Network Fundamentals

,
CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide Instructor Edition
Antoon W. Rufi Priscilla Oppenheimer Belle Woodward Gerlinde Brady

Cisco Press
800 East 96th Street Indianapolis, Indiana 46240 USA

ii

Network Fundamentals, CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide

Network Fundamentals, CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide
Instructor Edition Antoon W. Rufi, Priscilla Oppenheimer, Belle Woodward, and Gerlinde Brady
Copyright© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. Published by: Cisco Press 800 East 96th Street Indianapolis, IN 46240 USA All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without written permission from the publisher, except for the inclusion of brief quotations in a review. Printed in the United States of America First Release January 2008 ISBN-10: 1-58705-583-X ISBN-13: 978-1-58705-583-6

Publisher Paul Boger Associate Publisher Dave Dusthimer Cisco Representative Anthony Wolfenden Cisco Press Program Manager Jeff Brady Executive Editor Mary Beth Ray Production Manager Patrick Kanouse Development Editor Dayna Isley Project Editors Patrick Kanouse Jennifer Gallant Copy Editors Gayle Johnson Keith Cline Technical Editors Cindy G. Layman Michael Duane Taylor Tony Chen Editorial Assistant Vanessa Evans Book and Cover Designer Louisa Adair Composition Mark Shirar Proofreader Leslie Joseph

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Warning and Disclaimer
This book is designed to provide information about the Network Fundamentals course of the Cisco Network Academy CCNA Exploration curriculum. Every effort has been made to make this book as complete and as accurate as possible, but no warranty or fitness is implied. The information is provided on an “as is” basis. The authors, Cisco Press, and Cisco Systems, Inc. shall have neither liability nor responsibility to any person or entity with respect to any loss or damages arising from the information contained in this book or from the use of the discs or programs that may accompany it. The opinions expressed in this book belong to the author and are not necessarily those of Cisco Systems, Inc.

Trademark Acknowledgments
All terms mentioned in this book that are known to be trademarks or service marks have been appropriately capitalized. Cisco Press or Cisco Systems, Inc. cannot attest to the accuracy of this information. Use of a term in this book should not be regarded as affecting the validity of any trademark or service mark.

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Network Fundamentals, CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide

About the Authors
Antoon “Tony” W. Rufi currently is the associate dean of computer and information science for all the ECPI College of Technology campuses. He also teaches the Cisco Networking Academy CCNA, CCNP, Network Security, Fundamentals of Wireless LAN, and IP Telephony curricula. Before becoming an instructor for ECPI, he spent almost 30 years in the U.S. Air Force, working on numerous electronic projects and computer programs. Tony has a master’s degree in information science from the University of Maryland and a bachelor’s degree in industrial technology from Southern Illinois University. Priscilla Oppenheimer is an author and network consultant with more than 25 years of experience in the computer industry. Priscilla has a master’s degree in information science from the University of Michigan and has worked at such big-name companies as Apple Computer and Cisco Systems. She currently teaches at Southern Oregon University and provides network consulting to companies in her hometown of Ashland, Oregon, and elsewhere. Belle Woodward, CCNA, CCAI, CCNP, is an assistant professor in the School of Information Systems and Applied Technologies in the College of Applied Sciences and Arts at Southern Illinois University (SIU) in Carbondale, Illinois. She has more than nine years experience in the networking and network security field. Belle teaches network security, advanced networking, and telecommunications. After redesigning the networking and network security undergraduate curriculum, her students took first place at the 2006 Regional Midwestern Collegiate Cyber Defense Competition (CCDC) and fourth place at the national CCDC. In addition to publishing several journal articles in the network security discipline, Belle has also contributed several chapters included in published network security and networking books. Gerlinde Brady has been teaching Cisco CCNA and CCNP courses at Cabrillo College, a Cisco Regional Networking Academy, since 1999. She holds a master’s degree in education from the University of Hannover, Germany, and a master’s degree in translation (English/German) from the Monterey Institute of International Studies. Her IT industry experience includes LAN design, network administration, technical support, and training.

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About the Technical Reviewers
Cindy G. Layman has been an instructor at Itawamba Community College in Tupelo, Mississippi, for more than 10 years. She has been teaching programming, computer servicing, and networking courses, including the full CCNA curriculum in the Cisco Networking Academy. Cindy has a bachelor of science degree in mathematics and a bachelor of science degree in computer science, both from Mississippi State University. Before teaching at ICC, she was a programmer analyst for nine years. Michael Duane Taylor is department head of computer information sciences at the Raleigh Campus of ECPI College of Technology. He has more than seven years of experience teaching introductory networking and CCNA-level curriculum and was awarded the Instructor of the Year Award. Previously, Michael was a lab supervisor with Global Knowledge working with router hardware configuration and repair. He holds a bachelor’s degree in business administration from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and a master of science degree in industrial technology/computer network management from East Carolina University. His certifications include CCNA, CCNP-router, and MCSE.

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Network Fundamentals, CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide

Dedications
I would like to dedicate this book to my wife, Linda, who is instrumental in getting me to apply myself. Always supportive, she has been the catalyst that has kept me going. —Tony Rufi This book is dedicated to my hard-working students who have inspired me to be a better teacher. — Priscilla Oppenheimer This book is dedicated to my husband, Jeff, and son, Alan, whose tireless support helped see me through another project. —Belle Woodward To my wonderful husband, Paddy, and my daughters Fiona, Teresita, and Ejay, who let me take time away from them to be a part of this project. —Gerlinde Brady

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Acknowledgments
From Tony Rufi: I’d like to give special recognition to Mike Taylor for his diligent approach to tech editing. He has provided a tremendous amount of input to get the technical aspects of this endeavor correct. I have enjoyed working with him. I also want to thank Mary Beth Ray; she has been instrumental in allowing me to pursue the dream of authoring a book. A special thank you to ECPI College of Technology, specifically President Mark Dreyfus, Vice President of Academic Affairs John Olson, and Director of Operations Barbara Larar. Without their support, I would not have been able to write this book. From Priscilla Oppenheimer: I’d like to thank Cisco Press for giving me the opportunity to work on this project. I especially want to thank Mary Beth Ray and Dayna Isley for turning this complex project into a success. Thanks also go to our technical reviewers for their persistence and attention to detail. Finally, I’d like to thank the Cisco Networking Academy for developing courses that inspire students to do amazing things with networks. From Belle Woodward: It has been a great pleasure to be part of such an outstanding group of professionals, and to these people and everyone on the team I extend my heartfelt thanks. Dayna Isley, thanks for all your help and patience. Cindy and Michael, thanks for providing your expert technical knowledge in editing the book. I want to give special recognition to Susanne Ashby, a great friend, who has always been willing to read and edit my work. From Gerlinde Brady: I would like to thank Dayna Isley and Mary Beth Ray for their unending patience. A special thanks goes to the technical editors, Cindy Layman, Mike Taylor, and Tony Chen, for their diligence and expertise.

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Network Fundamentals, CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide

Contents at a Glance
Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Chapter 10 Chapter 11 Living in a Network-Centric World Communicating over the Network 1 33 63

Application Layer Functionality and Protocols OSI Transport Layer OSI Network Layer 91 125 151

Addressing the Network: IPv4 OSI Data Link Layer OSI Physical Layer Ethernet 231 199 217

Planning and Cabling Networks

263 297

Configuring and Testing Your Network

ix Contents Chapter 1 Living in a Network-Centric World Concept Questions 1 2 2 1 1 Communicating in a Network-Centric World Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Concept Questions 2 3 Communication: An Essential Part of Our Lives The Network as a Platform Vocabulary Exercise: Define Vocabulary Exercise: Identify 3 3 4 4 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Concept Questions 5 The Architecture of the Internet 5 Vocabulary Exercise: Define Concept Questions 6 5 7 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Trends in Networking 8 Multiple-Choice Questions Task 1: Install Google Earth Task 2: Run Google Earth Task 4: Reflection Task 6: Clean Up 13 13 8 10 Activity 1-1: Using Google Earth to View the World (1.3) 13 Task 1: Locate the SANS Resources Task 2: Review the SANS Resources Task 3: Collect Data Task 4: Reflection 15 16 14 15 Task 5: Challenge 16 Lab 1-1: Using Collaboration Tools: IRC and IM (1.4.1.1.6.4) 11 11 11 Task 3: Navigate the Google Earth Interface Task 5: Challenge 13 Activity 1-2: Identifying Top Security Vulnerabilities (1.5.1) 16 Task 1: Configure the Chat Client Task 2: Connect to the Chat Server Task 3: Consider the Chat Session Task 4: Reflection Task 6: Clean Up 21 22 Task 5: Challenge 22 19 20 21 .1.

5.2. and Internetworks Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Protocols 36 34 35 36 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Concept Questions Using Layered Models 36 37 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Network Addressing 38 37 38 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Multiple-Choice Questions 38 Activity 2-1: Using NeoTrace to View Internetworks (2.1) 39 Task 1: Trace Route to Remote Server Task 2: Trace Route Using NeoTrace Task 3: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 41 41 Task 4: Challenge 41 40 41 Lab 2-1: Topology Orientation and Building a Small Network (2.1.3) 28 Task 1: Explore the PT Interface Task 2: Explore PT Operations Task 4: Reflection Chapter 2 32 30 30 32 Task 3: Review the Standard Lab Setup Communicating over the Network The Platform for Communications 33 33 Concept Questions 33 34 34 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching LANs.7.1.2.6.2) 48 . WANs. CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide Lab 1-2: Using Collaboration Tools: Wikis and Web Logs (1.6.6.1) 22 Task 1: Define the Terms Wiki and Blog Task 3: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 28 28 22 23 Task 2: Explore Wiki Features with the TWiki Tutorial Task 4: Challenge 28 Skills Integration Challenge: Introduction to Packet Tracer (1.1) 42 Task 1: Create a Peer-to-Peer Network Task 3: Cable the Peer-to-Peer Network Task 5: Reflection 48 43 43 47 43 Task 2: Identify the Cables Used in a Network Task 4: Connect Your Workstations to the Classroom Lab Switch Packet Tracer Companion: Topology Orientation and Building a Small Network (2.1.x Network Fundamentals.

1.1) 69 69 70 Task 2: Observe the Properties of the Audio File Lab 3-1: Managing a Web Server (3. Install.4.1) 49 Task 1: Ping PDU Capture 53 Task 2: FTP PDU Capture 56 Task 3: HTTP PDU Capture 58 Task 4: Reflection Task 6: Cleanup 58 59 Task 5: Challenge 58 Packet Tracer Companion: Using Packet Tracer to View Protocol Data Units (2.2) 59 Skills Integration Challenge: Examining Packets (2.7. and Verify the Apache Web Server Task 2: Verify the Default Web Server Configuration File Task 3: Capture and Analyze HTTP Traffic with Wireshark Task 4: Challenge 78 Task 5: Reflection Task 6: Clean Up 78 79 79 73 77 76 Lab 3-2: E-mail Services and Protocols (3.xi Lab 2-2: Using Wireshark to View Protocol Data Units (2.6.1) 71 Task 1: Download.3.4.2.1) Task 1: Configure the Pod Host Computer for E-mail Service 81 Task 2: Capture and Analyze E-mail Communication Between the Pod Host Computer and an E-mail Server 84 .1.2.2.4.3) 59 Task 1: Complete the Topology 60 61 61 61 Task 2: Add Simple PDUs in Real-Time Mode Task 3: Analyze PDUs in Simulation Mode (Packet Tracing) Task 4: Experiment with the Model of the Standard Lab Setup Task 5: Reflection CHapter 3 61 63 63 Application Layer Functionality and Protocols Applications: The Interface Between the Networks Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Concept Questions 64 64 Making Provisions for Applications and Services 65 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Multiple-Choice Questions 65 65 Application Layer Protocols and Services Examples 66 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Multiple-Choice Questions Task 1: Create a Sound File Task 3: Reflection Task 4: Clean Up 71 71 67 66 66 Activity 3-1: Data Stream Capture (3.6.

5. TCP and UDP (4.2.5.1.3.xii Network Fundamentals.1) Task 1: Explain Common netstat Command Parameters and Outputs 96 Task 2: Use netstat to Examine Protocol Information on a Pod Host Computer 98 Task 3: Reflection Task 5: Cleanup 100 100 100 Task 4: Challenge 100 Lab 4-2: TCP/IP Transport Layer Protocols.1) Task 1: Configure the Pod Host Computer to Capture Application Layer Protocols 113 Task 2: Capture and Analyze HTTP Communication Between the Pod Host Computer and a Web Server 114 Task 3: Capture and Analyze FTP Communication Between the Pod Host Computer and a Web Server 116 .1. CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide Task 3: Challenge 86 Task 4: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 86 86 87 Skills Integration Challenge: Configuring Hosts and Services (3.5.5.1) Task 1: Identify TCP Header Fields and Operation Using a Wireshark FTP Session Capture 102 Task 2: Identify UDP Header Fields and Operation Using a Wireshark TFTP Session Capture 108 Task 3: Reflection Task 5: Cleanup 110 111 111 Task 4: Challenge 111 Lab 4-3: Application and Transport Layer Protocols (4.3) Task 1: “Repair” and Test the Topology Task 3: Reflection Chapter 4 89 91 91 88 89 Task 2: Explore How DNS and HTTP Work Together OSI Transport Layer Roles of the Transport Layer Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Concept Questions 92 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Port Type Ranges Exercise Concept Questions 93 92 91 92 The TCP Protocol: Communicating with Reliability 92 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Managing TCP Sessions 93 93 Internet Research Exercise Concept Questions 94 93 The UDP Protocol: Communicating with Low Overhead 94 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion 94 95 Lab 4-1: Observing TCP and UDP Using netstat (4.

HTTP.2.2) 145 .2.5.1. and TCP Work Together 124 125 125 126 126 127 Concept Questions Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Vocabulary Exercise: Define Internet Research Exercise Networks: Dividing Hosts into Groups 127 127 127 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Concept Questions 127 128 Routing: How Our Data Packets Are Handled Vocabulary Exercise: Define Routing Processes: How Routes Are Learned 129 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion 129 130 Lab 5-1: Examining a Device’s Gateway (5.1.2) 122 Skills Integration Challenge: Analyzing the Application and Transport Layers (4.5.6.5. UDP.3.1.1) Task 1: Understand and Explain the Purpose of a Gateway Address 132 Task 2: Understand How Network Information Is Configured on a Windows Computer 134 Task 3: Troubleshoot a Hidden Gateway Address Problem Task 4: Reflection Task 6: Clean Up 137 137 137 Task 5: Challenge 137 Packet Tracer Companion: Examining a Device’s Gateway (5.xiii Task 4: Reflection Task 6: Clean Up 121 122 Task 5: Challenge 121 Packet Tracer Companion: Application and Transport Layer Protocols Examination (4.3) 122 Task 1: Repair and Test the Topology Task 3: Reflection Chapter 5 OSI Network Layer IPv4 125 123 124 Task 2: Explore How DNS.5.2) Lab 5-2: Examining a Route (5.1) 138 136 Task 1: Use the route Command to Modify a Windows Computer Routing Table 139 Task 2: Use a Windows Telnet Client Command telnet to Connect to a Cisco Router 144 Task 3: Examine Router Routes Using Basic Cisco IOS Commands Task 4: Reflection Task 6: Clean Up 147 147 147 Task 5: Challenge 147 Packet Tracer Companion: Examining a Route (5.5.

7.2) Lab 6-2: Examining ICMP Packets (6.1.7.1.1) Task 1: Use the ping Command to Verify Simple TCP/IP Network Connectivity 160 Task 2: Use the tracert Command to Verify TCP/IP Connectivity Task 3: Challenge 166 Task 4: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 168 168 168 164 Packet Tracer Companion: ping and traceroute (6.1.7. CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide Skills Integration Challenge: Routing IP Packets (5.6.3) 148 Task 1: Configure a Router Interface Task 2: Examining Routes 149 149 150 150 Task 3: Configure a Route Using a GUI Task 5: Reflection Chapter 6 150 151 Task 4: Examine the Routing of the IP Packet Addressing the Network: IPv4 IPv4 Addresses 151 Concept Questions 151 152 152 Binary-to-Decimal Conversion Exercise Decimal-to-Binary Conversion Exercise Addresses for Different Purposes 152 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Internet Research Exercise Vocabulary: Completion Concept Questions Assigning Addresses 152 153 153 153 154 Internet Research Exercises Concept Questions Is It on My Network? 154 154 155 Binary Matching Exercise Concept Questions 156 Internet Research Exercise Calculating Addresses 156 155 156 Concept Questions 156 157 157 Multiple-Choice Questions Testing the Network Layer Concept Questions 157 158 159 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Lab 6-1: Ping and Traceroute (6.2.xiv Network Fundamentals.1) 169 Task 1: Understand the Format of ICMP Packets Task 3: Challenge 177 170 173 Task 2: Use Wireshark to Capture and Examine ICMP Messages .

1) 178 Task 1: For a Given IP Address.7.xv Task 4: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 177 177 177 178 Packet Tracer Companion: Examining ICMP Packets (6.7.7.1) Task 1: For a Given IP Address and Subnet Mask.3) 194 Task 1: IP Subnet Planning 195 196 196 Task 2: Finish Building the Network in Packet Tracer Task 3: Configure the Network Task 4: Test the Network Task 5: Reflection chapter 7 OSI Data Link Layer 197 199 199 197 Data Link Layer: Accessing the Media Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Concept Questions 199 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Media Access Control Techniques 199 200 200 Concept Questions 200 201 201 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Concept Questions 202 Media Access Control: Addressing and Framing Data 201 Putting It All Together: Follow Data Through an Internetwork 203 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Lab 7-1: Frame Examination (7.1) 203 205 Task 1: Explain the Header Fields in an Ethernet II Frame 206 209 Task 2: Use Wireshark to Capture and Analyze Ethernet II Frames .7. Determine Subnet Information 184 Task 2: Challenge 188 Task 3: Clean Up 191 192 Lab 6-3: Subnet and Router Configuration (6.1) Task 1: Subnet the Address Space 192 193 193 Task 2: Determine Interface Addresses Task 4: Verify the Configurations Task 5: Reflection 194 193 Task 3: Configure the Serial and FastEthernet Addresses Packet Tracer Companion: Subnet and Router Configuration (6. Determine Network Information Task 2: Challenge 180 Task 3: Clean Up 182 183 Activity 6-2: IPv4 Address Subnetting.7.4.3.5.5.2.8.1. Part 2 (6.2) Activity 6-1: IPv4 Address Subnetting. Part 1 (6.2.2) 194 Skills Integration Challenge: Planning Subnets and Configuring IP Addresses (6.5.

Attending to Some Layer 2 Issues 215 Task 3: Configure the Network Task 4: Test the Network Task 5: Reflection Chapter 8 OSI Physical Layer 216 217 217 215 216 The Physical Layer: Communication Signals Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Concept Questions Concept Questions 217 217 Physical Signaling and Encoding: Representing Bits 218 218 218 218 219 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Concept Questions 219 Physical Media: Connecting Communication Vocabulary Exercise: Matching 219 220 Lab 8-1: Media Connectors Lab Activity (Lab 8.4.6. CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide Task 3: Challenge 212 Task 4: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 212 213 213 Skills Integration Challenge: Data Link Layer Issues (7.1.3) 227 Task 1: Connect the Devices in the Standard Lab Setup 228 228 Task 2: View the Standard Lab Setup in the Physical Workspace chapter 9 Ethernet 231 231 Overview of Ethernet Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Concept Questions 232 231 Ethernet: Communication Through the LAN 232 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Concept Questions 233 232 .1.5.1) Task 1: Become Familiar with the Most Common Functions of a Cable Tester 221 Task 2: Test Different Cables for Type and Wiring Problems Task 4: Verify Cable Length Task 5: Reflection Task 7: Clean Up 226 226 Task 6: Challenge 226 226 223 224 Task 3: Perform Initial Configuration of the Fluke LinkRunner Skills Integration Challenge: Connecting Devices and Exploring the Physical View (8.xvi Network Fundamentals.3) Task 1: IP Subnet Planning 214 Task 2: Finish Building the Network in Packet Tracer.1.

1.2) Lab 9-2: Cisco Switch MAC Table Examination (9.3.1.8.xvii The Ethernet Frame 233 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Multiple-Choice Questions Concept Questions 235 234 233 Ethernet Media Access Control 235 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Concept Questions 236 236 235 Ethernet Physical Layer Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Hubs and Switches 237 236 237 237 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Concept Question 238 Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) 238 Multiple-Choice Questions 238 240 Lab 9-1: Address Resolution Protocol (9.1.2.8.8.3.9.1) Task 1: Use the Windows arp Command Task 3: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 248 248 242 246 Task 2: Use Wireshark to Examine ARP Exchanges Task 4: Challenge 248 Packet Tracer Companion: Address Resolution Protocol (9.2) 253 Lab 9-3: Intermediary Device as an End Device (9.8.1) 253 Task 1: Use Wireshark to Capture and Analyze Frames Originating from Network Nodes 255 Task 2: Examine the Origination of Frames in a Small Network Task 3: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 258 259 Task 4: Challenge 259 Packet Tracer Companion: An Intermediary Device as an End Device (9.8.2) 259 Skills Integration Challenge: Switched Ethernet (9.3) 259 256 Task 1: IP Subnet Planning 260 261 Task 2: Repair Problems with the Ethernet Switched LAN .1) 249 248 Task 1: Use the Telnet Protocol to Log in to a Cisco Switch 251 Task 2: Use the Cisco IOS show mac-address-table Command to Examine MAC Addresses and Port Associations 251 Task 3: Challenge 253 Task 4: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 253 253 Packet Tracer Companion: Cisco Switch MAC Table Examination (9.8.2.

1) 282 Task 2: Configure HyperTerminal to Establish a Console Session with a Cisco IOS Router 283 .6.3.6.2.6.1.1) Task 1: Design the Logical Network 276 278 Task 2: Configure the Physical Lab Topology 278 Task 3: Configure the Logical Topology Task 4: Verify Network Connectivity Task 5: Reflection Task 7: Clean Up 281 281 281 282 280 Task 6: Challenge 281 Packet Tracer Companion: Creating a Small Topology (10.1.2) Task 1: Determine the Number of Subnets in Topology Diagram A 269 Task 2: Record Subnet Information Task 4: Record Subnet Information Task 6: Record Subnet Information Task 8: Record Subnet Information Task 9: Reflection 273 274 270 270 271 272 271 272 273 Task 3: Determine the Number of Subnets in Topology Diagram B Task 5: Determine the Number of Subnets in Topology Diagram C Task 7: Determine the Number of Subnets in Topology Diagram D Lab 10-2: Creating a Small Lab Topology (10.2.xviii Network Fundamentals. CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide Task 3: Test the Network Task 4: Reflection Chapter 10 261 261 Planning and Cabling Networks Concept Questions 263 264 263 263 LANs: Making the Physical Connection Multiple-Choice Questions Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Device Interconnections 264 264 Concept Questions 264 265 265 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Developing an Addressing Scheme Concept Questions 266 266 266 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Multiple-Choice Questions Calculating the Subnets 267 Concept Questions Concept Question 267 267 Device Interconnections 268 268 269 Multiple-Choice Questions Lab 10-1: How Many Networks? (10.2) Task 1: Connect a Router and Computer with a Console Cable Lab 10-3: Establishing a Console Session with HyperTerminal (10.

1) 290 Task 1: Connect a Router and Computer with a Console Cable 290 Task 2: Configure Minicom to Establish a Console Session with the Router 291 Task 3: Perform Basic Commands Task 4: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 292 293 292 Skills and Integration Challenge: Planning and Cabling Networks (10.6.7.2) 289 Lab 10-4: Establishing a Console Session with Minicom (10.3.xix Task 3: Configure HyperTerminal to Establish a Console Session with a Cisco IOS Switch 285 Task 3: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 286 286 287 Task 4: Challenge 286 Lab 10-3 (Alternative): Establishing a Console Session with TeraTerm Task 1: Connect a Router and Computer with a Console Cable 287 Task 2: Configure TeraTerm Web to Establish a Console Session with the Router 288 Task 3: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 288 289 Task 4: Challenge 289 Packet Tracer Companion: Establishing a Console Session with PT Terminal (10.3) 293 Task 1: Build the Network Topology Task 3: Interface Configuration Task 4: Testing Connectivity Chapter 11 295 294 294 Task 2: Create and Assign an Addressing Scheme 295 297 Configuring and Testing Your Network Configuring Cisco Devices: IOS Basics 297 Concept Questions 297 298 298 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Cisco IOS Command Exercises Test Your Knowledge 299 Applying a Basic Configuration Using Cisco IOS 299 Concept Questions 300 300 301 Multiple-Choice Questions Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Verifying Connectivity 301 Test Your Knowledge 301 Concept Question 301 .6.1.2.

1. CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide Lab 11-1: Network Latency Documentation with ping (11.3.2) Lab 11-4: Configure Host Computers for IP Networking (11.5.1.2) Lab 11-3: Managing Device Configuration (11.4.1) 310 303 Task 2: Compute Various Statistics on the Output of a ping Capture 304 306 Task 1: Configure Cisco Router Global Configuration Settings Task 2: Configure Cisco Router Password Access Task 3: Configure Cisco Router Interfaces Task 4: Save the Router Configuration Files Task 5: Configure a Cisco Switch Task 6: Reflection Task 8: Clean Up 323 325 Task 7: Challenge 324 320 317 319 315 312 Packet Tracer Companion: Basic Cisco Device Configuration (11.1) Task 1: Design the Logical Lab Topology Task 3: Configure the Logical Topology Task 4: Verify Network Connectivity Task 5: Reflection Task 7: Clean Up 350 351 Task 6: Challenge 350 343 345 Task 2: Configure the Physical Lab Topology 345 349 .3.2.5.4.3) 302 Task 1: Use the ping Command to Document Network Latency Task 3: Measure Delay Effects from Larger Datagrams Task 4: Reflection 308 Task 5: Challenge 309 Lab 11-2: Basic Cisco Device Configuration (11.1) 335 336 Task 1: Design the Logical Lab Topology Task 3: Configure the Logical Topology Task 4: Verify Network Connectivity Task 5: Reflection Task 7: Clean Up 341 341 342 337 338 Task 2: Configure the Physical Lab Topology 338 340 Task 6: Challenge 341 Lab 11-5: Network Testing (11.5.1) 327 326 Task 1: Configure Network Connectivity Task 3: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 333 335 328 329 Task 2: Use TFTP to Save and Restore a Cisco IOS Configuration Task 4: Challenge 333 Packet Tracer Companion: Managing Device Configuration (11.5.2.5.5.xx Network Fundamentals.

1) 366 Task 1: Prepare the Lab 367 368 370 372 Task 2: Review the Process of Data Flowing Through the Network Task 3: Analyze Captured Packets Task 4: Complete the Final Analysis Task 5: Conclusion Task 6: Summary 373 374 Skills Integration Challenge: Configuring and Analyzing Networks (11.1) 352 Task 1: Design the Logical Lab Topology Task 3: Configure the Logical Topology Task 4: Verify Network Connectivity Task 5: Document the Network Task 6: Reflection Task 8: Clean Up 358 359 Task 7: Challenge 358 357 353 354 Task 2: Configure the Physical Lab Topology 354 356 Lab 11-7: Case Study: Datagram Analysis with Wireshark (11.5.5.5.6.3) 374 Task 1: Plan 375 376 Task 2: Build and Configure the Network Task 3: Test and Analyze 377 Task 4: Reflection 377 .xxi Lab 11-6: Network Documentation with Utility Commands (11.6.1.

xxii Network Fundamentals. CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide Icons Used in This Book Desktop Computer Laptop Firewall Packet Streaming Video IP Phone Switch Router Route/Switch Processor Phone Server Cloud Wireless Router Hub Printer Wireless Media LAN Media WAN Media Command Syntax Conventions The conventions used to present command syntax in this book are the same conventions used in the IOS Command Reference. Italics indicate arguments for which you supply actual values. boldface indicates commands that are manually input by the user (such as a show command). ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ . Square brackets [ ] indicate optional elements. Braces { } indicate a required choice. Braces within brackets [{ }] indicate a required choice within an optional element. The Command Reference describes these conventions as follows: ■ Boldface indicates commands and keywords that are entered literally as shown. mutually exclusive elements. In actual configuration examples and output (not general command syntax). Vertical bars (|) separate alternative.

. Each chapter also includes a culminating activity called the Packet Tracer Skills Integration Challenge. Used to its fullest extent. You can view the exam topics any time at http://www. online assessment. this book is designed to help you learn all the required materials of the first course in the Networking Academy CCNA Exploration curriculum.com/go/certifications. By establishing a firm foundation in the fundamental topics taught in this course. but also that you can plan. student performance tracking. where you can use Packet Tracer to complete a simulation of the lab.xxiii Introduction The Cisco Networking Academy is a comprehensive e-learning program that provides students with Internet technology skills. operate. design. you should do everything in your power to arm yourself with a variety of tools and training materials to support your learning efforts. Each chapter is slightly different and includes multiplechoice. Passing this foundation exam means that you not only have the required knowledge of the technologies covered by the exam. A Networking Academy delivers web-based content. matching. This Labs and Study Guide is just such a collection of tools. fill-in-the-blank. Goals and Methods First and foremost. implement. Many of the hands-on labs include Packet Tracer companion activities. These activities require you to pull together several skills learned from the chapter—and previous chapters and courses—to successfully complete one comprehensive exercise. and troubleshoot these technologies. To be successful on the exam and achieve your CCNA certification. In other words. and hands-on labs to prepare students for industry-standard certifications. Network Fundamentals.cisco. CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide is a supplement to your classroom and laboratory experience with the Cisco Networking Academy. The CCNA Exploration curriculum includes four courses oriented around the topics of the Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA) certification. The Study Guide sections of this book offer dozens of exercises to help you learn the concepts crucial to your success as a CCNA exam candidate. these exams are rigorously application based. you will be better prepared to move on to the rest of the CCNA Exploration curriculum and ultimately to pass the CCNA certification exam (640-802). and open-ended questions designed to help you ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Review vocabulary Strengthen troubleshooting skills Boost networking skills Reinforce concepts Research topics Each chapter also includes a Labs and Activities section that includes the online curriculum labs and a Packet Tracer Skills Integration Challenge activity. it will help you gain knowledge and practice the skills associated with the content areas of the CCNA Exploration Network Fundamentals course.

However. CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide A Word About Packet Tracer Packet Tracer is a self-paced. lab equipment can be a scarce resource. A Word About Eagle Server The CCNA Exploration courses are designed to provide a hands-on learning approach to networking. . and have the option to work from home. Lab activities are an important part of networking education.xxiv Network Fundamentals. The top-down approach adopted in the Network Fundamentals course enables students to set up and implement application layer services in a network lab environment. it allows students to practice using a command-line interface. Students can spend as much time as they like completing standard lab exercises through Packet Tracer. visual. Packet Tracer provides a visual simulation of equipment and network processes to offset the challenge of limited equipment. Packet Tracer version 4. Your instructor needs to follow those instructions to set up the labs for you accordingly. Although Packet Tracer is not a substitute for real equipment. interactive teaching and learning tool developed by Cisco. The Eagle Server is developed by the Cisco Networking Academy to provide network services and applications that are typically accessed over the Internet in an isolated lab environment. The Eagle Server software and complete FAQ documentation can be downloaded by your instructor from the Tools section of Academy Connection. Many of the hands-on labs in Network Fundamentals are based on an Internet model that uses a local server to provide a range of network services and applications that students can experiment with in the lab environment. The Eagle Server provides the following network services: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ DNS Web server FTP TFTP SSH Instant messaging Wiki server E-mail The Eagle Server is required to complete most of the labs in CCNA Exploration.x is available only to Cisco Networking Academies through the Academy Connection website. This “e-doing” capability is a fundamental component of learning how to configure routers and switches from the command line.

The Lab Exercises portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum labs to further reinforce that you have mastered the practical. presentation. you should work through this Lab Study Guide in order. This book has 11 chapters. The labs further reinforce that you have mastered the skills needed to work with the application layer of the OSI model.xxv Audience for This Book This book’s main audience is anyone taking the CCNA Exploration Network Fundamentals course of the Cisco Networking Academy curriculum. Chapter 2. quality of service (QoS). “Living in a Network-Centric World. beginning with Chapter 1. Internet Relay Chat. You learn how TCP and UDP apply to common applications.” provides exercises and labs that focus on the role of the transport layer as it provides the end-to-end transfer of data between applications. How This Book Is Organized Because the content of Network Fundamentals. The questions and labs help you reinforce important concepts related to addressing. path determination. while other academies recommend the Companion Guides as an additional source of study and practice materials. Work through the different types of questions to test your knowledge of the TCP/IP application and OSI application. with the same numbers and similar names as the online course chapters. “Addressing the Network: IPv4. Chapter 6. Chapters and Topics The book has 11 chapters. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide and the online curriculum is sequential. Many academies use this textbook as a required tool in the course. to help evaluate network communications. blogs.” introduces the concepts of routing packets from a device on one network to a device on a different network. hands-on skills needed to use some critical tools. the application layer. or prefix length. and network collaboration tools. Chapter 3. scalability. The questions in the chapter focus on network architectures. “Application Layer Functionality and Protocols. media. and protocols that enable network communication. security issues. Chapter 5. data packets. and IP. to determine the number of subnetworks and hosts in a network. ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ .” introduces you to the top network model layer. This chapter also includes questions and labs related to Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) tools. The book covers the major topic headings in the same sequence as the online curriculum for the CCNA Exploration Network Fundamentals course. as follows: ■ Chapter 1. Chapter 4. “Communicating over the Network. and Packet Tracer.” focuses on network addressing in detail and tests your knowledge of how to use the address mask. such as Wireshark. wikis. and session layer. network components. The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses different types of questions to test your knowledge of how devices communicate over the network.” introduces the devices. Activities and labs let you practice your skills using and configuring network applications such as Google Earth. “OSI Network Layer. such as ping and trace. “OSI Transport Layer.” provides exercises and labs to supplement your study of the basics of communication and how networks support the way we live.

com website.com/title/1587132036. how to connect devices. After you register the book.com/bookstore/register. “OSI Data Link Layer. standards. and Packet Tracer Challenge icons. The chapter also helps you study Media Access Control (MAC) and MAC addressing. connecting it to a switch. with a focus on ARP frames.asp and enter the book’s ISBN. The files will be updated to cover any subsequent releases of Packet Tracer. This chapter continues the examination of Ethernet frames that you started in Chapter 7. and protocols associated with the physical layer (Layer 1). and how to develop an addressing and testing scheme. Chapter 9. Use this chapter to reinforce that you have mastered the practical. About the Cisco Press Website for This Book Cisco Press may provide additional content that can be accessed by registering your individual book at the Ciscopress. “Planning and Cabling Networks. . http://www. Packet Tracer Companion. The chapter also helps you develop skills related to examining Cisco switch MAC address tables.” provides questions and labs that explore the functions. “Configuring and Testing Your Network.” examines the technologies and operation of Ethernet. This chapter tests your ability to describe the encapsulation processes that occur as data travels across a LAN and a WAN.” provides questions and extensive. which is located on its back cover. ■ ■ ■ ■ About the CD-ROM The CD-ROM included with this book has all the Packet Tracer Activity. You will configure Cisco routers and switches for basic network operations. You’ll then be prompted to log in or join Ciscopress.ciscopress. Packet Tracer Companion. “OSI Physical Layer. A hands-on lab lets you practice your skills using Wireshark to capture and analyze Ethernet frames. You will apply the knowledge and skills developed in the previous chapters to determine the appropriate cables to use. hands-on skills needed to understand and work with the OSI physical layer.” focuses on designing and cabling a network. a link to any supplemental content will be listed on your My Registered Books page. “Ethernet. and Packet Tracer Challenge files that are referenced throughout the book as indicated by the Packet Tracer Activity. MAC. Chapter 11.com to continue registration. Becoming a member and registering is free. A Packet Tracer skills integration lab provides an opportunity to practice IP subnetting. and building and configuring a complex network. Topics include the evolution of Ethernet technologies.xxvi Network Fundamentals. challenging labs that ask you to connect and configure a small network using basic Cisco IOS commands for routers and switches. and you then gain access to exclusive deals on other resources from Cisco Press. Chapter 10. and Address Resolution Protocol (ARP).ciscopress.” supplements your study of how the OSI data link layer prepares network layer packets for transmission. go to http://www. To register this book. CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide ■ Chapter 7. Chapter 8. and setting speed and duplex settings. You can obtain updates to these files from the website for this book. A Packet Tracer skills integration lab lets you simulate the steps of installing an Ethernet card in a PC.

school. radio. Communication was once limited to face-to-face conversations. movies. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum activities and labs to ensure that you have mastered the practical. Early data networks carried character-based messages between computer systems. the written word. telephony. and how has this changed human interactions? Answers will vary but should mention that modern networks carry voice. ranging from paper to fiber-optic cabling. The addition of all these different types of network traffic has enabled the creation of online communities where geographic distances and physical limitations are no longer major obstacles and where humans around the globe can collaborate in their work. play. and education. What types of network traffic do modern networks carry. High-speed data networks that span the globe with cabling and networking devices have had a profound effect on human communication and will continue to revolutionize how humans interact with each other. Study Guide Communicating in a Network-Centric World Humans are social animals who need to communicate with each other. multiple-choice. what other breakthroughs in communication media have extended the reach of human interactions? Answers will vary but could include smoke signals. but it has evolved over the years to encompass many types of media. and graphics. use Chapter 1 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum or the corresponding Chapter 1 in Network Fundamentals. 2. newspapers. the printing press. city. How has data networking changed your community (your family. As you work through this chapter. fill-in-the-blank. Concept Questions 1. hands-on skills needed to understand the opportunities and challenges associated with modern networks. In addition to data networks.CHAPTER 1 Living in a Network-Centric World The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of matching. or country?) Answers will vary. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide for assistance. telegraphy. . 3. and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of the importance of data networks and the major components and characteristics of network architectures. video. and television. text.

Factors that are external to the message can affect reliability. 3. Because communication is so important. as can internal factors that are related to aspects of the message itself.2 Network Fundamentals. Podcasting is an audio-based medium that lets people record audio and publish it on a website. Instant Messaging (IM) is a form of online real-time communication between two or more people based on entered text. and learn. Communication: An Essential Part of Our Lives Communication helps us work. Students should include at least four of the following correct answers: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ The quality of the pathway between the sender and receiver The number of times a message changes form The number of times a message is redirected The number of times a message is readdressed The number of times a message is reformatted The number of other messages sharing the communication pathway Whether a confirmation of the message was returned to the sender The amount of time allotted for successful communication List three internal factors that affect data networks. Packet Tracer is a Cisco collaborative learning tool that provides a way to build virtual representations of networks that behave much like actual networks. A wiki is a web page that groups of people can edit and view together. A blog is a web page that is easy to update and edit by someone who wants to publish a record of his or her thoughts on a subject. 2. 4. 5. 1. Rules help data networks function despite the many factors that can degrade communication. Concept Questions 1. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following questions. communication networks include rules (or protocols) that help ensure reliable delivery of messages. . play. List four external factors that affect data networks. The message’s size The message’s complexity The message’s importance 2.

Figure 1-1 Network Topology Icons B C A D F G H K IP E I J L . in which data is transferred A unit of information that travels from one device to another across a medium Equipment that connects directly to a network Vocabulary Exercise: Identify Networks consist of many elements. network experts have standardized many elements and components of a data network. such as a cable or the air for wireless. and reliability that are required. and interpreted A means of interconnecting devices. The figure shows a network topology for a typical small company. Figure 1-1 shows some of these icons. speed. To achieve the scale. Vocabulary Exercise: Define Table 1-1 lists the four fundamental elements of a network. a physical environment. directed. Modern networks support fast and reliable message transfer among millions of users across the globe.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 3 The Network as a Platform Data networks provide a platform for humans to communicate and thus play an increasingly important role in the business and personal lives of humans. Table 1-1 Element Network Element Definitions Definition Rule Medium Message Device An agreement or protocol that governs how messages are sent. Engineers use a set of standard icons to refer to the elements. received. Network engineers often include these elements in network topology drawings. Fill in the definition for each element.

or optical fiber. e-mail. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Provide the name of each element in the network topology shown in Figure 1-1. 4. Serial link f. 3. Router d. Table 1-2 Device Network Devices Definition a. Provides network security Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following questions. In wired connections. Switch b.4 Network Fundamentals. A device often found in home and small networks that lets laptop computers connect to a network without cabling c. the medium is either copper. 1. Protocols are the rules that network devices use to communicate. Summarizes a group of network elements in topology drawings d. which carries data in the form of electrical signals. Firewall c. Cloud f. Wireless router e. Wireless media include the wireless connection between a wireless router and a computer in a home network. One form of a wide-area network (WAN) connection a. which carries data in the form of light signals. 2. . match the term on the left with its definition on the right. Network applications such as web browsing. the terrestrial wireless connection between two ground stations. Connects two or more networks and directs messages as they travel across a set of networks b. Interconnects computers and cabling to form a local-area network (LAN) e. A Firewall B Router C WAN medium D Network cloud E Server F LAN medium G LAN switch H Wireless router I IP phone J Desktop computer K Wireless media L Laptop computer Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 1-2. and instant messaging require a network to provide services. or the communication between devices on Earth and satellites in orbit.

Vocabulary Exercise: Define Table 1-3 lists four fundamental characteristics of network architectures.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 5 5. scalability. 4. quality of service. including traffic that was once relegated to its own separate network. Concept Questions 1. 2. The Network Interface Card (NIC) converts the bits to electrical or optical signals and places them on the medium. including the Internet. simplify troubleshooting. TCP/IP is a set of standard protocols that is widely used in home and business networks as well as on the Internet. . with different tiers offering different levels of service. their answers should read something like the following: 1. The computer converts the message to bits. The bits arrive at a router. Many large networks. such as voice or radio. and security. If they are just starting to learn networking and have grasped the information in “Elements of a Network” section in Chapter 1 of the curriculum and the Companion Guide. and enable advanced applications such as videoconferencing and online gaming. The Internet’s architecture shares many of the same characteristics of any large network that supports numerous users. 2. 6. are also hierarchical. 5. This can save money. which directs them to their destination. Business networks. education networks. Fill in the definition for each characteristic. 3. List the steps that take place on a network when you send an instant message. Answers will vary depending on how much students already know. The Architecture of the Internet A network architecture describes a network’s physical infrastructure and the high-level services and protocols that move messages across that infrastructure. What is meant by the term converged network. the bits get converted back into a human-readable format. Messages must be converted to bits (binary coded digital signals) before they are sent to their destination. and why are converged networks becoming so common? What advantages do converged networks offer? A converged network carries network traffic of many different types. Converged networks have become common because they allow engineers to build one common infrastructure instead of multiple specialized networks. At their destination. and the Internet must provide fault tolerance. The bits travel through network devices such as switches in the LAN.

provide national and international connections and are optimized for carrying huge loads of traffic across the globe. For example. Compare and contrast circuit switching and packet switching.6 Network Fundamentals. How does the Internet benefit from using a hierarchical architecture? The hierarchical architecture permits Internet service providers (ISP) of different levels. is created through various switching locations between the sender and receiver. The problem of underutilized idle circuits is eliminated. The early Internet designers chose packet switching because it provides better fault tolerance and scalability. Why was fault tolerance a major focus of the initial design for the Internet? The United States Department of Defense (DoD) designed the network that evolved into the Internet with fault tolerance because the department was concerned about a military attack or other severe problem that could destroy numerous sites and transmission facilities. Each tier can optimize its services for its unique role. With packet switching. If there’s a problem with any device in the path during a call. Tier 3 providers are smaller yet and focus on getting end users on the Internet. based on the requirements of the applications and their importance to users Measures taken to guard against unauthorized access to a network and the data traveling on the network Concept Questions 1. the circuit and its resources remain reserved until one end disconnects. such as AT&T and Verizon. Even if no communication is occurring between the sender and receiver. or circuit. which improves scalability and fault tolerance. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 1-3 Network Architecture Characteristics Definition Characteristic Fault tolerance Scalability Quality of service Security The capability of a network to withstand hardware and software failures and recover quickly when failures occur The capability of a network to expand quickly to support new users and applications without degrading performance for existing users A method of providing different priorities for different applications. Packets are routed according to the best path available at the time and can be routed around problem areas. using all available resources. Tier 2 providers are smaller and often provide regional service. the call is dropped and must be reestablished. Why did the Internet designers choose packet switching instead of circuit switching? With circuit switching. The circuit is dedicated to the call for the duration of the call. 3. Tier 1 providers. there’s no requirement for call setup. because resources are used dynamically as packets arrive at switching locations. A new call requires a new setup process that creates a new circuit. 2. a call goes through a setup process whereby a temporary path. Packets from different sources are intermixed. Messages are divided into small blocks of data (packets) that can travel across many paths to the destination. The hierarchical structure also means that network traffic that is destined for a service that is local to the sender does not need to traverse to a central point for distribution. .

Answers will vary. Production control in factories can be time-sensitive. 3. For example. addressed. maintaining integrity to ensure that information is not altered in transmission. 4. The consequence of the calls being dropped or delayed include people dying or suffering needlessly with injuries. Network firewalls can help ensure system reliability by detecting. and content security. List some applications that are time-sensitive and the negative consequences of their packets getting dropped or delayed. with lots of starts and stops. The two types of network security concerns are network infrastructure security. Three fundamental security measures include ensuring confidentiality so that only intended and authorized recipients can read data. Answers will vary. 5. confidentiality. if their traffic is delayed. 2. but here are some examples based on the curriculum: Streaming video and audio are time-sensitive and will appear or sound choppy. . with consequent loss of business Misdirected or lost personal or business funds Stolen company intellectual property (research ideas.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 7 4. patents. repelling. but here are some examples based on the curriculum: A network outage that stops communications and transactions. The consequences of a lost control signal to an automated piece of heavy machinery. and delivered. List some consequences of a network security breach. resulting in a loss of confidence in the business Loss of sales and eventual company failure because of a loss of public trust in the company’s ability to maintain privacy. or designs. and ensuring availability so that timely and reliable access to services is not disrupted by security breaches. and coping with network attacks. Business transactions can be time-sensitive. a stock price could change while a buyer is making a purchase if traffic is delayed. could cause death or dismemberment. for example) Private customer contract details becoming known to competitors or made public. 1. which protects the information carried in packets and stored on network-attached devices. Calls to an emergency response center are time-sensitive. Tools to provide security for individual messages must be implemented on top of the underlying protocols. and integrity Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following questions. for example. which protects devices and cabling. which are the rules that govern how packets are formatted.

More networks that are open and unconcerned with protection from unauthorized access 3. fault-tolerant. A fault-tolerant network is built to withstand earthquakes. and play. The increasing number of mobile users b. d. Networks will need to be scalable. . 1. A fault-tolerant network can expand quickly to support new users and applications without causing errors for existing users. Which of the following is a relatively new information technology (IT) job title? a. Which of the following best defines a fault-tolerant network? a. Which of the following are major trends that are contributing to the current evolution of networks? (Choose two. Fewer services as networks converge c. Which of the following is most associated with the concept of converged networks? a. The need to support circuit switching 2.) a. The need to protect networks from unauthorized access f. Fewer applications as networks converge d. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Trends in Networking Data networks continue to evolve quickly. Multiple-Choice Questions Choose the best answer for each of the following questions. Modern networks need to be ready to support increasing numbers of users who will make innovative use of the networks to enhance human communication. Network technician d. A fault-tolerant network limits the impact of hardware or software failures and recovers quick- ly when a failure occurs. Programmer b. A fault-tolerant network supports users who have different viewpoints. b. Information security officer c. More users wanting to access web pages in character mode b. c.8 Network Fundamentals. Increasing use of simplified network devices e. More voice and video transmissions that require a level of consistent quality and uninterrupted delivery c. work. learn. Software engineer 4. More networks that are locked down so that new applications and services cannot be added d. and flexible as users continue to depend on their networks to help them live.

A scalable network ensures that priorities are matched with the type of communication and its importance to an organization. Which of the following best defines a scalable network? satellite dishes on mountains. c.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 9 5. . d. A scalable network is built to support high-altitude environments. a. including skyscrapers and b. A scalable network supports redundant connections so that alternative paths are available when a device or link fails. A scalable network can expand quickly to support new users and applications without impact- ing the performance of the service being offered to existing users.

The URL http://earth. Which Google Earth version supports the highest resolution? Google Earth Pro supports 4800 pixels. and other support features. Use this link to answer the following questions: 1. Background Google Earth is a popular application that executes on the desktop of most operating systems. Experiment with Google Earth to explore continents. Google Earth displays the Earth as a manipulated 2D or 3D image. it requires a broadband connection to the Internet. Estimated completion time.com/product_comparison.10 Network Fundamentals. a spreadsheet importer. Currently. . Google Earth. version 4. Which versions support Tilt and 3D rotation? All versions 2. and places of interest. To use Google Earth.4) Upon completion of this activity.google. The popular world news channel CNN regularly uses Google Earth to show where a news story has occurred. countries. Experiment with Google Earth features such as Help and Tutorial. 16-bit high-color screen Scenario This activity is to be performed on a computer that has Internet access and on which you can install software.1. three versions of Google Earth exist. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Explain the purpose of Google Earth. Explain the hardware and software requirements needed to use Google Earth (free edition).html contains a description of the versions.1. the following minimum computer hardware requirements must be met: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Operating system: Microsoft Windows 2000 or Windows XP CPU: Pentium 3 with 500 MHz System memory (RAM): 128 MB Hard disk: 400 MB of free space Network speed: 128 kbps Graphics card: 3D-capable with 16 MB of video RAM (VRAM) Screen: 1024×768 pixels. is 30 minutes. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Labs and Activities Activity 1-1: Using Google Earth to View the World (1. The version that fits most needs is the free version. depending on network speed. The Google Earth Plus version includes GPS support. Explain the different versions of Google Earth. The Google Earth Pro version is for professional and commercial use.

Task 3: Navigate the Google Earth Interface Step 1: Use the Overview Map feature. Figure 1-2 Google Earth Opening Screen Task 2: Run Google Earth Refer to Figure 1-2. .google. navigation controls. are located in the upper-right quadrant. They control the image magnification and position. Remember. The navigation controls. List the three ways to move the image. Follow the installation instructions. The mouse pointer must be moved close to the controls. Placemark. the opening screen. you can download the free application from http://earth.google. choose User Guide to launch a default web browser and bring up the Google Earth User’s Guide (http://earth.html.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 11 Task 1: Install Google Earth If Google Earth is not installed on the computer. otherwise. Choose View > Overview Map.com/userguide/v4/).com/download-earth. On the Help menu. 3. mouse. Step 2: Review the navigation controls. Take a few minutes to browse the User’s Guide. What is the purpose of the left mouse button? It rotates the image. only a compass is displayed. answer the following questions: 1. 2. you may have to disable any popup blockers on your browser. Before leaving the User’s Guide website. shown in Figure 1-3. Which mouse control zooms in and out? Right mouse button or scroll wheel. The Menu bar is located in the upper-left corner. Figure 1-2 shows the opening screen for Google Earth. This handy feature provides a relative global position of the magnified image. and the Google Earth download should start automatically.

it’s the angle between a point and the equator. Step 4: Experiment with the Search > Fly To folder. Using the pointer and coordinates shown in the lower-left quadrant of the image. Enter 95134. The image takes you to that site. a U. Try to find your home using the Search > Fly To folder. and tenths. it’s the angle east or west of an arbitrary earth point. and double-click that location. zip code. California What if you would like to “Fly To” London. For example. UK? What data would you need to enter? London. but the new house next door had not yet been built. Step 6: View geographic coordinates. The coordinate measurements are in degrees.2D or 3D Zoom Rotate or Move Step 3: Use the Sightseeing feature.S. The equator has a 0° latitude. choose a location that you want to see. is the international zero-longitude point. The second number is called the longitude. For example. minutes. If the resolution for your neighborhood is sufficient. Geographic coordinates are displayed in the lower-left quadrant of the image. and some location images are older than others. Choose View > Grid to display Google Earth Gridlines. experiment with the Places > Sightseeing folder. browse the surrounding area to see if you can determine approximately how old the image is. Some locations have better resolution than others. For longitude. Is the resolution for your home the same quality as the Sightseeing location in Step 3? Answers will vary. . the equator is an imaginary line dividing the globe into a Northern and Southern Hemisphere. the reference is North (N) or South (S) of the equator. The first number is called the latitude. Expand Sightseeing.12 Network Fundamentals. The combined longitude and latitude are called the common graticule. one user commented that he found his home. What U. an image streaming indicator reports when the image resolution is complete. United Kingdom. what are the coordinates of your home? Answers will vary. The Royal Observatory. UK Step 5: Use the Fly To feature. Common graticule is the grid created by the longitude and latitude lines as depicted on a globe. For latitude. On the left navigation bar.S. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 1-3 Google Earth Screen Navigation Tools Tilt. When the location has been reached. state and city are displayed? San Jose. seconds. the reference is East (E) or West (W) of the Royal Observatory.

Activity 1-2: Identifying Top Security Vulnerabilities (1. A LAN sent your image request across the Internet. probably through several WANs and then to another LAN with a computer that returned the image to you. follow these steps: Step 1. The delay in retrieving the image may have been short or long. Consider network security. Task 6: Clean Up You may be required to remove Google Earth from the computer. Click Remove and follow the prompts. depending on the slowest speed of all network connections in the path between the database repository and your computer. Step 4.3) Upon completion of this activity. Locate and click Google Earth. Choose Start > Settings > Control Panel. Task 5: Challenge Google Earth displays image coordinates in the lower-left quadrant of the image. Step 3.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 13 Task 4: Reflection Google Earth can bring the world into your home or office. While enjoying the images.4. Unless instructed otherwise.5.html. If so. Step 2.com/support/bin/answer. Additional removal information is available at http://earth.py?answer=20738&ctx=sibling.edu/geography/gcraft/notes/coordsys/coordsys. Could the image be displayed faster if data compression techniques were used? Answers will vary. . Use the geographic coordinate system to describe your home with as much accuracy and detail as possible. turn off the computer. Wikipedia also contains a useful definition of common geographic terms.google. satellite communication with an Earth station transmitted the image of your home to a ground location. consider what digital communication resources were used. Use the following URL to learn about different coordinate systems: http://www. Use the SANS links to access other security-related information. Some type of database was used to store the image. List several recent security vulnerabilities. Explain how threats are organized. For example. Double-click Add or Remove Programs.colorado. Could someone eavesdrop on your network connection? Answers will vary. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ ■ Use the SANS site to quickly identify Internet security threats.

VoIP devices Human elements: Security policies. DNS servers. database. A letter indicates the category type.sans. each a major contributor to information security. You will use the SANS website as a tool for threat vulnerability identification. Estimated completion time is one hour. How can a corporate security administrator quickly identify security threats? SANS and the FBI have compiled their list of the top 20 Internet Security Attack Targets at http://www. as shown in Figure 1-4. and management servers Network devices: Network infrastructure devices (routers. human behavior. Task 1: Locate the SANS Resources Step 1.org/top20/. SANS contains several components. Security. Using a web browser. For additional information about the SANS site. Network. Router and switch topics fall under the Network Devices category.org/ and select items from the Resources menu. and so on). On the resources menu. backup software.org. There are two major hyperlink topics: ■ ■ N1. and defense. UNIX/Linux. Figure 1-4 SANS Menu The SANS Top-20 Internet Security Attack Targets list is organized by category. instant messaging. media players. peer-to-peer. and numbers separate category topics. N. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Background One of the most popular and trusted sites related to defending against computer and network security threats is SANS. switches.sans. go to http://www. VoIP Servers and Phones N2.14 Network Fundamentals. Audit. You must complete this lab outside of the Cisco lab from a computer with Internet access. understanding. SANS stands for SysAdmin. Mac Applications: Cross-platform. go to http://www. choose top 20 list. including web. Open the SANS Top 20 List. The list is regularly updated with information related to the following: ■ ■ Operating systems: Windows.sans. personnel issues Special section: Security issues not related to any of the preceding categories ■ ■ ■ Scenario This activity introduces you to computer security vulnerabilities. Network and Other Devices Common Configuration Weaknesses .

2. Range: Answers will vary. which contains information about the vulnerability. N2. contains links with information about the vulnerability and possible solutions. Solutions.gov/ and the vulnerability summary page for the CVE. Fill in the following information about the vulnerability: Original release date: Answers will vary. Step 3.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 15 Step 2: Click hyperlink N2. Failure to change the default password on these devices can lead to compromise and vulnerability by attackers.2 (as of this writing) contains information about threats associated with default accounts and values. Source: Answers will vary. and Tools. Open Google and search on wireless router passwords to return links to multiple sites that publish a list of wireless router default administrator account names and passwords. . Impact Type: Answers will vary. Review the contents of N2. For example. and click a sample CVE hyperlink. Fill in information about the vulnerability impact: CVSS Severity: Answers will vary. The next heading. The last line under several topics’ references is Common Vulnerability Exposure (CVE).nist. write a brief description of the solution as found on those pages. Note: Because the CVE list changes. Network and Other Devices Common Configuration Weaknesses to jump to this topic. Under the Impact heading are several values. Step 2. It contains a value between 1 and 10. Task 2: Review the SANS Resources Step 1. sponsored by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) National Cyber Security Division and US-CERT. Authentication: Answers will vary. the current list may not contain the same vulnerabilities as those that were present at the time of this writing. The Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS) severity is displayed. Using the hyperlinks. Task 3: Collect Data The remainder of this lab walks you through a vulnerability investigation and solution. The link should open a new web browser connected to http://nvd. Overview: Answers will vary. Step 2. Step 1: Choose a topic to investigate. Note the CVE references. The CVE name is linked to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) National Vulnerability Database (NVD).2 Common Default Configuration Issues. Answers will vary. Last revised: Answers will vary. References to Advisories.

1. and transfer files.16 Network Fundamentals. Lab 1-1: Using Collaboration Tools: IRC and IM (1. but this will provide beneficial information about how vulnerability mitigation is accomplished in the world. Use IRC to demonstrate collaboration. often called a Buddy List.6. the telephone has been the technology of choice. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ ■ Define Internet Relay Chat (IRC) and Instant Messaging (IM). To initiate an instant message. IRC and IM fit nicely into these requirements. Finding an organization willing to do this may be difficult. unless the user constantly monitors the e-mail account. Governments have dedicated significant resources to coordinating and disseminating information about the vulnerability and possible solutions. allows multiple people to interact.” In the chat room. Although the following discussion focuses primarily on IM. When you join. you establish a connection to a Chat server and join a discussion on a particular topic. for security reasons. share ideas. however. Using the Internet or a private corporate network. IM clients allow you to have an approved list of users. Chat also provides a degree of anonymity. users can easily exchange ideas and files. It will also give representatives of the organization an opportunity to meet the class and conduct informal intern interviews. you are said to “join a room. unread e-mail may go unnoticed for a long period of time. one person needs to “invite” another. List several collaborative uses of IM. The recipient of the invitation knows about—and accepts—the IM session based on the other user’s screen name. you typically create your own identity and can give as little information about yourself as you choose. When people have wanted immediate contact. What collaborators need for communication in the human network is a tool that has the flexibility of e-mail with the responsiveness of the telephone. and data continues to increase. Think about user habits that create security risks. However. To start chatting. you can open additional IM windows. IRC. It remains the responsibility of the end user to implement the solution. on the other hand.1) Upon completion of this lab. IMing and chatting are both methods of real-time communication. If you want to communicate with more than one person at a time. Unfortunately. IM provides one-on-one communication with “accepted” individuals. Think of ways that users can help strengthen security. . List several misuses of and data security issues involving IM. Task 5: Challenge Try to identify an organization that will meet with you to explain how vulnerabilities are tracked and solutions are applied. networks. Background E-mail permits multiple users to collaborate. the telephone cannot be used to transfer files. a brief hands-on lab will demonstrate the ease of IRC. they are implemented differently. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 4: Reflection The number of vulnerabilities for computers. Each of these windows represents a two-person communication.

Popular IM networks include America OnLine (AOL) Instant Messenger (AIM). use a piece of software called the Instant Messenger Client. This arrangement is called a client/server relationship. Jabber. File sharing between IM clients enables work collaboration. notably with Session Initiation Protocol (SIP). numerous open-source protocols exist. Text messaging between clients is possible and can be logged. Encrypted communication is supported. The users on the end devices. called a protocol. web conferencing. Social misuse of IM has been a concern for parents. Many of the IM networks use proprietary protocols. IM servers can also incorporate this support. Some IM client applications. Many different IM networks are available. and many IM networks encourage parental control. Voice over IP (VoIP). Some IM networks offer audio services. Both Microsoft and Yahoo! have proprietary protocols but have partnered services for joint connectivity. can differentiate between the various IM network protocols. Windows Live Messenger (MSN). Applicable IETF references are RFC 3920 and RFC 3921.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 17 IM requires a device providing services that allows users to communicate. each with a dedicated following of users. Throughout this course we will learn about many different protocols. SIPv2 was originally defined in RFC 2543 and was made obsolete by RFC 3261. based on the Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (EMPP). such as Gaim and Trillian. The IETF formalized an open standard. Figure 1-5 AIM Client Features IM services have several common features: ■ When an IM client connects to the IM network. and ICQ (I Seek You). ■ ■ ■ ■ Protocols Each IM network uses an agreed-upon method of communication. and even IP radio and IPTV. Figure 1-5 shows the AIM client application connected to the AIM network. AIM and . any existing connections can be alerted through a contact list—a list of other people that you communicate with through the IM client. This relationship is called an IM network. and the server joins clients. This device is called the Instant Messenger Server. such as a computer. AIM and ICQ (purchased by AOL) use the proprietary Open System for Communication in Real Time (OSCAR) protocol. desktop sharing. As with proprietary IM protocols. Yahoo! Messenger. IM clients connect to an IM server. Newer services that some IM networks are beginning to provide include videoconferencing. The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) has attempted to standardize IM protocols. Child restrictions include limiting IM contacts and providing supervision while online.

online time limits. Create secure communication paths when using IM with trusted business partners. chat room blocking. create a separate account to be used for his or her daily office functions. Internet surfing. and disabling certain functions of the client. Consider deploying products specifically designed for IM security. Computer worms. (Note: This offers only partial protection because of the number of potential external servers. viruses. (Note: This offers only partial protection because of the number of potential protocols and associated ports and the ability of applications to bypass port restrictions. information exchanged between users can be captured and disclosed. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Yahoo! Messenger provide free supervision software tools. Understand that many IM applications can enable associated communications to masquerade as otherwise legitimate traffic (for example. Employ antivirus and antispyware products.) Monitor using an Intrusion Detection/Prevention system for users creating tunnels for IM or bypassing proxies.4 How to Protect Against IM Vulnerabilities and Unauthorized IM Usage ■ Establish policies for acceptable use of IM.18 Network Fundamentals. interrelated applications. For example. Security Multiple security issues have been identified with IM. The following list is from the SANS website at http://www. Filter all HTTP traffic through an authenticating proxy server to provide additional capabilities of filtering and monitoring IM traffic. Most popular cellular phone manufacturers have their own form of mobile IM. Without strong security methods. have been transferred to IM client computers. Some parental supervision tools include background logging. HTTP). blocking specific users. provide a commercial-grade IM proxy or internal IM server. which have resulted in vulnerable computers. mobile IM supports mobile users. Appropriately configure intrusion detection and prevention systems. Another popular handheld appli- . and Trojan horses. Standard users should not be permitted to install software. Restrict Administrative and Power User level privileges to support personnel acting in their support capacity. and the underlying operating system. IM clients and IM servers have experienced application vulnerabilities. categorized as malware. Ensure that all users are aware of those policies and clearly understand the potential risks. The SANS Institute recommends several countermeasures that system administrators can use to protect their networks from IM vulnerabilities and misuse. and online communication. As a result. providing IM services to handheld cellular phones. many organizations either limit or block IM from entering the corporate network.sans.org/top20/#c4: C4.) Block popular IM ports. Block access to known public IM servers that have not been explicitly authorized. Ensure that vendor patches are promptly applied to IM software. If a user must have Administrative or Power User privileges. Even legitimate users can congest network throughput by transferring large files. Do not rely on external IM servers for internal use of IM. enabling users to adapt new technologies for collaboration. ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ The Future of IM The future of IM is promising.

for communicating across plain-text links. In subsequent chapters you will study in great detail the devices and protocols that are inside the cloud. a cloud is often used to symbolize a more complex network. This lab uses Gaim as the IRC client. icon Accounts.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 19 ance is the BlackBerry.example. such as the Internet. If not. Accept the default settings during the installation.” In networking. After verifying that the Gaim chat client is installed. assume that a Cisco Networking Academy instructor has already set up Eagle Server and named it eagleserver.example. such as text messaging. Some of the labs in this book. Scenario Figure 1-6 shows two computers connected to a “cloud. the cloud represents the network and networking devices between an IRC client and a server called eagle-server.exe (a Windows executable) from ftp://eagleserver. In this lab. Note: Eagle Server is a component of the Cisco Networking Academy. and web browsing. Step 2: Open the Accounts window. Figure 1-7 Gaim Accounts Window In the Accounts window. follow the next steps to configure Gaim. download and install gaim-1.0.com/pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter1. Open Gaim and select the Login window. The BlackBerry supports common IM tools.com. which is not the current focus of this discussion. but any IRC client may be used if available. originally described in RFC 1459. as well as push e-mail. including this one.com/pub.example. Figure 1-6 Topology for Lab 1-1 Eagle Server Pod#A Estimated completion time is 45 minutes. An IRC client is available for download from eagle-server at http://eagleserver. click Add.5. . Step 1: Verify that an IRC client is on the lab computer. telephony. The Accounts window is shown in Figure 1-7. Task 1: Configure the Chat Client The IRC protocol is an open standard.

Close the Accounts window. Fill in required information. Two windows should open.com Proxy type: No Proxy Gaim Add Account Window Figure 1-8 When you’re finished. used for chatting or IM. Figure 1-9 IRC Connect Status Window Figure 1-10 Gaim IRC Client Window .example. as shown in Figure 1-8: ■ ■ ■ ■ Protocol: IRC Screen Name: (how others will know you) Server: eagle-server. Figure 1-9 shows the IRC Connect Status window. expand the Show more options option. Return to the Login window. where the new account to eagle-server should be visible. In the Add Account window. Click Sign-on.20 Network Fundamentals. Task 2: Connect to the Chat Server Step 1: Sign on. click Save. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Step 3: Add a new account. Figure 1-10 shows the main Gaim IM client window.

but you might not understand the communication between the client and server. When the IRC client connects to the IRC server. the Gaim IM client can be used to connect to several different IM providers. Multiple students can join and interact with each other. you will be in a chat room alone (unless other students made a similar error). Answers will vary. you should understand the social and security issues with IM and IRC. As a future network engineer. If the Channel name is incorrect. the Channel name must start with #. Click Chat. . Task 4: Reflection On a network with an Internet connection. consider how you—as a parent or network administrator—would manage this type of connection. the status window closes. Most teenagers and young adults today are familiar with IMing between friends and sharing files.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 21 Step 2: Join the chat. Task 3: Consider the Chat Session Figure 1-12 shows a brief chat between users root and student2. Figure 1-12 Participating in a Chat During the chat. and a Buddy List window appears. Figure 1-11 Joining a Chat Note: For you to join a chat channel. as shown in Figure 1-11.

