Network Fundamentals

,
CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide Instructor Edition
Antoon W. Rufi Priscilla Oppenheimer Belle Woodward Gerlinde Brady

Cisco Press
800 East 96th Street Indianapolis, Indiana 46240 USA

ii

Network Fundamentals, CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide

Network Fundamentals, CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide
Instructor Edition Antoon W. Rufi, Priscilla Oppenheimer, Belle Woodward, and Gerlinde Brady
Copyright© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. Published by: Cisco Press 800 East 96th Street Indianapolis, IN 46240 USA All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without written permission from the publisher, except for the inclusion of brief quotations in a review. Printed in the United States of America First Release January 2008 ISBN-10: 1-58705-583-X ISBN-13: 978-1-58705-583-6

Publisher Paul Boger Associate Publisher Dave Dusthimer Cisco Representative Anthony Wolfenden Cisco Press Program Manager Jeff Brady Executive Editor Mary Beth Ray Production Manager Patrick Kanouse Development Editor Dayna Isley Project Editors Patrick Kanouse Jennifer Gallant Copy Editors Gayle Johnson Keith Cline Technical Editors Cindy G. Layman Michael Duane Taylor Tony Chen Editorial Assistant Vanessa Evans Book and Cover Designer Louisa Adair Composition Mark Shirar Proofreader Leslie Joseph

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Warning and Disclaimer
This book is designed to provide information about the Network Fundamentals course of the Cisco Network Academy CCNA Exploration curriculum. Every effort has been made to make this book as complete and as accurate as possible, but no warranty or fitness is implied. The information is provided on an “as is” basis. The authors, Cisco Press, and Cisco Systems, Inc. shall have neither liability nor responsibility to any person or entity with respect to any loss or damages arising from the information contained in this book or from the use of the discs or programs that may accompany it. The opinions expressed in this book belong to the author and are not necessarily those of Cisco Systems, Inc.

Trademark Acknowledgments
All terms mentioned in this book that are known to be trademarks or service marks have been appropriately capitalized. Cisco Press or Cisco Systems, Inc. cannot attest to the accuracy of this information. Use of a term in this book should not be regarded as affecting the validity of any trademark or service mark.

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Network Fundamentals, CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide

About the Authors
Antoon “Tony” W. Rufi currently is the associate dean of computer and information science for all the ECPI College of Technology campuses. He also teaches the Cisco Networking Academy CCNA, CCNP, Network Security, Fundamentals of Wireless LAN, and IP Telephony curricula. Before becoming an instructor for ECPI, he spent almost 30 years in the U.S. Air Force, working on numerous electronic projects and computer programs. Tony has a master’s degree in information science from the University of Maryland and a bachelor’s degree in industrial technology from Southern Illinois University. Priscilla Oppenheimer is an author and network consultant with more than 25 years of experience in the computer industry. Priscilla has a master’s degree in information science from the University of Michigan and has worked at such big-name companies as Apple Computer and Cisco Systems. She currently teaches at Southern Oregon University and provides network consulting to companies in her hometown of Ashland, Oregon, and elsewhere. Belle Woodward, CCNA, CCAI, CCNP, is an assistant professor in the School of Information Systems and Applied Technologies in the College of Applied Sciences and Arts at Southern Illinois University (SIU) in Carbondale, Illinois. She has more than nine years experience in the networking and network security field. Belle teaches network security, advanced networking, and telecommunications. After redesigning the networking and network security undergraduate curriculum, her students took first place at the 2006 Regional Midwestern Collegiate Cyber Defense Competition (CCDC) and fourth place at the national CCDC. In addition to publishing several journal articles in the network security discipline, Belle has also contributed several chapters included in published network security and networking books. Gerlinde Brady has been teaching Cisco CCNA and CCNP courses at Cabrillo College, a Cisco Regional Networking Academy, since 1999. She holds a master’s degree in education from the University of Hannover, Germany, and a master’s degree in translation (English/German) from the Monterey Institute of International Studies. Her IT industry experience includes LAN design, network administration, technical support, and training.

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About the Technical Reviewers
Cindy G. Layman has been an instructor at Itawamba Community College in Tupelo, Mississippi, for more than 10 years. She has been teaching programming, computer servicing, and networking courses, including the full CCNA curriculum in the Cisco Networking Academy. Cindy has a bachelor of science degree in mathematics and a bachelor of science degree in computer science, both from Mississippi State University. Before teaching at ICC, she was a programmer analyst for nine years. Michael Duane Taylor is department head of computer information sciences at the Raleigh Campus of ECPI College of Technology. He has more than seven years of experience teaching introductory networking and CCNA-level curriculum and was awarded the Instructor of the Year Award. Previously, Michael was a lab supervisor with Global Knowledge working with router hardware configuration and repair. He holds a bachelor’s degree in business administration from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and a master of science degree in industrial technology/computer network management from East Carolina University. His certifications include CCNA, CCNP-router, and MCSE.

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Network Fundamentals, CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide

Dedications
I would like to dedicate this book to my wife, Linda, who is instrumental in getting me to apply myself. Always supportive, she has been the catalyst that has kept me going. —Tony Rufi This book is dedicated to my hard-working students who have inspired me to be a better teacher. — Priscilla Oppenheimer This book is dedicated to my husband, Jeff, and son, Alan, whose tireless support helped see me through another project. —Belle Woodward To my wonderful husband, Paddy, and my daughters Fiona, Teresita, and Ejay, who let me take time away from them to be a part of this project. —Gerlinde Brady

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Acknowledgments
From Tony Rufi: I’d like to give special recognition to Mike Taylor for his diligent approach to tech editing. He has provided a tremendous amount of input to get the technical aspects of this endeavor correct. I have enjoyed working with him. I also want to thank Mary Beth Ray; she has been instrumental in allowing me to pursue the dream of authoring a book. A special thank you to ECPI College of Technology, specifically President Mark Dreyfus, Vice President of Academic Affairs John Olson, and Director of Operations Barbara Larar. Without their support, I would not have been able to write this book. From Priscilla Oppenheimer: I’d like to thank Cisco Press for giving me the opportunity to work on this project. I especially want to thank Mary Beth Ray and Dayna Isley for turning this complex project into a success. Thanks also go to our technical reviewers for their persistence and attention to detail. Finally, I’d like to thank the Cisco Networking Academy for developing courses that inspire students to do amazing things with networks. From Belle Woodward: It has been a great pleasure to be part of such an outstanding group of professionals, and to these people and everyone on the team I extend my heartfelt thanks. Dayna Isley, thanks for all your help and patience. Cindy and Michael, thanks for providing your expert technical knowledge in editing the book. I want to give special recognition to Susanne Ashby, a great friend, who has always been willing to read and edit my work. From Gerlinde Brady: I would like to thank Dayna Isley and Mary Beth Ray for their unending patience. A special thanks goes to the technical editors, Cindy Layman, Mike Taylor, and Tony Chen, for their diligence and expertise.

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Network Fundamentals, CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide

Contents at a Glance
Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Chapter 10 Chapter 11 Living in a Network-Centric World Communicating over the Network 1 33 63

Application Layer Functionality and Protocols OSI Transport Layer OSI Network Layer 91 125 151

Addressing the Network: IPv4 OSI Data Link Layer OSI Physical Layer Ethernet 231 199 217

Planning and Cabling Networks

263 297

Configuring and Testing Your Network

4) 11 11 11 Task 3: Navigate the Google Earth Interface Task 5: Challenge 13 Activity 1-2: Identifying Top Security Vulnerabilities (1.ix Contents Chapter 1 Living in a Network-Centric World Concept Questions 1 2 2 1 1 Communicating in a Network-Centric World Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Concept Questions 2 3 Communication: An Essential Part of Our Lives The Network as a Platform Vocabulary Exercise: Define Vocabulary Exercise: Identify 3 3 4 4 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Concept Questions 5 The Architecture of the Internet 5 Vocabulary Exercise: Define Concept Questions 6 5 7 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Trends in Networking 8 Multiple-Choice Questions Task 1: Install Google Earth Task 2: Run Google Earth Task 4: Reflection Task 6: Clean Up 13 13 8 10 Activity 1-1: Using Google Earth to View the World (1.1) 16 Task 1: Configure the Chat Client Task 2: Connect to the Chat Server Task 3: Consider the Chat Session Task 4: Reflection Task 6: Clean Up 21 22 Task 5: Challenge 22 19 20 21 .1.1.5.6.3) 13 Task 1: Locate the SANS Resources Task 2: Review the SANS Resources Task 3: Collect Data Task 4: Reflection 15 16 14 15 Task 5: Challenge 16 Lab 1-1: Using Collaboration Tools: IRC and IM (1.1.4.

1) 42 Task 1: Create a Peer-to-Peer Network Task 3: Cable the Peer-to-Peer Network Task 5: Reflection 48 43 43 47 43 Task 2: Identify the Cables Used in a Network Task 4: Connect Your Workstations to the Classroom Lab Switch Packet Tracer Companion: Topology Orientation and Building a Small Network (2. WANs.1) 39 Task 1: Trace Route to Remote Server Task 2: Trace Route Using NeoTrace Task 3: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 41 41 Task 4: Challenge 41 40 41 Lab 2-1: Topology Orientation and Building a Small Network (2.1.x Network Fundamentals. and Internetworks Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Protocols 36 34 35 36 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Concept Questions Using Layered Models 36 37 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Network Addressing 38 37 38 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Multiple-Choice Questions 38 Activity 2-1: Using NeoTrace to View Internetworks (2.2.2.1.2) 48 .1.6. CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide Lab 1-2: Using Collaboration Tools: Wikis and Web Logs (1.6.3) 28 Task 1: Explore the PT Interface Task 2: Explore PT Operations Task 4: Reflection Chapter 2 32 30 30 32 Task 3: Review the Standard Lab Setup Communicating over the Network The Platform for Communications 33 33 Concept Questions 33 34 34 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching LANs.1) 22 Task 1: Define the Terms Wiki and Blog Task 3: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 28 28 22 23 Task 2: Explore Wiki Features with the TWiki Tutorial Task 4: Challenge 28 Skills Integration Challenge: Introduction to Packet Tracer (1.5.7.6.

7.1) 49 Task 1: Ping PDU Capture 53 Task 2: FTP PDU Capture 56 Task 3: HTTP PDU Capture 58 Task 4: Reflection Task 6: Cleanup 58 59 Task 5: Challenge 58 Packet Tracer Companion: Using Packet Tracer to View Protocol Data Units (2.1) 69 69 70 Task 2: Observe the Properties of the Audio File Lab 3-1: Managing a Web Server (3. Install.4.1.xi Lab 2-2: Using Wireshark to View Protocol Data Units (2.2) 59 Skills Integration Challenge: Examining Packets (2.1) Task 1: Configure the Pod Host Computer for E-mail Service 81 Task 2: Capture and Analyze E-mail Communication Between the Pod Host Computer and an E-mail Server 84 .6.1) 71 Task 1: Download.6.3) 59 Task 1: Complete the Topology 60 61 61 61 Task 2: Add Simple PDUs in Real-Time Mode Task 3: Analyze PDUs in Simulation Mode (Packet Tracing) Task 4: Experiment with the Model of the Standard Lab Setup Task 5: Reflection CHapter 3 61 63 63 Application Layer Functionality and Protocols Applications: The Interface Between the Networks Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Concept Questions 64 64 Making Provisions for Applications and Services 65 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Multiple-Choice Questions 65 65 Application Layer Protocols and Services Examples 66 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Multiple-Choice Questions Task 1: Create a Sound File Task 3: Reflection Task 4: Clean Up 71 71 67 66 66 Activity 3-1: Data Stream Capture (3.3.2.4.4.2.1.2. and Verify the Apache Web Server Task 2: Verify the Default Web Server Configuration File Task 3: Capture and Analyze HTTP Traffic with Wireshark Task 4: Challenge 78 Task 5: Reflection Task 6: Clean Up 78 79 79 73 77 76 Lab 3-2: E-mail Services and Protocols (3.

1) Task 1: Configure the Pod Host Computer to Capture Application Layer Protocols 113 Task 2: Capture and Analyze HTTP Communication Between the Pod Host Computer and a Web Server 114 Task 3: Capture and Analyze FTP Communication Between the Pod Host Computer and a Web Server 116 .1.xii Network Fundamentals.5.3) Task 1: “Repair” and Test the Topology Task 3: Reflection Chapter 4 89 91 91 88 89 Task 2: Explore How DNS and HTTP Work Together OSI Transport Layer Roles of the Transport Layer Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Concept Questions 92 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Port Type Ranges Exercise Concept Questions 93 92 91 92 The TCP Protocol: Communicating with Reliability 92 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Managing TCP Sessions 93 93 Internet Research Exercise Concept Questions 94 93 The UDP Protocol: Communicating with Low Overhead 94 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion 94 95 Lab 4-1: Observing TCP and UDP Using netstat (4.5. TCP and UDP (4. CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide Task 3: Challenge 86 Task 4: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 86 86 87 Skills Integration Challenge: Configuring Hosts and Services (3.1.1) Task 1: Identify TCP Header Fields and Operation Using a Wireshark FTP Session Capture 102 Task 2: Identify UDP Header Fields and Operation Using a Wireshark TFTP Session Capture 108 Task 3: Reflection Task 5: Cleanup 110 111 111 Task 4: Challenge 111 Lab 4-3: Application and Transport Layer Protocols (4.2.5.5.3.1) Task 1: Explain Common netstat Command Parameters and Outputs 96 Task 2: Use netstat to Examine Protocol Information on a Pod Host Computer 98 Task 3: Reflection Task 5: Cleanup 100 100 100 Task 4: Challenge 100 Lab 4-2: TCP/IP Transport Layer Protocols.

2) Lab 5-2: Examining a Route (5.5.1.5.2.3.5.6. HTTP.1) Task 1: Understand and Explain the Purpose of a Gateway Address 132 Task 2: Understand How Network Information Is Configured on a Windows Computer 134 Task 3: Troubleshoot a Hidden Gateway Address Problem Task 4: Reflection Task 6: Clean Up 137 137 137 Task 5: Challenge 137 Packet Tracer Companion: Examining a Device’s Gateway (5.2) 145 .1) 138 136 Task 1: Use the route Command to Modify a Windows Computer Routing Table 139 Task 2: Use a Windows Telnet Client Command telnet to Connect to a Cisco Router 144 Task 3: Examine Router Routes Using Basic Cisco IOS Commands Task 4: Reflection Task 6: Clean Up 147 147 147 Task 5: Challenge 147 Packet Tracer Companion: Examining a Route (5.2) 122 Skills Integration Challenge: Analyzing the Application and Transport Layers (4.5.xiii Task 4: Reflection Task 6: Clean Up 121 122 Task 5: Challenge 121 Packet Tracer Companion: Application and Transport Layer Protocols Examination (4. UDP.2.1.1.3) 122 Task 1: Repair and Test the Topology Task 3: Reflection Chapter 5 OSI Network Layer IPv4 125 123 124 Task 2: Explore How DNS.5. and TCP Work Together 124 125 125 126 126 127 Concept Questions Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Vocabulary Exercise: Define Internet Research Exercise Networks: Dividing Hosts into Groups 127 127 127 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Concept Questions 127 128 Routing: How Our Data Packets Are Handled Vocabulary Exercise: Define Routing Processes: How Routes Are Learned 129 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion 129 130 Lab 5-1: Examining a Device’s Gateway (5.

1.xiv Network Fundamentals.1.2) Lab 6-2: Examining ICMP Packets (6.7.7.1) Task 1: Use the ping Command to Verify Simple TCP/IP Network Connectivity 160 Task 2: Use the tracert Command to Verify TCP/IP Connectivity Task 3: Challenge 166 Task 4: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 168 168 168 164 Packet Tracer Companion: ping and traceroute (6.1.7.6.3) 148 Task 1: Configure a Router Interface Task 2: Examining Routes 149 149 150 150 Task 3: Configure a Route Using a GUI Task 5: Reflection Chapter 6 150 151 Task 4: Examine the Routing of the IP Packet Addressing the Network: IPv4 IPv4 Addresses 151 Concept Questions 151 152 152 Binary-to-Decimal Conversion Exercise Decimal-to-Binary Conversion Exercise Addresses for Different Purposes 152 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Internet Research Exercise Vocabulary: Completion Concept Questions Assigning Addresses 152 153 153 153 154 Internet Research Exercises Concept Questions Is It on My Network? 154 154 155 Binary Matching Exercise Concept Questions 156 Internet Research Exercise Calculating Addresses 156 155 156 Concept Questions 156 157 157 Multiple-Choice Questions Testing the Network Layer Concept Questions 157 158 159 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Lab 6-1: Ping and Traceroute (6.2. CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide Skills Integration Challenge: Routing IP Packets (5.1) 169 Task 1: Understand the Format of ICMP Packets Task 3: Challenge 177 170 173 Task 2: Use Wireshark to Capture and Examine ICMP Messages .

4.2) 194 Skills Integration Challenge: Planning Subnets and Configuring IP Addresses (6. Part 2 (6.1) Task 1: Subnet the Address Space 192 193 193 Task 2: Determine Interface Addresses Task 4: Verify the Configurations Task 5: Reflection 194 193 Task 3: Configure the Serial and FastEthernet Addresses Packet Tracer Companion: Subnet and Router Configuration (6.xv Task 4: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 177 177 177 178 Packet Tracer Companion: Examining ICMP Packets (6.5. Determine Subnet Information 184 Task 2: Challenge 188 Task 3: Clean Up 191 192 Lab 6-3: Subnet and Router Configuration (6.1) 203 205 Task 1: Explain the Header Fields in an Ethernet II Frame 206 209 Task 2: Use Wireshark to Capture and Analyze Ethernet II Frames . Part 1 (6.3) 194 Task 1: IP Subnet Planning 195 196 196 Task 2: Finish Building the Network in Packet Tracer Task 3: Configure the Network Task 4: Test the Network Task 5: Reflection chapter 7 OSI Data Link Layer 197 199 199 197 Data Link Layer: Accessing the Media Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Concept Questions 199 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Media Access Control Techniques 199 200 200 Concept Questions 200 201 201 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Concept Questions 202 Media Access Control: Addressing and Framing Data 201 Putting It All Together: Follow Data Through an Internetwork 203 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Lab 7-1: Frame Examination (7. Determine Network Information Task 2: Challenge 180 Task 3: Clean Up 182 183 Activity 6-2: IPv4 Address Subnetting.7.5.2.2.2) Activity 6-1: IPv4 Address Subnetting.7.1) Task 1: For a Given IP Address and Subnet Mask.5.3.7.1) 178 Task 1: For a Given IP Address.1.7.7.8.

4.1) Task 1: Become Familiar with the Most Common Functions of a Cable Tester 221 Task 2: Test Different Cables for Type and Wiring Problems Task 4: Verify Cable Length Task 5: Reflection Task 7: Clean Up 226 226 Task 6: Challenge 226 226 223 224 Task 3: Perform Initial Configuration of the Fluke LinkRunner Skills Integration Challenge: Connecting Devices and Exploring the Physical View (8. CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide Task 3: Challenge 212 Task 4: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 212 213 213 Skills Integration Challenge: Data Link Layer Issues (7.1.5.1. Attending to Some Layer 2 Issues 215 Task 3: Configure the Network Task 4: Test the Network Task 5: Reflection Chapter 8 OSI Physical Layer 216 217 217 215 216 The Physical Layer: Communication Signals Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Concept Questions Concept Questions 217 217 Physical Signaling and Encoding: Representing Bits 218 218 218 218 219 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Concept Questions 219 Physical Media: Connecting Communication Vocabulary Exercise: Matching 219 220 Lab 8-1: Media Connectors Lab Activity (Lab 8.3) Task 1: IP Subnet Planning 214 Task 2: Finish Building the Network in Packet Tracer.3) 227 Task 1: Connect the Devices in the Standard Lab Setup 228 228 Task 2: View the Standard Lab Setup in the Physical Workspace chapter 9 Ethernet 231 231 Overview of Ethernet Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Concept Questions 232 231 Ethernet: Communication Through the LAN 232 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Concept Questions 233 232 .xvi Network Fundamentals.1.6.

xvii The Ethernet Frame 233 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Multiple-Choice Questions Concept Questions 235 234 233 Ethernet Media Access Control 235 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Concept Questions 236 236 235 Ethernet Physical Layer Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Hubs and Switches 237 236 237 237 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Concept Question 238 Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) 238 Multiple-Choice Questions 238 240 Lab 9-1: Address Resolution Protocol (9.2) 259 Skills Integration Challenge: Switched Ethernet (9.1.1.9.3) 259 256 Task 1: IP Subnet Planning 260 261 Task 2: Repair Problems with the Ethernet Switched LAN .1) Task 1: Use the Windows arp Command Task 3: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 248 248 242 246 Task 2: Use Wireshark to Examine ARP Exchanges Task 4: Challenge 248 Packet Tracer Companion: Address Resolution Protocol (9.8.3.8.8.3.2) Lab 9-2: Cisco Switch MAC Table Examination (9.8.1) 253 Task 1: Use Wireshark to Capture and Analyze Frames Originating from Network Nodes 255 Task 2: Examine the Origination of Frames in a Small Network Task 3: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 258 259 Task 4: Challenge 259 Packet Tracer Companion: An Intermediary Device as an End Device (9.1.8.8.2.2) 253 Lab 9-3: Intermediary Device as an End Device (9.2.1) 249 248 Task 1: Use the Telnet Protocol to Log in to a Cisco Switch 251 Task 2: Use the Cisco IOS show mac-address-table Command to Examine MAC Addresses and Port Associations 251 Task 3: Challenge 253 Task 4: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 253 253 Packet Tracer Companion: Cisco Switch MAC Table Examination (9.

1) Task 1: Design the Logical Network 276 278 Task 2: Configure the Physical Lab Topology 278 Task 3: Configure the Logical Topology Task 4: Verify Network Connectivity Task 5: Reflection Task 7: Clean Up 281 281 281 282 280 Task 6: Challenge 281 Packet Tracer Companion: Creating a Small Topology (10. CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide Task 3: Test the Network Task 4: Reflection Chapter 10 261 261 Planning and Cabling Networks Concept Questions 263 264 263 263 LANs: Making the Physical Connection Multiple-Choice Questions Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Device Interconnections 264 264 Concept Questions 264 265 265 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Developing an Addressing Scheme Concept Questions 266 266 266 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Multiple-Choice Questions Calculating the Subnets 267 Concept Questions Concept Question 267 267 Device Interconnections 268 268 269 Multiple-Choice Questions Lab 10-1: How Many Networks? (10.2) Task 1: Determine the Number of Subnets in Topology Diagram A 269 Task 2: Record Subnet Information Task 4: Record Subnet Information Task 6: Record Subnet Information Task 8: Record Subnet Information Task 9: Reflection 273 274 270 270 271 272 271 272 273 Task 3: Determine the Number of Subnets in Topology Diagram B Task 5: Determine the Number of Subnets in Topology Diagram C Task 7: Determine the Number of Subnets in Topology Diagram D Lab 10-2: Creating a Small Lab Topology (10.1.3.2) Task 1: Connect a Router and Computer with a Console Cable Lab 10-3: Establishing a Console Session with HyperTerminal (10.6.xviii Network Fundamentals.1) 282 Task 2: Configure HyperTerminal to Establish a Console Session with a Cisco IOS Router 283 .2.6.6.2.1.

2) 289 Lab 10-4: Establishing a Console Session with Minicom (10.2.3) 293 Task 1: Build the Network Topology Task 3: Interface Configuration Task 4: Testing Connectivity Chapter 11 295 294 294 Task 2: Create and Assign an Addressing Scheme 295 297 Configuring and Testing Your Network Configuring Cisco Devices: IOS Basics 297 Concept Questions 297 298 298 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Cisco IOS Command Exercises Test Your Knowledge 299 Applying a Basic Configuration Using Cisco IOS 299 Concept Questions 300 300 301 Multiple-Choice Questions Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Verifying Connectivity 301 Test Your Knowledge 301 Concept Question 301 .7.6.1.3.6.1) 290 Task 1: Connect a Router and Computer with a Console Cable 290 Task 2: Configure Minicom to Establish a Console Session with the Router 291 Task 3: Perform Basic Commands Task 4: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 292 293 292 Skills and Integration Challenge: Planning and Cabling Networks (10.xix Task 3: Configure HyperTerminal to Establish a Console Session with a Cisco IOS Switch 285 Task 3: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 286 286 287 Task 4: Challenge 286 Lab 10-3 (Alternative): Establishing a Console Session with TeraTerm Task 1: Connect a Router and Computer with a Console Cable 287 Task 2: Configure TeraTerm Web to Establish a Console Session with the Router 288 Task 3: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 288 289 Task 4: Challenge 289 Packet Tracer Companion: Establishing a Console Session with PT Terminal (10.

1.3.2.1) Task 1: Design the Logical Lab Topology Task 3: Configure the Logical Topology Task 4: Verify Network Connectivity Task 5: Reflection Task 7: Clean Up 350 351 Task 6: Challenge 350 343 345 Task 2: Configure the Physical Lab Topology 345 349 .3) 302 Task 1: Use the ping Command to Document Network Latency Task 3: Measure Delay Effects from Larger Datagrams Task 4: Reflection 308 Task 5: Challenge 309 Lab 11-2: Basic Cisco Device Configuration (11.1.5.1) 310 303 Task 2: Compute Various Statistics on the Output of a ping Capture 304 306 Task 1: Configure Cisco Router Global Configuration Settings Task 2: Configure Cisco Router Password Access Task 3: Configure Cisco Router Interfaces Task 4: Save the Router Configuration Files Task 5: Configure a Cisco Switch Task 6: Reflection Task 8: Clean Up 323 325 Task 7: Challenge 324 320 317 319 315 312 Packet Tracer Companion: Basic Cisco Device Configuration (11.4.2) Lab 11-3: Managing Device Configuration (11.1) 327 326 Task 1: Configure Network Connectivity Task 3: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 333 335 328 329 Task 2: Use TFTP to Save and Restore a Cisco IOS Configuration Task 4: Challenge 333 Packet Tracer Companion: Managing Device Configuration (11.3.5.5.1) 335 336 Task 1: Design the Logical Lab Topology Task 3: Configure the Logical Topology Task 4: Verify Network Connectivity Task 5: Reflection Task 7: Clean Up 341 341 342 337 338 Task 2: Configure the Physical Lab Topology 338 340 Task 6: Challenge 341 Lab 11-5: Network Testing (11.xx Network Fundamentals.2) Lab 11-4: Configure Host Computers for IP Networking (11.5.2.5. CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide Lab 11-1: Network Latency Documentation with ping (11.4.5.

6.1) 352 Task 1: Design the Logical Lab Topology Task 3: Configure the Logical Topology Task 4: Verify Network Connectivity Task 5: Document the Network Task 6: Reflection Task 8: Clean Up 358 359 Task 7: Challenge 358 357 353 354 Task 2: Configure the Physical Lab Topology 354 356 Lab 11-7: Case Study: Datagram Analysis with Wireshark (11.5.1) 366 Task 1: Prepare the Lab 367 368 370 372 Task 2: Review the Process of Data Flowing Through the Network Task 3: Analyze Captured Packets Task 4: Complete the Final Analysis Task 5: Conclusion Task 6: Summary 373 374 Skills Integration Challenge: Configuring and Analyzing Networks (11.6.3) 374 Task 1: Plan 375 376 Task 2: Build and Configure the Network Task 3: Test and Analyze 377 Task 4: Reflection 377 .5.5.xxi Lab 11-6: Network Documentation with Utility Commands (11.1.

■ ■ ■ ■ ■ . boldface indicates commands that are manually input by the user (such as a show command). In actual configuration examples and output (not general command syntax).xxii Network Fundamentals. Braces within brackets [{ }] indicate a required choice within an optional element. CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide Icons Used in This Book Desktop Computer Laptop Firewall Packet Streaming Video IP Phone Switch Router Route/Switch Processor Phone Server Cloud Wireless Router Hub Printer Wireless Media LAN Media WAN Media Command Syntax Conventions The conventions used to present command syntax in this book are the same conventions used in the IOS Command Reference. The Command Reference describes these conventions as follows: ■ Boldface indicates commands and keywords that are entered literally as shown. mutually exclusive elements. Italics indicate arguments for which you supply actual values. Braces { } indicate a required choice. Vertical bars (|) separate alternative. Square brackets [ ] indicate optional elements.

To be successful on the exam and achieve your CCNA certification. matching. Goals and Methods First and foremost. CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide is a supplement to your classroom and laboratory experience with the Cisco Networking Academy. The Study Guide sections of this book offer dozens of exercises to help you learn the concepts crucial to your success as a CCNA exam candidate. These activities require you to pull together several skills learned from the chapter—and previous chapters and courses—to successfully complete one comprehensive exercise. but also that you can plan. You can view the exam topics any time at http://www. you should do everything in your power to arm yourself with a variety of tools and training materials to support your learning efforts. implement. Many of the hands-on labs include Packet Tracer companion activities. By establishing a firm foundation in the fundamental topics taught in this course. student performance tracking. Each chapter also includes a culminating activity called the Packet Tracer Skills Integration Challenge. Passing this foundation exam means that you not only have the required knowledge of the technologies covered by the exam. these exams are rigorously application based. this book is designed to help you learn all the required materials of the first course in the Networking Academy CCNA Exploration curriculum. Network Fundamentals.xxiii Introduction The Cisco Networking Academy is a comprehensive e-learning program that provides students with Internet technology skills. online assessment. Used to its fullest extent. In other words. and troubleshoot these technologies. . This Labs and Study Guide is just such a collection of tools.com/go/certifications. and hands-on labs to prepare students for industry-standard certifications. fill-in-the-blank. Each chapter is slightly different and includes multiplechoice. and open-ended questions designed to help you ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Review vocabulary Strengthen troubleshooting skills Boost networking skills Reinforce concepts Research topics Each chapter also includes a Labs and Activities section that includes the online curriculum labs and a Packet Tracer Skills Integration Challenge activity. design. where you can use Packet Tracer to complete a simulation of the lab. The CCNA Exploration curriculum includes four courses oriented around the topics of the Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA) certification.cisco. operate. A Networking Academy delivers web-based content. you will be better prepared to move on to the rest of the CCNA Exploration curriculum and ultimately to pass the CCNA certification exam (640-802). it will help you gain knowledge and practice the skills associated with the content areas of the CCNA Exploration Network Fundamentals course.

Students can spend as much time as they like completing standard lab exercises through Packet Tracer. The top-down approach adopted in the Network Fundamentals course enables students to set up and implement application layer services in a network lab environment. The Eagle Server provides the following network services: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ DNS Web server FTP TFTP SSH Instant messaging Wiki server E-mail The Eagle Server is required to complete most of the labs in CCNA Exploration. it allows students to practice using a command-line interface.xxiv Network Fundamentals. visual. . Although Packet Tracer is not a substitute for real equipment. lab equipment can be a scarce resource.x is available only to Cisco Networking Academies through the Academy Connection website. interactive teaching and learning tool developed by Cisco. However. CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide A Word About Packet Tracer Packet Tracer is a self-paced. A Word About Eagle Server The CCNA Exploration courses are designed to provide a hands-on learning approach to networking. The Eagle Server is developed by the Cisco Networking Academy to provide network services and applications that are typically accessed over the Internet in an isolated lab environment. The Eagle Server software and complete FAQ documentation can be downloaded by your instructor from the Tools section of Academy Connection. Many of the hands-on labs in Network Fundamentals are based on an Internet model that uses a local server to provide a range of network services and applications that students can experiment with in the lab environment. and have the option to work from home. Your instructor needs to follow those instructions to set up the labs for you accordingly. Packet Tracer provides a visual simulation of equipment and network processes to offset the challenge of limited equipment. Lab activities are an important part of networking education. This “e-doing” capability is a fundamental component of learning how to configure routers and switches from the command line. Packet Tracer version 4.

” introduces the devices. The book covers the major topic headings in the same sequence as the online curriculum for the CCNA Exploration Network Fundamentals course. quality of service (QoS). Many academies use this textbook as a required tool in the course. The questions in the chapter focus on network architectures. hands-on skills needed to use some critical tools. to determine the number of subnetworks and hosts in a network.” provides exercises and labs that focus on the role of the transport layer as it provides the end-to-end transfer of data between applications. such as Wireshark.” introduces you to the top network model layer. and IP. “Application Layer Functionality and Protocols. path determination. This chapter also includes questions and labs related to Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) tools. such as ping and trace. to help evaluate network communications. network components. Work through the different types of questions to test your knowledge of the TCP/IP application and OSI application. Chapter 5. The Lab Exercises portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum labs to further reinforce that you have mastered the practical. You learn how TCP and UDP apply to common applications. and network collaboration tools. with the same numbers and similar names as the online course chapters. you should work through this Lab Study Guide in order. blogs. scalability. Chapter 2. and session layer. Activities and labs let you practice your skills using and configuring network applications such as Google Earth. “Living in a Network-Centric World. presentation. Chapter 6. while other academies recommend the Companion Guides as an additional source of study and practice materials. beginning with Chapter 1. Chapter 3. “OSI Network Layer. This book has 11 chapters. and protocols that enable network communication.” focuses on network addressing in detail and tests your knowledge of how to use the address mask. The questions and labs help you reinforce important concepts related to addressing. and Packet Tracer. The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses different types of questions to test your knowledge of how devices communicate over the network. or prefix length. Chapters and Topics The book has 11 chapters. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide and the online curriculum is sequential. “Addressing the Network: IPv4. data packets. media. “OSI Transport Layer.” introduces the concepts of routing packets from a device on one network to a device on a different network. wikis. How This Book Is Organized Because the content of Network Fundamentals. The labs further reinforce that you have mastered the skills needed to work with the application layer of the OSI model. the application layer. Chapter 4. “Communicating over the Network.xxv Audience for This Book This book’s main audience is anyone taking the CCNA Exploration Network Fundamentals course of the Cisco Networking Academy curriculum. ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ . security issues.” provides exercises and labs to supplement your study of the basics of communication and how networks support the way we live. Internet Relay Chat. as follows: ■ Chapter 1.

To register this book. “Ethernet.com/title/1587132036. After you register the book. About the Cisco Press Website for This Book Cisco Press may provide additional content that can be accessed by registering your individual book at the Ciscopress. a link to any supplemental content will be listed on your My Registered Books page. Becoming a member and registering is free. connecting it to a switch. A hands-on lab lets you practice your skills using Wireshark to capture and analyze Ethernet frames.com to continue registration. Chapter 8. which is located on its back cover. Packet Tracer Companion. This chapter tests your ability to describe the encapsulation processes that occur as data travels across a LAN and a WAN.asp and enter the book’s ISBN. You will apply the knowledge and skills developed in the previous chapters to determine the appropriate cables to use. The chapter also helps you study Media Access Control (MAC) and MAC addressing. MAC. hands-on skills needed to understand and work with the OSI physical layer. and how to develop an addressing and testing scheme.com website. standards.” examines the technologies and operation of Ethernet. with a focus on ARP frames. “OSI Physical Layer.com/bookstore/register. challenging labs that ask you to connect and configure a small network using basic Cisco IOS commands for routers and switches. The files will be updated to cover any subsequent releases of Packet Tracer. and Packet Tracer Challenge files that are referenced throughout the book as indicated by the Packet Tracer Activity. You will configure Cisco routers and switches for basic network operations. and building and configuring a complex network.” provides questions and extensive. “Planning and Cabling Networks. . “OSI Data Link Layer. The chapter also helps you develop skills related to examining Cisco switch MAC address tables. You’ll then be prompted to log in or join Ciscopress.xxvi Network Fundamentals. Packet Tracer Companion. http://www. “Configuring and Testing Your Network. Topics include the evolution of Ethernet technologies.” supplements your study of how the OSI data link layer prepares network layer packets for transmission. Chapter 11. Chapter 9. and you then gain access to exclusive deals on other resources from Cisco Press. A Packet Tracer skills integration lab lets you simulate the steps of installing an Ethernet card in a PC. and protocols associated with the physical layer (Layer 1).ciscopress. CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide ■ Chapter 7. ■ ■ ■ ■ About the CD-ROM The CD-ROM included with this book has all the Packet Tracer Activity. and setting speed and duplex settings. go to http://www. how to connect devices.” provides questions and labs that explore the functions. Chapter 10. and Address Resolution Protocol (ARP). This chapter continues the examination of Ethernet frames that you started in Chapter 7.ciscopress.” focuses on designing and cabling a network. Use this chapter to reinforce that you have mastered the practical. You can obtain updates to these files from the website for this book. A Packet Tracer skills integration lab provides an opportunity to practice IP subnetting. and Packet Tracer Challenge icons.

telegraphy. What types of network traffic do modern networks carry. telephony. the printing press. school. the written word. video. and education. text. Early data networks carried character-based messages between computer systems. and how has this changed human interactions? Answers will vary but should mention that modern networks carry voice. and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of the importance of data networks and the major components and characteristics of network architectures. what other breakthroughs in communication media have extended the reach of human interactions? Answers will vary but could include smoke signals.CHAPTER 1 Living in a Network-Centric World The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of matching. 2. hands-on skills needed to understand the opportunities and challenges associated with modern networks. and television. . but it has evolved over the years to encompass many types of media. radio. In addition to data networks. High-speed data networks that span the globe with cabling and networking devices have had a profound effect on human communication and will continue to revolutionize how humans interact with each other. How has data networking changed your community (your family. multiple-choice. Communication was once limited to face-to-face conversations. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide for assistance. use Chapter 1 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum or the corresponding Chapter 1 in Network Fundamentals. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum activities and labs to ensure that you have mastered the practical. 3. or country?) Answers will vary. and graphics. Concept Questions 1. city. newspapers. movies. Study Guide Communicating in a Network-Centric World Humans are social animals who need to communicate with each other. The addition of all these different types of network traffic has enabled the creation of online communities where geographic distances and physical limitations are no longer major obstacles and where humans around the globe can collaborate in their work. play. As you work through this chapter. ranging from paper to fiber-optic cabling. fill-in-the-blank.

A blog is a web page that is easy to update and edit by someone who wants to publish a record of his or her thoughts on a subject. Packet Tracer is a Cisco collaborative learning tool that provides a way to build virtual representations of networks that behave much like actual networks. Rules help data networks function despite the many factors that can degrade communication. 4. List four external factors that affect data networks. 2. Concept Questions 1. Students should include at least four of the following correct answers: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ The quality of the pathway between the sender and receiver The number of times a message changes form The number of times a message is redirected The number of times a message is readdressed The number of times a message is reformatted The number of other messages sharing the communication pathway Whether a confirmation of the message was returned to the sender The amount of time allotted for successful communication List three internal factors that affect data networks. Communication: An Essential Part of Our Lives Communication helps us work. as can internal factors that are related to aspects of the message itself. 3. communication networks include rules (or protocols) that help ensure reliable delivery of messages. Because communication is so important. Podcasting is an audio-based medium that lets people record audio and publish it on a website. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following questions. and learn.2 Network Fundamentals. Factors that are external to the message can affect reliability. play. A wiki is a web page that groups of people can edit and view together. Instant Messaging (IM) is a form of online real-time communication between two or more people based on entered text. 5. 1. . The message’s size The message’s complexity The message’s importance 2.

Vocabulary Exercise: Define Table 1-1 lists the four fundamental elements of a network. directed. such as a cable or the air for wireless. in which data is transferred A unit of information that travels from one device to another across a medium Equipment that connects directly to a network Vocabulary Exercise: Identify Networks consist of many elements. network experts have standardized many elements and components of a data network. The figure shows a network topology for a typical small company. speed. Table 1-1 Element Network Element Definitions Definition Rule Medium Message Device An agreement or protocol that governs how messages are sent. Figure 1-1 shows some of these icons. a physical environment. Network engineers often include these elements in network topology drawings.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 3 The Network as a Platform Data networks provide a platform for humans to communicate and thus play an increasingly important role in the business and personal lives of humans. Modern networks support fast and reliable message transfer among millions of users across the globe. and interpreted A means of interconnecting devices. and reliability that are required. Engineers use a set of standard icons to refer to the elements. To achieve the scale. Fill in the definition for each element. Figure 1-1 Network Topology Icons B C A D F G H K IP E I J L . received.

One form of a wide-area network (WAN) connection a. Connects two or more networks and directs messages as they travel across a set of networks b. 3. Interconnects computers and cabling to form a local-area network (LAN) e. Firewall c. Table 1-2 Device Network Devices Definition a. which carries data in the form of electrical signals. e-mail. match the term on the left with its definition on the right. and instant messaging require a network to provide services. the medium is either copper. Wireless router e. . or the communication between devices on Earth and satellites in orbit. In wired connections. Summarizes a group of network elements in topology drawings d. 2. Provides network security Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following questions. Wireless media include the wireless connection between a wireless router and a computer in a home network. Protocols are the rules that network devices use to communicate. which carries data in the form of light signals. the terrestrial wireless connection between two ground stations. Router d. Cloud f. Network applications such as web browsing. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Provide the name of each element in the network topology shown in Figure 1-1. 4.4 Network Fundamentals. or optical fiber. 1. A device often found in home and small networks that lets laptop computers connect to a network without cabling c. Switch b. Serial link f. A Firewall B Router C WAN medium D Network cloud E Server F LAN medium G LAN switch H Wireless router I IP phone J Desktop computer K Wireless media L Laptop computer Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 1-2.

6. are also hierarchical. . 4. What is meant by the term converged network. This can save money. 2. and the Internet must provide fault tolerance. The bits travel through network devices such as switches in the LAN. including traffic that was once relegated to its own separate network. 2. with different tiers offering different levels of service. The Architecture of the Internet A network architecture describes a network’s physical infrastructure and the high-level services and protocols that move messages across that infrastructure. simplify troubleshooting. Converged networks have become common because they allow engineers to build one common infrastructure instead of multiple specialized networks. 5. The bits arrive at a router. such as voice or radio. the bits get converted back into a human-readable format. Many large networks. TCP/IP is a set of standard protocols that is widely used in home and business networks as well as on the Internet. The computer converts the message to bits. Vocabulary Exercise: Define Table 1-3 lists four fundamental characteristics of network architectures. and security. If they are just starting to learn networking and have grasped the information in “Elements of a Network” section in Chapter 1 of the curriculum and the Companion Guide. At their destination. quality of service. their answers should read something like the following: 1. Answers will vary depending on how much students already know. and why are converged networks becoming so common? What advantages do converged networks offer? A converged network carries network traffic of many different types. including the Internet. List the steps that take place on a network when you send an instant message. Messages must be converted to bits (binary coded digital signals) before they are sent to their destination.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 5 5. The Internet’s architecture shares many of the same characteristics of any large network that supports numerous users. education networks. and enable advanced applications such as videoconferencing and online gaming. The Network Interface Card (NIC) converts the bits to electrical or optical signals and places them on the medium. which directs them to their destination. scalability. Concept Questions 1. Fill in the definition for each characteristic. 3. Business networks.

Each tier can optimize its services for its unique role. Tier 1 providers. or circuit. The early Internet designers chose packet switching because it provides better fault tolerance and scalability. The hierarchical structure also means that network traffic that is destined for a service that is local to the sender does not need to traverse to a central point for distribution. because resources are used dynamically as packets arrive at switching locations. Messages are divided into small blocks of data (packets) that can travel across many paths to the destination. such as AT&T and Verizon. Packets from different sources are intermixed. provide national and international connections and are optimized for carrying huge loads of traffic across the globe. Why did the Internet designers choose packet switching instead of circuit switching? With circuit switching. How does the Internet benefit from using a hierarchical architecture? The hierarchical architecture permits Internet service providers (ISP) of different levels. is created through various switching locations between the sender and receiver. The problem of underutilized idle circuits is eliminated. 3. A new call requires a new setup process that creates a new circuit. the call is dropped and must be reestablished. If there’s a problem with any device in the path during a call. Packets are routed according to the best path available at the time and can be routed around problem areas.6 Network Fundamentals. . based on the requirements of the applications and their importance to users Measures taken to guard against unauthorized access to a network and the data traveling on the network Concept Questions 1. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 1-3 Network Architecture Characteristics Definition Characteristic Fault tolerance Scalability Quality of service Security The capability of a network to withstand hardware and software failures and recover quickly when failures occur The capability of a network to expand quickly to support new users and applications without degrading performance for existing users A method of providing different priorities for different applications. Compare and contrast circuit switching and packet switching. For example. Tier 2 providers are smaller and often provide regional service. a call goes through a setup process whereby a temporary path. Why was fault tolerance a major focus of the initial design for the Internet? The United States Department of Defense (DoD) designed the network that evolved into the Internet with fault tolerance because the department was concerned about a military attack or other severe problem that could destroy numerous sites and transmission facilities. Tier 3 providers are smaller yet and focus on getting end users on the Internet. With packet switching. Even if no communication is occurring between the sender and receiver. which improves scalability and fault tolerance. using all available resources. The circuit is dedicated to the call for the duration of the call. 2. there’s no requirement for call setup. the circuit and its resources remain reserved until one end disconnects.

but here are some examples based on the curriculum: Streaming video and audio are time-sensitive and will appear or sound choppy. and delivered. which protects the information carried in packets and stored on network-attached devices. 2. Three fundamental security measures include ensuring confidentiality so that only intended and authorized recipients can read data. Business transactions can be time-sensitive. List some consequences of a network security breach. and ensuring availability so that timely and reliable access to services is not disrupted by security breaches. Production control in factories can be time-sensitive. which protects devices and cabling. 4. Answers will vary. or designs. which are the rules that govern how packets are formatted. with consequent loss of business Misdirected or lost personal or business funds Stolen company intellectual property (research ideas. and content security. but here are some examples based on the curriculum: A network outage that stops communications and transactions. and coping with network attacks. 5. . for example) Private customer contract details becoming known to competitors or made public. could cause death or dismemberment. The consequences of a lost control signal to an automated piece of heavy machinery. addressed. with lots of starts and stops. for example. patents. a stock price could change while a buyer is making a purchase if traffic is delayed. and integrity Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following questions. maintaining integrity to ensure that information is not altered in transmission. List some applications that are time-sensitive and the negative consequences of their packets getting dropped or delayed. Calls to an emergency response center are time-sensitive. Answers will vary. Network firewalls can help ensure system reliability by detecting. resulting in a loss of confidence in the business Loss of sales and eventual company failure because of a loss of public trust in the company’s ability to maintain privacy. 1. Tools to provide security for individual messages must be implemented on top of the underlying protocols. For example. The consequence of the calls being dropped or delayed include people dying or suffering needlessly with injuries. 3. confidentiality. if their traffic is delayed. repelling.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 7 4. The two types of network security concerns are network infrastructure security.

Network technician d. Which of the following is most associated with the concept of converged networks? a. The increasing number of mobile users b. Software engineer 4. Fewer applications as networks converge d. The need to protect networks from unauthorized access f. and flexible as users continue to depend on their networks to help them live. and play. A fault-tolerant network is built to withstand earthquakes. A fault-tolerant network supports users who have different viewpoints. More users wanting to access web pages in character mode b. Modern networks need to be ready to support increasing numbers of users who will make innovative use of the networks to enhance human communication. More networks that are locked down so that new applications and services cannot be added d.8 Network Fundamentals. .) a. A fault-tolerant network limits the impact of hardware or software failures and recovers quick- ly when a failure occurs. Which of the following is a relatively new information technology (IT) job title? a. Increasing use of simplified network devices e. c. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Trends in Networking Data networks continue to evolve quickly. 1. Information security officer c. d. Which of the following best defines a fault-tolerant network? a. work. Multiple-Choice Questions Choose the best answer for each of the following questions. Fewer services as networks converge c. More networks that are open and unconcerned with protection from unauthorized access 3. More voice and video transmissions that require a level of consistent quality and uninterrupted delivery c. fault-tolerant. Networks will need to be scalable. Which of the following are major trends that are contributing to the current evolution of networks? (Choose two. A fault-tolerant network can expand quickly to support new users and applications without causing errors for existing users. The need to support circuit switching 2. learn. b. Programmer b.

A scalable network can expand quickly to support new users and applications without impact- ing the performance of the service being offered to existing users.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 9 5. A scalable network is built to support high-altitude environments. a. . A scalable network supports redundant connections so that alternative paths are available when a device or link fails. including skyscrapers and b. c. d. Which of the following best defines a scalable network? satellite dishes on mountains. A scalable network ensures that priorities are matched with the type of communication and its importance to an organization.

Which Google Earth version supports the highest resolution? Google Earth Pro supports 4800 pixels.10 Network Fundamentals. Experiment with Google Earth features such as Help and Tutorial. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Labs and Activities Activity 1-1: Using Google Earth to View the World (1. is 30 minutes. The Google Earth Plus version includes GPS support. a spreadsheet importer. it requires a broadband connection to the Internet. To use Google Earth. Use this link to answer the following questions: 1. Experiment with Google Earth to explore continents. Explain the hardware and software requirements needed to use Google Earth (free edition).4) Upon completion of this activity. Currently. the following minimum computer hardware requirements must be met: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Operating system: Microsoft Windows 2000 or Windows XP CPU: Pentium 3 with 500 MHz System memory (RAM): 128 MB Hard disk: 400 MB of free space Network speed: 128 kbps Graphics card: 3D-capable with 16 MB of video RAM (VRAM) Screen: 1024×768 pixels. Explain the different versions of Google Earth. depending on network speed.google. Background Google Earth is a popular application that executes on the desktop of most operating systems. Google Earth displays the Earth as a manipulated 2D or 3D image. Google Earth. . and other support features.com/product_comparison. version 4.html contains a description of the versions. The popular world news channel CNN regularly uses Google Earth to show where a news story has occurred. 16-bit high-color screen Scenario This activity is to be performed on a computer that has Internet access and on which you can install software. Estimated completion time. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Explain the purpose of Google Earth. countries.1. three versions of Google Earth exist. The version that fits most needs is the free version. The Google Earth Pro version is for professional and commercial use. Which versions support Tilt and 3D rotation? All versions 2. and places of interest. The URL http://earth.1.

They control the image magnification and position. and the Google Earth download should start automatically. otherwise. mouse. Figure 1-2 Google Earth Opening Screen Task 2: Run Google Earth Refer to Figure 1-2. Step 2: Review the navigation controls. Task 3: Navigate the Google Earth Interface Step 1: Use the Overview Map feature. On the Help menu. The mouse pointer must be moved close to the controls. The Menu bar is located in the upper-left corner. Placemark.com/download-earth. are located in the upper-right quadrant. you can download the free application from http://earth.google. shown in Figure 1-3.google. navigation controls. Which mouse control zooms in and out? Right mouse button or scroll wheel. Follow the installation instructions.com/userguide/v4/). List the three ways to move the image.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 11 Task 1: Install Google Earth If Google Earth is not installed on the computer. What is the purpose of the left mouse button? It rotates the image. This handy feature provides a relative global position of the magnified image. The navigation controls. Choose View > Overview Map. Remember. Take a few minutes to browse the User’s Guide. . Figure 1-2 shows the opening screen for Google Earth. answer the following questions: 1. choose User Guide to launch a default web browser and bring up the Google Earth User’s Guide (http://earth. 2. only a compass is displayed. 3.html. the opening screen. you may have to disable any popup blockers on your browser. Before leaving the User’s Guide website.

UK Step 5: Use the Fly To feature. When the location has been reached. state and city are displayed? San Jose. The coordinate measurements are in degrees.12 Network Fundamentals. choose a location that you want to see. Choose View > Grid to display Google Earth Gridlines. minutes. UK? What data would you need to enter? London. and some location images are older than others. Common graticule is the grid created by the longitude and latitude lines as depicted on a globe. Expand Sightseeing. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 1-3 Google Earth Screen Navigation Tools Tilt. what are the coordinates of your home? Answers will vary. For example. and tenths. What U. Is the resolution for your home the same quality as the Sightseeing location in Step 3? Answers will vary. For latitude. the reference is East (E) or West (W) of the Royal Observatory. and double-click that location. United Kingdom. The first number is called the latitude. . browse the surrounding area to see if you can determine approximately how old the image is. Using the pointer and coordinates shown in the lower-left quadrant of the image.2D or 3D Zoom Rotate or Move Step 3: Use the Sightseeing feature. Enter 95134. one user commented that he found his home. The second number is called the longitude. Step 4: Experiment with the Search > Fly To folder. is the international zero-longitude point. The Royal Observatory. the reference is North (N) or South (S) of the equator. The image takes you to that site. Geographic coordinates are displayed in the lower-left quadrant of the image. The equator has a 0° latitude. zip code. Some locations have better resolution than others. it’s the angle between a point and the equator. experiment with the Places > Sightseeing folder. seconds. The combined longitude and latitude are called the common graticule. For longitude. On the left navigation bar. the equator is an imaginary line dividing the globe into a Northern and Southern Hemisphere.S. Try to find your home using the Search > Fly To folder. it’s the angle east or west of an arbitrary earth point. California What if you would like to “Fly To” London. an image streaming indicator reports when the image resolution is complete. For example. but the new house next door had not yet been built.S. Step 6: View geographic coordinates. If the resolution for your neighborhood is sufficient. a U.

colorado. satellite communication with an Earth station transmitted the image of your home to a ground location. Unless instructed otherwise. While enjoying the images. Some type of database was used to store the image.com/support/bin/answer. Step 2. Task 6: Clean Up You may be required to remove Google Earth from the computer.google. Step 3. Wikipedia also contains a useful definition of common geographic terms. Consider network security. Additional removal information is available at http://earth.4. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ ■ Use the SANS site to quickly identify Internet security threats.3) Upon completion of this activity. depending on the slowest speed of all network connections in the path between the database repository and your computer. Activity 1-2: Identifying Top Security Vulnerabilities (1. For example.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 13 Task 4: Reflection Google Earth can bring the world into your home or office. Use the SANS links to access other security-related information. Use the geographic coordinate system to describe your home with as much accuracy and detail as possible. follow these steps: Step 1. Choose Start > Settings > Control Panel. Could someone eavesdrop on your network connection? Answers will vary.5. The delay in retrieving the image may have been short or long. Double-click Add or Remove Programs. probably through several WANs and then to another LAN with a computer that returned the image to you. Use the following URL to learn about different coordinate systems: http://www. A LAN sent your image request across the Internet. Locate and click Google Earth. turn off the computer. consider what digital communication resources were used. . Step 4. Explain how threats are organized. Click Remove and follow the prompts. List several recent security vulnerabilities.py?answer=20738&ctx=sibling. Task 5: Challenge Google Earth displays image coordinates in the lower-left quadrant of the image. Could the image be displayed faster if data compression techniques were used? Answers will vary. If so.html.edu/geography/gcraft/notes/coordsys/coordsys.

go to http://www. instant messaging.org/top20/. You must complete this lab outside of the Cisco lab from a computer with Internet access. go to http://www. VoIP devices Human elements: Security policies. SANS contains several components.sans. On the resources menu. Network.org/ and select items from the Resources menu.org. A letter indicates the category type. For additional information about the SANS site. Estimated completion time is one hour. Using a web browser. as shown in Figure 1-4. switches. UNIX/Linux. DNS servers. Router and switch topics fall under the Network Devices category. peer-to-peer. Open the SANS Top 20 List. Security. personnel issues Special section: Security issues not related to any of the preceding categories ■ ■ ■ Scenario This activity introduces you to computer security vulnerabilities. including web. and numbers separate category topics. human behavior. and defense. and so on). You will use the SANS website as a tool for threat vulnerability identification. SANS stands for SysAdmin. understanding.14 Network Fundamentals. Task 1: Locate the SANS Resources Step 1. media players. There are two major hyperlink topics: ■ ■ N1. database. and management servers Network devices: Network infrastructure devices (routers. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Background One of the most popular and trusted sites related to defending against computer and network security threats is SANS.sans. each a major contributor to information security. How can a corporate security administrator quickly identify security threats? SANS and the FBI have compiled their list of the top 20 Internet Security Attack Targets at http://www. VoIP Servers and Phones N2. choose top 20 list. Network and Other Devices Common Configuration Weaknesses . Mac Applications: Cross-platform.sans. Audit. backup software. The list is regularly updated with information related to the following: ■ ■ Operating systems: Windows. Figure 1-4 SANS Menu The SANS Top-20 Internet Security Attack Targets list is organized by category. N.

Step 1: Choose a topic to investigate. Task 2: Review the SANS Resources Step 1. Open Google and search on wireless router passwords to return links to multiple sites that publish a list of wireless router default administrator account names and passwords. References to Advisories. Network and Other Devices Common Configuration Weaknesses to jump to this topic. Step 3. Step 2.nist. Note the CVE references. Task 3: Collect Data The remainder of this lab walks you through a vulnerability investigation and solution. Last revised: Answers will vary. The next heading. contains links with information about the vulnerability and possible solutions. Overview: Answers will vary.2. Failure to change the default password on these devices can lead to compromise and vulnerability by attackers. The link should open a new web browser connected to http://nvd. Step 2. The CVE name is linked to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) National Vulnerability Database (NVD). Fill in information about the vulnerability impact: CVSS Severity: Answers will vary.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 15 Step 2: Click hyperlink N2. The last line under several topics’ references is Common Vulnerability Exposure (CVE). write a brief description of the solution as found on those pages. Fill in the following information about the vulnerability: Original release date: Answers will vary. The Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS) severity is displayed. sponsored by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) National Cyber Security Division and US-CERT. and click a sample CVE hyperlink. the current list may not contain the same vulnerabilities as those that were present at the time of this writing. Answers will vary. For example. N2. Solutions. Review the contents of N2. Using the hyperlinks. Impact Type: Answers will vary.2 (as of this writing) contains information about threats associated with default accounts and values. Under the Impact heading are several values. which contains information about the vulnerability.2 Common Default Configuration Issues. . Note: Because the CVE list changes. Source: Answers will vary. Authentication: Answers will vary. It contains a value between 1 and 10.gov/ and the vulnerability summary page for the CVE. and Tools. Range: Answers will vary.

IRC. and data continues to increase. . To start chatting.1) Upon completion of this lab. Although the following discussion focuses primarily on IM. When people have wanted immediate contact. for security reasons. unless the user constantly monitors the e-mail account. share ideas. the telephone cannot be used to transfer files. When you join. you are said to “join a room. Background E-mail permits multiple users to collaborate. The recipient of the invitation knows about—and accepts—the IM session based on the other user’s screen name. they are implemented differently. but this will provide beneficial information about how vulnerability mitigation is accomplished in the world. Think of ways that users can help strengthen security. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ ■ Define Internet Relay Chat (IRC) and Instant Messaging (IM). Task 5: Challenge Try to identify an organization that will meet with you to explain how vulnerabilities are tracked and solutions are applied. It remains the responsibility of the end user to implement the solution. Chat also provides a degree of anonymity. networks. users can easily exchange ideas and files.16 Network Fundamentals. If you want to communicate with more than one person at a time. IM provides one-on-one communication with “accepted” individuals. Think about user habits that create security risks. often called a Buddy List.1. What collaborators need for communication in the human network is a tool that has the flexibility of e-mail with the responsiveness of the telephone. IM clients allow you to have an approved list of users. unread e-mail may go unnoticed for a long period of time. IMing and chatting are both methods of real-time communication. you establish a connection to a Chat server and join a discussion on a particular topic. allows multiple people to interact. It will also give representatives of the organization an opportunity to meet the class and conduct informal intern interviews. on the other hand. Each of these windows represents a two-person communication. however. and transfer files. the telephone has been the technology of choice. one person needs to “invite” another.” In the chat room. Finding an organization willing to do this may be difficult. To initiate an instant message. List several collaborative uses of IM. Using the Internet or a private corporate network. Lab 1-1: Using Collaboration Tools: IRC and IM (1. List several misuses of and data security issues involving IM. you typically create your own identity and can give as little information about yourself as you choose. Governments have dedicated significant resources to coordinating and disseminating information about the vulnerability and possible solutions.6. However. you can open additional IM windows. a brief hands-on lab will demonstrate the ease of IRC. Use IRC to demonstrate collaboration. Unfortunately. IRC and IM fit nicely into these requirements. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 4: Reflection The number of vulnerabilities for computers.

Applicable IETF references are RFC 3920 and RFC 3921. Figure 1-5 shows the AIM client application connected to the AIM network. can differentiate between the various IM network protocols. Windows Live Messenger (MSN). Many of the IM networks use proprietary protocols. such as a computer. each with a dedicated following of users. Social misuse of IM has been a concern for parents. and many IM networks encourage parental control. Both Microsoft and Yahoo! have proprietary protocols but have partnered services for joint connectivity. AIM and . The users on the end devices. This relationship is called an IM network. Many different IM networks are available. based on the Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (EMPP). Some IM networks offer audio services. Encrypted communication is supported. Figure 1-5 AIM Client Features IM services have several common features: ■ When an IM client connects to the IM network. Jabber. As with proprietary IM protocols. File sharing between IM clients enables work collaboration. Text messaging between clients is possible and can be logged. Throughout this course we will learn about many different protocols. web conferencing. This arrangement is called a client/server relationship. Child restrictions include limiting IM contacts and providing supervision while online. desktop sharing. Newer services that some IM networks are beginning to provide include videoconferencing. This device is called the Instant Messenger Server. called a protocol. any existing connections can be alerted through a contact list—a list of other people that you communicate with through the IM client. AIM and ICQ (purchased by AOL) use the proprietary Open System for Communication in Real Time (OSCAR) protocol. numerous open-source protocols exist. such as Gaim and Trillian. Popular IM networks include America OnLine (AOL) Instant Messenger (AIM). ■ ■ ■ ■ Protocols Each IM network uses an agreed-upon method of communication. IM servers can also incorporate this support. and ICQ (I Seek You). Voice over IP (VoIP).Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 17 IM requires a device providing services that allows users to communicate. and the server joins clients. The IETF formalized an open standard. and even IP radio and IPTV. Yahoo! Messenger. notably with Session Initiation Protocol (SIP). SIPv2 was originally defined in RFC 2543 and was made obsolete by RFC 3261. Some IM client applications. IM clients connect to an IM server. use a piece of software called the Instant Messenger Client. The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) has attempted to standardize IM protocols.

and disabling certain functions of the client. create a separate account to be used for his or her daily office functions. Ensure that vendor patches are promptly applied to IM software. As a result. Employ antivirus and antispyware products. Appropriately configure intrusion detection and prevention systems. information exchanged between users can be captured and disclosed. Block access to known public IM servers that have not been explicitly authorized. blocking specific users. Filter all HTTP traffic through an authenticating proxy server to provide additional capabilities of filtering and monitoring IM traffic. Some parental supervision tools include background logging. enabling users to adapt new technologies for collaboration. Ensure that all users are aware of those policies and clearly understand the potential risks. Restrict Administrative and Power User level privileges to support personnel acting in their support capacity.org/top20/#c4: C4. Standard users should not be permitted to install software. Most popular cellular phone manufacturers have their own form of mobile IM. which have resulted in vulnerable computers. If a user must have Administrative or Power User privileges. Without strong security methods. Consider deploying products specifically designed for IM security. online time limits. providing IM services to handheld cellular phones. Even legitimate users can congest network throughput by transferring large files. Another popular handheld appli- . Do not rely on external IM servers for internal use of IM. viruses. Security Multiple security issues have been identified with IM. provide a commercial-grade IM proxy or internal IM server. Create secure communication paths when using IM with trusted business partners. HTTP). mobile IM supports mobile users.) Block popular IM ports. ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ The Future of IM The future of IM is promising. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Yahoo! Messenger provide free supervision software tools. Internet surfing. and the underlying operating system. Computer worms. The SANS Institute recommends several countermeasures that system administrators can use to protect their networks from IM vulnerabilities and misuse. The following list is from the SANS website at http://www. interrelated applications.18 Network Fundamentals. chat room blocking. (Note: This offers only partial protection because of the number of potential protocols and associated ports and the ability of applications to bypass port restrictions. have been transferred to IM client computers. Understand that many IM applications can enable associated communications to masquerade as otherwise legitimate traffic (for example. and online communication. many organizations either limit or block IM from entering the corporate network. categorized as malware.) Monitor using an Intrusion Detection/Prevention system for users creating tunnels for IM or bypassing proxies.sans. IM clients and IM servers have experienced application vulnerabilities.4 How to Protect Against IM Vulnerabilities and Unauthorized IM Usage ■ Establish policies for acceptable use of IM. and Trojan horses. (Note: This offers only partial protection because of the number of potential external servers. For example.

click Add. a cloud is often used to symbolize a more complex network. In subsequent chapters you will study in great detail the devices and protocols that are inside the cloud. as well as push e-mail.” In networking. assume that a Cisco Networking Academy instructor has already set up Eagle Server and named it eagleserver. download and install gaim-1. originally described in RFC 1459. In this lab. Step 2: Open the Accounts window. Scenario Figure 1-6 shows two computers connected to a “cloud.example. such as text messaging. Task 1: Configure the Chat Client The IRC protocol is an open standard. An IRC client is available for download from eagle-server at http://eagleserver.0.com/pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter1. If not. including this one. After verifying that the Gaim chat client is installed. which is not the current focus of this discussion. Accept the default settings during the installation. the cloud represents the network and networking devices between an IRC client and a server called eagle-server. follow the next steps to configure Gaim. such as the Internet.5. The BlackBerry supports common IM tools. Figure 1-7 Gaim Accounts Window In the Accounts window. Some of the labs in this book.com/pub.example.example. Note: Eagle Server is a component of the Cisco Networking Academy. This lab uses Gaim as the IRC client. . Open Gaim and select the Login window. and web browsing.com. Step 1: Verify that an IRC client is on the lab computer. telephony. but any IRC client may be used if available.exe (a Windows executable) from ftp://eagleserver. Figure 1-6 Topology for Lab 1-1 Eagle Server Pod#A Estimated completion time is 45 minutes.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 19 ance is the BlackBerry. for communicating across plain-text links. icon Accounts. The Accounts window is shown in Figure 1-7.

used for chatting or IM. Close the Accounts window.com Proxy type: No Proxy Gaim Add Account Window Figure 1-8 When you’re finished. Figure 1-9 IRC Connect Status Window Figure 1-10 Gaim IRC Client Window . Figure 1-10 shows the main Gaim IM client window.example. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Step 3: Add a new account. Figure 1-9 shows the IRC Connect Status window. Click Sign-on. In the Add Account window. Two windows should open. Task 2: Connect to the Chat Server Step 1: Sign on.20 Network Fundamentals. expand the Show more options option. as shown in Figure 1-8: ■ ■ ■ ■ Protocol: IRC Screen Name: (how others will know you) Server: eagle-server. Fill in required information. Return to the Login window. where the new account to eagle-server should be visible. click Save.

