 (/16) you will determine the following information in this task: ■ ■ ■ ■ Network address Network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts Translate the host IP address and network mask into binary notation.0. you will be able to determine network information for a given IP address and network mask. convert the host IP address and network mask into binary. In Table 6-16.114.25. Table 6-16 Decimal-to-Binary Conversion 172 25 114 250 IP address Network mask 10101100 11111111 255 00011001 11111111 255 01110010 00000000 0 11111010 00000000 0 .255.7. Step 1. Background This activity is designed to teach you how to compute network IP address information from a given IP address. Scenario When given an IP address and network mask. such as ■ ■ ■ ■ Network address Network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts Task 1: For a Given IP Address.178 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Activity 6-1: IPv4 Address Subnetting. Part 1 (6.250 Network mask: 255. Determine Network Information Given the following information: ■ ■ Host IP address: 172. you will be able to determine other information about the IP address.3.

534 (addresses that cannot use the all-0s address [the network address] or the all-1s address [the broadcast address]) Add this information to Table 6-19. you can determine the total number of usable hosts for this network.536 – 2 = 65. Table 6-18 Broadcast Information 172 25 0 0 Network address Subnet mask 10101100 11111111 11001000 11111111 11001000 25 00000000 00000000 11111111 255 00000000 00000000 11111111 255 Broadcast address 10101100 172 By counting the number of host bits. which is 172. Note: 1 AND 1 results in a 1. In Table 6-18.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 179 Step 2. and the broadcast address has all 1s in the host portion of the address. ■ Express the result in dotted-decimal notation. . Determine the network address. perform the following tasks: ■ ■ Draw a line under the mask.25.0. 0 AND anything results in a 0. In Table 6-17.0. The network address has all 0s in the host portion of the address.536 65. Host bits: 16 Total number of hosts: 216 = 65. The network mask separates the network portion of the address from the host portion. The result is the network address for this host IP address. AND Operation 172 25 114 250 Table 6-17 IP address Subnet mask 10101100 11111111 00011001 11111111 00011001 25 01110010 00000000 00000000 0 11111010 00000000 00000000 0 Network address 10101100 172 Step 3. Perform a bitwise AND operation on the IP address and subnet mask. determine the broadcast address for the network address.

Table 6-20 Field Problem 1 Value Host IP address Network mask Network address Network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts Table 6-21 shows Problem 2.255 16 bits 65.255.30.0.255 16 bits or 216 or 65.30. Table 6-20 shows Problem 1.255.255.180 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 6-19 Field Host Bits: Information on the Number of Hosts Value Host IP address Network mask Network address Network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts 172. Table 6-21 Field Problem 2 172.0 172.25.536 total hosts 65.255.0 172.536 – 2 = 65.0 172. create a subnetting worksheet to show and record all work for each problem.0.534 usable hosts Task 2: Challenge For all problems.30.255.33 255.255 8 bits 256 – 2 = 254 .33 255.30.0 (/16) 172.0.250 255.114.30.25.1.536 – 2 = 65.0.1.0 172.0 172.1.1.534 Value Host IP address Network mask Network address Network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts 172.30.25.255.

168.10.0 172.0.219 255.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 181 Table 6-22 shows Problem 3.10.255 16 bits 65.71 255.17.255.534 .0. Table 6-22 Field Problem 3 Value Host IP address Network mask Network address Network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts Table 6-23 shows Problem 4.255.10.234 255.0 192.0 172.3.168.17.534 Value Host IP address Network mask Network address Network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts 192.255.0 192.0 192.255.168.255 16 bits 65.536 – 2 = 65. Table 6-24 Field Problem 5 172.255 8 bits 256 – 2 = 254 Value Host IP address Network mask Network address Network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts Table 6-24 shows Problem 5.255.168.536 – 2 = 65.99.0 192.168.255.0.0. Table 6-23 Field Problem 4 192.168.17.

3.224 192.219 255.223 5 bits 32 – 2 = 30 Task 3: Clean Up Remove anything that was brought into the lab. and leave the room ready for the next class. Table 6-25 Field Problem 6 Value Host IP address Network mask Network address Network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts 192.255. .3.255.182 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 6-25 shows Problem 6.192 192.168.168.3.168.

024 29 512 28 256 27 128 26 64 25 32 24 16 23 8 22 4 21 2 20 1 Number of bits borrowed: 10 1.1) In this activity. you learn how to determine subnet information for a given IP address and subnetwork mask. Using the chart shown in Table 6-26. Table 6-27 Decimal Decimal-to-Binary Conversion Binary 255 254 252 248 240 224 192 128 0 11111111 11111110 11111100 11111000 11110000 11100000 11000000 10000000 00000000 . Because subnet masks must be contiguous 1s followed by contiguous 0s. Background Determine how many bits must be allocated to create a certain number of subnets or a certain number of hosts per subnet. Table 6-26 Hosts or Subnets 210 1.7.4. Part 2 (6. the converted dotted-decimal notation can contain one of a certain number of values.024 9 512 8 256 7 128 6 64 5 32 4 16 3 8 2 4 1 2 1 1 Remember. subtract 2 for the usable number of hosts per subnet—one for the subnet address and one for the subnet’s broadcast address.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 183 Activity 6-2: IPv4 Address Subnetting. it is easy to determine how many bits must be borrowed. as shown in Table 6-27.

0 (/16) Subnet mask: 255. you will be able to determine other information about the IP address: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ The subnet address of this subnet The broadcast address of this subnet The range of host addresses for this subnet The maximum number of subnets for this subnet mask The number of hosts for each subnet The number of subnet bits The number of this subnet Task 1: For a Given IP Address and Subnet Mask. Translate Host IP Addresses Value Step 1.255.192 (/26) you will determine the following information in this task: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Number of subnet bits Number of subnets Number of host bits per subnet Number of usable hosts per subnet Subnet address for this IP address IP address of the first host on this subnet IP address of the last host on this subnet Broadcast address for this subnet Translate the host IP address and subnet mask into binary notation in Table 6-28. Determine Subnet Information Given the following information: ■ ■ ■ Host IP address: 172.255.250 Network mask: 255.255.184 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Scenario When given an IP address. network mask. Table 6-28 Field IP address 172 10101100 25 00011001 11111111 255 114 01110010 11111111 255 250 11111010 11000000 192 Subnet mask 11111111 255 .0.25. and subnetwork mask.114.

Step 3.114. As shown in Figure 6-9. which in this case is 10 bits. Express the result in dotted-decimal notation. Table 6-29 Determine the Network 172 25 114 250 IP address Subnet mask Subnet address 10101100 11111111 10101100 172 11001000 11111111 11001000 25 01110010 11111111 01110010 114 11111010 11000000 11000000 192 Note: 1 AND 1 results in a 1. or the first 16 leftmost bits. S..0. Figure 6-9 Major Divide/Subnet Divide M.D. This range contains the bits that are being incremented to create the subnet numbers or addresses. and the S. The network information ends where the 1s in the mask end.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 185 Step 2. As shown in Figure 6-10. the major network mask is 255. Step 4.0.D.255.192. 01110010 11111111 01110010 10 Bits IP Address Subnet Mask Subnet Add. The result is the subnet address of this subnet. and S.D.25. which is 172. Perform a bitwise AND operation on the IP address and subnet mask. Determine the bit ranges for subnets and hosts. In Table 6-29. which can be determined by simply counting the number of bits between the M. Determine which bits in the address contain network information and which contain host information. 0 AND anything else results in a 0.) as a straight line where the 1s in the given subnet mask end.D. label the subnet counting range between the M. Draw a line under the mask. determine the network (or subnet) where this host address belongs. draw the major divide (M. . In this example.D.) as a wavy line where the 1s in the major network mask end (also the mask if there was no subnetting).D.D. The result is the number of subnet bits.D. 10101110 11111111 10001010 11001000 11111111 11001000 11 111010 11 000000 11 000000 Draw the subnet divide (S.

D.).). which in the example is 172.254. which in the example is 172.193. Subnet Counting Range and Host Counting Range M. This is the result for Broadcast Address of This Subnet.D.D.114.D.25. in the host portion (to the right of the S. and the last bits at the end on the right. all bits before the S.255.D.). 10101110 11111111 10001010 11001000 11111111 11001000 11 111010 11 000000 11 000000 Host Counting Range Label the host counting range between the S. In the host portion (to the right of the S. make the host bits all 1s except for the rightmost bit (or least-significant bit). make the host bits all 1s.114.D. Next. This gives us the first host IP address on this subnet. In the host portion (to the right of the S. which in the example is 172.D. Step 5. which is the last part of the result for Range of Host Addresses for This Subnet. This gives us the last host IP address on this subnet.D.186 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 6-10 Bit Ranges for Subnets and Hosts M.25. 01110010 11111111 01110010 Subnet Counting Range IP Address Subnet Mask Subnet Add. This gives us the broadcast IP address on this subnet. which is the first part of the result for Range of Host Addresses for This Subnet.25.). Use Figure 6-11 to determine the range of host addresses available on this subnet and the broadcast address on this subnet.114. which you make a 1. make the host bits all 0s except for the rightmost bit (or least-significant bit). .D. This range contains the bits that are being incremented to create the host numbers or addresses. 11 111010 11 000000 11 000000 Host Counting Range First Host 10101100 172 11001000 25 11001000 25 11001000 25 01110010 114 01110010 114 01110010 114 11 000001 193 11 111110 254 11 111111 255 Last Host 10101100 172 Broadcast 10101100 172 Write down all the network/subnet bits of the network address (that is. IP Address Subnet Mask Subnet Add. which you make a 0. S. 10101100 11111111 10101100 11001000 11111111 11001000 01110010 11111111 01110010 Subnet Counting Range Figure 6-11 S.

0 (/16) 172.254 172.536 – 2 = 65.25.250 255.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 187 Add the missing information to Table 6-30. The number of hosts per subnet is determined by the number of host bits (in this example.255.255 16 bits or 216 or 65.114.25.255.0.0 172. 255.114. 6 bits) minus 2 (1 for the subnet address and 1 for the broadcast address of the subnet).25.114. The number of subnets is determined by how many bits are in the subnet counting range (in this example.0.536 total hosts 65.25.255 Determine the number of subnets.114.192 (/26) 26 bits 210 = 1024 subnets 6 bits 26 – 2 = 64 – 2 = 62 hosts per subnet 172. 210 = 1024 Number of subnet bits: 10 bits Number of subnets (all 0s used.25. Table 6-30 Field Fill in the Missing Information Value Host IP address Major network mask Major (base) network address Major network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts 172. Determine the number of usable hosts per subnet.255. Use the formula 2n.25.534 usable hosts Subnet mask Number of subnet bits Number of subnets Number of host bits per subnet Number of usable hosts per subnet Subnet address for this IP address IP address of the first host on this subnet IP address of the last host on this subnet Broadcast address for this subnet Step 6.114.25. 10 bits).192 172. all 1s not used): 210 = 1024 subnets Step 7.193 172. 26 – 2 = 64 – 2 = 62 hosts per subnet Number of host bits per subnet: 6 bits Number of usable hosts per subnet: 26 – 2 = 64 – 2 = 62 hosts per subnet . where n is the number of bits in the subnet counting range.255.

1 172. Table 6-32 shows Problem 1.30.1. Table 6-32 Field Problem 1 Value Host IP address Subnet mask Number of subnet bits Number of subnets Number of host bits per subnet Number of usable hosts per subnet Subnet address for this IP address IP address of the first host on this subnet IP address of the last host on this subnet Broadcast address for this subnet 172.114.1.25.255.0 172.25.1.114.25.114.255 Task 2: Challenge For all problems.30.1.114. create a subnetting worksheet to show and record all work for each problem.114.254 172.33 255.30.255. Final Answers Value Table 6-31 Field Host IP address Subnet mask Number of subnet bits Number of subnets Number of host bits per subnet Number of usable hosts per subnet Subnet address for this IP address IP address of the first host on this subnet IP address of the last host on this subnet Broadcast address for this subnet 172.188 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Step 8.254 172.30.255 .192 172.255.255.25.25.30.193 172.192 (/26) 26 bits 210 = 1024 subnets 6 bits 26 – 2 = 64 – 2 = 62 hosts per subnet 172.1. Review the final answers in Table 6-31.0 8 bits 256 – 2 = 254 8 bits 256 – 2 = 254 172.250 255.

10.255.1.234 255.34 172.10.255.10.1.35 Value Host IP address Subnet mask Number of subnet bits Number of subnets Number of host bits per subnet Number of usable hosts per subnet Subnet address for this IP address IP address of the first host on this subnet IP address of the last host on this subnet Broadcast address for this subnet 192.30.33 172.1.255 .192.254 192.30.384 – 2 = 16.10.1.192.1 192.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 189 Table 6-33 shows Problem 2.30.192.33 255.30.252 14 bits 16.0 192.192.10.192.0 24 bits 224 8 bits 256 – 2 = 254 192.30.255. Table 6-34 Field Problem 3 172. Table 6-33 Field Problem 2 Value Host IP address Subnet mask Number of subnet bits Number of subnets Number of host bits per subnet Number of usable hosts per subnet Subnet address for this IP address IP address of the first host on this subnet IP address of the last host on this subnet Broadcast address for this subnet Table 6-34 shows Problem 3.1.382 4–2=2 2 172.32 172.255.

168.1 192.168.168.3.0 192.255.255.99.168.254 172.255.0 24 bits 224 8 bits 256 – 2 = 254 192.0.17.71 255.17. Table 6-35 Field Problem 4 Value Host IP address Subnet mask Number of subnet bits Number of subnets Number of host bits per subnet Number of usable hosts per subnet Subnet address for this IP address IP address of the first host on this subnet IP address of the last host on this subnet Broadcast address for this subnet Table 6-36 shows Problem 5.0.254 192.0.219 255.3.0 16 bits 216 – 2 16 bits 256 – 2 = 254 172.17.17.3.17.3. Table 6-36 Field Problem 5 172.255 Value Host IP address Subnet mask Number of subnet bits Number of subnets Number of host bits per subnet Number of usable hosts per subnet Subnet address for this IP address IP address of the first host on this subnet IP address of the last host on this subnet Broadcast address for this subnet 192.255.190 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 6-35 shows Problem 4.255 .3.1 172.0 172.255.168.

168. .3.3.168.217 192. and leave the room ready for the next class.168.219 Task 3: Clean Up Remove anything that was brought into the lab. Table 6-37 Field Problem 6 Value Host IP address Subnet mask Number of subnet bits Number of subnets Number of host bits per subnet Number of usable hosts per subnet Subnet address for this IP address IP address of the first host on this subnet IP address of the last host on this subnet Broadcast address for this subnet 192.3.168.216 192.252 6 bits 64 – 2 = 62 4–2=2 2 192.255.218 255.218 192.3.3.168.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 191 Table 6-37 shows Problem 6.255.

Figure 6-12 Topology for Lab 6-3 192.1.1.64/27 192. Assign appropriate addresses to interfaces and document them.255. verify that the network is working properly.1) Upon completion of this lab.168. The network connected to router R2 requires enough IP addresses to support 30 hosts. Assign subnet 2 to the link between R1 and R2.168.168. you design and apply an IP addressing scheme for the topology shown in Figure 612. . The link between router R1 and router R2 requires IP addresses at each end of the link.224 What is the subnet mask for the network in slash format? /27 How many usable hosts are there per subnet? 30 Step 3. Reflect on and document the network implementation.32/27 Fa0/0 192. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Subnet an address space given requirements.192 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Lab 6-3: Subnet and Router Configuration (6.0/24 address space to use in your network design. Assign subnet 3 to the network attached to R2. When the configuration is complete. Assign subnetwork addresses to the topology diagram shown in Figure 6-12: ■ ■ ■ Assign subnet 1 to the network attached to R1.5.1.255.1.168. Configure and activate serial and FastEthernet interfaces. You are given one address block that you must subnet to provide a logical addressing scheme for the network.7. Step 2. Test and verify configurations. The routers then will be ready for interface address configuration according to your IP addressing scheme.96/27 Fa0/0 PC1 S0/0/0 R1 S0/0/0 DCE PC2 R2 Task 1: Subnet the Address Space Step 1. Consider the following questions when creating your network design: ■ ■ ■ ■ How many subnets are needed for this network? 3 What is the subnet mask for this network in dotted-decimal format? 255. Scenario In this lab activity. Examine the network requirements. You have been given the 192. The network consists of the following segments: ■ ■ ■ The network connected to router R1 requires enough IP addresses to support 15 hosts.

Note that to complete the activity in Packet Tracer. be sure to save the running configuration to the router’s NVRAM.255. can you ping the Serial 0/0/0 interface of R1? Yes . Configure the Ethernet interfaces of PC1 and PC2 with the IP addresses and default gateways from your network design.168.126 255.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 193 Task 2: Determine Interface Addresses Step 1.255. Assign appropriate addresses to the device interfaces: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Assign the first valid host address in subnet 1 to the LAN interface on R1.255.255.224 255.224 255.224 255.255. Assign the last valid host address in subnet 3 to PC2.65 192.1. can you ping the default gateway? Yes From the router R1.168.1.255.33 192.1.168.1. Step 2.62 192. Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway Table 6-38 Device R1 Fa0/0 S0/0/0 192.168.255. Assign the first valid host address in subnet 3 to the LAN interface on R2.97 192.168.255.1.255. document the addresses to be used. Configure the PC interfaces. can you ping the Serial 0/0/0 interface of R2? Yes From the router R2. Step 2. Configure the interfaces on the R1 and R2 routers with the IP addresses from your network design.1. you will use the Config tab. Task 4: Verify the Configurations Answer the following questions to verify that the network is operating as expected: ■ ■ ■ ■ From the host attached to R1. Assign the last valid host address in subnet 1 to PC1.1.1.255. can you ping the default gateway? Yes From the host attached to R2. Assign the last valid host address in subnet 2 to the WAN interface on R2. In Table 6-38. Assign the first valid host address in subnet 2 to the WAN interface on R1.168.94 192.255.255.168.224 — — — — 192.168.97 R2 Fa0/0 S0/0/0 PC1 PC2 NIC NIC Task 3: Configure the Serial and FastEthernet Addresses Step 1. When you have finished.224 255.33 192. Configure the router interfaces.224 255.

Test the network: Using ping. Configure the network: Apply your subnetting scheme to servers. Task 5: Reflection Are there any devices on the network that cannot ping each other? Answers will vary What is missing from the network that is preventing communication between these devices? Answers will vary Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Subnet and Router Configuration (6. The instructions are summarized within the activity.1. PCs. and router interfaces. and Inspect tools. however. Remember. Build the network: Connect devices with Ethernet and serial cables.8. ■ Background You have been asked to implement the standard lab topology. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ Do IP subnet planning: Practice your subnetting skills. but with a new IP addressing scheme. trace.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to perform this exercise using Packet Tracer. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. Packet Tracer Challenge Skills Integration Challenge: Planning Subnets and Configuring IP Addresses (6.3) Open the file LSG01-PTSkills6.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab6752. configure services and static routing.194 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Note: The answers to the preceding questions should be yes.7. Upon completion of this lab.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. web traffic. check the physical connections and configurations.5. If any of the pings failed. .

Figure 6-13 shows the topology for this lab.168.23.23.255.255.109 255.23.252 255.255.23.110 192.255.168.255.192 255.23. Fill in your answers in Table 6-39.1 192.168.255.255. Figure 6-13 Topology for Challenge 1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server 2960-24TT S1-Central 1841 R2-Central PC-PT 1A PC-PT 1B Task 1: IP Subnet Planning You have been given an IP address block of 192. existing student LAN (off of router R2-Central). You must provide for existing networks as well as future growth.130 192.255.0 /24. future student LAN.168.2 192.23.23. Table 6-39 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP Fa0/0 S0/0/0 192.255.255.23.62 192.23.168.168. up to 28 hosts .168.192 255.62 192.255.168.168.168.23.130 192.23.168.255.62 192.192 255.255. up to 60 hosts Second subnet.168.252 255.129 192.255.23.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 195 You will use many of the skills you have learned to this point in the course.23.110 R2-Central Fa0/0 S0/0/0 PC 1A PC 1B Eagle Server NIC NIC NIC Subnet assignments: ■ ■ First subnet.168.130 192.252 — — 192.240 255.

future WAN. Part of the router configuration has already been done for you. future WAN. future ISP LAN. point-to-point link Interface IP addresses: ■ ■ For the server.com. configure the second-highest usable IP address on the existing ISP LAN subnet. For R1-ISP’s S0/0/0 interface. configure the highest usable IP address on the existing ISP LAN subnet. You do not need to configure the switch. configure the highest usable address on the existing WAN subnet. both routers. ■ ■ ■ ■ Additional configurations: ■ ■ For PCs 1A and 1B. For R1-ISP’s Fa0/0 interface. configure them to use DNS services. and the two PCs. use the lowest usable address on the existing WAN subnet. point-to-point link Seventh subnet. make sure the power is on to the device and the interfaces. existing WAN. For R2-Central’s Fa0/0 interface. Connect PC 1A to the first FastEthernet port on switch S1-Central. use the highest usable address on the existing student LAN subnet. point-to-point link Sixth subnet. Connect PC 1B to the second FastEthernet port on switch S1-Central. For all devices. with the other end to R2-Central S0/0/0. use the first two IP addresses (the two lowest usable addresses) on the existing student LAN subnet. R2-Central’s serial interface. Connect interface Fa0/0 on router R2-Central to the highest FastEthernet port on switch S1Central.example. you need to set the clock rate (a timing mechanism required on the DCE end of serial links) to 64000. nor do you need the IOS CLI to configure the routers. For hosts 1A and 1B. For the server. No clock rate is needed on the DTE side—in this case. For R2-Central’s S0/0/0 interface. ■ Task 3: Configure the Network You need to configure the server. For the R1-ISP router serial interface. ■ ■ Task 2: Finish Building the Network in Packet Tracer Add cables where they are missing: ■ ■ ■ ■ Connect a serial DCE cable to R1-ISP S0/0/0. up to 12 hosts Fourth subnet. existing ISP LAN. use the domain name eagle-server. All you must do is configure the static routes and the interfaces via the GUI. and enable HTTP services. enable DNS services. up to 8 hosts Fifth subnet. in addition to IP configuration. The static route on R1-ISP should point to the existing student LAN subnet via R2-Central’s .196 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Third subnet.

and testing skills will serve you well throughout your networking courses. Task 4: Test the Network Use ping. Task 5: Reflection Reflect on how much you have learned so far! Practicing IP subnetting skills and network building. The static route on R2-Central should be a default static route that points to R1-ISP’s serial interface IP address. to test your understanding of how the network is operating.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 197 serial interface IP address. with HTTP. TCP. These procedures were explained in the Chapter 5 Skills Integration Challenge. trace. and the Inspect tool. configuration. web traffic. Trace packet flow in simulation mode. . UDP. DNS. and ICMP viewable.

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because it is the layer that accesses the physical medium and causes network traffic to traverse different physical media. A layer of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model that frames upper-layer data and controls how data is placed on a medium b. The media can consist of many different types. Data link d. A device on a network c. use Chapter 7 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum. optical fibers. Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 7-1. As you work through this chapter. Two or more devices connected to a common medium e. hands-on skills you need to work with the data link layer. match the term on the left to its definition on the right. Media d. including copper cabling. The physical means used to carry data signals a. Network e. It also controls how data is placed on and received from media.CHAPTER 7 OSI Data Link Layer The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of matching. and the air in the case of wireless. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum activities and labs to ensure that you have mastered the practical. 2. Table 7-1 Term Data Link Layer Terms Definition a. and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of the data link layer. What are the two main jobs of the data link layer? The data link layer allows upper layers to access media. . or use the corresponding Chapter 7 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration Companion Guide. Study Guide Data Link Layer: Accessing the Media The data link layer plays a major role in networks. The protocol data unit (PDU) used in Layer 2 of the OSI model Concept Questions 1. The data link layer hides the details of these media from the upper layers and takes on the job of transmitting data across each network segment. Frame b. Node c. fill-in-the-blank. for assistance. What is the difference between a logical network and a physical network? The network layer defines the logical network using a hierarchical addressing scheme. The data link layer defines the physical network as a set of devices on a common medium.

each node has its own time to use the medium. 2. The contention-based method has less overhead but does not scale well under heavy use. the probability of successful access without a data collision decreases. depending on the medium and the data link layer protocols in use. As more nodes try to access the network to send data. 3. such as a router. With controlled media access control. to access the medium. If the data link layer didn’t exist.200 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide 3. Concept Questions 1. 1. Compare and contrast controlled media access control and contention-based media access control. The controlled method provides predictable. The technique for getting a frame on and off a medium is called the media access control method. and place the frame on the medium of the next link in the network. but it can be inefficient because a device has to wait its turn before it can use the medium. IP would need to change every time a new network technology or medium were developed. Any device can try to access the medium whenever it has data to send. such as a Network Interface Card (NIC) on a local-area network (LAN). a node uses an adapter. has physical interfaces that can encapsulate a packet into the appropriate frame and handle the media access control method to access each link. Network devices take turns. encapsulate the Layer 3 PDU into a new frame. 4. A router uses data link layer services to receive a frame from one medium. Other methods are less complicated but may not scale as well. Moreover. in sequence. Media Access Control Techniques Media access control regulates the placement of data frames on a medium. . decapsulate the frame to the Layer 3 PDU. The adapter manages the framing and media access control. With contention-based media access control. IP or other network layer protocols would need to make provisions for connecting every type of media that could exist along a delivery path. An intermediary device. what changes would be required of a network layer protocol such as Internet Protocol (IP)? Without a data link layer. To connect to a network. all nodes compete for the use of the medium. Some methods are complicated and add overhead to the process. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following statements. This disadvantage is avoided by using a layered model for networking and by giving the data link layer the job of placing data on a medium and controlling access to the medium. There are different ways to accomplish this regulation. deterministic throughput.

monitor the medium for the presence of another node’s signal.” Sense whether the medium is free. List the steps in the carrier sense multiple access collision detect (CSMA/CD) process. Data link layer rules (also called protocols) specify the media access control method that is used for a particular technology. 2. If a carrier signal is not detected. 1. “Ethernet. data field. If another node is also transmitting. Although different protocols place different fields in a frame. Media Access Control: Addressing and Framing Data A fundamental job of the data link layer is to encapsulate a Layer 3 PDU into a Layer 2 PDU. Receiving data while transmitting is not allowed. A logical multiaccess topology enables a number of nodes to communicate by using the same shared medium. Match the field on the left to its definition on the right. What is the difference between full-duplex communication and half-duplex communication? With full-duplex communication. 5. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following statements. If a carrier signal from another node is detected. only one device can transmit at any given time. transmit the data. The Layer 2 PDU is called a frame. and trailer. You will learn more about CSMA/CD in Chapter 9. 3. Most Layer 2 frames also have addressing fields in the header that identify the sender and receiver. Receiving data while transmitting is allowed. With half-duplex communication. 3. 4. and token passing. 3. 1. . most protocols specify that the frame should have a header. For example. Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Table 7-2 lists some typical fields that appear in frame headers. carrier sense multiple access collision avoidance. Three media access control methods used by logical multiaccess topologies include carrier sense multiple access collision detect. both devices can transmit and receive on the medium at the same time. 2. Having many nodes share access to the medium requires a data link layer media access control method to regulate the transmission of data. stop transmitting and wait a random amount of time before trying again. 4. While transmitting. At this point.Chapter 7: OSI Data Link Layer 201 2. Ethernet uses CSMA/CD. you can keep the list simple. wait and try again later.

Includes specifications for operation at 10. Point-to-Point Protocol c. its Layer 2 address does not need to change. Layer 2 addresses are used only for local delivery when transporting a frame across a shared local medium. Layer 3 addresses use a hierarchical addressing scheme and indicate a network number and host identifier. Priority f. Establishes a logical connection (session) between two nodes a. Uses a preamble field at the beginning of the frame b. it gets encapsulated in a new data link layer header with new Layer 2 addresses for each hop it takes. Layer 2 addresses use a flat addressing scheme and do not indicate on what network a device is located. Defined in a Request For Comments (RFC) document b. Compare and contrast Layer 2 addresses with Layer 3 addresses. Ethernet b. Often found on WANs a. 802.202 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 7-2 Field Frame Header Fields Definition a. Start frame b. Flow control g. Provides unacknowledged connectionless service over a shared medium using CSMA/CD b. Tells other devices on the network that a frame is coming along the medium b. 1000. Indicates a particular type of communication service for special processing Table 7-3 lists three major data link layer protocols. A protocol for wireless networks that uses CSMA/CA a. . Defined by the IEEE 802.3 standard a. Indicates the upper-layer service contained in the frame a. Match each protocol on the left to its specifications on the right. Length e. Uses a flag field at the beginning of the frame c. 100. Specifies the number of bytes in the data part of the frame c. Used to start and stop traffic when overloading occurs d. Congestion control g. Address c. Layer 3 addresses.11 c. Table 7-3 Protocol Data Link Layer Protocols Specification a. are carried from source to destination host across an internetwork.000 Mbps b. on the other hand. Identifies the sender and receiver e. Used to indicate overloading on the medium f. If a device is moved to another network. and 10. When a packet crosses an internetwork. Type d. Uses an acknowledgment to confirm that a frame was received successfully Concept Questions 1.

The data link layer refers to the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) cache to determine the Media Access Control (MAC) address that is associated with the Ethernet interface on the client’s router. The router sends the data to another router across a PPP WAN link. 4. Why are Layer 2 addresses not needed in point-to-point topologies? Layer 2 addresses are not needed in point-to-point topologies because there can be no confusion about the frame’s destination. TCP adds an acknowledgment number that tells the web server the sequence number that TCP expects in the next segment it receives. 3. The transport layer places a destination port number of 80 in the TCP segment to indicate the WWW service. The transport layer also places the source port number for this session in the segment. For the destination address. Putting It All Together: Follow Data Through an Internetwork When a user on a LAN wants to access a service. The application layer adds a Layer 7 header. a number of packets are generated and encapsulated in Layer 2 frames. At the network layer. the client uses the IP address associated with the WWW server’s hostname. an IP packet is constructed to identify the source and destination hosts. or loss that would change the bit values that those signals represent. The user’s web browser initiates a Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) GET request. After it is on the medium. 6. 2. distortion. you should now be able to put together at a high level the events that take place on a network when a user accesses a service. A TCP three-way handshake sets up a connection with the server. . What is the purpose of the Frame Check Sequence (FCS) in a frame trailer? The FCS field is used to determine if errors occurred in the transmission and receipt of a frame. a frame has only one place to go (to the other device). 3. The FCS field is necessary because the signals on the medium are subject to interference.Chapter 7: OSI Data Link Layer 203 2. The user is on an Ethernet LAN. Only two devices are connected. It uses its own IPv4 address as the source address. 1. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following statements that describe a user accessing a web page stored on a web server that is located on a remote network. The client builds an Ethernet II frame to transport the IPv4 packet across the local medium. 5. The transport layer identifies the upper-layer service that the user wants to reach as the HTTP (or World Wide Web [WWW]) service. If you have done the reading in Chapter 7 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum or if you have used the corresponding Chapter 7 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration Companion Guide. The user starts by clicking a link or URL on a web page. The recipient router forwards the data onto an Ethernet LAN where the server resides. The user sends data to a router on that Ethernet LAN.

the HTTP GET request is delivered to the WWW service. The server examines the TCP segment to determine the session to which the data belongs. The router includes a Protocol field in the PPP header with a value of 0x0021 to indicate that 13. routing table. 17. the server removes the data link header and pushes the packet up to the network layer. The Physical layer transmits the frame onto the medium bit by bit. It then builds an Ethernet II frame to transport the IPv4 packet to the server. the destination IPv4 address in the packet is compared to the routes in the 11. 9. without any errors. the destination IPv4 address in the packet is compared to routes in the routing table. At the network layer. The router determines that the packet should be sent out an Ethernet network to the web server. 12. The server examines the frame. the server removes the network layer header and pushes the data to the transport layer. 10. The server compares the destination IPv4 address in the packet to its own IPv4 address. The data link layer frame indicates that the upper-layer data is IPv4 by placing 0x0800 in the Type field of the Ethernet II header. The PPP session has already been established. The 22 steps reverse themselves. The recipient router checks the FCS to determine if the frame was received intact without any errors. 8.204 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide 7. can now form a response. and a packet flows back to the client. The frame begins with a Preamble field and ends with an FCS field for error detection. the server pushes the data to TCP. The physical layer transmits the frame onto the medium bit by bit. Because it matches. 14. 16. The router creates a PPP frame to transport the packet across the WAN. Because the IP network layer header identified the upper-layer protocol as 0x06. A match is found. It checks the FCS to determine if the frame was received intact 19. The router removes the data link header and pushes the packet up to the network layer. 21. 15. and the router determines that the next hop for the packet is a router at the other end of a PPP WAN link. the user sees a web page. an IPv4 packet is encapsulated. The client uses the CSMA/CD media access control method to verify that the medium is not already in use. 18. 22. The router removes the data link header and pushes the packet up to the network layer. The service . At the network layer. 20. At the application layer. It uses CSMA/CD to verify that the medium is not already in use. so the physical layer begins transmitting the frame onto the WAN medium bit by bit. The router that receives the frame checks the FCS at the end of the frame to determine if the frame was received intact without any errors. Eventually. The TCP sequence number is used to place this segment in the proper order to be sent upward to the application layer. The router consults its ARP cache to determine the MAC address of the web server. as soon as all the necessary packets have been sent and received. Because it matches. This is done by examining the source and destination ports. The server compares the destination MAC address in the frame to the MAC address of the NIC in the server.