2. A wiki lets you access a home page (first page) that provides a search tool to assist you in locating the articles that interest you. Use a continuous ping from the host to Eagle Server to monitor network throughput. you will be able to ■ ■ Define the terms wiki and blog. Lab 1-2: Using Collaboration Tools: Wikis and Web Logs (1. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 5: Challenge While you are connected in chat. In this lab.1) Upon completion of this lab. In subsequent chapters you will study in great detail the devices and protocols that are inside the cloud. you explore the TWiki wiki server installed on Eagle Server in this lab. or graphics to a common site for other users to read and modify. you are probably familiar with the look and feel of a wiki. Write a brief description of the network response time—during file transfers and without file transfers. Explore wiki features. a wiki is a web-based collaboration tool that permits almost anyone to immediately post information. Figure 1-13 shows two computers connected to a “cloud. A wiki can be installed for . Task 1: Define the Terms Wiki and Blog Wiki is a Hawaiian-language word that means fast. you will use a host computer that connects across the cloud to access the TWiki wiki server. Observe the response time before and during the file transfer. If there are connectivity issues with the lab computer connecting to Eagle Server. If you have ever used Wikipedia. ask the instructor for assistance. Background The lab topology shown in Figure 1-13 should be configured and ready for use. Task 6: Clean Up Check with your instructor before removing Gaim and shutting down the computer. To gain experience with a wiki. files. you have the opportunity to learn about the different parts of a wiki. Figure 1-13 Topology for Lab 1-2 Eagle Server Pod#A Note to Instructor: The lab should be preconfigured for students.6. Scenario In this lab. Use the Orientation lab to configure and test connectivity before students arrive in class. In networking terms. transfer files between partners.22 Network Fundamentals. a cloud is often used to symbolize a more complex network that is not the current focus of discussion.” In networking.

Note that you won’t be able to carry out the instructions in the “3. Blogs are normally the creation of a single person. Text formatting is similar to creating an e-mail. Some blogs permit users to leave comments and provide feedback to the author. The power of a wiki is in the rich hyperlink content.wiki. visit the following URLs outside of class: http://www. Test the page controls.. Following hyperlinks can present continuity problems. A search engine is used for quick content location. is similar to a wiki in that users create and post content for others to read. 2.com. Instead. 4. Get set.wikispaces.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 23 the Internet community or behind a corporate firewall for employee use. Use your browser to upload files as page attachments. 3. 7. It is recommended that you open two browsers. Point one browser at the TWiki URL. similar to a free website or e-mail account. Access control can be set by the topic creator. As you investigate each topic in the tutorial. users have already been created for steps that require login privileges. TWiki requires e-mail verification for new accounts.com/ A web log. and e-mail has not been configured on the lab host computers. groups. Task 2: Explore Wiki Features with the TWiki Tutorial The TWiki tutorial explores some of the more common features of a wiki.org/wiki. and the blog owner controls blog content. Open a private account” topic. Check out TWiki users. It covers the following major topics: 1. but others are more restrictive. Edit and auto links are available to edit a page and automatically link pages.blogger. Get e-mail alerts whenever pages are changed. Open a private account. called a blog. Take a quick tour. A wiki web is a grouping of pages with different collaboration groups. 5. and . complete the questions in this task. Change a page and create a new one. the following common features have been formalized into every wiki: ■ ■ Any web browser can be used to edit pages or create new content. Free Internet blog hosting is available. The user not only reads wiki contents but also participates by creating content within a web browser. Although many different wiki servers are available. 8. 6.. ■ ■ ■ For more information on wikis.cgi?WhatIsWiki http://www. from such providers as www. defining who is permitted to edit content.

com/twiki/bin/view/Sandbox/WebHome. topic 1. Step 1: Establish a web client connection to the Eagle Server wiki. made up of two or more words with initial capital letters. you will not be able to register. List the mandatory information required for registration: First Name Last Name E-mail address Your password Retype password Organization name Country . topic 3. shown in Figure 1-14. that hyperlinks to the topic. highlighted in Figure 1-14.” E-mail is not possible at this time. Adjust the browser window sizes so that instructions can be viewed in one browser and actions can be performed in the other. users fill in registration information and submit the form to TWiki. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide use the other browser for “working” pages. to open the wiki tutorial page. answer the following questions: What is a WikiWord? A WikiWord is a topic name. “Open a private account. Step 3: Complete the TWiki tutorial. is a web topic designed to test wiki features.24 Network Fundamentals. “Take a quick tour.example. The key point to understand about this step is that registration is a two-part process. The Sandbox. Instead. Refer to the tutorial. Open a web browser and connect to the TWiki Sandbox at http://eagleserver. Figure 1-14 TWiki Sandbox Web Step 2: Open the TWiki Tutorial.. Any external links that are selected will result in an error.. user IDs have been created for you to use later in this lab. First. “Get set. The URL name is case-sensitive. Click the TWiki Tutorial link. therefore.” After completing the first two tutorial sections. How many results are returned from a search of WebSearch? 5 Refer to the tutorial. so enter it exactly as shown.” and topic 2.

” is an opportunity for you to add content to the wiki. “Test the page controls. After completing this tutorial section. The user logs in with the new password and creates a new. answer the following question: What is the latest revision number? 15 In Table 1-4. and Raw View. Complete this tutorial.” A list of TWiki users and groups is displayed. memorable password.” makes you familiar with page-editing commands. such as who changed what and when View a previous version of the topic or the difference between two versions Goes to a stripped-down version of the page. r3 > r2 > r1. After completing this tutorial section. The second part of the registration process is when the user either enters the code in the activation window or responds with e-mail by clicking the TWiki response link. and setting the topic’s parent Topics are under revision control—shows the topic’s complete change history. The TWiki system generates a new password and sends it to the user’s e-mail account. using Table 1-5 to log in to the wiki server. topic 4. Recognize the student who has the best topic page! . Place the following action links: Attach.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 25 TWiki responds to a registration request by sending an e-mail to the user that contains a unique activation code. History. Note to Instructor: This tutorial is an opportunity for the student to create a personalized page. answer the following questions related to user and group issues: How is a user’s password reset? The user selects WikiWord “Reset Password” and enters the login ID. At this time. version control. Printable. Refer to the tutorial. such as rename/move. Edit. “Check out TWiki users. Table 1-4 Description Action Links Action Link Add to or edit the topic Show the source text without editing the topic Attach files to a topic Find out what other topics link to this topic (reverse link) Additional controls. the user account is added to the TWiki database. Backlinks. How can inappropriate changes be fixed in a wiki topic? A topic revision can be undone by a member of the TWikiAdminGroup. Tutorial topic 5. good for printing Edit Raw View Attach Backlinks More History r3 > r2 > r1 Printable Tutorial topic 6. More. “Change a page and create a new one. groups. place the correct action link next to the descriptions of page controls.

a group with private accounts has been created to allow participation in a private TWiki topic. . located in the upper-left corner of the page. All accounts have the same password. See Figure 1-15. cisco. These accounts are StudentCcna1 through StudentCcna22.26 Network Fundamentals. click the Log In link. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide On Eagle Server. Table 1-5 Account Logins Account Login ID (Case-Sensitive) Lab pod#host# Pod1host1 Pod1host2 Pod2host1 Pod2host2 Pod3host1 Pod3host2 Pod4host1 Pod4host2 Pod5host1 Pod5host2 Pod6host1 Pod6host2 Pod7host1 Pod7host2 Pod8host1 Pod8host2 Pod9host1 Pod9host2 Pod10host1 Pod10host2 Pod11host1 Pod11host2 StudentCcna1 StudentCcna2 StudentCcna3 StudentCcna4 StudentCcna5 StudentCcna6 StudentCcna7 StudentCcna8 StudentCcna9 StudentCcna10 StudentCcna11 StudentCcna12 StudentCcna13 StudentCcna14 StudentCcna15 StudentCcna16 StudentCcna17 StudentCcna18 StudentCcna19 StudentCcna20 StudentCcna21 StudentCcna22 From the lab Wiki Welcome Screen. You should use the account that reflects your pod and host computer number. Refer to Table 1-5.

“Get e-mail alerts whenever pages are changed. To complete this tutorial. “Use your browser to upload files as page attachments.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 27 Figure 1-15 Log In Link A login box similar to the one shown in Figure 1-16 should appear.” details how to receive e-mail alerts whenever a particular page has been updated. Figure 1-17 Wiki Topic Page Tutorial topic 7. similar to the one shown in Figure 1-17. and upload it to the wiki server. Enter the applicable TWiki username and password cisco. create a document using Notepad. What is the default maximum file size that can be transferred? 10 MB Tutorial topic 8. Both the username and password are case-sensitive. Sometimes it is not convenient to return regularly to a . Figure 1-16 Login Box This should bring up your wiki topic page.” describes the process of uploading files into the wiki.

Answers will vary. Usefulness and collaboration will not be realized until you actually join a wiki.1.wikipedia.wikibooks. Here are some wikis of possible interest: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ CCNA: http://en.networkdictionary.php/Main_Page Wireshark network protocol analyzer: http://wiki.28 Network Fundamentals. ] wikiName : topics ° ccna1@example.nyetwork. Create a personal blog of your network education experience.com: CiscoStudentsStuff Task 3: Reflection This lab presented the mechanics of a wiki.org/wiki/Network_Plus_Certification/Study_Guide Network Dictionary: http://wiki. Edit the WebNotify page.3) Figure 1-18 shows the topology for this challenge.org/wiki/CCNA_Certification Cisco Systems corporate history: http://en. ] wikiName three spaces * SMTP mail address three spaces * SMTP mail address : topics three spaces * [ webname . Task 5: Clean Up Close all web browsers and shut down the computer unless instructed otherwise. Because e-mail is not configured on the host computer. alerts are not sent.com/index.SMTP mail address three spaces * [ webName . and add the web name and your e-mail address. the class may be able use the TWiki wiki server to post interesting topics related to computer network theory and class progress. Packet Tracer Challenge Skills Integration Challenge: Introduction to Packet Tracer (1.org/ Task 4: Challenge Depending on the type of Eagle Server installation. and Table 1-6 reflects the addressing information. Internet access is required. Describe how you could receive e-mail notifications whenever a topic changes.wireshark. ] wikiName .7.org/wiki/Cisco_Systems Wiki web about Cisco equipment and technology: http://www. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide wiki simply to check for updates to postings.wikibooks.org/wiki/Cisco Network+: http://en. Here’s a possible format: three spaces * [ webname . .

6 10.252 255. .16. Connect devices.255.255.6 172.254 10.254 172.255.0 255.10.255.0 255.1.1 172.16.10.16.254.254.252 255.16. Explore the Logical Workplace.0 255.0.255.168.6 172.254 172.255.2 192.254.10.253 10.255.10.254. Describe the devices.168.0.255.0 255.255.16.255.10.168. Explore Packet Tracer operation.16.10.1 172.0 — — 10.5 172.255.0.255.0 255.0.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 29 Figure 1-18 Topology for Skills Integration Challenge 1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server 2960-24TT S1-Central 1841 R2-Central PC-PT 1A PC-PT 1B Table 1-6 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP R2-Central S1-Central PC 1A PC 1B Eagle Server Fa0/0 S0/0/0 Fa0/0 S0/0/0 VLAN 1 NIC NIC NIC 192.254 255. Examine a device configuration.255.10. Review the standard lab setup.255.10.255.253 Upon completion of this activity. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Explore Packet Tracer Real-time mode.1.255.254 192.16.

Because equipment and time are limited. this experience can be supplemented by a simulated environment. these instructions appeared. They are the result of the . Step 2: Explore symbols navigation. you will often use the . The specific connection symbols provide different cable types that can be used to connect devices. Reset Activity restarts the activity if you want to clear your work or get more practice. a description of the device appears in the text box below the specific devices.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to perform this exercise using Packet Tracer. automatically selects the connection type based on the interfaces available on the devices. The first specific type. Click each group. is the portion of the interface that you use to select and place devices into the Logical Workplace. You are encouraged to compare the results obtained from Packet Tracer network models with the behavior of real equipment. The first box in the lower left contains symbols that represent groups of devices. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Background Throughout the course you will use a standard lab setup created from actual PCs. which include an extensive “My First PT Lab. You are also encouraged to examine the Help files built into Packet Tracer.pkt files (network simulation model files) and . servers. This method provides the widest range of features and the most realistic experience. and features but only a fraction of what is possible with real equipment. Packet Tracer provides a set of protocols. When you click this symbol.pka Packet Tracer activity file format. the gold lightning bolt. At the bottom of these instructions are two buttons: ■ ■ Check Results gives you feedback on how much of the activity you have completed. As you move the mouse pointer over these symbols. Packet Tracer can create two file formats: .pkt file format. The lower-left portion of the PT interface. and study the various devices that are available and their symbols. When you create your own networks in Packet Tracer. Packet Tracer is a supplement and not a replacement for experience with real equipment. equipment. or modify existing files from your instructor or your peers. below the yellow bar. the specific devices in the group appear in the box to the right. The simulator that is used in this course is Packet Tracer. and switches to learn networking concepts. As you point to the specific devices. the pointer resembles a cable connector. When you launched this activity from the curriculum. When Packet Tracer starts. This is the large area where devices are placed and connected. and information on the strengths and limitations of using Packet Tracer to model networks. . Open the file LSG01-PTSkills1.30 Network Fundamentals. Task 1: Explore the PT Interface Step 1: Examine the Logical Workplace. routers. The main part of the PT interface is the Logical Workplace. When you click one of these symbols. the name of the group appears in the text box in the center.pka files (activity files for practice).” tutorials. it presents a logical view of the network in realtime mode. Task 2: Explore PT Operations Step 1: Connect the devices using auto connect. Click the connections group symbol. This activity gives you an opportunity to explore the standard lab setup using the Packet Tracer simulator.

New modules can also be added using this tab. Using the auto connection symbol. dialup. MAC address. Connect PC-PT 1A to the S1-Central switch. New modules can also be added using this tab. the device configurations appear in a text box: ■ Router displays port configuration information. The CLI tab allows the user to configure the device using the command-line interface. The Physical tab displays components of the device. and then click the second device. such as modules. port status. port status. and Desktop. DNS server. and gateway information. The Config tab displays the general configuration information. and VLAN membership. Switch displays port configuration information.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 31 To connect two devices. Server displays IP address. DNS. make the following connection: ■ ■ Connect Eagle Server to the R1-ISP router. including IP address. Config. Config. The Physical tab displays physical components of the device. subnet mask. and a simulated web browser can also be accessed using the Desktop tab. Click each device type found in the Logical Workplace to view the device configuration: ■ Router and Switch devices contain three tabs—Physical. IP address. MAC address. . click the first device. and gateway information. and CLI (command-line interface). PC displays IP address. The Physical tab displays components of the device. Move the mouse over the devices found in the Logical Workplace. click the auto connection symbol. The Config tab displays the general information. the command prompt. such as device name. As you move the mouse pointer over these symbols. and MAC address. such as ports. and wireless. New modules can also be added using this tab. A terminal emulator. Step 2: Examine device configuration with a mouseover. and gateway information. ■ ■ ■ Step 3: Examine device configuration. The Config tab displays the device name. ■ Server and Hub devices contain two tabs—Physical and Config. ■ PC devices contain three tabs—Physical. The Desktop tab allows the user to configure IP address. including IP address. subnet mask. such as device name. default gateway. MAC address.

IP addresses.32 Network Fundamentals. You are encouraged to obtain Packet Tracer from your instructor or Academy Connections. if you have not done so already. Each of these devices is preconfigured with such information as device names. one switch. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 3: Review the Standard Lab Setup The standard lab setup consists of two routers. and connections. . one server. Task 4: Reflection You have completed your first Packet Tracer lab. gateways. and two PCs.

CCNA Exploration Companion Guide. or information. easier-to-manage pieces called? Segmentation 2. Concept Questions 1. What are these three types? Metallic wires within cables Glass or plastic fibers (fiber-optic cable) Wireless transmission ■ ■ ■ . All of these methods have three elements in common. matching. ■ ■ ■ What are the three elements of communication? Message source or sender Destination or receiver Channel or media What is the process of breaking large messages. People exchange ideas using many different communication methods. hands-on skills needed to use some critical tools to help evaluate network communications. Modern networks primarily use three types of media to interconnect devices. As you work through this chapter. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum activities and labs to further reinforce that you have mastered the practical. into smaller. fill-in-the-blank. Study Guide The Platform for Communications Communication begins with a message. 3. or flow of data.CHAPTER 2 Communicating over the Network The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of multiple-choice. and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of how devices communicate over the network. that must be sent from one individual or device to another. use Chapter 2 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum or use the corresponding Chapter 2 in the Networking Fundamentals. What is the process used to allow many different conversations to be interleaved on a network called? Multiplexing 4. for assistance.

or others with authorization. WANs. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks for the following statements. router c. Services b. switch.34 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 2-1. Table 2-2 Definition End or Intermediary Device Device Type Computers (work stations. Media c. employees. and Internetworks Network infrastructures can vary greatly in terms of the following: ■ ■ ■ The size of the area covered The number of users connected The number and types of services available This section tests your knowledge of the differences between LANs. Devices b. The term intranet is often used to refer to a private connection of LANs and WANs that belongs to an organization. Computer. fiber-optic cable a. file servers. switches. match the definition on the right with a term on the left. PDAs) Network access devices (hubs. identify the definition on the left with either end devices or intermediary devices on the right. WANs. web browser In Table 2-2. E-mail. and internetworks. . Cat5 cable. wireless connection. and is designed to be accessible only by the organization’s members. 1. Table 2-1 Term Components of the Network Definition a. laptops. and wireless access points) Network printers Internetworking devices (routers) VoIP phones Communication servers and modems Security cameras Security devices (firewalls) End devices End devices Intermediary device End devices Intermediary device End devices Intermediary device End devices Intermediary device LANs. web servers) Mobile handheld devices (such as wireless barcode scanners.

A global mesh of interconnected networks. WANs. or region. When a company or organization has locations that are separated by large geographic distances. 3. b. match the definition on the right with a term on the left. Table 2-4 Device LANs. campus. A LAN is usually administered by a single organization. and Internetworks Number Router Firewall Wireless access point LAN hub LAN switch IP phone Wireless router Wireless media Server Laptop LAN media Desktop computer WAN media 1 7 9 3 2 8 10 13 4 6 12 5 11 . a. WANs use specifically designed network devices to make the interconnections between LANs. WANs. 4. The media connecting the PC to the networking device plugs directly into the NIC. Internetworks In Table 2-4.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 35 2. WANs c. such as a single business. and Internetworks Definition a. c. Table 2-3 Term LANs. match the term on the left with the correct symbol number from Figure 2-1. Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 2-3. it might be necessary to use a telecommunications service provider (TSP) to interconnect the LANs at the different locations. providing services and applications to people within a common organizational structure. An individual network usually spans a single geographic area. LANs b.

■ What processes do networking protocol suites describe? The process by which networking devices share information about pathways with other networks How and when error and system messages are passed between devices The setup and termination of data transfer sessions ■ ■ . The most common internetwork protocol is Internet Protocol (IP).36 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 2-1 Common Data Network Symbols 1 7 2 IP 8 3 9 4 10 11 5 12 6 13 Protocols All communication. 3. A standard is a process or protocol that has been endorsed by the networking industry and ratified by a standards organization. is governed by predetermined rules called protocols. Concept Questions 1. 4. 1. These protocols are specific to the characteristics of the conversation. A group of interrelated protocols that are necessary to perform a communication function is called a protocol suite. whether face to face or over a network. whether face to face or over a network. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks for the following statements. Successful communication between hosts on a network requires the interaction of many different protocols. is governed by predetermined rules called protocols. 2. All communication.

Network layer . Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 2-5. Uses packet sequencing and application mapping through port numbers a. Table 2-5 Term TCP/IP Model Definition a. Application layer b. Describes the mechanical. A layered model depicts the operation of the protocols occurring within each layer. Protocols describe methods for exchanging data frames between devices over a common media. Transport layer e. Controls the hardware devices and media that make up the network c. match the definition on the right with a term on the left. Provides the means for end-to-end connectivity between individuals in the human network using data networks. b. it is common to use a layered model. Ensures that loss of connection can be recovered and reset if data flow is interrupted before all data is received.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 37 2. Session layer f. because protocols that operate at a specific layer have defined information that they act upon and a defined interface to the layers above and below Fosters competition because products from different vendors can work together Prevents technology or capability changes in one layer from affecting other layers above and below Provides a common language to describe networking functions and capabilities ■ ■ ■ Using Layered Models To visualize the interaction between various protocols. Application layer b. functional. Provides for common representation of the data transferred between application layer services. match the definition on the right with a term on the left. a. and procedural means to activate. continues d. Presentation layer c. g. ■ What are some benefits to using a layered model to describe network protocols and operations? Assists in protocol design. Internet layer d. and the interaction with the layers above and below it. and deactivate physical connections for bit transmission to and from a network device. maintain. Represents data to the user plus encoding and dialog control d. Network access layer b. electrical. c. Table 2-6 Term OSI Model Definition a. Provides services to the presentation layer to organize its dialogue and to manage data exchange. Transport layer c. Determines the best path through the network In Table 2-6.

Switches c. Layer 2 is concerned with the delivery of messages on a single local network. Multiple-Choice Questions Choose the best answer for each of the questions that follow. 2. Routers b. the host physical address. In a LAN using Ethernet. Hubs d. this address is called the Media Access Control (MAC) address. Layer 4 2. and reassemble the data for individual communications between the end devices. transfer. Which devices make Layer 3 decisions? a. Physical layer e. What kind of protocols are primarily designed to move data from one local network to another local network within an internetwork? a. Layer 3 d.38 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 2-6 Term OSI Model continued Definition f. 1. Provides connectivity services that route packets from source network to destination network. 1. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks for the following statements. is contained in the header of the Layer 2 protocol data unit (PDU). called a frame. A unique dialogue between devices is identified with a pair of Layer 4 source and destination port numbers that are representative of the two communicating applications. The Layer 2 address is unique on the local network and represents the address of the end device on the physical media. Using the OSI model as a guide. Defines services to segment. Network Addressing Various types of addresses must be included in a packet to successfully deliver the data from a source application running on one host to the correct destination application running on another. Layer 2 c. d. you can see the different addresses and identifiers that are necessary at each layer. Layer 1 b. Servers . Data link layer g. The first identifier.

You should perform this activity on a computer that has Internet access and access to a command line. some computers running Windows XP might have firewall programs enabled that might prevent tracert and NeoTrace from operating. This network tool is typically executed in UNIX and similar systems at the command line as follows: traceroute <destination network name or end device address> This network tool is typically executed in Microsoft Windows systems at the command line as follows: tracert <destination network name or end device address> This tool determines the route taken by packets across an IP network. and then the more enhanced NeoTrace program. If multiple websites (mirrors) are available for the same file of data. Describe the interconnected and global nature of the Internet with respect to data flow. Scenario Using an Internet connection. it enables the user to identify the path taken to reach a particular destination on the network or across internetworks. for example. you use the Windows embedded tracert utility. you might have to turn your firewalls off for this lab. . Each router represents a point where one network connects to another network and the packet was forwarded through. one can trace each mirror to get a good idea of which mirror would be the fastest to use. Tools such as traceroute/tracert are usually embedded within the operating system of the end device. This lab assumes the installation of NeoTrace.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 39 Labs and Activities Activity 2-1: Using NeoTrace to View Internetworks (2. Background Route-tracing software is a utility that lists the networks data has to traverse from the user’s originating device to a distant destination network device. Use tracert and NeoTrace to trace a route from its PC to a distant server. that because of the “meshed” nature of the interconnected networks that make up the Internet and IP’s capability to select different pathways over which to send packets. The displayed list can help identify data-flow problems when trying to access a service such as a website. The traceroute (or tracert) tool is often used for network troubleshooting.1) Upon completion of this activity. you use two route-tracing programs to examine the Internet pathway to destination networks. The number of routers is known as the number of “hops” the data traveled from source to destination. It can also be useful when performing tasks such as downloading data. Remember. NeoTrace uses available online information to graphically display the route traced on a global map. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ Explain the use of route tracing programs.5. two trace routes between the same source and destination conducted some time apart might produce different results.2. First. Note. however. By showing a list of routers traversed. such as tracert and NeoTrace. Others such as NeoTrace are proprietary programs that provide extra information.

133.69] sl-bb20-rly-15-1.19.131.g-win.cisco.219.1.232. Examine the output displayed.18.cisco.de [10.5] sjck-sdf-ciod-gw1.cisco.dfn. The first output line should show the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) followed by the IP address.8. Without this name resolution.16.8.gblx.cisco.23. At the command-line prompt.g-win.net [144.sprintlink.net [208.239.228.3.cr2.74.cisco.de [188.107.37.g-win.net [144.189] sl-bb21-lon-5-0.net [144. The lab Domain Name Service (DNS) server was able to resolve the name to an IP address.3.11 ar-augsburg2.232.dfn.81] so-6-0-0.de [188.193] cr-muenchen1.11] 194.dfn.FRA2.106] www.1. the tracert would have failed. which understand valid IP addresses only.com from a location in Bavaria.com [198. .0.com [128. the IP address of the destination device rather than the server name has to be entered after the tracert command. the PC being used must have a working connection to the class/lab network.207.25] Over a maximum of 30 hops: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 <10 ms <10 ms 20 ms <10 ms <10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 30 ms 30 ms 30 ms 100 ms 110 ms 171 ms 161 ms 160 ms 170 ms 170 ms 160 ms 160 ms 10 ms <10 ms <10 ms <10 ms <10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 30 ms 30 ms 30 ms 100 ms <10 ms <10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 20 ms 20 ms 31 ms 90 ms 10-37-00-1.de [188.de [188.232.gblx.sprintlink.44.1.com Tracing route to www.ar2.cisco.net [144.14] sjck-dirty-gw1.239.107.141] pos3-0-622M.33] cr-frankfurt1.73] so0-0-0-2488M.cr1.net [144.9. enter tracert www.gblx.alp.net [195.74.32.sprintlink.232.LON3. Step 3.133.cisco.25] sl-bb20-msq-10-0.317.FRA2. If DNS is not available.net [62. How many hops between the source and destination? Answer varies based on location Example 2-1 shows the successful result when running tracert www.sprintlink. because this tool operates at the TCP/IP layers.694] sl-bb22-sj-5-1.48.br1.g-win.sprintlink.206. Germany.gblx.internal.com [198.219.LON3.210] sl-gw11-sj-10-0.232.dfn.125] sl-bb25-sj-12-0.19.25] 110 ms 110 ms 160 ms 170 ms 160 ms 170 ms 181 ms 160 ms 151 ms 160 ms 151 ms 160 ms 160 ms 161 ms 150 ms 161 ms Trace complete.com.96.96. Example 2-1 tracert Output C:\> tracert www. Trace the route to a distant network.40 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 1: Trace Route to Remote Server Step 1.net [144.174] pos1-0-622M. To trace the route to a distant network.145] ar-augsburg1.com [128.dillingen.134] sl-ciscopsn2-11-0-0.net [213.sprintlink.1. Step 2.95.net [195.sprintllink.

and in the Home Location section click the Set Home Location button. which enables you to enter the precise latitude and longitude of your location. Consider which technical details are revealed and how this information could perhaps be misused. Therefore. Try another trace route on the same PC. Follow the instructions to select your country and location within your country. there are listings of all routers through which the tracert requests had to pass to get to the destination. Node View from the View menu displays the connections graphically with symbols. properly shut down the computer. you can click the Advanced button. followed by the IP address. a DNS server was able to resolve the name to an IP address. . Click the Map tab. On the View menu. Map View from the View menu displays the links and routers in their geographic location on a global map.com in the Target field and click Go.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 41 The first output line shows the FQDN. Step 3. Step 4. Relate the displays of the output of NeoTrace to the concept of interconnected networks and the global nature of the Internet. Task 3: Reflection Review the purpose and usefulness of route-tracing programs. Try a number of different URLs and view the routes to those destinations.cisco. Step 4. Step 2. Unless instructed otherwise by your instructor. Enter www. Step 5.com: Answer varies based on location Step 5. choose Options. Alternatively. and examine your output. From the View menu. Launch the NeoTrace program. Then. List View displays the list of routers similar to tracert. Select each view in turn and note the differences and similarities. Task 4: Challenge Consider and discuss possible network security issues that could arise from the use of programs such as traceroute and NeoTrace. Destination URL: Answer varies based on URL Destination IP address: Answer varies based on URL Task 2: Trace Route Using NeoTrace Step 1. Task 5: Clean Up Exit the NeoTrace program. Step 6.cisco. Step 7. Try the same trace route on a PC connected to the Internet and examine your output: Number of hops to www.

which allows the data to reach the appropriate destination device. In the basic portion of this lab. end devices must be connected by media (cables). The network layer (Layer 3) requires a unique address (also known as a logical address or IP address). In addition. Physically cable a peer-to-peer and switched network.1. you need to understand clearly which cables to use for your network connections.6. At the physical layer (Layer 1) of the OSI model.42 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Lab 2-1: Topology Orientation and Building a Small Network (2. Background Many network problems can be fixed at the physical layer of a network. you use straight-through or patch cables to connect workstations and switches.1) Upon completion of this lab. Scenario This lab starts with the simplest form of networking (peer to peer) and ends with the lab connecting through a switch. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ Correctly identify cables for use in the network. Addressing for this lab is applied to the workstations and is used to enable communication between the devices. as shown in Figure 2-2. Figure 2-2 Topology for Lab 2-1 Peer-to-Peer Network Switched Network . two or more devices communicate through an address. The type of media required depends on the type of device being connected. Therefore. Verify basic connectivity on each network.

Notice when you look at the plug that both ends of the cable are exactly the same in each pin position. Figure 2-3 Peer-to-Peer Cabling Which cable did you use? Crossover cable Step 2. The Network Connections window should appear. Use a crossover cable to connect two workstations to each other through their network interface card (NIC) Ethernet port. Step 2. This is an Ethernet cable. To complete this task. This is also an Ethernet cable. Connect one end of the cable to the NIC port on PC1 and the other end of the cable to PC2. On your computer. use the following step-by-step instructions. Using the correct Ethernet cable. The cables used in this lab are crossover and straight-through. Obtain the following equipment and resources for the lab: ■ ■ ■ ■ Two workstations Two straight-through (patch) cables One crossover cable One switch (or hub) Task 2: Identify the Cables Used in a Network Before the devices can be cabled. See Figure 2-4. Apply a Layer 3 address to the workstations. connect two workstations together. a. Use a straight-through cable to connect the router’s Ethernet port to a switch port or a workstation to a switch port. with icons showing the different network connections. and then click Properties. click Start. Note: These steps must be completed on each workstation. The instructions are for Windows XP. Notice when you look at the plug that the orange and green wires are in opposite positions on each end of the cable. . right-click My Network Places.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 43 Task 1: Create a Peer-to-Peer Network Step 1. Select a lab partner. you must identify the types of media you intend to use. Task 3: Cable the Peer-to-Peer Network Step 1. as shown in Figure 2-3. Connect two workstations. Steps may differ slightly if you are using a different operating system.

3 for PC2. select the Use the following IP address option. Select the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) item as shown in Figure 2-5.168. On the General tab of the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties window.168.2 for PC1. and then click the Properties button. Enter the IP address 192. Right-click the Local Area Connection and click Properties. enter the IP address 192. Figure 2-5 Local Area Connection Properties d.1.1.44 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 2-4 Network Connections b. c. e. . In the IP address box.

Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 45 f. click Start.0. h. Figure 2-6 Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties g. If this address is not automatically listed. Click OK. enter the address manually. you enter basic network commands to test your computer connections. .255. Press the Tab key.255. Step 3. The subnet address should be 255.exe) window will appear as shown in Figure 2-8. and then click OK. The dialog box shown in Figure 2-7 appears. the subnet mask lists automatically. Figure 2-7 Run Command Enter cmd in the Open box. and then click Run. For the purposes of this lab. On your computer. Close the Local Area Connection Properties window. as shown in Figure 2-6. You can enter DOS commands using this window. Verify connectivity. The DOS command (cmd.

From the PC1 DOS command prompt.1.1.168.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 192.1.1.1.1. Use the ping command to verify that PC1 can reach PC2 and PC2 can reach PC1.168.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 192. From the PC2 DOS command prompt. troubleshoot as necessary.3: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 192.1.168. enter ping 192.1. server.168.3: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 192. Possible areas to troubleshoot include the following: ■ Verifying the correct IP addresses on both workstations . enter ping 192.168.1.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 192.168. router.168.1.3: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Answer for PC2: Reply from 192.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 If the ping command displays an error message or doesn’t receive a reply from the other workstation.3: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 192. Step 4.3. and so on) is reachable across an IP network.168.2.168.46 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 2-8 cmd Command The ping command is a computer network tool used to test whether a host (workstation. What is the output of the ping command? Answer for PC1: Reply from 192.168.

Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 47 ■ Ensuring that the correct type of cable is used between the workstations What is the output of the ping command if you unplug the network cable and ping the other workstation? Answer for PC1: Destination host unreachable Destination host unreachable Destination host unreachable Destination host unreachable Task 4: Connect Your Workstations to the Classroom Lab Switch Step 1. Which cable did you use? Straight-through cable . connect one end of the cable to the NIC port on the workstation and the other end to a port on the switch. Using the correct cable. Connect the workstation to a switch. Figure 2-9 Switched Network 1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server 2960-24TT S1-Central 1841 R2-Central PC-PT 1A PC-PT 1B Step 2. Repeat this process for each workstation on your network. as shown in Figure 2-9.

3: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 192. The test folder should appear. What is the output of the ping command? Answer for PC1: Reply from 192. Remember.3: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 What is the output of the ping command if you ping an address that is not connected to this network? Answer for PC1: Request timed out Request timed out Request timed out Request timed out Step 4. and media disconnected What could prevent the ping from being sent to the workstations when they are connected through the switch? Wrong IP address. Double-click the workstation icon. A hand symbol will appear under the icon.168.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab2612. On the desktop. you have access through all seven layers of the OSI model. or a misconfiguration of the switch.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer.1. You can access this folder across the network. When you can see it and work with the file. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity. Right-click the folder and click Sharing and Security.1. Verify connectivity. switch powered off Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Topology Orientation and Building a Small Network (2.48 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Step 3.1. Place a file in the folder. .6.3: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 192. On your desktop.1. pinging wrong IP address. create a new folder and name it test.168.168. however. Share a document between PCs.168.1. Verify network connectivity by using the ping command to reach the other workstations attached to the switch. media disconnected. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment.3: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 192. Task 5: Reflection What could prevent a ping from being sent between the workstations when they are directly connected? Wrong IP address on workstation. double-click My Network Places and then Computers Near Me.

used for network troubleshooting. When Wireshark is launched. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ ■ Explain the purpose of a protocol analyzer (Wireshark). A packet sniffer (also known as a network analyzer or protocol analyzer) is computer software that can intercept and log data traffic passing over a data network. It is a useful tool for anyone working with networks and can be used with most labs in the CCNA courses for data analysis and troubleshooting.1) Upon completion of this lab.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 49 Lab 2-2: Using Wireshark to View Protocol Data Units (2.6. Scenario To capture PDUs. software and protocol development. Perform basic PDU analysis on straightforward network data traffic. go to http://www. Wireshark was known as Ethereal. Perform basic PDU capture using Wireshark. Experiment with Wireshark features and options such as PDU capture and display filtering. For information and to download the program.2.org.Wireshark. Figure 2-10 Wireshark Opening Screen . and Wireshark must be running before any data can be captured. Background Wireshark is a software protocol analyzer. This enables it to display the encapsulation and individual fields of a PDU and interpret their meaning. or “packet sniffer” application. analysis. the screen shown in Figure 2-10 displays. As data streams travel back and forth over the network. and education. the computer on which Wireshark is installed must have a working connection to the network. Wireshark is programmed to recognize the structure of different network protocols. Before June 2006. the sniffer “captures” each protocol data unit (PDU) and can decode and analyze its content according to the appropriate RFC or other specifications.

From the Interface dropdown list.50 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide To start data capture. the two highlighted in Figure 2-12 deserve examination. Typically. Figure 2-12 Wireshark Capture Options . for a computer this is the connected Ethernet adapter. you must ensure that Wireshark is set to monitor the correct interface. shown in Figure 2-11. Figure 2-11 Wireshark: Capture Options Dialog Box First. The Capture Options dialog box. select the network adapter in use. Among those available in the Capture Options dialog box. you can set the other options. provides a range of settings and filters to determine which and how much data traffic is captured. select Options from the Capture menu. Then.

Although this is a useful feature. The examples in Figure 2-14 show the capture of a ping process (box on left) and then accessing a web page (box on right). Clicking the Start button starts the data-capture process. the types and number are indicated in the message box. only PDUs destined for this computer will be captured. those that “pass by” the NIC but are not destined for the computer) are captured. Wireshark also provides a number of other capture-filtering and capture-process settings. perhaps distorting the analysis. Figure 2-13 Wireshark Capture Start As data PDUs are captured. switches. routers) throughout these courses. and a message box displays the progress of this process (as shown in Figure 2-13). you will experience the different Wireshark results. all PDUs destined for this computer and all those detected by the computer NIC on the same network segment (that is. Note: The capturing of these other PDUs depends on the intermediary device connecting the end-device computers on this network. the name-resolution process might add extra PDUs to your captured data. As you use different intermediary devices (hubs.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 51 If the Capture packets in promiscuous mode feature is not checked. The Enable transport name resolution option allows you to control whether Wireshark translates network addresses found in PDUs into names. . If this feature is checked.

Figure 2-15 Wireshark Capture Main Panes The PDU (or packet) list pane at the top of Figure 2-15 displays a summary of each packet captured.org was accessed. Each line in the packet list corresponds to one PDU or packet of the captured data. This main display window of Wireshark has three panes. as shown in Figure 2-15. The packet details pane shows the current packet (selected in the pack- . The PDU (or packet) details pane in the middle of Figure 2-15 displays the packet selected in the packet list pane in more detail. The example in Figure 2-15 shows the PDUs captured when the ping utility was used and http://www. more details will display in the packet details pane and in the packet bytes pane. If you select a line in this pane.Wireshark. By clicking packets in this pane. the capture process is terminated and the main screen displays. you control what displays in the other two panes. Packet number one is selected in this pane.52 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 2-14 Wireshark Capture Output When the Stop button is clicked.

you will find this displayed information useful for examining the binary values and content of PDUs.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 53 et list pane) in a more detailed form.254. as shown in Figure 2-16. From the command line. stop the packet capture. a prompt asks whether you want to save the captured PDUs. and then start the capture process. Figure 2-16 Wireshark Save Option Clicking Continue without Saving closes the file and exits Wireshark without saving the captured data. which you can expand and collapse. In this case. Task 1: Ping PDU Capture Step 1. launch Wireshark on a computer in a lab pod. After ensuring that the standard lab topology and configuration is correct. ping the Eagle Server using the command ping 192. . ping the IP address of another network-connected and poweredon end device in the lab topology. You can save the information captured for the data PDUs in a file. The PDU (or packet) bytes pane at the bottom of Figure 2-15 displays the actual data (in hexadecimal form representing the actual binary) from the packet selected in the packet list pane. However. When closing a data-capture screen or exiting Wireshark. The protocols and fields of the packet display in a tree form. Set the capture options as described in the preceding section. this pane is not examined in detail.254. The information displayed when a capture file is opened is the same as the original capture. This pane shows the protocols and protocol fields of the selected packet. In this lab. Step 2. and highlights the field selected in the packet details pane.168. Examine the packet list pane. The packet bytes pane shows the data of the current packet (selected in the packet list pane) in what is known as hexdump style. and then open this file in Wireshark for later analysis without having to recapture the same data traffic. when a more in-depth analysis is required. After receiving the successful replies to the ping in the command-line window. The packet list pane on Wireshark should now look something like Figure 2-17.

and the destination is the Eagle Server. particularly packet numbers 6. 9. Step 3. and 15. match the messages displayed in the command-line window when the ping was issued with the six packets captured by Wireshark. Locate the equivalent packets on the packet list on your computer. 11. If you performed Step 1. 14. From the Wireshark packet list. the source address is my computer.54 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 2-17 Wireshark Packet List Pane Look at the packets listed in Figure 2-17. 7. answer the following: What protocol is used by ping? ICMP What is the full protocol name? Internet Control Message Protocol What are the names of the two ping messages? Echo Request Echo Reply Are the listed source and destination IP addresses what you expected? Why? Answers may vary. 8. The packet details pane will now display something similar to Figure 2-18. 12. Yes. . Select (highlight) the first echo request packet on the list.

make a note of the information you do recognize.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 55 Figure 2-18 Wireshark Packet Details Pane Click each of the four plus sign (+) buttons to expand the information. Although at this stage of the course you might not fully understand the displayed information. Locate the two different types of “source” and “destination. if you select (highlight) the second line (+ Ethernet II) in the details pane. as shown in Figure 2-20. For example. What protocols are in the Ethernet frame? eth:ip:icmp:data As you select a line in the packet details pane. the bytes pane highlights the corresponding values. Figure 2-19 Wireshark Packet Details Pane. Spend some time scrolling through this information.” Why are there two types? The Ethernet II shows the MAC addresses. you can further expand the details for each section and protocol. Expanded As you can see. . all or part of the information in the packet bytes pane also becomes highlighted. and the Internet Protocol shows the IP addresses. The packet details pane will now display something similar to Figure 2-19.

stop the PDU capture in Wireshark.0. enter quit.exe 200 PORT command successful. 150 Opening BINARY mode data connection for pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter1/gaim1. User (eagle-server.5. as follows: ftp> quit 221 Goodbye. Step 4. When successfully logged in. When the file download is complete. ftp> get /pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter1/gaim-1. C:\Documents and Settings\ccna1> When the file has successfully downloaded. start packet capture by clicking the Start option on the Capture menu of Wireshark. At the command line on your computer running Wireshark. 220 Welcome to the eagle-server FTP service. Highlighted Pane This line shows the particular binary values that represent that information in the PDU. Example 2-2 Eagle Server Output C:\Documents and Settings\ccna1>ftp eagle-server. enter ftp 192.0.254. Task 2: FTP PDU Capture Step 1.59Seconds 11729. enter anonymous as the user without a password.com.example.exe and press the Enter key <ENTER> to start downloading the file from the FTP server. it is not necessary to understand this information in detail.com:(none)): anonymous 331 Please specify the password. The output will look similar to Example 2-2.example.example. Password:<ENTER> 230 Login successful. At this stage of the course.0.08Kbytes/sec. as follows: Userid: anonymous Password: <ENTER> You may alternatively log in with userid cisco and password cisco. When the connection is established. enter get /pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter1/gaim-1. 226 File send OK.5. .5. Click Continue without Saving when the message box shown in Figure 2-16 appears. Consider using PASV. Assuming Wireshark is still running from the previous steps.56 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 2-20 Wireshark Packet Expanded.com Connected to eagle-server. ftp: 6967072 bytes received in 0. Go to the File menu and select Close.exe (6967072 bytes).254. Start packet capture.168.

Answers will vary. 1292 > ftp [FIN. Increase the size of the Wireshark packet list pane and scroll through the PDUs listed. What feature of TCP does this indicate? Send and receipt of data Step 3. the actual download request and the data transfer). FTP > 1292 [SYN. ACK]. View the packet details in the details pane. FTP. Request: Pass. Highlight a packet associated with the second phase. Locate and list examples of messages exchanged in the second phase (that is. 1292 > ftp [SYN]. Answers will vary. Select (highlight) a packet on the list associated with the first phase of the FTP process.] Locate recurring TCP exchanges throughout the FTP process. Request:QUIT. Answers will vary. ACK]. Examine packet details. Response: 221 Goodbye. note the plain text visible in the bytes pane. TCP. . ftp >1292 [FIN. 1292 > ftp [ACK].Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 57 Step 2. These will be the PDUs from the Layer 4 protocol. ACK. FTP Data: 1448 bytes. match the packets with the messages and prompts in the FTP command-line window. Response: 220 Welcome to the eagle-server FTP service. Locate and note those PDUs associated with the file download. List examples of messages exchanged in this phase.0. If you performed Step 2. From any pane.5.exe. Highlight a packet containing the actual file content. What does this indicate about the security of this FTP login process? Security isn’t high because the name and password are visible. Request: User anonymous. Response: 331 Please specify the password. The first group is associated with the “connection” phase and logging in to the server. The filename is gaim-1. locate the packet containing the filename. highlight and examine some packets exchanged in the third phase of the file download. In the details and bytes panes.] The third group of PDUs relate to logging out and “breaking the connection. Examine the highlighted portion in the packet bytes pane. What protocols are encapsulated in the frame? Eth:ip:tcp:ftp-data Highlight the packets containing the username and password. Identify the three groups of PDUs associated with the file transfer.” List examples of messages exchanged during this process. 1294 > ftp-data [ACK. and the Layer 7 protocol.

254. Task 4: Reflection Consider the encapsulation information pertaining to captured network data Wireshark can provide. Note the similarity between this message exchange and the FTP exchange. stop the Wireshark packet capture. close the Wireshark file and continue without saving. When this information expands. Locate and identify the TCP and HTTP packets associated with the downloaded web page. Launch a web browser on the computer that is running Wireshark. . Increase the size of the Wireshark packet list pane and scroll through the PDUs listed. Answers may vary. Step 3. what is displayed? HTML code for the web page Examine the highlighted portion of the bytes pane. highlight an HTTP packet that has the notation “(text/html)” in the Info column. In the packet details pane. Wireshark could show when a request for a web page failed because of an incorrect URL. Start packet capture. This shows the HTML data carried by the packet. When you have finished. Enter the URL of the Eagle Server as example. It is important that you can recognize and link both the protocols represented and the protocol layer and encapsulation types of the models with the information provided by Wireshark. Relate this to the OSI and TCP/IP layer models. When finished.58 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Which features distinguish the content of these packets? A [FIN.254. Task 3: HTTP PDU Capture Step 1. After the web page has fully downloaded. User traffic could be monitored to identify errors in source or destination. ACK] is issued to close the connection.com or enter the IP address 192. close the Wireshark file and continue without saving. Note: Capture options do not have to be set if you are continuing from previous steps of this lab. start packet capture by clicking the Start option on the Capture menu of Wireshark. Step 2. In the packet list pane. Also. Assuming Wireshark is still running from the previous steps.168. click the + box next to Line-based text data: html. Task 5: Challenge Discuss how you could use a protocol analyzer such as Wireshark to troubleshoot the failure of a web page to download successfully to a browser on a computer. identify data traffic on a network that is requested by users.

Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Using Packet Tracer to View Protocol Data Units (2.7.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. Skills Integration Challenge: Examining Packets (2.2.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to do the challenge lab using Packet Tracer. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity.6. Figure 2-21 Topology for Challenge 1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server 2960-24TT S1-Central 1841 R2-Central PC-PT 1A PC-PT 1B . Remember. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 59 Task 6: Cleanup Unless instructed otherwise by your instructor.1. however. Remember. testing. and analyzing a model of the Exploration lab network. exit Wireshark and properly shut down the computer.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab2622.3) In this activity. You can now open the file LSG01-PTSkills2. Figure 2-21 shows the topology for this challenge. however. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. you start building. and Table 2-7 reflects the addressing information. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity.

Task 1: Complete the Topology Add a PC to the workspace.254.16.0. . you are encouraged to examine the Help files available from the Help pull-down menu at the top of the Packet Tracer GUI. Analyze PDUs in simulation mode.255.168.254 255.255.6 10. routers.1.168.255. and information about the strengths and weaknesses of using Packet Tracer to model networks. you will often use the PKT file format.10.0 255.255.1.255. or modify existing files from your instructor or your peers. default gateway 172. In this activity.252 255. display name 1B.0.255.1. you continue learning how to build and analyze this standard lab topology.5 172. these instructions appeared.168.254 172.10. DNS server 192. Experiment with the model of the standard lab setup. tutorials to guide you through various tasks.16. Resources include a “My First PT Lab” to help you learn the basic operation of Packet Tracer.2 192.254. When you create your own networks in Packet Tracer.254.16.0. When you launched this activity from the curriculum. subnet mask 255.255.254 172.10.16.1 172.10.254. Background Throughout the course.255.0 N/A N/A 10. Packet Tracer can create two file formats: PKT files (network simulation model files) and PKA files (activity files for practice).254 192.255.2.0. servers.0 255.0.16. Connect PC 1B to the Fa0/2 port of the S1-Central Switch and check your work with the Check Results button to see that the topology is complete.255. They are the result of the PKA Packet Tracer activity file format.10.10.10.254.16.255. you will be using a standard lab setup created from actual PCs.254.6 172.6 172.255. Add simple PDUs in real-time mode. in case you want to clear your work or gain more practice).255.252 255.1 172.255.0 255. This activity provides an opportunity to explore the standard lab setup using the Packet Tracer simulator.0 255. Two buttons appear at the bottom of these instructions: Check Results (which gives you feedback on how much of the activity you have completed) and Reset Activity (which starts the activity over.0 255.16.254.255.16. and switches to learn networking concepts. Configure it using the following parameters: IP address 172.255.254 10. If you have not done so already.60 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 2-7 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP Fa0/0 S0/0/0 192.253 R2-Central Fa0/0 S0/0/0 S1-Central PC 1A PC 1B Eagle Server VLAN 1 NIC NIC NIC Upon completion of this activity.168.255.253 10.255. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ ■ Complete the topology.0.16.10.

send a test message: one between PC 1B and Eagle Server. you are encouraged to obtain Packet Tracer from your instructor and complete My First PT Lab (available by accessing the Help pull-down menu and choosing Contents). one server. Note that this packet will appear in the event list as something that was “detected” or “sniffed” on the network. Task 3: Analyze PDUs in Simulation Mode (Packet Tracing) Switch to simulation mode. to examine the packet at each step in its journey. Click the packet envelope. Each of these devices is preconfigured. one switch. Use the Capture / Forward button to move the packet through the network. and two PCs.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 61 Task 2: Add Simple PDUs in Real-Time Mode Using the Add Simple PDU. Task 4: Experiment with the Model of the Standard Lab Setup The standard lab setup will consist of two routers. Try creating different combinations of test packets and analyzing their journey through the network. Task 5: Reflection If you have not already done so. and in the lower right as a user-created PDU that can be manipulated for testing purposes. Double-click the red “Fire” button in the User-Created PDU window. or click the colored square in the Info column of the event list. .

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hands-on skills needed to work with the application layer of the OSI model. the OSI and TCP/IP models provide a means by which you can visualize and discuss the flow of networking. use Chapter 3 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum. presentation. and session layers. and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of the TCP/IP model application layer and the OSI model application. In this section you explore the upper layers of both the OSI and TCP/IP models. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum labs to further reinforce that you have mastered the practical. When placed side by side. or use the corresponding Chapter 3 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration Companion Guide. as shown in Figure 3-1. As you work through this chapter. Application layer software and application layer services and protocols are examined in the labs. matching. Study Guide Applications: The Interface Between the Networks Visualizing the mechanisms that enable communication across the network is easier if you use the layered framework of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model. for assistance. fill-in-the-blank. How the human network generates data and how that data then enters the computer network is discussed.CHAPTER 3 Application Layer Functionality and Protocols The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of multiple-choice. Figure 3-1 OSI and TCP/IP Models OSI Model 7 Application 6 Presentation 5 4 3 2 1 Session Transport Network Data Link Physical Application Layers TCP/IP Model Domain Name System Application Hypertext Transfer Protocol Simple Mail Transfer Protocol Post Office Protocol Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol Transport Internet Data Flow Layers Network Access .

Define the types of messages. JPEG. Specify what to do with corrupted or improperly formatted messages. It is difficult to generalize about protocols because they vary so greatly in purpose. . Generally defines the protocols in the TCP/IP suite a. This layer provides coding. Define the start and end of a message. DNS. Network-aware applications are software programs used to communicate over the network. HTTP. Top layer of the OSI model g. Email clients and web browsers are a couple of examples. The most widely known TCP/IP application layer protocols that provide for the exchange of user information b. Protocol used to provide remote access to servers and network work devices c. SMTP. Request For Comments (RFC) h. 2.64 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 3-1. Presentation layer d. Define interaction with the next lower layer. match the term on the left with its definition on the right. GIF. 3. TIFF f. Graphic image formats Concept Questions 1. Application layer b. Session layer e. Define how messages are sent and the expected response. Without protocols. compression. Define processes on either end of the communication. What is meant by the term application layer services? Why are protocols important when used in conjunction with application layer services? Software programs need the assistance of application layer services to use network resources. Table 3-1 Term OSI and TCP/IP Model Comparison Definition a. Define the meaning of any informational fields. and encryption e. but what properties do application protocols display? Answers will vary. Functions at this layer create and maintain dialogs between source and destination applications f. such as file transfer or network print spooling. FTP g. Top layer of both the OSI and TCP/IP models d. Telnet h. These software programs are considered network-aware if they implement the application layer protocols and can communicate directly with the lower layers of the protocol stack. What does the term network-aware application mean? List a few examples. the data network would not have a common way to format and direct data. Define the format of a message. Protocols define the standards and data formats used. Layer 7 c. Define the syntax of a message.

or some other device connected to a network. Can be on a client and/or a server a. multiple clients requesting services. If that is the case. Across the Internet d. Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 3-2. multiple clients requesting services. a single client requesting a service b. Hosted on a client e.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 65 Making Provisions for Applications and Services When people attempt to access information on their device. simultaneously and as a single transaction . Table 3-2 Term Application Layer Terms Definition a. Across the peer-to-server network 2. cell phone. PDA. but not at the same time c. laptop. multiple clients requesting services. Peer-to-peer networks b. a. Device requesting information c. Hosted on a web server f. simultaneously but as separate transactions d. Two or more computers are connected via a network and can share resources (such as printers and files) without having a dedicated server. Multiple-Choice Questions Choose the best answer(s) for each of the following questions.) a. Web services d. Across the intranet only e. Web browser e. a request to access that information must be made to the device where the data resides. Telnet services f. whether it is a PC. Device responding to the request d. Server c. Client/server networks c. Client b. match the term on the left with its definition on the right. 1. Peer-to-peer networks b. A Telnet server may have _____________. Peer-to-peer applications can be used on which of the following? (Choose all that apply. the data may not be physically stored on their device.

typically a web browser. the most popular network service. The Server Message Block (SMB) is a client/server file-sharing protocol. File Transfer Protocol (FTP) c. E-mail. Sharing files over the Internet has become extremely popular. 3. 7. Table 3-3 Port Number Port Numbers and Protocols Protocol a. the web browser establishes a connection to the web service running on the server using the HTTP protocol. DHCP allows a host to obtain an IP address dynamically when it connects to the network. has revolutionized how people communicate through its simplicity and speed. With peer-to-peer applications . Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) d. 8. Telnet a. TCP port 23 f. Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) g. 2. Port numbers identify applications and application layer services that are the source and destination of data. match the port number on the left with its protocol on the right. 6.66 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Application Layer Protocols and Services Examples As you will see later in this course. TCP port 80 c. 4. 10. When a web address (or URL) is entered into a web browser. 9. When a client. 1. 5. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following statements. A DNS server provides name resolution using the name daemon. UDP port 67 g. TCP/UDP port 53 b. Domain Name System (DNS) f. sends a request message to a server. The FTP client is an application that runs on a computer that is used to push files to and pull files from a server. TCP port 25 d. The e-mail server operates two separate processes: Mail Transfer Agent (MTA) and Mail Delivery Agent (MDA). people can make files on their hard disks available to others for downloading. HTTP defines the message types that the client uses to request the web page and also the message types the server uses to respond. based on the Gnutella protocol. Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 3-3. DNS uses a hierarchical system to create a name database to provide name resolution. Post Office Protocol (POP) e. UDP port 110 e. TCP ports 20 and 21 b. Server programs generally use predefined port numbers that are commonly known by clients. the transport layer uses an addressing scheme called a port number.

It centralizes the resources on a network. network. Download c. and physical b. Data transfer from a client to a server is referred to as which of the following? a. It uses the client/server model. presentation. It uses file servers. presentation. d. Resolve domain names to MAC addresses. Mail Delivery Agent (MDA) 4. Application. session. data link. The e-mail server operates which two separate processes? a. Application. Internet. Upload d. transport. and physical 2. What is the most popular application service? a. abstract representation created as a guideline for network protocol design. Pull 5. Telnet provides a standard method of emulating text-based terminal devices over the data network. c. E-mail c. Application. Which of the following best describes a peer-to-peer network? a. The Open Systems Interconnection reference model is a layered.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 67 11. Application. 1. presentation. Internet. and physical c. eBay 3. d. and physical d. b. transport. P2P d. b. Resolve domain names to computer names. Resolve domain names to e-mail addresses. The Domain Name System (DNS) was created to do what? a. session. World Wide Web b. 6. network. Mail User Agent (MUA) d. Resolve domain names to IP addresses. transport. Mail Transfer Bridge (MTB) c. Query b. data link. data link. presentation. Mail Transfer Agent (MTA) b. session. transport. The OSI model divides the networking process into which seven layers? a. . It decentralizes the resources on a network. Internet. c. Multiple-Choice Questions Choose the best answer(s) for each of the following questions. network.

which protocol is used to access or post web server information? a. Telnet d. POP 10.68 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide 7. File server name 8. HTTP d. and other IP networking parameters? a. SSH c. Company or brand name d. STP d. SMTP b. Type of organization b. Which service automates the assignment of IP addresses. To receive e-mail messages from an e-mail server.) a. SHTTP c. TFTP c. gateway. HTTPS b. For secure communication across the Internet. DHCP . The different top-level domains represent which of the following? (Choose all correct answers. Country of origin c. subnet masks. SMTP b. STelnet 9. the e-mail client can use which of the following protocols? a.

Examine data transfer rates associated with the file. If a microphone and Microsoft Sound Recorder are not available. you can download an audio file to use in this activity from http://newsroom.cisco. You can find it in Windows XP by choosing Start > Programs > Accessories > Entertainment > Sound Recorder.1) Upon completion of this activity.4. You can find the application in Windows XP by choosing Start > Programs > Accessories > Entertainment > Sound Recorder. or create sounds that the microphone can pick up. click the Record button on the Sound Recorder interface.1. Scenario Perform this activity on a computer that has a microphone and Microsoft Sound Recorder or Internet access so that you can download an audio file. In this activity. Background When an application creates a file. Microsoft Sound Recorder is a Windows accessory. you will use a microphone and Microsoft Sound Recorder to capture an audio stream.com/dlls/podcasts/audio_feeds. Figure 3-2 Sound Recorder Interface Step 2. The data can be stored on the end device where it was created. or it can be transferred for storage on another device.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 69 Labs and Activities Activity 3-1: Data Stream Capture (3. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ Capture or download an audio stream. Record the file’s characteristics. the data that comprises that file must be stored somewhere. the sound’s waveform should appear on the Sound Recorder interface. . is 30 minutes. The Sound Recorder interface is shown in Figure 3-2. As the audio is recorded. To begin recording.html. Record an audio file. Task 1: Create a Sound File Step 1. Open the Windows Sound Recorder application. as shown in Figure 3-3. depending on network speed. Speak into the microphone. Estimated completion time.

and the volume settings. Save the audio file.wav. Task 2: Observe the Properties of the Audio File Step 1. close the Sound Recorder application. When the file is open.com/dlls/podcasts/audio_feeds. Check the audio file that was recorded. Save the audio file to the desktop. If you are unable to create a recording. Figure 3-4 Playback If you are unable to hear the recording. Open the audio file in Windows Media Player. View audio file properties.html. After saving the file. depending on the file created.70 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 3-3 Recording in Progress Click the Stop button when you are finished. The recording should be played back. . What is the file size in bytes? Answers will vary. What is the file size in bits? Answers will vary. as shown in Figure 3-4. Step 2. depending on the file created. download an audio file from News@Cisco at http://newsroom. depending on the file created.cisco. and choose Properties from the popup menu. What is the file size in kilobytes? Answers will vary. check the microphone’s configuration. Step 3. Step 4. Click the Play button to listen to the recording. and choose File > Properties from the popup menu. and attempt to create the recording again. and proceed to Task 2. Name the file myaudio. the speakers. Save to the desktop the audio file you created. Right-click the audio file and choose Open With > Windows Media Player. right-click at the top of the Media Player interface. Right-click the audio file you saved to the desktop.

Lab 3-1: Managing a Web Server (3. delete the file from the desktop. For example. and 95 percent of the bandwidth is left for the data payload. install. Verify the default web server configuration file. that is necessary for the frame’s delivery. Task 3: Reflection Data files do not have to remain on the end devices where they are created. Answers will vary.2. and record the result.1) Upon completion of this lab. Calculate the amount of data per second in the audio file. If so. Task 4: Clean Up You may be required to remove from the computer the audio file you saved. Web server support is a valuable skill for network administrators. turn off the computer. how long would it take the file transfer to be completed? Answers will vary. depending on the file created. depending on the file created. Unless instructed otherwise. The other half is web server support. web browsers make up only half the communication channel. . Consumers use web browsers to access business websites. such as source and destination addresses. Capture and analyze HTTP traffic with Wireshark. Background Web servers are an important part of the business plan for any organization with a presence on the Internet. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ Download. the data that makes up a file is not transferred at this speed. However. depending on the file created.4. Based on a survey by Netcraft in January 2007. Table 3-4 shows the top three web server applications by percentage of use. All Ethernet frames contain other information. If the Ethernet overhead uses 5 percent of the available 100 Mbps bandwidth. how long would it take for the file transfer to be completed? Answers will vary. you may want to copy the audio file that you created to another computer or a portable audio device. and verify a web server application. If the audio file that you saved to the desktop were to be transferred at a rate of 100 megabits per second (Mbps).Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 71 What is the length of the audio file in seconds? Answers will vary. depending on the file created. Even with an Ethernet connection operating at 100 Mbps.

The lab should be configured as shown in Figure 3-5 and Table 3-5. and configure the popular Apache web server. Analyzing the capture will help you understand how the HTTP protocol operates.6 percent In this lab you will download. Figure 3-5 Topology for Lab 3-1 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 . install. If it is not. ask the instructor for assistance before proceeding. using Wireshark to capture the communication.72 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 3-4 Web Server Web Server Choices Percent of Use Apache Microsoft Sun Scenario 60 percent 31 percent 1. You will use a web browser to connect to the server.

Open the folder where the software was saved.0. Step 3.example. ping eagle-server.6. Install the Apache web server on the pod host computer. Step 2.255. R1-ISP.253 10. the lab topology may have been modified before this class.255.255. R2-Central.252 255.254 172.255.255.10. The Apache web server application is available for download from Eagle Server.254 R2-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Eagle Server — — Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central — — — Note to Instructor: Depending on the classroom situation.1 255.0.16.Pod#. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server.0 255.255. Right-click the file. 172.10. Step 2.16.255.16. From a known good host computer. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address.com.255.24.2 172.0.10.254 172.255.16.255.1 172.254.255.10. Verify that the host computer has the correct Gateway IP address.16. Finally.com/pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter3 to access and download the software.254 172.16.16. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity.255.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 73 Table 3-5 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP S0/0/0 Fa0/0 10. 172. and that it can ping R1-ISP. and Verify the Apache Web Server Step 1.255. Using a web browser.31.0 255.com. verify that the host has the correct DNS address and that it can ping eagle-server. .4 — 192.10. Install.254.0 — — 10. go to ftp://eagle-server. Choose default values and consent to the licensing agreement. 10.254.254 172. as shown in Table 3-5.0 255.10.255. and finally eagle-server.16. and save the software on the pod host computer.0 255.10.0 255.5 172.example. The next installation step requires customized configuration of the web server. as shown in Figure 3-6. Verify that all network equipment is powered on and that eagle-server is on. and double-click the Apache file to begin installation.10. If an individual host computer cannot connect to eagle-server.Pod#. Download the software from Eagle Server.254.168.0 255.254.254 192. and that it can ping R2-Central. Take corrective action on devices that fail the ping tests.253 — 172.168. If the ping test fails.6 192.255.252 255.example.255.255.255. check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central.168.254.16. ping S1Central.255. Task 1: Download.0.255. troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity: Step 1.

the administrator’s e-mail address is ccna10@example. What is the default installation folder? C:\Program Files\Apache Software Foundation\Apache2.2\ Accept the default installation folder. Accept the recommended port and service status. This permits connections to the web server. Note: If a Windows Security Alert is displayed. For example.74 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 3-6 Customized Configuration Screen Use the values shown in Table 3-6. click Next. Figure 3-7 Windows Security Alert . Accept the default typical installation. and click Install. When the installation has finished. Host B. for users 1 through 22. Table 3-6 Information Apache Server Values Value Network Domain Server Name Administrator’s E-mail Address example.com. close the screen. as shown in Figure 3-7. Click Next. and click Next.com The computer’s IP address ccnaxx@example. if the computer is on Pod 5. click Unblock.com.

Verify the web server.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 75 Step 3. A web page similar to Figure 3-8 appears if the web server is working properly.0. Fill in Table 3-7 with the results. Choose Start > Run and open a command-line window. The same page should be displayed if the URL is changed to the IP address on the Ethernet interface or to any host IP address in the 127. . The Apache web server monitor icon should be visible on the lower-right side of the screen. and then click OK.0. Example 3-1 netstat -a Output C:\> netstat -a Active Connections Proto TCP TCP TCP TCP Local Address GW-desktop-hom:http GW-desktop-hom:epmap Foreign Address GW-desktop-hom:0 GW-desktop-hom:0 State LISTENING LISTENING GW-desktop-hom:microsoft-ds GW-desktop-hom:3389 GW-desktop-hom:0 LISTENING LISTENING GW-desktop-hom:0 <output omitted> C:\> Using the command netstat -a.0. verify that the web server is operating properly on the pod host computer.0. The netstat command displays protocol statistics and connection information for this lab computer. as shown in Example 3-1.0 /8 network range.0 /8 network range.0. near the time. and connect to your computer’s URL. Test the web server on several different IP addresses from the 127. Use the netstat -a command to discover open and connected ports on your computer. Enter cmd. Figure 3-8 Web Server Default Page The 127.0 /8 network address is reserved and is used for local IP addresses. Open a web browser.0.

conf file.com ServerName 172.0. C:\Program Files\Apache Software Foundation\Apache2. use the IP address:port number. Table 3-8 Value Apache Web Server Settings Description #Listen 12.255.conf.16.0.0.1.255. as shown in Figure 3-9. Figure 3-9 Apache Web Server Configuration File Step 2. To accept connections from only this host.254 127.2/htdocs” . Review the httpd. For servers without DNS names. ServerAdmin ccna2@example.255.255 127.34. Scroll down the configuration file. Open the Apache web server configuration file.2:80 DocumentRoot “C:/Program Files/Apache Software Foundation/ Apache2. This is the root directory for the web server.1 80.78:80 Listen 80 Listen on TCP port 80 for all incoming connections. e-mail the web server at this e-mail address.255. The # character indicates a comment for system administrators.0. the web server ignores the comment.76 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 3-7 IP Address Web Server Test Status Description 127. Numerous configuration parameters allow the Apache web server to be fully customizable. Access the httpd.2\conf\httpd. A system administrator may need to verify or modify the default configuration file.56.0 OK OK Fail Fail Legal host address Legal host address Network broadcast address Network address Task 2: Verify the Default Web Server Configuration File Step 1.1 127. and verify the settings listed in Table 3-8.0. If there are problems.0.conf file. change the line to Listen 127.

html as the default page.0. Why does index. Deliberately enter a web page that is not on the web server.html if it is present. Change the file content to something similar to Example 3-2.html not have to be entered in the URL for the file contents to be displayed? The web server configuration directive for that server displays index.0 network on a Windows computer.0.1. choose notepad.0. and connect to another computer with an active web server. as shown in Figure 3-10.16 network. refresh the web browser to view the new content. Modify the web server default page. Step 3.0. something more personal should be displayed. Start Wireshark. The file index.html. Be wary of content. Open folder C:\Program Files\Apache Software Foundation\Apache2. go to http://127. however—this is a classroom setting.html should be present. From the pulldown list. Right-click the file. As you make and save changes to index. The new default page should be displayed. Open a web browser. Step 1.html </IfModule> DirectoryIndex sets the file that Apache serves if a directory is requested. and choose Open With. If no page is requested from that directory. Some students may already be familiar with creating web pages. and refresh the web browser. so you should encourage them to personalize the page. Example 3-2 htdocs Edit <html><body><h1>Welcome to the Pod1HostB Web Server!!!</h1> <center><bold> Operated by me! </center></bold> Contact web administrator: ccna2@example.html. Or. To complete this task. display index. access the web server by running Apache from a separate client machine. and set the capture interface to the interface destined for the 172.2\htdocs. . Analyze HTTP traffic. The interface will not appear. Figure 3-8 shows the default web page from file index. Although this page is sufficient for testing.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 77 Table 3-8 Value Apache Web Server Settings continued Description <IfModule dir_module> DirectoryIndex index. Note that an error message is displayed in the web browser.com </body></html> Save the file. Task 3: Capture and Analyze HTTP Traffic with Wireshark Wireshark will not capture packets sent from or to the 127.