Figure 1-11 Joining a Chat Note: For you to join a chat channel. consider how you—as a parent or network administrator—would manage this type of connection. As a future network engineer. but you might not understand the communication between the client and server. the status window closes. as shown in Figure 1-11. and a Buddy List window appears. the Channel name must start with #. Figure 1-12 Participating in a Chat During the chat. Task 3: Consider the Chat Session Figure 1-12 shows a brief chat between users root and student2. . Multiple students can join and interact with each other. Most teenagers and young adults today are familiar with IMing between friends and sharing files. Click Chat. If the Channel name is incorrect. When the IRC client connects to the IRC server. Answers will vary. Task 4: Reflection On a network with an Internet connection. you will be in a chat room alone (unless other students made a similar error).Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 21 Step 2: Join the chat. you should understand the social and security issues with IM and IRC. the Gaim IM client can be used to connect to several different IM providers.

Lab 1-2: Using Collaboration Tools: Wikis and Web Logs (1. a wiki is a web-based collaboration tool that permits almost anyone to immediately post information. or graphics to a common site for other users to read and modify.1) Upon completion of this lab. If you have ever used Wikipedia. you will use a host computer that connects across the cloud to access the TWiki wiki server. Task 6: Clean Up Check with your instructor before removing Gaim and shutting down the computer. files. you have the opportunity to learn about the different parts of a wiki. Observe the response time before and during the file transfer. you explore the TWiki wiki server installed on Eagle Server in this lab.2. a cloud is often used to symbolize a more complex network that is not the current focus of discussion. In this lab. Task 1: Define the Terms Wiki and Blog Wiki is a Hawaiian-language word that means fast. you will be able to ■ ■ Define the terms wiki and blog. Figure 1-13 Topology for Lab 1-2 Eagle Server Pod#A Note to Instructor: The lab should be preconfigured for students. Use the Orientation lab to configure and test connectivity before students arrive in class.” In networking. Scenario In this lab. Use a continuous ping from the host to Eagle Server to monitor network throughput. transfer files between partners. To gain experience with a wiki. In subsequent chapters you will study in great detail the devices and protocols that are inside the cloud. Write a brief description of the network response time—during file transfers and without file transfers. you are probably familiar with the look and feel of a wiki. In networking terms. A wiki can be installed for . CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 5: Challenge While you are connected in chat. If there are connectivity issues with the lab computer connecting to Eagle Server.22 Network Fundamentals. ask the instructor for assistance. Figure 1-13 shows two computers connected to a “cloud. A wiki lets you access a home page (first page) that provides a search tool to assist you in locating the articles that interest you. Background The lab topology shown in Figure 1-13 should be configured and ready for use. Explore wiki features.6.

Test the page controls. visit the following URLs outside of class: http://www. from such providers as www. Free Internet blog hosting is available. 6. Edit and auto links are available to edit a page and automatically link pages. complete the questions in this task.cgi?WhatIsWiki http://www. Task 2: Explore Wiki Features with the TWiki Tutorial The TWiki tutorial explores some of the more common features of a wiki. 7. 2. users have already been created for steps that require login privileges. TWiki requires e-mail verification for new accounts. and . similar to a free website or e-mail account. 3.com.com/ A web log.wiki. It is recommended that you open two browsers. As you investigate each topic in the tutorial. groups. Get e-mail alerts whenever pages are changed. the following common features have been formalized into every wiki: ■ ■ Any web browser can be used to edit pages or create new content. Get set.blogger. Use your browser to upload files as page attachments. 4. The user not only reads wiki contents but also participates by creating content within a web browser. Text formatting is similar to creating an e-mail. called a blog. Check out TWiki users. Access control can be set by the topic creator.wikispaces.org/wiki. A wiki web is a grouping of pages with different collaboration groups.. Change a page and create a new one. 8. A search engine is used for quick content location. The power of a wiki is in the rich hyperlink content. Note that you won’t be able to carry out the instructions in the “3. Blogs are normally the creation of a single person. Take a quick tour. Some blogs permit users to leave comments and provide feedback to the author. Instead. Open a private account. It covers the following major topics: 1.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 23 the Internet community or behind a corporate firewall for employee use. is similar to a wiki in that users create and post content for others to read. Although many different wiki servers are available. Point one browser at the TWiki URL. Following hyperlinks can present continuity problems. but others are more restrictive. 5. ■ ■ ■ For more information on wikis. defining who is permitted to edit content. and the blog owner controls blog content. and e-mail has not been configured on the lab host computers.. Open a private account” topic.

Click the TWiki Tutorial link. user IDs have been created for you to use later in this lab.. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide use the other browser for “working” pages. is a web topic designed to test wiki features.” and topic 2. topic 1.” E-mail is not possible at this time. you will not be able to register..” After completing the first two tutorial sections. Adjust the browser window sizes so that instructions can be viewed in one browser and actions can be performed in the other. topic 3. The Sandbox. so enter it exactly as shown. “Open a private account. answer the following questions: What is a WikiWord? A WikiWord is a topic name.com/twiki/bin/view/Sandbox/WebHome. made up of two or more words with initial capital letters. “Get set. Refer to the tutorial. users fill in registration information and submit the form to TWiki. Open a web browser and connect to the TWiki Sandbox at http://eagleserver. highlighted in Figure 1-14. shown in Figure 1-14.example. List the mandatory information required for registration: First Name Last Name E-mail address Your password Retype password Organization name Country . that hyperlinks to the topic. Instead. Figure 1-14 TWiki Sandbox Web Step 2: Open the TWiki Tutorial. to open the wiki tutorial page. Step 1: Establish a web client connection to the Eagle Server wiki. The URL name is case-sensitive. First. The key point to understand about this step is that registration is a two-part process. Any external links that are selected will result in an error. therefore. How many results are returned from a search of WebSearch? 5 Refer to the tutorial. “Take a quick tour. Step 3: Complete the TWiki tutorial.24 Network Fundamentals.

r3 > r2 > r1. answer the following question: What is the latest revision number? 15 In Table 1-4. such as who changed what and when View a previous version of the topic or the difference between two versions Goes to a stripped-down version of the page. After completing this tutorial section. Backlinks.” makes you familiar with page-editing commands. topic 4. the user account is added to the TWiki database. The user logs in with the new password and creates a new. “Change a page and create a new one. After completing this tutorial section. Table 1-4 Description Action Links Action Link Add to or edit the topic Show the source text without editing the topic Attach files to a topic Find out what other topics link to this topic (reverse link) Additional controls. and Raw View. using Table 1-5 to log in to the wiki server. answer the following questions related to user and group issues: How is a user’s password reset? The user selects WikiWord “Reset Password” and enters the login ID. More. good for printing Edit Raw View Attach Backlinks More History r3 > r2 > r1 Printable Tutorial topic 6.” is an opportunity for you to add content to the wiki. The second part of the registration process is when the user either enters the code in the activation window or responds with e-mail by clicking the TWiki response link. Recognize the student who has the best topic page! . groups. Refer to the tutorial. place the correct action link next to the descriptions of page controls. and setting the topic’s parent Topics are under revision control—shows the topic’s complete change history.” A list of TWiki users and groups is displayed. Place the following action links: Attach. such as rename/move. “Test the page controls. History. “Check out TWiki users. Tutorial topic 5. version control. Printable. At this time. Complete this tutorial. Note to Instructor: This tutorial is an opportunity for the student to create a personalized page.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 25 TWiki responds to a registration request by sending an e-mail to the user that contains a unique activation code. How can inappropriate changes be fixed in a wiki topic? A topic revision can be undone by a member of the TWikiAdminGroup. memorable password. Edit. The TWiki system generates a new password and sends it to the user’s e-mail account.

a group with private accounts has been created to allow participation in a private TWiki topic. These accounts are StudentCcna1 through StudentCcna22. cisco.26 Network Fundamentals. See Figure 1-15. Table 1-5 Account Logins Account Login ID (Case-Sensitive) Lab pod#host# Pod1host1 Pod1host2 Pod2host1 Pod2host2 Pod3host1 Pod3host2 Pod4host1 Pod4host2 Pod5host1 Pod5host2 Pod6host1 Pod6host2 Pod7host1 Pod7host2 Pod8host1 Pod8host2 Pod9host1 Pod9host2 Pod10host1 Pod10host2 Pod11host1 Pod11host2 StudentCcna1 StudentCcna2 StudentCcna3 StudentCcna4 StudentCcna5 StudentCcna6 StudentCcna7 StudentCcna8 StudentCcna9 StudentCcna10 StudentCcna11 StudentCcna12 StudentCcna13 StudentCcna14 StudentCcna15 StudentCcna16 StudentCcna17 StudentCcna18 StudentCcna19 StudentCcna20 StudentCcna21 StudentCcna22 From the lab Wiki Welcome Screen. located in the upper-left corner of the page. Refer to Table 1-5. All accounts have the same password. . You should use the account that reflects your pod and host computer number. click the Log In link. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide On Eagle Server.

To complete this tutorial. “Get e-mail alerts whenever pages are changed. Sometimes it is not convenient to return regularly to a .” details how to receive e-mail alerts whenever a particular page has been updated.” describes the process of uploading files into the wiki.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 27 Figure 1-15 Log In Link A login box similar to the one shown in Figure 1-16 should appear. similar to the one shown in Figure 1-17. What is the default maximum file size that can be transferred? 10 MB Tutorial topic 8. Enter the applicable TWiki username and password cisco. and upload it to the wiki server. “Use your browser to upload files as page attachments. Figure 1-17 Wiki Topic Page Tutorial topic 7. Both the username and password are case-sensitive. Figure 1-16 Login Box This should bring up your wiki topic page. create a document using Notepad.

alerts are not sent.28 Network Fundamentals. Packet Tracer Challenge Skills Integration Challenge: Introduction to Packet Tracer (1.php/Main_Page Wireshark network protocol analyzer: http://wiki. and Table 1-6 reflects the addressing information.com/index. Because e-mail is not configured on the host computer. Edit the WebNotify page. Here’s a possible format: three spaces * [ webname .wireshark.networkdictionary. Task 5: Clean Up Close all web browsers and shut down the computer unless instructed otherwise. Create a personal blog of your network education experience.SMTP mail address three spaces * [ webName .nyetwork. .org/ Task 4: Challenge Depending on the type of Eagle Server installation. the class may be able use the TWiki wiki server to post interesting topics related to computer network theory and class progress.org/wiki/CCNA_Certification Cisco Systems corporate history: http://en. Here are some wikis of possible interest: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ CCNA: http://en. and add the web name and your e-mail address. Describe how you could receive e-mail notifications whenever a topic changes. ] wikiName .3) Figure 1-18 shows the topology for this challenge.7.org/wiki/Cisco Network+: http://en. Answers will vary.com: CiscoStudentsStuff Task 3: Reflection This lab presented the mechanics of a wiki. Usefulness and collaboration will not be realized until you actually join a wiki.wikipedia. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide wiki simply to check for updates to postings.1.org/wiki/Cisco_Systems Wiki web about Cisco equipment and technology: http://www. Internet access is required. ] wikiName three spaces * SMTP mail address three spaces * SMTP mail address : topics three spaces * [ webname . ] wikiName : topics ° ccna1@example.wikibooks.wikibooks.org/wiki/Network_Plus_Certification/Study_Guide Network Dictionary: http://wiki.

255.254 10.2 192.255.255.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 29 Figure 1-18 Topology for Skills Integration Challenge 1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server 2960-24TT S1-Central 1841 R2-Central PC-PT 1A PC-PT 1B Table 1-6 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP R2-Central S1-Central PC 1A PC 1B Eagle Server Fa0/0 S0/0/0 Fa0/0 S0/0/0 VLAN 1 NIC NIC NIC 192.5 172.254.16.254 255.255.16.255.10. Examine a device configuration.1 172.6 10.0 — — 10.254 172.254 192.16. Review the standard lab setup.255.10.0.253 Upon completion of this activity.255. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Explore Packet Tracer Real-time mode.254.255.16.1 172.0 255.168.0. Explore Packet Tracer operation.253 10.10.1.6 172.10.255.255.255.6 172. Connect devices.1.254. Explore the Logical Workplace.255.16. Describe the devices.0 255.255.10.255.255.10.16.0 255.255.252 255.16.10.254.168.10.0 255.0 255. .168.254 172.0.252 255.0.

Click the connections group symbol.” tutorials. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Background Throughout the course you will use a standard lab setup created from actual PCs. When you click this symbol. The lower-left portion of the PT interface. As you move the mouse pointer over these symbols. and information on the strengths and limitations of using Packet Tracer to model networks.pka files (activity files for practice). They are the result of the . equipment. You are encouraged to compare the results obtained from Packet Tracer network models with the behavior of real equipment. below the yellow bar. The simulator that is used in this course is Packet Tracer. Reset Activity restarts the activity if you want to clear your work or get more practice. Task 2: Explore PT Operations Step 1: Connect the devices using auto connect. or modify existing files from your instructor or your peers. it presents a logical view of the network in realtime mode. Task 1: Explore the PT Interface Step 1: Examine the Logical Workplace. This method provides the widest range of features and the most realistic experience.30 Network Fundamentals. The specific connection symbols provide different cable types that can be used to connect devices. You are also encouraged to examine the Help files built into Packet Tracer. Packet Tracer provides a set of protocols.pka Packet Tracer activity file format. the gold lightning bolt. which include an extensive “My First PT Lab. and features but only a fraction of what is possible with real equipment. Open the file LSG01-PTSkills1. When you create your own networks in Packet Tracer. and study the various devices that are available and their symbols. .pkt file format. The main part of the PT interface is the Logical Workplace. At the bottom of these instructions are two buttons: ■ ■ Check Results gives you feedback on how much of the activity you have completed. When Packet Tracer starts. is the portion of the interface that you use to select and place devices into the Logical Workplace. The first specific type.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to perform this exercise using Packet Tracer. routers. and switches to learn networking concepts. Packet Tracer is a supplement and not a replacement for experience with real equipment. When you launched this activity from the curriculum. the pointer resembles a cable connector. Click each group. Because equipment and time are limited. When you click one of these symbols. servers. you will often use the . the name of the group appears in the text box in the center. Step 2: Explore symbols navigation. the specific devices in the group appear in the box to the right. This is the large area where devices are placed and connected. these instructions appeared. As you point to the specific devices. this experience can be supplemented by a simulated environment. The first box in the lower left contains symbols that represent groups of devices. This activity gives you an opportunity to explore the standard lab setup using the Packet Tracer simulator. Packet Tracer can create two file formats: . a description of the device appears in the text box below the specific devices.pkt files (network simulation model files) and . automatically selects the connection type based on the interfaces available on the devices.

and gateway information. and MAC address. The Physical tab displays physical components of the device. and gateway information. dialup. Switch displays port configuration information. . DNS. Using the auto connection symbol. New modules can also be added using this tab. Step 2: Examine device configuration with a mouseover. port status. ■ PC devices contain three tabs—Physical. The Config tab displays the general configuration information. including IP address. subnet mask. and Desktop. ■ ■ ■ Step 3: Examine device configuration. click the auto connection symbol. Move the mouse over the devices found in the Logical Workplace. The Config tab displays the general information. PC displays IP address. The Desktop tab allows the user to configure IP address. Config. Click each device type found in the Logical Workplace to view the device configuration: ■ Router and Switch devices contain three tabs—Physical. such as modules. and CLI (command-line interface).Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 31 To connect two devices. such as ports. The Physical tab displays components of the device. such as device name. and VLAN membership. New modules can also be added using this tab. and a simulated web browser can also be accessed using the Desktop tab. New modules can also be added using this tab. Server displays IP address. and then click the second device. Config. MAC address. the command prompt. click the first device. The Config tab displays the device name. The Physical tab displays components of the device. default gateway. The CLI tab allows the user to configure the device using the command-line interface. including IP address. A terminal emulator. As you move the mouse pointer over these symbols. ■ Server and Hub devices contain two tabs—Physical and Config. MAC address. make the following connection: ■ ■ Connect Eagle Server to the R1-ISP router. IP address. and wireless. port status. DNS server. the device configurations appear in a text box: ■ Router displays port configuration information. Connect PC-PT 1A to the S1-Central switch. and gateway information. MAC address. subnet mask. such as device name.

and two PCs. one server. Each of these devices is preconfigured with such information as device names. one switch. gateways. Task 4: Reflection You have completed your first Packet Tracer lab. if you have not done so already. and connections. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 3: Review the Standard Lab Setup The standard lab setup consists of two routers. IP addresses. You are encouraged to obtain Packet Tracer from your instructor or Academy Connections. .32 Network Fundamentals.

or information. fill-in-the-blank. Concept Questions 1. matching. 3. All of these methods have three elements in common. ■ ■ ■ What are the three elements of communication? Message source or sender Destination or receiver Channel or media What is the process of breaking large messages. Modern networks primarily use three types of media to interconnect devices. hands-on skills needed to use some critical tools to help evaluate network communications. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide.CHAPTER 2 Communicating over the Network The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of multiple-choice. into smaller. for assistance. What are these three types? Metallic wires within cables Glass or plastic fibers (fiber-optic cable) Wireless transmission ■ ■ ■ . that must be sent from one individual or device to another. As you work through this chapter. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum activities and labs to further reinforce that you have mastered the practical. use Chapter 2 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum or use the corresponding Chapter 2 in the Networking Fundamentals. or flow of data. People exchange ideas using many different communication methods. easier-to-manage pieces called? Segmentation 2. What is the process used to allow many different conversations to be interleaved on a network called? Multiplexing 4. Study Guide The Platform for Communications Communication begins with a message. and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of how devices communicate over the network.

and internetworks. Services b. Table 2-2 Definition End or Intermediary Device Device Type Computers (work stations. laptops. Media c. Devices b. employees. E-mail. web servers) Mobile handheld devices (such as wireless barcode scanners. or others with authorization. Table 2-1 Term Components of the Network Definition a. file servers. WANs. and is designed to be accessible only by the organization’s members. WANs. 1. wireless connection. and wireless access points) Network printers Internetworking devices (routers) VoIP phones Communication servers and modems Security cameras Security devices (firewalls) End devices End devices Intermediary device End devices Intermediary device End devices Intermediary device End devices Intermediary device LANs. identify the definition on the left with either end devices or intermediary devices on the right. The term intranet is often used to refer to a private connection of LANs and WANs that belongs to an organization.34 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 2-1. and Internetworks Network infrastructures can vary greatly in terms of the following: ■ ■ ■ The size of the area covered The number of users connected The number and types of services available This section tests your knowledge of the differences between LANs. switch. . Computer. switches. router c. Cat5 cable. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks for the following statements. match the definition on the right with a term on the left. web browser In Table 2-2. fiber-optic cable a. PDAs) Network access devices (hubs.

a. The media connecting the PC to the networking device plugs directly into the NIC. 3. and Internetworks Number Router Firewall Wireless access point LAN hub LAN switch IP phone Wireless router Wireless media Server Laptop LAN media Desktop computer WAN media 1 7 9 3 2 8 10 13 4 6 12 5 11 . WANs c. A global mesh of interconnected networks. providing services and applications to people within a common organizational structure. or region. When a company or organization has locations that are separated by large geographic distances. WANs. A LAN is usually administered by a single organization. match the definition on the right with a term on the left. An individual network usually spans a single geographic area. and Internetworks Definition a. Internetworks In Table 2-4. 4. Table 2-4 Device LANs. b. WANs use specifically designed network devices to make the interconnections between LANs.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 35 2. such as a single business. Table 2-3 Term LANs. campus. Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 2-3. match the term on the left with the correct symbol number from Figure 2-1. c. WANs. LANs b. it might be necessary to use a telecommunications service provider (TSP) to interconnect the LANs at the different locations.

These protocols are specific to the characteristics of the conversation. Successful communication between hosts on a network requires the interaction of many different protocols. is governed by predetermined rules called protocols. 3. whether face to face or over a network. is governed by predetermined rules called protocols. ■ What processes do networking protocol suites describe? The process by which networking devices share information about pathways with other networks How and when error and system messages are passed between devices The setup and termination of data transfer sessions ■ ■ . All communication. 1.36 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 2-1 Common Data Network Symbols 1 7 2 IP 8 3 9 4 10 11 5 12 6 13 Protocols All communication. A standard is a process or protocol that has been endorsed by the networking industry and ratified by a standards organization. The most common internetwork protocol is Internet Protocol (IP). whether face to face or over a network. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks for the following statements. 2. Concept Questions 1. 4. A group of interrelated protocols that are necessary to perform a communication function is called a protocol suite.

Describes the mechanical. c. Network layer . it is common to use a layered model. Represents data to the user plus encoding and dialog control d. Controls the hardware devices and media that make up the network c. and the interaction with the layers above and below it. ■ What are some benefits to using a layered model to describe network protocols and operations? Assists in protocol design. functional. Table 2-6 Term OSI Model Definition a. because protocols that operate at a specific layer have defined information that they act upon and a defined interface to the layers above and below Fosters competition because products from different vendors can work together Prevents technology or capability changes in one layer from affecting other layers above and below Provides a common language to describe networking functions and capabilities ■ ■ ■ Using Layered Models To visualize the interaction between various protocols. continues d. Transport layer c. Ensures that loss of connection can be recovered and reset if data flow is interrupted before all data is received. Application layer b. Provides the means for end-to-end connectivity between individuals in the human network using data networks.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 37 2. Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 2-5. Provides for common representation of the data transferred between application layer services. Transport layer e. Uses packet sequencing and application mapping through port numbers a. a. Provides services to the presentation layer to organize its dialogue and to manage data exchange. electrical. Presentation layer c. and procedural means to activate. Application layer b. and deactivate physical connections for bit transmission to and from a network device. A layered model depicts the operation of the protocols occurring within each layer. g. match the definition on the right with a term on the left. Internet layer d. Network access layer b. Protocols describe methods for exchanging data frames between devices over a common media. match the definition on the right with a term on the left. b. maintain. Determines the best path through the network In Table 2-6. Session layer f. Table 2-5 Term TCP/IP Model Definition a.

Layer 2 c. Routers b. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks for the following statements. Using the OSI model as a guide. Hubs d. A unique dialogue between devices is identified with a pair of Layer 4 source and destination port numbers that are representative of the two communicating applications. Network Addressing Various types of addresses must be included in a packet to successfully deliver the data from a source application running on one host to the correct destination application running on another. is contained in the header of the Layer 2 protocol data unit (PDU). The Layer 2 address is unique on the local network and represents the address of the end device on the physical media. d. The first identifier.38 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 2-6 Term OSI Model continued Definition f. Switches c. and reassemble the data for individual communications between the end devices. Layer 3 d. Layer 4 2. Data link layer g. Layer 1 b. 2. Defines services to segment. Servers . you can see the different addresses and identifiers that are necessary at each layer. In a LAN using Ethernet. called a frame. Provides connectivity services that route packets from source network to destination network. Physical layer e. What kind of protocols are primarily designed to move data from one local network to another local network within an internetwork? a. transfer. 1. 1. Which devices make Layer 3 decisions? a. Layer 2 is concerned with the delivery of messages on a single local network. the host physical address. Multiple-Choice Questions Choose the best answer for each of the questions that follow. this address is called the Media Access Control (MAC) address.

such as tracert and NeoTrace. you use two route-tracing programs to examine the Internet pathway to destination networks. Each router represents a point where one network connects to another network and the packet was forwarded through. The traceroute (or tracert) tool is often used for network troubleshooting. You should perform this activity on a computer that has Internet access and access to a command line. Describe the interconnected and global nature of the Internet with respect to data flow. Tools such as traceroute/tracert are usually embedded within the operating system of the end device. First. however. If multiple websites (mirrors) are available for the same file of data. By showing a list of routers traversed. Note. It can also be useful when performing tasks such as downloading data. one can trace each mirror to get a good idea of which mirror would be the fastest to use. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ Explain the use of route tracing programs.1) Upon completion of this activity. Scenario Using an Internet connection. two trace routes between the same source and destination conducted some time apart might produce different results. you might have to turn your firewalls off for this lab.5. Background Route-tracing software is a utility that lists the networks data has to traverse from the user’s originating device to a distant destination network device. some computers running Windows XP might have firewall programs enabled that might prevent tracert and NeoTrace from operating.2. Remember. it enables the user to identify the path taken to reach a particular destination on the network or across internetworks.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 39 Labs and Activities Activity 2-1: Using NeoTrace to View Internetworks (2. Others such as NeoTrace are proprietary programs that provide extra information. The number of routers is known as the number of “hops” the data traveled from source to destination. . and then the more enhanced NeoTrace program. This lab assumes the installation of NeoTrace. that because of the “meshed” nature of the interconnected networks that make up the Internet and IP’s capability to select different pathways over which to send packets. NeoTrace uses available online information to graphically display the route traced on a global map. The displayed list can help identify data-flow problems when trying to access a service such as a website. for example. you use the Windows embedded tracert utility. Use tracert and NeoTrace to trace a route from its PC to a distant server. This network tool is typically executed in UNIX and similar systems at the command line as follows: traceroute <destination network name or end device address> This network tool is typically executed in Microsoft Windows systems at the command line as follows: tracert <destination network name or end device address> This tool determines the route taken by packets across an IP network.

sprintllink.96.694] sl-bb22-sj-5-1. To trace the route to a distant network.net [144.de [188.net [144.com [128.207.74.cisco.219.3.dfn.sprintlink.sprintlink.de [10.11] 194.com [198.cisco.1.5] sjck-sdf-ciod-gw1.com from a location in Bavaria.16.1.net [195.18.1. If DNS is not available.44.sprintlink.25] sl-bb20-msq-10-0.9.69] sl-bb20-rly-15-1.25] Over a maximum of 30 hops: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 <10 ms <10 ms 20 ms <10 ms <10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 30 ms 30 ms 30 ms 100 ms 110 ms 171 ms 161 ms 160 ms 170 ms 170 ms 160 ms 160 ms 10 ms <10 ms <10 ms <10 ms <10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 30 ms 30 ms 30 ms 100 ms <10 ms <10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 20 ms 20 ms 31 ms 90 ms 10-37-00-1.19.8.74.33] cr-frankfurt1.cisco.23.14] sjck-dirty-gw1.141] pos3-0-622M. Without this name resolution.net [195.189] sl-bb21-lon-5-0. At the command-line prompt.8.107. .sprintlink.com [128. How many hops between the source and destination? Answer varies based on location Example 2-1 shows the successful result when running tracert www.96.210] sl-gw11-sj-10-0.dfn. The first output line should show the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) followed by the IP address.cr2.81] so-6-0-0.134] sl-ciscopsn2-11-0-0.dillingen.com Tracing route to www.239.g-win.1.107. Examine the output displayed.131.net [144.de [188.de [188.106] www.ar2.de [188.232.com. Example 2-1 tracert Output C:\> tracert www.g-win.net [144.cisco.232.sprintlink.95. the tracert would have failed. the PC being used must have a working connection to the class/lab network.37.73] so0-0-0-2488M.174] pos1-0-622M.232.239.internal. which understand valid IP addresses only.133.0.sprintlink.dfn.LON3.gblx.net [213.gblx.40 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 1: Trace Route to Remote Server Step 1.48. enter tracert www.232.net [208.133.LON3. Trace the route to a distant network.232.br1.alp.11 ar-augsburg2. The lab Domain Name Service (DNS) server was able to resolve the name to an IP address.3.25] 110 ms 110 ms 160 ms 170 ms 160 ms 170 ms 181 ms 160 ms 151 ms 160 ms 151 ms 160 ms 160 ms 161 ms 150 ms 161 ms Trace complete.228.gblx. the IP address of the destination device rather than the server name has to be entered after the tracert command.193] cr-muenchen1.19.145] ar-augsburg1.dfn. Step 2.g-win.com [198.gblx.219.net [62.cisco.g-win.cisco.cr1.32. because this tool operates at the TCP/IP layers.net [144.317. Germany.FRA2. Step 3.206.FRA2.cisco.125] sl-bb25-sj-12-0.net [144.

Step 7. Launch the NeoTrace program. which enables you to enter the precise latitude and longitude of your location. Task 5: Clean Up Exit the NeoTrace program. Therefore. Node View from the View menu displays the connections graphically with symbols. Try the same trace route on a PC connected to the Internet and examine your output: Number of hops to www.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 41 The first output line shows the FQDN. Destination URL: Answer varies based on URL Destination IP address: Answer varies based on URL Task 2: Trace Route Using NeoTrace Step 1. Step 6. Step 4. Enter www. On the View menu. Consider which technical details are revealed and how this information could perhaps be misused. Try a number of different URLs and view the routes to those destinations. and in the Home Location section click the Set Home Location button.com: Answer varies based on location Step 5. properly shut down the computer. Click the Map tab. Alternatively. Follow the instructions to select your country and location within your country. List View displays the list of routers similar to tracert. Step 2. Then. followed by the IP address. Step 5. there are listings of all routers through which the tracert requests had to pass to get to the destination. and examine your output. Step 3. . a DNS server was able to resolve the name to an IP address. Relate the displays of the output of NeoTrace to the concept of interconnected networks and the global nature of the Internet. Unless instructed otherwise by your instructor. Task 4: Challenge Consider and discuss possible network security issues that could arise from the use of programs such as traceroute and NeoTrace.com in the Target field and click Go. Step 4. Task 3: Reflection Review the purpose and usefulness of route-tracing programs. you can click the Advanced button. Map View from the View menu displays the links and routers in their geographic location on a global map. Try another trace route on the same PC.cisco. From the View menu. Select each view in turn and note the differences and similarities. choose Options.cisco.

end devices must be connected by media (cables).6. Addressing for this lab is applied to the workstations and is used to enable communication between the devices. The type of media required depends on the type of device being connected. Background Many network problems can be fixed at the physical layer of a network.1) Upon completion of this lab. Verify basic connectivity on each network. two or more devices communicate through an address. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ Correctly identify cables for use in the network. Figure 2-2 Topology for Lab 2-1 Peer-to-Peer Network Switched Network . The network layer (Layer 3) requires a unique address (also known as a logical address or IP address). Scenario This lab starts with the simplest form of networking (peer to peer) and ends with the lab connecting through a switch. Therefore. Physically cable a peer-to-peer and switched network. you use straight-through or patch cables to connect workstations and switches. At the physical layer (Layer 1) of the OSI model.42 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Lab 2-1: Topology Orientation and Building a Small Network (2. as shown in Figure 2-2. In the basic portion of this lab. you need to understand clearly which cables to use for your network connections. In addition. which allows the data to reach the appropriate destination device.1.

use the following step-by-step instructions. right-click My Network Places. and then click Properties. Use a crossover cable to connect two workstations to each other through their network interface card (NIC) Ethernet port. Connect one end of the cable to the NIC port on PC1 and the other end of the cable to PC2. Apply a Layer 3 address to the workstations. Steps may differ slightly if you are using a different operating system. The cables used in this lab are crossover and straight-through.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 43 Task 1: Create a Peer-to-Peer Network Step 1. Task 3: Cable the Peer-to-Peer Network Step 1. as shown in Figure 2-3. Use a straight-through cable to connect the router’s Ethernet port to a switch port or a workstation to a switch port. you must identify the types of media you intend to use. Obtain the following equipment and resources for the lab: ■ ■ ■ ■ Two workstations Two straight-through (patch) cables One crossover cable One switch (or hub) Task 2: Identify the Cables Used in a Network Before the devices can be cabled. Connect two workstations. Notice when you look at the plug that the orange and green wires are in opposite positions on each end of the cable. Notice when you look at the plug that both ends of the cable are exactly the same in each pin position. See Figure 2-4. Select a lab partner. click Start. This is also an Ethernet cable. This is an Ethernet cable. with icons showing the different network connections. The Network Connections window should appear. Step 2. Note: These steps must be completed on each workstation. To complete this task. Using the correct Ethernet cable. a. . The instructions are for Windows XP. On your computer. connect two workstations together. Figure 2-3 Peer-to-Peer Cabling Which cable did you use? Crossover cable Step 2.

e. In the IP address box. Enter the IP address 192. c.2 for PC1.44 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 2-4 Network Connections b. . enter the IP address 192.168. Right-click the Local Area Connection and click Properties.1.1. select the Use the following IP address option. On the General tab of the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties window.3 for PC2. Figure 2-5 Local Area Connection Properties d.168. Select the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) item as shown in Figure 2-5. and then click the Properties button.

exe) window will appear as shown in Figure 2-8. If this address is not automatically listed. The DOS command (cmd. For the purposes of this lab. Verify connectivity. Figure 2-6 Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties g. Figure 2-7 Run Command Enter cmd in the Open box. h. you enter basic network commands to test your computer connections. The dialog box shown in Figure 2-7 appears. .Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 45 f. and then click Run. the subnet mask lists automatically. Step 3. Click OK.255.0. The subnet address should be 255. and then click OK. You can enter DOS commands using this window. On your computer. click Start. Press the Tab key. Close the Local Area Connection Properties window.255. enter the address manually. as shown in Figure 2-6.

server.1. enter ping 192.1.3: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 192. Step 4.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 192.1.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 If the ping command displays an error message or doesn’t receive a reply from the other workstation.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 192.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 192. troubleshoot as necessary. Possible areas to troubleshoot include the following: ■ Verifying the correct IP addresses on both workstations .1.3: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 192. What is the output of the ping command? Answer for PC1: Reply from 192.168.46 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 2-8 cmd Command The ping command is a computer network tool used to test whether a host (workstation.168.168.168.1.3: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Answer for PC2: Reply from 192.168.168.168.1. enter ping 192.168. Use the ping command to verify that PC1 can reach PC2 and PC2 can reach PC1.168. From the PC1 DOS command prompt.1.2. From the PC2 DOS command prompt. and so on) is reachable across an IP network.1.1.3. router.1.3: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 192.168.

as shown in Figure 2-9. Repeat this process for each workstation on your network. connect one end of the cable to the NIC port on the workstation and the other end to a port on the switch. Which cable did you use? Straight-through cable . Figure 2-9 Switched Network 1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server 2960-24TT S1-Central 1841 R2-Central PC-PT 1A PC-PT 1B Step 2. Using the correct cable.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 47 ■ Ensuring that the correct type of cable is used between the workstations What is the output of the ping command if you unplug the network cable and ping the other workstation? Answer for PC1: Destination host unreachable Destination host unreachable Destination host unreachable Destination host unreachable Task 4: Connect Your Workstations to the Classroom Lab Switch Step 1. Connect the workstation to a switch.

media disconnected. A hand symbol will appear under the icon. When you can see it and work with the file. and media disconnected What could prevent the ping from being sent to the workstations when they are connected through the switch? Wrong IP address. On the desktop. On your desktop. Verify network connectivity by using the ping command to reach the other workstations attached to the switch. you have access through all seven layers of the OSI model. however. Place a file in the folder. switch powered off Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Topology Orientation and Building a Small Network (2.3: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 192.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. create a new folder and name it test.168. Right-click the folder and click Sharing and Security. You can access this folder across the network. Task 5: Reflection What could prevent a ping from being sent between the workstations when they are directly connected? Wrong IP address on workstation.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab2612.1.168.48 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Step 3.1.3: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 192.1.3: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 What is the output of the ping command if you ping an address that is not connected to this network? Answer for PC1: Request timed out Request timed out Request timed out Request timed out Step 4. Remember.168. or a misconfiguration of the switch. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment.1.6.3: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 192. Share a document between PCs. double-click My Network Places and then Computers Near Me. . What is the output of the ping command? Answer for PC1: Reply from 192.168.1. The test folder should appear. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity. pinging wrong IP address. Verify connectivity. Double-click the workstation icon.

Perform basic PDU capture using Wireshark.6. A packet sniffer (also known as a network analyzer or protocol analyzer) is computer software that can intercept and log data traffic passing over a data network. This enables it to display the encapsulation and individual fields of a PDU and interpret their meaning. or “packet sniffer” application. and education. Scenario To capture PDUs. the sniffer “captures” each protocol data unit (PDU) and can decode and analyze its content according to the appropriate RFC or other specifications. and Wireshark must be running before any data can be captured. used for network troubleshooting.Wireshark. the screen shown in Figure 2-10 displays. analysis. Experiment with Wireshark features and options such as PDU capture and display filtering.1) Upon completion of this lab. Wireshark was known as Ethereal. As data streams travel back and forth over the network.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 49 Lab 2-2: Using Wireshark to View Protocol Data Units (2. Perform basic PDU analysis on straightforward network data traffic. Wireshark is programmed to recognize the structure of different network protocols.2. go to http://www. Before June 2006. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ ■ Explain the purpose of a protocol analyzer (Wireshark). Background Wireshark is a software protocol analyzer. For information and to download the program. When Wireshark is launched.org. It is a useful tool for anyone working with networks and can be used with most labs in the CCNA courses for data analysis and troubleshooting. the computer on which Wireshark is installed must have a working connection to the network. software and protocol development. Figure 2-10 Wireshark Opening Screen .

you can set the other options. The Capture Options dialog box. Among those available in the Capture Options dialog box. Figure 2-12 Wireshark Capture Options . Typically. Figure 2-11 Wireshark: Capture Options Dialog Box First. shown in Figure 2-11. select Options from the Capture menu. for a computer this is the connected Ethernet adapter. you must ensure that Wireshark is set to monitor the correct interface. the two highlighted in Figure 2-12 deserve examination.50 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide To start data capture. provides a range of settings and filters to determine which and how much data traffic is captured. From the Interface dropdown list. select the network adapter in use. Then.

As you use different intermediary devices (hubs.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 51 If the Capture packets in promiscuous mode feature is not checked. Clicking the Start button starts the data-capture process. you will experience the different Wireshark results. Figure 2-13 Wireshark Capture Start As data PDUs are captured. routers) throughout these courses. Note: The capturing of these other PDUs depends on the intermediary device connecting the end-device computers on this network. all PDUs destined for this computer and all those detected by the computer NIC on the same network segment (that is. The examples in Figure 2-14 show the capture of a ping process (box on left) and then accessing a web page (box on right). and a message box displays the progress of this process (as shown in Figure 2-13). the name-resolution process might add extra PDUs to your captured data. those that “pass by” the NIC but are not destined for the computer) are captured. switches. the types and number are indicated in the message box. . only PDUs destined for this computer will be captured. If this feature is checked. Although this is a useful feature. The Enable transport name resolution option allows you to control whether Wireshark translates network addresses found in PDUs into names. perhaps distorting the analysis. Wireshark also provides a number of other capture-filtering and capture-process settings.

Figure 2-15 Wireshark Capture Main Panes The PDU (or packet) list pane at the top of Figure 2-15 displays a summary of each packet captured. The example in Figure 2-15 shows the PDUs captured when the ping utility was used and http://www. This main display window of Wireshark has three panes. more details will display in the packet details pane and in the packet bytes pane. as shown in Figure 2-15. Packet number one is selected in this pane. If you select a line in this pane. By clicking packets in this pane.Wireshark.org was accessed.52 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 2-14 Wireshark Capture Output When the Stop button is clicked. you control what displays in the other two panes. Each line in the packet list corresponds to one PDU or packet of the captured data. the capture process is terminated and the main screen displays. The PDU (or packet) details pane in the middle of Figure 2-15 displays the packet selected in the packet list pane in more detail. The packet details pane shows the current packet (selected in the pack- .

The packet list pane on Wireshark should now look something like Figure 2-17. a prompt asks whether you want to save the captured PDUs.254. This pane shows the protocols and protocol fields of the selected packet. Set the capture options as described in the preceding section. After ensuring that the standard lab topology and configuration is correct. when a more in-depth analysis is required. In this case. The information displayed when a capture file is opened is the same as the original capture.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 53 et list pane) in a more detailed form. ping the IP address of another network-connected and poweredon end device in the lab topology. Task 1: Ping PDU Capture Step 1. Figure 2-16 Wireshark Save Option Clicking Continue without Saving closes the file and exits Wireshark without saving the captured data. The protocols and fields of the packet display in a tree form. which you can expand and collapse. When closing a data-capture screen or exiting Wireshark. as shown in Figure 2-16. launch Wireshark on a computer in a lab pod. and highlights the field selected in the packet details pane. The packet bytes pane shows the data of the current packet (selected in the packet list pane) in what is known as hexdump style. You can save the information captured for the data PDUs in a file. However. . ping the Eagle Server using the command ping 192. Examine the packet list pane. In this lab. After receiving the successful replies to the ping in the command-line window. From the command line. this pane is not examined in detail. and then start the capture process. you will find this displayed information useful for examining the binary values and content of PDUs. stop the packet capture. Step 2.254.168. and then open this file in Wireshark for later analysis without having to recapture the same data traffic. The PDU (or packet) bytes pane at the bottom of Figure 2-15 displays the actual data (in hexadecimal form representing the actual binary) from the packet selected in the packet list pane.

answer the following: What protocol is used by ping? ICMP What is the full protocol name? Internet Control Message Protocol What are the names of the two ping messages? Echo Request Echo Reply Are the listed source and destination IP addresses what you expected? Why? Answers may vary. particularly packet numbers 6. If you performed Step 1.54 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 2-17 Wireshark Packet List Pane Look at the packets listed in Figure 2-17. Step 3. the source address is my computer. The packet details pane will now display something similar to Figure 2-18. 9. match the messages displayed in the command-line window when the ping was issued with the six packets captured by Wireshark. . 12. and 15. 11. 14. Select (highlight) the first echo request packet on the list. 7. From the Wireshark packet list. and the destination is the Eagle Server. 8. Locate the equivalent packets on the packet list on your computer. Yes.

Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 55 Figure 2-18 Wireshark Packet Details Pane Click each of the four plus sign (+) buttons to expand the information. Figure 2-19 Wireshark Packet Details Pane. What protocols are in the Ethernet frame? eth:ip:icmp:data As you select a line in the packet details pane. you can further expand the details for each section and protocol. Spend some time scrolling through this information. For example. the bytes pane highlights the corresponding values.” Why are there two types? The Ethernet II shows the MAC addresses. . if you select (highlight) the second line (+ Ethernet II) in the details pane. make a note of the information you do recognize. The packet details pane will now display something similar to Figure 2-19. all or part of the information in the packet bytes pane also becomes highlighted. as shown in Figure 2-20. Locate the two different types of “source” and “destination. Although at this stage of the course you might not fully understand the displayed information. Expanded As you can see. and the Internet Protocol shows the IP addresses.

08Kbytes/sec. 150 Opening BINARY mode data connection for pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter1/gaim1. Click Continue without Saving when the message box shown in Figure 2-16 appears. 226 File send OK. Highlighted Pane This line shows the particular binary values that represent that information in the PDU. enter ftp 192. as follows: Userid: anonymous Password: <ENTER> You may alternatively log in with userid cisco and password cisco. ftp> get /pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter1/gaim-1. User (eagle-server.254.0. When the connection is established.168.56 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 2-20 Wireshark Packet Expanded. 220 Welcome to the eagle-server FTP service. At the command line on your computer running Wireshark.5.254. as follows: ftp> quit 221 Goodbye.com:(none)): anonymous 331 Please specify the password. Start packet capture.com.5. Consider using PASV. C:\Documents and Settings\ccna1> When the file has successfully downloaded. enter anonymous as the user without a password. start packet capture by clicking the Start option on the Capture menu of Wireshark.0.5. .example. enter quit.0.59Seconds 11729.exe and press the Enter key <ENTER> to start downloading the file from the FTP server. Example 2-2 Eagle Server Output C:\Documents and Settings\ccna1>ftp eagle-server. it is not necessary to understand this information in detail. The output will look similar to Example 2-2. When successfully logged in. Step 4.exe 200 PORT command successful. Go to the File menu and select Close.example.exe (6967072 bytes).com Connected to eagle-server.example. When the file download is complete. Assuming Wireshark is still running from the previous steps. Password:<ENTER> 230 Login successful. Task 2: FTP PDU Capture Step 1. stop the PDU capture in Wireshark. At this stage of the course. enter get /pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter1/gaim-1. ftp: 6967072 bytes received in 0.

1292 > ftp [FIN. Request:QUIT. Response: 331 Please specify the password. Highlight a packet associated with the second phase. What does this indicate about the security of this FTP login process? Security isn’t high because the name and password are visible. and the Layer 7 protocol. Request: Pass. Request: User anonymous. highlight and examine some packets exchanged in the third phase of the file download. Response: 221 Goodbye. Examine packet details. .Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 57 Step 2. ftp >1292 [FIN. The filename is gaim-1. match the packets with the messages and prompts in the FTP command-line window. TCP. View the packet details in the details pane. If you performed Step 2. Answers will vary. What feature of TCP does this indicate? Send and receipt of data Step 3. 1294 > ftp-data [ACK. Examine the highlighted portion in the packet bytes pane. Answers will vary. ACK]. Response: 220 Welcome to the eagle-server FTP service. ACK. the actual download request and the data transfer).] Locate recurring TCP exchanges throughout the FTP process.5. Answers will vary.exe. ACK]. Select (highlight) a packet on the list associated with the first phase of the FTP process. FTP > 1292 [SYN. In the details and bytes panes. FTP Data: 1448 bytes.] The third group of PDUs relate to logging out and “breaking the connection. Highlight a packet containing the actual file content. 1292 > ftp [SYN]. Increase the size of the Wireshark packet list pane and scroll through the PDUs listed.0. note the plain text visible in the bytes pane. From any pane. These will be the PDUs from the Layer 4 protocol. List examples of messages exchanged in this phase. The first group is associated with the “connection” phase and logging in to the server. Identify the three groups of PDUs associated with the file transfer. locate the packet containing the filename. Locate and note those PDUs associated with the file download. Locate and list examples of messages exchanged in the second phase (that is. 1292 > ftp [ACK].” List examples of messages exchanged during this process. What protocols are encapsulated in the frame? Eth:ip:tcp:ftp-data Highlight the packets containing the username and password. FTP.

When this information expands. This shows the HTML data carried by the packet.254. Relate this to the OSI and TCP/IP layer models. When you have finished.com or enter the IP address 192. Task 5: Challenge Discuss how you could use a protocol analyzer such as Wireshark to troubleshoot the failure of a web page to download successfully to a browser on a computer. User traffic could be monitored to identify errors in source or destination. highlight an HTTP packet that has the notation “(text/html)” in the Info column. stop the Wireshark packet capture.254. Task 3: HTTP PDU Capture Step 1. close the Wireshark file and continue without saving. Step 2. ACK] is issued to close the connection. In the packet list pane. .168. It is important that you can recognize and link both the protocols represented and the protocol layer and encapsulation types of the models with the information provided by Wireshark. After the web page has fully downloaded. start packet capture by clicking the Start option on the Capture menu of Wireshark. Start packet capture. Enter the URL of the Eagle Server as example. Wireshark could show when a request for a web page failed because of an incorrect URL.58 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Which features distinguish the content of these packets? A [FIN. Locate and identify the TCP and HTTP packets associated with the downloaded web page. what is displayed? HTML code for the web page Examine the highlighted portion of the bytes pane. Assuming Wireshark is still running from the previous steps. Task 4: Reflection Consider the encapsulation information pertaining to captured network data Wireshark can provide. In the packet details pane. click the + box next to Line-based text data: html. Answers may vary. Also. Launch a web browser on the computer that is running Wireshark. Step 3. When finished. Note the similarity between this message exchange and the FTP exchange. identify data traffic on a network that is requested by users. Increase the size of the Wireshark packet list pane and scroll through the PDUs listed. close the Wireshark file and continue without saving. Note: Capture options do not have to be set if you are continuing from previous steps of this lab.

Figure 2-21 shows the topology for this challenge. and analyzing a model of the Exploration lab network. Skills Integration Challenge: Examining Packets (2. Figure 2-21 Topology for Challenge 1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server 2960-24TT S1-Central 1841 R2-Central PC-PT 1A PC-PT 1B . Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Using Packet Tracer to View Protocol Data Units (2. you start building. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to do the challenge lab using Packet Tracer. You can now open the file LSG01-PTSkills2. Remember. and Table 2-7 reflects the addressing information.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer.3) In this activity.6. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab2622.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 59 Task 6: Cleanup Unless instructed otherwise by your instructor. however. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment.1. Remember. exit Wireshark and properly shut down the computer.2.7. however. testing. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity.

255.1 172.16.168.252 255.6 10. DNS server 192. If you have not done so already. In this activity.10.0 255.1.255.254 10.16.6 172. Analyze PDUs in simulation mode.254. Packet Tracer can create two file formats: PKT files (network simulation model files) and PKA files (activity files for practice).16. Two buttons appear at the bottom of these instructions: Check Results (which gives you feedback on how much of the activity you have completed) and Reset Activity (which starts the activity over.10.255.255.0 255. you will often use the PKT file format.10.254.168.254 255.0.254. They are the result of the PKA Packet Tracer activity file format. Connect PC 1B to the Fa0/2 port of the S1-Central Switch and check your work with the Check Results button to see that the topology is complete. display name 1B. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ ■ Complete the topology.10.255.255.60 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 2-7 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP Fa0/0 S0/0/0 192.16. you will be using a standard lab setup created from actual PCs. Task 1: Complete the Topology Add a PC to the workspace.0 255. tutorials to guide you through various tasks. Resources include a “My First PT Lab” to help you learn the basic operation of Packet Tracer.6 172.168.254 172.1.255.10.254.255.255. or modify existing files from your instructor or your peers.0.255.0.2 192.16.1.5 172.10.255.253 10.255.254 192.255.16.10.254. When you create your own networks in Packet Tracer. these instructions appeared.255.0. When you launched this activity from the curriculum.1 172.0 255.0.2.254.252 255. and information about the strengths and weaknesses of using Packet Tracer to model networks.16. and switches to learn networking concepts.0.10. you continue learning how to build and analyze this standard lab topology. Add simple PDUs in real-time mode. This activity provides an opportunity to explore the standard lab setup using the Packet Tracer simulator.255.255.168.0 N/A N/A 10. routers. Experiment with the model of the standard lab setup.254 172. in case you want to clear your work or gain more practice). Background Throughout the course. you are encouraged to examine the Help files available from the Help pull-down menu at the top of the Packet Tracer GUI. servers. . default gateway 172.16.0 255.255.16.255. subnet mask 255. Configure it using the following parameters: IP address 172.254.253 R2-Central Fa0/0 S0/0/0 S1-Central PC 1A PC 1B Eagle Server VLAN 1 NIC NIC NIC Upon completion of this activity.

and in the lower right as a user-created PDU that can be manipulated for testing purposes. and two PCs. Each of these devices is preconfigured. or click the colored square in the Info column of the event list. . Click the packet envelope.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 61 Task 2: Add Simple PDUs in Real-Time Mode Using the Add Simple PDU. Task 5: Reflection If you have not already done so. Task 3: Analyze PDUs in Simulation Mode (Packet Tracing) Switch to simulation mode. one server. send a test message: one between PC 1B and Eagle Server. to examine the packet at each step in its journey. Double-click the red “Fire” button in the User-Created PDU window. Task 4: Experiment with the Model of the Standard Lab Setup The standard lab setup will consist of two routers. Try creating different combinations of test packets and analyzing their journey through the network. one switch. Note that this packet will appear in the event list as something that was “detected” or “sniffed” on the network. you are encouraged to obtain Packet Tracer from your instructor and complete My First PT Lab (available by accessing the Help pull-down menu and choosing Contents). Use the Capture / Forward button to move the packet through the network.

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the OSI and TCP/IP models provide a means by which you can visualize and discuss the flow of networking. and session layers. as shown in Figure 3-1. matching. fill-in-the-blank. for assistance. presentation. When placed side by side. In this section you explore the upper layers of both the OSI and TCP/IP models. As you work through this chapter. use Chapter 3 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum. and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of the TCP/IP model application layer and the OSI model application. How the human network generates data and how that data then enters the computer network is discussed. Application layer software and application layer services and protocols are examined in the labs. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum labs to further reinforce that you have mastered the practical. or use the corresponding Chapter 3 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration Companion Guide. hands-on skills needed to work with the application layer of the OSI model.CHAPTER 3 Application Layer Functionality and Protocols The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of multiple-choice. Figure 3-1 OSI and TCP/IP Models OSI Model 7 Application 6 Presentation 5 4 3 2 1 Session Transport Network Data Link Physical Application Layers TCP/IP Model Domain Name System Application Hypertext Transfer Protocol Simple Mail Transfer Protocol Post Office Protocol Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol Transport Internet Data Flow Layers Network Access . Study Guide Applications: The Interface Between the Networks Visualizing the mechanisms that enable communication across the network is easier if you use the layered framework of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model.

Telnet h. What is meant by the term application layer services? Why are protocols important when used in conjunction with application layer services? Software programs need the assistance of application layer services to use network resources. Without protocols. DNS. Protocol used to provide remote access to servers and network work devices c. SMTP. Define how messages are sent and the expected response. match the term on the left with its definition on the right. 3. Define the start and end of a message. Define the syntax of a message. Define the format of a message. Top layer of both the OSI and TCP/IP models d. Functions at this layer create and maintain dialogs between source and destination applications f. Generally defines the protocols in the TCP/IP suite a. Presentation layer d. The most widely known TCP/IP application layer protocols that provide for the exchange of user information b. JPEG. but what properties do application protocols display? Answers will vary. Define the meaning of any informational fields. Network-aware applications are software programs used to communicate over the network. Session layer e. Layer 7 c. 2. These software programs are considered network-aware if they implement the application layer protocols and can communicate directly with the lower layers of the protocol stack. Define interaction with the next lower layer. Graphic image formats Concept Questions 1. Application layer b. Table 3-1 Term OSI and TCP/IP Model Comparison Definition a. It is difficult to generalize about protocols because they vary so greatly in purpose. This layer provides coding. GIF. the data network would not have a common way to format and direct data. FTP g. Email clients and web browsers are a couple of examples. Request For Comments (RFC) h. such as file transfer or network print spooling. Top layer of the OSI model g. Protocols define the standards and data formats used. . compression. Define the types of messages. Define processes on either end of the communication. Specify what to do with corrupted or improperly formatted messages. and encryption e.64 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 3-1. TIFF f. What does the term network-aware application mean? List a few examples. HTTP.

Multiple-Choice Questions Choose the best answer(s) for each of the following questions. Client b. cell phone. or some other device connected to a network. Hosted on a web server f. Can be on a client and/or a server a. multiple clients requesting services. simultaneously but as separate transactions d. the data may not be physically stored on their device. Server c. Peer-to-peer networks b. Web services d. Peer-to-peer networks b. Device requesting information c. a single client requesting a service b. Across the intranet only e. Across the peer-to-server network 2. Hosted on a client e. Table 3-2 Term Application Layer Terms Definition a. but not at the same time c. whether it is a PC. Web browser e. Across the Internet d.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 65 Making Provisions for Applications and Services When people attempt to access information on their device. Client/server networks c. match the term on the left with its definition on the right. If that is the case. a. Two or more computers are connected via a network and can share resources (such as printers and files) without having a dedicated server. Telnet services f. Peer-to-peer applications can be used on which of the following? (Choose all that apply. 1. simultaneously and as a single transaction . Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 3-2. laptop. A Telnet server may have _____________.) a. multiple clients requesting services. a request to access that information must be made to the device where the data resides. Device responding to the request d. multiple clients requesting services. PDA.

sends a request message to a server. 5. Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 3-3. Sharing files over the Internet has become extremely popular. 9. 6. 10. the most popular network service. the web browser establishes a connection to the web service running on the server using the HTTP protocol. When a client. Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) g. 7. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following statements. HTTP defines the message types that the client uses to request the web page and also the message types the server uses to respond. With peer-to-peer applications . Domain Name System (DNS) f. 3. has revolutionized how people communicate through its simplicity and speed. Port numbers identify applications and application layer services that are the source and destination of data. UDP port 67 g. TCP ports 20 and 21 b. Server programs generally use predefined port numbers that are commonly known by clients. typically a web browser. TCP port 80 c. people can make files on their hard disks available to others for downloading. The Server Message Block (SMB) is a client/server file-sharing protocol. based on the Gnutella protocol. 2. E-mail. A DNS server provides name resolution using the name daemon. TCP port 23 f. 4. File Transfer Protocol (FTP) c. 8. When a web address (or URL) is entered into a web browser. TCP port 25 d. The e-mail server operates two separate processes: Mail Transfer Agent (MTA) and Mail Delivery Agent (MDA). Post Office Protocol (POP) e. Telnet a. The FTP client is an application that runs on a computer that is used to push files to and pull files from a server.66 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Application Layer Protocols and Services Examples As you will see later in this course. match the port number on the left with its protocol on the right. Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) d. UDP port 110 e. Table 3-3 Port Number Port Numbers and Protocols Protocol a. DHCP allows a host to obtain an IP address dynamically when it connects to the network. 1. DNS uses a hierarchical system to create a name database to provide name resolution. TCP/UDP port 53 b. the transport layer uses an addressing scheme called a port number.

Internet. Resolve domain names to IP addresses. presentation. The Open Systems Interconnection reference model is a layered. Mail Delivery Agent (MDA) 4. What is the most popular application service? a. presentation. It uses file servers. d. World Wide Web b. and physical c. Mail Transfer Bridge (MTB) c. Multiple-Choice Questions Choose the best answer(s) for each of the following questions. presentation. d. Resolve domain names to MAC addresses. network. Application. Telnet provides a standard method of emulating text-based terminal devices over the data network. Which of the following best describes a peer-to-peer network? a. eBay 3. It centralizes the resources on a network. The Domain Name System (DNS) was created to do what? a. The OSI model divides the networking process into which seven layers? a. 6. and physical b. transport. . E-mail c. Upload d. P2P d. Application. and physical d. Download c. data link. Pull 5. b. 1. presentation. Mail User Agent (MUA) d. Internet. Query b. and physical 2. transport. data link. It uses the client/server model. Data transfer from a client to a server is referred to as which of the following? a. session. Application. Internet. data link. session. The e-mail server operates which two separate processes? a. network. Mail Transfer Agent (MTA) b. c. transport. Resolve domain names to computer names. Application. session. c. Resolve domain names to e-mail addresses. b. abstract representation created as a guideline for network protocol design. network.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 67 11. transport. It decentralizes the resources on a network.

Type of organization b. SHTTP c. POP 10. Company or brand name d. File server name 8. Which service automates the assignment of IP addresses. subnet masks.68 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide 7. STP d. HTTP d. To receive e-mail messages from an e-mail server. TFTP c. and other IP networking parameters? a. DHCP . Country of origin c.) a. The different top-level domains represent which of the following? (Choose all correct answers. STelnet 9. HTTPS b. SMTP b. SMTP b. SSH c. For secure communication across the Internet. gateway. which protocol is used to access or post web server information? a. Telnet d. the e-mail client can use which of the following protocols? a.

Scenario Perform this activity on a computer that has a microphone and Microsoft Sound Recorder or Internet access so that you can download an audio file. You can find the application in Windows XP by choosing Start > Programs > Accessories > Entertainment > Sound Recorder. the sound’s waveform should appear on the Sound Recorder interface. or it can be transferred for storage on another device. You can find it in Windows XP by choosing Start > Programs > Accessories > Entertainment > Sound Recorder. Task 1: Create a Sound File Step 1. Record an audio file. . Speak into the microphone. The data can be stored on the end device where it was created. you can download an audio file to use in this activity from http://newsroom.com/dlls/podcasts/audio_feeds. Examine data transfer rates associated with the file.4.cisco. If a microphone and Microsoft Sound Recorder are not available.1. Microsoft Sound Recorder is a Windows accessory.1) Upon completion of this activity. is 30 minutes. In this activity. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ Capture or download an audio stream. Figure 3-2 Sound Recorder Interface Step 2. Open the Windows Sound Recorder application. as shown in Figure 3-3. Background When an application creates a file. Estimated completion time. or create sounds that the microphone can pick up. depending on network speed. As the audio is recorded. you will use a microphone and Microsoft Sound Recorder to capture an audio stream. the data that comprises that file must be stored somewhere. Record the file’s characteristics. To begin recording.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 69 Labs and Activities Activity 3-1: Data Stream Capture (3. The Sound Recorder interface is shown in Figure 3-2.html. click the Record button on the Sound Recorder interface.

Save the audio file to the desktop. Step 4. What is the file size in bytes? Answers will vary. . and the volume settings. Open the audio file in Windows Media Player. Step 3. If you are unable to create a recording. and attempt to create the recording again. and proceed to Task 2. check the microphone’s configuration. Save to the desktop the audio file you created.cisco. Right-click the audio file and choose Open With > Windows Media Player. The recording should be played back.html.70 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 3-3 Recording in Progress Click the Stop button when you are finished. Save the audio file. download an audio file from News@Cisco at http://newsroom. When the file is open. and choose Properties from the popup menu. Check the audio file that was recorded. Click the Play button to listen to the recording.wav. What is the file size in kilobytes? Answers will vary. right-click at the top of the Media Player interface. Name the file myaudio. Right-click the audio file you saved to the desktop. depending on the file created. the speakers. depending on the file created. What is the file size in bits? Answers will vary. and choose File > Properties from the popup menu. close the Sound Recorder application.com/dlls/podcasts/audio_feeds. Figure 3-4 Playback If you are unable to hear the recording. as shown in Figure 3-4. depending on the file created. View audio file properties. Task 2: Observe the Properties of the Audio File Step 1. After saving the file. Step 2.

1) Upon completion of this lab. you may want to copy the audio file that you created to another computer or a portable audio device. that is necessary for the frame’s delivery. The other half is web server support. how long would it take for the file transfer to be completed? Answers will vary. For example. If the audio file that you saved to the desktop were to be transferred at a rate of 100 megabits per second (Mbps). and verify a web server application. and 95 percent of the bandwidth is left for the data payload. Verify the default web server configuration file. and record the result. Even with an Ethernet connection operating at 100 Mbps. Task 3: Reflection Data files do not have to remain on the end devices where they are created. depending on the file created. web browsers make up only half the communication channel. Answers will vary. the data that makes up a file is not transferred at this speed. such as source and destination addresses. depending on the file created. depending on the file created. If so. depending on the file created. Table 3-4 shows the top three web server applications by percentage of use. Capture and analyze HTTP traffic with Wireshark. Based on a survey by Netcraft in January 2007. Lab 3-1: Managing a Web Server (3.4. Task 4: Clean Up You may be required to remove from the computer the audio file you saved. delete the file from the desktop. how long would it take the file transfer to be completed? Answers will vary. However. All Ethernet frames contain other information. If the Ethernet overhead uses 5 percent of the available 100 Mbps bandwidth. Unless instructed otherwise. turn off the computer. Calculate the amount of data per second in the audio file.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 71 What is the length of the audio file in seconds? Answers will vary. Web server support is a valuable skill for network administrators. Consumers use web browsers to access business websites. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ Download.2. Background Web servers are an important part of the business plan for any organization with a presence on the Internet. install. .

72 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 3-4 Web Server Web Server Choices Percent of Use Apache Microsoft Sun Scenario 60 percent 31 percent 1. The lab should be configured as shown in Figure 3-5 and Table 3-5. Analyzing the capture will help you understand how the HTTP protocol operates. and configure the popular Apache web server. You will use a web browser to connect to the server. ask the instructor for assistance before proceeding.6 percent In this lab you will download. using Wireshark to capture the communication. Figure 3-5 Topology for Lab 3-1 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 . If it is not. install.

Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 73 Table 3-5 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP S0/0/0 Fa0/0 10. as shown in Table 3-5.0.255. Step 2.255.10.0. Open the folder where the software was saved. and finally eagle-server. Right-click the file.16.254.255.255.253 — 172. check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central.1 255.0.254.255. The Apache web server application is available for download from Eagle Server.2 172. R2-Central.254.16.255.255. and Verify the Apache Web Server Step 1.0 255. ping S1Central.10.10.254.24. Choose default values and consent to the licensing agreement.6.5 172. verify that the host has the correct DNS address and that it can ping eagle-server.31.0 255.16.16. 172. and that it can ping R2-Central.168.example. and that it can ping R1-ISP.254.168.10.0 255.10.4 — 192.252 255. Finally.255. the lab topology may have been modified before this class.255.254 172. Take corrective action on devices that fail the ping tests.16.0 255. Install. .com/pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter3 to access and download the software. The next installation step requires customized configuration of the web server. as shown in Figure 3-6.10.com.0.0 255. and double-click the Apache file to begin installation. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address. troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity: Step 1.0 255.254 172. If an individual host computer cannot connect to eagle-server.com.254 172.255.example.255.255.10. R1-ISP. Download the software from Eagle Server.254 R2-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Eagle Server — — Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central — — — Note to Instructor: Depending on the classroom situation.16.6 192. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server.16.Pod#. Verify that the host computer has the correct Gateway IP address. From a known good host computer.255.10.255. ping eagle-server.example.255. Install the Apache web server on the pod host computer.16.255.0 — — 10. 10.254 192.252 255. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity.168. Step 3.255. Verify that all network equipment is powered on and that eagle-server is on. If the ping test fails. Step 2.254 172.Pod#. 172.16.253 10. and save the software on the pod host computer.1 172.255.254. Using a web browser.255. go to ftp://eagle-server.255. Task 1: Download.

What is the default installation folder? C:\Program Files\Apache Software Foundation\Apache2. the administrator’s e-mail address is ccna10@example. if the computer is on Pod 5.2\ Accept the default installation folder.com The computer’s IP address ccnaxx@example. Note: If a Windows Security Alert is displayed.com. and click Install. for users 1 through 22. close the screen. and click Next. Table 3-6 Information Apache Server Values Value Network Domain Server Name Administrator’s E-mail Address example. Accept the default typical installation. Host B. click Next.com. click Unblock. Accept the recommended port and service status.74 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 3-6 Customized Configuration Screen Use the values shown in Table 3-6. Figure 3-7 Windows Security Alert . as shown in Figure 3-7. This permits connections to the web server. When the installation has finished. Click Next. For example.

0 /8 network address is reserved and is used for local IP addresses. verify that the web server is operating properly on the pod host computer.0. Enter cmd.0 /8 network range. The Apache web server monitor icon should be visible on the lower-right side of the screen. A web page similar to Figure 3-8 appears if the web server is working properly. and then click OK. and connect to your computer’s URL.0. Example 3-1 netstat -a Output C:\> netstat -a Active Connections Proto TCP TCP TCP TCP Local Address GW-desktop-hom:http GW-desktop-hom:epmap Foreign Address GW-desktop-hom:0 GW-desktop-hom:0 State LISTENING LISTENING GW-desktop-hom:microsoft-ds GW-desktop-hom:3389 GW-desktop-hom:0 LISTENING LISTENING GW-desktop-hom:0 <output omitted> C:\> Using the command netstat -a. near the time. Verify the web server.0 /8 network range. Choose Start > Run and open a command-line window.0. The same page should be displayed if the URL is changed to the IP address on the Ethernet interface or to any host IP address in the 127. . Use the netstat -a command to discover open and connected ports on your computer.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 75 Step 3.0.0. Test the web server on several different IP addresses from the 127. The netstat command displays protocol statistics and connection information for this lab computer. Fill in Table 3-7 with the results. Open a web browser. as shown in Example 3-1.0. Figure 3-8 Web Server Default Page The 127.

16. Scroll down the configuration file.76 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 3-7 IP Address Web Server Test Status Description 127. the web server ignores the comment.conf file.0. e-mail the web server at this e-mail address.2/htdocs” .0. The # character indicates a comment for system administrators. Review the httpd. Access the httpd.1.0.255.255 127.0. A system administrator may need to verify or modify the default configuration file.2\conf\httpd.78:80 Listen 80 Listen on TCP port 80 for all incoming connections.1 80. Figure 3-9 Apache Web Server Configuration File Step 2.conf.0 OK OK Fail Fail Legal host address Legal host address Network broadcast address Network address Task 2: Verify the Default Web Server Configuration File Step 1.0. If there are problems.255. To accept connections from only this host.255. use the IP address:port number.com ServerName 172.conf file. and verify the settings listed in Table 3-8. For servers without DNS names.56. as shown in Figure 3-9. change the line to Listen 127. Table 3-8 Value Apache Web Server Settings Description #Listen 12.2:80 DocumentRoot “C:/Program Files/Apache Software Foundation/ Apache2.34.1 127.254 127.0.255. ServerAdmin ccna2@example. This is the root directory for the web server. Open the Apache web server configuration file. Numerous configuration parameters allow the Apache web server to be fully customizable. C:\Program Files\Apache Software Foundation\Apache2.

refresh the web browser to view the new content.1. and connect to another computer with an active web server. Step 1.0 network on a Windows computer. display index. choose notepad. Task 3: Capture and Analyze HTTP Traffic with Wireshark Wireshark will not capture packets sent from or to the 127.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 77 Table 3-8 Value Apache Web Server Settings continued Description <IfModule dir_module> DirectoryIndex index.html as the default page. so you should encourage them to personalize the page.com </body></html> Save the file. If no page is requested from that directory. Figure 3-8 shows the default web page from file index.0. The new default page should be displayed. Be wary of content. go to http://127. Step 3. Right-click the file.html. The file index.html not have to be entered in the URL for the file contents to be displayed? The web server configuration directive for that server displays index. and set the capture interface to the interface destined for the 172. Open a web browser. Open folder C:\Program Files\Apache Software Foundation\Apache2. Or. Deliberately enter a web page that is not on the web server. From the pulldown list. Why does index.html should be present.html if it is present. Analyze HTTP traffic. Change the file content to something similar to Example 3-2. Although this page is sufficient for testing. Start Wireshark. Example 3-2 htdocs Edit <html><body><h1>Welcome to the Pod1HostB Web Server!!!</h1> <center><bold> Operated by me! </center></bold> Contact web administrator: ccna2@example. something more personal should be displayed.2\htdocs. and choose Open With.0. as shown in Figure 3-10. Note that an error message is displayed in the web browser.16 network. and refresh the web browser.0. access the web server by running Apache from a separate client machine.html. The interface will not appear.0. however—this is a classroom setting. Some students may already be familiar with creating web pages. Modify the web server default page. To complete this task. As you make and save changes to index. .html </IfModule> DirectoryIndex sets the file that Apache serves if a directory is requested.

Verify with the netstat command that the new web server TCP port is 8080. This lab has demonstrated how to install and configure the Apache web server.0.0// EN”> <html><head> <title>404 Not Found</title> </head><body> <h1>Not Found</h1> <p>The requested URL /index. </p> </body></html> Task 4: Challenge Modify the default web server configuration file httpd. Task 5: Reflection Web servers are an important component of e-commerce.1 error 404 and returned a file not found message to the web browser. The web browser simply displayed the server response “The page cannot be found.htm was requested from the web server. Depending on the organization. Open a web browser and go to http://127. Finally. you used Wireshark to capture an HTTP session of a file that could not be found. but the server did not have it.conf by changing the Listen 80 line to Listen 8080. test for proper operation. The web server responded with an HTTP 1.htm was not found on this server.html and observed the effect on the web browser output. and identify several key configuration parameters.78 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 3-10 404 Not Found Error Figure 3-11 shows a captured HTTP session.1:8080. the server sent a 404 error. You modified the default web page index. .0. File index. the network or web administrator has the responsibility of maintaining the corporate web server.” Figure 3-11 Wireshark Capture of HTTP Traffic What are the contents of the HTTP session? Line-based text data: text/html <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC “-//IETF//DTD HTML 2. Therefore.

Click Apache Web Server. To uninstall the web server. the typical user may be unaware of the complexities of e-mail or the protocols used. Background E-mail is one of the most popular network services that uses a client/server model.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 79 Task 6: Clean Up During this lab the Apache web server was installed on the pod host computer. . consuming bandwidth and network resources. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. unsolicited e-mail. It has undergone many modifications and enhancements. In this lab. Scenario In this lab. In network environments where the Mail User Agent (MUA) client must connect to an e-mail server on another network to send and receive e-mail. The e-mail client is configured on a user’s computer and is configured to connect to an e-mail server. choose Start > Control Panel > Add or Remove Programs. consolidates and updates previous e-mail-related RFCs. Eagle-server has SMTP mail services preconfigured. turn off power to the host computers. the following protocols are used: ■ Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) was originally defined in RFC 821 in August 1982. secure versions of both protocols employ Secure Socket Layer/Transport Layer Security (SSL/TLS) for communication. with user accounts that can send and receive external e-mail messages. Lab 3-2: E-mail Services and Protocols (3. from April 2001. deliver e-mail to local accounts. and leave the room ready for the next class. Consequently. RFC 2821. Capture and analyze e-mail communication between the pod host computer and a mail server. and relay e-mail between SMTP servers. You will monitor the communication with Wireshark and analyze the captured packets. Most Internet service providers (ISP) provide step-by-step instructions for using e-mail services. It should be uninstalled. Earlier versions of both protocols should not be used. E-mail servers have had numerous vulnerabilities. IMAP servers listen on well-known TCP port 143. Also. The POPv3 server listens on well-known TCP port 110. you will be able to ■ ■ Configure the pod host computer for e-mail service. and then click Remove. Post Office Protocol version 3 (POPv3) is used when an external e-mail client wants to receive e-mail messages from the e-mail server.3. Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) is an Internet protocol that allows a central server to provide remote access to e-mail messages. which have left computers open to compromise.1) Upon completion of this lab. The SMTP server listens on well-known TCP port 25. you will use IMAP instead of POPv3 for e-mail delivery to the client. you will configure and use an e-mail client application to connect to eagle-server network services. You will use an e-mail client such as Outlook Express or Mozilla Thunderbird to connect to the eagleserver network service.4. ■ ■ E-mail is subject to multiple computer security vulnerabilities. SMTP is used to send e-mail messages from the external e-mail client to the e-mail server. Spam attacks flood networks with useless.

1 172.24.255.255.255.255.253 — 172.10.252 255.255.255.16.255. ask the instructor for assistance before proceeding.0.10.16.168.10.255.254. If it is not.254 172.4 — 192.254.255.0.5 172.254.254 192.253 10.254 172.254 172.0 255.168.255.1 255.0 255.255.2 172.6 192.Pod#.16.252 255. Figure 3-12 Topology for Lab 3-2 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 Table 3-9 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP S0/0/0 Fa0/0 10.16.16.0 255.255.254 172.16.16.255.255.255.254 R2-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Eagle Server — — Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central — — — .0 255.31.168.0 — — 10.0.255.10.80 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide The lab should be configured as shown in Figure 3-12 and Table 3-9.10.Pod#.255.254.255.0.0 255.0 255.10.

Step 3.com/pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter3. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity. you must configure an e-mail account. Finally. Verify that all network equipment is powered on and that eagle-server is on.example. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address.254.255. When finished.255. start Thunderbird. Download and install Mozilla Thunderbird. troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity: Step 1.10. and finally eagle-server. select Email account. When the file has downloaded. with the information shown in Table 3-10. If Thunderbird is not installed on the pod host computer. .16. 172.254. and then select Save the file to the host pod computer. as prompted. If prompted for Import Options. The download URL is ftp://eagleserver. ping eagle-server. and click Next.example. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server.6. Verify that the host computer has the correct Gateway IP address. and that it can ping R2-Central. From a known good host computer. check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central. 172.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 81 Note to Instructors: Depending on the classroom situation. the lab topology may have been modified before this class. Figure 3-13 FTP Download for Wireshark Double-click the Thunderbird filename. and that it can ping R1-ISP. ping S1Central.example. Step 2. and then click Next.example. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests. as shown in Figure 3-13.com. verify that the host has the correct DNS address and that it can ping eagle-server. R2-Central. this download may be slow. select Don’t import anything. Fill in the account information.16.com. double-click the filename and install Thunderbird with the default settings. In the New Account Setup. 10. Configure Thunderbird to receive and send e-mail messages. Step 2.10. If the ping test fails. as shown in Table 3-9. If an individual host computer cannot connect to eagle-server. you can download it from eagleserver. Note: Depending on the connection speed of the link between the two routers and the number of students downloading the file. R1-ISP. Task 1: Configure the Pod Host Computer for E-mail Service Step 1.com. When Thunderbird starts.

If the pod host is on Pod 3.com IMAP eagle-server. The Thunderbird client needs to have SMTP server login disabled. click Edit. Host A. Host B.com Use the same name as above (see Account name discussion).example. your_name@eagle-server.22]..example. you may be prompted for a password for your e-mail account. To do this.example.com eagle-server.example. shown in Figure 3-14. Use the same name as the Account Name. the account name is ccna6.82 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 3-10 Field Account Information Value Account Name The account name is based on the pod and host computer. your_name@eagle-server.. Click Cancel. A total of 22 accounts are configured on Eagle Server. If this pod host is on Pod1. labeled ccna[1. choose Tools > Account Settings > Outgoing Server (SMTP). and so on. the account name is ccna1.com Your Name E-mail address Type of incoming server you are using Incoming Server (SMTP) Outgoing Server (SMTP) Incoming User Name Account Name When Thunderbird starts. Figure 3-14 Thunderbird SMTP Server Settings . From the outgoing server screen.

as shown in Figure 3-16. shown in Figure 3-15. by choosing Tools > Account Settings. Figure 3-16 Thunderbird Account Settings In the left pane of the Account Settings screen.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 83 On the SMTP Server screen. Figure 3-15 SMTP Server Edit You may also want to verify account settings. A screen similar to Figure 3-17 appears. and then click OK again. uncheck the Use name and password box. Click OK. . click Server Settings.

84 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 3-17 Thunderbird Server Settings What is the purpose of the SMTP protocol. you must be logged in. check your e-mail. If you have not previously logged in. Please note that this is the default password that is embedded in the Eagle Server. When the e-mails have been sent. enter cisco as the password. Analyze a Wireshark capture session of SMTP. and what is the well-known TCP port number? The SMTP protocol is used to send e-mail messages to an e-mail server for forwarding to a mail recipient. Using the name provided in the preceding task. start a Wireshark capture. . Start Wireshark captures. stop the Wireshark capture. To do so. This time. After sending and receiving one e-mail message. Ask another student in the class for his or her e-mail name. however. Using the e-mail client. again send and receive e-mail from a classmate. Task 2: Capture and Analyze E-mail Communication Between the Pod Host Computer and an E-mail Server Step 1. each of you should compose and send an e-mail message to the other. Send an uncaptured e-mail. To create and send an e-mail. A partial Wireshark capture of an outgoing e-mail message using SMTP is shown in Figure 3-18. Wireshark displays captures based on packet type. the e-mail transactions will be captured. click the Write icon. Step 2. Step 3. When you are certain that the e-mail operation is working properly for both sending and receiving. SMTP listens on TCP port 25.

0. Many different types of SMTP servers exist.example.com> DATA (message body is sent) 250 2. Table 3-11 E-mail Client Response Table E-mail Server MAIL FROM:<ccna1@example.” on a line by itself 250 2. version 8. .1. The syntax may vary between clients. The e-mail server must respond to the command. What is the SMTP server response to the EHLO command? 250-localhost.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 85 Figure 3-18 SMTP Capture Highlight the first SMTP capture in the top Wireshark window. Malicious attackers can gain valuable knowledge simply by learning the SMTP server type and version.1].13.com Sender ok 250 2. 221. end with “.com> RCPT TO:<ccna2@example. however. closing connection. the e-mail client sends the command EHLO.5 ccna2@example. and e-mail servers send responses. expand the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol record. fill in the e-mail server responses to the e-mail client commands shown in Table 3-11.0 mail-serial-number Message accepted for delivery What are the contents of the last message body from the e-mail client? QUIT How does the e-mail server respond? It sends a response to the e-mail client. In Figure 3-18.0 ccna1@example. pleased to meet you\r\n The next exchanges between the e-mail client and server contain e-mail information. In every first SMTP exchange.localdomain Hello host-1. and the command may also be HELO or HELLO. Using your Wireshark capture. this is line 7.1.1 E-mail client applications send commands to e-mail servers. In the second Wireshark window.1.com [172.com Recipient ok 354 Enter mail. What are the SMTP server name and version? Sendmail.16.

and then click Remove. 250 Mail queued for delivery. Sender ok RCPT To: instructor@example... The highlighted lines are what you enter into the blank Telnet window. Example 3-3 Telnet Session C:\> telnet eagle-server. and leave the room ready for the next class.13. E-mail can also experience configuration issues. Understanding the flow of traffic with the SMTP protocol will help you understand how the protocol manages the client/server data connection. Sun.com 250 2. Good bye. C:\ > Task 5: Clean Up If Thunderbird was installed on the pod host computer for this lab.com 250 localhost. open the Windows command-line window. Is the problem with the e-mail client or the e-mail server? One simple way to test SMTP server operation is to use the Windows command-line Telnet utility to telnet into the SMTP server.. Recipient ok DATA 354 Please start mail input..16. Remove anything that was brought into the lab.localdomain ESMTP Sendmail 8. . Scroll to and click Thunderbird.1. as shown in Example 3-3.1. 28 Jan 2007 20:41:0 3 +1000 HELO eagle-server. Connection to host lost. choose Start > Control Panel > Add or Remove Programs.2]. pleased to meet you MAIL From: ccna2@example. Look up the SMTP server name and version for known weaknesses or compromises.1. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor.86 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 3: Challenge Access a computer that has Internet access. To test SMTP operation.1/8. Are any newer versions available? Task 4: Reflection E-mail is probably the most common network service used.example. turn off power to the host computers. e-mail SMTP server test.localdomain Hello [172.13.com. To remove Thunderbird. the instructor may want the application removed. and begin a Telnet session with the SMTP server. .5 instructor@example. QUIT 221 Closing connection.0 ccna2@example.example..com 25 220 localhost.com..1.com 250 2.

Explore how DNS and HTTP work together. configure. and Table 3-12 shows the corresponding addressing table. servers. Add. At the end of each chapter. and connect hosts and servers. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ ■ Configure hosts and services. Use simulation mode to view the details of packets generated by DNS and HTTP. and switches to learn networking concepts.3) Open the file LSG01-PTSkills3.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 87 Packet Tracer Challenge Skills Integration Challenge: Configuring Hosts and Services (3.5.1. routers. Figure 3-19 Topology for the Challenge 1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server 2960-24TT S1-Central 1841 R2-Central PC 1A PC 1B .pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to perform this exercise using Packet Tracer. Upon completion of this activity. you will build increasingly larger parts of this topology in Packet Tracer. you will use a standard lab setup created from actual PCs. Figure 3-19 shows the topology for this Skills Integration Challenge. Background Throughout the course.

6 172.252 255.16.0.255.0 255.254 255. You can create different test packet scenarios by clicking the New button. the term scenario means a specific configuration of one or more test packets.255. In Packet Tracer.10.5 172. Scenario 0 might have one test packet from PC 1B to Eagle Server.255.255.0 255. Note that when you add a simple PDU.0 — — 10.10.254 172.1.2 Subnet mask: 255.254.88 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 3-12 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP Fa0/0 S0/0/0 192. You can remove all test packets in a particular scenario by clicking the Delete button. and add a DNS entry that associates eagle-server.16.1 172.2 192.254.254 Connect PC 1B to the Fa0/2 port of the S1-Central switch.6 172.16.255.168. Double-click the Fire button in the PDU List Window to send this single test ping a second time.254 DNS server: 192.16.254.255.252 255.255.1.255. Verify your work using feedback from the Check Results button and the Assessment Items tab.168. Turn on web services on the server by enabling HTTP.10.255. For example.255.0 255.253 R2-Central Fa0/0 S0/0/0 S1-Central PC 1A PC 1B Eagle Server VLAN 1 NIC NIC NIC Task 1: “Repair” and Test the Topology Add a PC with a display name of 1B to the topology.10.255. For example.0 Default gateway: 172.0. it shows Failed because of the ARP process.0.255.16.example.” The first time you issue this one-shot ping message.168.0 255.com with the server’s IP address.254 192. if you use the Delete button for Scenario 0.253 10.254.16. Do this before the next task. Configure it with the following settings: ■ ■ ■ ■ IP address: 172.255.0.255.10. and Scenario 1 might test packets between PC 1A and the routers.1 172.1.0 255. Enable DNS services.10.255.255.254. .254 172. the test packet you just created between PC 1B and Eagle Server is removed.255.168.255.254 10. Connect Eagle Server to the Fa0/0 port on the R1-ISP router.168. This time it succeeds. Test connectivity in real time by using ADD SIMPLE PDU to test connectivity between PC 1B and the Eagle Server.10.10. it appears in the PDU List Window as part of “Scenario 0.0.6 10.16.16.

Inbound PDU Details.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 89 Task 2: Explore How DNS and HTTP Work Together Switch from Realtime mode to Simulation mode. you should be able to see how DNS and HTTP work together. Examine the Packet contents (PDU Information Window. you are encouraged to obtain Packet Tracer from your instructor and complete My First PT Lab (choose Help > Contents). Task 3: Reflection Can you now explain the process that occurs when you enter a URL into a browser and a web page returns? What types of client/server interactions are involved? If you have not already done so. Even though the processing of the packets by the switch and the routers may not make sense to you yet. Outbound PDU Details) for each event in the event list. press Enter. and then use the Capture / Forward button in the Event List to capture the interaction of DNS and HTTP. click the View Previous Events button. especially when the packets are at PC 1B or at Eagle Server.com. Open a web browser from the desktop of PC 1B. . Play this animation.example. Enter eagle-server. If you receive a “Buffer Full” message.

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Manages data delivery if there is congestion on the host. The transport layer provides for data network needs by ■ ■ ■ ■ Dividing data received from an application into segments Adding a header to identify and manage each segment Using the header information to reassemble the segments back into application data Passing the assembled data to the correct application Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 4-1. use a Voice over IP (VoIP) phone. Performed on the data in the segment to check if the segment was changed during transmission. stream video. Error checking d. Reliable delivery g. e. That way. and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of the OSI transport layer. Means lost segments are present so the data is received complete. Ensures the application is ready to receive data. match the definitions on the right with the terms on the left. one computer can use instant messaging. b. f. Multiple network-aware applications can use the network at the same time. Table 4-1 Term Transport Layer Matching Exercise Definition a. As you work through this chapter.CHAPTER 4 OSI Transport Layer The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of multiple-choice. Ensures segment sequencing so that data can be presented by the session layer to the application layer with all data intact and ready for processing. fill-in-the-blank. Multiplexing b. Study Guide Roles of the Transport Layer The transport layer provides vital control over the network: It enables multiple applications to work at the same time over the same network. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum labs to further reinforce that you have mastered the practical. use Chapter 4 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum or use the corresponding Chapter 4 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA 1 Exploration Companion Guide for assistance. a. matching. surf the web. c. Same order delivery f. . g. Establishing a session e. Data segmentation c. Facilitates data preparation for delivery by the lowest four OSI layers. hands-on skills needed. and check e-mail. Flow control d.

2. How does the transport layer multiplex different applications’ communication? Dividing data into small parts and sending these parts from the source to the destination enables many different communications to be interleaved (multiplexed) on the same network. each segment header contains a sequence number. reliable delivery. 1. This sequence number allows the transport layer functions on the destination host to reassemble segments in the order in which they were transmitted. Additional functions specified by TCP are same order delivery. As the source receives an acknowledgment from the destination. and flow control. the transport layer adds to the segment a header containing binary data. A complete TCP conversation requires the establishment of a session between the source and the destination in both directions. A TCP segment has 20 bytes of overhead in the header encapsulating the application layer data.92 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Concept Questions 1. In TCP. This ensures that the destination application has the data in the exact form the sender intended. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks for the following questions. it knows that the data has been successfully delivered and can quit tracking that data. 3. The pieces of communication in UDP are called datagrams. Fill in the port number ranges in the Numbers column. Table 4-2 Port Type Port Type Ranges Numbers Well-known ports Registered ports Dynamic or private ports 0 to 1023 1024 to 49151 49152 to 65535 The TCP Protocol: Communicating with Reliability The key distinction between TCP and UDP is reliability. each with a specific function. whereas each UDP segment only has 8 bytes of overhead. How does the transport layer tell the difference between different data segments? To identify each segment of data. This reliability is achieved by having fields in the TCP segment. Port Type Ranges Exercise Table 4-2 lists port types. If the source does not receive an acknowledgment within a predetermined amount of time. it retransmits that data to the destination. . 2.

This process ensures that each host is aware of and prepared for the communication. Push function f. Urgent pointer field significant a. RST d. For the original message to be understood by the recipient. Define reliability. the data in these segments is reassembled into the original order. Note to instructor: Answers will vary. 2. Internet Research Exercise Using your favorite search engine. Sequence numbers are assigned in the header of each packet to achieve this goal. PSH c. segments may arrive at their destination out of order. When the host is using TCP. URG e. Reliability means ensuring that each segment of data that the source sends arrives at the destination. but encourage students to find a website. . A key feature of TCP is its reliability. and be prepared to explain or present the information found. Acknowledgment field significant b. enter the keywords “TCP segment reassembly. match the definition on the right with a flag on the left. Segment sequence numbers enable reliability by indicating how to reassemble and reorder received segments. No more data from sender Managing TCP Sessions When services send data using TCP. Reset the connection c. Table 4-3 Flags Flag-Matching Exercise Definition a. SYN d. or communication stream between the hosts. FIN f. This exercise works best if the students are required to present their website to the class or to teach each other in small groups. Synchronize sequence numbers e.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 93 Concept Questions 1.” and find a website that explains it. why does the transport layer initiate a process to create a connection with the destination? This connection enables the tracking of a session. be prepared to share your findings with the class. ACK b. Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 4-3. Using this site. provide the URL.

What is expectational acknowledgment? Expectational acknowledgment is TCP using the acknowledgment number in segments sent back to the source to indicate the next byte in this session that the receiver expects to receive. The low overhead of UDP makes it very desirable for such applications. they might experience large delays while TCP detects data loss and retransmits data. 1. can tolerate some loss of data. and therefore they do not need TCP to guarantee the message delivery. 2. the source and destination port numbers in the datagram header are reversed. The UDP Protocol: Communicating with Low Overhead User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is a simple protocol that provides the basic transport layer functions. such as online games and VoIP. Some applications. such as DNS. simply retry the request if they do not receive a response. These delays would be more detrimental to the application than small data losses. Some applications. and flow-control mechanisms. After a client has chosen the source and destination ports. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following sentences. In what case would it be possible for the destination to acknowledge bytes in discontiguous segments and request that the host retransmit only the missing data? In this case. UDP is said to be transaction based. and what does it do? Flow control assists the reliability of TCP transmission by adjusting the effective rate of data flow between the two services in the session. 3. 3.94 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Concept Questions 1. both hosts would have to support selective acknowledgments. What is flow control. 2. . For the data returning to the client from the server. the same pair of ports is used in the header of all datagrams used in the transaction. It has much lower overhead than TCP because it is not connection oriented and does not provide the sophisticated retransmission. If these applications use TCP. sequencing.

5. Use netstat to examine protocol information on a pod host computer. netstat displays incoming and outgoing network connections (TCP and UDP). you examine the netstat command on a pod host computer. Background netstat is an abbreviation for the network statistics utility. host computer routing table information.1. available on both Windows and UNIX/Linux computers. Table 4-4 shows the corresponding addressing table. Passing optional parameters with the command will change output information.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 95 Labs and Activities Lab 4-1: Observing TCP and UDP Using netstat (4.1) Upon completion of this lab. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ Explain common netstat command parameters and outputs. Scenario In this lab. and adjust netstat output options to analyze and understand TCP/IP transport layer protocol status. and interface statistics. Figure 4-1 Topology for Lab 4-1 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 . Figure 4-1 shows the topology for this lab.

0 N/A N/A 10. R1-ISP. 172.252 255.2 172.example.254.255.168.10.10.253 10.255. 172.255. Task 1: Explain Common netstat Command Parameters and Outputs Open a terminal window by clicking Start > Run.255. and finally Eagle Server.10.5 172.252 255.16.31.0 255.255.255.255.96 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 4-4 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP S0/0/0 Fa0/0 10. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests. Finally.254.com.254.254.16. and can ping R1-ISP.16. .253 N/A 172.10.254.0. From a known good host computer.10. use the /? options. and that Eagle Server is on.6. To display help information about the netstat command. the lab topology may have been modified before this class.24.16.254 172. shown in the preceding logical addressing table.168.0. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity. ping S1-Central. troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity: Step 1.254 172.16.255.4 N/A 192.0 255.example.255. If an individual host computer cannot connect to Eagle Server. Step 3.Pod#. If the ping test fails.0 255.0.16. Verify that all network equipment is powered on.255.254 192.254 172.255.example.16.255.255.168.255. check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central.255. verify that the host has the correct DNS address and can ping eagle-server. Verify that the host computer has the correct gateway IP address. Enter cmd. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address.com. as shown here: C:\> netstat /? Use the output of the netstat /? command as reference to fill in the appropriate option that best matches the description in Table 4-5.0 255.10.254 R2-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Eagle Server N/A N/A Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central N/A N/A N/A Note to instructor: Depending on the classroom situation. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server.0 255.10. Step 2.1 255.1 172.16.com. and click OK.255.0.255.255.254. and can ping R2-Central.16.Pod#.254 172.255. 10. R2-Central.255.10.6 192.0 255. ping eagle-server.

September 1981. and will normally last between 30 and 120 seconds. The connection is closed. or UDPv6. . UDP. and data may be exchanged through the connection. Shows connections for the protocol specified by proto.0. TCPv6. Redisplays all connections and listening ports every 30 seconds. IPv6. proto may be any of IP. compiled from RFC 793. Displays addresses and port numbers in numeric form. ICMPv6. During the life of a TCP connection. Transmission Control Protocol. the connection passes through a series of states. TCP. The connection is open. The connection should transition quickly through this state. Display only open connections.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 97 Table 4–5 Option netstat Table Description -a -n 5 (interval) -p Displays all connections and listening ports. This is a normal condition. as shown in Table 4-7. The local connection is waiting for a response after sending a connection request.0 Remote Address This address refers to the local host. but is waiting for a termination request from the local user. This is the normal state for the data-transfer phase of the connection. or UDPv6. the TCP state is displayed.1 0.0. -an 30 No options When netstat statistics are displayed for TCP connections. The local connection is waiting for a confirming connection request acknowledgment. A global address. Redisplays statistics every 5 seconds.0. ICMP. CLOSE-WAIT SYN-SENT SYN_RECEIVED IP addresses displayed by netstat fall into several categories. The connection should transition quickly through this state. as reported by netstat. Table 4-7 IP Address Packet State Table Description 127. UDP. Table 4-6 State Packet State Table Connection Description LISTEN ESTABLISHED TIME-WAIT The local connection is waiting for a connection request from any remote device. The local connection is waiting a default period of time after sending a connection termination request before closing the connection. proto may be any of TCP. TCPv6. Table 4-6 is a summary of TCP states. meaning any. This is a tricky problem. Press Ctrl+C to stop redisplaying statistics. If used with the –s option to display per-protocol statistics.0. or this computer. Multiple connections in SYN_RECEIVED state may indicate a TCP SYN attack. The address of the remote device that has a connection with this computer.

0.0.168. The –n option forces netstat to display output in raw format. . Table 4-8 provides a list of several common services on a host computer.254. and state information.0.0.0.1:138 GW-desktop-hom:0 0.254.0. If fewer than three connections translate.0.0.0:0 GW-desktop-hom:0 0.1:139 GW-desktop-hom:ntp 192.0:135 GW-desktop-hom:0 0.254.0:445 TCP UDP UDP UDP GW-desktop-hom:netbios-ssn 192. Addresses and protocols that can be translated into names are displayed. foreign address.0:0 LISTENING LISTENING GW-desktop-hom:microsoft-ds 0.168.168. From the terminal window in Task 1.0. note that in Table 4-8. issue the command netstat –a: C:\> netstat –a A table will display that lists the protocol (TCP and UDP).168. issue the command netstat –an: C:\> netstat –an Use the window vertical scrollbar to go back and forth between the outputs of the two commands. Note to instructor: Answers will vary. Write down three TCP and three UDP connections from the netstat –a output and the corresponding translated port numbers from the netstat –an output. Compare outputs. Use netstat to view existing connections.98 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 2: Use netstat to Examine Protocol Information on a Pod Host Computer Step 1.0:0 *:* *:* *:* *:* *:* *:* LISTENING LISTENING LISTENING LISTENING Refer to the following netstat output shown in Example 4-1. Table 4-8 Connection Protocol netstat Output Table Local Address Foreign Address State TCP TCP GW-desktop-hom:epmap 0.1:137 GW-desktop-hom:netbios-dgm 192.254. From the terminal window.0. local address. noting how well-known port numbers are changed to names.1:123 GW-desktop-hom:netbios-ns 192.

The terminal windows that will be used to collect connection information should be 1⁄2 screen width by full screen height. To close a Telnet connection.0.1:1071 Foreign Address 127. port 21 SMTP: SMTP mail server. port 25 Telnet: Telnet server.0.com 53 In the large terminal window. The four terminal windows that will be used for Telnet connections to Eagle Server can be relatively small.0. telnet on port 23.0. Eventually. The venerable telnet command is used to access Eagle Server network services.0. Type quit and press Enter to close the session.1:1070 State ESTABLISHED ESTABLISHED A new network engineer suspects that his host computer has been compromised by an outside attack against ports 1070 and 1071.0. a connection might close before all connections have been made.0. Establish multiple concurrent TCP connections and record netstat output. In the second terminal window. the host computer has made a TCP connection with itself.1:1070 127. Microsoft Telnet>. Several network services on Eagle Server will respond to a Telnet connection. Arrange the windows so that all are visible. connections should terminate from inactivity. Step 2.0.1. telnet on port 21.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 99 Example 4-1 Netstat Output C:\> netstat –n Active Connections Proto TCP TCP C:\> Local Address 127. approximately 1⁄2 screen width by 1⁄4 screen height. telnet on port 25. If typing is slow. several simultaneous connections will be made with Eagle Server.0. . record established connections with Eagle Server. In this task. thus providing several protocols to examine with netstat. In the first Telnet terminal window. The command for a Telnet connection on port 21 follows: C:\> telnet eagle-server. How would you respond? Because the foreign address is 127. port 23 Why should Telnet to UDP ports fail? Telnet is a TCP protocol. telnet to Eagle Server on port 53. Output should look similar to the output in Example 4-1. That will bring up the t=Telnet prompt. Open four additional terminal windows. press the Ctrl+] keys together. You will use the following: ■ ■ ■ ■ DNS: Domain Name System server. In the fourth terminal window.1:1071 127. and UDP cannot build the TCP session.example. In the third terminal window. port 53 FTP: FTP server.0.

TCP is used to provide transport layer support for the HTTP and FTP protocols.com/pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter4/.2. analyze TCP and UDP protocol header fields for file transfers between the host computer and Eagle Server. January 1980.254. among others. Scenario Using Wireshark capture.254. Task 4: Challenge Close established sessions abruptly (close the terminal window). UDP provides transport layer support for Domain Name System (DNS) services and Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP). Both protocols support upper-layer protocol communication.exe.100 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example 4-2 C:\>netstat Proto TCP TCP TCP TCP Eagle Server Output Table Local Address 192.254:23 State ESTABLISHED ESTABLISHED ESTABLISHED ESTABLISHED Task 3: Reflection The netstat utility displays incoming and outgoing network connections (TCP and UDP).168.168. Identify UDP header fields and operation using a Wireshark TFTP session capture.254:25 192.1) Upon completion of this activity.254. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ Identify TCP header fields and operation using a Wireshark FTP session capture. .example. defined in RFC 768.1:1693 192.254.254. turn off power to the host computers.1:1691 192.254.168. August 1980. If Wireshark has not been loaded on the host pod computer. Task 5: Cleanup Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. Try to view connections in stages different from ESTABLISHED.168.1:1688 192. and User Datagram Protocol (UDP).99.1:1694 Foreign Address 192. defined in RFC 761. and interface statistics.254:21 192. Background The two protocols in the TCP/IP transport layer are the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). Lab 4-2: TCP/IP Transport Layer Protocols. Remove anything that was brought into the lab and leave the room ready for the next class. you can download it from ftp://eagle-server. file wiresharksetup-0.168.168. host computer routing table information. For example. TCP and UDP (4.4.168. The ability to understand the parts of the TCP and UDP headers and operation is a critical skill for network engineers. Ponder the utility of netstat in small and large networks and consider how netstat can help you diagnose problems.254:53 192. among others.168.254.5. and issue the netstat –an command.254.

0 255.10.255.0 255.254 172.252 255.255.0.10.4 N/A 192.0 N/A N/A 10.255.168.255.255.254.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 101 Windows command-line utilities FTP and TFTP will be used to connect to Eagle Server and download files.0 255.0.255.0.255.254 172.1 255.255.255.16.16.255.16.Pod#.16.16.0 255. Figure 4–2 Topology for Lab 4-2 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 Table 4-9 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP S0/0/0 Fa0/0 10.31.24.0 255.10.254 172.168.255.5 172.0.255.254.254.10.6 192.255.2 172.1 172.254 192.253 10. Figure 4-2 shows the topology for this lab.255.254 172.255.168.252 255.254 R2-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Eagle Server N/A N/A Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central N/A N/A N/A .16.255.10.253 N/A 172.16.Pod#.10.254.255.0 255.255. and Table 4-9 shows the corresponding addressing table.

172. ftp. and then click OK.16.255. the lab topology might have been modified before this class.254.com. In this task.16. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address. A window similar to Figure 4-3 should open. Enter the following command: > ftp eagle-server. Figure 4–3 Command-Line Window Start a Wireshark capture on the interface that has IP address 172. Task 1: Identify TCP Header Fields and Operation Using a Wireshark FTP Session Capture Step 1. an FTP session is made to Eagle Server. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests. From a known good host computer. A command-line window will start the FTP session. verify that the host has the correct DNS address and can ping eagle-server. Step 3.[1-2]. 172. shown in the preceding logical addressing table. Verify that all network equipment is powered on. type cmd. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server.16. When finished.Pod#.com When prompted for a user ID. R2-Central. and that Eagle Server is on. Finally. press Enter. to the host computer.com. Capture an FTP session. ping S1Central. Verify that the host computer has the correct gateway IP address. When prompted for a password. /pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter4/s1-central.6. the session capture will be analyzed. Start an FTP connection to Eagle Server. TCP sessions are well controlled and managed by information exchanged in the TCP header fields.example.example. and can ping R1-ISP. and finally Eagle Server.example. check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central. ping Eagle Server. If the ping test fails. Step 2.102 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Note to instructor: Depending on the classroom situation. type anonymous. .254.255. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity. If an individual host computer cannot connect to Eagle Server.10. Windows computers use the FTP client.10. R1-ISP. and can ping R2-Central. 10. and the text configuration file for S1-Central from Eagle Server will be downloaded. troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity using the following steps: Step 1. to connect to the FTP server. Open a command-line window by clicking Start > Run.

and move the cursor to the middle window. Your capture should be similar to the capture shown in Figure 44. TCP performs an orderly shutdown and termination. When the FTP client is connected to the FTP server. verify datagram arrival. At the conclusion of the data transfer. an explanation of the summary information is needed. Step 2. terminate the FTP sessions in each command-line window with the FTP quit command: ftp> quit Close the command-line window with the command exit: > exit Stop the Wireshark capture. For each exchange of data between the FTP client and FTP server. Before we delve into TCP packet details. the transport layer protocol TCP created a reliable session. Analyze the TCP fields. . Figure 4–4 FTP Capture In Wireshark. a new TCP session is started. detailed TCP information is available in the middle window.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 103 Change the FTP directory to /pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter4/: ftp> cd /pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter4/ Download the file s1-central: ftp> get s1-central When finished. TCP is routinely used during a session to control datagram delivery. Switch to the Wireshark capture windows. when the FTP session is finished. The expanded TCP datagram should look similar to Example 4-3. the TCP session is closed. Highlight the first TCP datagram from the host computer. The top window contains summary information for each captured record. You might need to adjust the middle window and expand the TCP record by clicking the protocol expand box. and manage window size. Finally.

Dst port: ftp (21). 192...254.. Figure 4-5 shows a TCP datagram. ..x. 172...0 .. = Congestion Window Reduced (CWR): Not Set . to Eagle Server.16. .. = Acknowledge: Not set . on some port above 1023..254. Code Bits: U A R P S F RCS S Y I GK T HNN Code Bits Window Urgent Pointer Padding 24 TCP Destination Port Number 31 TCP Source Port Number .0..168.... 0. and contains a SYN flag... port number 21...0 = Fin: Not set Window size: 64240 Checksum: 0xb965 [correct] >Options: (8 bytes) Maximum segment size: 1460 bytes NOP NOP SACK permitted How is the first datagram in a TCP session identified? The initial datagram originates from the host computer.0.. . Seq: 0. = Reset: Not set .......0.. Figure 4-5 0 TCP Packet Fields for Lab 4-2 TCP Segment 4 10 16 Sequence Number Acknowledgment Number HLEN Reserved TCP Checksum Options (If Any) Data Data... . Len: 0 Source Port: 1052 (1052) Destination Port: ftp (21) Sequence number: 0 (relative sequence number) Header length: 28 bytes >Flags: 0x02 (SYN) 0. = Syn: Set . = ECN-Echo: Not set .x. ..104 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example 4-3 Wireshark Capture of a TCP Datagram >Transmission Control Protocol. = Urgent: Not set . Src Port: 1052 (1052)..........1. = Push: Not set . ..

how many octets can be sent before waiting for an acknowledgment). which is only set when a new TCP session is negotiated during the TCP three-way handshake FIN: Finish.1. Sequence number: Specifies the number of the last octet in a segment. Among interesting values are ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ACK: Acknowledgment of a segment receipt SYN: Synchronize. Destination IP Address.16. The value is normally a random value above 1023. Acknowledgment number: Specifies the next octet expected by the receiver. and so on). Urgent pointer: Is only used with an URG (Urgent) flag (when the sender needs to send urgent data to the receiver). which is the request to close the TCP session ■ ■ Window size: Is the value of the sliding window (that is.1 192.168. Destination Port) uniquely identifies the session to both sender and receiver. The values in the range of 0 to 1023 represent the so-called well-known ports and are associated with popular services and applications (as described in RFC 1700.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 105 An explanation of each field is provided to refresh your memory: ■ TCP source port number: Belongs to the TCP session host that opened a connection. Using the Wireshark capture of the first TCP session start-up (SYN bit set to 1). * 172.254 *1052 21 0 (relative) N/A 28 bytes * 64240 . Source Port. FTP. fill in information about the TCP header in Table 4-10. such as Telnet. TCP destination port number: Is used to identify the upper-layer protocol or application on the remote site. Code bits: Have a special meaning in session management and in the treatment of segments.254. HTTP. The quadruple field combination (Source IP Address. Options: The only option currently defined is the maximum TCP segment size (optional value). ■ ■ Table 4-10 TCP Header: SYN Bit Set to 1 Answers Characteristics Source IP address Destination IP address Source port number Destination port number Sequence number Acknowledgment number Header length Window size * May differ from what student enters.

Attackers take advantage of the three-way handshake by initiating a “half-open” connection. a SYN bit is only used during the beginning of a TCP session. In this sequence. the opening TCP session sends a TCP datagram with the SYN bit set. Table 4–11 TCP Header: SYN and ACK Bits Set to 1 Answers Characteristics Source IP address Destination IP address Source port number Destination port number Sequence number Acknowledgment number Header length Window size * May differ from what student enters 192. A crash could involve a loss of networking .254 *1052 21 1 (relative) 1 20 bytes * 64240 Ignoring the TCP session started when a data transfer occurred.168. the receiving computer may exhaust resources and crash.1 * 21 1052 0 (relative) 1 28 bytes * 5840 Using the Wireshark capture of the first TCP session start-up (only ACK bit is set to 1).254.106 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Using the Wireshark capture of the first TCP session start-up (SYN and ACK bits are set to 1).1 192.16.168. how many other TCP datagrams contained a SYN bit? None. fill in information about the TCP header in Table 4-11. and the receiver sends a related TCP datagram with the SYN ACK bits set.254 * 172.1. fill in information about the TCP header in Table 4-12.254.16. Table 4–12 TCP Header: ACK Bits Set to 1 Answers Characteristics Source IP address Destination IP address Source port number Destination port number Sequence number Acknowledgment number Header length Window size * May differ from what student enters * 172.1. Instead. With sufficient TCP sessions in the half-open state. A final ACK bit is never sent to finish the TCP handshake. a new TCP connection is started in half-open fashion.

the attacker has won. Figure 4–7 Orderly TCP Session Termination FTP Client FTP Client. the FTP client sends a command to “quit. but is normally 5 minutes. FTP server. unaware and uncaring that TCP has control and management over the session. the FTP server TCP session sends a TCP datagram to the FTP client. When the originator of the TCP termination. is shown in Figure 4-7. The FTP client and server communicate with each other. visible in the Wireshark capture. announcing the termination of the TCP session. The default timeout value varies. receives a duplicate termination. and then sends its own TCP session termination. the TCP session on the FTP client sends an acknowledgment to the TCP session on Eagle Server.” The FTP server acknowledges the FTP termination with a Response: 221 Goodbye. In either case. is shown in Figure 4-6. This sequence. the TCP sessions will wait a certain period of time until closing. Figure 4–6 TCP Session Management FTP Client FTP Welcome TCP Acknowledgment FTP Userid Sent TCP Acknowledgment FTP Password Response FTP Server When the FTP session has finished. This sequence. At this time. . and the TCP session is closed. networking service has been stopped on the receiver. This is one example of a denial-ofservice (DoS) attack. visible in the Wireshark capture. When the FTP server sends a Response: 220 to the FTP client. such as when the connection is broken.“Quit” FTP Server. an ACK datagram is sent to acknowledge the termination.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 107 services or could corrupt the operating system. The FTP client TCP session acknowledges receipt of the termination datagram.“Goodbye” TCP Acknowledgment TCP Session ACK FIN Sent TCP Acknowledgment TCP Session ACK FIN Sent TCP Acknowledgment TCP Session Ends FTP Server Without an orderly termination.

In binary image mode the file is moved literally. Destination Start a Wireshark capture. Use this mode when transferring binary files. open a command-line window. A TFTP transfer will be used to analyze transport layer UDP operation. . and then download the s1-central configuration file from Eagle Server with the Windows TFTP client. to send a file. Transfers the file destination on the remote host to the file source on the local host. Switch to the Wireshark capture windows.com get s1-central Step 2. Example 4-4 contains Windows TFTP client syntax. For example. Example 4-4 >tftp –help TFTP Syntax for a Windows TFTP Client Transfers files to and from a remote computer running the TFTP service. to retrieve a file. byte by byte. The TFTP server has its own directory on Eagle Server. GET.example. host GET Specifies the local or remote host. The TFTP command has a different syntax than FTP. Following the procedure in Task 1. Analyze the UDP fields. and PUT. No authentication is supported. Capture a TFTP session. which is different from the directory structure supported by the FTP server.108 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 2: Identify UDP Header Fields and Operation Using a Wireshark TFTP Session Capture Step 1. Student capture should be similar to the capture shown in Figure 4-8. /tftpboot. Specifies where to transfer the file. there are only two commands. there is no authentication. Also. PUT Transfers the file source on the local host to the file destination on the remote host. TFTP [-i] host [GET | PUT] source [destination] -i Specifies binary image transfer mode (also called octet). source Specifies the file to transfer. The command and syntax to perform this follows: >tftp eagle-server.

explain that the UDP header does not contain an acknowledgment field. You might have to adjust the middle window and expand the UDP record by clicking the protocol expand box. fill in information about the UDP header in Table 4-13. . detailed UDP information is available in the middle window. Header information is sparse. it is the responsibility of the upper-layer protocol.. denoted by the preceding 0x code. and move the cursor to the middle window. Figure 4–9 UDP Datagram Capture See Figure 4-10. There are similarities. compared to the TCP datagram. Each UDP datagram is identified by the UDP source port and UDP destination port. however. in this case TFTP. a UDP datagram diagram. Figure 4–10 UDP Format UDP Segment 0 UDP Source Port UDP Message Length Data Data. This will be shown during the UDP datagram examination. The checksum value is a hexadecimal (base 16) value.. In Wireshark.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 109 Figure 4-8 UDP Session Capture Note: If students point to UDP acknowledgments. Highlight the first UDP datagram from the host computer. The expanded UDP datagram should look similar to Figure 4-9. to manage data transfer and receipt information. 16 UDP Destination Port UDP Checksum 31 Using the Wireshark capture of the first UDP datagram. Instead.

and the upper-layer protocol must provide some type of acknowledgment control. Table 4-14 UDP Header Information Answers Characteristics Source IP address Destination IP address: 172. Both protocols. UDP has less overhead and control.110 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 4-13 UDP Header Table Answers Characteristics Source IP address Destination IP address Source port number Destination port number UDP message length UDP checksum * May differ from what student enters. 192.16.168. Both protocols have advantages .16. transport data between clients and servers using application layer protocols and are appropriate for the upper-layer protocol each supports.16. but this source port is used for the remainder of the TFTP transfer.1.254.168. only the original source port used to begin the TFTP session is used to maintain the TFTP transfer.___.___ Source port number Destination port number UDP message length UDP checksum: 0x * May differ from what student enters. however. Fill in information about the UDP header in Table 4-14.254 * 172. If the computed checksum is identical with the sent checksum. TCP manages communication much differently from UDP. Because there is no reliable connection.1. and the datagram checksum value is recomputed upon receipt.1 192.1 * 32799 * 1038 *524 bytes * 0xc5cf (correct) Notice that the return UDP datagram has a different UDP source port. but reliability and guaranteed delivery requires additional control over the communication channel. Examine the first packet returned from Eagle Server.254. the UDP datagram is assumed complete.254 * 1038 69 * 30 bytes * 0x1f04 (correct) How does UDP verify datagram integrity? A checksum is sent in the UDP datagram. * 172. Task 3: Reflection This lab provided you with the opportunity to analyze TCP and UDP protocol operations from captured FTP and TFTP sessions.

and configuration file passwords. A user may open several client applications to the same server.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 111 and disadvantages. a different server is listening on a different port for client connections. and leave the room ready for the next class. Also examined are popular client requests and corresponding server responses. Application layer protocols define the communication between network services. Clients initiate communication to the appropriate server. and therefore different transport protocols have been developed to meet these requirements.3. and an FTP server and client. Scenario In this lab. Capture and analyze HTTP communication between the pod host computer and a web server. There may be several servers on the same end device. For each network service. and the server responds to the client. Task 5: Cleanup During this lab. or clear-text file contents. Background The primary function of the transport layer is to keep track of multiple application conversations on the same host. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. and how transport layer protocols TCP and UDP manage the communication channel. Observe TCP establish and manage communication channels with HTTP and FTP connections. HTTP and FTP. such as a web server and client. Lab 4-3: Application and Transport Layer Protocols (4. Capture and analyze FTP communication between the pod host computer and an FTP server. passwords. Analysis of the upper-layer FTP session will quickly identify the user ID. password. Consider how you would determine which protocol to use if you were designing an application. However. such as TCP and UDP. Application layer protocols rely on lower-level TCP/IP protocols. You monitor the communication with Wireshark and analyze the captured packets. This lab examines two popular application layer protocols. . Task 4: Challenge Because neither FTP nor TFTP are secure protocols. Upper-layer TFTP data examination is a bit more complicated. but the data field can be examined and configuration user ID and password information extracted. several files were transferred to the host computer and should be removed. all data transferred is sent in clear text.1) Upon completion of this lab. Applications are designed to use one protocol or another based on maximizing the advantages while minimizing the disadvantages. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ ■ Configure the host computer to capture application layer protocols. turn off power to the host computers. Remove anything that was brought into the lab.5. you use client applications to connect to Eagle Server network services. different applications have different requirements for their data. This includes any user IDs. yet each client communicates exclusively with a session established between the client and server.

254.252 255.252 255.253 10.254 172. the underlying communication to the server remains the same.255.31.10.255.0 255.254 172.255.0 255.255. Eagle Server has several network services preconfigured.24. such as HTTP. The lab should be configured as shown in Figure 4-11 and Table 4-15.254.254.16.2 172.255.Pod#.254 .0 255.10.255.254 172.112 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide A web browser such as Internet Explorer or Firefox will be used to connect to the Eagle Server network service.255.255.255.10.168. This exercise demonstrates that although clients may differ.0 255. as will the FTP command-line client.Pod#.1 172. waiting to respond to client requests. ask the instructor for assistance before proceeding.255.0.10.10.0 255.255.0.10.16.254.16.253 N/A 172.254 172.4 N/A 192.255.0.255.6 192.0 N/A N/A 10. The web browser will also be used to examine the FTP protocol.16.168.16. If it is not.5 172.16.255.16.168.255.254 192.0.255.0 255.255. Figure 4–11 Topology for Lab 4-3 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 Table 4–15 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP R2-Central Eagle Server Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 S0/0/0 Fa0/0 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 10.1 255.255.

Wireshark can be started by clicking the interface Start button.254. and can ping R1-ISP. the lab topology might have been modified before this class. and finally Eagle Server. double-click the filename and install Wireshark with the default settings. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server. Step 2. verify that the host has the correct DNS address and can ping eagle-server. If Wireshark is not installed on the pod host computer. ping Eagle Server.255.10. or shortcut. If the ping test fails. From a known good host computer. and can ping R2-Central.com/pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter3. Thereafter.255. and then save the file to the host pod computer. R1-ISP. R2-Central. Stop Wireshark for the moment.com. Step 3.example. Right-click the Wireshark filename.254. 172. Finally. set the correct capture interface. The interface with the IP address of the pod host computer is the correct interface. Wireshark should begin to log data.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 113 Note to instructor: Depending on the classroom situation. If students ask why the Wireshark icon is a directory folder. the interface is used as the default and does not need to be changed. Verify that all network equipment is powered on. This is also why the file has no physical size. 10.example. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests. The download URL is ftp://eagleserver.16.example. to another file. Download and install Wireshark. you can download it from eagleserver. shown in the preceding logical addressing table. Wireshark will be used in upcoming tasks. check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central. If an individual host computer cannot connect to Eagle Server. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address. Step 3. Verify that the host computer has the correct gateway IP address. See Figure 4-12. 172. troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity using the following steps: Step 1. ping S1Central. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity. it is because the file is a link.16.6.com. Figure 4-12 Wireshark Interface Capture After the file has downloaded. When the opening screen appears. and that Eagle Server is on. Start Wireshark from Start > All Programs > Wireshark > Wireshark. .example.10. Task 1: Configure the Pod Host Computer to Capture Application Layer Protocols Step 1.com. Step 2. Start Wireshark and configure the capture interface.

A web page similar to Figure 4-13 will display. 11.example.example. and connect to URL http://eagleserver.com. Step 3.html.com/page2. Start the pod host web browser. This is seen in the first three session lines. . There were actually at least three HTTP sessions created in Step 2.html. Using a web browser such as Internet Explorer or Firefox. Stop Wireshark captures and analyze the captured data. Do not close this web browser until instructed to do so. There should be no change to the display in the web client. The second session occurred with a refresh action. The third session occurred when the second web browser accessed http://eagleserver. Figure 4-13 Web Server Screen Click the web browser Refresh button. Start Wireshark captures. dated 1999.1 is defined in RFC 2616. The resulting Wireshark data will display. Wireshark will display captures based on packet type. The first HTTP session started with a connection to http://eagleserver. Step 2.com. This part of the lab demonstrates how sessions between multiple web clients and the web server are kept separate.com/page2. HTTP version 1. relying on lower-level protocols such as TCP to establish and manage the communication channel. Step 1. Before HTTP can begin.114 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 2: Capture and Analyze HTTP Communication Between the Pod Host Computer and a Web Server HTTP is an application layer protocol. Close the web browsers. Figure 4-15 shows a sample captured HTTP session. and 12.example. Do not close either browser until Wireshark capture is stopped. This will display a different web page. numbers 10.example. Open a second web browser. connect to URL http://eagleserver. the TCP session must be created.

and repeated by 172.254.168. some web servers are configured to display a default file if one is available. the GET request is on line 13.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 115 Figure 4-14 Captured HTTP Session Fill in Table 4-16 from the information presented in the HTTP session.254. Which computer initially signaled an end to the HTTP session. In Figure 4-14. Table 4-16 HTTP Session Table Answers Characteristics Web browser IP address Web server IP address Transport layer protocol (UDP/TCP) Web browser port number Web server port number 172.254 TCP 1056 80 Which computer initiated the HTTP session. Although no page was requested. expand the fields.1. If necessary. In the first browser. Highlight the first line of the HTTP protocol.254 with the SYN flag set. the path is the root directory of the web server.16. This is the beginning of the TCP three-way handshake.168.16. and how? 172.2 started the HTTP session to 192.254. acknowledged.1.1 GET \ En-us *Request URI is the path to the requested document. Complete Table 4-17 using information from the protocol. Move into the second (middle) Wireshark window to examine the layered protocols.168.2 192.1. Table 4–17 HTTP Session Table Answer Characteristics Protocol version Request Method * Request URI Language HTTP/1. Which protocol is carried (encapsulated) inside the TCP segment? Hypertext Transfer Protocol Expand the last protocol record and any subfields.16. . a GET request from the web browser. and how? 192. This is the actual information sent to the web server.254 signaled an end to the session with the FIN ACK flags set.2.

GET.116 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide The web server responds with the next HTTP packet. Open all collapsed subfields of HTTP. Figure 4-15 shows a sample capture. From RFC 2616 What does this response mean? The request has succeeded. The web browser understands and correctly formats the data in the browser window. and then move into the second (middle) window. the GET request contained the following additional instructions to the web server: If-modified-since: Fri. Notice the information returned from the server. the bandwidth used is minimal. A response to the web browser is possible because the web server understands the type of request and has a file to return.1 is defined in RFC 959. a request for an unknown web page will result in an error message. in 1971. Also. is sent in the response. 26 Jan 2007 06:19:33 GMT\r\n If-None-Match: “98072-b8-82da8740”\r\n <. Scroll down the top window of Wireshark until the second HTTP session. dated October 1985. Highlight the web server response. However. Figure 4-15 Captured HTTP Session The significance of the refresh action is in the server response.page tag number (ETAG) What is the ETAG response from the web server? 98072-b8-82da8740 Task 3: Capture and Analyze FTP Communication Between the Pod Host Computer and a Web Server The application layer protocol FTP has undergone significant revision since it first appeared in RFC 114. In Figure 4-14. is visible. The familiar web browser can be used to communicate with more than just the HTTP server. for an initial response that contains millions of bytes. FTP version 5. In this task. With a single packet returned for both the initial GET request and refresh. Crackers sometimes send unknown or garbled requests to web servers in an attempt to stop the server or gain access to the server command line. there are only a few lines of text (web server responses can contain thousands or millions of bytes). In this reply. 304 Not Modified. Because this web page was saved in the web client’s cache. an entity corresponding to the requested resource. the web browser and a command-line FTP utility are used to download data from an FTP server. a single reply packet can save significant bandwidth. this is on line 15. refresh. What is the web server response to the web client GET request? 200 OK. .

and then click OK. Example 4-5 FTP Eagle Server Example >ftp eagle-server. enter cmd. To do so. Password: <ENTER> 230 Login successful. open a command line on the host pod computer. to open Wireshark. Step 2. using the Windows FTP client utility. Start the pod host command-line FTP client.example. use user ID anonymous. In response to the password prompt. If necessary.com.com Connected to eagle-server.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 117 In preparation for this task. To view a list of FTP client commands. Example 4-6 ftp> help Commands may be abbreviated. 220 Welcome to the eagle-server FTP service. press Enter.example.example. To authenticate. Commands are: FTP Client Commands ! ? append ascii bell binary bye cd close delete debug dir disconnect get glob hash help lcd literal ls mdelete mdir mget mkdir mls mput open prompt put pwd quit quote recv remotehelp rename rmdir send status trace type user verbose . Figure 4-16 Windows Command Line Step 1. A screen similar to Figure 4-16 will display. type help and press Enter. click Start > Run. User (eagle-server.com:(none)): anonymous 331 Please specify the password. Step 2. This means that the FTP client is waiting for a command to send to the FTP server. as shown in Example 4-6. The FTP client prompt is ftp>. as shown in Example 4-5. Start Wireshark captures. refer to Task 1. Start a pod host computer FTP session with the FTP server.

and files transferred to the pod host computer. User anonymous has been placed into a root jail. the values are UNIX file permissions.254. and save the captures as FTP_Command_Line_Client.4.pcap (5853 bytes). ftp: 5853 bytes received in 0. drwxr-xr-x 3 0 0 4096 Jan 12 04:32 pub If students ask what the values at the beginning of the line mean.04Seconds 8. ftp: 333 bytes received in 0. as shown in Example 4-7.12Kbytes/sec. Close the command-line window with the exit command. Subdirectories can be traversed. Example 4-7 FTP Directory Output ftp> dir 200 PORT command successful. the large number of FTP client commands makes using the command-line utility difficult for a novice. ftp> quit 221 Goodbye. w (write). Stop Wireshark captures.99. d. and world. We will only use a few commands for Wireshark evaluation. See Example 4-8. 226 File send OK. Enter the command dir to display the current directory contents.168. This is not the real root directory of the server. Move into directory pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter2.pcap 1486 Jan 12 04:27 ping to 192. The permissions are arranged as r (read). 150 Opening BINARY mode data connection for ftptoeagle-server. Consider using PASV. indicates that the file is a directory. download a file. but only the highest point that user anonymous can access. The FTP client is at the root directory of the FTP server.exe 226 Directory send OK.pcap 4493 Jan 12 04:27 http to eagle-server.21Kbytes/sec. Consider using PASV.34Seconds 17. The first character. Consider using PASV.118 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Unfortunately.pcap 1 0 100 15163750 Jan 12 04:30 wireshark-setup-0. ftp> get “ftptoeagle-server. World (anyone) can read and access the directory.pcap” 200 PORT command successful. . Example 4-8 FTP Subdirectory Example ftp> cd pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter2 250 Directory successfully changed. x (access). prohibiting access outside of the current directory. group. and exit. 150 Here comes the directory listing.254. for the owner. 150 Here comes the directory listing. -rw-r—r— -rw-r—r— -rw-r—r— -rw-r—r— 1 0 100 1 0 100 1 0 100 5853 Jan 12 04:26 ftptoeagle-server. ftp> dir 200 PORT command successful. however.

open the Wireshark capture FTP_Web_Browser_Client. Analyze the captured data. and enter the URL ftp://eagle-server. On the top Wireshark window. What is the FTP server response 220? Service is ready for a new user.pcap and save the file. example. Step 4. as shown on the bottom of the Figure 4-17. In Figure 4-18. Response: 220.com.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 119 Step 3. select the FTP capture that is the first FTP protocol transmission. A browser window opens with the pub directory displayed. Figure 4-17 Web Browser FTP Client Using the browser. Stop Wireshark captures. When finished. and save the captures as FTP_Web_Browser_Client. close the web browser. similar to HTTP. Also. FTP communicates using codes. Double-click the file ftptoeagle-server. Start the pod host web browser. this is line 23. the web browser logged in to the FTP server as user anonymous. Open a web browser as shown in Figure 4-17. Start Wireshark captures again. Figure 4-18 Wireshark FTP Capture Move into the middle Wireshark window and expand the FTP protocol. go down the directories until the URL path is pub/eaglelabs/eagle1/chapter2. . If not already opened.

If possible. high ports are used on both ends of the connection. In passive mode. In active transfer mode. For data transfer. there are two significant changes. what was the web browser reply? IEUSER@ Which port number does the FTP client use to connect to the FTP server port 21? Port number will vary. First. data transfer may fail.120 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide When the FTP server issued a Response: 331 Please specify the password. Unless the FTP client firewall is configured to permit connections from the outside. the FTP client must permit either FTP-related connections (implying stateful packet filtering) or disable blocking. The FTP server source port number is 20. a port number above 1023. and observe the FTP communication. a client initiates an FTP session with the server on well-known TCP port 21. In active mode. The implications between the two modes are important from an information security perspective. In passive transfer mode. the port number is 1073. however. the client initiates the data connection to the server. Both port numbers are above 1023. students should be shown a passive transfer mode. . See Figure 4-20. the client opens a new port to the server for data transfer. What is the FTP data port number used by the FTP server? The port number is 20. however. This is called the transfer mode. a new port is opened. When data is transferred or with simple directory listings. See Figure 4-19. The transfer mode sets how the data port is configured. In Figure 4-18. the server initiates a connection from well-known TCP port 20 to a client’s high port. The transfer mode can be either active or passive. Compare FTP active and passive transfer modes. For data transfer. the same connection used in the active transfer mode. a client initiates an FTP session with the server on well-known TCP port 21. Open the Wireshark capture FTP_Web_Browser_Client. and the FTP client port number is some number above 1023. Second. the commands are similar. Although the clients are different. Figure 4-19 Active FTP FTP Client FTP Control Connection on TCP Port 21 FTP Server FTP Data Connection From TCP Port 20 on Server to a High Port on the Client. The Windows FTP client used for this lab did not support the passive transfer mode. the server opens a TCP session to the FTP client and transfers data across that port. To establish connectivity for data transfer. Step 5.