Chapter 7: OSI Data Link Layer 205 Labs and Activities Lab 7-1: Frame Examination (7. you will be able to ■ ■ Explain the header fields in an Ethernet II frame. Use Wireshark to capture and analyze Ethernet II frames. data flows down the OSI layers and is encapsulated in a Layer 2 frame.exe. For example.com/pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter7/. Scenario Wireshark will be used to capture and analyze Ethernet II frame header fields. Figure 7-1 Topology for Lab 7-1 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 . such as TCP/IP. the Layer 2 frame encapsulation is Ethernet II. it is helpful to analyze frame header information. Background When upper-layer protocols communicate with each other. you can download it from ftp://eagleserver. When learning about Layer 2 concepts. The frame composition depends on the media access type. The Ethernet II frame header is examined in this lab. and Table 7-4 is the corresponding addressing table. Figure 7-1 shows the topology for this lab. The Windows ping command will be used to generate network traffic for Wireshark to capture.example. If Wireshark has not been loaded on the host pod computer. Ethernet II frames can support various upper-layer protocols. The file is wireshark-setup-0.2.1) Upon completion of this lab.5.4. if the upper-layer protocol is TCP/IP and the media access is Ethernet.99.

16.168.16. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity.1 172.255.16.168.255.0.6 — 192.0 255. and finally eagle-server. 172.16. ping eagle-server.0 255.31.10.255.254.0.6 192.10.255.2 172. troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity by following these steps: Step 1. verify that the host has the correct DNS address and that it can ping eagle-server. R2-Central. The session begins with the ARP protocol querying for the MAC address of the Gateway router.255.10.255.24. If an individual host computer cannot connect to eagle-server.255. Step 3.255. the Panel List window shows a Wireshark capture of the ping command between a pod host computer and Eagle Server.255. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server.255.0. the lab topology may have been modified before this class. 172.255. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests.0 255. 10.16.254 172.10.16.255.10. Finally. Finally.254 172.10.example.16.Pod#.254 172. check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central. .16.253 10.example. shown in the logical addressing table.255.254 192.254.255. ping S1Central.com.255.254. Figure 7-2 Ethernet II Frame Format Destination Address Source Address Frame Type 2 Octets Preamble Data FCS 8 Octets 6 Octets 6 Octets 46–1500 Octets 4 Octets In Figure 7-3.6. If the ping test fails.255. followed by a DNS query.254 172. and that it can ping R2-Central. Step 2.168.252 255.255.255.253 — 172.10.5 172. From a known good host computer.1 255. Task 1: Explain the Header Fields in an Ethernet II Frame Figure 7-2 shows the format for an Ethernet II frame.255. Verify that all network equipment is powered on and that eagle-server is on.254 R2-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Eagle Server — — Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central — — — Note to Instructor: Depending on the classroom situation.0 255.254. R1-ISP.254.com. the ping command issues echo requests. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address. Verify that the host computer has the correct Gateway IP address.252 255.Pod#.0 — — 10.10.255. and that it can ping R1-ISP.206 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 7-4 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP S0/0/0 Fa0/0 10.0 255.16.254.0 255.0.

expressed as 12 hexadecimal digits. A to F. are the serial number of the NIC. Ethernet II supports numerous upper-layer protocols. A common format is 12:34:56:78:9A:BC.neotechcc. The source address is always unicast. The destination address may be a broadcast that contains all 1s. The last six hex digits.htm for a list of vendor codes. Using this window. processed by the NIC hardware. Here are two common frame types: Value Description 0x0800 IPv4 protocol 0x0806 Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) Contains the encapsulated upper-layer protocol. Source Address Frame Type 00:16:76:ac:a7:6a 0x0806 For Ethernet II frames. The Data field is between 46 and 1500 bytes. or 6 bytes. Table 7-5 Field Ethernet II Frame Header Value Description Preamble Destination Address Not shown in the capture ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff This field contains synchronizing bits. Layer 2 addresses for the frame. this field contains a hexadecimal value that is used to indicate the type of upper-layer protocol in the data field. Refer to http://www. Each address is 48 bits long.org/forum/macid. ac:a7:6a. Table 7-5 shows the information you can obtain. 0 to 9.Chapter 7: OSI Data Link Layer 207 Figure 7-3 Wireshark Capture of the ping Command In Figure 7-3. you can obtain Ethernet II frame information. Data ARP . The first six hex numbers indicate the manufacturer of the network interface card (NIC). or unicast. the Packet Details window shows Frame 1 detail information.

208 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 7-5 Field Ethernet II Frame Header Value continued Description FCS Not shown in the capture Frame Check Sequence. and data field. Destination Address MAC address: ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff NIC manufacturer: Does not apply NIC serial number: Does not apply Source Address MAC address: 00:16:76:ac:a7:6a NIC manufacturer: Intel NIC serial number: ac:a7:6a From the information contained in the Packet List window for the second frame. answer the following questions about the destination and source MAC address. The value is computed by the sending machine. From the information contained in the Packet List window for the first frame. used by the NIC to identify errors during transmission. All computers on the LAN receive the frame. encompassing frame addresses. type. and the computer with the corresponding IP address sends a unicast reply to the source. . It is verified by the receiver. answer the following questions about the destination and source MAC address. Destination Address MAC address: 00:16:76:ac:a7:6a NIC manufacturer: Intel NIC serial number: ac:a7:6a Source Address MAC address: 00:0c:85:cf:66:40 NIC manufacturer: Cisco NIC serial number: cf:66:40 Figure 7-4 is an expanded view of Frame 3 from the Wireshark capture. What is the significance of all 1s in the destination address field? This is a broadcast address.

as shown in Example 7-1.y interface IP address. Start a ping to Eagle Server. and then click the start button that corresponds to the 172. you use Wireshark to capture and analyze packets captured on the pod host computer. enter cmd.16. This begins the packet capture. and click OK. Prepare Wireshark for captures. Ping eagle-server.com.example. and capture the session.Chapter 7: OSI Data Link Layer 209 Figure 7-4 Frame 3 Fields Use the information shown in Figure 7-4 to complete Table 7-6. Table 7-6 Field Ethernet II Frame Header Completion Value Preamble Destination Address Source Address Frame Type Data FCS Not shown in the capture 00:0c:85:cf:66:40 00:16:76:ac:a7:6a 0x0800 IP Not shown in the capture Task 2: Use Wireshark to Capture and Analyze Ethernet II Frames In this task. Open a Windows terminal window. stop the Wireshark capture. When the command has finished executing. . Choose Capture > Interfaces. Step 2. Configure Wireshark for packet captures. Step 1. Choose Start > Run.x.

254.254.254. Your capture should look similar to the one shown in Figure 7-3.254.255.168. as shown in Example 7-3.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=62 Ping statistics for 192.168. Use the Windows XP ipconfig /flushdns command to clear the DNS cache. you can flush the ARP cache using the arp -d * command.com.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=62 Reply from 192. Finally. .example.254.1.254. The Wireshark Packet List window should start with an ARP request and reply for the Gateway’s MAC address.com [192.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=62 Reply from 192.example.168.0x30004 Internet Address 172.254: Packets: Sent = 4. Example 7-2 Displaying and Flushing the ARP Cache C:\> arp -a Interface: 172. Average = 0ms C:\> Step 3.com Pinging eagle-server.1. Analyze the Wireshark capture.example.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=62 Reply from 192.2600] Copyright 1985-2001 Microsoft Corp.168.168.1 --. as shown in Example 7-2. a DNS request is made for the IP address of eagleserver.com is stored in the DNS cache.16. C:\> ping eagle-server.254 C:\> arp -d * C:\> arp -a No ARP Entries Found C:\> Physical Address 00-0c-85-cf-66-40 Type dynamic If you do not see a DNS query.example.168. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms. Next. it is because the DNS record for eagle-server. Maximum = 0ms.254] with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 192. Received = 4. the ping command is executed.16.210 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example 7-1 Pinging Eagle Server Microsoft Windows XP [Version 5. If you don’t see an ARP exchange. Lost = 0 (0% loss).

0. .127.in-addr.in-addr. . . : 12 Time To Live . .0. . . . . .Chapter 7: OSI Data Link Layer 211 Example 7-3 Displaying and Flushing the DNS Cache C:\> ipconfig /displaydns Windows IP Configuration 1. : Answer PTR Record . . . .arpa.127.in-addr. . . : 192. . : Answer PTR Record localhost --------------------------------------Record Name . . . . . . . . . .0. . . . . : 4 Section . . . . . .0. . . : 1 Time To Live . : 1. . . . . . . . . : Answer A (Host) Record . . : Answer A (Host) Record . . . : localhost Record Type .0. . . : 127. . . . : 1.127. : Answer A (Host) Record . . . . . . . .com ---------------------------------------Record Name . . . . . . .0. : 12 Time To Live . : localhost eagle-server.0. . . . . . . : 1 Time To Live . . . . Record Type . . : 4 Section .arpa --------------------------------------Record Name . : 549045 Data Length . . . . .254 localhost --------------------------------------Record Name . . . .127.in-addr. . . . . . .0. : 4 Section . .0.0. . : localhost Record Type . . . : 4 Section .0. : 86386 Data Length .168. C:\> ipconfig /displaydns Windows IP Configuration 1. . .example. : 1 Time To Live .1 C:\> . . . . . . .arpa. . .0. . . . . . . : 127.1 C:\> ipconfig /flushdns Windows IP Configuration Successfully flushed the DNS Resolver Cache. . : 4 Section . . . .254. . . . Record Type . : 549013 Data Length .arpa ---------------------------------------Record Name .com Record Type . : eagle-server. . . : 549013 Data Length . .example. : localhost . . . : 549045 Data Length .

Because the student’s Eagle Server is on a different LAN than yours. Pod computer MAC address information MAC address: Answers will vary. and verify that the Ethernet II frame type remains 0x0800. A student from another school wants to know the MAC address for Eagle Server. 0x0800 is the frame type for IP. What is the Ethernet II frame type value for an ICMP echo reply? 0x0800 Task 3: Challenge Use Wireshark to capture sessions from other TCP/IP protocols. What would you tell the student? MAC addresses are visible only on the LAN and are different for each LAN. such as FTP and HTTP. Because ARP is not encapsulated inside an IP packet. and the last six hex digits contain the NIC serial number.212 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Use your Wireshark capture of the ping command to answer the following questions. Again. What is the Ethernet II frame type value for a DNS query response? 0x0800 What is the Ethernet II frame type value for an ICMP echo? 0x0800. different from the identifier for IP. the destination MAC address contains all 1s. What is the Ethernet II frame type value for an ARP Reply? 0x0806 What is the Ethernet II frame type value for a DNS query? 0x0800. NIC serial number: Answers will vary. DNS is encapsulated in an IP packet. Task 4: Reflection In this lab. A 2-byte frame type field contains a value that indicates the . 10101011. What is the Ethernet II frame type value for an ARP Request? 0x0806. A preamble field contains 7 bytes of alternating 1010 sequences and 1 byte that signals the beginning of the frame. 0x0800 is the frame type for IP. the information cannot be obtained from a Wireshark capture on your LAN. NIC manufacturer: Cisco NIC serial number: Answers will vary. If the frame is a broadcast. Destination and source MAC addresses each contain 12 hex digits. ICMP is encapsulated in the IP packet. R2-Central MAC address information MAC address: Answers will vary. it must have a unique identifier. Ethernet II frame header information was examined. Analyze the captured packets. The first six hex digits contain the manufacturer of the NIC. NIC manufacturer: Answers will vary.

Click Add or Remove Programs. and Table 7-7 is the corresponding addressing table. Apply your subnetting scheme to server.6. Figure 7-5 shows the topology for this lab. . In this challenge you must add a WIC to a device to complete the network. choose Start > Control Panel. Task 5: Clean Up Wireshark was installed on the pod host computer. Also reflect on the destination and source addresses. Reflect on the necessity and formatting of each of these fields. and router interfaces. Choose Wireshark. the value is 0x0800. Connect devices with Ethernet and serial cables. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. and consider why the developers of Ethernet chose to place the destination address first. and configure services and static routing. In addition. is called a WAN interface card (WIC). a 4-byte FCS value is used to verify that there were no errors during transmission. ■ ■ Background Network Interface Cards (NIC) are sometimes thought of as Layer 2 and Layer 1 devices (or as Layer 2 and Layer 1 components of devices that function at all seven layers). If Wireshark needs to be uninstalled. At the end of a frame. Packet Tracer Challenge Skills Integration Challenge: Data Link Layer Issues (7. consider why the preamble field is necessary and why it consists of alternating 1s and 0s. The data field is variable and contains the encapsulated upper-layer protocol. and the Inspect tool. Remove anything that was brought into the lab.3) Open file LSG01-PTSkills7. and leave the room ready for the next class.Chapter 7: OSI Data Link Layer 213 protocol in the data field. PCs. Upon completion of this activity. Build the network. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Practice your IP subnet planning skills. before the source address. and click Remove. For example. Remove any files created on the pod host computer during the lab. typically used in WAN connections. turn off power to the host computers. Sometimes the NIC for a serial connection. Use ping. For IPv4.1. web traffic. Test the network. Practice your subnetting skills. you have been asked to implement a new IP addressing scheme for the Exploration lab topology. trace.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to perform this exercise using Packet Tracer. Configure the network.

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Figure 7-5

Topology for the Challenge
1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server

2960-24TT S1-Central

1841 R2-Central

PC-PT 1A

PC-PT 1B

Table 7-7 Device

Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway (Route)

R1-ISP

Fa0/0 S0/0/0

172.16.3.62 172.16.3.98 172.16.1.254 172.16.3.97 172.16.0.1 172.16.0.2 172.16.3.61

255.255.255.192 255.255.255.252 255.255.254.0 255.255.255.252 255.255.254.0 255.255.254.0 255.255.255.192

— — 172.16.3.98 172.16.3.98 172.16.1.254 172.16.1.254 172.16.3.62

R2-Central

Fa0/0 S0/0/0

PC 1A PC 1B Eagle Server

NIC NIC NIC

Task 1: IP Subnet Planning
You have been given an IP address block of 172.16.0.0/22. You must provide for existing networks as well as future growth. Subnet assignments:
■ ■ ■

First subnet, existing student LAN, up to 400 hosts (Fa0/0 on R2-Central) Second subnet, future student LAN, up to 180 hosts (not yet implemented) Third subnet, existing ISP LAN, up to 40 hosts (Fa0/0 on R1-ISP)

Chapter 7: OSI Data Link Layer

215

■ ■ ■ ■

Fourth subnet, future ISP LAN, up to 18 hosts (not yet implemented) Fifth subnet, existing WAN, point-to-point link (S0/0/0 on R1-ISP and R2-Central) Sixth subnet, future WAN, point-to-point link (not yet implemented) Seventh subnet, future WAN, point-to-point link (not yet implemented)

Interface IP addresses:
■ ■

For the server, configure the second-highest usable IP address on the existing ISP LAN subnet. For R1-ISP’s Fa0/0 interface, configure the highest usable IP address on the existing ISP LAN subnet. For R1-ISP’s S0/0/0 interface, configure the highest usable address on the existing WAN subnet. For R2-Central’s S0/0/0 interface, use the lowest usable address on the existing WAN subnet. For R2-Central’s Fa0/0 interface, use the highest usable address on the existing student LAN subnet. For PCs 1A and 1B, use the first two IP addresses (the two lowest usable addresses) on the existing student LAN subnet.

■ ■

Additional configurations:
■ ■

For PCs 1A and 1B, in addition to IP configuration, configure them to use DNS services. For the server, enable DNS services, use the domain name eagle-server.example.com, and enable HTTP services.

Task 2: Finish Building the Network in Packet Tracer, Attending to Some Layer 2 Issues
On the R2-Central router, a NIC is missing for the serial connection to R1-ISP. Add a WIC-2T in the slot on the right. Also on R2-Central, Fa0/0 is shut down; turn it on. Connect a serial DCE cable to R1-ISP S0/0/0, with the other end connected to R2-Central S0/0/0. For all devices, make sure the power is on.

Task 3: Configure the Network
You need to configure the server, both routers, and the two PCs. You do not need to configure the switch, nor do you need the IOS CLI to configure the routers. Part of the router configuration has already been done for you; all you must do is configure the static routes and the interfaces via the GUI. The static route on R1-ISP should point to the existing student LAN subnet via R2-Central’s serial interface IP address. The static route on R2-Central should be a default static route that points to R1-ISP’s serial interface IP address. These procedures were explained in the Chapter 5 Skills Integration Challenge, and you practiced them in the Chapter 6 Skills Integration Challenge.

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Task 4: Test the Network
Use ping, trace, web traffic, and the Inspect tool. Trace packet flow in simulation mode, with HTTP, DNS, TCP, UDP, and ICMP viewable, to test your understanding of how the network is operating. Note in particular what Layer 2 encapsulation is used in each step of a packet’s journey, and how the headers on the Layer 2 PDUs change.

Task 5: Reflection
Consider an ICMP echo request packet sent from PC 1A to Eagle Server and the ICMP echo reply packet that results. Reflect on which addresses stay the same in this situation and which ones change.

CHAPTER 8

OSI Physical Layer

The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of multiple-choice, matching, fill-in-the-blank, and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of the OSI physical layer. The Lab Exercises portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum labs to further reinforce that you have mastered the practical, hands-on skills needed to understand and work with the physical layer. As you work through this chapter, use Chapter 8 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum or use the corresponding Chapter 8 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration Companion Guide for assistance.

Study Guide
The Physical Layer: Communication Signals
The role of the OSI physical layer is to encode the binary digits that represent data link layer frames into signals and to transmit and receive these signals across the physical media (copper wires, optical fiber, and wireless) that connect network devices.

Vocabulary Exercise: Completion
Fill in the blanks for the following statements.
1.

The purpose of the physical layer is to create the electrical, optical, or microwave signal that represents the bits in each frame. Manchester encoding indicates a 0 by a high-to-low voltage transition in the middle of the bit time. For a 1, there is a low-to-high voltage transition in the middle of the bit time.

2.

Concept Questions
1.

What are the three basic forms of network media on which data is represented? Copper cable, fiber, and wireless

2.

Physical layer standards cover what four areas? Physical and electrical properties of the media Mechanical properties (materials, dimensions, pinouts) of the connectors Bit representation by the signals (encoding) Definition of control information signals

3.

What are the three fundamental functions of the physical layer? The physical components Data encoding Signaling

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Physical Signaling and Encoding: Representing Bits
Eventually, all communication from the human network becomes binary digits, which are transported individually across the physical media.

Concept Questions
1.

Bits are represented on the medium by changing one or more of the following characteristics of a signal: Amplitude Frequency Phase

2.

Different physical media support the transfer of bits at different speeds. Data transfer can be measured in three ways: Bandwidth Throughput Goodput

Vocabulary Exercise: Completion
Fill in the blanks in the following statements.
1.

The capacity of a medium to carry data is described as the raw data bandwidth of the media. Digital bandwidth measures the amount of information that can flow from one place to another in a given amount of time. Throughput is the measure of the transfer of bits across the media over a given period of time. Goodput is the measure of usable data transferred over a given period of time, and is therefore the measure that is of most interest to network users.

2. 3.

Vocabulary Exercise: Matching
In Table 8-1, match the definition on the right with a term on the left.
Table 8-1 Term Signaling and Encoding Definition

a. NRZ signaling b. Manchester encoding

b. Bit values are represented as voltage transitions. a. Uses bandwidth inefficiently and is susceptible to electromagnetic interference. In addition, the boundaries between individual bits can be lost when long strings of 1s or 0s are transmitted consecutively. c. Each byte to be transmitted is broken into 4-bit pieces or nibbles and encoded as 5-bit values known as symbols. These symbols represent the data to be transmitted and a set of codes that help control transmission on the media.

c. 4B/5B

Chapter 8: OSI Physical Layer

219

Physical Media: Connecting Communication
The physical layer is concerned with network media and signaling. This layer produces the representation and groupings of bits as voltages, radio frequencies, or light pulses. Various standards organizations have contributed to the definition of the physical, electrical, and mechanical properties of the media available for different data communications.

Concept Questions
1.

Standards for copper media are defined by what criteria? Type of copper cabling used Bandwidth of the communication Type of connectors used Pinout and color codes of connections to the media Maximum distance of the media

2.

What can limit the susceptibility of copper cables to electronic noise? Selecting the cable type or category most suited to protect the data signals in a given networking environment Designing a cable infrastructure to avoid known and potential sources of interference in the building structure Using cabling techniques that include the proper handling and termination of the cables

Vocabulary Exercise: Matching
In Table 8-2, match a connector on the right with a media (cable) on the left.
Table 8-2 Media and Connectors Connector

Media (Cable)

a. Unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) cabling b. Coaxial cable c. Multimode optical fiber d. Single-mode optical fiber

c. Straight-Tip (ST) a. RJ-45 d. Subscriber Connector (SC) b. BNC

In Table 8-3, match the speed on the right with the wireless standard on the left.
Table 8-3 Wireless Media Speed

Wireless Standard

a. Bluetooth 802.15 b. 802.11(a,b,g,n), HiperLAN 2 c. 802, 11, MMDS, LMDS d. GSM, GPRS, CDMA, 2.5-3G

c. 22+ Mbps a. < 1 Mbps d. 10[nd]384 Kbps b. 1[nd]54+ Mbps

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Labs and Activities
Lab 8-1: Media Connectors Lab Activity (Lab 8.4.1.1)
Upon completion of this lab, you will be able to do the following:
■ ■ ■

Test cables using a Fluke 620 LAN CableMeter and a Fluke LinkRunner. Become familiar with the most common functions of a cable tester. Test different cables for type and wiring problems.

Background Category 5 (Cat 5) unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) cables are wired according to function. End devices, such as routers and host computers, connect to switches with Cat 5 straight-through cables. When connected together, however, a Cat 5 crossover cable must be used. This is also true of switches. When connecting one switch to another, a Cat 5 crossover cable is used again. Problems related to cables are one of the most common causes of network failure. Basic cable tests can prove helpful in troubleshooting cabling problems with UTP. The quality of cabling components used, the routing and installation of the cable, and the quality of the connector terminations will be the main factors in determining how trouble-free the cabling will be.
Note to instructor: Before starting the lab, the teacher or lab assistant should have several correctly

wired Cat 5 cables that are used by the student to learn cable tester operation. The cables should be both straight-through and crossover. There should also be several Cat 5 cables available with problems. Cables should be numbered to simplify the testing process and to maintain consistency. The following resources are required:
■ ■

Good Cat 5 straight-through and crossover wired cables of different colors Cat 5 straight-through and crossover wired cables with open wire connections in the middle or one or more conductors shorted at one end that are different colors and different lengths Fluke 620 LAN CableMeter or equivalent (see Figure 8-1) Fluke LinkRunner
Fluke 620 LAN CableMeter

■ ■

Figure 8-1

Chapter 8: OSI Physical Layer

221

Scenario First, you will visually determine whether the Cat 5 cable type is crossover or straight-through. Next, you use the cable tester to verify the cable type and common features available with the tester. Finally, you use the cable tester to test for bad cables that cannot be determined with a visual inspection.

Task 1: Become Familiar with the Most Common Functions of a Cable Tester
Figure 8-2 shows the TIA/EIA 568B Cat 5 UTP wire positioning for a straight-through and a crossover cable. When Cat 5 connectors are held together, wire color is a quick way to determine the cable type. TIA/EIA 568B is different from TIA/EIA 568A wiring. TIA/EIA 568A straight-through cables can be identified by the color coding.
Figure 8-2 TIA/EIA 568B Cat 5 UTP
TIA/EIA 568B CAT 5 UTP Straight Through 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 TIA/EIA 568B CAT 5 UTP Crossover 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Step 1.

Visually determine cable types.

Note to instructor: Students should be given a functional straight-through and crossover cable. These

cables will be used to learn cable tester features and build confidence in cable tester accuracy. There should be two numbered cables available. Perform a visual inspection of the cables and then fill out the chart in Table 8-4 with the cable color, type, and use.
Table 8-4 Cable Number Cable Types Cable Color Cable Type (StraightThrough or Crossover) Cable Use (Circle correct device)

1 2

Answers will vary Answers will vary

Answers will vary Answers will vary

Switch to: host / switch Switch to: host / switch

It is now time to verify the cable type and learn about the common features of the cable tester.

or down-arrow buttons until the desired cable type of UTP is selected. Use the following procedure to test each cable with the LAN cable coupler and cable identifier. Press the Setup button to enter the setup mode. and observe the LCD screen on the tester. Perform initial configuration of the Fluke 620 LAN CableMeter. and the bottom set of numbers refers to the far end. and then insert the cable identifier into the other side of the coupler. shown in Figure 8-3. Continue pressing the up/down-arrow buttons and pressing Enter until the tester is set to the cabling settings in Table 8-5. press the Setup button to exit setup mode. Press the up. .222 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Step 2. Verify the cable wire map. Turn the rotary switch selector on the tester to the WIRE MAP position. The coupler and the cable identifier are accessories that come with the Fluke 620 LAN CableMeter. Table 8-5 Tester Option Cable Tester Settings for UTP Desired Setting: UTP Cable Wiring Category Wire size CAL to Cable? Beeping LCD contrast UTP 10Base-T or EIA/TIA 4PR Category 5 AWG 24 No On or Off From 1 through 10 (brightest) When satisfied with the correct settings. Figure 8-3 Cable Coupler and Cable Identifier cable coupler cable identifier Place the near end of the cable into the RJ-45 jack labeled UTP/FTP on the tester. Press Enter to accept that setting and go to the next one. Step 3. The first option should be Cable. The wire map function displays which pins on one end of the cable are connected to which pins on the other end. The wiring of both the near and far end of the cable will be displayed. Place the RJ-45 to RJ-45 female coupler on the far end of the cable. The top set of numbers displayed on the LCD screen refers to the near end.

The tester Length function displays the length of the cable. Task 2: Test Different Cables for Type and Wiring Problems Obtain at least five different cables from your instructor. For each cable. Move the rotary switch selector on the tester to the Wire Map position. and whether the cable is straight-through or crossover. write down the number and color. the tester screen test results. and fill in Table 8-6 based on the results. For each cable. Table 8-7 Results of Basic Cable Test Cable Color Cable Length Cable Number 1 2 Answers will vary Answers will vary Note any problems encountered during this test: Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Repeat these steps until you are comfortable using the cable tester. write down the number and color. unknown cables are tested. whether the cable is straight-through or crossover. Step 2. Perform a basic cable test on each of the cables. In the next task. Move the rotary switch selector on the tester to the Length position. Table 8-6 Cable Tester Settings for UTP Cable Color Cable Type (Straight-Through or Crossover) Cable Number 1 2 Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Note any problems encountered during this test: Answers will vary Step 4. For each cable. and any problem. If power was cycled. Verify the cable length. and what the problem is (if one exists). Using the cable tester Wire Map function.Chapter 8: OSI Physical Layer 223 Perform a wire map test on each of the cables provided. If power was cycled. repeat the setup steps described in Step 2. perform a wire map test on each of the cables provided. Then fill in Table 8-8 based on the result for each Cat 5 cable tested. the tester screen test results. the cable length. . and complete Table 8-7 based on the results. repeat the setup steps described in Task 1. write down the number and color.

Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary. Rows 3. Answers will vary Straight-through Crossover Crossover Top: 12364578 Bottom: 12364578 Top: 12364578 Bottom: 36124578 Top: 12oo4578 Bottom: 36124578 None None Pins 3 and 6 are open somewhere in the first half of the cable Pin 5 is shorted in the last half of the cable Miswire 4 Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Straight-through Top: 12364578 Bottom: 12364s78 Top: 12365478 Bottom: 12364578 5 Straight-through *Refer to the Fluke manual for a detailed description of test results for wire map. 4. and will vary.224 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 8-8 Results of Wire Map Test Cable Color Cable type (Straight-Through or Crossover) *Test Results Problem Description Cable Cable Type Number (Visual Inspection) 1 2 3 Answers will vary Answers will vary. Answers are examples only. Place both ends of the cable into the LAN and MAP ports located on top of the LinkRunner. Task 3: Perform Initial Configuration of the Fluke LinkRunner Step 1. Step 3. Press the green button on the lower right to turn it back off. . and press the green button on the lower right along with the blue button to the left. and 5 show examples of cable problems. Fluke LinkRunner Step 2. which is shown in Figure 8-4. Figure 8-4 Turn on the Fluke LinkRunner.

as shown in Figure 8-7. the triangle with an exclamation mark in the center will appear and details will display. Figure 8-6 Fluke LinkRunner: Crossover Cable If it is a bad cable. Figure 8-7 Fluke LinkRunner: Bad Cable . Figure 8-5 Fluke LinkRunner: Straight-Through Cable If it is a correct crossover cable. two parallel lines (as shown in Figure 8-5) will appear in the upper-left corner of the screen. two intersecting lines (as shown in Figure 8-6) will appear in the upper-left corner of the screen.Chapter 8: OSI Physical Layer 225 If it is a correct straight-through cable.

226 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 4: Verify Cable Length Note: The instructions to test a cable are the same as determining cable length. Turn on the Fluke LinkRunner by pressing the green button on the lower right along with the blue button on the right. and is part of the learning process. Skills learned in this lab will enable you to quickly troubleshoot wrong cable types and broken cables. . A cable tester is used to determine cable type. Return the cable tester to the instructor when finished. Figure 8-8 Task 5: Reflection Problems related to cables are one of the most common causes of network failure. Network technicians should be able to determine when to use Cat 5 UTP straight-through and crossover cables. Press the green button on the lower right to turn it back off. Step 4. Task 6: Challenge Look for opportunities to test other cables with the Fluke 620 LAN CableMeter. and wire map. A properly functioning cable today may be broken tomorrow. Step 1. Locate the length of the cable below the icon indicating the type of cable (as shown in Figure 8-8). length. This isn’t unusual. Step 3. Ask the instructor where to return used cables. and press the green button on the lower right along with the blue button to the left. cables are constantly moved and reconnected. Task 7: Clean Up The cable tester is expensive and should never be left unattended. In a lab environment. Store the cables neatly for the next class. Place both ends of the cable into the LAN and MAP ports located on top of the LinkRunner. Fluke LinkRunner: Cable Length Step 2.

and how to properly connect devices. Figure 8-9 shows the topology for this skills integration challenge. View the standard lab setup at the various levels of the physical workspace.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to perform this exercise using Packet Tracer. Verify connectivity.5. View the standard lab setup in the physical workspace. it is important to know how to select the proper cable. Enter and view the physical workspace. Upon completion of this activity. in a lab environment.3) Open the file LSG01-PTSkills8. Background When working in Packet Tracer. This activity also explores the physical view of the network in Packet Tracer. and Table 8-9 shows the corresponding addressing table. Connect the devices. and connecting the devices.1. This activity examines device configurations in Packet Tracer. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Connect the devices in the standard lab setup. Figure 8-9 Topology for Challenge 1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server 2960-24TT S1-Central 1841 R2-Central PC 1A PC 1B . or in a corporate setting.Chapter 8: OSI Physical Layer 227 Packet Tracer Challenge Skills Integration Challenge: Connecting Devices and Exploring the Physical View (8. selecting the proper cable based on the configuration.

the IP address of Eagle Server. Verify connectivity.168.255. In an internetwork.255.2 192.16.255.1.10.6 172.252 255. Connect the routers together using the proper interfaces and the proper cable.254 192. such as a channel/data service unit (CSU/DSU) or modem.0 N/A N/A 10. Click both routers and examine the configuration using the Config tab.254.0 255.10.0 255.254.10.0 255.255.254 172.255.255.168. Connect PC 1A to the first port on switch S1-Central and PC 1B to the second port on switch S1-Central using the proper cable.254. From the command prompt on the desktop of both PCs. from across the street to across the globe.16. . Task 2: View the Standard Lab Setup in the Physical Workspace Step 1.1.254. Connect the proper interface on the router to interface FastEthernet0/24 on switch S1Central using the proper cable.0 255.6 10.255.6 172.254 172.10.254 10.0 255. The serial link between the routers represents a dedicated leased line between two locations consisting of a DTE (data terminal equipment).16. Connect the devices.255.255.0.10.255.1 172. The DCE connects to a service provider’s local loop. and the connections are repeated at the other end of the link.10. routers may be in different sites.255.16.0.10.16.253 10. such as a router.255. Enter and view the physical workspace. Most of our work in Packet Tracer has been done in the logical workspace.254.0.255.228 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 8-9 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP Fa0/0 S0/0/0 192. check your connections and troubleshoot until the pings succeed.252 255.254. connected to a DCE (data communication equipment).255.168. Step 2. issue the command ping 192. Check your configuration by clicking the Check Results button.16.5 172. If the pings fail.0.168.253 R2-Central Fa0/0 S0/0/0 S1-Central PC 1A PC 1B Eagle Server VLAN 1 NIC NIC NIC Task 1: Connect the Devices in the Standard Lab Setup Step 1. Click router R2-Central and examine the configuration using the Config tab. Connect the proper interface on the router to the proper interface on Eagle Server using the proper cable.255.255.10. The physical workspace enables you to see these relationships more clearly.1 172.168.254 255. Click router R1-ISP and examine the configuration using the Config tab.

View the standard lab setup at the various levels of the physical workspace. You will see a physical representation of the equipment installed in the wiring closet and the cabling that connects the equipment. You will see the floor plan of the building and the location of the wiring closet. Click Intercity on the navigation bar. It shows the connection between Central City and ISP City. Repeat the steps to view the equipment installed in ISP City. You will see the city and the location of the central office building. Click the wiring closet. Step 2. Click the central office building.Chapter 8: OSI Physical Layer 229 Enter the physical workspace by clicking the tab in the upper-left corner of the workspace. . Click Central City. Examine this view of the topology.