” Figure 3-11 Wireshark Capture of HTTP Traffic What are the contents of the HTTP session? Line-based text data: text/html <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC “-//IETF//DTD HTML 2. Verify with the netstat command that the new web server TCP port is 8080.0.1 error 404 and returned a file not found message to the web browser. the server sent a 404 error.html and observed the effect on the web browser output. The web server responded with an HTTP 1. the network or web administrator has the responsibility of maintaining the corporate web server. Open a web browser and go to http://127. test for proper operation.0. but the server did not have it. File index. The web browser simply displayed the server response “The page cannot be found.78 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 3-10 404 Not Found Error Figure 3-11 shows a captured HTTP session. and identify several key configuration parameters. Depending on the organization. Therefore. Finally.conf by changing the Listen 80 line to Listen 8080. This lab has demonstrated how to install and configure the Apache web server.1:8080. You modified the default web page index.htm was not found on this server. </p> </body></html> Task 4: Challenge Modify the default web server configuration file httpd. Task 5: Reflection Web servers are an important component of e-commerce.0// EN”> <html><head> <title>404 Not Found</title> </head><body> <h1>Not Found</h1> <p>The requested URL /index.htm was requested from the web server. . you used Wireshark to capture an HTTP session of a file that could not be found.

the typical user may be unaware of the complexities of e-mail or the protocols used. To uninstall the web server. Lab 3-2: E-mail Services and Protocols (3.3. Consequently. The POPv3 server listens on well-known TCP port 110. you will configure and use an e-mail client application to connect to eagle-server network services. and relay e-mail between SMTP servers. SMTP is used to send e-mail messages from the external e-mail client to the e-mail server. turn off power to the host computers. Also. In network environments where the Mail User Agent (MUA) client must connect to an e-mail server on another network to send and receive e-mail. Post Office Protocol version 3 (POPv3) is used when an external e-mail client wants to receive e-mail messages from the e-mail server. It should be uninstalled. ■ ■ E-mail is subject to multiple computer security vulnerabilities. IMAP servers listen on well-known TCP port 143. Scenario In this lab. Spam attacks flood networks with useless. Earlier versions of both protocols should not be used.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 79 Task 6: Clean Up During this lab the Apache web server was installed on the pod host computer. choose Start > Control Panel > Add or Remove Programs. Click Apache Web Server. the following protocols are used: ■ Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) was originally defined in RFC 821 in August 1982. Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) is an Internet protocol that allows a central server to provide remote access to e-mail messages. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. consolidates and updates previous e-mail-related RFCs. from April 2001. It has undergone many modifications and enhancements.1) Upon completion of this lab. Eagle-server has SMTP mail services preconfigured. The SMTP server listens on well-known TCP port 25. Capture and analyze e-mail communication between the pod host computer and a mail server.4. deliver e-mail to local accounts. you will use IMAP instead of POPv3 for e-mail delivery to the client. RFC 2821. and leave the room ready for the next class. which have left computers open to compromise. Most Internet service providers (ISP) provide step-by-step instructions for using e-mail services. You will monitor the communication with Wireshark and analyze the captured packets. and then click Remove. consuming bandwidth and network resources. secure versions of both protocols employ Secure Socket Layer/Transport Layer Security (SSL/TLS) for communication. Background E-mail is one of the most popular network services that uses a client/server model. E-mail servers have had numerous vulnerabilities. unsolicited e-mail. In this lab. with user accounts that can send and receive external e-mail messages. The e-mail client is configured on a user’s computer and is configured to connect to an e-mail server. you will be able to ■ ■ Configure the pod host computer for e-mail service. You will use an e-mail client such as Outlook Express or Mozilla Thunderbird to connect to the eagleserver network service. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. .

16.16.254 192.0.0 255.4 — 192.0.255.10.16.255.Pod#.253 10.168.255.10.252 255.255.254 172.16.0 255.253 — 172.0 — — 10.255.0 255.0.254.10.255.255.1 172.255.255.0 255.252 255.16.1 255. Figure 3-12 Topology for Lab 3-2 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 Table 3-9 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP S0/0/0 Fa0/0 10.5 172.16.168.254 172.0 255.80 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide The lab should be configured as shown in Figure 3-12 and Table 3-9.255.Pod#.255.254 R2-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Eagle Server — — Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central — — — .0.255.168.255.254.255.254.254.10.0 255.6 192.2 172. ask the instructor for assistance before proceeding. If it is not.24.31.16.255.255.255.10.255.10.254 172.254 172.

Figure 3-13 FTP Download for Wireshark Double-click the Thunderbird filename. R2-Central.254. and finally eagle-server. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server.com.example. select Don’t import anything. ping eagle-server.255. ping S1Central. In the New Account Setup. When the file has downloaded. with the information shown in Table 3-10. and then select Save the file to the host pod computer.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 81 Note to Instructors: Depending on the classroom situation.16.10. and that it can ping R1-ISP. verify that the host has the correct DNS address and that it can ping eagle-server. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity. and that it can ping R2-Central.10.6. this download may be slow. the lab topology may have been modified before this class.example. Note: Depending on the connection speed of the link between the two routers and the number of students downloading the file. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address. If prompted for Import Options.254. From a known good host computer. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests. as shown in Table 3-9.255. Step 2. and then click Next.example. If the ping test fails. check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central. The download URL is ftp://eagleserver. you must configure an e-mail account. double-click the filename and install Thunderbird with the default settings. . Task 1: Configure the Pod Host Computer for E-mail Service Step 1. select Email account. Verify that the host computer has the correct Gateway IP address. troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity: Step 1. you can download it from eagleserver. Configure Thunderbird to receive and send e-mail messages. as shown in Figure 3-13. When finished.16.example. If an individual host computer cannot connect to eagle-server. Fill in the account information. Finally.com. R1-ISP. and click Next.com/pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter3. Verify that all network equipment is powered on and that eagle-server is on. If Thunderbird is not installed on the pod host computer. Step 3. Download and install Mozilla Thunderbird. start Thunderbird. 172. 10. 172. as prompted. Step 2. When Thunderbird starts.com.

A total of 22 accounts are configured on Eagle Server.com eagle-server.example. If the pod host is on Pod 3. the account name is ccna1.example. Host B.com Use the same name as above (see Account name discussion). The Thunderbird client needs to have SMTP server login disabled. Host A. If this pod host is on Pod1. the account name is ccna6.82 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 3-10 Field Account Information Value Account Name The account name is based on the pod and host computer. click Edit. From the outgoing server screen.com Your Name E-mail address Type of incoming server you are using Incoming Server (SMTP) Outgoing Server (SMTP) Incoming User Name Account Name When Thunderbird starts. Figure 3-14 Thunderbird SMTP Server Settings . your_name@eagle-server. To do this.. Click Cancel. Use the same name as the Account Name.. shown in Figure 3-14.22].com IMAP eagle-server. your_name@eagle-server. choose Tools > Account Settings > Outgoing Server (SMTP). and so on. you may be prompted for a password for your e-mail account. labeled ccna[1.example.example.

Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 83 On the SMTP Server screen. A screen similar to Figure 3-17 appears. . Click OK. uncheck the Use name and password box. by choosing Tools > Account Settings. Figure 3-15 SMTP Server Edit You may also want to verify account settings. as shown in Figure 3-16. and then click OK again. Figure 3-16 Thunderbird Account Settings In the left pane of the Account Settings screen. shown in Figure 3-15. click Server Settings.

Using the e-mail client. Analyze a Wireshark capture session of SMTP. Step 2. Using the name provided in the preceding task. Ask another student in the class for his or her e-mail name. . start a Wireshark capture.84 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 3-17 Thunderbird Server Settings What is the purpose of the SMTP protocol. and what is the well-known TCP port number? The SMTP protocol is used to send e-mail messages to an e-mail server for forwarding to a mail recipient. each of you should compose and send an e-mail message to the other. To do so. Send an uncaptured e-mail. click the Write icon. enter cisco as the password. Wireshark displays captures based on packet type. Step 3. check your e-mail. This time. again send and receive e-mail from a classmate. the e-mail transactions will be captured. SMTP listens on TCP port 25. When you are certain that the e-mail operation is working properly for both sending and receiving. Task 2: Capture and Analyze E-mail Communication Between the Pod Host Computer and an E-mail Server Step 1. When the e-mails have been sent. A partial Wireshark capture of an outgoing e-mail message using SMTP is shown in Figure 3-18. Please note that this is the default password that is embedded in the Eagle Server. After sending and receiving one e-mail message. Start Wireshark captures. you must be logged in. If you have not previously logged in. To create and send an e-mail. stop the Wireshark capture. however.

In every first SMTP exchange. the e-mail client sends the command EHLO. In the second Wireshark window. however. . Malicious attackers can gain valuable knowledge simply by learning the SMTP server type and version.com> DATA (message body is sent) 250 2. fill in the e-mail server responses to the e-mail client commands shown in Table 3-11. Table 3-11 E-mail Client Response Table E-mail Server MAIL FROM:<ccna1@example.0 mail-serial-number Message accepted for delivery What are the contents of the last message body from the e-mail client? QUIT How does the e-mail server respond? It sends a response to the e-mail client. Many different types of SMTP servers exist.0 ccna1@example.localdomain Hello host-1.example. pleased to meet you\r\n The next exchanges between the e-mail client and server contain e-mail information.1]. and e-mail servers send responses.1. this is line 7.com Sender ok 250 2. 221. In Figure 3-18.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 85 Figure 3-18 SMTP Capture Highlight the first SMTP capture in the top Wireshark window. The e-mail server must respond to the command.com [172.1 E-mail client applications send commands to e-mail servers. expand the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol record. The syntax may vary between clients. Using your Wireshark capture. end with “. and the command may also be HELO or HELLO.16. What is the SMTP server response to the EHLO command? 250-localhost.com> RCPT TO:<ccna2@example.” on a line by itself 250 2.0.5 ccna2@example.com Recipient ok 354 Enter mail.13. What are the SMTP server name and version? Sendmail.1.1. version 8. closing connection.

Scroll to and click Thunderbird. and begin a Telnet session with the SMTP server. Look up the SMTP server name and version for known weaknesses or compromises.. Sun. .example. pleased to meet you MAIL From: ccna2@example. and leave the room ready for the next class. open the Windows command-line window.5 instructor@example.localdomain ESMTP Sendmail 8.13. turn off power to the host computers. 250 Mail queued for delivery. To remove Thunderbird. Connection to host lost. the instructor may want the application removed. To test SMTP operation. Remove anything that was brought into the lab...13. .16. choose Start > Control Panel > Add or Remove Programs. e-mail SMTP server test. The highlighted lines are what you enter into the blank Telnet window.com.1. Are any newer versions available? Task 4: Reflection E-mail is probably the most common network service used.1. Sender ok RCPT To: instructor@example. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor.example. Example 3-3 Telnet Session C:\> telnet eagle-server. Understanding the flow of traffic with the SMTP protocol will help you understand how the protocol manages the client/server data connection. and then click Remove.1/8. QUIT 221 Closing connection.com 25 220 localhost. C:\ > Task 5: Clean Up If Thunderbird was installed on the pod host computer for this lab. as shown in Example 3-3.com 250 2..1.com 250 2. 28 Jan 2007 20:41:0 3 +1000 HELO eagle-server. Good bye.com.86 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 3: Challenge Access a computer that has Internet access.localdomain Hello [172.1. Recipient ok DATA 354 Please start mail input..com 250 localhost.0 ccna2@example. E-mail can also experience configuration issues..2]. Is the problem with the e-mail client or the e-mail server? One simple way to test SMTP server operation is to use the Windows command-line Telnet utility to telnet into the SMTP server.

Figure 3-19 Topology for the Challenge 1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server 2960-24TT S1-Central 1841 R2-Central PC 1A PC 1B . and connect hosts and servers. and switches to learn networking concepts. Figure 3-19 shows the topology for this Skills Integration Challenge. Explore how DNS and HTTP work together. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ ■ Configure hosts and services. servers. Use simulation mode to view the details of packets generated by DNS and HTTP. Add.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 87 Packet Tracer Challenge Skills Integration Challenge: Configuring Hosts and Services (3. routers. you will use a standard lab setup created from actual PCs. At the end of each chapter. Background Throughout the course.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to perform this exercise using Packet Tracer.1.5.3) Open the file LSG01-PTSkills3. Upon completion of this activity. configure. and Table 3-12 shows the corresponding addressing table. you will build increasingly larger parts of this topology in Packet Tracer.

254 172. In Packet Tracer.255.16.0. You can remove all test packets in a particular scenario by clicking the Delete button.16.255.2 192.10.com with the server’s IP address.0.254 192.0 — — 10.16.255.253 R2-Central Fa0/0 S0/0/0 S1-Central PC 1A PC 1B Eagle Server VLAN 1 NIC NIC NIC Task 1: “Repair” and Test the Topology Add a PC with a display name of 1B to the topology.” The first time you issue this one-shot ping message.255. Scenario 0 might have one test packet from PC 1B to Eagle Server.0 255.255.16.0 255.254 172.10.254.6 172. the test packet you just created between PC 1B and Eagle Server is removed.16.5 172.255. Verify your work using feedback from the Check Results button and the Assessment Items tab.1 172.16.16. and Scenario 1 might test packets between PC 1A and the routers.10. Configure it with the following settings: ■ ■ ■ ■ IP address: 172.255.0. For example.168. Note that when you add a simple PDU.16.255.255. Turn on web services on the server by enabling HTTP.255.255.254 DNS server: 192.168.252 255. it shows Failed because of the ARP process.0 255.254 10.255.168.254.255. Enable DNS services.0.10.254 Connect PC 1B to the Fa0/2 port of the S1-Central switch. Test connectivity in real time by using ADD SIMPLE PDU to test connectivity between PC 1B and the Eagle Server. You can create different test packet scenarios by clicking the New button.10.255. Double-click the Fire button in the PDU List Window to send this single test ping a second time.252 255.254.example.255.255. and add a DNS entry that associates eagle-server.168.0 255.0.254. For example.10.255.1.0 Default gateway: 172. it appears in the PDU List Window as part of “Scenario 0.253 10.1.6 10.88 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 3-12 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP Fa0/0 S0/0/0 192.168.254. .2 Subnet mask: 255.10.1 172.255.254 255. if you use the Delete button for Scenario 0.0 255.1. the term scenario means a specific configuration of one or more test packets. Do this before the next task.6 172.10. Connect Eagle Server to the Fa0/0 port on the R1-ISP router. This time it succeeds.

you are encouraged to obtain Packet Tracer from your instructor and complete My First PT Lab (choose Help > Contents). Enter eagle-server. especially when the packets are at PC 1B or at Eagle Server. and then use the Capture / Forward button in the Event List to capture the interaction of DNS and HTTP. click the View Previous Events button. press Enter. you should be able to see how DNS and HTTP work together. Open a web browser from the desktop of PC 1B. Task 3: Reflection Can you now explain the process that occurs when you enter a URL into a browser and a web page returns? What types of client/server interactions are involved? If you have not already done so.com.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 89 Task 2: Explore How DNS and HTTP Work Together Switch from Realtime mode to Simulation mode. If you receive a “Buffer Full” message. Play this animation. Even though the processing of the packets by the switch and the routers may not make sense to you yet. Outbound PDU Details) for each event in the event list.example. Inbound PDU Details. . Examine the Packet contents (PDU Information Window.

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f. Ensures segment sequencing so that data can be presented by the session layer to the application layer with all data intact and ready for processing. use a Voice over IP (VoIP) phone. Multiplexing b. and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of the OSI transport layer. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum labs to further reinforce that you have mastered the practical. hands-on skills needed. surf the web. one computer can use instant messaging. matching. As you work through this chapter. a. Means lost segments are present so the data is received complete. Data segmentation c. Study Guide Roles of the Transport Layer The transport layer provides vital control over the network: It enables multiple applications to work at the same time over the same network. Facilitates data preparation for delivery by the lowest four OSI layers. Manages data delivery if there is congestion on the host. g.CHAPTER 4 OSI Transport Layer The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of multiple-choice. Reliable delivery g. e. fill-in-the-blank. stream video. Ensures the application is ready to receive data. . b. The transport layer provides for data network needs by ■ ■ ■ ■ Dividing data received from an application into segments Adding a header to identify and manage each segment Using the header information to reassemble the segments back into application data Passing the assembled data to the correct application Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 4-1. Table 4-1 Term Transport Layer Matching Exercise Definition a. Establishing a session e. Multiple network-aware applications can use the network at the same time. match the definitions on the right with the terms on the left. and check e-mail. Same order delivery f. use Chapter 4 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum or use the corresponding Chapter 4 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA 1 Exploration Companion Guide for assistance. That way. Error checking d. c. Performed on the data in the segment to check if the segment was changed during transmission. Flow control d.

reliable delivery. Port Type Ranges Exercise Table 4-2 lists port types. it knows that the data has been successfully delivered and can quit tracking that data. it retransmits that data to the destination. Table 4-2 Port Type Port Type Ranges Numbers Well-known ports Registered ports Dynamic or private ports 0 to 1023 1024 to 49151 49152 to 65535 The TCP Protocol: Communicating with Reliability The key distinction between TCP and UDP is reliability. How does the transport layer multiplex different applications’ communication? Dividing data into small parts and sending these parts from the source to the destination enables many different communications to be interleaved (multiplexed) on the same network. This sequence number allows the transport layer functions on the destination host to reassemble segments in the order in which they were transmitted. A TCP segment has 20 bytes of overhead in the header encapsulating the application layer data. each segment header contains a sequence number. The pieces of communication in UDP are called datagrams. the transport layer adds to the segment a header containing binary data. How does the transport layer tell the difference between different data segments? To identify each segment of data. This ensures that the destination application has the data in the exact form the sender intended. 2. 3. whereas each UDP segment only has 8 bytes of overhead. . Additional functions specified by TCP are same order delivery. Fill in the port number ranges in the Numbers column. 1. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks for the following questions. As the source receives an acknowledgment from the destination. each with a specific function. This reliability is achieved by having fields in the TCP segment. 2. If the source does not receive an acknowledgment within a predetermined amount of time. and flow control.92 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Concept Questions 1. In TCP. A complete TCP conversation requires the establishment of a session between the source and the destination in both directions.

PSH c. This process ensures that each host is aware of and prepared for the communication. provide the URL. Push function f. When the host is using TCP. SYN d. enter the keywords “TCP segment reassembly. Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 4-3. Note to instructor: Answers will vary. but encourage students to find a website. segments may arrive at their destination out of order. Table 4-3 Flags Flag-Matching Exercise Definition a. RST d. be prepared to share your findings with the class. the data in these segments is reassembled into the original order. Define reliability.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 93 Concept Questions 1. Reliability means ensuring that each segment of data that the source sends arrives at the destination. Internet Research Exercise Using your favorite search engine. ACK b. Synchronize sequence numbers e. Reset the connection c. No more data from sender Managing TCP Sessions When services send data using TCP. FIN f. A key feature of TCP is its reliability. Urgent pointer field significant a.” and find a website that explains it. For the original message to be understood by the recipient. or communication stream between the hosts. 2. why does the transport layer initiate a process to create a connection with the destination? This connection enables the tracking of a session. and be prepared to explain or present the information found. URG e. Using this site. match the definition on the right with a flag on the left. Sequence numbers are assigned in the header of each packet to achieve this goal. Acknowledgment field significant b. Segment sequence numbers enable reliability by indicating how to reassemble and reorder received segments. . This exercise works best if the students are required to present their website to the class or to teach each other in small groups.

they might experience large delays while TCP detects data loss and retransmits data. In what case would it be possible for the destination to acknowledge bytes in discontiguous segments and request that the host retransmit only the missing data? In this case. the same pair of ports is used in the header of all datagrams used in the transaction. The UDP Protocol: Communicating with Low Overhead User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is a simple protocol that provides the basic transport layer functions. 1. What is expectational acknowledgment? Expectational acknowledgment is TCP using the acknowledgment number in segments sent back to the source to indicate the next byte in this session that the receiver expects to receive. and flow-control mechanisms. These delays would be more detrimental to the application than small data losses. After a client has chosen the source and destination ports. It has much lower overhead than TCP because it is not connection oriented and does not provide the sophisticated retransmission. 3. sequencing. For the data returning to the client from the server. and what does it do? Flow control assists the reliability of TCP transmission by adjusting the effective rate of data flow between the two services in the session. 3. 2. . can tolerate some loss of data. The low overhead of UDP makes it very desirable for such applications. Some applications. simply retry the request if they do not receive a response. both hosts would have to support selective acknowledgments. What is flow control. Some applications. If these applications use TCP. 2. such as online games and VoIP. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following sentences.94 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Concept Questions 1. UDP is said to be transaction based. such as DNS. the source and destination port numbers in the datagram header are reversed. and therefore they do not need TCP to guarantee the message delivery.

host computer routing table information. Scenario In this lab. netstat displays incoming and outgoing network connections (TCP and UDP). Use netstat to examine protocol information on a pod host computer.5. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ Explain common netstat command parameters and outputs. you examine the netstat command on a pod host computer. Table 4-4 shows the corresponding addressing table. available on both Windows and UNIX/Linux computers. Background netstat is an abbreviation for the network statistics utility. Figure 4-1 Topology for Lab 4-1 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 . and adjust netstat output options to analyze and understand TCP/IP transport layer protocol status.1) Upon completion of this lab.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 95 Labs and Activities Lab 4-1: Observing TCP and UDP Using netstat (4. Figure 4-1 shows the topology for this lab. Passing optional parameters with the command will change output information.1. and interface statistics.

Verify that all network equipment is powered on.example. Step 2.0.255. Enter cmd. If the ping test fails.254.255.255.255.168.255. If an individual host computer cannot connect to Eagle Server. the lab topology may have been modified before this class.96 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 4-4 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP S0/0/0 Fa0/0 10.254. 172.168.0.254. ping eagle-server. as shown here: C:\> netstat /? Use the output of the netstat /? command as reference to fill in the appropriate option that best matches the description in Table 4-5. R2-Central.Pod#.com.0 255.com.0 255.6 192.255. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests. R1-ISP.10. ping S1-Central.255. To display help information about the netstat command.255. Task 1: Explain Common netstat Command Parameters and Outputs Open a terminal window by clicking Start > Run. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity.255.253 N/A 172.16.1 172.0 255. shown in the preceding logical addressing table.252 255. and finally Eagle Server.4 N/A 192.10. 10.255. and can ping R2-Central. 172. From a known good host computer.16.255.254.16.16.254 192. and can ping R1-ISP.10. verify that the host has the correct DNS address and can ping eagle-server.255.16.255.24.example. troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity: Step 1.0.255.10.255. .254 172. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server.16. and that Eagle Server is on.6.0 255.254. use the /? options.31.10.example. and click OK.1 255.254 R2-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Eagle Server N/A N/A Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central N/A N/A N/A Note to instructor: Depending on the classroom situation.254 172.0 255.252 255.10.255.10.255.0 255. Verify that the host computer has the correct gateway IP address.0.10.5 172.254 172. Finally.168. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address.2 172.255.16. check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central.16.255. Step 3.254.255.254 172.16.253 10.com.0 N/A N/A 10.Pod#.

This is a normal condition. This is the normal state for the data-transfer phase of the connection.0. The connection should transition quickly through this state. Displays addresses and port numbers in numeric form. or UDPv6. The local connection is waiting for a confirming connection request acknowledgment. -an 30 No options When netstat statistics are displayed for TCP connections. as reported by netstat. as shown in Table 4-7. TCP. . CLOSE-WAIT SYN-SENT SYN_RECEIVED IP addresses displayed by netstat fall into several categories. This is a tricky problem. A global address. Table 4-6 State Packet State Table Connection Description LISTEN ESTABLISHED TIME-WAIT The local connection is waiting for a connection request from any remote device. Table 4-7 IP Address Packet State Table Description 127. the connection passes through a series of states. The connection should transition quickly through this state. IPv6. Display only open connections. The local connection is waiting for a response after sending a connection request. TCPv6. or this computer.0. but is waiting for a termination request from the local user. the TCP state is displayed. The address of the remote device that has a connection with this computer. Transmission Control Protocol. proto may be any of TCP. Redisplays statistics every 5 seconds. September 1981. and data may be exchanged through the connection. UDP. UDP. or UDPv6. Redisplays all connections and listening ports every 30 seconds. TCPv6. and will normally last between 30 and 120 seconds.0 Remote Address This address refers to the local host.0. proto may be any of IP. ICMP.1 0.0. Table 4-6 is a summary of TCP states. The connection is open. Press Ctrl+C to stop redisplaying statistics. If used with the –s option to display per-protocol statistics. The local connection is waiting a default period of time after sending a connection termination request before closing the connection. The connection is closed.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 97 Table 4–5 Option netstat Table Description -a -n 5 (interval) -p Displays all connections and listening ports. Shows connections for the protocol specified by proto. During the life of a TCP connection. Multiple connections in SYN_RECEIVED state may indicate a TCP SYN attack. ICMPv6. compiled from RFC 793. meaning any.

Compare outputs.0:0 LISTENING LISTENING GW-desktop-hom:microsoft-ds 0. foreign address. The –n option forces netstat to display output in raw format.0.168.0.254.1:137 GW-desktop-hom:netbios-dgm 192.1:138 GW-desktop-hom:0 0. From the terminal window in Task 1.0:135 GW-desktop-hom:0 0.254. issue the command netstat –an: C:\> netstat –an Use the window vertical scrollbar to go back and forth between the outputs of the two commands. Write down three TCP and three UDP connections from the netstat –a output and the corresponding translated port numbers from the netstat –an output.168.0:0 GW-desktop-hom:0 0.168.1:139 GW-desktop-hom:ntp 192.0. Addresses and protocols that can be translated into names are displayed. and state information. If fewer than three connections translate.0. local address.0:0 *:* *:* *:* *:* *:* *:* LISTENING LISTENING LISTENING LISTENING Refer to the following netstat output shown in Example 4-1.98 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 2: Use netstat to Examine Protocol Information on a Pod Host Computer Step 1. From the terminal window.0.254.1:123 GW-desktop-hom:netbios-ns 192. .0.168. noting how well-known port numbers are changed to names. Note to instructor: Answers will vary. Table 4-8 provides a list of several common services on a host computer.0. issue the command netstat –a: C:\> netstat –a A table will display that lists the protocol (TCP and UDP). note that in Table 4-8. Use netstat to view existing connections.0:445 TCP UDP UDP UDP GW-desktop-hom:netbios-ssn 192.0.0.254.0. Table 4-8 Connection Protocol netstat Output Table Local Address Foreign Address State TCP TCP GW-desktop-hom:epmap 0.

Output should look similar to the output in Example 4-1.1:1071 Foreign Address 127. a connection might close before all connections have been made.com 53 In the large terminal window.0. The terminal windows that will be used to collect connection information should be 1⁄2 screen width by full screen height. That will bring up the t=Telnet prompt. Establish multiple concurrent TCP connections and record netstat output. port 21 SMTP: SMTP mail server. Several network services on Eagle Server will respond to a Telnet connection. telnet on port 23. Microsoft Telnet>. approximately 1⁄2 screen width by 1⁄4 screen height.0. To close a Telnet connection. port 53 FTP: FTP server. Step 2.0. the host computer has made a TCP connection with itself. In this task.0. and UDP cannot build the TCP session. port 23 Why should Telnet to UDP ports fail? Telnet is a TCP protocol.0.1.1:1071 127. If typing is slow.0. telnet on port 21.0. record established connections with Eagle Server. Open four additional terminal windows.example. Eventually.0.0. In the fourth terminal window.0. The four terminal windows that will be used for Telnet connections to Eagle Server can be relatively small.1:1070 State ESTABLISHED ESTABLISHED A new network engineer suspects that his host computer has been compromised by an outside attack against ports 1070 and 1071. thus providing several protocols to examine with netstat. port 25 Telnet: Telnet server. connections should terminate from inactivity. The venerable telnet command is used to access Eagle Server network services. In the first Telnet terminal window.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 99 Example 4-1 Netstat Output C:\> netstat –n Active Connections Proto TCP TCP C:\> Local Address 127. press the Ctrl+] keys together.1:1070 127. Arrange the windows so that all are visible. The command for a Telnet connection on port 21 follows: C:\> telnet eagle-server. In the third terminal window. Type quit and press Enter to close the session. In the second terminal window. How would you respond? Because the foreign address is 127. several simultaneous connections will be made with Eagle Server. telnet on port 25. You will use the following: ■ ■ ■ ■ DNS: Domain Name System server. telnet to Eagle Server on port 53. .

Task 5: Cleanup Unless directed otherwise by the instructor.168. and User Datagram Protocol (UDP).exe.254.1:1694 Foreign Address 192.2.254. Identify UDP header fields and operation using a Wireshark TFTP session capture. among others. UDP provides transport layer support for Domain Name System (DNS) services and Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP). August 1980.5. The ability to understand the parts of the TCP and UDP headers and operation is a critical skill for network engineers.example.168.1) Upon completion of this activity.100 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example 4-2 C:\>netstat Proto TCP TCP TCP TCP Eagle Server Output Table Local Address 192. Both protocols support upper-layer protocol communication.168. Try to view connections in stages different from ESTABLISHED. among others.254:21 192. and interface statistics.4.168.168.99.1:1688 192.254:25 192.1:1693 192.254.1:1691 192.254. defined in RFC 761.254.254:53 192.com/pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter4/. If Wireshark has not been loaded on the host pod computer. you can download it from ftp://eagle-server.254.254. turn off power to the host computers. TCP and UDP (4. Remove anything that was brought into the lab and leave the room ready for the next class.168. and issue the netstat –an command. Scenario Using Wireshark capture. January 1980. Task 4: Challenge Close established sessions abruptly (close the terminal window).254:23 State ESTABLISHED ESTABLISHED ESTABLISHED ESTABLISHED Task 3: Reflection The netstat utility displays incoming and outgoing network connections (TCP and UDP). analyze TCP and UDP protocol header fields for file transfers between the host computer and Eagle Server. TCP is used to provide transport layer support for the HTTP and FTP protocols. file wiresharksetup-0. Background The two protocols in the TCP/IP transport layer are the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). For example.168. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ Identify TCP header fields and operation using a Wireshark FTP session capture. host computer routing table information.254. . Ponder the utility of netstat in small and large networks and consider how netstat can help you diagnose problems. Lab 4-2: TCP/IP Transport Layer Protocols. defined in RFC 768.168.

255.10.255.10.16.0 255.255.6 192.168.255.255.31.0 255.1 255.255.255.254 172.16.254.10.252 255.4 N/A 192.10.252 255.254 192.Pod#. Figure 4–2 Topology for Lab 4-2 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 Table 4-9 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP S0/0/0 Fa0/0 10.Pod#.0.255.255.255.253 N/A 172.253 10.255.0 255.10.255.2 172.1 172.255.16.255.168.255.255.16.0. and Table 4-9 shows the corresponding addressing table.10.16.254.0 N/A N/A 10.16.254 172.254 172.255.0.24.254.5 172.0 255.0 255.254. Figure 4-2 shows the topology for this lab.0 255.168.16.254 172.0.254 R2-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Eagle Server N/A N/A Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central N/A N/A N/A .255.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 101 Windows command-line utilities FTP and TFTP will be used to connect to Eagle Server and download files.

Start an FTP connection to Eagle Server. 172.Pod#. check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central. TCP sessions are well controlled and managed by information exchanged in the TCP header fields. /pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter4/s1-central.6. verify that the host has the correct DNS address and can ping eagle-server.255. and the text configuration file for S1-Central from Eagle Server will be downloaded. Windows computers use the FTP client. and then click OK.254.254.16. 172. type anonymous. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity. Step 3. If an individual host computer cannot connect to Eagle Server. to connect to the FTP server. and finally Eagle Server. and can ping R1-ISP.10. When prompted for a password. A command-line window will start the FTP session. to the host computer.com When prompted for a user ID.255.16. If the ping test fails. an FTP session is made to Eagle Server. Verify that all network equipment is powered on. Task 1: Identify TCP Header Fields and Operation Using a Wireshark FTP Session Capture Step 1. and that Eagle Server is on. From a known good host computer. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address. type cmd. Step 2. press Enter. Enter the following command: > ftp eagle-server. Figure 4–3 Command-Line Window Start a Wireshark capture on the interface that has IP address 172.com. Finally. shown in the preceding logical addressing table. R2-Central. the lab topology might have been modified before this class. 10. When finished.16.example.[1-2]. In this task.10. R1-ISP. Verify that the host computer has the correct gateway IP address.102 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Note to instructor: Depending on the classroom situation. ping S1Central. ping Eagle Server.example. Open a command-line window by clicking Start > Run. the session capture will be analyzed. and can ping R2-Central. ftp. troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity using the following steps: Step 1. .example. Capture an FTP session. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests. A window similar to Figure 4-3 should open.com.

You might need to adjust the middle window and expand the TCP record by clicking the protocol expand box. TCP is routinely used during a session to control datagram delivery. and manage window size. Step 2. and move the cursor to the middle window. When the FTP client is connected to the FTP server. At the conclusion of the data transfer. a new TCP session is started. detailed TCP information is available in the middle window. TCP performs an orderly shutdown and termination. Figure 4–4 FTP Capture In Wireshark. The top window contains summary information for each captured record. Switch to the Wireshark capture windows. when the FTP session is finished. For each exchange of data between the FTP client and FTP server.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 103 Change the FTP directory to /pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter4/: ftp> cd /pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter4/ Download the file s1-central: ftp> get s1-central When finished. Analyze the TCP fields. the TCP session is closed. . Highlight the first TCP datagram from the host computer. terminate the FTP sessions in each command-line window with the FTP quit command: ftp> quit Close the command-line window with the command exit: > exit Stop the Wireshark capture. Before we delve into TCP packet details. the transport layer protocol TCP created a reliable session. Your capture should be similar to the capture shown in Figure 44. an explanation of the summary information is needed. verify datagram arrival. Finally. The expanded TCP datagram should look similar to Example 4-3.

.. port number 21. 0.. and contains a SYN flag.104 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example 4-3 Wireshark Capture of a TCP Datagram >Transmission Control Protocol.0. .. . = Acknowledge: Not set ... = Reset: Not set .. = Urgent: Not set ..... = Push: Not set . 192.16. Code Bits: U A R P S F RCS S Y I GK T HNN Code Bits Window Urgent Pointer Padding 24 TCP Destination Port Number 31 TCP Source Port Number ..x.0 = Fin: Not set Window size: 64240 Checksum: 0xb965 [correct] >Options: (8 bytes) Maximum segment size: 1460 bytes NOP NOP SACK permitted How is the first datagram in a TCP session identified? The initial datagram originates from the host computer.. Src Port: 1052 (1052)... .. Len: 0 Source Port: 1052 (1052) Destination Port: ftp (21) Sequence number: 0 (relative sequence number) Header length: 28 bytes >Flags: 0x02 (SYN) 0. Figure 4-5 shows a TCP datagram.. Figure 4-5 0 TCP Packet Fields for Lab 4-2 TCP Segment 4 10 16 Sequence Number Acknowledgment Number HLEN Reserved TCP Checksum Options (If Any) Data Data.x. . = ECN-Echo: Not set .254.....254..0 .... . Dst port: ftp (21).. on some port above 1023.. = Congestion Window Reduced (CWR): Not Set . to Eagle Server. = Syn: Set .0..... .. Seq: 0.....0.168. 172...1.

Among interesting values are ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ACK: Acknowledgment of a segment receipt SYN: Synchronize. HTTP. TCP destination port number: Is used to identify the upper-layer protocol or application on the remote site. The value is normally a random value above 1023. Destination Port) uniquely identifies the session to both sender and receiver. Sequence number: Specifies the number of the last octet in a segment. Acknowledgment number: Specifies the next octet expected by the receiver. Source Port.1. fill in information about the TCP header in Table 4-10. Options: The only option currently defined is the maximum TCP segment size (optional value). Using the Wireshark capture of the first TCP session start-up (SYN bit set to 1). ■ ■ Table 4-10 TCP Header: SYN Bit Set to 1 Answers Characteristics Source IP address Destination IP address Source port number Destination port number Sequence number Acknowledgment number Header length Window size * May differ from what student enters. Destination IP Address. The quadruple field combination (Source IP Address. such as Telnet.254.1 192. Code bits: Have a special meaning in session management and in the treatment of segments. FTP.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 105 An explanation of each field is provided to refresh your memory: ■ TCP source port number: Belongs to the TCP session host that opened a connection. how many octets can be sent before waiting for an acknowledgment). Urgent pointer: Is only used with an URG (Urgent) flag (when the sender needs to send urgent data to the receiver). and so on).168. which is the request to close the TCP session ■ ■ Window size: Is the value of the sliding window (that is.16.254 *1052 21 0 (relative) N/A 28 bytes * 64240 . which is only set when a new TCP session is negotiated during the TCP three-way handshake FIN: Finish. * 172. The values in the range of 0 to 1023 represent the so-called well-known ports and are associated with popular services and applications (as described in RFC 1700.

Table 4–12 TCP Header: ACK Bits Set to 1 Answers Characteristics Source IP address Destination IP address Source port number Destination port number Sequence number Acknowledgment number Header length Window size * May differ from what student enters * 172. A final ACK bit is never sent to finish the TCP handshake.1 192. and the receiver sends a related TCP datagram with the SYN ACK bits set.1 * 21 1052 0 (relative) 1 28 bytes * 5840 Using the Wireshark capture of the first TCP session start-up (only ACK bit is set to 1).16.1. With sufficient TCP sessions in the half-open state. In this sequence. Table 4–11 TCP Header: SYN and ACK Bits Set to 1 Answers Characteristics Source IP address Destination IP address Source port number Destination port number Sequence number Acknowledgment number Header length Window size * May differ from what student enters 192. A crash could involve a loss of networking .254 * 172.168. a SYN bit is only used during the beginning of a TCP session. fill in information about the TCP header in Table 4-11.1. a new TCP connection is started in half-open fashion. fill in information about the TCP header in Table 4-12.254 *1052 21 1 (relative) 1 20 bytes * 64240 Ignoring the TCP session started when a data transfer occurred.16. the receiving computer may exhaust resources and crash. the opening TCP session sends a TCP datagram with the SYN bit set.168.106 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Using the Wireshark capture of the first TCP session start-up (SYN and ACK bits are set to 1). Attackers take advantage of the three-way handshake by initiating a “half-open” connection.254.254. how many other TCP datagrams contained a SYN bit? None. Instead.

FTP server. visible in the Wireshark capture. but is normally 5 minutes. unaware and uncaring that TCP has control and management over the session. The FTP client and server communicate with each other. the TCP sessions will wait a certain period of time until closing. When the FTP server sends a Response: 220 to the FTP client.” The FTP server acknowledges the FTP termination with a Response: 221 Goodbye. is shown in Figure 4-6. This is one example of a denial-ofservice (DoS) attack. At this time. The FTP client TCP session acknowledges receipt of the termination datagram. the TCP session on the FTP client sends an acknowledgment to the TCP session on Eagle Server. visible in the Wireshark capture. .Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 107 services or could corrupt the operating system. When the originator of the TCP termination. the FTP client sends a command to “quit. announcing the termination of the TCP session.“Goodbye” TCP Acknowledgment TCP Session ACK FIN Sent TCP Acknowledgment TCP Session ACK FIN Sent TCP Acknowledgment TCP Session Ends FTP Server Without an orderly termination.“Quit” FTP Server. and the TCP session is closed. The default timeout value varies. is shown in Figure 4-7. Figure 4–7 Orderly TCP Session Termination FTP Client FTP Client. and then sends its own TCP session termination. This sequence. the attacker has won. receives a duplicate termination. the FTP server TCP session sends a TCP datagram to the FTP client. Figure 4–6 TCP Session Management FTP Client FTP Welcome TCP Acknowledgment FTP Userid Sent TCP Acknowledgment FTP Password Response FTP Server When the FTP session has finished. In either case. an ACK datagram is sent to acknowledge the termination. such as when the connection is broken. networking service has been stopped on the receiver. This sequence.

there is no authentication. host GET Specifies the local or remote host. The TFTP command has a different syntax than FTP. Student capture should be similar to the capture shown in Figure 4-8. source Specifies the file to transfer. Capture a TFTP session.example. PUT Transfers the file source on the local host to the file destination on the remote host. . The TFTP server has its own directory on Eagle Server. byte by byte. Switch to the Wireshark capture windows. there are only two commands. No authentication is supported. Analyze the UDP fields. Specifies where to transfer the file.com get s1-central Step 2. Also. Following the procedure in Task 1.108 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 2: Identify UDP Header Fields and Operation Using a Wireshark TFTP Session Capture Step 1. For example. TFTP [-i] host [GET | PUT] source [destination] -i Specifies binary image transfer mode (also called octet). Example 4-4 >tftp –help TFTP Syntax for a Windows TFTP Client Transfers files to and from a remote computer running the TFTP service. open a command-line window. Transfers the file destination on the remote host to the file source on the local host. to send a file. and PUT. Use this mode when transferring binary files. to retrieve a file. and then download the s1-central configuration file from Eagle Server with the Windows TFTP client. A TFTP transfer will be used to analyze transport layer UDP operation. which is different from the directory structure supported by the FTP server. The command and syntax to perform this follows: >tftp eagle-server. Destination Start a Wireshark capture. Example 4-4 contains Windows TFTP client syntax. GET. In binary image mode the file is moved literally. /tftpboot.

denoted by the preceding 0x code. however. There are similarities. The expanded UDP datagram should look similar to Figure 4-9. fill in information about the UDP header in Table 4-13. The checksum value is a hexadecimal (base 16) value. and move the cursor to the middle window. This will be shown during the UDP datagram examination. In Wireshark. 16 UDP Destination Port UDP Checksum 31 Using the Wireshark capture of the first UDP datagram. in this case TFTP. a UDP datagram diagram. Header information is sparse. You might have to adjust the middle window and expand the UDP record by clicking the protocol expand box.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 109 Figure 4-8 UDP Session Capture Note: If students point to UDP acknowledgments.. to manage data transfer and receipt information. Highlight the first UDP datagram from the host computer. Each UDP datagram is identified by the UDP source port and UDP destination port. . it is the responsibility of the upper-layer protocol. Figure 4–10 UDP Format UDP Segment 0 UDP Source Port UDP Message Length Data Data. explain that the UDP header does not contain an acknowledgment field. detailed UDP information is available in the middle window. compared to the TCP datagram. Figure 4–9 UDP Datagram Capture See Figure 4-10.. Instead.

UDP has less overhead and control.___. but this source port is used for the remainder of the TFTP transfer. however. Both protocols.168.___ Source port number Destination port number UDP message length UDP checksum: 0x * May differ from what student enters. but reliability and guaranteed delivery requires additional control over the communication channel. Because there is no reliable connection. If the computed checksum is identical with the sent checksum.254.1. * 172. 192. Table 4-14 UDP Header Information Answers Characteristics Source IP address Destination IP address: 172.1 * 32799 * 1038 *524 bytes * 0xc5cf (correct) Notice that the return UDP datagram has a different UDP source port. TCP manages communication much differently from UDP. and the datagram checksum value is recomputed upon receipt. Fill in information about the UDP header in Table 4-14.16.1.1 192. only the original source port used to begin the TFTP session is used to maintain the TFTP transfer.16. the UDP datagram is assumed complete. and the upper-layer protocol must provide some type of acknowledgment control. Task 3: Reflection This lab provided you with the opportunity to analyze TCP and UDP protocol operations from captured FTP and TFTP sessions.254 * 172.110 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 4-13 UDP Header Table Answers Characteristics Source IP address Destination IP address Source port number Destination port number UDP message length UDP checksum * May differ from what student enters. Examine the first packet returned from Eagle Server. Both protocols have advantages .16.168.254 * 1038 69 * 30 bytes * 0x1f04 (correct) How does UDP verify datagram integrity? A checksum is sent in the UDP datagram. transport data between clients and servers using application layer protocols and are appropriate for the upper-layer protocol each supports.254.

and therefore different transport protocols have been developed to meet these requirements. turn off power to the host computers.5. Clients initiate communication to the appropriate server. and leave the room ready for the next class. Upper-layer TFTP data examination is a bit more complicated. Capture and analyze HTTP communication between the pod host computer and a web server. such as TCP and UDP. Capture and analyze FTP communication between the pod host computer and an FTP server. . different applications have different requirements for their data. or clear-text file contents. yet each client communicates exclusively with a session established between the client and server. Observe TCP establish and manage communication channels with HTTP and FTP connections. Application layer protocols rely on lower-level TCP/IP protocols. such as a web server and client. and an FTP server and client.3. and configuration file passwords. This includes any user IDs. Application layer protocols define the communication between network services. all data transferred is sent in clear text. Scenario In this lab. passwords. but the data field can be examined and configuration user ID and password information extracted. However. password. you use client applications to connect to Eagle Server network services. Also examined are popular client requests and corresponding server responses. This lab examines two popular application layer protocols. There may be several servers on the same end device. HTTP and FTP. and how transport layer protocols TCP and UDP manage the communication channel. A user may open several client applications to the same server. several files were transferred to the host computer and should be removed.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 111 and disadvantages. Analysis of the upper-layer FTP session will quickly identify the user ID. a different server is listening on a different port for client connections. and the server responds to the client. Task 4: Challenge Because neither FTP nor TFTP are secure protocols. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. Consider how you would determine which protocol to use if you were designing an application. Remove anything that was brought into the lab.1) Upon completion of this lab. Applications are designed to use one protocol or another based on maximizing the advantages while minimizing the disadvantages. You monitor the communication with Wireshark and analyze the captured packets. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ ■ Configure the host computer to capture application layer protocols. Lab 4-3: Application and Transport Layer Protocols (4. Background The primary function of the transport layer is to keep track of multiple application conversations on the same host. For each network service. Task 5: Cleanup During this lab.

waiting to respond to client requests.0.0 255.10.168.254 172. Figure 4–11 Topology for Lab 4-3 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 Table 4–15 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP R2-Central Eagle Server Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 S0/0/0 Fa0/0 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 10.0 N/A N/A 10.5 172.255.254 .255. Eagle Server has several network services preconfigured.255.16.253 N/A 172.254.255. The lab should be configured as shown in Figure 4-11 and Table 4-15. such as HTTP. The web browser will also be used to examine the FTP protocol.255.0. as will the FTP command-line client.Pod#.10.16.2 172.255.10.0.254 172.255.4 N/A 192.24.0 255.168.254. This exercise demonstrates that although clients may differ.255.0 255.254.255.168.254.16.112 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide A web browser such as Internet Explorer or Firefox will be used to connect to the Eagle Server network service. ask the instructor for assistance before proceeding.255.254 172.255.16.31.255.255.255.16.252 255.254 192.255.10.0 255.10.255.1 255.0. If it is not. the underlying communication to the server remains the same.16.0 255.16.252 255.1 172.6 192.254 172.255.Pod#.10.0 255.253 10.255.

ping Eagle Server. Figure 4-12 Wireshark Interface Capture After the file has downloaded. or shortcut. . This is also why the file has no physical size.16. From a known good host computer. Step 3. Task 1: Configure the Pod Host Computer to Capture Application Layer Protocols Step 1.255.254. Wireshark will be used in upcoming tasks.254.10. Stop Wireshark for the moment. and then save the file to the host pod computer. R2-Central. 172. Step 2. Start Wireshark from Start > All Programs > Wireshark > Wireshark. If the ping test fails.example. Finally.com/pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter3.example. When the opening screen appears. troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity using the following steps: Step 1. Wireshark can be started by clicking the interface Start button. Step 2. If students ask why the Wireshark icon is a directory folder. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests.example. the interface is used as the default and does not need to be changed.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 113 Note to instructor: Depending on the classroom situation. ping S1Central. the lab topology might have been modified before this class. The download URL is ftp://eagleserver. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address.example. R1-ISP.com.10. and can ping R1-ISP.com. 172. Verify that the host computer has the correct gateway IP address.com. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server. Verify that all network equipment is powered on. check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central. set the correct capture interface. Step 3. See Figure 4-12. Thereafter. If Wireshark is not installed on the pod host computer. Wireshark should begin to log data. and finally Eagle Server. it is because the file is a link. to another file. If an individual host computer cannot connect to Eagle Server. Download and install Wireshark. Right-click the Wireshark filename. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity. verify that the host has the correct DNS address and can ping eagle-server. double-click the filename and install Wireshark with the default settings.255.6. and that Eagle Server is on. Start Wireshark and configure the capture interface. 10. shown in the preceding logical addressing table.16. The interface with the IP address of the pod host computer is the correct interface. and can ping R2-Central. you can download it from eagleserver.

relying on lower-level protocols such as TCP to establish and manage the communication channel. This will display a different web page. Wireshark will display captures based on packet type. . Step 2. This part of the lab demonstrates how sessions between multiple web clients and the web server are kept separate. and 12. The third session occurred when the second web browser accessed http://eagleserver. Start Wireshark captures.com. numbers 10. Stop Wireshark captures and analyze the captured data.1 is defined in RFC 2616. The second session occurred with a refresh action.example.114 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 2: Capture and Analyze HTTP Communication Between the Pod Host Computer and a Web Server HTTP is an application layer protocol.html. Figure 4-15 shows a sample captured HTTP session. and connect to URL http://eagleserver. There were actually at least three HTTP sessions created in Step 2. Using a web browser such as Internet Explorer or Firefox. Open a second web browser. dated 1999. Step 1. This is seen in the first three session lines. the TCP session must be created. The first HTTP session started with a connection to http://eagleserver.com/page2.html. connect to URL http://eagleserver. Do not close this web browser until instructed to do so. A web page similar to Figure 4-13 will display. The resulting Wireshark data will display. Start the pod host web browser. Before HTTP can begin.example.com/page2. Do not close either browser until Wireshark capture is stopped.example. HTTP version 1.example.com. There should be no change to the display in the web client. 11. Close the web browsers. Step 3. Figure 4-13 Web Server Screen Click the web browser Refresh button.

254 TCP 1056 80 Which computer initiated the HTTP session.254 with the SYN flag set.1.168.254. the path is the root directory of the web server.254.2. acknowledged. expand the fields. Although no page was requested.254.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 115 Figure 4-14 Captured HTTP Session Fill in Table 4-16 from the information presented in the HTTP session. Complete Table 4-17 using information from the protocol. This is the actual information sent to the web server.168.1 GET \ En-us *Request URI is the path to the requested document. If necessary.2 started the HTTP session to 192. and how? 192.16.1. Table 4–17 HTTP Session Table Answer Characteristics Protocol version Request Method * Request URI Language HTTP/1. some web servers are configured to display a default file if one is available.16. Which computer initially signaled an end to the HTTP session. the GET request is on line 13. In Figure 4-14. This is the beginning of the TCP three-way handshake. Table 4-16 HTTP Session Table Answers Characteristics Web browser IP address Web server IP address Transport layer protocol (UDP/TCP) Web browser port number Web server port number 172.2 192. Move into the second (middle) Wireshark window to examine the layered protocols. . Highlight the first line of the HTTP protocol. a GET request from the web browser.168.16. and how? 172. and repeated by 172. Which protocol is carried (encapsulated) inside the TCP segment? Hypertext Transfer Protocol Expand the last protocol record and any subfields. In the first browser.254 signaled an end to the session with the FIN ACK flags set.1.

304 Not Modified. GET. Figure 4-15 shows a sample capture. the web browser and a command-line FTP utility are used to download data from an FTP server. a request for an unknown web page will result in an error message. the bandwidth used is minimal. Because this web page was saved in the web client’s cache. However. is visible. . Highlight the web server response. Crackers sometimes send unknown or garbled requests to web servers in an attempt to stop the server or gain access to the server command line. there are only a few lines of text (web server responses can contain thousands or millions of bytes). in 1971. and then move into the second (middle) window. In this task. this is on line 15. From RFC 2616 What does this response mean? The request has succeeded. Scroll down the top window of Wireshark until the second HTTP session. Figure 4-15 Captured HTTP Session The significance of the refresh action is in the server response. In Figure 4-14. is sent in the response. an entity corresponding to the requested resource. a single reply packet can save significant bandwidth. What is the web server response to the web client GET request? 200 OK. The web browser understands and correctly formats the data in the browser window. A response to the web browser is possible because the web server understands the type of request and has a file to return. refresh. In this reply. FTP version 5. the GET request contained the following additional instructions to the web server: If-modified-since: Fri.page tag number (ETAG) What is the ETAG response from the web server? 98072-b8-82da8740 Task 3: Capture and Analyze FTP Communication Between the Pod Host Computer and a Web Server The application layer protocol FTP has undergone significant revision since it first appeared in RFC 114. Notice the information returned from the server. 26 Jan 2007 06:19:33 GMT\r\n If-None-Match: “98072-b8-82da8740”\r\n <. The familiar web browser can be used to communicate with more than just the HTTP server. Also.1 is defined in RFC 959. for an initial response that contains millions of bytes. With a single packet returned for both the initial GET request and refresh.116 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide The web server responds with the next HTTP packet. Open all collapsed subfields of HTTP. dated October 1985.

click Start > Run. Step 2. type help and press Enter.example. To do so. as shown in Example 4-6. The FTP client prompt is ftp>. enter cmd. refer to Task 1. A screen similar to Figure 4-16 will display.com. Example 4-6 ftp> help Commands may be abbreviated. Example 4-5 FTP Eagle Server Example >ftp eagle-server.example. If necessary. Commands are: FTP Client Commands ! ? append ascii bell binary bye cd close delete debug dir disconnect get glob hash help lcd literal ls mdelete mdir mget mkdir mls mput open prompt put pwd quit quote recv remotehelp rename rmdir send status trace type user verbose . Step 2. Password: <ENTER> 230 Login successful. Start the pod host command-line FTP client. Figure 4-16 Windows Command Line Step 1. To view a list of FTP client commands. Start a pod host computer FTP session with the FTP server. 220 Welcome to the eagle-server FTP service. This means that the FTP client is waiting for a command to send to the FTP server. Start Wireshark captures.com:(none)): anonymous 331 Please specify the password.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 117 In preparation for this task. as shown in Example 4-5. to open Wireshark. using the Windows FTP client utility.example. To authenticate. press Enter.com Connected to eagle-server. open a command line on the host pod computer. and then click OK. In response to the password prompt. use user ID anonymous. User (eagle-server.

w (write).99. See Example 4-8. The permissions are arranged as r (read).4. but only the highest point that user anonymous can access. Enter the command dir to display the current directory contents. x (access). Example 4-8 FTP Subdirectory Example ftp> cd pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter2 250 Directory successfully changed.12Kbytes/sec. ftp> get “ftptoeagle-server. 150 Here comes the directory listing. however. . download a file. 226 File send OK. The FTP client is at the root directory of the FTP server. and exit. User anonymous has been placed into a root jail. and world.04Seconds 8. Consider using PASV.254.21Kbytes/sec. indicates that the file is a directory. group. ftp> dir 200 PORT command successful.118 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Unfortunately. Example 4-7 FTP Directory Output ftp> dir 200 PORT command successful. as shown in Example 4-7. -rw-r—r— -rw-r—r— -rw-r—r— -rw-r—r— 1 0 100 1 0 100 1 0 100 5853 Jan 12 04:26 ftptoeagle-server. ftp: 5853 bytes received in 0.pcap (5853 bytes). 150 Here comes the directory listing. Consider using PASV. the large number of FTP client commands makes using the command-line utility difficult for a novice. and save the captures as FTP_Command_Line_Client.pcap” 200 PORT command successful. Consider using PASV. drwxr-xr-x 3 0 0 4096 Jan 12 04:32 pub If students ask what the values at the beginning of the line mean.pcap 4493 Jan 12 04:27 http to eagle-server. ftp> quit 221 Goodbye. ftp: 333 bytes received in 0.pcap 1 0 100 15163750 Jan 12 04:30 wireshark-setup-0.pcap 1486 Jan 12 04:27 ping to 192. Close the command-line window with the exit command. prohibiting access outside of the current directory. Stop Wireshark captures. World (anyone) can read and access the directory.exe 226 Directory send OK. the values are UNIX file permissions. The first character. We will only use a few commands for Wireshark evaluation.254.168. for the owner. Move into directory pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter2. 150 Opening BINARY mode data connection for ftptoeagle-server. and files transferred to the pod host computer.34Seconds 17. Subdirectories can be traversed. This is not the real root directory of the server. d.

Start the pod host web browser. as shown on the bottom of the Figure 4-17. FTP communicates using codes. Analyze the captured data. Stop Wireshark captures. select the FTP capture that is the first FTP protocol transmission. and save the captures as FTP_Web_Browser_Client. In Figure 4-18. example. Figure 4-18 Wireshark FTP Capture Move into the middle Wireshark window and expand the FTP protocol. close the web browser. the web browser logged in to the FTP server as user anonymous. Start Wireshark captures again. . Also. open the Wireshark capture FTP_Web_Browser_Client. Step 4. What is the FTP server response 220? Service is ready for a new user. similar to HTTP. go down the directories until the URL path is pub/eaglelabs/eagle1/chapter2. Open a web browser as shown in Figure 4-17. If not already opened. Figure 4-17 Web Browser FTP Client Using the browser. Response: 220. When finished. and enter the URL ftp://eagle-server. this is line 23. On the top Wireshark window.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 119 Step 3.com. A browser window opens with the pub directory displayed. Double-click the file ftptoeagle-server.pcap and save the file.

Figure 4-19 Active FTP FTP Client FTP Control Connection on TCP Port 21 FTP Server FTP Data Connection From TCP Port 20 on Server to a High Port on the Client. data transfer may fail. the server opens a TCP session to the FTP client and transfers data across that port. there are two significant changes. the commands are similar. The Windows FTP client used for this lab did not support the passive transfer mode. For data transfer. students should be shown a passive transfer mode. the FTP client must permit either FTP-related connections (implying stateful packet filtering) or disable blocking. high ports are used on both ends of the connection. What is the FTP data port number used by the FTP server? The port number is 20. the client opens a new port to the server for data transfer. the server initiates a connection from well-known TCP port 20 to a client’s high port. In active mode. Compare FTP active and passive transfer modes. . and observe the FTP communication. however. This is called the transfer mode. the client initiates the data connection to the server. a port number above 1023. the same connection used in the active transfer mode. In active transfer mode.120 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide When the FTP server issued a Response: 331 Please specify the password. In Figure 4-18. In passive mode. The implications between the two modes are important from an information security perspective. Second. Unless the FTP client firewall is configured to permit connections from the outside. the port number is 1073. The FTP server source port number is 20. For data transfer. When data is transferred or with simple directory listings. To establish connectivity for data transfer. See Figure 4-20. Both port numbers are above 1023. See Figure 4-19. a client initiates an FTP session with the server on well-known TCP port 21. The transfer mode sets how the data port is configured. The transfer mode can be either active or passive. a new port is opened. Open the Wireshark capture FTP_Web_Browser_Client. If possible. Although the clients are different. and the FTP client port number is some number above 1023. what was the web browser reply? IEUSER@ Which port number does the FTP client use to connect to the FTP server port 21? Port number will vary. a client initiates an FTP session with the server on well-known TCP port 21. In passive transfer mode. First. however. Step 5.

HTTP uses a single protocol to communicate with the HTTP server. An FTP session. Think about the differences between TCP and UDP. and Gopher. use a web browser or command-line Telnet client to connect to a Cisco device such as S1-Central or R2-Central. All of these services use TCP. but each must send and receive messages that can be correctly interpreted. How is the application layer protocol Telnet similar to HTTP and FTP? How does Telnet differ? Answers will vary. and consider why UDP is inappropriate for HTTP. the server or client may initiate the data connection. User anonymous normally has restricted access to the FTP server and cannot upload files. Unless the FTP server is configured to permit a connection to a random high port. A client application may be either a web browser or command-line utility. Issue a GET request and observe the results. FTP. as the command line. guaranteed delivery of datagrams. The browser acts as a client to the server. Telnet. Depending on the transfer mode. however. data transfer will fail. lasts until the client signals that it is leaving with the quit command. however. The FTP client must authenticate to the FTP server. Not all FTP client applications support changes to the transfer mode. but Telnet is similar to HTTP and FTP in that all three use the TCP protocol for connection-oriented. An HTTP session begins when a request is made to the HTTP server and ends when the response has been acknowledged by the HTTP client. Observe the Telnet protocol behavior. even if the authentication is open to the world. Task 5: Challenge Enabling Wireshark capture. Although only HTTP and FTP were examined here. Telnet and Gopher may also be supported on the browser. uses two protocols. . TCP manages the connection between client and server to ensure datagram delivery. Task 4: Reflection Both HTTP and FTP protocols rely on TCP to communicate. The FTP server listens on TCP port 21. The communication protocol is normally defined in an RFC. Multiple application layer protocols can be accessed through a simple web browser. The server listens on port 80 for client connections. FTP. sending requests and processing replies.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 121 Figure 4-20 Passive FTP FTP Client FTP Control Connection on TCP Port 21 FTP Server FTP Data Connection From the Client High TCP Port to the Server High TCP Port.

3. you will be using a standard lab setup created from actual PCs. HTTP. . HTTP. Connect and configure hosts and services on the model of the lab network. UDP. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ ■ Configure hosts and services. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. At the end of each chapter. delete all files retrieved from the FTP server. right-click Wireshark. If downloaded files need to be removed from the host pod computer. Use simulation mode to visualize the operation of DNS. and leave the room ready for the next class. You will use the topology in Figure 4-21 and the addressing table in Table 4-18 to document your design. servers. and analyze increasingly more complex protocol interactions.5.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer.122 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 6: Clean Up If Wireshark was installed on the pod host computer for this lab. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. routers. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity.3) Open the file LSG01-PTSkills4. you will build increasingly larger parts of this topology in Packet Tracer. click Start > Control Panel > Add or Remove Programs. and UDP work together.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab4532. the instructor may want the application removed. however. Remember. turn off power to the host computers. UDP. Background Throughout the course. Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Application and Transport Layer Protocols Examination (4.6.1. Packet Tracer Challenge Skills Integration Challenge: Analyzing the Application and Transport Layers (4. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. To remove Wireshark. and switches to learn networking concepts. Scroll to the bottom of the list.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to perform this exercise using Packet Tracer. and TCP on the model of the lab network. Upon completion of this activity. and then click Remove. Explore How DNS.

0 255.10.255.168.10.2 192.0.1 172.16.168.254.254 172.255.253 10.6 10.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 123 Figure 4-21 Topology for Challenge 1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server 2960-24TT S1-Central 1841 R2-Central PC 1A PC 1B Table 4-18 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP Fa0/0 S0/0/0 192.example.254 172.255.255.254. Then configure it with the following settings: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ IP address 192.255.16.0 N/A N/A 10.252 255.com with the server’s IP address HTTP enabled .254 192.0 255.255.255.10.168.254 255.10.252 255.255.1.253 R2-Central Fa0/0 S0/0/0 S1-Central PC 1A PC 1B Eagle Server VLAN 1 NIC NIC NIC Task 1: Repair and Test the Topology The server has been replaced.16.10.254.16.254.16.254 Subnet mask 255.255.1 172.255.255.255.16.255.0 255.255.16.255.168.0.254.0. with the association of eagle-server.255.6 172.0 255.6 172.1.0 Default gateway 192.168.10.253 DNS enabled.255.10.254.5 172. It must be powered on.10.255.254 10.0.0 255.

Scenario 1 might have test packets between PC 1B and the routers). If you receive a Buffer Full message. Scenario 0 might have one test packet from PC 1A to Eagle Server. and TCP Work Together Switch from real time to simulation mode. or by clicking the Info column for that packet instance as it is listed in the Event List. HTTP. you should be able to see how DNS. and UDP and TCP. You can examine the packet in two ways: by clicking the packet envelope as it is displayed in the animation.example. In Packet Tracer. the test packet you just created between PC 1A and Eagle Server will be removed. Although the processing of the packets at the switch and the routers might not make sense to you yet. UDP. Inbound PDU Details. this is because of the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) process. UDP.” Double-clicking the Fire button in the PDU List window. HTTP.16. if you use the Delete button for Scenario 0. especially when the packets are at PC 1A or at the Eagle Server.255. UDP. Note that when you add a simple PDU. For example. Make sure Event Filter is set to display DNS. Play this animation and examine the packet contents (PDU Information window. This time it will succeed.168. . by using the Add Simple PDU to test connectivity between PC 1A and the Eagle Server. The first time you issue this one-shot ping message. You can remove all test packets in a particular scenario by using the Delete button. “Ethernet. TCP. which is explained later in Chapter 9. Test connectivity. and TCP work together by studying tracing the packets and using the PDU Information window to look “inside” them. please do this before the next task. in real time.0 Default gateway 172. it will show as Failed.254 Connect PC 1A to the Fa0/1 port of the S1-Central switch using a straight-through cable. UDP.255. Type the URL eagleserver. You can create different test packet scenarios by using the New button (for example. Configure it with the following settings: ■ ■ ■ ■ IP address 172.1. press Enter. Outbound PDU Details) for each event in the event list. and then use the Capture / Forward button in the event List to capture the interaction of DNS. Task 2: Explore How DNS. Verify your work using feedback from the Check Results button and the Assessment Items tab.1 Subnet mask 255. HTTP.254. the term scenario means a specific configuration of one or more test packets. Task 3: Reflection Can you make a diagram of the sequence of protocol events involved in requesting a web page using a URL? Where might things go wrong? Compare and contrast DNS and HTTP. and ICMP. click the View Previous Events button.254 DNS server 192. Open a web browser from the desktop of 1A. and TCP. PC 1A has lost its IP address information. send this single test ping a second time.0.16. it appears in the PDU List window as part of Scenario 0.com. HTTP.124 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Connect the Eagle Server to the Fa0/0 port on the R1-ISP router using a crossover cable.

. 4. and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of the importance of data networks and the major components and characteristics of network architectures. The network layer must provide a unique address for these end devices. As you work through this chapter. List three protocols implemented at the network layer that carry user data. Layer 3 uses the following four basic processes: 1. fill-in-the-blank. The network layer must provide services to direct these packets to their destination host. 2. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum activities and labs to ensure you have mastered the practical. Answers will vary but could include Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4). multiple-choice. Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6). the most significant difference between IPv4 and IPv6 is length. IPv4 defines many different fields in the packet header. These fields contain binary values that the IPv4 services reference as they forward packets across the network.CHAPTER 5 OSI Network Layer The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of matching. hands-on skills needed to understand the opportunities and challenges associated with modern networks. Concept Questions 1. What are the four basic processes used in the network layer to accomplish end-to-end transport? To accomplish end-to-end transport. The address space for IPv4 is 32 bit. and Connectionless Network Service (CLNS/DECNet) 3. The data must be packaged so that it can be sent in a manageable size. whereas IPv6 is 128 bit. Study Guide IPv4 The network layer provides services to exchange the individual pieces of data over the network between end devices. 2. The packet arrives at the destination host and is processed at Layer 3. The most significant network layer protocol is the Internet Protocol (IP). IP version 4 (IPv4) is the network layer protocol used as an example throughout this study guide. What is the most significant difference between the two? Although answers will vary. AppleTalk. use Chapter 5 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum or use the corresponding Chapter 5 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration Companion Guide for assistance. Novell Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX). 3. IPv4 is going to be replaced by IPv6.