Issue a GET request and observe the results. An FTP session. The FTP server listens on TCP port 21. the server or client may initiate the data connection. A client application may be either a web browser or command-line utility. and Gopher. FTP. TCP manages the connection between client and server to ensure datagram delivery. use a web browser or command-line Telnet client to connect to a Cisco device such as S1-Central or R2-Central. uses two protocols. The communication protocol is normally defined in an RFC. Task 4: Reflection Both HTTP and FTP protocols rely on TCP to communicate. Not all FTP client applications support changes to the transfer mode. Task 5: Challenge Enabling Wireshark capture. even if the authentication is open to the world.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 121 Figure 4-20 Passive FTP FTP Client FTP Control Connection on TCP Port 21 FTP Server FTP Data Connection From the Client High TCP Port to the Server High TCP Port. The FTP client must authenticate to the FTP server. and consider why UDP is inappropriate for HTTP. User anonymous normally has restricted access to the FTP server and cannot upload files. however. but each must send and receive messages that can be correctly interpreted. How is the application layer protocol Telnet similar to HTTP and FTP? How does Telnet differ? Answers will vary. Think about the differences between TCP and UDP. Depending on the transfer mode. Telnet. Although only HTTP and FTP were examined here. sending requests and processing replies. Observe the Telnet protocol behavior. The server listens on port 80 for client connections. however. Unless the FTP server is configured to permit a connection to a random high port. but Telnet is similar to HTTP and FTP in that all three use the TCP protocol for connection-oriented. FTP. Telnet and Gopher may also be supported on the browser. Multiple application layer protocols can be accessed through a simple web browser. as the command line. The browser acts as a client to the server. . All of these services use TCP. An HTTP session begins when a request is made to the HTTP server and ends when the response has been acknowledged by the HTTP client. guaranteed delivery of datagrams. HTTP uses a single protocol to communicate with the HTTP server. lasts until the client signals that it is leaving with the quit command. data transfer will fail.

servers. right-click Wireshark. Explore How DNS. and analyze increasingly more complex protocol interactions.122 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 6: Clean Up If Wireshark was installed on the pod host computer for this lab. click Start > Control Panel > Add or Remove Programs.1. you will be using a standard lab setup created from actual PCs. You will use the topology in Figure 4-21 and the addressing table in Table 4-18 to document your design. and TCP on the model of the lab network.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to perform this exercise using Packet Tracer. Remember. and switches to learn networking concepts.3. Use simulation mode to visualize the operation of DNS. UDP. Upon completion of this activity. the instructor may want the application removed.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab4532. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. HTTP. UDP. Connect and configure hosts and services on the model of the lab network.3) Open the file LSG01-PTSkills4.6. and leave the room ready for the next class.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. HTTP. delete all files retrieved from the FTP server. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Application and Transport Layer Protocols Examination (4.5. however. and UDP work together. . you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ ■ Configure hosts and services. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity. Packet Tracer Challenge Skills Integration Challenge: Analyzing the Application and Transport Layers (4. Scroll to the bottom of the list. and then click Remove. turn off power to the host computers. To remove Wireshark. routers. you will build increasingly larger parts of this topology in Packet Tracer. Background Throughout the course. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. If downloaded files need to be removed from the host pod computer. At the end of each chapter.

6 10.16.16.1.254 172.255.0 255.10.254 10.254 172.example.253 R2-Central Fa0/0 S0/0/0 S1-Central PC 1A PC 1B Eagle Server VLAN 1 NIC NIC NIC Task 1: Repair and Test the Topology The server has been replaced.10.254 Subnet mask 255.10.0 Default gateway 192.255.10.1.254 192.255.0.255. with the association of eagle-server.255.168.10.254 255.168.254.6 172.255. Then configure it with the following settings: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ IP address 192.16.255.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 123 Figure 4-21 Topology for Challenge 1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server 2960-24TT S1-Central 1841 R2-Central PC 1A PC 1B Table 4-18 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP Fa0/0 S0/0/0 192.255.255.16.253 DNS enabled.168.0.255.0 255.255.com with the server’s IP address HTTP enabled .255.168.16.252 255.0 255.2 192.254.5 172.255.254.10.6 172.253 10.254.255.254.10.0.255.255.16.254.0 N/A N/A 10.0.10.1 172.16.255.168.0 255.255.1 172. It must be powered on.252 255.0 255.

1. Task 3: Reflection Can you make a diagram of the sequence of protocol events involved in requesting a web page using a URL? Where might things go wrong? Compare and contrast DNS and HTTP. and ICMP.255. UDP. Scenario 1 might have test packets between PC 1B and the routers).0. In Packet Tracer. You can create different test packet scenarios by using the New button (for example. send this single test ping a second time.124 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Connect the Eagle Server to the Fa0/0 port on the R1-ISP router using a crossover cable.254. this is because of the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) process.168. You can remove all test packets in a particular scenario by using the Delete button. the term scenario means a specific configuration of one or more test packets. press Enter. If you receive a Buffer Full message. especially when the packets are at PC 1A or at the Eagle Server. UDP.255. Note that when you add a simple PDU. Open a web browser from the desktop of 1A. UDP.16. and then use the Capture / Forward button in the event List to capture the interaction of DNS. Play this animation and examine the packet contents (PDU Information window. For example. Type the URL eagleserver.254 Connect PC 1A to the Fa0/1 port of the S1-Central switch using a straight-through cable. PC 1A has lost its IP address information. or by clicking the Info column for that packet instance as it is listed in the Event List. click the View Previous Events button. if you use the Delete button for Scenario 0.1 Subnet mask 255. Make sure Event Filter is set to display DNS. The first time you issue this one-shot ping message. TCP. the test packet you just created between PC 1A and Eagle Server will be removed. it appears in the PDU List window as part of Scenario 0. Test connectivity. Configure it with the following settings: ■ ■ ■ ■ IP address 172. HTTP. . and TCP work together by studying tracing the packets and using the PDU Information window to look “inside” them.com.254 DNS server 192. Task 2: Explore How DNS. HTTP.0 Default gateway 172. you should be able to see how DNS.” Double-clicking the Fire button in the PDU List window. by using the Add Simple PDU to test connectivity between PC 1A and the Eagle Server. and TCP. Although the processing of the packets at the switch and the routers might not make sense to you yet. Outbound PDU Details) for each event in the event list. in real time. it will show as Failed. and TCP Work Together Switch from real time to simulation mode. which is explained later in Chapter 9. HTTP. You can examine the packet in two ways: by clicking the packet envelope as it is displayed in the animation. Inbound PDU Details. This time it will succeed. Scenario 0 might have one test packet from PC 1A to Eagle Server. HTTP.16. Verify your work using feedback from the Check Results button and the Assessment Items tab. “Ethernet.example. and UDP and TCP. UDP. please do this before the next task.

Layer 3 uses the following four basic processes: 1. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum activities and labs to ensure you have mastered the practical. The network layer must provide services to direct these packets to their destination host. Study Guide IPv4 The network layer provides services to exchange the individual pieces of data over the network between end devices. Concept Questions 1.CHAPTER 5 OSI Network Layer The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of matching. and Connectionless Network Service (CLNS/DECNet) 3. whereas IPv6 is 128 bit. 2. List three protocols implemented at the network layer that carry user data. 2. Answers will vary but could include Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4). 4. IP version 4 (IPv4) is the network layer protocol used as an example throughout this study guide. As you work through this chapter. The packet arrives at the destination host and is processed at Layer 3. IPv4 is going to be replaced by IPv6. 3. . hands-on skills needed to understand the opportunities and challenges associated with modern networks. The data must be packaged so that it can be sent in a manageable size. These fields contain binary values that the IPv4 services reference as they forward packets across the network. and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of the importance of data networks and the major components and characteristics of network architectures. multiple-choice. The network layer must provide a unique address for these end devices. use Chapter 5 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum or use the corresponding Chapter 5 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration Companion Guide for assistance. What is the most significant difference between the two? Although answers will vary. fill-in-the-blank. Novell Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX). AppleTalk. What are the four basic processes used in the network layer to accomplish end-to-end transport? To accomplish end-to-end transport. The most significant network layer protocol is the Internet Protocol (IP). Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6). the most significant difference between IPv4 and IPv6 is length. The address space for IPv4 is 32 bit. IPv4 defines many different fields in the packet header.

will need to split up a packet when forwarding it from one media to a media with a smaller maximum transmission unit (MTU). Each route that a packet takes to reach the next device is called a hop. Any individual IP packet can be communicated electrically over cable. or wirelessly as radio signals. In some cases. as optical signals over fiber. an intermediary device. 2. Data quality of service (QoS) priority: Enables router to give priority to voice and network route information over regular data. 4. These 13 bits allow a receiver to determine the place of a particular fragment in the original IP datagram. Fragment offset . 6. IPv4 address of host to receive the packet: enables routers at each hop to forward the packet towards the destination.126 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide 4. There are no acknowledgments of packet delivery. The header of an IPv4 packet does not include fields required for reliable data delivery. 3. and media independent. usually a router. What is this process called? Fragmentation Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks for the following questions. Table 5-1 Field Key Fields of IPv4 Header Purpose IP source address IP destination address Time-to-Live (TTL) Type-of-Service (ToS) Protocol IPv4 address of host sending the packet: enables the destination host to respond to the source if required. which services have to resolve these issues? The upper-layer services resolve these issues. The data payload protocol type: Denotes whether the data is a UDP datagram or TCP segment. 1. If out-of-order or missing packets create problems for the application using the data. List three basic characteristics of IPv4. Fill in the purpose of each field. There is no error control for data. best effort (unreliable). Number of hops before packet is dropped: This value is decremented at each hop to prevent packets being passed around the network in routing loops. because these transport layer protocols manage the receipt of their protocol data units (PDU) differently. 5. IPv4 is connectionless. Intermediary devices that connect the networks are called routers. Vocabulary Exercise: Define Table 5-1 lists the six key fields in a typical IPv4 header.

what graphical user interface (GUI) tool do you use to configure the default gateway IPv4 address? The Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties tools . Routing is done packet by packet and hop by hop. A hierarchical address uniquely identifies each host. acts as a gateway to the other network. an intermediary device. Please be prepared to allot class time for discussions/presentations. Using a hierarchical addressing scheme means that the higher levels of the address can be retained. 7. 4. is needed to send a packet out of the local network. network layer addressing schemes are hierarchical. Be prepared to discuss and present your findings in class. hosts communicate with each other without the need for any network layer intermediary device. Answers will vary. A broadcast is a message sent from one host to all other hosts on the network. 3. On a Windows computer. or router. A router will do one of the following with a packet: ■ ■ ■ Forward it to the next-hop router Forward it to the destination host Drop it Concept Questions 1. 1. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks for the following questions. 6. Broadcasts are contained within a broadcast domain. The firewall function performed by an intermediary permits only known.Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 127 Networks: Dividing Hosts into Groups As networks get larger. 5. with the middle level denoting the network addresses and the lower level the individual hosts. 2. Dividing large networks so that hosts who need to communicate are grouped together reduces the unnecessary overhead of all hosts needing to know all addresses. As networks grow larger. The default gateway is a router on a network that serves as an exit from that network. To support data communications between networks over internetworks. Internet Research Exercise Use your favorite Internet search engine to find a website that describes the advantages to using hierarchical addressing. The gateway. also known as the default gateway. it is a good idea to break the network into groups. Separating networks is relatively simple if you use hierarchical addressing. they present problems that can be at least partially alleviated by dividing the network into smaller interconnected networks. When a host needs to communicate with another network. Routing: How Our Data Packets Are Handled Within a network or a subnetwork. trusted data to access the network.

When forwarding a packet. the address 0. What piece of addressing information should both the IPv4 host address and its default gateway share? The host IPv4 address and gateway address both must have the same network (and subnet. and metric. 3. Table 5-2 Terms Routing Terms Definitions Definition Next hop A next hop is the address of the device that will process the packet next. 6.0.0.0 is used for this purpose. the router will select the most specific route. a packet cannot be forwarded without a route. 4. Vocabulary Exercise: Define Table 5-2 lists some terms about routing. Can a packet be forwarded without a route? No. Routes must have which three main features in a routing table? The three main features that routes must have in a routing table are destination network. 8. if used) portion of their respective addresses. Default route Gateway . 5. Why is Layer 3 addressing hierarchical? The hierarchical nature of Layer 3 addressing means that one route entry could refer to a large general network and another entry could refer to a subnet of that same network. In IPv4 networks. Packets with a destination network address that does not match a more specific route in the routing table are forwarded to the next-hop router associated with the default route. To do this. The default route is used to forward packets for which there is no entry in the routing table for the destination network. the packet has to be routed outside the original network. next hop. The default gateway is needed to send a packet out of the local network. which route will a router select? When forwarding a packet. the packet is sent to the gateway. Packets with a destination network address that does not match a more specific route in the routing table are forwarded to the next-hop router associated with the default route. the address of the default gateway (router interface) is the next hop for all packets destined for another network. 7. If the network portion of the destination address of the packet is different from the network of the originating host. What is a default route? A default route is a route that will match all destination networks. Define each term and write your responses in the definition column. For a host on a network. When should you use a default route? A default route is used to forward packets for which there is no entry in the routing table for the destination network. A default route is a route that will match all destination networks.128 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide 2.

When a router receives information about new or changed routes. the packet is dropped at that hop. . the routing table needs to represent the most accurate state of network pathways that the router can access. To ensure that packets are routed to use the best possible next hops. every router must be configured with static routes to next hops that reflect its location in the internetwork. Out-of-date routing information means that packets might not be forwarded to the most appropriate next hop. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks for the following questions. The routing table contains the information that a router uses in its packet-forwarding decisions. As routers become aware of changes to the networks for which they act as the gateway. this information is passed on to other routers.Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 129 Routing Processes: How Routes Are Learned Routing requires that every hop. or changes to links between routers. 2. Static routing is routing that depends on manually entered routes in the routing table. it updates its own routing table and. Each router in a path does not need a route to all networks. in turn. For the routing decisions. Otherwise. It only needs to know the next hop on the path to the packet’s destination network. Because packets are forwarded at every hop. causing delays or packet loss. 3. along the path to a packet’s destination have a route to forward the packet. 1. Routing protocols are the set of rules by which routers dynamically share their routing information. passes the information to other routers. or router. Routing is the process of finding a path to a destination host. each known destination network needs to either have a route or a default route configured.

Troubleshoot a hidden gateway address problem. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ Understand and explain the purpose of a gateway address.130 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Labs and Activities Lab 5-1: Examining a Device’s Gateway (5.1. and only 20 percent of network traffic will go to local devices. devices on different networks have different source and destination network numbers. the host portion of the IP address is used as the host identifier. and Table 5-3 shows the corresponding addressing table.5. One purpose of a router is to serve as an entry point for packets coming into the network and exit point for packets leaving the network.1) Upon completion of this lab. network configuration on a pod host computer will be verified. Scenario Pod host computers must communicate with Eagle Server. By the use of several common utilities. If the pod host computer gateway address is not configured properly. users will not be able to perform their job. A computer that communicates with another device must first know how to reach the device. Cisco estimates that 80 percent of network traffic will be destined to devices on other networks. connectivity with Eagle Server will fail. but Eagle Server is located on a different network. The network portion of the IP address is used to identify when a packet must be sent to a gateway address. The network portion of the destination device is the same as the network portion of the host device. This is called the 80/20 rule. Figure 5-1 shows the topology for this lab. A router is assigned the gateway address for all the devices on the LAN. if a gateway cannot be reached by the LAN devices. However. which is assigned to a network device that forwards packets between distant networks. Understand how network information is configured on a Windows computer. Background An IP address is composed of a network portion and a host portion. . For devices on the same LAN. Gateway addresses are important to users. Therefore.

255.255.0.255.16.255.0 255.16.255.6 192.255.255.0.0 255.254 192.5 172.16.0.255.16.254 172.0 255.255.Pod#.255.253 10.254.255.10.24.2 172.10.16.255.0 255.0 255.10.0 255.254 R2-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Eagle Server N/A N/A Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central N/A N/A N/A .10.10.31.16.Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 131 Figure 5-1 Topology for Lab 5-1 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 Table 5-3 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP S0/0/0 Fa0/0 10.1 255.254.168.255.Pod#.1 172.0 N/A N/A 10.6 N/A 192.254 172.254 172.254.255.252 255.168.0.16.10.255.253 N/A 172.254.254 172.255.255.168.255.252 255.

Verify that the host computer has the correct gateway IP address. 10. More specific networks are reached through other gateway addresses. If the ping test fails. R1-ISP. Figure 5-2 Communication Between LAN Devices Referring to Figure 5-2. is automatically assigned to the 127. In Example 5-1.0.0 and 0. refer to any network not specifically known.0 network. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests.0. ping S1Central.10. Figure 5-2 shows two devices on the same network communicating with the ping command.0. Task 1: Understand and Explain the Purpose of a Gateway Address For LAN traffic.254. This interface is . Finally. Verify that all network equipment is powered on.254.254 as the default gateway. The first highlighted line shows what gateway address is used to forward all network packets destined outside of the LAN. Step 3. the gateway address is the address of the Ethernet device. A local interface.1. and finally Eagle Server. what is the MAC address of the network device on IP address 172. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address.16. 0. Any device that has the same network address (in this example.255.1? 00:10:a4:7b:01:5f Several Windows commands will display a network gateway address. troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity with the following steps: Step 1.0) is on the same LAN. this computer will use 172.0. If an individual host computer cannot connect to Eagle Server. called the loopback interface.10.132 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Note to instructor: Depending on the classroom situation.6.16. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity.16. the netstat –r command is used to view the gateway addresses for this computer.0. From a known good host computer. ping Eagle Server.16.255. check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central. For any nonlocal network.0. 172.com. the lab topology might have been modified before this class. and can ping R2-Central.255. and that Eagle Server is on. shown in the preceding logical addressing table.0. 172.example. Step 2. verify that the host has the correct DNS address and can ping eagle-server. 172. The fourth highlighted line displays the information in humanreadable form. One popular command is netstat –r.16.0. The “quad-zero” Network Destination and Netmask values. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server.example. and can ping R1-ISP.com. R2-Central.

.0.254 127.1. Open a terminal window on a pod host computer..2 127.0.1 172.0 255. For 127.2 172..0.1.2 127.0.16.0 127.. Example 5-1 Output of the netstat Command C:\>netstat –r Route Table ======================================================================= Interface List 0x1 .0.16.00 16 76 ac a7 6a Intel(R) 82562V 10/100 Network Connection ======================================================================= ======================================================================= Active Routes: Network Destination 0..2 Metric 1 1 20 20 20 1 ======================================================================= Persistent Routes: None C:\> Step 1.255.10. MS TCP Loopback interface 0x20005 . 127.1..0..254 Step 2.16..16.255 is the network broadcast address. Pings are successful to any valid 127.2 127.255.16.2 172.16.0 172. Use the ping command to verify connectivity with IP address 127..254 Gateway 172.0.255 Default Gateway: Netmask 0..255.2 172.16.0 host IP address.0..2 Interface 172..255. What is the default gateway address? 172.255 255.1.255.1.1.1 172.2. 127.0 is accessed through gateway 172. This entry is the third highlighted line.1.0.10..0.16..0.0..16. Pings will fail.255.Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 133 used to identify the local host to local network services..16..0. why? For 127.16.255.16. Use the ping command to ping different IP addresses on the 127.1.0 255.0.255. Were responses successful? If not.255.255.0.255..255.0.255. yes..0.255..1.255.0.0.1.16..255..1.1..1. the IP address for this Ethernet interface.255. Was the ping successful? Yes Step 3. and 127.0 network.255 255.16.16. no.255. any device on network 172.0 172.255.255.0..0.0 255.1.255 172. ..255. Finally.0.255 255.1 172. See the second highlighted entry.0..0.1 172.0.

Right-click Local Area Connection. Task 2: Understand How Network Information Is Configured on a Windows Computer Many times connectivity issues are attributed to incorrect network settings. it is the door to other networks. what is the MAC address of the gateway device? 00:0c:85:cf:66:40 Referring to Figure 5-3. Pod host computer 2. IP address 172. One method that might prove useful to determine the network interface IP properties is to examine the pod host computer’s Network Properties settings.168.168. The MAC address of 192.0. To access this window. Step 1. communication between devices on different networks is different than on a LAN. responds with its MAC address.254.254 is only important to the gateway device on the same LAN that must eventually deliver the packet to that IP address. As shown in Figure 5-3. a router. Figure 5-3 Communication Between Devices on Different Networks Referring to Figure 5-3. Because network 172.16. and choose Properties.134 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide A default gateway address permits a network device to communicate with other devices on different networks.254.254.254. select Internet Protocol (TCP/IP).1. initiates a ping to IP address 192. A window similar to the one in Figure 5-4 will display.168. The computer composes the Layer 2 header with the destination MAC address of the router and places frames on the wire to the gateway device.168. The information cannot be determined from any device on this LAN. All traffic destined to different networks must go through the network device that has the default gateway address. scroll down the list of items in the pane. Examine network properties settings. .0 differs from 192. Click Start > Control Panel > Network Connections. Because IP address 192. For troubleshooting connectivity issues. the Layer 2 MAC addresses will change before the packet reaches its destination.16. This gateway device. In essence.254.2. for which IP can you not find a MAC address? 192.254 is on a different network.0.254. the pod host computer requests the MAC address of the default gateway device. On the General tab. several tools are available to quickly determine the network configuration for any Windows computer.254. and click the Properties button.168.

: 172. . .254 The first highlight shows the IP address for this pod host computer. the Network Properties settings window is not very useful for determining IP address information. as shown in Example 5-2. . . Default Gateway . . . . . The second highlight shows the subnet mask. a dynamic IP address may be configured. . Figure 5-5 Network Interface with Dynamic IP Address A more consistently reliable method for determining network settings on a Windows computer is to use the ipconfig command. In this case. .255.255. . . : 255.16. . .1.16. The third highlight shows the default gateway address. as shown in Figure 5-5. : 172. Example 5-2 Output of the ipconfig Command C:\>ipconfig Windows IP Configuration Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection: Connection-specific DNS Suffix . . . . .Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 135 Figure 5-4 Network Interface with Static IP Address However.0 . . : IP Address. . .0.2 Subnet Mask . . . . . .

.255. use the command ipconfig /all. . To show the most information about the network connections. . . Task 3: Troubleshoot a Hidden Gateway Address Problem When troubleshooting network issues. . .254. . . . . . : GW-desktop-hom Primary Dns Suffix IP Routing Enabled WINS Proxy Enabled .168.255. The technician verified the cables and network settings on both computers. . . : . . you are asked for assistance from the help desk technician. but nothing unusual was found. .16. .example. . . . . . . . The technician received a trouble ticket from a user on computer host 1A. . : 172. . . : 255. . . .1. .2 Subnet Mask .254 192.254 Note to instructors: Only the IP address should be different on a student’s pod host computer.0 Default Gateway . : Node Type . ipconfig Table Address Table 5-4 Description IP address Subnet mask Default gateway DNS server 172.255. .com. .168. . . . : 172. . complaining that computer host 11B.16. . The highlighted line shows the domain name server IP address. . Using the command ipconfig /all. . . . : Intel (R) 82562V 10/100 Step 2. . . .16. : 192. .0 172. . . .2 255. . . : No . . . .0. . : Unknown Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection: Connection-specific DNS Suffix Network Connection Physical Address. . . a thorough understanding of the network can often assist in identifying the real problem. host-11B. . . . . who reports that R2-Central has been temporarily brought down for a hardware upgrade. . . : No . . as shown in Example 5-3. . . . . . . . . As the third-shift help desk Cisco engineer. . . . . . : 00-16-76-AC-A7-6A Dhcp Enabled. . . . . : No IP Address. . . .254 DNS Servers .254. does not respond to pings. . . . You check with the corporate network engineer.1.136 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Several options are available with the ipconfig command. . fill in the Table 5-4 with information from your pod host computer. . . .254 Description . . . . .255. . . accessible with the command ipconfig /?.16. all other values should be the same as shown.0. Refer to the network topology in Figure 5-1 and the logical IP address assignments in Table 5-3. . . . . . . . . . . . . Example 5-3 Output of the ipconfig /all Command C:\>ipconfig /all Windows IP Configuration Host Name .

2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab5512. and leave the room ready for the next class. the gateway router is back on line and normal network operation resumes.254. the user is able to establish connectivity with the computer.0.16. DNS requests from the LAN devices must go through the gateway device. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. and in some instances LAN devices require a default gateway to communicate with other devices on the LAN.254. Packet Tracer Activity Packet Tracer Companion: Examining a Device’s Gateway (5. Observe the communication sequence between network devices. The pings succeed. and the pings fail. capture a ping between network devices using only IP addresses.16. You might have to restart the host computer to flush the DNS cache. Task 4: Reflection A gateway address is critical to network connectivity. turn off power to the host computers. you ask the technician to ping the IP address for host 11B.Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 137 Nodding your head in understanding.11.1. Then. you ask the technician to ping the gateway IP address. Next. especially the gateway. IP network 192. You instruct the help desk technician to tell the user to use the IP address for host 11B temporarily. Task 6: Clean Up Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. The gateway address should not be needed. What is wrong? Because the DNS server is on a different network than the LAN. 172.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. If the gateway is down.254. Remove anything that was brought into the lab.2 from host 1A. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity. . but DNS will not work. Within the hour. First.5. Task 5: Challenge Use Wireshark to capture a ping between two pod host computers. after that. however. use the hostname of the destination pod computer for DNS to reply with the destination IP address. Windows command-line utilities such as netstat –r and ipconfig /all will report gateway settings on host computers. Remember.168. 172. LAN computers still have connectivity between each other. R2-Central.

Background For packets to travel across a network. This lab compares how routes are used in Windows computers and the Cisco router.138 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Lab 5-2: Examining a Route (5. Some routes are added to routing tables automatically. The device considers a network directly connected when it has an IP address and network mask configured. Scenario Using a pod host computer. Examine router routes using basic Cisco IOS commands.2. examine the routing table with the route command and identify the different routes and gateway IP address for the route. and Table 5-5 shows the corresponding addressing table. a device must know the route to the destination network. and the network route is automatically entered into the routing table. Figure 5-6 shows the topology for this lab.1) Learning Objectives Upon completion of this lab. For networks that are not directly connected. test the connection. and then add the default gateway route back to the host table. Delete the default gateway route.5. based upon configuration information on the network interface. Use a Windows Telnet client command telnet to connect to a Cisco router. and examine the routing table. a default gateway IP address is configured that will send traffic to a device that should know about the network. Figure 5-6 Topology for Lab 5-2 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 . Use a pod host computer to telnet into R2-Central. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ Use the route command to modify a Windows computer routing table.

254 172. and can ping R2-Central.1 172.168. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address.0.example. troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity using the following steps: Step 1.255.6 N/A 192.255.example.10.255.255.10. students telnet into R2-Central and view the routing table. and finally Eagle Server.10.Pod#.16. R1-ISP. From a known good host computer. ping Eagle Server. 172.Pod#.2 172. Verify that the host computer has the correct gateway IP address.255.16.0 255.0 N/A N/A 10.16.254.0 255.252 255.254.255.0.16. the lab topology might have been modified before this class.255. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server. and can ping eagle-server.254 172.255.253 10.16.254.16.16. Ensure that the privileged exec password has been changed from the default value of cisco.254 172.254 192.10.255.6. Verify that all network equipment is powered on.255.255.255.16.255. If an individual host computer cannot connect to Eagle Server.0. shown in the preceding logical addressing table. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity.0 255.com.255.10.255.255. check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central. Task 1: Use the route Command to Modify a Windows Computer Routing Table Shown in Example 5-4. . verify that the host has the correct DNS address. Step 2.1 255.254.168.255.0.254 R2-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Eagle Server N/A N/A Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central N/A N/A N/A Note to instructor: Depending on the classroom situation.255. Finally. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests.254.252 255.0 255. ping S1Central.0 255.16. R2-Central. and that Eagle Server is on.10.com.255.10. If the ping test fails.Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 139 Table 5-5 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP S0/0/0 Fa0/0 10. output from the netstat –r command is useful to determine route and gateway information. 172.254 172. Step 3. and can ping R1-ISP.168.10. In this lab.5 172.24.31.6 192.255. 10.254.253 N/A 172.0 255.

255. Example 5-5 Output of the route Command C:\>route /? An abbreviated option list for the route command is shown below: route PRINT route ADD route DELETE route CHANGE Prints active routes Adds a route: Deletes a route: Modifies an existing route route ADD network MASK mask gateway route DELETE network To view active routes.140 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example 5-4 Output of the netstat Command C:\>netstat –r Route Table ======================================================================= Interface List 0x1 .0.255.. To view detailed information about the route command.16. MS TCP Loopback interface 0x20005 .0 172...2 172.255..1. Examine the active routes on a Windows computer.0... as shown in Example 5-5.2 Metric 1 1 20 20 20 1 ======================================================================= Persistent Routes: None C:\> Step 1.16.1 172.0.16.1 172..0 255.255.16.1.. Unlike the netstat –r command. the route command can be used to view.255 172..1 172.2 127. use the option route /?..0.0.16.2 172.255 255.255.16.0.0.16...1 172.255.16.0. or change routing table entries.0.1.. add..255 255. .00 16 76 ac a7 6a Intel(R) 82562V 10/100 Network Connection ======================================================================= ======================================================================= Active Routes: Network Destination 0.255 255.. delete. as shown in Example 5-6.255.255.0.16.0.1.1.255 Default Gateway: Netmask 0.255.0.0 255. A useful command to modify the routing table is the route command.0.16.1.1.2 127.0...2 127.0 127...0 172..254 Gateway 172.2 Interface 172.0...16.255..254 127.16..2 172.255.0.0 255.1.255.0.0. issue the command route PRINT...

254.0.2 172..Intel(R) 82562V 10/100 Network Connection ======================================================================= Active Routes: Network Destination 0.00 16 76 ac a7 6a .255..255 255.2 Interface 172.255.168.0. Average = 0ms C:\> What is the gateway address to eagle-server.0.255 255.1 172.255.0.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.2 127.0.0..254 127..0.255.168.255.16.254 Gateway 172...1 172.0 255.16...168..2 127.example.com Pinging eagle-server.254: Packets: Sent = 4.255.Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 141 Example 5-6 Output of the route PRINT Command C:\ >route PRINT ======================================================================= Interface List 0x1 ..255. Received = 4.0...com [192.. Maximum = 0ms. as shown in Example 5-7.1.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Ping statistics for 192.0.0 .0.example.1..16.254.0.16.1 172.16..16.0.com? 172.0.2 172.0 127.255 172..example.16.168.255 255. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms.1.254.254] with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 192.0. Example 5-7 Output of the ping Command C:\> ping eagle-server.0.255.0.. Delete a route from the Windows computer routing table.168.1.254 Step 2..0.255..255.16.0.16.16..16.168.255.255.0 172...1 172.2 Metric 1 1 20 20 20 1 ======================================================================= Verify network connectivity to Eagle Server.1..254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.2 127.16.0.0 172. and try to ping Eagle Server..2 172.254.0 255..1.16. MS TCP Loopback interface 0x70003 . The syntax to remove the default gateway route is this: route DELETE network The full command is as follows: C:/> route DELETE 0.0 255. Lost = 0 (0% loss).254.255 Default Gateway: Persistent Routes: None C:\> Netmask 0.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192. How important is the default gateway route? Delete the gateway route.254.1.0...1.255..

0.255 Persistent Routes: None C:\> Netmask 255.0.2 172.0 255....0.255 Gateway 127..16.2 172.example.255. Removing the default gateway has no effect on LAN connectivity.255.142 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Examine the active routing table. or the cache times out.MS TCP Loopback interface 0x70003 .16.255 240.255.254? Yes.0.com? The IP address for eagle-server.0.255.255 224..1.0 172. the name will not be resolved because the DNS server is not on the LAN.2 127.0.16.0.0.0.0.Intel(R) 82562V 10/100 Network Connection ======================================================================= ======================================================================= Active Routes: Network Destination 127.0.. Insert a route into the Windows computer routing table. The syntax to add a route to the Windows computer routing table is this: route ADD network MASK mask gateway-IP address The full command appears is as follows: C:/> route ADD 0. In the following configuration.16.0...255.16.2 172.255.16..16.0 172..255 255.1. and verify that the default gateway route has been removed: What is the default gateway IP address? With the default route removed.1.255...16..1 172. What are the results? Eagle Server cannot be reached.255.0.0.1 172.254 .0..0 255.0.0.0..0 255. such as 172. C:\> route PRINT ======================================================================= Interface List 0x1 .1. If the default gateway IP address is removed.00 16 76 ac a7 6a .2 Interface 127.255.0.16.255.com is stored in the computer’s cache.2 172.1.1.16.0 255..255..255..1 172..0 172.1.16.1 172.example. Step 3..0.0 MASK 0.. use the IP address assigned to your host pod interface.. Can other LAN devices be reached. how can the DNS server be reached to resolve eagle-server.16.0.2 Metric 1 20 20 20 20 1 ======================================================================= Try to ping Eagle Server....1..16. If the computer is rebooted.2 127.1.0.2 172. there is no default gateway IP address..

00 16 76 ac a7 6a .0.16.254.255.2 Metric 1 1 20 20 20 1 255. Maximum = 0ms.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Ping statistics for 192..255.255.0... Received = 4..254.254: Packets: Sent = 4.1.2 172...0...example.0.255...Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 143 Examine the active routing table. What are the results? Eagle Server can be reached again.255. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms.255.0.1 172.0 255.254] with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 192.168.0 172..255.0 255.1.0.0.0.16..254....0 127.2 Interface 172.1 172.1 172.255 Gateway 172.0.168..254 127..16.0.1.0.255. MS TCP Loopback interface 0x70003 .16.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.1.example.16.0.1 172.0.255 Default Gateway: 172.2 127.2 127.0.254..16.0..1.0.2 172.168.. Lost = 0 (0% loss).255.Intel(R) 82562V 10/100 Network Connection ======================================================================= ======================================================================= Active Routes: NetworkDestination 0.255..com [192..1.254.0 172.255.1.254.0.16.0 255.255 255.2 127. Has the default gateway route been restored? Yes C:\ >route PRINT ======================================================================= Interface List 0x1 .16.168.16..0. C:\> ping eagle-server..1..254 ======================================================================= Persistent Routes: None C:\> Try to ping Eagle Server.255 255.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.16.com Pinging eagle-server.2 172.16.16...255. Average = 0ms C:\> .168.255 Netmask 0..168.

Open a terminal window by clicking Start > Run. students telnet into R2-Central and view the routing table. Access to the router is restricted. For instructors. and so on. The default password should have been changed to something other than cisco. A username and password will be required to log in to the router. Table 5-6 Pod Number Pod Number Table Username 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 ccna1 ccna2 ccna3 ccna4 ccna5 ccna6 ccna7 ccna8 ccna9 ccna10 ccna11 To start a Telnet session with router R2-Central. however. Type cmd. Username ccna1 is for users on pod 1 computers. if properly configured. the corresponding password is cisco. The router prompt should be visible after a successful login. Using the Windows Telnet client. Note to instructors: In this lab. cisco.144 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 2: Use a Windows Telnet Client Command telnet to Connect to a Cisco Router In this task.255. and press Enter. and press Enter. and then click OK. Cisco devices have a Telnet server and. ccna2 is for students on pod 2 computers. The username depends on the pod. The Telnet utility has several options and can be viewed with the telnet /? command. will permit remote logins. Type the password. Ensure that the privileged exec password has been changed from the default value of cisco. as shown in Example 5-8.254 <ENTER> A login window will prompt for a username. you telnet into the R2-Central router and use common Cisco IOS commands to examine the router routing table. enter the following command: C:/> telnet 172. the username is instructor. Enter the applicable username. The password for all usernames is cisco. log in to a Cisco router. Table 5-6 shows the pod numbers and the corresponding usernames. A terminal window and prompt should be available. For all usernames. and requires a username and password. Step 1. .16.

EIGRP external.EIGRP. The information required of this task.0.10. su . S .0 .connected. Example 5-9 Output of the show ip route Command R2-Central#show ip route Codes: C .Static. Example 5-9 shows the routing table for R2-Central. R2-Central#. R .6 to network 0. N2 . The syntax to view the routing table is this: show ip route <ENTER> Enter the command to display the router routing table. Also similar to a host computer.BGP D .IS-IS.candidate default. Similar to the host computer default gateway IP address. therefore.IS-IS inter area. P .IS-IS summary.Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 145 Example 5-8 Output for R2-Central ************************************************************ This is Eagle 1 lab router R2-Central.OSPF. a router may also employ a default gateway. EX . which has been accomplished. because the job of a router is to route traffic between networks. The route information displayed is much more detailed than the route information on a host computer. gateway addresses instruct the device about how to reach other networks when no other information is available. O . E2 . B . but instead uses a common IOS command to view the routing table. Only limited permissions for ccnax usernames are available. L1 .0.OSPF external type 2 i . a router is knowledgeable about directly connected networks. * .IS-IS level-2 ia . the router routing table is examined.OSPF inter area N1 .ODR. it is not possible to modify router settings or view the configuration. Authorized access only. The purpose of this task was to establish a Telnet session. IA . is not difficult to glean. In the next task.per-user static route o . This task does not examine Cisco IOS commands in detail.mobile.OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 .IS-IS level-1.periodic downloaded static route Gateway of last resort is 10. Task 3: Examine Router Routes Using Basic Cisco IOS Commands As with any network device. however. L2 .10.OSPF external type 1. M . This is to be expected. ************************************************************ User Access Verification Username: ccna1 Password: cisco !The password is hidden when typed in R2-Central> At the prompt. U .OSPF NSSA external type 1. a successful Telnet login has been created.RIP.

1 subnets C S* 10. Serial0/2/0 0.0/0 [1/0] via 10.0. FastEthernet0/0 10.10. use the gateway of last resort IP address to forward packets.0/30 is subnetted.EIGRP external. FastEthernet0/0 10. 1 subnets C S* 10. Close the terminal window.0.Static.16. IP mask information is displayed as a numeric value (prefix).per-user static route o .OSPF external type 2 i .0/30 is subnetted.ODR. IA .0 C 172. When finished examining the routing table.10. U .10.6 R2-Central# The Codes section shown in Example 5-10 explains the symbols to the left of each route entry.10.OSPF external type 1.0. How is IP mask information displayed in a router routing table? Unlike the pod host computer.10.254? The router will use gateway of last resort IP address to forward packets destined to 192. The asterisk shows the example is a candidate default route. * .0. S . exit the router with the command exit.6 to network 0. M .16. E2 .4 is directly connected.0. If there is no other route in the routing table.OSPF inter area N1 .254.OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 .146 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example 5-9 Output of the show ip route Command continued C 172.0. N2 .0. because the route is “quad-zero”(0.10.periodic downloaded static route Gateway of last resort is 10. such as /30 or /16.IS-IS summary.IS-IS level-1.10. One highlighted line shows S.254.168. which denotes directly connected networks and the interface that supports the connection.candidate default. which is manually entered by the network administrator. EX .6 R2-Central# Two highlighted lines in the example show C.OSPF NSSA external type 1.0.0. O .IS-IS level-2 ia . The Telnet client will also close the connection with the Telnet escape sequence Ctrl+] and quit. B .0.mobile.0/16 is directly connected.10.254. .0/16 is directly connected.10.10.4 is directly connected. P . denoting a static route. L2 .EIGRP.0).0.connected. L1 .168.0.0/0 [1/0] via 10. What would the router do with packets destined to 192.IS-IS inter area. Serial0/2/0 0.RIP. Example 5-10 Explanation of Codes R2-Central#show ip route Codes:?C .OSPF.IS-IS. su .0.0.BGP D . R .

was used to connect to a lab router. Similar to the Windows ipconfig command.5 unassigned OK? Method Status YES manual up YES unset Protocol up administratively down down up YES manual up YES unset administratively down down Using Windows commands and the Cisco IOS commands in this lab. and add route information on the pod host computer.5. and gateway of last resort information are displayed. the Cisco IOS command show ip interface brief shown in Example 511 will display IP address assignments. delete. telnet. This technique will be used in other labs to connect to Cisco network devices. The route command was used to view.10. R2-Central. however.254. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity. Task 5: Challenge You can use other Cisco IOS commands to view IP address information on a router.Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 147 Task 4: Reflection Two new Windows commands were used in this lab. and leave the room ready for the next class.254 unassigned 10.254 <output omitted> R2-Central# Task 6: Clean Up Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. Routes for directly connected networks. Remember.168. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. What was missing? What critical network information was similar? Both devices displayed directly connected routes and a default gateway route. however.255.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab5522. compare network information output. The Windows Telnet client. statically assigned routes.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. . did not display DNS server information. R2-Central#show hosts Default domain is not set Name/address lookup uses domain service Name servers are 192. Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Examining a Route (5.2. The router routing table was examined with the Cisco IOS command show ip route. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment.10. The Cisco router. turn off power to the host computers.16. Example 5-11 Output of the show ip interface brief Command R2-Central#show ip interface brief Interface FastEthernet0/0 FastEthernet0/1 Serial0/2/0 Serial0/2/1 R2-Central# IP-Address 172.

10.10. Background Throughout the course.10.6. In this activity. Figure 5-7 shows the topology for this skills integration challenge. works in the context of a simple example of IP routing. At the end of each chapter.254.16.168.5 172.254 172.254.1. Configure a static route using a GUI.255.253 R2-Central Fa0/0 S0/0/0 S1-Central PC 1A PC 1B Eagle Server VLAN 1 NIC NIC NIC .6 172.0 255.0 N/A N/A 10.3) Open the file LSG01-PTSkills5. Table 5-7 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP Fa0/0 S0/0/0 192. you will build increasingly larger parts of this topology in Packet Tracer.6 172.255.0.254 10. and Telnet.254 255.1 172.252 255.16. and Table 5-7 shows the corresponding addressing table.0 255.2 192.252 255. and analyze increasingly more complex protocol interactions.255.0 255.10. and switches to learn networking concepts.16.16.148 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Packet Tracer Challenge Skills Integration Challenge: Routing IP Packets (5.255. servers.0 255.6 10. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ ■ Configure a router interface using a GUI.255. and two transport layer protocols. the dominant network layer protocol of the Internet.0.10.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to perform this exercise using Packet Tracer.253 10. such as DNS.0 255.255.254. You may have noticed that regardless of what application and transport protocols were involved.255.255.0.255. DHCP.168. routers. Explore a routing table.254.0.10.16. HTTP.10.255.255.16. Explore the routing of IP packets.255.1.16. you will examine how IP.254 172. TFTP. TCP and UDP.255.10.255. You have already studied a variety of application protocols.168.255.255. you will be using a standard lab setup created from actual PCs. Upon completion of this activity.1.1 172.254 192. in Inbound and Outbound PDU Details view they were always encapsulated in IP packets.

FastEthernet0/0. For now. What are some possible reasons why? One possible reason Eagle Server cannot be reached is the fact that it is using a static IP and not the default route. you will learn how to use the Cisco IOS command-line interface (CLI) to perform this task. The request still fails. and be turned on to act as the default gateway for the LAN. Move your cursor over the R2-Central router. Try reaching Eagle Server. and turn the port on. This interface must have an IP address. Close the router window. It appears there is a problem with the router. At the end of the course.0.16. Task 2: Examining Routes Use the Inspect tool (magnifying glass) to examine the routing table of R2-Central. You will see the router’s directly connected networks. Verify that the router interface (port) is now working by using the mouse over.0. Click router R2-Central and go to the Config tab. find INTERFACE. In the list shown. .255.Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 149 Figure 5-7 Topology for Challenge 1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server 2960-24TT S1-Central 1841 R2-Central PC 1A PC 1B Task 1: Configure a Router Interface There is a problem on the LAN: PC 1A cannot reach the Eagle Server (verify this in real-time mode).255. subnet mask. and note the condition of the Fa0/0 interface (to which switch is connected).254 with subnet mask 255. but there is no way to reach the Eagle Server network. the Config tab is easier and will allow you to focus on the basic idea of IP routing. Add the IP address 172.

0. Under GLOBAL. they will go to the R1-ISP router.10. Verify your work using feedback from the Check Results button and the Assessment Items tab. Using the PDU you created in Task 3.0.16. Settings. click the Save button to save the interface and route configuration you have just done to NVRAM (in case the router is power cycled). in real time. a one-shot ping.0. This route is configured so that wherever packets from the 172.0 /16 LAN are destined.10. and the next hop of 10. too. In the list shown. Task 4: Examine the Routing of the IP Packet Switch to simulation mode. The PDU. double-click Fire to send it again.0. Static. using the address 0.0. Task 5: Reflection What data can an IP packet contain? What is meant by the phrase “the IP packet is routed”? What is a route? Where might things go wrong? . Trace the packet’s journey from PC 1A to Eagle Server and back using the Capture / Forward button and examining the packet’s contents by either clicking the envelope or clicking the colored square in the Info column of the event list. Test connectivity. mask 0. find ROUTING. You should now see the route you configured in the routing table. by using Add Simple PDU to test connectivity between PC 1A and the Eagle Server.150 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 3: Configure a Route Using a GUI Click router R2-Central and go to the Config tab. will appear in the User Created PDU list for future use. Configure what is known as a default static route.0.0.6 (the S0/0/0 interface on the R1-ISP router) and click the Add button. Use the Inspect tool (magnifying glass) to examine the routing table of R2-Central again.

These addresses are used in the data network as binary patterns. Data that appears in binary may represent many different forms of data to the human network. What does IPv4 provide for packets that carry data? Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) provides hierarchical addressing for packets that carry data. At Layer 3. or use the corresponding Chapter 6 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration Companion Guide. Study Guide IPv4 Addresses With IPv4. What is another way to refer to 1 byte or 8 bits? Octet. we refer to binary as it relates to IPv4 addressing. Concept Questions 1.CHAPTER 6 Addressing the Network: IPv4 The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of matching. 3. What is the format used for IP addresses called? Dotted decimal. each packet has a 32-bit source address and a 32-bit destination address in the Layer 3 header. What is another name for digital logic? Boolean logic. fill-in-the-blank. . multiple-choice. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum activities and labs to ensure you have mastered the practical. 4. for assistance. use Chapter 6 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum. As you work through this chapter. and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of network addressing. In this chapter. For each IPv4 address. This means that we look at each byte as a decimal number in the range of 0 to 255. hands-on skills needed to understand the opportunities and challenges associated with IPv4. 2. some portion of the high-order bits represents the network address. we define a network as a group of hosts that have identical bit patterns in the network address portion of their addresses.

4. A special address used to send data to all hosts in the network C.16. Host address B. The process of sending a packet from one host to all hosts in the network C. match the type of communication on the left to its definition on the right. Broadcast address C. match the type of network address on the left to its definition on the right. Add a “dot” between each decimal. Table 6-2 Communication Type Matching Exercise Communication Type Definition A. An address assigned to an end device in the network A.152 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Binary-to-Decimal Conversion Exercise Convert the following 32-bit binary number into an IP address. Binary number: 10101100000100000000010000010100 IP address: 172. The process of sending a packet from one host to a selected group of hosts A. Broadcast C.16. keeping in mind the following: ■ ■ ■ Divide the 32 bits into four octets. Multicast B.20 Binary number: 10101100000100000000010100010100 Addresses for Different Purposes Within the address range of each IPv4 network are three types of addresses: ■ ■ ■ Network addresses Broadcast addresses Host addresses Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 6-1. Network address B. Convert each octet to decimal. Table 6-1 Network Address Type Matching Exercise Definition Address Type A. The address by which we refer to the network In Table 6-2. IP address: 172. The process of sending a packet from one host to an individual host .5. Unicast B.20 Decimal-to-Binary Conversion Exercise Convert the following IP address into a 32-bit binary number.

0.0. 5.255 (172.255.0.255. Currently.0.254.0.255.2.255.0 to 172.254.168.0. What block of addresses is designated “link-local”? 169.255.0. Another major block of addresses reserved for special purposes is the IPv4 multicast address range 224. 7.0. Answers will vary.255 (192. Vocabulary: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following sentences.0.0.255. What is the prefix length? The prefix length is the number of bits in the address that gives us the network portion. 4.255.0.168. 3.0 to 239.0 to 169.0.0.255. 3.0 to 238. One major block of addresses reserved for special purposes is the IPv4 experimental address range 240. 2.255.2.0.255. What is the reserved block for default routing? 0. Concept Questions 1. How do you know how many bits represent the network portion and how many bits represent the host portion? When we express an IPv4 network address.0 /8) 172.1 address is used. the IPv4 address range is 0.0. we add a prefix length to the network address. or find a calculator for the three address types.0 /16) 8. What is the loopback address.31.255.168. and what block is reserved for loopback? Although only the single 127.0 /16) 4.0 /12) 192.0 /24) .255. The globally scoped multicast addresses are 224.255 (169. What are the private address blocks? 10.2. these addresses are listed as reserved for future use (RFC 3330).16.0.0.0. What block of addresses is designated “TEST-NET”? 192. look up a website detailing the utility of calculating addresses by hand.254.0 /8) 6.255.255.1.0.255. 1.0 to 10.0.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 153 Internet Research Exercise Using any search engine available on the Internet.0.0.16.255 (192.0 to 192.255. Be sure to include class time for presentations or discussions. 2.254.255.0.0. addresses 127.255 are reserved. Expressed in dotted-decimal format.255.0 to 192.0. Which addresses in a network cannot be assigned to hosts? The first (network address) and last (broadcast address).0 to 255.255.0 to 127.255 (10.255.0 to 255.0.255 (0.

This feature is especially helpful for mobile users who come and go on a network. Another benefit of DHCP is that an address is not permanently assigned to a host but is only “leased” for a period of time. However.org. Answers will vary. firewalls. . Concept Questions 1. The allocation of these addresses inside the networks should be planned and documented for the following reasons: ■ ■ ■ Preventing duplication of addresses Providing and controlling access Monitoring security and performance Internet Research Exercises Using your favorite search engine. Network administrators should not randomly select the addresses used in their networks. it would cause problems if that address changed. Describe the pros and cons of using DHCP for addressing. servers. Describe the pros and cons of static addressing. Static addresses are useful for printers. routers. List four types of devices that work best using static IP addresses.154 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide 9. Define classless addressing. With the classless system. Any of the following. If hosts normally access a server at a particular IP address. Be prepared to present your findings. and spend a few minutes familiarizing yourself with the site. Answers will vary for both exercises. Nor should address assignment within the network be random. Answers will vary. intermediary devices. DHCP generally is the preferred method of assigning IP addresses to hosts on large networks because it reduces the burden on network support staff and virtually eliminates entry errors. and other networking devices that need to be accessible to clients on the network.iana. hosts that are accessible from the Internet. it can be time-consuming to enter the information on each host. are acceptable: Servers. address blocks appropriate to the number of hosts are assigned to companies or organizations without regard to the unicast class. Answers will vary. search for an example of an IPv4 addressing scheme or an article about IPv4’s addressing. Be sure to include class time for presentations or discussions. static assignment of addressing information can provide increased control over network resources. If the host is powered down or taken off the network. the address is returned to the pool for reuse. in any order. 3. Be prepared to discuss your opinions of the IANA with the class. Additionally. 2. peripherals. Go to the IANA website at http://www. Assigning Addresses The allocation of network layer address space within the corporate network needs to be well designed.

flow labeling capability. 10000000 c. Tier 3: The focus of these ISPs is the retail and home markets in a specific locale. Tier 2: Tier 2 ISPs generally focus on business customers. 11110000 f. List some improvements that IPv6 will provide. Is It on My Network? To define the network and host portions of an address. improved support for extensions and options. 224 f. 254 b. 255 g. 11000000 d. 252 h. In Table 6-3. 128-bit hierarchical addressing.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 155 4. 248 e. 5. 240 a. We express the subnet mask in the same dotted-decimal format as the IPv4 address. 11111110 i. Answers will vary. 11111111 c. 11111000 g. authentication and privacy capabilities. 00000000 b. 11100000 e. The prefix and the subnet mask are different ways of representing the same thing—the network portion of an address. header format simplification. Binary Matching Exercise There are a limited number of subnet mask octets. and any of these may appear in any order: Improved packet handling. Table 6-3 IPv4 Binary Matching Exercise Numeric Value Binary Number a. match the binary number to its numeric value. integrated security. 192 d. QoS mechanisms. 128 . the devices use a separate 32-bit pattern called a subnet mask. What is the primary focus of each of the three tiers of ISPs? Tier 1: The primary focus of Tier 1 ISPs is reliability and/or speed. 11111100 h. 0 i. increased scalability and longevity.

Why do routers use ANDing? Routers use ANDing to determine an acceptable route for an incoming packet. If the routers and end devices calculate these processes without your intervention. Be prepared to present your findings. and to group hosts used for specific purposes. How is a subnet mask created? The subnet mask is created by placing a binary 1 in each bit position that represents the network portion and placing a binary 0 in each bit position that represents the host portion. Because we use a router to connect these networks. Allow class time for presentations or discussions. Answers will vary. . 3.156 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Concept Questions 1. 4. Internet Research Exercise Using your favorite search engine. 3. Basically. Using VLSM makes it easier to group networks around what commonalities? VLSM makes it easier to group based on common geographic location. 2. Calculating Addresses Subnetting lets you create multiple logical networks from a single address block. How does ANDing help an originating host? An originating host must determine if a packet should be sent directly to a host in the local network or be directed to the gateway. the more students understand and can predict the operation of a network. where n = the number of bits borrowed. What is the formula to calculate the number of subnets? 2^n. What are the two most useful tools in designing a network? A network diagram and a spreadsheet of IP addresses are the two most useful tools. 2. to group based on ownership. the more equipped they are to design and administer one. Concept Questions 1. research ANDing (be sure to specify that you mean in IPv4 networks). why do you need to learn how to AND? Answers will vary. each interface on a router must have a unique network ID. Every node on that link is on the same network.

Ping has a timeout value for the response. . Variable-Length Subnet Mask 3.0. This output includes the success rate and average round-trip time to the destination. Ping uses an ICMP Echo Request datagram. c. Ping uses a Layer 3 protocol that is a part of the TCP/IP suite called Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP). This is a measure of the network performance. After all the requests have been sent. If a response is not received within that timeout. SNMP c. This method prevents addresses from being allocated. ping displays the time between when the ping was sent and the response was received. ping b. How does ping work? Be as specific as you can.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 157 Multiple-Choice Questions 1. What utility attempts to trace the path that a packet takes through the network? a. If the host at the specified address receives the Echo request. For each packet sent.0. ping measures the time required for the reply.0. Variant Language Superior Model c. Ping sends out requests for responses from a specified host address. This method helps prevent assigning addresses that have already been allocated. Very Long String of Marbles b. Variable-Length Subsidiary Mode d. the ping utility provides output that summarizes the responses. b. 2. it responds with an ICMP Echo Reply datagram. Using a chart makes calculating VLSM easier. Why would you use a VLSM chart? a. ping gives up and sends a message indicating that a response was not received. This method lets you assign addresses that have already been allocated.0. traceroute d. For what is VLSM an acronym? a.1 indicates that IP is properly installed on the host.1 indicate? A response from 127. Concept Questions 1. 2. Configmaker Testing the Network Layer Ping is a utility for testing IP connectivity between hosts. d. As each response is received. What does a response from 127.

A destination host may also send a source quench message if datagrams arrive too fast to be processed. . Name the different ICMP message types. What does RTT stand for? Round-Trip Time 7.158 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide 3. Therefore. One possibility is that we have the wrong address for the gateway. 5. This could indicate a problem with the router’s interface serving as the gateway. It is also possible that other hosts may have the same security restriction applied. what sort of problem could this indicate? Answers will vary. Unreachable Destination or Service. If a router does not have enough buffer space to receive incoming packets. If the gateway does not respond. Route Redirection. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following statements. What does traceroute do? Traceroute (tracert) is a utility that lets you observe the path between hosts. but any of the following are correct. What does TTL stand for? Time to Live 8. 4. The following may be in any order. Assume that you ping your gateway. but another host does. not by nonoperational network elements. Host Confirmation. Another possibility is that the router interface might be fully operational but might have security applied to it that is preventing it from processing or responding to ping requests. the router discards these packets. 6. 1. Time Exceeded. Source Quench. the lack of a ping response could be caused by security restrictions. What do the first four Destination Unreachable codes mean? 0 = Net unreachable 1 = Host unreachable 2 = Protocol unreachable 3 = Port unreachable 2. Many network administrators limit or prohibit the entry of ICMP datagrams into the corporate network. Why is ping not always the most reliable test for connectivity on a network? Answers will vary.

254 172. Command options will be used to modify the command behavior.16.10.255.0 255.0 — — 10.255. Use the tracert/traceroute command to verify TCP/IP connectivity.7.10. and Cisco IOS. ICMP message types were later expanded in RFC 1700.254. is available on Linux and Cisco IOS. it usually depends on the experience of the network engineer and familiarity with the network.0. Background Two tools that are indispensable when testing TCP/IP network connectivity are ping and tracert.6 192.0 255. Measured delay time will probably be less than that on a production network.255.255. The tracert utility is available on Windows. Figure 6-1 shows the topology for this lab.255.254 R2-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Eagle Server — — Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central — — — .16. A network engineer may use the ping command to test for local network connectivity or connections where there are few devices.0 255. and Table 6-4 is the corresponding addressing table. Table 6-4 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP S0/0/0 Fa0/0 10.253 — 172.254 172.255.168.252 255.0.5 172. To familiarize you with the use of the commands. The ping utility is available on Windows.10.254 172. traceroute. first defined in RFC 792 in September 1981. the problem can be anywhere between the client and the server.10.255.252 255. For example.16.168. Where to begin connectivity tests has been the subject of much debate.255.255.31. it tests network connectivity.0.255. This is because the Eagle Server lab has little network traffic.10.0. you will be able to ■ ■ Use the ping command to verify simple TCP/IP network connectivity.16. In a complex network.16. and a similar utility. devices in the Cisco lab will be tested. ICMP is a TCP/IP network layer protocol. the tracert command would be used.0 255. tracert can be used to check for network latency.255.255.254.255.254 192.255.6 — 192. Both ping and tracert use Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) to send messages between devices.168. In addition to testing for connectivity.255.255.0 255. Linux.Pod#.16.Pod#.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 159 Labs and Activities Lab 6-1: Ping and Traceroute (6.2 172.253 10.255.0 255.254.1.254 172.10.1) Upon completion of this lab. when a web browser fails to connect to a web server.16.1 172.254.1 255.24. Scenario This lab examines the ping and tracert commands.255.

example. If the ping test fails. and that it can ping R2-Central.254.10. Step 3.example. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity. check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central. Verify that the host computer has the correct Gateway IP address.255.255. such as eagle-server.254. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests. Step 2. verify that the host has the correct DNS address and that it can ping eagle-server. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server. Finally. ping eagle-server. Verify that all network equipment is powered on and that eagle-server is on. and finally eagle-server.example. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address.com. to test Domain Name System (DNS) functionality.160 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 6-1 Topology for Lab 6-1 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 Note to Instructor: Depending on the classroom situation.10.com. the lab topology may have been modified before this class. as shown in Table 6-4. and that it can ping R1-ISP. R2-Central. 10. For this . troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity with the following steps: Step 1. If an individual host computer cannot connect to eagle-server. Task 1: Use the ping Command to Verify Simple TCP/IP Network Connectivity The ping command is used to verify TCP/IP network layer connectivity on the local host computer or another device in the network.com.16.6. 172. From a known good host computer. 172. R1-ISP. ping S1Central. This command can be used with a destination IP address or qualified name.16.

255. Example 6-1 C:\> ipconfig Output of the ipconfig Command Windows IP Configuration Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection: Connection-specific DNS Suffix .1. The output should look similar to that shown in Example 6-2. . Example 6-2 Output of the ping Command on the Local TCP/IP Stack C:\> ping 172. only IP addresses are used.1 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 172.16. .255.1. .1. .2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 172. .255. reconfigure the TCP/IP settings to match the settings for this pod host computer.0. . By default.254 Use the ping command to verify TCP/IP network layer connectivity on the local host computer.1.254 C:\> The output should look the same except for the IP address.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 172.2 Pinging 172. Step 1. as shown in Example 6-1.16. .1. : 255.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 161 lab.16. .16. . The ping operation is straightforward.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 . Table 6-5 TCP/IP Information Value TCP/IP Information IP address Subnet mask Default gateway Depends on the pod host computer.16. If there is a break between the source and destination. . . . . : IP Address. : 172. .2 Subnet Mask . .255.0 172. Verify TCP/IP network layer connectivity on the local host computer.16. If the information is missing or if the subnet mask and default gateway are different. . . . . and reply information is received. Open a Windows terminal and determine the IP address of the pod host computer with the ipconfig command. .1. .16.1.0 Default Gateway . . only the IP address may differ. .0. The destination responds with an echo reply. . .16. : 172.16. 255. . a router may respond with an ICMP message that the host is unknown or the destination network is unknown. . four ping requests are sent to the destination. The source computer sends an ICMP echo request to the destination. . . Record local TCP/IP network information in Table 6-5. Each pod host computer should have the same network mask and default gateway address.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 172.

The default TTL value of the Windows XP computer is 128. The results should be similar to those shown in Example 6-3.16. Time: Elapsed time between transmission and reply. By default. Average = 0ms C:\> The first highlighted line shows the destination address. Lower round-trip times indicate faster links. Students may ask why default TTL values differ when different devices are accessed. Received = 4.2: Packets: Sent = 4. fill in the results of the ping command on your computer. 32 bytes 4 4 0 0 ms 0 ms 0 ms Verify TCP/IP network layer connectivity on the LAN. Cisco IOS is 255. minus the number of routers in the path. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms. The maximum TTL value is 255. . Lost = 0 (0% loss). Table 6-6 Field Field Information Value Size of packet Number of packets sent Number of replies Number of lost packets Minimum delay Maximum delay Average delay Step 2. Packets received: The number of packets received. The third highlighted line shows summary information about the replies: ■ ■ ■ Packets sent: The number of packets transmitted. Values faster than 10 milliseconds display 0. For newer Windows machines the default value is 128. Packets lost: The difference between the number of packets sent and received. A computer timer is set to 10 milliseconds. The second highlighted entry shows the following reply information: ■ ■ ■ Bytes: Size of the ICMP packet.1.162 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example 6-2 Output of the ping Command on the Local TCP/IP Stack continued Ping statistics for 172. measured in milliseconds. TTL: Default TTL value of the destination device. Example 6-2 also shows information about the delay in replies. In Table 6-6. set to the IP address of the local computer. Use the ping command to verify TCP/IP network layer connectivity to the default gateway. four packets are sent. and the Linux computer is 64. Maximum = 0ms.

254.16.168. Received = 4. Step 3. Example 6-4 Output of the ping Command to Eagle Server C:\> ping 192. In reality.16. Lost = 0 (0% loss). Table 6-7 Field Field Information Value Size of packet Number of packets sent Number of replies Number of lost packets Minimum delay Maximum delay Average delay 32 bytes 4 4 0 0 ms 0 ms 0 ms What would be the result of a loss of connectivity to the default gateway? No external networks would be reachable.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=255 Reply from 172.254: Packets: Sent = 4. Eagle Server is used.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=255 Ping statistics for 172. Maximum = 1ms.16. it is the default Gateway that has failed or that has misconfigured TCP/IP network settings.254 Pinging 172.16.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 163 Example 6-3 Output of the ping Command to the Default Gateway C:\> ping 172.254.168.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=62 Reply from 192.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=255 Reply from 172.255. fill in the results of the ping command to the default gateway.254.168.255.255. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms.255.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=62 Reply from 192.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=62 .168.254 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 172.255. Verify TCP/IP network layer connectivity to a remote network. the TTL value returned is 255. The results should be similar to those shown in Example 6-4. Average = 0ms C:\> The Cisco IOS default TTL value is set to 255. Because the router was not crossed.254 Pinging 192.168.254. Use the ping command to verify TCP/IP network layer connectivity to a device on a remote network. In this case.254 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 192.255. In Table 6-7.255.16. users may complain that the Eagle Server web server is down.16. For example.254: bytes=32 time=1ms TTL=255 Reply from 172.16.