.

Internet Protocol (IP). Provides an interface to the upper layers b. Remains relatively independent of the physical equipment b. Adds a frame delimiter b. use Chapter 9 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum activities and labs to ensure you have mastered the practical. Controls the placement of a frame on the medium a. match the function on the right with the correct IEEE sublayer of the data link layer. Ethernet operates at the OSI physical and data link layers. LLC b. Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 9-1. Ethernet (without LLC) is the frame encapsulation method used for the most popular network layer protocol in use today.CHAPTER 9 Ethernet The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of matching. fill-in-the-blank. MAC a. Ethernet has been so successful because it has evolved over time to incorporate new technologies such as higher speeds and fiber-optic cabling. or use the corresponding Chapter 9 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration Companion Guide. Table 9-1 Sublayer Data Link Layer Sublayers Function a. multiple-choice.3. The upper sublayer of the data link layer.2. In addition. Logical Link Control (LLC) or IEEE 802. and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of Ethernet. Using IEEE terminology. Study Guide Overview of Ethernet Ethernet is the predominant LAN technology in use today. Ethernet operates at the physical layer and the Media Access Control (MAC) sublayer of the data link layer. Ethernet’s success can also be attributed to the fact that it was adopted by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and standardized as IEEE 802. Provides a unique source and destination address . hands-on skills needed to work with Ethernet. As you work through this chapter. can give upper-layer protocols access to Ethernet. for assistance.

2. The cabling has also evolved from coaxial to unshielded twisted pair to fiber-optic. addressing. Robert M. 3. After receiving a frame. also known as Ethernet II. Metcalfe’s goal that Ethernet become ubiquitous has been achieved. 10BASE5 b. DIX V2. and finally to a selective-forwarding environment with high-speed switches. 10BASE2 c. to a shared hub-based network. and standardization by the IEEE. Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 9-2. Digital Equipment Corporation. What functions does data encapsulation provide? Data encapsulation provides frame delimiting. and now 10 Gbps. Table 9-2 Term Ethernet Implementations Description a. low cost of installation and upgrading. The IEEE published the 802. reliability. and then to 100 Mbps and 1 Gbps.0. educational. Its original speed of 3 Mbps evolved to 10 Mbps. Ethernet has evolved from a shared coaxial medium. Metcalfe of the Xerox Corporation circulated a memo to his colleagues. proposing the name for their prototype network. Concentrates connections.3 standard for Ethernet in 1985. Why has Ethernet been so successful? Ethernet has been so successful because it has evolved with the times to incorporate new technologies.0 standard for Ethernet. Both ends of a connection can send at the same time a. Intel. allowing the network to see a group of nodes as a single unit b. The name reflects the goal that Ethernet become ubiquitous. a receiving node calculates its own CRC to compare to the one in the frame. In addition. Hub d. Since 1985. In 1980. Ethernet forms the foundation of most industrial. How does Ethernet handle error detection? The sending node calculates a Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) of the bits in the frame. the recipient assumes that the frame arrived without error. and government networks. and Xerox published the DIX V1. If the two CRC results match. Isolates each port and sends a frame only to its proper destination (if the destination is known) e. Uses 185 meters of thin coaxial cable f. Uses 500 meters of thick coaxial cable . Only one station at a time can transmit c. Ethernet’s success also can be attributed to its simplicity. The node places the CRC result in the Frame Check Sequence (FCS) field in the trailer part of the Ethernet frame. Ethernet: Communication Through the LAN The term Ethernet first appeared in 1973 when Dr. much like the ether substance that scientists in the 1800s believed filled space and matter.232 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Concept Questions 1. Half duplex e. match the description on the right with the correct Ethernet term on the left. ease of maintenance. Today. Switch d. Full duplex f. was released in 1982. and error detection. the fact that the Ethernet frame has remained relatively unchanged over the years has allowed applications to keep running over Ethernet even as it evolved.

and trailer. Start of frame delimiter c. The Layer 2 PDU is called a frame. Specifies the frame’s intended recipient . Unshielded twisted pair is still widely used. For example. Ethernet is still usually connected in a star topology. a switch port and the connected device can send at the same time. The Ethernet Frame A fundamental job of the data link layer is to encapsulate a Layer 3 Protocol Data Unit (PDU) into a Layer 2 PDU. the hub was still a shared medium. When Ethernet was upgraded to run on hubs with twisted-pair cabling. Although the cabling could have supported full duplex. Only one device can send at any time. and high-end devices. Most Layer 2 frames also have addressing fields in the header that identify the sender and receiver. Used for synchronization e. Specifies the number of bytes in the data part of the frame or specifies the type of data (the upper-layer protocol) f. Fiber-optic is reserved mostly for data centers. Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Table 9-3 lists the fields that appear in an IEEE 802. Compare and contrast half duplex and full duplex. which is a shared device. Ethernet follows these conventions. The Ethernet frame has remained relatively unchanged. unlike a hub. it still used half-duplex communication. most protocols specify that the frame should have a header. Match the field on the left with the definition on the right.3 header and trailer.Chapter 9: Ethernet 233 Concept Questions 1. Carries the upper-layer data b. Half duplex is used on a medium that can carry only one signal at a time. Although different protocols place different fields in a frame. Source address e. Used for error detection a. Data g. 2. Table 9-3 Field Frame Header Fields Definition a. it used half-duplex communication. Tells other devices on the network that a frame is coming along the medium d. Preamble b. links between switches. The cabling for Ethernet has evolved from coaxial to unshielded twisted pair to fiber-optic. When Ethernet ran on coaxial cable. Full duplex means that each end of a communications channel can send at the same time. data field. Frame check sequence g. Switches are capable of full duplex because they consider each connection a separate communication channel. Transmitting and receiving simultaneously is not allowed. Destination address d. Specifies the frame’s sender c. but the center of the star is a switch rather than a hub these days. and what aspects have changed? Ethernet’s simplicity and ease of use and installation have remained unchanged. Length/type f. What aspects of Ethernet have remained relatively unchanged over the years.

d. The sender backs off and waits a random amount of time before trying again. b.234 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Multiple-Choice Questions Choose the best answer for each of the following questions. The recipient calculates a CRC that differs from the CRC in the FCS field and drops the b. If the value is equal to or greater than 0x0600. What does a receiving device do if it receives a frame that is less than the allowed minimum size or greater than the allowed maximum size? a. The receiving device reports a collision.3. 128 bytes c. d. How does a recipient device know if the sender used the Length/Type field to specify a length or a type? a. To ensure that the frame is at least 64 bytes. . the field specifies a type. 5. c. The recipient sends a query to the sender to determine how the field should be interpreted. 64 bytes 2. 1522 bytes b. b. c. The sender notices the missing acknowledgment and retransmits the frame. The receiving device sends back a negative acknowledgment to the sender. Why is padding sometimes added to the data part of an Ethernet frame? a. the field specifies a type. The receiving device drops the frame. What is the minimum size of an Ethernet frame? a. 1024 bytes d. The recipient bases the decision on whether it’s been configured for Ethernet II or IEEE 802. 4.3ac standard? a. To specify the Portable Application Description (PAD) that describes the encapsulated data. To ensure that the frame is protected from damage. b. To provide synchronization. c. If the value is equal to or less than 1536. 1522 bytes b. The receiving device requests a retransmission. What happens if a frame arrives damaged? frame. What is the maximum size of an Ethernet frame according to the IEEE 802. c. a. d. 72 bytes d. 1. 6. The recipient requests a retransmission. 1518 bytes c. 64 bytes 3. d.

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7.

How long is a MAC address?

a. Six hexadecimal digits b. 32 bits c. 48 bits d. 8 bytes

Concept Questions
1.

Compare and contrast MAC addresses with IP addresses. MAC addresses operate at the OSI data link layer (Layer 2). Layer 2 addresses are used only for local delivery when transporting a frame across a local medium. These addresses use a flat addressing scheme and do not indicate on what network a device is located. If a device is moved to another network, its Layer 2 address does not need to change. IP addresses operate at the OSI network layer (Layer 3). Layer 3 addresses are carried from source to destination host across an internetwork. Layer 3 addresses use a hierarchical addressing scheme and indicate a network number and host identifier.

2.

Compare and contrast unicast, broadcast, and multicast communications at the MAC sublayer. Unicast, broadcast, and multicast are all 48-bit MAC address types. All of them can be destination MAC addresses. Only unicast can be a source address. A unicast address is a unique address used when a frame is sent from a single transmitting device to a single destination device. In the case of a broadcast, the frame is destined for all devices in the broadcast domain and is addressed to a MAC broadcast address of 48 1s (or FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF in hexadecimal). With multicast, a source can send to a group of devices. The low-order bit of the first byte must be a 1 for the address to be a multicast. If the multicast is also an IP multicast, the first 24 bits of the MAC address are 01-00-5E in hexadecimal.

Ethernet Media Access Control
In a shared medium, all devices have guaranteed access to the medium, but they must fairly share the medium and not interfere with each other. If more than one device transmits at the same time, the physical signals collide, and the data is damaged. Both transmitters must recognize that their data has been damaged and resend it. Ethernet uses carrier sense multiple access collision detect (CSMA/CD) to detect and handle collisions and regulate use of the shared medium.

Vocabulary Exercise: Completion
Fill in the blanks for the following statements that discuss CSMA/CD.
1.

Because devices using coaxial or hub-based Ethernet send their messages on a shared medium, a protocol (or coordination scheme or media access control method) is used to determine if the medium is already in use before a sender transmits. When a device detects that no other computer is sending a frame, the device transmits if it has something to send. All devices that have messages to send must listen before transmitting.

2.

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3. 4.

If a device detects a signal from another device, it waits before attempting to transmit. When no traffic is detected, a device transmits its message. While transmitting, the device continues to listen for traffic from another device. If another device is sending at the same time, a collision has occurred. If a collision happens, the sending devices continue to send for the time it takes to send a jam signal and then stop sending. The devices invoke a backoff algorithm that causes them to wait a random amount of time before trying to send again.

5.

Concept Questions
1.

What is interframe spacing, and why does Ethernet use it? Interframe spacing is the required time between frames on an Ethernet network. After a frame has been sent, all devices are required to wait a minimum of 96 bit times (the time it takes to send 96 bits). This gives the medium time to stabilize after transmitting a frame.

2.

Why is the backoff timing random when an Ethernet collision occurs? The backoff waiting period is intentionally designed to be random so that two stations do not delay for the same amount of time before retransmitting, which would result in more collisions.

Ethernet Physical Layer
The many implementations of Ethernet include Classic Ethernet, Fast Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet, and 10 Gigabit Ethernet. The differences occur at the physical layer, often called the Ethernet PHY. Four data rates are currently defined for operation over optical-fiber and twisted-pair cables:
■ ■ ■ ■

10 Mbps: 10BASE-T Classic Ethernet 100 Mbps: Fast Ethernet 1000 Mbps: Gigabit Ethernet 10 Gbps: 10 Gigabit Ethernet

Vocabulary Exercise: Completion
Fill in the blanks for the following statements that describe Ethernet physical layer options.
1.

10BASE-T uses two pairs of a four-pair cable and is terminated at each end with an eight-pin RJ-45 connector. The pair connected to pins 1 and 2 is used for transmitting, and the pair connected to pins 3 and 6 is used for receiving. Replacing hubs with switches in 10BASE-T networks has greatly increased the bandwidth available to these networks and has helped Ethernet maintain its dominance in the LAN market. The 10BASE-T links connected to a switch can support either half-duplex or full-duplex operation. The most popular implementations of 100 Mbps Ethernet are 100BASE-TX, which uses Category 5 or later UTP cable, and 100BASE-FX, which uses fiber-optic cable. 1000BASE-T Ethernet provides full-duplex transmission using four pairs of Category 5 or later UTP cable.

2.

3.

4.

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5.

The two fiber versions of Gigabit Ethernet are 1000BASE-SX and 1000BASE-LX. Fiber-optic cabling offers better noise immunity than UTP, a smaller physical size, and higher distances and bandwidth. A difference between 1000BASE-SX and 1000BASE-LX is the wavelength of the optical signal. The IEEE 802.3ae standard was adapted to include 10-Gbps, full-duplex transmission over fiber-optic cable. 10-Gigabit Ethernet is evolving for use not only in LANs, but also in MANs and WANs. Although Gigabit Ethernet is now widely available and 10-Gigabit products are becoming more available, the IEEE and the 10-Gigabit Ethernet Alliance are working on 40-, 100-, and even 160-Gbps standards.

6.

7.

8.

Hubs and Switches
In the 1970s and 1980s, Ethernet networks were connected in a bus topology using coaxial cable. The coaxial cable provided a shared medium. In the 1990s, administrators started connecting nodes to the shared network in a star topology using twisted-pair cabling and hubs. During the 1990s, to improve performance, administrators upgraded their hubs to switches. Switches divide collision domains into smaller domains, sometimes so small that collisions are no longer an issue. For example, in the common case where a single device is connected to a port on a switch, both ends of the communications channel can send and receive at the same time, and collisions don’t occur. Switches forward broadcast and multicast traffic to all members of a LAN but provide selective forwarding for unicast traffic. The selective forwarding greatly reduces collisions and improves performance.

Vocabulary Exercise: Matching
In Table 9-4, match the characteristic on the right with the correct term on the left.
Table 9-4 Term Characteristics of Hubs and Switches Characteristic

a. Hub b. Switch

b. Divides collision domains a. Forwards received bits out every port b. Supports full-duplex communication a. Simplifies network cabling but doesn’t have any performance benefits a. When many nodes that transmit frequently are connected to this device, latency increases, because each node must wait for an opportunity to transmit b. Provides an alternative to contention-based Ethernet b. Maintains a table that maps each MAC address to a port

Vocabulary Exercise: Completion
Fill in the blanks for the following statements that describe the selective forwarding service provided by switches.
1.

A switch selectively forwards a frame that it receives on a port to the port where the destination node is connected.

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2.

Switches use store-and-forward switching, whereby the switch receives an entire frame, checks the FCS field for errors, and forwards the frame to the appropriate port. A switch maintains a table, called the MAC table (also called MAC address table, CAM table, switch table, bridge table, filter table), that matches a MAC address with the port used to connect the node with that address.

3.

Concept Question
List and describe the five basic operations of an Ethernet LAN switch. Learning. A switch populates the MAC table by learning which port it should use to reach each MAC address. As a frame enters the switch, the switch examines the MAC source address. If no entry exists in the table for this address, the switch creates a new entry that pairs the source address with the port on which the frame arrived. The switch can now use this mapping to forward frames to the node with the MAC address in the table entry. Aging. A switch tracks how long an entry has been in the MAC table. If the entry reaches a certain age without being refreshed by a new frame from the same node on the same port, the entry is removed. Flooding. If a switch has not yet learned which port it should use to forward a frame to a destination, the switch sends the frame to all ports, except the port on which the frame arrived. Selective forwarding. A switch examines the destination MAC address in a frame and forwards the frame out the appropriate port. Filtering. After a switch has learned the address or addresses that map to a port, it filters frames from going out that port that include a destination address that is not mapped to the port.

Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
To send an IP packet to a recipient, a sender needs to learn the recipient’s MAC address. ARP provides a means for a sender to broadcast a message to find the MAC address for a known IP address.

Multiple-Choice Questions
Choose the best answer for each of the following questions.
1.

What is a basic job of ARP?

a. Resolve IPv4 addresses to MAC addresses b. Build a table that maps MAC addresses to ports c. Build a loop-free LAN from redundantly connected switches d. Provide a resource protocol for finding applications 2.

If a node has recently sent a frame to another node, where is the mapping of IPv4 address to MAC address stored?

a. MAC table b. ARP cache c. Routing table d. NVRAM

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3.

When a node has not recently sent a frame to another node, how does the node discover the correct MAC address to use for the IPv4 address of the destination node?

a. The sender sends an IPv4 query to the destination node to ask the node for its MAC address. b. The sender broadcasts an ARP request. c. The sender monitors traffic until it discovers the correct MAC address to use. d. The sender transmits a TCP SYN to the destination node. 4.

What type of header does an ARP frame contain?

a. IP b. Ethernet c. TCP d. UDP 5.

When an Ethernet transmitter sends to a destination not on its local network, what MAC destination address does it use, and how does it discover this address? request.

a. The transmitter uses the MAC address of the destination, which it discovers with an ARP b. The transmitter uses the MAC address of the local router interface, which it discovers with an

ARP request.
c. The transmitter uses the MAC address of the destination, which it discovers with a proxy ARP

request.
d. The transmitter doesn’t need a MAC address for the destination and relies on the IP destination

address to provide enough information for routers to forward the frame.
6.

What is the destination address in the frame when a node sends an ARP request to find the MAC address associated with a known IP address?

a. 255.255.255.255 b. The address of the local router interface c. The recipient’s address d. FF:FF:FF:FF:FF:FF

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Labs and Activities
Lab 9-1: Address Resolution Protocol (9.8.1.1)
Upon completion of this lab, you will be able to
■ ■

Use the Windows arp command. Use Wireshark to examine ARP exchanges.

Background TCP/IP uses ARP to map a Layer 3 IP address to a Layer 2 MAC address. When a frame is placed on the network, it must have a destination MAC address. To dynamically discover the MAC address of the destination device, an ARP request is broadcast on the LAN. The device that contains the destination IP address responds, and the MAC address is recorded in the ARP cache. Every device on the LAN keeps its own ARP cache, which is a small area in RAM that holds ARP results. An ARP cache timer removes ARP entries that have not been used for a certain period of time. Depending on the device, the times differ. For example, some Windows operating systems store ARP cache entries for 2 minutes. If the entry is used again during that time, the ARP timer for that entry is extended to 10 minutes. ARP is an excellent example of a performance trade-off. With no cache, ARP must continually request address translations each time a frame is placed on the network. This adds latency to the communication and could congest the LAN. Conversely, unlimited hold times could cause errors with devices that leave the network or change the Layer 3 address. A network engineer needs to be aware of ARP but may not interact with the protocol on a regular basis. ARP is a protocol that enables network devices to communicate with the TCP/IP protocol. Without ARP, no efficient method exists to build the datagram Layer 2 destination address. ARP is a potential security risk. ARP spoofing, or ARP poisoning, is a technique used by an attacker to inject the wrong MAC address association into a network. An attacker forges a device’s MAC address, and frames are sent to the wrong destination. Manually configuring static ARP associations is one way to prevent ARP spoofing. In addition, an authorized MAC address list may be configured in Cisco devices to restrict network access to only approved devices. Scenario With a pod host computer, use the Windows arp utility command to examine and change ARP cache entries. In Task 2, you will use Wireshark to capture and analyze ARP exchanges between network devices. If Wireshark has not been loaded on the host pod computer, you can download it from ftp://eagleserver.example.com/pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter9/. The file is wireshark-setup-0.99.4.exe. Figure 9-1 shows the topology for this lab, and Table 9-5 is the corresponding addressing table.

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Figure 9-1

Topology for Lab 9-1

R1-ISP

S0/0/0 DCE

Eagle Server

S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24

S1-Central

R2-Central

1A

1B

11A

11B

Pod#1

Pod#11

Table 9-5 Device

Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway

R1-ISP

S0/0/0 Fa0/0

10.10.10.6 192.168.254.253 10.10.10.5 172.16.255.254 192.168.254.254 172.31.24.254 172.16.Pod#.1 172.16.Pod#.2 172.16.254.1

255.255.255.252 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.252 255.255.0.0 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.0.0

— — 10.10.10.6 — 192.168.254.253 — 172.16.255.254 172.16.255.254 172.16.255.254

R2-Central

S0/0/0 Fa0/0

Eagle Server

— —

Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central

— — —

Note to Instructor: Depending on the classroom situation, the lab topology may have been modified before this class. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server.example.com, troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity:
Step 1.

Verify that all network equipment is powered on and that eagle-server is on.

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Step 2.

From a known good host computer, ping eagle-server. If the ping test fails, ping S1Central, R2-Central, R1-ISP, and finally eagle-server. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests. If an individual host computer cannot connect to eagle-server, check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address, shown in Table 9-5, and that it can ping R2-Central, 172.16.255.254. Verify that the host computer has the correct Gateway IP address, 172.16.255.254, and that it can ping R1-ISP, 10.10.10.6. Finally, verify that the host has the correct DNS address and that it can ping eagle-server.example.com.

Step 3.

Task 1: Use the Windows arp Command
Step 1.

Access the Windows terminal. Open a Windows terminal by choosing Start > Run. Enter cmd, and click OK. With no options, the arp command displays useful help information. Issue the arp command on the pod host computer, and examine the output. It should look like Example 9-1.

Example 9-1

Using the arp Command

C:\> arp Displays and modifies the IP-to-Physical address translation tables used by address resolution protocol (ARP). ARP -s inet_addr eth_addr [if_addr] ARP -d inet_addr [if_addr] ARP -a [inet_addr] [-N if_addr] -a Displays current ARP entries by interrogating the current protocol data. If inet_addr is specified, the IP and Physical addresses for only the specified computer are displayed. If more than one network interface uses ARP, entries for each ARP table are displayed. -g Same as -a. Specifies an internet address. inet_addr

-N if_addr Displays the ARP entries for the network interface specified by if_addr. -d Deletes the host specified by inet_addr. inet_addr may be wildcarded with * to delete all hosts. -s Adds the host and associates the Internet address inet_addr with the Physical address eth_addr. The Physical address is given as 6 hexadecimal bytes separated by hyphens. The entry is permanent. eth_addr if_addr interface Specifies a physical address. If present, this specifies the Internet address of the

whose address translation table should be modified. If not present, the first applicable interface will be used.

Example 9-3 Using the ping Command C:\> ping 172. Use the arp command to examine the local ARP cache.2 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 172..1. Maximum = 0ms.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 172. Received = 4. Lost = 0 (0% loss). as shown in Example 9-3. what were the results? The ARP cache should be empty. Adds a static entry.1..16. Any entry indicates communication between the pod host computer and other network devices. Average = 0ms C:\> C:\> arp -a .Chapter 9: Ethernet 243 Example 9-1 Using the arp Command continued Example: > arp -s 157.1.254? arp -d 172.16.55.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 172. Step 3... Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Ping statistics for 172.16.85. By accessing other devices.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 172.16. Displays the arp Answer the following questions about the arp command: ■ What command is used to display all entries in the ARP cache? arp -a ■ What command is used to delete all ARP cache entries (flush the ARP cache)? arp -d * ■ What command is used to delete the ARP cache entry for 172. Use the ping command to dynamically add entries to the ARP cache.16. .255. Using the arp Command with the -a Option Example 9-2 C:\> arp -a No ARP Entries Found C:\> Without any network communication.1. When you issued the command that displays ARP entries.1.2 Pinging 172.16. the ARP cache should be empty.254 Step 2.16.1.. ARP associations are dynamically added to the ARP cache.212 00-aa-00-62-c6-09 > arp -a table. C:\> .16. as shown in Example 9-2.2: Packets: Sent = 4.1. The ping command can be used to test network connectivity..16.255.

you accessed the destination device more than once and caused the ARP timeout for the entry to rise to 10 minutes. eagle-server.1. only the Gateway MAC address is displayed.244 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example 9-3 Using the ping Command continued Interface: 172. which is how long the ARP cache stores an initial entry. Do not send any traffic to the computer accessed previously. a couple explanations are possible. you did not wait 2 minutes. Examine the ARP cache entry. Issue the ping command to that pod host computer. Wait between 2 and 3 minutes. Because Eagle Server is on a different network. Or.1 —.2 C:\> Physical Address 00-10-a4-7b-01-5f Type dynamic Use the command ipconfig /all to verify another pod host computer’s Layer 2 and Layer 3 information. First. Step 4.16. It may be easier to ping both devices more than once. Verify that the ARP cache contains two entries: one for the Gateway and one for the destination pod host computer.254 What is the physical address of the Gateway? Answers will vary.255. and check the ARP cache again.16. Dynamically What is the IP address of the destination pod host computer? Answers will vary. R2-Central. What is the physical address of Eagle Server? It cannot be determined. which will retain the cache entry for approximately 10 minutes. . Record the two ARP cache entries using Table 9-6. How was the ARP entry added to the ARP cache? Hint: Review the Type column. Examine the ARP cache entry. Issue the ping command to the Gateway. What is the IP address of the Gateway? 172. What is the physical address of the destination pod host computer? Answers will vary.0x60004 Internet Address 172. Manually adjust entries in the ARP cache. How was the address discovered? Dynamically Issue the ping command to Eagle Server. Was the ARP cache entry cleared? Yes If the entry was not cleared.1.com.example.16.

255.1 —.1 —. Dynamically Simulate removing all entries. All entries should be removed.2 172.254 Answers will vary Answers will vary Dynamically Dynamically Next. Example 9-4 shows how to manually delete an ARP cache entry.1.0x60004 Internet Address 172. Table 9-7 Device Remaining ARP Cache Entry IP Address Physical Address How Is It Discovered? Gateway 172.254 C:\> C:\> arp -d 172. issue the arp -d {inet-addr | *} command.2 C:\> Physical Address 00-10-a4-7b-01-5f Type dynamic Physical Address 00-10-a4-7b-01-5f 00-0c-85-cf-66-40 Type dynamic dynamic What command deletes the entry for the pod host computer? arp -d inet-addr Record the remaining ARP cache entry in Table 9-7. Example 9-4 Manually Deleting an ARP Cache Entry C:\> arp -a Interface: 172.1. To delete entries in the ARP cache.16. and examine the ARP cache with the arp -a command. You can delete addresses individually by specifying the IP address. delete the entry for the pod host computer. or you can delete all entries using the wildcard *.16.255.254 Answers will vary. .1.16.16.16.255.Chapter 9: Ethernet 245 Table 9-6 Device Initial ARP Cache Entries IP Address Physical Address How Is It Discovered? Pod host computer Gateway Answers will vary 172.254 C:\> arp -a Interface: 172. What is one layer of security that can be applied to ARP cache entries to help counter ARP spoofing? Add a static ARP entry for the Gateway.16. What command deletes all entries in the ARP cache? arp -d * Issue the command to remove all entries in the ARP cache on your pod host computer.16.16.1.255.0x60004 Internet Address 172. Consider a secure environment where the Gateway controls access to a web server that contains top-secret information.

246 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Simulate adding a static entry for the Gateway. and click OK.254. Step 2. open a Windows terminal window by choosing Start > Run.16.254. Send one ping request to the Gateway. What is the type of the ARP entry? Static For the next task. using the command ping -n 1 192. Wireshark will be used to capture and examine an ARP exchange.16. Enter cmd. and the ARP communication is evaluated. this will require ARP to rediscover address maps. . Now. one ping request is sent to the Gateway.254 MAC-address Issue the command on your pod host computer. and one ping request is sent to Eagle Server. The Packet Details window shows ARP protocol contents. Check the box to update the list of packets in real time. you will use it to view the ARP cache.16. What command adds a static ARP entry for the Gateway to the ARP cache? arp -s 172. Choose Capture > Options.255.255. The Wireshark Packet List window displays the number of packets captured. provide answers to these questions: ■ ■ ■ What is the IP address of the Gateway? 172.254. Prepare Wireshark for captures. This begins the packet capture. Click Start. If you haven’t already done so. Afterward. Send one ping request to Eagle Server. the Wireshark capture is stopped.168. Select the interface that corresponds to the LAN. What command did you use? arp -d * Step 3. In this step.254 What is the physical address of the Gateway? Answers will vary.255. Prepare the pod host computer for ARP captures. and examine the ARP cache again. You should see a Wireshark screen similar to the one shown in Figure 9-2. Flush the ARP cache. Stop Wireshark and evaluate the communication. Task 2: Use Wireshark to Examine ARP Exchanges Step 1. Capture and evaluate ARP communication. using the command ping -n 1 172. Configure Wireshark for packet captures. Do not close the Windows terminal.

16. why does the target MAC address contain all 0s? The ARP protocol has no value yet to put in the field. Table 9-9 Field Second ARP Packet Value Sender MAC address Sender IP address Target MAC address Target IP address Answers will vary 172.255.255.16.Chapter 9: Ethernet 247 Figure 9-2 Wireshark Screen Using your Wireshark capture. answer the following questions: ■ ■ What is the first ARP packet? A request What is the second ARP packet? A reply Fill in Table 9-8 with information about the first ARP packet. Table 9-8 Field First ARP Packet Value Sender MAC address Sender IP address Target MAC address Target IP address Answers will vary Answers will vary 00:00:00:00:00:00 172.254 Answers will vary Answers will vary If the Ethernet II frame for an ARP request is a broadcast.254 Fill in Table 9-9 with information about the second ARP packet. .

Choose Wireshark. choose Start > Control Panel. Remember. Task 3: Reflection The ARP protocol maps Layer 3 IP addresses to Layer 2 MAC addresses. Task 5: Clean Up Wireshark was installed on the pod host computer. . Remove any files created on the pod host computer during the lab. but the Layer 3 address never changes.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity. the Layer 2 MAC address changes with each hop across a router. Discuss several techniques used to counter this type of attack.1. How long should the Gateway mapping be stored in the ARP cache on the pod host computer? Why? 10 minutes. perform a search on ARP spoofing.248 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Why was there no ARP request for the ping to Eagle Server? The TCP/IP protocol already had the MAC address for the Gateway. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. because the cache entry was accessed within the 2-minute cache timeout. If the entry was manually inserted in the ARP cache. This sets the new timeout value to 10 minutes. it will eventually be deleted from cache. Most wireless routers support a network administrator manually adding a list of MAC addresses to the router that are permitted access to the wireless network. Using outside resources. discuss the advantages of configuring MAC address restrictions for wireless networks. turn off power to the host computers. and leave the room ready for the next class. it is a static entry and remains until the computer is turned off or the ARP cache is manually flushed. Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Address Resolution Protocol (9. If the entry was learned dynamically. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. and click Remove. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. however.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab9812. If a packet must move across networks. Task 4: Challenge Using outside resources.8. which is used to forward the packet outside the LAN. The ARP cache stores ARP address mappings. Discuss ways in which attackers can circumvent this security. Click Add or Remove Programs. If Wireshark needs to be uninstalled.

or the frame is a broadcast. In this course. Using Telnet. Using the Windows hyperterm utility.8. Log in with your student account. the frame is routed out all ports except the port where it originated. a modem configured on the AUX port enables telephone access. In this lab. limited privileges have been configured for student use. If the network is not secure. and operating systems such as Windows have built-in Telnet clients. For secure networks. The Cisco device must be configured for Telnet access. a serial connection can be established. For devices physically distant from the network engineer. . Figure 9-3 shows the topology for this lab. network engineers can log into network devices from anywhere across a secure network. it is denied. the destination MAC address is checked against the table. When a switch receives a frame. and Table 9-10 is the corresponding addressing table. otherwise. Scenario Telnet is a network service that uses a client/server model. Use the show mac-address-table command to examine the MAC addresses and association to ports. You will do the following: ■ ■ ■ Telnet to S1-Central. you will be able to ■ ■ Use the Telnet protocol to log into a Cisco switch. Background Switches maintain a table of MAC addresses and associated switch ports.Chapter 9: Ethernet 249 Packet Tracer Challenge Lab 9-2: Cisco Switch MAC Table Examination (9.1) Upon completion of this lab. If a switch does not know which port to use to route the frame. Access to Cisco devices can be accomplished through several means. and the corresponding port is used to route the frame out the switch. Use the Cisco show mac-address-table command to examine MAC address and port associations. Cisco IOS devices provide a default Telnet server. A console port can be used if the Cisco router or switch is within proximity of a computer. network connectivity can be established through two means. the Cisco device can be configured for a Telnet session. you will connect to the switch via a Telnet session.2.

250 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 9-3 Topology for Lab 9-2 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 Table 9-10 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP S0/0/0 Fa0/0 10.255.254 172.16.255.254 172.254 172.10. ping eagle-server. Take corrective action on devices that fail the ping tests. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server.255.168.5 172.253 10.0 — — 10.16.0 255.252 255.16.255.6 — 192.255.255.255.Pod#.Pod#.16.10.255.255.255. Verify that all network equipment is powered on and that eagle-server is on.255. troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity: Step 1.255.255.254 192.24.254.0.com.0.6 192.254 R2-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Eagle Server — — Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central — — — Note to Instructor: Depending on the classroom situation.0 255.16. R2-Central.255.254.2 172.1 255.168. Step 2.10.0 255.254.10.10.254 172.31. and finally eagle-server.0 255.255.example.252 255.16. ping S1Central.0 255.255.253 — 172.16.255.0.254.168.1 172. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity. . the lab topology may have been modified before this class.0.0 255. If the ping test fails.10. From a known good host computer.255. R1-ISP.