Number of hops before packet is dropped: This value is decremented at each hop to prevent packets being passed around the network in routing loops. IPv4 is connectionless. which services have to resolve these issues? The upper-layer services resolve these issues. 6. 4. If out-of-order or missing packets create problems for the application using the data. The header of an IPv4 packet does not include fields required for reliable data delivery. because these transport layer protocols manage the receipt of their protocol data units (PDU) differently. 2.126 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide 4. What is this process called? Fragmentation Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks for the following questions. IPv4 address of host to receive the packet: enables routers at each hop to forward the packet towards the destination. Vocabulary Exercise: Define Table 5-1 lists the six key fields in a typical IPv4 header. These 13 bits allow a receiver to determine the place of a particular fragment in the original IP datagram. or wirelessly as radio signals. Each route that a packet takes to reach the next device is called a hop. Data quality of service (QoS) priority: Enables router to give priority to voice and network route information over regular data. Fill in the purpose of each field. best effort (unreliable). There are no acknowledgments of packet delivery. 5. Any individual IP packet can be communicated electrically over cable. 3. usually a router. 1. Fragment offset . an intermediary device. will need to split up a packet when forwarding it from one media to a media with a smaller maximum transmission unit (MTU). In some cases. as optical signals over fiber. List three basic characteristics of IPv4. The data payload protocol type: Denotes whether the data is a UDP datagram or TCP segment. Table 5-1 Field Key Fields of IPv4 Header Purpose IP source address IP destination address Time-to-Live (TTL) Type-of-Service (ToS) Protocol IPv4 address of host sending the packet: enables the destination host to respond to the source if required. and media independent. There is no error control for data. Intermediary devices that connect the networks are called routers.

7. Dividing large networks so that hosts who need to communicate are grouped together reduces the unnecessary overhead of all hosts needing to know all addresses. Answers will vary. On a Windows computer. Internet Research Exercise Use your favorite Internet search engine to find a website that describes the advantages to using hierarchical addressing. with the middle level denoting the network addresses and the lower level the individual hosts. When a host needs to communicate with another network. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks for the following questions. hosts communicate with each other without the need for any network layer intermediary device. Routing is done packet by packet and hop by hop. it is a good idea to break the network into groups. 6. Broadcasts are contained within a broadcast domain. The gateway. Routing: How Our Data Packets Are Handled Within a network or a subnetwork. 3. also known as the default gateway. The default gateway is a router on a network that serves as an exit from that network. Separating networks is relatively simple if you use hierarchical addressing. A hierarchical address uniquely identifies each host. acts as a gateway to the other network. what graphical user interface (GUI) tool do you use to configure the default gateway IPv4 address? The Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties tools . or router. they present problems that can be at least partially alleviated by dividing the network into smaller interconnected networks. Using a hierarchical addressing scheme means that the higher levels of the address can be retained. The firewall function performed by an intermediary permits only known. Be prepared to discuss and present your findings in class. A broadcast is a message sent from one host to all other hosts on the network. is needed to send a packet out of the local network. 1. 4. A router will do one of the following with a packet: ■ ■ ■ Forward it to the next-hop router Forward it to the destination host Drop it Concept Questions 1. trusted data to access the network.Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 127 Networks: Dividing Hosts into Groups As networks get larger. network layer addressing schemes are hierarchical. an intermediary device. Please be prepared to allot class time for discussions/presentations. 2. 5. To support data communications between networks over internetworks. As networks grow larger.

3. Packets with a destination network address that does not match a more specific route in the routing table are forwarded to the next-hop router associated with the default route. Define each term and write your responses in the definition column.0. To do this. When should you use a default route? A default route is used to forward packets for which there is no entry in the routing table for the destination network. 4. What is a default route? A default route is a route that will match all destination networks. the address of the default gateway (router interface) is the next hop for all packets destined for another network. the packet has to be routed outside the original network. if used) portion of their respective addresses. In IPv4 networks. What piece of addressing information should both the IPv4 host address and its default gateway share? The host IPv4 address and gateway address both must have the same network (and subnet. If the network portion of the destination address of the packet is different from the network of the originating host.0.0 is used for this purpose. For a host on a network. a packet cannot be forwarded without a route. 7.128 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide 2. A default route is a route that will match all destination networks. 5. Why is Layer 3 addressing hierarchical? The hierarchical nature of Layer 3 addressing means that one route entry could refer to a large general network and another entry could refer to a subnet of that same network. and metric. The default gateway is needed to send a packet out of the local network. the packet is sent to the gateway. 8. 6. the address 0. the router will select the most specific route. Vocabulary Exercise: Define Table 5-2 lists some terms about routing. next hop. The default route is used to forward packets for which there is no entry in the routing table for the destination network. Can a packet be forwarded without a route? No. Packets with a destination network address that does not match a more specific route in the routing table are forwarded to the next-hop router associated with the default route. which route will a router select? When forwarding a packet. Routes must have which three main features in a routing table? The three main features that routes must have in a routing table are destination network. Default route Gateway . When forwarding a packet. Table 5-2 Terms Routing Terms Definitions Definition Next hop A next hop is the address of the device that will process the packet next.

each known destination network needs to either have a route or a default route configured. The routing table contains the information that a router uses in its packet-forwarding decisions. or router. Static routing is routing that depends on manually entered routes in the routing table. this information is passed on to other routers. . the routing table needs to represent the most accurate state of network pathways that the router can access. Each router in a path does not need a route to all networks. Because packets are forwarded at every hop. As routers become aware of changes to the networks for which they act as the gateway. It only needs to know the next hop on the path to the packet’s destination network. Otherwise. 1. To ensure that packets are routed to use the best possible next hops. When a router receives information about new or changed routes. or changes to links between routers. passes the information to other routers. the packet is dropped at that hop. 2. Out-of-date routing information means that packets might not be forwarded to the most appropriate next hop. in turn. causing delays or packet loss. every router must be configured with static routes to next hops that reflect its location in the internetwork. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks for the following questions. For the routing decisions. 3. Routing is the process of finding a path to a destination host. Routing protocols are the set of rules by which routers dynamically share their routing information.Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 129 Routing Processes: How Routes Are Learned Routing requires that every hop. it updates its own routing table and. along the path to a packet’s destination have a route to forward the packet.

which is assigned to a network device that forwards packets between distant networks. Figure 5-1 shows the topology for this lab. Cisco estimates that 80 percent of network traffic will be destined to devices on other networks. By the use of several common utilities. network configuration on a pod host computer will be verified. the host portion of the IP address is used as the host identifier. Gateway addresses are important to users. For devices on the same LAN. and Table 5-3 shows the corresponding addressing table. A router is assigned the gateway address for all the devices on the LAN. users will not be able to perform their job. Troubleshoot a hidden gateway address problem. connectivity with Eagle Server will fail. . Therefore. A computer that communicates with another device must first know how to reach the device. if a gateway cannot be reached by the LAN devices. and only 20 percent of network traffic will go to local devices.130 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Labs and Activities Lab 5-1: Examining a Device’s Gateway (5. Understand how network information is configured on a Windows computer. devices on different networks have different source and destination network numbers. The network portion of the IP address is used to identify when a packet must be sent to a gateway address. If the pod host computer gateway address is not configured properly.1) Upon completion of this lab. Background An IP address is composed of a network portion and a host portion. but Eagle Server is located on a different network. Scenario Pod host computers must communicate with Eagle Server. This is called the 80/20 rule. However. The network portion of the destination device is the same as the network portion of the host device.1. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ Understand and explain the purpose of a gateway address.5. One purpose of a router is to serve as an entry point for packets coming into the network and exit point for packets leaving the network.

255.255.255.31.Pod#.10.0.6 N/A 192.168.16.Pod#.255.16.254 172.255.0 255.16.16.6 192.253 N/A 172.255.10.255.254 172.16.2 172.5 172.255.10.16.0.0.24.10.0 N/A N/A 10.255.255.255.254.254 R2-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Eagle Server N/A N/A Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central N/A N/A N/A .253 10.254 172.10.255.0 255.255.0 255.16.254.168.0 255.255.255.0 255.255.168.Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 131 Figure 5-1 Topology for Lab 5-1 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 Table 5-3 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP S0/0/0 Fa0/0 10.254.1 172.254.10.254 192.1 255.254 172.255.255.0.252 255.0 255.252 255.

0 and 0.16.10. Any device that has the same network address (in this example. and that Eagle Server is on.com. shown in the preceding logical addressing table. 0. The first highlighted line shows what gateway address is used to forward all network packets destined outside of the LAN. verify that the host has the correct DNS address and can ping eagle-server.255. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests. For any nonlocal network. and can ping R2-Central. called the loopback interface. One popular command is netstat –r. is automatically assigned to the 127. If the ping test fails. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server.16.0.6. ping S1Central.16.16. ping Eagle Server. Verify that all network equipment is powered on. refer to any network not specifically known.254.0. Figure 5-2 shows two devices on the same network communicating with the ping command.example. Step 2. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address.1.254.0. this computer will use 172. 172. 10. and finally Eagle Server.0. Task 1: Understand and Explain the Purpose of a Gateway Address For LAN traffic.com. the netstat –r command is used to view the gateway addresses for this computer. The fourth highlighted line displays the information in humanreadable form.0 network.0. The “quad-zero” Network Destination and Netmask values. More specific networks are reached through other gateway addresses. and can ping R1-ISP. Figure 5-2 Communication Between LAN Devices Referring to Figure 5-2. check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central. If an individual host computer cannot connect to Eagle Server. the gateway address is the address of the Ethernet device. the lab topology might have been modified before this class.255. 172.0) is on the same LAN.0. R2-Central. Step 3.1? 00:10:a4:7b:01:5f Several Windows commands will display a network gateway address. In Example 5-1.10. Verify that the host computer has the correct gateway IP address. troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity with the following steps: Step 1. R1-ISP. From a known good host computer.132 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Note to instructor: Depending on the classroom situation.255. 172. This interface is . It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity. Finally.example.0.16. A local interface.254 as the default gateway. what is the MAC address of the network device on IP address 172.0.

..1.. Use the ping command to ping different IP addresses on the 127.0.2 172.255. This entry is the third highlighted line.00 16 76 ac a7 6a Intel(R) 82562V 10/100 Network Connection ======================================================================= ======================================================================= Active Routes: Network Destination 0. any device on network 172.255 255.16.16.0.2 172..2.0.16..1.10.0.254 Gateway 172.1.1.16.16.255. why? For 127.255 Default Gateway: Netmask 0..255.0..2 127.255.1 172.2 Interface 172.0.1.255.1.255. Pings will fail.1..16.10.0.255.255 is the network broadcast address..0 172.255.1 172.0 255.0 255.255.0...2 127.2 172. 127.16..1.16. What is the default gateway address? 172...0 127.0.0. MS TCP Loopback interface 0x20005 .255.2 127..0 network.0.0.1 172..0..Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 133 used to identify the local host to local network services.255. no.255 255.0 255.0.255.0.0.255.255.16. Finally.. Example 5-1 Output of the netstat Command C:\>netstat –r Route Table ======================================================================= Interface List 0x1 .16.254 127.0..255.0.2 Metric 1 1 20 20 20 1 ======================================================================= Persistent Routes: None C:\> Step 1.255.1 172.1.255 172.16...0. the IP address for this Ethernet interface. Pings are successful to any valid 127. Open a terminal window on a pod host computer. For 127. Use the ping command to verify connectivity with IP address 127.16.16. Was the ping successful? Yes Step 3.0 is accessed through gateway 172. Were responses successful? If not.0.0. See the second highlighted entry.255. 127.0.0 172.0.255.0 host IP address.0. yes.16.255 255.254 Step 2.0.1. and 127.1. ..1.1.255..255..255..16..1.

254.168.16. a router. several tools are available to quickly determine the network configuration for any Windows computer. select Internet Protocol (TCP/IP). .168. communication between devices on different networks is different than on a LAN. Figure 5-3 Communication Between Devices on Different Networks Referring to Figure 5-3. Step 1. This gateway device.168. One method that might prove useful to determine the network interface IP properties is to examine the pod host computer’s Network Properties settings.254. For troubleshooting connectivity issues. Click Start > Control Panel > Network Connections. To access this window.254 is on a different network. for which IP can you not find a MAC address? 192.254. Examine network properties settings. initiates a ping to IP address 192. Right-click Local Area Connection. Task 2: Understand How Network Information Is Configured on a Windows Computer Many times connectivity issues are attributed to incorrect network settings. On the General tab. In essence.254.1.16. Because IP address 192.134 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide A default gateway address permits a network device to communicate with other devices on different networks. All traffic destined to different networks must go through the network device that has the default gateway address. what is the MAC address of the gateway device? 00:0c:85:cf:66:40 Referring to Figure 5-3. IP address 172.2. the pod host computer requests the MAC address of the default gateway device. The MAC address of 192.168.254.254 is only important to the gateway device on the same LAN that must eventually deliver the packet to that IP address. As shown in Figure 5-3.0 differs from 192. A window similar to the one in Figure 5-4 will display. it is the door to other networks. scroll down the list of items in the pane.0. and click the Properties button. The information cannot be determined from any device on this LAN.254. the Layer 2 MAC addresses will change before the packet reaches its destination. and choose Properties. Because network 172.168.0. The computer composes the Layer 2 header with the destination MAC address of the router and places frames on the wire to the gateway device.254. Pod host computer 2. responds with its MAC address.

. In this case. : 255. . . . . The second highlight shows the subnet mask. . .255. . . . .0 .255.16. . Figure 5-5 Network Interface with Dynamic IP Address A more consistently reliable method for determining network settings on a Windows computer is to use the ipconfig command. : IP Address. . . . .254 The first highlight shows the IP address for this pod host computer. . .16. . . Example 5-2 Output of the ipconfig Command C:\>ipconfig Windows IP Configuration Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection: Connection-specific DNS Suffix . as shown in Example 5-2. : 172.1. a dynamic IP address may be configured.Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 135 Figure 5-4 Network Interface with Static IP Address However.2 Subnet Mask . The third highlight shows the default gateway address. . . . as shown in Figure 5-5. . . Default Gateway .0. . : 172. the Network Properties settings window is not very useful for determining IP address information.

. . . . . .16. .254 Note to instructors: Only the IP address should be different on a student’s pod host computer. . . The technician received a trouble ticket from a user on computer host 1A. . . . .0. accessible with the command ipconfig /?. .com. . You check with the corporate network engineer. .0 Default Gateway . . . . .168. : No IP Address. . . . . . .254. : 172. : No .136 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Several options are available with the ipconfig command. . . . . . : 192.2 Subnet Mask . who reports that R2-Central has been temporarily brought down for a hardware upgrade. . Refer to the network topology in Figure 5-1 and the logical IP address assignments in Table 5-3. : 255. . : No .255. use the command ipconfig /all. . . . : Unknown Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection: Connection-specific DNS Suffix Network Connection Physical Address. : 172. . : Intel (R) 82562V 10/100 Step 2. .255. : . . . .0 172. . . . . . does not respond to pings. host-11B. . . The technician verified the cables and network settings on both computers. . . . . Using the command ipconfig /all. . .1. . . . . . . .0. . .16. . all other values should be the same as shown. .255. as shown in Example 5-3. As the third-shift help desk Cisco engineer. The highlighted line shows the domain name server IP address. .168. .255.16. . . . . . . . : 00-16-76-AC-A7-6A Dhcp Enabled. . . Example 5-3 Output of the ipconfig /all Command C:\>ipconfig /all Windows IP Configuration Host Name . . . complaining that computer host 11B. . . . . . . ipconfig Table Address Table 5-4 Description IP address Subnet mask Default gateway DNS server 172. . fill in the Table 5-4 with information from your pod host computer. . . . . .1. . . . : Node Type . . .254 Description . but nothing unusual was found. . .16.254. you are asked for assistance from the help desk technician. . . . To show the most information about the network connections. . . Task 3: Troubleshoot a Hidden Gateway Address Problem When troubleshooting network issues.example.254 DNS Servers . . .254 192. : GW-desktop-hom Primary Dns Suffix IP Routing Enabled WINS Proxy Enabled .2 255. . . . . a thorough understanding of the network can often assist in identifying the real problem.

0. and leave the room ready for the next class.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. R2-Central. Task 4: Reflection A gateway address is critical to network connectivity. the gateway router is back on line and normal network operation resumes. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. but DNS will not work. Within the hour. and the pings fail.1. Observe the communication sequence between network devices. The pings succeed. after that. First.Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 137 Nodding your head in understanding. IP network 192. use the hostname of the destination pod computer for DNS to reply with the destination IP address. especially the gateway. Windows command-line utilities such as netstat –r and ipconfig /all will report gateway settings on host computers. If the gateway is down. and in some instances LAN devices require a default gateway to communicate with other devices on the LAN. you ask the technician to ping the IP address for host 11B.254. you ask the technician to ping the gateway IP address.254.16. You instruct the help desk technician to tell the user to use the IP address for host 11B temporarily.2 from host 1A. What is wrong? Because the DNS server is on a different network than the LAN. Remember. The gateway address should not be needed. turn off power to the host computers. 172. Then. . A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity.168. Packet Tracer Activity Packet Tracer Companion: Examining a Device’s Gateway (5. DNS requests from the LAN devices must go through the gateway device. Next. however. Task 6: Clean Up Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. You might have to restart the host computer to flush the DNS cache. capture a ping between network devices using only IP addresses.5.11. 172.16. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. LAN computers still have connectivity between each other.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab5512. Task 5: Challenge Use Wireshark to capture a ping between two pod host computers. the user is able to establish connectivity with the computer.254.

Figure 5-6 Topology for Lab 5-2 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 . and then add the default gateway route back to the host table. This lab compares how routes are used in Windows computers and the Cisco router. Some routes are added to routing tables automatically. Examine router routes using basic Cisco IOS commands. test the connection. Use a Windows Telnet client command telnet to connect to a Cisco router. For networks that are not directly connected.5. and the network route is automatically entered into the routing table. and Table 5-5 shows the corresponding addressing table.138 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Lab 5-2: Examining a Route (5. examine the routing table with the route command and identify the different routes and gateway IP address for the route. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ Use the route command to modify a Windows computer routing table. Scenario Using a pod host computer. The device considers a network directly connected when it has an IP address and network mask configured. a default gateway IP address is configured that will send traffic to a device that should know about the network.1) Learning Objectives Upon completion of this lab. and examine the routing table. a device must know the route to the destination network. Use a pod host computer to telnet into R2-Central. Figure 5-6 shows the topology for this lab.2. Background For packets to travel across a network. based upon configuration information on the network interface. Delete the default gateway route.

10. 172. ping Eagle Server.168.253 10.252 255.255.0 255. 10. R1-ISP.com.6. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity.0.254 172.255. and can ping eagle-server.0 255.255. the lab topology might have been modified before this class.255.255.253 N/A 172.255.255.Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 139 Table 5-5 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP S0/0/0 Fa0/0 10.254 172.0 255.254. and can ping R2-Central.254. shown in the preceding logical addressing table.0. Verify that the host computer has the correct gateway IP address.10.254. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests.1 255.255.16.0 255.254 192.example.Pod#. Verify that all network equipment is powered on.com.0.0 255.255.255. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address.31. and finally Eagle Server.252 255. output from the netstat –r command is useful to determine route and gateway information. check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central.10. and can ping R1-ISP. Finally.6 192.16. verify that the host has the correct DNS address.10.255.255. troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity using the following steps: Step 1.254 R2-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Eagle Server N/A N/A Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central N/A N/A N/A Note to instructor: Depending on the classroom situation.16. .254 172. students telnet into R2-Central and view the routing table. Task 1: Use the route Command to Modify a Windows Computer Routing Table Shown in Example 5-4.168. Ensure that the privileged exec password has been changed from the default value of cisco.10.10.255.254.255. 172.2 172. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server. ping S1Central.24.16.1 172. If an individual host computer cannot connect to Eagle Server.0.255. and that Eagle Server is on.254 172.example.16.6 N/A 192.254.168. Step 2. If the ping test fails.0 N/A N/A 10.5 172.255.254.16. In this lab.255. Step 3. R2-Central.Pod#.255.16.10. From a known good host computer.255.255.16.16.10.0 255.

0 172..255. Examine the active routes on a Windows computer.255 255.16.... issue the command route PRINT...2 172.1 172.1 172...16.255.255.255 Default Gateway: Netmask 0.2 Interface 172.0.0. or change routing table entries.0. as shown in Example 5-6.16.255..0 172.255 172.0 127.255 255.255..255.0.0.2 127.255.1.1.255.0. as shown in Example 5-5..255. Unlike the netstat –r command.2 172..0 255.2 172.1.00 16 76 ac a7 6a Intel(R) 82562V 10/100 Network Connection ======================================================================= ======================================================================= Active Routes: Network Destination 0.16. MS TCP Loopback interface 0x20005 .0.0.0.254 127..0.2 127. delete.16.16..2 127.255.16..0. use the option route /?...0..0. .0.1.1. the route command can be used to view.0 255. add. A useful command to modify the routing table is the route command..1..140 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example 5-4 Output of the netstat Command C:\>netstat –r Route Table ======================================================================= Interface List 0x1 .1 172.1 172.254 Gateway 172.16.0 255...0.255.0.16.1.1.16. Example 5-5 Output of the route Command C:\>route /? An abbreviated option list for the route command is shown below: route PRINT route ADD route DELETE route CHANGE Prints active routes Adds a route: Deletes a route: Modifies an existing route route ADD network MASK mask gateway route DELETE network To view active routes.16.2 Metric 1 1 20 20 20 1 ======================================================================= Persistent Routes: None C:\> Step 1.. To view detailed information about the route command..255.0.16..255 255..0.

1 172.254..255..2 Metric 1 1 20 20 20 1 ======================================================================= Verify network connectivity to Eagle Server...254 Step 2.0.16....com [192..255.2 127.255 Default Gateway: Persistent Routes: None C:\> Netmask 0.2 172.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 141 Example 5-6 Output of the route PRINT Command C:\ >route PRINT ======================================================================= Interface List 0x1 ..168.255.0..16. How important is the default gateway route? Delete the gateway route.00 16 76 ac a7 6a .0.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Ping statistics for 192.254 127..16... and try to ping Eagle Server. Received = 4.0..1. Maximum = 0ms.0.255.0.0.1 172.16. Delete a route from the Windows computer routing table.16.168.0.168. Example 5-7 Output of the ping Command C:\> ping eagle-server.1.1.255 255.254. The syntax to remove the default gateway route is this: route DELETE network The full command is as follows: C:/> route DELETE 0.255.1 172...2 172.0 255.168.0 172. Average = 0ms C:\> What is the gateway address to eagle-server.254: Packets: Sent = 4.2 172.255 255.2 127.255..255 172.168.Intel(R) 82562V 10/100 Network Connection ======================================================================= Active Routes: Network Destination 0..0.255 255.com? 172.example. MS TCP Loopback interface 0x70003 .255.0 255.255.0.16..0 .0.16.0.16..1 172.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.0 127.16.255.0.0. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms.254 Gateway 172.0 255.254. Lost = 0 (0% loss).example.1.1..com Pinging eagle-server.254.0 172.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.0.0.16..2 Interface 172.0.255.0.16.0.example.1..16.255.2 127.255.168.255. as shown in Example 5-7.0...1.16.254...254] with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 192.254..1.

0 255..255.0 255...255.16.2 Metric 1 20 20 20 20 1 ======================================================================= Try to ping Eagle Server.255 224.0.1 172.0. Can other LAN devices be reached.0.2 127.0 172.1 172.1. the name will not be resolved because the DNS server is not on the LAN.0. Step 3.0.0.0 255.2 172.0...2 172.0.255.255.0...com is stored in the computer’s cache.16..16..255.0. Insert a route into the Windows computer routing table.16.example.0.1..16..1.0.com? The IP address for eagle-server.0 MASK 0.16.MS TCP Loopback interface 0x70003 .255.254 . how can the DNS server be reached to resolve eagle-server.16. What are the results? Eagle Server cannot be reached.255..Intel(R) 82562V 10/100 Network Connection ======================================================================= ======================================================================= Active Routes: Network Destination 127.16.1.254? Yes.0.. and verify that the default gateway route has been removed: What is the default gateway IP address? With the default route removed. If the computer is rebooted. Removing the default gateway has no effect on LAN connectivity. If the default gateway IP address is removed.0 172.255 Persistent Routes: None C:\> Netmask 255.255.0.0. C:\> route PRINT ======================================================================= Interface List 0x1 .16..1..16.example.142 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Examine the active routing table.2 172. use the IP address assigned to your host pod interface.0.255 255.255..16..2 172. or the cache times out.255 Gateway 127.255.1..1. such as 172..1.2 Interface 127..1.00 16 76 ac a7 6a ..0.1 172.. there is no default gateway IP address. In the following configuration.0.255.0.0...2 172..0.255 240.0 255.0..255. The syntax to add a route to the Windows computer routing table is this: route ADD network MASK mask gateway-IP address The full command appears is as follows: C:/> route ADD 0.16.16..1 172.2 127.0 172.

254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Ping statistics for 192..2 Metric 1 1 20 20 20 1 255.254. Has the default gateway route been restored? Yes C:\ >route PRINT ======================================================================= Interface List 0x1 .0.0.254.254.. C:\> ping eagle-server.255..254: Packets: Sent = 4.1 172.example.254] with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 192.254. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms.0.com [192.com Pinging eagle-server..1.254 127..16..1 172..255 Netmask 0.254..255.255..1.16..0. Received = 4.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.example... MS TCP Loopback interface 0x70003 .0.255.0.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.2 127.16.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.. Average = 0ms C:\> .0.16.16.2 127.1.2 Interface 172.0.1 172.1 172.0.0.0..16.16.1.2 172.0 255.0 127.255 255.0 255.0 172.0..255 255.168.168..2 172.0 255..168...1.255 Default Gateway: 172.255 Gateway 172.1.2 172.255.2 127.0.0.255.168.254 ======================================================================= Persistent Routes: None C:\> Try to ping Eagle Server.0 172.255..16.255..00 16 76 ac a7 6a .16.Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 143 Examine the active routing table.254.168.1.. Maximum = 0ms.255..1..0.255.0.0.Intel(R) 82562V 10/100 Network Connection ======================================================================= ======================================================================= Active Routes: NetworkDestination 0. Lost = 0 (0% loss).255.. What are the results? Eagle Server can be reached again.16.255.0.16...16.168..

A username and password will be required to log in to the router. log in to a Cisco router.16. ccna2 is for students on pod 2 computers. and press Enter. Cisco devices have a Telnet server and. Access to the router is restricted. enter the following command: C:/> telnet 172. will permit remote logins. Ensure that the privileged exec password has been changed from the default value of cisco. Table 5-6 shows the pod numbers and the corresponding usernames.144 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 2: Use a Windows Telnet Client Command telnet to Connect to a Cisco Router In this task. cisco.254 <ENTER> A login window will prompt for a username. you telnet into the R2-Central router and use common Cisco IOS commands to examine the router routing table. Type the password. if properly configured. Table 5-6 Pod Number Pod Number Table Username 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 ccna1 ccna2 ccna3 ccna4 ccna5 ccna6 ccna7 ccna8 ccna9 ccna10 ccna11 To start a Telnet session with router R2-Central. and requires a username and password. Step 1. the corresponding password is cisco. A terminal window and prompt should be available. The password for all usernames is cisco. For all usernames. Username ccna1 is for users on pod 1 computers. The username depends on the pod. and so on. Using the Windows Telnet client. however.255. Enter the applicable username. For instructors. as shown in Example 5-8. students telnet into R2-Central and view the routing table. Type cmd. and then click OK. Note to instructors: In this lab. and press Enter. The router prompt should be visible after a successful login. . The default password should have been changed to something other than cisco. the username is instructor. Open a terminal window by clicking Start > Run. The Telnet utility has several options and can be viewed with the telnet /? command.

because the job of a router is to route traffic between networks. M . a router is knowledgeable about directly connected networks. O . Only limited permissions for ccnax usernames are available.0. Example 5-9 shows the routing table for R2-Central. * .periodic downloaded static route Gateway of last resort is 10.OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 .OSPF external type 1. P . Authorized access only. L1 .IS-IS. R2-Central#.Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 145 Example 5-8 Output for R2-Central ************************************************************ This is Eagle 1 lab router R2-Central. The purpose of this task was to establish a Telnet session. a successful Telnet login has been created. su . Example 5-9 Output of the show ip route Command R2-Central#show ip route Codes: C . however.10. Task 3: Examine Router Routes Using Basic Cisco IOS Commands As with any network device.OSPF inter area N1 . The route information displayed is much more detailed than the route information on a host computer. U .EIGRP. it is not possible to modify router settings or view the configuration. R .OSPF external type 2 i . ************************************************************ User Access Verification Username: ccna1 Password: cisco !The password is hidden when typed in R2-Central> At the prompt.mobile.connected.10. N2 .6 to network 0.ODR. The information required of this task. S .OSPF NSSA external type 1.Static.0. therefore. IA .0 . EX .BGP D . a router may also employ a default gateway. This is to be expected.IS-IS summary. but instead uses a common IOS command to view the routing table.IS-IS level-1. L2 .per-user static route o . In the next task.IS-IS inter area. gateway addresses instruct the device about how to reach other networks when no other information is available.EIGRP external.IS-IS level-2 ia . E2 . which has been accomplished. The syntax to view the routing table is this: show ip route <ENTER> Enter the command to display the router routing table.RIP. This task does not examine Cisco IOS commands in detail. the router routing table is examined. B . is not difficult to glean.candidate default. Also similar to a host computer.OSPF. Similar to the host computer default gateway IP address.

M .0. EX . . The Telnet client will also close the connection with the Telnet escape sequence Ctrl+] and quit.0. E2 .0.RIP.EIGRP external. Serial0/2/0 0.6 R2-Central# Two highlighted lines in the example show C. Serial0/2/0 0.0 C 172.OSPF NSSA external type 1.0. 1 subnets C S* 10. denoting a static route.IS-IS.OSPF external type 1.10.Static. 1 subnets C S* 10.0.10. Close the terminal window.6 R2-Central# The Codes section shown in Example 5-10 explains the symbols to the left of each route entry.254. U . What would the router do with packets destined to 192. If there is no other route in the routing table. su . O .per-user static route o .146 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example 5-9 Output of the show ip route Command continued C 172.254? The router will use gateway of last resort IP address to forward packets destined to 192.0/0 [1/0] via 10.0. S .0/0 [1/0] via 10.16.0.168.10. The asterisk shows the example is a candidate default route.0/16 is directly connected.254.10. B .0. exit the router with the command exit. N2 .0/16 is directly connected.10.EIGRP.0).ODR.OSPF.IS-IS summary.BGP D .OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 . IP mask information is displayed as a numeric value (prefix). FastEthernet0/0 10.10.10. L2 .0.0.10.mobile.10.0/30 is subnetted. such as /30 or /16.10.IS-IS level-2 ia .16. IA . How is IP mask information displayed in a router routing table? Unlike the pod host computer.4 is directly connected.IS-IS level-1. P . which is manually entered by the network administrator. L1 .254. which denotes directly connected networks and the interface that supports the connection.periodic downloaded static route Gateway of last resort is 10.0. * .OSPF inter area N1 . When finished examining the routing table.candidate default. Example 5-10 Explanation of Codes R2-Central#show ip route Codes:?C .4 is directly connected. R .0/30 is subnetted.0.0.IS-IS inter area.168.6 to network 0. because the route is “quad-zero”(0.OSPF external type 2 i . use the gateway of last resort IP address to forward packets. FastEthernet0/0 10.connected. One highlighted line shows S.0.

. turn off power to the host computers. did not display DNS server information.254 <output omitted> R2-Central# Task 6: Clean Up Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. delete. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. statically assigned routes.5 unassigned OK? Method Status YES manual up YES unset Protocol up administratively down down up YES manual up YES unset administratively down down Using Windows commands and the Cisco IOS commands in this lab.Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 147 Task 4: Reflection Two new Windows commands were used in this lab. the Cisco IOS command show ip interface brief shown in Example 511 will display IP address assignments. telnet.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab5522. Similar to the Windows ipconfig command. however. The Windows Telnet client.10. and add route information on the pod host computer. and gateway of last resort information are displayed.255.254. however. Task 5: Challenge You can use other Cisco IOS commands to view IP address information on a router.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Examining a Route (5. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity. and leave the room ready for the next class.254 unassigned 10. The router routing table was examined with the Cisco IOS command show ip route. compare network information output. Remember. The route command was used to view. was used to connect to a lab router.5. This technique will be used in other labs to connect to Cisco network devices. R2-Central. R2-Central#show hosts Default domain is not set Name/address lookup uses domain service Name servers are 192.2. The Cisco router. Routes for directly connected networks. Example 5-11 Output of the show ip interface brief Command R2-Central#show ip interface brief Interface FastEthernet0/0 FastEthernet0/1 Serial0/2/0 Serial0/2/1 R2-Central# IP-Address 172. What was missing? What critical network information was similar? Both devices displayed directly connected routes and a default gateway route.10.16.168.

10.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to perform this exercise using Packet Tracer.255.255. and Telnet.16.255.254.255.255. At the end of each chapter.2 192.6. servers.252 255.168. works in the context of a simple example of IP routing. DHCP.10.0.255.0. and analyze increasingly more complex protocol interactions.0.0 N/A N/A 10. In this activity.6 172. routers.255.6 172.168. TFTP.253 10.255.16. HTTP. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ ■ Configure a router interface using a GUI. Figure 5-7 shows the topology for this skills integration challenge.148 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Packet Tracer Challenge Skills Integration Challenge: Routing IP Packets (5.1 172.16.255.1 172.1. in Inbound and Outbound PDU Details view they were always encapsulated in IP packets.254.10.255.1.16.10.16.254 172. You may have noticed that regardless of what application and transport protocols were involved.253 R2-Central Fa0/0 S0/0/0 S1-Central PC 1A PC 1B Eagle Server VLAN 1 NIC NIC NIC .252 255. you will build increasingly larger parts of this topology in Packet Tracer.6 10.10. you will be using a standard lab setup created from actual PCs.254 192. Configure a static route using a GUI. Explore a routing table. Background Throughout the course.255. Upon completion of this activity. and two transport layer protocols. such as DNS.10.0 255.254 172.254 10.0 255.16.3) Open the file LSG01-PTSkills5.10. you will examine how IP.5 172. and switches to learn networking concepts. Table 5-7 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP Fa0/0 S0/0/0 192.254 255.0.168. TCP and UDP. Explore the routing of IP packets.0 255.255. You have already studied a variety of application protocols.255.255.0 255.0 255. the dominant network layer protocol of the Internet.255. and Table 5-7 shows the corresponding addressing table.254.255.1.10.254.16.

Task 2: Examining Routes Use the Inspect tool (magnifying glass) to examine the routing table of R2-Central. and note the condition of the Fa0/0 interface (to which switch is connected). and be turned on to act as the default gateway for the LAN.Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 149 Figure 5-7 Topology for Challenge 1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server 2960-24TT S1-Central 1841 R2-Central PC 1A PC 1B Task 1: Configure a Router Interface There is a problem on the LAN: PC 1A cannot reach the Eagle Server (verify this in real-time mode). Verify that the router interface (port) is now working by using the mouse over. In the list shown. the Config tab is easier and will allow you to focus on the basic idea of IP routing. For now. FastEthernet0/0. It appears there is a problem with the router.255. find INTERFACE. .254 with subnet mask 255. Add the IP address 172. and turn the port on. Try reaching Eagle Server. you will learn how to use the Cisco IOS command-line interface (CLI) to perform this task.16. Move your cursor over the R2-Central router. This interface must have an IP address. The request still fails. Click router R2-Central and go to the Config tab. subnet mask. but there is no way to reach the Eagle Server network.255. At the end of the course.0. Close the router window.0. You will see the router’s directly connected networks. What are some possible reasons why? One possible reason Eagle Server cannot be reached is the fact that it is using a static IP and not the default route.

0. in real time. This route is configured so that wherever packets from the 172.0. and the next hop of 10. You should now see the route you configured in the routing table.0 /16 LAN are destined.10. will appear in the User Created PDU list for future use. In the list shown. Test connectivity. Settings. double-click Fire to send it again. too.150 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 3: Configure a Route Using a GUI Click router R2-Central and go to the Config tab. a one-shot ping. Use the Inspect tool (magnifying glass) to examine the routing table of R2-Central again. Using the PDU you created in Task 3. find ROUTING.6 (the S0/0/0 interface on the R1-ISP router) and click the Add button. they will go to the R1-ISP router. Verify your work using feedback from the Check Results button and the Assessment Items tab. Under GLOBAL.0. The PDU. using the address 0.0. by using Add Simple PDU to test connectivity between PC 1A and the Eagle Server.16. Task 4: Examine the Routing of the IP Packet Switch to simulation mode. click the Save button to save the interface and route configuration you have just done to NVRAM (in case the router is power cycled). Task 5: Reflection What data can an IP packet contain? What is meant by the phrase “the IP packet is routed”? What is a route? Where might things go wrong? . Trace the packet’s journey from PC 1A to Eagle Server and back using the Capture / Forward button and examining the packet’s contents by either clicking the envelope or clicking the colored square in the Info column of the event list.0.0.0. mask 0. Configure what is known as a default static route. Static.10.

hands-on skills needed to understand the opportunities and challenges associated with IPv4. These addresses are used in the data network as binary patterns. 3. Study Guide IPv4 Addresses With IPv4. 4. What is another name for digital logic? Boolean logic. In this chapter. for assistance. or use the corresponding Chapter 6 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration Companion Guide. What is the format used for IP addresses called? Dotted decimal. Data that appears in binary may represent many different forms of data to the human network. Concept Questions 1. What is another way to refer to 1 byte or 8 bits? Octet. use Chapter 6 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum. As you work through this chapter. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum activities and labs to ensure you have mastered the practical. This means that we look at each byte as a decimal number in the range of 0 to 255.CHAPTER 6 Addressing the Network: IPv4 The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of matching. For each IPv4 address. we define a network as a group of hosts that have identical bit patterns in the network address portion of their addresses. At Layer 3. fill-in-the-blank. and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of network addressing. . some portion of the high-order bits represents the network address. multiple-choice. 2. each packet has a 32-bit source address and a 32-bit destination address in the Layer 3 header. What does IPv4 provide for packets that carry data? Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) provides hierarchical addressing for packets that carry data. we refer to binary as it relates to IPv4 addressing.

Network address B.4. The address by which we refer to the network In Table 6-2. Convert each octet to decimal. match the type of network address on the left to its definition on the right. Binary number: 10101100000100000000010000010100 IP address: 172. keeping in mind the following: ■ ■ ■ Divide the 32 bits into four octets. Multicast B. Broadcast address C. IP address: 172. The process of sending a packet from one host to all hosts in the network C. Add a “dot” between each decimal.20 Decimal-to-Binary Conversion Exercise Convert the following IP address into a 32-bit binary number. match the type of communication on the left to its definition on the right. Table 6-1 Network Address Type Matching Exercise Definition Address Type A. A special address used to send data to all hosts in the network C.5. Table 6-2 Communication Type Matching Exercise Communication Type Definition A.152 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Binary-to-Decimal Conversion Exercise Convert the following 32-bit binary number into an IP address. Unicast B. Host address B.20 Binary number: 10101100000100000000010100010100 Addresses for Different Purposes Within the address range of each IPv4 network are three types of addresses: ■ ■ ■ Network addresses Broadcast addresses Host addresses Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 6-1.16. The process of sending a packet from one host to an individual host .16. An address assigned to an end device in the network A. The process of sending a packet from one host to a selected group of hosts A. Broadcast C.

addresses 127.255. Which addresses in a network cannot be assigned to hosts? The first (network address) and last (broadcast address).0 to 169.0.255.0 to 127.255. What is the prefix length? The prefix length is the number of bits in the address that gives us the network portion. The globally scoped multicast addresses are 224.0 to 192.0.0 to 192.0 to 10.0 /16) 4. 1.0.0. 3.255.254.255 (169. 4.16. One major block of addresses reserved for special purposes is the IPv4 experimental address range 240.255.255 (192.255.255.31.0.0. 2.255. Concept Questions 1. 7. Another major block of addresses reserved for special purposes is the IPv4 multicast address range 224.255 (0.0.0.1.0.0. How do you know how many bits represent the network portion and how many bits represent the host portion? When we express an IPv4 network address.254.0.0.255.2. Currently.0. we add a prefix length to the network address.0 to 239. What is the loopback address. or find a calculator for the three address types.0 /24) .0.2.0.0 to 255.0 /16) 8.16.255. Vocabulary: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following sentences.2. these addresses are listed as reserved for future use (RFC 3330). 5.255.0.0 /8) 172.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 153 Internet Research Exercise Using any search engine available on the Internet. What block of addresses is designated “link-local”? 169.254. What are the private address blocks? 10. Be sure to include class time for presentations or discussions.0. 3.255.255.1 address is used.0 /8) 6.0.168. Expressed in dotted-decimal format.255.168. the IPv4 address range is 0.255 (172.0. What block of addresses is designated “TEST-NET”? 192.0.0 to 172. 2.255 are reserved.255 (192. and what block is reserved for loopback? Although only the single 127.0.0.255.0 to 255.0.0 to 238. What is the reserved block for default routing? 0.168.0. look up a website detailing the utility of calculating addresses by hand.255.0.255.255.0 /12) 192.255 (10.0.255. Answers will vary.255.254.

Be prepared to discuss your opinions of the IANA with the class. List four types of devices that work best using static IP addresses. hosts that are accessible from the Internet. With the classless system. If hosts normally access a server at a particular IP address.154 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide 9. are acceptable: Servers. Static addresses are useful for printers. Go to the IANA website at http://www. peripherals. Assigning Addresses The allocation of network layer address space within the corporate network needs to be well designed. and other networking devices that need to be accessible to clients on the network. However. Answers will vary. Answers will vary. The allocation of these addresses inside the networks should be planned and documented for the following reasons: ■ ■ ■ Preventing duplication of addresses Providing and controlling access Monitoring security and performance Internet Research Exercises Using your favorite search engine. the address is returned to the pool for reuse. Nor should address assignment within the network be random. DHCP generally is the preferred method of assigning IP addresses to hosts on large networks because it reduces the burden on network support staff and virtually eliminates entry errors.iana. and spend a few minutes familiarizing yourself with the site. it would cause problems if that address changed. Answers will vary. servers. address blocks appropriate to the number of hosts are assigned to companies or organizations without regard to the unicast class. Concept Questions 1. it can be time-consuming to enter the information on each host. 2. Describe the pros and cons of static addressing. Answers will vary for both exercises. Be sure to include class time for presentations or discussions. If the host is powered down or taken off the network. This feature is especially helpful for mobile users who come and go on a network. Be prepared to present your findings. Network administrators should not randomly select the addresses used in their networks. 3. Additionally. Any of the following. firewalls. . intermediary devices. Another benefit of DHCP is that an address is not permanently assigned to a host but is only “leased” for a period of time. Define classless addressing.org. static assignment of addressing information can provide increased control over network resources. Describe the pros and cons of using DHCP for addressing. in any order. search for an example of an IPv4 addressing scheme or an article about IPv4’s addressing. routers.

We express the subnet mask in the same dotted-decimal format as the IPv4 address. QoS mechanisms. Tier 2: Tier 2 ISPs generally focus on business customers. 192 d. 11111110 i. integrated security. 254 b. Tier 3: The focus of these ISPs is the retail and home markets in a specific locale. 11100000 e. What is the primary focus of each of the three tiers of ISPs? Tier 1: The primary focus of Tier 1 ISPs is reliability and/or speed. Binary Matching Exercise There are a limited number of subnet mask octets. Table 6-3 IPv4 Binary Matching Exercise Numeric Value Binary Number a. 10000000 c. 11110000 f. 224 f. and any of these may appear in any order: Improved packet handling. 11111100 h. In Table 6-3. header format simplification. 128-bit hierarchical addressing. 00000000 b. The prefix and the subnet mask are different ways of representing the same thing—the network portion of an address. 11111000 g. authentication and privacy capabilities. the devices use a separate 32-bit pattern called a subnet mask. 5. 11000000 d. 11111111 c. match the binary number to its numeric value. 128 . improved support for extensions and options. 240 a. Is It on My Network? To define the network and host portions of an address. 248 e. 0 i. Answers will vary. increased scalability and longevity. 252 h. 255 g. flow labeling capability.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 155 4. List some improvements that IPv6 will provide.

156 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Concept Questions 1. Why do routers use ANDing? Routers use ANDing to determine an acceptable route for an incoming packet. Every node on that link is on the same network. 2. How is a subnet mask created? The subnet mask is created by placing a binary 1 in each bit position that represents the network portion and placing a binary 0 in each bit position that represents the host portion. the more students understand and can predict the operation of a network. How does ANDing help an originating host? An originating host must determine if a packet should be sent directly to a host in the local network or be directed to the gateway. What are the two most useful tools in designing a network? A network diagram and a spreadsheet of IP addresses are the two most useful tools. Calculating Addresses Subnetting lets you create multiple logical networks from a single address block. research ANDing (be sure to specify that you mean in IPv4 networks). Allow class time for presentations or discussions. 3. where n = the number of bits borrowed. the more equipped they are to design and administer one. Be prepared to present your findings. 2. Answers will vary. each interface on a router must have a unique network ID. and to group hosts used for specific purposes. Internet Research Exercise Using your favorite search engine. Because we use a router to connect these networks. . If the routers and end devices calculate these processes without your intervention. What is the formula to calculate the number of subnets? 2^n. Using VLSM makes it easier to group networks around what commonalities? VLSM makes it easier to group based on common geographic location. 3. Basically. to group based on ownership. 4. why do you need to learn how to AND? Answers will vary. Concept Questions 1.

traceroute d. b. This output includes the success rate and average round-trip time to the destination. If the host at the specified address receives the Echo request. . How does ping work? Be as specific as you can.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 157 Multiple-Choice Questions 1. As each response is received. What utility attempts to trace the path that a packet takes through the network? a. SNMP c. c. Variant Language Superior Model c. 2. ping displays the time between when the ping was sent and the response was received. Variable-Length Subsidiary Mode d. For what is VLSM an acronym? a. Using a chart makes calculating VLSM easier. For each packet sent. What does a response from 127. d. Variable-Length Subnet Mask 3. Ping has a timeout value for the response.1 indicate? A response from 127. ping gives up and sends a message indicating that a response was not received. ping measures the time required for the reply. This method lets you assign addresses that have already been allocated. This method helps prevent assigning addresses that have already been allocated. Very Long String of Marbles b.0. After all the requests have been sent.0. Concept Questions 1. If a response is not received within that timeout. Configmaker Testing the Network Layer Ping is a utility for testing IP connectivity between hosts.0. Ping uses an ICMP Echo Request datagram. Ping sends out requests for responses from a specified host address. it responds with an ICMP Echo Reply datagram. Ping uses a Layer 3 protocol that is a part of the TCP/IP suite called Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP). ping b.0.1 indicates that IP is properly installed on the host. the ping utility provides output that summarizes the responses. This is a measure of the network performance. 2. This method prevents addresses from being allocated. Why would you use a VLSM chart? a.

158 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide 3. but another host does. What do the first four Destination Unreachable codes mean? 0 = Net unreachable 1 = Host unreachable 2 = Protocol unreachable 3 = Port unreachable 2. 1. Host Confirmation. What does traceroute do? Traceroute (tracert) is a utility that lets you observe the path between hosts. 4. Source Quench. It is also possible that other hosts may have the same security restriction applied. Another possibility is that the router interface might be fully operational but might have security applied to it that is preventing it from processing or responding to ping requests. 6. Why is ping not always the most reliable test for connectivity on a network? Answers will vary. Many network administrators limit or prohibit the entry of ICMP datagrams into the corporate network. what sort of problem could this indicate? Answers will vary. . Name the different ICMP message types. Time Exceeded. If a router does not have enough buffer space to receive incoming packets. This could indicate a problem with the router’s interface serving as the gateway. 5. What does RTT stand for? Round-Trip Time 7. A destination host may also send a source quench message if datagrams arrive too fast to be processed. Route Redirection. Unreachable Destination or Service. the lack of a ping response could be caused by security restrictions. What does TTL stand for? Time to Live 8. One possibility is that we have the wrong address for the gateway. not by nonoperational network elements. but any of the following are correct. the router discards these packets. Therefore. Assume that you ping your gateway. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following statements. The following may be in any order. If the gateway does not respond.

tracert can be used to check for network latency.255.7.253 10.255.16.255.10. it usually depends on the experience of the network engineer and familiarity with the network.255.254 172.0 — — 10. first defined in RFC 792 in September 1981.255. Scenario This lab examines the ping and tracert commands. and Cisco IOS.255.6 192.24.255.Pod#.254 172. you will be able to ■ ■ Use the ping command to verify simple TCP/IP network connectivity.253 — 172.31.255.16.0 255.255. This is because the Eagle Server lab has little network traffic.2 172. devices in the Cisco lab will be tested.10. In a complex network.252 255. For example. is available on Linux and Cisco IOS. ICMP message types were later expanded in RFC 1700. Measured delay time will probably be less than that on a production network.254.10.10. it tests network connectivity. Both ping and tracert use Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) to send messages between devices.Pod#.255. Table 6-4 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP S0/0/0 Fa0/0 10.1.16. Background Two tools that are indispensable when testing TCP/IP network connectivity are ping and tracert.0.254. the tracert command would be used.6 — 192.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 159 Labs and Activities Lab 6-1: Ping and Traceroute (6.255.1 172.255.0. and Table 6-4 is the corresponding addressing table.1 255.16.10.254 172.0 255. Use the tracert/traceroute command to verify TCP/IP connectivity.255. traceroute. A network engineer may use the ping command to test for local network connectivity or connections where there are few devices.0.254.16. The ping utility is available on Windows.255. the problem can be anywhere between the client and the server.168. The tracert utility is available on Windows.0 255. To familiarize you with the use of the commands.0 255.252 255.255. and a similar utility. In addition to testing for connectivity. Where to begin connectivity tests has been the subject of much debate.16. Linux.168.254 172. when a web browser fails to connect to a web server.0 255.16.255.5 172.254. Figure 6-1 shows the topology for this lab.254 192.254 R2-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Eagle Server — — Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central — — — .0.10.1) Upon completion of this lab.255.255.0 255. Command options will be used to modify the command behavior.168. ICMP is a TCP/IP network layer protocol.

com. Step 2. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity.example.254. verify that the host has the correct DNS address and that it can ping eagle-server. Step 3.com. From a known good host computer.255. and that it can ping R2-Central. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server. to test Domain Name System (DNS) functionality. Task 1: Use the ping Command to Verify Simple TCP/IP Network Connectivity The ping command is used to verify TCP/IP network layer connectivity on the local host computer or another device in the network. 10. troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity with the following steps: Step 1. and finally eagle-server. This command can be used with a destination IP address or qualified name. For this . 172.10. and that it can ping R1-ISP.16. Verify that all network equipment is powered on and that eagle-server is on. ping eagle-server. as shown in Table 6-4.6. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address. check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central.10.160 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 6-1 Topology for Lab 6-1 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 Note to Instructor: Depending on the classroom situation. R2-Central. ping S1Central. 172. If the ping test fails.254.16.255.com.example. Finally. such as eagle-server. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests. the lab topology may have been modified before this class.example. If an individual host computer cannot connect to eagle-server. Verify that the host computer has the correct Gateway IP address. R1-ISP.

1 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 172.255. . . If the information is missing or if the subnet mask and default gateway are different.0 Default Gateway . .2 Subnet Mask . Verify TCP/IP network layer connectivity on the local host computer.16.16. .2 Pinging 172. only IP addresses are used. Example 6-1 C:\> ipconfig Output of the ipconfig Command Windows IP Configuration Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection: Connection-specific DNS Suffix . .0. The source computer sends an ICMP echo request to the destination. : 172. . Open a Windows terminal and determine the IP address of the pod host computer with the ipconfig command.1. reconfigure the TCP/IP settings to match the settings for this pod host computer.254 Use the ping command to verify TCP/IP network layer connectivity on the local host computer. The destination responds with an echo reply. and reply information is received. . .0 172. . .255.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 .2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 172. .255.16.254 C:\> The output should look the same except for the IP address. .16.16.1.1.1. .16. By default. .16. . Each pod host computer should have the same network mask and default gateway address.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 172.16. as shown in Example 6-1.1. . : IP Address. .16.1.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 161 lab. . only the IP address may differ. The output should look similar to that shown in Example 6-2. . . Table 6-5 TCP/IP Information Value TCP/IP Information IP address Subnet mask Default gateway Depends on the pod host computer. . Example 6-2 Output of the ping Command on the Local TCP/IP Stack C:\> ping 172. . The ping operation is straightforward. : 255. a router may respond with an ICMP message that the host is unknown or the destination network is unknown. : 172. . If there is a break between the source and destination.255. four ping requests are sent to the destination. . Record local TCP/IP network information in Table 6-5. . .2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 172. . 255.0. .1. Step 1. .

Time: Elapsed time between transmission and reply. Lower round-trip times indicate faster links. Use the ping command to verify TCP/IP network layer connectivity to the default gateway. Packets received: The number of packets received. A computer timer is set to 10 milliseconds. Cisco IOS is 255. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms. The second highlighted entry shows the following reply information: ■ ■ ■ Bytes: Size of the ICMP packet. The results should be similar to those shown in Example 6-3. The third highlighted line shows summary information about the replies: ■ ■ ■ Packets sent: The number of packets transmitted. four packets are sent. Packets lost: The difference between the number of packets sent and received. minus the number of routers in the path.2: Packets: Sent = 4. Table 6-6 Field Field Information Value Size of packet Number of packets sent Number of replies Number of lost packets Minimum delay Maximum delay Average delay Step 2. Received = 4. TTL: Default TTL value of the destination device. The default TTL value of the Windows XP computer is 128. measured in milliseconds. Average = 0ms C:\> The first highlighted line shows the destination address. Values faster than 10 milliseconds display 0. The maximum TTL value is 255. By default. set to the IP address of the local computer. Maximum = 0ms. Example 6-2 also shows information about the delay in replies. . and the Linux computer is 64. In Table 6-6. 32 bytes 4 4 0 0 ms 0 ms 0 ms Verify TCP/IP network layer connectivity on the LAN.1. Lost = 0 (0% loss).162 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example 6-2 Output of the ping Command on the Local TCP/IP Stack continued Ping statistics for 172. fill in the results of the ping command on your computer.16. Students may ask why default TTL values differ when different devices are accessed. For newer Windows machines the default value is 128.

254 Pinging 192. For example. Step 3. Average = 0ms C:\> The Cisco IOS default TTL value is set to 255. Example 6-4 Output of the ping Command to Eagle Server C:\> ping 192.168. Because the router was not crossed. Eagle Server is used.16.254: bytes=32 time=1ms TTL=255 Reply from 172. it is the default Gateway that has failed or that has misconfigured TCP/IP network settings.254: Packets: Sent = 4.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=255 Ping statistics for 172.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=62 .254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=255 Reply from 172.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 163 Example 6-3 Output of the ping Command to the Default Gateway C:\> ping 172.168.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=62 Reply from 192.254. Verify TCP/IP network layer connectivity to a remote network. In Table 6-7. users may complain that the Eagle Server web server is down.16. Received = 4.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=255 Reply from 172.255.168. The results should be similar to those shown in Example 6-4.255.16.16.168.254.254 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 172.255.254.254 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 192.16.168.255. Table 6-7 Field Field Information Value Size of packet Number of packets sent Number of replies Number of lost packets Minimum delay Maximum delay Average delay 32 bytes 4 4 0 0 ms 0 ms 0 ms What would be the result of a loss of connectivity to the default gateway? No external networks would be reachable. In reality. the TTL value returned is 255. Use the ping command to verify TCP/IP network layer connectivity to a device on a remote network.16.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=62 Reply from 192.254 Pinging 172. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms. Lost = 0 (0% loss).255. Maximum = 1ms.254. In this case.255.16.255. fill in the results of the ping command to the default gateway.

Request timed out. In Example 6-5. Table 6-8 Field Field Information Value Size of packet Number of packets sent Number of replies Number of lost packets Minimum delay Maximum delay Average delay 32 bytes 4 4 0 0 ms 0 ms 0 ms The ping command is extremely useful when you’re troubleshooting network connectivity. Instead of using the ping command to test the connectivity of each device to the destination. Step 4: In Table 6-8. therefore. Request timed out.168. Request timed out. .254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=62 Ping statistics for 192. Two routers were crossed to reach Eagle Server. fill in the results of the ping command on your computer. Received = 4. Lost = 0 (0% loss).254. one by one. C:\> Task 2: Use the tracert Command to Verify TCP/IP Connectivity The tracert command is useful for learning about network latency and path information. the output shows that a user cannot reach Eagle Server. Average = 0ms C:\> The Linux default TTL value is set to 64. the returned TTL value is 62. Example 6-5 Output of the ping Command to the Lost Packets C:\> ping 192.254.254: Packets: Sent = 4.168. examined next.254: Packets: Sent = 4.164 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example 6-4 Output of the ping Command to Eagle Server continued Reply from 192. However. you can use the tracert command.254. there are limitations. Ping statistics for 192.254.168. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms.254. can display network latency and path information.168. Maximum = 0ms. Lost = 4 (100% loss).168.254 with 32 bytes of data: Request timed out. Received = 0. Is the problem with Eagle Server or a device in the path? The tracert command.254 Pinging 192.

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On Linux and Cisco IOS devices, the equivalent command is traceroute.
Step 1.

Verify TCP/IP network layer connectivity with the tracert command. Open a Windows terminal, and issue the following command: C:\> tracert 192.168.254.254 The output from the tracert command should be similar to that shown in Example 6-6.

Example 6-6

Output of the tracert Command to Eagle Server

C:\> tracert 192.168.254.254 Tracing route to 192.168.254.254 over a maximum of 30 hops 1 2 3 <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms 172.16.255.254 10.10.10.6 192.168.254.254

Trace complete. C:\>

Record your results in Table 6-9.
Table 6-9 Field Field Information Value

Maximum number of hops First router IP address Second router IP address Destination reached?
Step 2.

30 172.16.255.254 10.10.10.6 Yes

Observe tracert output to a host that lost network connectivity. S1-Central is a switch and does not decrement the packet TTL value. If there is a loss of connectivity to an end device such as Eagle Server, the tracert command can give you valuable clues about the source of the problem. The ping command would show the failure but not any other kind of information about the devices in the path. Referring to the topology diagram shown in Figure 6-1, both R2-Central and R1-ISP are used for connectivity between the pod host computers and Eagle Server. Refer to Example 6-7. Options are used with the tracert command to reduce wait time (in milliseconds), -w 5, and maximum hop count, -h 4. If Eagle Server were disconnected from the network, the default gateway would respond correctly, as well as R1-ISP. The problem must be on the 192.168.254.0/24 network. In this example, Eagle Server has been turned off.

Example 6-7

Output of the tracert Command

C:\> tracert -w 5 -h 4 192.168.254.254 Tracing route to 192.168.254.254 over a maximum of 4 hops 1 2 <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms 172.16.255.254 10.10.10.6

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Example 6-7
3 4 * *

Output of the tracert Command
* * * *

continued

Request timed out. Request timed out.

Trace complete. C:\>

What would the tracert output be if R1-ISP failed? Connectivity would stop after R2-Central. What would the tracert output be if R2-Central failed? There would be no connectivity.

Task 3: Challenge
The default values for the ping command normally work for most troubleshooting scenarios. There are times, however, when fine-tuning ping options may be useful. Issuing the ping command without any destination address displays the options shown in Example 6-8.
Example 6-8
C:\> ping

Output of a ping Command with No Destination Address

Usage: ping [-t] [-a] [-n count] [-l size] [-f] [-i TTL] [-v TOS] [-r count] [-s count] [[-j host-list] | [-k host-list]] [-w timeout] target_name

Options: -t Ping the specified host until stopped. To see statistics and continue - type Control-Break; To stop - type Control-C. -a -n count -l size -f -i TTL -v TOS -r count -s count -j host-list -k host-list -w timeout C:\> Resolve addresses to hostnames. Number of echo requests to send. Send buffer size. Set Don’t Fragment flag in packet. Time To Live. Type Of Service. Record route for count hops. Timestamp for count hops. Loose source route along host-list. Strict source route along host-list. Timeout in milliseconds to wait for each reply.

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The most useful options are highlighted. Some options do not work together, such as the -t and -n options. Other options can be used together. Experiment with those described in this section. To ping the destination address until stopped, use the -t option, as shown in Example 6-9. To stop the output, press Ctrl-C.
Example 6-9 Output of a ping Command Using the -t Option

C:\> ping -t 192.168.254.254 Pinging 192.168.254.254 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 192.168.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.168.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.168.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.168.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.168.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.168.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Ping statistics for 192.168.254.254: Packets: Sent = 6, Received = 6, Lost = 0 (0% loss), Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms, Maximum = 0ms, Average = 0ms Control-C ^C C:\>

To ping the destination once and record router hops, use the -n and -r options, as shown in Example 6-10.
Note: Not all devices honor the -r option. Example 6-10 Output of a ping Command Using the -n and -r Options

C:\> ping -n 1 -r 9 192.168.254.254 Pinging 192.168.254.254 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 192.168.254.254: bytes=32 time=1ms TTL=63 Route: 10.10.10.5 -> 192.168.254.253 -> 192.168.254.254 -> 10.10.10.6 -> 172.16.255.254 Ping statistics for 192.168.254.254: Packets: Sent = 1, Received = 1, Lost = 0 (0% loss), Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 1ms, Maximum = 1ms, Average = 1ms C:\>

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Task 4: Reflection
Network engineers use both ping and tracert to test network connectivity. For basic network connectivity, the ping command works best. To test latency and the network path, the tracert command is preferred. The ability to accurately and quickly diagnose network connectivity issues is a skill expected from a network engineer. Knowledge about the TCP/IP protocols and practice with troubleshooting commands will build that skill.

Task 5: Clean Up
Unless directed otherwise by the instructor, turn off power to the host computers. Remove anything that was brought into the lab, and leave the room ready for the next class.
Packet Tracer Companion

Packet Tracer Companion: ping and traceroute (6.7.1.2)
You can now open the file LSG01-Lab6712.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. Remember, however, that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. The instructions are summarized within the activity.

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Lab 6-2: Examining ICMP Packets (6.7.2.1)
Upon completion of this lab, you will be able to
■ ■

Understand the format of ICMP packets. Use Wireshark to capture and examine ICMP messages.

Background Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) was first defined in RFC 792 in September 1981. ICMP message types were later expanded in RFC 1700. ICMP operates at the TCP/IP network layer and is used to exchange information between devices. ICMP packets serve many uses in today’s computer networks. When a router cannot deliver a packet to a destination network or host, an informational message is returned to the source. Also, the ping and tracert commands send ICMP messages to destinations, and destinations respond with ICMP messages. Scenario Using Eagle Server, Wireshark captures will be made of ICMP packets between network devices. Figure 6-2 shows the topology for this lab, and Table 6-10 is the corresponding addressing table.
Figure 6-2 Topology for Lab 6-2

R1-ISP

S0/0/0 DCE

Eagle Server

S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24

S1-Central

R2-Central

1A

1B

11A

11B

Pod#1

Pod#11

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Table 6-10 Device

Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway

R1-ISP

S0/0/0 Fa0/0

10.10.10.6 192.168.254.253 10.10.10.5 172.16.255.254 192.168.254.254 172.31.24.254 172.16.Pod#.1 172.16.Pod#.2 172.16.254.1

255.255.255.252 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.252 255.255.0.0 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.0.0

— — 10.10.10.6 — 192.168.254.253 — 172.16.255.254 172.16.255.254 172.16.255.254

R2-Central

S0/0/0 Fa0/0

Eagle Server

— —

Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central

— — —

Note to Instructor: Depending on the classroom situation, the lab topology may have been modified before this class. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server.example.com, troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity using the following steps:
Step 1. Step 2.

Verify that all network equipment is powered on and that eagle-server is on. From a known good host computer, ping eagle-server. If the ping test fails, ping S1Central, R2-Central, R1-ISP, and finally eagle-server. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests. If an individual host computer cannot connect to eagle-server, check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address, as shown in Table 6-10, and that it can ping R2-Central, 172.16.255.254. Verify that the host computer has the correct Gateway IP address, 172.16.255.254, and that it can ping R1-ISP, 10.10.10.6. Finally, verify that the host has the correct DNS address and that it can ping eagle-server.example.com.

Step 3.

Task 1: Understand the Format of ICMP Packets
Refer to Figure 6-3, which shows the ICMP header fields common to all ICMP message types. Each ICMP message starts with an 8-bit Type field, an 8-bit Code field, and a computed 16-bit Checksum. The ICMP message type describes the remaining ICMP fields. Table 6-11 shows ICMP message types from RFC 792.
Figure 6-3
0 Type

ICMP Message Header
7 8 Code 16 24 Checksum 31

Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4

171

Table 6-11 Value

ICMP Message Types Meaning

0 3 4 5 8 11 12 13 14 15 16

Echo Reply Destination Unreachable Source Quench Redirect Echo Time Exceeded Parameter Problem Timestamp Timestamp Reply Information Request Information Reply

Codes provide additional information to the Type field. For example, if the Type field is 3, Destination Unreachable, additional information about the problem is returned in the Code field. Table 6-12 shows message codes for an ICMP Type 3 message, Destination Unreachable, from RFC 1700.
Table 6-12 Code Value ICMP Type 3 Message Codes Meaning

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Net Unreachable Host Unreachable Protocol Unreachable Port Unreachable Fragmentation Needed and Don’t Fragment Was Set Source Route Failed Destination Network Unknown Destination Host Unknown Source Host Isolated Communication with Destination Network Is Administratively Prohibited Communication with Destination Host Is Administratively Prohibited Destination Network Unreachable for Type of Service Destination Host Unreachable for Type of Service

172

Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide

Using the ICMP message capture shown in Example 6-11, fill in the fields in Figure 6-4 for the ICMP packet echo request. Values beginning with 0x are hexadecimal numbers.
Example 6-11 ICMP Packet Echo Request

Internet Control Message Protocol Type: 8 (Echo (Ping) request) Code: 0 Checksum: 0x365c [correct] Identifier: 0x0200 Sequence number: 0x1500 Data (32 bytes)

Figure 6-4
0

ICMP Packet Echo Request
7 8 16 24 31

Data...

Using the ICMP message capture shown in Example 6-12, fill in the fields in Figure 6-5 for the ICMP packet echo reply.
Example 6-12 ICMP Packet Echo Reply

Internet Control Message Protocol Type: 0 (Echo (Ping) reply) Code: 0 Checksum: 0x3e5c [correct] Identifier: 0x0200 Sequence number: 0x1500 Data (32 bytes)

Figure 6-5
0

ICMP Packet Echo Reply
7 8 16 24 31

Data...

At the TCP/IP network layer, communication between devices is not guaranteed. However, ICMP does provide minimal checks for a reply to match the request. From the information provided in the ICMP messages just shown, how does the sender know that the reply is to a specific echo? The identifier is used to identify this host computer, and the sequence number is used to identify this echo request.

Maximum = 0ms. ping Eagle Server.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 173 Task 2: Use Wireshark to Capture and Examine ICMP Messages If Wireshark has not been loaded on the pod host computer.168.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.168.254.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Ping statistics for 192. and save the file to the pod host computer. you can download it from Eagle Server: 1. Average = 0ms C:\> Stop the Wireshark capture. Open a web browser and go to ftp://eagle-server. Right-click the Wireshark filename. 3. Example 6-13 Successful ping Replies from Eagle Server C:\> ping eagle-server. From the Windows terminal.168.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192. When the file has been downloaded.168. as shown in Example 6-13.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192. you use Wireshark to examine ICMP echo messages. There should be a total of four ICMP echo requests and matching echo replies. Open a Windows terminal on the pod host computer. Figure 6-6 Wireshark Capture of ping Requests and Replies .254] with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 192. Lost = 0 (0% loss).example.168. In this step. Capture and evaluate ICMP echo messages to Eagle Server.example.com Pinging eagle-server.168.example. open and install Wireshark. Step 1. When ready. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms.254: Packets: Sent = 4.254.com/pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter6. choose Save Link As.254. You should receive four successful replies. similar to those shown in Figure 6-6.254. Received = 4.254. 2.com [192. start the Wireshark capture.

if any. In Table 6-13. but Windows keeps the Identifier field the same. fill in information from each new ping. In Table 6-15. depending on the operating system. record information from the first echo reply packet from Eagle Server. For example. Table 6-13 Field Ping Echo Request Fields Value Type Code Checksum Identifier Sequence number Data 8 (Echo (ping) request) 0 Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwabcdefghi Are there 32 bytes of data? Yes In Table 6-14. . Cisco IOS increments the Identifier field by 1. and expand the Internet Control Message Protocol record until all fields are visible.174 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Which network device responds to the ICMP echo request? The destination device Expand the middle window in Wireshark. Table 6-14 Field Ping Echo Reply Fields Value Type Code Checksum Identifier Sequence number Data 0 (Echo (ping) reply) 0 Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary acdefghijklmnopqrstuvwabcdefghi Which fields. Continue to evaluate the remaining echo requests and replies. record information from the first echo request packet to Eagle Server. changed from the echo request? Type field and Checksum field Note: The Identifier field may change for subsequent echo request messages. The bottom window also is needed to examine the Data field.