Instead of using the ping command to test the connectivity of each device to the destination.168.254: Packets: Sent = 4. the returned TTL value is 62. can display network latency and path information.254. Lost = 4 (100% loss). Received = 0. Is the problem with Eagle Server or a device in the path? The tracert command. Received = 4. C:\> Task 2: Use the tracert Command to Verify TCP/IP Connectivity The tracert command is useful for learning about network latency and path information.168. Ping statistics for 192. Two routers were crossed to reach Eagle Server.254 with 32 bytes of data: Request timed out. .168.168.168. Request timed out. there are limitations. Average = 0ms C:\> The Linux default TTL value is set to 64. you can use the tracert command. Example 6-5 Output of the ping Command to the Lost Packets C:\> ping 192. Request timed out. fill in the results of the ping command on your computer. Step 4: In Table 6-8.254 Pinging 192. Lost = 0 (0% loss).254.254.254: Packets: Sent = 4. Table 6-8 Field Field Information Value Size of packet Number of packets sent Number of replies Number of lost packets Minimum delay Maximum delay Average delay 32 bytes 4 4 0 0 ms 0 ms 0 ms The ping command is extremely useful when you’re troubleshooting network connectivity. the output shows that a user cannot reach Eagle Server.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=62 Ping statistics for 192. Maximum = 0ms.164 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example 6-4 Output of the ping Command to Eagle Server continued Reply from 192. Request timed out. therefore. However.254.254. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms. examined next. one by one. In Example 6-5.

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On Linux and Cisco IOS devices, the equivalent command is traceroute.
Step 1.

Verify TCP/IP network layer connectivity with the tracert command. Open a Windows terminal, and issue the following command: C:\> tracert 192.168.254.254 The output from the tracert command should be similar to that shown in Example 6-6.

Example 6-6

Output of the tracert Command to Eagle Server

C:\> tracert 192.168.254.254 Tracing route to 192.168.254.254 over a maximum of 30 hops 1 2 3 <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms 172.16.255.254 10.10.10.6 192.168.254.254

Trace complete. C:\>

Record your results in Table 6-9.
Table 6-9 Field Field Information Value

Maximum number of hops First router IP address Second router IP address Destination reached?
Step 2.

30 172.16.255.254 10.10.10.6 Yes

Observe tracert output to a host that lost network connectivity. S1-Central is a switch and does not decrement the packet TTL value. If there is a loss of connectivity to an end device such as Eagle Server, the tracert command can give you valuable clues about the source of the problem. The ping command would show the failure but not any other kind of information about the devices in the path. Referring to the topology diagram shown in Figure 6-1, both R2-Central and R1-ISP are used for connectivity between the pod host computers and Eagle Server. Refer to Example 6-7. Options are used with the tracert command to reduce wait time (in milliseconds), -w 5, and maximum hop count, -h 4. If Eagle Server were disconnected from the network, the default gateway would respond correctly, as well as R1-ISP. The problem must be on the 192.168.254.0/24 network. In this example, Eagle Server has been turned off.

Example 6-7

Output of the tracert Command

C:\> tracert -w 5 -h 4 192.168.254.254 Tracing route to 192.168.254.254 over a maximum of 4 hops 1 2 <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms 172.16.255.254 10.10.10.6

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Example 6-7
3 4 * *

Output of the tracert Command
* * * *

continued

Request timed out. Request timed out.

Trace complete. C:\>

What would the tracert output be if R1-ISP failed? Connectivity would stop after R2-Central. What would the tracert output be if R2-Central failed? There would be no connectivity.

Task 3: Challenge
The default values for the ping command normally work for most troubleshooting scenarios. There are times, however, when fine-tuning ping options may be useful. Issuing the ping command without any destination address displays the options shown in Example 6-8.
Example 6-8
C:\> ping

Output of a ping Command with No Destination Address

Usage: ping [-t] [-a] [-n count] [-l size] [-f] [-i TTL] [-v TOS] [-r count] [-s count] [[-j host-list] | [-k host-list]] [-w timeout] target_name

Options: -t Ping the specified host until stopped. To see statistics and continue - type Control-Break; To stop - type Control-C. -a -n count -l size -f -i TTL -v TOS -r count -s count -j host-list -k host-list -w timeout C:\> Resolve addresses to hostnames. Number of echo requests to send. Send buffer size. Set Don’t Fragment flag in packet. Time To Live. Type Of Service. Record route for count hops. Timestamp for count hops. Loose source route along host-list. Strict source route along host-list. Timeout in milliseconds to wait for each reply.

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The most useful options are highlighted. Some options do not work together, such as the -t and -n options. Other options can be used together. Experiment with those described in this section. To ping the destination address until stopped, use the -t option, as shown in Example 6-9. To stop the output, press Ctrl-C.
Example 6-9 Output of a ping Command Using the -t Option

C:\> ping -t 192.168.254.254 Pinging 192.168.254.254 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 192.168.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.168.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.168.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.168.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.168.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.168.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Ping statistics for 192.168.254.254: Packets: Sent = 6, Received = 6, Lost = 0 (0% loss), Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms, Maximum = 0ms, Average = 0ms Control-C ^C C:\>

To ping the destination once and record router hops, use the -n and -r options, as shown in Example 6-10.
Note: Not all devices honor the -r option. Example 6-10 Output of a ping Command Using the -n and -r Options

C:\> ping -n 1 -r 9 192.168.254.254 Pinging 192.168.254.254 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 192.168.254.254: bytes=32 time=1ms TTL=63 Route: 10.10.10.5 -> 192.168.254.253 -> 192.168.254.254 -> 10.10.10.6 -> 172.16.255.254 Ping statistics for 192.168.254.254: Packets: Sent = 1, Received = 1, Lost = 0 (0% loss), Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 1ms, Maximum = 1ms, Average = 1ms C:\>

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Task 4: Reflection
Network engineers use both ping and tracert to test network connectivity. For basic network connectivity, the ping command works best. To test latency and the network path, the tracert command is preferred. The ability to accurately and quickly diagnose network connectivity issues is a skill expected from a network engineer. Knowledge about the TCP/IP protocols and practice with troubleshooting commands will build that skill.

Task 5: Clean Up
Unless directed otherwise by the instructor, turn off power to the host computers. Remove anything that was brought into the lab, and leave the room ready for the next class.
Packet Tracer Companion

Packet Tracer Companion: ping and traceroute (6.7.1.2)
You can now open the file LSG01-Lab6712.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. Remember, however, that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. The instructions are summarized within the activity.

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Lab 6-2: Examining ICMP Packets (6.7.2.1)
Upon completion of this lab, you will be able to
■ ■

Understand the format of ICMP packets. Use Wireshark to capture and examine ICMP messages.

Background Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) was first defined in RFC 792 in September 1981. ICMP message types were later expanded in RFC 1700. ICMP operates at the TCP/IP network layer and is used to exchange information between devices. ICMP packets serve many uses in today’s computer networks. When a router cannot deliver a packet to a destination network or host, an informational message is returned to the source. Also, the ping and tracert commands send ICMP messages to destinations, and destinations respond with ICMP messages. Scenario Using Eagle Server, Wireshark captures will be made of ICMP packets between network devices. Figure 6-2 shows the topology for this lab, and Table 6-10 is the corresponding addressing table.
Figure 6-2 Topology for Lab 6-2

R1-ISP

S0/0/0 DCE

Eagle Server

S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24

S1-Central

R2-Central

1A

1B

11A

11B

Pod#1

Pod#11

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Table 6-10 Device

Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway

R1-ISP

S0/0/0 Fa0/0

10.10.10.6 192.168.254.253 10.10.10.5 172.16.255.254 192.168.254.254 172.31.24.254 172.16.Pod#.1 172.16.Pod#.2 172.16.254.1

255.255.255.252 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.252 255.255.0.0 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.0.0

— — 10.10.10.6 — 192.168.254.253 — 172.16.255.254 172.16.255.254 172.16.255.254

R2-Central

S0/0/0 Fa0/0

Eagle Server

— —

Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central

— — —

Note to Instructor: Depending on the classroom situation, the lab topology may have been modified before this class. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server.example.com, troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity using the following steps:
Step 1. Step 2.

Verify that all network equipment is powered on and that eagle-server is on. From a known good host computer, ping eagle-server. If the ping test fails, ping S1Central, R2-Central, R1-ISP, and finally eagle-server. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests. If an individual host computer cannot connect to eagle-server, check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address, as shown in Table 6-10, and that it can ping R2-Central, 172.16.255.254. Verify that the host computer has the correct Gateway IP address, 172.16.255.254, and that it can ping R1-ISP, 10.10.10.6. Finally, verify that the host has the correct DNS address and that it can ping eagle-server.example.com.

Step 3.

Task 1: Understand the Format of ICMP Packets
Refer to Figure 6-3, which shows the ICMP header fields common to all ICMP message types. Each ICMP message starts with an 8-bit Type field, an 8-bit Code field, and a computed 16-bit Checksum. The ICMP message type describes the remaining ICMP fields. Table 6-11 shows ICMP message types from RFC 792.
Figure 6-3
0 Type

ICMP Message Header
7 8 Code 16 24 Checksum 31

Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4

171

Table 6-11 Value

ICMP Message Types Meaning

0 3 4 5 8 11 12 13 14 15 16

Echo Reply Destination Unreachable Source Quench Redirect Echo Time Exceeded Parameter Problem Timestamp Timestamp Reply Information Request Information Reply

Codes provide additional information to the Type field. For example, if the Type field is 3, Destination Unreachable, additional information about the problem is returned in the Code field. Table 6-12 shows message codes for an ICMP Type 3 message, Destination Unreachable, from RFC 1700.
Table 6-12 Code Value ICMP Type 3 Message Codes Meaning

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Net Unreachable Host Unreachable Protocol Unreachable Port Unreachable Fragmentation Needed and Don’t Fragment Was Set Source Route Failed Destination Network Unknown Destination Host Unknown Source Host Isolated Communication with Destination Network Is Administratively Prohibited Communication with Destination Host Is Administratively Prohibited Destination Network Unreachable for Type of Service Destination Host Unreachable for Type of Service

172

Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide

Using the ICMP message capture shown in Example 6-11, fill in the fields in Figure 6-4 for the ICMP packet echo request. Values beginning with 0x are hexadecimal numbers.
Example 6-11 ICMP Packet Echo Request

Internet Control Message Protocol Type: 8 (Echo (Ping) request) Code: 0 Checksum: 0x365c [correct] Identifier: 0x0200 Sequence number: 0x1500 Data (32 bytes)

Figure 6-4
0

ICMP Packet Echo Request
7 8 16 24 31

Data...

Using the ICMP message capture shown in Example 6-12, fill in the fields in Figure 6-5 for the ICMP packet echo reply.
Example 6-12 ICMP Packet Echo Reply

Internet Control Message Protocol Type: 0 (Echo (Ping) reply) Code: 0 Checksum: 0x3e5c [correct] Identifier: 0x0200 Sequence number: 0x1500 Data (32 bytes)

Figure 6-5
0

ICMP Packet Echo Reply
7 8 16 24 31

Data...

At the TCP/IP network layer, communication between devices is not guaranteed. However, ICMP does provide minimal checks for a reply to match the request. From the information provided in the ICMP messages just shown, how does the sender know that the reply is to a specific echo? The identifier is used to identify this host computer, and the sequence number is used to identify this echo request.

open and install Wireshark.254.168. Maximum = 0ms.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 173 Task 2: Use Wireshark to Capture and Examine ICMP Messages If Wireshark has not been loaded on the pod host computer. From the Windows terminal. Open a Windows terminal on the pod host computer. 3. start the Wireshark capture. similar to those shown in Figure 6-6.168. you can download it from Eagle Server: 1.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192. When the file has been downloaded. When ready.example.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192. Open a web browser and go to ftp://eagle-server.com/pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter6. and save the file to the pod host computer.168. ping Eagle Server.168. In this step.254.254.254. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms. Step 1. Lost = 0 (0% loss). choose Save Link As.example. Right-click the Wireshark filename.168. Average = 0ms C:\> Stop the Wireshark capture. Capture and evaluate ICMP echo messages to Eagle Server.254.example. you use Wireshark to examine ICMP echo messages. Received = 4.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192. 2. You should receive four successful replies.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Ping statistics for 192.168.com [192.254: Packets: Sent = 4. There should be a total of four ICMP echo requests and matching echo replies.254] with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 192. Example 6-13 Successful ping Replies from Eagle Server C:\> ping eagle-server. Figure 6-6 Wireshark Capture of ping Requests and Replies .com Pinging eagle-server. as shown in Example 6-13.254.

record information from the first echo request packet to Eagle Server. if any. For example. The bottom window also is needed to examine the Data field. and expand the Internet Control Message Protocol record until all fields are visible. In Table 6-13. Table 6-13 Field Ping Echo Request Fields Value Type Code Checksum Identifier Sequence number Data 8 (Echo (ping) request) 0 Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwabcdefghi Are there 32 bytes of data? Yes In Table 6-14. Table 6-14 Field Ping Echo Reply Fields Value Type Code Checksum Identifier Sequence number Data 0 (Echo (ping) reply) 0 Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary acdefghijklmnopqrstuvwabcdefghi Which fields. Cisco IOS increments the Identifier field by 1. depending on the operating system. changed from the echo request? Type field and Checksum field Note: The Identifier field may change for subsequent echo request messages. . but Windows keeps the Identifier field the same.174 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Which network device responds to the ICMP echo request? The destination device Expand the middle window in Wireshark. fill in information from each new ping. In Table 6-15. Continue to evaluate the remaining echo requests and replies. record information from the first echo reply packet from Eagle Server.

Average = 0ms C:\> What network device responds to pings to a fictitious destination? The gateway router Figure 6-7 shows Wireshark captures to a fictitious destination. Step 2. Maximum = 0ms.254: Destination host unreachable.1 Pinging 192.16.1: Packets: Sent = 4.168.253.168. Capture and evaluate ICMP echo messages to 192.253. but the sequence number changes. . Try to ping IP address 192.255. Example 6-14 Ping Results from a Fictitious Destination C:\> ping 192. Reply from 172.16. Received = 4. Reply from 172.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 175 Table 6-15 Packet Ping Echo Requests and Replies Checksum Identifier Sequence Number Request #2 Reply #2 Request #3 Reply #3 Request #4 Reply #4 Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Same as request #2 Same as request #2 Same as request #2 Same as request #2 Same as request #2 Answers will vary Same as request #2 Answers will vary Same as request #3 Answers will vary Same as request #4 Why do the Checksum values change with each new request? The Identifier remains the same. Ping statistics for 192. C:\> ping 192. The results from the Wireshark capture are evaluated.1. In this step. Lost = 0 (0% loss). Expand the middle Wireshark window and the Internet Control Message Protocol record.16.1 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 172.168. Instead of a request timeout.255.254: Destination host unreachable. an echo response occurs. pings are sent to a fictitious network and host.168.1.253.253.255. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms.255.168.254: Destination host unreachable.254: Destination host unreachable. Reply from 172.253.253.168.1 See Example 6-14.16.

16.255. and set the TTL value to 1: C:\> ping -i 1 192.255.254: Packets: Sent = 4. Expand the middle Wireshark window and the Internet Control Message Protocol record. simulating an unreachable destination. Reply from 172. Ping Eagle Server. Reply from 172.254: TTL expired in transit. Figure 6-8 Wireshark Capture of TTL Value Exceeded . Maximum = 0ms. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms. Received = 4.254.254 Pinging 192.254: TTL expired in transit. Example 6-15 Ping Results for an Exceeded TTL C:\> ping -i 1 192.176 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 6-7 Wireshark Capture from a Fictitious Destination Which ICMP message type is used to return information to the sender? Type 3 message What code is associated with the message type? Code 1.168.16.254 Example 6-15 shows ping replies when the TTL value has been exceeded.255. Ping statistics for 192.255.254: TTL expired in transit.16.254 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 172.254.168. Host Unreachable Step 3.254.254: TTL expired in transit. Average = 0ms C:\> What network device responds to pings that exceed the TTL value? The gateway router Figure 6-8 shows Wireshark captures to a fictitious destination. pings are sent with a low TTL value.168.16. In this step. Reply from 172. Capture and evaluate ICMP echo messages that exceed the TTL value.254.168. Lost = 0 (0% loss).

choose Start > Control Panel > Add or Remove Programs.168. Remember. and follow the uninstall instructions.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. Using the ping command. and scroll down to Wireshark. click Remove.7. turn off power to the host computers.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab6722. If the program must be removed. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. Time to live exceeded in transit Which network device is responsible for decrementing the TTL value? Routers decrement the TTL value. Click the filename.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 177 Which ICMP message type is used to return information to the sender? Type 11 message What code is associated with the message type? Code 0. a sender has no way to tell why a destination connection failed.2. Remove any Wireshark pcap files that were created on the pod host computer. . This demonstrates how the tracert command traces the network path to the destination. however.251. and leave the room ready for the next class. Without ICMP messages. Examine the ICMP TTL exceeded message. Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Examining ICMP Packets (6. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor.254. The instructions are summarized within the activity. Task 4: Reflection The ICMP protocol is very useful when troubleshooting network connectivity issues. you can capture and evaluate different ICMP message type values. Task 5: Clean Up Wireshark may have been loaded on the pod host computer. Task 3: Challenge Use Wireshark to capture a tracert session to Eagle Server and then to 192.

you will be able to determine network information for a given IP address and network mask. Part 1 (6.0 (/16) you will determine the following information in this task: ■ ■ ■ ■ Network address Network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts Translate the host IP address and network mask into binary notation. Determine Network Information Given the following information: ■ ■ Host IP address: 172. Background This activity is designed to teach you how to compute network IP address information from a given IP address.114.250 Network mask: 255.178 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Activity 6-1: IPv4 Address Subnetting. In Table 6-16.25. Step 1. Scenario When given an IP address and network mask. you will be able to determine other information about the IP address.255. such as ■ ■ ■ ■ Network address Network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts Task 1: For a Given IP Address.3. Table 6-16 Decimal-to-Binary Conversion 172 25 114 250 IP address Network mask 10101100 11111111 255 00011001 11111111 255 01110010 00000000 0 11111010 00000000 0 .0. convert the host IP address and network mask into binary.7.1) Upon completion of this activity.

■ Express the result in dotted-decimal notation. AND Operation 172 25 114 250 Table 6-17 IP address Subnet mask 10101100 11111111 00011001 11111111 00011001 25 01110010 00000000 00000000 0 11111010 00000000 00000000 0 Network address 10101100 172 Step 3.534 (addresses that cannot use the all-0s address [the network address] or the all-1s address [the broadcast address]) Add this information to Table 6-19. The network mask separates the network portion of the address from the host portion. Note: 1 AND 1 results in a 1.0. Perform a bitwise AND operation on the IP address and subnet mask. In Table 6-17. perform the following tasks: ■ ■ Draw a line under the mask.25.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 179 Step 2.536 65.536 – 2 = 65. In Table 6-18. The network address has all 0s in the host portion of the address. determine the broadcast address for the network address. and the broadcast address has all 1s in the host portion of the address. 0 AND anything results in a 0. which is 172. .0. Table 6-18 Broadcast Information 172 25 0 0 Network address Subnet mask 10101100 11111111 11001000 11111111 11001000 25 00000000 00000000 11111111 255 00000000 00000000 11111111 255 Broadcast address 10101100 172 By counting the number of host bits. Host bits: 16 Total number of hosts: 216 = 65. you can determine the total number of usable hosts for this network. The result is the network address for this host IP address. Determine the network address.

1.255 16 bits 65. Table 6-21 Field Problem 2 172.0 172. Table 6-20 Field Problem 1 Value Host IP address Network mask Network address Network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts Table 6-21 shows Problem 2.1.25.25.33 255.30.255.30.534 Value Host IP address Network mask Network address Network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts 172.0.1.536 – 2 = 65.536 – 2 = 65.0 172.255 8 bits 256 – 2 = 254 .30.0 172.1.0. create a subnetting worksheet to show and record all work for each problem.180 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 6-19 Field Host Bits: Information on the Number of Hosts Value Host IP address Network mask Network address Network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts 172.255 16 bits or 216 or 65.250 255.255.255. Table 6-20 shows Problem 1.30.536 total hosts 65.30.0 172.114.255.0.534 usable hosts Task 2: Challenge For all problems.0 (/16) 172.33 255.30.0 172.255.25.0.255.

536 – 2 = 65.168.10.234 255.255.17. Table 6-24 Field Problem 5 172.0 172. Table 6-22 Field Problem 3 Value Host IP address Network mask Network address Network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts Table 6-23 shows Problem 4.0.10.255 8 bits 256 – 2 = 254 Value Host IP address Network mask Network address Network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts Table 6-24 shows Problem 5.17.534 Value Host IP address Network mask Network address Network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts 192.0.0 172.255.168.10.168.99.71 255.255.0.168.17.255.0 192.219 255.0 192.534 .Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 181 Table 6-22 shows Problem 3.536 – 2 = 65.0.255.255 16 bits 65.168. Table 6-23 Field Problem 4 192.168.3.0 192.255 16 bits 65.0 192.255.

168. Table 6-25 Field Problem 6 Value Host IP address Network mask Network address Network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts 192.3.3.3.182 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 6-25 shows Problem 6.255.192 192.255.223 5 bits 32 – 2 = 30 Task 3: Clean Up Remove anything that was brought into the lab.224 192. . and leave the room ready for the next class.219 255.168.168.

Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 183 Activity 6-2: IPv4 Address Subnetting. Part 2 (6.4. subtract 2 for the usable number of hosts per subnet—one for the subnet address and one for the subnet’s broadcast address. Using the chart shown in Table 6-26. Table 6-27 Decimal Decimal-to-Binary Conversion Binary 255 254 252 248 240 224 192 128 0 11111111 11111110 11111100 11111000 11110000 11100000 11000000 10000000 00000000 . you learn how to determine subnet information for a given IP address and subnetwork mask.024 29 512 28 256 27 128 26 64 25 32 24 16 23 8 22 4 21 2 20 1 Number of bits borrowed: 10 1. Because subnet masks must be contiguous 1s followed by contiguous 0s. Table 6-26 Hosts or Subnets 210 1. Background Determine how many bits must be allocated to create a certain number of subnets or a certain number of hosts per subnet.7. the converted dotted-decimal notation can contain one of a certain number of values.024 9 512 8 256 7 128 6 64 5 32 4 16 3 8 2 4 1 2 1 1 Remember. it is easy to determine how many bits must be borrowed. as shown in Table 6-27.1) In this activity.

0 (/16) Subnet mask: 255.25. network mask.114.0.184 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Scenario When given an IP address.192 (/26) you will determine the following information in this task: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Number of subnet bits Number of subnets Number of host bits per subnet Number of usable hosts per subnet Subnet address for this IP address IP address of the first host on this subnet IP address of the last host on this subnet Broadcast address for this subnet Translate the host IP address and subnet mask into binary notation in Table 6-28. and subnetwork mask.255. you will be able to determine other information about the IP address: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ The subnet address of this subnet The broadcast address of this subnet The range of host addresses for this subnet The maximum number of subnets for this subnet mask The number of hosts for each subnet The number of subnet bits The number of this subnet Task 1: For a Given IP Address and Subnet Mask. Determine Subnet Information Given the following information: ■ ■ ■ Host IP address: 172.255.250 Network mask: 255. Translate Host IP Addresses Value Step 1.255. Table 6-28 Field IP address 172 10101100 25 00011001 11111111 255 114 01110010 11111111 255 250 11111010 11000000 192 Subnet mask 11111111 255 .

10101110 11111111 10001010 11001000 11111111 11001000 11 111010 11 000000 11 000000 Draw the subnet divide (S. which can be determined by simply counting the number of bits between the M.D. Step 4. In this example. S. Table 6-29 Determine the Network 172 25 114 250 IP address Subnet mask Subnet address 10101100 11111111 10101100 172 11001000 11111111 11001000 25 01110010 11111111 01110010 114 11111010 11000000 11000000 192 Note: 1 AND 1 results in a 1. Express the result in dotted-decimal notation. Perform a bitwise AND operation on the IP address and subnet mask. which is 172. 0 AND anything else results in a 0. or the first 16 leftmost bits.114. The result is the subnet address of this subnet. Figure 6-9 Major Divide/Subnet Divide M.D.. In Table 6-29. Step 3. The result is the number of subnet bits. and the S.D. the major network mask is 255.D.D. label the subnet counting range between the M. 01110010 11111111 01110010 10 Bits IP Address Subnet Mask Subnet Add. draw the major divide (M. .25.D.0.) as a straight line where the 1s in the given subnet mask end. As shown in Figure 6-10. and S.255.D. which in this case is 10 bits.192. This range contains the bits that are being incremented to create the subnet numbers or addresses. Determine the bit ranges for subnets and hosts.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 185 Step 2. determine the network (or subnet) where this host address belongs.) as a wavy line where the 1s in the major network mask end (also the mask if there was no subnetting).0. As shown in Figure 6-9. Draw a line under the mask. Determine which bits in the address contain network information and which contain host information. The network information ends where the 1s in the mask end.D.

In the host portion (to the right of the S. which you make a 0.D. which in the example is 172. Use Figure 6-11 to determine the range of host addresses available on this subnet and the broadcast address on this subnet.193.114.D.D.D. which you make a 1.D. Next. all bits before the S.).D.25. 10101110 11111111 10001010 11001000 11111111 11001000 11 111010 11 000000 11 000000 Host Counting Range Label the host counting range between the S. 10101100 11111111 10101100 11001000 11111111 11001000 01110010 11111111 01110010 Subnet Counting Range Figure 6-11 S. 11 111010 11 000000 11 000000 Host Counting Range First Host 10101100 172 11001000 25 11001000 25 11001000 25 01110010 114 01110010 114 01110010 114 11 000001 193 11 111110 254 11 111111 255 Last Host 10101100 172 Broadcast 10101100 172 Write down all the network/subnet bits of the network address (that is.114.186 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 6-10 Bit Ranges for Subnets and Hosts M. Subnet Counting Range and Host Counting Range M.25.255.D. which in the example is 172. which is the last part of the result for Range of Host Addresses for This Subnet. This gives us the last host IP address on this subnet.254.114. and the last bits at the end on the right. This range contains the bits that are being incremented to create the host numbers or addresses. Step 5. make the host bits all 1s. This is the result for Broadcast Address of This Subnet. This gives us the broadcast IP address on this subnet. which is the first part of the result for Range of Host Addresses for This Subnet. In the host portion (to the right of the S. S. IP Address Subnet Mask Subnet Add. which in the example is 172. make the host bits all 1s except for the rightmost bit (or least-significant bit).25.).). This gives us the first host IP address on this subnet. . make the host bits all 0s except for the rightmost bit (or least-significant bit).). in the host portion (to the right of the S. 01110010 11111111 01110010 Subnet Counting Range IP Address Subnet Mask Subnet Add.D.D.

536 – 2 = 65.192 (/26) 26 bits 210 = 1024 subnets 6 bits 26 – 2 = 64 – 2 = 62 hosts per subnet 172. 255.114. 26 – 2 = 64 – 2 = 62 hosts per subnet Number of host bits per subnet: 6 bits Number of usable hosts per subnet: 26 – 2 = 64 – 2 = 62 hosts per subnet . Determine the number of usable hosts per subnet.536 total hosts 65.0 (/16) 172.25. 6 bits) minus 2 (1 for the subnet address and 1 for the broadcast address of the subnet).25. all 1s not used): 210 = 1024 subnets Step 7.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 187 Add the missing information to Table 6-30.192 172.0 172. Use the formula 2n. 10 bits).255.25.25.0.114.0.193 172. Table 6-30 Field Fill in the Missing Information Value Host IP address Major network mask Major (base) network address Major network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts 172. The number of hosts per subnet is determined by the number of host bits (in this example.255.114.254 172.114. where n is the number of bits in the subnet counting range. The number of subnets is determined by how many bits are in the subnet counting range (in this example.25.250 255. 210 = 1024 Number of subnet bits: 10 bits Number of subnets (all 0s used.255.255 16 bits or 216 or 65.255.114.255 Determine the number of subnets.25.534 usable hosts Subnet mask Number of subnet bits Number of subnets Number of host bits per subnet Number of usable hosts per subnet Subnet address for this IP address IP address of the first host on this subnet IP address of the last host on this subnet Broadcast address for this subnet Step 6.25.

114.192 172.25.0 172. Table 6-32 Field Problem 1 Value Host IP address Subnet mask Number of subnet bits Number of subnets Number of host bits per subnet Number of usable hosts per subnet Subnet address for this IP address IP address of the first host on this subnet IP address of the last host on this subnet Broadcast address for this subnet 172.255 Task 2: Challenge For all problems.25. Final Answers Value Table 6-31 Field Host IP address Subnet mask Number of subnet bits Number of subnets Number of host bits per subnet Number of usable hosts per subnet Subnet address for this IP address IP address of the first host on this subnet IP address of the last host on this subnet Broadcast address for this subnet 172.33 255.254 172.1.1.1.25.1.250 255.30.188 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Step 8.114.30.30.114.114.255.25.255.30.30. Review the final answers in Table 6-31. Table 6-32 shows Problem 1.193 172. create a subnetting worksheet to show and record all work for each problem.255 .192 (/26) 26 bits 210 = 1024 subnets 6 bits 26 – 2 = 64 – 2 = 62 hosts per subnet 172.25.255.1 172.114.1.254 172.0 8 bits 256 – 2 = 254 8 bits 256 – 2 = 254 172.255.

30.10.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 189 Table 6-33 shows Problem 2.384 – 2 = 16.382 4–2=2 2 172.30.255.1.0 24 bits 224 8 bits 256 – 2 = 254 192.10.10.35 Value Host IP address Subnet mask Number of subnet bits Number of subnets Number of host bits per subnet Number of usable hosts per subnet Subnet address for this IP address IP address of the first host on this subnet IP address of the last host on this subnet Broadcast address for this subnet 192.255.255 .192.30.0 192.33 255.1.192.32 172.30.192.255.255.1.254 192.1.30.252 14 bits 16.10.10.234 255.1. Table 6-33 Field Problem 2 Value Host IP address Subnet mask Number of subnet bits Number of subnets Number of host bits per subnet Number of usable hosts per subnet Subnet address for this IP address IP address of the first host on this subnet IP address of the last host on this subnet Broadcast address for this subnet Table 6-34 shows Problem 3.33 172.1 192.34 172.192.192. Table 6-34 Field Problem 3 172.

71 255.17.17.3.3.255.3.17.0 24 bits 224 8 bits 256 – 2 = 254 192.99.17.168.0.3.255.219 255.1 172.0 192.190 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 6-35 shows Problem 4. Table 6-36 Field Problem 5 172.255.0.3.255 Value Host IP address Subnet mask Number of subnet bits Number of subnets Number of host bits per subnet Number of usable hosts per subnet Subnet address for this IP address IP address of the first host on this subnet IP address of the last host on this subnet Broadcast address for this subnet 192. Table 6-35 Field Problem 4 Value Host IP address Subnet mask Number of subnet bits Number of subnets Number of host bits per subnet Number of usable hosts per subnet Subnet address for this IP address IP address of the first host on this subnet IP address of the last host on this subnet Broadcast address for this subnet Table 6-36 shows Problem 5.255.0 16 bits 216 – 2 16 bits 256 – 2 = 254 172.168.255 .255.17.0 172.1 192.168.254 172.168.168.254 192.0.

216 192. .168.255. and leave the room ready for the next class.168.252 6 bits 64 – 2 = 62 4–2=2 2 192.3.3.168.168.218 255.217 192.168. Table 6-37 Field Problem 6 Value Host IP address Subnet mask Number of subnet bits Number of subnets Number of host bits per subnet Number of usable hosts per subnet Subnet address for this IP address IP address of the first host on this subnet IP address of the last host on this subnet Broadcast address for this subnet 192.219 Task 3: Clean Up Remove anything that was brought into the lab.3.218 192.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 191 Table 6-37 shows Problem 6.3.255.3.

255. Examine the network requirements. you design and apply an IP addressing scheme for the topology shown in Figure 612. verify that the network is working properly.1.224 What is the subnet mask for the network in slash format? /27 How many usable hosts are there per subnet? 30 Step 3.168. Reflect on and document the network implementation. The network connected to router R2 requires enough IP addresses to support 30 hosts.1) Upon completion of this lab. Step 2. Scenario In this lab activity. Assign subnet 2 to the link between R1 and R2. Consider the following questions when creating your network design: ■ ■ ■ ■ How many subnets are needed for this network? 3 What is the subnet mask for this network in dotted-decimal format? 255.0/24 address space to use in your network design.7. Assign subnetwork addresses to the topology diagram shown in Figure 6-12: ■ ■ ■ Assign subnet 1 to the network attached to R1. You are given one address block that you must subnet to provide a logical addressing scheme for the network. Test and verify configurations.255.1.1. The network consists of the following segments: ■ ■ ■ The network connected to router R1 requires enough IP addresses to support 15 hosts. The routers then will be ready for interface address configuration according to your IP addressing scheme.168.32/27 Fa0/0 192.5.168. Assign subnet 3 to the network attached to R2. When the configuration is complete. You have been given the 192. The link between router R1 and router R2 requires IP addresses at each end of the link.1. Assign appropriate addresses to interfaces and document them. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Subnet an address space given requirements.168. Configure and activate serial and FastEthernet interfaces. .192 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Lab 6-3: Subnet and Router Configuration (6.96/27 Fa0/0 PC1 S0/0/0 R1 S0/0/0 DCE PC2 R2 Task 1: Subnet the Address Space Step 1.64/27 192. Figure 6-12 Topology for Lab 6-3 192.

1.224 255. Assign the last valid host address in subnet 2 to the WAN interface on R2. Note that to complete the activity in Packet Tracer.94 192. When you have finished.255. Assign the last valid host address in subnet 1 to PC1. Step 2.168. Configure the router interfaces.168. Step 2.255.33 192.255.62 192.255. can you ping the Serial 0/0/0 interface of R1? Yes .168. Assign the first valid host address in subnet 2 to the WAN interface on R1. Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway Table 6-38 Device R1 Fa0/0 S0/0/0 192.1.1. Configure the interfaces on the R1 and R2 routers with the IP addresses from your network design. Configure the Ethernet interfaces of PC1 and PC2 with the IP addresses and default gateways from your network design. In Table 6-38. Configure the PC interfaces.224 255.97 192.255.168.126 255.255.255.224 255.33 192. can you ping the default gateway? Yes From the host attached to R2.255.224 255.255.1. document the addresses to be used. be sure to save the running configuration to the router’s NVRAM.168. you will use the Config tab.1. Task 4: Verify the Configurations Answer the following questions to verify that the network is operating as expected: ■ ■ ■ ■ From the host attached to R1.65 192.255.168.168.1. Assign the last valid host address in subnet 3 to PC2. can you ping the Serial 0/0/0 interface of R2? Yes From the router R2.255.168.1.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 193 Task 2: Determine Interface Addresses Step 1. Assign the first valid host address in subnet 3 to the LAN interface on R2.224 255.224 — — — — 192.97 R2 Fa0/0 S0/0/0 PC1 PC2 NIC NIC Task 3: Configure the Serial and FastEthernet Addresses Step 1.255.1. can you ping the default gateway? Yes From the router R1. Assign appropriate addresses to the device interfaces: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Assign the first valid host address in subnet 1 to the LAN interface on R1.

and router interfaces.1. The instructions are summarized within the activity. web traffic.5. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. Build the network: Connect devices with Ethernet and serial cables.3) Open the file LSG01-PTSkills6. PCs. configure services and static routing. Task 5: Reflection Are there any devices on the network that cannot ping each other? Answers will vary What is missing from the network that is preventing communication between these devices? Answers will vary Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Subnet and Router Configuration (6.8.194 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Note: The answers to the preceding questions should be yes.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. If any of the pings failed. and Inspect tools. . but with a new IP addressing scheme. check the physical connections and configurations. however.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab6752. Remember. ■ Background You have been asked to implement the standard lab topology. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ Do IP subnet planning: Practice your subnetting skills. Test the network: Using ping. trace. Packet Tracer Challenge Skills Integration Challenge: Planning Subnets and Configuring IP Addresses (6. Upon completion of this lab. Configure the network: Apply your subnetting scheme to servers.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to perform this exercise using Packet Tracer.7.

130 192. existing student LAN (off of router R2-Central).129 192.255.252 255.0 /24.168.252 — — 192.255.23.255. Fill in your answers in Table 6-39. up to 28 hosts .168.23.23.168.255.168. Figure 6-13 Topology for Challenge 1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server 2960-24TT S1-Central 1841 R2-Central PC-PT 1A PC-PT 1B Task 1: IP Subnet Planning You have been given an IP address block of 192.192 255.168.23.62 192.23. up to 60 hosts Second subnet.23. Table 6-39 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP Fa0/0 S0/0/0 192.240 255. future student LAN.192 255.23.109 255.255.23.168.255.255.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 195 You will use many of the skills you have learned to this point in the course.168. Figure 6-13 shows the topology for this lab.255.255.255.168.62 192.62 192.168.255.23.2 192.23.110 R2-Central Fa0/0 S0/0/0 PC 1A PC 1B Eagle Server NIC NIC NIC Subnet assignments: ■ ■ First subnet.255.255.252 255.168.23.23. You must provide for existing networks as well as future growth.168.130 192.23.168.168.255.1 192.192 255.130 192.110 192.

and enable HTTP services. Connect PC 1A to the first FastEthernet port on switch S1-Central. use the first two IP addresses (the two lowest usable addresses) on the existing student LAN subnet. The static route on R1-ISP should point to the existing student LAN subnet via R2-Central’s . point-to-point link Sixth subnet. All you must do is configure the static routes and the interfaces via the GUI. ■ ■ Task 2: Finish Building the Network in Packet Tracer Add cables where they are missing: ■ ■ ■ ■ Connect a serial DCE cable to R1-ISP S0/0/0. in addition to IP configuration. with the other end to R2-Central S0/0/0. For the server. Connect interface Fa0/0 on router R2-Central to the highest FastEthernet port on switch S1Central. ■ ■ ■ ■ Additional configurations: ■ ■ For PCs 1A and 1B.196 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Third subnet. R2-Central’s serial interface. configure the highest usable address on the existing WAN subnet. point-to-point link Interface IP addresses: ■ ■ For the server. future WAN. point-to-point link Seventh subnet. No clock rate is needed on the DTE side—in this case. For the R1-ISP router serial interface. existing ISP LAN. For all devices. configure them to use DNS services. Connect PC 1B to the second FastEthernet port on switch S1-Central. configure the second-highest usable IP address on the existing ISP LAN subnet. use the lowest usable address on the existing WAN subnet.com. up to 8 hosts Fifth subnet. future ISP LAN. configure the highest usable IP address on the existing ISP LAN subnet. For R2-Central’s S0/0/0 interface. For R1-ISP’s Fa0/0 interface. and the two PCs. future WAN. make sure the power is on to the device and the interfaces. use the highest usable address on the existing student LAN subnet. For hosts 1A and 1B. nor do you need the IOS CLI to configure the routers. You do not need to configure the switch. For R1-ISP’s S0/0/0 interface. ■ Task 3: Configure the Network You need to configure the server.example. Part of the router configuration has already been done for you. you need to set the clock rate (a timing mechanism required on the DCE end of serial links) to 64000. existing WAN. use the domain name eagle-server. enable DNS services. For R2-Central’s Fa0/0 interface. up to 12 hosts Fourth subnet. both routers.

and ICMP viewable. TCP. UDP. with HTTP. Trace packet flow in simulation mode. DNS. trace. Task 5: Reflection Reflect on how much you have learned so far! Practicing IP subnetting skills and network building. and the Inspect tool.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 197 serial interface IP address. and testing skills will serve you well throughout your networking courses. to test your understanding of how the network is operating. Task 4: Test the Network Use ping. . The static route on R2-Central should be a default static route that points to R1-ISP’s serial interface IP address. web traffic. These procedures were explained in the Chapter 5 Skills Integration Challenge. configuration.

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The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum activities and labs to ensure that you have mastered the practical. or use the corresponding Chapter 7 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration Companion Guide. A layer of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model that frames upper-layer data and controls how data is placed on a medium b. What are the two main jobs of the data link layer? The data link layer allows upper layers to access media. and the air in the case of wireless. Node c. It also controls how data is placed on and received from media. because it is the layer that accesses the physical medium and causes network traffic to traverse different physical media. match the term on the left to its definition on the right. Data link d. Table 7-1 Term Data Link Layer Terms Definition a. and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of the data link layer. As you work through this chapter.CHAPTER 7 OSI Data Link Layer The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of matching. What is the difference between a logical network and a physical network? The network layer defines the logical network using a hierarchical addressing scheme. fill-in-the-blank. . Frame b. for assistance. Media d. Two or more devices connected to a common medium e. 2. Network e. optical fibers. hands-on skills you need to work with the data link layer. The protocol data unit (PDU) used in Layer 2 of the OSI model Concept Questions 1. use Chapter 7 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum. The data link layer hides the details of these media from the upper layers and takes on the job of transmitting data across each network segment. A device on a network c. The data link layer defines the physical network as a set of devices on a common medium. The media can consist of many different types. Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 7-1. including copper cabling. Study Guide Data Link Layer: Accessing the Media The data link layer plays a major role in networks. The physical means used to carry data signals a.

200 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide 3. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following statements. The technique for getting a frame on and off a medium is called the media access control method. An intermediary device. IP or other network layer protocols would need to make provisions for connecting every type of media that could exist along a delivery path. deterministic throughput. 3. If the data link layer didn’t exist. to access the medium. Media Access Control Techniques Media access control regulates the placement of data frames on a medium. in sequence. Compare and contrast controlled media access control and contention-based media access control. This disadvantage is avoided by using a layered model for networking and by giving the data link layer the job of placing data on a medium and controlling access to the medium. what changes would be required of a network layer protocol such as Internet Protocol (IP)? Without a data link layer. Concept Questions 1. The controlled method provides predictable. As more nodes try to access the network to send data. but it can be inefficient because a device has to wait its turn before it can use the medium. and place the frame on the medium of the next link in the network. Moreover. A router uses data link layer services to receive a frame from one medium. Any device can try to access the medium whenever it has data to send. With controlled media access control. a node uses an adapter. Network devices take turns. the probability of successful access without a data collision decreases. 4. all nodes compete for the use of the medium. such as a Network Interface Card (NIC) on a local-area network (LAN). depending on the medium and the data link layer protocols in use. each node has its own time to use the medium. such as a router. The contention-based method has less overhead but does not scale well under heavy use. encapsulate the Layer 3 PDU into a new frame. Some methods are complicated and add overhead to the process. Other methods are less complicated but may not scale as well. has physical interfaces that can encapsulate a packet into the appropriate frame and handle the media access control method to access each link. There are different ways to accomplish this regulation. With contention-based media access control. 2. To connect to a network. decapsulate the frame to the Layer 3 PDU. . The adapter manages the framing and media access control. IP would need to change every time a new network technology or medium were developed. 1.

” Sense whether the medium is free. carrier sense multiple access collision avoidance. monitor the medium for the presence of another node’s signal. Ethernet uses CSMA/CD. Most Layer 2 frames also have addressing fields in the header that identify the sender and receiver. At this point. You will learn more about CSMA/CD in Chapter 9. and token passing. stop transmitting and wait a random amount of time before trying again. 5. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following statements. 4. Receiving data while transmitting is allowed.Chapter 7: OSI Data Link Layer 201 2. If a carrier signal from another node is detected. Although different protocols place different fields in a frame. With half-duplex communication. Receiving data while transmitting is not allowed. both devices can transmit and receive on the medium at the same time. The Layer 2 PDU is called a frame. 2. List the steps in the carrier sense multiple access collision detect (CSMA/CD) process. 1. transmit the data. most protocols specify that the frame should have a header. and trailer. 2. A logical multiaccess topology enables a number of nodes to communicate by using the same shared medium. While transmitting. 1. For example. Media Access Control: Addressing and Framing Data A fundamental job of the data link layer is to encapsulate a Layer 3 PDU into a Layer 2 PDU. Match the field on the left to its definition on the right. 3. 3. “Ethernet. If another node is also transmitting. 3. Three media access control methods used by logical multiaccess topologies include carrier sense multiple access collision detect. If a carrier signal is not detected. Data link layer rules (also called protocols) specify the media access control method that is used for a particular technology. data field. only one device can transmit at any given time. . wait and try again later. Having many nodes share access to the medium requires a data link layer media access control method to regulate the transmission of data. Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Table 7-2 lists some typical fields that appear in frame headers. 4. you can keep the list simple. What is the difference between full-duplex communication and half-duplex communication? With full-duplex communication.

its Layer 2 address does not need to change.11 c. Address c. Used to start and stop traffic when overloading occurs d. it gets encapsulated in a new data link layer header with new Layer 2 addresses for each hop it takes. Includes specifications for operation at 10. Establishes a logical connection (session) between two nodes a. Flow control g. Identifies the sender and receiver e.202 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 7-2 Field Frame Header Fields Definition a. A protocol for wireless networks that uses CSMA/CA a. Defined by the IEEE 802. Priority f. Point-to-Point Protocol c.3 standard a. Indicates the upper-layer service contained in the frame a. Congestion control g. . 802. Match each protocol on the left to its specifications on the right. on the other hand. Start frame b. Layer 3 addresses use a hierarchical addressing scheme and indicate a network number and host identifier. 1000. are carried from source to destination host across an internetwork. Defined in a Request For Comments (RFC) document b. Often found on WANs a. Indicates a particular type of communication service for special processing Table 7-3 lists three major data link layer protocols. Layer 2 addresses use a flat addressing scheme and do not indicate on what network a device is located.000 Mbps b. Table 7-3 Protocol Data Link Layer Protocols Specification a. Specifies the number of bytes in the data part of the frame c. Tells other devices on the network that a frame is coming along the medium b. Layer 2 addresses are used only for local delivery when transporting a frame across a shared local medium. Used to indicate overloading on the medium f. Compare and contrast Layer 2 addresses with Layer 3 addresses. Uses a flag field at the beginning of the frame c. and 10. If a device is moved to another network. Provides unacknowledged connectionless service over a shared medium using CSMA/CD b. Uses an acknowledgment to confirm that a frame was received successfully Concept Questions 1. Type d. Layer 3 addresses. Ethernet b. 100. Uses a preamble field at the beginning of the frame b. When a packet crosses an internetwork. Length e.

A TCP three-way handshake sets up a connection with the server. a number of packets are generated and encapsulated in Layer 2 frames. It uses its own IPv4 address as the source address. The transport layer identifies the upper-layer service that the user wants to reach as the HTTP (or World Wide Web [WWW]) service. The transport layer places a destination port number of 80 in the TCP segment to indicate the WWW service. For the destination address. 5. The application layer adds a Layer 7 header. The user sends data to a router on that Ethernet LAN. The recipient router forwards the data onto an Ethernet LAN where the server resides. Why are Layer 2 addresses not needed in point-to-point topologies? Layer 2 addresses are not needed in point-to-point topologies because there can be no confusion about the frame’s destination. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following statements that describe a user accessing a web page stored on a web server that is located on a remote network. a frame has only one place to go (to the other device). If you have done the reading in Chapter 7 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum or if you have used the corresponding Chapter 7 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration Companion Guide. 1. The client builds an Ethernet II frame to transport the IPv4 packet across the local medium. The FCS field is necessary because the signals on the medium are subject to interference. Putting It All Together: Follow Data Through an Internetwork When a user on a LAN wants to access a service. The user is on an Ethernet LAN. the client uses the IP address associated with the WWW server’s hostname. The router sends the data to another router across a PPP WAN link. At the network layer.Chapter 7: OSI Data Link Layer 203 2. 3. distortion. TCP adds an acknowledgment number that tells the web server the sequence number that TCP expects in the next segment it receives. 6. The user starts by clicking a link or URL on a web page. an IP packet is constructed to identify the source and destination hosts. The user’s web browser initiates a Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) GET request. 4. The transport layer also places the source port number for this session in the segment. What is the purpose of the Frame Check Sequence (FCS) in a frame trailer? The FCS field is used to determine if errors occurred in the transmission and receipt of a frame. Only two devices are connected. 3. 2. The data link layer refers to the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) cache to determine the Media Access Control (MAC) address that is associated with the Ethernet interface on the client’s router. . or loss that would change the bit values that those signals represent. you should now be able to put together at a high level the events that take place on a network when a user accesses a service. After it is on the medium.

17. an IPv4 packet is encapsulated. and the router determines that the next hop for the packet is a router at the other end of a PPP WAN link. the destination IPv4 address in the packet is compared to routes in the routing table. 10. The router creates a PPP frame to transport the packet across the WAN. 9. The client uses the CSMA/CD media access control method to verify that the medium is not already in use. The server compares the destination MAC address in the frame to the MAC address of the NIC in the server. Because it matches. 20. Eventually.204 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide 7. the destination IPv4 address in the packet is compared to the routes in the 11. 22. The router determines that the packet should be sent out an Ethernet network to the web server. 15. The router that receives the frame checks the FCS at the end of the frame to determine if the frame was received intact without any errors. The router removes the data link header and pushes the packet up to the network layer. The physical layer transmits the frame onto the medium bit by bit. 18. the server pushes the data to TCP. This is done by examining the source and destination ports. Because the IP network layer header identified the upper-layer protocol as 0x06. 12. as soon as all the necessary packets have been sent and received. The 22 steps reverse themselves. At the network layer. 21. A match is found. can now form a response. At the application layer. It uses CSMA/CD to verify that the medium is not already in use. the server removes the network layer header and pushes the data to the transport layer. The frame begins with a Preamble field and ends with an FCS field for error detection. without any errors. The recipient router checks the FCS to determine if the frame was received intact without any errors. The service . The router removes the data link header and pushes the packet up to the network layer. It checks the FCS to determine if the frame was received intact 19. the user sees a web page. 16. the HTTP GET request is delivered to the WWW service. The server compares the destination IPv4 address in the packet to its own IPv4 address. The router consults its ARP cache to determine the MAC address of the web server. Because it matches. The PPP session has already been established. At the network layer. the server removes the data link header and pushes the packet up to the network layer. The router includes a Protocol field in the PPP header with a value of 0x0021 to indicate that 13. 14. 8. and a packet flows back to the client. It then builds an Ethernet II frame to transport the IPv4 packet to the server. The Physical layer transmits the frame onto the medium bit by bit. The server examines the frame. so the physical layer begins transmitting the frame onto the WAN medium bit by bit. The server examines the TCP segment to determine the session to which the data belongs. The TCP sequence number is used to place this segment in the proper order to be sent upward to the application layer. routing table. The data link layer frame indicates that the upper-layer data is IPv4 by placing 0x0800 in the Type field of the Ethernet II header.

4. Use Wireshark to capture and analyze Ethernet II frames. The file is wireshark-setup-0. such as TCP/IP. Background When upper-layer protocols communicate with each other. if the upper-layer protocol is TCP/IP and the media access is Ethernet. For example.com/pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter7/.2. the Layer 2 frame encapsulation is Ethernet II.1) Upon completion of this lab.99. Figure 7-1 Topology for Lab 7-1 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 . The Ethernet II frame header is examined in this lab.Chapter 7: OSI Data Link Layer 205 Labs and Activities Lab 7-1: Frame Examination (7. Scenario Wireshark will be used to capture and analyze Ethernet II frame header fields. it is helpful to analyze frame header information. and Table 7-4 is the corresponding addressing table. The frame composition depends on the media access type. When learning about Layer 2 concepts.example. you will be able to ■ ■ Explain the header fields in an Ethernet II frame. data flows down the OSI layers and is encapsulated in a Layer 2 frame. If Wireshark has not been loaded on the host pod computer.exe. Ethernet II frames can support various upper-layer protocols. The Windows ping command will be used to generate network traffic for Wireshark to capture. Figure 7-1 shows the topology for this lab. you can download it from ftp://eagleserver.5.

0.31.16.0 255. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server.255.254 172.253 — 172. Verify that all network equipment is powered on and that eagle-server is on.255.6 — 192. Task 1: Explain the Header Fields in an Ethernet II Frame Figure 7-2 shows the format for an Ethernet II frame. Verify that the host computer has the correct Gateway IP address.com. and that it can ping R1-ISP.16.206 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 7-4 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP S0/0/0 Fa0/0 10.255.255.254.16. Figure 7-2 Ethernet II Frame Format Destination Address Source Address Frame Type 2 Octets Preamble Data FCS 8 Octets 6 Octets 6 Octets 46–1500 Octets 4 Octets In Figure 7-3. Finally. 172.255.1 172.10.16.16.0.10.0. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity.255.255.253 10. Step 3. Finally. If the ping test fails.5 172.255.168. ping S1Central.255. From a known good host computer.255.168. The session begins with the ARP protocol querying for the MAC address of the Gateway router. check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central.255.24. the Panel List window shows a Wireshark capture of the ping command between a pod host computer and Eagle Server.168.0 255.254 172.example. troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity by following these steps: Step 1.252 255.16.2 172.255.6.10.255.10.254 172.10.Pod#.0 255. the lab topology may have been modified before this class.255. and that it can ping R2-Central.0 255. 172. Step 2.10.252 255. the ping command issues echo requests.0 — — 10. R2-Central. 10.254 192. verify that the host has the correct DNS address and that it can ping eagle-server.255.254.254.16.255.254.16.10.255.255.Pod#. .255.254. R1-ISP.0 255. followed by a DNS query.com. shown in the logical addressing table.254 R2-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Eagle Server — — Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central — — — Note to Instructor: Depending on the classroom situation.254.255. If an individual host computer cannot connect to eagle-server. ping eagle-server.0 255.254 172. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address.10.0.16. and finally eagle-server.1 255. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests.6 192.example.

The first six hex numbers indicate the manufacturer of the network interface card (NIC). The Data field is between 46 and 1500 bytes. expressed as 12 hexadecimal digits. Layer 2 addresses for the frame.Chapter 7: OSI Data Link Layer 207 Figure 7-3 Wireshark Capture of the ping Command In Figure 7-3. A common format is 12:34:56:78:9A:BC. Using this window. Ethernet II supports numerous upper-layer protocols. processed by the NIC hardware. the Packet Details window shows Frame 1 detail information. this field contains a hexadecimal value that is used to indicate the type of upper-layer protocol in the data field.neotechcc. you can obtain Ethernet II frame information. Data ARP . or 6 bytes. are the serial number of the NIC. Each address is 48 bits long. Source Address Frame Type 00:16:76:ac:a7:6a 0x0806 For Ethernet II frames. A to F. The source address is always unicast. Refer to http://www. Table 7-5 shows the information you can obtain. Table 7-5 Field Ethernet II Frame Header Value Description Preamble Destination Address Not shown in the capture ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff This field contains synchronizing bits. or unicast. The destination address may be a broadcast that contains all 1s. 0 to 9.htm for a list of vendor codes.org/forum/macid. The last six hex digits. ac:a7:6a. Here are two common frame types: Value Description 0x0800 IPv4 protocol 0x0806 Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) Contains the encapsulated upper-layer protocol.

encompassing frame addresses. From the information contained in the Packet List window for the first frame. The value is computed by the sending machine. used by the NIC to identify errors during transmission. answer the following questions about the destination and source MAC address. . and the computer with the corresponding IP address sends a unicast reply to the source. It is verified by the receiver. All computers on the LAN receive the frame. type. and data field. answer the following questions about the destination and source MAC address. What is the significance of all 1s in the destination address field? This is a broadcast address.208 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 7-5 Field Ethernet II Frame Header Value continued Description FCS Not shown in the capture Frame Check Sequence. Destination Address MAC address: ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff NIC manufacturer: Does not apply NIC serial number: Does not apply Source Address MAC address: 00:16:76:ac:a7:6a NIC manufacturer: Intel NIC serial number: ac:a7:6a From the information contained in the Packet List window for the second frame. Destination Address MAC address: 00:16:76:ac:a7:6a NIC manufacturer: Intel NIC serial number: ac:a7:6a Source Address MAC address: 00:0c:85:cf:66:40 NIC manufacturer: Cisco NIC serial number: cf:66:40 Figure 7-4 is an expanded view of Frame 3 from the Wireshark capture.

com. Configure Wireshark for packet captures. Start a ping to Eagle Server. you use Wireshark to capture and analyze packets captured on the pod host computer. . Step 1. enter cmd. and then click the start button that corresponds to the 172. When the command has finished executing.example. Step 2. This begins the packet capture. Choose Start > Run. Open a Windows terminal window.Chapter 7: OSI Data Link Layer 209 Figure 7-4 Frame 3 Fields Use the information shown in Figure 7-4 to complete Table 7-6. Prepare Wireshark for captures. Ping eagle-server. Choose Capture > Interfaces.16.x. and capture the session. and click OK. stop the Wireshark capture. as shown in Example 7-1. Table 7-6 Field Ethernet II Frame Header Completion Value Preamble Destination Address Source Address Frame Type Data FCS Not shown in the capture 00:0c:85:cf:66:40 00:16:76:ac:a7:6a 0x0800 IP Not shown in the capture Task 2: Use Wireshark to Capture and Analyze Ethernet II Frames In this task.y interface IP address.

210 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example 7-1 Pinging Eagle Server Microsoft Windows XP [Version 5.255.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=62 Reply from 192.168. The Wireshark Packet List window should start with an ARP request and reply for the Gateway’s MAC address.2600] Copyright 1985-2001 Microsoft Corp.com [192.254. the ping command is executed.254 C:\> arp -d * C:\> arp -a No ARP Entries Found C:\> Physical Address 00-0c-85-cf-66-40 Type dynamic If you do not see a DNS query. Finally. as shown in Example 7-2.0x30004 Internet Address 172. Average = 0ms C:\> Step 3.168.168.168. .254.com.1. Use the Windows XP ipconfig /flushdns command to clear the DNS cache.1. Next.com is stored in the DNS cache.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=62 Reply from 192.example. Example 7-2 Displaying and Flushing the ARP Cache C:\> arp -a Interface: 172. Lost = 0 (0% loss). Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms. as shown in Example 7-3. C:\> ping eagle-server. If you don’t see an ARP exchange.168. Maximum = 0ms.example.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=62 Ping statistics for 192.16.16.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=62 Reply from 192.254. Your capture should look similar to the one shown in Figure 7-3.254.168. it is because the DNS record for eagle-server.1 --. Received = 4.254: Packets: Sent = 4. Analyze the Wireshark capture.example.example.254. a DNS request is made for the IP address of eagleserver.com Pinging eagle-server.254] with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 192.254. you can flush the ARP cache using the arp -d * command.

Chapter 7: OSI Data Link Layer 211 Example 7-3 Displaying and Flushing the DNS Cache C:\> ipconfig /displaydns Windows IP Configuration 1. . . : 1 Time To Live . . : 1. . . . .example.arpa --------------------------------------Record Name . . : 4 Section . . . . . . . . : 549013 Data Length . . . . . . . : 86386 Data Length . .in-addr. . . . . .0. .0. . . . . : 549045 Data Length . . : 4 Section . . : Answer A (Host) Record . . . : 549013 Data Length . .com ---------------------------------------Record Name . . . .arpa. .in-addr. . . . . .com Record Type .127.1 C:\> . .168.0. . . . . C:\> ipconfig /displaydns Windows IP Configuration 1. : 12 Time To Live . : 1 Time To Live . .127. . . . . : Answer A (Host) Record . . . . .arpa ---------------------------------------Record Name .0. : localhost Record Type . . . . . . : 4 Section .in-addr. . : 4 Section . : 127.0. : eagle-server.127. : Answer PTR Record . . : Answer A (Host) Record . .0. .0. . : 1 Time To Live . : Answer PTR Record localhost --------------------------------------Record Name . . . . . : 1.127.0.1 C:\> ipconfig /flushdns Windows IP Configuration Successfully flushed the DNS Resolver Cache. . . . : 549045 Data Length . . . . . . . . . . . : localhost Record Type . . . . . : localhost eagle-server. . : 127.0. : localhost . . . . . .example. .254. . . . . .0. . . . . : 192.254 localhost --------------------------------------Record Name . . . . . . . : 4 Section . Record Type .0. .0. . .in-addr. Record Type . . . : 12 Time To Live .arpa. .

NIC serial number: Answers will vary. DNS is encapsulated in an IP packet. ICMP is encapsulated in the IP packet. Analyze the captured packets. NIC manufacturer: Answers will vary. What is the Ethernet II frame type value for an ARP Reply? 0x0806 What is the Ethernet II frame type value for a DNS query? 0x0800. NIC manufacturer: Cisco NIC serial number: Answers will vary. What is the Ethernet II frame type value for an ARP Request? 0x0806. Because the student’s Eagle Server is on a different LAN than yours. different from the identifier for IP. If the frame is a broadcast. R2-Central MAC address information MAC address: Answers will vary. Destination and source MAC addresses each contain 12 hex digits. What is the Ethernet II frame type value for a DNS query response? 0x0800 What is the Ethernet II frame type value for an ICMP echo? 0x0800. What is the Ethernet II frame type value for an ICMP echo reply? 0x0800 Task 3: Challenge Use Wireshark to capture sessions from other TCP/IP protocols. Pod computer MAC address information MAC address: Answers will vary. and the last six hex digits contain the NIC serial number. 0x0800 is the frame type for IP. the destination MAC address contains all 1s. and verify that the Ethernet II frame type remains 0x0800. it must have a unique identifier. Again. Ethernet II frame header information was examined.212 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Use your Wireshark capture of the ping command to answer the following questions. A student from another school wants to know the MAC address for Eagle Server. Task 4: Reflection In this lab. A preamble field contains 7 bytes of alternating 1010 sequences and 1 byte that signals the beginning of the frame. 10101011. Because ARP is not encapsulated inside an IP packet. the information cannot be obtained from a Wireshark capture on your LAN. such as FTP and HTTP. A 2-byte frame type field contains a value that indicates the . 0x0800 is the frame type for IP. What would you tell the student? MAC addresses are visible only on the LAN and are different for each LAN. The first six hex digits contain the manufacturer of the NIC.

consider why the preamble field is necessary and why it consists of alternating 1s and 0s. In this challenge you must add a WIC to a device to complete the network.Chapter 7: OSI Data Link Layer 213 protocol in the data field. Use ping. and router interfaces. ■ ■ Background Network Interface Cards (NIC) are sometimes thought of as Layer 2 and Layer 1 devices (or as Layer 2 and Layer 1 components of devices that function at all seven layers). Click Add or Remove Programs. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. and the Inspect tool.6. and leave the room ready for the next class.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to perform this exercise using Packet Tracer. Sometimes the NIC for a serial connection. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Practice your IP subnet planning skills. Configure the network. trace. and configure services and static routing. is called a WAN interface card (WIC). and click Remove. Test the network. If Wireshark needs to be uninstalled. and consider why the developers of Ethernet chose to place the destination address first. Task 5: Clean Up Wireshark was installed on the pod host computer. the value is 0x0800. The data field is variable and contains the encapsulated upper-layer protocol. Also reflect on the destination and source addresses. In addition. web traffic. . Remove any files created on the pod host computer during the lab. Practice your subnetting skills. At the end of a frame. a 4-byte FCS value is used to verify that there were no errors during transmission. Choose Wireshark.3) Open file LSG01-PTSkills7. before the source address. Build the network. you have been asked to implement a new IP addressing scheme for the Exploration lab topology. choose Start > Control Panel. typically used in WAN connections. Reflect on the necessity and formatting of each of these fields. Apply your subnetting scheme to server. For example.1. Packet Tracer Challenge Skills Integration Challenge: Data Link Layer Issues (7. Upon completion of this activity. turn off power to the host computers. For IPv4. PCs. and Table 7-7 is the corresponding addressing table. Connect devices with Ethernet and serial cables. Figure 7-5 shows the topology for this lab. Remove anything that was brought into the lab.

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Figure 7-5

Topology for the Challenge
1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server

2960-24TT S1-Central

1841 R2-Central

PC-PT 1A

PC-PT 1B

Table 7-7 Device

Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway (Route)

R1-ISP

Fa0/0 S0/0/0

172.16.3.62 172.16.3.98 172.16.1.254 172.16.3.97 172.16.0.1 172.16.0.2 172.16.3.61

255.255.255.192 255.255.255.252 255.255.254.0 255.255.255.252 255.255.254.0 255.255.254.0 255.255.255.192

— — 172.16.3.98 172.16.3.98 172.16.1.254 172.16.1.254 172.16.3.62

R2-Central

Fa0/0 S0/0/0

PC 1A PC 1B Eagle Server

NIC NIC NIC

Task 1: IP Subnet Planning
You have been given an IP address block of 172.16.0.0/22. You must provide for existing networks as well as future growth. Subnet assignments:
■ ■ ■

First subnet, existing student LAN, up to 400 hosts (Fa0/0 on R2-Central) Second subnet, future student LAN, up to 180 hosts (not yet implemented) Third subnet, existing ISP LAN, up to 40 hosts (Fa0/0 on R1-ISP)

Chapter 7: OSI Data Link Layer

215

■ ■ ■ ■

Fourth subnet, future ISP LAN, up to 18 hosts (not yet implemented) Fifth subnet, existing WAN, point-to-point link (S0/0/0 on R1-ISP and R2-Central) Sixth subnet, future WAN, point-to-point link (not yet implemented) Seventh subnet, future WAN, point-to-point link (not yet implemented)

Interface IP addresses:
■ ■

For the server, configure the second-highest usable IP address on the existing ISP LAN subnet. For R1-ISP’s Fa0/0 interface, configure the highest usable IP address on the existing ISP LAN subnet. For R1-ISP’s S0/0/0 interface, configure the highest usable address on the existing WAN subnet. For R2-Central’s S0/0/0 interface, use the lowest usable address on the existing WAN subnet. For R2-Central’s Fa0/0 interface, use the highest usable address on the existing student LAN subnet. For PCs 1A and 1B, use the first two IP addresses (the two lowest usable addresses) on the existing student LAN subnet.