Use Table 9-11 to fill in a description for each command option.1 An access prompt is displayed. check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central. Authorized access only.255. Verify that the host computer has the correct Gateway IP address.com.10. Examine the switch MAC address table.6. To provide access to each student. use the user ID corresponding to your pod.10. ccna1 through ccna11. Issue the show mac-address-table ? command. Example 9-5 Switch Access Prompt ******************************************************************* This is Lab switch S1-Central. Step 2. For example.254. 172. . This outputs all options for the command. ******************************************************************* User Access Verification Username: ccna1 Password: cisco S1-Central# (*hidden*) Task 2: Use the Cisco IOS show mac-address-table Command to Examine MAC Addresses and Port Associations Step 1. verify that the host has the correct DNS address and that it can ping eagle-server. and that it can ping R2-Central. Use the Windows Telnet client to access S1-Central.example. use user ID ccna1. If an individual host computer cannot connect to eagle-server.255. the password is cisco. and click OK. for host computers on pod 1. 10. Open a Windows terminal by choosing Start > Run. 172. From the Windows terminal. Finally.16.16. S1-Central has been configured with 11 student accounts. Enter cmd. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address. issue the Telnet command telnet destination-ip-address: C:/> telnet 172.254. Task 1: Use the Telnet Protocol to Log in to a Cisco Switch Step 1. and that it can ping R1-ISP.254. shown in Table 9-10. Unless directed otherwise by your instructor. similar to the one shown in Example 9-5.16. Access the Windows terminal.Chapter 9: Ethernet 251 Step 3.

Address keyword Aging-time keyword Count keyword Dynamic entry type Interface keyword Multicast information for the selected wildcard MAC notification parameters and history table Static entry type VLAN keyword Output modifiers Carriage return Examine dynamic MAC address table entries. This command displays static (CPU) and dynamic. Issue the show mac-address-table command. Use Table 9-12 to list the MAC addresses and corresponding switch ports.252 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 9-11 Option Show Mac-Address-Table Command Options Description address aging-time count dynamic interface multicast notification static vlan | <cr> Step 2. or learned. How many MAC addresses are listed for switch port gi0/0? 5 . Table 9-12 MAC Addresses and Ports Switch Port MAC Address Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Suppose that a hub with five active hosts is connected to switch port gi0/0. entries.

1) Upon completion of this lab. that MAC address entries are stored.3. This command displays the default amount of time. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ Use Wireshark to capture and analyze frames originating from network nodes. Remove anything that was brought into the lab.8. the switch performs a lookup of the frame destination MAC address. Task 4: Reflection Using the Telnet protocol. Task 5: Clean Up Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. Without a MAC address table. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. the switch would have to flood the frame out each port. What is the default aging time for VLAN 1? 300 Task 3: Challenge What would be the result if the MAC address table were flushed of dynamic entries? The switch would broadcast frames out each port except the originating port until the switch learned all the MAC addresses connected to the switch. This has the benefit of permitting access to remote devices for troubleshooting and monitoring purposes. If a match occurs in the MAC address table. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity. Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Cisco Switch MAC Table Examination (9.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. Examine MAC address table aging time. When a frame enters the switch. turn off power to the host computers. Copy and paste data captured by Wireshark into Notepad for further analysis.8.Chapter 9: Ethernet 253 Step 3. however. Remember. Issue the show mac-address-table aging-time command.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab9822.2. Examine the origination of frames in a small network. the frame is routed out the corresponding port. Lab 9-3: Intermediary Device as an End Device (9. in seconds. network engineers can access Cisco devices remotely across secure LANs. . and leave the room ready for the next class. A switch contains a MAC address table that lists the MAC address connected to each switch port.

you can download it from ftp://eagleserver.255. you will see the switch originating frames.254.0 — — 10.99.0 255. If Wireshark has not been loaded on the host pod computer.0 255.1 172.255.254 192.255.255.10.0 255.254 172.254 172.24.255.1 255.254 172.252 255.0.example.6 192.0.168.255. a switch efficiently passes frames from one device to another in a LAN.168.0 255.6 — 192.0 255. however.255.255.10.254 R2-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Eagle Server — — Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central — — — .255. Rather. A switch normally does not originate frames to node devices.255.168. In this lab.255.254 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Background A switch is used to forward frames between network devices.Pod#.5 172. Figure 9-4 Topology for Lab 9-3 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 Table 9-13 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP S0/0/0 Fa0/0 10.255.16.255. Figure 9-4 shows the topology for this lab.253 10. Scenario You will use Wireshark to capture and analyze Ethernet frames.253 — 172.254.0. because you will use Telnet to directly access the switch.4.16.10.16.252 255.255.255.0 255.0.16.16.255.255.exe. The file is wireshark-setup-0.10.254.16.254.Pod#.254 172.16.255.com/pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter9/.10.31. and Table 9-13 is the corresponding addressing table.2 172.10.

From the Windows terminal. Unless directed otherwise by your instructor.16. 172. numerous dynamic address table entries should be listed. Use the Windows Telnet client to access S1-Central.254. should be returned. Check the box to update the list of packets in real time.example. troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity: Step 1. S1-Central#.10. In addition to several static CPU entries. Examine the switch MAC address table with the show mac-address-table command. use user ID ccna1. Enter enable to enter privileged mode. Verify that all network equipment is powered on and that eagle-server is on. To provide access to each student. If an individual host computer cannot connect to eagle-server. ping eagle-server. and finally eagle-server. Step 2. Verify that the host computer has the correct Gateway IP address. however.com. the password is cisco. The S1-Central prompt.16. During this capture there will probably be more than 200 packets. R2-Central. The critical Telnet conversation between the pod host computer and S1-Central will be easy to filter. use the user ID corresponding to your pod.254.255. S1-Central has been configured with 11 student accounts. cisco. R1-ISP.10.16. Use Table 9-14 to list the dynamic MAC address entries. Click Start.254. Finally. Step 2. . making analysis a bit tedious. Step 3. This begins the packet capture. In this lab you will ping a neighbor’s pod host computer.Chapter 9: Ethernet 255 Note to Instructor: Depending on the classroom situation. 172. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity. Choose Capture > Options. for host computers on pod 1. From a known good host computer. shown in Table 9-13. and that it can ping R1-ISP. Select the interface that corresponds to the LAN. Examine and clear the MAC address table. the lab topology may have been modified before this class. Configure Wireshark for packet capture. ping S1Central.example.6. and that it can ping R2-Central. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address. verify that the host has the correct DNS address and that it can ping eagle-server.1. Enter the appropriate username and password. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests. ccna1 through ccna11. Step 3. Write down the IP address and port connection on S1-Central for the neighbor’s pod host computer: ■ ■ IP address: Answers will vary S1-Central port number: Answers will vary Task 1: Use Wireshark to Capture and Analyze Frames Originating from Network Nodes Step 1. 10.com. issue the Telnet command telnet 172.255. For example. check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central. If the ping test fails.

Ping your neighbor’s IP address. Table 9-15 Dynamic MAC Address Entries Switch Port MAC Address Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary What conclusion can you make about how a switch learns MAC addresses connected to switch interfaces? A switch does not learn about connected devices until traffic originates from the device. which was recorded earlier: C:>\ ping -n 1 ip-address The MAC address for your neighbor’s computer should be dynamically added in the S1Central MAC address table. switch to HEX Dump. may be read within 10 seconds after flushing the MAC address table. because R2-Router sends Ethernet keepalive frames every 10 seconds. From Wireshark. This is normal. Highlight one of the Telnet session packets. A stream content window opens. . You can use the show mac-address-table command again to verify that the address is added. You will analyze the capture in the next task. using ASCII as the default display. issue the Cisco IOS interface configuration command no keepalive. This stops the 10-second Ethernet heartbeat. Open a second terminal window. Note to Instructor: Fa 0/24. Use Table 9-15 to list the dynamic MAC address entries. choose Analyze > Follow TCP Stream. In Wireshark. Task 2: Examine the Origination of Frames in a Small Network Step 1. You can use the show mac-address-table command again to verify that the dynamic entries have been cleared. If the username and passwords are not visible. use the clear mac-address-table dynamic command.256 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 9-14 Dynamic MAC Address Entries Switch Port MAC Address Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary To clear dynamic MAC address table entries. Stop the Wireshark capture. R2-Router. on R2-Router interface Fa 0/0. To prove this to students. examine the Telnet session to S1-Central.

scroll down to the captured ICMP request that was generated when you pinged.6cc0 0100.cccc 0100. Examine output of the show mac-address-table command.0cdd.0ccc. Example 9-6 MAC Address Table Before the Ping Mac Address Table {_lEMaNL. In Notepad.0ccc.cccd 0100. click the Filter button at the top-left corner of the screen and remove the filter string. Does the switch port correspond to your pod host computer? Yes .015f Type ———— STATIC STATIC STATIC STATIC DYNAMIC Ports ——CPU CPU CPU CPU Fa0/1 Total Mac Addresses for this criterion: 5 S1-Central# In Table 9-16. Step 2. write down the dynamic MAC address and port number displayed in the output.f79f. Right-click telnet and choose Copy Bytes (Printable Text Only).dddd 0010.RPC —————————————————————Vlan —— All All All All 1 Mac Address —————000f. Open Notepad. To remove any display filters. Figure 9-5 shows partial output of a Wireshark capture. View the packet in the Packet Details window pane. In the top Wireshark Packet List pane. You will copy and paste data into Notepad for analysis. choose Edit > Paste to copy and paste the Telnet data into Notepad. Figure 9-5 Wireshark Capture of Telnet Select the last Telnet data packet from S1-Central before the ping command. You should see a dynamic mapping for your own computer similar to the output shown in Example 9-6.a47b.Chapter 9: Ethernet 257 Verify the username and password that you entered: ■ ■ Username: Answers will vary Password: cisco Close the stream content window.

0ccc.76ac.015f 0016. write down the MAC address and port number for the second dynamic entry displayed in the output. choose Edit > Paste to copy and paste the Telnet data into Notepad.258 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 9-16 Dynamic MAC Address Entry Type Port MAC Address Answers will vary Dynamic Answers will vary Why is your pod host computer mapping still in the MAC address table.cccc 0100.a47b. Does the switch port correspond to your neighbor’s pod host computer? Yes Table 9-17 Dynamic MAC Address Entry Type Port MAC Address Answers will vary Dynamic Answers will vary Task 3: Reflection The Wireshark capture of a Telnet session between a pod host computer and S1-Central was analyzed to show how a switch dynamically learns about nodes directly connected to it. Next. .VP —————————————————————Vlan —— All All All All 1 1 Mac Address —————000f. view the packet in the Packet Details window pane. Select the last Telnet data packet following the ping reply.f79f.0cdd.cccd 0100. The text should be similar to Example 9-7.a76a Type ———— STATIC STATIC STATIC STATIC DYNAMIC DYNAMIC Ports ——CPU CPU CPU CPU Fa0/1 Fa0/2 Total Mac Addresses for this criterion: 6 S1-Central# In Table 9-17. Example 9-7 MAC Address Table After the Ping Mac Address Table {_lEPaNM. despite having been cleared? This is the connection for the pod host computer that is telnetted into S1-Central.6cc0 0100. In Notepad. Right-click TELNET and choose Copy Bytes (Printable Text Only).0ccc.dddd 0010.

and Table 9-18 is the corresponding addressing table. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. Repair Ethernet-related network issues. any clear-text password can be viewed and used by an attacker.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab9832. Choose Wireshark. Click Add or Remove Programs. however. Figure 9-6 shows the topology for this Skills Integration Challenge. Upon completion of this activity. From Wireshark. Background You have been asked to repair some problems in the network model related to the Ethernet LAN connected to R2-Central. and click Remove. passwords of more than nine characters. choose Start > Control Panel.8. How secure is the Telnet protocol? What can be done to make communication with Cisco devices more secure? The Telnet protocol is very insecure and should never be used outside of secure networks. SSH is one way to encrypt communications between devices. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. Test the network. For example. Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: An Intermediary Device as an End Device (9. .1.3. and leave the room ready for the next class.3) Open file LSG01-PTSkills9. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity. Task 5: Clean Up Wireshark was installed on the pod host computer. and lively discussions should be encouraged. Emphasize that security should be employed in layers. one recommendation may be to require passphrases—that is. If Wireshark needs to be uninstalled. choose Analyze > Follow TCP Stream to view the login user ID and password.9. turn off power to the host computers.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. Student answers will vary on how to secure the communication channel. and no one solution is a guarantee against compromise.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to perform this exercise using Packet Tracer. Remember.Chapter 9: Ethernet 259 Task 4: Challenge Use Wireshark to capture and analyze a Telnet session between the pod host computer and the Cisco switch. Point out that because the TCP session may be captured. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ Determine IP subnet plans. Remove any files created on the pod host computer during the lab. Packet Tracer Challenge Skills Integration Challenge: Switched Ethernet (9.

111.248 255.128 255.134 192. existing WAN.260 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 9-6 Topology for the Challenge 1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server 2960-24TT S1-Central 1841 R2-Central PC 1A PC 1B Table 9-18 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP Fa0/0 S0/0/0 192.0/24.138 192. up to five hosts (already configured) Third subnet.255.111.168.168. up to 100 hosts (Fa0/0 on R2-Central) Second subnet. existing student LAN. You must provide for the three existing networks.252 255.126 192.255.168. The subnet assignments are as follows: ■ ■ ■ First subnet. existing ISP LAN.126 192.138 192.134 R2-Central Fa0/0 S0/0/0 PC 1A PC 1B Eagle Server NIC NIC NIC Task 1: IP Subnet Planning You have been given an IP address block of 192.168.168.111.255.168.111.111.255.111.168.168.137 192.255.111.138 192.168.2 192.111.168.111.133 255.168.255.255. point-to-point link (already configured) .111.255.111.128 255.168.255.248 — — 192.111.255.168.255.252 255.255.126 192.255.1 192.255.128 255.111.

Fa0/2. The static route on R2-Central should be a default static route that points to R1-ISP’s serial interface IP address. ■ ■ ■ Task 2: Repair Problems with the Ethernet Switched LAN PC 1B has a wireless card and cannot be connected to the switch. the S1-Central switch interfaces (Fa0/1. Compare and contrast the serial connection with Ethernet. and the PC 1A interfaces are incorrect. use the highest usable address on the existing student LAN subnet. Connect PC 1A to the Fa0/1 interface on the switch. For R2-Central’s Fa0/0 interface. For hosts 1A and 1B. and Fa0/24).111. to test your understanding of how the network is operating. R1-ISP. R1-ISP. Assign the highest usable subnet address to the gateway and the two lowest usable addresses to the PCs. Connect the Fa0/24 interface on the switch to the R2-Central Fa0/0 interface. . Apparently the Ethernet speed and duplex settings for the R2-Central Fa0/0 interface. ICMP.133 /29. Set all Ethernet interfaces to autonegotiate speed and duplex (which will achieve full-duplex 100-Mbps operation if both ends of the link can support it). The next-hop router (to which the default route should point). UDP. For all devices. use the first two IP addresses (the two lowest usable addresses) on the existing student LAN subnet.Chapter 9: Ethernet 261 Interface IP addresses: ■ ■ The server. and the Inspect tool to trace packet flow in simulation mode. Remove the wireless card from PC 1B. Add IP addresses to the router Fa0/0 interface and to the two PCs.138 /30. the DNS server is 192. Add the Fast Ethernet Interface card PT-HOST-NM-1CFE to PC 1B. web traffic.111. make sure that the power is on to the device and to the interfaces (make sure that the Ethernet interfaces are not shut down). with HTTP. has an IP address of 192. trace. Task 3: Test the Network Use ping.168.168. and R2-Central’s serial interface have already been configured. In a future course you will learn much more about switched Ethernet technologies. For hosts 1A and 1B. Task 4: Reflection The two Layer 2 and Layer 1 technologies in this model are a serial connection (between the routers) and the Ethernet LANs (for the ISP server and with the S1-Central switch). DNS. These procedures were explained in the Chapter 5 and 6 Skills Integration Challenges. TCP. and ARP viewable. Connect this newly installed Fast Ethernet NIC to the Fa0/2 interface on the switch.

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As a networking professional. and manageability. you identify the cables needed to make successful LAN and WAN connections and learn how to use device management connections. Concept Questions 1. Be as detailed as possible. including cost.CHAPTER 10 Planning and Cabling Networks The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of multiple-choice. and capabilities. The design of an IP addressing scheme is presented and then practiced with the help of concept questions and the hands-on labs. Growth consists of more user devices. expandability. and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of planning and cabling networks. Hubs do not filter frames. In the long run. types. In this chapter. 2. They filter frames. Switches are more expensive than hubs but use bandwidth more efficiently. hubs. this up-front investment might save money. As you work through this chapter. though. fill-in-the-blank. A hub is a Layer 1 device. Hubs should be used in small LANs. . Compare and contrast the function of hubs and switches. hands-on skills needed. Explain the advantage of one device over the other. whereas a switch is a Layer 2 device. devices will need to be selected that go beyond the current need of the LAN in terms of number of ports. Each switch port is its own collision domain. All of the ports of a hub are part of one collision domain. Study Guide LANs: Making the Physical Connection A networking professional needs to know how to select and interconnect the proper devices for a network. Explain how adaptability to new technologies can be taken into consideration when selecting devices for a LAN. and switches are common network devices. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum labs to further reinforce that you have mastered the practical. Switches segment networks into multiple collision domains. How does this affect the cost calculations? When selecting devices for a LAN it is important to allow for future growth. you need to be familiar with the different device selection factors. use Chapter 10 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum or use the corresponding Chapter 10 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration Companion Guide for assistance. That affects the cost calculation because the costs will seem high compared to the current network needs. Hubs are less expensive and less efficient than switches. more speed. matching. They flood all the frames they receive on one port out all other ports. more capabilities. Routers. supported speeds. Devices need to have empty slots that allow the addition of modules that have more capabilities or that support new technologies. Switches are Layer 2 devices. and also new technology. and speeds of different ports and interfaces. They also allow for the interconnection of segments with different speeds. Hubs do not segment networks. It is essential that you have knowledge of the different media types and the distinct roles they play with the devices that they connect. To allow for growth.

Pins 3 and 6 of both devices will be connected in the same way. there are several physical areas to consider. The straight-through cable will connect with its pins 1 and 2 to pins 1 and 2 of the computer. Device Interconnections When planning the installation of LAN cabling. and no data transfer will be possible. they remain in a single collision domain. 1. By delpoying gigabit switches only 2. Concept Questions 1.264 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Multiple-Choice Questions Choose the best possible answer for each of the following questions. A network administrator needs to be familiar with the different standards that define devices and cabling in these areas. Explain what will happen when you use a straight-through cable to connect your computer to the Fast Ethernet interface of a router. Switches regenerate each bit of the frames they receive. which can increase LAN performance. A swich is used to segment a network into multiple collision domains. By deploying one central switch with a high port density b. How do switches create collision domains? port. 3. a. 1. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks for the following statements. How can redundancy be provided in a switched network? a. By using a special cable type to connect to the devices on its ports. By allowing the interconnection of segments with different speeds. c. By using high-speed fiber-optic media c. Each area has its unique requirements and standards. A switch provides dedicated bandwidth on each port. By providing multiple interconnections between a number of switches d. . Each switch port creates a point-to-point dedicated connection to the devices connected to that b. d. The transmit wires of the cables will be connected to the transmit pins on the router and the computer. 2. The computer and the router both have Medium Dependent Interface (MDI) connections with pins 1 and 2 for transmitting and pins 3 and 6 for receiving. Even though hubs can be interconnected.

4. there is no service provider. cabling to access outside resources. high-bandwidth cabling that connects the telecommunications room with the work area. This is where the users access the network. one router will act as the DCE and uses a DCE cable. Explain how the serial connection to a WAN service provider differs from the way the serial connections are set up for the curriculum labs. sometimes servers Backbone cabling: Cabling that connects the telecommunications room to the equipment room Distribution/horizontal cabling: Typically. 3. 3. A router is considered a DTE device. This knowledge is vital in designing. Developing an Addressing Scheme Developing an IP addressing scheme is one of the most important tasks that you will have to perform as a network professional. this device is at the WAN customer or user end of the link. 2. There are four physical areas to consider when planning the installation of LAN cabling. data service units (DSU). and troubleshooting networks. Main components are jacks to connect individual devices to the network. Work area: Work areas are dedicated to end devices. Signal attenuation and exposure to possible interference increase with cable length. Typically. this device is at the WAN access provider end of the link. patch cables. Telecommunications room: hubs. or connects telecommunications rooms.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 265 2. 1. List these four areas and their main components. and other communications devices. Data Circuit-Terminal Equipment (DTE) is a device that receives clocking services from another device and adjusts accordingly. 5. lighting. Therefore. . switches. Typically. Answers may vary. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks for the following statements that discuss features and issues related to different types of media. routers. This router will provide the clocking that is usually provided by the service provider’s equipment. The routers are connected back to back. UTP cabling uses RJ-45 connectors. patch cables. In the lab setting. configuring. and switches. including computers and radio equipment. patch panels. It is extremely important that you understand IP addressing. Interference can be produced by electrical machines. hubs. The Data Communications Equipment (DCE) is a device that supplies the clocking services to another device. Attenuation is the decrease in signal strength along an electrical or optical cable. The ANSI/TIA/EIA-568-B standard specifies the maximum cable length in UTP installations.

Which formula is used to calculate the number of hosts per network or subnet? Use n to represent the number of bits. 2^n c. What are some common categories that you can use to allocate IP addresses? Explain why you should use address schemes that fit a common pattern across your network. and IP cameras. Network devices that require IP addresses for management purposes include switches and wireless access points. 2. departments. network resources. and server addresses. You need to consider end devices such as user computers. special users. 1. You also need to consider network devices such as router LAN interfaces and router WAN (serial) interfaces. Network address c. (2^n – 2) d. 2. and other end devices such as printers. (n – 2) . a. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks for the following statements dealing with IP addressing and subnetting. Multiple-Choice Questions Choose the best possible answer(s) for the following questions. administrator computers. Why does each connection between routers count as a separate subnet if there are no hosts connected? The router interfaces on the link connecting the two routers need to have IP addresses. management subnets. servers. router LAN and WAN interfaces. a. IP phones. Network devices requiring an IP address for management purposes are switches and wireless access points. A systematic allocation of IP addresses makes troubleshooting and the addition of new hosts easier. Subnets divide broadcast domains into a number of smaller domains. What devices do you need to consider when counting devices in your network that need IP addresses. It is good practice to use IP addresses that fit a common pattern across all subnets. 3. 3. Broadcast address d. (2^n – 1) b. Management address b. Which addresses cannot be assigned to hosts? Choose all that apply. Gateway address 2. Some common categories are general users. Each subnet requires a router interface as the gateway for that subnet.266 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Concept Questions 1. 1.

What are advantages of dividing networks into subnets? Choose all that apply. You have the following network requirements: Network 1 needs to support 32 host addresses. Implementation of different levels of security d. Concept Questions 1. can use a bit mask of 255. routers.0 and you need to create 64 subnets. The non-VLSM approach uses the same prefix length and the same number of host bits for each subnet. Larger collision domains Calculating the Subnets Two different methods can be used for allocating addresses to an Internetwork. It is important to understand the different types of interfaces and know the types of cable required to connect to the interfaces. what will be the subnet mask for your network? 255. If your network uses the address 172.0. a.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 267 3. Variable-length subnet masking (VLSM) assigns the prefix and host bits to each network based on the number of hosts in that network. and other subnets that require more host addresses can use different bit masks.0 2. VLSM allows different subnet masks within one network. Network 3 needs to support 2 host addresses. Network 4 needs to support 52 host addresses. Network 2 needs to support 64 host addresses. Smaller broadcast domains c. This way. Which addressing method will allow you to design an IP addressing scheme without wasting any host addresses? How is the efficiency of this method achieved? The method that allows for the most efficient IP addressing design without wasting any addresses is called variable-length subnet masking (VLSM).16.255. . which requires only two IP addresses. a serial link. LAN and WAN interfaces require different cabling and configuration. It allows a subnet to be subnetted.255. and switches have several different types of interfaces associated with them.255. Device Interconnections Cisco devices. Network 5 needs to support 128 host addresses.252.252. Decreased costs b. These interfaces are also referred to as ports.

The Telnet interface c. It connects to LAN devices such as computers or switches. The serial interface 3. The console interface d. Ethernet interface: This is the LAN interface of a router or a switch. It provides physical access to the router for troubleshooting. They can also connect to other routers. What can Ethernet interfaces be used for? Choose all that apply. To connect the router to a terminal for configuration purposes b. 1. To connect to LAN devices such as computers and switches c. To establish communication with a router via a console on a remote WAN c. Which interface is the primary interface for the initial configuration of a Cisco device such as a router or a switch? a. Multiple-Choice Questions Choose the best possible answers(s) for the following questions dealing with interface types. The Ethernet interface b. A CSU/DSU is a device used to make the physical connection between data networks and WAN provider’s circuits. a.268 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Concept Question List the four types of interfaces on Cisco routers and switches. To connect to a terminating device such as a switch or a computer . To connect the router to the DSU/CSU 2. To establish a WAN connection b. Auxiliary interface: This interface provides remote management for the router. WAN interfaces are used for connecting WAN devices to the CSU/DSU. To make a back-to-back connection between routers in the lab d. To connect to other routers d. What are serial interfaces used for? Choose all that apply. Briefly describe the function of each of these interfaces. a. Console interface: This is the primary interface for initial configuration of a Cisco device. Serial interface: This is the WAN interface.

You are only required to determine the number of subnets per topology example. Task 1: Determine the Number of Subnets in Topology Diagram A Use the topology in Figure 10-1 to answer the questions that follow. Scenario In this lab.168.255. Design an appropriate addressing scheme. Figure 10-1 Topology Diagram A Fa0/0 S0/0/0 S0/0/0 B1 B2 How many networks are shown in Figure 10-1? 2 How many bits should you allocate to create the required number of subnets? 1 How many usable host addresses did this give you? 126 What is the new subnet mask in decimal form? 255.26.0/24 to subnet and provide the IP addressing for the networks shown in the topology diagrams.1128 How many subnets are available for future use? 0 . Examine the use of the available network address space. In this example. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ ■ Determine the number of subnets. the number of hosts is not important.255.3.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 269 Labs and Activities Lab 10-1: How Many Networks? (10. Place the correct address and mask in the addressing table.2.2) Upon completion of this lab. you have been given the network address 192. You must determine the number of networks needed then design an appropriate addressing scheme. Assign addresses and subnet mask pairs to device interfaces.

1 192.26.168.255.255 Task 3: Determine the Number of Subnets in Topology Diagram B Use the topology in Figure 10-2 to answer the questions that follow.254 192.126 192.168.129 192.26.168.127 192.26.26. Figure 10-2 Topology Diagram B Fa0/0 S0/0/1 HQ S0/0/0 S0/0/1 S0/0/0 B1 B2 How many networks are there? 4 How many bits should you allocate to create the required number of subnets? 2 How many usable host addresses did this give you? 30 What is the new subnet mask in decimal form? 255.192 How many subnets are available for future use? 0 . Table 10-1 Subnet Information Subnet Address First Usable Host Address Last Usable Host Address Broadcast Address Subnet Number 0 1 192.0 192.168.168.128 192.26.26.168.26.26.270 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 2: Record Subnet Information Fill in Table 10-1 with the subnet information.168.168.255.

255.62 192. Table 10-2 Subnet Information Subnet Address First Usable Host Address Last Usable Host Address Broadcast Address Subnet Number 0 1 2 3 192.26.224 How many subnets are available for future use? 2 .168. Figure 10-3 Topology Diagram C S0/0/1 S0/0/0 B1 S0/0/0 S0/0/1 HQ S0/1/0 S0/0/0 B2 S0/0/1 S0/1/0 S0/0/0 S0/0/1 B3 Fa0/0 How many networks are there? 6 How many bits should you allocate to create the required number of subnets? 3 How many usable host addresses did this give you? 30 What is the new subnet mask in decimal form? 255.190 192.126 192. Use the subnet mask from Step 4.168.168.26.127 192.255 Task 5: Determine the Number of Subnets in Topology Diagram C Use the topology in Figure 10-3 to answer the questions that follow.254 192.26.168.168.64 192.65 192.168.168.26.26.168.26.26.128 192.63 192.26.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 271 Task 4: Record Subnet Information Fill in Table 10-2 with the subnet information.168.26.168.26.26.255.168.26.168.168.129 192.26.191 192.26.26.1 192.168.26.193 192.192 192.168.0 192.168.

0 192.168.159 192.168.26.225 192.191 192.26.26.168.190 192.168.32 192.95 192.1 192.26.168.168.127 192.168.168.26.26.168.26.168.26.168.223 192.168.26.26.168.168.168.26.160 192.26.63 192.193 192.26.222 192.26.26.26.168.26.254 192.26.158 192.26.272 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 6: Record Subnet Information Fill in the Table 10-3 with the subnet information.192 192.168.26.168.26.168. Figure 10-4 Topology Diagram D Fa0/0 Fa0/0 S0/0/0 S0/0/1 Fa0/0 S0/0/0 S0/0/1 S0/0/1 S0/1/1 B1 S0/0/1 HQ B2 S0/0/0 S0/0/1 S0/0/0 S0/0/1 S0/0/0 B3 Fa0/0 B4 Fa0/0 Fa0/0 B5 .26.30 192.168.168.168.26.126 192.26. Table 10-3 Subnet Information Subnet Address First Usable Host Address Last Usable Host Address Broadcast Address Subnet Number 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 192.26.26.94 192.168.255 Task 7: Determine the Number of Subnets in Topology Diagram D Use the topology in Figure 10-4 to answer the questions that follow.128 192.26.168.26.33 192.161 192.168.26.168.168.96 192.129 192.62 192.26.65 192.168.168.26.26.31 192.168.64 192.97 192.224 192.168.168.

168.168.255.159 192.240 How many subnets are available for future use? 4 Task 8: Record Subnet Information Fill in Table 10-4 with the subnet information.158 192.129 192.168.63 192.168.26.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 273 How many networks are there? 12 How many bits should you allocate to create the required number of subnets? 4 How many usable host addresses did this give you? 14 What is the new subnet mask in decimal form? 255.190 192.168.193 192.96 192. you need the number of networks and hosts.26.168.168.223 192.26. .238 192.240 192.26.26.26.168.168.81 192.26.126 192.30 192.168.26.206 192.26.175 192.168.26.241 192.26.26.225 192.111 192.26.26.95 192.168.168.142 192.168.168.26.254 192.49 192.26.94 192.26.14 192.26.255 Task 9: Reflection What information is needed when determining an appropriate addressing scheme for a network? When determining an appropriate addressing scheme for a network.168.168.168.168.191 192.168.168.26.168.16 192.168.17 192.128 192.168.65 192.168.168.168.0 192.26.168.26.192 192.97 192.168.168.168.26.110 192.26.168.168.26.26.31 192.26.208 192.168.26.26.168.26.168.26.26.168.168.26.62 192. Table 10-4 Subnet Information Subnet Address First Usable Host Address Last Usable Host Address Broadcast Address Subnet Number 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 192.26.145 192.26.168.224 192.168.113 192.168.1 192.26.26.78 192.26.177 192.79 192.26.209 192.26.239 192.160 192.255.168.26.168.168.174 192.80 192.46 192.26.32 192.26.161 192.2222 192.26.168.168.26.168.168.168.26.168.26.112 192.15 192.168.26.33 192.168.168.26.26.26.26.26.168.26.26.48 192.168.127 192.26.207 192.26.168.176 192.26.26.26.168.168.26.26.168.168.47 192.168.168.26.143 192.168.64 192.26.168.26.144 192.

Background Table 10-5 shows the equipment and hardware requirements for this lab. not yet connected to the network. Subnet C and Subnet D are anticipated subnets. Configure the physical lab topology. as shown in Figure 10-5. Subnet A and Subnet B are subnets that are currently needed. Table 10-5 Hardware Equipment and Hardware for Lab Quantity Description Cisco Router Cisco Switch Computer (host) Cat5 better straight-through UTP cable Cat5 crossover UTP cable Scenario 1 1 3 3 1 Part of CCNA Lab bundle Part of CCNA Lab bundle Lab computer Connects Router 1 and computers Host1 and Host2 to Switch1 Connects computer Host1 to Router1 In this lab.1. Gather the necessary equipment and cables. Figure 10-5 Topology for Lab 10-2 Subnet A Fa0/0 Fa0/1 Subnet B Fa0/1 1 R1 Fa0/2 S1 Fa0/3 Subnet C Subnet D 2 3 Note: The CD-ROM accompanying this book contains a subnet chart for the last IP address octet. . you create a small network that requires connecting network devices and configuring host computers for basic network connectivity. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ ■ Design the logical network.6.274 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Lab 10-2: Creating a Small Lab Topology (10. Configure the logical LAN topology. Subnet zero will be used.1) Upon completion of this lab. Verify LAN connectivity.

For this lab. Authorized access only.255.202 255.198 255. ******************************************************************* % ! .252 This is Eagle 1 lab router Router1.20.255.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 275 Note to instructor: In Chapter 11 labs.248 172. the router should be configured for students. If you do not have a router that has two Fast Ethernet interfaces. consider configuring a loopback interface as an alternative to the FastEthernet 0/1. The following example contains a basic configuration for Router 1. Another alternative is to use two routers connected through a serial connection and use the Fast Ethernet interfaces from each router. students will learn how to configure a router. Example Router 1 Configuration Router1 configuration ! service timestamps debug uptime service timestamps log uptime no service password-encryption ! no ip domain-lookup ! hostname Router1 ! enable secret cisco ! ! interface FastEthernet0/0 description connection to Host1 ip address no shutdown ! interface FastEthernet0/1 description connection LAN ip address no shutdown ! ip classless ip http server ! banner motd % ******************************************************************* 172.255.20.0.0.255.