255.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 175 Table 6-15 Packet Ping Echo Requests and Replies Checksum Identifier Sequence Number Request #2 Reply #2 Request #3 Reply #3 Request #4 Reply #4 Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Same as request #2 Same as request #2 Same as request #2 Same as request #2 Same as request #2 Answers will vary Same as request #2 Answers will vary Same as request #3 Answers will vary Same as request #4 Why do the Checksum values change with each new request? The Identifier remains the same. C:\> ping 192.253.254: Destination host unreachable.1 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 172.16.168. Expand the middle Wireshark window and the Internet Control Message Protocol record.1 Pinging 192. but the sequence number changes.16.253.16. Step 2.254: Destination host unreachable.1.253. Example 6-14 Ping Results from a Fictitious Destination C:\> ping 192. In this step. Capture and evaluate ICMP echo messages to 192. Ping statistics for 192. Maximum = 0ms. Try to ping IP address 192. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms.253. an echo response occurs.253.1 See Example 6-14.1. The results from the Wireshark capture are evaluated. Received = 4.168.168.168.168. Lost = 0 (0% loss).255.16.168. . Reply from 172.1: Packets: Sent = 4.253.254: Destination host unreachable. Reply from 172.255. Reply from 172. Instead of a request timeout. Average = 0ms C:\> What network device responds to pings to a fictitious destination? The gateway router Figure 6-7 shows Wireshark captures to a fictitious destination.254: Destination host unreachable. pings are sent to a fictitious network and host.255.

255. In this step. Host Unreachable Step 3.168.168.255.254.254.168.254 Example 6-15 shows ping replies when the TTL value has been exceeded. Ping statistics for 192.255. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms. Example 6-15 Ping Results for an Exceeded TTL C:\> ping -i 1 192. simulating an unreachable destination.254.254: Packets: Sent = 4. and set the TTL value to 1: C:\> ping -i 1 192. Received = 4.254 Pinging 192. Capture and evaluate ICMP echo messages that exceed the TTL value.254: TTL expired in transit. pings are sent with a low TTL value. Ping Eagle Server.176 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 6-7 Wireshark Capture from a Fictitious Destination Which ICMP message type is used to return information to the sender? Type 3 message What code is associated with the message type? Code 1. Maximum = 0ms. Reply from 172.254: TTL expired in transit.168.16.254: TTL expired in transit.254.16. Lost = 0 (0% loss).254: TTL expired in transit.16.255. Average = 0ms C:\> What network device responds to pings that exceed the TTL value? The gateway router Figure 6-8 shows Wireshark captures to a fictitious destination. Figure 6-8 Wireshark Capture of TTL Value Exceeded . Reply from 172.16. Reply from 172. Expand the middle Wireshark window and the Internet Control Message Protocol record.254 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 172.

Examine the ICMP TTL exceeded message. and scroll down to Wireshark. Task 4: Reflection The ICMP protocol is very useful when troubleshooting network connectivity issues.7. choose Start > Control Panel > Add or Remove Programs. Without ICMP messages. Task 3: Challenge Use Wireshark to capture a tracert session to Eagle Server and then to 192.251. Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Examining ICMP Packets (6. you can capture and evaluate different ICMP message type values. click Remove. Time to live exceeded in transit Which network device is responsible for decrementing the TTL value? Routers decrement the TTL value. turn off power to the host computers. however. and leave the room ready for the next class. This demonstrates how the tracert command traces the network path to the destination.2. Click the filename. .Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 177 Which ICMP message type is used to return information to the sender? Type 11 message What code is associated with the message type? Code 0. If the program must be removed. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. Remove any Wireshark pcap files that were created on the pod host computer. Remember. Remove anything that was brought into the lab.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. a sender has no way to tell why a destination connection failed.168. Task 5: Clean Up Wireshark may have been loaded on the pod host computer. The instructions are summarized within the activity. and follow the uninstall instructions.254. Using the ping command.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab6722. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor.

255. Step 1. Table 6-16 Decimal-to-Binary Conversion 172 25 114 250 IP address Network mask 10101100 11111111 255 00011001 11111111 255 01110010 00000000 0 11111010 00000000 0 . you will be able to determine other information about the IP address.250 Network mask: 255.0. Background This activity is designed to teach you how to compute network IP address information from a given IP address.0 (/16) you will determine the following information in this task: ■ ■ ■ ■ Network address Network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts Translate the host IP address and network mask into binary notation. you will be able to determine network information for a given IP address and network mask.3. convert the host IP address and network mask into binary. Scenario When given an IP address and network mask. such as ■ ■ ■ ■ Network address Network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts Task 1: For a Given IP Address.1) Upon completion of this activity. In Table 6-16.114. Part 1 (6.7. Determine Network Information Given the following information: ■ ■ Host IP address: 172.25.178 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Activity 6-1: IPv4 Address Subnetting.

0. Perform a bitwise AND operation on the IP address and subnet mask. 0 AND anything results in a 0. Determine the network address.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 179 Step 2. The result is the network address for this host IP address. and the broadcast address has all 1s in the host portion of the address. .0.534 (addresses that cannot use the all-0s address [the network address] or the all-1s address [the broadcast address]) Add this information to Table 6-19.25. AND Operation 172 25 114 250 Table 6-17 IP address Subnet mask 10101100 11111111 00011001 11111111 00011001 25 01110010 00000000 00000000 0 11111010 00000000 00000000 0 Network address 10101100 172 Step 3. Host bits: 16 Total number of hosts: 216 = 65.536 65. which is 172. In Table 6-17. Note: 1 AND 1 results in a 1. determine the broadcast address for the network address. perform the following tasks: ■ ■ Draw a line under the mask. ■ Express the result in dotted-decimal notation. you can determine the total number of usable hosts for this network. In Table 6-18.536 – 2 = 65. The network mask separates the network portion of the address from the host portion. Table 6-18 Broadcast Information 172 25 0 0 Network address Subnet mask 10101100 11111111 11001000 11111111 11001000 25 00000000 00000000 11111111 255 00000000 00000000 11111111 255 Broadcast address 10101100 172 By counting the number of host bits. The network address has all 0s in the host portion of the address.

1. Table 6-21 Field Problem 2 172.0 172.255 16 bits or 216 or 65.255.33 255. Table 6-20 Field Problem 1 Value Host IP address Network mask Network address Network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts Table 6-21 shows Problem 2.30.30.1.536 – 2 = 65.0 (/16) 172.0.534 usable hosts Task 2: Challenge For all problems.25.0.255 8 bits 256 – 2 = 254 .0 172.536 total hosts 65.250 255.0.0 172.255.0.0 172.114. create a subnetting worksheet to show and record all work for each problem.25.1.30.30.25.255 16 bits 65.1.30.0 172.180 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 6-19 Field Host Bits: Information on the Number of Hosts Value Host IP address Network mask Network address Network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts 172.33 255.255.534 Value Host IP address Network mask Network address Network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts 172. Table 6-20 shows Problem 1.255.30.255.536 – 2 = 65.255.

168.168.0 192.10.234 255.168.10.17.255.17. Table 6-22 Field Problem 3 Value Host IP address Network mask Network address Network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts Table 6-23 shows Problem 4.255.0 192.536 – 2 = 65.0 192.0.0 192.534 Value Host IP address Network mask Network address Network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts 192. Table 6-24 Field Problem 5 172.536 – 2 = 65.10.255.99.71 255.17.0 172. Table 6-23 Field Problem 4 192.3.255.534 .Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 181 Table 6-22 shows Problem 3.0.255 8 bits 256 – 2 = 254 Value Host IP address Network mask Network address Network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts Table 6-24 shows Problem 5.168.0.168.255 16 bits 65.255 16 bits 65.0.219 255.255.255.168.0 172.

3. .255.168. and leave the room ready for the next class.219 255.182 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 6-25 shows Problem 6.3.255. Table 6-25 Field Problem 6 Value Host IP address Network mask Network address Network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts 192.168.192 192.168.3.224 192.223 5 bits 32 – 2 = 30 Task 3: Clean Up Remove anything that was brought into the lab.

Table 6-26 Hosts or Subnets 210 1. it is easy to determine how many bits must be borrowed. Table 6-27 Decimal Decimal-to-Binary Conversion Binary 255 254 252 248 240 224 192 128 0 11111111 11111110 11111100 11111000 11110000 11100000 11000000 10000000 00000000 . the converted dotted-decimal notation can contain one of a certain number of values.7. Background Determine how many bits must be allocated to create a certain number of subnets or a certain number of hosts per subnet.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 183 Activity 6-2: IPv4 Address Subnetting. as shown in Table 6-27.024 29 512 28 256 27 128 26 64 25 32 24 16 23 8 22 4 21 2 20 1 Number of bits borrowed: 10 1. subtract 2 for the usable number of hosts per subnet—one for the subnet address and one for the subnet’s broadcast address. Because subnet masks must be contiguous 1s followed by contiguous 0s. you learn how to determine subnet information for a given IP address and subnetwork mask. Part 2 (6.4.024 9 512 8 256 7 128 6 64 5 32 4 16 3 8 2 4 1 2 1 1 Remember. Using the chart shown in Table 6-26.1) In this activity.

and subnetwork mask.255.184 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Scenario When given an IP address. Determine Subnet Information Given the following information: ■ ■ ■ Host IP address: 172. Translate Host IP Addresses Value Step 1. Table 6-28 Field IP address 172 10101100 25 00011001 11111111 255 114 01110010 11111111 255 250 11111010 11000000 192 Subnet mask 11111111 255 .255. network mask.255.192 (/26) you will determine the following information in this task: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Number of subnet bits Number of subnets Number of host bits per subnet Number of usable hosts per subnet Subnet address for this IP address IP address of the first host on this subnet IP address of the last host on this subnet Broadcast address for this subnet Translate the host IP address and subnet mask into binary notation in Table 6-28.250 Network mask: 255.114.0.25. you will be able to determine other information about the IP address: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ The subnet address of this subnet The broadcast address of this subnet The range of host addresses for this subnet The maximum number of subnets for this subnet mask The number of hosts for each subnet The number of subnet bits The number of this subnet Task 1: For a Given IP Address and Subnet Mask.0 (/16) Subnet mask: 255.

0. Table 6-29 Determine the Network 172 25 114 250 IP address Subnet mask Subnet address 10101100 11111111 10101100 172 11001000 11111111 11001000 25 01110010 11111111 01110010 114 11111010 11000000 11000000 192 Note: 1 AND 1 results in a 1.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 185 Step 2. The network information ends where the 1s in the mask end.D.D. The result is the number of subnet bits.. As shown in Figure 6-9. which is 172.192. Step 3. the major network mask is 255. As shown in Figure 6-10. . which in this case is 10 bits.D. The result is the subnet address of this subnet. This range contains the bits that are being incremented to create the subnet numbers or addresses. In this example. and the S.114. 0 AND anything else results in a 0. Step 4.) as a wavy line where the 1s in the major network mask end (also the mask if there was no subnetting).D. Determine the bit ranges for subnets and hosts. 10101110 11111111 10001010 11001000 11111111 11001000 11 111010 11 000000 11 000000 Draw the subnet divide (S. Draw a line under the mask. and S.25. In Table 6-29. determine the network (or subnet) where this host address belongs.D.255.) as a straight line where the 1s in the given subnet mask end. draw the major divide (M. label the subnet counting range between the M.D. which can be determined by simply counting the number of bits between the M.D. Determine which bits in the address contain network information and which contain host information. Figure 6-9 Major Divide/Subnet Divide M.0. or the first 16 leftmost bits. Perform a bitwise AND operation on the IP address and subnet mask. Express the result in dotted-decimal notation. S. 01110010 11111111 01110010 10 Bits IP Address Subnet Mask Subnet Add.D.

IP Address Subnet Mask Subnet Add.114. Next.D. This gives us the broadcast IP address on this subnet.25. This range contains the bits that are being incremented to create the host numbers or addresses. 10101100 11111111 10101100 11001000 11111111 11001000 01110010 11111111 01110010 Subnet Counting Range Figure 6-11 S.25. Subnet Counting Range and Host Counting Range M.254. 11 111010 11 000000 11 000000 Host Counting Range First Host 10101100 172 11001000 25 11001000 25 11001000 25 01110010 114 01110010 114 01110010 114 11 000001 193 11 111110 254 11 111111 255 Last Host 10101100 172 Broadcast 10101100 172 Write down all the network/subnet bits of the network address (that is. . This is the result for Broadcast Address of This Subnet. which in the example is 172.D. which in the example is 172.D.D.D. which is the first part of the result for Range of Host Addresses for This Subnet.193.D.D.114. make the host bits all 1s. which in the example is 172. 10101110 11111111 10001010 11001000 11111111 11001000 11 111010 11 000000 11 000000 Host Counting Range Label the host counting range between the S.186 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 6-10 Bit Ranges for Subnets and Hosts M.). in the host portion (to the right of the S. In the host portion (to the right of the S. Use Figure 6-11 to determine the range of host addresses available on this subnet and the broadcast address on this subnet. This gives us the last host IP address on this subnet.255. which is the last part of the result for Range of Host Addresses for This Subnet. In the host portion (to the right of the S. Step 5. which you make a 0.114.D. all bits before the S. make the host bits all 1s except for the rightmost bit (or least-significant bit).D.).25. S.). which you make a 1.). 01110010 11111111 01110010 Subnet Counting Range IP Address Subnet Mask Subnet Add. and the last bits at the end on the right. This gives us the first host IP address on this subnet. make the host bits all 0s except for the rightmost bit (or least-significant bit).

255 Determine the number of subnets.193 172.114. where n is the number of bits in the subnet counting range.25.0.25. The number of hosts per subnet is determined by the number of host bits (in this example. 6 bits) minus 2 (1 for the subnet address and 1 for the broadcast address of the subnet). Determine the number of usable hosts per subnet.114.250 255.255.114.0 (/16) 172.25.25. The number of subnets is determined by how many bits are in the subnet counting range (in this example.534 usable hosts Subnet mask Number of subnet bits Number of subnets Number of host bits per subnet Number of usable hosts per subnet Subnet address for this IP address IP address of the first host on this subnet IP address of the last host on this subnet Broadcast address for this subnet Step 6.0. 10 bits). Use the formula 2n.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 187 Add the missing information to Table 6-30. all 1s not used): 210 = 1024 subnets Step 7.255.536 total hosts 65.25.254 172. 255.0 172.255 16 bits or 216 or 65. 26 – 2 = 64 – 2 = 62 hosts per subnet Number of host bits per subnet: 6 bits Number of usable hosts per subnet: 26 – 2 = 64 – 2 = 62 hosts per subnet .25.114.255. 210 = 1024 Number of subnet bits: 10 bits Number of subnets (all 0s used. Table 6-30 Field Fill in the Missing Information Value Host IP address Major network mask Major (base) network address Major network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts 172.25.192 172.114.192 (/26) 26 bits 210 = 1024 subnets 6 bits 26 – 2 = 64 – 2 = 62 hosts per subnet 172.255.536 – 2 = 65.

255 .0 8 bits 256 – 2 = 254 8 bits 256 – 2 = 254 172. Table 6-32 Field Problem 1 Value Host IP address Subnet mask Number of subnet bits Number of subnets Number of host bits per subnet Number of usable hosts per subnet Subnet address for this IP address IP address of the first host on this subnet IP address of the last host on this subnet Broadcast address for this subnet 172.255.114.1.30.188 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Step 8.25.114. Final Answers Value Table 6-31 Field Host IP address Subnet mask Number of subnet bits Number of subnets Number of host bits per subnet Number of usable hosts per subnet Subnet address for this IP address IP address of the first host on this subnet IP address of the last host on this subnet Broadcast address for this subnet 172.25.114.30.255.114.250 255.33 255.255.254 172. Review the final answers in Table 6-31.254 172.1.1.1.114.1 172.0 172.1.193 172.25.30.25. create a subnetting worksheet to show and record all work for each problem.30.192 (/26) 26 bits 210 = 1024 subnets 6 bits 26 – 2 = 64 – 2 = 62 hosts per subnet 172.192 172.255.30.25.255 Task 2: Challenge For all problems. Table 6-32 shows Problem 1.

33 255.1 192.10.192.382 4–2=2 2 172.10.234 255.1.32 172.30.0 24 bits 224 8 bits 256 – 2 = 254 192.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 189 Table 6-33 shows Problem 2.254 192. Table 6-33 Field Problem 2 Value Host IP address Subnet mask Number of subnet bits Number of subnets Number of host bits per subnet Number of usable hosts per subnet Subnet address for this IP address IP address of the first host on this subnet IP address of the last host on this subnet Broadcast address for this subnet Table 6-34 shows Problem 3.255.255.30. Table 6-34 Field Problem 3 172.255.252 14 bits 16.10.192.33 172.1.255 .30.1.10.384 – 2 = 16.1.30.192.192.1.34 172.35 Value Host IP address Subnet mask Number of subnet bits Number of subnets Number of host bits per subnet Number of usable hosts per subnet Subnet address for this IP address IP address of the first host on this subnet IP address of the last host on this subnet Broadcast address for this subnet 192.192.10.0 192.255.30.

0.0 16 bits 216 – 2 16 bits 256 – 2 = 254 172.0 192.99.255.17.71 255.0.255. Table 6-35 Field Problem 4 Value Host IP address Subnet mask Number of subnet bits Number of subnets Number of host bits per subnet Number of usable hosts per subnet Subnet address for this IP address IP address of the first host on this subnet IP address of the last host on this subnet Broadcast address for this subnet Table 6-36 shows Problem 5.1 192.255 Value Host IP address Subnet mask Number of subnet bits Number of subnets Number of host bits per subnet Number of usable hosts per subnet Subnet address for this IP address IP address of the first host on this subnet IP address of the last host on this subnet Broadcast address for this subnet 192.0 172.254 192.219 255.168.255.168.0.0 24 bits 224 8 bits 256 – 2 = 254 192.1 172.168.168.254 172.3.17.255.3.17.190 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 6-35 shows Problem 4.3.255.168.3. Table 6-36 Field Problem 5 172.3.17.255 .17.

255.168.168.3. and leave the room ready for the next class. Table 6-37 Field Problem 6 Value Host IP address Subnet mask Number of subnet bits Number of subnets Number of host bits per subnet Number of usable hosts per subnet Subnet address for this IP address IP address of the first host on this subnet IP address of the last host on this subnet Broadcast address for this subnet 192.216 192.218 255.255.217 192.3.168.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 191 Table 6-37 shows Problem 6.219 Task 3: Clean Up Remove anything that was brought into the lab.3.218 192.168.3.168.252 6 bits 64 – 2 = 62 4–2=2 2 192.3. .

Examine the network requirements. Figure 6-12 Topology for Lab 6-3 192. Step 2.0/24 address space to use in your network design.255.32/27 Fa0/0 192. The link between router R1 and router R2 requires IP addresses at each end of the link. The routers then will be ready for interface address configuration according to your IP addressing scheme. The network connected to router R2 requires enough IP addresses to support 30 hosts. Reflect on and document the network implementation. You are given one address block that you must subnet to provide a logical addressing scheme for the network. Test and verify configurations. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Subnet an address space given requirements.255.1. Assign subnetwork addresses to the topology diagram shown in Figure 6-12: ■ ■ ■ Assign subnet 1 to the network attached to R1.7. Assign subnet 2 to the link between R1 and R2. .1) Upon completion of this lab.5.192 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Lab 6-3: Subnet and Router Configuration (6.168.64/27 192. Assign appropriate addresses to interfaces and document them.168. The network consists of the following segments: ■ ■ ■ The network connected to router R1 requires enough IP addresses to support 15 hosts. verify that the network is working properly.168.224 What is the subnet mask for the network in slash format? /27 How many usable hosts are there per subnet? 30 Step 3. Assign subnet 3 to the network attached to R2.168. Consider the following questions when creating your network design: ■ ■ ■ ■ How many subnets are needed for this network? 3 What is the subnet mask for this network in dotted-decimal format? 255. You have been given the 192. you design and apply an IP addressing scheme for the topology shown in Figure 612. When the configuration is complete. Scenario In this lab activity. Configure and activate serial and FastEthernet interfaces.1.1.1.96/27 Fa0/0 PC1 S0/0/0 R1 S0/0/0 DCE PC2 R2 Task 1: Subnet the Address Space Step 1.

Step 2.224 255.1.33 192.168.255.255.1. Configure the PC interfaces. Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway Table 6-38 Device R1 Fa0/0 S0/0/0 192.255.255. can you ping the default gateway? Yes From the host attached to R2.224 255.1. Configure the interfaces on the R1 and R2 routers with the IP addresses from your network design. Task 4: Verify the Configurations Answer the following questions to verify that the network is operating as expected: ■ ■ ■ ■ From the host attached to R1. When you have finished.168.224 255.33 192.126 255.168. In Table 6-38. Assign the last valid host address in subnet 2 to the WAN interface on R2. you will use the Config tab. Assign the last valid host address in subnet 1 to PC1.255.168. Assign appropriate addresses to the device interfaces: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Assign the first valid host address in subnet 1 to the LAN interface on R1.255. Configure the router interfaces.224 255.94 192.97 R2 Fa0/0 S0/0/0 PC1 PC2 NIC NIC Task 3: Configure the Serial and FastEthernet Addresses Step 1.168.168.1.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 193 Task 2: Determine Interface Addresses Step 1. Assign the first valid host address in subnet 2 to the WAN interface on R1.168.255.1.97 192. be sure to save the running configuration to the router’s NVRAM. Note that to complete the activity in Packet Tracer.224 255. can you ping the default gateway? Yes From the router R1. can you ping the Serial 0/0/0 interface of R2? Yes From the router R2.255. document the addresses to be used. can you ping the Serial 0/0/0 interface of R1? Yes .1.1.255.65 192.224 — — — — 192. Step 2.255.255.255. Assign the first valid host address in subnet 3 to the LAN interface on R2.168. Assign the last valid host address in subnet 3 to PC2.62 192.1. Configure the Ethernet interfaces of PC1 and PC2 with the IP addresses and default gateways from your network design.

5. however.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to perform this exercise using Packet Tracer. web traffic. and Inspect tools. If any of the pings failed. . but with a new IP addressing scheme. Packet Tracer Challenge Skills Integration Challenge: Planning Subnets and Configuring IP Addresses (6. Configure the network: Apply your subnetting scheme to servers. Upon completion of this lab.3) Open the file LSG01-PTSkills6. Test the network: Using ping. Remember. PCs. configure services and static routing. and router interfaces.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab6752. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. check the physical connections and configurations. Build the network: Connect devices with Ethernet and serial cables.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer.194 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Note: The answers to the preceding questions should be yes. ■ Background You have been asked to implement the standard lab topology. trace.1. The instructions are summarized within the activity.7. Task 5: Reflection Are there any devices on the network that cannot ping each other? Answers will vary What is missing from the network that is preventing communication between these devices? Answers will vary Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Subnet and Router Configuration (6.8. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ Do IP subnet planning: Practice your subnetting skills.

129 192.23.192 255.23.62 192.168.23.23. up to 28 hosts . Fill in your answers in Table 6-39.255.252 255. You must provide for existing networks as well as future growth.255.168.23.255. Table 6-39 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP Fa0/0 S0/0/0 192.168.192 255.1 192.255.23.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 195 You will use many of the skills you have learned to this point in the course.168.255.130 192.252 — — 192. Figure 6-13 shows the topology for this lab.255.255.23.255.168.23.255.168.2 192.0 /24.130 192.23.192 255.255.168.168.23.62 192.168.130 192.240 255.23.62 192. Figure 6-13 Topology for Challenge 1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server 2960-24TT S1-Central 1841 R2-Central PC-PT 1A PC-PT 1B Task 1: IP Subnet Planning You have been given an IP address block of 192. existing student LAN (off of router R2-Central).23.252 255.110 R2-Central Fa0/0 S0/0/0 PC 1A PC 1B Eagle Server NIC NIC NIC Subnet assignments: ■ ■ First subnet.255. future student LAN.110 192.109 255.255.23.168. up to 60 hosts Second subnet.168.255.168.168.255.

make sure the power is on to the device and the interfaces.196 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Third subnet. and enable HTTP services. Connect interface Fa0/0 on router R2-Central to the highest FastEthernet port on switch S1Central. point-to-point link Seventh subnet. use the first two IP addresses (the two lowest usable addresses) on the existing student LAN subnet. nor do you need the IOS CLI to configure the routers. Part of the router configuration has already been done for you. configure them to use DNS services. future WAN. ■ ■ ■ ■ Additional configurations: ■ ■ For PCs 1A and 1B. R2-Central’s serial interface. use the highest usable address on the existing student LAN subnet. You do not need to configure the switch. future ISP LAN. with the other end to R2-Central S0/0/0. you need to set the clock rate (a timing mechanism required on the DCE end of serial links) to 64000. use the lowest usable address on the existing WAN subnet. ■ Task 3: Configure the Network You need to configure the server. existing ISP LAN. For R1-ISP’s S0/0/0 interface. configure the second-highest usable IP address on the existing ISP LAN subnet. enable DNS services. For hosts 1A and 1B. future WAN. Connect PC 1A to the first FastEthernet port on switch S1-Central. The static route on R1-ISP should point to the existing student LAN subnet via R2-Central’s . point-to-point link Sixth subnet. use the domain name eagle-server. For the server. point-to-point link Interface IP addresses: ■ ■ For the server. existing WAN. For R1-ISP’s Fa0/0 interface. All you must do is configure the static routes and the interfaces via the GUI. up to 12 hosts Fourth subnet. For all devices.example. For R2-Central’s S0/0/0 interface. both routers. For the R1-ISP router serial interface. No clock rate is needed on the DTE side—in this case.com. configure the highest usable IP address on the existing ISP LAN subnet. configure the highest usable address on the existing WAN subnet. in addition to IP configuration. up to 8 hosts Fifth subnet. and the two PCs. For R2-Central’s Fa0/0 interface. ■ ■ Task 2: Finish Building the Network in Packet Tracer Add cables where they are missing: ■ ■ ■ ■ Connect a serial DCE cable to R1-ISP S0/0/0. Connect PC 1B to the second FastEthernet port on switch S1-Central.

These procedures were explained in the Chapter 5 Skills Integration Challenge. and testing skills will serve you well throughout your networking courses. TCP. DNS. to test your understanding of how the network is operating.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 197 serial interface IP address. with HTTP. web traffic. trace. Task 5: Reflection Reflect on how much you have learned so far! Practicing IP subnetting skills and network building. Task 4: Test the Network Use ping. and ICMP viewable. The static route on R2-Central should be a default static route that points to R1-ISP’s serial interface IP address. UDP. . and the Inspect tool. Trace packet flow in simulation mode. configuration.

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because it is the layer that accesses the physical medium and causes network traffic to traverse different physical media. including copper cabling. Network e. The media can consist of many different types. Frame b. The data link layer hides the details of these media from the upper layers and takes on the job of transmitting data across each network segment. fill-in-the-blank. and the air in the case of wireless. Media d. The physical means used to carry data signals a. A device on a network c. match the term on the left to its definition on the right. optical fibers. hands-on skills you need to work with the data link layer.CHAPTER 7 OSI Data Link Layer The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of matching. The data link layer defines the physical network as a set of devices on a common medium. or use the corresponding Chapter 7 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration Companion Guide. Node c. Study Guide Data Link Layer: Accessing the Media The data link layer plays a major role in networks. 2. What is the difference between a logical network and a physical network? The network layer defines the logical network using a hierarchical addressing scheme. A layer of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model that frames upper-layer data and controls how data is placed on a medium b. Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 7-1. The protocol data unit (PDU) used in Layer 2 of the OSI model Concept Questions 1. What are the two main jobs of the data link layer? The data link layer allows upper layers to access media. It also controls how data is placed on and received from media. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum activities and labs to ensure that you have mastered the practical. Data link d. Table 7-1 Term Data Link Layer Terms Definition a. for assistance. . As you work through this chapter. use Chapter 7 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum. and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of the data link layer. Two or more devices connected to a common medium e.

but it can be inefficient because a device has to wait its turn before it can use the medium. The adapter manages the framing and media access control. The controlled method provides predictable. each node has its own time to use the medium. has physical interfaces that can encapsulate a packet into the appropriate frame and handle the media access control method to access each link. The contention-based method has less overhead but does not scale well under heavy use. a node uses an adapter. what changes would be required of a network layer protocol such as Internet Protocol (IP)? Without a data link layer. and place the frame on the medium of the next link in the network. An intermediary device. This disadvantage is avoided by using a layered model for networking and by giving the data link layer the job of placing data on a medium and controlling access to the medium. encapsulate the Layer 3 PDU into a new frame. the probability of successful access without a data collision decreases. decapsulate the frame to the Layer 3 PDU. If the data link layer didn’t exist. There are different ways to accomplish this regulation. 2. With controlled media access control. all nodes compete for the use of the medium. To connect to a network. IP or other network layer protocols would need to make provisions for connecting every type of media that could exist along a delivery path. . Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following statements. Network devices take turns. With contention-based media access control. such as a Network Interface Card (NIC) on a local-area network (LAN).200 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide 3. Some methods are complicated and add overhead to the process. such as a router. The technique for getting a frame on and off a medium is called the media access control method. Compare and contrast controlled media access control and contention-based media access control. 4. in sequence. to access the medium. 3. deterministic throughput. IP would need to change every time a new network technology or medium were developed. Other methods are less complicated but may not scale as well. Moreover. As more nodes try to access the network to send data. A router uses data link layer services to receive a frame from one medium. depending on the medium and the data link layer protocols in use. Media Access Control Techniques Media access control regulates the placement of data frames on a medium. Any device can try to access the medium whenever it has data to send. 1. Concept Questions 1.

both devices can transmit and receive on the medium at the same time. The Layer 2 PDU is called a frame. 5. 4. 2. With half-duplex communication. 1. Three media access control methods used by logical multiaccess topologies include carrier sense multiple access collision detect. you can keep the list simple. 3. Media Access Control: Addressing and Framing Data A fundamental job of the data link layer is to encapsulate a Layer 3 PDU into a Layer 2 PDU. only one device can transmit at any given time. Ethernet uses CSMA/CD. Having many nodes share access to the medium requires a data link layer media access control method to regulate the transmission of data. transmit the data. Receiving data while transmitting is allowed. “Ethernet. 3. Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Table 7-2 lists some typical fields that appear in frame headers. and token passing. and trailer. . For example. If a carrier signal from another node is detected. Although different protocols place different fields in a frame. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following statements. Data link layer rules (also called protocols) specify the media access control method that is used for a particular technology.” Sense whether the medium is free. stop transmitting and wait a random amount of time before trying again. What is the difference between full-duplex communication and half-duplex communication? With full-duplex communication. 3. 2.Chapter 7: OSI Data Link Layer 201 2. At this point. 1. carrier sense multiple access collision avoidance. wait and try again later. If a carrier signal is not detected. Match the field on the left to its definition on the right. most protocols specify that the frame should have a header. Most Layer 2 frames also have addressing fields in the header that identify the sender and receiver. While transmitting. monitor the medium for the presence of another node’s signal. If another node is also transmitting. List the steps in the carrier sense multiple access collision detect (CSMA/CD) process. 4. Receiving data while transmitting is not allowed. You will learn more about CSMA/CD in Chapter 9. data field. A logical multiaccess topology enables a number of nodes to communicate by using the same shared medium.

Compare and contrast Layer 2 addresses with Layer 3 addresses. Defined by the IEEE 802. Tells other devices on the network that a frame is coming along the medium b. Used to indicate overloading on the medium f. Identifies the sender and receiver e. Table 7-3 Protocol Data Link Layer Protocols Specification a. are carried from source to destination host across an internetwork. Layer 3 addresses use a hierarchical addressing scheme and indicate a network number and host identifier. Layer 2 addresses are used only for local delivery when transporting a frame across a shared local medium. Length e. Includes specifications for operation at 10. it gets encapsulated in a new data link layer header with new Layer 2 addresses for each hop it takes.202 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 7-2 Field Frame Header Fields Definition a. Layer 3 addresses. its Layer 2 address does not need to change. Often found on WANs a.11 c. Defined in a Request For Comments (RFC) document b. Match each protocol on the left to its specifications on the right. Uses a preamble field at the beginning of the frame b.3 standard a. Type d. Address c. Flow control g.000 Mbps b. and 10. Start frame b. A protocol for wireless networks that uses CSMA/CA a. When a packet crosses an internetwork. Priority f. Indicates a particular type of communication service for special processing Table 7-3 lists three major data link layer protocols. Point-to-Point Protocol c. . Indicates the upper-layer service contained in the frame a. If a device is moved to another network. Congestion control g. 100. Specifies the number of bytes in the data part of the frame c. Layer 2 addresses use a flat addressing scheme and do not indicate on what network a device is located. Uses an acknowledgment to confirm that a frame was received successfully Concept Questions 1. Uses a flag field at the beginning of the frame c. 802. 1000. Ethernet b. Provides unacknowledged connectionless service over a shared medium using CSMA/CD b. Used to start and stop traffic when overloading occurs d. on the other hand. Establishes a logical connection (session) between two nodes a.

Why are Layer 2 addresses not needed in point-to-point topologies? Layer 2 addresses are not needed in point-to-point topologies because there can be no confusion about the frame’s destination. The user sends data to a router on that Ethernet LAN. The client builds an Ethernet II frame to transport the IPv4 packet across the local medium. a frame has only one place to go (to the other device). The transport layer also places the source port number for this session in the segment. 6. If you have done the reading in Chapter 7 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum or if you have used the corresponding Chapter 7 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration Companion Guide. . Putting It All Together: Follow Data Through an Internetwork When a user on a LAN wants to access a service. The data link layer refers to the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) cache to determine the Media Access Control (MAC) address that is associated with the Ethernet interface on the client’s router. the client uses the IP address associated with the WWW server’s hostname. an IP packet is constructed to identify the source and destination hosts. The transport layer places a destination port number of 80 in the TCP segment to indicate the WWW service. 3. 3. 2. The router sends the data to another router across a PPP WAN link. a number of packets are generated and encapsulated in Layer 2 frames. 1. The user is on an Ethernet LAN. A TCP three-way handshake sets up a connection with the server. It uses its own IPv4 address as the source address. you should now be able to put together at a high level the events that take place on a network when a user accesses a service. The transport layer identifies the upper-layer service that the user wants to reach as the HTTP (or World Wide Web [WWW]) service. The recipient router forwards the data onto an Ethernet LAN where the server resides. 4. Only two devices are connected. 5. The application layer adds a Layer 7 header. or loss that would change the bit values that those signals represent. After it is on the medium. What is the purpose of the Frame Check Sequence (FCS) in a frame trailer? The FCS field is used to determine if errors occurred in the transmission and receipt of a frame. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following statements that describe a user accessing a web page stored on a web server that is located on a remote network. The user starts by clicking a link or URL on a web page.Chapter 7: OSI Data Link Layer 203 2. distortion. TCP adds an acknowledgment number that tells the web server the sequence number that TCP expects in the next segment it receives. At the network layer. The user’s web browser initiates a Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) GET request. For the destination address. The FCS field is necessary because the signals on the medium are subject to interference.

At the network layer. The server compares the destination IPv4 address in the packet to its own IPv4 address. The router that receives the frame checks the FCS at the end of the frame to determine if the frame was received intact without any errors. the HTTP GET request is delivered to the WWW service. the server removes the network layer header and pushes the data to the transport layer. The data link layer frame indicates that the upper-layer data is IPv4 by placing 0x0800 in the Type field of the Ethernet II header. The service . The server compares the destination MAC address in the frame to the MAC address of the NIC in the server. It uses CSMA/CD to verify that the medium is not already in use. It checks the FCS to determine if the frame was received intact 19. The PPP session has already been established. Because it matches. routing table. The TCP sequence number is used to place this segment in the proper order to be sent upward to the application layer. Because it matches. The server examines the TCP segment to determine the session to which the data belongs. The router creates a PPP frame to transport the packet across the WAN. The physical layer transmits the frame onto the medium bit by bit. so the physical layer begins transmitting the frame onto the WAN medium bit by bit. and a packet flows back to the client. 17. The Physical layer transmits the frame onto the medium bit by bit. 18. 16. 9. The recipient router checks the FCS to determine if the frame was received intact without any errors. This is done by examining the source and destination ports. 22.204 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide 7. 10. The 22 steps reverse themselves. The router includes a Protocol field in the PPP header with a value of 0x0021 to indicate that 13. the server pushes the data to TCP. The router consults its ARP cache to determine the MAC address of the web server. Because the IP network layer header identified the upper-layer protocol as 0x06. 21. 20. 12. At the application layer. The router removes the data link header and pushes the packet up to the network layer. an IPv4 packet is encapsulated. The server examines the frame. the destination IPv4 address in the packet is compared to the routes in the 11. At the network layer. Eventually. The client uses the CSMA/CD media access control method to verify that the medium is not already in use. A match is found. the destination IPv4 address in the packet is compared to routes in the routing table. as soon as all the necessary packets have been sent and received. without any errors. The frame begins with a Preamble field and ends with an FCS field for error detection. and the router determines that the next hop for the packet is a router at the other end of a PPP WAN link. It then builds an Ethernet II frame to transport the IPv4 packet to the server. 15. can now form a response. the user sees a web page. The router determines that the packet should be sent out an Ethernet network to the web server. 14. 8. the server removes the data link header and pushes the packet up to the network layer. The router removes the data link header and pushes the packet up to the network layer.

When learning about Layer 2 concepts. you will be able to ■ ■ Explain the header fields in an Ethernet II frame.2.99. you can download it from ftp://eagleserver. Figure 7-1 Topology for Lab 7-1 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 . The frame composition depends on the media access type.example. The Windows ping command will be used to generate network traffic for Wireshark to capture.1) Upon completion of this lab.Chapter 7: OSI Data Link Layer 205 Labs and Activities Lab 7-1: Frame Examination (7.exe. Background When upper-layer protocols communicate with each other. if the upper-layer protocol is TCP/IP and the media access is Ethernet. The file is wireshark-setup-0. For example. and Table 7-4 is the corresponding addressing table. Use Wireshark to capture and analyze Ethernet II frames. the Layer 2 frame encapsulation is Ethernet II. data flows down the OSI layers and is encapsulated in a Layer 2 frame.4. Scenario Wireshark will be used to capture and analyze Ethernet II frame header fields. The Ethernet II frame header is examined in this lab. such as TCP/IP.5. it is helpful to analyze frame header information. Figure 7-1 shows the topology for this lab.com/pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter7/. If Wireshark has not been loaded on the host pod computer. Ethernet II frames can support various upper-layer protocols.

Step 3.255.6.254 172. If an individual host computer cannot connect to eagle-server.206 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 7-4 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP S0/0/0 Fa0/0 10.10.0 255.1 255.255.255.255. Step 2.com. Verify that all network equipment is powered on and that eagle-server is on.10.24.example.6 192.252 255.16.255.254 R2-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Eagle Server — — Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central — — — Note to Instructor: Depending on the classroom situation.255. Figure 7-2 Ethernet II Frame Format Destination Address Source Address Frame Type 2 Octets Preamble Data FCS 8 Octets 6 Octets 6 Octets 46–1500 Octets 4 Octets In Figure 7-3.255.example. .254. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests. ping S1Central. 172. If the ping test fails.255.254.0 255.254.168.com.255.168.Pod#.254. shown in the logical addressing table.254.16.16.255.16.10.5 172. Verify that the host computer has the correct Gateway IP address.10.253 — 172. ping eagle-server. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address.0. Task 1: Explain the Header Fields in an Ethernet II Frame Figure 7-2 shows the format for an Ethernet II frame.254.255.16.10.255.254 172.0 255.0.254 192.255.255. R2-Central. followed by a DNS query.16.255.253 10. Finally. and that it can ping R1-ISP. the ping command issues echo requests. R1-ISP.255.10.0 255.255.10.16. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server.254 172. From a known good host computer. and that it can ping R2-Central.0.6 — 192. Finally.255.255. and finally eagle-server.255. check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central. troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity by following these steps: Step 1. The session begins with the ARP protocol querying for the MAC address of the Gateway router.16.10.0 255. 10.252 255. verify that the host has the correct DNS address and that it can ping eagle-server.0 255.168.0 — — 10.1 172.254 172. the lab topology may have been modified before this class.16. the Panel List window shows a Wireshark capture of the ping command between a pod host computer and Eagle Server.0.2 172. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity.Pod#. 172.31.

The Data field is between 46 and 1500 bytes. this field contains a hexadecimal value that is used to indicate the type of upper-layer protocol in the data field. Ethernet II supports numerous upper-layer protocols. Table 7-5 Field Ethernet II Frame Header Value Description Preamble Destination Address Not shown in the capture ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff This field contains synchronizing bits. A common format is 12:34:56:78:9A:BC. The first six hex numbers indicate the manufacturer of the network interface card (NIC). ac:a7:6a. you can obtain Ethernet II frame information. The source address is always unicast. Using this window. are the serial number of the NIC.org/forum/macid. the Packet Details window shows Frame 1 detail information. Layer 2 addresses for the frame. Table 7-5 shows the information you can obtain.Chapter 7: OSI Data Link Layer 207 Figure 7-3 Wireshark Capture of the ping Command In Figure 7-3. processed by the NIC hardware.htm for a list of vendor codes. or 6 bytes. A to F. 0 to 9. Each address is 48 bits long. expressed as 12 hexadecimal digits. Data ARP . Here are two common frame types: Value Description 0x0800 IPv4 protocol 0x0806 Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) Contains the encapsulated upper-layer protocol. The destination address may be a broadcast that contains all 1s. The last six hex digits. Source Address Frame Type 00:16:76:ac:a7:6a 0x0806 For Ethernet II frames. or unicast.neotechcc. Refer to http://www.

From the information contained in the Packet List window for the first frame. answer the following questions about the destination and source MAC address. What is the significance of all 1s in the destination address field? This is a broadcast address. . and the computer with the corresponding IP address sends a unicast reply to the source. The value is computed by the sending machine.208 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 7-5 Field Ethernet II Frame Header Value continued Description FCS Not shown in the capture Frame Check Sequence. used by the NIC to identify errors during transmission. All computers on the LAN receive the frame. Destination Address MAC address: ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff NIC manufacturer: Does not apply NIC serial number: Does not apply Source Address MAC address: 00:16:76:ac:a7:6a NIC manufacturer: Intel NIC serial number: ac:a7:6a From the information contained in the Packet List window for the second frame. Destination Address MAC address: 00:16:76:ac:a7:6a NIC manufacturer: Intel NIC serial number: ac:a7:6a Source Address MAC address: 00:0c:85:cf:66:40 NIC manufacturer: Cisco NIC serial number: cf:66:40 Figure 7-4 is an expanded view of Frame 3 from the Wireshark capture. encompassing frame addresses. answer the following questions about the destination and source MAC address. type. and data field. It is verified by the receiver.

Chapter 7: OSI Data Link Layer 209 Figure 7-4 Frame 3 Fields Use the information shown in Figure 7-4 to complete Table 7-6. Start a ping to Eagle Server.y interface IP address. and click OK. Choose Start > Run. Open a Windows terminal window. This begins the packet capture.x. Prepare Wireshark for captures. you use Wireshark to capture and analyze packets captured on the pod host computer. Table 7-6 Field Ethernet II Frame Header Completion Value Preamble Destination Address Source Address Frame Type Data FCS Not shown in the capture 00:0c:85:cf:66:40 00:16:76:ac:a7:6a 0x0800 IP Not shown in the capture Task 2: Use Wireshark to Capture and Analyze Ethernet II Frames In this task.example. and capture the session. stop the Wireshark capture. and then click the start button that corresponds to the 172. Choose Capture > Interfaces. Configure Wireshark for packet captures.com. as shown in Example 7-1. Step 2. enter cmd.16. Step 1. . Ping eagle-server. When the command has finished executing.

254.168.255. Finally.com [192. The Wireshark Packet List window should start with an ARP request and reply for the Gateway’s MAC address. a DNS request is made for the IP address of eagleserver.168. as shown in Example 7-3.com Pinging eagle-server.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=62 Reply from 192. Use the Windows XP ipconfig /flushdns command to clear the DNS cache.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=62 Reply from 192.example. Lost = 0 (0% loss).1.2600] Copyright 1985-2001 Microsoft Corp. Average = 0ms C:\> Step 3. Next.254. it is because the DNS record for eagle-server.16.254 C:\> arp -d * C:\> arp -a No ARP Entries Found C:\> Physical Address 00-0c-85-cf-66-40 Type dynamic If you do not see a DNS query.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=62 Ping statistics for 192.16.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=62 Reply from 192.example.254.254: Packets: Sent = 4. as shown in Example 7-2.1 --. you can flush the ARP cache using the arp -d * command.com.example.254. Maximum = 0ms.210 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example 7-1 Pinging Eagle Server Microsoft Windows XP [Version 5.1.168.0x30004 Internet Address 172.168.254. .168. C:\> ping eagle-server. Received = 4. Your capture should look similar to the one shown in Figure 7-3. Example 7-2 Displaying and Flushing the ARP Cache C:\> arp -a Interface: 172.com is stored in the DNS cache. Analyze the Wireshark capture.254.168.254] with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 192. the ping command is executed. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms. If you don’t see an ARP exchange.example.

0. . . . .1 C:\> ipconfig /flushdns Windows IP Configuration Successfully flushed the DNS Resolver Cache. .127.arpa ---------------------------------------Record Name . . . . . C:\> ipconfig /displaydns Windows IP Configuration 1. .com ---------------------------------------Record Name . : 549045 Data Length . . . . .0. . . : 12 Time To Live . : 4 Section . . : Answer A (Host) Record .example. . .127. . . . . . . .254 localhost --------------------------------------Record Name . . . . : localhost Record Type . . . .arpa. : localhost eagle-server. . .0.1 C:\> .0. . : Answer A (Host) Record .in-addr. Record Type .arpa. .254. . . . .0. : 12 Time To Live . : 1 Time To Live . . . : localhost . . . . . . : 1. . .com Record Type . : 4 Section . : 549013 Data Length . .Chapter 7: OSI Data Link Layer 211 Example 7-3 Displaying and Flushing the DNS Cache C:\> ipconfig /displaydns Windows IP Configuration 1. . . . : Answer PTR Record localhost --------------------------------------Record Name .0. . .in-addr. . : 86386 Data Length . . : 1. . . . . : 4 Section . : eagle-server. . . . . .127. . . . : 192. . . . .arpa --------------------------------------Record Name .0. . : 549013 Data Length . . . : 4 Section . : 127. . . . .in-addr. : 549045 Data Length . . . . . . . . . Record Type . . : 1 Time To Live . . : Answer A (Host) Record . . .0. .127. . .example. . . . . .in-addr. : 127. . . : Answer PTR Record . . . . . : localhost Record Type . . . . .0. . : 4 Section . .0. . .168. .0. : 1 Time To Live . .0. . . .

Destination and source MAC addresses each contain 12 hex digits. A student from another school wants to know the MAC address for Eagle Server. Because the student’s Eagle Server is on a different LAN than yours. 10101011. Because ARP is not encapsulated inside an IP packet. such as FTP and HTTP.212 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Use your Wireshark capture of the ping command to answer the following questions. Pod computer MAC address information MAC address: Answers will vary. What is the Ethernet II frame type value for an ICMP echo reply? 0x0800 Task 3: Challenge Use Wireshark to capture sessions from other TCP/IP protocols. 0x0800 is the frame type for IP. and the last six hex digits contain the NIC serial number. A preamble field contains 7 bytes of alternating 1010 sequences and 1 byte that signals the beginning of the frame. What is the Ethernet II frame type value for a DNS query response? 0x0800 What is the Ethernet II frame type value for an ICMP echo? 0x0800. the information cannot be obtained from a Wireshark capture on your LAN. and verify that the Ethernet II frame type remains 0x0800. different from the identifier for IP. the destination MAC address contains all 1s. DNS is encapsulated in an IP packet. NIC manufacturer: Answers will vary. R2-Central MAC address information MAC address: Answers will vary. What would you tell the student? MAC addresses are visible only on the LAN and are different for each LAN. NIC serial number: Answers will vary. What is the Ethernet II frame type value for an ARP Request? 0x0806. A 2-byte frame type field contains a value that indicates the . Ethernet II frame header information was examined. ICMP is encapsulated in the IP packet. If the frame is a broadcast. The first six hex digits contain the manufacturer of the NIC. 0x0800 is the frame type for IP. Analyze the captured packets. NIC manufacturer: Cisco NIC serial number: Answers will vary. What is the Ethernet II frame type value for an ARP Reply? 0x0806 What is the Ethernet II frame type value for a DNS query? 0x0800. it must have a unique identifier. Again. Task 4: Reflection In this lab.

pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to perform this exercise using Packet Tracer. Choose Wireshark. and configure services and static routing. Click Add or Remove Programs. and consider why the developers of Ethernet chose to place the destination address first. ■ ■ Background Network Interface Cards (NIC) are sometimes thought of as Layer 2 and Layer 1 devices (or as Layer 2 and Layer 1 components of devices that function at all seven layers).1. In this challenge you must add a WIC to a device to complete the network. Sometimes the NIC for a serial connection. and click Remove. Test the network. Upon completion of this activity. Figure 7-5 shows the topology for this lab. Build the network. Practice your subnetting skills. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. The data field is variable and contains the encapsulated upper-layer protocol. In addition. If Wireshark needs to be uninstalled. trace. the value is 0x0800. Configure the network.Chapter 7: OSI Data Link Layer 213 protocol in the data field. and router interfaces. typically used in WAN connections. you have been asked to implement a new IP addressing scheme for the Exploration lab topology. and the Inspect tool.3) Open file LSG01-PTSkills7. turn off power to the host computers. PCs. Use ping. Reflect on the necessity and formatting of each of these fields. and leave the room ready for the next class. Task 5: Clean Up Wireshark was installed on the pod host computer. Remove any files created on the pod host computer during the lab.6. choose Start > Control Panel. For IPv4. At the end of a frame. Also reflect on the destination and source addresses. Connect devices with Ethernet and serial cables. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Practice your IP subnet planning skills. Apply your subnetting scheme to server. a 4-byte FCS value is used to verify that there were no errors during transmission. is called a WAN interface card (WIC). Packet Tracer Challenge Skills Integration Challenge: Data Link Layer Issues (7. before the source address. . consider why the preamble field is necessary and why it consists of alternating 1s and 0s. and Table 7-7 is the corresponding addressing table. web traffic. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. For example.

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Figure 7-5

Topology for the Challenge
1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server

2960-24TT S1-Central

1841 R2-Central

PC-PT 1A

PC-PT 1B

Table 7-7 Device

Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway (Route)

R1-ISP

Fa0/0 S0/0/0

172.16.3.62 172.16.3.98 172.16.1.254 172.16.3.97 172.16.0.1 172.16.0.2 172.16.3.61

255.255.255.192 255.255.255.252 255.255.254.0 255.255.255.252 255.255.254.0 255.255.254.0 255.255.255.192

— — 172.16.3.98 172.16.3.98 172.16.1.254 172.16.1.254 172.16.3.62

R2-Central

Fa0/0 S0/0/0

PC 1A PC 1B Eagle Server

NIC NIC NIC

Task 1: IP Subnet Planning
You have been given an IP address block of 172.16.0.0/22. You must provide for existing networks as well as future growth. Subnet assignments:
■ ■ ■

First subnet, existing student LAN, up to 400 hosts (Fa0/0 on R2-Central) Second subnet, future student LAN, up to 180 hosts (not yet implemented) Third subnet, existing ISP LAN, up to 40 hosts (Fa0/0 on R1-ISP)

Chapter 7: OSI Data Link Layer

215

■ ■ ■ ■

Fourth subnet, future ISP LAN, up to 18 hosts (not yet implemented) Fifth subnet, existing WAN, point-to-point link (S0/0/0 on R1-ISP and R2-Central) Sixth subnet, future WAN, point-to-point link (not yet implemented) Seventh subnet, future WAN, point-to-point link (not yet implemented)

Interface IP addresses:
■ ■

For the server, configure the second-highest usable IP address on the existing ISP LAN subnet. For R1-ISP’s Fa0/0 interface, configure the highest usable IP address on the existing ISP LAN subnet. For R1-ISP’s S0/0/0 interface, configure the highest usable address on the existing WAN subnet. For R2-Central’s S0/0/0 interface, use the lowest usable address on the existing WAN subnet. For R2-Central’s Fa0/0 interface, use the highest usable address on the existing student LAN subnet. For PCs 1A and 1B, use the first two IP addresses (the two lowest usable addresses) on the existing student LAN subnet.

■ ■

Additional configurations:
■ ■

For PCs 1A and 1B, in addition to IP configuration, configure them to use DNS services. For the server, enable DNS services, use the domain name eagle-server.example.com, and enable HTTP services.

Task 2: Finish Building the Network in Packet Tracer, Attending to Some Layer 2 Issues
On the R2-Central router, a NIC is missing for the serial connection to R1-ISP. Add a WIC-2T in the slot on the right. Also on R2-Central, Fa0/0 is shut down; turn it on. Connect a serial DCE cable to R1-ISP S0/0/0, with the other end connected to R2-Central S0/0/0. For all devices, make sure the power is on.

Task 3: Configure the Network
You need to configure the server, both routers, and the two PCs. You do not need to configure the switch, nor do you need the IOS CLI to configure the routers. Part of the router configuration has already been done for you; all you must do is configure the static routes and the interfaces via the GUI. The static route on R1-ISP should point to the existing student LAN subnet via R2-Central’s serial interface IP address. The static route on R2-Central should be a default static route that points to R1-ISP’s serial interface IP address. These procedures were explained in the Chapter 5 Skills Integration Challenge, and you practiced them in the Chapter 6 Skills Integration Challenge.

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Task 4: Test the Network
Use ping, trace, web traffic, and the Inspect tool. Trace packet flow in simulation mode, with HTTP, DNS, TCP, UDP, and ICMP viewable, to test your understanding of how the network is operating. Note in particular what Layer 2 encapsulation is used in each step of a packet’s journey, and how the headers on the Layer 2 PDUs change.

Task 5: Reflection
Consider an ICMP echo request packet sent from PC 1A to Eagle Server and the ICMP echo reply packet that results. Reflect on which addresses stay the same in this situation and which ones change.

CHAPTER 8

OSI Physical Layer

The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of multiple-choice, matching, fill-in-the-blank, and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of the OSI physical layer. The Lab Exercises portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum labs to further reinforce that you have mastered the practical, hands-on skills needed to understand and work with the physical layer. As you work through this chapter, use Chapter 8 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum or use the corresponding Chapter 8 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration Companion Guide for assistance.

Study Guide
The Physical Layer: Communication Signals
The role of the OSI physical layer is to encode the binary digits that represent data link layer frames into signals and to transmit and receive these signals across the physical media (copper wires, optical fiber, and wireless) that connect network devices.

Vocabulary Exercise: Completion
Fill in the blanks for the following statements.
1.

The purpose of the physical layer is to create the electrical, optical, or microwave signal that represents the bits in each frame. Manchester encoding indicates a 0 by a high-to-low voltage transition in the middle of the bit time. For a 1, there is a low-to-high voltage transition in the middle of the bit time.

2.

Concept Questions
1.

What are the three basic forms of network media on which data is represented? Copper cable, fiber, and wireless

2.

Physical layer standards cover what four areas? Physical and electrical properties of the media Mechanical properties (materials, dimensions, pinouts) of the connectors Bit representation by the signals (encoding) Definition of control information signals

3.

What are the three fundamental functions of the physical layer? The physical components Data encoding Signaling

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Physical Signaling and Encoding: Representing Bits
Eventually, all communication from the human network becomes binary digits, which are transported individually across the physical media.

Concept Questions
1.

Bits are represented on the medium by changing one or more of the following characteristics of a signal: Amplitude Frequency Phase

2.

Different physical media support the transfer of bits at different speeds. Data transfer can be measured in three ways: Bandwidth Throughput Goodput

Vocabulary Exercise: Completion
Fill in the blanks in the following statements.
1.

The capacity of a medium to carry data is described as the raw data bandwidth of the media. Digital bandwidth measures the amount of information that can flow from one place to another in a given amount of time. Throughput is the measure of the transfer of bits across the media over a given period of time. Goodput is the measure of usable data transferred over a given period of time, and is therefore the measure that is of most interest to network users.

2. 3.

Vocabulary Exercise: Matching
In Table 8-1, match the definition on the right with a term on the left.
Table 8-1 Term Signaling and Encoding Definition

a. NRZ signaling b. Manchester encoding

b. Bit values are represented as voltage transitions. a. Uses bandwidth inefficiently and is susceptible to electromagnetic interference. In addition, the boundaries between individual bits can be lost when long strings of 1s or 0s are transmitted consecutively. c. Each byte to be transmitted is broken into 4-bit pieces or nibbles and encoded as 5-bit values known as symbols. These symbols represent the data to be transmitted and a set of codes that help control transmission on the media.

c. 4B/5B

Chapter 8: OSI Physical Layer

219

Physical Media: Connecting Communication
The physical layer is concerned with network media and signaling. This layer produces the representation and groupings of bits as voltages, radio frequencies, or light pulses. Various standards organizations have contributed to the definition of the physical, electrical, and mechanical properties of the media available for different data communications.

Concept Questions
1.

Standards for copper media are defined by what criteria? Type of copper cabling used Bandwidth of the communication Type of connectors used Pinout and color codes of connections to the media Maximum distance of the media

2.

What can limit the susceptibility of copper cables to electronic noise? Selecting the cable type or category most suited to protect the data signals in a given networking environment Designing a cable infrastructure to avoid known and potential sources of interference in the building structure Using cabling techniques that include the proper handling and termination of the cables

Vocabulary Exercise: Matching
In Table 8-2, match a connector on the right with a media (cable) on the left.
Table 8-2 Media and Connectors Connector

Media (Cable)

a. Unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) cabling b. Coaxial cable c. Multimode optical fiber d. Single-mode optical fiber

c. Straight-Tip (ST) a. RJ-45 d. Subscriber Connector (SC) b. BNC

In Table 8-3, match the speed on the right with the wireless standard on the left.
Table 8-3 Wireless Media Speed

Wireless Standard

a. Bluetooth 802.15 b. 802.11(a,b,g,n), HiperLAN 2 c. 802, 11, MMDS, LMDS d. GSM, GPRS, CDMA, 2.5-3G

c. 22+ Mbps a. < 1 Mbps d. 10[nd]384 Kbps b. 1[nd]54+ Mbps

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Labs and Activities
Lab 8-1: Media Connectors Lab Activity (Lab 8.4.1.1)
Upon completion of this lab, you will be able to do the following:
■ ■ ■

Test cables using a Fluke 620 LAN CableMeter and a Fluke LinkRunner. Become familiar with the most common functions of a cable tester. Test different cables for type and wiring problems.

Background Category 5 (Cat 5) unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) cables are wired according to function. End devices, such as routers and host computers, connect to switches with Cat 5 straight-through cables. When connected together, however, a Cat 5 crossover cable must be used. This is also true of switches. When connecting one switch to another, a Cat 5 crossover cable is used again. Problems related to cables are one of the most common causes of network failure. Basic cable tests can prove helpful in troubleshooting cabling problems with UTP. The quality of cabling components used, the routing and installation of the cable, and the quality of the connector terminations will be the main factors in determining how trouble-free the cabling will be.
Note to instructor: Before starting the lab, the teacher or lab assistant should have several correctly

wired Cat 5 cables that are used by the student to learn cable tester operation. The cables should be both straight-through and crossover. There should also be several Cat 5 cables available with problems. Cables should be numbered to simplify the testing process and to maintain consistency. The following resources are required:
■ ■

Good Cat 5 straight-through and crossover wired cables of different colors Cat 5 straight-through and crossover wired cables with open wire connections in the middle or one or more conductors shorted at one end that are different colors and different lengths Fluke 620 LAN CableMeter or equivalent (see Figure 8-1) Fluke LinkRunner
Fluke 620 LAN CableMeter

■ ■

Figure 8-1

Chapter 8: OSI Physical Layer

221

Scenario First, you will visually determine whether the Cat 5 cable type is crossover or straight-through. Next, you use the cable tester to verify the cable type and common features available with the tester. Finally, you use the cable tester to test for bad cables that cannot be determined with a visual inspection.

Task 1: Become Familiar with the Most Common Functions of a Cable Tester
Figure 8-2 shows the TIA/EIA 568B Cat 5 UTP wire positioning for a straight-through and a crossover cable. When Cat 5 connectors are held together, wire color is a quick way to determine the cable type. TIA/EIA 568B is different from TIA/EIA 568A wiring. TIA/EIA 568A straight-through cables can be identified by the color coding.
Figure 8-2 TIA/EIA 568B Cat 5 UTP
TIA/EIA 568B CAT 5 UTP Straight Through 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 TIA/EIA 568B CAT 5 UTP Crossover 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Step 1.

Visually determine cable types.

Note to instructor: Students should be given a functional straight-through and crossover cable. These

cables will be used to learn cable tester features and build confidence in cable tester accuracy. There should be two numbered cables available. Perform a visual inspection of the cables and then fill out the chart in Table 8-4 with the cable color, type, and use.
Table 8-4 Cable Number Cable Types Cable Color Cable Type (StraightThrough or Crossover) Cable Use (Circle correct device)

1 2

Answers will vary Answers will vary

Answers will vary Answers will vary

Switch to: host / switch Switch to: host / switch

It is now time to verify the cable type and learn about the common features of the cable tester.

Step 3. The wiring of both the near and far end of the cable will be displayed. Perform initial configuration of the Fluke 620 LAN CableMeter. Continue pressing the up/down-arrow buttons and pressing Enter until the tester is set to the cabling settings in Table 8-5. Turn the rotary switch selector on the tester to the WIRE MAP position. and observe the LCD screen on the tester. The wire map function displays which pins on one end of the cable are connected to which pins on the other end. and the bottom set of numbers refers to the far end. Place the RJ-45 to RJ-45 female coupler on the far end of the cable. Table 8-5 Tester Option Cable Tester Settings for UTP Desired Setting: UTP Cable Wiring Category Wire size CAL to Cable? Beeping LCD contrast UTP 10Base-T or EIA/TIA 4PR Category 5 AWG 24 No On or Off From 1 through 10 (brightest) When satisfied with the correct settings. The top set of numbers displayed on the LCD screen refers to the near end. press the Setup button to exit setup mode. Figure 8-3 Cable Coupler and Cable Identifier cable coupler cable identifier Place the near end of the cable into the RJ-45 jack labeled UTP/FTP on the tester.222 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Step 2. and then insert the cable identifier into the other side of the coupler. The first option should be Cable. Verify the cable wire map. Press the up. Use the following procedure to test each cable with the LAN cable coupler and cable identifier. The coupler and the cable identifier are accessories that come with the Fluke 620 LAN CableMeter. shown in Figure 8-3. . Press Enter to accept that setting and go to the next one.or down-arrow buttons until the desired cable type of UTP is selected. Press the Setup button to enter the setup mode.

write down the number and color. If power was cycled. and whether the cable is straight-through or crossover. For each cable.Chapter 8: OSI Physical Layer 223 Perform a wire map test on each of the cables provided. and complete Table 8-7 based on the results. Then fill in Table 8-8 based on the result for each Cat 5 cable tested. Step 2. Task 2: Test Different Cables for Type and Wiring Problems Obtain at least five different cables from your instructor. repeat the setup steps described in Task 1. write down the number and color. Perform a basic cable test on each of the cables. The tester Length function displays the length of the cable. Verify the cable length. In the next task. . and any problem. Move the rotary switch selector on the tester to the Length position. and what the problem is (if one exists). Table 8-6 Cable Tester Settings for UTP Cable Color Cable Type (Straight-Through or Crossover) Cable Number 1 2 Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Note any problems encountered during this test: Answers will vary Step 4. For each cable. and fill in Table 8-6 based on the results. repeat the setup steps described in Step 2. write down the number and color. If power was cycled. whether the cable is straight-through or crossover. perform a wire map test on each of the cables provided. the tester screen test results. Using the cable tester Wire Map function. Move the rotary switch selector on the tester to the Wire Map position. the cable length. Table 8-7 Results of Basic Cable Test Cable Color Cable Length Cable Number 1 2 Answers will vary Answers will vary Note any problems encountered during this test: Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Repeat these steps until you are comfortable using the cable tester. For each cable. the tester screen test results. unknown cables are tested.

which is shown in Figure 8-4. Step 3. Fluke LinkRunner Step 2. and will vary. Answers are examples only. and press the green button on the lower right along with the blue button to the left. Task 3: Perform Initial Configuration of the Fluke LinkRunner Step 1. and 5 show examples of cable problems. Figure 8-4 Turn on the Fluke LinkRunner.224 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 8-8 Results of Wire Map Test Cable Color Cable type (Straight-Through or Crossover) *Test Results Problem Description Cable Cable Type Number (Visual Inspection) 1 2 3 Answers will vary Answers will vary. Place both ends of the cable into the LAN and MAP ports located on top of the LinkRunner. Press the green button on the lower right to turn it back off. 4. Rows 3. . Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary. Answers will vary Straight-through Crossover Crossover Top: 12364578 Bottom: 12364578 Top: 12364578 Bottom: 36124578 Top: 12oo4578 Bottom: 36124578 None None Pins 3 and 6 are open somewhere in the first half of the cable Pin 5 is shorted in the last half of the cable Miswire 4 Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Straight-through Top: 12364578 Bottom: 12364s78 Top: 12365478 Bottom: 12364578 5 Straight-through *Refer to the Fluke manual for a detailed description of test results for wire map.

the triangle with an exclamation mark in the center will appear and details will display. Figure 8-7 Fluke LinkRunner: Bad Cable . two parallel lines (as shown in Figure 8-5) will appear in the upper-left corner of the screen. Figure 8-6 Fluke LinkRunner: Crossover Cable If it is a bad cable.Chapter 8: OSI Physical Layer 225 If it is a correct straight-through cable. as shown in Figure 8-7. two intersecting lines (as shown in Figure 8-6) will appear in the upper-left corner of the screen. Figure 8-5 Fluke LinkRunner: Straight-Through Cable If it is a correct crossover cable.

Network technicians should be able to determine when to use Cat 5 UTP straight-through and crossover cables. and is part of the learning process. Ask the instructor where to return used cables. and press the green button on the lower right along with the blue button to the left. Fluke LinkRunner: Cable Length Step 2. cables are constantly moved and reconnected. In a lab environment. Task 6: Challenge Look for opportunities to test other cables with the Fluke 620 LAN CableMeter. Skills learned in this lab will enable you to quickly troubleshoot wrong cable types and broken cables. A properly functioning cable today may be broken tomorrow. Return the cable tester to the instructor when finished. Store the cables neatly for the next class. Figure 8-8 Task 5: Reflection Problems related to cables are one of the most common causes of network failure. . Task 7: Clean Up The cable tester is expensive and should never be left unattended. Locate the length of the cable below the icon indicating the type of cable (as shown in Figure 8-8). and wire map. This isn’t unusual. Turn on the Fluke LinkRunner by pressing the green button on the lower right along with the blue button on the right. A cable tester is used to determine cable type.226 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 4: Verify Cable Length Note: The instructions to test a cable are the same as determining cable length. length. Step 1. Place both ends of the cable into the LAN and MAP ports located on top of the LinkRunner. Step 3. Press the green button on the lower right to turn it back off. Step 4.