■ ■

Additional configurations:
■ ■

For PCs 1A and 1B, in addition to IP configuration, configure them to use DNS services. For the server, enable DNS services, use the domain name eagle-server.example.com, and enable HTTP services.

Task 2: Finish Building the Network in Packet Tracer, Attending to Some Layer 2 Issues
On the R2-Central router, a NIC is missing for the serial connection to R1-ISP. Add a WIC-2T in the slot on the right. Also on R2-Central, Fa0/0 is shut down; turn it on. Connect a serial DCE cable to R1-ISP S0/0/0, with the other end connected to R2-Central S0/0/0. For all devices, make sure the power is on.

Task 3: Configure the Network
You need to configure the server, both routers, and the two PCs. You do not need to configure the switch, nor do you need the IOS CLI to configure the routers. Part of the router configuration has already been done for you; all you must do is configure the static routes and the interfaces via the GUI. The static route on R1-ISP should point to the existing student LAN subnet via R2-Central’s serial interface IP address. The static route on R2-Central should be a default static route that points to R1-ISP’s serial interface IP address. These procedures were explained in the Chapter 5 Skills Integration Challenge, and you practiced them in the Chapter 6 Skills Integration Challenge.

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Task 4: Test the Network
Use ping, trace, web traffic, and the Inspect tool. Trace packet flow in simulation mode, with HTTP, DNS, TCP, UDP, and ICMP viewable, to test your understanding of how the network is operating. Note in particular what Layer 2 encapsulation is used in each step of a packet’s journey, and how the headers on the Layer 2 PDUs change.

Task 5: Reflection
Consider an ICMP echo request packet sent from PC 1A to Eagle Server and the ICMP echo reply packet that results. Reflect on which addresses stay the same in this situation and which ones change.

CHAPTER 8

OSI Physical Layer

The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of multiple-choice, matching, fill-in-the-blank, and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of the OSI physical layer. The Lab Exercises portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum labs to further reinforce that you have mastered the practical, hands-on skills needed to understand and work with the physical layer. As you work through this chapter, use Chapter 8 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum or use the corresponding Chapter 8 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration Companion Guide for assistance.

Study Guide
The Physical Layer: Communication Signals
The role of the OSI physical layer is to encode the binary digits that represent data link layer frames into signals and to transmit and receive these signals across the physical media (copper wires, optical fiber, and wireless) that connect network devices.

Vocabulary Exercise: Completion
Fill in the blanks for the following statements.
1.

The purpose of the physical layer is to create the electrical, optical, or microwave signal that represents the bits in each frame. Manchester encoding indicates a 0 by a high-to-low voltage transition in the middle of the bit time. For a 1, there is a low-to-high voltage transition in the middle of the bit time.

2.

Concept Questions
1.

What are the three basic forms of network media on which data is represented? Copper cable, fiber, and wireless

2.

Physical layer standards cover what four areas? Physical and electrical properties of the media Mechanical properties (materials, dimensions, pinouts) of the connectors Bit representation by the signals (encoding) Definition of control information signals

3.

What are the three fundamental functions of the physical layer? The physical components Data encoding Signaling

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Physical Signaling and Encoding: Representing Bits
Eventually, all communication from the human network becomes binary digits, which are transported individually across the physical media.

Concept Questions
1.

Bits are represented on the medium by changing one or more of the following characteristics of a signal: Amplitude Frequency Phase

2.

Different physical media support the transfer of bits at different speeds. Data transfer can be measured in three ways: Bandwidth Throughput Goodput

Vocabulary Exercise: Completion
Fill in the blanks in the following statements.
1.

The capacity of a medium to carry data is described as the raw data bandwidth of the media. Digital bandwidth measures the amount of information that can flow from one place to another in a given amount of time. Throughput is the measure of the transfer of bits across the media over a given period of time. Goodput is the measure of usable data transferred over a given period of time, and is therefore the measure that is of most interest to network users.

2. 3.

Vocabulary Exercise: Matching
In Table 8-1, match the definition on the right with a term on the left.
Table 8-1 Term Signaling and Encoding Definition

a. NRZ signaling b. Manchester encoding

b. Bit values are represented as voltage transitions. a. Uses bandwidth inefficiently and is susceptible to electromagnetic interference. In addition, the boundaries between individual bits can be lost when long strings of 1s or 0s are transmitted consecutively. c. Each byte to be transmitted is broken into 4-bit pieces or nibbles and encoded as 5-bit values known as symbols. These symbols represent the data to be transmitted and a set of codes that help control transmission on the media.

c. 4B/5B

Chapter 8: OSI Physical Layer

219

Physical Media: Connecting Communication
The physical layer is concerned with network media and signaling. This layer produces the representation and groupings of bits as voltages, radio frequencies, or light pulses. Various standards organizations have contributed to the definition of the physical, electrical, and mechanical properties of the media available for different data communications.

Concept Questions
1.

Standards for copper media are defined by what criteria? Type of copper cabling used Bandwidth of the communication Type of connectors used Pinout and color codes of connections to the media Maximum distance of the media

2.

What can limit the susceptibility of copper cables to electronic noise? Selecting the cable type or category most suited to protect the data signals in a given networking environment Designing a cable infrastructure to avoid known and potential sources of interference in the building structure Using cabling techniques that include the proper handling and termination of the cables

Vocabulary Exercise: Matching
In Table 8-2, match a connector on the right with a media (cable) on the left.
Table 8-2 Media and Connectors Connector

Media (Cable)

a. Unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) cabling b. Coaxial cable c. Multimode optical fiber d. Single-mode optical fiber

c. Straight-Tip (ST) a. RJ-45 d. Subscriber Connector (SC) b. BNC

In Table 8-3, match the speed on the right with the wireless standard on the left.
Table 8-3 Wireless Media Speed

Wireless Standard

a. Bluetooth 802.15 b. 802.11(a,b,g,n), HiperLAN 2 c. 802, 11, MMDS, LMDS d. GSM, GPRS, CDMA, 2.5-3G

c. 22+ Mbps a. < 1 Mbps d. 10[nd]384 Kbps b. 1[nd]54+ Mbps

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Labs and Activities
Lab 8-1: Media Connectors Lab Activity (Lab 8.4.1.1)
Upon completion of this lab, you will be able to do the following:
■ ■ ■

Test cables using a Fluke 620 LAN CableMeter and a Fluke LinkRunner. Become familiar with the most common functions of a cable tester. Test different cables for type and wiring problems.

Background Category 5 (Cat 5) unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) cables are wired according to function. End devices, such as routers and host computers, connect to switches with Cat 5 straight-through cables. When connected together, however, a Cat 5 crossover cable must be used. This is also true of switches. When connecting one switch to another, a Cat 5 crossover cable is used again. Problems related to cables are one of the most common causes of network failure. Basic cable tests can prove helpful in troubleshooting cabling problems with UTP. The quality of cabling components used, the routing and installation of the cable, and the quality of the connector terminations will be the main factors in determining how trouble-free the cabling will be.
Note to instructor: Before starting the lab, the teacher or lab assistant should have several correctly

wired Cat 5 cables that are used by the student to learn cable tester operation. The cables should be both straight-through and crossover. There should also be several Cat 5 cables available with problems. Cables should be numbered to simplify the testing process and to maintain consistency. The following resources are required:
■ ■

Good Cat 5 straight-through and crossover wired cables of different colors Cat 5 straight-through and crossover wired cables with open wire connections in the middle or one or more conductors shorted at one end that are different colors and different lengths Fluke 620 LAN CableMeter or equivalent (see Figure 8-1) Fluke LinkRunner
Fluke 620 LAN CableMeter

■ ■

Figure 8-1

Chapter 8: OSI Physical Layer

221

Scenario First, you will visually determine whether the Cat 5 cable type is crossover or straight-through. Next, you use the cable tester to verify the cable type and common features available with the tester. Finally, you use the cable tester to test for bad cables that cannot be determined with a visual inspection.

Task 1: Become Familiar with the Most Common Functions of a Cable Tester
Figure 8-2 shows the TIA/EIA 568B Cat 5 UTP wire positioning for a straight-through and a crossover cable. When Cat 5 connectors are held together, wire color is a quick way to determine the cable type. TIA/EIA 568B is different from TIA/EIA 568A wiring. TIA/EIA 568A straight-through cables can be identified by the color coding.
Figure 8-2 TIA/EIA 568B Cat 5 UTP
TIA/EIA 568B CAT 5 UTP Straight Through 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 TIA/EIA 568B CAT 5 UTP Crossover 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Step 1.

Visually determine cable types.

Note to instructor: Students should be given a functional straight-through and crossover cable. These

cables will be used to learn cable tester features and build confidence in cable tester accuracy. There should be two numbered cables available. Perform a visual inspection of the cables and then fill out the chart in Table 8-4 with the cable color, type, and use.
Table 8-4 Cable Number Cable Types Cable Color Cable Type (StraightThrough or Crossover) Cable Use (Circle correct device)

1 2

Answers will vary Answers will vary

Answers will vary Answers will vary

Switch to: host / switch Switch to: host / switch

It is now time to verify the cable type and learn about the common features of the cable tester.

Verify the cable wire map. and observe the LCD screen on the tester. . The wiring of both the near and far end of the cable will be displayed. The top set of numbers displayed on the LCD screen refers to the near end. and the bottom set of numbers refers to the far end. and then insert the cable identifier into the other side of the coupler. The first option should be Cable. shown in Figure 8-3. Step 3. The coupler and the cable identifier are accessories that come with the Fluke 620 LAN CableMeter. Continue pressing the up/down-arrow buttons and pressing Enter until the tester is set to the cabling settings in Table 8-5. Place the RJ-45 to RJ-45 female coupler on the far end of the cable. Figure 8-3 Cable Coupler and Cable Identifier cable coupler cable identifier Place the near end of the cable into the RJ-45 jack labeled UTP/FTP on the tester. Press the Setup button to enter the setup mode. Press Enter to accept that setting and go to the next one. Turn the rotary switch selector on the tester to the WIRE MAP position.or down-arrow buttons until the desired cable type of UTP is selected.222 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Step 2. Table 8-5 Tester Option Cable Tester Settings for UTP Desired Setting: UTP Cable Wiring Category Wire size CAL to Cable? Beeping LCD contrast UTP 10Base-T or EIA/TIA 4PR Category 5 AWG 24 No On or Off From 1 through 10 (brightest) When satisfied with the correct settings. press the Setup button to exit setup mode. Perform initial configuration of the Fluke 620 LAN CableMeter. Press the up. Use the following procedure to test each cable with the LAN cable coupler and cable identifier. The wire map function displays which pins on one end of the cable are connected to which pins on the other end.

the cable length. repeat the setup steps described in Step 2. For each cable. write down the number and color. the tester screen test results. Table 8-6 Cable Tester Settings for UTP Cable Color Cable Type (Straight-Through or Crossover) Cable Number 1 2 Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Note any problems encountered during this test: Answers will vary Step 4. If power was cycled. perform a wire map test on each of the cables provided. Using the cable tester Wire Map function. If power was cycled. and fill in Table 8-6 based on the results. Perform a basic cable test on each of the cables. Verify the cable length. and any problem. The tester Length function displays the length of the cable. For each cable. . and complete Table 8-7 based on the results. Task 2: Test Different Cables for Type and Wiring Problems Obtain at least five different cables from your instructor. whether the cable is straight-through or crossover. Move the rotary switch selector on the tester to the Length position. write down the number and color. Move the rotary switch selector on the tester to the Wire Map position. For each cable. In the next task. unknown cables are tested. and whether the cable is straight-through or crossover. write down the number and color. Step 2. and what the problem is (if one exists).Chapter 8: OSI Physical Layer 223 Perform a wire map test on each of the cables provided. repeat the setup steps described in Task 1. Then fill in Table 8-8 based on the result for each Cat 5 cable tested. Table 8-7 Results of Basic Cable Test Cable Color Cable Length Cable Number 1 2 Answers will vary Answers will vary Note any problems encountered during this test: Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Repeat these steps until you are comfortable using the cable tester. the tester screen test results.

Place both ends of the cable into the LAN and MAP ports located on top of the LinkRunner. Step 3. . Rows 3. Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary. and 5 show examples of cable problems. Press the green button on the lower right to turn it back off. Figure 8-4 Turn on the Fluke LinkRunner. 4. Task 3: Perform Initial Configuration of the Fluke LinkRunner Step 1. and press the green button on the lower right along with the blue button to the left.224 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 8-8 Results of Wire Map Test Cable Color Cable type (Straight-Through or Crossover) *Test Results Problem Description Cable Cable Type Number (Visual Inspection) 1 2 3 Answers will vary Answers will vary. Answers will vary Straight-through Crossover Crossover Top: 12364578 Bottom: 12364578 Top: 12364578 Bottom: 36124578 Top: 12oo4578 Bottom: 36124578 None None Pins 3 and 6 are open somewhere in the first half of the cable Pin 5 is shorted in the last half of the cable Miswire 4 Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Straight-through Top: 12364578 Bottom: 12364s78 Top: 12365478 Bottom: 12364578 5 Straight-through *Refer to the Fluke manual for a detailed description of test results for wire map. Fluke LinkRunner Step 2. which is shown in Figure 8-4. Answers are examples only. and will vary.

as shown in Figure 8-7. two parallel lines (as shown in Figure 8-5) will appear in the upper-left corner of the screen. two intersecting lines (as shown in Figure 8-6) will appear in the upper-left corner of the screen. the triangle with an exclamation mark in the center will appear and details will display. Figure 8-5 Fluke LinkRunner: Straight-Through Cable If it is a correct crossover cable. Figure 8-6 Fluke LinkRunner: Crossover Cable If it is a bad cable. Figure 8-7 Fluke LinkRunner: Bad Cable .Chapter 8: OSI Physical Layer 225 If it is a correct straight-through cable.

Fluke LinkRunner: Cable Length Step 2. and press the green button on the lower right along with the blue button to the left. Store the cables neatly for the next class. Network technicians should be able to determine when to use Cat 5 UTP straight-through and crossover cables. This isn’t unusual.226 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 4: Verify Cable Length Note: The instructions to test a cable are the same as determining cable length. Locate the length of the cable below the icon indicating the type of cable (as shown in Figure 8-8). Step 3. Ask the instructor where to return used cables. length. Turn on the Fluke LinkRunner by pressing the green button on the lower right along with the blue button on the right. A properly functioning cable today may be broken tomorrow. and wire map. Task 7: Clean Up The cable tester is expensive and should never be left unattended. Task 6: Challenge Look for opportunities to test other cables with the Fluke 620 LAN CableMeter. Figure 8-8 Task 5: Reflection Problems related to cables are one of the most common causes of network failure. . Skills learned in this lab will enable you to quickly troubleshoot wrong cable types and broken cables. cables are constantly moved and reconnected. A cable tester is used to determine cable type. Return the cable tester to the instructor when finished. and is part of the learning process. Step 4. Press the green button on the lower right to turn it back off. Place both ends of the cable into the LAN and MAP ports located on top of the LinkRunner. Step 1. In a lab environment.

Enter and view the physical workspace. and how to properly connect devices. Verify connectivity. Figure 8-9 Topology for Challenge 1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server 2960-24TT S1-Central 1841 R2-Central PC 1A PC 1B .1. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Connect the devices in the standard lab setup. selecting the proper cable based on the configuration. it is important to know how to select the proper cable. in a lab environment.5. View the standard lab setup at the various levels of the physical workspace.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to perform this exercise using Packet Tracer.Chapter 8: OSI Physical Layer 227 Packet Tracer Challenge Skills Integration Challenge: Connecting Devices and Exploring the Physical View (8. Upon completion of this activity. Background When working in Packet Tracer. View the standard lab setup in the physical workspace. and connecting the devices. or in a corporate setting. Figure 8-9 shows the topology for this skills integration challenge. and Table 8-9 shows the corresponding addressing table.3) Open the file LSG01-PTSkills8. Connect the devices. This activity examines device configurations in Packet Tracer. This activity also explores the physical view of the network in Packet Tracer.

16.16. In an internetwork. from across the street to across the globe.255.255.168.255.255.253 R2-Central Fa0/0 S0/0/0 S1-Central PC 1A PC 1B Eagle Server VLAN 1 NIC NIC NIC Task 1: Connect the Devices in the Standard Lab Setup Step 1.252 255.6 172.0.168.6 172.0 255.254. Step 2.254.16. Verify connectivity.255. Check your configuration by clicking the Check Results button. The DCE connects to a service provider’s local loop.254 172. Enter and view the physical workspace. The serial link between the routers represents a dedicated leased line between two locations consisting of a DTE (data terminal equipment).253 10.0. and the connections are repeated at the other end of the link.168.254.255.1.254.254 192. Connect the devices.254 172. such as a channel/data service unit (CSU/DSU) or modem.1 172.0 255.255.10. The physical workspace enables you to see these relationships more clearly.16. .1 172.10.2 192.228 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 8-9 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP Fa0/0 S0/0/0 192. Click router R1-ISP and examine the configuration using the Config tab.10.6 10.254.10. If the pings fail. Task 2: View the Standard Lab Setup in the Physical Workspace Step 1.0. Connect PC 1A to the first port on switch S1-Central and PC 1B to the second port on switch S1-Central using the proper cable.0 255. the IP address of Eagle Server. Connect the proper interface on the router to the proper interface on Eagle Server using the proper cable.254.10.252 255. such as a router.0 255. From the command prompt on the desktop of both PCs. Connect the proper interface on the router to interface FastEthernet0/24 on switch S1Central using the proper cable.10.254 255. Connect the routers together using the proper interfaces and the proper cable.255. routers may be in different sites.10.168.16.0.168.255.0 N/A N/A 10.5 172.16.255.1. Click router R2-Central and examine the configuration using the Config tab.0 255. check your connections and troubleshoot until the pings succeed.10. connected to a DCE (data communication equipment).254 10.255. Click both routers and examine the configuration using the Config tab.255.255. Most of our work in Packet Tracer has been done in the logical workspace.255. issue the command ping 192.255.255.

You will see the floor plan of the building and the location of the wiring closet.Chapter 8: OSI Physical Layer 229 Enter the physical workspace by clicking the tab in the upper-left corner of the workspace. . Repeat the steps to view the equipment installed in ISP City. View the standard lab setup at the various levels of the physical workspace. You will see the city and the location of the central office building. It shows the connection between Central City and ISP City. Click the wiring closet. Step 2. You will see a physical representation of the equipment installed in the wiring closet and the cabling that connects the equipment. Click the central office building. Click Intercity on the navigation bar. Click Central City. Examine this view of the topology.

.

Ethernet operates at the physical layer and the Media Access Control (MAC) sublayer of the data link layer. Logical Link Control (LLC) or IEEE 802. Study Guide Overview of Ethernet Ethernet is the predominant LAN technology in use today. for assistance. fill-in-the-blank. match the function on the right with the correct IEEE sublayer of the data link layer. Remains relatively independent of the physical equipment b. Table 9-1 Sublayer Data Link Layer Sublayers Function a. Ethernet operates at the OSI physical and data link layers. The upper sublayer of the data link layer. As you work through this chapter. Provides an interface to the upper layers b. or use the corresponding Chapter 9 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration Companion Guide. Ethernet (without LLC) is the frame encapsulation method used for the most popular network layer protocol in use today. Adds a frame delimiter b. use Chapter 9 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum. Ethernet has been so successful because it has evolved over time to incorporate new technologies such as higher speeds and fiber-optic cabling. can give upper-layer protocols access to Ethernet. Provides a unique source and destination address . Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 9-1. Using IEEE terminology. Controls the placement of a frame on the medium a. MAC a.2. LLC b. multiple-choice.3. In addition. hands-on skills needed to work with Ethernet. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum activities and labs to ensure you have mastered the practical. Ethernet’s success can also be attributed to the fact that it was adopted by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and standardized as IEEE 802.CHAPTER 9 Ethernet The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of matching. Internet Protocol (IP). and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of Ethernet.

Digital Equipment Corporation. Ethernet: Communication Through the LAN The term Ethernet first appeared in 1973 when Dr. and then to 100 Mbps and 1 Gbps. Uses 500 meters of thick coaxial cable . reliability. the fact that the Ethernet frame has remained relatively unchanged over the years has allowed applications to keep running over Ethernet even as it evolved. and error detection. Metcalfe of the Xerox Corporation circulated a memo to his colleagues. Robert M. The IEEE published the 802. low cost of installation and upgrading. and Xerox published the DIX V1. If the two CRC results match. Half duplex e. What functions does data encapsulation provide? Data encapsulation provides frame delimiting. Concentrates connections. allowing the network to see a group of nodes as a single unit b. to a shared hub-based network. Metcalfe’s goal that Ethernet become ubiquitous has been achieved. also known as Ethernet II. was released in 1982.3 standard for Ethernet in 1985. In addition. Ethernet has evolved from a shared coaxial medium. Its original speed of 3 Mbps evolved to 10 Mbps. 2. Table 9-2 Term Ethernet Implementations Description a. The node places the CRC result in the Frame Check Sequence (FCS) field in the trailer part of the Ethernet frame. Only one station at a time can transmit c. Hub d. addressing. and government networks.232 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Concept Questions 1. educational. the recipient assumes that the frame arrived without error.0 standard for Ethernet. Today. Switch d. 10BASE2 c. much like the ether substance that scientists in the 1800s believed filled space and matter. Both ends of a connection can send at the same time a. Isolates each port and sends a frame only to its proper destination (if the destination is known) e. The name reflects the goal that Ethernet become ubiquitous. proposing the name for their prototype network. match the description on the right with the correct Ethernet term on the left. DIX V2. Ethernet forms the foundation of most industrial. Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 9-2. 10BASE5 b. a receiving node calculates its own CRC to compare to the one in the frame. ease of maintenance. How does Ethernet handle error detection? The sending node calculates a Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) of the bits in the frame. Intel. Ethernet’s success also can be attributed to its simplicity. and standardization by the IEEE. In 1980. and now 10 Gbps. After receiving a frame. Full duplex f. and finally to a selective-forwarding environment with high-speed switches. Uses 185 meters of thin coaxial cable f. 3. Since 1985.0. Why has Ethernet been so successful? Ethernet has been so successful because it has evolved with the times to incorporate new technologies. The cabling has also evolved from coaxial to unshielded twisted pair to fiber-optic.

Length/type f. What aspects of Ethernet have remained relatively unchanged over the years. Preamble b. Only one device can send at any time. Ethernet is still usually connected in a star topology. Used for error detection a. Destination address d. Full duplex means that each end of a communications channel can send at the same time.Chapter 9: Ethernet 233 Concept Questions 1. Fiber-optic is reserved mostly for data centers. and what aspects have changed? Ethernet’s simplicity and ease of use and installation have remained unchanged. The Ethernet Frame A fundamental job of the data link layer is to encapsulate a Layer 3 Protocol Data Unit (PDU) into a Layer 2 PDU.3 header and trailer. Although the cabling could have supported full duplex. The cabling for Ethernet has evolved from coaxial to unshielded twisted pair to fiber-optic. Switches are capable of full duplex because they consider each connection a separate communication channel. the hub was still a shared medium. When Ethernet was upgraded to run on hubs with twisted-pair cabling. and high-end devices. Most Layer 2 frames also have addressing fields in the header that identify the sender and receiver. Ethernet follows these conventions. Unshielded twisted pair is still widely used. most protocols specify that the frame should have a header. Frame check sequence g. Table 9-3 Field Frame Header Fields Definition a. but the center of the star is a switch rather than a hub these days. Compare and contrast half duplex and full duplex. Used for synchronization e. it used half-duplex communication. links between switches. Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Table 9-3 lists the fields that appear in an IEEE 802. When Ethernet ran on coaxial cable. For example. Start of frame delimiter c. 2. which is a shared device. Data g. Tells other devices on the network that a frame is coming along the medium d. unlike a hub. Specifies the frame’s intended recipient . The Ethernet frame has remained relatively unchanged. Carries the upper-layer data b. Although different protocols place different fields in a frame. Specifies the number of bytes in the data part of the frame or specifies the type of data (the upper-layer protocol) f. Half duplex is used on a medium that can carry only one signal at a time. Match the field on the left with the definition on the right. The Layer 2 PDU is called a frame. Source address e. Specifies the frame’s sender c. data field. and trailer. Transmitting and receiving simultaneously is not allowed. a switch port and the connected device can send at the same time. it still used half-duplex communication.

d. 4. If the value is equal to or greater than 0x0600. d. 128 bytes c. c. b. To specify the Portable Application Description (PAD) that describes the encapsulated data. 1522 bytes b. What is the minimum size of an Ethernet frame? a. 1522 bytes b. . Why is padding sometimes added to the data part of an Ethernet frame? a.3ac standard? a. 1024 bytes d. 64 bytes 3. c. 1. The receiving device drops the frame. The recipient sends a query to the sender to determine how the field should be interpreted. The recipient calculates a CRC that differs from the CRC in the FCS field and drops the b. the field specifies a type. b. How does a recipient device know if the sender used the Length/Type field to specify a length or a type? a. The receiving device requests a retransmission. d. The recipient requests a retransmission. 1518 bytes c. The recipient bases the decision on whether it’s been configured for Ethernet II or IEEE 802. 5. The receiving device reports a collision. d.3. c. To provide synchronization. If the value is equal to or less than 1536. What is the maximum size of an Ethernet frame according to the IEEE 802. The sender notices the missing acknowledgment and retransmits the frame. 64 bytes 2. To ensure that the frame is protected from damage. the field specifies a type. The receiving device sends back a negative acknowledgment to the sender. b. To ensure that the frame is at least 64 bytes. The sender backs off and waits a random amount of time before trying again. c.234 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Multiple-Choice Questions Choose the best answer for each of the following questions. What does a receiving device do if it receives a frame that is less than the allowed minimum size or greater than the allowed maximum size? a. 72 bytes d. a. 6. What happens if a frame arrives damaged? frame.

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7.

How long is a MAC address?

a. Six hexadecimal digits b. 32 bits c. 48 bits d. 8 bytes

Concept Questions
1.

Compare and contrast MAC addresses with IP addresses. MAC addresses operate at the OSI data link layer (Layer 2). Layer 2 addresses are used only for local delivery when transporting a frame across a local medium. These addresses use a flat addressing scheme and do not indicate on what network a device is located. If a device is moved to another network, its Layer 2 address does not need to change. IP addresses operate at the OSI network layer (Layer 3). Layer 3 addresses are carried from source to destination host across an internetwork. Layer 3 addresses use a hierarchical addressing scheme and indicate a network number and host identifier.

2.

Compare and contrast unicast, broadcast, and multicast communications at the MAC sublayer. Unicast, broadcast, and multicast are all 48-bit MAC address types. All of them can be destination MAC addresses. Only unicast can be a source address. A unicast address is a unique address used when a frame is sent from a single transmitting device to a single destination device. In the case of a broadcast, the frame is destined for all devices in the broadcast domain and is addressed to a MAC broadcast address of 48 1s (or FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF in hexadecimal). With multicast, a source can send to a group of devices. The low-order bit of the first byte must be a 1 for the address to be a multicast. If the multicast is also an IP multicast, the first 24 bits of the MAC address are 01-00-5E in hexadecimal.

Ethernet Media Access Control
In a shared medium, all devices have guaranteed access to the medium, but they must fairly share the medium and not interfere with each other. If more than one device transmits at the same time, the physical signals collide, and the data is damaged. Both transmitters must recognize that their data has been damaged and resend it. Ethernet uses carrier sense multiple access collision detect (CSMA/CD) to detect and handle collisions and regulate use of the shared medium.

Vocabulary Exercise: Completion
Fill in the blanks for the following statements that discuss CSMA/CD.
1.

Because devices using coaxial or hub-based Ethernet send their messages on a shared medium, a protocol (or coordination scheme or media access control method) is used to determine if the medium is already in use before a sender transmits. When a device detects that no other computer is sending a frame, the device transmits if it has something to send. All devices that have messages to send must listen before transmitting.

2.

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3. 4.

If a device detects a signal from another device, it waits before attempting to transmit. When no traffic is detected, a device transmits its message. While transmitting, the device continues to listen for traffic from another device. If another device is sending at the same time, a collision has occurred. If a collision happens, the sending devices continue to send for the time it takes to send a jam signal and then stop sending. The devices invoke a backoff algorithm that causes them to wait a random amount of time before trying to send again.

5.

Concept Questions
1.

What is interframe spacing, and why does Ethernet use it? Interframe spacing is the required time between frames on an Ethernet network. After a frame has been sent, all devices are required to wait a minimum of 96 bit times (the time it takes to send 96 bits). This gives the medium time to stabilize after transmitting a frame.

2.

Why is the backoff timing random when an Ethernet collision occurs? The backoff waiting period is intentionally designed to be random so that two stations do not delay for the same amount of time before retransmitting, which would result in more collisions.

Ethernet Physical Layer
The many implementations of Ethernet include Classic Ethernet, Fast Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet, and 10 Gigabit Ethernet. The differences occur at the physical layer, often called the Ethernet PHY. Four data rates are currently defined for operation over optical-fiber and twisted-pair cables:
■ ■ ■ ■

10 Mbps: 10BASE-T Classic Ethernet 100 Mbps: Fast Ethernet 1000 Mbps: Gigabit Ethernet 10 Gbps: 10 Gigabit Ethernet

Vocabulary Exercise: Completion
Fill in the blanks for the following statements that describe Ethernet physical layer options.
1.

10BASE-T uses two pairs of a four-pair cable and is terminated at each end with an eight-pin RJ-45 connector. The pair connected to pins 1 and 2 is used for transmitting, and the pair connected to pins 3 and 6 is used for receiving. Replacing hubs with switches in 10BASE-T networks has greatly increased the bandwidth available to these networks and has helped Ethernet maintain its dominance in the LAN market. The 10BASE-T links connected to a switch can support either half-duplex or full-duplex operation. The most popular implementations of 100 Mbps Ethernet are 100BASE-TX, which uses Category 5 or later UTP cable, and 100BASE-FX, which uses fiber-optic cable. 1000BASE-T Ethernet provides full-duplex transmission using four pairs of Category 5 or later UTP cable.

2.

3.

4.

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5.

The two fiber versions of Gigabit Ethernet are 1000BASE-SX and 1000BASE-LX. Fiber-optic cabling offers better noise immunity than UTP, a smaller physical size, and higher distances and bandwidth. A difference between 1000BASE-SX and 1000BASE-LX is the wavelength of the optical signal. The IEEE 802.3ae standard was adapted to include 10-Gbps, full-duplex transmission over fiber-optic cable. 10-Gigabit Ethernet is evolving for use not only in LANs, but also in MANs and WANs. Although Gigabit Ethernet is now widely available and 10-Gigabit products are becoming more available, the IEEE and the 10-Gigabit Ethernet Alliance are working on 40-, 100-, and even 160-Gbps standards.

6.

7.

8.

Hubs and Switches
In the 1970s and 1980s, Ethernet networks were connected in a bus topology using coaxial cable. The coaxial cable provided a shared medium. In the 1990s, administrators started connecting nodes to the shared network in a star topology using twisted-pair cabling and hubs. During the 1990s, to improve performance, administrators upgraded their hubs to switches. Switches divide collision domains into smaller domains, sometimes so small that collisions are no longer an issue. For example, in the common case where a single device is connected to a port on a switch, both ends of the communications channel can send and receive at the same time, and collisions don’t occur. Switches forward broadcast and multicast traffic to all members of a LAN but provide selective forwarding for unicast traffic. The selective forwarding greatly reduces collisions and improves performance.

Vocabulary Exercise: Matching
In Table 9-4, match the characteristic on the right with the correct term on the left.
Table 9-4 Term Characteristics of Hubs and Switches Characteristic

a. Hub b. Switch

b. Divides collision domains a. Forwards received bits out every port b. Supports full-duplex communication a. Simplifies network cabling but doesn’t have any performance benefits a. When many nodes that transmit frequently are connected to this device, latency increases, because each node must wait for an opportunity to transmit b. Provides an alternative to contention-based Ethernet b. Maintains a table that maps each MAC address to a port

Vocabulary Exercise: Completion
Fill in the blanks for the following statements that describe the selective forwarding service provided by switches.
1.

A switch selectively forwards a frame that it receives on a port to the port where the destination node is connected.

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2.

Switches use store-and-forward switching, whereby the switch receives an entire frame, checks the FCS field for errors, and forwards the frame to the appropriate port. A switch maintains a table, called the MAC table (also called MAC address table, CAM table, switch table, bridge table, filter table), that matches a MAC address with the port used to connect the node with that address.

3.

Concept Question
List and describe the five basic operations of an Ethernet LAN switch. Learning. A switch populates the MAC table by learning which port it should use to reach each MAC address. As a frame enters the switch, the switch examines the MAC source address. If no entry exists in the table for this address, the switch creates a new entry that pairs the source address with the port on which the frame arrived. The switch can now use this mapping to forward frames to the node with the MAC address in the table entry. Aging. A switch tracks how long an entry has been in the MAC table. If the entry reaches a certain age without being refreshed by a new frame from the same node on the same port, the entry is removed. Flooding. If a switch has not yet learned which port it should use to forward a frame to a destination, the switch sends the frame to all ports, except the port on which the frame arrived. Selective forwarding. A switch examines the destination MAC address in a frame and forwards the frame out the appropriate port. Filtering. After a switch has learned the address or addresses that map to a port, it filters frames from going out that port that include a destination address that is not mapped to the port.

Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
To send an IP packet to a recipient, a sender needs to learn the recipient’s MAC address. ARP provides a means for a sender to broadcast a message to find the MAC address for a known IP address.

Multiple-Choice Questions
Choose the best answer for each of the following questions.
1.

What is a basic job of ARP?

a. Resolve IPv4 addresses to MAC addresses b. Build a table that maps MAC addresses to ports c. Build a loop-free LAN from redundantly connected switches d. Provide a resource protocol for finding applications 2.

If a node has recently sent a frame to another node, where is the mapping of IPv4 address to MAC address stored?

a. MAC table b. ARP cache c. Routing table d. NVRAM

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3.

When a node has not recently sent a frame to another node, how does the node discover the correct MAC address to use for the IPv4 address of the destination node?

a. The sender sends an IPv4 query to the destination node to ask the node for its MAC address. b. The sender broadcasts an ARP request. c. The sender monitors traffic until it discovers the correct MAC address to use. d. The sender transmits a TCP SYN to the destination node. 4.

What type of header does an ARP frame contain?

a. IP b. Ethernet c. TCP d. UDP 5.

When an Ethernet transmitter sends to a destination not on its local network, what MAC destination address does it use, and how does it discover this address? request.

a. The transmitter uses the MAC address of the destination, which it discovers with an ARP b. The transmitter uses the MAC address of the local router interface, which it discovers with an

ARP request.
c. The transmitter uses the MAC address of the destination, which it discovers with a proxy ARP

request.
d. The transmitter doesn’t need a MAC address for the destination and relies on the IP destination

address to provide enough information for routers to forward the frame.
6.

What is the destination address in the frame when a node sends an ARP request to find the MAC address associated with a known IP address?

a. 255.255.255.255 b. The address of the local router interface c. The recipient’s address d. FF:FF:FF:FF:FF:FF

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Labs and Activities
Lab 9-1: Address Resolution Protocol (9.8.1.1)
Upon completion of this lab, you will be able to
■ ■

Use the Windows arp command. Use Wireshark to examine ARP exchanges.

Background TCP/IP uses ARP to map a Layer 3 IP address to a Layer 2 MAC address. When a frame is placed on the network, it must have a destination MAC address. To dynamically discover the MAC address of the destination device, an ARP request is broadcast on the LAN. The device that contains the destination IP address responds, and the MAC address is recorded in the ARP cache. Every device on the LAN keeps its own ARP cache, which is a small area in RAM that holds ARP results. An ARP cache timer removes ARP entries that have not been used for a certain period of time. Depending on the device, the times differ. For example, some Windows operating systems store ARP cache entries for 2 minutes. If the entry is used again during that time, the ARP timer for that entry is extended to 10 minutes. ARP is an excellent example of a performance trade-off. With no cache, ARP must continually request address translations each time a frame is placed on the network. This adds latency to the communication and could congest the LAN. Conversely, unlimited hold times could cause errors with devices that leave the network or change the Layer 3 address. A network engineer needs to be aware of ARP but may not interact with the protocol on a regular basis. ARP is a protocol that enables network devices to communicate with the TCP/IP protocol. Without ARP, no efficient method exists to build the datagram Layer 2 destination address. ARP is a potential security risk. ARP spoofing, or ARP poisoning, is a technique used by an attacker to inject the wrong MAC address association into a network. An attacker forges a device’s MAC address, and frames are sent to the wrong destination. Manually configuring static ARP associations is one way to prevent ARP spoofing. In addition, an authorized MAC address list may be configured in Cisco devices to restrict network access to only approved devices. Scenario With a pod host computer, use the Windows arp utility command to examine and change ARP cache entries. In Task 2, you will use Wireshark to capture and analyze ARP exchanges between network devices. If Wireshark has not been loaded on the host pod computer, you can download it from ftp://eagleserver.example.com/pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter9/. The file is wireshark-setup-0.99.4.exe. Figure 9-1 shows the topology for this lab, and Table 9-5 is the corresponding addressing table.

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Figure 9-1

Topology for Lab 9-1

R1-ISP

S0/0/0 DCE

Eagle Server

S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24

S1-Central

R2-Central

1A

1B

11A

11B

Pod#1

Pod#11

Table 9-5 Device

Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway

R1-ISP

S0/0/0 Fa0/0

10.10.10.6 192.168.254.253 10.10.10.5 172.16.255.254 192.168.254.254 172.31.24.254 172.16.Pod#.1 172.16.Pod#.2 172.16.254.1

255.255.255.252 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.252 255.255.0.0 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.0.0

— — 10.10.10.6 — 192.168.254.253 — 172.16.255.254 172.16.255.254 172.16.255.254

R2-Central

S0/0/0 Fa0/0

Eagle Server

— —

Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central

— — —

Note to Instructor: Depending on the classroom situation, the lab topology may have been modified before this class. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server.example.com, troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity:
Step 1.

Verify that all network equipment is powered on and that eagle-server is on.

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Step 2.

From a known good host computer, ping eagle-server. If the ping test fails, ping S1Central, R2-Central, R1-ISP, and finally eagle-server. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests. If an individual host computer cannot connect to eagle-server, check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address, shown in Table 9-5, and that it can ping R2-Central, 172.16.255.254. Verify that the host computer has the correct Gateway IP address, 172.16.255.254, and that it can ping R1-ISP, 10.10.10.6. Finally, verify that the host has the correct DNS address and that it can ping eagle-server.example.com.

Step 3.

Task 1: Use the Windows arp Command
Step 1.

Access the Windows terminal. Open a Windows terminal by choosing Start > Run. Enter cmd, and click OK. With no options, the arp command displays useful help information. Issue the arp command on the pod host computer, and examine the output. It should look like Example 9-1.

Example 9-1

Using the arp Command

C:\> arp Displays and modifies the IP-to-Physical address translation tables used by address resolution protocol (ARP). ARP -s inet_addr eth_addr [if_addr] ARP -d inet_addr [if_addr] ARP -a [inet_addr] [-N if_addr] -a Displays current ARP entries by interrogating the current protocol data. If inet_addr is specified, the IP and Physical addresses for only the specified computer are displayed. If more than one network interface uses ARP, entries for each ARP table are displayed. -g Same as -a. Specifies an internet address. inet_addr

-N if_addr Displays the ARP entries for the network interface specified by if_addr. -d Deletes the host specified by inet_addr. inet_addr may be wildcarded with * to delete all hosts. -s Adds the host and associates the Internet address inet_addr with the Physical address eth_addr. The Physical address is given as 6 hexadecimal bytes separated by hyphens. The entry is permanent. eth_addr if_addr interface Specifies a physical address. If present, this specifies the Internet address of the

whose address translation table should be modified. If not present, the first applicable interface will be used.

By accessing other devices. The ping command can be used to test network connectivity. Use the ping command to dynamically add entries to the ARP cache. Lost = 0 (0% loss).1.85.16.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 172. the ARP cache should be empty. as shown in Example 9-3.1. Received = 4.16.1. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms.16. Example 9-3 Using the ping Command C:\> ping 172. Any entry indicates communication between the pod host computer and other network devices.2 Pinging 172. ARP associations are dynamically added to the ARP cache. as shown in Example 9-2.255.16.212 00-aa-00-62-c6-09 > arp -a table.254 Step 2.16.16.1. Step 3...2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 172.55. Adds a static entry.254? arp -d 172.16.2 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 172.16.1. Average = 0ms C:\> C:\> arp -a .2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 172. Displays the arp Answer the following questions about the arp command: ■ What command is used to display all entries in the ARP cache? arp -a ■ What command is used to delete all ARP cache entries (flush the ARP cache)? arp -d * ■ What command is used to delete the ARP cache entry for 172.16.. Using the arp Command with the -a Option Example 9-2 C:\> arp -a No ARP Entries Found C:\> Without any network communication.. C:\> .255. Maximum = 0ms.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Ping statistics for 172.. Use the arp command to examine the local ARP cache. what were the results? The ARP cache should be empty.Chapter 9: Ethernet 243 Example 9-1 Using the arp Command continued Example: > arp -s 157. When you issued the command that displays ARP entries.2: Packets: Sent = 4.1.1. ..

How was the ARP entry added to the ARP cache? Hint: Review the Type column.1. First. Step 4. What is the IP address of the Gateway? 172.com. and check the ARP cache again.0x60004 Internet Address 172. Dynamically What is the IP address of the destination pod host computer? Answers will vary. a couple explanations are possible.16. What is the physical address of the destination pod host computer? Answers will vary. Examine the ARP cache entry. you accessed the destination device more than once and caused the ARP timeout for the entry to rise to 10 minutes.1. eagle-server. Issue the ping command to that pod host computer.255. you did not wait 2 minutes.254 What is the physical address of the Gateway? Answers will vary. Do not send any traffic to the computer accessed previously. only the Gateway MAC address is displayed. Issue the ping command to the Gateway. Verify that the ARP cache contains two entries: one for the Gateway and one for the destination pod host computer.2 C:\> Physical Address 00-10-a4-7b-01-5f Type dynamic Use the command ipconfig /all to verify another pod host computer’s Layer 2 and Layer 3 information.1 —. Wait between 2 and 3 minutes. which is how long the ARP cache stores an initial entry. which will retain the cache entry for approximately 10 minutes.example. Record the two ARP cache entries using Table 9-6. Because Eagle Server is on a different network. Examine the ARP cache entry.244 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example 9-3 Using the ping Command continued Interface: 172. Or. Manually adjust entries in the ARP cache. How was the address discovered? Dynamically Issue the ping command to Eagle Server. R2-Central.16. It may be easier to ping both devices more than once. What is the physical address of Eagle Server? It cannot be determined. . Was the ARP cache entry cleared? Yes If the entry was not cleared.16.

What command deletes all entries in the ARP cache? arp -d * Issue the command to remove all entries in the ARP cache on your pod host computer. . and examine the ARP cache with the arp -a command.255.2 172.Chapter 9: Ethernet 245 Table 9-6 Device Initial ARP Cache Entries IP Address Physical Address How Is It Discovered? Pod host computer Gateway Answers will vary 172. You can delete addresses individually by specifying the IP address. All entries should be removed.254 Answers will vary.0x60004 Internet Address 172.1.2 C:\> Physical Address 00-10-a4-7b-01-5f Type dynamic Physical Address 00-10-a4-7b-01-5f 00-0c-85-cf-66-40 Type dynamic dynamic What command deletes the entry for the pod host computer? arp -d inet-addr Record the remaining ARP cache entry in Table 9-7.16.255.16.254 Answers will vary Answers will vary Dynamically Dynamically Next. Example 9-4 shows how to manually delete an ARP cache entry.1.1. Example 9-4 Manually Deleting an ARP Cache Entry C:\> arp -a Interface: 172. To delete entries in the ARP cache.1 —. delete the entry for the pod host computer.16.254 C:\> arp -a Interface: 172.1.255.0x60004 Internet Address 172. What is one layer of security that can be applied to ARP cache entries to help counter ARP spoofing? Add a static ARP entry for the Gateway.255.254 C:\> C:\> arp -d 172. Dynamically Simulate removing all entries.16. Consider a secure environment where the Gateway controls access to a web server that contains top-secret information.16. Table 9-7 Device Remaining ARP Cache Entry IP Address Physical Address How Is It Discovered? Gateway 172. issue the arp -d {inet-addr | *} command.16. or you can delete all entries using the wildcard *.16.1 —.16.

If you haven’t already done so. Capture and evaluate ARP communication. this will require ARP to rediscover address maps. and click OK. the Wireshark capture is stopped.255. What is the type of the ARP entry? Static For the next task. Enter cmd.16. Now. Do not close the Windows terminal. Stop Wireshark and evaluate the communication. This begins the packet capture. In this step. Check the box to update the list of packets in real time.16. What command adds a static ARP entry for the Gateway to the ARP cache? arp -s 172. Send one ping request to the Gateway. The Packet Details window shows ARP protocol contents. Choose Capture > Options. using the command ping -n 1 172. . and examine the ARP cache again. Prepare the pod host computer for ARP captures.16. and one ping request is sent to Eagle Server. You should see a Wireshark screen similar to the one shown in Figure 9-2. Click Start. you will use it to view the ARP cache. Wireshark will be used to capture and examine an ARP exchange.254 What is the physical address of the Gateway? Answers will vary. one ping request is sent to the Gateway.255. using the command ping -n 1 192.254. Afterward.255.254. provide answers to these questions: ■ ■ ■ What is the IP address of the Gateway? 172.254. and the ARP communication is evaluated. Send one ping request to Eagle Server.254 MAC-address Issue the command on your pod host computer.246 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Simulate adding a static entry for the Gateway. Flush the ARP cache. What command did you use? arp -d * Step 3. The Wireshark Packet List window displays the number of packets captured. Select the interface that corresponds to the LAN.168. Step 2. Prepare Wireshark for captures. open a Windows terminal window by choosing Start > Run. Task 2: Use Wireshark to Examine ARP Exchanges Step 1. Configure Wireshark for packet captures.

Table 9-9 Field Second ARP Packet Value Sender MAC address Sender IP address Target MAC address Target IP address Answers will vary 172. Table 9-8 Field First ARP Packet Value Sender MAC address Sender IP address Target MAC address Target IP address Answers will vary Answers will vary 00:00:00:00:00:00 172.255.254 Fill in Table 9-9 with information about the second ARP packet.16.Chapter 9: Ethernet 247 Figure 9-2 Wireshark Screen Using your Wireshark capture. answer the following questions: ■ ■ What is the first ARP packet? A request What is the second ARP packet? A reply Fill in Table 9-8 with information about the first ARP packet. .16.254 Answers will vary Answers will vary If the Ethernet II frame for an ARP request is a broadcast.255. why does the target MAC address contain all 0s? The ARP protocol has no value yet to put in the field.

Discuss ways in which attackers can circumvent this security. and click Remove. If the entry was manually inserted in the ARP cache. Discuss several techniques used to counter this type of attack. Using outside resources. If Wireshark needs to be uninstalled. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity. Task 3: Reflection The ARP protocol maps Layer 3 IP addresses to Layer 2 MAC addresses.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Address Resolution Protocol (9. Choose Wireshark. Remember.248 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Why was there no ARP request for the ping to Eagle Server? The TCP/IP protocol already had the MAC address for the Gateway.8. Task 4: Challenge Using outside resources. Click Add or Remove Programs. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. but the Layer 3 address never changes. If the entry was learned dynamically. it will eventually be deleted from cache. perform a search on ARP spoofing. . This sets the new timeout value to 10 minutes. Task 5: Clean Up Wireshark was installed on the pod host computer. Most wireless routers support a network administrator manually adding a list of MAC addresses to the router that are permitted access to the wireless network. which is used to forward the packet outside the LAN. How long should the Gateway mapping be stored in the ARP cache on the pod host computer? Why? 10 minutes. Remove any files created on the pod host computer during the lab. it is a static entry and remains until the computer is turned off or the ARP cache is manually flushed. discuss the advantages of configuring MAC address restrictions for wireless networks. If a packet must move across networks. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. because the cache entry was accessed within the 2-minute cache timeout. turn off power to the host computers. however. the Layer 2 MAC address changes with each hop across a router. and leave the room ready for the next class.1.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab9812. choose Start > Control Panel. The ARP cache stores ARP address mappings.

Using the Windows hyperterm utility. You will do the following: ■ ■ ■ Telnet to S1-Central. The Cisco device must be configured for Telnet access. or the frame is a broadcast. you will be able to ■ ■ Use the Telnet protocol to log into a Cisco switch. and Table 9-10 is the corresponding addressing table. For secure networks. If a switch does not know which port to use to route the frame. and the corresponding port is used to route the frame out the switch. the frame is routed out all ports except the port where it originated. the Cisco device can be configured for a Telnet session. When a switch receives a frame. limited privileges have been configured for student use. Log in with your student account. network engineers can log into network devices from anywhere across a secure network.8. If the network is not secure. and operating systems such as Windows have built-in Telnet clients. Figure 9-3 shows the topology for this lab. For devices physically distant from the network engineer. Use the Cisco show mac-address-table command to examine MAC address and port associations.Chapter 9: Ethernet 249 Packet Tracer Challenge Lab 9-2: Cisco Switch MAC Table Examination (9. Use the show mac-address-table command to examine the MAC addresses and association to ports. In this course. the destination MAC address is checked against the table. In this lab. a modem configured on the AUX port enables telephone access. .2. it is denied. A console port can be used if the Cisco router or switch is within proximity of a computer. Background Switches maintain a table of MAC addresses and associated switch ports. Using Telnet. network connectivity can be established through two means. Scenario Telnet is a network service that uses a client/server model.1) Upon completion of this lab. Access to Cisco devices can be accomplished through several means. Cisco IOS devices provide a default Telnet server. otherwise. a serial connection can be established. you will connect to the switch via a Telnet session.

0 255.255. the lab topology may have been modified before this class.Pod#.255.31.6 — 192.252 255.10.255.0 255. R2-Central.0. Take corrective action on devices that fail the ping tests.250 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 9-3 Topology for Lab 9-2 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 Table 9-10 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP S0/0/0 Fa0/0 10.0 255.255.254 192. From a known good host computer.255.255.253 10.255.10.254.254 R2-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Eagle Server — — Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central — — — Note to Instructor: Depending on the classroom situation.255.0 — — 10.255.0.255. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity.168.255.16.10.255.255.0 255. ping eagle-server. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server.253 — 172.254 172.2 172.254.0.com.16.168.254 172.16.0 255.10.254 172. troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity: Step 1.10.254.6 192. If the ping test fails.255.1 172.16.255.255.254 172. Step 2.example.24.168.255. Verify that all network equipment is powered on and that eagle-server is on. and finally eagle-server.254.16.252 255.16.0 255. . ping S1Central.1 255.5 172. R1-ISP.Pod#.16.0.10.255.

For example. . use the user ID corresponding to your pod. Task 1: Use the Telnet Protocol to Log in to a Cisco Switch Step 1. similar to the one shown in Example 9-5. and click OK. Issue the show mac-address-table ? command. From the Windows terminal. check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central. S1-Central has been configured with 11 student accounts. Use Table 9-11 to fill in a description for each command option. use user ID ccna1. and that it can ping R1-ISP.10.254.10. verify that the host has the correct DNS address and that it can ping eagle-server.255. Use the Windows Telnet client to access S1-Central. ******************************************************************* User Access Verification Username: ccna1 Password: cisco S1-Central# (*hidden*) Task 2: Use the Cisco IOS show mac-address-table Command to Examine MAC Addresses and Port Associations Step 1. If an individual host computer cannot connect to eagle-server. This outputs all options for the command. Step 2. issue the Telnet command telnet destination-ip-address: C:/> telnet 172.16. 172. Example 9-5 Switch Access Prompt ******************************************************************* This is Lab switch S1-Central.254.254. for host computers on pod 1. Examine the switch MAC address table. shown in Table 9-10. 172. Access the Windows terminal.16. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address. Verify that the host computer has the correct Gateway IP address.Chapter 9: Ethernet 251 Step 3. Enter cmd. and that it can ping R2-Central.16. 10.1 An access prompt is displayed. Unless directed otherwise by your instructor.255. Open a Windows terminal by choosing Start > Run. Finally. Authorized access only.6.com. the password is cisco. ccna1 through ccna11. To provide access to each student.example.

entries. Use Table 9-12 to list the MAC addresses and corresponding switch ports. or learned. Address keyword Aging-time keyword Count keyword Dynamic entry type Interface keyword Multicast information for the selected wildcard MAC notification parameters and history table Static entry type VLAN keyword Output modifiers Carriage return Examine dynamic MAC address table entries. How many MAC addresses are listed for switch port gi0/0? 5 .252 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 9-11 Option Show Mac-Address-Table Command Options Description address aging-time count dynamic interface multicast notification static vlan | <cr> Step 2. Table 9-12 MAC Addresses and Ports Switch Port MAC Address Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Suppose that a hub with five active hosts is connected to switch port gi0/0. This command displays static (CPU) and dynamic. Issue the show mac-address-table command.

the switch would have to flood the frame out each port. Lab 9-3: Intermediary Device as an End Device (9.Chapter 9: Ethernet 253 Step 3. in seconds. Remember. If a match occurs in the MAC address table. A switch contains a MAC address table that lists the MAC address connected to each switch port.1) Upon completion of this lab. This command displays the default amount of time. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity. Examine MAC address table aging time. .8. the switch performs a lookup of the frame destination MAC address.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. Issue the show mac-address-table aging-time command.8. Copy and paste data captured by Wireshark into Notepad for further analysis. Task 5: Clean Up Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. This has the benefit of permitting access to remote devices for troubleshooting and monitoring purposes.3. however. Without a MAC address table. turn off power to the host computers. When a frame enters the switch. network engineers can access Cisco devices remotely across secure LANs. Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Cisco Switch MAC Table Examination (9. that MAC address entries are stored.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab9822. the frame is routed out the corresponding port. What is the default aging time for VLAN 1? 300 Task 3: Challenge What would be the result if the MAC address table were flushed of dynamic entries? The switch would broadcast frames out each port except the originating port until the switch learned all the MAC addresses connected to the switch. Examine the origination of frames in a small network. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ Use Wireshark to capture and analyze frames originating from network nodes. Task 4: Reflection Using the Telnet protocol. and leave the room ready for the next class.2.

6 — 192.255.10.254 172. because you will use Telnet to directly access the switch.255.24.6 192.31.example.0 255.Pod#.16.0 255. Figure 9-4 shows the topology for this lab. If Wireshark has not been loaded on the host pod computer.0.16.255. Figure 9-4 Topology for Lab 9-3 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 Table 9-13 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP S0/0/0 Fa0/0 10. and Table 9-13 is the corresponding addressing table.255.254. a switch efficiently passes frames from one device to another in a LAN.0.16. A switch normally does not originate frames to node devices.255.254.168.255.16.com/pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter9/.254 172.exe.255.252 255.99. Scenario You will use Wireshark to capture and analyze Ethernet frames. The file is wireshark-setup-0.255.0 255.10.254 172.252 255. you will see the switch originating frames.0.5 172.254 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Background A switch is used to forward frames between network devices.10.1 255.255.0.254.254 192.255.255. Rather.1 172.255.255.10.253 10.254 172. however.0 — — 10.255.16.4.0 255. you can download it from ftp://eagleserver.255.168.255.0 255.0 255.16.254.10.255.168.2 172.254 R2-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Eagle Server — — Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central — — — .16.255.253 — 172. In this lab.Pod#.10.

troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity: Step 1.Chapter 9: Ethernet 255 Note to Instructor: Depending on the classroom situation. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server. In addition to several static CPU entries. verify that the host has the correct DNS address and that it can ping eagle-server.10. The critical Telnet conversation between the pod host computer and S1-Central will be easy to filter. Write down the IP address and port connection on S1-Central for the neighbor’s pod host computer: ■ ■ IP address: Answers will vary S1-Central port number: Answers will vary Task 1: Use Wireshark to Capture and Analyze Frames Originating from Network Nodes Step 1. From a known good host computer.example. S1-Central has been configured with 11 student accounts. should be returned. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity. ping eagle-server. Verify that the host computer has the correct Gateway IP address. however. Step 3. From the Windows terminal. Examine and clear the MAC address table. making analysis a bit tedious. cisco. This begins the packet capture. use the user ID corresponding to your pod. S1-Central#. use user ID ccna1. ping S1Central. numerous dynamic address table entries should be listed. Step 2. Choose Capture > Options. In this lab you will ping a neighbor’s pod host computer. for host computers on pod 1.16. and that it can ping R2-Central.254. Use the Windows Telnet client to access S1-Central. 172. Enter enable to enter privileged mode. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address. Check the box to update the list of packets in real time. The S1-Central prompt. Select the interface that corresponds to the LAN. 172. To provide access to each student.255. Click Start.16.6. Step 3. ccna1 through ccna11.255. Enter the appropriate username and password. issue the Telnet command telnet 172. .1. and that it can ping R1-ISP. Unless directed otherwise by your instructor.com. check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central.10. 10. Verify that all network equipment is powered on and that eagle-server is on. the lab topology may have been modified before this class. shown in Table 9-13.example.16. the password is cisco. R2-Central. Configure Wireshark for packet capture. Step 2. and finally eagle-server. Finally. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests. Use Table 9-14 to list the dynamic MAC address entries. For example.com. If the ping test fails.254. Examine the switch MAC address table with the show mac-address-table command. R1-ISP.254. During this capture there will probably be more than 200 packets. If an individual host computer cannot connect to eagle-server.

From Wireshark. Use Table 9-15 to list the dynamic MAC address entries. switch to HEX Dump. . because R2-Router sends Ethernet keepalive frames every 10 seconds. Note to Instructor: Fa 0/24. Stop the Wireshark capture. A stream content window opens. issue the Cisco IOS interface configuration command no keepalive. To prove this to students. Highlight one of the Telnet session packets. choose Analyze > Follow TCP Stream. Task 2: Examine the Origination of Frames in a Small Network Step 1. may be read within 10 seconds after flushing the MAC address table. which was recorded earlier: C:>\ ping -n 1 ip-address The MAC address for your neighbor’s computer should be dynamically added in the S1Central MAC address table. In Wireshark. Table 9-15 Dynamic MAC Address Entries Switch Port MAC Address Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary What conclusion can you make about how a switch learns MAC addresses connected to switch interfaces? A switch does not learn about connected devices until traffic originates from the device. This stops the 10-second Ethernet heartbeat. R2-Router. You can use the show mac-address-table command again to verify that the dynamic entries have been cleared. This is normal. on R2-Router interface Fa 0/0. use the clear mac-address-table dynamic command. examine the Telnet session to S1-Central. using ASCII as the default display. Ping your neighbor’s IP address. You will analyze the capture in the next task. Open a second terminal window.256 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 9-14 Dynamic MAC Address Entries Switch Port MAC Address Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary To clear dynamic MAC address table entries. If the username and passwords are not visible. You can use the show mac-address-table command again to verify that the address is added.

f79f. Figure 9-5 Wireshark Capture of Telnet Select the last Telnet data packet from S1-Central before the ping command.RPC —————————————————————Vlan —— All All All All 1 Mac Address —————000f. scroll down to the captured ICMP request that was generated when you pinged. Step 2. write down the dynamic MAC address and port number displayed in the output. You will copy and paste data into Notepad for analysis. In the top Wireshark Packet List pane. Right-click telnet and choose Copy Bytes (Printable Text Only). Open Notepad.Chapter 9: Ethernet 257 Verify the username and password that you entered: ■ ■ Username: Answers will vary Password: cisco Close the stream content window. View the packet in the Packet Details window pane.0ccc.6cc0 0100. Example 9-6 MAC Address Table Before the Ping Mac Address Table {_lEMaNL.a47b. choose Edit > Paste to copy and paste the Telnet data into Notepad.0cdd. Examine output of the show mac-address-table command. In Notepad. To remove any display filters.dddd 0010. Figure 9-5 shows partial output of a Wireshark capture.015f Type ———— STATIC STATIC STATIC STATIC DYNAMIC Ports ——CPU CPU CPU CPU Fa0/1 Total Mac Addresses for this criterion: 5 S1-Central# In Table 9-16. Does the switch port correspond to your pod host computer? Yes . You should see a dynamic mapping for your own computer similar to the output shown in Example 9-6.0ccc.cccc 0100. click the Filter button at the top-left corner of the screen and remove the filter string.cccd 0100.

a76a Type ———— STATIC STATIC STATIC STATIC DYNAMIC DYNAMIC Ports ——CPU CPU CPU CPU Fa0/1 Fa0/2 Total Mac Addresses for this criterion: 6 S1-Central# In Table 9-17. view the packet in the Packet Details window pane.258 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 9-16 Dynamic MAC Address Entry Type Port MAC Address Answers will vary Dynamic Answers will vary Why is your pod host computer mapping still in the MAC address table. The text should be similar to Example 9-7. Does the switch port correspond to your neighbor’s pod host computer? Yes Table 9-17 Dynamic MAC Address Entry Type Port MAC Address Answers will vary Dynamic Answers will vary Task 3: Reflection The Wireshark capture of a Telnet session between a pod host computer and S1-Central was analyzed to show how a switch dynamically learns about nodes directly connected to it. Next.cccd 0100. Example 9-7 MAC Address Table After the Ping Mac Address Table {_lEPaNM. Select the last Telnet data packet following the ping reply.6cc0 0100.015f 0016. choose Edit > Paste to copy and paste the Telnet data into Notepad.cccc 0100.0cdd.dddd 0010. Right-click TELNET and choose Copy Bytes (Printable Text Only).f79f. write down the MAC address and port number for the second dynamic entry displayed in the output.0ccc.76ac.VP —————————————————————Vlan —— All All All All 1 1 Mac Address —————000f.0ccc. In Notepad.a47b. despite having been cleared? This is the connection for the pod host computer that is telnetted into S1-Central. .

any clear-text password can be viewed and used by an attacker. one recommendation may be to require passphrases—that is.8. How secure is the Telnet protocol? What can be done to make communication with Cisco devices more secure? The Telnet protocol is very insecure and should never be used outside of secure networks. and no one solution is a guarantee against compromise. Emphasize that security should be employed in layers. Point out that because the TCP session may be captured. For example.3) Open file LSG01-PTSkills9. Figure 9-6 shows the topology for this Skills Integration Challenge. Test the network. and click Remove. Choose Wireshark. Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: An Intermediary Device as an End Device (9. and lively discussions should be encouraged. passwords of more than nine characters. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. Remove any files created on the pod host computer during the lab. Upon completion of this activity. however. turn off power to the host computers.3. and leave the room ready for the next class. Remember. Background You have been asked to repair some problems in the network model related to the Ethernet LAN connected to R2-Central. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity. and Table 9-18 is the corresponding addressing table.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to perform this exercise using Packet Tracer. choose Analyze > Follow TCP Stream to view the login user ID and password. Repair Ethernet-related network issues.Chapter 9: Ethernet 259 Task 4: Challenge Use Wireshark to capture and analyze a Telnet session between the pod host computer and the Cisco switch.9. . From Wireshark.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer.1. choose Start > Control Panel. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. Task 5: Clean Up Wireshark was installed on the pod host computer. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ Determine IP subnet plans. Student answers will vary on how to secure the communication channel. SSH is one way to encrypt communications between devices. If Wireshark needs to be uninstalled. Packet Tracer Challenge Skills Integration Challenge: Switched Ethernet (9. Click Add or Remove Programs.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab9832.

up to five hosts (already configured) Third subnet.138 192.168.168.255. existing student LAN.2 192.111.255.128 255.255.134 192.111.111.138 192.111. You must provide for the three existing networks.168.137 192. existing WAN.168. The subnet assignments are as follows: ■ ■ ■ First subnet.138 192.168.111.168.255.126 192. up to 100 hosts (Fa0/0 on R2-Central) Second subnet.168.248 — — 192. existing ISP LAN.255.128 255.260 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 9-6 Topology for the Challenge 1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server 2960-24TT S1-Central 1841 R2-Central PC 1A PC 1B Table 9-18 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP Fa0/0 S0/0/0 192.168.0/24.168.248 255.111.252 255.168.255.126 192.111. point-to-point link (already configured) .255.111.255.255.128 255.255.255.111.168.111.126 192.255.252 255.168.133 255.255.1 192.111.134 R2-Central Fa0/0 S0/0/0 PC 1A PC 1B Eagle Server NIC NIC NIC Task 1: IP Subnet Planning You have been given an IP address block of 192.255.111.111.168.

and R2-Central’s serial interface have already been configured. For hosts 1A and 1B. Connect PC 1A to the Fa0/1 interface on the switch. with HTTP. For hosts 1A and 1B. Task 4: Reflection The two Layer 2 and Layer 1 technologies in this model are a serial connection (between the routers) and the Ethernet LANs (for the ISP server and with the S1-Central switch). use the highest usable address on the existing student LAN subnet. The static route on R2-Central should be a default static route that points to R1-ISP’s serial interface IP address. the DNS server is 192. the S1-Central switch interfaces (Fa0/1.111. Assign the highest usable subnet address to the gateway and the two lowest usable addresses to the PCs. ■ ■ ■ Task 2: Repair Problems with the Ethernet Switched LAN PC 1B has a wireless card and cannot be connected to the switch. trace. R1-ISP. to test your understanding of how the network is operating. make sure that the power is on to the device and to the interfaces (make sure that the Ethernet interfaces are not shut down).168. For R2-Central’s Fa0/0 interface.Chapter 9: Ethernet 261 Interface IP addresses: ■ ■ The server. . and ARP viewable. Remove the wireless card from PC 1B. Task 3: Test the Network Use ping.138 /30.168. These procedures were explained in the Chapter 5 and 6 Skills Integration Challenges.133 /29. Set all Ethernet interfaces to autonegotiate speed and duplex (which will achieve full-duplex 100-Mbps operation if both ends of the link can support it). use the first two IP addresses (the two lowest usable addresses) on the existing student LAN subnet. Compare and contrast the serial connection with Ethernet. Apparently the Ethernet speed and duplex settings for the R2-Central Fa0/0 interface. The next-hop router (to which the default route should point). Connect this newly installed Fast Ethernet NIC to the Fa0/2 interface on the switch. DNS. In a future course you will learn much more about switched Ethernet technologies. R1-ISP. For all devices. Connect the Fa0/24 interface on the switch to the R2-Central Fa0/0 interface. and the PC 1A interfaces are incorrect. has an IP address of 192. web traffic. TCP. Fa0/2. ICMP. Add the Fast Ethernet Interface card PT-HOST-NM-1CFE to PC 1B. UDP. and the Inspect tool to trace packet flow in simulation mode.111. Add IP addresses to the router Fa0/0 interface and to the two PCs. and Fa0/24).