0. Router interfaces will use the last available IP address in the address block.0. which requires the largest block of IP addresses.1 172.20.20.20. Begin the logical network design by satisfying the requirement of Subnet D. design an IP addressing scheme that satisfies the requirements listed in Table 10-6.0 255.0.1 172.20.1111111.276 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide line con 0 password cisco ! line con 0 password cisco login line aux 0 line vty 0 4 password cisco login ! end Task 1: Design the Logical Network Given an IP address and mask of 172.255.0/24 (address / mask).0. Table 10-7 Subnet D IP Address Information Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast Network Address 172.255.127 11111111.20.128 What is the bit mask? 172. Refer to the subnet chart on the CD-ROM. Table 10-6 Subnet Subnet Requirements Number of Hosts Subnet A Subnet B Subnet C Subnet D 2 6 47 125 Host computers from each subnet will use the first available IP address in the address block.10000000 . Fill in Table 10-7 with IP address information for Subnet D.0.11111111. Design Subnet D address block. and pick the first address block that will support Subnet D. Step 1.

Satisfy the requirement for Subnet C.0.0.0.255.201 172.0. Refer to the subnet chart on the CD-ROM.248 172.1111111. Design Subnet D address block. Design Subnet B address block.192 172.255.198 172.20.20.20.0.0.20. Fill in Table 10-10 with IP address information for Subnet A. Fill in Table 10-8 with IP address information for Subnet C.0. Table 10-9 Subnet B IP Address Information Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast Network Address 172.11111111. Design Subnet A address block.11111111.20. Satisfy the requirement of Subnet A.11000000 Step 3.11111111.190 172.1111111.11111000 Step 4. Fill in Table 10-9 with IP address information for Subnet B.11111111. Table 10-10 Subnet A IP Address Information Network Address Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast 172.255.0. and pick the next available address block that will support Subnet A. Satisfy the requirement of Subnet B.255.255.20. and pick the next available address block that will support Subnet C.199 What is the bit mask? 11111111.191 What is the bit mask? 11111111.192 255. Refer to the subnet chart on the CD-ROM.0. the next largest address block. the next largest IP address block.20.202 172.252 172.0.255.20. and pick the next available address block that will support Subnet B.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 277 Step 2.0. Refer to the subnet chart on the CD-ROM. Table 10-8 Subnet C IP address information Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast Network Address 172.129 172.20.20.20.200 255.203 What is the bit mask? 11111111.193 172.0.128 255.11111100 .20.

the correct cable is used. Any switch connection that does not transition from amber to green should be investigated.202 In Table 10-12. After cabling the network devices. Cable the network devices as shown in Figure 10-5. and why? Both devices have similar network interfaces.255. take a moment to verify the connections.20. What cable type is needed to connect Host 1. What cable type is needed to connect Host 1 to Router 1.20. Physically connect devices.0. turn power on to all devices. Therefore. From the IP address information recorded in Task 1. Table 10-11 Host 1 Address Type Address IP address IP mask Gateway address 172.252 172. Visually inspect network connections. and why? The switch ports are dissimilar to the router and computer network interfaces. Attention to detail now will minimize the time required to troubleshoot network connectivity issues later. enter the information for Host 1. the gateway address is the IP address assigned to the router interface for that subnet. Host 2. and Router 1 to Switch 1. Step 2.0. .255. Therefore. The host computer gateway IP address is used to send IP packets to other networks. If not already enabled.201 255.278 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 2: Configure the Physical Lab Topology Step 1. In Table 10-11. Confirm that the power is applied to the connected device. and the correct cable is functional. and like devices require a crossover cable. Ensure that all switch connections show green. enter addressing information for Host 2. straight-through cables are required. Document logical network settings. write down the IP address information for each computer in the tables that follow. What type of cable connects Router1 interface Fa0/0 to Host 1? Crossover cable What type of cable connects Router 1 interface Fa0/1 to Switch 1? Straight-through cable What type of cable connects Host 2 to Switch 1? Straight-through cable What type of cable connects Host 3 to Switch 1? Straight-through cable Is all equipment turned on? Yes Task 3: Configure the Logical Topology Step 1.

194 255. enter addressing information for Host 3.248 172. 172.0.255.255.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 279 Table 10-12 Host 2 Address Type Address IP address IP mask Gateway address 172. and then click the Properties button. click Start > Control Panel > Network Connections. Manually enter the following information.20.255. Figure 10-6 shows Host 1 IP address and gateway settings.255.198 In Table 10-13.198 Configure the Host 1 computer.0. On Host 1.20.20. recorded in the preceding Step 1: ■ ■ ■ IP address: Host1 IP address Subnet mask: Host1 subnet mask Default gateway: Gateway IP address Figure 10-6 Host 1 IP Addressing and Gateway Settings . select Internet Protocol (TCP/IP).193 255.0.0. On the General tab. Table 10-13 Host 3 Address Type Address IP address IP mask Gateway address Step 2. Right-click the Local Area Connection device icon and choose Properties.248 172.20.

193 172.20. Repeat Step 2 for computers Host 2 and Host 3. how can you detect a malfunctioning gateway? If Host 2 and Host 3 can successfully ping each other but not Host 1.194 172. it might be a gateway issue. connectivity will be broken between LANs.20.20. Close the Local Area Connection window.20.198 172. Fa0/0 Host 1 Host 2 Gateway (Router 1. If your computer’s operating system is Windows XP SP2.20.0. Table 10-14 Network Connectivity Test Results From To IP Address Ping Results Host 1 Host 1 Host 1 Host 1 Host 2 Host 2 Host 2 Host 2 Host 3 Host 3 Host 3 Host 3 Gateway (Router 1. In this scenario.194 172. Open a terminal window by clicking Start > Run. Switch 1 should have a default configuration. and then press Enter. Fa0/0) Router 1.0.201 Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Note any break in connectivity.202 172.202 172.0.0. Fa0/1) Router1. Fa0/1) Router 1.20.201 172. using the IP address information for those computers.20.20. Configure Host 2 and Host 3 computers.0. disable the firewall (for your ping tests to work). Use Table 10-14 to methodically verify and record connectivity with each network device.20. Take corrective action to establish connectivity if a test fails. the topology diagram shown in Figure 10-5 can prove extremely helpful.0. Type cmd. Remember that the default gateway address on the computers is the IP address of the Fast Ethernet interface of the router that the computers connect to via the switch.0.0.20. close the Internet Protocols (TCP/IP) Properties window by clicking OK. Task 4: Verify Network Connectivity Verify with your instructor that Router 1 has been configured.0. . Try to disable and then reenable the network interface card (NIC) by right-clicking the NIC in the Local Area Connection Properties window.198 172. Depending on the Windows operating system.202 172.198 172. When troubleshooting connectivity issues.193 172.0.0.280 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide When finished.0.20. Fa0/1 Host 2 Host 3 Host 3 Gateway (Router 1. Otherwise. Network connectivity can be verified with the Windows ping command. Fa0/0 Host 1 172.20. the computer might require a reboot for changes to be effective. Step 3.

Step 4. Reconnect cables that were disconnected for this lab. and then turn off power to the host computers.6. follow these steps: Note to instructors: A simple way to introduce problems is to switch the Fast Ethernet connections. However. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. If the solution fixed the problem.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 281 Task 5: Reflection Review any physical or logical configuration problems encountered during this lab. . Be sure that you have a thorough understanding of the procedures used to verify network connectivity. Step 2. This will reinforce the skills you learned in this lab and make you a better network technician. To fix the problems. you configured host computers with network addresses and tested them for connectivity. Check cabling. Answers may vary. If the solution did not fix the problem. continue troubleshooting. Check the IP address configuration. List the problems. In addition to practicing IP subnetting. restore host computer network connectivity. This is a particularly important lab. It is best to practice host computer configuration and verification several times.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab10612. keep in mind that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. Perform a good visual inspection. Hosts 1 and 2 cannot ping Host 3. Write down your proposed solution(s).pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. Problems can be either physical (wrong UTP cable) or logical (wrong IP address or gateway). Look for green link lights on Switch 1. Answers may vary. Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Creating a Small Topology (10. A summary of the instructions is provided within the Packet Tracer activity. and leave the room ready for the next class. Test your solution. Check the default gateways on the hosts. Step 3. Hosts cannot ping the router. Use the table provided in Task 3 to identify failed connectivity. Step 1. Task 7: Clean Up Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. Task 6: Challenge Ask your instructor or another student to introduce one or two problems in your network when you aren’t looking or are out of the lab room. document the solution.1. Carefully remove cables and return them neatly to their storage.

. Instructions for TeraTerm Web use are contained in the section “Lab 10-3 (Alternative): Establishing a Console Session with TeraTerm” later in this chapter. Configure HyperTerminal to establish a console session with a Cisco IOS router. Using HyperTerminal is the most basic way to access a router for checking or changing its configuration. Another popular serial communication utility is TeraTerm Web.2. Connect the console (rollover) cable to the console port on the router. 2500.6. Possible routers include 800. Background HyperTerminal is a simple Windows-based terminal emulation program for serial communication that can be used to connect to the console port on Cisco IOS devices. Configure HyperTerminal to establish a console session with a Cisco IOS switch. 2600 routers. 1700. Connect the other cable end to the host computer with a DB-9 or DB-25 adapter to the COM 1 port. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ Connect a router and computer using a console cable.282 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Lab 10-3: Establishing a Console Session with HyperTerminal (10. A serial interface on a computer is connected to the Cisco device via a rollover cable. or a combination. Set up the basic physical connection. Figure 10-7 Establishing a Console Session with HyperTerminal Straight-Through Cable Serial Cable Console (Rollover) Crossover Cable The following resources are required: ■ ■ ■ Computer with a serial interface and HyperTerminal loaded Cisco router Console (rollover) cable for connecting the workstation to the router Task 1: Connect a Router and Computer with a Console Cable Step 1. Scenario Set up a network similar to the one in Figure 10-7. 1600.1) Upon completion of this lab. Any router that meets the interface requirements may be used.

At the Connection Description window. Select an appropriate icon. Figure 10-9 HyperTerminal Connection Type . the program prompts for an area code/phone number. enable power to the computer and router. If not already powered on. Click OK. Step 2. in the Connect using field. You need to fill in a number to be able to continue. Click OK. Figure 10-8 HyperTerminal Connection Description Window In the Connect To window shown in Figure 10-9. Start the HyperTerminal application. Task 2: Configure HyperTerminal to Establish a Console Session with a Cisco IOS Router Step 1. From the Windows taskbar. Figure 10-8 shows an example of the opening HyperTerminal configuration window. enter a session name in the Name field. Power on the devices. If you are accessing HyperTerminal for the first time. Note to instructors: On newer systems. Configure HyperTerminal. or leave the default. start the HyperTerminal program by clicking Start > All Programs > Accessories > Communications > HyperTerminal. COM 1. enter the appropriate connection type.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 283 Step 2. you might have to use an USB connection rather than the COM port.

If there is still no connection. ask the instructor for assistance. Step 1. Close HyperTerminal. click Cancel. when the Connection Description window opens. Reopen the HyperTerminal session as described in Task 2. troubleshoot as necessary.284 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide In the COM 1 Properties box shown in Figure 10-10. There should be a response from the router. Click File > Open. press the Enter key. close the HyperTerminal session. Use this technique to reconnect the HyperTerminal session to a Cisco device without reconfiguring a new session. and then click Open. exit HyperTerminal. Enter a name for the session. Reconnect the HyperTerminal session. verify that the router has power. Step 4. 9600 8 None 1 None When the HyperTerminal session window comes up. When asked whether to save the session. click Yes. this indicates that connection has been successfully completed. When finished. Select the saved session. For example. Click File > Exit. Figure 10-10 HyperTerminal COM 1 Port Settings Table 10-15 HyperTerminal Port Settings Settings Value Bits per second Data bits Parity Stop bits Flow control Click OK. This time. When finished. Check the connection to the correct COM 1 port on the PC and the console port on the router. change port settings to the values in Table 10-15. . Step 3. If there is no connection.

In the Connect To window. Use the procedure described in Task 2. you make a serial connection between the host computer and a Cisco IOS switch. Step 2. Power on the devices. Set up the basic physical connection. enter a session name in the Name field. Table 10-16 Port Settings Settings Value Bits per second Data bits Parity Stop bits Flow control Click OK. In this task. Connect the other cable end to the host computer with a DB-9 or DB-25 adapter to the COM 1 port. Step 1. or leave the default. If not already powered on. Connect the console (rollover) cable to the console port on the router. Step 3. Start the HyperTerminal application. Figure 10-11 Serial Connection Between a Host Computer and Cisco Switch 1 S1 Step 2. enable power to the computer and switch. Click OK. COM 1. Step 4. See Figure 10-11. In the COM 1 Properties window. From the Windows taskbar. Configure HyperTerminal. Select an appropriate icon. At the opening HyperTerminal Connection Description window.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 285 Task 3: Configure HyperTerminal to Establish a Console Session with a Cisco IOS Switch Serial connections between Cisco IOS routers and switches are similar. to configure HyperTerminal. change port settings to the values shown in Table 10-16. start the HyperTerminal program by clicking Start > Programs > Accessories > Communications > HyperTerminal. 9600 8 None 1 None . enter the appropriate connection type. Click OK. in the Connect using field.

When finished. close the HyperTerminal session. and leave the room ready for the next class. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. Click File > Exit. Close HyperTerminal.286 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide When the HyperTerminal session window comes up. . click No. verify that the switch has power. Remove the rollover cable. this indicates that connection has been successfully completed. If there is still no connection. Be sure to remember the correct HyperTerminal port settings. troubleshoot as necessary. Compare the differences. You will only be able to connect to the router if you are using the proper settings. Task 5: Clean Up Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. If there is no connection. When asked whether to save the session. Check the connection to the correct COM 1 port on the PC and the console port on the switch. press the Enter key. turn off power to the host computer and router. ask the instructor for assistance. For example. There should be a response from the switch. Task 3: Reflection This lab provided information for establishing a console connection to a Cisco IOS router and switch. Task 4: Challenge Draw the pin connections for the rollover cable and straight-through cable. and be able to identify the different cable types. Step 5.

but it can be downloaded from the following http://www. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ Connect a router and computer using a console cable. Note to instructor: TeraTerm is not available on the Eagle Server. Step 2. 1600. Any router that meets the interface requirements may be used. Scenario Cable a network similar to Figure 10-12.com/teraterm/. Configure TeraTerm to establish a console session with the router. 1700. 2500. Ensure that power is turned off on the computer and Cisco router. Enable power to the computer and router. Background TeraTerm Web is another simple Windows-based terminal emulation program for serial communication that can be used to connect to the console port on Cisco IOS devices. Power on the devices. Set up the basic physical connection. .Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 287 Lab 10-3 (Alternative): Establishing a Console Session with TeraTerm Upon completion of this lab. Figure 10-12 Establishing a Console Session with TeraTerm Straight-Through Cable Serial Cable Console (Rollover) Crossover Cable The following resources are required: ■ ■ ■ Computer with a serial interface and TeraTerm Pro loaded Cisco router Console (rollover) cable for connecting the workstation to the router Task 1: Connect a Router and Computer with a Console Cable Step 1. or a combination. Possible routers include 800.ayera. Connect the other cable end to the PC with a DB-9 or DB-25 adapter to the COM 1 port. Connect the console (rollover) cable to the console port on the router. 2600 routers.

Step 4. Select the saved session. Start TeraTerm Web application. This time. this indicates that the connection has been successfully completed.288 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 2: Configure TeraTerm Web to Establish a Console Session with the Router Step 1. Step 3. From the Windows taskbar. Enter a name for the session. Refer to Figure 10-13. Cisco switches are accessed in the same way. Click OK. and starting the TeraTerm Web application. troubleshoot as necessary. Configure TeraTerm Web Click File > New Connection. Remember that you must use the correct serial port configurations to connect to the Cisco device via Minicom. When finished. and then click Open. close the TeraTerm Web session. Click File > Exit. press the Enter key. If there is still no connection. For example. start the TeraTerm Web program by opening the TeraTerm Web folder. ask the instructor for assistance. Figure 10-13 TeraTerm Web Connection Configuration Window When the TeraTerm Web session window comes up. Task 3: Reflection This lab provided information for establishing a console connection to a Cisco router. Use this technique to reconnect the TeraTerm Web session to a Cisco device without reconfiguring a new session. When asked whether to save the session. ttermpro. Step 2. click Cancel. If there is no connection. verify that the router has power. There should be a response from the router. Reconnect the TeraTerm Web session. click Yes. Close TeraTerm Web. Reopen the TeraTerm Web session as described in Task 2. Step 1. Click File > Open. when the New Description window opens (see Figure 10-13). Check the connection to the COM 1 port on the PC and the console port on the router. . Select the appropriate serial COM port.

and leave the room ready for the next class.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab10622. . However. turn off power to the host computer and router.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. Remove the rollover cable. Task 5: Clean Up Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. and be able to identify the different cable types. Compare the differences.6. Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Establishing a Console Session with PT Terminal (10.2.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 289 Task 4: Challenge Draw the pin connections for the rollover cable and straight-through cable. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. A summary of the instructions is provided within the Packet Tracer activity. keep in mind that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment.

Scenario Set up a network similar to the one in Figure 10-14.6. such as controlling a modem or accessing a Cisco router through the serial console connection. Any router that meets the interface requirements may be used. or a combination.290 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Lab 10-4: Establishing a Console Session with Minicom (10. Enable power to the computer and router. Minicom can be used for many purposes. Connect the console (rollover) cable to the console port on the router.3. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ Connect a router and computer using a console cable. Ensure that power is turned off on the computer and Cisco router. similar to the Windows HyperTerminal program. Figure 10-14 Topology for Lab 10-4 Straight-Through Cable Serial Cable Console (Rollover) Crossover Cable The following resources are required: ■ ■ ■ Linux/UNIX computer with a serial interface and Minicom loaded Cisco router Console (rollover) cable for connecting the workstation to the router Task 1: Connect a Router and Computer with a Console Cable Step 1. 1600. 1700. Step 2. 2600 routers. Perform basic commands. 2500. The Linux or UNIX operating system is required. Power on the devices. Possible routers include 800. Configure Minicom to establish a console session with the router. Set up the basic physical connection. .1) Upon completion of this lab. Connect the other cable end to the PC with a DB-9 or DB-25 adapter to the COM 1 port. Background Minicom is a text-based UNIX terminal emulation program.

Start the Minicom application in configuration mode. From the Linux command prompt. scroll down the configuration list and select Serial port setup. to start Minicom. Table 10-17 shows the correct values. To configure the serial port. root access is required. Configure Minicom for serial communications. select option Q) F G Hardware Flow Control Software Flow Control Toggle: No Toggle: No Return to the Configuration menu by pressing Enter or Esc. Press Enter. Figure 10-15 Main Configuration Window Figure 10-16 shows the serial port configuration window. Figure 10-16 Serial Port Configuration Window Table 10-17 Serial Port Settings Option Field Value A Serial Device Dev/ttyS0 for COM 1 /dev/ttyS1 for COM 2 E Bps/Par/Bits Bps: 9600 Par: None Bits: 8 Stop bits: 1 (or. enter the minicom command with the –s option. Figure 10-15 shows the main configuration window.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 291 Task 2: Configure Minicom to Establish a Console Session with the Router Step 1. Note: To configure Minicom. . Use the letter by the field to change a setting. This starts Minicom in configuration mode: [root]# minicom –s <ENTER> Step 2.

Basic commands are not intuitive. For example. followed by Z. press <Ctrl> A. . Figure 10-17 Serial Port Configuration Window Step 3. verify that the router has power. However. If there is no connection. Select Exit from Minicom. There should be a response from the router. Figure 10-18 Minicom Command Summary Screen Task 4: Reflection This lab provided information for establishing a console connection to a Cisco router using Minicom. the default values will be reloaded. users communicate with remote devices within the terminal window. troubleshoot as necessary. this indicates that a connection has been successfully completed. menu-driven. Task 3: Perform Basic Commands Minicom is a text-based. as follows: [root]# minicom <ENTER> When the session window starts. For example. followed by either Q or X. to control the utility. serial communication utility. Figure 10-18 shows a list of functions and corresponding keys. use <Ctrl> A. Step 4. To quit Minicom. Close Minicom. Check the connection to the correct COM 1 port on the PC and the console port on the router. close the Minicom session. To get help. When Minicom is restarted. press <Ctrl> A.292 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide In the window shown in Figure 10-17. Cisco switches are accessed in the same fashion. press the Enter key. select Save setup as dfl (default file). When finished. Restart the Minicom session.

255.192 255.255.255.133 192.255.1.134 192.168.168.255. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ ■ Build the network topology.113 192.255.97 192.255.255.255.255.168.168.168. Test the network.1.255.255.94 R2 Fa0/0 Fa0/1 S0/0/0 S0/0/1 R3 Fa0/0 S0/0/0 S0/0/1 PC1-A PC2-A PC3-A Eagle-Server NIC NIC NIC NIC . Table 10-18 Addressing Table Device Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1 Fa0/0 S0/0/0 S0/0/1 192.62 192. However.168.1.252 255.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 293 Task 5: Clean Up Unless directed otherwise by the instructor.62 192.240 255.1.240 255.1.168.129 192.192 255.7.3) You can now open the file LSG01-PTSkills10.1.255.255.255. Configure router and PC interfaces.168.1.1 192.168.255.1.168.168.240 255.1.224 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 192.255.255.168.255.137 192.1.1.252 255.93 255.1.1.126 192. Background Table 10-18 shows the addressing for this lab.168.168.255.138 192.126 192.252 255.130 192. Remove the rollover cable.255.1.110 192.252 255. and leave the room ready for the next class.168.94 192.255. keep in mind that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment.224 255. turn off power to the host computer and router. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity. Packet Tracer Challenge Skills and Integration Challenge: Planning and Cabling Networks (10.1. Upon completion of this lab.168.252 255. Plan the IP addresses. Remove anything that was brought into the lab.1.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer.168.110 192.255.1.1.252 255.255.240 255.255.1.255.255.255.168.

planning.1.168. Device names and routing have already been configured. Task 1: Build the Network Topology Use the following tables and the devices in the device pool to create the topology. Table 10-19 shows the router information. Table 10-21 LAN Hostname Interface Number of Hosts R1 R2 Fa0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/1 60 10 30 7 R3 Fa0/0 . assign the networks in decreasing order of number of hosts required for efficient use of address space. Use Table 10-21 and Table 10-22 to create an effective addressing scheme.0 /24 address space. and configuration skills. Table 10-20 Switches Hostname Interface Connects To Interfaces SW-1 SW-2A SW-2B SW-3 Fa0/2 Fa0/2 Fa0/2) Fa0/2 PC-1A PC-1B Eagle-Server PC-1C FastEthernet FastEthernet FastEthernet FastEthernet Task 2: Create and Assign an Addressing Scheme You are asked to use the 192. Table 10-19 Routers Hostname Interface Connects To Interfaces R1 R1 R1 R2 R2 R2 R3 Fa0/0 S0/0/0 (DCE) S0/0/1 (DCE) Fa0/0 S0/0/1 (DCE) Fa0/1 Fa0/0 SW-1 R2 R3 SW-2A R3 SW-2B SW-3 Fa0/1 S0/0/0 S0/0/1 Fa0/1 S0/0/0 Fa0/1 Fa0/1 Table 10-20 shows the switch information.294 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Practice your network building. Seven total networks are required.

and the server. The R1–R2 link will use the first WAN subnet. R2. All Fast Ethernet ports on a router will use the last host address of the assigned subnet. the server will use the second to last host address in its subnet. ■ ■ Task 3: Interface Configuration Perform interface configuration of the R1. R1 and R2 DCE interfaces should have clock rates of 56000. the PCs. and the R2–R3 link will use the third WAN subnet. the R1–R3 link will use the second WAN subnet. and R3 routers.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 295 Table 10-22 WAN Hostname Address to be Assigned Number of Hosts R1–R3 R1–R3 R2–R3 R1–First host address R1–First host address R2–First host address 2 2 2 Use the following rules to assign IP addresses: ■ PCs will use the first host address in the subnet. . and the server according to the preceding addressing scheme. other PCs. Task 4: Testing Connectivity Make sure all PCs can ping their gateways.

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troubleshooting. disaster recovery. Access through the AUX port does not require network services on the device. Discuss when and why you would use a certain method. for assistance. or use the corresponding Chapter 11 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration Companion Guide. Not all devices have an AUX port. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum activities and labs to ensure you have mastered the practical. and quality of service. Understanding these functions and being able to access them is essential for network administrators and technicians.CHAPTER 11 Configuring and Testing Your Network The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of matching. It provides a number of network services. For security reasons. . use Chapter 11 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum. just like the console port. SSH is preferred over Telnet. fill-in-the-blank. and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of configuring and testing networks. The console port provides a low-speed serial connection and is used mainly when network services are unavailable on the device—during initial configuration. it is important to protect it with a password. The operating system on most Cisco devices is the Cisco IOS. hands-on skills you need. The AUX port can be used to access the device either locally or through a dialup connection. and password recovery. Telnet and SSH provide remote access to the device and require network services. What security concerns do you need to consider for the different access methods? Answers will vary. It is important to configure the console port with a password and prevent physical access to the router by keeping it in a locked room. As you work through this chapter. addressing. security. When an AUX port is available. Study Guide Configuring Cisco Devices: IOS Basics Routers and switches need an operating system to function. Concept Questions 1. SSH uses more secure password authentication and encrypts the data for transport. multiple-choice. Describe the different access methods for Cisco devices. such as routing and switching.

298 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide 2. 3. For example. because this file is stored in RAM. these changes are not permanent unless they are written to the startup configuration file in NVRAM. 2. A network technician might be allowed to look at configurations but not change them. it becomes the running configuration file—the file that is used to operate the device. Global configuration mode a. location. These changes are active immediately. Table 11-1 Prompt IOS Configuration Modes IOS Configuration Mode a. Router(config)# d. What is the name of the command? show Does this command use arguments or keywords? Keywords . match the device prompt on the left with the correct IOS configuration mode on the right. the startup configuration file stays intact when the device is powered off. User EXEC mode d. Any configuration changes that are made to the device are written to the running configuration file. The main advantage is the controlled access or security. Describe the advantage of the hierarchical modal structure. Compare and contrast the two main configuration files on Cisco devices in terms of function. Because this file is in RAM. Authentication can be configured for different modes. Answers may vary. The startup configuration file is stored in nonvolatile RAM (NVRAM). It is important to save changes that need to be permanent. Switch(config-if)# b. Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 11-1. Each time a device is started or reloaded. After it is loaded into RAM. which is volatile memory. Answers may vary. Switch> b. The running configuration file is lost when the device is powered down. Router# c. Interface configuration mode Cisco IOS Command Exercises Answer these questions based on the following command: Router#show ip interface brief 1. Therefore. and how they relate to each other. the network administrator can grant different personnel different levels of access. the startup configuration file loads into RAM. Privileged EXEC mode c.

ROM. and IP addresses are needed to establish connectivity with other devices on the network. Because configuration files are critical. Passwords establish basic security at the local level. . NVRAM. the network administrator needs to exercise proper file management by saving changes to the configuration and by backing up configuration files. Table 11-2 Key IOS Command-Line Help Function Tab Ctrl-R Ctrl-Z Up arrow Down arrow Ctrl-D Ctrl-C Ctrl-Shift-6 Backspace exit Autocomplete: completes the remainder of the command or keyword Redisplays a line Exits configuration mode and returns to privileged EXEC mode Scrolls backwards through previously entered commands Scrolls forward through previously entered commands Deletes the character to the right of the cursor Aborts the current command and exits configuration mode Interrupts an IOS process such as ping or traceroute Deletes the character to the left of the cursor A command to move up one level in the configuration mode hierarchy Applying a Basic Configuration Using Cisco IOS All networking devices need a basic configuration to be functional.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 299 3. and flash. and the IP addresses and descriptions on the interface. Hostnames are important for network documentation and remote access. Where do the following commands get the information they display? Name the file if applicable and the storage location of this information. The most important initial configuration parameters include hostnames. Possible locations are RAM. passwords. show version: IOS information in RAM show startup-config: Backup configuration file in NVRAM show running-config: Active configuration file in RAM show flash: Operating systems stored in flash Test Your Knowledge Use Table 11-2 to test your knowledge of the command-line interface (CLI) shortcuts and hot keys.

and explain why they should contain some type of warning message. are managed remotely. Answers may vary. It is good practice to advise against unauthorized access with the help of banners. d. Explain why the hostname is an extremely important feature for networking devices. Which of the following interface commands allows you to enter interface configuration mode to configure a router’s interface? a. Backing up configuration files is part of good file management. Answers will vary. Banners provide a method for declaring that only authorized personnel should have access to the devices. Network configuration files are extremely important on a production network. proper file management is very important. This can prove helpful if somebody breaks into the system and a legal case arises. Enable the interface. help the administrator know what device he or she is connected to. Be specific in your answer. Filenaming conventions are extremely important. Multiple-Choice Questions Choose the best possible answer(s) for the following questions dealing with interface configuration network testing. b. Most networking devices. . Router(config)# interface 0/1/0 b. Therefore. c. because this lets you sort files by date if needed. Enter global configuration mode. and they need to be worded carefully. 1. Specify the interface address and subnet mask. Briefly explain the purpose of banners. Router# interface s0 c. Answers will vary. Therefore. 3. a logical naming scheme that includes version control is critical. Enter interface configuration mode. This means that the administrator connects to the networking devices via the network. Explain how good management of configuration files can be implemented.300 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Concept Questions 1. together with up-to-date documentation. Router(config)# interface s0/1/0 d. The administrator needs to have fast access to the desired files. Which of the following steps are required to configure an Ethernet interface? (Choose all that apply. The administrator does not have the physical devices in front of him or her to make sure they are attached to the correct piece of equipment. The directory structure needs to be logical and should be documented. Router(config)> interface s0/1/0 2. Hostnames are a vital part of network management. The filename also needs to indicate the hostname of the device it belongs to. There should always be backup copies of files to aid in disaster recovery. 2.) a. Hostnames. Including dates in the naming convention can be helpful. such as from an office. such as routers and switches. They are visible to anyone who logs on to the system.

Test Your Knowledge The ping utility yields useful indicators that can be used for troubleshooting. Time to Live (TTL) defines the number of hops that the ping packet has remaining before it will be dropped. c.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 301 3. and Layer 3 connectivity has been established. Concept Question Explain how the internal IP configuration on the local host can be tested.): The ping timed out. It verifies the proper operation of the protocol stack from the network layer to the physical layer (and back) without putting a signal on the medium. Because it tests connectivity at Layers 3. Because it uses a protocol stack to perform connectivity testing. show interface description 4.0. Exclamation mark (!): The ping completed successfully. Describe the following indicators.0. 2. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following sentences. 1. a switch needs a default gateway address defined to communicate with hosts outside the local network. Why is the ping test also called testing the protocol stack? a. Like other hosts. The letter U: A router along the path did not have a route to the destination address and responded with an ICMP unreachable message. A network administrator needs to be familiar with the different testing utilities such as ping and traceroute and the different show commands. 2. . show IP interface brief b. b. It is also possible that the ping was blocked by security measures. show interfaces c.) a. 3. One effective way to test network connectivity is to use the ping command. Because the ping test tests all the layers of the TCP/IP model. show running-configuration d. The ping 127.1 command can be used to test the local host IP configuration. A connectivity problem has occurred along the path. Answers may vary. It is possible that a router along the path did not have a route to the destination and did not send an ICMP destination unreachable message. Testing network connectivity is a very important task. Period (. and 1 of the OSI model. d. Because it tests all the layers of the OSI model. Verifying Connectivity A network needs full connectivity to converge. The output of which of the following commands shows the interface description? (Choose all that apply. The output provided by the utilities and the show commands provides useful information for troubleshooting.