Upon completion of this activity. Figure 8-9 Topology for Challenge 1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server 2960-24TT S1-Central 1841 R2-Central PC 1A PC 1B . This activity examines device configurations in Packet Tracer.5.3) Open the file LSG01-PTSkills8. Figure 8-9 shows the topology for this skills integration challenge. it is important to know how to select the proper cable. or in a corporate setting.Chapter 8: OSI Physical Layer 227 Packet Tracer Challenge Skills Integration Challenge: Connecting Devices and Exploring the Physical View (8.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to perform this exercise using Packet Tracer. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Connect the devices in the standard lab setup. selecting the proper cable based on the configuration. Enter and view the physical workspace.1. View the standard lab setup in the physical workspace. Connect the devices. Verify connectivity. and connecting the devices. Background When working in Packet Tracer. in a lab environment. and how to properly connect devices. This activity also explores the physical view of the network in Packet Tracer. View the standard lab setup at the various levels of the physical workspace. and Table 8-9 shows the corresponding addressing table.

16. If the pings fail. routers may be in different sites.255.0 N/A N/A 10.255.10.0 255.16.254 192.255.254 10. check your connections and troubleshoot until the pings succeed.10.255. from across the street to across the globe.0.254.6 172.253 10.255. . Verify connectivity.168. Click router R2-Central and examine the configuration using the Config tab. Click both routers and examine the configuration using the Config tab.1. Most of our work in Packet Tracer has been done in the logical workspace.0.168. Connect the routers together using the proper interfaces and the proper cable. Task 2: View the Standard Lab Setup in the Physical Workspace Step 1.254.1 172. Connect the proper interface on the router to the proper interface on Eagle Server using the proper cable.6 172.254.254.255.255. Connect the devices.254 172.5 172.254. The DCE connects to a service provider’s local loop.228 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 8-9 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP Fa0/0 S0/0/0 192. From the command prompt on the desktop of both PCs.255.0 255. connected to a DCE (data communication equipment).10.10.0 255.10.1 172.0.168. issue the command ping 192.255. Step 2. In an internetwork. Click router R1-ISP and examine the configuration using the Config tab. the IP address of Eagle Server.168. The serial link between the routers represents a dedicated leased line between two locations consisting of a DTE (data terminal equipment).255.16.254 172.255.255.255.252 255.255. The physical workspace enables you to see these relationships more clearly. such as a router. Check your configuration by clicking the Check Results button. Connect the proper interface on the router to interface FastEthernet0/24 on switch S1Central using the proper cable. such as a channel/data service unit (CSU/DSU) or modem.254 255.6 10.16.16.0 255.2 192.0.168.255. and the connections are repeated at the other end of the link.10. Enter and view the physical workspace.1.0 255.253 R2-Central Fa0/0 S0/0/0 S1-Central PC 1A PC 1B Eagle Server VLAN 1 NIC NIC NIC Task 1: Connect the Devices in the Standard Lab Setup Step 1. Connect PC 1A to the first port on switch S1-Central and PC 1B to the second port on switch S1-Central using the proper cable.255.254.252 255.10.10.16.

.Chapter 8: OSI Physical Layer 229 Enter the physical workspace by clicking the tab in the upper-left corner of the workspace. Click Intercity on the navigation bar. Click the central office building. Click the wiring closet. Click Central City. You will see a physical representation of the equipment installed in the wiring closet and the cabling that connects the equipment. Step 2. View the standard lab setup at the various levels of the physical workspace. It shows the connection between Central City and ISP City. You will see the floor plan of the building and the location of the wiring closet. You will see the city and the location of the central office building. Repeat the steps to view the equipment installed in ISP City. Examine this view of the topology.

.

fill-in-the-blank. Ethernet’s success can also be attributed to the fact that it was adopted by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and standardized as IEEE 802. LLC b. Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 9-1. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum activities and labs to ensure you have mastered the practical. Ethernet operates at the physical layer and the Media Access Control (MAC) sublayer of the data link layer. In addition.CHAPTER 9 Ethernet The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of matching.2. match the function on the right with the correct IEEE sublayer of the data link layer. Ethernet operates at the OSI physical and data link layers. Study Guide Overview of Ethernet Ethernet is the predominant LAN technology in use today. Adds a frame delimiter b. hands-on skills needed to work with Ethernet. can give upper-layer protocols access to Ethernet. Ethernet has been so successful because it has evolved over time to incorporate new technologies such as higher speeds and fiber-optic cabling. for assistance. Ethernet (without LLC) is the frame encapsulation method used for the most popular network layer protocol in use today. Logical Link Control (LLC) or IEEE 802. As you work through this chapter. Table 9-1 Sublayer Data Link Layer Sublayers Function a. Provides a unique source and destination address . Controls the placement of a frame on the medium a. Provides an interface to the upper layers b. MAC a. use Chapter 9 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum. Internet Protocol (IP). and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of Ethernet. or use the corresponding Chapter 9 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration Companion Guide. The upper sublayer of the data link layer. multiple-choice. Remains relatively independent of the physical equipment b.3. Using IEEE terminology.

The node places the CRC result in the Frame Check Sequence (FCS) field in the trailer part of the Ethernet frame. Ethernet has evolved from a shared coaxial medium. reliability. Robert M. to a shared hub-based network. Metcalfe of the Xerox Corporation circulated a memo to his colleagues.0. Digital Equipment Corporation. and error detection. In 1980. and then to 100 Mbps and 1 Gbps. Why has Ethernet been so successful? Ethernet has been so successful because it has evolved with the times to incorporate new technologies. After receiving a frame. Concentrates connections. proposing the name for their prototype network. 10BASE5 b. Ethernet forms the foundation of most industrial. Uses 185 meters of thin coaxial cable f.232 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Concept Questions 1. Only one station at a time can transmit c. The IEEE published the 802. Full duplex f. ease of maintenance. was released in 1982. Intel. Since 1985. DIX V2. Ethernet’s success also can be attributed to its simplicity. low cost of installation and upgrading.0 standard for Ethernet. Ethernet: Communication Through the LAN The term Ethernet first appeared in 1973 when Dr. Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 9-2.3 standard for Ethernet in 1985. and government networks. and now 10 Gbps. addressing. and standardization by the IEEE. How does Ethernet handle error detection? The sending node calculates a Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) of the bits in the frame. Both ends of a connection can send at the same time a. a receiving node calculates its own CRC to compare to the one in the frame. the fact that the Ethernet frame has remained relatively unchanged over the years has allowed applications to keep running over Ethernet even as it evolved. much like the ether substance that scientists in the 1800s believed filled space and matter. The name reflects the goal that Ethernet become ubiquitous. Today. match the description on the right with the correct Ethernet term on the left. If the two CRC results match. also known as Ethernet II. 2. Uses 500 meters of thick coaxial cable . Hub d. Isolates each port and sends a frame only to its proper destination (if the destination is known) e. educational. Metcalfe’s goal that Ethernet become ubiquitous has been achieved. Its original speed of 3 Mbps evolved to 10 Mbps. What functions does data encapsulation provide? Data encapsulation provides frame delimiting. The cabling has also evolved from coaxial to unshielded twisted pair to fiber-optic. the recipient assumes that the frame arrived without error. 10BASE2 c. allowing the network to see a group of nodes as a single unit b. and finally to a selective-forwarding environment with high-speed switches. In addition. Switch d. Table 9-2 Term Ethernet Implementations Description a. Half duplex e. and Xerox published the DIX V1. 3.

When Ethernet was upgraded to run on hubs with twisted-pair cabling.3 header and trailer. What aspects of Ethernet have remained relatively unchanged over the years. Tells other devices on the network that a frame is coming along the medium d. For example. Switches are capable of full duplex because they consider each connection a separate communication channel. Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Table 9-3 lists the fields that appear in an IEEE 802. The Ethernet Frame A fundamental job of the data link layer is to encapsulate a Layer 3 Protocol Data Unit (PDU) into a Layer 2 PDU. Used for error detection a. and trailer. and what aspects have changed? Ethernet’s simplicity and ease of use and installation have remained unchanged. Data g. Destination address d. Table 9-3 Field Frame Header Fields Definition a. Although different protocols place different fields in a frame. a switch port and the connected device can send at the same time. it used half-duplex communication. it still used half-duplex communication. Only one device can send at any time. Fiber-optic is reserved mostly for data centers. Frame check sequence g. Ethernet is still usually connected in a star topology. Specifies the number of bytes in the data part of the frame or specifies the type of data (the upper-layer protocol) f. When Ethernet ran on coaxial cable. Most Layer 2 frames also have addressing fields in the header that identify the sender and receiver. Length/type f. Preamble b. The Layer 2 PDU is called a frame. Compare and contrast half duplex and full duplex. Although the cabling could have supported full duplex. Specifies the frame’s intended recipient . Ethernet follows these conventions. data field. Source address e. links between switches. The Ethernet frame has remained relatively unchanged. Specifies the frame’s sender c. Used for synchronization e. Half duplex is used on a medium that can carry only one signal at a time. unlike a hub. but the center of the star is a switch rather than a hub these days. 2. Transmitting and receiving simultaneously is not allowed.Chapter 9: Ethernet 233 Concept Questions 1. the hub was still a shared medium. which is a shared device. most protocols specify that the frame should have a header. Match the field on the left with the definition on the right. Start of frame delimiter c. Carries the upper-layer data b. The cabling for Ethernet has evolved from coaxial to unshielded twisted pair to fiber-optic. Full duplex means that each end of a communications channel can send at the same time. Unshielded twisted pair is still widely used. and high-end devices.

To specify the Portable Application Description (PAD) that describes the encapsulated data. 4. 1518 bytes c. 72 bytes d. The receiving device requests a retransmission. The recipient bases the decision on whether it’s been configured for Ethernet II or IEEE 802. What is the maximum size of an Ethernet frame according to the IEEE 802. The recipient requests a retransmission. b. The receiving device drops the frame. To ensure that the frame is protected from damage. What is the minimum size of an Ethernet frame? a. . 128 bytes c. The receiving device sends back a negative acknowledgment to the sender. The sender notices the missing acknowledgment and retransmits the frame. c. 5.234 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Multiple-Choice Questions Choose the best answer for each of the following questions. d. The recipient calculates a CRC that differs from the CRC in the FCS field and drops the b. 1522 bytes b. c. d. b. 1. If the value is equal to or greater than 0x0600. 1024 bytes d. c. b. 64 bytes 2. the field specifies a type. How does a recipient device know if the sender used the Length/Type field to specify a length or a type? a. The receiving device reports a collision. 1522 bytes b. c.3ac standard? a. d. To provide synchronization. To ensure that the frame is at least 64 bytes. 64 bytes 3. the field specifies a type. What happens if a frame arrives damaged? frame. a.3. Why is padding sometimes added to the data part of an Ethernet frame? a. The sender backs off and waits a random amount of time before trying again. d. The recipient sends a query to the sender to determine how the field should be interpreted. 6. If the value is equal to or less than 1536. What does a receiving device do if it receives a frame that is less than the allowed minimum size or greater than the allowed maximum size? a.

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7.

How long is a MAC address?

a. Six hexadecimal digits b. 32 bits c. 48 bits d. 8 bytes

Concept Questions
1.

Compare and contrast MAC addresses with IP addresses. MAC addresses operate at the OSI data link layer (Layer 2). Layer 2 addresses are used only for local delivery when transporting a frame across a local medium. These addresses use a flat addressing scheme and do not indicate on what network a device is located. If a device is moved to another network, its Layer 2 address does not need to change. IP addresses operate at the OSI network layer (Layer 3). Layer 3 addresses are carried from source to destination host across an internetwork. Layer 3 addresses use a hierarchical addressing scheme and indicate a network number and host identifier.

2.

Compare and contrast unicast, broadcast, and multicast communications at the MAC sublayer. Unicast, broadcast, and multicast are all 48-bit MAC address types. All of them can be destination MAC addresses. Only unicast can be a source address. A unicast address is a unique address used when a frame is sent from a single transmitting device to a single destination device. In the case of a broadcast, the frame is destined for all devices in the broadcast domain and is addressed to a MAC broadcast address of 48 1s (or FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF in hexadecimal). With multicast, a source can send to a group of devices. The low-order bit of the first byte must be a 1 for the address to be a multicast. If the multicast is also an IP multicast, the first 24 bits of the MAC address are 01-00-5E in hexadecimal.

Ethernet Media Access Control
In a shared medium, all devices have guaranteed access to the medium, but they must fairly share the medium and not interfere with each other. If more than one device transmits at the same time, the physical signals collide, and the data is damaged. Both transmitters must recognize that their data has been damaged and resend it. Ethernet uses carrier sense multiple access collision detect (CSMA/CD) to detect and handle collisions and regulate use of the shared medium.

Vocabulary Exercise: Completion
Fill in the blanks for the following statements that discuss CSMA/CD.
1.

Because devices using coaxial or hub-based Ethernet send their messages on a shared medium, a protocol (or coordination scheme or media access control method) is used to determine if the medium is already in use before a sender transmits. When a device detects that no other computer is sending a frame, the device transmits if it has something to send. All devices that have messages to send must listen before transmitting.

2.

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3. 4.

If a device detects a signal from another device, it waits before attempting to transmit. When no traffic is detected, a device transmits its message. While transmitting, the device continues to listen for traffic from another device. If another device is sending at the same time, a collision has occurred. If a collision happens, the sending devices continue to send for the time it takes to send a jam signal and then stop sending. The devices invoke a backoff algorithm that causes them to wait a random amount of time before trying to send again.

5.

Concept Questions
1.

What is interframe spacing, and why does Ethernet use it? Interframe spacing is the required time between frames on an Ethernet network. After a frame has been sent, all devices are required to wait a minimum of 96 bit times (the time it takes to send 96 bits). This gives the medium time to stabilize after transmitting a frame.

2.

Why is the backoff timing random when an Ethernet collision occurs? The backoff waiting period is intentionally designed to be random so that two stations do not delay for the same amount of time before retransmitting, which would result in more collisions.

Ethernet Physical Layer
The many implementations of Ethernet include Classic Ethernet, Fast Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet, and 10 Gigabit Ethernet. The differences occur at the physical layer, often called the Ethernet PHY. Four data rates are currently defined for operation over optical-fiber and twisted-pair cables:
■ ■ ■ ■

10 Mbps: 10BASE-T Classic Ethernet 100 Mbps: Fast Ethernet 1000 Mbps: Gigabit Ethernet 10 Gbps: 10 Gigabit Ethernet

Vocabulary Exercise: Completion
Fill in the blanks for the following statements that describe Ethernet physical layer options.
1.

10BASE-T uses two pairs of a four-pair cable and is terminated at each end with an eight-pin RJ-45 connector. The pair connected to pins 1 and 2 is used for transmitting, and the pair connected to pins 3 and 6 is used for receiving. Replacing hubs with switches in 10BASE-T networks has greatly increased the bandwidth available to these networks and has helped Ethernet maintain its dominance in the LAN market. The 10BASE-T links connected to a switch can support either half-duplex or full-duplex operation. The most popular implementations of 100 Mbps Ethernet are 100BASE-TX, which uses Category 5 or later UTP cable, and 100BASE-FX, which uses fiber-optic cable. 1000BASE-T Ethernet provides full-duplex transmission using four pairs of Category 5 or later UTP cable.

2.

3.

4.

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5.

The two fiber versions of Gigabit Ethernet are 1000BASE-SX and 1000BASE-LX. Fiber-optic cabling offers better noise immunity than UTP, a smaller physical size, and higher distances and bandwidth. A difference between 1000BASE-SX and 1000BASE-LX is the wavelength of the optical signal. The IEEE 802.3ae standard was adapted to include 10-Gbps, full-duplex transmission over fiber-optic cable. 10-Gigabit Ethernet is evolving for use not only in LANs, but also in MANs and WANs. Although Gigabit Ethernet is now widely available and 10-Gigabit products are becoming more available, the IEEE and the 10-Gigabit Ethernet Alliance are working on 40-, 100-, and even 160-Gbps standards.

6.

7.

8.

Hubs and Switches
In the 1970s and 1980s, Ethernet networks were connected in a bus topology using coaxial cable. The coaxial cable provided a shared medium. In the 1990s, administrators started connecting nodes to the shared network in a star topology using twisted-pair cabling and hubs. During the 1990s, to improve performance, administrators upgraded their hubs to switches. Switches divide collision domains into smaller domains, sometimes so small that collisions are no longer an issue. For example, in the common case where a single device is connected to a port on a switch, both ends of the communications channel can send and receive at the same time, and collisions don’t occur. Switches forward broadcast and multicast traffic to all members of a LAN but provide selective forwarding for unicast traffic. The selective forwarding greatly reduces collisions and improves performance.

Vocabulary Exercise: Matching
In Table 9-4, match the characteristic on the right with the correct term on the left.
Table 9-4 Term Characteristics of Hubs and Switches Characteristic

a. Hub b. Switch

b. Divides collision domains a. Forwards received bits out every port b. Supports full-duplex communication a. Simplifies network cabling but doesn’t have any performance benefits a. When many nodes that transmit frequently are connected to this device, latency increases, because each node must wait for an opportunity to transmit b. Provides an alternative to contention-based Ethernet b. Maintains a table that maps each MAC address to a port

Vocabulary Exercise: Completion
Fill in the blanks for the following statements that describe the selective forwarding service provided by switches.
1.

A switch selectively forwards a frame that it receives on a port to the port where the destination node is connected.

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2.

Switches use store-and-forward switching, whereby the switch receives an entire frame, checks the FCS field for errors, and forwards the frame to the appropriate port. A switch maintains a table, called the MAC table (also called MAC address table, CAM table, switch table, bridge table, filter table), that matches a MAC address with the port used to connect the node with that address.

3.

Concept Question
List and describe the five basic operations of an Ethernet LAN switch. Learning. A switch populates the MAC table by learning which port it should use to reach each MAC address. As a frame enters the switch, the switch examines the MAC source address. If no entry exists in the table for this address, the switch creates a new entry that pairs the source address with the port on which the frame arrived. The switch can now use this mapping to forward frames to the node with the MAC address in the table entry. Aging. A switch tracks how long an entry has been in the MAC table. If the entry reaches a certain age without being refreshed by a new frame from the same node on the same port, the entry is removed. Flooding. If a switch has not yet learned which port it should use to forward a frame to a destination, the switch sends the frame to all ports, except the port on which the frame arrived. Selective forwarding. A switch examines the destination MAC address in a frame and forwards the frame out the appropriate port. Filtering. After a switch has learned the address or addresses that map to a port, it filters frames from going out that port that include a destination address that is not mapped to the port.

Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
To send an IP packet to a recipient, a sender needs to learn the recipient’s MAC address. ARP provides a means for a sender to broadcast a message to find the MAC address for a known IP address.

Multiple-Choice Questions
Choose the best answer for each of the following questions.
1.

What is a basic job of ARP?

a. Resolve IPv4 addresses to MAC addresses b. Build a table that maps MAC addresses to ports c. Build a loop-free LAN from redundantly connected switches d. Provide a resource protocol for finding applications 2.

If a node has recently sent a frame to another node, where is the mapping of IPv4 address to MAC address stored?

a. MAC table b. ARP cache c. Routing table d. NVRAM

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3.

When a node has not recently sent a frame to another node, how does the node discover the correct MAC address to use for the IPv4 address of the destination node?

a. The sender sends an IPv4 query to the destination node to ask the node for its MAC address. b. The sender broadcasts an ARP request. c. The sender monitors traffic until it discovers the correct MAC address to use. d. The sender transmits a TCP SYN to the destination node. 4.

What type of header does an ARP frame contain?

a. IP b. Ethernet c. TCP d. UDP 5.

When an Ethernet transmitter sends to a destination not on its local network, what MAC destination address does it use, and how does it discover this address? request.

a. The transmitter uses the MAC address of the destination, which it discovers with an ARP b. The transmitter uses the MAC address of the local router interface, which it discovers with an

ARP request.
c. The transmitter uses the MAC address of the destination, which it discovers with a proxy ARP

request.
d. The transmitter doesn’t need a MAC address for the destination and relies on the IP destination

address to provide enough information for routers to forward the frame.
6.

What is the destination address in the frame when a node sends an ARP request to find the MAC address associated with a known IP address?

a. 255.255.255.255 b. The address of the local router interface c. The recipient’s address d. FF:FF:FF:FF:FF:FF

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Labs and Activities
Lab 9-1: Address Resolution Protocol (9.8.1.1)
Upon completion of this lab, you will be able to
■ ■

Use the Windows arp command. Use Wireshark to examine ARP exchanges.

Background TCP/IP uses ARP to map a Layer 3 IP address to a Layer 2 MAC address. When a frame is placed on the network, it must have a destination MAC address. To dynamically discover the MAC address of the destination device, an ARP request is broadcast on the LAN. The device that contains the destination IP address responds, and the MAC address is recorded in the ARP cache. Every device on the LAN keeps its own ARP cache, which is a small area in RAM that holds ARP results. An ARP cache timer removes ARP entries that have not been used for a certain period of time. Depending on the device, the times differ. For example, some Windows operating systems store ARP cache entries for 2 minutes. If the entry is used again during that time, the ARP timer for that entry is extended to 10 minutes. ARP is an excellent example of a performance trade-off. With no cache, ARP must continually request address translations each time a frame is placed on the network. This adds latency to the communication and could congest the LAN. Conversely, unlimited hold times could cause errors with devices that leave the network or change the Layer 3 address. A network engineer needs to be aware of ARP but may not interact with the protocol on a regular basis. ARP is a protocol that enables network devices to communicate with the TCP/IP protocol. Without ARP, no efficient method exists to build the datagram Layer 2 destination address. ARP is a potential security risk. ARP spoofing, or ARP poisoning, is a technique used by an attacker to inject the wrong MAC address association into a network. An attacker forges a device’s MAC address, and frames are sent to the wrong destination. Manually configuring static ARP associations is one way to prevent ARP spoofing. In addition, an authorized MAC address list may be configured in Cisco devices to restrict network access to only approved devices. Scenario With a pod host computer, use the Windows arp utility command to examine and change ARP cache entries. In Task 2, you will use Wireshark to capture and analyze ARP exchanges between network devices. If Wireshark has not been loaded on the host pod computer, you can download it from ftp://eagleserver.example.com/pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter9/. The file is wireshark-setup-0.99.4.exe. Figure 9-1 shows the topology for this lab, and Table 9-5 is the corresponding addressing table.

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Figure 9-1

Topology for Lab 9-1

R1-ISP

S0/0/0 DCE

Eagle Server

S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24

S1-Central

R2-Central

1A

1B

11A

11B

Pod#1

Pod#11

Table 9-5 Device

Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway

R1-ISP

S0/0/0 Fa0/0

10.10.10.6 192.168.254.253 10.10.10.5 172.16.255.254 192.168.254.254 172.31.24.254 172.16.Pod#.1 172.16.Pod#.2 172.16.254.1

255.255.255.252 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.252 255.255.0.0 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.0.0

— — 10.10.10.6 — 192.168.254.253 — 172.16.255.254 172.16.255.254 172.16.255.254

R2-Central

S0/0/0 Fa0/0

Eagle Server

— —

Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central

— — —

Note to Instructor: Depending on the classroom situation, the lab topology may have been modified before this class. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server.example.com, troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity:
Step 1.

Verify that all network equipment is powered on and that eagle-server is on.

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Step 2.

From a known good host computer, ping eagle-server. If the ping test fails, ping S1Central, R2-Central, R1-ISP, and finally eagle-server. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests. If an individual host computer cannot connect to eagle-server, check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address, shown in Table 9-5, and that it can ping R2-Central, 172.16.255.254. Verify that the host computer has the correct Gateway IP address, 172.16.255.254, and that it can ping R1-ISP, 10.10.10.6. Finally, verify that the host has the correct DNS address and that it can ping eagle-server.example.com.

Step 3.

Task 1: Use the Windows arp Command
Step 1.

Access the Windows terminal. Open a Windows terminal by choosing Start > Run. Enter cmd, and click OK. With no options, the arp command displays useful help information. Issue the arp command on the pod host computer, and examine the output. It should look like Example 9-1.

Example 9-1

Using the arp Command

C:\> arp Displays and modifies the IP-to-Physical address translation tables used by address resolution protocol (ARP). ARP -s inet_addr eth_addr [if_addr] ARP -d inet_addr [if_addr] ARP -a [inet_addr] [-N if_addr] -a Displays current ARP entries by interrogating the current protocol data. If inet_addr is specified, the IP and Physical addresses for only the specified computer are displayed. If more than one network interface uses ARP, entries for each ARP table are displayed. -g Same as -a. Specifies an internet address. inet_addr

-N if_addr Displays the ARP entries for the network interface specified by if_addr. -d Deletes the host specified by inet_addr. inet_addr may be wildcarded with * to delete all hosts. -s Adds the host and associates the Internet address inet_addr with the Physical address eth_addr. The Physical address is given as 6 hexadecimal bytes separated by hyphens. The entry is permanent. eth_addr if_addr interface Specifies a physical address. If present, this specifies the Internet address of the

whose address translation table should be modified. If not present, the first applicable interface will be used.

Lost = 0 (0% loss). Received = 4.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 172. Example 9-3 Using the ping Command C:\> ping 172.255.1. Step 3. Use the ping command to dynamically add entries to the ARP cache. Use the arp command to examine the local ARP cache.212 00-aa-00-62-c6-09 > arp -a table.16..16.. Adds a static entry.Chapter 9: Ethernet 243 Example 9-1 Using the arp Command continued Example: > arp -s 157.16.2: Packets: Sent = 4.1..2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 172. When you issued the command that displays ARP entries.1.254? arp -d 172.16. Displays the arp Answer the following questions about the arp command: ■ What command is used to display all entries in the ARP cache? arp -a ■ What command is used to delete all ARP cache entries (flush the ARP cache)? arp -d * ■ What command is used to delete the ARP cache entry for 172. Maximum = 0ms.254 Step 2..85.255. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms.2 Pinging 172. ARP associations are dynamically added to the ARP cache.. Any entry indicates communication between the pod host computer and other network devices.1.16. what were the results? The ARP cache should be empty. Using the arp Command with the -a Option Example 9-2 C:\> arp -a No ARP Entries Found C:\> Without any network communication..1.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Ping statistics for 172. The ping command can be used to test network connectivity.2 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 172. as shown in Example 9-3.55. . the ARP cache should be empty.16.1. as shown in Example 9-2.16. Average = 0ms C:\> C:\> arp -a .1.16. By accessing other devices.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 172. C:\> .16.

Or. Was the ARP cache entry cleared? Yes If the entry was not cleared. R2-Central. a couple explanations are possible.255.1 —. only the Gateway MAC address is displayed. Record the two ARP cache entries using Table 9-6.2 C:\> Physical Address 00-10-a4-7b-01-5f Type dynamic Use the command ipconfig /all to verify another pod host computer’s Layer 2 and Layer 3 information. . eagle-server.example. Examine the ARP cache entry. What is the physical address of the destination pod host computer? Answers will vary.244 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example 9-3 Using the ping Command continued Interface: 172. How was the address discovered? Dynamically Issue the ping command to Eagle Server.0x60004 Internet Address 172. First. Wait between 2 and 3 minutes. and check the ARP cache again. which will retain the cache entry for approximately 10 minutes. It may be easier to ping both devices more than once.254 What is the physical address of the Gateway? Answers will vary. Issue the ping command to that pod host computer. Issue the ping command to the Gateway. you accessed the destination device more than once and caused the ARP timeout for the entry to rise to 10 minutes. Manually adjust entries in the ARP cache. Verify that the ARP cache contains two entries: one for the Gateway and one for the destination pod host computer. How was the ARP entry added to the ARP cache? Hint: Review the Type column. Do not send any traffic to the computer accessed previously.1. Because Eagle Server is on a different network. which is how long the ARP cache stores an initial entry. Step 4. What is the physical address of Eagle Server? It cannot be determined. Dynamically What is the IP address of the destination pod host computer? Answers will vary.com.16. What is the IP address of the Gateway? 172. you did not wait 2 minutes. Examine the ARP cache entry.1.16.16.

1.2 172.0x60004 Internet Address 172.1.254 C:\> arp -a Interface: 172.1. and examine the ARP cache with the arp -a command. You can delete addresses individually by specifying the IP address.16.16. .Chapter 9: Ethernet 245 Table 9-6 Device Initial ARP Cache Entries IP Address Physical Address How Is It Discovered? Pod host computer Gateway Answers will vary 172.16.254 C:\> C:\> arp -d 172. delete the entry for the pod host computer.16. Dynamically Simulate removing all entries.254 Answers will vary.1 —.0x60004 Internet Address 172. All entries should be removed.255.255. What is one layer of security that can be applied to ARP cache entries to help counter ARP spoofing? Add a static ARP entry for the Gateway. Example 9-4 Manually Deleting an ARP Cache Entry C:\> arp -a Interface: 172. Example 9-4 shows how to manually delete an ARP cache entry.255.1. To delete entries in the ARP cache.16.1 —.2 C:\> Physical Address 00-10-a4-7b-01-5f Type dynamic Physical Address 00-10-a4-7b-01-5f 00-0c-85-cf-66-40 Type dynamic dynamic What command deletes the entry for the pod host computer? arp -d inet-addr Record the remaining ARP cache entry in Table 9-7. issue the arp -d {inet-addr | *} command.16. Table 9-7 Device Remaining ARP Cache Entry IP Address Physical Address How Is It Discovered? Gateway 172.16.254 Answers will vary Answers will vary Dynamically Dynamically Next. Consider a secure environment where the Gateway controls access to a web server that contains top-secret information.16. or you can delete all entries using the wildcard *.255. What command deletes all entries in the ARP cache? arp -d * Issue the command to remove all entries in the ARP cache on your pod host computer.

16. using the command ping -n 1 172.255.254. Task 2: Use Wireshark to Examine ARP Exchanges Step 1. and the ARP communication is evaluated.254 What is the physical address of the Gateway? Answers will vary. Now. What command adds a static ARP entry for the Gateway to the ARP cache? arp -s 172. Choose Capture > Options.254. and examine the ARP cache again. this will require ARP to rediscover address maps. Flush the ARP cache. Wireshark will be used to capture and examine an ARP exchange. Click Start. This begins the packet capture. If you haven’t already done so. provide answers to these questions: ■ ■ ■ What is the IP address of the Gateway? 172. Configure Wireshark for packet captures.168. Prepare Wireshark for captures. Stop Wireshark and evaluate the communication. one ping request is sent to the Gateway. open a Windows terminal window by choosing Start > Run. using the command ping -n 1 192.255. . the Wireshark capture is stopped. The Packet Details window shows ARP protocol contents. The Wireshark Packet List window displays the number of packets captured. What command did you use? arp -d * Step 3. Step 2. Send one ping request to the Gateway. What is the type of the ARP entry? Static For the next task. you will use it to view the ARP cache. and click OK. In this step.246 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Simulate adding a static entry for the Gateway. Check the box to update the list of packets in real time. Send one ping request to Eagle Server.254.255. Afterward. Select the interface that corresponds to the LAN. Capture and evaluate ARP communication.254 MAC-address Issue the command on your pod host computer. Enter cmd.16. You should see a Wireshark screen similar to the one shown in Figure 9-2. and one ping request is sent to Eagle Server.16. Do not close the Windows terminal. Prepare the pod host computer for ARP captures.

why does the target MAC address contain all 0s? The ARP protocol has no value yet to put in the field.255.16.254 Fill in Table 9-9 with information about the second ARP packet.Chapter 9: Ethernet 247 Figure 9-2 Wireshark Screen Using your Wireshark capture.254 Answers will vary Answers will vary If the Ethernet II frame for an ARP request is a broadcast. Table 9-8 Field First ARP Packet Value Sender MAC address Sender IP address Target MAC address Target IP address Answers will vary Answers will vary 00:00:00:00:00:00 172.255. answer the following questions: ■ ■ What is the first ARP packet? A request What is the second ARP packet? A reply Fill in Table 9-8 with information about the first ARP packet.16. . Table 9-9 Field Second ARP Packet Value Sender MAC address Sender IP address Target MAC address Target IP address Answers will vary 172.

Task 5: Clean Up Wireshark was installed on the pod host computer. but the Layer 3 address never changes.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer.248 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Why was there no ARP request for the ping to Eagle Server? The TCP/IP protocol already had the MAC address for the Gateway. Click Add or Remove Programs.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab9812. Remove any files created on the pod host computer during the lab. the Layer 2 MAC address changes with each hop across a router. perform a search on ARP spoofing. Using outside resources. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. choose Start > Control Panel. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. and click Remove. If a packet must move across networks. discuss the advantages of configuring MAC address restrictions for wireless networks. Most wireless routers support a network administrator manually adding a list of MAC addresses to the router that are permitted access to the wireless network. If the entry was learned dynamically. Choose Wireshark. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity. Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Address Resolution Protocol (9. If the entry was manually inserted in the ARP cache. Remember. turn off power to the host computers. it is a static entry and remains until the computer is turned off or the ARP cache is manually flushed. This sets the new timeout value to 10 minutes. Discuss several techniques used to counter this type of attack. How long should the Gateway mapping be stored in the ARP cache on the pod host computer? Why? 10 minutes. however. If Wireshark needs to be uninstalled.8. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. The ARP cache stores ARP address mappings. Task 3: Reflection The ARP protocol maps Layer 3 IP addresses to Layer 2 MAC addresses.1. it will eventually be deleted from cache. because the cache entry was accessed within the 2-minute cache timeout. which is used to forward the packet outside the LAN. and leave the room ready for the next class. Discuss ways in which attackers can circumvent this security. Task 4: Challenge Using outside resources. .

2. it is denied. limited privileges have been configured for student use. the frame is routed out all ports except the port where it originated. The Cisco device must be configured for Telnet access. Scenario Telnet is a network service that uses a client/server model. Access to Cisco devices can be accomplished through several means. A console port can be used if the Cisco router or switch is within proximity of a computer. Background Switches maintain a table of MAC addresses and associated switch ports. network connectivity can be established through two means. you will be able to ■ ■ Use the Telnet protocol to log into a Cisco switch. Figure 9-3 shows the topology for this lab. and Table 9-10 is the corresponding addressing table. In this lab. otherwise. Cisco IOS devices provide a default Telnet server. and the corresponding port is used to route the frame out the switch. a modem configured on the AUX port enables telephone access. Log in with your student account. the destination MAC address is checked against the table. Use the Cisco show mac-address-table command to examine MAC address and port associations. Using the Windows hyperterm utility. You will do the following: ■ ■ ■ Telnet to S1-Central. . network engineers can log into network devices from anywhere across a secure network.Chapter 9: Ethernet 249 Packet Tracer Challenge Lab 9-2: Cisco Switch MAC Table Examination (9. you will connect to the switch via a Telnet session. a serial connection can be established. If a switch does not know which port to use to route the frame. Using Telnet. If the network is not secure. and operating systems such as Windows have built-in Telnet clients. In this course. the Cisco device can be configured for a Telnet session. or the frame is a broadcast. For secure networks. When a switch receives a frame.1) Upon completion of this lab. Use the show mac-address-table command to examine the MAC addresses and association to ports.8. For devices physically distant from the network engineer.

10.2 172.254.0.16.253 10.6 — 192.255.254 172.16. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server.0.16.250 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 9-3 Topology for Lab 9-2 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 Table 9-10 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP S0/0/0 Fa0/0 10.0 255.0 255.254. .16.0 255.16.16.10. ping S1Central.254.255.255. R2-Central.255. the lab topology may have been modified before this class.255.255.168.0 — — 10. ping eagle-server.255.example.10.com. Take corrective action on devices that fail the ping tests.5 172.Pod#.255.Pod#.10. If the ping test fails. From a known good host computer.0. R1-ISP.255.10.1 255.16.255.254 172.0 255.255.0.255.254 192.255.254 R2-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Eagle Server — — Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central — — — Note to Instructor: Depending on the classroom situation.254. Step 2.1 172.254 172.255.253 — 172.0 255. troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity: Step 1.252 255. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity.255.10.6 192.255.254 172. and finally eagle-server.31.168.24.255.168.252 255.0 255.255. Verify that all network equipment is powered on and that eagle-server is on.

From the Windows terminal. Issue the show mac-address-table ? command. and that it can ping R1-ISP. 10. Examine the switch MAC address table. use the user ID corresponding to your pod. Example 9-5 Switch Access Prompt ******************************************************************* This is Lab switch S1-Central. verify that the host has the correct DNS address and that it can ping eagle-server. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address. use user ID ccna1. 172. Use the Windows Telnet client to access S1-Central. Access the Windows terminal.1 An access prompt is displayed. the password is cisco. and that it can ping R2-Central.255. To provide access to each student. Open a Windows terminal by choosing Start > Run. Finally. and click OK.10.255. Use Table 9-11 to fill in a description for each command option. similar to the one shown in Example 9-5. shown in Table 9-10. ******************************************************************* User Access Verification Username: ccna1 Password: cisco S1-Central# (*hidden*) Task 2: Use the Cisco IOS show mac-address-table Command to Examine MAC Addresses and Port Associations Step 1. for host computers on pod 1. This outputs all options for the command.example. Task 1: Use the Telnet Protocol to Log in to a Cisco Switch Step 1. Unless directed otherwise by your instructor. Enter cmd.16.254.254.com.254.16. Step 2. ccna1 through ccna11. Authorized access only. check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central. 172. For example. S1-Central has been configured with 11 student accounts.16.Chapter 9: Ethernet 251 Step 3. issue the Telnet command telnet destination-ip-address: C:/> telnet 172. Verify that the host computer has the correct Gateway IP address.6. . If an individual host computer cannot connect to eagle-server.10.

How many MAC addresses are listed for switch port gi0/0? 5 . or learned. Issue the show mac-address-table command. entries. Address keyword Aging-time keyword Count keyword Dynamic entry type Interface keyword Multicast information for the selected wildcard MAC notification parameters and history table Static entry type VLAN keyword Output modifiers Carriage return Examine dynamic MAC address table entries.252 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 9-11 Option Show Mac-Address-Table Command Options Description address aging-time count dynamic interface multicast notification static vlan | <cr> Step 2. Use Table 9-12 to list the MAC addresses and corresponding switch ports. This command displays static (CPU) and dynamic. Table 9-12 MAC Addresses and Ports Switch Port MAC Address Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Suppose that a hub with five active hosts is connected to switch port gi0/0.

pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. in seconds. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ Use Wireshark to capture and analyze frames originating from network nodes. This has the benefit of permitting access to remote devices for troubleshooting and monitoring purposes. and leave the room ready for the next class.8.2. Without a MAC address table.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab9822. Task 4: Reflection Using the Telnet protocol. Examine MAC address table aging time. A switch contains a MAC address table that lists the MAC address connected to each switch port. the switch would have to flood the frame out each port. Lab 9-3: Intermediary Device as an End Device (9. What is the default aging time for VLAN 1? 300 Task 3: Challenge What would be the result if the MAC address table were flushed of dynamic entries? The switch would broadcast frames out each port except the originating port until the switch learned all the MAC addresses connected to the switch. If a match occurs in the MAC address table. Examine the origination of frames in a small network. . A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity. Task 5: Clean Up Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. the frame is routed out the corresponding port. the switch performs a lookup of the frame destination MAC address.1) Upon completion of this lab. Copy and paste data captured by Wireshark into Notepad for further analysis. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. When a frame enters the switch.8.Chapter 9: Ethernet 253 Step 3. that MAC address entries are stored.3. however. Remember. network engineers can access Cisco devices remotely across secure LANs. turn off power to the host computers. Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Cisco Switch MAC Table Examination (9. Issue the show mac-address-table aging-time command. This command displays the default amount of time. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment.

0.255.255.10.255.10.168.0 255.com/pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter9/.5 172.0 255.255. If Wireshark has not been loaded on the host pod computer.16.254.16. however.255.253 10.0.254 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Background A switch is used to forward frames between network devices.6 — 192.255. because you will use Telnet to directly access the switch.4.255.255.168. Scenario You will use Wireshark to capture and analyze Ethernet frames.16.168. Rather.1 172.254 172.10.255.example. a switch efficiently passes frames from one device to another in a LAN. and Table 9-13 is the corresponding addressing table.255.Pod#.2 172.255.254. A switch normally does not originate frames to node devices.exe.255.255. you will see the switch originating frames. Figure 9-4 shows the topology for this lab.254.0.24.16.0 255.255.6 192.0 — — 10.254 192.0 255.10.0.254. The file is wireshark-setup-0.0 255.254 172.253 — 172.10.99.Pod#. you can download it from ftp://eagleserver.16.255.255.10.254 172.255.16.254 R2-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Eagle Server — — Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central — — — .254 172.16. In this lab.252 255.255.0 255. Figure 9-4 Topology for Lab 9-3 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 Table 9-13 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP S0/0/0 Fa0/0 10.252 255.1 255.31.

If an individual host computer cannot connect to eagle-server. issue the Telnet command telnet 172. use user ID ccna1. making analysis a bit tedious. ping S1Central.com. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity. In this lab you will ping a neighbor’s pod host computer. and finally eagle-server. From a known good host computer. From the Windows terminal.10.255. numerous dynamic address table entries should be listed.255. Choose Capture > Options. Use Table 9-14 to list the dynamic MAC address entries. Finally. Check the box to update the list of packets in real time. S1-Central#. Enter enable to enter privileged mode. Step 2. Click Start. Step 3.com. shown in Table 9-13. . verify that the host has the correct DNS address and that it can ping eagle-server.16. In addition to several static CPU entries. Use the Windows Telnet client to access S1-Central. use the user ID corresponding to your pod. Unless directed otherwise by your instructor. Enter the appropriate username and password. ping eagle-server. R1-ISP. Verify that the host computer has the correct Gateway IP address. however. Step 2. Select the interface that corresponds to the LAN. S1-Central has been configured with 11 student accounts. The critical Telnet conversation between the pod host computer and S1-Central will be easy to filter. Write down the IP address and port connection on S1-Central for the neighbor’s pod host computer: ■ ■ IP address: Answers will vary S1-Central port number: Answers will vary Task 1: Use Wireshark to Capture and Analyze Frames Originating from Network Nodes Step 1.16.16. Configure Wireshark for packet capture. 172. ccna1 through ccna11.254. should be returned. and that it can ping R2-Central. To provide access to each student.Chapter 9: Ethernet 255 Note to Instructor: Depending on the classroom situation. and that it can ping R1-ISP. For example. Examine the switch MAC address table with the show mac-address-table command. If the ping test fails.6. the lab topology may have been modified before this class. Verify that all network equipment is powered on and that eagle-server is on. Step 3.1.example. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address. cisco.example. 10. R2-Central. the password is cisco. During this capture there will probably be more than 200 packets. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server. Examine and clear the MAC address table. troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity: Step 1. The S1-Central prompt.10. check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central. This begins the packet capture.254. 172.254. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests. for host computers on pod 1.

on R2-Router interface Fa 0/0. From Wireshark. which was recorded earlier: C:>\ ping -n 1 ip-address The MAC address for your neighbor’s computer should be dynamically added in the S1Central MAC address table. using ASCII as the default display. Open a second terminal window. switch to HEX Dump. Highlight one of the Telnet session packets. may be read within 10 seconds after flushing the MAC address table. You can use the show mac-address-table command again to verify that the dynamic entries have been cleared. Ping your neighbor’s IP address. issue the Cisco IOS interface configuration command no keepalive. In Wireshark. choose Analyze > Follow TCP Stream. You can use the show mac-address-table command again to verify that the address is added. This stops the 10-second Ethernet heartbeat. Table 9-15 Dynamic MAC Address Entries Switch Port MAC Address Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary What conclusion can you make about how a switch learns MAC addresses connected to switch interfaces? A switch does not learn about connected devices until traffic originates from the device. You will analyze the capture in the next task. This is normal. Stop the Wireshark capture. Use Table 9-15 to list the dynamic MAC address entries. R2-Router. Note to Instructor: Fa 0/24. To prove this to students. . A stream content window opens. use the clear mac-address-table dynamic command. examine the Telnet session to S1-Central. because R2-Router sends Ethernet keepalive frames every 10 seconds. Task 2: Examine the Origination of Frames in a Small Network Step 1. If the username and passwords are not visible.256 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 9-14 Dynamic MAC Address Entries Switch Port MAC Address Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary To clear dynamic MAC address table entries.

write down the dynamic MAC address and port number displayed in the output. Example 9-6 MAC Address Table Before the Ping Mac Address Table {_lEMaNL.0ccc. Step 2.cccc 0100.dddd 0010. click the Filter button at the top-left corner of the screen and remove the filter string. In Notepad. You should see a dynamic mapping for your own computer similar to the output shown in Example 9-6.cccd 0100.a47b. Right-click telnet and choose Copy Bytes (Printable Text Only). You will copy and paste data into Notepad for analysis.f79f. View the packet in the Packet Details window pane.0cdd.0ccc. choose Edit > Paste to copy and paste the Telnet data into Notepad. Open Notepad. Examine output of the show mac-address-table command.015f Type ———— STATIC STATIC STATIC STATIC DYNAMIC Ports ——CPU CPU CPU CPU Fa0/1 Total Mac Addresses for this criterion: 5 S1-Central# In Table 9-16. To remove any display filters.6cc0 0100. In the top Wireshark Packet List pane.RPC —————————————————————Vlan —— All All All All 1 Mac Address —————000f. Figure 9-5 shows partial output of a Wireshark capture. Figure 9-5 Wireshark Capture of Telnet Select the last Telnet data packet from S1-Central before the ping command.Chapter 9: Ethernet 257 Verify the username and password that you entered: ■ ■ Username: Answers will vary Password: cisco Close the stream content window. scroll down to the captured ICMP request that was generated when you pinged. Does the switch port correspond to your pod host computer? Yes .

015f 0016. Select the last Telnet data packet following the ping reply.6cc0 0100.cccd 0100. choose Edit > Paste to copy and paste the Telnet data into Notepad.VP —————————————————————Vlan —— All All All All 1 1 Mac Address —————000f.cccc 0100.76ac.0cdd.0ccc.dddd 0010. The text should be similar to Example 9-7.a76a Type ———— STATIC STATIC STATIC STATIC DYNAMIC DYNAMIC Ports ——CPU CPU CPU CPU Fa0/1 Fa0/2 Total Mac Addresses for this criterion: 6 S1-Central# In Table 9-17. write down the MAC address and port number for the second dynamic entry displayed in the output. Right-click TELNET and choose Copy Bytes (Printable Text Only). view the packet in the Packet Details window pane. Example 9-7 MAC Address Table After the Ping Mac Address Table {_lEPaNM.0ccc.a47b.f79f. Next. Does the switch port correspond to your neighbor’s pod host computer? Yes Table 9-17 Dynamic MAC Address Entry Type Port MAC Address Answers will vary Dynamic Answers will vary Task 3: Reflection The Wireshark capture of a Telnet session between a pod host computer and S1-Central was analyzed to show how a switch dynamically learns about nodes directly connected to it.258 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 9-16 Dynamic MAC Address Entry Type Port MAC Address Answers will vary Dynamic Answers will vary Why is your pod host computer mapping still in the MAC address table. despite having been cleared? This is the connection for the pod host computer that is telnetted into S1-Central. In Notepad. .

Student answers will vary on how to secure the communication channel. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity. Figure 9-6 shows the topology for this Skills Integration Challenge. Remove any files created on the pod host computer during the lab.3. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ Determine IP subnet plans. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. and lively discussions should be encouraged. Repair Ethernet-related network issues. Upon completion of this activity. Remove anything that was brought into the lab.9. Test the network. choose Analyze > Follow TCP Stream to view the login user ID and password. and Table 9-18 is the corresponding addressing table. Task 5: Clean Up Wireshark was installed on the pod host computer. SSH is one way to encrypt communications between devices. Background You have been asked to repair some problems in the network model related to the Ethernet LAN connected to R2-Central. any clear-text password can be viewed and used by an attacker. however. and leave the room ready for the next class.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. Emphasize that security should be employed in layers.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab9832. . one recommendation may be to require passphrases—that is. Click Add or Remove Programs. If Wireshark needs to be uninstalled.1.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to perform this exercise using Packet Tracer. passwords of more than nine characters. How secure is the Telnet protocol? What can be done to make communication with Cisco devices more secure? The Telnet protocol is very insecure and should never be used outside of secure networks. From Wireshark. and no one solution is a guarantee against compromise. Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: An Intermediary Device as an End Device (9. Point out that because the TCP session may be captured. choose Start > Control Panel.Chapter 9: Ethernet 259 Task 4: Challenge Use Wireshark to capture and analyze a Telnet session between the pod host computer and the Cisco switch.3) Open file LSG01-PTSkills9. Packet Tracer Challenge Skills Integration Challenge: Switched Ethernet (9. For example.8. Remember. Choose Wireshark. turn off power to the host computers. and click Remove.

255.260 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 9-6 Topology for the Challenge 1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server 2960-24TT S1-Central 1841 R2-Central PC 1A PC 1B Table 9-18 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP Fa0/0 S0/0/0 192.111.255.168.111.128 255.2 192.255.252 255.138 192.255. existing WAN.137 192.111. existing ISP LAN.255.126 192.128 255.0/24.111.168.111.255.126 192.168.1 192.255.111.126 192.133 255.255.111.168.255.111.134 192.168.111.168.168.255.138 192.168. The subnet assignments are as follows: ■ ■ ■ First subnet.255. up to 100 hosts (Fa0/0 on R2-Central) Second subnet.248 255.255.168.111.128 255. up to five hosts (already configured) Third subnet.255.134 R2-Central Fa0/0 S0/0/0 PC 1A PC 1B Eagle Server NIC NIC NIC Task 1: IP Subnet Planning You have been given an IP address block of 192.168. existing student LAN.252 255.111.248 — — 192.111.168. You must provide for the three existing networks.138 192.168.255.111.168. point-to-point link (already configured) .

Fa0/2.138 /30. use the highest usable address on the existing student LAN subnet. and ARP viewable. The static route on R2-Central should be a default static route that points to R1-ISP’s serial interface IP address. For all devices. use the first two IP addresses (the two lowest usable addresses) on the existing student LAN subnet. with HTTP. Add IP addresses to the router Fa0/0 interface and to the two PCs. For hosts 1A and 1B. and Fa0/24). For R2-Central’s Fa0/0 interface.111. For hosts 1A and 1B. . trace. to test your understanding of how the network is operating. Assign the highest usable subnet address to the gateway and the two lowest usable addresses to the PCs. These procedures were explained in the Chapter 5 and 6 Skills Integration Challenges.Chapter 9: Ethernet 261 Interface IP addresses: ■ ■ The server. and R2-Central’s serial interface have already been configured. Set all Ethernet interfaces to autonegotiate speed and duplex (which will achieve full-duplex 100-Mbps operation if both ends of the link can support it). UDP.168. the DNS server is 192.133 /29. R1-ISP. Apparently the Ethernet speed and duplex settings for the R2-Central Fa0/0 interface. In a future course you will learn much more about switched Ethernet technologies. web traffic. Connect PC 1A to the Fa0/1 interface on the switch. The next-hop router (to which the default route should point). ■ ■ ■ Task 2: Repair Problems with the Ethernet Switched LAN PC 1B has a wireless card and cannot be connected to the switch. and the Inspect tool to trace packet flow in simulation mode. has an IP address of 192. make sure that the power is on to the device and to the interfaces (make sure that the Ethernet interfaces are not shut down). Connect this newly installed Fast Ethernet NIC to the Fa0/2 interface on the switch. Task 4: Reflection The two Layer 2 and Layer 1 technologies in this model are a serial connection (between the routers) and the Ethernet LANs (for the ISP server and with the S1-Central switch). Connect the Fa0/24 interface on the switch to the R2-Central Fa0/0 interface.111. and the PC 1A interfaces are incorrect. ICMP. DNS. Add the Fast Ethernet Interface card PT-HOST-NM-1CFE to PC 1B. Task 3: Test the Network Use ping. TCP. Remove the wireless card from PC 1B. the S1-Central switch interfaces (Fa0/1. Compare and contrast the serial connection with Ethernet.168. R1-ISP.

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you need to be familiar with the different device selection factors. How does this affect the cost calculations? When selecting devices for a LAN it is important to allow for future growth. Routers. A hub is a Layer 1 device. Growth consists of more user devices. more speed. and switches are common network devices. . 2. this up-front investment might save money. and speeds of different ports and interfaces. Concept Questions 1. Devices need to have empty slots that allow the addition of modules that have more capabilities or that support new technologies. Hubs do not filter frames. hubs. Compare and contrast the function of hubs and switches. devices will need to be selected that go beyond the current need of the LAN in terms of number of ports. and manageability. They also allow for the interconnection of segments with different speeds. Study Guide LANs: Making the Physical Connection A networking professional needs to know how to select and interconnect the proper devices for a network. more capabilities. Each switch port is its own collision domain. Hubs should be used in small LANs. and capabilities. That affects the cost calculation because the costs will seem high compared to the current network needs. In the long run. whereas a switch is a Layer 2 device. They flood all the frames they receive on one port out all other ports. fill-in-the-blank. Switches are Layer 2 devices. Switches are more expensive than hubs but use bandwidth more efficiently. though. They filter frames. Hubs do not segment networks. Explain how adaptability to new technologies can be taken into consideration when selecting devices for a LAN. To allow for growth. supported speeds. use Chapter 10 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum or use the corresponding Chapter 10 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration Companion Guide for assistance. expandability. In this chapter. and also new technology. The design of an IP addressing scheme is presented and then practiced with the help of concept questions and the hands-on labs. hands-on skills needed. and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of planning and cabling networks. Explain the advantage of one device over the other. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum labs to further reinforce that you have mastered the practical. Switches segment networks into multiple collision domains. matching. types. including cost. Hubs are less expensive and less efficient than switches. As a networking professional. It is essential that you have knowledge of the different media types and the distinct roles they play with the devices that they connect. As you work through this chapter.CHAPTER 10 Planning and Cabling Networks The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of multiple-choice. you identify the cables needed to make successful LAN and WAN connections and learn how to use device management connections. Be as detailed as possible. All of the ports of a hub are part of one collision domain.

and no data transfer will be possible. The straight-through cable will connect with its pins 1 and 2 to pins 1 and 2 of the computer. By allowing the interconnection of segments with different speeds. Each switch port creates a point-to-point dedicated connection to the devices connected to that b. How can redundancy be provided in a switched network? a. A network administrator needs to be familiar with the different standards that define devices and cabling in these areas. c. Each area has its unique requirements and standards. By using high-speed fiber-optic media c. 3. The transmit wires of the cables will be connected to the transmit pins on the router and the computer. By providing multiple interconnections between a number of switches d. Explain what will happen when you use a straight-through cable to connect your computer to the Fast Ethernet interface of a router. Device Interconnections When planning the installation of LAN cabling. there are several physical areas to consider. The computer and the router both have Medium Dependent Interface (MDI) connections with pins 1 and 2 for transmitting and pins 3 and 6 for receiving. By delpoying gigabit switches only 2. 1. Even though hubs can be interconnected. Concept Questions 1. By deploying one central switch with a high port density b. Switches regenerate each bit of the frames they receive.264 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Multiple-Choice Questions Choose the best possible answer for each of the following questions. which can increase LAN performance. d. . 2. Pins 3 and 6 of both devices will be connected in the same way. 1. A swich is used to segment a network into multiple collision domains. A switch provides dedicated bandwidth on each port. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks for the following statements. By using a special cable type to connect to the devices on its ports. a. they remain in a single collision domain. How do switches create collision domains? port.

Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks for the following statements that discuss features and issues related to different types of media. 3. In the lab setting. 1. UTP cabling uses RJ-45 connectors. or connects telecommunications rooms. Main components are jacks to connect individual devices to the network. Work area: Work areas are dedicated to end devices. switches. patch cables. Data Circuit-Terminal Equipment (DTE) is a device that receives clocking services from another device and adjusts accordingly. Interference can be produced by electrical machines. The routers are connected back to back. It is extremely important that you understand IP addressing. The ANSI/TIA/EIA-568-B standard specifies the maximum cable length in UTP installations. patch panels. List these four areas and their main components. one router will act as the DCE and uses a DCE cable. configuring. hubs. sometimes servers Backbone cabling: Cabling that connects the telecommunications room to the equipment room Distribution/horizontal cabling: Typically. 5. Signal attenuation and exposure to possible interference increase with cable length. This is where the users access the network. This router will provide the clocking that is usually provided by the service provider’s equipment. and troubleshooting networks. Attenuation is the decrease in signal strength along an electrical or optical cable. there is no service provider. and other communications devices. . high-bandwidth cabling that connects the telecommunications room with the work area. Answers may vary. routers. The Data Communications Equipment (DCE) is a device that supplies the clocking services to another device. 4. Typically. Developing an Addressing Scheme Developing an IP addressing scheme is one of the most important tasks that you will have to perform as a network professional. cabling to access outside resources. 3. data service units (DSU). Explain how the serial connection to a WAN service provider differs from the way the serial connections are set up for the curriculum labs. Therefore. this device is at the WAN access provider end of the link. There are four physical areas to consider when planning the installation of LAN cabling. Typically. This knowledge is vital in designing. 2. this device is at the WAN customer or user end of the link.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 265 2. A router is considered a DTE device. Telecommunications room: hubs. including computers and radio equipment. lighting. patch cables. and switches.

What devices do you need to consider when counting devices in your network that need IP addresses. a. You also need to consider network devices such as router LAN interfaces and router WAN (serial) interfaces. Some common categories are general users. A systematic allocation of IP addresses makes troubleshooting and the addition of new hosts easier. departments. special users. 1. Network devices requiring an IP address for management purposes are switches and wireless access points. Network devices that require IP addresses for management purposes include switches and wireless access points. Multiple-Choice Questions Choose the best possible answer(s) for the following questions. router LAN and WAN interfaces. 3. Broadcast address d. servers. 2. Gateway address 2. It is good practice to use IP addresses that fit a common pattern across all subnets. Subnets divide broadcast domains into a number of smaller domains. management subnets. administrator computers. (2^n – 2) d. Why does each connection between routers count as a separate subnet if there are no hosts connected? The router interfaces on the link connecting the two routers need to have IP addresses. Management address b. (n – 2) . Network address c. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks for the following statements dealing with IP addressing and subnetting. Which formula is used to calculate the number of hosts per network or subnet? Use n to represent the number of bits. 3. You need to consider end devices such as user computers. network resources. IP phones. Which addresses cannot be assigned to hosts? Choose all that apply. (2^n – 1) b. a. and other end devices such as printers. 1. and IP cameras. 2^n c. Each subnet requires a router interface as the gateway for that subnet. and server addresses. What are some common categories that you can use to allocate IP addresses? Explain why you should use address schemes that fit a common pattern across your network. 2.266 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Concept Questions 1.

These interfaces are also referred to as ports. The non-VLSM approach uses the same prefix length and the same number of host bits for each subnet.252. It allows a subnet to be subnetted. This way.0 and you need to create 64 subnets. It is important to understand the different types of interfaces and know the types of cable required to connect to the interfaces. routers. Decreased costs b. Network 3 needs to support 2 host addresses.255. a serial link. Variable-length subnet masking (VLSM) assigns the prefix and host bits to each network based on the number of hosts in that network. Implementation of different levels of security d. what will be the subnet mask for your network? 255. Which addressing method will allow you to design an IP addressing scheme without wasting any host addresses? How is the efficiency of this method achieved? The method that allows for the most efficient IP addressing design without wasting any addresses is called variable-length subnet masking (VLSM). What are advantages of dividing networks into subnets? Choose all that apply. which requires only two IP addresses. Network 5 needs to support 128 host addresses. can use a bit mask of 255. and switches have several different types of interfaces associated with them. Network 4 needs to support 52 host addresses. Larger collision domains Calculating the Subnets Two different methods can be used for allocating addresses to an Internetwork. . Concept Questions 1. LAN and WAN interfaces require different cabling and configuration. VLSM allows different subnet masks within one network. and other subnets that require more host addresses can use different bit masks.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 267 3.16.255.252. You have the following network requirements: Network 1 needs to support 32 host addresses. If your network uses the address 172.0 2. Device Interconnections Cisco devices. Smaller broadcast domains c. Network 2 needs to support 64 host addresses.0.255. a.

What are serial interfaces used for? Choose all that apply. What can Ethernet interfaces be used for? Choose all that apply. To make a back-to-back connection between routers in the lab d. a. To connect to a terminating device such as a switch or a computer . Ethernet interface: This is the LAN interface of a router or a switch. To connect the router to the DSU/CSU 2. Console interface: This is the primary interface for initial configuration of a Cisco device. WAN interfaces are used for connecting WAN devices to the CSU/DSU. The console interface d. Auxiliary interface: This interface provides remote management for the router. To establish a WAN connection b. To connect to other routers d. The serial interface 3. They can also connect to other routers. Briefly describe the function of each of these interfaces. To connect the router to a terminal for configuration purposes b. The Telnet interface c. It connects to LAN devices such as computers or switches. The Ethernet interface b.268 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Concept Question List the four types of interfaces on Cisco routers and switches. Which interface is the primary interface for the initial configuration of a Cisco device such as a router or a switch? a. A CSU/DSU is a device used to make the physical connection between data networks and WAN provider’s circuits. Serial interface: This is the WAN interface. 1. To connect to LAN devices such as computers and switches c. Multiple-Choice Questions Choose the best possible answers(s) for the following questions dealing with interface types. It provides physical access to the router for troubleshooting. To establish communication with a router via a console on a remote WAN c. a.

Design an appropriate addressing scheme. In this example. you have been given the network address 192.2. Place the correct address and mask in the addressing table. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ ■ Determine the number of subnets. Assign addresses and subnet mask pairs to device interfaces.255.168.26.3. You are only required to determine the number of subnets per topology example. Examine the use of the available network address space.0/24 to subnet and provide the IP addressing for the networks shown in the topology diagrams. You must determine the number of networks needed then design an appropriate addressing scheme. Task 1: Determine the Number of Subnets in Topology Diagram A Use the topology in Figure 10-1 to answer the questions that follow. Figure 10-1 Topology Diagram A Fa0/0 S0/0/0 S0/0/0 B1 B2 How many networks are shown in Figure 10-1? 2 How many bits should you allocate to create the required number of subnets? 1 How many usable host addresses did this give you? 126 What is the new subnet mask in decimal form? 255.255.1128 How many subnets are available for future use? 0 .2) Upon completion of this lab. Scenario In this lab. the number of hosts is not important.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 269 Labs and Activities Lab 10-1: How Many Networks? (10.

0 192.128 192.168.127 192.168.168.1 192.26.26.129 192.168.168.126 192.26.26. Figure 10-2 Topology Diagram B Fa0/0 S0/0/1 HQ S0/0/0 S0/0/1 S0/0/0 B1 B2 How many networks are there? 4 How many bits should you allocate to create the required number of subnets? 2 How many usable host addresses did this give you? 30 What is the new subnet mask in decimal form? 255.255.255 Task 3: Determine the Number of Subnets in Topology Diagram B Use the topology in Figure 10-2 to answer the questions that follow.168.255.26.192 How many subnets are available for future use? 0 .26.270 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 2: Record Subnet Information Fill in Table 10-1 with the subnet information.26.168.26.254 192.168. Table 10-1 Subnet Information Subnet Address First Usable Host Address Last Usable Host Address Broadcast Address Subnet Number 0 1 192.

255.26.1 192.168.26.26.127 192.26. Table 10-2 Subnet Information Subnet Address First Usable Host Address Last Usable Host Address Broadcast Address Subnet Number 0 1 2 3 192.26.168.129 192.62 192.255.26.26.168.168.26.64 192.26.26.26.128 192.65 192.26.168.168.26.63 192. Figure 10-3 Topology Diagram C S0/0/1 S0/0/0 B1 S0/0/0 S0/0/1 HQ S0/1/0 S0/0/0 B2 S0/0/1 S0/1/0 S0/0/0 S0/0/1 B3 Fa0/0 How many networks are there? 6 How many bits should you allocate to create the required number of subnets? 3 How many usable host addresses did this give you? 30 What is the new subnet mask in decimal form? 255.168.192 192.254 192.126 192.168.168.168.168.168.168.255 Task 5: Determine the Number of Subnets in Topology Diagram C Use the topology in Figure 10-3 to answer the questions that follow.26.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 271 Task 4: Record Subnet Information Fill in Table 10-2 with the subnet information.168.190 192.26.193 192.0 192.168.191 192.224 How many subnets are available for future use? 2 .168.26. Use the subnet mask from Step 4.

168.168.26.64 192.168.26.168.126 192.225 192.168.97 192.26.26.158 192.168.255 Task 7: Determine the Number of Subnets in Topology Diagram D Use the topology in Figure 10-4 to answer the questions that follow.26.26.26.224 192.26.168.63 192.168.26.26.26.168.168.168.254 192.26.168.272 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 6: Record Subnet Information Fill in the Table 10-3 with the subnet information.168.168.190 192.129 192.26.26.168.1 192.160 192.31 192.65 192.168.193 192.26.26.168.26.168.26.26.33 192.127 192.168.161 192.26.168.0 192. Table 10-3 Subnet Information Subnet Address First Usable Host Address Last Usable Host Address Broadcast Address Subnet Number 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 192.168.26.159 192.30 192.26.26.168.168.95 192.26.26.168.192 192.26.223 192. Figure 10-4 Topology Diagram D Fa0/0 Fa0/0 S0/0/0 S0/0/1 Fa0/0 S0/0/0 S0/0/1 S0/0/1 S0/1/1 B1 S0/0/1 HQ B2 S0/0/0 S0/0/1 S0/0/0 S0/0/1 S0/0/0 B3 Fa0/0 B4 Fa0/0 Fa0/0 B5 .168.128 192.26.94 192.168.168.62 192.191 192.26.26.168.168.26.26.168.222 192.26.168.96 192.168.32 192.

26.168.254 192.225 192.64 192.168.79 192.168.168.15 192.31 192.168.168.174 192.26.26.168.158 192.26.26.26.26.190 192.26.26.26.168.26.255.17 192.26.168.168.168.168.240 How many subnets are available for future use? 4 Task 8: Record Subnet Information Fill in Table 10-4 with the subnet information.224 192.168.2222 192.127 192.26.191 192.113 192.97 192.168.168.26.26.26.26.46 192.168.160 192.26.168.26.26.26.26.26.26.168.209 192.1 192.26.240 192.49 192.168.26.26.26. Table 10-4 Subnet Information Subnet Address First Usable Host Address Last Usable Host Address Broadcast Address Subnet Number 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 192.26.14 192.26.26.206 192.30 192.81 192.168.26.168.65 192.168.80 192.26.112 192.168.26.168.26.26.168.168.26.47 192.168.168.192 192.168.255 Task 9: Reflection What information is needed when determining an appropriate addressing scheme for a network? When determining an appropriate addressing scheme for a network.26.63 192.26.142 192.168.168.177 192.26.26.168.95 192.78 192.26.168.26.129 192.143 192.26.26.26.223 192.168.238 192.26.26.159 192.0 192.16 192.96 192.168.168.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 273 How many networks are there? 12 How many bits should you allocate to create the required number of subnets? 4 How many usable host addresses did this give you? 14 What is the new subnet mask in decimal form? 255.168.168.62 192.26.176 192.168.48 192.193 192.168.168.168.26.33 192.26.168.168.168.168.26.161 192.168.94 192.168.126 192.26.168.241 192.239 192.168.26.168.26.168.168.111 192.32 192.168.145 192.208 192.26.255.168.168.168.26.207 192.26.175 192.26.168.168.26.168.168.26.168.110 192.26. you need the number of networks and hosts.168.144 192.128 192. .168.26.26.