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To allow for growth. As a networking professional. types. this up-front investment might save money. Explain how adaptability to new technologies can be taken into consideration when selecting devices for a LAN. Hubs are less expensive and less efficient than switches. Hubs do not segment networks. Hubs should be used in small LANs. Concept Questions 1. you need to be familiar with the different device selection factors. expandability. though. Growth consists of more user devices. As you work through this chapter. Routers. Study Guide LANs: Making the Physical Connection A networking professional needs to know how to select and interconnect the proper devices for a network. whereas a switch is a Layer 2 device. you identify the cables needed to make successful LAN and WAN connections and learn how to use device management connections. more speed. devices will need to be selected that go beyond the current need of the LAN in terms of number of ports. Switches are Layer 2 devices. Be as detailed as possible. and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of planning and cabling networks. more capabilities. The design of an IP addressing scheme is presented and then practiced with the help of concept questions and the hands-on labs. Switches segment networks into multiple collision domains. and manageability. Each switch port is its own collision domain. It is essential that you have knowledge of the different media types and the distinct roles they play with the devices that they connect. A hub is a Layer 1 device. 2. and speeds of different ports and interfaces. including cost. and capabilities. matching. Explain the advantage of one device over the other. They filter frames. Compare and contrast the function of hubs and switches.CHAPTER 10 Planning and Cabling Networks The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of multiple-choice. hubs. and also new technology. They also allow for the interconnection of segments with different speeds. That affects the cost calculation because the costs will seem high compared to the current network needs. Devices need to have empty slots that allow the addition of modules that have more capabilities or that support new technologies. supported speeds. hands-on skills needed. In this chapter. use Chapter 10 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum or use the corresponding Chapter 10 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration Companion Guide for assistance. All of the ports of a hub are part of one collision domain. fill-in-the-blank. In the long run. . Switches are more expensive than hubs but use bandwidth more efficiently. and switches are common network devices. Hubs do not filter frames. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum labs to further reinforce that you have mastered the practical. How does this affect the cost calculations? When selecting devices for a LAN it is important to allow for future growth. They flood all the frames they receive on one port out all other ports.

The computer and the router both have Medium Dependent Interface (MDI) connections with pins 1 and 2 for transmitting and pins 3 and 6 for receiving. Concept Questions 1. A switch provides dedicated bandwidth on each port. By allowing the interconnection of segments with different speeds. By providing multiple interconnections between a number of switches d. Each area has its unique requirements and standards. 1. A swich is used to segment a network into multiple collision domains. How can redundancy be provided in a switched network? a.264 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Multiple-Choice Questions Choose the best possible answer for each of the following questions. 2. The transmit wires of the cables will be connected to the transmit pins on the router and the computer. Even though hubs can be interconnected. there are several physical areas to consider. By using a special cable type to connect to the devices on its ports. 1. . 3. d. Switches regenerate each bit of the frames they receive. Explain what will happen when you use a straight-through cable to connect your computer to the Fast Ethernet interface of a router. By delpoying gigabit switches only 2. Device Interconnections When planning the installation of LAN cabling. c. The straight-through cable will connect with its pins 1 and 2 to pins 1 and 2 of the computer. How do switches create collision domains? port. By deploying one central switch with a high port density b. a. they remain in a single collision domain. and no data transfer will be possible. By using high-speed fiber-optic media c. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks for the following statements. A network administrator needs to be familiar with the different standards that define devices and cabling in these areas. Each switch port creates a point-to-point dedicated connection to the devices connected to that b. Pins 3 and 6 of both devices will be connected in the same way. which can increase LAN performance.

high-bandwidth cabling that connects the telecommunications room with the work area. There are four physical areas to consider when planning the installation of LAN cabling. The ANSI/TIA/EIA-568-B standard specifies the maximum cable length in UTP installations. cabling to access outside resources. switches. 3. or connects telecommunications rooms. Typically. patch panels. data service units (DSU). Attenuation is the decrease in signal strength along an electrical or optical cable. sometimes servers Backbone cabling: Cabling that connects the telecommunications room to the equipment room Distribution/horizontal cabling: Typically. and troubleshooting networks. Typically. this device is at the WAN customer or user end of the link. 1. Data Circuit-Terminal Equipment (DTE) is a device that receives clocking services from another device and adjusts accordingly. routers. configuring. patch cables. List these four areas and their main components. hubs. patch cables.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 265 2. The routers are connected back to back. and other communications devices. It is extremely important that you understand IP addressing. Explain how the serial connection to a WAN service provider differs from the way the serial connections are set up for the curriculum labs. including computers and radio equipment. there is no service provider. UTP cabling uses RJ-45 connectors. This router will provide the clocking that is usually provided by the service provider’s equipment. Main components are jacks to connect individual devices to the network. This is where the users access the network. lighting. 3. In the lab setting. This knowledge is vital in designing. Signal attenuation and exposure to possible interference increase with cable length. 4. The Data Communications Equipment (DCE) is a device that supplies the clocking services to another device. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks for the following statements that discuss features and issues related to different types of media. Answers may vary. Telecommunications room: hubs. Therefore. Developing an Addressing Scheme Developing an IP addressing scheme is one of the most important tasks that you will have to perform as a network professional. this device is at the WAN access provider end of the link. Work area: Work areas are dedicated to end devices. and switches. 2. one router will act as the DCE and uses a DCE cable. 5. . Interference can be produced by electrical machines. A router is considered a DTE device.

What devices do you need to consider when counting devices in your network that need IP addresses. 3. Which addresses cannot be assigned to hosts? Choose all that apply.266 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Concept Questions 1. network resources. 2. (2^n – 2) d. Multiple-Choice Questions Choose the best possible answer(s) for the following questions. servers. What are some common categories that you can use to allocate IP addresses? Explain why you should use address schemes that fit a common pattern across your network. Which formula is used to calculate the number of hosts per network or subnet? Use n to represent the number of bits. Gateway address 2. departments. 3. It is good practice to use IP addresses that fit a common pattern across all subnets. 2. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks for the following statements dealing with IP addressing and subnetting. You also need to consider network devices such as router LAN interfaces and router WAN (serial) interfaces. Network devices that require IP addresses for management purposes include switches and wireless access points. Some common categories are general users. a. You need to consider end devices such as user computers. Broadcast address d. administrator computers. and IP cameras. Network address c. 2^n c. A systematic allocation of IP addresses makes troubleshooting and the addition of new hosts easier. a. management subnets. Network devices requiring an IP address for management purposes are switches and wireless access points. Why does each connection between routers count as a separate subnet if there are no hosts connected? The router interfaces on the link connecting the two routers need to have IP addresses. special users. Management address b. Each subnet requires a router interface as the gateway for that subnet. 1. (n – 2) . (2^n – 1) b. and other end devices such as printers. and server addresses. router LAN and WAN interfaces. Subnets divide broadcast domains into a number of smaller domains. IP phones. 1.

These interfaces are also referred to as ports. It is important to understand the different types of interfaces and know the types of cable required to connect to the interfaces. Network 4 needs to support 52 host addresses. and other subnets that require more host addresses can use different bit masks. This way.16.252.0 2. and switches have several different types of interfaces associated with them. Network 2 needs to support 64 host addresses. Implementation of different levels of security d.255. What are advantages of dividing networks into subnets? Choose all that apply. Decreased costs b. a serial link.0.0 and you need to create 64 subnets.255. Larger collision domains Calculating the Subnets Two different methods can be used for allocating addresses to an Internetwork. Smaller broadcast domains c. It allows a subnet to be subnetted. You have the following network requirements: Network 1 needs to support 32 host addresses. Network 3 needs to support 2 host addresses.255. . The non-VLSM approach uses the same prefix length and the same number of host bits for each subnet. what will be the subnet mask for your network? 255.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 267 3. Device Interconnections Cisco devices. Concept Questions 1. a. routers. can use a bit mask of 255. which requires only two IP addresses. LAN and WAN interfaces require different cabling and configuration. VLSM allows different subnet masks within one network. Network 5 needs to support 128 host addresses. Which addressing method will allow you to design an IP addressing scheme without wasting any host addresses? How is the efficiency of this method achieved? The method that allows for the most efficient IP addressing design without wasting any addresses is called variable-length subnet masking (VLSM). Variable-length subnet masking (VLSM) assigns the prefix and host bits to each network based on the number of hosts in that network. If your network uses the address 172.252.

A CSU/DSU is a device used to make the physical connection between data networks and WAN provider’s circuits. It provides physical access to the router for troubleshooting.268 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Concept Question List the four types of interfaces on Cisco routers and switches. They can also connect to other routers. It connects to LAN devices such as computers or switches. Briefly describe the function of each of these interfaces. What are serial interfaces used for? Choose all that apply. Multiple-Choice Questions Choose the best possible answers(s) for the following questions dealing with interface types. The console interface d. Ethernet interface: This is the LAN interface of a router or a switch. To establish a WAN connection b. The Telnet interface c. To connect to other routers d. Which interface is the primary interface for the initial configuration of a Cisco device such as a router or a switch? a. The serial interface 3. a. The Ethernet interface b. To connect to a terminating device such as a switch or a computer . Serial interface: This is the WAN interface. To connect the router to the DSU/CSU 2. Auxiliary interface: This interface provides remote management for the router. WAN interfaces are used for connecting WAN devices to the CSU/DSU. What can Ethernet interfaces be used for? Choose all that apply. 1. a. To make a back-to-back connection between routers in the lab d. To connect to LAN devices such as computers and switches c. To establish communication with a router via a console on a remote WAN c. Console interface: This is the primary interface for initial configuration of a Cisco device. To connect the router to a terminal for configuration purposes b.

Examine the use of the available network address space. Design an appropriate addressing scheme. you have been given the network address 192. You are only required to determine the number of subnets per topology example. Task 1: Determine the Number of Subnets in Topology Diagram A Use the topology in Figure 10-1 to answer the questions that follow.255.26. the number of hosts is not important.255. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ ■ Determine the number of subnets. Figure 10-1 Topology Diagram A Fa0/0 S0/0/0 S0/0/0 B1 B2 How many networks are shown in Figure 10-1? 2 How many bits should you allocate to create the required number of subnets? 1 How many usable host addresses did this give you? 126 What is the new subnet mask in decimal form? 255.168. Place the correct address and mask in the addressing table. In this example. Scenario In this lab.2.1128 How many subnets are available for future use? 0 .0/24 to subnet and provide the IP addressing for the networks shown in the topology diagrams.2) Upon completion of this lab. You must determine the number of networks needed then design an appropriate addressing scheme. Assign addresses and subnet mask pairs to device interfaces.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 269 Labs and Activities Lab 10-1: How Many Networks? (10.3.

255 Task 3: Determine the Number of Subnets in Topology Diagram B Use the topology in Figure 10-2 to answer the questions that follow.26.168.0 192.26.270 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 2: Record Subnet Information Fill in Table 10-1 with the subnet information.255.127 192.26.26.168.192 How many subnets are available for future use? 0 .255.168. Figure 10-2 Topology Diagram B Fa0/0 S0/0/1 HQ S0/0/0 S0/0/1 S0/0/0 B1 B2 How many networks are there? 4 How many bits should you allocate to create the required number of subnets? 2 How many usable host addresses did this give you? 30 What is the new subnet mask in decimal form? 255.26.168.1 192.26.129 192.128 192.126 192.26.168.254 192. Table 10-1 Subnet Information Subnet Address First Usable Host Address Last Usable Host Address Broadcast Address Subnet Number 0 1 192.168.168.26.168.

190 192.193 192.26.26.26.168.168.63 192.26.129 192.168.26.26.255.255 Task 5: Determine the Number of Subnets in Topology Diagram C Use the topology in Figure 10-3 to answer the questions that follow. Table 10-2 Subnet Information Subnet Address First Usable Host Address Last Usable Host Address Broadcast Address Subnet Number 0 1 2 3 192.26.26.168.254 192.168.168.168.26.26.192 192.168. Figure 10-3 Topology Diagram C S0/0/1 S0/0/0 B1 S0/0/0 S0/0/1 HQ S0/1/0 S0/0/0 B2 S0/0/1 S0/1/0 S0/0/0 S0/0/1 B3 Fa0/0 How many networks are there? 6 How many bits should you allocate to create the required number of subnets? 3 How many usable host addresses did this give you? 30 What is the new subnet mask in decimal form? 255.26.26.168.168.168.64 192.191 192.255. Use the subnet mask from Step 4.26.1 192.168.168.224 How many subnets are available for future use? 2 .26.126 192.26.128 192.26.168.0 192.62 192.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 271 Task 4: Record Subnet Information Fill in Table 10-2 with the subnet information.127 192.168.65 192.168.

63 192.127 192.128 192.168.26.168.129 192.26.26.1 192.191 192.26.223 192.168.26.158 192.168.168.26.26.193 192.26.26.26.224 192.168.168.168.97 192. Figure 10-4 Topology Diagram D Fa0/0 Fa0/0 S0/0/0 S0/0/1 Fa0/0 S0/0/0 S0/0/1 S0/0/1 S0/1/1 B1 S0/0/1 HQ B2 S0/0/0 S0/0/1 S0/0/0 S0/0/1 S0/0/0 B3 Fa0/0 B4 Fa0/0 Fa0/0 B5 .26.26.62 192.168.26.26.168.26.168.168.192 192.168.255 Task 7: Determine the Number of Subnets in Topology Diagram D Use the topology in Figure 10-4 to answer the questions that follow.168.168.168.272 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 6: Record Subnet Information Fill in the Table 10-3 with the subnet information.168.26.65 192.96 192.64 192.159 192.168.0 192.32 192.26.168.168.168.26.168.94 192.26.225 192.168.26.168.160 192.190 192.26.26. Table 10-3 Subnet Information Subnet Address First Usable Host Address Last Usable Host Address Broadcast Address Subnet Number 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 192.168.168.26.168.26.26.254 192.126 192.95 192.161 192.26.26.26.26.168.222 192.26.168.168.31 192.33 192.168.26.168.26.30 192.

168.168.26.26.26.26.26.26.168.193 192.168.175 192.26.26.240 192.16 192.26.0 192.168.168. .206 192.26.223 192.94 192.168.168.168.26.26.110 192.241 192.142 192.81 192.2222 192.168.26.168.168.174 192.26.168.168.63 192.177 192.26.97 192.26.168.168.26.168.126 192.176 192.113 192.26.168.144 192.168.17 192.168. you need the number of networks and hosts.168.255.239 192.26.26.168.26.168.168.26.168.168.168.168.26.168.129 192.168.224 192.26.240 How many subnets are available for future use? 4 Task 8: Record Subnet Information Fill in Table 10-4 with the subnet information.26.96 192.168.143 192.208 192.46 192.26.48 192.168.145 192.26.26.26.26.254 192.128 192.190 192.168.255 Task 9: Reflection What information is needed when determining an appropriate addressing scheme for a network? When determining an appropriate addressing scheme for a network.161 192.168.168.168.168.168.168.168.192 192.26.80 192.26.26.168.26.26.33 192.159 192.26.168.238 192.26.207 192.26.26.95 192.26.225 192.209 192.26.111 192.47 192.26.26.168.168.168.168.168.168.78 192.49 192.26.26.160 192.26.26.26.15 192.32 192.26.168.31 192.65 192.79 192.168.14 192.168.26.168.168.168.168.26.168.26.112 192.64 192.26.26.26.168.26.168.158 192.168.26.26.26.26.168.168.30 192.191 192. Table 10-4 Subnet Information Subnet Address First Usable Host Address Last Usable Host Address Broadcast Address Subnet Number 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 192.168.62 192.26.127 192.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 273 How many networks are there? 12 How many bits should you allocate to create the required number of subnets? 4 How many usable host addresses did this give you? 14 What is the new subnet mask in decimal form? 255.168.168.26.26.1 192.255.26.

274 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Lab 10-2: Creating a Small Lab Topology (10. Figure 10-5 Topology for Lab 10-2 Subnet A Fa0/0 Fa0/1 Subnet B Fa0/1 1 R1 Fa0/2 S1 Fa0/3 Subnet C Subnet D 2 3 Note: The CD-ROM accompanying this book contains a subnet chart for the last IP address octet. Configure the logical LAN topology.1) Upon completion of this lab.1. Subnet C and Subnet D are anticipated subnets. Subnet zero will be used.6. Gather the necessary equipment and cables. as shown in Figure 10-5. you create a small network that requires connecting network devices and configuring host computers for basic network connectivity. Subnet A and Subnet B are subnets that are currently needed. Background Table 10-5 shows the equipment and hardware requirements for this lab. . not yet connected to the network. Configure the physical lab topology. Verify LAN connectivity. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ ■ Design the logical network. Table 10-5 Hardware Equipment and Hardware for Lab Quantity Description Cisco Router Cisco Switch Computer (host) Cat5 better straight-through UTP cable Cat5 crossover UTP cable Scenario 1 1 3 3 1 Part of CCNA Lab bundle Part of CCNA Lab bundle Lab computer Connects Router 1 and computers Host1 and Host2 to Switch1 Connects computer Host1 to Router1 In this lab.

0.255.20.255.0. The following example contains a basic configuration for Router 1. Authorized access only. Another alternative is to use two routers connected through a serial connection and use the Fast Ethernet interfaces from each router.198 255. the router should be configured for students.252 This is Eagle 1 lab router Router1.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 275 Note to instructor: In Chapter 11 labs. consider configuring a loopback interface as an alternative to the FastEthernet 0/1. Example Router 1 Configuration Router1 configuration ! service timestamps debug uptime service timestamps log uptime no service password-encryption ! no ip domain-lookup ! hostname Router1 ! enable secret cisco ! ! interface FastEthernet0/0 description connection to Host1 ip address no shutdown ! interface FastEthernet0/1 description connection LAN ip address no shutdown ! ip classless ip http server ! banner motd % ******************************************************************* 172. For this lab. students will learn how to configure a router.20.248 172.202 255.255. If you do not have a router that has two Fast Ethernet interfaces. ******************************************************************* % ! .255.

20.0.0. Fill in Table 10-7 with IP address information for Subnet D. Table 10-7 Subnet D IP Address Information Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast Network Address 172.128 What is the bit mask? 172.276 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide line con 0 password cisco ! line con 0 password cisco login line aux 0 line vty 0 4 password cisco login ! end Task 1: Design the Logical Network Given an IP address and mask of 172. Begin the logical network design by satisfying the requirement of Subnet D.1111111.255. Table 10-6 Subnet Subnet Requirements Number of Hosts Subnet A Subnet B Subnet C Subnet D 2 6 47 125 Host computers from each subnet will use the first available IP address in the address block.20.20. Step 1. Router interfaces will use the last available IP address in the address block.20.11111111. Refer to the subnet chart on the CD-ROM. Design Subnet D address block.0.0.1 172.20.0 255. design an IP addressing scheme that satisfies the requirements listed in Table 10-6.0/24 (address / mask).127 11111111.0. which requires the largest block of IP addresses.1 172.255. and pick the first address block that will support Subnet D.10000000 .

20. and pick the next available address block that will support Subnet C.20.0.198 172.11111111.0. Table 10-10 Subnet A IP Address Information Network Address Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast 172. the next largest IP address block.200 255.0.0. Table 10-8 Subnet C IP address information Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast Network Address 172.255. Refer to the subnet chart on the CD-ROM.255.192 255.199 What is the bit mask? 11111111. Design Subnet B address block.20.0.1111111.202 172. and pick the next available address block that will support Subnet A.0. and pick the next available address block that will support Subnet B.1111111. Fill in Table 10-8 with IP address information for Subnet C.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 277 Step 2. Satisfy the requirement for Subnet C.11111111.0.255. Satisfy the requirement of Subnet B.0.11111100 .20.201 172. Fill in Table 10-9 with IP address information for Subnet B.0.20. Fill in Table 10-10 with IP address information for Subnet A.0.0.20.11111111. Satisfy the requirement of Subnet A. Design Subnet D address block.20.20.129 172.11111000 Step 4.193 172.20.20.255.190 172.11111111.191 What is the bit mask? 11111111.252 172. the next largest address block.128 255. Refer to the subnet chart on the CD-ROM.20. Table 10-9 Subnet B IP Address Information Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast Network Address 172. Refer to the subnet chart on the CD-ROM.203 What is the bit mask? 11111111. Design Subnet A address block.11000000 Step 3.0.255.248 172.255.20.192 172.

202 In Table 10-12. the gateway address is the IP address assigned to the router interface for that subnet. enter addressing information for Host 2. What type of cable connects Router1 interface Fa0/0 to Host 1? Crossover cable What type of cable connects Router 1 interface Fa0/1 to Switch 1? Straight-through cable What type of cable connects Host 2 to Switch 1? Straight-through cable What type of cable connects Host 3 to Switch 1? Straight-through cable Is all equipment turned on? Yes Task 3: Configure the Logical Topology Step 1. take a moment to verify the connections. enter the information for Host 1.20. From the IP address information recorded in Task 1. Any switch connection that does not transition from amber to green should be investigated. Attention to detail now will minimize the time required to troubleshoot network connectivity issues later. Document logical network settings. and like devices require a crossover cable.20. Visually inspect network connections. Host 2.255. If not already enabled.255. Physically connect devices. write down the IP address information for each computer in the tables that follow. the correct cable is used.0. and Router 1 to Switch 1.0. Confirm that the power is applied to the connected device. and why? The switch ports are dissimilar to the router and computer network interfaces. The host computer gateway IP address is used to send IP packets to other networks. and why? Both devices have similar network interfaces. and the correct cable is functional. straight-through cables are required. . Step 2. Cable the network devices as shown in Figure 10-5. Therefore. What cable type is needed to connect Host 1 to Router 1. Ensure that all switch connections show green.201 255. Table 10-11 Host 1 Address Type Address IP address IP mask Gateway address 172.278 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 2: Configure the Physical Lab Topology Step 1. What cable type is needed to connect Host 1. In Table 10-11. After cabling the network devices.252 172. turn power on to all devices. Therefore.

193 255.198 In Table 10-13.20. click Start > Control Panel > Network Connections. On the General tab.0.248 172.20.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 279 Table 10-12 Host 2 Address Type Address IP address IP mask Gateway address 172. Right-click the Local Area Connection device icon and choose Properties. recorded in the preceding Step 1: ■ ■ ■ IP address: Host1 IP address Subnet mask: Host1 subnet mask Default gateway: Gateway IP address Figure 10-6 Host 1 IP Addressing and Gateway Settings . Table 10-13 Host 3 Address Type Address IP address IP mask Gateway address Step 2. Figure 10-6 shows Host 1 IP address and gateway settings.20. and then click the Properties button. select Internet Protocol (TCP/IP).194 255.0.20.255.255.198 Configure the Host 1 computer. enter addressing information for Host 3.248 172.255.0.0. On Host 1.255. 172. Manually enter the following information.

Open a terminal window by clicking Start > Run. Fa0/0 Host 1 Host 2 Gateway (Router 1. Repeat Step 2 for computers Host 2 and Host 3.20.194 172.0.193 172.0.202 172.193 172.20.202 172.20. . how can you detect a malfunctioning gateway? If Host 2 and Host 3 can successfully ping each other but not Host 1.0.20. In this scenario.280 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide When finished. Use Table 10-14 to methodically verify and record connectivity with each network device. Fa0/1) Router1.20.198 172.0.20.0.20. If your computer’s operating system is Windows XP SP2. it might be a gateway issue.0.201 Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Note any break in connectivity. Configure Host 2 and Host 3 computers. Type cmd. Remember that the default gateway address on the computers is the IP address of the Fast Ethernet interface of the router that the computers connect to via the switch.0.20. Fa0/1 Host 2 Host 3 Host 3 Gateway (Router 1. the topology diagram shown in Figure 10-5 can prove extremely helpful. Depending on the Windows operating system. disable the firewall (for your ping tests to work). When troubleshooting connectivity issues.0. close the Internet Protocols (TCP/IP) Properties window by clicking OK. and then press Enter. Fa0/0 Host 1 172. Network connectivity can be verified with the Windows ping command.202 172.198 172. the computer might require a reboot for changes to be effective. Take corrective action to establish connectivity if a test fails. Close the Local Area Connection window.20.198 172. Task 4: Verify Network Connectivity Verify with your instructor that Router 1 has been configured. Table 10-14 Network Connectivity Test Results From To IP Address Ping Results Host 1 Host 1 Host 1 Host 1 Host 2 Host 2 Host 2 Host 2 Host 3 Host 3 Host 3 Host 3 Gateway (Router 1. connectivity will be broken between LANs.0. Try to disable and then reenable the network interface card (NIC) by right-clicking the NIC in the Local Area Connection Properties window.201 172.20.20.194 172. Fa0/1) Router 1. using the IP address information for those computers. Fa0/0) Router 1. Switch 1 should have a default configuration.0.20. Otherwise.0.0. Step 3.

Check the IP address configuration. Carefully remove cables and return them neatly to their storage. This will reinforce the skills you learned in this lab and make you a better network technician. Test your solution. keep in mind that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. document the solution. Write down your proposed solution(s). continue troubleshooting. A summary of the instructions is provided within the Packet Tracer activity. Check cabling. However. Task 7: Clean Up Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. follow these steps: Note to instructors: A simple way to introduce problems is to switch the Fast Ethernet connections. you configured host computers with network addresses and tested them for connectivity. Look for green link lights on Switch 1. To fix the problems. Answers may vary. Step 4.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. It is best to practice host computer configuration and verification several times. Use the table provided in Task 3 to identify failed connectivity. If the solution fixed the problem. Task 6: Challenge Ask your instructor or another student to introduce one or two problems in your network when you aren’t looking or are out of the lab room.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 281 Task 5: Reflection Review any physical or logical configuration problems encountered during this lab. Hosts 1 and 2 cannot ping Host 3. Perform a good visual inspection. Problems can be either physical (wrong UTP cable) or logical (wrong IP address or gateway). Remove anything that was brought into the lab. List the problems. Check the default gateways on the hosts. Reconnect cables that were disconnected for this lab. This is a particularly important lab. Be sure that you have a thorough understanding of the procedures used to verify network connectivity. Step 3.1. restore host computer network connectivity. Hosts cannot ping the router. Step 2. and then turn off power to the host computers. If the solution did not fix the problem. . and leave the room ready for the next class. Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Creating a Small Topology (10. Step 1. In addition to practicing IP subnetting. Answers may vary.6.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab10612.

or a combination. Another popular serial communication utility is TeraTerm Web. Scenario Set up a network similar to the one in Figure 10-7. Using HyperTerminal is the most basic way to access a router for checking or changing its configuration. . Figure 10-7 Establishing a Console Session with HyperTerminal Straight-Through Cable Serial Cable Console (Rollover) Crossover Cable The following resources are required: ■ ■ ■ Computer with a serial interface and HyperTerminal loaded Cisco router Console (rollover) cable for connecting the workstation to the router Task 1: Connect a Router and Computer with a Console Cable Step 1. 1600. Configure HyperTerminal to establish a console session with a Cisco IOS router. Background HyperTerminal is a simple Windows-based terminal emulation program for serial communication that can be used to connect to the console port on Cisco IOS devices.2. Connect the console (rollover) cable to the console port on the router. Configure HyperTerminal to establish a console session with a Cisco IOS switch. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ Connect a router and computer using a console cable.6. 2600 routers. Instructions for TeraTerm Web use are contained in the section “Lab 10-3 (Alternative): Establishing a Console Session with TeraTerm” later in this chapter. Any router that meets the interface requirements may be used. Possible routers include 800.282 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Lab 10-3: Establishing a Console Session with HyperTerminal (10. A serial interface on a computer is connected to the Cisco device via a rollover cable.1) Upon completion of this lab. Set up the basic physical connection. 1700. Connect the other cable end to the host computer with a DB-9 or DB-25 adapter to the COM 1 port. 2500.

Note to instructors: On newer systems.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 283 Step 2. If not already powered on. enable power to the computer and router. Click OK. If you are accessing HyperTerminal for the first time. Figure 10-8 shows an example of the opening HyperTerminal configuration window. Figure 10-8 HyperTerminal Connection Description Window In the Connect To window shown in Figure 10-9. COM 1. Step 2. Click OK. enter a session name in the Name field. or leave the default. Select an appropriate icon. Configure HyperTerminal. Figure 10-9 HyperTerminal Connection Type . You need to fill in a number to be able to continue. in the Connect using field. start the HyperTerminal program by clicking Start > All Programs > Accessories > Communications > HyperTerminal. Start the HyperTerminal application. the program prompts for an area code/phone number. From the Windows taskbar. Power on the devices. enter the appropriate connection type. At the Connection Description window. you might have to use an USB connection rather than the COM port. Task 2: Configure HyperTerminal to Establish a Console Session with a Cisco IOS Router Step 1.

Reconnect the HyperTerminal session. Figure 10-10 HyperTerminal COM 1 Port Settings Table 10-15 HyperTerminal Port Settings Settings Value Bits per second Data bits Parity Stop bits Flow control Click OK. Enter a name for the session. If there is no connection.284 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide In the COM 1 Properties box shown in Figure 10-10. If there is still no connection. When finished. Step 3. Use this technique to reconnect the HyperTerminal session to a Cisco device without reconfiguring a new session. For example. and then click Open. Step 4. exit HyperTerminal. troubleshoot as necessary. 9600 8 None 1 None When the HyperTerminal session window comes up. Close HyperTerminal. Check the connection to the correct COM 1 port on the PC and the console port on the router. Select the saved session. press the Enter key. When finished. this indicates that connection has been successfully completed. close the HyperTerminal session. change port settings to the values in Table 10-15. Reopen the HyperTerminal session as described in Task 2. This time. When asked whether to save the session. click Yes. Step 1. There should be a response from the router. Click File > Exit. click Cancel. when the Connection Description window opens. Click File > Open. . ask the instructor for assistance. verify that the router has power.

Step 2. See Figure 10-11. Configure HyperTerminal. Table 10-16 Port Settings Settings Value Bits per second Data bits Parity Stop bits Flow control Click OK. Step 3. In the COM 1 Properties window. in the Connect using field. enable power to the computer and switch. Connect the other cable end to the host computer with a DB-9 or DB-25 adapter to the COM 1 port. In the Connect To window. Figure 10-11 Serial Connection Between a Host Computer and Cisco Switch 1 S1 Step 2. 9600 8 None 1 None . Start the HyperTerminal application.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 285 Task 3: Configure HyperTerminal to Establish a Console Session with a Cisco IOS Switch Serial connections between Cisco IOS routers and switches are similar. enter a session name in the Name field. Connect the console (rollover) cable to the console port on the router. Step 4. Click OK. you make a serial connection between the host computer and a Cisco IOS switch. Step 1. Use the procedure described in Task 2. enter the appropriate connection type. to configure HyperTerminal. At the opening HyperTerminal Connection Description window. Click OK. In this task. Select an appropriate icon. Set up the basic physical connection. Power on the devices. COM 1. or leave the default. start the HyperTerminal program by clicking Start > Programs > Accessories > Communications > HyperTerminal. change port settings to the values shown in Table 10-16. If not already powered on. From the Windows taskbar.

Task 4: Challenge Draw the pin connections for the rollover cable and straight-through cable. Check the connection to the correct COM 1 port on the PC and the console port on the switch. press the Enter key. close the HyperTerminal session. turn off power to the host computer and router. Remove the rollover cable. Close HyperTerminal. For example. . click No. verify that the switch has power. this indicates that connection has been successfully completed. troubleshoot as necessary. You will only be able to connect to the router if you are using the proper settings. Compare the differences. and leave the room ready for the next class. If there is no connection. Step 5. Click File > Exit. If there is still no connection. ask the instructor for assistance. and be able to identify the different cable types. When asked whether to save the session. Task 5: Clean Up Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. Task 3: Reflection This lab provided information for establishing a console connection to a Cisco IOS router and switch.286 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide When the HyperTerminal session window comes up. There should be a response from the switch. Be sure to remember the correct HyperTerminal port settings. When finished. Remove anything that was brought into the lab.

you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ Connect a router and computer using a console cable. but it can be downloaded from the following http://www.ayera. Background TeraTerm Web is another simple Windows-based terminal emulation program for serial communication that can be used to connect to the console port on Cisco IOS devices. Connect the console (rollover) cable to the console port on the router.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 287 Lab 10-3 (Alternative): Establishing a Console Session with TeraTerm Upon completion of this lab. Connect the other cable end to the PC with a DB-9 or DB-25 adapter to the COM 1 port. Scenario Cable a network similar to Figure 10-12.com/teraterm/. Configure TeraTerm to establish a console session with the router. Enable power to the computer and router. . Power on the devices. 2500. 1700. or a combination. Note to instructor: TeraTerm is not available on the Eagle Server. Set up the basic physical connection. Possible routers include 800. Step 2. Any router that meets the interface requirements may be used. Ensure that power is turned off on the computer and Cisco router. Figure 10-12 Establishing a Console Session with TeraTerm Straight-Through Cable Serial Cable Console (Rollover) Crossover Cable The following resources are required: ■ ■ ■ Computer with a serial interface and TeraTerm Pro loaded Cisco router Console (rollover) cable for connecting the workstation to the router Task 1: Connect a Router and Computer with a Console Cable Step 1. 2600 routers. 1600.

press the Enter key. Select the saved session. ttermpro. Cisco switches are accessed in the same way. . Reopen the TeraTerm Web session as described in Task 2. Step 2. verify that the router has power. There should be a response from the router.288 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 2: Configure TeraTerm Web to Establish a Console Session with the Router Step 1. Figure 10-13 TeraTerm Web Connection Configuration Window When the TeraTerm Web session window comes up. Click OK. and then click Open. When finished. Close TeraTerm Web. Configure TeraTerm Web Click File > New Connection. Select the appropriate serial COM port. Start TeraTerm Web application. Step 1. If there is no connection. this indicates that the connection has been successfully completed. This time. Enter a name for the session. click Yes. ask the instructor for assistance. For example. Refer to Figure 10-13. From the Windows taskbar. Remember that you must use the correct serial port configurations to connect to the Cisco device via Minicom. Task 3: Reflection This lab provided information for establishing a console connection to a Cisco router. click Cancel. Check the connection to the COM 1 port on the PC and the console port on the router. close the TeraTerm Web session. Click File > Open. When asked whether to save the session. start the TeraTerm Web program by opening the TeraTerm Web folder. Use this technique to reconnect the TeraTerm Web session to a Cisco device without reconfiguring a new session. troubleshoot as necessary. when the New Description window opens (see Figure 10-13). Reconnect the TeraTerm Web session. Click File > Exit. Step 4. and starting the TeraTerm Web application. Step 3. If there is still no connection.

pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. keep in mind that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. Task 5: Clean Up Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. and leave the room ready for the next class. A summary of the instructions is provided within the Packet Tracer activity. Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Establishing a Console Session with PT Terminal (10.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab10622.6. Compare the differences. . Remove the rollover cable.2. and be able to identify the different cable types.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 289 Task 4: Challenge Draw the pin connections for the rollover cable and straight-through cable. turn off power to the host computer and router. However. Remove anything that was brought into the lab.

such as controlling a modem or accessing a Cisco router through the serial console connection. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ Connect a router and computer using a console cable. Figure 10-14 Topology for Lab 10-4 Straight-Through Cable Serial Cable Console (Rollover) Crossover Cable The following resources are required: ■ ■ ■ Linux/UNIX computer with a serial interface and Minicom loaded Cisco router Console (rollover) cable for connecting the workstation to the router Task 1: Connect a Router and Computer with a Console Cable Step 1. similar to the Windows HyperTerminal program. 1700. Configure Minicom to establish a console session with the router. Set up the basic physical connection. Enable power to the computer and router.1) Upon completion of this lab. Perform basic commands. . Background Minicom is a text-based UNIX terminal emulation program. The Linux or UNIX operating system is required. Scenario Set up a network similar to the one in Figure 10-14. Minicom can be used for many purposes. 2600 routers. Ensure that power is turned off on the computer and Cisco router. Power on the devices. 1600.3. Any router that meets the interface requirements may be used. or a combination. Connect the console (rollover) cable to the console port on the router. 2500.290 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Lab 10-4: Establishing a Console Session with Minicom (10. Connect the other cable end to the PC with a DB-9 or DB-25 adapter to the COM 1 port. Step 2. Possible routers include 800.6.

Table 10-17 shows the correct values.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 291 Task 2: Configure Minicom to Establish a Console Session with the Router Step 1. Press Enter. Use the letter by the field to change a setting. Configure Minicom for serial communications. Start the Minicom application in configuration mode. Figure 10-15 Main Configuration Window Figure 10-16 shows the serial port configuration window. to start Minicom. Note: To configure Minicom. root access is required. select option Q) F G Hardware Flow Control Software Flow Control Toggle: No Toggle: No Return to the Configuration menu by pressing Enter or Esc. From the Linux command prompt. . Figure 10-16 Serial Port Configuration Window Table 10-17 Serial Port Settings Option Field Value A Serial Device Dev/ttyS0 for COM 1 /dev/ttyS1 for COM 2 E Bps/Par/Bits Bps: 9600 Par: None Bits: 8 Stop bits: 1 (or. scroll down the configuration list and select Serial port setup. To configure the serial port. This starts Minicom in configuration mode: [root]# minicom –s <ENTER> Step 2. enter the minicom command with the –s option. Figure 10-15 shows the main configuration window.

292 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide In the window shown in Figure 10-17. followed by Z. close the Minicom session. use <Ctrl> A. press the Enter key. Figure 10-18 shows a list of functions and corresponding keys. troubleshoot as necessary. When Minicom is restarted. menu-driven. as follows: [root]# minicom <ENTER> When the session window starts. To get help. to control the utility. press <Ctrl> A. To quit Minicom. select Save setup as dfl (default file). this indicates that a connection has been successfully completed. Figure 10-17 Serial Port Configuration Window Step 3. If there is no connection. the default values will be reloaded. serial communication utility. For example. Restart the Minicom session. followed by either Q or X. Cisco switches are accessed in the same fashion. There should be a response from the router. When finished. verify that the router has power. . Task 3: Perform Basic Commands Minicom is a text-based. However. Close Minicom. Basic commands are not intuitive. users communicate with remote devices within the terminal window. Select Exit from Minicom. Check the connection to the correct COM 1 port on the PC and the console port on the router. press <Ctrl> A. For example. Step 4. Figure 10-18 Minicom Command Summary Screen Task 4: Reflection This lab provided information for establishing a console connection to a Cisco router using Minicom.

133 192. Background Table 10-18 shows the addressing for this lab.1. Table 10-18 Addressing Table Device Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1 Fa0/0 S0/0/0 S0/0/1 192.168.255.130 192.224 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 192.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 293 Task 5: Clean Up Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. Packet Tracer Challenge Skills and Integration Challenge: Planning and Cabling Networks (10.168.255.1.1.255.1.255.126 192.240 255.1.255.126 192. Configure router and PC interfaces.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer.1.255.1.168.255.252 255.93 255. Remove anything that was brought into the lab.1.224 255.168.168.168. Remove the rollover cable.240 255.1.1.1.255.168.168.255.7.113 192.94 192.168.252 255.255.255.1.1.62 192.255. However.255.255.1.129 192.168.252 255.255.168. turn off power to the host computer and router.255.110 192. Test the network.94 R2 Fa0/0 Fa0/1 S0/0/0 S0/0/1 R3 Fa0/0 S0/0/0 S0/0/1 PC1-A PC2-A PC3-A Eagle-Server NIC NIC NIC NIC .168. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity.255.255.255.137 192.252 255.1.255. Plan the IP addresses.240 255.1.1.3) You can now open the file LSG01-PTSkills10.168.255.110 192.252 255.255.192 255. and leave the room ready for the next class.97 192.255. keep in mind that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment.192 255.1.134 192.255.168.255.255.1 192.255.1.168.138 192.168.62 192.252 255.240 255.168. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ ■ Build the network topology.255. Upon completion of this lab.168.

Use Table 10-21 and Table 10-22 to create an effective addressing scheme.168. Table 10-20 Switches Hostname Interface Connects To Interfaces SW-1 SW-2A SW-2B SW-3 Fa0/2 Fa0/2 Fa0/2) Fa0/2 PC-1A PC-1B Eagle-Server PC-1C FastEthernet FastEthernet FastEthernet FastEthernet Task 2: Create and Assign an Addressing Scheme You are asked to use the 192. Table 10-19 Routers Hostname Interface Connects To Interfaces R1 R1 R1 R2 R2 R2 R3 Fa0/0 S0/0/0 (DCE) S0/0/1 (DCE) Fa0/0 S0/0/1 (DCE) Fa0/1 Fa0/0 SW-1 R2 R3 SW-2A R3 SW-2B SW-3 Fa0/1 S0/0/0 S0/0/1 Fa0/1 S0/0/0 Fa0/1 Fa0/1 Table 10-20 shows the switch information.294 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Practice your network building. and configuration skills.1. Device names and routing have already been configured. Seven total networks are required. Task 1: Build the Network Topology Use the following tables and the devices in the device pool to create the topology. planning. Table 10-19 shows the router information.0 /24 address space. assign the networks in decreasing order of number of hosts required for efficient use of address space. Table 10-21 LAN Hostname Interface Number of Hosts R1 R2 Fa0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/1 60 10 30 7 R3 Fa0/0 .

R1 and R2 DCE interfaces should have clock rates of 56000. and R3 routers.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 295 Table 10-22 WAN Hostname Address to be Assigned Number of Hosts R1–R3 R1–R3 R2–R3 R1–First host address R1–First host address R2–First host address 2 2 2 Use the following rules to assign IP addresses: ■ PCs will use the first host address in the subnet. and the server according to the preceding addressing scheme. The R1–R2 link will use the first WAN subnet. . R2. and the server. the R1–R3 link will use the second WAN subnet. Task 4: Testing Connectivity Make sure all PCs can ping their gateways. the server will use the second to last host address in its subnet. the PCs. ■ ■ Task 3: Interface Configuration Perform interface configuration of the R1. and the R2–R3 link will use the third WAN subnet. All Fast Ethernet ports on a router will use the last host address of the assigned subnet. other PCs.

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troubleshooting. Not all devices have an AUX port. for assistance. addressing. As you work through this chapter. just like the console port. security. Discuss when and why you would use a certain method.CHAPTER 11 Configuring and Testing Your Network The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of matching. Understanding these functions and being able to access them is essential for network administrators and technicians. it is important to protect it with a password. and quality of service. When an AUX port is available. Concept Questions 1. use Chapter 11 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum. . and password recovery. Telnet and SSH provide remote access to the device and require network services. Access through the AUX port does not require network services on the device. The AUX port can be used to access the device either locally or through a dialup connection. The operating system on most Cisco devices is the Cisco IOS. such as routing and switching. multiple-choice. The console port provides a low-speed serial connection and is used mainly when network services are unavailable on the device—during initial configuration. It is important to configure the console port with a password and prevent physical access to the router by keeping it in a locked room. It provides a number of network services. For security reasons. Study Guide Configuring Cisco Devices: IOS Basics Routers and switches need an operating system to function. and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of configuring and testing networks. fill-in-the-blank. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum activities and labs to ensure you have mastered the practical. SSH uses more secure password authentication and encrypts the data for transport. Describe the different access methods for Cisco devices. What security concerns do you need to consider for the different access methods? Answers will vary. hands-on skills you need. SSH is preferred over Telnet. or use the corresponding Chapter 11 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration Companion Guide. disaster recovery.

Therefore. Authentication can be configured for different modes. User EXEC mode d. These changes are active immediately. Answers may vary. The main advantage is the controlled access or security. Each time a device is started or reloaded. After it is loaded into RAM. 2. Privileged EXEC mode c. Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 11-1. which is volatile memory. The startup configuration file is stored in nonvolatile RAM (NVRAM). Global configuration mode a. because this file is stored in RAM. The running configuration file is lost when the device is powered down. It is important to save changes that need to be permanent. Answers may vary. For example.298 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide 2. Describe the advantage of the hierarchical modal structure. Table 11-1 Prompt IOS Configuration Modes IOS Configuration Mode a. location. these changes are not permanent unless they are written to the startup configuration file in NVRAM. the startup configuration file stays intact when the device is powered off. Switch> b. What is the name of the command? show Does this command use arguments or keywords? Keywords . Compare and contrast the two main configuration files on Cisco devices in terms of function. 3. Any configuration changes that are made to the device are written to the running configuration file. match the device prompt on the left with the correct IOS configuration mode on the right. Switch(config-if)# b. Router# c. Router(config)# d. it becomes the running configuration file—the file that is used to operate the device. Because this file is in RAM. the network administrator can grant different personnel different levels of access. the startup configuration file loads into RAM. Interface configuration mode Cisco IOS Command Exercises Answer these questions based on the following command: Router#show ip interface brief 1. A network technician might be allowed to look at configurations but not change them. and how they relate to each other.

. NVRAM. Hostnames are important for network documentation and remote access. Because configuration files are critical. and IP addresses are needed to establish connectivity with other devices on the network. Possible locations are RAM. ROM. and the IP addresses and descriptions on the interface. the network administrator needs to exercise proper file management by saving changes to the configuration and by backing up configuration files. passwords. Passwords establish basic security at the local level.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 299 3. show version: IOS information in RAM show startup-config: Backup configuration file in NVRAM show running-config: Active configuration file in RAM show flash: Operating systems stored in flash Test Your Knowledge Use Table 11-2 to test your knowledge of the command-line interface (CLI) shortcuts and hot keys. Table 11-2 Key IOS Command-Line Help Function Tab Ctrl-R Ctrl-Z Up arrow Down arrow Ctrl-D Ctrl-C Ctrl-Shift-6 Backspace exit Autocomplete: completes the remainder of the command or keyword Redisplays a line Exits configuration mode and returns to privileged EXEC mode Scrolls backwards through previously entered commands Scrolls forward through previously entered commands Deletes the character to the right of the cursor Aborts the current command and exits configuration mode Interrupts an IOS process such as ping or traceroute Deletes the character to the left of the cursor A command to move up one level in the configuration mode hierarchy Applying a Basic Configuration Using Cisco IOS All networking devices need a basic configuration to be functional. Where do the following commands get the information they display? Name the file if applicable and the storage location of this information. and flash. The most important initial configuration parameters include hostnames.

c. Explain how good management of configuration files can be implemented. Therefore. Briefly explain the purpose of banners. Most networking devices. Hostnames are a vital part of network management. Backing up configuration files is part of good file management. Enter interface configuration mode. Be specific in your answer. The administrator needs to have fast access to the desired files. Router(config)# interface 0/1/0 b. This can prove helpful if somebody breaks into the system and a legal case arises. together with up-to-date documentation. Banners provide a method for declaring that only authorized personnel should have access to the devices. Explain why the hostname is an extremely important feature for networking devices. Enter global configuration mode. 3. d. There should always be backup copies of files to aid in disaster recovery. Which of the following steps are required to configure an Ethernet interface? (Choose all that apply. because this lets you sort files by date if needed.300 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Concept Questions 1. Hostnames. help the administrator know what device he or she is connected to. Network configuration files are extremely important on a production network. It is good practice to advise against unauthorized access with the help of banners. such as from an office. . Therefore. Which of the following interface commands allows you to enter interface configuration mode to configure a router’s interface? a. The filename also needs to indicate the hostname of the device it belongs to. Specify the interface address and subnet mask. Answers will vary. Router(config)# interface s0/1/0 d. and explain why they should contain some type of warning message. Answers may vary. This means that the administrator connects to the networking devices via the network. are managed remotely. 1. Answers will vary. Multiple-Choice Questions Choose the best possible answer(s) for the following questions dealing with interface configuration network testing. They are visible to anyone who logs on to the system. 2. Including dates in the naming convention can be helpful. a logical naming scheme that includes version control is critical. Router# interface s0 c. The administrator does not have the physical devices in front of him or her to make sure they are attached to the correct piece of equipment. Enable the interface. such as routers and switches. Filenaming conventions are extremely important. and they need to be worded carefully. The directory structure needs to be logical and should be documented. Router(config)> interface s0/1/0 2. b.) a. proper file management is very important.

1 command can be used to test the local host IP configuration. d. show running-configuration d. Exclamation mark (!): The ping completed successfully. The ping 127. Test Your Knowledge The ping utility yields useful indicators that can be used for troubleshooting. One effective way to test network connectivity is to use the ping command. Because it tests connectivity at Layers 3. Answers may vary. 2. and Layer 3 connectivity has been established. Time to Live (TTL) defines the number of hops that the ping packet has remaining before it will be dropped.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 301 3. The output of which of the following commands shows the interface description? (Choose all that apply. It is possible that a router along the path did not have a route to the destination and did not send an ICMP destination unreachable message. Because the ping test tests all the layers of the TCP/IP model. b. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following sentences. The output provided by the utilities and the show commands provides useful information for troubleshooting. 2. Why is the ping test also called testing the protocol stack? a.) a. The letter U: A router along the path did not have a route to the destination address and responded with an ICMP unreachable message. A connectivity problem has occurred along the path. a switch needs a default gateway address defined to communicate with hosts outside the local network. Because it uses a protocol stack to perform connectivity testing. Because it tests all the layers of the OSI model. 3. It verifies the proper operation of the protocol stack from the network layer to the physical layer (and back) without putting a signal on the medium. show interface description 4. . Describe the following indicators. Testing network connectivity is a very important task. Like other hosts.0. Concept Question Explain how the internal IP configuration on the local host can be tested. 1. c.0. and 1 of the OSI model. It is also possible that the ping was blocked by security measures. show IP interface brief b.): The ping timed out. Period (. A network administrator needs to be familiar with the different testing utilities such as ping and traceroute and the different show commands. Verifying Connectivity A network needs full connectivity to converge. show interfaces c.

a sufficiently distant destination should be chosen.3. the network cloud represents all the network devices and cabling between the student computer and the destination server computer. to capture a representative sample of typical network activity. Compute various statistics on the output of a ping capture. delay cannot be computed. Figure 11-1 Topology for Lab 11-1 Server Computer Network Cloud Student Computer . Normally these devices are the ones that introduce network latency. Scenario In the topology diagram shown in Figure 11-1. Destinations on the same LAN or within a few hops may return an unrepresentative low latency. You will summarize return delay times. You will also measure delay when the ICMP datagram size increases. you can find a suitable destination. You will perform statistical analysis of throughput delay with the assistance of a spreadsheet application such as Microsoft Excel. You will note the latency value at the center of the ordered range of latency points (median) and identify the most frequently occurring delay (mode). which may be used in decision-making when evaluating suitable applications for wide-area network (WAN) deployment. and during different periods of the day. this lab must be performed on a live network. The destination server computer must return ICMP echo replies. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ Use the ping command to document network latency. If you’re patient.3) Upon completion of this lab. The purpose of this lab is to measure and evaluate network latency over time. and some private networks block transit ICMP echo datagrams. Monitoring path latency provides some measure of administrative diligence.302 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Labs and Activities Lab 11-1: Network Latency Documentation with ping (11. You will accomplish this by analyzing the return delay from a distant computer using the ping command. measured in milliseconds.4. Background To obtain realistic network latency statistics. Some computers have this feature disabled through a firewall. Be sure to check with your instructor for any local security restrictions on using the ping command on the network. otherwise. For this experiment to be interesting. by computing the average latency (mean). Measure delay effects from larger datagrams. Network engineers routinely rely on networks outside of local administration for connectivity to external networks.

Received = 1. Three tests will be performed each day. and retest. What option and argument would change the default size to 100 bytes? ping IP Address -l 100 Decide on a destination server computer. If packets were lost. depending on the destination address.yahoo. and write down the name: Answers will vary. . Use the ping command to verify connectivity with the destination. one around midday. and one in the evening. The idea is to note and document latency differences that occur at different times of the day. as shown in Example 11-1. and write down the results: Packets sent: _____________ Packets received: _________ Packets lost: _____________ Answers will vary.52: bytes=32 time=304ms TTL=52 Ping statistics for 209. you will send and analyze increasingly larger ICMP datagrams.com.com. Open a terminal window by choosing Start > Run.191. Note to Instructor: Answers will vary.akadns.5: Packets: Sent = 1.93. Lost = 0 (0% loss) Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 304ms.yahoo.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 303 This lab requires five days of testing. The ping command might fail or succeed. To understand the delay effects from larger datagrams. Verify connectivity between the student computer and the destination server computer.com or yahoo. you will have 15 sets of data. Enter cmd. Students might decide to ping google.net [209. Average = 304 ms Use the ping /? command to answer the following questions: What is the purpose of the -n option and argument 1? The -n option determines the number of echo requests to send.com Pinging www. and then click OK. one test should be done in the early morning. use another destination. Example 11-1 Ping Test C:\> ping -n 1 www.93.52] with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 209. Task 1: Use the ping Command to Document Network Latency Step 1.yahoo-ht3. depending on the destination server computer students choose. for example.191.93. such as www. Attempt to ping a suitably distant destination.191. Maximum = 304ms . Preferably. When you’re done.

manually fix the numbers. Perform a delay test. Write down the command that sends 100 echo requests to the destination: ping -n 100 Use the ping command to send 100 echo requests to your destination. Alternatively. When you’re finished. Highlight the filename and click Open.txt. where day is the day the test was performed (1 through 5) and sample# is the sample period (1 through 3). Choose Start > Programs > Accessories > Notepad. choose Fixed Width. and mode delay values. Choose File > Open. In the Text Import wizard. Save the file using the name format day-sample#. Figure 11-2 Excel Text Import Wizard Step 2. Task 2: Compute Various Statistics on the Output of a ping Capture Step 1. follow the instructions to separate numeric values from text values.txt. you can redirect output to a file by appending >day-sample#. When the input formatting is satisfactory. Note: The terminal remains blank until the command has finished. If it isn’t already open. When you’re done. Step 1. format the columns so that they are more readable.304 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Step 2. In Step 2. Compute the mean. . copy the replies into Notepad. ensure that all numeric values are separated from text characters. After the spreadsheet has been opened. shown in Figure 11-2. If the spreadsheet has numbers in different fields. The command syntax is ping [options] >day-sample#. start Microsoft Excel. click Finish.txt to the end of the ping command. median. Bring the text file into the Microsoft Excel spreadsheet application. To format a text file for use within Excel. Click Browse to move to the directory that holds the text file. you should have a spreadsheet that looks similar to Figure 11-3.

Finally.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 305 Figure 11-3 Partial Spreadsheet Record the number of dropped packets in the column Dropped Packets. click OK. When you’re finished. If a header row was highlighted. the delay values must be ordered (sorted) when computing the median and mode values. Dropped packets have a consistently large delay value. Figure 11-4 shows a partial spreadsheet highlighted and the Data dialog box opened. Highlight all the data fields. Figure 11-4 Ordering on the Delay Column . In Figure 11-4 it is Column G. Select the column that contains the Delay values. click the Header row radio button. You do this by choosing Data > Sort.

txt. use the redirect append operator. but you should retain the data text file. Record this number in your chart in the Median column. delay is the sum of the delays divided by the number of measurements. The easiest way to accomplish this task is to use the Windows built-in FOR loop command.txt Note: The terminal remains blank until the command has finished. You may either save or discard the new spreadsheet file.1) would generate the sequence (5 4 3 2 1). this would equate to the formula in cell G102: =average(G2:G101). For this spreadsheet. is also similar. and only the last reply is saved.2000) DO ping -n 1 -l %i destination Copy the output into Notepad. and save the file using the name variablesizedelay.5) would generate the sequence 1 2 3 4 5. For the median value. Perform a quick visual inspection to verify that your median value is similar to what is shown midway in the data range. the formula in cell G103 would be =median(G2:G101). In the following command. Record this number in your chart in the Mode column. Issue this command: FOR /L %i IN (100. you will send increasingly larger ICMP echo requests to the destination.step. 20 datagrams will be incremented by 100 bytes per ping request.–1.100. Perform a quick visual inspection to verify that your mode value is the most frequently occurring value in the data range. >>. Record this number in your chart in the Mean column. The formula used to compute the median delay. or the delay value in the center of the ordered range.100. All 20 replies are arranged similarly. The formula used to compute the modal delay. The syntax is FOR /L %variable IN (start. The output of one line is shown in Example 11-2. For the mode value. Task 3: Measure Delay Effects from Larger Datagrams To determine if larger datagrams affect delay. by step amount. So (1. In this analysis. Perform a quick visual inspection to verify that your mean value is approximately the value shown.end) DO command [command-parameters] The set is a sequence of numbers from start to end. You will create a spreadsheet with the reply results.306 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide The formula used to compute the mean. or average. . is similar to the average formula. Perform a variable-sized delay test. The normal redirect operator. To redirect output to a file. overwrites the file each time the ping command is executed. FOR /L %i IN (100. Step 1. the formula in cell G104 would be =mode(G2:G101). as shown in the following command.1.2000) DO ping -n 1 -l %i destination >> variablesizedelay. as well as a chart that plots size versus delay. >. and (5. or the delay value that occurs the most frequently. destination is the destination.

Lost = 0 (0% loss). A chart should be clear. When larger datagrams are sent.2000) DO ping -n 1 -l %i www. depending on available bandwidth and other traffic on the network. save your spreadsheet and chart. Format the spreadsheet. and submit them to your instructor with the final delay analysis.93. Received = 1. Step 3.100.52] with 100 bytes of data: Reply from 209.93.com >>variablesizedelay. A number of charts can be used to display delay data. Maximum = 383ms.akadns.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 307 Example 11-2 Variable-Size Delay Test C:\> FOR /L %i IN (100. Step 4. When you’re finished. Bytes and Delay. . Figure 11-5 Excel Text Import Wizard The difference between this file and the previous one is that the variable-size file has much more information than is really needed.191.191. a delay might occur. Average = 383ms Step 2. Can you make any assumptions about delay when larger datagrams are sent across a network? Answers may vary. Highlight the Delay column data and choose Insert > Chart.yahoo-ht3.93. but there is room for individual creativity.yahoo. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 383ms.52: Packets: Sent = 1. Bring the text file into the Excel spreadsheet application. The chart shown in Figure 11-7 is a stacked line chart. When you’re finished. Clean up and organize the spreadsheet data into two columns.txt C:\> ping -n 1 -l 100 Pinging www. the spreadsheet should look similar to Figure 11-6.52: bytes=100 time=383ms TTL=52 Ping statistics for 209.191. Create a chart of the data. as shown in Figure 11-5. Open the new text file in Excel.net [209.

Also. If delays are caused by events within the organization. try to work out the problem with the ISP first. subscribing with a different or additional Internet service provider (ISP) may prove beneficial. and network delay spikes. In this case. When the source originates from external networks not under the control of the organization.308 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 11-6 Formatted Spreadsheet Figure 11-7 Plot of Delay Versus Datagram Size Task 4: Reflection The ping command can provide important network latency information. Careful delay analysis over successive days and at different times of the day can alert the network engineer to changes in network performance. When these file-sharing applications are active. when delay is less. For example. valuable bandwidth is diverted from critical business applications. network analysis tools can be used to determine the source. . If that does not work. many users subscribe to peer-to-peer applications such as Kazaa and Napster. network devices may become overwhelmed during certain times of the day. and corrective action can be taken. routine data transfers should be scheduled during off-peak times.

.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 309 Task 5: Challenge If permitted. and perform a separate delay test while the file is downloading. download a large file. Write a one.or two-paragraph analysis that compares these delay results against a measurement made without the download.

1) Learning Objectives Upon completion of this lab. Figure 11-8 Topology for Lab 11-2 1 Fa0/0 Fa0/1 Fa0/1 R1 Fa0/2 S1 Fa0/3 2 3 Gather the necessary equipment and cables. Configure Cisco router interfaces.1. consider configur- ing a loopback interface as an alternative to the FastEthernet 0/1. Configure a Cisco switch. Save the router configuration file. To configure the lab. Common configuration tasks include setting the hostname.310 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Lab 11-2: Basic Cisco Device Configuration (11. and message-of-the-day (MOTD) banner. . Configure Cisco router password access. Background Figure 11-8 shows the topology for this lab.5. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Configure Cisco router global configuration settings. Another alternative would be to use two routers connected through a serial connection and use the FastEthernet interfaces from each router. make sure that the equipment listed in Table 11-3 is available. access passwords. Table 11-3 Hardware Equipment and Hardware Requirements Quantity Description Cisco router Cisco switch Computer (host) Console (rollover) cable Crossover cable Straight-through cable 1 1 3 3 1 3 Part of the CCNA Lab bundle Part of the CCNA Lab bundle Lab computer Connects computer Host1 to the router console port Connects the computer to the router LAN interface FA0/0 Connects computer hosts to the switch and the switch to the router Note to Instructor: If you do not have a router that has two FastEthernet interfaces.

158 192.145 192.219.133.143 192.219.219. Cisco IOS switch configuration is similar to Cisco IOS router configuration.133.219.64 192.219.219.219.219.133.) Note to Instructor: To reinforce student cable identification.219.133.240 192.219.207 192.254 192.219.133.219.219.133. (Hint: fill in the subnet number and then the host address.133.219.133.62 192.15 192.255 .219.219.207 192.219.223 192.219.160 192.219.133.219.219 192.239 192.219. Configuration changes may also be saved offline in a text file for auditing or device replacement.133. fill in Table 11-4.219.190 192.17 192.47 192.219.133.63 192.219.219.177 192. entering a description that describes the destination connection decreases troubleshooting time.79 192.0 192.112 192.133.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 311 Interface configuration is extremely important.133.133.95 192.133. Configuration changes take effect immediately.133.133.133.133.238 192.133.133.133.133.193 192. straight-through.126 192.219.33 192.133.219.133.65 192.133.219.219. with 4 bits borrowed for subnets. Given an IP address of 198.219.16 192.30 192.255.133.219.209 192.133.219.144 192.133. Address information is easy to compute with the subnet number filled in first.255.133.219.31 192.133.219.208 192.133.133.133.81 192.219.219.133.0/24.133.225 192.219.14 192. have several different types of cables available for the students.133.128 192.111 192.219.133. In addition to assigning a Layer 3 IP address.133.219.133.219.224 192.0 # Subnet 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 192.161 192.219.219.133.133.133.219.219.96 192.219.219.219.192 192.219.175 192.95 192.222 192.241 192.133.133.219.133. The changes must be saved in NVRAM to be persistent across reboot.46 192.219.133.48 192.1 192.133.219.97 192.219.133.133.80 192.219.219.78 192.240 First host address Last Host Address Broadcast IP address: 192. Students should be able to identify the proper cable type based on a visual inspection.133.133.219.133.191 192.133.142 192.219.113 192. you will configure common settings on a Cisco router and Cisco switch.129 192.133. Mix crossover.133.133.176 192.133.110 192.133.133. Scenario In this lab.219.174 192.133.159 192.133.219.219.133.219.133.32 192. and rollover cables.133.127 192.219.133.219.219.219.219. Maximum number of usable subnets (including the 0th subnet): 16 Number of usable hosts per subnet: 14 Table 11-4 Subnet Address Table Subnet mask: 255.