For this experiment to be interesting. otherwise. Network engineers routinely rely on networks outside of local administration for connectivity to external networks. The destination server computer must return ICMP echo replies.3. Background To obtain realistic network latency statistics. by computing the average latency (mean). you will be able to ■ ■ ■ Use the ping command to document network latency. You will also measure delay when the ICMP datagram size increases. Normally these devices are the ones that introduce network latency. The purpose of this lab is to measure and evaluate network latency over time. and some private networks block transit ICMP echo datagrams. You will note the latency value at the center of the ordered range of latency points (median) and identify the most frequently occurring delay (mode). You will summarize return delay times. Compute various statistics on the output of a ping capture. and during different periods of the day. You will perform statistical analysis of throughput delay with the assistance of a spreadsheet application such as Microsoft Excel. Destinations on the same LAN or within a few hops may return an unrepresentative low latency. Be sure to check with your instructor for any local security restrictions on using the ping command on the network. to capture a representative sample of typical network activity. the network cloud represents all the network devices and cabling between the student computer and the destination server computer. You will accomplish this by analyzing the return delay from a distant computer using the ping command. delay cannot be computed.302 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Labs and Activities Lab 11-1: Network Latency Documentation with ping (11. Measure delay effects from larger datagrams. measured in milliseconds. If you’re patient. a sufficiently distant destination should be chosen. Some computers have this feature disabled through a firewall. you can find a suitable destination. Scenario In the topology diagram shown in Figure 11-1. which may be used in decision-making when evaluating suitable applications for wide-area network (WAN) deployment. Monitoring path latency provides some measure of administrative diligence. Figure 11-1 Topology for Lab 11-1 Server Computer Network Cloud Student Computer .4.3) Upon completion of this lab. this lab must be performed on a live network.

and write down the name: Answers will vary. depending on the destination address. Use the ping command to verify connectivity with the destination. Students might decide to ping google. use another destination. Preferably.93.yahoo.52: bytes=32 time=304ms TTL=52 Ping statistics for 209.93. and then click OK. Enter cmd.191.93. one test should be done in the early morning. as shown in Example 11-1. Maximum = 304ms .Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 303 This lab requires five days of testing. you will have 15 sets of data.5: Packets: Sent = 1. Note to Instructor: Answers will vary. Example 11-1 Ping Test C:\> ping -n 1 www. If packets were lost. Received = 1. one around midday. What option and argument would change the default size to 100 bytes? ping IP Address -l 100 Decide on a destination server computer. Open a terminal window by choosing Start > Run. and retest.net [209. Lost = 0 (0% loss) Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 304ms. for example. Task 1: Use the ping Command to Document Network Latency Step 1.com. When you’re done. and one in the evening.191.yahoo-ht3. Average = 304 ms Use the ping /? command to answer the following questions: What is the purpose of the -n option and argument 1? The -n option determines the number of echo requests to send.com Pinging www. Three tests will be performed each day. depending on the destination server computer students choose. Attempt to ping a suitably distant destination. such as www. . The ping command might fail or succeed. you will send and analyze increasingly larger ICMP datagrams. Verify connectivity between the student computer and the destination server computer. and write down the results: Packets sent: _____________ Packets received: _________ Packets lost: _____________ Answers will vary. To understand the delay effects from larger datagrams.com or yahoo.191. The idea is to note and document latency differences that occur at different times of the day.52] with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 209.com.yahoo.akadns.

you can redirect output to a file by appending >day-sample#. Compute the mean. After the spreadsheet has been opened. When the input formatting is satisfactory. If it isn’t already open. Choose Start > Programs > Accessories > Notepad. . When you’re done. Bring the text file into the Microsoft Excel spreadsheet application. To format a text file for use within Excel. click Finish.304 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Step 2. Choose File > Open. When you’re finished. Save the file using the name format day-sample#. format the columns so that they are more readable.txt. median. Write down the command that sends 100 echo requests to the destination: ping -n 100 Use the ping command to send 100 echo requests to your destination. follow the instructions to separate numeric values from text values. Note: The terminal remains blank until the command has finished. and mode delay values. copy the replies into Notepad. Figure 11-2 Excel Text Import Wizard Step 2.txt to the end of the ping command. In Step 2. Perform a delay test. you should have a spreadsheet that looks similar to Figure 11-3.txt. ensure that all numeric values are separated from text characters. Highlight the filename and click Open. start Microsoft Excel. shown in Figure 11-2. Click Browse to move to the directory that holds the text file. manually fix the numbers. If the spreadsheet has numbers in different fields. Task 2: Compute Various Statistics on the Output of a ping Capture Step 1. The command syntax is ping [options] >day-sample#. choose Fixed Width. where day is the day the test was performed (1 through 5) and sample# is the sample period (1 through 3). In the Text Import wizard. Alternatively. Step 1.

Figure 11-4 Ordering on the Delay Column . Select the column that contains the Delay values. You do this by choosing Data > Sort. In Figure 11-4 it is Column G. the delay values must be ordered (sorted) when computing the median and mode values.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 305 Figure 11-3 Partial Spreadsheet Record the number of dropped packets in the column Dropped Packets. Highlight all the data fields. click OK. Finally. If a header row was highlighted. When you’re finished. Dropped packets have a consistently large delay value. click the Header row radio button. Figure 11-4 shows a partial spreadsheet highlighted and the Data dialog box opened.

or the delay value in the center of the ordered range. overwrites the file each time the ping command is executed. as shown in the following command. delay is the sum of the delays divided by the number of measurements. The syntax is FOR /L %variable IN (start.2000) DO ping -n 1 -l %i destination >> variablesizedelay. The easiest way to accomplish this task is to use the Windows built-in FOR loop command.2000) DO ping -n 1 -l %i destination Copy the output into Notepad. For this spreadsheet. and only the last reply is saved.1. Record this number in your chart in the Median column.end) DO command [command-parameters] The set is a sequence of numbers from start to end. use the redirect append operator. is also similar. All 20 replies are arranged similarly. as well as a chart that plots size versus delay. The normal redirect operator. and (5. or the delay value that occurs the most frequently. You may either save or discard the new spreadsheet file. Issue this command: FOR /L %i IN (100. To redirect output to a file. or average. destination is the destination. Record this number in your chart in the Mean column.100. >>. is similar to the average formula. For the median value. Step 1. . >. and save the file using the name variablesizedelay.txt. The formula used to compute the modal delay. Task 3: Measure Delay Effects from Larger Datagrams To determine if larger datagrams affect delay.100. the formula in cell G104 would be =mode(G2:G101).step. but you should retain the data text file. The output of one line is shown in Example 11-2. In the following command.5) would generate the sequence 1 2 3 4 5. Perform a quick visual inspection to verify that your mean value is approximately the value shown. by step amount. Perform a quick visual inspection to verify that your median value is similar to what is shown midway in the data range.1) would generate the sequence (5 4 3 2 1). FOR /L %i IN (100. Record this number in your chart in the Mode column. For the mode value.306 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide The formula used to compute the mean. 20 datagrams will be incremented by 100 bytes per ping request.–1. the formula in cell G103 would be =median(G2:G101). Perform a quick visual inspection to verify that your mode value is the most frequently occurring value in the data range. In this analysis. You will create a spreadsheet with the reply results.txt Note: The terminal remains blank until the command has finished. Perform a variable-sized delay test. this would equate to the formula in cell G102: =average(G2:G101). you will send increasingly larger ICMP echo requests to the destination. The formula used to compute the median delay. So (1.

191.52: Packets: Sent = 1. Clean up and organize the spreadsheet data into two columns. Open the new text file in Excel.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 307 Example 11-2 Variable-Size Delay Test C:\> FOR /L %i IN (100. Format the spreadsheet. Bytes and Delay. and submit them to your instructor with the final delay analysis. When you’re finished. Figure 11-5 Excel Text Import Wizard The difference between this file and the previous one is that the variable-size file has much more information than is really needed. When you’re finished. Step 3.txt C:\> ping -n 1 -l 100 Pinging www.com >>variablesizedelay. Step 4.net [209.100. but there is room for individual creativity.52] with 100 bytes of data: Reply from 209. The chart shown in Figure 11-7 is a stacked line chart.yahoo. Can you make any assumptions about delay when larger datagrams are sent across a network? Answers may vary.yahoo-ht3.191. a delay might occur. as shown in Figure 11-5.93.52: bytes=100 time=383ms TTL=52 Ping statistics for 209. save your spreadsheet and chart. .93. the spreadsheet should look similar to Figure 11-6.akadns.93. When larger datagrams are sent. Average = 383ms Step 2. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 383ms. Highlight the Delay column data and choose Insert > Chart. A chart should be clear. Bring the text file into the Excel spreadsheet application. Maximum = 383ms. Received = 1. Lost = 0 (0% loss). A number of charts can be used to display delay data. Create a chart of the data. depending on available bandwidth and other traffic on the network.191.2000) DO ping -n 1 -l %i www.

If that does not work. When these file-sharing applications are active.308 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 11-6 Formatted Spreadsheet Figure 11-7 Plot of Delay Versus Datagram Size Task 4: Reflection The ping command can provide important network latency information. network analysis tools can be used to determine the source. When the source originates from external networks not under the control of the organization. valuable bandwidth is diverted from critical business applications. network devices may become overwhelmed during certain times of the day. . Careful delay analysis over successive days and at different times of the day can alert the network engineer to changes in network performance. when delay is less. and corrective action can be taken. try to work out the problem with the ISP first. routine data transfers should be scheduled during off-peak times. In this case. If delays are caused by events within the organization. subscribing with a different or additional Internet service provider (ISP) may prove beneficial. Also. and network delay spikes. many users subscribe to peer-to-peer applications such as Kazaa and Napster. For example.

or two-paragraph analysis that compares these delay results against a measurement made without the download. download a large file.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 309 Task 5: Challenge If permitted. Write a one. . and perform a separate delay test while the file is downloading.

To configure the lab.1) Learning Objectives Upon completion of this lab. Figure 11-8 Topology for Lab 11-2 1 Fa0/0 Fa0/1 Fa0/1 R1 Fa0/2 S1 Fa0/3 2 3 Gather the necessary equipment and cables.5. consider configur- ing a loopback interface as an alternative to the FastEthernet 0/1. Configure Cisco router password access. Common configuration tasks include setting the hostname. Configure a Cisco switch. access passwords. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Configure Cisco router global configuration settings. Configure Cisco router interfaces. make sure that the equipment listed in Table 11-3 is available. Save the router configuration file. .1.310 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Lab 11-2: Basic Cisco Device Configuration (11. and message-of-the-day (MOTD) banner. Table 11-3 Hardware Equipment and Hardware Requirements Quantity Description Cisco router Cisco switch Computer (host) Console (rollover) cable Crossover cable Straight-through cable 1 1 3 3 1 3 Part of the CCNA Lab bundle Part of the CCNA Lab bundle Lab computer Connects computer Host1 to the router console port Connects the computer to the router LAN interface FA0/0 Connects computer hosts to the switch and the switch to the router Note to Instructor: If you do not have a router that has two FastEthernet interfaces. Background Figure 11-8 shows the topology for this lab. Another alternative would be to use two routers connected through a serial connection and use the FastEthernet interfaces from each router.

219.219.142 192. with 4 bits borrowed for subnets.133.33 192.128 192.209 192.219.219.17 192.224 192.133.110 192.219.133.133.133.97 192.219. and rollover cables.133.133.144 192.) Note to Instructor: To reinforce student cable identification.219.133.47 192.133.219.160 192.219.219.133.133.241 192.219.133.133. fill in Table 11-4.219.133.219.78 192.208 192.111 192.219.95 192.133.31 192.219.81 192.112 192.161 192.62 192.133.159 192.113 192.133.176 192.219.133.254 192.219.133.174 192.133.133.63 192.133.133.143 192.64 192. Students should be able to identify the proper cable type based on a visual inspection.223 192.219.133.133.219.219.219.219.219.133.129 192. straight-through.133.207 192.133.133.219.133. Address information is easy to compute with the subnet number filled in first.133.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 311 Interface configuration is extremely important.219.133.207 192.133.193 192.219.133.0 192.133.192 192.219.219.219.133. entering a description that describes the destination connection decreases troubleshooting time.0 # Subnet 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 192. Scenario In this lab.219.219.158 192.219. Given an IP address of 198.133. Configuration changes may also be saved offline in a text file for auditing or device replacement.30 192.219.225 192.240 192.96 192.133.177 192.133.219. Configuration changes take effect immediately. (Hint: fill in the subnet number and then the host address.133.133.219.175 192.133.219.219.191 192.219.133.133.219.126 192.219.127 192.255 .80 192.239 192.48 192.133.15 192.238 192.219.16 192.133.219.133.219.32 192. you will configure common settings on a Cisco router and Cisco switch.219.219.219 192.219.133.219.219.219. Maximum number of usable subnets (including the 0th subnet): 16 Number of usable hosts per subnet: 14 Table 11-4 Subnet Address Table Subnet mask: 255.133.133.14 192.145 192. Cisco IOS switch configuration is similar to Cisco IOS router configuration.219.79 192.1 192.133.222 192.133.255.95 192.133.133.219.219.0/24.240 First host address Last Host Address Broadcast IP address: 192.219.219.133.219.219. In addition to assigning a Layer 3 IP address.133.133.133.255.219.219.190 192. have several different types of cables available for the students.133.133.219.219.46 192.219.219.219.133.133.133.219.133.65 192.219. Mix crossover.133. The changes must be saved in NVRAM to be persistent across reboot.133.

Give each team of students a subnetwork number. Connect the crossover cable between the host computer’s network interface card (NIC) and Router interface Fa0/0. Figure 11-9 Lab Cabling 1 Fa0/0 Fa0/1 R1 Straight-Through Cable Serial Cable Console (Rollover) Crossover Cable Step 2. Figure 11-9 shows the cabling for this lab. Physically connect the devices. switch. Connect the console or rollover cable to the console port on the router. and router. The instructor will assign subnetworks. verify your addresses with the instructor. Connect host computer through HyperTerminal. Ensure that power has been applied to the host computer. Task 1: Configure Cisco Router Global Configuration Settings Step 1. start the HyperTerminal program by choosing Start > Programs > Accessories > Communications > HyperTerminal. . Configure HyperTerminal with the proper settings: ■ ■ Name the connection description: Lab 11_5_1 Connect using: COM1 (or an appropriate COM port) Configure the COM1 properties: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Bits per second: 9600 Data bits: 8 Parity: None Stop bits: 1 Flow control: None When the HyperTerminal session window comes up. Connect a straight-through cable between the Router interface Fa0/1 and any of the switch’s interfaces (1 through 24). From the Widows taskbar. press the Enter key until the router responds.312 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Before proceeding. Connect the other end of the cable to the host computer using a DB-9 adapter to the COM 1 port.

However. Because no domain server is configured.255) % Press Ctrl-Shift-6. Configure global configuration hostname settings..255. To terminate the domain name lookup process. apply the global configuration command no ip domain-lookup. If your router does not have a default configuration. If a configuration file was previously saved. Write down the list of configuration modes. a delay occurs while the request times out..255. exit by entering no: Would you like to enter the initial configuration dialog? [yes/no]: no Press RETURN to get started! Router> In privileged EXEC command mode. enter privileged EXEC mode: Router> enable Router# Verify a clean configuration file using the privileged EXEC command show runningconfig.domain server (255. press Ctrl-Shift-6. This results in the following: Name lookup aborted Router> To disable name translation attempts. release. and then press X. it should have no configured passwords or IP addresses. and then press X. the router attempts to translate any misspelled or unrecognized commands as a domain name.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 313 If the router terminal is in configuration mode. and describe them: confirm: Confirms replacement of running-config with a new config file memory: Configures from nonvolatile memory network: Configures from a TFTP network host overwrite-network: Overwrites nonvolatile memory from the TFTP network host replace: Replaces the running-config with a new config file terminal: Configures from the terminal <cr> . From user EXEC mode. Step 3. your configuration may look slightly different from a typical default router’s configuration. The following shows a user mistyping a command and the router attempting a domain name lookup: Router>enabel Translating “enabel”. release. ask the instructor to remove the configuration. it must be removed. This can take from several seconds to several minutes. Depending on the router’s model and the IOS version. What two commands may be used to leave privileged EXEC mode? exit or end What shortcut command can you use to enter privileged EXEC mode? en Examine the different configuration modes that can be entered with the command configure?.

connection logging. and all connection information will be logged.314 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide From privileged EXEC mode. Unauthorized access will be prosecuted. penalties for unauthorized access. Write down the list of banner modes. where ‘c’ is a delimiting character Examine the different banner modes that can be entered. exec: Sets the EXEC process creation banner incoming: Sets the incoming terminal line banner login: Sets the login banner motd: Sets the message-of-the-day banner prompt-timeout: Sets the message for the login authentication timeout slip-ppp: Sets the message for SLIP/PPP . All connections are continuously logged. Router1(config)# banner ? LINE: c banner-text c. Access is granted to only current ABC system administrators with prior written approval. and Ctrl-Z What shortcut command can be used to enter global configuration mode? config t Set the device hostname to Router1: router(config)# hostname Router1 Router1(config)# How can the hostname be removed? no hostname Router1 Step 4. For example. Unauthorized access is prohibited and will be prosecuted. Create a suitable MOTD banner. A banner should include information about authorization. For example. and applicable local laws. the end command. banner content may have a significant legal impact on the organization. suppose you are connected to an ABC network device. Configure the MOTD banner. The corporate security policy should cover all banner messages. enter global configuration mode: Router# configuration terminal Router(config)# What three methods may be used to leave global configuration mode and return to privileged EXEC mode? The exit command. Only system administrators of the ABC Company are authorized users. a court might interpret a friendly “Welcome” message as permission for an attacker to hack into the router. and describe them. In production networks.

oooO ( ) Oooo.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 315 Choose a terminating character that will not be used in the message text.” Password security relies on the password . because it controls access to configuration mode. it is impossible to recover an enable secret based on the contents of a configuration file (other than by obvious dictionary attacks). Configure the privileged EXEC password. aux. The enable secret command uses a very secure MD5 cryptographic hash algorithm. Configure the MOTD banner. *** *** Unauthorized access is prohibited. Use the terminating character on a blank line to end the MOTD entry. Cisco says “As far as anyone at Cisco knows. End with the character %’ ***You are connected to an ABC network device. The privileged EXEC mode password is the most critical password. Step 1. and will be prosecuted. The following is a banner made from ASCII art that can be copied into the router: ( o o ) +------------------.------------------+ | | | . *** All connections are continuously logged.oooO--(_)--Oooo. such as % (percent). Cisco IOS supports two commands that set access to privileged EXEC mode. )--------------------+ ) / (_/ | | | +---------------------\ (----( \_) Task 2: Configure Cisco Router Password Access Access passwords are set for privileged EXEC mode and the user entry point such as console. enable password. Example 11-3 banner motd Output Router1(config)# banner motd % Enter TEXT message. Access is granted to only current ABC company system administrators with prior written approval. One command. as shown in Example 11-3. The MOTD banner is displayed on all connections before the login prompt. and virtual lines. *** % Router1(config)# What is the global configuration command to remove the MOTD banner? no banner motd Personal banners on nonproduction devices can be entertaining. contains no encryption or weak cryptography and should never be used if the enable secret command is available.

In production environments. access on that virtual line is blocked. Set the console access password to cisco. strong passwords should be used at all times. Set the virtual line access password to cisco. only five virtual lines could be set—0 through 4. A strong password consists of at least nine characters of uppercase and lowercase letters. Issue the command exit. we will use weak passwords. and symbols. What is the router prompt? What is the mode? Router1(config-line)# exit Router1(config)# Global configuration mode Issue the command end. In newer Cisco IOS versions. Router1(config-line)# line vty 0 4 Router1(config-line)# password cisco Router1(config-line)# login There are three ways to exit line configuration mode. The console password controls console access to the router. Configure the virtual line password. In a lab environment. Table 11-5 Command Ways to Exit Line Configuration Mode Effect exit end Ctrl-Z Returns to global configuration mode. In early Cisco IOS versions. Fill in Table 11-5 with the correct answers. Configure the console password. Unless a Telnet password is set. the number has been expanded. What is the router prompt? What is the mode? Router1# Privileged EXEC mode . Set the privileged EXEC password to class: Router1(config)# enable secret class Router1(config)# Step 2. The virtual line password controls Telnet access to the router. Exits the configuration and returns to privileged EXEC mode.316 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide algorithm and the password. numbers. Router1(config)# line console 0 Router1(config-line)# password cisco Router1(config-line)# login What is the command to remove the console password? no password cisco Step 3.

Write down the last IP address: Answers will vary.14 Step 1.255. Write a short description for the connections on Router1: Fa0/0 -> Connection to Host1 with crossover cable.168. 192. Figure 11-10 Network Topology 1 Fa0/0 Fa0/1 R1 Straight-Through Cable Serial Cable Console (Rollover) Crossover Cable Write down your subnet number and mask: Answers will vary.168. Apply the description on the router interface with the interface configuration command description. depending on which subnet students choose from Table 11-4.0 255. Configure the router interface Fa0/0. the maximum description length is 240 characters. Write down the first IP address: Answers will vary. 192. 192. Figure 11-10 shows a network topology in which a host computer is connected to Router 1.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 317 Task 3: Configure Cisco Router Interfaces All cabled interfaces should contain documentation about the connection.240 The first IP address will be used to configure the host computer LAN.1. interface Fa0/0.168.1 The last IP address will be used to configure the router fa0/0 interface. as shown in Example 11-4. On newer Cisco IOS versions.1.1.255. Example 11-4 Interface Configuration Router1(config)# interface fa0/0 Router1(config-if)# description Connection to Host1 with crossover cable Router1(config-if)# ip address address mask Router1(config-if)# no shutdown Router1(config-if)# end Router1# .

602: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet0/1. Configure the host computer. Recall that you access the LAN configuration window by choosing Start > Control Panel > Network Connections. troubleshoot the connection. Configure the router interface Fa0/1. and verify network settings with the ipconfig command. What Cisco IOS command can you use to verify the interface status? show interface fa0/0 and show interface fa0/1 What Windows command can you use to verify host computer configuration? ipconfig What is the correct LAN cable between Host1 and Router1? Crossover . If ping replies are not successful. and choose Properties. and choose Properties. Verify network connectivity. Use the ping command to verify network connectivity with the router.602: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet0/0. as shown in Example 11-5. changed state to up Step 2. changed state to up Step 3. Highlight the Internet Protocol field. Fill in the following fields: ■ ■ ■ IP Address: The first host address Subnet Mask: The subnet mask Default Gateway: The router’s IP address Click OK. Example 11-5 Interface Configuration Router1(config)# interface fa0/1 Router1(config-if)# description Connection to switch with straightthrough cable Router1(config-if)# ip address address mask Router1(config-if)# no shutdown Router1(config-if)# end Router1# Look for the interface to become active: *Mar 24 19:58:59. Write a short description for the connections on Router1: Fa0/1 -> Apply the description on the router interface with the interface configuration command description. Step 4. and then click Close. Open a Windows command window. Configure the host computer for LAN connectivity. Rightclick the LAN icon.318 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Look for the interface to become active: *Mar 24 19:58:59.

MD5. the resulting hash is different. to compute the MD5 hash. The first field. . but a short answer to intrigue students may lead to independent research. JnEnON09QjpibV33dJXBI0. someone is bound to ask why the cryptotext is different. and it calls nonvolatile RAM (NVRAM) configuration storage the startup configuration. 1. The second field. If all students used cisco as the enable secret password. The cryptotext $1$Sg/E$JnEnON09QjpibV33dJXBI0 is actually composed of three fields. it is because there is no saved configuration. cisco. Table 11-6 Key Key Responses Description Spacebar Enter Q Ctrl-C Displays the next page Displays the next line Quits Quits Write down one possible shortcut command that displays the contents of NVRAM: show start Use this command to show the contents of NVRAM. contains the hash algorithm type—in this case. Table 11-6 describes acceptable key responses. Because the salts are different. NVRAM must be manually updated after any changes are made. that is used with the password. (Answers will vary. This does not occur automatically.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 319 Task 4: Save the Router Configuration Files Cisco IOS calls RAM configuration storage the running configuration. Step 1. is called the salt. but they will be close to 1000 bytes. Sg/E. Example 11-6 Missing NVRAM Router1# show startup-config startup-config is not present Router1# Display the contents of RAM. The configuration is displayed one screen at a time. For configurations to survive rebooting or power restarts. or random value. Use the Cisco IOS show command to view RAM and NVRAM configurations. A line containing — more — indicates that there is additional information to display. If the output of NVRAM is missing. Compare router RAM and NVRAM configurations.) What is the enable secret password? enable secret 5 $1$Sg/E$JnEnON09QjpibV33dJXBI0 Ask students to compare their passwords. Router1# show running-config Use the output to answer the following questions: How large is the configuration file? The current configuration is 935 bytes. separated by $. The answer is beyond the scope of this curriculum. the RAM configuration must be copied into NVRAM. as shown in Example 11-6.

Save the RAM configuration to NVRAM. press Enter until the switch responds. your configuration may look slightly different from the typical default switch configuration. Save the RAM configuration to NVRAM. [OK] Router1# Write down one possible shortcut command that will copy the RAM configuration to NVRAM. For a configuration to be used the next time the router is powered on or reloaded. as shown in Example 11-7. there should be no configured passwords. write mem. The benefit of learning IOS commands is that they are similar to many different devices and IOS versions. The contents should be the same. it must be manually saved in NVRAM. enter global configuration mode: Switch> en Switch# config t Switch(config)# Set the device hostname to Switch1: Switch(config)# hostname Switch1 Switch1(config)# . If your switch does not have a default configuration. write terminal Step 2. Step 2... wr Review the contents of NVRAM. ask the instructor to remove the configuration. wr mem. sh run. Connect the host to the switch. or rollover. Depending on the switch model and IOS version. Configure the global configuration hostname setting. Move the console. cable to the console port on the switch. Ensure that power has been applied to the switch. In HyperTerminal. From user EXEC mode. and verify that the configuration is the same as the configuration in RAM.320 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide ■ ■ ■ Does your MOTD banner contain the information you entered earlier? Yes Do your interface descriptions contain the information you entered earlier? Yes Write down one possible shortcut command that will display the contents of RAM. Step 1. Task 5: Configure a Cisco Switch Cisco IOS switch configuration is similar to configuring a Cisco IOS router. copy run start. However. Example 11-7 Saving the RAM Configuration Router1# copy running-config startup-config Destination filename [startup-config]? <ENTER> Building configuration.

Configure the MOTD banner. All connections are continuously logged. Unauthorized access is prohibited. review the similar step for configuring a switch MOTD banner. Configure the interface description. . Set the virtual line access password to class.% Step 4. Unauthorized access will be prosecuted. Only system administrators of the ABC company are authorized users. Set the privileged EXEC password to cisco: Switch1(config)# enable secret cisco Switch1(config)# Step 5. Switch1 interface Fa0/2 is connected to host computer 2. Access is granted to only current ABC system administrators with prior written approval. and all connection information will be logged. and interface Fa0/3 is connected to host computer 3. Use the terminating character on a blank line to end the MOTD entry. Configure the console password. Figure 11-11 shows a network topology in which Router1 is connected to Switch1. Sixteen virtual lines can be configured on a Cisco IOS switch. and will be prosecuted. Switch1(config)# banner motd % You are connected to an ABC network device. Set the console access password to class: Switch1(config)# line console 0 Switch1(config-line)# password class Switch1(config-line)# login Step 6. Configure the privileged EXEC password. Create a suitable MOTD banner. 0 through 15: Switch1(config-line)# line vty 0 15 Switch1(config-line)# password class Switch1(config-line)# login Step 7. Configure the virtual line password.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 321 Step 3. Configure the MOTD banner: Switch1(config)# banner motd % The MOTD banner is displayed on all connections before the login prompt. For assistance. interface Fa0/1.

and verify that the configuration is the same as the configuration in RAM... [OK] Switch1# Review the contents of NVRAM. The contents should be the same. Save the RAM configuration to NVRAM as shown in Example 11-9. Example 11-9 Saving the Configuration Switch1# copy run start Destination filename [startup-config]? <ENTER> Building configuration. Table 11-7 Interface Description Description Switch1 Interface Fa0/1 Fa0/2 Fa0/3 Connection to Router 1 Connection to host computer 2 Connection to host computer 3 Apply the descriptions on the switch interface using the interface configuration command description. as shown in Example 11-8. it must be manually saved in NVRAM. write a short description for the connections on Switch1. For a configuration to be used the next time the switch is powered on or reloaded. Save the RAM configuration to NVRAM.322 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 11-11 Network Topology 1 Fa0/0 Fa0/1 Fa0/1 R1 Fa0/2 S1 Fa0/3 2 3 In Table 11-7. Example 11-8 Interface Description Switch1(config)# interface fa0/1 Switch1(config-if)# description Connection to Router1 Switch1(config)# interface fa0/2 Switch1(config-if)# description Connection to host computer 2 Switch1(config)# interface fa0/3 Switch1(config-if)# description Connection to host computer 3 Switch1(config-if)# end Switch1# Step 8. .

Table 118 lists the commands covered in this lab. Router vty lines: 0 4 password password login Example: Router(config)# line vty 0 4 Router(config-line)# password class Router(config-line)# login Router(config-line)# continues . configure terminal Example: Router> enable Router# configure terminal Router(config)# Specify the router’s name. Table 11-8 Action Commands Covered in This Lab Command Enter global configuration mode. but an experienced network engineer does not need a cheat sheet to perform common configuration tasks. Specify a password to prevent unauthorized access to the console. It is perfectly acceptable to use notes at first to help configure a device.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 323 Task 6: Reflection The more you practice the commands. the faster you will become at configuring a Cisco IOS router and switch. hostname name Example: Router(config)# hostname Router1 Router1(config)# Specify an encrypted password to prevent unauthorized access to privileged EXEC mode. enable secret password Example: Router(config)# enable secret cisco Router(config)# password password login Example: Router(config)# line con 0 Router(config-line)# password class Router(config-line)# login Router(config-line)# Specify a password to prevent unauthorized Telnet access.

324 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 11-8 Action Commands Covered in This Lab continued Command Configure the MOTD banner. from HyperTerminal choose Transfer > Capture Text. copy running-config startup-config Example: Router# copy running-config startup-config Router# Task 7: Challenge It is often necessary. To start a capture. Figure 11-12 HyperTerminal Capture Menu All communication between the host computer and router is saved to a file. banner motd % Example: Router(config)# banner motd % banner text % Router(config)# Configure an interface. The file can be edited and saved. Step 1. and always handy. and click Start. Router: Interface is off by default Switch: Interface is on by default interface type/port Example: Router(config)# interface fa0/0 Router(config-if)# description description Router(config-if)# ip address address mask Router(config-if)# no shutdown Router(config-if)# Save the configuration to NVRAM. Enter a path and filename. to save the configuration file to an offline text file. . One way to do so is to choose Transfer > Capture Text from HyperTerminal. It also can be copied and pasted into a router. as shown in Figure 11-12.

. and press Spacebar until all the configuration has been displayed. After checking the configuration file. restore host computer network connectivity. Verify the configuration. Delete any configuration files saved on the host computers. Manually correct any lines that were scrambled or places where several lines occupy the same line. The important point is to closely examine the configuration for any errors before reloading.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 325 Step 2. After the reload is complete. Stop the capture. enter global configuration mode: Router> en Router# config t Router(config)# Right-click inside the HyperTerminal window and choose Paste To Host. This places the configuration in host computer memory. Erase the NVRAM configuration file: Router1# erase start Erasing the nvram filesystem will remove all configuration files! Continue? [confirm] <ENTER> [OK] Erase of nvram: complete Step 3. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. it is always a best practice to begin with a clean RAM configuration. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. Open the text file and review the contents. Highlighting the HyperTerminal text and copying may also bring the configuration into memory. Choose Transfer > Capture Text > Stop. Task 8: Clean Up Before turning off power to the router and switch. Step 4. Each message must be investigated and corrected. To load the configuration file. manually enable the interfaces by issuing the no shutdown command in interface configuration mode. such as the — more — prompt. and save to NVRAM. Otherwise. remove the NVRAM configuration file from each device using the privileged EXEC command erase startup-config. The configuration is quickly loaded to the router. Watch closely for error messages. stale configuration commands may survive a paste action and have unintended consequences. Reload the router: Router1# reload Proceed with reload? [confirm] <ENTER> When the router reboots. and then turn off power to the host computers. highlight the lines and choose Edit > Copy from Notepad. Remove any lines that are not configuration commands. and leave the room ready for the next class. Issue the privileged EXEC command show running-config.

326 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Basic Cisco Device Configuration (11.5. . however. Remember.1. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity.2) You can now open the file LSG1-Lab11512. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer.

You may download a free copy of the SolarWinds TFTP server software from www. you will configure common settings on a Cisco router.aspx or from any freeware or shareware website. save the configuration to a TFTP server. Scenario In this lab.solarwinds.2.1) Upon completion of this lab. Use the last valid subnet. You are given an IP address of 10. Use TFTP to save and restore a Cisco IOS configuration.5.250. you will be able to ■ ■ Configure network connectivity. Background Figure 11-13 shows the topology for this lab. SolarWinds is a free TFTP application for Windows. Table 11-9 Hardware Lab Equipment and Hardware Requirements Quantity Description Cisco router Computer (host) Console (rollover) cable Crossover cable 1 1 1 1 Part of the CCNA Lab bundle Lab computer Connects computer Host1 to the router console port Connects the Host1 NIC to Router1 Fa0/0 The host computer will be used as a TFTP server. Host1 should use the first valid host address.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 327 Lab 11-3: Managing Device Configuration (11.250. This lab requires the use of SolarWinds TFTP server software. . and then restore the configuration from a TFTP server.0/24 and additional 6 bits for subnets. and Router1 should use the last valid host address.com/products/freetools/free_tftp_server. Figure 11-13 Topology for Lab 11-3 1 Fa0/0 R1 Straight-Through Cable Serial Cable Console (Rollover) Crossover Cable Table 11-9 lists the lab equipment and hardware requirements for this lab.

From the Widows taskbar. The configuration tasks for Router1 are as follows: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Specify the router name: Router1 Specify an encrypted privileged EXEC password: cisco Specify a console access password: class Specify a Telnet access password: class Configure the MOTD banner. Physically connect the devices. Configure the Router1 interface Fa0/0: ■ ■ ■ Set the description. have several different types of cables available for the students. Connect the other cable end to the host computer with a DB-9 adapter to the COM 1 port. When the HyperTerminal session window opens. Step 4. and rollover cables. Task 1: Configure Network Connectivity Step 1.252 Last Host Address Broadcast First Host Address 10. Table 11-10 IP Addressing IP address: 10.250. Step 2. Ensure that power has been applied to both the host computer and the router.250. Connect the console. press the Enter key until the router responds. or rollover. Using the IP address information from the scenario.250.251 To reinforce student cable identification.250.250. subnet mask.328 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Use Table 11-10 to record your addressing.250.250. Caution: Do not save the configuration in NVRAM. Refer to Figure 11-13. Step 3.0 Subnet Subnet mask: 255. Configure Router1. and default gateway.250.250. configure the Host1 computer with an IP address. Mix crossover. Connect the host computer to the router through HyperTerminal.255. In this lab you practice transferring a configura- tion file to a router that does not have a configuration file in NVRAM. Logically connect the devices. start the HyperTerminal program by choosing Start > Programs > Accessories > Communications > HyperTerminal.248 10. cable to the console port on the router. Set the Layer 3 address.249 10.255. straight-through. Issue the no shutdown command. Students should be able to identify the proper cable type based on a visual inspection.250. .250 10.