. Figure 10-5 Topology for Lab 10-2 Subnet A Fa0/0 Fa0/1 Subnet B Fa0/1 1 R1 Fa0/2 S1 Fa0/3 Subnet C Subnet D 2 3 Note: The CD-ROM accompanying this book contains a subnet chart for the last IP address octet. Subnet C and Subnet D are anticipated subnets. Background Table 10-5 shows the equipment and hardware requirements for this lab. as shown in Figure 10-5.274 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Lab 10-2: Creating a Small Lab Topology (10. Configure the logical LAN topology.1. Verify LAN connectivity. Subnet zero will be used. Subnet A and Subnet B are subnets that are currently needed. Configure the physical lab topology. not yet connected to the network. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ ■ Design the logical network. Gather the necessary equipment and cables. Table 10-5 Hardware Equipment and Hardware for Lab Quantity Description Cisco Router Cisco Switch Computer (host) Cat5 better straight-through UTP cable Cat5 crossover UTP cable Scenario 1 1 3 3 1 Part of CCNA Lab bundle Part of CCNA Lab bundle Lab computer Connects Router 1 and computers Host1 and Host2 to Switch1 Connects computer Host1 to Router1 In this lab. you create a small network that requires connecting network devices and configuring host computers for basic network connectivity.6.1) Upon completion of this lab.

202 255. the router should be configured for students.20. The following example contains a basic configuration for Router 1. Another alternative is to use two routers connected through a serial connection and use the Fast Ethernet interfaces from each router.248 172.252 This is Eagle 1 lab router Router1.0.198 255. consider configuring a loopback interface as an alternative to the FastEthernet 0/1.0. Example Router 1 Configuration Router1 configuration ! service timestamps debug uptime service timestamps log uptime no service password-encryption ! no ip domain-lookup ! hostname Router1 ! enable secret cisco ! ! interface FastEthernet0/0 description connection to Host1 ip address no shutdown ! interface FastEthernet0/1 description connection LAN ip address no shutdown ! ip classless ip http server ! banner motd % ******************************************************************* 172.20.255. ******************************************************************* % ! .255. students will learn how to configure a router.255.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 275 Note to instructor: In Chapter 11 labs. If you do not have a router that has two Fast Ethernet interfaces. Authorized access only. For this lab.255.

1 172.0.0 255. Router interfaces will use the last available IP address in the address block.255.0/24 (address / mask).0. and pick the first address block that will support Subnet D. which requires the largest block of IP addresses.11111111. Step 1. Begin the logical network design by satisfying the requirement of Subnet D. Table 10-7 Subnet D IP Address Information Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast Network Address 172.0. Table 10-6 Subnet Subnet Requirements Number of Hosts Subnet A Subnet B Subnet C Subnet D 2 6 47 125 Host computers from each subnet will use the first available IP address in the address block.20. Design Subnet D address block.0.20.0.1 172.255. design an IP addressing scheme that satisfies the requirements listed in Table 10-6.276 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide line con 0 password cisco ! line con 0 password cisco login line aux 0 line vty 0 4 password cisco login ! end Task 1: Design the Logical Network Given an IP address and mask of 172.20. Refer to the subnet chart on the CD-ROM.1111111.128 What is the bit mask? 172.127 11111111.10000000 .20.20. Fill in Table 10-7 with IP address information for Subnet D.

and pick the next available address block that will support Subnet B.11111111. Design Subnet B address block.1111111.255.0.0.11111111.192 255. Satisfy the requirement of Subnet A.192 172. Design Subnet A address block.190 172.20.20.0. Table 10-10 Subnet A IP Address Information Network Address Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast 172. Refer to the subnet chart on the CD-ROM.202 172.11000000 Step 3.20. Satisfy the requirement for Subnet C.191 What is the bit mask? 11111111. Fill in Table 10-8 with IP address information for Subnet C.255.11111111.11111100 .0.129 172.252 172.200 255. Refer to the subnet chart on the CD-ROM.199 What is the bit mask? 11111111.20.20.198 172. and pick the next available address block that will support Subnet A.203 What is the bit mask? 11111111.128 255.255.201 172. the next largest IP address block. Refer to the subnet chart on the CD-ROM.0.0.20.11111111. the next largest address block.0.248 172. and pick the next available address block that will support Subnet C. Table 10-8 Subnet C IP address information Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast Network Address 172.20.20.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 277 Step 2. Fill in Table 10-10 with IP address information for Subnet A.193 172.255.1111111.20. Design Subnet D address block. Fill in Table 10-9 with IP address information for Subnet B.0. Satisfy the requirement of Subnet B.255.20.20.0.0.255. Table 10-9 Subnet B IP Address Information Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast Network Address 172.20.0.0.11111000 Step 4.

Attention to detail now will minimize the time required to troubleshoot network connectivity issues later.20. In Table 10-11. If not already enabled. Host 2.0. Any switch connection that does not transition from amber to green should be investigated.201 255. What cable type is needed to connect Host 1 to Router 1. write down the IP address information for each computer in the tables that follow. Ensure that all switch connections show green. enter addressing information for Host 2.255.255. The host computer gateway IP address is used to send IP packets to other networks. turn power on to all devices. enter the information for Host 1.278 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 2: Configure the Physical Lab Topology Step 1.20. What cable type is needed to connect Host 1. After cabling the network devices. Document logical network settings.0. the gateway address is the IP address assigned to the router interface for that subnet.202 In Table 10-12. take a moment to verify the connections. and why? Both devices have similar network interfaces. Step 2. and why? The switch ports are dissimilar to the router and computer network interfaces. and the correct cable is functional. What type of cable connects Router1 interface Fa0/0 to Host 1? Crossover cable What type of cable connects Router 1 interface Fa0/1 to Switch 1? Straight-through cable What type of cable connects Host 2 to Switch 1? Straight-through cable What type of cable connects Host 3 to Switch 1? Straight-through cable Is all equipment turned on? Yes Task 3: Configure the Logical Topology Step 1. From the IP address information recorded in Task 1. Therefore. Confirm that the power is applied to the connected device. Physically connect devices. and Router 1 to Switch 1. straight-through cables are required. and like devices require a crossover cable. Visually inspect network connections. Cable the network devices as shown in Figure 10-5.252 172. Table 10-11 Host 1 Address Type Address IP address IP mask Gateway address 172. the correct cable is used. . Therefore.

194 255.255. click Start > Control Panel > Network Connections. On Host 1.20.198 Configure the Host 1 computer. enter addressing information for Host 3.20. recorded in the preceding Step 1: ■ ■ ■ IP address: Host1 IP address Subnet mask: Host1 subnet mask Default gateway: Gateway IP address Figure 10-6 Host 1 IP Addressing and Gateway Settings . Table 10-13 Host 3 Address Type Address IP address IP mask Gateway address Step 2.20. 172.248 172.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 279 Table 10-12 Host 2 Address Type Address IP address IP mask Gateway address 172. and then click the Properties button.255. Manually enter the following information.0.255. Figure 10-6 shows Host 1 IP address and gateway settings.0.255.193 255.0.198 In Table 10-13. Right-click the Local Area Connection device icon and choose Properties.248 172. On the General tab.20. select Internet Protocol (TCP/IP).0.

0. it might be a gateway issue.20. If your computer’s operating system is Windows XP SP2.0. Fa0/1) Router1.202 172. using the IP address information for those computers.20.20. Take corrective action to establish connectivity if a test fails.20. Close the Local Area Connection window.0.280 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide When finished. When troubleshooting connectivity issues. Configure Host 2 and Host 3 computers. close the Internet Protocols (TCP/IP) Properties window by clicking OK. Task 4: Verify Network Connectivity Verify with your instructor that Router 1 has been configured. Open a terminal window by clicking Start > Run. Fa0/0) Router 1.20. Repeat Step 2 for computers Host 2 and Host 3.193 172. disable the firewall (for your ping tests to work).20.0.198 172. Otherwise.198 172. In this scenario.0. Type cmd. Depending on the Windows operating system. the topology diagram shown in Figure 10-5 can prove extremely helpful. .20.0.193 172. how can you detect a malfunctioning gateway? If Host 2 and Host 3 can successfully ping each other but not Host 1.20. Remember that the default gateway address on the computers is the IP address of the Fast Ethernet interface of the router that the computers connect to via the switch.20.0.201 172. Step 3. the computer might require a reboot for changes to be effective.202 172. Fa0/0 Host 1 Host 2 Gateway (Router 1.0.20.201 Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Note any break in connectivity. Fa0/1) Router 1. and then press Enter.0. Fa0/0 Host 1 172. connectivity will be broken between LANs.194 172.202 172. Use Table 10-14 to methodically verify and record connectivity with each network device. Fa0/1 Host 2 Host 3 Host 3 Gateway (Router 1. Network connectivity can be verified with the Windows ping command.20. Table 10-14 Network Connectivity Test Results From To IP Address Ping Results Host 1 Host 1 Host 1 Host 1 Host 2 Host 2 Host 2 Host 2 Host 3 Host 3 Host 3 Host 3 Gateway (Router 1.194 172.198 172.0. Switch 1 should have a default configuration.0.0. Try to disable and then reenable the network interface card (NIC) by right-clicking the NIC in the Local Area Connection Properties window.20.

and leave the room ready for the next class. continue troubleshooting. . If the solution fixed the problem. restore host computer network connectivity. document the solution. keep in mind that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. Task 7: Clean Up Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. In addition to practicing IP subnetting. If the solution did not fix the problem. Reconnect cables that were disconnected for this lab. To fix the problems. Answers may vary. Hosts cannot ping the router. Problems can be either physical (wrong UTP cable) or logical (wrong IP address or gateway). Check the default gateways on the hosts. you configured host computers with network addresses and tested them for connectivity. follow these steps: Note to instructors: A simple way to introduce problems is to switch the Fast Ethernet connections. Use the table provided in Task 3 to identify failed connectivity. A summary of the instructions is provided within the Packet Tracer activity. Check cabling.1. Check the IP address configuration. Be sure that you have a thorough understanding of the procedures used to verify network connectivity. Step 4. List the problems. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. Perform a good visual inspection.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 281 Task 5: Reflection Review any physical or logical configuration problems encountered during this lab. Step 2. Task 6: Challenge Ask your instructor or another student to introduce one or two problems in your network when you aren’t looking or are out of the lab room. Hosts 1 and 2 cannot ping Host 3. and then turn off power to the host computers. Look for green link lights on Switch 1. Step 3.6. Write down your proposed solution(s). It is best to practice host computer configuration and verification several times. However. Test your solution. Carefully remove cables and return them neatly to their storage. Step 1. Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Creating a Small Topology (10. This is a particularly important lab.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. Answers may vary. This will reinforce the skills you learned in this lab and make you a better network technician.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab10612.

2600 routers. . Set up the basic physical connection.1) Upon completion of this lab. Connect the console (rollover) cable to the console port on the router. Configure HyperTerminal to establish a console session with a Cisco IOS switch. Configure HyperTerminal to establish a console session with a Cisco IOS router. Instructions for TeraTerm Web use are contained in the section “Lab 10-3 (Alternative): Establishing a Console Session with TeraTerm” later in this chapter. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ Connect a router and computer using a console cable. Any router that meets the interface requirements may be used.6.2. Connect the other cable end to the host computer with a DB-9 or DB-25 adapter to the COM 1 port. Scenario Set up a network similar to the one in Figure 10-7. Figure 10-7 Establishing a Console Session with HyperTerminal Straight-Through Cable Serial Cable Console (Rollover) Crossover Cable The following resources are required: ■ ■ ■ Computer with a serial interface and HyperTerminal loaded Cisco router Console (rollover) cable for connecting the workstation to the router Task 1: Connect a Router and Computer with a Console Cable Step 1. Background HyperTerminal is a simple Windows-based terminal emulation program for serial communication that can be used to connect to the console port on Cisco IOS devices. Another popular serial communication utility is TeraTerm Web. Using HyperTerminal is the most basic way to access a router for checking or changing its configuration. 1700.282 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Lab 10-3: Establishing a Console Session with HyperTerminal (10. A serial interface on a computer is connected to the Cisco device via a rollover cable. or a combination. 2500. Possible routers include 800. 1600.

enable power to the computer and router. At the Connection Description window. Configure HyperTerminal. Figure 10-8 shows an example of the opening HyperTerminal configuration window. Select an appropriate icon. COM 1. You need to fill in a number to be able to continue. Click OK. From the Windows taskbar. Step 2. start the HyperTerminal program by clicking Start > All Programs > Accessories > Communications > HyperTerminal. Click OK. Power on the devices. If not already powered on. Figure 10-8 HyperTerminal Connection Description Window In the Connect To window shown in Figure 10-9. Note to instructors: On newer systems. in the Connect using field. Task 2: Configure HyperTerminal to Establish a Console Session with a Cisco IOS Router Step 1. enter a session name in the Name field. enter the appropriate connection type. Figure 10-9 HyperTerminal Connection Type . you might have to use an USB connection rather than the COM port. Start the HyperTerminal application. the program prompts for an area code/phone number. or leave the default.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 283 Step 2. If you are accessing HyperTerminal for the first time.

9600 8 None 1 None When the HyperTerminal session window comes up. when the Connection Description window opens. For example. There should be a response from the router. Reconnect the HyperTerminal session. Click File > Open. exit HyperTerminal. click Yes. this indicates that connection has been successfully completed. close the HyperTerminal session. Step 1. Reopen the HyperTerminal session as described in Task 2. Step 3. This time. click Cancel. and then click Open. Check the connection to the correct COM 1 port on the PC and the console port on the router. Click File > Exit. If there is no connection. Close HyperTerminal. troubleshoot as necessary. change port settings to the values in Table 10-15. Enter a name for the session. If there is still no connection. When finished. When finished. Use this technique to reconnect the HyperTerminal session to a Cisco device without reconfiguring a new session. press the Enter key. When asked whether to save the session. Step 4. ask the instructor for assistance. . verify that the router has power. Select the saved session. Figure 10-10 HyperTerminal COM 1 Port Settings Table 10-15 HyperTerminal Port Settings Settings Value Bits per second Data bits Parity Stop bits Flow control Click OK.284 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide In the COM 1 Properties box shown in Figure 10-10.

If not already powered on. enable power to the computer and switch. Table 10-16 Port Settings Settings Value Bits per second Data bits Parity Stop bits Flow control Click OK. 9600 8 None 1 None . See Figure 10-11. or leave the default. enter the appropriate connection type. Click OK. In the COM 1 Properties window. Use the procedure described in Task 2. In this task. Select an appropriate icon. Step 1. Step 3. Figure 10-11 Serial Connection Between a Host Computer and Cisco Switch 1 S1 Step 2. change port settings to the values shown in Table 10-16. Connect the console (rollover) cable to the console port on the router. in the Connect using field. you make a serial connection between the host computer and a Cisco IOS switch. Connect the other cable end to the host computer with a DB-9 or DB-25 adapter to the COM 1 port. Click OK. Power on the devices. Start the HyperTerminal application. to configure HyperTerminal. In the Connect To window. enter a session name in the Name field. From the Windows taskbar. Set up the basic physical connection. Configure HyperTerminal.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 285 Task 3: Configure HyperTerminal to Establish a Console Session with a Cisco IOS Switch Serial connections between Cisco IOS routers and switches are similar. COM 1. At the opening HyperTerminal Connection Description window. Step 2. start the HyperTerminal program by clicking Start > Programs > Accessories > Communications > HyperTerminal. Step 4.

Step 5.286 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide When the HyperTerminal session window comes up. click No. . ask the instructor for assistance. Task 3: Reflection This lab provided information for establishing a console connection to a Cisco IOS router and switch. If there is still no connection. Compare the differences. Click File > Exit. troubleshoot as necessary. Task 5: Clean Up Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. Check the connection to the correct COM 1 port on the PC and the console port on the switch. If there is no connection. turn off power to the host computer and router. press the Enter key. For example. and leave the room ready for the next class. verify that the switch has power. close the HyperTerminal session. When asked whether to save the session. this indicates that connection has been successfully completed. Be sure to remember the correct HyperTerminal port settings. Close HyperTerminal. When finished. There should be a response from the switch. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. and be able to identify the different cable types. Task 4: Challenge Draw the pin connections for the rollover cable and straight-through cable. Remove the rollover cable. You will only be able to connect to the router if you are using the proper settings.

Connect the other cable end to the PC with a DB-9 or DB-25 adapter to the COM 1 port. Note to instructor: TeraTerm is not available on the Eagle Server. but it can be downloaded from the following http://www.com/teraterm/. 2500. Background TeraTerm Web is another simple Windows-based terminal emulation program for serial communication that can be used to connect to the console port on Cisco IOS devices. . Power on the devices. Set up the basic physical connection. 1700. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ Connect a router and computer using a console cable. Scenario Cable a network similar to Figure 10-12. or a combination. Enable power to the computer and router. Step 2. Possible routers include 800. Ensure that power is turned off on the computer and Cisco router. 1600. 2600 routers. Figure 10-12 Establishing a Console Session with TeraTerm Straight-Through Cable Serial Cable Console (Rollover) Crossover Cable The following resources are required: ■ ■ ■ Computer with a serial interface and TeraTerm Pro loaded Cisco router Console (rollover) cable for connecting the workstation to the router Task 1: Connect a Router and Computer with a Console Cable Step 1. Any router that meets the interface requirements may be used.ayera. Connect the console (rollover) cable to the console port on the router.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 287 Lab 10-3 (Alternative): Establishing a Console Session with TeraTerm Upon completion of this lab. Configure TeraTerm to establish a console session with the router.

From the Windows taskbar. Click File > Open. Start TeraTerm Web application. and starting the TeraTerm Web application. This time. When asked whether to save the session. Close TeraTerm Web. Click OK. Step 1. press the Enter key. Task 3: Reflection This lab provided information for establishing a console connection to a Cisco router. close the TeraTerm Web session. troubleshoot as necessary. Check the connection to the COM 1 port on the PC and the console port on the router. Enter a name for the session. verify that the router has power. Step 2. Refer to Figure 10-13. Select the appropriate serial COM port. click Yes. this indicates that the connection has been successfully completed. and then click Open. Select the saved session. ask the instructor for assistance. There should be a response from the router. Reopen the TeraTerm Web session as described in Task 2. When finished. Remember that you must use the correct serial port configurations to connect to the Cisco device via Minicom. If there is still no connection. Step 4. Figure 10-13 TeraTerm Web Connection Configuration Window When the TeraTerm Web session window comes up. Click File > Exit. ttermpro. click Cancel. Reconnect the TeraTerm Web session.288 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 2: Configure TeraTerm Web to Establish a Console Session with the Router Step 1. Use this technique to reconnect the TeraTerm Web session to a Cisco device without reconfiguring a new session. Cisco switches are accessed in the same way. For example. . start the TeraTerm Web program by opening the TeraTerm Web folder. when the New Description window opens (see Figure 10-13). Configure TeraTerm Web Click File > New Connection. Step 3. If there is no connection.

Task 5: Clean Up Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. Compare the differences.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 289 Task 4: Challenge Draw the pin connections for the rollover cable and straight-through cable. .2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab10622. However.6. and be able to identify the different cable types. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Establishing a Console Session with PT Terminal (10. turn off power to the host computer and router. Remove the rollover cable. A summary of the instructions is provided within the Packet Tracer activity. keep in mind that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment.2. and leave the room ready for the next class.

1600. or a combination. Connect the console (rollover) cable to the console port on the router. Ensure that power is turned off on the computer and Cisco router. 2600 routers. such as controlling a modem or accessing a Cisco router through the serial console connection. Possible routers include 800. Set up the basic physical connection.1) Upon completion of this lab. Perform basic commands. Enable power to the computer and router. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ Connect a router and computer using a console cable. .6.3. Figure 10-14 Topology for Lab 10-4 Straight-Through Cable Serial Cable Console (Rollover) Crossover Cable The following resources are required: ■ ■ ■ Linux/UNIX computer with a serial interface and Minicom loaded Cisco router Console (rollover) cable for connecting the workstation to the router Task 1: Connect a Router and Computer with a Console Cable Step 1. Power on the devices. 1700. Minicom can be used for many purposes.290 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Lab 10-4: Establishing a Console Session with Minicom (10. Any router that meets the interface requirements may be used. Background Minicom is a text-based UNIX terminal emulation program. Configure Minicom to establish a console session with the router. The Linux or UNIX operating system is required. similar to the Windows HyperTerminal program. 2500. Step 2. Scenario Set up a network similar to the one in Figure 10-14. Connect the other cable end to the PC with a DB-9 or DB-25 adapter to the COM 1 port.

Table 10-17 shows the correct values. Press Enter. Figure 10-15 Main Configuration Window Figure 10-16 shows the serial port configuration window. To configure the serial port. Configure Minicom for serial communications. Figure 10-15 shows the main configuration window. Note: To configure Minicom. Figure 10-16 Serial Port Configuration Window Table 10-17 Serial Port Settings Option Field Value A Serial Device Dev/ttyS0 for COM 1 /dev/ttyS1 for COM 2 E Bps/Par/Bits Bps: 9600 Par: None Bits: 8 Stop bits: 1 (or. select option Q) F G Hardware Flow Control Software Flow Control Toggle: No Toggle: No Return to the Configuration menu by pressing Enter or Esc. to start Minicom. Use the letter by the field to change a setting. root access is required. From the Linux command prompt. Start the Minicom application in configuration mode.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 291 Task 2: Configure Minicom to Establish a Console Session with the Router Step 1. This starts Minicom in configuration mode: [root]# minicom –s <ENTER> Step 2. enter the minicom command with the –s option. scroll down the configuration list and select Serial port setup. .

press the Enter key. menu-driven. Basic commands are not intuitive. . Restart the Minicom session. press <Ctrl> A. serial communication utility. followed by either Q or X. verify that the router has power. To get help. Task 3: Perform Basic Commands Minicom is a text-based. Figure 10-18 Minicom Command Summary Screen Task 4: Reflection This lab provided information for establishing a console connection to a Cisco router using Minicom. Cisco switches are accessed in the same fashion. When Minicom is restarted. troubleshoot as necessary. to control the utility. Figure 10-17 Serial Port Configuration Window Step 3. When finished. select Save setup as dfl (default file). Step 4. followed by Z. However. as follows: [root]# minicom <ENTER> When the session window starts. Check the connection to the correct COM 1 port on the PC and the console port on the router. If there is no connection. users communicate with remote devices within the terminal window. the default values will be reloaded. To quit Minicom.292 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide In the window shown in Figure 10-17. close the Minicom session. There should be a response from the router. use <Ctrl> A. Select Exit from Minicom. Close Minicom. For example. For example. press <Ctrl> A. Figure 10-18 shows a list of functions and corresponding keys. this indicates that a connection has been successfully completed.

255. Upon completion of this lab.3) You can now open the file LSG01-PTSkills10.255.168. Remove the rollover cable.168.1.255.126 192.94 R2 Fa0/0 Fa0/1 S0/0/0 S0/0/1 R3 Fa0/0 S0/0/0 S0/0/1 PC1-A PC2-A PC3-A Eagle-Server NIC NIC NIC NIC .255.134 192.1.255.1.133 192.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer.168.7.255.168. However. turn off power to the host computer and router.255.255.240 255.137 192.255.192 255.1.168.97 192.138 192.240 255.224 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 192.1.1.255.252 255.1.113 192.129 192.192 255.126 192.252 255. and leave the room ready for the next class.255. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ ■ Build the network topology.168.255.168.240 255.255.255.255.168.255.168. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity.1.255.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 293 Task 5: Clean Up Unless directed otherwise by the instructor.62 192. Packet Tracer Challenge Skills and Integration Challenge: Planning and Cabling Networks (10.168.1.1 192.255.1.168.168. Test the network.1. keep in mind that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. Table 10-18 Addressing Table Device Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1 Fa0/0 S0/0/0 S0/0/1 192.255.252 255.255.255. Remove anything that was brought into the lab.1. Configure router and PC interfaces.110 192.1.110 192.62 192.130 192.93 255.255.255.1.168.168.1. Background Table 10-18 shows the addressing for this lab.252 255.255. Plan the IP addresses.252 255.240 255.255.1.168.224 255.255.255.1.168.255.94 192.252 255.1.168.1.168.

Table 10-21 LAN Hostname Interface Number of Hosts R1 R2 Fa0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/1 60 10 30 7 R3 Fa0/0 .1. Table 10-19 Routers Hostname Interface Connects To Interfaces R1 R1 R1 R2 R2 R2 R3 Fa0/0 S0/0/0 (DCE) S0/0/1 (DCE) Fa0/0 S0/0/1 (DCE) Fa0/1 Fa0/0 SW-1 R2 R3 SW-2A R3 SW-2B SW-3 Fa0/1 S0/0/0 S0/0/1 Fa0/1 S0/0/0 Fa0/1 Fa0/1 Table 10-20 shows the switch information. Table 10-19 shows the router information. Use Table 10-21 and Table 10-22 to create an effective addressing scheme.294 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Practice your network building. Task 1: Build the Network Topology Use the following tables and the devices in the device pool to create the topology. Table 10-20 Switches Hostname Interface Connects To Interfaces SW-1 SW-2A SW-2B SW-3 Fa0/2 Fa0/2 Fa0/2) Fa0/2 PC-1A PC-1B Eagle-Server PC-1C FastEthernet FastEthernet FastEthernet FastEthernet Task 2: Create and Assign an Addressing Scheme You are asked to use the 192.0 /24 address space. and configuration skills. Device names and routing have already been configured. Seven total networks are required. assign the networks in decreasing order of number of hosts required for efficient use of address space. planning.168.

R2. The R1–R2 link will use the first WAN subnet. the R1–R3 link will use the second WAN subnet. and the R2–R3 link will use the third WAN subnet. All Fast Ethernet ports on a router will use the last host address of the assigned subnet. and R3 routers. . other PCs. the PCs. and the server. the server will use the second to last host address in its subnet. and the server according to the preceding addressing scheme.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 295 Table 10-22 WAN Hostname Address to be Assigned Number of Hosts R1–R3 R1–R3 R2–R3 R1–First host address R1–First host address R2–First host address 2 2 2 Use the following rules to assign IP addresses: ■ PCs will use the first host address in the subnet. ■ ■ Task 3: Interface Configuration Perform interface configuration of the R1. Task 4: Testing Connectivity Make sure all PCs can ping their gateways. R1 and R2 DCE interfaces should have clock rates of 56000.

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security. disaster recovery. use Chapter 11 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum.CHAPTER 11 Configuring and Testing Your Network The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of matching. multiple-choice. Not all devices have an AUX port. such as routing and switching. When an AUX port is available. Discuss when and why you would use a certain method. for assistance. The AUX port can be used to access the device either locally or through a dialup connection. Understanding these functions and being able to access them is essential for network administrators and technicians. or use the corresponding Chapter 11 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration Companion Guide. It is important to configure the console port with a password and prevent physical access to the router by keeping it in a locked room. fill-in-the-blank. addressing. it is important to protect it with a password. hands-on skills you need. Study Guide Configuring Cisco Devices: IOS Basics Routers and switches need an operating system to function. SSH is preferred over Telnet. The operating system on most Cisco devices is the Cisco IOS. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum activities and labs to ensure you have mastered the practical. As you work through this chapter. troubleshooting. What security concerns do you need to consider for the different access methods? Answers will vary. just like the console port. It provides a number of network services. The console port provides a low-speed serial connection and is used mainly when network services are unavailable on the device—during initial configuration. For security reasons. Telnet and SSH provide remote access to the device and require network services. Access through the AUX port does not require network services on the device. Concept Questions 1. SSH uses more secure password authentication and encrypts the data for transport. and password recovery. and quality of service. Describe the different access methods for Cisco devices. . and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of configuring and testing networks.

Router(config)# d. User EXEC mode d. it becomes the running configuration file—the file that is used to operate the device. Therefore. the startup configuration file loads into RAM. A network technician might be allowed to look at configurations but not change them. Describe the advantage of the hierarchical modal structure. The startup configuration file is stored in nonvolatile RAM (NVRAM). It is important to save changes that need to be permanent. What is the name of the command? show Does this command use arguments or keywords? Keywords . Switch> b. 2. Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 11-1.298 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide 2. Answers may vary. Compare and contrast the two main configuration files on Cisco devices in terms of function. For example. Interface configuration mode Cisco IOS Command Exercises Answer these questions based on the following command: Router#show ip interface brief 1. The running configuration file is lost when the device is powered down. 3. Table 11-1 Prompt IOS Configuration Modes IOS Configuration Mode a. these changes are not permanent unless they are written to the startup configuration file in NVRAM. because this file is stored in RAM. Switch(config-if)# b. which is volatile memory. the network administrator can grant different personnel different levels of access. the startup configuration file stays intact when the device is powered off. Authentication can be configured for different modes. Privileged EXEC mode c. location. After it is loaded into RAM. These changes are active immediately. Each time a device is started or reloaded. Answers may vary. Any configuration changes that are made to the device are written to the running configuration file. and how they relate to each other. The main advantage is the controlled access or security. Router# c. match the device prompt on the left with the correct IOS configuration mode on the right. Because this file is in RAM. Global configuration mode a.

Possible locations are RAM. NVRAM. passwords. Because configuration files are critical. Passwords establish basic security at the local level. Table 11-2 Key IOS Command-Line Help Function Tab Ctrl-R Ctrl-Z Up arrow Down arrow Ctrl-D Ctrl-C Ctrl-Shift-6 Backspace exit Autocomplete: completes the remainder of the command or keyword Redisplays a line Exits configuration mode and returns to privileged EXEC mode Scrolls backwards through previously entered commands Scrolls forward through previously entered commands Deletes the character to the right of the cursor Aborts the current command and exits configuration mode Interrupts an IOS process such as ping or traceroute Deletes the character to the left of the cursor A command to move up one level in the configuration mode hierarchy Applying a Basic Configuration Using Cisco IOS All networking devices need a basic configuration to be functional. the network administrator needs to exercise proper file management by saving changes to the configuration and by backing up configuration files. and IP addresses are needed to establish connectivity with other devices on the network.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 299 3. show version: IOS information in RAM show startup-config: Backup configuration file in NVRAM show running-config: Active configuration file in RAM show flash: Operating systems stored in flash Test Your Knowledge Use Table 11-2 to test your knowledge of the command-line interface (CLI) shortcuts and hot keys. . and the IP addresses and descriptions on the interface. ROM. The most important initial configuration parameters include hostnames. Where do the following commands get the information they display? Name the file if applicable and the storage location of this information. and flash. Hostnames are important for network documentation and remote access.

The administrator needs to have fast access to the desired files. 2. Banners provide a method for declaring that only authorized personnel should have access to the devices. Explain why the hostname is an extremely important feature for networking devices. because this lets you sort files by date if needed. This means that the administrator connects to the networking devices via the network. Answers may vary. 1. The directory structure needs to be logical and should be documented. Most networking devices. together with up-to-date documentation. proper file management is very important. . Filenaming conventions are extremely important. The administrator does not have the physical devices in front of him or her to make sure they are attached to the correct piece of equipment. Enter global configuration mode.300 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Concept Questions 1. Explain how good management of configuration files can be implemented. d. Network configuration files are extremely important on a production network. Router# interface s0 c. Answers will vary. Including dates in the naming convention can be helpful. Router(config)# interface s0/1/0 d. Enter interface configuration mode.) a. Router(config)> interface s0/1/0 2. b. and they need to be worded carefully. Multiple-Choice Questions Choose the best possible answer(s) for the following questions dealing with interface configuration network testing. 3. and explain why they should contain some type of warning message. such as routers and switches. They are visible to anyone who logs on to the system. Answers will vary. Router(config)# interface 0/1/0 b. c. Hostnames are a vital part of network management. The filename also needs to indicate the hostname of the device it belongs to. are managed remotely. Enable the interface. This can prove helpful if somebody breaks into the system and a legal case arises. such as from an office. Which of the following steps are required to configure an Ethernet interface? (Choose all that apply. Be specific in your answer. It is good practice to advise against unauthorized access with the help of banners. Which of the following interface commands allows you to enter interface configuration mode to configure a router’s interface? a. a logical naming scheme that includes version control is critical. Therefore. Hostnames. Specify the interface address and subnet mask. Backing up configuration files is part of good file management. help the administrator know what device he or she is connected to. Therefore. Briefly explain the purpose of banners. There should always be backup copies of files to aid in disaster recovery.

): The ping timed out. The ping 127. 2.0. Why is the ping test also called testing the protocol stack? a.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 301 3. Describe the following indicators. A network administrator needs to be familiar with the different testing utilities such as ping and traceroute and the different show commands. show IP interface brief b. b. show interfaces c. Test Your Knowledge The ping utility yields useful indicators that can be used for troubleshooting.0. The output of which of the following commands shows the interface description? (Choose all that apply.1 command can be used to test the local host IP configuration. One effective way to test network connectivity is to use the ping command. The output provided by the utilities and the show commands provides useful information for troubleshooting. It is possible that a router along the path did not have a route to the destination and did not send an ICMP destination unreachable message. 2. Because the ping test tests all the layers of the TCP/IP model. Like other hosts. Exclamation mark (!): The ping completed successfully. It is also possible that the ping was blocked by security measures. and Layer 3 connectivity has been established. Because it tests connectivity at Layers 3. and 1 of the OSI model. Because it tests all the layers of the OSI model. a switch needs a default gateway address defined to communicate with hosts outside the local network. Concept Question Explain how the internal IP configuration on the local host can be tested. d. Verifying Connectivity A network needs full connectivity to converge. 3.) a. c. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following sentences. The letter U: A router along the path did not have a route to the destination address and responded with an ICMP unreachable message. show running-configuration d. Testing network connectivity is a very important task. Because it uses a protocol stack to perform connectivity testing. Time to Live (TTL) defines the number of hops that the ping packet has remaining before it will be dropped. It verifies the proper operation of the protocol stack from the network layer to the physical layer (and back) without putting a signal on the medium. A connectivity problem has occurred along the path. Period (. . Answers may vary. 1. show interface description 4.

The purpose of this lab is to measure and evaluate network latency over time. You will summarize return delay times. Measure delay effects from larger datagrams. You will also measure delay when the ICMP datagram size increases. a sufficiently distant destination should be chosen. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ Use the ping command to document network latency. The destination server computer must return ICMP echo replies. Destinations on the same LAN or within a few hops may return an unrepresentative low latency. by computing the average latency (mean). You will perform statistical analysis of throughput delay with the assistance of a spreadsheet application such as Microsoft Excel.3) Upon completion of this lab.302 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Labs and Activities Lab 11-1: Network Latency Documentation with ping (11. Be sure to check with your instructor for any local security restrictions on using the ping command on the network. to capture a representative sample of typical network activity. the network cloud represents all the network devices and cabling between the student computer and the destination server computer. delay cannot be computed. Background To obtain realistic network latency statistics.4. Scenario In the topology diagram shown in Figure 11-1. otherwise. and some private networks block transit ICMP echo datagrams. Figure 11-1 Topology for Lab 11-1 Server Computer Network Cloud Student Computer . which may be used in decision-making when evaluating suitable applications for wide-area network (WAN) deployment. Monitoring path latency provides some measure of administrative diligence.3. You will accomplish this by analyzing the return delay from a distant computer using the ping command. measured in milliseconds. Normally these devices are the ones that introduce network latency. and during different periods of the day. For this experiment to be interesting. Some computers have this feature disabled through a firewall. Network engineers routinely rely on networks outside of local administration for connectivity to external networks. Compute various statistics on the output of a ping capture. You will note the latency value at the center of the ordered range of latency points (median) and identify the most frequently occurring delay (mode). you can find a suitable destination. If you’re patient. this lab must be performed on a live network.

93.191.com. use another destination. Preferably.akadns. for example.yahoo-ht3.yahoo. you will send and analyze increasingly larger ICMP datagrams. Maximum = 304ms . Verify connectivity between the student computer and the destination server computer. depending on the destination server computer students choose. such as www.com or yahoo. one around midday.net [209.93. and retest.5: Packets: Sent = 1.52: bytes=32 time=304ms TTL=52 Ping statistics for 209.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 303 This lab requires five days of testing. Task 1: Use the ping Command to Document Network Latency Step 1. Note to Instructor: Answers will vary. The idea is to note and document latency differences that occur at different times of the day. What option and argument would change the default size to 100 bytes? ping IP Address -l 100 Decide on a destination server computer. Use the ping command to verify connectivity with the destination. Students might decide to ping google. and write down the name: Answers will vary.com.93.yahoo. and write down the results: Packets sent: _____________ Packets received: _________ Packets lost: _____________ Answers will vary. you will have 15 sets of data. The ping command might fail or succeed.191. .52] with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 209. and then click OK. To understand the delay effects from larger datagrams. one test should be done in the early morning. Three tests will be performed each day. Attempt to ping a suitably distant destination.com Pinging www. When you’re done. as shown in Example 11-1. Lost = 0 (0% loss) Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 304ms. If packets were lost. Received = 1. and one in the evening. depending on the destination address.191. Example 11-1 Ping Test C:\> ping -n 1 www. Enter cmd. Average = 304 ms Use the ping /? command to answer the following questions: What is the purpose of the -n option and argument 1? The -n option determines the number of echo requests to send. Open a terminal window by choosing Start > Run.

Choose Start > Programs > Accessories > Notepad. manually fix the numbers. When you’re done. Write down the command that sends 100 echo requests to the destination: ping -n 100 Use the ping command to send 100 echo requests to your destination. and mode delay values. Choose File > Open.txt to the end of the ping command. Task 2: Compute Various Statistics on the Output of a ping Capture Step 1. Step 1. Save the file using the name format day-sample#. Alternatively. start Microsoft Excel.txt. Figure 11-2 Excel Text Import Wizard Step 2. . format the columns so that they are more readable. copy the replies into Notepad. Click Browse to move to the directory that holds the text file. When the input formatting is satisfactory. When you’re finished. To format a text file for use within Excel. click Finish. In Step 2. Note: The terminal remains blank until the command has finished. Bring the text file into the Microsoft Excel spreadsheet application. Compute the mean. where day is the day the test was performed (1 through 5) and sample# is the sample period (1 through 3). shown in Figure 11-2. follow the instructions to separate numeric values from text values. The command syntax is ping [options] >day-sample#. If it isn’t already open. median. choose Fixed Width. you should have a spreadsheet that looks similar to Figure 11-3. Perform a delay test. After the spreadsheet has been opened.txt. ensure that all numeric values are separated from text characters.304 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Step 2. Highlight the filename and click Open. you can redirect output to a file by appending >day-sample#. In the Text Import wizard. If the spreadsheet has numbers in different fields.

click the Header row radio button. You do this by choosing Data > Sort. If a header row was highlighted. Figure 11-4 Ordering on the Delay Column . the delay values must be ordered (sorted) when computing the median and mode values. click OK. Dropped packets have a consistently large delay value. Finally. Highlight all the data fields. Figure 11-4 shows a partial spreadsheet highlighted and the Data dialog box opened. In Figure 11-4 it is Column G.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 305 Figure 11-3 Partial Spreadsheet Record the number of dropped packets in the column Dropped Packets. Select the column that contains the Delay values. When you’re finished.

Record this number in your chart in the Mode column. Issue this command: FOR /L %i IN (100. The syntax is FOR /L %variable IN (start. or the delay value that occurs the most frequently. Task 3: Measure Delay Effects from Larger Datagrams To determine if larger datagrams affect delay.end) DO command [command-parameters] The set is a sequence of numbers from start to end. You will create a spreadsheet with the reply results. >>. The easiest way to accomplish this task is to use the Windows built-in FOR loop command. For the median value. Perform a quick visual inspection to verify that your mean value is approximately the value shown.1) would generate the sequence (5 4 3 2 1). Step 1. The output of one line is shown in Example 11-2. overwrites the file each time the ping command is executed. and (5.5) would generate the sequence 1 2 3 4 5. Perform a quick visual inspection to verify that your mode value is the most frequently occurring value in the data range. by step amount. as well as a chart that plots size versus delay. The formula used to compute the modal delay.2000) DO ping -n 1 -l %i destination Copy the output into Notepad. Record this number in your chart in the Mean column.100. The formula used to compute the median delay. the formula in cell G104 would be =mode(G2:G101). but you should retain the data text file. this would equate to the formula in cell G102: =average(G2:G101). and only the last reply is saved.txt Note: The terminal remains blank until the command has finished.2000) DO ping -n 1 -l %i destination >> variablesizedelay. and save the file using the name variablesizedelay. For this spreadsheet.txt. FOR /L %i IN (100. as shown in the following command.1. All 20 replies are arranged similarly. you will send increasingly larger ICMP echo requests to the destination.306 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide The formula used to compute the mean.100. Perform a variable-sized delay test. Perform a quick visual inspection to verify that your median value is similar to what is shown midway in the data range. . delay is the sum of the delays divided by the number of measurements.–1. Record this number in your chart in the Median column. or the delay value in the center of the ordered range. the formula in cell G103 would be =median(G2:G101). So (1. use the redirect append operator. destination is the destination. In the following command. In this analysis. To redirect output to a file. You may either save or discard the new spreadsheet file. The normal redirect operator. >.step. 20 datagrams will be incremented by 100 bytes per ping request. is similar to the average formula. is also similar. or average. For the mode value.

Maximum = 383ms.191. Format the spreadsheet. Received = 1. Can you make any assumptions about delay when larger datagrams are sent across a network? Answers may vary. Create a chart of the data.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 307 Example 11-2 Variable-Size Delay Test C:\> FOR /L %i IN (100.akadns. A number of charts can be used to display delay data. Lost = 0 (0% loss). and submit them to your instructor with the final delay analysis. Clean up and organize the spreadsheet data into two columns. depending on available bandwidth and other traffic on the network.191. Step 4. the spreadsheet should look similar to Figure 11-6.93. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 383ms. A chart should be clear.52] with 100 bytes of data: Reply from 209. but there is room for individual creativity.191. as shown in Figure 11-5. Highlight the Delay column data and choose Insert > Chart.2000) DO ping -n 1 -l %i www. Step 3.93.100.yahoo.net [209. Bring the text file into the Excel spreadsheet application. Bytes and Delay.52: bytes=100 time=383ms TTL=52 Ping statistics for 209.93. When larger datagrams are sent. Figure 11-5 Excel Text Import Wizard The difference between this file and the previous one is that the variable-size file has much more information than is really needed. When you’re finished. The chart shown in Figure 11-7 is a stacked line chart. Open the new text file in Excel.52: Packets: Sent = 1.com >>variablesizedelay. .txt C:\> ping -n 1 -l 100 Pinging www.yahoo-ht3. a delay might occur. Average = 383ms Step 2. save your spreadsheet and chart. When you’re finished.

try to work out the problem with the ISP first. When the source originates from external networks not under the control of the organization. In this case. routine data transfers should be scheduled during off-peak times. subscribing with a different or additional Internet service provider (ISP) may prove beneficial. If that does not work. network analysis tools can be used to determine the source. many users subscribe to peer-to-peer applications such as Kazaa and Napster. When these file-sharing applications are active. network devices may become overwhelmed during certain times of the day.308 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 11-6 Formatted Spreadsheet Figure 11-7 Plot of Delay Versus Datagram Size Task 4: Reflection The ping command can provide important network latency information. . Careful delay analysis over successive days and at different times of the day can alert the network engineer to changes in network performance. and network delay spikes. Also. If delays are caused by events within the organization. when delay is less. valuable bandwidth is diverted from critical business applications. For example. and corrective action can be taken.

download a large file. .Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 309 Task 5: Challenge If permitted. and perform a separate delay test while the file is downloading. Write a one.or two-paragraph analysis that compares these delay results against a measurement made without the download.

Save the router configuration file. Figure 11-8 Topology for Lab 11-2 1 Fa0/0 Fa0/1 Fa0/1 R1 Fa0/2 S1 Fa0/3 2 3 Gather the necessary equipment and cables.310 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Lab 11-2: Basic Cisco Device Configuration (11.1. make sure that the equipment listed in Table 11-3 is available. Configure Cisco router interfaces.1) Learning Objectives Upon completion of this lab. Configure Cisco router password access. Background Figure 11-8 shows the topology for this lab. access passwords. To configure the lab. Another alternative would be to use two routers connected through a serial connection and use the FastEthernet interfaces from each router. consider configur- ing a loopback interface as an alternative to the FastEthernet 0/1. Configure a Cisco switch. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Configure Cisco router global configuration settings.5. Table 11-3 Hardware Equipment and Hardware Requirements Quantity Description Cisco router Cisco switch Computer (host) Console (rollover) cable Crossover cable Straight-through cable 1 1 3 3 1 3 Part of the CCNA Lab bundle Part of the CCNA Lab bundle Lab computer Connects computer Host1 to the router console port Connects the computer to the router LAN interface FA0/0 Connects computer hosts to the switch and the switch to the router Note to Instructor: If you do not have a router that has two FastEthernet interfaces. . Common configuration tasks include setting the hostname. and message-of-the-day (MOTD) banner.

133.) Note to Instructor: To reinforce student cable identification.133.133.133.133.133.97 192.133.133.129 192.133. In addition to assigning a Layer 3 IP address.1 192.219.133.133.193 192.192 192.207 192.64 192.78 192.133. Given an IP address of 198.133.219.133.144 192.133.48 192.133.219.46 192.219.133.133.133.255.219. Address information is easy to compute with the subnet number filled in first.219.219.133.219.0 192.219.219.79 192.219.143 192.255 .208 192.133.219.145 192.158 192.133.191 192.219.219.133.219.133.65 192.222 192.219 192.219.112 192.133.133.133.133.219.207 192.219.255.127 192.219.219.219.219.219.133.219.133.219. fill in Table 11-4. you will configure common settings on a Cisco router and Cisco switch.219.142 192.219. entering a description that describes the destination connection decreases troubleshooting time. Cisco IOS switch configuration is similar to Cisco IOS router configuration.133.219.160 192.30 192.133.209 192.133.133.133.219.111 192.219.133.62 192.133. Students should be able to identify the proper cable type based on a visual inspection.14 192. (Hint: fill in the subnet number and then the host address.133. Configuration changes take effect immediately.133.133.175 192.63 192.219.219.0/24.133.219. Configuration changes may also be saved offline in a text file for auditing or device replacement.239 192.133.133.113 192.96 192.240 192.219.17 192.133.219.133.133.110 192.219.219.241 192.219.159 192.133.240 First host address Last Host Address Broadcast IP address: 192.133.133.81 192.16 192.219. Scenario In this lab.133. with 4 bits borrowed for subnets.238 192.128 192.133. have several different types of cables available for the students.225 192.133.223 192. Maximum number of usable subnets (including the 0th subnet): 16 Number of usable hosts per subnet: 14 Table 11-4 Subnet Address Table Subnet mask: 255.254 192.190 192.133.133.219. The changes must be saved in NVRAM to be persistent across reboot.133.219.219.133.177 192.219.219.133.219.133.80 192.133.0 # Subnet 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 192.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 311 Interface configuration is extremely important.161 192.219.219.219.174 192. straight-through.219.133. Mix crossover.176 192.133.133.133.219.219.219.95 192.219.219.33 192.133.224 192.32 192.15 192.219.219.95 192.126 192.133.47 192.219.219.219.219.219.219.133.31 192.219. and rollover cables.219.219.

Configure HyperTerminal with the proper settings: ■ ■ Name the connection description: Lab 11_5_1 Connect using: COM1 (or an appropriate COM port) Configure the COM1 properties: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Bits per second: 9600 Data bits: 8 Parity: None Stop bits: 1 Flow control: None When the HyperTerminal session window comes up. Give each team of students a subnetwork number. Task 1: Configure Cisco Router Global Configuration Settings Step 1. Connect the console or rollover cable to the console port on the router. Connect a straight-through cable between the Router interface Fa0/1 and any of the switch’s interfaces (1 through 24). Ensure that power has been applied to the host computer. Connect the crossover cable between the host computer’s network interface card (NIC) and Router interface Fa0/0. start the HyperTerminal program by choosing Start > Programs > Accessories > Communications > HyperTerminal. Connect the other end of the cable to the host computer using a DB-9 adapter to the COM 1 port. verify your addresses with the instructor. press the Enter key until the router responds. switch. . From the Widows taskbar. Figure 11-9 shows the cabling for this lab. Figure 11-9 Lab Cabling 1 Fa0/0 Fa0/1 R1 Straight-Through Cable Serial Cable Console (Rollover) Crossover Cable Step 2. and router.312 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Before proceeding. Physically connect the devices. The instructor will assign subnetworks. Connect host computer through HyperTerminal.

a delay occurs while the request times out. ask the instructor to remove the configuration. To terminate the domain name lookup process..Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 313 If the router terminal is in configuration mode. Depending on the router’s model and the IOS version. your configuration may look slightly different from a typical default router’s configuration. Step 3. release. Because no domain server is configured. If a configuration file was previously saved. What two commands may be used to leave privileged EXEC mode? exit or end What shortcut command can you use to enter privileged EXEC mode? en Examine the different configuration modes that can be entered with the command configure?. However.255. and then press X. and describe them: confirm: Confirms replacement of running-config with a new config file memory: Configures from nonvolatile memory network: Configures from a TFTP network host overwrite-network: Overwrites nonvolatile memory from the TFTP network host replace: Replaces the running-config with a new config file terminal: Configures from the terminal <cr> . If your router does not have a default configuration. From user EXEC mode.255) % Press Ctrl-Shift-6. press Ctrl-Shift-6. and then press X.. release. The following shows a user mistyping a command and the router attempting a domain name lookup: Router>enabel Translating “enabel”. the router attempts to translate any misspelled or unrecognized commands as a domain name. This results in the following: Name lookup aborted Router> To disable name translation attempts.255. Write down the list of configuration modes. it must be removed. This can take from several seconds to several minutes.domain server (255. exit by entering no: Would you like to enter the initial configuration dialog? [yes/no]: no Press RETURN to get started! Router> In privileged EXEC command mode. Configure global configuration hostname settings. enter privileged EXEC mode: Router> enable Router# Verify a clean configuration file using the privileged EXEC command show runningconfig. apply the global configuration command no ip domain-lookup. it should have no configured passwords or IP addresses.

Only system administrators of the ABC Company are authorized users. a court might interpret a friendly “Welcome” message as permission for an attacker to hack into the router. and describe them. exec: Sets the EXEC process creation banner incoming: Sets the incoming terminal line banner login: Sets the login banner motd: Sets the message-of-the-day banner prompt-timeout: Sets the message for the login authentication timeout slip-ppp: Sets the message for SLIP/PPP . In production networks. Configure the MOTD banner. and applicable local laws. Unauthorized access will be prosecuted. Write down the list of banner modes. enter global configuration mode: Router# configuration terminal Router(config)# What three methods may be used to leave global configuration mode and return to privileged EXEC mode? The exit command. The corporate security policy should cover all banner messages. where ‘c’ is a delimiting character Examine the different banner modes that can be entered.314 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide From privileged EXEC mode. Router1(config)# banner ? LINE: c banner-text c. All connections are continuously logged. suppose you are connected to an ABC network device. the end command. connection logging. and all connection information will be logged. For example. Create a suitable MOTD banner. For example. and Ctrl-Z What shortcut command can be used to enter global configuration mode? config t Set the device hostname to Router1: router(config)# hostname Router1 Router1(config)# How can the hostname be removed? no hostname Router1 Step 4. banner content may have a significant legal impact on the organization. Access is granted to only current ABC system administrators with prior written approval. A banner should include information about authorization. Unauthorized access is prohibited and will be prosecuted. penalties for unauthorized access.

oooO--(_)--Oooo. Example 11-3 banner motd Output Router1(config)# banner motd % Enter TEXT message. One command. The privileged EXEC mode password is the most critical password. because it controls access to configuration mode. Cisco says “As far as anyone at Cisco knows. *** % Router1(config)# What is the global configuration command to remove the MOTD banner? no banner motd Personal banners on nonproduction devices can be entertaining. aux. *** All connections are continuously logged. it is impossible to recover an enable secret based on the contents of a configuration file (other than by obvious dictionary attacks). and will be prosecuted. such as % (percent). Configure the privileged EXEC password. The following is a banner made from ASCII art that can be copied into the router: ( o o ) +------------------. The MOTD banner is displayed on all connections before the login prompt.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 315 Choose a terminating character that will not be used in the message text. Step 1. *** *** Unauthorized access is prohibited. End with the character %’ ***You are connected to an ABC network device. contains no encryption or weak cryptography and should never be used if the enable secret command is available. Use the terminating character on a blank line to end the MOTD entry.------------------+ | | | . Configure the MOTD banner. The enable secret command uses a very secure MD5 cryptographic hash algorithm. )--------------------+ ) / (_/ | | | +---------------------\ (----( \_) Task 2: Configure Cisco Router Password Access Access passwords are set for privileged EXEC mode and the user entry point such as console. Cisco IOS supports two commands that set access to privileged EXEC mode.oooO ( ) Oooo. enable password. as shown in Example 11-3. and virtual lines.” Password security relies on the password . Access is granted to only current ABC company system administrators with prior written approval.

Configure the virtual line password. In a lab environment. access on that virtual line is blocked. What is the router prompt? What is the mode? Router1# Privileged EXEC mode . Exits the configuration and returns to privileged EXEC mode. the number has been expanded. we will use weak passwords. Router1(config)# line console 0 Router1(config-line)# password cisco Router1(config-line)# login What is the command to remove the console password? no password cisco Step 3. A strong password consists of at least nine characters of uppercase and lowercase letters. Configure the console password. In newer Cisco IOS versions. numbers. Unless a Telnet password is set. only five virtual lines could be set—0 through 4. In production environments. What is the router prompt? What is the mode? Router1(config-line)# exit Router1(config)# Global configuration mode Issue the command end. Fill in Table 11-5 with the correct answers.316 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide algorithm and the password. The virtual line password controls Telnet access to the router. Set the console access password to cisco. strong passwords should be used at all times. In early Cisco IOS versions. Router1(config-line)# line vty 0 4 Router1(config-line)# password cisco Router1(config-line)# login There are three ways to exit line configuration mode. Set the virtual line access password to cisco. Table 11-5 Command Ways to Exit Line Configuration Mode Effect exit end Ctrl-Z Returns to global configuration mode. The console password controls console access to the router. Issue the command exit. Set the privileged EXEC password to class: Router1(config)# enable secret class Router1(config)# Step 2. and symbols.

Example 11-4 Interface Configuration Router1(config)# interface fa0/0 Router1(config-if)# description Connection to Host1 with crossover cable Router1(config-if)# ip address address mask Router1(config-if)# no shutdown Router1(config-if)# end Router1# . 192. interface Fa0/0. On newer Cisco IOS versions.1.168. Write down the first IP address: Answers will vary.0 255.1.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 317 Task 3: Configure Cisco Router Interfaces All cabled interfaces should contain documentation about the connection. Apply the description on the router interface with the interface configuration command description.1 The last IP address will be used to configure the router fa0/0 interface.1.240 The first IP address will be used to configure the host computer LAN.14 Step 1. Figure 11-10 Network Topology 1 Fa0/0 Fa0/1 R1 Straight-Through Cable Serial Cable Console (Rollover) Crossover Cable Write down your subnet number and mask: Answers will vary.168.168. Write a short description for the connections on Router1: Fa0/0 -> Connection to Host1 with crossover cable. depending on which subnet students choose from Table 11-4. the maximum description length is 240 characters. Write down the last IP address: Answers will vary. 192.255. Configure the router interface Fa0/0. as shown in Example 11-4.255. 192. Figure 11-10 shows a network topology in which a host computer is connected to Router 1.

Configure the router interface Fa0/1. Configure the host computer. Rightclick the LAN icon.602: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet0/1. changed state to up Step 2. Step 4. Recall that you access the LAN configuration window by choosing Start > Control Panel > Network Connections.602: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet0/0.318 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Look for the interface to become active: *Mar 24 19:58:59. Configure the host computer for LAN connectivity. Write a short description for the connections on Router1: Fa0/1 -> Apply the description on the router interface with the interface configuration command description. and choose Properties. changed state to up Step 3. Example 11-5 Interface Configuration Router1(config)# interface fa0/1 Router1(config-if)# description Connection to switch with straightthrough cable Router1(config-if)# ip address address mask Router1(config-if)# no shutdown Router1(config-if)# end Router1# Look for the interface to become active: *Mar 24 19:58:59. Fill in the following fields: ■ ■ ■ IP Address: The first host address Subnet Mask: The subnet mask Default Gateway: The router’s IP address Click OK. Highlight the Internet Protocol field. troubleshoot the connection. Open a Windows command window. as shown in Example 11-5. Verify network connectivity. If ping replies are not successful. and then click Close. Use the ping command to verify network connectivity with the router. What Cisco IOS command can you use to verify the interface status? show interface fa0/0 and show interface fa0/1 What Windows command can you use to verify host computer configuration? ipconfig What is the correct LAN cable between Host1 and Router1? Crossover . and choose Properties. and verify network settings with the ipconfig command.

is called the salt. the resulting hash is different. Router1# show running-config Use the output to answer the following questions: How large is the configuration file? The current configuration is 935 bytes. that is used with the password. (Answers will vary. Example 11-6 Missing NVRAM Router1# show startup-config startup-config is not present Router1# Display the contents of RAM. 1. If all students used cisco as the enable secret password. someone is bound to ask why the cryptotext is different. JnEnON09QjpibV33dJXBI0. Table 11-6 Key Key Responses Description Spacebar Enter Q Ctrl-C Displays the next page Displays the next line Quits Quits Write down one possible shortcut command that displays the contents of NVRAM: show start Use this command to show the contents of NVRAM. . separated by $. The first field. it is because there is no saved configuration. Compare router RAM and NVRAM configurations. Step 1. The cryptotext $1$Sg/E$JnEnON09QjpibV33dJXBI0 is actually composed of three fields. Because the salts are different. NVRAM must be manually updated after any changes are made. but a short answer to intrigue students may lead to independent research. and it calls nonvolatile RAM (NVRAM) configuration storage the startup configuration. Use the Cisco IOS show command to view RAM and NVRAM configurations. The second field. This does not occur automatically. The configuration is displayed one screen at a time. Sg/E. A line containing — more — indicates that there is additional information to display. MD5. as shown in Example 11-6. For configurations to survive rebooting or power restarts. The answer is beyond the scope of this curriculum. If the output of NVRAM is missing. but they will be close to 1000 bytes. cisco. or random value. to compute the MD5 hash. Table 11-6 describes acceptable key responses. the RAM configuration must be copied into NVRAM.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 319 Task 4: Save the Router Configuration Files Cisco IOS calls RAM configuration storage the running configuration.) What is the enable secret password? enable secret 5 $1$Sg/E$JnEnON09QjpibV33dJXBI0 Ask students to compare their passwords. contains the hash algorithm type—in this case.

Depending on the switch model and IOS version. there should be no configured passwords. In HyperTerminal. write mem. copy run start. wr mem. Task 5: Configure a Cisco Switch Cisco IOS switch configuration is similar to configuring a Cisco IOS router. Example 11-7 Saving the RAM Configuration Router1# copy running-config startup-config Destination filename [startup-config]? <ENTER> Building configuration. The contents should be the same. cable to the console port on the switch. Save the RAM configuration to NVRAM. enter global configuration mode: Switch> en Switch# config t Switch(config)# Set the device hostname to Switch1: Switch(config)# hostname Switch1 Switch1(config)# . wr Review the contents of NVRAM. [OK] Router1# Write down one possible shortcut command that will copy the RAM configuration to NVRAM. press Enter until the switch responds. From user EXEC mode. your configuration may look slightly different from the typical default switch configuration. as shown in Example 11-7. Ensure that power has been applied to the switch.. ask the instructor to remove the configuration. The benefit of learning IOS commands is that they are similar to many different devices and IOS versions. Move the console. Save the RAM configuration to NVRAM. However. Connect the host to the switch. it must be manually saved in NVRAM. If your switch does not have a default configuration. Configure the global configuration hostname setting.. and verify that the configuration is the same as the configuration in RAM. write terminal Step 2. For a configuration to be used the next time the router is powered on or reloaded. Step 2. sh run. Step 1. or rollover.320 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide ■ ■ ■ Does your MOTD banner contain the information you entered earlier? Yes Do your interface descriptions contain the information you entered earlier? Yes Write down one possible shortcut command that will display the contents of RAM.

Switch1 interface Fa0/2 is connected to host computer 2. Configure the interface description. Use the terminating character on a blank line to end the MOTD entry. Unauthorized access will be prosecuted. Set the console access password to class: Switch1(config)# line console 0 Switch1(config-line)# password class Switch1(config-line)# login Step 6. Access is granted to only current ABC system administrators with prior written approval. Configure the privileged EXEC password.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 321 Step 3. Switch1(config)# banner motd % You are connected to an ABC network device. Configure the MOTD banner. Create a suitable MOTD banner. 0 through 15: Switch1(config-line)# line vty 0 15 Switch1(config-line)# password class Switch1(config-line)# login Step 7. Configure the console password. and interface Fa0/3 is connected to host computer 3. and will be prosecuted. Set the virtual line access password to class. Configure the MOTD banner: Switch1(config)# banner motd % The MOTD banner is displayed on all connections before the login prompt. Configure the virtual line password. . Unauthorized access is prohibited.% Step 4. and all connection information will be logged. Sixteen virtual lines can be configured on a Cisco IOS switch. review the similar step for configuring a switch MOTD banner. Set the privileged EXEC password to cisco: Switch1(config)# enable secret cisco Switch1(config)# Step 5. All connections are continuously logged. For assistance. interface Fa0/1. Figure 11-11 shows a network topology in which Router1 is connected to Switch1. Only system administrators of the ABC company are authorized users.

as shown in Example 11-8.. it must be manually saved in NVRAM. [OK] Switch1# Review the contents of NVRAM. Table 11-7 Interface Description Description Switch1 Interface Fa0/1 Fa0/2 Fa0/3 Connection to Router 1 Connection to host computer 2 Connection to host computer 3 Apply the descriptions on the switch interface using the interface configuration command description. and verify that the configuration is the same as the configuration in RAM.322 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 11-11 Network Topology 1 Fa0/0 Fa0/1 Fa0/1 R1 Fa0/2 S1 Fa0/3 2 3 In Table 11-7. Save the RAM configuration to NVRAM. Save the RAM configuration to NVRAM as shown in Example 11-9. write a short description for the connections on Switch1. . The contents should be the same. For a configuration to be used the next time the switch is powered on or reloaded. Example 11-8 Interface Description Switch1(config)# interface fa0/1 Switch1(config-if)# description Connection to Router1 Switch1(config)# interface fa0/2 Switch1(config-if)# description Connection to host computer 2 Switch1(config)# interface fa0/3 Switch1(config-if)# description Connection to host computer 3 Switch1(config-if)# end Switch1# Step 8.. Example 11-9 Saving the Configuration Switch1# copy run start Destination filename [startup-config]? <ENTER> Building configuration.

Table 118 lists the commands covered in this lab. the faster you will become at configuring a Cisco IOS router and switch. Table 11-8 Action Commands Covered in This Lab Command Enter global configuration mode. hostname name Example: Router(config)# hostname Router1 Router1(config)# Specify an encrypted password to prevent unauthorized access to privileged EXEC mode. Specify a password to prevent unauthorized access to the console. It is perfectly acceptable to use notes at first to help configure a device. enable secret password Example: Router(config)# enable secret cisco Router(config)# password password login Example: Router(config)# line con 0 Router(config-line)# password class Router(config-line)# login Router(config-line)# Specify a password to prevent unauthorized Telnet access. but an experienced network engineer does not need a cheat sheet to perform common configuration tasks. configure terminal Example: Router> enable Router# configure terminal Router(config)# Specify the router’s name.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 323 Task 6: Reflection The more you practice the commands. Router vty lines: 0 4 password password login Example: Router(config)# line vty 0 4 Router(config-line)# password class Router(config-line)# login Router(config-line)# continues .

. It also can be copied and pasted into a router. to save the configuration file to an offline text file. Step 1. Figure 11-12 HyperTerminal Capture Menu All communication between the host computer and router is saved to a file. and click Start. Router: Interface is off by default Switch: Interface is on by default interface type/port Example: Router(config)# interface fa0/0 Router(config-if)# description description Router(config-if)# ip address address mask Router(config-if)# no shutdown Router(config-if)# Save the configuration to NVRAM. One way to do so is to choose Transfer > Capture Text from HyperTerminal. as shown in Figure 11-12. banner motd % Example: Router(config)# banner motd % banner text % Router(config)# Configure an interface. from HyperTerminal choose Transfer > Capture Text. and always handy. To start a capture. copy running-config startup-config Example: Router# copy running-config startup-config Router# Task 7: Challenge It is often necessary. Enter a path and filename. The file can be edited and saved.324 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 11-8 Action Commands Covered in This Lab continued Command Configure the MOTD banner.

. Delete any configuration files saved on the host computers. Manually correct any lines that were scrambled or places where several lines occupy the same line. such as the — more — prompt. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. After checking the configuration file. Open the text file and review the contents. Step 4. enter global configuration mode: Router> en Router# config t Router(config)# Right-click inside the HyperTerminal window and choose Paste To Host. Issue the privileged EXEC command show running-config. To load the configuration file. Watch closely for error messages. manually enable the interfaces by issuing the no shutdown command in interface configuration mode. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. Task 8: Clean Up Before turning off power to the router and switch. and then turn off power to the host computers. Choose Transfer > Capture Text > Stop. and save to NVRAM. Otherwise. Erase the NVRAM configuration file: Router1# erase start Erasing the nvram filesystem will remove all configuration files! Continue? [confirm] <ENTER> [OK] Erase of nvram: complete Step 3. The important point is to closely examine the configuration for any errors before reloading. Stop the capture. highlight the lines and choose Edit > Copy from Notepad. stale configuration commands may survive a paste action and have unintended consequences. Verify the configuration. Reload the router: Router1# reload Proceed with reload? [confirm] <ENTER> When the router reboots. and press Spacebar until all the configuration has been displayed. This places the configuration in host computer memory. After the reload is complete. Remove any lines that are not configuration commands.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 325 Step 2. it is always a best practice to begin with a clean RAM configuration. restore host computer network connectivity. Highlighting the HyperTerminal text and copying may also bring the configuration into memory. The configuration is quickly loaded to the router. Each message must be investigated and corrected. and leave the room ready for the next class. remove the NVRAM configuration file from each device using the privileged EXEC command erase startup-config.

A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity.2) You can now open the file LSG1-Lab11512. .326 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Basic Cisco Device Configuration (11. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment.5. Remember.1.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. however.

You may download a free copy of the SolarWinds TFTP server software from www. Table 11-9 Hardware Lab Equipment and Hardware Requirements Quantity Description Cisco router Computer (host) Console (rollover) cable Crossover cable 1 1 1 1 Part of the CCNA Lab bundle Lab computer Connects computer Host1 to the router console port Connects the Host1 NIC to Router1 Fa0/0 The host computer will be used as a TFTP server. Use TFTP to save and restore a Cisco IOS configuration. . Use the last valid subnet.250. SolarWinds is a free TFTP application for Windows.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 327 Lab 11-3: Managing Device Configuration (11.2.250. Host1 should use the first valid host address. you will be able to ■ ■ Configure network connectivity. You are given an IP address of 10. Figure 11-13 Topology for Lab 11-3 1 Fa0/0 R1 Straight-Through Cable Serial Cable Console (Rollover) Crossover Cable Table 11-9 lists the lab equipment and hardware requirements for this lab. and Router1 should use the last valid host address. save the configuration to a TFTP server. you will configure common settings on a Cisco router.solarwinds. Scenario In this lab.com/products/freetools/free_tftp_server. and then restore the configuration from a TFTP server.5.aspx or from any freeware or shareware website. This lab requires the use of SolarWinds TFTP server software. Background Figure 11-13 shows the topology for this lab.1) Upon completion of this lab.0/24 and additional 6 bits for subnets.

Task 1: Configure Network Connectivity Step 1.250.252 Last Host Address Broadcast First Host Address 10.255.250.249 10. Connect the host computer to the router through HyperTerminal.0 Subnet Subnet mask: 255. Configure Router1. When the HyperTerminal session window opens. .251 To reinforce student cable identification. cable to the console port on the router. The configuration tasks for Router1 are as follows: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Specify the router name: Router1 Specify an encrypted privileged EXEC password: cisco Specify a console access password: class Specify a Telnet access password: class Configure the MOTD banner. Caution: Do not save the configuration in NVRAM.328 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Use Table 11-10 to record your addressing.250.250. subnet mask.250.250. have several different types of cables available for the students. Step 2. In this lab you practice transferring a configura- tion file to a router that does not have a configuration file in NVRAM. Ensure that power has been applied to both the host computer and the router. Set the Layer 3 address. press the Enter key until the router responds. configure the Host1 computer with an IP address. Configure the Router1 interface Fa0/0: ■ ■ ■ Set the description. Logically connect the devices.255. Students should be able to identify the proper cable type based on a visual inspection. straight-through. Table 11-10 IP Addressing IP address: 10. start the HyperTerminal program by choosing Start > Programs > Accessories > Communications > HyperTerminal.250. and rollover cables. and default gateway.248 10.250. Connect the other cable end to the host computer with a DB-9 adapter to the COM 1 port.250 10. Step 4.250.250. Mix crossover. Connect the console. Issue the no shutdown command. Using the IP address information from the scenario. From the Widows taskbar. Step 3. Physically connect the devices. Refer to Figure 11-13. or rollover.

choose File > Configure. Step 2. timeout is 2 seconds: . Figure 11-14 TFTP Server Window Start the TFTP server by choosing Start > Programs > SolarWinds Free Tools > TFTP Server. Verify connectivity.250.!!!! Success rate is 80 percent (4/5). and accept the default settings.250. Verify connectivity between Host1 and Router1.250.250.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 329 Step 5. Click Next. Sending 5. After SolarWinds has finished the installation.249. Configure the TFTP server. as shown in Figure 11-15. round-trip min/avg/max = 1/1/1 ms Router1# Task 2: Use TFTP to Save and Restore a Cisco IOS Configuration Step 1. as shown in Table 11-11. Double-click the SolarWinds TFTP application to begin the installation. Figure 11-14 shows an active TFTP server window.249 Type escape sequence to abort. Agree to the license agreement. Verify the settings. . To configure the TFTP server. Start the TFTP server. click Finish. Install the SolarWinds TFTP application. Example 11-10 Verify Connectivity Router1# ping 10. 100-byte ICMP Echos to 10. Step 3. as shown in Example 11-10.

txt.250. Use Microsoft Word or WordPad to examine the contents of the file c:\TFTP-Root\router1-confg. begin a TFTP upload to the TFTP server.250) 3/25/2007 12:29 :Received router1-confg from (10.250. The contents should be similar to the following: 3/25/2007 12:29 :Receiving router1-confg from (10. When you’re finished. Leave the default file.250. Save the Router1 configuration to the TFTP server. as shown in Example 11-11. From HyperTerminal.250 To 10.250).008 secs (538 bytes/sec) Router1# Verify a successful upload transfer.250.250. 1081 bytes Verify the transferred file.250.250. Example 11-11 Saving the Router Configuration to the TFTP Server Router1#copy running-config tftp: Address or name of remote host []? 10. . Open Log file c:\Program Files\SolarWinds\Free Tools\TFTP-Server.250. The contents should be similar to the configuration shown in Example 11-12.250.249 Destination filename [router1-confg]? <ENTER> !! 1081 bytes copied in 2. click OK.250. Step 4.250 Never Enable Log Requests to the Following File.330 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 11-15 Active TFTP Server Window Table 11-11 TFTP Server Settings Setting Value TFTP Root Directory Security Advanced Security Auto-Close Log TFTP-Root Transmit and Receive Files 10.

250.4 service timestamps debug datetime msec service timestamps log datetime msec no service password-encryption ! hostname Router1 ! boot-start-marker boot-end-marker ! enable secret 5 $1$D02B$AuX05n0HPT239yYRoQ0oE.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 331 Example 11-12 Configuration File ! version 12.255.252 duplex auto speed auto ! interface FastEthernet0/1 no ip address shutdown duplex auto speed auto ! interface Serial0/1/0 no ip address shutdown no fair-queue ! interface Serial0/1/1 no ip address shutdown clock rate 2000000 ! ip http server no ip http secure-server ! control-plane ! banner motd *** ABC COMPANY NETWORK DEVICE **** *** Authorized access only ***** *** Logging is enabled **** .250.255.250 255. ! no aaa new-model ip cef ! interface FastEthernet0/0 description connection to host1 ip address 10.

250 255. Restore the Router1 configuration from the TFTP server.250. Verify that NVRAM is clear. and the interface must be enabled. and then reboot Router1. Example 11-15 Hostname Configuration Router(config-if)# exit Router(config)# hostname TEST Test(config-if)# end TEST# Verify connectivity using the ping command.332 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example 11-12 Configuration File ! line con 0 password class login line aux 0 line vty 0 4 password class login ! continued scheduler allocate 20000 1000 End Step 5.255.095: %SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from console by console *Mar 25 16:43:04. Example 11-14 Interface Configuration Router> enable Router# conf t Enter configuration commands. as shown in Example 11-13. one per line.967: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet0/0. as shown in Example 11-16.252 Router(config-if)# no shutdown Router(config-if)# exit *Mar 25 16:43:03. changed state to up End with CNTL/Z.255. as shown in Example 11-14. Router(config)# interface fa0/0 Router(config-if)# ip address 10. Configure the hostname of the router to TEST. as shown in Example 11-15. Router1 fa0/0 must be configured with an IP address. Example 11-13 Verify Empty NVRAM Router1# show startup-config startup-config is not present Router1# reload Proceed with reload? [confirm] <ENTER> Connectivity must be established with the TFTP server. .250.

250. Sending 5.249/router1-confg by console Router1# View the configuration in NVRAM to verify an accurate transfer. Example 11-18 IOS Filename in Flash Router1# show version Cisco IOS Software.375: %SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from tftp://10.com/techsupport Copyright (c) 1986-2007 by Cisco Systems. the IOS can also be stored offline for future use. Task 3: Reflection TFTP is a fast. and the router’s hostname should now be Router1.249 (via FastEthernet0/0): ! [OK . The configuration should be the same as what was configured in Task 1.250.!!!! Success rate is 80 percent(4/5).1081 bytes] 1081 bytes copied in 9.” The previous configuration should be restored. Select no at the prompt that says “Configuration has been modified.250.249/router1-confg.250. Reload the router.250. Task 4: Challenge Similar to uploading a configuration file. timeout is 2 seconds: . efficient way to save and load Cisco IOS configuration files. 100-byte ICMP Echos to 10.250.cisco. Loading router1-confg from 10. 1841 Software (C1841-ADVIPSERVICESK9-M).4(10b). Compiled Fri 19-Jan-07 15:15 by prod_rel_team .250.249 Source filename []? router1-confg Destination filename [startup-config]? <ENTER> Accessing tftp://10.250.249 Type escape sequence to abort. Version 12. Inc.250.364 secs (115 bytes/sec) Router1# *Mar 25 16:55:26. round-trip min/avg/max = 1/1/1ms Router# Download the Router1 configuration file from the TFTP server. To discover the IOS filename. issue the Cisco IOS command show version. RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc3) Technical Support: http://www.250...250. as shown in Example 11-17.249. The filename is highlighted in Example 11-18. Step 4.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 333 Example 11-16 Ping Test Test# ping 10.250. Example 11-17 File Transfer from the TFTP Server Test# copy tftp startup-config Address or name of remote host []? 10.

4(13r)T. distributors and users are responsible for compliance with U. By using this product you agree to comply with applicable laws and regulations.bin]? !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!! 22063220 bytes copied in 59.S.250.124-10b. contact Cisco by sending email to export@cisco.bin” This product contains cryptographic features and is subject to United States and local country laws governing import. return this product immediately. exporters. export.html If you require further assistance.334 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example 11-18 IOS Filename in Flash continued ROM: System Bootstrap. 62720K bytes of ATA CompactFlash (Read/Write) Configuration register is 0x2102 Router1# The commands to upload the IOS are similar to uploading the configuration file.564 secs (370412 bytes/sec) Router1# .S. If you are unable to comply with U. and local country laws.0) with 174080K/22528K bytes of memory. Example 11-19 File Transfer to TFTP Server Router1# copy flash tftp Source filename []? c1841-advipservicesk9-mz. Processor board ID FHK110918KJ 2 Serial(sync/async) interfaces DRAM configuration is 64 bits wide with parity disabled. as shown in Example 11-19.cisco. laws governing Cisco cryptographic products may be found at: http://www. transfer and use. A summary of U.250. Importers.com.com/wwl/export/crypto/tool/stqrg. and local laws. distribute or use encryption. export. 191K bytes of NVRAM.124-10b.249 Destination filename [c1841-advipservicesk9-mz. Delivery of Cisco cryptographic products does not imply third-party authority to import.124-10b.S. RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1) Router1 uptime is 17 minutes System returned to ROM by reload at 16:47:54 UTC Sun Mar 25 2007 System image file is “flash:c1841-advipservicesk9-mz. Cisco 1841 (revision 6.bin Address or name of remote host []? 10. Version 12.

Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Managing Device Configuration (11. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity.2) You can now open the file LSG1-Lab11522. Remove the SolarWinds TFTP server from the host computer. Delete any configuration files saved on the host computers. Accept the defaults. and then turn off power to the host computers. Choose Start > Control Panel. Choose SolarWinds and click Remove. Click Add or Remove Applications. Remember. . restore host computer network connectivity. and leave the room ready for the next class. Use the privileged EXEC command erase startup-config.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 335 Task 5: Clean Up Before turning off power to the router. however.2.5. remove the NVRAM configuration file if it was loaded.

Table 11-12 lists the lab equipment and hardware requirements. Table 11-12 Lab Equipment and Hardware Requirements Hardware Quantity Description Cisco router Cisco switch Computer (host) Category 5 or better straight-through UTP cables 1 1 2 2 Part of the CCNA Lab bundle Part of the CCNA Lab bundle Lab computer Connects computers Host1 and Host2 to Switch1 Scenario In this lab you will create a small network that requires connecting network devices and configuring host computers for basic network connectivity.3. Figure 11-16 Topology for Lab 11-4 S1 Fa0/1 Fa0/2 1 2 Gather the necessary equipment and cables. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ ■ Design the logical lab topology. Background Figure 11-16 shows the topology diagram for this lab. have several different types of cables available for the students. Mix crossover. straight-through. To reinforce student cable identification.5. Configure the logical LAN topology. . Configure the physical lab topology. and rollover cables.1) Upon completion of this lab. Verify LAN connectivity.336 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Lab 11-4: Configure Host Computers for IP Networking (11. Students should be able to identify the proper cable type based on a visual inspection.

254.168.63 192.168.168.38 192.97 192.254.168.119 192.87 192.254.254.168.254.254.31 192.168.182 192.168.168.254.254.254.159 192.136 192.254.168.111 192.9 192.168.0/24.102 192.254. Table 11-13 Addressing Table IP address: 192.88 192.96 192.168.168.254.168.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 337 Task 1: Design the Logical Lab Topology Given an IP address of 192.254.254.254.168.168.254.254.254.168.145 192.168.168.168.168.32 192.254.168.134 192.7 192.254.168.168.254.254.168.254.110 192.72 192.168.54 192.254.16 192.168.254.254.168.168.248 Last Host Address Broadcast 192.120 192.168.94 192.254.254.168.254.254.62 192.254.168.168.168.254.95 192.168.168.254.254.168.151 192.254.168.128 192.254.254.254.168.168.168.160 192.168.168.168.86 192.254.168.103 192.0 192.254.254.168.254.56 192.168.6 192.168.127 192.57 192.175 192.161 192.168.47 192.48 192.183 continues .168.168.254.168.168.254.0 Subnet First Host Address Subnet mask: 255.254.254.168.78 192.168.168.17 192.168.153 192.105 192.49 192.129 192. fill in the following information: Maximum number of usable subnets (including the 0th subnet): 31 Number of usable hosts per subnet: 6 Use Table 11-13 to record the addressing scheme.81 192.168.254.254.254.168.254.73 192.113 192.137 192.33 192.254.254.168.121 192.23 192.254.254.46 192.254.254.254.254.254.254.168.80 192.254.254.71 192.135 192.167 192.168.254.118 192.168.254.176 192.254.126 192.254.168.112 192.168 192.177 192.25 192.168.168.254.168.254.168.168.254.168.254.255.8 192.254.168.168.168.168.1 192.254.168.254.168.254.254.168.168.158 192.254.144 192.169 192.14 192.254.168.168.152 192.254.40 192.168.104 192.30 192.150 192.39 192.254.254.168.143 192.254.41 192.168.174 192.24 192.89 192.65 192.168.168.254.70 192.168.254.254.254.55 192.254.255.254.168.79 192.166 192.168.168.254.168.254. and 5 bits used for subnets.15 192.254.168.254.254.142 192.254.22 192.168.168.64 192.168.254.168.

233 192. turn on power to all devices.254.199 192.168.247 192.192 192.254. The instructor will assign one subnetwork per student or team.168.0 Subnet continued Subnet mask: 255.193 192.225 192.254.254.254. Is a crossover cable needed to connect host computers to the switch? Why or why not? No.249 192.246 192.168.254.255.168.168.168.168.168.168.254.168. Visually inspect network connections.168.217 192.168.254.254.214 192.254.254.168.254.240 192.254.254.190 192.168.254.168.248 192.254. Physically connect the devices.254.255 Before proceeding.254.254 192.168.168. . Attention to detail now will minimize the time required to troubleshoot network connectivity issues later.254.168. After cabling the network devices.254.338 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 11-13 Addressing Table IP address: 192.254.254.254.208 192.254. If it’s not already enabled.254.185 192.254. Document logical network settings.168.168.168.200 192.209 192.224 192.168.255.239 192.168. straightthrough cables are used.168. verify your addresses with the instructor.168.254.254.223 192.207 192.168.184 192. Cable the network devices as shown earlier in Figure 11-16.254. Because computers and the switch are not wired the same for networking. Write down the IP address information for each device in Table 11-14.201 192.168.168.254.168. Host computers will use the first two IP addresses in the subnetwork.254. take a moment to verify the connections.168.198 192.241 192. Step 2.168.168.168.222 192.248 Last Host Address Broadcast First Host Address 192.168.238 192.216 192.230 192.168.254.254.254.254. Task 2: Configure the Physical Lab Topology Step 1.206 192.168. Task 3: Configure the Logical Topology Step 1.215 192.232 192.254.254.191 192.231 192.168.

248 Configure the Host1 computer.255. Right-click the LAN icon.255. Refer to Figure 11-17 for Host1 IP address and gateway settings. Figure 11-17 Host IP Address and Gateway Settings When you’re finished. and then click Close. On Computer1. and then click the Properties button. write down the IP network addressing for each computer.255.255. Verify proper configuration of Host1 with the ipconfig /all command. The computer may require a reboot for changes to be effective. choose Internet Protocol (TCP/IP). and choose Properties. choose Start > Control Panel > Network Connections.248 From the information given in Table 11-15.255.248 Answers will vary 255.255. Table 11-15 Host Addressing Table Host1 IP address IP mask Host2 IP address IP mask Step 2.248 255.255.255. Record the output in Table 11-16.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 339 Table 11-14 Logical Topology Device Subnetwork IP Address Mask Host1 Host2 Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary 255. Answers will vary 255. On the General tab. . click OK.

248 Unassigned Task 4: Verify Network Connectivity Network connectivity can be verified with the Windows ping command. Table 11-18 Ping Results From To IP Address Ping Result Host1 Host2 Host2 Host1 Answers will vary Answers will vary Should be successful Should be successful Take corrective action to establish connectivity if a test fails. Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary 255.255. Note: If pings to host computers fail. To disable a Windows firewall. choose Start > Control Panel > Windows Firewall. and then click OK. temporarily disable the computer firewall. Record the output in Table 11-17. Repeat Step 2 for Host2 using IP address information from Table 11-15. and retest.340 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 11-16 ipconfig Output Setting Value Ethernet device Physical address IP address Subnet mask Default gateway Step 3. click Off. which you filled out in Step 1. .255. Table 11-17 Host ipconfig Output Setting Value Ethernet device Physical address IP address Subnet mask Default gateway Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary 255.255. Use Table 11-18 to methodically verify connectivity with each network device. Verify proper configuration.255.248 Unassigned Configure Host2.

Remove anything that was brought into the lab. Replace the cable. Task 6: Challenge Ask your instructor or another student to introduce one or two problems in your network when you aren’t looking or are out of the lab room. To fix the problems. Replace the computer with the faulty NIC.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 341 Task 5: Reflection Review any physical or logical configuration problems encountered during this lab. document the solution. and leave the room ready for the next class. If the solution did not fix the problem. continue troubleshooting. and configure the IP address on the replacement computer. Task 7: Clean Up Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. If the solution fixed the problem. Correct the IP address configuration. Look for green link lights on Switch1. . Possible problems: IP addresses on different subnets Incorrect or faulty cable Faulty NIC Write down your proposed solution(s). perform a good visual inspection. Make sure you have a thorough understanding of the procedures used to configure a Windows host computer. Test your solution. List the problems. Use Table 11-18 to identify failed connectivity. Problems can be either physical (the wrong UTP cable) or logical (the wrong IP address). restore the host computer network connectivity. and then turn off power to the host computers.

Background Figure 11-18 shows the topology for this lab. Figure 11-18 Topology for Lab 11-5 Subnet A Fa0/0 Fa0/1 Subnet B Fa0/1 1 R1 Fa0/2 S1 Fa0/3 Subnet C Subnet D Subnet E Subnet F 2 3 Gather the necessary equipment and cables.1) Upon completion of this lab. Host2. . Table 11-19 Lab Equipment and Hardware Requirements Hardware Quantity Description Cisco router Cisco switch Computer (host) Category 5 or better straight-through UTP cables Category 5 crossover UTP cable Console (rollover) cable 1 1 3 3 1 1 Part of the CCNA Lab bundle Part of the CCNA Lab bundle Lab computer Connects Router1. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ ■ Design the logical lab topology. Configure the logical LAN topology. Table 11-19 lists the equipment and hardware requirements for this lab.342 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Lab 11-5: Network Testing (11. consider configuring a loopback interface as an alternative to the FastEthernet 0/1. Configure the physical lab topology. and Host3 to Switch1 Connects Host1 to Router1 Connects Host1 to the Router1 console If you do not have a router that has two FastEthernet interfaces.5. Another alternative would be to use two routers connected through a serial connection and use the FastEthernet interfaces from each router. Verify LAN connectivity.4.

20.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 343 Scenario In this lab. The 0th subnet will be used. design an IP addressing scheme that satisfies the requirements listed in Table 11-20. Mix crossover. Table 11-21 Subnet B IP Address Information Network Address Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast 172.20. Fill in Table 11-21 with the IP address information for Subnet B. Design the Subnet B address block. pick the first address block that will support Subnet B. To reinforce student cable identification.126 172.0.255. Table 11-20 Addressing Requirements Subnet Number of Hosts Subnet A Subnet B Subnet C Subnet D Subnet E Subnet F As shown in the topology diagram Between 80 and 100 Between 40 and 52 Between 20 and 29 12 5 Note: Always start with the subnet that has the largest number of hosts.0/24 (address/mask). Begin the logical network design by satisfying the requirements of Subnet B.20. Therefore. Fill in Table 11-22 with the IP address information for Subnet C.128 172. you should start with Subnet B and finish with Subnet A. and work your way down. Step 1. and Subnet F are anticipated subnets. Subnet E.0.127 Design the Subnet C address block. the next-largest IP address block. pick the next available address block that will support Subnet C. which requires the largest block of IP addresses.20. Students should be able to identify the proper cable type based on a visual inspection. not yet connected to the network. Using binary numbers to create your subnet chart. you will create a small network that requires connecting network devices and configuring host computers for basic network connectivity.255. Task 1: Design the Logical Lab Topology Given an IP address and mask of 172.0. . Subnet A and Subnet B are subnets that are currently needed. Satisfy the requirements of Subnet C. have several different types of cables available for the students. straight-through. 255. Using binary numbers to create your subnet chart.0.1 172.0. Subnet C. and rollover cables.20. Subnet D.0 Step 2.

the next-largest IP address block.1111111. pick the next available address block that will support Subnet D.190 172. Using binary numbers to create your subnet chart.20.0.255.0. Fill in Table 11-24 with the Subnet E IP address information.129 172. the next-largest IP address block. Satisfy the requirements of Subnet E.223 What is the bit mask? 11111111.224 172.0. Satisfy the requirements of Subnet F.0. pick the next available address block that will support Subnet F. Table 11-23 Subnet D IP Address Information Network Address Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast 172.20.20. Using binary numbers to create your subnet chart.0.240 172.11100000 Step 4. .0.20.0.255.255.0.1111111.192 255.1111111.11111111. Using binary numbers to create your subnet chart.128 255. Design the Subnet D address block.191 What is the bit mask? 11111111.11111111.192 172.20.193 172.0.20.20. Satisfy the requirements of Subnet D. the next-largest IP address block.255.0.255. pick the next available address block that will support Subnet E. Fill in Table 11-25 with the Subnet F IP address information.239 What is the bit mask? 11111111.238 172.0.224 255.11110000 Step 5.11000000 Step 3. Fill in Table 11-23 with the Subnet D IP address information.11111111. Table 11-24 Subnet E IP Address Information Network Address Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast 172.344 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 11-22 Subnet C IP Address Information Network Address Mask First Host Last Host Broadcast 172.222 172.20.0.255.20.20. Design the Subnet E address block.225 172.20.20. Design the Subnet F address block.

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Table 11-25 Subnet F IP Address Information Network Address Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast

172.20.0.240

255.255.255.248

172.20.0.241

172.20.0.246

172.20.0.24

What is the bit mask? 11111111.1111111.11111111.11111000
Step 6.

Design the Subnet A address block. Satisfy the requirements of Subnet A, the smallest IP address block. Using binary numbers to create your subnet chart, pick the next available address block that will support Subnet A. Fill in Table 11-26 with the Subnet A IP addressing table.

Table 11-26 Subnet A IP Addressing Table Network Address Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast

172.20.0.248

255.255.255.252

172.20.0.249

172.20.0.250

172.20.0.251

What is the bit mask? 11111111.1111111.11111111.11111100

Task 2: Configure the Physical Lab Topology
Step 1.

Physically connect the lab devices. Cable the network devices as shown earlier, in Figure 11-18. Pay special attention to the crossover cable required between Host1 and Router1. If it’s not already enabled, turn on power to all devices.

Step 2.

Visually inspect the network connections. After cabling the network devices, take a moment to verify the connections. Attention to detail now will minimize the time required to troubleshoot Layer 1 connectivity issues later.

Task 3: Configure the Logical Topology
Step 1.

Document logical network settings. On Subnet A, Host1 uses the first IP address in the subnet. Router1, interface Fa0/0, uses the last host address. On Subnet B, host computers use the first and second IP addresses in the subnet, respectively. Router1, interface Fa0/1, uses the last network host address. To properly route Layer 2 frames between LAN devices, Switch1 does not require Layer 3 configuration. The IP address assigned to Switch1, interface VLAN 1, is used to establish Layer 3 connectivity between external devices and the switch. Without an IP address, upper-layer protocols such as Telnet and HTTP will not work. The default gateway address

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permits the switch to respond to protocol requests from devices on distant networks. For example, the IP gateway address extends Layer 3 connectivity beyond Subnet B. Switch1 uses the next-to-last host address. Write down the IP address information for each device listed in Table 11-27.
Table 11-27 IP Address Information Device Subnet IP Address Mask Gateway

Host1 Router1-Fa0/0 Host2 Host3 Switch1 Router1-Fa0/1
Step 2.

172.20.0.248 172.20.0.248 172.20.0.0 172.20.0.0 172.20.0.0 172.20.0.0

172.20.0.249 172.20.0.250 172.20.0.1 172.20.0.2 172.20.0.125 172.20.0.126

255.255.255.252 255.255.255.252 255.255.255.128 255.255.255.128 255.255.255.128 255.255.255.128

172.20.0.250 — 172.20.0.126 172.20.0.126 172.20.0.126 —

Configure host computers. On each computer, in turn, choose Start > Control Panel > Network Connections. Right-click the LAN icon, and choose Properties. On the General tab, choose Internet Protocol (TCP/IP), and then click the Properties button. Verify that the Host1 Layer 3 IP address is on a different subnet than Host2 and Host3. Configure each host computer using the IP address information recorded in Step 1. Verify proper configuration of each host computer with the ipconfig command, and fill in Table 11-28.

Table 11-28 Host Configuration Device IP Address Mask Default Gateway

Host1 Host2 Host3
Step 3.

172.20.0.249 172.20.0.1 172.20.0.2 Configure Router1.

255.255.255.252 255.255.255.128 255.255.255.128

172.20.0.250 172.20.0.126 172.20.0.126

From the Windows taskbar, start the HyperTerminal program by choosing Start > Programs > Accessories > Communications > HyperTerminal. Configure HyperTerminal for access to Router1. Configuration for Router1 includes the following tasks:
■ ■ ■ ■ ■

Specify the router name: Router1 Specify an encrypted privileged EXEC password: cisco Specify a console access password: class Specify a Telnet access password: class Configure the MOTD banner.

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Configure Router1 interface Fa0/0:
■ ■ ■

Set the description. Set the Layer 3 address. Issue the no shutdown command.

Configure Router1 interface Fa0/1:
■ ■ ■

Set the description. Set the Layer 3 address. Issue the no shutdown command.

Save the configuration in NVRAM. What command do you use to display the contents of RAM? show running-config Record the configuration specifications:
■ ■ ■ ■ ■

Hostname: Router1 Enable secret password: cisco Console access password: class Telnet access password: class MOTD banner: Answers will vary

What command do you use to display configuration information for interface Fa0/0? show interface Fa0/0 Record the configuration specifications:
■ ■ ■

FastEthernet 0/0 status (up/down): Should be up Line protocol: Should be up MAC address: Answers will vary

What command do you use to display configuration information for interface Fa0/1? show interface Fa0/1 Record the configuration specifications:
■ ■ ■

FastEthernet 0/0 status (up/down): Should be up Line protocol: Should be up MAC address: Answers will vary

What command do you use to display brief IP address information about each interface? show ip interface brief Record the configuration specifications:
Interface FastEthernet0/0 FastEthernet0/1 IP-Address 172.20.0.250 172.20.0.126 OK? Method Status YES manual up YES manual up Protocol up up

Take corrective action with any problems, and retest.

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Step 4.

Configure Switch1. Move the console cable from Router1 to Switch1. Press Enter until you receive a response. Configuration for Switch1 includes the following:
■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■

Specify a switch name: Switch1 Specify an encrypted privileged EXEC password: cisco Specify a console access password: class Specify a Telnet access password: class Configure the MOTD banner. Configure Switch1 interface Fa0/1:

Set the description.

Configure Switch1 interface Fa0/2:

Set the description.

Configure Switch1 interface Fa0/3:

Set the description.

Configure the management VLAN1 IP address:
■ ■ ■

Set the description. Set the Layer 3 address. Issue the no shutdown command.

Configure the default IP gateway address.

What command do you use to display the contents of RAM? show running-config Write the configuration specifications:
■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■

Hostname: Switch1 Enable secret password: cisco Console access password: class Telnet access password: class MOTD banner: Answers will vary Interface VLAN 1: 172.20.0.125 Default IP gateway address: 172.20.0.126

What command do you use to display configuration information for interface VLAN 1? show interface vlan1
■ ■

VLAN 1 status (up/down): Should be up Line protocol: Should be up

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Task 4: Verify Network Connectivity
Step 1.

Use the ping command to verify network connectivity. You can verify network connectivity using the ping command. It is very important that connectivity exist throughout the network. Corrective action must be taken if a failure occurs. Use Table 11-29 to methodically verify connectivity with each network device.

Table 11-29 Connectivity Testing From To IP Address Ping Result

Host1 Host1 Host1 Host1 Host1 Host1 Host1 Host2 Host2 Host2 Host2 Host2 Host2 Host2 Host3 Host3 Host3 Host3 Host3 Host3

LocalHost (127.0.0.1) NIC IP address Gateway (Router1, Fa0/0 Router1, Fa0/1 Switch1 Host2 Host3 LocalHost (127.0.0.1) NIC IP address Host3 Switch1 Gateway (Router1, Fa0/1) Router1, Fa0/0 Host1 LocalHost (127.0.0.1) NIC IP address Host2 Switch1 Gateway (Router1, Fa0/1) Router1, Fa0/0

127.0.0.1 172.20.0.249 172.20.0.250 172.20.0.126 172.20.0.125 172.20.0.1 172.20.0.2 127.0.0.1 172.20.0.1 172.20.0.2 172.20.0.125 172.20.0.126 172.20.0.250 172.20.0.249 127.0.0.1 172.20.0.2 172.20.0.1 172.20.0.125 172.20.0.126 172.20.0.250

Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful

Take corrective action to establish connectivity if a test fails.
Note: If pings to host computers fail, temporarily disable the computer firewall, and retest. To disable a Windows firewall, choose Start > Control Panel > Windows Firewall, click Off, and then click OK.

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Step 2.

Use the tracert command to verify local connectivity. From Host1, issue the tracert command to Host2 and Host3. Record the results:
■ ■

From Host1 to Host2: Answers should show success From Host1 to Host3: Answers should show success

Step 3.

Verify Layer 2 connectivity. If it’s not already connected, move the console cable from Router1 to Switch1. Press the Enter key until Switch1 responds. Issue the command show mac-address-table. This command displays static (CPU) and dynamic, or learned, entries. List the dynamic MAC addresses and their corresponding switch ports in Table 11-30.

Table 11-30 MAC Address Table MAC Address Switch Port

Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary

Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary

Verify that there are three dynamically learned MAC addresses—one each from Fa0/1, Fa0/2, and Fa0/3.

Task 5: Reflection
Review any physical or logical configuration problems encountered during this lab. Make sure you have a thorough understanding of the procedures used to verify network connectivity.

Task 6: Challenge
Ask your instructor or another student to introduce one or two problems in your network when you aren’t looking or are out of the lab room. Problems can be either physical (the wrong UTP cable) or logical (the wrong IP address or gateway). To fix the problems, perform a good visual inspection. Look for green link lights on Switch1. Use Table 11-18 to identify failed connectivity. List the problems. Possible answers include incorrect IP addressing and incorrect cabling. Write down your proposed solution(s). Possible solutions include correcting the IP address configuration and replacing the cable. Test your solution. If the solution fixed the problem, document the solution. If the solution did not fix the problem, continue troubleshooting.

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Task 7: Clean Up
Unless directed otherwise by the instructor, restore host computer network connectivity, and then turn off power to the host computers. Before turning off power to the router and switch, remove the NVRAM configuration file from each device with the privileged EXEC command erase startup-config. Carefully remove the cables, and return them neatly to their storage. Reconnect cables that were disconnected for this lab. Remove anything that was brought into the lab, and leave the room ready for the next class.

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Lab 11-6: Network Documentation with Utility Commands (11.5.5.1)
Upon completion of this lab, you will be able to
■ ■ ■ ■ ■

Design the logical lab topology. Configure the physical lab topology. Design and configure the logical LAN topology. Verify LAN connectivity. Document the network.

Background Figure 11-19 shows the topology for this lab.
Figure 11-19 Topology for Lab 11-6
Subnet A
Fa0/0 Fa0/1

Subnet B
Fa0/1

1

R1
Fa0/2

S1
Fa0/3

Subnet C

2

3

Gather the necessary equipment and cables. Table 11-31 lists the equipment and hardware requirements for this lab.
Table 11-31 Equipment and Hardware Requirements Hardware Quantity Description

Cisco router Cisco switch Computer (host) Category 5 or better straight-through UTP cables Category 5 crossover UTP cable Console (rollover) cable

1 1 3 3 1 1

Part of the CCNA Lab bundle Part of the CCNA Lab bundle Lab computer Connects Router1, Host1, and Host2 to Switch1 Connects Host1 to Router1 Connects Host1 to the Router1 console

If you do not have a router that has two FastEthernet interfaces, consider configuring a loopback interface as an alternative to FastEthernet 0/1. Another alternative would be to use two routers connected through a serial connection and use the FastEthernet interfaces from each router.

11111111.200. Subnet C is an anticipated subnet.200. Satisfy the requirements of Subnet B.165. A well-documented network enables network engineers to save significant time in troubleshooting and planning future growth.224 255.239 What is the bit mask? 11111111. 2 Between 2 and 6 Between 10 and 12 Design the Subnet C address block. Design the Subnet B address block. In this lab you will create a small network that requires connecting network devices and configuring host computers for basic network connectivity. Table 11-33 Subnet C IP Address Information Network Address Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast 209. Fill in Table 11-33 with the IP address information for Subnet C.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 353 In this lab.165. not yet connected to the network.225 209.165. To reinforce student cable identification. design an IP addressing scheme that satisfies the requirements listed in Table 11-32. Using binary numbers to create your subnet chart.240 209. . Table 11-32 IP Addressing Requirements Subnet Number of Hosts Subnet A Subnet B Subnet C Step 1.200.11110000 Step 2. and rollover cables. Using binary numbers to create your subnet chart. Mix crossover.255.165. the largest IP address block. Students should be able to identify the proper cable type based on a visual inspection.200.1111111. The 0th subnet will be used.224/27 (address/mask). the next-largest block of IP addresses. Task 1: Design the Logical Lab Topology Given an IP address of 209.200. pick the first address block that will support Subnet B.238 209. Subnet A and Subnet B are subnets that are currently needed.165. Begin the logical network design by satisfying the requirements of Subnet C. pick the next available address block that will support Subnet C. Scenario Network documentation is a very important tool for the organization. have several different types of cables available for the students. straight-through. router and host output will be copied from the devices and into Notepad for use in network documentation.255.

1111111.255.165.200.200.165.248 255. take a moment to verify the connections. Pay special attention to the crossover cable required between Host1 and Router1. Task 3: Configure the Logical Topology Step 1.251 What is the bit mask? 11111111. Design the Subnet A address block. Fill in Table 11-35 with the IP address information for Subnet A.11111100 Task 2: Configure the Physical Lab Topology Step 1.247 What is the bit mask? 11111111.255.250 209. Host computers use the first two IP addresses in the subnetwork.200.200. Write down the IP address information for each device in Table 11-36. If it’s not already enabled.200. Table 11-34 Subnet B IP Address Information Network Address Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast 209. Document the logical network settings.255.111111000___ Step 3. .246 209.200.165. Attention to detail now will minimize the time required to troubleshoot network connectivity issues later. turn on power to all devices. The network router uses the last network host address.1111111.354 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Fill in Table 11-34 with the IP address information for Subnet B. Using binary numbers to create your subnet chart.165.165. Step 2.11111111.240 209.240 255.200.255. Cable the network devices as shown in Figure 11-19. pick the next available address block that will support Subnet A.249 209. After cabling the network devices.165.200.165.11111111. Table 11-35 Subnet A IP Address Information Network Address Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast 209.252 209. Physically connect lab devices. Satisfy the requirements of Subnet A.248 209. the smallest IP address block.165. Visually inspect the network connections.

250 209.252 255. Configure Router1 interface Fa0/0: ■ ■ ■ Set the description.165.249 209. Record your information in a separate document.165. On each computer in turn. and choose Properties.248 209.200.255.165.255. Configure Router1. Set the Layer 3 address.255. .246 — Configure the host computers.165.165.165.165.255.248 — — 209.200.165.252 255. Configure HyperTerminal for access to Router1.242 — 255. start the HyperTerminal program by choosing Start > Programs > Accessories > Communications > HyperTerminal. From the Windows taskbar.200. Issue the no shutdown command.165. Configure each host computer using the IP address information recorded in Step 1.165. Verify proper configuration of each host computer using the ipconfig /all command.200.248 255. These are the configuration tasks for Router1: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Specify the router name: Router1 Specify an encrypted privileged EXEC password: cisco Specify a console access password: class Specify a Telnet access password: class Configure the MOTD banner.200.241 209. Set the Layer 3 address.165. choose Start > Control Panel > Network Connections.200.255.200.255. Verify that the Host1 Layer 3 IP address is on a different subnetwork than Host2 and Host3. 209. ■ Configure Router1 interface Fa0/1: ■ ■ ■ Set the description.240 209.255.200. Step 3.250 — 209. Highlight Internet Protocol (TCP/IP). Issue the no shutdown command.200.246 209.240 209.255.200.200. and name it Documentation_Lab11-6.255.200.165.255.246 209. and choose Properties.248 255.240 — 209. right-click.248 209. Highlight the Local Area Connection device icon.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 355 Table 11-36 IP Address Information Device Subnet IP Address Mask Gateway Router1 -FA0/0 Host1 Router1 -FA0/1 Host2 Host2 Switch Step 2.200.165.

356 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Specify the command you use to save the configuration in NVRAM: copy run start Specify the command you use to display the contents of RAM: show running-configuration Save the output of the configuration to your document named Documentation_Lab11-6. Configure Switch1 interface Fa0/1: ■ Set the description. Configuration tasks for Switch1 are as follows: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Specify the switch name: Switch1 Specify an encrypted privileged EXEC password: cisco Specify a console access password: class Specify a Telnet access password: class Configure the MOTD banner. Corrective action must be taken if a failure occurs. choose Start > Control Panel > Windows Firewall. Take corrective action to establish connectivity if a test fails. click OFF. Copy the output of the show interface fa0/0 and show interface fa0/1 commands into your document named Documentation_Lab11-6. and click OK. Step 4. Press Enter until you receive a response. ■ Configure Switch1 interface Fa0/3: ■ Set the description. Copy the output of the show ip interface brief command to your document named Documentation_Lab11-6. Task 4: Verify Network Connectivity Step 1. It is very important that connectivity exist throughout the network. Copy the output of the show mac address-table command to your document named Documentation_Lab11-6. Use Table 11-37 to methodically verify connectivity with each network device. To disable a Windows firewall. Network connectivity can be verified with the ping command. temporarily disable the computer firewall. Specify the command you use to display the contents of RAM: show running-configuration Copy the output of the configuration to your document named Documentation_Lab11-6. Move the console cable from Router1 to Switch1. Note: If pings to host computers fail. and retest. Configure Switch1. ■ Configure Switch1 interface Fa0/2: ■ Set the description. Use the ping command to verify network connectivity. .

265.265. Fa0/1 Host2 Host3 LocalHost (127.200.200.241 209. and command output was copied into tables. and Host1.1) NIC IP address Host2 Gateway (Router1.242 209.200.200.250 209.1 209. Host2.1 209. That is.265. and Host3. it would seem that there is nothing left to do.242 127.246 209.0.265.0.0.0.200.265.200.265.0.0. LocalHost (127.265.165. . In addition to connectivity testing.200.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 357 Table 11-37 Connectivity Testing From To IP Address Ping Result Host1 Host1 Host1 Host1 Host1 Host1 Host2 Host2 Host2 Host2 Host2 Host2 Host3 Host3 Host3 Host3 Host3 Host3 Step 2. From Host3. The network was physically and logically configured and verified.200.265.250 209.265.200.0.0. From Host1. Record the results in your document named Documentation_Lab11-6.200. Fa0/0 Host1 LocalHost (127.200. Results can be used to justify equipment upgrades or new purchases. Fa0/1) Router1. Task 5: Document the Network With all the work performed so far. issue the tracert command to Host3.165. From Host2. issue the tracert command to Host2.200.1) NIC IP Address Gateway (Router1. Record the results in your document named Documentation_Lab11-6.0.243 209.265.249 127.200.241 209.0. the tracert command may be used as a crude throughput tester for network baselining. Router1.1 209. and Host1.200.165.246 209. with minimal traffic. Fa0/1) Router1.241 209.0. Fa0/0 Host1 127.246126 209.249 Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Use the tracert command to verify local connectivity.265. Router1.1) NIC IP Address Host3 Gateway (Router1. issue the tracert command to Router1.249 209.0. Fa0/0 Router1.265.200. Record the results in your document named Documentation_Lab11-6. tracert results can be compared against periods of high traffic.250 209.

Note to Instructor: You could introduce problems into the network by changing IP addresses. If the solution fixed the problem.) Be sure to include the following information: ■ ■ A copy of the physical topology A copy of the logical topology Prepare your documentation in a professional format. Look for green link lights on Switch1. Answers will vary . Task 6: Reflection Review any physical or logical configuration problems you encountered during this lab. As you organize. or cables. think about what might be needed six months or a year from now.358 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide The last step in network documentation is to organize your output. perhaps in a cover letter: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ When was the network created? When was the network documented? Were any significant challenges overcome? Who performed the configuration? (Talent like this needs to be tracked. Problems can be either physical (cables moved on the switch) or logical (the wrong IP address or gateway). Perform a good visual inspection. Ensure that you understand the procedures used to verify network connectivity. default gateways. subnet masks. document the solution. For example. and submit it to your instructor. Use your network documentation to troubleshoot and remedy the problems. Use your network documentation to make sure your configurations are correct: Answers will vary Write down your proposed solution(s): Answers will vary Test your solution. answer the following questions in the documentation. If the solution did not fix the problem. continue troubleshooting. Task 7: Challenge Ask your instructor or another student to introduce one or two problems in your network when you aren’t looking or are out of the lab room.) Who wrote the documentation? (Talent like this needs to be tracked.

restore host computer network connectivity.255. remove the NVRAM configuration file from each device using the privileged EXEC command erase startup-config.255.165. Carefully remove the cables.165.4 service timestamps debug datetime msec service timestamps log datetime msec no service password-encryption ! hostname Router1 ! boot-start-marker boot-end-marker ! enable secret 5 $1$sqIx$iKGfkjNa6IlaBVnPnGrVR0 ! no aaa new-model ip cef ! interface FastEthernet0/0 description connection to Host1 ip address 209. and leave the room ready for the next class.246 255. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. Instructors may find the following configuration examples helpful.200. then turn off power to the host computers.255. Example Router 1 Configuration Router1 Configuration Current configuration : 1138 bytes ! version 12.255.200. and return them neatly to their storage. Before turning off power to the router and switch.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 359 Task 8: Clean Up Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. Reconnect cables that were disconnected for this lab.248 duplex auto speed auto .250 255.252 duplex auto speed auto ! interface FastEthernet0/1 description connection to Switch1 ip address 209.

530c.530c.cdee (bia 001b.cdee) Description: connection to Host1 . line protocol is up Hardware is Gt96k FE. address is 001b.360 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example ! Router 1 Configuration continued interface Serial0/1/0 no ip address shutdown no fair-queue ! interface Serial0/1/1 no ip address shutdown clock rate 2000000 ! interface Vlan1 no ip address ! ip http server no ip http secure-server ! control-plane ! banner motd ^C **** ABC network device **** **** Authorized access only **** **** Logging is enabled ***** ^C ! line con 0 password class login line aux 0 line vty 0 4 password class login ! scheduler allocate 20000 1000 end Example Router 1 Interface Fa0/0 Configuration Router1# show interface fa0/0 Router1#sh int fa0/0 FastEthernet0/0 is up.

0 no carrier 0 output buffer failures. DLY 100 usec.cdef (bia 001b.165. reliability 255/255.530c. 8915 bytes Received 44 broadcasts.530c. 0 frame. BW 100000 Kbit. 0 packets/sec 5 minute output rate 0 bits/sec. 0 runts. Total output drops: 0 Queueing strategy: fifo Output queue: 0/40 (size/max) 5 minute input rate 0 bits/sec. 100BaseTX/FX ARP type: ARPA. output 00:00:02. BW 100000 Kbit.246/29 MTU 1500 bytes. 0 underruns 0 output errors. rxload 1/255 Encapsulation ARPA.250/30 MTU 1500 bytes. 0 throttles 0 input errors. 100BaseTX/FX ARP type: ARPA. 0 late collision. ARP Timeout 04:00:00 Last input 00:01:27.cdef) Description: connection to Switch1 Internet address is 209. txload 1/255. Auto Speed.200.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 361 Example Router 1 Interface Fa0/0 Configuration continued Internet address is 209.200. DLY 100 usec. line protocol is up Hardware is Gt96k FE. txload 1/255. 4 interface resets 0 babbles. 0 giants. 100Mb/s. ARP Timeout 04:00:00 Last input never. reliability 255/255.165. 0 overrun. output never. 0 packets/sec 5 minute output rate 0 bits/sec. 0 ignored 0 watchdog 0 input packets with dribble condition detected 277 packets output. 0 packets/sec . 0 packets/sec 54 packets input. output hang never Last clearing of “show interface” counters never Input queue: 0/75/0/0 (size/max/drops/flushes). 0 deferred 0 lost carrier. address is 001b. output hang never Last clearing of “show interface” counters never Input queue: 0/75/0/0 (size/max/drops/flushes). loopback not set Keepalive set (10 sec) Full-duplex. 0 CRC. rxload 1/255 Encapsulation ARPA. 88733 bytes. 0 output buffers swapped out Example Router 1 Interface Fa0/1 Configuration Router1# show interface fa0/1 FastEthernet0/1 is up. Total output drops: 0 Queueing strategy: fifo Output queue: 0/40 (size/max) 5 minute input rate 0 bits/sec. loopback not set Keepalive not set Auto-duplex. 0 collisions.

246 YES manual up unassigned unassigned YES unset YES unset administratively down down administratively down down Example Switch 1 Configuration Building configuration. 0 deferred 0 lost carrier. 14481 bytes. 0 runts. 0 underruns 0 output errors. 0 ignored 0 watchdog 0 input packets with dribble condition detected 91 packets output. Current configuration : 1862 bytesad 1/255 ! version 12. 0 throttles 0 input errors.165. loopback service timestamps debug uptime service timestamps log uptime no service password-encryption ! hostname Switch1 ! enable secret 5 $1$X9tO$93NSNcI66s8ESanQ/o3A60 ! interface FastEthernet0/1 description connection to Router1 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/2 description connection to Host2 no ip address . 0 output buffers swapped out Example Router 1 IP Address Configuration Router1# sh ip int brief Interface FastEthernet0/0 FastEthernet0/1 Serial0/1/0 Serial0/1/1 IP-Address OK? Method Status Protocol up up 209. 1 interface resets 0 babbles.200. 0 overrun.200. 0 CRC.1 no service padARPA.165. 0 giants.250 YES manual up 209. 0 bytes Received 0 broadcasts. 0 no carrier 0 output buffer failures... 0 frame.362 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example Router 1 Interface Fa0/1 Configuration continued 0 packets input. 0 late collision. 0 collisions.

Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 363 Example ! Switch 1 Configuration continued interface FastEthernet0/3 description connection to Host3 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/4 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/5 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/6 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/7 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/8 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/9 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/10 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/11 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/12 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/13 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/14 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/15 no ip address ! .

364 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example Switch 1 Configuration continued interface FastEthernet0/16 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/17 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/18 no ip address ! Interface FastEthernet0/19 no ip address ! Interface FastEthernet0/20 no ip address ! Interface FastEthernet0/21 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/22 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/23 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/24 no ip address ! interface GigabitEthernet0/1 no ip address !s interface GigabitEthernet0/2 no ip address ! ip http server ! banner motd ^C **** ABC network device **** **** Authorized access only **** **** Logging is enabled ***** .

cdef Type -------STATIC STATIC STATIC STATIC DYNAMIC DYNAMIC DYNAMIC Ports ----CPU CPU CPU CPU Fa0/3 Fa0/2 Fa0/1 Total Mac Addresses for this criterion: 7 Switch1# Example Traceroute Results Host1 C:\> tracert 209.0cdd.165.165.0ccc.165.165.200.241 over a maximum of 30 hops 1 2 <1 ms 1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms 209.165.241 Trace complete. C:\> .200.165.242 Tracing route to 209.241 Tracing route to 209.250 209. C:\> tracert 209.200.165.8bb4.76ac.6cc0 0100.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 365 Example Switch 1 MAC Address Table Mac Address Table ------------------------------------------Vlan ---All All All All 1 1 1 Mac Address ----------000f.0ccc.f79f. C:\> tracert 209.200.165.165.242 Trace complete.cccd 0100.250 Trace complete.200.242 over a maximum of 30 hops 1 2 <1 ms 1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms 209.dddd 0016.a76a 0018.250 over a maximum of 30 hops 1 <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms 209.3c3a 001b.cccc 0100.250 Tracing route to 209.530c.200.165.200.200.200.200.250 209.165.200.

1. and explain the segment fields.1.com. Before executing a network protocol analyzer on a network that belongs to someone else. and install Wireshark on your computer if it is not already installed: ■ ■ ■ eagle1_web_client.1. PC_Client. Understanding the process involved in sequentially placing packets on the network will help you logically troubleshoot network failures when connectivity breaks. The contents of an Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) Request and ARP Reply. Background This lab requires two captured packet files and Wireshark.example.pcap (discussed) eagle1_web_server. a network protocol analyzer.2.366 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Lab 11-7: Case Study: Datagram Analysis with Wireshark (11. be sure to get permission in writing.254/24 LAN: MAC Address: 00:0c:29:63:17:a5 IP Address: 10.251/24 R1 LAN: MAC Address: 00:0c:85:cf:66:40 IP Address: 10.1/24 LAN: MAC Address: 00:0c:85:cf:66:41 IP Address: 10. and explain the frame fields.1.2. network packet noise has been omitted from the captures.2.5.exe Scenario This exercise details the sequence of datagrams that are created and sent across a network between a web client.1. you will be able to demonstrate ■ ■ ■ ■ How a TCP segment is constructed.250/24 DNS Server . eagle1.pcap (reference only) wireshark.2.1) Upon completion of this exercise. How an Ethernet II frame is constructed.255/24 Server S1 LAN: MAC Address: 00:0f:f7:9f:6c:c9 IP Address: 10. and explain the packet fields.6. How an IP packet is constructed.1. For brevity and clarity. Figure 11-20 Topology for Lab 11-7 Client LAN: MAC Address: 00:02:3f:7e:37:da IP Address: 10. Download the following files from Eagle Server. and a web server. Figure 11-20 shows the topology for this lab.

. . . . . . Start Wireshark on your computer. : 00:02:3f:7e:37:da Dhcp Enabled.0 Default Gateway . To ensure that there is no automatic translation in MAC addresses. .1. : No IP Address. .1. . . . . . .255.1.1. : Description . : Intel(R) PRO/1000 MT Network Connection Physical Address. . . Refer to Figure 11-22 for changes to the default output. . . . . .com is entered. uncheck Name Resolution for MAC Layer and Transport Layer.254 DNS Servers . . . .1 Subnet Mask . . . . . and it’s where the captured packets start. : 255. . . . . .Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 367 Using Microsoft command-line tools. Figure 11-21 PC Client with Web Browser Task 1: Prepare the Lab Step 1. . . . . . . . . . .255. . : 10. . Refer to Example 11-20. Uncheck Main Toolbar. Verify that Packet List and Packet Details are checked. . . . . . . as shown in Figure 11-21. . : 10. . .example. . . : 10. and Packet Bytes. .250 C: > arp -a No ARP Entries Found C: > A web client is started. . . Example 11-20 PC Client Initial Network State C: > ipconfig / all Windows IP Configuration Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection: Connection-specific DNS Suffix . . . . . Filter Toolbar. This begins the communication process to the web server. . you can display IP configuration information and the contents of the ARP cache.1. . . .1. and the URL eagle1. .

com. eagle1_web_client. the transport layer protocol is TCP. Load the web client capture. so it must be discovered using other network protocols. A screen similar to Figure 11-23 appears. At each layer. each line that contains a plus sign next to it indicates that additional information is available. There are also two separate data windows. Because this communication is from a web client.368 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 11-22 Wireshark Default View Changes Step 2.example. When PC_Client builds the datagram for a connection with eagle1. In the bottom window. a sequence number has been internally generated. Figure 11-23 Wireshark with eagle1_web_client. provided by the application layer. The top Wireshark window lists all captured packets. . Review transport layer operation. PC_Client generates an internal TCP port address—in this conversation. the datagram travels down the various network layers. Various pull-down menus and submenus are available. Some information is unknown to PC_Client.pcap. important header information is added. The bottom window contains packet details.pcap Task 2: Review the Process of Data Flowing Through the Network Step 1. Likewise. 80. Consider the TCP segment shown in Figure 11-24. Data is included. 1085—and knows the well-known web server port address.

At the network layer. Figure 11-25 IP Packet Fields IP Packet 0 Version 4 IHL Identification TTL Protocol Source IP Address Destination IP Address Data 8 10 TOS Flags 16 Total Length Fragment Offset Header Checksum 31 The destination for this packet is eagle1.com. as well as the source IP address. Figure 11-26 Ethernet II Frame Fields Ethernet II Frame Format Source Frame Address Type 2 Octets Preamble Destination Address Data CRC 8 Octets 6 Octets 6 Octets 46–1500 Octets 4 Octets . fields related to the upper-layer protocols are empty.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 369 Figure 11-24 TCP Segment Field TCP Segment 0 4 7 Source Port Sequence Number Acknowledgment Number Data Offset Reserved ECN Checksum Options and Padding Data Control Bits Window Urgent Pointer 10 16 Destination Port 31 There is no acknowledgment number. Step 2. the packet version (IPv4) is known. as shown in Figure 11-25. Before the datagram is placed on the physical medium. Step 3. the TCP three-way handshake must be performed. it must be encapsulated inside a frame. Review network layer operation. as shown in Figure 11-26. Review data link layer operation. For example. the IPv4 (IP) packet has several fields ready with information. PC_Client knows the source MAC address. Before this segment can move to the network layer. but it must discover the destination MAC address. Until the upper-layer datagram is received. The corresponding IP address must be discovered through Domain Name System (DNS).example.

1.com is unknown. and the destination address for an ARP Reply is a unicast address. The DNS server sent an ARP Reply. You can view the contents of the ARP Request by clicking the ARP Request line in the Packet Details window.example. the source MAC address of the request is stored in the receiver’s ARP cache. because the MAC address for the DNS server is unknown. Examine the ARP request. 2. what can you infer about an ARP Request destination address and an ARP Reply destination address? The destination address for an ARP Request is a broadcast address.com. What is the source MAC address for the ARP Request? 00:02:31:7e:73:da What is the destination MAC address for the ARP Request? ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff What is the unknown IP address in the ARP Request? 10.1 Based on the observation of the ARP protocol.250 What is the Ethernet II frame type? 0x0806 (ARP) Step 3.1. You can view the contents of the Ethernet II frame by clicking the checkbox in the second line of the Packet Details window.1. This is resolved with a DNS request from PC_Client to the DNS server.example. The DNS server cannot be queried. Refer to Wireshark’s Packet List window. No. A review of missing information will be helpful in following the captured packet sequence: ■ The TCP segment cannot be constructed because the acknowledgment field is blank. ■ ■ ■ Step 2.370 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 3: Analyze Captured Packets Step 1. The MAC address for eagle1.com. No. The TCP three-way handshake cannot occur. Why didn’t the DNS server have to send an ARP Request for the PC_Client MAC address? When an ARP Request is received. The ARP protocol is broadcast on the LAN to discover the MAC address for the DNS server. What is the source MAC address for the ARP Reply? 00:0c:29:63:17:a5 What is the destination MAC address for the ARP Request? 00:02:31:7e:73:da What is the Ethernet II frame type? 0x0806 (ARP) What is the destination IP address in the ARP Reply? 10. because PC_Client does not know the IP address for eagle1. . 1. Refer to Wireshark’s Packet List window.example. The captured frame is an ARP Request. A TCP three-way handshake with eagle1. Examine the ARP reply.1. Review the data flow sequence. The ARP protocol is broadcast on the LAN to learn the destination MAC address for eagle1.example.com must first be completed.

eagle1. port 53 Step 5. Refer to Wireshark’s Packet List window.example. 5 and No. PC_Client sent an ARP Request to IP address 10. Examine the DNS query.com? 10. These captures contain the TCP three-way handshake between PC_Client and eagle1. This means that the TCP acknowledgment number sent is for the expected sequence number of the next packet.0/24. Refer to Wireshark’s Packet List window. Using the Packet Details window. why did eagle1.251 is on a different network than 10. Using the Packet Details window.1. Examine the ARP Request. Because 10.1. and 9. along with an acknowledgment of 1 and a sequence of 0. Examine the DNS query response.2. No. No. only the TCP SYN flag is set on the datagram sent from PC_Client. When a TCP segment is transported over IPv4. In the Packet List window is an unexplained value. 6. If the initial TCP sequence value from PC_Client is 0.254. MSS=1460.example. Is this IP address different from the IP address for eagle1.com responds with the TCP ACK and SYN flags set.2. MSS stands for maximum segment size.example. 4.com? Explain. answer the following questions: What is the Ethernet II frame type? 0x0800 (IP) What is the transport layer protocol. PC_Client must have the ARP address to the Gateway. What is your response? DNS uses UDP for name translation. answer the following questions: What is the Ethernet II frame type? 0x0800 (IP) What is the transport layer protocol. and what is the destination port number? UDP. PC_Client sent a DNS query to the DNS server. This value is sent during connection startup. This is also when TCP sliding windows are negotiated. Step 6.com. and what is the destination port number? UDP. Refer to Wireshark’s Packet List window.251 One of your colleagues.2. port 1043 What is the IP address for eagle1.1. . a firewall administrator. No. A better approach would be to employ a stateful packet filter and create rules that permit established and related traffic through the firewall. MSS is computed to be the maximum size of an IPv4 datagram minus 40 bytes. Step 7. asks you if you can think of any reason why all UDP packets should not be blocked from entering the internal network. sequence number 0. Examine the TCP three-way handshake.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 371 Step 4. The ARP Reply was from the Gateway. 8.example respond with an acknowledgment of 1? TCP employs expectational acknowledgments. If all UDP packets were dropped at the firewall. Initially. No.example. employees could not translate names to IP addresses.2. 7. The DNS server sent a DNS query response to PC_Client. Yes.1. 3. Refer to Wireshark’s Packet List window.

. . . No. . . .com.com must first be completed. . the ARP response from the DNS server ■ ■ . . .com The TCP three-way handshake cannot occur because PC_Client does not know the IP address for eagle1.example. . . .372 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide In eagle1.example. 2. . . what TCP flag states are returned to eagle1. It has taken a total of nine datagrams sent between PC_Client. More fragments (not set) When PC_Client completes the TCP three-way handshake. Gateway. and eagle1.0. Match the Wireshark output to the process. 4. . the DNS query response The DNS server cannot be queried because the MAC address for the DNS server is unknown. Wireshark’s Packet List. .0.0. the TCP ACK response to eagle1. 10.example. DNS server.0 Congestion Window Reduced ECN Echo Urgent ACK PSH SYN FIN Task 4: Complete the Final Analysis Step 1. . . . Reserved (not set) 1 . No. what does the IP flag value of 0x04 mean? IP flag values: 8421 0 . . . Table 11-38 TCP Flag States Bit Position Flag 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0. . . where PC_Client sent a web protocol GET request.com before PC_Client has sufficient information to send the original web client request to eagle1. A TCP three-way handshake with eagle1. .0. .com? Table 11-38 shows the TCP flag states.example. Fill in the correct Wireshark Packet List window number that satisfies each of the following missing entries: ■ The TCP segment cannot be constructed because the acknowledgment field is blank. . .example.1. .example.com. Don’t fragment (set) 0 . . No. . The ARP protocol is broadcast on the LAN to discover the MAC address for the DNS server. . 9. . No. 8. 9. This is resolved with a DNS request from PC_Client to the DNS server. No. . . . . . No. . This is shown in Wireshark’s Packet List.com. .example.

Analyzing packet contents can be a daunting experience—time-consuming and errorprone. The ARP protocol is broadcast on the LAN to learn the destination MAC address for the gateway. Wireshark Packet List No. A protocol analyzer shows unsuccessful ARP requests. The ACK datagram for Wireshark Packet List No. first select a TCP datagram from the Wireshark Packet List.example. and expand the [SEQ/ACK analysis] frame. . A window similar to the one shown in Figure 11-27 appears.com to the PC_Client GET request. 11 is an acknowledgment from eagle1.example. When PC_Client is finished. Next. 13 The Wireshark Packet List No. the ARP response from the Gateway Wireshark Packet List No. To verify the ACK. as shown in Wireshark Packet List No.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 373 ■ The MAC address for the gateway to reach eagle1. 10. there could be multiple causes. 14 and 16 are ACK datagrams from PC_Client. 18.com. No. Figure 11-27 Output of TCP Stream Task 5: Conclusion Using a network protocol analyzer can be an effective learning tool for understanding critical elements of network communication. For example. if a web browser could not connect to a web server.com responds with a TCP ACK. Step 2. 17 datagram is sent from PC_Client to eagle1. To use this feature.example. Review the information in the [SEQ/ACK analysis] frame. As soon as the network administrator is familiar with communication protocols.example. Wireshark Packet List No.example. and the TCP session is closed. Wireshark includes an option that constructs the TCP stream in a separate window. the same protocol analyzer can become an effective troubleshooting tool when the network fails. Use the Wireshark TCP stream. Wireshark Packet List No. TCP ACK and FIN flags are sent. 6. and unacknowledged packets. scroll down to the bottom of the Detail List window. Next. and 15 are TCP segments from eagle1.example.com? No. highlight Wireshark Packet List No. from Wireshark.com is unknown. What is the purpose of this datagram? This datagram is a TCP window update to expand the window size. eagle1.com. choose Analyze > Follow TCP Stream. 13. 12. unsuccessful DNS queries. 14 is a response to which datagram from eagle1. 14.

Packet Tracer Challenge Skills Integration Challenge: Configuring and Analyzing Networks (11. with the client issuing a TCP FIN flag.1. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ Build. test.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to perform this exercise using Packet Tracer. HDLC) Background Throughout this course. Ethernet. Finally. although some are quite easy) in less than 30 minutes. Ethernet. ARP. IP.3) Open file LSG01-PTSkills11. ICMP. UDP.6. HTTP. Behind-the-scenes protocols such as DNS and ARP are used to fill in missing parts of IP packets and Ethernet frames. building. Integrate skills from throughout the course. Here is an opportunity to test yourself. Before a TCP session can begin. IP. Analyze the events involved in ■ ■ Requesting a web page (DNS.374 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 6: Summary In this exercise you have learned how a web client and web server communicate. and configure the entire lab network. Figure 11-28 Skills Integration Lab Topology 1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server 2960-24TT S1-Central 1841 R2-Central PC-PT 1A PC-PT 1B . You have also developed a conceptual understanding of networking protocols and device algorithms. Upon completion of this activity. the TCP three-way handshake must build a reliable path and supply both communicating ends with initial TCP header information. HDLC) Tracing the route to the web server (DNS. TCP. and testing skills. the TCP session is destroyed in an orderly manner. respectively. configuring. ARP. you have been developing network planning. See if you can complete this entire challenge (approximately 100 configurable components. Figure 11-28 shows the topology for this lab.

For R2-Central’s Fa0/0 interface. and connect it to the Fa0/24 interface on S1-Central. . existing student LAN.168. For R1-ISP’s S0/0/0 interface. For R2-Central’s S0/0/0 interface. configure the highest usable address on the existing WAN subnet.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 375 Task 1: Plan Use the standard Exploration lab topology as you plan your IP addressing scheme: ■ Two 1841 routers with WIC-2T interface cards. Subnet assignments: ■ First subnet. For R1-ISP’s Fa0/0 interface.3. use the lowest usable address on the existing WAN subnet. future student LAN. all strings (names. connected to Fa0/24 on S1-Central) Second subnet. In general. use the highest usable address on the existing student LAN subnet. existing ISP LAN. configure the second-highest usable IP address on the ISP LAN subnet. use the second-highest usable address on the student subnet. use the first two IP addresses (the two lowest usable addresses) on the existing student LAN subnet. future ISP LAN. You must provide for existing networks as well as future growth. up to seven hosts (not yet implemented) Fifth subnet. configure the highest usable IP address on the ISP LAN subnet. ■ ■ ■ ■ Use Table 11-39 to record your address information. For the switch management interface. existing WAN. up to 28 hosts (Fa0/0 on R2-Central. up to 14 hosts (Fa0/0 on R1-ISP) Fourth subnet. You have been given an IP address block of 192. and one named R2-Central. and connect them to the Fa0/1 and Fa0/2 interfaces on S1Central. which has a serial DCE WAN connection to R2-Central and an Fa0/0 LAN connection to Eagle_Server. installed in the slot on the right—one named R1-ISP. up to 28 hosts (not yet implemented) Third subnet. point-to-point link (S0/0/0 on R1-ISP and S0/0/0 on R2-Central) ■ ■ ■ ■ IP address assignments: ■ ■ ■ For the server.0 /24. passwords. banners) should be entered exactly as specified in these instructions for the grading to work properly. For hosts 1A and 1B. which has a serial DCE WAN connection to R1ISP and an Fa0/0 LAN connection to S1-Central One 2960TT switch (S1-Central) Two PCs named 1A and 1B A server named Eagle_Server ■ ■ ■ Note that both the display names and hostnames for all devices must be configured exactly.

78 192. and management interface (int vlan1).3.97 192.255. Whenever you configure a Cisco IOS device. The banners should say **This is lab router R1ISP. be sure to save your configuration. banner).168. passwords. console.168.252 255.example.30 192. For Hosts 1A and 1B. use the domain name eagle-server.255. Whenever you configure a Cisco IOS device.168. For the server.255.3. console.168. Note to Instructor: You might want to introduce students to the concepts of static routes and discuss the command syntax and default routes. On the switch.376 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 11-39 Addressing Table Device Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP Fa0/0 S0/0/0 192.255. If you want more practice. login passwords for access (enable.77 255.168.** and **This is lab router R2-Central.255.3.255. and enable HTTP services.224 255. The router configuration must include “housekeeping” (display name.255.2 192.255.240 — — 192. banner (**This is lab switch S1-Central. As you work.168. and the two PCs. Students need to understand these concepts to successfully complete this lab. Authorized access only.** The interfaces should be configured as specified in Table 11-39.30 192.98 192. hostname.30 192.224 255. in addition to IP configuration.168.3. use a clock rate of 64000 on the R1ISP S0/0/0 interface. Authorized access only. You can use the CLI help function to determine the command syntax.255.3.168. The static route on R1-ISP should point to the existing Student LAN subnet via R2-Central’s serial interface IP address.255.**).3.168. Hint: To configure static routes.3.3.255.224 255.3. The static route on R2-Central should be a default static route that points via R1-ISP’s serial interface IP address.252 255.168. configure the display name. hostname. interfaces (FastEthernet and serial). and Telnet.98 192. default route on R2-Central). taking care to make connections as specified. Configure both routers.3. and Telnet passwords all set to cisco).255.3. the server.168.255.240 255. and routing (static route on R1-ISP. Authorized access only.3.78 R2-Central Fa0/0 S0/0/0 PC-1A PC-1B Eagle-Server NIC NIC NIC Task 2: Build and Configure the Network Build the network. be sure to save your configuration. use ip route global configuration mode. configure them to use DNS services. enable DNS services. use “Reset Activity” and retime yourself doing the entire configuration again. use “Check Results” to see what components still need to be configured. .168.98 192. The following login passwords should all be set to cisco: enable.255. Configure the routers using the CLI to practice your skills.1 192. the switch.com.

Also note the algorithms used by hosts. Your skills at modeling networks in Packet Tracer will serve you well in subsequent courses. UDP. especially how IP is involved in everything. make sure you have saved your configurations on the Cisco IOS devices. also in simulation mode. issue a traceroute to the server from one of the PCs. Examine the packets as they are processed by the devices to study protocol behavior. Power-cycle the devices to clear the network again and. and to examine routing tables. . Explain the entire process to a peer. As soon as you are convinced that your network is working. ARP. switches. TCP.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 377 Task 3: Test and Analyze It is good practice to test connectivity through ping and Telnet. and routers. Telnet. HTTP. ICMP. request a web page while making the following protocols visible in the event list: DNS. Then power-cycle the devices and reset the network. Task 4: Reflection Relate the processes observed in Task 3 to the TCP/IP Protocol Graph. Again explain the entire process to a peer. In simulation mode. Examine how the trace is built from ICMP echo requests.

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