249. click Finish.250. timeout is 2 seconds: . Figure 11-14 TFTP Server Window Start the TFTP server by choosing Start > Programs > SolarWinds Free Tools > TFTP Server. Start the TFTP server. as shown in Example 11-10.!!!! Success rate is 80 percent (4/5). and accept the default settings.250. Configure the TFTP server.250. 100-byte ICMP Echos to 10.249 Type escape sequence to abort. Install the SolarWinds TFTP application. Agree to the license agreement. Figure 11-14 shows an active TFTP server window. Sending 5. Step 2. Verify connectivity between Host1 and Router1. . as shown in Table 11-11. After SolarWinds has finished the installation.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 329 Step 5. Verify connectivity. Click Next. choose File > Configure. To configure the TFTP server. Verify the settings.250. Double-click the SolarWinds TFTP application to begin the installation. as shown in Figure 11-15. Example 11-10 Verify Connectivity Router1# ping 10. Step 3. round-trip min/avg/max = 1/1/1 ms Router1# Task 2: Use TFTP to Save and Restore a Cisco IOS Configuration Step 1.

250. Example 11-11 Saving the Router Configuration to the TFTP Server Router1#copy running-config tftp: Address or name of remote host []? 10.250 Never Enable Log Requests to the Following File.250.250 To 10.249 Destination filename [router1-confg]? <ENTER> !! 1081 bytes copied in 2. Use Microsoft Word or WordPad to examine the contents of the file c:\TFTP-Root\router1-confg. When you’re finished. .330 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 11-15 Active TFTP Server Window Table 11-11 TFTP Server Settings Setting Value TFTP Root Directory Security Advanced Security Auto-Close Log TFTP-Root Transmit and Receive Files 10. Leave the default file.250.250.250).250. 1081 bytes Verify the transferred file. Save the Router1 configuration to the TFTP server. click OK. From HyperTerminal.250. The contents should be similar to the configuration shown in Example 11-12.txt. The contents should be similar to the following: 3/25/2007 12:29 :Receiving router1-confg from (10.250. as shown in Example 11-11.250. Step 4.250.250) 3/25/2007 12:29 :Received router1-confg from (10.008 secs (538 bytes/sec) Router1# Verify a successful upload transfer.250. begin a TFTP upload to the TFTP server. Open Log file c:\Program Files\SolarWinds\Free Tools\TFTP-Server.

4 service timestamps debug datetime msec service timestamps log datetime msec no service password-encryption ! hostname Router1 ! boot-start-marker boot-end-marker ! enable secret 5 $1$D02B$AuX05n0HPT239yYRoQ0oE.250. ! no aaa new-model ip cef ! interface FastEthernet0/0 description connection to host1 ip address 10.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 331 Example 11-12 Configuration File ! version 12.252 duplex auto speed auto ! interface FastEthernet0/1 no ip address shutdown duplex auto speed auto ! interface Serial0/1/0 no ip address shutdown no fair-queue ! interface Serial0/1/1 no ip address shutdown clock rate 2000000 ! ip http server no ip http secure-server ! control-plane ! banner motd *** ABC COMPANY NETWORK DEVICE **** *** Authorized access only ***** *** Logging is enabled **** .255.250 255.255.250.

332 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example 11-12 Configuration File ! line con 0 password class login line aux 0 line vty 0 4 password class login ! continued scheduler allocate 20000 1000 End Step 5. as shown in Example 11-15. Restore the Router1 configuration from the TFTP server.252 Router(config-if)# no shutdown Router(config-if)# exit *Mar 25 16:43:03. Router(config)# interface fa0/0 Router(config-if)# ip address 10. changed state to up End with CNTL/Z.250 255.967: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet0/0.095: %SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from console by console *Mar 25 16:43:04. as shown in Example 11-14.255.250. Router1 fa0/0 must be configured with an IP address. as shown in Example 11-16. as shown in Example 11-13. Configure the hostname of the router to TEST. Verify that NVRAM is clear. Example 11-13 Verify Empty NVRAM Router1# show startup-config startup-config is not present Router1# reload Proceed with reload? [confirm] <ENTER> Connectivity must be established with the TFTP server. Example 11-15 Hostname Configuration Router(config-if)# exit Router(config)# hostname TEST Test(config-if)# end TEST# Verify connectivity using the ping command.255. one per line. Example 11-14 Interface Configuration Router> enable Router# conf t Enter configuration commands. and then reboot Router1. . and the interface must be enabled.250.

1081 bytes] 1081 bytes copied in 9.. Loading router1-confg from 10.” The previous configuration should be restored.4(10b).250.249 (via FastEthernet0/0): ! [OK . Sending 5.249. Reload the router.250.249 Type escape sequence to abort. Version 12. Inc.250.250. 1841 Software (C1841-ADVIPSERVICESK9-M). Select no at the prompt that says “Configuration has been modified.. Step 4.250. issue the Cisco IOS command show version.375: %SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from tftp://10. Task 3: Reflection TFTP is a fast.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 333 Example 11-16 Ping Test Test# ping 10. Compiled Fri 19-Jan-07 15:15 by prod_rel_team .250.250. Example 11-18 IOS Filename in Flash Router1# show version Cisco IOS Software.!!!! Success rate is 80 percent(4/5). and the router’s hostname should now be Router1. the IOS can also be stored offline for future use. timeout is 2 seconds: .250.250. To discover the IOS filename. efficient way to save and load Cisco IOS configuration files.250. 100-byte ICMP Echos to 10. as shown in Example 11-17. The filename is highlighted in Example 11-18.249/router1-confg. round-trip min/avg/max = 1/1/1ms Router# Download the Router1 configuration file from the TFTP server.249 Source filename []? router1-confg Destination filename [startup-config]? <ENTER> Accessing tftp://10.249/router1-confg by console Router1# View the configuration in NVRAM to verify an accurate transfer. The configuration should be the same as what was configured in Task 1.364 secs (115 bytes/sec) Router1# *Mar 25 16:55:26. Example 11-17 File Transfer from the TFTP Server Test# copy tftp startup-config Address or name of remote host []? 10.com/techsupport Copyright (c) 1986-2007 by Cisco Systems. RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc3) Technical Support: http://www.cisco.250.250. Task 4: Challenge Similar to uploading a configuration file.

exporters.250. By using this product you agree to comply with applicable laws and regulations. RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1) Router1 uptime is 17 minutes System returned to ROM by reload at 16:47:54 UTC Sun Mar 25 2007 System image file is “flash:c1841-advipservicesk9-mz. and local laws. Importers.S.com/wwl/export/crypto/tool/stqrg.564 secs (370412 bytes/sec) Router1# .bin” This product contains cryptographic features and is subject to United States and local country laws governing import. Version 12.cisco. Example 11-19 File Transfer to TFTP Server Router1# copy flash tftp Source filename []? c1841-advipservicesk9-mz. export.124-10b.124-10b.bin Address or name of remote host []? 10. distribute or use encryption.124-10b.html If you require further assistance. A summary of U. distributors and users are responsible for compliance with U. 62720K bytes of ATA CompactFlash (Read/Write) Configuration register is 0x2102 Router1# The commands to upload the IOS are similar to uploading the configuration file.S.bin]? !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!! 22063220 bytes copied in 59.249 Destination filename [c1841-advipservicesk9-mz. return this product immediately. laws governing Cisco cryptographic products may be found at: http://www. If you are unable to comply with U.S. Delivery of Cisco cryptographic products does not imply third-party authority to import. and local country laws. transfer and use. 191K bytes of NVRAM. Cisco 1841 (revision 6.com. as shown in Example 11-19. contact Cisco by sending email to export@cisco. Processor board ID FHK110918KJ 2 Serial(sync/async) interfaces DRAM configuration is 64 bits wide with parity disabled.0) with 174080K/22528K bytes of memory. export.4(13r)T.250.334 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example 11-18 IOS Filename in Flash continued ROM: System Bootstrap.

5. Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Managing Device Configuration (11. Remove the SolarWinds TFTP server from the host computer. Accept the defaults. Delete any configuration files saved on the host computers. Choose SolarWinds and click Remove. however. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity. and leave the room ready for the next class. and then turn off power to the host computers. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. restore host computer network connectivity. Choose Start > Control Panel.2. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer.2) You can now open the file LSG1-Lab11522. Use the privileged EXEC command erase startup-config. . remove the NVRAM configuration file if it was loaded. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. Click Add or Remove Applications.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 335 Task 5: Clean Up Before turning off power to the router. Remember.

1) Upon completion of this lab.336 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Lab 11-4: Configure Host Computers for IP Networking (11. Configure the physical lab topology. To reinforce student cable identification. Figure 11-16 Topology for Lab 11-4 S1 Fa0/1 Fa0/2 1 2 Gather the necessary equipment and cables. Verify LAN connectivity. Students should be able to identify the proper cable type based on a visual inspection. Configure the logical LAN topology. Background Figure 11-16 shows the topology diagram for this lab. straight-through. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ ■ Design the logical lab topology. Mix crossover. Table 11-12 lists the lab equipment and hardware requirements. and rollover cables. Table 11-12 Lab Equipment and Hardware Requirements Hardware Quantity Description Cisco router Cisco switch Computer (host) Category 5 or better straight-through UTP cables 1 1 2 2 Part of the CCNA Lab bundle Part of the CCNA Lab bundle Lab computer Connects computers Host1 and Host2 to Switch1 Scenario In this lab you will create a small network that requires connecting network devices and configuring host computers for basic network connectivity. have several different types of cables available for the students.3.5. .

168.254.168.49 192.168.62 192.254.254.254.104 192.150 192.168.168.143 192.168.168.167 192.73 192.254.254.30 192.144 192.168.0 192.96 192.254.168.168.254.254.81 192.159 192.168.254.254.168.70 192.168.254.118 192.168.111 192.41 192.168.168.254.168.16 192.255.168.254.136 192.64 192.168.168.168.254.0/24.168.6 192.65 192.254.168.145 192.254.137 192.254.168.168.254.254.177 192.129 192.22 192.168.168.158 192.168.31 192.168. Table 11-13 Addressing Table IP address: 192.254.254.168.168.135 192.254.168.254.168.33 192.254.63 192.40 192.254.254.254.168.182 192.23 192.161 192.94 192.168.168.254.255.254.168.15 192.160 192.254.168.7 192.183 continues .168.79 192.102 192.39 192.168.32 192.254.254.254.168.0 Subnet First Host Address Subnet mask: 255.254.168.254.168.254.25 192.168.176 192.254.254.254.254.168.168.168.112 192.254.142 192.254.254.254.254.254.168.254.168 192.168.254.168.254.168.254.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 337 Task 1: Design the Logical Lab Topology Given an IP address of 192.168. fill in the following information: Maximum number of usable subnets (including the 0th subnet): 31 Number of usable hosts per subnet: 6 Use Table 11-13 to record the addressing scheme.168.78 192.168.168.54 192.72 192.168.128 192.175 192.254.46 192.168.168.134 192.254.254.168.1 192.168.127 192.168.8 192.254.254.168.254.254.121 192.168. and 5 bits used for subnets.168.254.254.71 192.103 192.254.168.254.151 192.88 192.174 192.168.95 192.254.168.168.168.254.254.254.87 192.24 192.168.168.113 192.254.254.55 192.254.254.254.168.119 192.168.168.168.56 192.97 192.80 192.168.254.254.168.89 192.254.248 Last Host Address Broadcast 192.120 192.17 192.168.57 192.105 192.168.168.168.254.254.48 192.168.168.254.168.168.38 192.254.254.254.168.254.168.9 192.254.254.168.110 192.254.169 192.254.47 192.254.254.168.168.152 192.153 192.254.168.86 192.166 192.254.168.254.126 192.14 192.254.168.254.254.254.168.

254.168. .254 192.254.254.168. turn on power to all devices.230 192.239 192. Because computers and the switch are not wired the same for networking.254.223 192.254.168.168.238 192.185 192.254.254.215 192.254.168.254.168.240 192.254.255 Before proceeding.168. straightthrough cables are used.201 192.247 192. If it’s not already enabled.254.254. After cabling the network devices. Attention to detail now will minimize the time required to troubleshoot network connectivity issues later.254. Physically connect the devices.254.184 192.222 192.168.254.168.168. Step 2.168.0 Subnet continued Subnet mask: 255.190 192.168.168. Task 3: Configure the Logical Topology Step 1.248 192. Document logical network settings.231 192. verify your addresses with the instructor.168.217 192.254.254. Task 2: Configure the Physical Lab Topology Step 1.254.214 192.225 192.254.254. The instructor will assign one subnetwork per student or team.168.200 192.254.233 192.168.168.168.248 Last Host Address Broadcast First Host Address 192.168.254.168.255. Is a crossover cable needed to connect host computers to the switch? Why or why not? No.254. Host computers will use the first two IP addresses in the subnetwork.168.246 192.199 192.206 192.249 192.254.254.208 192.255.207 192.209 192.168.224 192.168.254.254.168.168.168.254.254.254.168. Write down the IP address information for each device in Table 11-14.168.254.338 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 11-13 Addressing Table IP address: 192.168.232 192. Visually inspect network connections.254.168.198 192.241 192.254.254.168.192 192.191 192. take a moment to verify the connections.168. Cable the network devices as shown earlier in Figure 11-16.216 192.168.193 192.168.254.254.168.168.168.254.

On Computer1.248 From the information given in Table 11-15. . and choose Properties. Right-click the LAN icon.248 Configure the Host1 computer. and then click the Properties button. choose Internet Protocol (TCP/IP). The computer may require a reboot for changes to be effective. Refer to Figure 11-17 for Host1 IP address and gateway settings.255. Verify proper configuration of Host1 with the ipconfig /all command. Table 11-15 Host Addressing Table Host1 IP address IP mask Host2 IP address IP mask Step 2. and then click Close.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 339 Table 11-14 Logical Topology Device Subnetwork IP Address Mask Host1 Host2 Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary 255. Figure 11-17 Host IP Address and Gateway Settings When you’re finished. write down the IP network addressing for each computer.255.248 255.255.248 Answers will vary 255. On the General tab.255. Record the output in Table 11-16.255. choose Start > Control Panel > Network Connections. click OK.255.255. Answers will vary 255.255.

which you filled out in Step 1. and then click OK.255. Use Table 11-18 to methodically verify connectivity with each network device. choose Start > Control Panel > Windows Firewall. Table 11-18 Ping Results From To IP Address Ping Result Host1 Host2 Host2 Host1 Answers will vary Answers will vary Should be successful Should be successful Take corrective action to establish connectivity if a test fails.248 Unassigned Configure Host2.248 Unassigned Task 4: Verify Network Connectivity Network connectivity can be verified with the Windows ping command.255. To disable a Windows firewall.255. Table 11-17 Host ipconfig Output Setting Value Ethernet device Physical address IP address Subnet mask Default gateway Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary 255. Record the output in Table 11-17.255. temporarily disable the computer firewall. Verify proper configuration. Repeat Step 2 for Host2 using IP address information from Table 11-15. .340 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 11-16 ipconfig Output Setting Value Ethernet device Physical address IP address Subnet mask Default gateway Step 3. and retest. Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary 255. Note: If pings to host computers fail. click Off.

Look for green link lights on Switch1. Problems can be either physical (the wrong UTP cable) or logical (the wrong IP address). continue troubleshooting. Test your solution. If the solution did not fix the problem. and leave the room ready for the next class. Make sure you have a thorough understanding of the procedures used to configure a Windows host computer. restore the host computer network connectivity. Task 7: Clean Up Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. Possible problems: IP addresses on different subnets Incorrect or faulty cable Faulty NIC Write down your proposed solution(s). Replace the computer with the faulty NIC. perform a good visual inspection. Replace the cable. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. List the problems. Task 6: Challenge Ask your instructor or another student to introduce one or two problems in your network when you aren’t looking or are out of the lab room. If the solution fixed the problem. Use Table 11-18 to identify failed connectivity.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 341 Task 5: Reflection Review any physical or logical configuration problems encountered during this lab. document the solution. and then turn off power to the host computers. Correct the IP address configuration. . and configure the IP address on the replacement computer. To fix the problems.

4. Configure the physical lab topology. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ ■ Design the logical lab topology. Table 11-19 Lab Equipment and Hardware Requirements Hardware Quantity Description Cisco router Cisco switch Computer (host) Category 5 or better straight-through UTP cables Category 5 crossover UTP cable Console (rollover) cable 1 1 3 3 1 1 Part of the CCNA Lab bundle Part of the CCNA Lab bundle Lab computer Connects Router1. Host2. Figure 11-18 Topology for Lab 11-5 Subnet A Fa0/0 Fa0/1 Subnet B Fa0/1 1 R1 Fa0/2 S1 Fa0/3 Subnet C Subnet D Subnet E Subnet F 2 3 Gather the necessary equipment and cables.5. and Host3 to Switch1 Connects Host1 to Router1 Connects Host1 to the Router1 console If you do not have a router that has two FastEthernet interfaces. Verify LAN connectivity. . Configure the logical LAN topology.1) Upon completion of this lab. Background Figure 11-18 shows the topology for this lab. Table 11-19 lists the equipment and hardware requirements for this lab.342 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Lab 11-5: Network Testing (11. Another alternative would be to use two routers connected through a serial connection and use the FastEthernet interfaces from each router. consider configuring a loopback interface as an alternative to the FastEthernet 0/1.

0 Step 2. which requires the largest block of IP addresses.20. Fill in Table 11-22 with the IP address information for Subnet C. Subnet C. Students should be able to identify the proper cable type based on a visual inspection.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 343 Scenario In this lab. straight-through. Mix crossover. Subnet E. have several different types of cables available for the students. Begin the logical network design by satisfying the requirements of Subnet B. pick the next available address block that will support Subnet C. design an IP addressing scheme that satisfies the requirements listed in Table 11-20.0. pick the first address block that will support Subnet B. and Subnet F are anticipated subnets.255. not yet connected to the network. the next-largest IP address block.127 Design the Subnet C address block.255.0. Fill in Table 11-21 with the IP address information for Subnet B.0. . Design the Subnet B address block.0. To reinforce student cable identification. Step 1. 255.20.1 172. Task 1: Design the Logical Lab Topology Given an IP address and mask of 172. and work your way down.20. Using binary numbers to create your subnet chart.20. Therefore. The 0th subnet will be used. and rollover cables.0.20. Subnet D. Table 11-21 Subnet B IP Address Information Network Address Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast 172. you should start with Subnet B and finish with Subnet A. you will create a small network that requires connecting network devices and configuring host computers for basic network connectivity.126 172. Satisfy the requirements of Subnet C. Subnet A and Subnet B are subnets that are currently needed. Using binary numbers to create your subnet chart.0/24 (address/mask). Table 11-20 Addressing Requirements Subnet Number of Hosts Subnet A Subnet B Subnet C Subnet D Subnet E Subnet F As shown in the topology diagram Between 80 and 100 Between 40 and 52 Between 20 and 29 12 5 Note: Always start with the subnet that has the largest number of hosts.128 172.

255. Design the Subnet D address block. pick the next available address block that will support Subnet F.11111111.129 172. pick the next available address block that will support Subnet E.1111111. Table 11-23 Subnet D IP Address Information Network Address Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast 172. Table 11-24 Subnet E IP Address Information Network Address Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast 172. Design the Subnet F address block.222 172.255.191 What is the bit mask? 11111111.0.192 172.1111111.0. Satisfy the requirements of Subnet E.0. Fill in Table 11-25 with the Subnet F IP address information.20.0.1111111. Satisfy the requirements of Subnet F.255.20.344 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 11-22 Subnet C IP Address Information Network Address Mask First Host Last Host Broadcast 172.190 172.255.20.20.192 255. Using binary numbers to create your subnet chart.0.240 172.20.0.239 What is the bit mask? 11111111.224 172. Using binary numbers to create your subnet chart.193 172.255.11110000 Step 5.238 172. the next-largest IP address block.20.225 172. the next-largest IP address block. Design the Subnet E address block. Fill in Table 11-24 with the Subnet E IP address information. .20.11000000 Step 3.0.20. the next-largest IP address block. Satisfy the requirements of Subnet D.20.128 255.11111111. Using binary numbers to create your subnet chart.11111111.20.0.11100000 Step 4.0.0.0.0.20.223 What is the bit mask? 11111111. pick the next available address block that will support Subnet D.224 255.255.20. Fill in Table 11-23 with the Subnet D IP address information.

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Table 11-25 Subnet F IP Address Information Network Address Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast

172.20.0.240

255.255.255.248

172.20.0.241

172.20.0.246

172.20.0.24

What is the bit mask? 11111111.1111111.11111111.11111000
Step 6.

Design the Subnet A address block. Satisfy the requirements of Subnet A, the smallest IP address block. Using binary numbers to create your subnet chart, pick the next available address block that will support Subnet A. Fill in Table 11-26 with the Subnet A IP addressing table.

Table 11-26 Subnet A IP Addressing Table Network Address Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast

172.20.0.248

255.255.255.252

172.20.0.249

172.20.0.250

172.20.0.251

What is the bit mask? 11111111.1111111.11111111.11111100

Task 2: Configure the Physical Lab Topology
Step 1.

Physically connect the lab devices. Cable the network devices as shown earlier, in Figure 11-18. Pay special attention to the crossover cable required between Host1 and Router1. If it’s not already enabled, turn on power to all devices.

Step 2.

Visually inspect the network connections. After cabling the network devices, take a moment to verify the connections. Attention to detail now will minimize the time required to troubleshoot Layer 1 connectivity issues later.

Task 3: Configure the Logical Topology
Step 1.

Document logical network settings. On Subnet A, Host1 uses the first IP address in the subnet. Router1, interface Fa0/0, uses the last host address. On Subnet B, host computers use the first and second IP addresses in the subnet, respectively. Router1, interface Fa0/1, uses the last network host address. To properly route Layer 2 frames between LAN devices, Switch1 does not require Layer 3 configuration. The IP address assigned to Switch1, interface VLAN 1, is used to establish Layer 3 connectivity between external devices and the switch. Without an IP address, upper-layer protocols such as Telnet and HTTP will not work. The default gateway address

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permits the switch to respond to protocol requests from devices on distant networks. For example, the IP gateway address extends Layer 3 connectivity beyond Subnet B. Switch1 uses the next-to-last host address. Write down the IP address information for each device listed in Table 11-27.
Table 11-27 IP Address Information Device Subnet IP Address Mask Gateway

Host1 Router1-Fa0/0 Host2 Host3 Switch1 Router1-Fa0/1
Step 2.

172.20.0.248 172.20.0.248 172.20.0.0 172.20.0.0 172.20.0.0 172.20.0.0

172.20.0.249 172.20.0.250 172.20.0.1 172.20.0.2 172.20.0.125 172.20.0.126

255.255.255.252 255.255.255.252 255.255.255.128 255.255.255.128 255.255.255.128 255.255.255.128

172.20.0.250 — 172.20.0.126 172.20.0.126 172.20.0.126 —

Configure host computers. On each computer, in turn, choose Start > Control Panel > Network Connections. Right-click the LAN icon, and choose Properties. On the General tab, choose Internet Protocol (TCP/IP), and then click the Properties button. Verify that the Host1 Layer 3 IP address is on a different subnet than Host2 and Host3. Configure each host computer using the IP address information recorded in Step 1. Verify proper configuration of each host computer with the ipconfig command, and fill in Table 11-28.

Table 11-28 Host Configuration Device IP Address Mask Default Gateway

Host1 Host2 Host3
Step 3.

172.20.0.249 172.20.0.1 172.20.0.2 Configure Router1.

255.255.255.252 255.255.255.128 255.255.255.128

172.20.0.250 172.20.0.126 172.20.0.126

From the Windows taskbar, start the HyperTerminal program by choosing Start > Programs > Accessories > Communications > HyperTerminal. Configure HyperTerminal for access to Router1. Configuration for Router1 includes the following tasks:
■ ■ ■ ■ ■

Specify the router name: Router1 Specify an encrypted privileged EXEC password: cisco Specify a console access password: class Specify a Telnet access password: class Configure the MOTD banner.

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Configure Router1 interface Fa0/0:
■ ■ ■

Set the description. Set the Layer 3 address. Issue the no shutdown command.

Configure Router1 interface Fa0/1:
■ ■ ■

Set the description. Set the Layer 3 address. Issue the no shutdown command.

Save the configuration in NVRAM. What command do you use to display the contents of RAM? show running-config Record the configuration specifications:
■ ■ ■ ■ ■

Hostname: Router1 Enable secret password: cisco Console access password: class Telnet access password: class MOTD banner: Answers will vary

What command do you use to display configuration information for interface Fa0/0? show interface Fa0/0 Record the configuration specifications:
■ ■ ■

FastEthernet 0/0 status (up/down): Should be up Line protocol: Should be up MAC address: Answers will vary

What command do you use to display configuration information for interface Fa0/1? show interface Fa0/1 Record the configuration specifications:
■ ■ ■

FastEthernet 0/0 status (up/down): Should be up Line protocol: Should be up MAC address: Answers will vary

What command do you use to display brief IP address information about each interface? show ip interface brief Record the configuration specifications:
Interface FastEthernet0/0 FastEthernet0/1 IP-Address 172.20.0.250 172.20.0.126 OK? Method Status YES manual up YES manual up Protocol up up

Take corrective action with any problems, and retest.

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Step 4.

Configure Switch1. Move the console cable from Router1 to Switch1. Press Enter until you receive a response. Configuration for Switch1 includes the following:
■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■

Specify a switch name: Switch1 Specify an encrypted privileged EXEC password: cisco Specify a console access password: class Specify a Telnet access password: class Configure the MOTD banner. Configure Switch1 interface Fa0/1:

Set the description.

Configure Switch1 interface Fa0/2:

Set the description.

Configure Switch1 interface Fa0/3:

Set the description.

Configure the management VLAN1 IP address:
■ ■ ■

Set the description. Set the Layer 3 address. Issue the no shutdown command.

Configure the default IP gateway address.

What command do you use to display the contents of RAM? show running-config Write the configuration specifications:
■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■

Hostname: Switch1 Enable secret password: cisco Console access password: class Telnet access password: class MOTD banner: Answers will vary Interface VLAN 1: 172.20.0.125 Default IP gateway address: 172.20.0.126

What command do you use to display configuration information for interface VLAN 1? show interface vlan1
■ ■

VLAN 1 status (up/down): Should be up Line protocol: Should be up

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Task 4: Verify Network Connectivity
Step 1.

Use the ping command to verify network connectivity. You can verify network connectivity using the ping command. It is very important that connectivity exist throughout the network. Corrective action must be taken if a failure occurs. Use Table 11-29 to methodically verify connectivity with each network device.

Table 11-29 Connectivity Testing From To IP Address Ping Result

Host1 Host1 Host1 Host1 Host1 Host1 Host1 Host2 Host2 Host2 Host2 Host2 Host2 Host2 Host3 Host3 Host3 Host3 Host3 Host3

LocalHost (127.0.0.1) NIC IP address Gateway (Router1, Fa0/0 Router1, Fa0/1 Switch1 Host2 Host3 LocalHost (127.0.0.1) NIC IP address Host3 Switch1 Gateway (Router1, Fa0/1) Router1, Fa0/0 Host1 LocalHost (127.0.0.1) NIC IP address Host2 Switch1 Gateway (Router1, Fa0/1) Router1, Fa0/0

127.0.0.1 172.20.0.249 172.20.0.250 172.20.0.126 172.20.0.125 172.20.0.1 172.20.0.2 127.0.0.1 172.20.0.1 172.20.0.2 172.20.0.125 172.20.0.126 172.20.0.250 172.20.0.249 127.0.0.1 172.20.0.2 172.20.0.1 172.20.0.125 172.20.0.126 172.20.0.250

Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful

Take corrective action to establish connectivity if a test fails.
Note: If pings to host computers fail, temporarily disable the computer firewall, and retest. To disable a Windows firewall, choose Start > Control Panel > Windows Firewall, click Off, and then click OK.

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Step 2.

Use the tracert command to verify local connectivity. From Host1, issue the tracert command to Host2 and Host3. Record the results:
■ ■

From Host1 to Host2: Answers should show success From Host1 to Host3: Answers should show success

Step 3.

Verify Layer 2 connectivity. If it’s not already connected, move the console cable from Router1 to Switch1. Press the Enter key until Switch1 responds. Issue the command show mac-address-table. This command displays static (CPU) and dynamic, or learned, entries. List the dynamic MAC addresses and their corresponding switch ports in Table 11-30.

Table 11-30 MAC Address Table MAC Address Switch Port

Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary

Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary

Verify that there are three dynamically learned MAC addresses—one each from Fa0/1, Fa0/2, and Fa0/3.

Task 5: Reflection
Review any physical or logical configuration problems encountered during this lab. Make sure you have a thorough understanding of the procedures used to verify network connectivity.

Task 6: Challenge
Ask your instructor or another student to introduce one or two problems in your network when you aren’t looking or are out of the lab room. Problems can be either physical (the wrong UTP cable) or logical (the wrong IP address or gateway). To fix the problems, perform a good visual inspection. Look for green link lights on Switch1. Use Table 11-18 to identify failed connectivity. List the problems. Possible answers include incorrect IP addressing and incorrect cabling. Write down your proposed solution(s). Possible solutions include correcting the IP address configuration and replacing the cable. Test your solution. If the solution fixed the problem, document the solution. If the solution did not fix the problem, continue troubleshooting.

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Task 7: Clean Up
Unless directed otherwise by the instructor, restore host computer network connectivity, and then turn off power to the host computers. Before turning off power to the router and switch, remove the NVRAM configuration file from each device with the privileged EXEC command erase startup-config. Carefully remove the cables, and return them neatly to their storage. Reconnect cables that were disconnected for this lab. Remove anything that was brought into the lab, and leave the room ready for the next class.

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Lab 11-6: Network Documentation with Utility Commands (11.5.5.1)
Upon completion of this lab, you will be able to
■ ■ ■ ■ ■

Design the logical lab topology. Configure the physical lab topology. Design and configure the logical LAN topology. Verify LAN connectivity. Document the network.

Background Figure 11-19 shows the topology for this lab.
Figure 11-19 Topology for Lab 11-6
Subnet A
Fa0/0 Fa0/1

Subnet B
Fa0/1

1

R1
Fa0/2

S1
Fa0/3

Subnet C

2

3

Gather the necessary equipment and cables. Table 11-31 lists the equipment and hardware requirements for this lab.
Table 11-31 Equipment and Hardware Requirements Hardware Quantity Description

Cisco router Cisco switch Computer (host) Category 5 or better straight-through UTP cables Category 5 crossover UTP cable Console (rollover) cable

1 1 3 3 1 1

Part of the CCNA Lab bundle Part of the CCNA Lab bundle Lab computer Connects Router1, Host1, and Host2 to Switch1 Connects Host1 to Router1 Connects Host1 to the Router1 console

If you do not have a router that has two FastEthernet interfaces, consider configuring a loopback interface as an alternative to FastEthernet 0/1. Another alternative would be to use two routers connected through a serial connection and use the FastEthernet interfaces from each router.

pick the next available address block that will support Subnet C. design an IP addressing scheme that satisfies the requirements listed in Table 11-32. not yet connected to the network.200. 2 Between 2 and 6 Between 10 and 12 Design the Subnet C address block. .Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 353 In this lab. Mix crossover. Students should be able to identify the proper cable type based on a visual inspection.200. pick the first address block that will support Subnet B.239 What is the bit mask? 11111111.255. The 0th subnet will be used.224 255. Design the Subnet B address block.240 209.200.165. the next-largest block of IP addresses. Begin the logical network design by satisfying the requirements of Subnet C.165. Scenario Network documentation is a very important tool for the organization. Subnet A and Subnet B are subnets that are currently needed.11110000 Step 2. Satisfy the requirements of Subnet B. the largest IP address block. Using binary numbers to create your subnet chart. Subnet C is an anticipated subnet.1111111.200. Fill in Table 11-33 with the IP address information for Subnet C. Using binary numbers to create your subnet chart.165. straight-through.165.225 209. and rollover cables. A well-documented network enables network engineers to save significant time in troubleshooting and planning future growth.165.11111111. To reinforce student cable identification. Table 11-32 IP Addressing Requirements Subnet Number of Hosts Subnet A Subnet B Subnet C Step 1.224/27 (address/mask). In this lab you will create a small network that requires connecting network devices and configuring host computers for basic network connectivity. router and host output will be copied from the devices and into Notepad for use in network documentation. Task 1: Design the Logical Lab Topology Given an IP address of 209. Table 11-33 Subnet C IP Address Information Network Address Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast 209.200.255. have several different types of cables available for the students.238 209.

248 209.165.240 209. take a moment to verify the connections.200. Host computers use the first two IP addresses in the subnetwork. Step 2.165. Physically connect lab devices. Document the logical network settings.1111111. pick the next available address block that will support Subnet A.249 209.255. Satisfy the requirements of Subnet A. Using binary numbers to create your subnet chart.252 209. After cabling the network devices. Cable the network devices as shown in Figure 11-19.1111111.165. If it’s not already enabled.111111000___ Step 3.165.354 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Fill in Table 11-34 with the IP address information for Subnet B.240 255. Task 3: Configure the Logical Topology Step 1.250 209.200.200. turn on power to all devices.165. Design the Subnet A address block.200.251 What is the bit mask? 11111111.248 255.200.11111111. Attention to detail now will minimize the time required to troubleshoot network connectivity issues later. Table 11-35 Subnet A IP Address Information Network Address Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast 209. the smallest IP address block. The network router uses the last network host address. .247 What is the bit mask? 11111111.11111111.200.200.165.165.255. Visually inspect the network connections.246 209.255. Pay special attention to the crossover cable required between Host1 and Router1.255.11111100 Task 2: Configure the Physical Lab Topology Step 1. Table 11-34 Subnet B IP Address Information Network Address Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast 209.165. Write down the IP address information for each device in Table 11-36. Fill in Table 11-35 with the IP address information for Subnet A.200.

200.241 209.200. and name it Documentation_Lab11-6.255. choose Start > Control Panel > Network Connections. Configure Router1 interface Fa0/0: ■ ■ ■ Set the description. Set the Layer 3 address.165. Set the Layer 3 address.246 209.200.255. ■ Configure Router1 interface Fa0/1: ■ ■ ■ Set the description.165. Highlight Internet Protocol (TCP/IP). 209.165.165.165.200.255.248 — — 209.200.255.165.255. Highlight the Local Area Connection device icon.242 — 255. Configure HyperTerminal for access to Router1.250 209.200. and choose Properties. start the HyperTerminal program by choosing Start > Programs > Accessories > Communications > HyperTerminal.165.240 209.249 209. Step 3.255.255. Configure Router1. Verify proper configuration of each host computer using the ipconfig /all command.165.248 209.252 255.165.165.255. Verify that the Host1 Layer 3 IP address is on a different subnetwork than Host2 and Host3.200.240 209.165.248 255.200.246 209. right-click. Record your information in a separate document. and choose Properties. .165.240 — 209. These are the configuration tasks for Router1: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Specify the router name: Router1 Specify an encrypted privileged EXEC password: cisco Specify a console access password: class Specify a Telnet access password: class Configure the MOTD banner.250 — 209.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 355 Table 11-36 IP Address Information Device Subnet IP Address Mask Gateway Router1 -FA0/0 Host1 Router1 -FA0/1 Host2 Host2 Switch Step 2. On each computer in turn.200.200.248 255.248 209.200.246 — Configure the host computers. From the Windows taskbar.165.255.255.252 255.200. Issue the no shutdown command. Configure each host computer using the IP address information recorded in Step 1. Issue the no shutdown command.200.

and click OK. Network connectivity can be verified with the ping command. Specify the command you use to display the contents of RAM: show running-configuration Copy the output of the configuration to your document named Documentation_Lab11-6. and retest. It is very important that connectivity exist throughout the network. Task 4: Verify Network Connectivity Step 1. Configure Switch1. Copy the output of the show interface fa0/0 and show interface fa0/1 commands into your document named Documentation_Lab11-6. Use Table 11-37 to methodically verify connectivity with each network device. Copy the output of the show mac address-table command to your document named Documentation_Lab11-6. Step 4. ■ Configure Switch1 interface Fa0/2: ■ Set the description. Copy the output of the show ip interface brief command to your document named Documentation_Lab11-6. Take corrective action to establish connectivity if a test fails. Configure Switch1 interface Fa0/1: ■ Set the description. Use the ping command to verify network connectivity. click OFF. temporarily disable the computer firewall. Press Enter until you receive a response. Move the console cable from Router1 to Switch1. choose Start > Control Panel > Windows Firewall. Note: If pings to host computers fail. Corrective action must be taken if a failure occurs. Configuration tasks for Switch1 are as follows: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Specify the switch name: Switch1 Specify an encrypted privileged EXEC password: cisco Specify a console access password: class Specify a Telnet access password: class Configure the MOTD banner. ■ Configure Switch1 interface Fa0/3: ■ Set the description. To disable a Windows firewall.356 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Specify the command you use to save the configuration in NVRAM: copy run start Specify the command you use to display the contents of RAM: show running-configuration Save the output of the configuration to your document named Documentation_Lab11-6. .

265. issue the tracert command to Host2.246126 209.200. Results can be used to justify equipment upgrades or new purchases. issue the tracert command to Host3.265. Router1. Host2.0. and Host1.200.1) NIC IP address Host2 Gateway (Router1. That is.0.200.243 209.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 357 Table 11-37 Connectivity Testing From To IP Address Ping Result Host1 Host1 Host1 Host1 Host1 Host1 Host2 Host2 Host2 Host2 Host2 Host2 Host3 Host3 Host3 Host3 Host3 Host3 Step 2. The network was physically and logically configured and verified.0.1 209.249 127. and command output was copied into tables. Router1. Fa0/1) Router1.200.0.265.200.265.265. From Host3. Fa0/1) Router1. Record the results in your document named Documentation_Lab11-6. From Host1.265. .200.0. Fa0/0 Host1 LocalHost (127.246 209.265. Task 5: Document the Network With all the work performed so far.1 209.1) NIC IP Address Host3 Gateway (Router1. Record the results in your document named Documentation_Lab11-6.200.0. Fa0/1 Host2 Host3 LocalHost (127.250 209. it would seem that there is nothing left to do. Fa0/0 Router1. issue the tracert command to Router1.241 209.249 Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Use the tracert command to verify local connectivity.0.0.200.0.265. and Host1. with minimal traffic. tracert results can be compared against periods of high traffic. Fa0/0 Host1 127.200. the tracert command may be used as a crude throughput tester for network baselining.265.249 209.165.0.200.265.1 209.200. From Host2.246 209.242 127.165. LocalHost (127.250 209. and Host3.200. Record the results in your document named Documentation_Lab11-6.241 209. In addition to connectivity testing.200.265.0.165.200.200.0.242 209.250 209.241 209.265.1) NIC IP Address Gateway (Router1.

Task 6: Reflection Review any physical or logical configuration problems you encountered during this lab. Note to Instructor: You could introduce problems into the network by changing IP addresses. or cables. think about what might be needed six months or a year from now. Task 7: Challenge Ask your instructor or another student to introduce one or two problems in your network when you aren’t looking or are out of the lab room. answer the following questions in the documentation.) Be sure to include the following information: ■ ■ A copy of the physical topology A copy of the logical topology Prepare your documentation in a professional format. For example. Answers will vary . continue troubleshooting. Ensure that you understand the procedures used to verify network connectivity. perhaps in a cover letter: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ When was the network created? When was the network documented? Were any significant challenges overcome? Who performed the configuration? (Talent like this needs to be tracked. If the solution did not fix the problem. document the solution. Problems can be either physical (cables moved on the switch) or logical (the wrong IP address or gateway). Perform a good visual inspection. subnet masks. default gateways. and submit it to your instructor. As you organize. Use your network documentation to make sure your configurations are correct: Answers will vary Write down your proposed solution(s): Answers will vary Test your solution. If the solution fixed the problem.) Who wrote the documentation? (Talent like this needs to be tracked. Look for green link lights on Switch1. Use your network documentation to troubleshoot and remedy the problems.358 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide The last step in network documentation is to organize your output.

Instructors may find the following configuration examples helpful.200.165.200.255.255. Example Router 1 Configuration Router1 Configuration Current configuration : 1138 bytes ! version 12. and return them neatly to their storage. then turn off power to the host computers.255.255.4 service timestamps debug datetime msec service timestamps log datetime msec no service password-encryption ! hostname Router1 ! boot-start-marker boot-end-marker ! enable secret 5 $1$sqIx$iKGfkjNa6IlaBVnPnGrVR0 ! no aaa new-model ip cef ! interface FastEthernet0/0 description connection to Host1 ip address 209. Before turning off power to the router and switch.165.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 359 Task 8: Clean Up Unless directed otherwise by the instructor.252 duplex auto speed auto ! interface FastEthernet0/1 description connection to Switch1 ip address 209. and leave the room ready for the next class.246 255.248 duplex auto speed auto .250 255. Carefully remove the cables. remove the NVRAM configuration file from each device using the privileged EXEC command erase startup-config. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. restore host computer network connectivity. Reconnect cables that were disconnected for this lab.

530c.530c. line protocol is up Hardware is Gt96k FE.cdee (bia 001b. address is 001b.360 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example ! Router 1 Configuration continued interface Serial0/1/0 no ip address shutdown no fair-queue ! interface Serial0/1/1 no ip address shutdown clock rate 2000000 ! interface Vlan1 no ip address ! ip http server no ip http secure-server ! control-plane ! banner motd ^C **** ABC network device **** **** Authorized access only **** **** Logging is enabled ***** ^C ! line con 0 password class login line aux 0 line vty 0 4 password class login ! scheduler allocate 20000 1000 end Example Router 1 Interface Fa0/0 Configuration Router1# show interface fa0/0 Router1#sh int fa0/0 FastEthernet0/0 is up.cdee) Description: connection to Host1 .

100BaseTX/FX ARP type: ARPA. 0 late collision. line protocol is up Hardware is Gt96k FE. BW 100000 Kbit. 0 overrun. 0 collisions. reliability 255/255. 0 packets/sec 54 packets input. 0 underruns 0 output errors. 0 ignored 0 watchdog 0 input packets with dribble condition detected 277 packets output.cdef) Description: connection to Switch1 Internet address is 209. DLY 100 usec. 0 deferred 0 lost carrier.cdef (bia 001b. Total output drops: 0 Queueing strategy: fifo Output queue: 0/40 (size/max) 5 minute input rate 0 bits/sec. 0 output buffers swapped out Example Router 1 Interface Fa0/1 Configuration Router1# show interface fa0/1 FastEthernet0/1 is up. loopback not set Keepalive set (10 sec) Full-duplex. Auto Speed. 8915 bytes Received 44 broadcasts. rxload 1/255 Encapsulation ARPA.250/30 MTU 1500 bytes. ARP Timeout 04:00:00 Last input 00:01:27. Total output drops: 0 Queueing strategy: fifo Output queue: 0/40 (size/max) 5 minute input rate 0 bits/sec. 4 interface resets 0 babbles. txload 1/255. 0 giants.530c. 0 packets/sec 5 minute output rate 0 bits/sec. output never. address is 001b. 100BaseTX/FX ARP type: ARPA. DLY 100 usec.200. loopback not set Keepalive not set Auto-duplex. reliability 255/255. 100Mb/s. 0 runts. ARP Timeout 04:00:00 Last input never. 0 packets/sec . 0 frame. BW 100000 Kbit. 0 CRC.200. 0 packets/sec 5 minute output rate 0 bits/sec. txload 1/255. output 00:00:02. output hang never Last clearing of “show interface” counters never Input queue: 0/75/0/0 (size/max/drops/flushes). output hang never Last clearing of “show interface” counters never Input queue: 0/75/0/0 (size/max/drops/flushes).165.530c. 0 throttles 0 input errors. 88733 bytes.246/29 MTU 1500 bytes. rxload 1/255 Encapsulation ARPA.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 361 Example Router 1 Interface Fa0/0 Configuration continued Internet address is 209.165. 0 no carrier 0 output buffer failures.

0 underruns 0 output errors. 0 overrun. 0 deferred 0 lost carrier.1 no service padARPA. 0 collisions. 0 runts.165. 1 interface resets 0 babbles. 0 bytes Received 0 broadcasts. 0 late collision. 14481 bytes. loopback service timestamps debug uptime service timestamps log uptime no service password-encryption ! hostname Switch1 ! enable secret 5 $1$X9tO$93NSNcI66s8ESanQ/o3A60 ! interface FastEthernet0/1 description connection to Router1 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/2 description connection to Host2 no ip address . 0 ignored 0 watchdog 0 input packets with dribble condition detected 91 packets output. 0 output buffers swapped out Example Router 1 IP Address Configuration Router1# sh ip int brief Interface FastEthernet0/0 FastEthernet0/1 Serial0/1/0 Serial0/1/1 IP-Address OK? Method Status Protocol up up 209..250 YES manual up 209. 0 giants.200. 0 no carrier 0 output buffer failures. 0 CRC.246 YES manual up unassigned unassigned YES unset YES unset administratively down down administratively down down Example Switch 1 Configuration Building configuration.165.362 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example Router 1 Interface Fa0/1 Configuration continued 0 packets input. 0 throttles 0 input errors. Current configuration : 1862 bytesad 1/255 ! version 12.200.. 0 frame.

Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 363 Example ! Switch 1 Configuration continued interface FastEthernet0/3 description connection to Host3 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/4 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/5 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/6 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/7 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/8 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/9 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/10 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/11 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/12 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/13 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/14 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/15 no ip address ! .

364 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example Switch 1 Configuration continued interface FastEthernet0/16 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/17 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/18 no ip address ! Interface FastEthernet0/19 no ip address ! Interface FastEthernet0/20 no ip address ! Interface FastEthernet0/21 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/22 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/23 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/24 no ip address ! interface GigabitEthernet0/1 no ip address !s interface GigabitEthernet0/2 no ip address ! ip http server ! banner motd ^C **** ABC network device **** **** Authorized access only **** **** Logging is enabled ***** .

250 Tracing route to 209.250 Trace complete.8bb4.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 365 Example Switch 1 MAC Address Table Mac Address Table ------------------------------------------Vlan ---All All All All 1 1 1 Mac Address ----------000f.200. C:\> tracert 209.241 Tracing route to 209.cccc 0100. C:\> tracert 209.dddd 0016.165.6cc0 0100.165.250 over a maximum of 30 hops 1 <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms 209.200.200.530c.cccd 0100.0cdd.200.241 Trace complete.242 over a maximum of 30 hops 1 2 <1 ms 1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms 209.cdef Type -------STATIC STATIC STATIC STATIC DYNAMIC DYNAMIC DYNAMIC Ports ----CPU CPU CPU CPU Fa0/3 Fa0/2 Fa0/1 Total Mac Addresses for this criterion: 7 Switch1# Example Traceroute Results Host1 C:\> tracert 209.241 over a maximum of 30 hops 1 2 <1 ms 1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms 209.0ccc.165.200.165.a76a 0018.165.0ccc.165.200.250 209.165.250 209.76ac.200.3c3a 001b.f79f.165.200.165.242 Tracing route to 209.165.165. C:\> .200.200.200.242 Trace complete.

exe Scenario This exercise details the sequence of datagrams that are created and sent across a network between a web client.254/24 LAN: MAC Address: 00:0c:29:63:17:a5 IP Address: 10.pcap (reference only) wireshark. For brevity and clarity.1/24 LAN: MAC Address: 00:0c:85:cf:66:41 IP Address: 10. a network protocol analyzer.pcap (discussed) eagle1_web_server. eagle1.1.251/24 R1 LAN: MAC Address: 00:0c:85:cf:66:40 IP Address: 10. Figure 11-20 shows the topology for this lab.1.1. be sure to get permission in writing.1. and install Wireshark on your computer if it is not already installed: ■ ■ ■ eagle1_web_client.2. network packet noise has been omitted from the captures.1. Download the following files from Eagle Server. you will be able to demonstrate ■ ■ ■ ■ How a TCP segment is constructed.6.366 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Lab 11-7: Case Study: Datagram Analysis with Wireshark (11. and explain the packet fields.com.example. and a web server. Before executing a network protocol analyzer on a network that belongs to someone else.1.5. and explain the frame fields.2. The contents of an Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) Request and ARP Reply. How an IP packet is constructed.2. How an Ethernet II frame is constructed. and explain the segment fields. PC_Client. Figure 11-20 Topology for Lab 11-7 Client LAN: MAC Address: 00:02:3f:7e:37:da IP Address: 10. Understanding the process involved in sequentially placing packets on the network will help you logically troubleshoot network failures when connectivity breaks.1) Upon completion of this exercise.250/24 DNS Server . Background This lab requires two captured packet files and Wireshark.255/24 Server S1 LAN: MAC Address: 00:0f:f7:9f:6c:c9 IP Address: 10.2.

Example 11-20 PC Client Initial Network State C: > ipconfig / all Windows IP Configuration Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection: Connection-specific DNS Suffix . : Description .1 Subnet Mask . . : 10. . . : 255. . . . . . and the URL eagle1. . . Filter Toolbar. To ensure that there is no automatic translation in MAC addresses.1. . . . . . .1. . . . . . and it’s where the captured packets start. . . .1. .Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 367 Using Microsoft command-line tools. . you can display IP configuration information and the contents of the ARP cache. . . . Verify that Packet List and Packet Details are checked. . .1. Uncheck Main Toolbar. . . . . and Packet Bytes. .250 C: > arp -a No ARP Entries Found C: > A web client is started. .com is entered. .254 DNS Servers . . . : Intel(R) PRO/1000 MT Network Connection Physical Address. . . . . . . This begins the communication process to the web server. . . . . .1. : 00:02:3f:7e:37:da Dhcp Enabled. Refer to Example 11-20. . . . . Figure 11-21 PC Client with Web Browser Task 1: Prepare the Lab Step 1. . . . : 10. . : No IP Address.example. .0 Default Gateway . uncheck Name Resolution for MAC Layer and Transport Layer.1. Refer to Figure 11-22 for changes to the default output. . : 10. . as shown in Figure 11-21. . .255.255. Start Wireshark on your computer. . . . .

PC_Client generates an internal TCP port address—in this conversation. 80. each line that contains a plus sign next to it indicates that additional information is available. the datagram travels down the various network layers. Consider the TCP segment shown in Figure 11-24. Load the web client capture. At each layer.368 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 11-22 Wireshark Default View Changes Step 2. Figure 11-23 Wireshark with eagle1_web_client. . Data is included. provided by the application layer.pcap Task 2: Review the Process of Data Flowing Through the Network Step 1. Various pull-down menus and submenus are available. Likewise. When PC_Client builds the datagram for a connection with eagle1. eagle1_web_client. The bottom window contains packet details. important header information is added. a sequence number has been internally generated. In the bottom window.com. 1085—and knows the well-known web server port address. There are also two separate data windows. Review transport layer operation. Because this communication is from a web client.pcap. Some information is unknown to PC_Client. The top Wireshark window lists all captured packets. so it must be discovered using other network protocols.example. A screen similar to Figure 11-23 appears. the transport layer protocol is TCP.

example. the TCP three-way handshake must be performed. Figure 11-26 Ethernet II Frame Fields Ethernet II Frame Format Source Frame Address Type 2 Octets Preamble Destination Address Data CRC 8 Octets 6 Octets 6 Octets 46–1500 Octets 4 Octets . Review data link layer operation. PC_Client knows the source MAC address. Review network layer operation. Before this segment can move to the network layer. At the network layer. as shown in Figure 11-25.com. The corresponding IP address must be discovered through Domain Name System (DNS). Figure 11-25 IP Packet Fields IP Packet 0 Version 4 IHL Identification TTL Protocol Source IP Address Destination IP Address Data 8 10 TOS Flags 16 Total Length Fragment Offset Header Checksum 31 The destination for this packet is eagle1. Step 3. as shown in Figure 11-26. Step 2. the IPv4 (IP) packet has several fields ready with information. Until the upper-layer datagram is received. it must be encapsulated inside a frame. but it must discover the destination MAC address. as well as the source IP address. fields related to the upper-layer protocols are empty. For example.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 369 Figure 11-24 TCP Segment Field TCP Segment 0 4 7 Source Port Sequence Number Acknowledgment Number Data Offset Reserved ECN Checksum Options and Padding Data Control Bits Window Urgent Pointer 10 16 Destination Port 31 There is no acknowledgment number. the packet version (IPv4) is known. Before the datagram is placed on the physical medium.

The TCP three-way handshake cannot occur.1.com must first be completed.250 What is the Ethernet II frame type? 0x0806 (ARP) Step 3. and the destination address for an ARP Reply is a unicast address. Examine the ARP reply. The DNS server cannot be queried. ■ ■ ■ Step 2.example.com is unknown. The ARP protocol is broadcast on the LAN to discover the MAC address for the DNS server. No. .370 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 3: Analyze Captured Packets Step 1.example. This is resolved with a DNS request from PC_Client to the DNS server. 1.1 Based on the observation of the ARP protocol.example. what can you infer about an ARP Request destination address and an ARP Reply destination address? The destination address for an ARP Request is a broadcast address. Why didn’t the DNS server have to send an ARP Request for the PC_Client MAC address? When an ARP Request is received. A review of missing information will be helpful in following the captured packet sequence: ■ The TCP segment cannot be constructed because the acknowledgment field is blank. Refer to Wireshark’s Packet List window. The captured frame is an ARP Request. 2.com. Review the data flow sequence. A TCP three-way handshake with eagle1. You can view the contents of the Ethernet II frame by clicking the checkbox in the second line of the Packet Details window. What is the source MAC address for the ARP Request? 00:02:31:7e:73:da What is the destination MAC address for the ARP Request? ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff What is the unknown IP address in the ARP Request? 10. because the MAC address for the DNS server is unknown. because PC_Client does not know the IP address for eagle1.1. The ARP protocol is broadcast on the LAN to learn the destination MAC address for eagle1. You can view the contents of the ARP Request by clicking the ARP Request line in the Packet Details window. The MAC address for eagle1. Refer to Wireshark’s Packet List window. the source MAC address of the request is stored in the receiver’s ARP cache. What is the source MAC address for the ARP Reply? 00:0c:29:63:17:a5 What is the destination MAC address for the ARP Request? 00:02:31:7e:73:da What is the Ethernet II frame type? 0x0806 (ARP) What is the destination IP address in the ARP Reply? 10.1. No. Examine the ARP request.com.example.1. The DNS server sent an ARP Reply.

254.2. This value is sent during connection startup. Because 10. asks you if you can think of any reason why all UDP packets should not be blocked from entering the internal network. MSS stands for maximum segment size. This is also when TCP sliding windows are negotiated. and 9. employees could not translate names to IP addresses. and what is the destination port number? UDP.1. PC_Client sent an ARP Request to IP address 10. In the Packet List window is an unexplained value. Using the Packet Details window.example.1. Is this IP address different from the IP address for eagle1. Refer to Wireshark’s Packet List window. PC_Client must have the ARP address to the Gateway. Examine the ARP Request. 5 and No. 7. and what is the destination port number? UDP.com? Explain. No. sequence number 0.1.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 371 Step 4. Examine the DNS query.251 is on a different network than 10. Yes. MSS is computed to be the maximum size of an IPv4 datagram minus 40 bytes. port 53 Step 5. If the initial TCP sequence value from PC_Client is 0. Refer to Wireshark’s Packet List window.com? 10. port 1043 What is the IP address for eagle1.1.251 One of your colleagues.example. Step 7. Refer to Wireshark’s Packet List window. answer the following questions: What is the Ethernet II frame type? 0x0800 (IP) What is the transport layer protocol. along with an acknowledgment of 1 and a sequence of 0. a firewall administrator. 8.com responds with the TCP ACK and SYN flags set. The ARP Reply was from the Gateway. 4. Using the Packet Details window. .example respond with an acknowledgment of 1? TCP employs expectational acknowledgments. PC_Client sent a DNS query to the DNS server. Initially. Examine the TCP three-way handshake. A better approach would be to employ a stateful packet filter and create rules that permit established and related traffic through the firewall. only the TCP SYN flag is set on the datagram sent from PC_Client. No. why did eagle1.2. Refer to Wireshark’s Packet List window.0/24.2.com. The DNS server sent a DNS query response to PC_Client. Step 6. No. These captures contain the TCP three-way handshake between PC_Client and eagle1. answer the following questions: What is the Ethernet II frame type? 0x0800 (IP) What is the transport layer protocol. If all UDP packets were dropped at the firewall. 3. No.2. This means that the TCP acknowledgment number sent is for the expected sequence number of the next packet. When a TCP segment is transported over IPv4.example. MSS=1460. eagle1.example. Examine the DNS query response. What is your response? DNS uses UDP for name translation. 6.

No.372 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide In eagle1. More fragments (not set) When PC_Client completes the TCP three-way handshake.example. . . . . the TCP ACK response to eagle1. Don’t fragment (set) 0 . . . . . . . .example. No. and eagle1. . 4.0. . . A TCP three-way handshake with eagle1. Reserved (not set) 1 . . what does the IP flag value of 0x04 mean? IP flag values: 8421 0 . . Fill in the correct Wireshark Packet List window number that satisfies each of the following missing entries: ■ The TCP segment cannot be constructed because the acknowledgment field is blank. 9. . .example. . . . . 2.0.0 Congestion Window Reduced ECN Echo Urgent ACK PSH SYN FIN Task 4: Complete the Final Analysis Step 1.com? Table 11-38 shows the TCP flag states. Wireshark’s Packet List. . 10.com. where PC_Client sent a web protocol GET request. 9. No. . Table 11-38 TCP Flag States Bit Position Flag 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0. . No. 8.com. This is resolved with a DNS request from PC_Client to the DNS server.example. .com The TCP three-way handshake cannot occur because PC_Client does not know the IP address for eagle1. DNS server. This is shown in Wireshark’s Packet List. what TCP flag states are returned to eagle1.example. .com. . the DNS query response The DNS server cannot be queried because the MAC address for the DNS server is unknown. No. .com must first be completed. The ARP protocol is broadcast on the LAN to discover the MAC address for the DNS server. the ARP response from the DNS server ■ ■ . . . Gateway.0. . . . . No. Match the Wireshark output to the process.example. It has taken a total of nine datagrams sent between PC_Client.example. .0.com before PC_Client has sufficient information to send the original web client request to eagle1. .1. . .

14 is a response to which datagram from eagle1. A protocol analyzer shows unsuccessful ARP requests. The ARP protocol is broadcast on the LAN to learn the destination MAC address for the gateway. Next. scroll down to the bottom of the Detail List window.example. 17 datagram is sent from PC_Client to eagle1. Use the Wireshark TCP stream. 11 is an acknowledgment from eagle1.example. To use this feature.com responds with a TCP ACK. Wireshark Packet List No. there could be multiple causes.com is unknown. Analyzing packet contents can be a daunting experience—time-consuming and errorprone. 13. No. 14 and 16 are ACK datagrams from PC_Client. To verify the ACK. Step 2. highlight Wireshark Packet List No. and 15 are TCP segments from eagle1. the same protocol analyzer can become an effective troubleshooting tool when the network fails. as shown in Wireshark Packet List No. Review the information in the [SEQ/ACK analysis] frame. from Wireshark.com to the PC_Client GET request. eagle1. Wireshark Packet List No. What is the purpose of this datagram? This datagram is a TCP window update to expand the window size. and expand the [SEQ/ACK analysis] frame. first select a TCP datagram from the Wireshark Packet List. As soon as the network administrator is familiar with communication protocols. choose Analyze > Follow TCP Stream. 10. 6. When PC_Client is finished. if a web browser could not connect to a web server. 12. 18. A window similar to the one shown in Figure 11-27 appears.example. and unacknowledged packets.example. For example.com. Next. 14. the ARP response from the Gateway Wireshark Packet List No. unsuccessful DNS queries. and the TCP session is closed. .example.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 373 ■ The MAC address for the gateway to reach eagle1. TCP ACK and FIN flags are sent.com. Wireshark Packet List No.example. Figure 11-27 Output of TCP Stream Task 5: Conclusion Using a network protocol analyzer can be an effective learning tool for understanding critical elements of network communication. The ACK datagram for Wireshark Packet List No.com? No. 13 The Wireshark Packet List No. Wireshark includes an option that constructs the TCP stream in a separate window.

test. with the client issuing a TCP FIN flag. HTTP. You have also developed a conceptual understanding of networking protocols and device algorithms. See if you can complete this entire challenge (approximately 100 configurable components.3) Open file LSG01-PTSkills11. the TCP three-way handshake must build a reliable path and supply both communicating ends with initial TCP header information.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to perform this exercise using Packet Tracer. Integrate skills from throughout the course. ARP. and testing skills. Packet Tracer Challenge Skills Integration Challenge: Configuring and Analyzing Networks (11. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ Build. Upon completion of this activity. although some are quite easy) in less than 30 minutes. configuring.374 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 6: Summary In this exercise you have learned how a web client and web server communicate. Behind-the-scenes protocols such as DNS and ARP are used to fill in missing parts of IP packets and Ethernet frames. Figure 11-28 shows the topology for this lab. HDLC) Background Throughout this course. building.6. Here is an opportunity to test yourself. the TCP session is destroyed in an orderly manner. HDLC) Tracing the route to the web server (DNS.1. UDP. Figure 11-28 Skills Integration Lab Topology 1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server 2960-24TT S1-Central 1841 R2-Central PC-PT 1A PC-PT 1B . Before a TCP session can begin. IP. TCP. IP. Ethernet. you have been developing network planning. Finally. respectively. ARP. Ethernet. and configure the entire lab network. Analyze the events involved in ■ ■ Requesting a web page (DNS. ICMP.

installed in the slot on the right—one named R1-ISP. up to seven hosts (not yet implemented) Fifth subnet. up to 28 hosts (not yet implemented) Third subnet. up to 14 hosts (Fa0/0 on R1-ISP) Fourth subnet.3. ■ ■ ■ ■ Use Table 11-39 to record your address information. In general. and connect it to the Fa0/24 interface on S1-Central. configure the highest usable IP address on the ISP LAN subnet. Subnet assignments: ■ First subnet. point-to-point link (S0/0/0 on R1-ISP and S0/0/0 on R2-Central) ■ ■ ■ ■ IP address assignments: ■ ■ ■ For the server. For R1-ISP’s S0/0/0 interface. For R2-Central’s S0/0/0 interface. use the first two IP addresses (the two lowest usable addresses) on the existing student LAN subnet. use the second-highest usable address on the student subnet. passwords. existing WAN. future student LAN. which has a serial DCE WAN connection to R1ISP and an Fa0/0 LAN connection to S1-Central One 2960TT switch (S1-Central) Two PCs named 1A and 1B A server named Eagle_Server ■ ■ ■ Note that both the display names and hostnames for all devices must be configured exactly.0 /24. You have been given an IP address block of 192.168. existing student LAN. which has a serial DCE WAN connection to R2-Central and an Fa0/0 LAN connection to Eagle_Server. . For R1-ISP’s Fa0/0 interface. up to 28 hosts (Fa0/0 on R2-Central. future ISP LAN. configure the second-highest usable IP address on the ISP LAN subnet. connected to Fa0/24 on S1-Central) Second subnet. existing ISP LAN. and one named R2-Central. For the switch management interface. banners) should be entered exactly as specified in these instructions for the grading to work properly. configure the highest usable address on the existing WAN subnet. use the lowest usable address on the existing WAN subnet. use the highest usable address on the existing student LAN subnet. and connect them to the Fa0/1 and Fa0/2 interfaces on S1Central. For R2-Central’s Fa0/0 interface.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 375 Task 1: Plan Use the standard Exploration lab topology as you plan your IP addressing scheme: ■ Two 1841 routers with WIC-2T interface cards. For hosts 1A and 1B. all strings (names. You must provide for existing networks as well as future growth.

be sure to save your configuration.30 192.78 192.255. the server. The static route on R1-ISP should point to the existing Student LAN subnet via R2-Central’s serial interface IP address.168.168. the switch. Configure both routers.255.3. configure them to use DNS services.255.97 192.3.255.255.224 255.376 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 11-39 Addressing Table Device Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP Fa0/0 S0/0/0 192.**).168. configure the display name. and the two PCs. Authorized access only. The banners should say **This is lab router R1ISP.168. If you want more practice. Whenever you configure a Cisco IOS device.com.3. For Hosts 1A and 1B.255.30 192. The router configuration must include “housekeeping” (display name. and Telnet passwords all set to cisco).** The interfaces should be configured as specified in Table 11-39. .3. be sure to save your configuration. console.78 R2-Central Fa0/0 S0/0/0 PC-1A PC-1B Eagle-Server NIC NIC NIC Task 2: Build and Configure the Network Build the network.** and **This is lab router R2-Central.168.3.3. The following login passwords should all be set to cisco: enable. For the server.168. On the switch.252 255. The static route on R2-Central should be a default static route that points via R1-ISP’s serial interface IP address.240 255. Students need to understand these concepts to successfully complete this lab. banner (**This is lab switch S1-Central.3. Note to Instructor: You might want to introduce students to the concepts of static routes and discuss the command syntax and default routes.2 192.240 — — 192. taking care to make connections as specified. use the domain name eagle-server.98 192. enable DNS services.30 192. and routing (static route on R1-ISP. use “Check Results” to see what components still need to be configured. Whenever you configure a Cisco IOS device. You can use the CLI help function to determine the command syntax.3.168.255.3. Authorized access only. Hint: To configure static routes.255.255. interfaces (FastEthernet and serial).255.255. hostname.98 192.168. use ip route global configuration mode.1 192.252 255. hostname. default route on R2-Central).3. and management interface (int vlan1). passwords. and Telnet. use a clock rate of 64000 on the R1ISP S0/0/0 interface.77 255.224 255.168. use “Reset Activity” and retime yourself doing the entire configuration again.168. login passwords for access (enable. banner).3. Authorized access only. in addition to IP configuration.98 192. console.168. Configure the routers using the CLI to practice your skills. and enable HTTP services.224 255.255.3. As you work.example.168.255.255.

make sure you have saved your configurations on the Cisco IOS devices. issue a traceroute to the server from one of the PCs. Telnet. and routers. HTTP. TCP. Your skills at modeling networks in Packet Tracer will serve you well in subsequent courses. Examine how the trace is built from ICMP echo requests. Explain the entire process to a peer. . Again explain the entire process to a peer. ICMP. also in simulation mode. especially how IP is involved in everything. Examine the packets as they are processed by the devices to study protocol behavior. UDP. request a web page while making the following protocols visible in the event list: DNS. Also note the algorithms used by hosts. As soon as you are convinced that your network is working. ARP. and to examine routing tables. Then power-cycle the devices and reset the network. switches. Task 4: Reflection Relate the processes observed in Task 3 to the TCP/IP Protocol Graph.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 377 Task 3: Test and Analyze It is good practice to test connectivity through ping and Telnet. Power-cycle the devices to clear the network again and. In simulation mode.

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