Connect the console or rollover cable to the console port on the router. The instructor will assign subnetworks. switch. Connect the other end of the cable to the host computer using a DB-9 adapter to the COM 1 port. Connect a straight-through cable between the Router interface Fa0/1 and any of the switch’s interfaces (1 through 24). verify your addresses with the instructor. Connect the crossover cable between the host computer’s network interface card (NIC) and Router interface Fa0/0. . Ensure that power has been applied to the host computer. From the Widows taskbar. Task 1: Configure Cisco Router Global Configuration Settings Step 1. and router. start the HyperTerminal program by choosing Start > Programs > Accessories > Communications > HyperTerminal. Physically connect the devices. Figure 11-9 shows the cabling for this lab. Give each team of students a subnetwork number. Connect host computer through HyperTerminal.312 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Before proceeding. Figure 11-9 Lab Cabling 1 Fa0/0 Fa0/1 R1 Straight-Through Cable Serial Cable Console (Rollover) Crossover Cable Step 2. press the Enter key until the router responds. Configure HyperTerminal with the proper settings: ■ ■ Name the connection description: Lab 11_5_1 Connect using: COM1 (or an appropriate COM port) Configure the COM1 properties: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Bits per second: 9600 Data bits: 8 Parity: None Stop bits: 1 Flow control: None When the HyperTerminal session window comes up.

What two commands may be used to leave privileged EXEC mode? exit or end What shortcut command can you use to enter privileged EXEC mode? en Examine the different configuration modes that can be entered with the command configure?.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 313 If the router terminal is in configuration mode. release. and then press X. Depending on the router’s model and the IOS version.255) % Press Ctrl-Shift-6. Because no domain server is configured. it should have no configured passwords or IP addresses. This results in the following: Name lookup aborted Router> To disable name translation attempts. However. This can take from several seconds to several minutes.domain server (255. From user EXEC mode. Write down the list of configuration modes.. press Ctrl-Shift-6. To terminate the domain name lookup process. it must be removed. and then press X. exit by entering no: Would you like to enter the initial configuration dialog? [yes/no]: no Press RETURN to get started! Router> In privileged EXEC command mode. apply the global configuration command no ip domain-lookup. the router attempts to translate any misspelled or unrecognized commands as a domain name.255.255. Step 3.. Configure global configuration hostname settings. ask the instructor to remove the configuration. and describe them: confirm: Confirms replacement of running-config with a new config file memory: Configures from nonvolatile memory network: Configures from a TFTP network host overwrite-network: Overwrites nonvolatile memory from the TFTP network host replace: Replaces the running-config with a new config file terminal: Configures from the terminal <cr> . If your router does not have a default configuration. release. If a configuration file was previously saved. a delay occurs while the request times out. The following shows a user mistyping a command and the router attempting a domain name lookup: Router>enabel Translating “enabel”. your configuration may look slightly different from a typical default router’s configuration. enter privileged EXEC mode: Router> enable Router# Verify a clean configuration file using the privileged EXEC command show runningconfig.

and applicable local laws. a court might interpret a friendly “Welcome” message as permission for an attacker to hack into the router. Access is granted to only current ABC system administrators with prior written approval. exec: Sets the EXEC process creation banner incoming: Sets the incoming terminal line banner login: Sets the login banner motd: Sets the message-of-the-day banner prompt-timeout: Sets the message for the login authentication timeout slip-ppp: Sets the message for SLIP/PPP . suppose you are connected to an ABC network device. connection logging. Unauthorized access will be prosecuted. banner content may have a significant legal impact on the organization. A banner should include information about authorization. Unauthorized access is prohibited and will be prosecuted. the end command. All connections are continuously logged. In production networks. and describe them. Router1(config)# banner ? LINE: c banner-text c. Write down the list of banner modes. and Ctrl-Z What shortcut command can be used to enter global configuration mode? config t Set the device hostname to Router1: router(config)# hostname Router1 Router1(config)# How can the hostname be removed? no hostname Router1 Step 4. and all connection information will be logged. enter global configuration mode: Router# configuration terminal Router(config)# What three methods may be used to leave global configuration mode and return to privileged EXEC mode? The exit command. Create a suitable MOTD banner. For example. The corporate security policy should cover all banner messages. For example. where ‘c’ is a delimiting character Examine the different banner modes that can be entered.314 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide From privileged EXEC mode. Configure the MOTD banner. Only system administrators of the ABC Company are authorized users. penalties for unauthorized access.

Use the terminating character on a blank line to end the MOTD entry. Access is granted to only current ABC company system administrators with prior written approval. Configure the privileged EXEC password. *** % Router1(config)# What is the global configuration command to remove the MOTD banner? no banner motd Personal banners on nonproduction devices can be entertaining.oooO--(_)--Oooo. )--------------------+ ) / (_/ | | | +---------------------\ (----( \_) Task 2: Configure Cisco Router Password Access Access passwords are set for privileged EXEC mode and the user entry point such as console. *** All connections are continuously logged. it is impossible to recover an enable secret based on the contents of a configuration file (other than by obvious dictionary attacks). The following is a banner made from ASCII art that can be copied into the router: ( o o ) +------------------. Example 11-3 banner motd Output Router1(config)# banner motd % Enter TEXT message. *** *** Unauthorized access is prohibited.” Password security relies on the password . Step 1. enable password. One command. Cisco IOS supports two commands that set access to privileged EXEC mode. as shown in Example 11-3.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 315 Choose a terminating character that will not be used in the message text. because it controls access to configuration mode. Configure the MOTD banner.------------------+ | | | . Cisco says “As far as anyone at Cisco knows. The enable secret command uses a very secure MD5 cryptographic hash algorithm. contains no encryption or weak cryptography and should never be used if the enable secret command is available. The privileged EXEC mode password is the most critical password. such as % (percent). End with the character %’ ***You are connected to an ABC network device.oooO ( ) Oooo. aux. and will be prosecuted. and virtual lines. The MOTD banner is displayed on all connections before the login prompt.

Unless a Telnet password is set. Issue the command exit. the number has been expanded. A strong password consists of at least nine characters of uppercase and lowercase letters. access on that virtual line is blocked. only five virtual lines could be set—0 through 4. Exits the configuration and returns to privileged EXEC mode. The virtual line password controls Telnet access to the router. we will use weak passwords. In a lab environment. What is the router prompt? What is the mode? Router1# Privileged EXEC mode . Router1(config)# line console 0 Router1(config-line)# password cisco Router1(config-line)# login What is the command to remove the console password? no password cisco Step 3. Set the privileged EXEC password to class: Router1(config)# enable secret class Router1(config)# Step 2. In production environments. strong passwords should be used at all times. Router1(config-line)# line vty 0 4 Router1(config-line)# password cisco Router1(config-line)# login There are three ways to exit line configuration mode. Fill in Table 11-5 with the correct answers. and symbols. Set the console access password to cisco.316 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide algorithm and the password. The console password controls console access to the router. What is the router prompt? What is the mode? Router1(config-line)# exit Router1(config)# Global configuration mode Issue the command end. Configure the console password. Set the virtual line access password to cisco. In early Cisco IOS versions. numbers. Table 11-5 Command Ways to Exit Line Configuration Mode Effect exit end Ctrl-Z Returns to global configuration mode. In newer Cisco IOS versions. Configure the virtual line password.

Example 11-4 Interface Configuration Router1(config)# interface fa0/0 Router1(config-if)# description Connection to Host1 with crossover cable Router1(config-if)# ip address address mask Router1(config-if)# no shutdown Router1(config-if)# end Router1# . depending on which subnet students choose from Table 11-4.14 Step 1. interface Fa0/0.255. Write down the last IP address: Answers will vary. Write a short description for the connections on Router1: Fa0/0 -> Connection to Host1 with crossover cable.168. Apply the description on the router interface with the interface configuration command description.1.1. Write down the first IP address: Answers will vary. 192. Figure 11-10 shows a network topology in which a host computer is connected to Router 1. 192. On newer Cisco IOS versions.168.0 255. 192.168.1. Figure 11-10 Network Topology 1 Fa0/0 Fa0/1 R1 Straight-Through Cable Serial Cable Console (Rollover) Crossover Cable Write down your subnet number and mask: Answers will vary. the maximum description length is 240 characters.1 The last IP address will be used to configure the router fa0/0 interface. Configure the router interface Fa0/0. as shown in Example 11-4.240 The first IP address will be used to configure the host computer LAN.255.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 317 Task 3: Configure Cisco Router Interfaces All cabled interfaces should contain documentation about the connection.

318 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Look for the interface to become active: *Mar 24 19:58:59. and choose Properties. Open a Windows command window. If ping replies are not successful. and then click Close. Highlight the Internet Protocol field. Step 4. Configure the router interface Fa0/1. What Cisco IOS command can you use to verify the interface status? show interface fa0/0 and show interface fa0/1 What Windows command can you use to verify host computer configuration? ipconfig What is the correct LAN cable between Host1 and Router1? Crossover . Recall that you access the LAN configuration window by choosing Start > Control Panel > Network Connections. Example 11-5 Interface Configuration Router1(config)# interface fa0/1 Router1(config-if)# description Connection to switch with straightthrough cable Router1(config-if)# ip address address mask Router1(config-if)# no shutdown Router1(config-if)# end Router1# Look for the interface to become active: *Mar 24 19:58:59. Verify network connectivity. Use the ping command to verify network connectivity with the router. as shown in Example 11-5.602: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet0/1. changed state to up Step 3. Configure the host computer. Configure the host computer for LAN connectivity. and verify network settings with the ipconfig command. Write a short description for the connections on Router1: Fa0/1 -> Apply the description on the router interface with the interface configuration command description. Rightclick the LAN icon. Fill in the following fields: ■ ■ ■ IP Address: The first host address Subnet Mask: The subnet mask Default Gateway: The router’s IP address Click OK. and choose Properties.602: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet0/0. troubleshoot the connection. changed state to up Step 2.

This does not occur automatically. Table 11-6 Key Key Responses Description Spacebar Enter Q Ctrl-C Displays the next page Displays the next line Quits Quits Write down one possible shortcut command that displays the contents of NVRAM: show start Use this command to show the contents of NVRAM. 1. The first field. to compute the MD5 hash. the resulting hash is different.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 319 Task 4: Save the Router Configuration Files Cisco IOS calls RAM configuration storage the running configuration. Router1# show running-config Use the output to answer the following questions: How large is the configuration file? The current configuration is 935 bytes. Because the salts are different. as shown in Example 11-6. or random value. Table 11-6 describes acceptable key responses. Sg/E. NVRAM must be manually updated after any changes are made. A line containing — more — indicates that there is additional information to display. Example 11-6 Missing NVRAM Router1# show startup-config startup-config is not present Router1# Display the contents of RAM. The answer is beyond the scope of this curriculum. The cryptotext $1$Sg/E$JnEnON09QjpibV33dJXBI0 is actually composed of three fields. (Answers will vary. cisco. separated by $. that is used with the password. Compare router RAM and NVRAM configurations. is called the salt.) What is the enable secret password? enable secret 5 $1$Sg/E$JnEnON09QjpibV33dJXBI0 Ask students to compare their passwords. contains the hash algorithm type—in this case. JnEnON09QjpibV33dJXBI0. Step 1. For configurations to survive rebooting or power restarts. but they will be close to 1000 bytes. and it calls nonvolatile RAM (NVRAM) configuration storage the startup configuration. someone is bound to ask why the cryptotext is different. the RAM configuration must be copied into NVRAM. but a short answer to intrigue students may lead to independent research. Use the Cisco IOS show command to view RAM and NVRAM configurations. The configuration is displayed one screen at a time. If all students used cisco as the enable secret password. it is because there is no saved configuration. If the output of NVRAM is missing. . The second field. MD5.

there should be no configured passwords.320 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide ■ ■ ■ Does your MOTD banner contain the information you entered earlier? Yes Do your interface descriptions contain the information you entered earlier? Yes Write down one possible shortcut command that will display the contents of RAM. Task 5: Configure a Cisco Switch Cisco IOS switch configuration is similar to configuring a Cisco IOS router. From user EXEC mode. Connect the host to the switch.. write terminal Step 2. Step 2. Ensure that power has been applied to the switch. press Enter until the switch responds. wr Review the contents of NVRAM. enter global configuration mode: Switch> en Switch# config t Switch(config)# Set the device hostname to Switch1: Switch(config)# hostname Switch1 Switch1(config)# . copy run start. If your switch does not have a default configuration. However. Step 1. The benefit of learning IOS commands is that they are similar to many different devices and IOS versions. cable to the console port on the switch. it must be manually saved in NVRAM. [OK] Router1# Write down one possible shortcut command that will copy the RAM configuration to NVRAM. wr mem. Save the RAM configuration to NVRAM. In HyperTerminal. Move the console. Example 11-7 Saving the RAM Configuration Router1# copy running-config startup-config Destination filename [startup-config]? <ENTER> Building configuration. Save the RAM configuration to NVRAM. The contents should be the same.. write mem. your configuration may look slightly different from the typical default switch configuration. Configure the global configuration hostname setting. Depending on the switch model and IOS version. For a configuration to be used the next time the router is powered on or reloaded. or rollover. and verify that the configuration is the same as the configuration in RAM. ask the instructor to remove the configuration. sh run. as shown in Example 11-7.

. Configure the MOTD banner. Configure the MOTD banner: Switch1(config)# banner motd % The MOTD banner is displayed on all connections before the login prompt. Set the virtual line access password to class. Configure the interface description. Configure the console password. and all connection information will be logged. Switch1 interface Fa0/2 is connected to host computer 2. For assistance. 0 through 15: Switch1(config-line)# line vty 0 15 Switch1(config-line)# password class Switch1(config-line)# login Step 7. Unauthorized access is prohibited. Only system administrators of the ABC company are authorized users. Use the terminating character on a blank line to end the MOTD entry. interface Fa0/1. Figure 11-11 shows a network topology in which Router1 is connected to Switch1. Create a suitable MOTD banner. and interface Fa0/3 is connected to host computer 3. Unauthorized access will be prosecuted. Set the console access password to class: Switch1(config)# line console 0 Switch1(config-line)# password class Switch1(config-line)# login Step 6.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 321 Step 3. review the similar step for configuring a switch MOTD banner. Configure the privileged EXEC password. All connections are continuously logged. Set the privileged EXEC password to cisco: Switch1(config)# enable secret cisco Switch1(config)# Step 5. and will be prosecuted. Access is granted to only current ABC system administrators with prior written approval.% Step 4. Sixteen virtual lines can be configured on a Cisco IOS switch. Configure the virtual line password. Switch1(config)# banner motd % You are connected to an ABC network device.

as shown in Example 11-8. [OK] Switch1# Review the contents of NVRAM. and verify that the configuration is the same as the configuration in RAM. Save the RAM configuration to NVRAM as shown in Example 11-9. Example 11-8 Interface Description Switch1(config)# interface fa0/1 Switch1(config-if)# description Connection to Router1 Switch1(config)# interface fa0/2 Switch1(config-if)# description Connection to host computer 2 Switch1(config)# interface fa0/3 Switch1(config-if)# description Connection to host computer 3 Switch1(config-if)# end Switch1# Step 8. For a configuration to be used the next time the switch is powered on or reloaded.. it must be manually saved in NVRAM. Save the RAM configuration to NVRAM.. Table 11-7 Interface Description Description Switch1 Interface Fa0/1 Fa0/2 Fa0/3 Connection to Router 1 Connection to host computer 2 Connection to host computer 3 Apply the descriptions on the switch interface using the interface configuration command description. .322 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 11-11 Network Topology 1 Fa0/0 Fa0/1 Fa0/1 R1 Fa0/2 S1 Fa0/3 2 3 In Table 11-7. The contents should be the same. Example 11-9 Saving the Configuration Switch1# copy run start Destination filename [startup-config]? <ENTER> Building configuration. write a short description for the connections on Switch1.

Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 323 Task 6: Reflection The more you practice the commands. configure terminal Example: Router> enable Router# configure terminal Router(config)# Specify the router’s name. but an experienced network engineer does not need a cheat sheet to perform common configuration tasks. Table 118 lists the commands covered in this lab. Table 11-8 Action Commands Covered in This Lab Command Enter global configuration mode. the faster you will become at configuring a Cisco IOS router and switch. It is perfectly acceptable to use notes at first to help configure a device. enable secret password Example: Router(config)# enable secret cisco Router(config)# password password login Example: Router(config)# line con 0 Router(config-line)# password class Router(config-line)# login Router(config-line)# Specify a password to prevent unauthorized Telnet access. Router vty lines: 0 4 password password login Example: Router(config)# line vty 0 4 Router(config-line)# password class Router(config-line)# login Router(config-line)# continues . hostname name Example: Router(config)# hostname Router1 Router1(config)# Specify an encrypted password to prevent unauthorized access to privileged EXEC mode. Specify a password to prevent unauthorized access to the console.

To start a capture. as shown in Figure 11-12. Router: Interface is off by default Switch: Interface is on by default interface type/port Example: Router(config)# interface fa0/0 Router(config-if)# description description Router(config-if)# ip address address mask Router(config-if)# no shutdown Router(config-if)# Save the configuration to NVRAM. from HyperTerminal choose Transfer > Capture Text. to save the configuration file to an offline text file. One way to do so is to choose Transfer > Capture Text from HyperTerminal. Enter a path and filename. banner motd % Example: Router(config)# banner motd % banner text % Router(config)# Configure an interface. Figure 11-12 HyperTerminal Capture Menu All communication between the host computer and router is saved to a file. Step 1. and always handy. and click Start. . It also can be copied and pasted into a router. copy running-config startup-config Example: Router# copy running-config startup-config Router# Task 7: Challenge It is often necessary. The file can be edited and saved.324 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 11-8 Action Commands Covered in This Lab continued Command Configure the MOTD banner.

Remove any lines that are not configuration commands. This places the configuration in host computer memory. manually enable the interfaces by issuing the no shutdown command in interface configuration mode. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. restore host computer network connectivity. and save to NVRAM. Manually correct any lines that were scrambled or places where several lines occupy the same line. The important point is to closely examine the configuration for any errors before reloading. Stop the capture. and then turn off power to the host computers. Open the text file and review the contents. such as the — more — prompt. To load the configuration file. Issue the privileged EXEC command show running-config. Erase the NVRAM configuration file: Router1# erase start Erasing the nvram filesystem will remove all configuration files! Continue? [confirm] <ENTER> [OK] Erase of nvram: complete Step 3. The configuration is quickly loaded to the router. enter global configuration mode: Router> en Router# config t Router(config)# Right-click inside the HyperTerminal window and choose Paste To Host. Delete any configuration files saved on the host computers. stale configuration commands may survive a paste action and have unintended consequences. Choose Transfer > Capture Text > Stop. and leave the room ready for the next class. Each message must be investigated and corrected. remove the NVRAM configuration file from each device using the privileged EXEC command erase startup-config. Step 4. After checking the configuration file. Highlighting the HyperTerminal text and copying may also bring the configuration into memory. . Otherwise. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 325 Step 2. After the reload is complete. Watch closely for error messages. it is always a best practice to begin with a clean RAM configuration. and press Spacebar until all the configuration has been displayed. Verify the configuration. highlight the lines and choose Edit > Copy from Notepad. Task 8: Clean Up Before turning off power to the router and switch. Reload the router: Router1# reload Proceed with reload? [confirm] <ENTER> When the router reboots.

5.2) You can now open the file LSG1-Lab11512. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer.1. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity.326 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Basic Cisco Device Configuration (11. however. Remember. .

Background Figure 11-13 shows the topology for this lab.solarwinds. Scenario In this lab.1) Upon completion of this lab.250. This lab requires the use of SolarWinds TFTP server software.aspx or from any freeware or shareware website.com/products/freetools/free_tftp_server.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 327 Lab 11-3: Managing Device Configuration (11.5. Table 11-9 Hardware Lab Equipment and Hardware Requirements Quantity Description Cisco router Computer (host) Console (rollover) cable Crossover cable 1 1 1 1 Part of the CCNA Lab bundle Lab computer Connects computer Host1 to the router console port Connects the Host1 NIC to Router1 Fa0/0 The host computer will be used as a TFTP server.0/24 and additional 6 bits for subnets. You may download a free copy of the SolarWinds TFTP server software from www. Use the last valid subnet. Host1 should use the first valid host address.2. Use TFTP to save and restore a Cisco IOS configuration.250. and then restore the configuration from a TFTP server. . save the configuration to a TFTP server. SolarWinds is a free TFTP application for Windows. and Router1 should use the last valid host address. you will configure common settings on a Cisco router. you will be able to ■ ■ Configure network connectivity. You are given an IP address of 10. Figure 11-13 Topology for Lab 11-3 1 Fa0/0 R1 Straight-Through Cable Serial Cable Console (Rollover) Crossover Cable Table 11-9 lists the lab equipment and hardware requirements for this lab.

0 Subnet Subnet mask: 255. Physically connect the devices. start the HyperTerminal program by choosing Start > Programs > Accessories > Communications > HyperTerminal.248 10. Caution: Do not save the configuration in NVRAM.250. Step 3. press the Enter key until the router responds.250. Step 4.250.250. Connect the other cable end to the host computer with a DB-9 adapter to the COM 1 port. have several different types of cables available for the students. Configure the Router1 interface Fa0/0: ■ ■ ■ Set the description. The configuration tasks for Router1 are as follows: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Specify the router name: Router1 Specify an encrypted privileged EXEC password: cisco Specify a console access password: class Specify a Telnet access password: class Configure the MOTD banner. Step 2. Students should be able to identify the proper cable type based on a visual inspection.250. Mix crossover.328 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Use Table 11-10 to record your addressing. Refer to Figure 11-13. Connect the host computer to the router through HyperTerminal.250. When the HyperTerminal session window opens. Ensure that power has been applied to both the host computer and the router. Logically connect the devices.250. subnet mask. In this lab you practice transferring a configura- tion file to a router that does not have a configuration file in NVRAM. From the Widows taskbar. Table 11-10 IP Addressing IP address: 10. or rollover.249 10.250.255. cable to the console port on the router. Set the Layer 3 address. Issue the no shutdown command. .250 10. Connect the console. straight-through.255.251 To reinforce student cable identification. Configure Router1.250.250. and default gateway. and rollover cables. configure the Host1 computer with an IP address. Task 1: Configure Network Connectivity Step 1.252 Last Host Address Broadcast First Host Address 10. Using the IP address information from the scenario.

. Click Next. as shown in Figure 11-15. timeout is 2 seconds: . Step 3. Step 2.250. click Finish.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 329 Step 5. Verify connectivity. Start the TFTP server. Figure 11-14 shows an active TFTP server window. Example 11-10 Verify Connectivity Router1# ping 10. To configure the TFTP server. Double-click the SolarWinds TFTP application to begin the installation. After SolarWinds has finished the installation. choose File > Configure.250.249. Install the SolarWinds TFTP application. round-trip min/avg/max = 1/1/1 ms Router1# Task 2: Use TFTP to Save and Restore a Cisco IOS Configuration Step 1.!!!! Success rate is 80 percent (4/5). Configure the TFTP server.250. as shown in Example 11-10. Agree to the license agreement. as shown in Table 11-11. Figure 11-14 TFTP Server Window Start the TFTP server by choosing Start > Programs > SolarWinds Free Tools > TFTP Server. Sending 5.250.249 Type escape sequence to abort. and accept the default settings. Verify the settings. 100-byte ICMP Echos to 10. Verify connectivity between Host1 and Router1.

click OK.249 Destination filename [router1-confg]? <ENTER> !! 1081 bytes copied in 2. Use Microsoft Word or WordPad to examine the contents of the file c:\TFTP-Root\router1-confg.250. Save the Router1 configuration to the TFTP server.250.330 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 11-15 Active TFTP Server Window Table 11-11 TFTP Server Settings Setting Value TFTP Root Directory Security Advanced Security Auto-Close Log TFTP-Root Transmit and Receive Files 10. Open Log file c:\Program Files\SolarWinds\Free Tools\TFTP-Server.250 To 10.008 secs (538 bytes/sec) Router1# Verify a successful upload transfer. Step 4.250.250.250. From HyperTerminal.250).250 Never Enable Log Requests to the Following File. The contents should be similar to the following: 3/25/2007 12:29 :Receiving router1-confg from (10.txt. Leave the default file. as shown in Example 11-11.250. 1081 bytes Verify the transferred file. .250. When you’re finished.250. begin a TFTP upload to the TFTP server.250.250.250) 3/25/2007 12:29 :Received router1-confg from (10. The contents should be similar to the configuration shown in Example 11-12. Example 11-11 Saving the Router Configuration to the TFTP Server Router1#copy running-config tftp: Address or name of remote host []? 10.

252 duplex auto speed auto ! interface FastEthernet0/1 no ip address shutdown duplex auto speed auto ! interface Serial0/1/0 no ip address shutdown no fair-queue ! interface Serial0/1/1 no ip address shutdown clock rate 2000000 ! ip http server no ip http secure-server ! control-plane ! banner motd *** ABC COMPANY NETWORK DEVICE **** *** Authorized access only ***** *** Logging is enabled **** .250.4 service timestamps debug datetime msec service timestamps log datetime msec no service password-encryption ! hostname Router1 ! boot-start-marker boot-end-marker ! enable secret 5 $1$D02B$AuX05n0HPT239yYRoQ0oE. ! no aaa new-model ip cef ! interface FastEthernet0/0 description connection to host1 ip address 10.255.250.250 255.255.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 331 Example 11-12 Configuration File ! version 12.

Router1 fa0/0 must be configured with an IP address. Example 11-13 Verify Empty NVRAM Router1# show startup-config startup-config is not present Router1# reload Proceed with reload? [confirm] <ENTER> Connectivity must be established with the TFTP server. Example 11-15 Hostname Configuration Router(config-if)# exit Router(config)# hostname TEST Test(config-if)# end TEST# Verify connectivity using the ping command. and the interface must be enabled.967: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet0/0. .095: %SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from console by console *Mar 25 16:43:04.332 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example 11-12 Configuration File ! line con 0 password class login line aux 0 line vty 0 4 password class login ! continued scheduler allocate 20000 1000 End Step 5. one per line. Configure the hostname of the router to TEST. as shown in Example 11-15.255. Verify that NVRAM is clear. as shown in Example 11-14.250.255.252 Router(config-if)# no shutdown Router(config-if)# exit *Mar 25 16:43:03. as shown in Example 11-13. changed state to up End with CNTL/Z.250. Router(config)# interface fa0/0 Router(config-if)# ip address 10.250 255. Restore the Router1 configuration from the TFTP server. and then reboot Router1. Example 11-14 Interface Configuration Router> enable Router# conf t Enter configuration commands. as shown in Example 11-16.

250.1081 bytes] 1081 bytes copied in 9.com/techsupport Copyright (c) 1986-2007 by Cisco Systems. Compiled Fri 19-Jan-07 15:15 by prod_rel_team .” The previous configuration should be restored.cisco. Task 3: Reflection TFTP is a fast.364 secs (115 bytes/sec) Router1# *Mar 25 16:55:26.250.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 333 Example 11-16 Ping Test Test# ping 10. 100-byte ICMP Echos to 10. Inc.!!!! Success rate is 80 percent(4/5). Task 4: Challenge Similar to uploading a configuration file. and the router’s hostname should now be Router1. Step 4.249.250. issue the Cisco IOS command show version. RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc3) Technical Support: http://www.249 (via FastEthernet0/0): ! [OK . timeout is 2 seconds: . the IOS can also be stored offline for future use. Reload the router. 1841 Software (C1841-ADVIPSERVICESK9-M).250.250.249 Type escape sequence to abort.249 Source filename []? router1-confg Destination filename [startup-config]? <ENTER> Accessing tftp://10.249/router1-confg by console Router1# View the configuration in NVRAM to verify an accurate transfer. Loading router1-confg from 10. Example 11-18 IOS Filename in Flash Router1# show version Cisco IOS Software.250.375: %SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from tftp://10.250. To discover the IOS filename.249/router1-confg. Sending 5. efficient way to save and load Cisco IOS configuration files.250.250.250. Example 11-17 File Transfer from the TFTP Server Test# copy tftp startup-config Address or name of remote host []? 10..250. round-trip min/avg/max = 1/1/1ms Router# Download the Router1 configuration file from the TFTP server. The filename is highlighted in Example 11-18.4(10b). Version 12. as shown in Example 11-17.. The configuration should be the same as what was configured in Task 1.250. Select no at the prompt that says “Configuration has been modified.

export.S. RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1) Router1 uptime is 17 minutes System returned to ROM by reload at 16:47:54 UTC Sun Mar 25 2007 System image file is “flash:c1841-advipservicesk9-mz.com/wwl/export/crypto/tool/stqrg.bin” This product contains cryptographic features and is subject to United States and local country laws governing import.124-10b.S.250.0) with 174080K/22528K bytes of memory.bin Address or name of remote host []? 10. Version 12. Processor board ID FHK110918KJ 2 Serial(sync/async) interfaces DRAM configuration is 64 bits wide with parity disabled. 62720K bytes of ATA CompactFlash (Read/Write) Configuration register is 0x2102 Router1# The commands to upload the IOS are similar to uploading the configuration file. A summary of U. and local country laws.html If you require further assistance.564 secs (370412 bytes/sec) Router1# .124-10b. Example 11-19 File Transfer to TFTP Server Router1# copy flash tftp Source filename []? c1841-advipservicesk9-mz. Cisco 1841 (revision 6. return this product immediately. By using this product you agree to comply with applicable laws and regulations. Importers. Delivery of Cisco cryptographic products does not imply third-party authority to import. distribute or use encryption. as shown in Example 11-19.S. contact Cisco by sending email to export@cisco. laws governing Cisco cryptographic products may be found at: http://www.com.cisco. and local laws.249 Destination filename [c1841-advipservicesk9-mz. 191K bytes of NVRAM. exporters.bin]? !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!! 22063220 bytes copied in 59. distributors and users are responsible for compliance with U. If you are unable to comply with U.250.4(13r)T. transfer and use. export.334 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example 11-18 IOS Filename in Flash continued ROM: System Bootstrap.124-10b.

remove the NVRAM configuration file if it was loaded. Remove the SolarWinds TFTP server from the host computer.2) You can now open the file LSG1-Lab11522. and then turn off power to the host computers. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. . however. Use the privileged EXEC command erase startup-config.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 335 Task 5: Clean Up Before turning off power to the router. Remember. Accept the defaults. Click Add or Remove Applications. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity.5.2. restore host computer network connectivity. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. Choose SolarWinds and click Remove. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. Choose Start > Control Panel. and leave the room ready for the next class. Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Managing Device Configuration (11. Delete any configuration files saved on the host computers.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer.

Configure the physical lab topology. Verify LAN connectivity.3. Figure 11-16 Topology for Lab 11-4 S1 Fa0/1 Fa0/2 1 2 Gather the necessary equipment and cables. .336 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Lab 11-4: Configure Host Computers for IP Networking (11. Configure the logical LAN topology. Mix crossover. Table 11-12 lists the lab equipment and hardware requirements. straight-through. Students should be able to identify the proper cable type based on a visual inspection.1) Upon completion of this lab.5. and rollover cables. To reinforce student cable identification. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ ■ Design the logical lab topology. have several different types of cables available for the students. Table 11-12 Lab Equipment and Hardware Requirements Hardware Quantity Description Cisco router Cisco switch Computer (host) Category 5 or better straight-through UTP cables 1 1 2 2 Part of the CCNA Lab bundle Part of the CCNA Lab bundle Lab computer Connects computers Host1 and Host2 to Switch1 Scenario In this lab you will create a small network that requires connecting network devices and configuring host computers for basic network connectivity. Background Figure 11-16 shows the topology diagram for this lab.

254.254.254.254.168.254.48 192.255.168.168.65 192.254.144 192.254.254. Table 11-13 Addressing Table IP address: 192.168.254.254.254.9 192.254.168.254.168.78 192.254.168.254.129 192.167 192.23 192.254.136 192.168.40 192.168.158 192.254.135 192.56 192.175 192.254.168.254.168.254.168.254. fill in the following information: Maximum number of usable subnets (including the 0th subnet): 31 Number of usable hosts per subnet: 6 Use Table 11-13 to record the addressing scheme.168.120 192.254.254.89 192.254.134 192.183 continues .176 192.7 192.168.254.168.254. and 5 bits used for subnets.168.254.254.137 192.41 192.168.1 192.254.254.88 192.168.86 192.151 192.254.57 192.110 192.30 192.55 192.254.168.168.254.105 192.168.168.96 192.168.254.254.254.254.168.168.81 192.168.254.168.87 192.168.254.254.254.38 192.168.168.168.94 192.168.22 192.168.150 192.143 192.166 192.254.254.168.168.168.168.128 192.168.254.17 192.168.254.254.254.177 192.254.8 192.119 192.46 192.168.254.168.145 192.254.168.254.254.126 192.254.112 192.254.33 192.168.254.254.168.47 192.254.168.168.254.254.168.254.168.254.111 192.254.168.248 Last Host Address Broadcast 192.168.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 337 Task 1: Design the Logical Lab Topology Given an IP address of 192.95 192.168.153 192.254.168.142 192.168.254.254.168.161 192.73 192.79 192.152 192.254.254.254.80 192.254.159 192.168.0 192.254.168.254.254.160 192.254.168.97 192.54 192.254.169 192.64 192.168.254.168.49 192.62 192.168.103 192.168.0 Subnet First Host Address Subnet mask: 255.182 192.168.168.70 192.118 192.168.39 192.104 192.168.168.0/24.174 192.168.168.121 192.168.168 192.254.168.254.168.168.168.254.254.168.168.254.254.168.16 192.14 192.168.254.168.32 192.168.63 192.168.15 192.168.168.254.254.168.24 192.168.254.25 192.254.254.254.168.254.127 192.168.255.254.113 192.72 192.168.168.254.71 192.102 192.254.168.168.31 192.168.254.6 192.168.168.254.168.

254.254.168.254.254.168.254.216 192. After cabling the network devices.255.254.198 192.255 Before proceeding.206 192.214 192.199 192.238 192.168.168.254.240 192. verify your addresses with the instructor.254.168.0 Subnet continued Subnet mask: 255.224 192.233 192.225 192. Task 3: Configure the Logical Topology Step 1.254.168.192 192. Is a crossover cable needed to connect host computers to the switch? Why or why not? No.254.168.168.248 192.168.338 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 11-13 Addressing Table IP address: 192.168.254.254.168.254.254.254.168.168.185 192.239 192.217 192.200 192.254.168.223 192.254.248 Last Host Address Broadcast First Host Address 192.254.254.254.168.207 192.184 192.168. The instructor will assign one subnetwork per student or team. If it’s not already enabled.168.168. turn on power to all devices. .246 192.255.254.254. Write down the IP address information for each device in Table 11-14.254.168.193 192.231 192.168.230 192. take a moment to verify the connections.254. Document logical network settings. Visually inspect network connections.254 192.168. Because computers and the switch are not wired the same for networking.168.254.168.232 192. Task 2: Configure the Physical Lab Topology Step 1.168.168.254.168.168.254. Attention to detail now will minimize the time required to troubleshoot network connectivity issues later.191 192.168.168.254.254.209 192.254. Physically connect the devices.254.168.168.222 192.168.254.168.254. Step 2.249 192.168. straightthrough cables are used.247 192. Host computers will use the first two IP addresses in the subnetwork.168.168. Cable the network devices as shown earlier in Figure 11-16.190 192.201 192.254.215 192.254.208 192.254.168.241 192.254.

Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 339 Table 11-14 Logical Topology Device Subnetwork IP Address Mask Host1 Host2 Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary 255. Table 11-15 Host Addressing Table Host1 IP address IP mask Host2 IP address IP mask Step 2.248 255.248 Answers will vary 255. click OK. The computer may require a reboot for changes to be effective. Refer to Figure 11-17 for Host1 IP address and gateway settings.255.255.255. On Computer1. and choose Properties.255. Record the output in Table 11-16. and then click the Properties button.255. choose Internet Protocol (TCP/IP). Figure 11-17 Host IP Address and Gateway Settings When you’re finished.255. Answers will vary 255. .255. choose Start > Control Panel > Network Connections. Verify proper configuration of Host1 with the ipconfig /all command. and then click Close. Right-click the LAN icon.248 From the information given in Table 11-15. On the General tab.255.248 Configure the Host1 computer. write down the IP network addressing for each computer.

Table 11-17 Host ipconfig Output Setting Value Ethernet device Physical address IP address Subnet mask Default gateway Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary 255. Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary 255. Use Table 11-18 to methodically verify connectivity with each network device.248 Unassigned Task 4: Verify Network Connectivity Network connectivity can be verified with the Windows ping command.255. .248 Unassigned Configure Host2. To disable a Windows firewall. temporarily disable the computer firewall. Table 11-18 Ping Results From To IP Address Ping Result Host1 Host2 Host2 Host1 Answers will vary Answers will vary Should be successful Should be successful Take corrective action to establish connectivity if a test fails. and then click OK.255.340 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 11-16 ipconfig Output Setting Value Ethernet device Physical address IP address Subnet mask Default gateway Step 3.255. Record the output in Table 11-17. Repeat Step 2 for Host2 using IP address information from Table 11-15. choose Start > Control Panel > Windows Firewall. Verify proper configuration. Note: If pings to host computers fail. which you filled out in Step 1.255. and retest. click Off.

Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 341 Task 5: Reflection Review any physical or logical configuration problems encountered during this lab. document the solution. and then turn off power to the host computers. If the solution did not fix the problem. restore the host computer network connectivity. Make sure you have a thorough understanding of the procedures used to configure a Windows host computer. continue troubleshooting. and configure the IP address on the replacement computer. Look for green link lights on Switch1. Task 6: Challenge Ask your instructor or another student to introduce one or two problems in your network when you aren’t looking or are out of the lab room. Use Table 11-18 to identify failed connectivity. Correct the IP address configuration. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. and leave the room ready for the next class. If the solution fixed the problem. . Task 7: Clean Up Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. Test your solution. To fix the problems. perform a good visual inspection. Possible problems: IP addresses on different subnets Incorrect or faulty cable Faulty NIC Write down your proposed solution(s). Problems can be either physical (the wrong UTP cable) or logical (the wrong IP address). List the problems. Replace the cable. Replace the computer with the faulty NIC.

Configure the physical lab topology.1) Upon completion of this lab. . Host2. Table 11-19 lists the equipment and hardware requirements for this lab.4. Verify LAN connectivity.5. Background Figure 11-18 shows the topology for this lab.342 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Lab 11-5: Network Testing (11. Another alternative would be to use two routers connected through a serial connection and use the FastEthernet interfaces from each router. Figure 11-18 Topology for Lab 11-5 Subnet A Fa0/0 Fa0/1 Subnet B Fa0/1 1 R1 Fa0/2 S1 Fa0/3 Subnet C Subnet D Subnet E Subnet F 2 3 Gather the necessary equipment and cables. and Host3 to Switch1 Connects Host1 to Router1 Connects Host1 to the Router1 console If you do not have a router that has two FastEthernet interfaces. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ ■ Design the logical lab topology. consider configuring a loopback interface as an alternative to the FastEthernet 0/1. Configure the logical LAN topology. Table 11-19 Lab Equipment and Hardware Requirements Hardware Quantity Description Cisco router Cisco switch Computer (host) Category 5 or better straight-through UTP cables Category 5 crossover UTP cable Console (rollover) cable 1 1 3 3 1 1 Part of the CCNA Lab bundle Part of the CCNA Lab bundle Lab computer Connects Router1.

Table 11-20 Addressing Requirements Subnet Number of Hosts Subnet A Subnet B Subnet C Subnet D Subnet E Subnet F As shown in the topology diagram Between 80 and 100 Between 40 and 52 Between 20 and 29 12 5 Note: Always start with the subnet that has the largest number of hosts.0. Subnet C. Design the Subnet B address block. pick the next available address block that will support Subnet C. you will create a small network that requires connecting network devices and configuring host computers for basic network connectivity.0. you should start with Subnet B and finish with Subnet A. have several different types of cables available for the students. Students should be able to identify the proper cable type based on a visual inspection. and Subnet F are anticipated subnets. Subnet E.20. Using binary numbers to create your subnet chart. To reinforce student cable identification.20.0. Subnet A and Subnet B are subnets that are currently needed. Subnet D. Using binary numbers to create your subnet chart.20.0. design an IP addressing scheme that satisfies the requirements listed in Table 11-20.255.127 Design the Subnet C address block. the next-largest IP address block.0 Step 2. Fill in Table 11-22 with the IP address information for Subnet C. Step 1.20.126 172. 255. pick the first address block that will support Subnet B. and work your way down. The 0th subnet will be used. not yet connected to the network.20. straight-through.0/24 (address/mask). Therefore. which requires the largest block of IP addresses.0.1 172. Begin the logical network design by satisfying the requirements of Subnet B. and rollover cables. Task 1: Design the Logical Lab Topology Given an IP address and mask of 172.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 343 Scenario In this lab.255. Table 11-21 Subnet B IP Address Information Network Address Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast 172.128 172. Mix crossover. . Satisfy the requirements of Subnet C. Fill in Table 11-21 with the IP address information for Subnet B.

238 172.20.255. Fill in Table 11-25 with the Subnet F IP address information.255.192 255.11110000 Step 5.20.255. Design the Subnet D address block.20.0.20. Design the Subnet E address block. .255.11111111. Using binary numbers to create your subnet chart.255.128 255.11000000 Step 3.0.20.240 172.0.222 172.20. the next-largest IP address block.255.20. pick the next available address block that will support Subnet F.0. Table 11-23 Subnet D IP Address Information Network Address Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast 172.11100000 Step 4. Fill in Table 11-23 with the Subnet D IP address information.0.224 172. Satisfy the requirements of Subnet E.224 255. pick the next available address block that will support Subnet D. Using binary numbers to create your subnet chart.193 172. Design the Subnet F address block.1111111.190 172.0.223 What is the bit mask? 11111111.129 172. Table 11-24 Subnet E IP Address Information Network Address Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast 172. Satisfy the requirements of Subnet F. pick the next available address block that will support Subnet E.11111111.0.20.0.0. the next-largest IP address block. Satisfy the requirements of Subnet D. Using binary numbers to create your subnet chart.20.11111111.0. Fill in Table 11-24 with the Subnet E IP address information.191 What is the bit mask? 11111111.20.239 What is the bit mask? 11111111.1111111.225 172. the next-largest IP address block.1111111.0.192 172.0.20.344 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 11-22 Subnet C IP Address Information Network Address Mask First Host Last Host Broadcast 172.20.

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Table 11-25 Subnet F IP Address Information Network Address Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast

172.20.0.240

255.255.255.248

172.20.0.241

172.20.0.246

172.20.0.24

What is the bit mask? 11111111.1111111.11111111.11111000
Step 6.

Design the Subnet A address block. Satisfy the requirements of Subnet A, the smallest IP address block. Using binary numbers to create your subnet chart, pick the next available address block that will support Subnet A. Fill in Table 11-26 with the Subnet A IP addressing table.

Table 11-26 Subnet A IP Addressing Table Network Address Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast

172.20.0.248

255.255.255.252

172.20.0.249

172.20.0.250

172.20.0.251

What is the bit mask? 11111111.1111111.11111111.11111100

Task 2: Configure the Physical Lab Topology
Step 1.

Physically connect the lab devices. Cable the network devices as shown earlier, in Figure 11-18. Pay special attention to the crossover cable required between Host1 and Router1. If it’s not already enabled, turn on power to all devices.

Step 2.

Visually inspect the network connections. After cabling the network devices, take a moment to verify the connections. Attention to detail now will minimize the time required to troubleshoot Layer 1 connectivity issues later.

Task 3: Configure the Logical Topology
Step 1.

Document logical network settings. On Subnet A, Host1 uses the first IP address in the subnet. Router1, interface Fa0/0, uses the last host address. On Subnet B, host computers use the first and second IP addresses in the subnet, respectively. Router1, interface Fa0/1, uses the last network host address. To properly route Layer 2 frames between LAN devices, Switch1 does not require Layer 3 configuration. The IP address assigned to Switch1, interface VLAN 1, is used to establish Layer 3 connectivity between external devices and the switch. Without an IP address, upper-layer protocols such as Telnet and HTTP will not work. The default gateway address

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permits the switch to respond to protocol requests from devices on distant networks. For example, the IP gateway address extends Layer 3 connectivity beyond Subnet B. Switch1 uses the next-to-last host address. Write down the IP address information for each device listed in Table 11-27.
Table 11-27 IP Address Information Device Subnet IP Address Mask Gateway

Host1 Router1-Fa0/0 Host2 Host3 Switch1 Router1-Fa0/1
Step 2.

172.20.0.248 172.20.0.248 172.20.0.0 172.20.0.0 172.20.0.0 172.20.0.0

172.20.0.249 172.20.0.250 172.20.0.1 172.20.0.2 172.20.0.125 172.20.0.126

255.255.255.252 255.255.255.252 255.255.255.128 255.255.255.128 255.255.255.128 255.255.255.128

172.20.0.250 — 172.20.0.126 172.20.0.126 172.20.0.126 —

Configure host computers. On each computer, in turn, choose Start > Control Panel > Network Connections. Right-click the LAN icon, and choose Properties. On the General tab, choose Internet Protocol (TCP/IP), and then click the Properties button. Verify that the Host1 Layer 3 IP address is on a different subnet than Host2 and Host3. Configure each host computer using the IP address information recorded in Step 1. Verify proper configuration of each host computer with the ipconfig command, and fill in Table 11-28.

Table 11-28 Host Configuration Device IP Address Mask Default Gateway

Host1 Host2 Host3
Step 3.

172.20.0.249 172.20.0.1 172.20.0.2 Configure Router1.

255.255.255.252 255.255.255.128 255.255.255.128

172.20.0.250 172.20.0.126 172.20.0.126

From the Windows taskbar, start the HyperTerminal program by choosing Start > Programs > Accessories > Communications > HyperTerminal. Configure HyperTerminal for access to Router1. Configuration for Router1 includes the following tasks:
■ ■ ■ ■ ■

Specify the router name: Router1 Specify an encrypted privileged EXEC password: cisco Specify a console access password: class Specify a Telnet access password: class Configure the MOTD banner.

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Configure Router1 interface Fa0/0:
■ ■ ■

Set the description. Set the Layer 3 address. Issue the no shutdown command.

Configure Router1 interface Fa0/1:
■ ■ ■

Set the description. Set the Layer 3 address. Issue the no shutdown command.

Save the configuration in NVRAM. What command do you use to display the contents of RAM? show running-config Record the configuration specifications:
■ ■ ■ ■ ■

Hostname: Router1 Enable secret password: cisco Console access password: class Telnet access password: class MOTD banner: Answers will vary

What command do you use to display configuration information for interface Fa0/0? show interface Fa0/0 Record the configuration specifications:
■ ■ ■

FastEthernet 0/0 status (up/down): Should be up Line protocol: Should be up MAC address: Answers will vary

What command do you use to display configuration information for interface Fa0/1? show interface Fa0/1 Record the configuration specifications:
■ ■ ■

FastEthernet 0/0 status (up/down): Should be up Line protocol: Should be up MAC address: Answers will vary

What command do you use to display brief IP address information about each interface? show ip interface brief Record the configuration specifications:
Interface FastEthernet0/0 FastEthernet0/1 IP-Address 172.20.0.250 172.20.0.126 OK? Method Status YES manual up YES manual up Protocol up up

Take corrective action with any problems, and retest.

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Step 4.

Configure Switch1. Move the console cable from Router1 to Switch1. Press Enter until you receive a response. Configuration for Switch1 includes the following:
■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■

Specify a switch name: Switch1 Specify an encrypted privileged EXEC password: cisco Specify a console access password: class Specify a Telnet access password: class Configure the MOTD banner. Configure Switch1 interface Fa0/1:

Set the description.

Configure Switch1 interface Fa0/2:

Set the description.

Configure Switch1 interface Fa0/3:

Set the description.

Configure the management VLAN1 IP address:
■ ■ ■

Set the description. Set the Layer 3 address. Issue the no shutdown command.

Configure the default IP gateway address.

What command do you use to display the contents of RAM? show running-config Write the configuration specifications:
■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■

Hostname: Switch1 Enable secret password: cisco Console access password: class Telnet access password: class MOTD banner: Answers will vary Interface VLAN 1: 172.20.0.125 Default IP gateway address: 172.20.0.126

What command do you use to display configuration information for interface VLAN 1? show interface vlan1
■ ■

VLAN 1 status (up/down): Should be up Line protocol: Should be up

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Task 4: Verify Network Connectivity
Step 1.

Use the ping command to verify network connectivity. You can verify network connectivity using the ping command. It is very important that connectivity exist throughout the network. Corrective action must be taken if a failure occurs. Use Table 11-29 to methodically verify connectivity with each network device.

Table 11-29 Connectivity Testing From To IP Address Ping Result

Host1 Host1 Host1 Host1 Host1 Host1 Host1 Host2 Host2 Host2 Host2 Host2 Host2 Host2 Host3 Host3 Host3 Host3 Host3 Host3

LocalHost (127.0.0.1) NIC IP address Gateway (Router1, Fa0/0 Router1, Fa0/1 Switch1 Host2 Host3 LocalHost (127.0.0.1) NIC IP address Host3 Switch1 Gateway (Router1, Fa0/1) Router1, Fa0/0 Host1 LocalHost (127.0.0.1) NIC IP address Host2 Switch1 Gateway (Router1, Fa0/1) Router1, Fa0/0

127.0.0.1 172.20.0.249 172.20.0.250 172.20.0.126 172.20.0.125 172.20.0.1 172.20.0.2 127.0.0.1 172.20.0.1 172.20.0.2 172.20.0.125 172.20.0.126 172.20.0.250 172.20.0.249 127.0.0.1 172.20.0.2 172.20.0.1 172.20.0.125 172.20.0.126 172.20.0.250

Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful

Take corrective action to establish connectivity if a test fails.
Note: If pings to host computers fail, temporarily disable the computer firewall, and retest. To disable a Windows firewall, choose Start > Control Panel > Windows Firewall, click Off, and then click OK.

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Step 2.

Use the tracert command to verify local connectivity. From Host1, issue the tracert command to Host2 and Host3. Record the results:
■ ■

From Host1 to Host2: Answers should show success From Host1 to Host3: Answers should show success

Step 3.

Verify Layer 2 connectivity. If it’s not already connected, move the console cable from Router1 to Switch1. Press the Enter key until Switch1 responds. Issue the command show mac-address-table. This command displays static (CPU) and dynamic, or learned, entries. List the dynamic MAC addresses and their corresponding switch ports in Table 11-30.

Table 11-30 MAC Address Table MAC Address Switch Port

Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary

Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary

Verify that there are three dynamically learned MAC addresses—one each from Fa0/1, Fa0/2, and Fa0/3.

Task 5: Reflection
Review any physical or logical configuration problems encountered during this lab. Make sure you have a thorough understanding of the procedures used to verify network connectivity.

Task 6: Challenge
Ask your instructor or another student to introduce one or two problems in your network when you aren’t looking or are out of the lab room. Problems can be either physical (the wrong UTP cable) or logical (the wrong IP address or gateway). To fix the problems, perform a good visual inspection. Look for green link lights on Switch1. Use Table 11-18 to identify failed connectivity. List the problems. Possible answers include incorrect IP addressing and incorrect cabling. Write down your proposed solution(s). Possible solutions include correcting the IP address configuration and replacing the cable. Test your solution. If the solution fixed the problem, document the solution. If the solution did not fix the problem, continue troubleshooting.

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Task 7: Clean Up
Unless directed otherwise by the instructor, restore host computer network connectivity, and then turn off power to the host computers. Before turning off power to the router and switch, remove the NVRAM configuration file from each device with the privileged EXEC command erase startup-config. Carefully remove the cables, and return them neatly to their storage. Reconnect cables that were disconnected for this lab. Remove anything that was brought into the lab, and leave the room ready for the next class.

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Lab 11-6: Network Documentation with Utility Commands (11.5.5.1)
Upon completion of this lab, you will be able to
■ ■ ■ ■ ■

Design the logical lab topology. Configure the physical lab topology. Design and configure the logical LAN topology. Verify LAN connectivity. Document the network.

Background Figure 11-19 shows the topology for this lab.
Figure 11-19 Topology for Lab 11-6
Subnet A
Fa0/0 Fa0/1

Subnet B
Fa0/1

1

R1
Fa0/2

S1
Fa0/3

Subnet C

2

3

Gather the necessary equipment and cables. Table 11-31 lists the equipment and hardware requirements for this lab.
Table 11-31 Equipment and Hardware Requirements Hardware Quantity Description

Cisco router Cisco switch Computer (host) Category 5 or better straight-through UTP cables Category 5 crossover UTP cable Console (rollover) cable

1 1 3 3 1 1

Part of the CCNA Lab bundle Part of the CCNA Lab bundle Lab computer Connects Router1, Host1, and Host2 to Switch1 Connects Host1 to Router1 Connects Host1 to the Router1 console

If you do not have a router that has two FastEthernet interfaces, consider configuring a loopback interface as an alternative to FastEthernet 0/1. Another alternative would be to use two routers connected through a serial connection and use the FastEthernet interfaces from each router.

255.1111111.224/27 (address/mask). Subnet C is an anticipated subnet.240 209.238 209. the next-largest block of IP addresses.255. Table 11-33 Subnet C IP Address Information Network Address Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast 209. Task 1: Design the Logical Lab Topology Given an IP address of 209. Subnet A and Subnet B are subnets that are currently needed. pick the first address block that will support Subnet B. Satisfy the requirements of Subnet B. Design the Subnet B address block. router and host output will be copied from the devices and into Notepad for use in network documentation.200. pick the next available address block that will support Subnet C.165.200. straight-through.200.239 What is the bit mask? 11111111. have several different types of cables available for the students. To reinforce student cable identification. design an IP addressing scheme that satisfies the requirements listed in Table 11-32. the largest IP address block. The 0th subnet will be used. . Students should be able to identify the proper cable type based on a visual inspection. In this lab you will create a small network that requires connecting network devices and configuring host computers for basic network connectivity. Using binary numbers to create your subnet chart. 2 Between 2 and 6 Between 10 and 12 Design the Subnet C address block.224 255.165.11110000 Step 2. Mix crossover. Using binary numbers to create your subnet chart. Fill in Table 11-33 with the IP address information for Subnet C.165.225 209. not yet connected to the network. A well-documented network enables network engineers to save significant time in troubleshooting and planning future growth.165. and rollover cables.165.200. Table 11-32 IP Addressing Requirements Subnet Number of Hosts Subnet A Subnet B Subnet C Step 1. Scenario Network documentation is a very important tool for the organization.200.11111111.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 353 In this lab. Begin the logical network design by satisfying the requirements of Subnet C.

251 What is the bit mask? 11111111. pick the next available address block that will support Subnet A.11111111. Physically connect lab devices. If it’s not already enabled. Document the logical network settings. The network router uses the last network host address. Write down the IP address information for each device in Table 11-36. Cable the network devices as shown in Figure 11-19.246 209.240 255. Task 3: Configure the Logical Topology Step 1. the smallest IP address block.248 255.248 209.247 What is the bit mask? 11111111.255.1111111.165. Using binary numbers to create your subnet chart.200.165.200.165. .111111000___ Step 3.165.165.165.200. Table 11-35 Subnet A IP Address Information Network Address Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast 209.1111111. Visually inspect the network connections.255. After cabling the network devices. Design the Subnet A address block.165.249 209.252 209.200. Attention to detail now will minimize the time required to troubleshoot network connectivity issues later.200.250 209.11111111. Step 2. turn on power to all devices.165.354 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Fill in Table 11-34 with the IP address information for Subnet B.255.240 209.11111100 Task 2: Configure the Physical Lab Topology Step 1.200. Pay special attention to the crossover cable required between Host1 and Router1.200. Fill in Table 11-35 with the IP address information for Subnet A.200. Host computers use the first two IP addresses in the subnetwork. take a moment to verify the connections. Satisfy the requirements of Subnet A.255. Table 11-34 Subnet B IP Address Information Network Address Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast 209.

Issue the no shutdown command.240 209. Highlight the Local Area Connection device icon.165.200. Issue the no shutdown command.200.242 — 255.165.255.255.165. Set the Layer 3 address.165.248 255.200.240 209.200.248 — — 209.200.241 209.252 255.165. Record your information in a separate document.165.248 255.165.246 209.200.255. These are the configuration tasks for Router1: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Specify the router name: Router1 Specify an encrypted privileged EXEC password: cisco Specify a console access password: class Specify a Telnet access password: class Configure the MOTD banner. and name it Documentation_Lab11-6. From the Windows taskbar. Verify that the Host1 Layer 3 IP address is on a different subnetwork than Host2 and Host3.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 355 Table 11-36 IP Address Information Device Subnet IP Address Mask Gateway Router1 -FA0/0 Host1 Router1 -FA0/1 Host2 Host2 Switch Step 2. On each computer in turn. Configure Router1.200.248 209.252 255. Set the Layer 3 address.246 209.200. 209. Configure Router1 interface Fa0/0: ■ ■ ■ Set the description.200.246 — Configure the host computers.255.165.255. .200. Configure HyperTerminal for access to Router1.165. Step 3.250 — 209.255.240 — 209.255. right-click. Configure each host computer using the IP address information recorded in Step 1.249 209. ■ Configure Router1 interface Fa0/1: ■ ■ ■ Set the description.200.255.255.165. Highlight Internet Protocol (TCP/IP).248 209. start the HyperTerminal program by choosing Start > Programs > Accessories > Communications > HyperTerminal.165.255.250 209. and choose Properties.165.200.165. choose Start > Control Panel > Network Connections. Verify proper configuration of each host computer using the ipconfig /all command.200. and choose Properties.

Move the console cable from Router1 to Switch1. Copy the output of the show mac address-table command to your document named Documentation_Lab11-6. and click OK. Corrective action must be taken if a failure occurs. Network connectivity can be verified with the ping command. Configure Switch1. ■ Configure Switch1 interface Fa0/2: ■ Set the description. Take corrective action to establish connectivity if a test fails. and retest. ■ Configure Switch1 interface Fa0/3: ■ Set the description. Step 4. Configuration tasks for Switch1 are as follows: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Specify the switch name: Switch1 Specify an encrypted privileged EXEC password: cisco Specify a console access password: class Specify a Telnet access password: class Configure the MOTD banner. . Configure Switch1 interface Fa0/1: ■ Set the description. Use the ping command to verify network connectivity.356 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Specify the command you use to save the configuration in NVRAM: copy run start Specify the command you use to display the contents of RAM: show running-configuration Save the output of the configuration to your document named Documentation_Lab11-6. click OFF. Copy the output of the show interface fa0/0 and show interface fa0/1 commands into your document named Documentation_Lab11-6. Press Enter until you receive a response. Task 4: Verify Network Connectivity Step 1. choose Start > Control Panel > Windows Firewall. To disable a Windows firewall. Use Table 11-37 to methodically verify connectivity with each network device. Note: If pings to host computers fail. Specify the command you use to display the contents of RAM: show running-configuration Copy the output of the configuration to your document named Documentation_Lab11-6. temporarily disable the computer firewall. It is very important that connectivity exist throughout the network. Copy the output of the show ip interface brief command to your document named Documentation_Lab11-6.

1) NIC IP address Host2 Gateway (Router1. In addition to connectivity testing. Results can be used to justify equipment upgrades or new purchases.0.165.265. with minimal traffic.265. Task 5: Document the Network With all the work performed so far.165.200. issue the tracert command to Host3.249 Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Use the tracert command to verify local connectivity.200. Fa0/0 Router1.250 209.242 209.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 357 Table 11-37 Connectivity Testing From To IP Address Ping Result Host1 Host1 Host1 Host1 Host1 Host1 Host2 Host2 Host2 Host2 Host2 Host2 Host3 Host3 Host3 Host3 Host3 Host3 Step 2.200.165.200. Router1.1) NIC IP Address Gateway (Router1.246126 209. That is.241 209.0.200.0.265. tracert results can be compared against periods of high traffic. and Host3.0.0. Host2.249 209. From Host2.200.0.200. .265.265. issue the tracert command to Router1.0. Fa0/0 Host1 LocalHost (127.200. it would seem that there is nothing left to do. From Host3. LocalHost (127.265. issue the tracert command to Host2.1 209.243 209. From Host1. The network was physically and logically configured and verified.200.265. Fa0/1) Router1. Router1.0. Fa0/0 Host1 127. Fa0/1) Router1.241 209. Record the results in your document named Documentation_Lab11-6. and Host1.200.1) NIC IP Address Host3 Gateway (Router1. and Host1.250 209.249 127.0. Fa0/1 Host2 Host3 LocalHost (127. the tracert command may be used as a crude throughput tester for network baselining.1 209.265.246 209.200.265.0.200.246 209.241 209.242 127. and command output was copied into tables.0. Record the results in your document named Documentation_Lab11-6.200.265. Record the results in your document named Documentation_Lab11-6.265.1 209.200.200.250 209.0.265.

answer the following questions in the documentation. For example. Note to Instructor: You could introduce problems into the network by changing IP addresses. Ensure that you understand the procedures used to verify network connectivity. Use your network documentation to make sure your configurations are correct: Answers will vary Write down your proposed solution(s): Answers will vary Test your solution. Perform a good visual inspection. continue troubleshooting. document the solution. As you organize. perhaps in a cover letter: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ When was the network created? When was the network documented? Were any significant challenges overcome? Who performed the configuration? (Talent like this needs to be tracked. default gateways. Use your network documentation to troubleshoot and remedy the problems. Answers will vary . Task 6: Reflection Review any physical or logical configuration problems you encountered during this lab. think about what might be needed six months or a year from now. Look for green link lights on Switch1. and submit it to your instructor. If the solution fixed the problem. If the solution did not fix the problem. subnet masks.358 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide The last step in network documentation is to organize your output. Task 7: Challenge Ask your instructor or another student to introduce one or two problems in your network when you aren’t looking or are out of the lab room. Problems can be either physical (cables moved on the switch) or logical (the wrong IP address or gateway).) Be sure to include the following information: ■ ■ A copy of the physical topology A copy of the logical topology Prepare your documentation in a professional format.) Who wrote the documentation? (Talent like this needs to be tracked. or cables.

255.255.255.250 255.200. remove the NVRAM configuration file from each device using the privileged EXEC command erase startup-config.255.252 duplex auto speed auto ! interface FastEthernet0/1 description connection to Switch1 ip address 209.200. and leave the room ready for the next class.248 duplex auto speed auto .246 255. Reconnect cables that were disconnected for this lab. Carefully remove the cables.165. Before turning off power to the router and switch. restore host computer network connectivity. Example Router 1 Configuration Router1 Configuration Current configuration : 1138 bytes ! version 12.4 service timestamps debug datetime msec service timestamps log datetime msec no service password-encryption ! hostname Router1 ! boot-start-marker boot-end-marker ! enable secret 5 $1$sqIx$iKGfkjNa6IlaBVnPnGrVR0 ! no aaa new-model ip cef ! interface FastEthernet0/0 description connection to Host1 ip address 209. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. Instructors may find the following configuration examples helpful.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 359 Task 8: Clean Up Unless directed otherwise by the instructor.165. then turn off power to the host computers. and return them neatly to their storage.

cdee) Description: connection to Host1 .360 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example ! Router 1 Configuration continued interface Serial0/1/0 no ip address shutdown no fair-queue ! interface Serial0/1/1 no ip address shutdown clock rate 2000000 ! interface Vlan1 no ip address ! ip http server no ip http secure-server ! control-plane ! banner motd ^C **** ABC network device **** **** Authorized access only **** **** Logging is enabled ***** ^C ! line con 0 password class login line aux 0 line vty 0 4 password class login ! scheduler allocate 20000 1000 end Example Router 1 Interface Fa0/0 Configuration Router1# show interface fa0/0 Router1#sh int fa0/0 FastEthernet0/0 is up. line protocol is up Hardware is Gt96k FE.cdee (bia 001b.530c.530c. address is 001b.

output 00:00:02.200. 100Mb/s. 100BaseTX/FX ARP type: ARPA. txload 1/255. txload 1/255. 4 interface resets 0 babbles. DLY 100 usec. rxload 1/255 Encapsulation ARPA. DLY 100 usec. line protocol is up Hardware is Gt96k FE. 0 runts. 0 overrun. 0 no carrier 0 output buffer failures.530c. 88733 bytes. 0 underruns 0 output errors. 0 packets/sec . 0 ignored 0 watchdog 0 input packets with dribble condition detected 277 packets output.200. 100BaseTX/FX ARP type: ARPA. 0 throttles 0 input errors. Total output drops: 0 Queueing strategy: fifo Output queue: 0/40 (size/max) 5 minute input rate 0 bits/sec. ARP Timeout 04:00:00 Last input never. reliability 255/255. 0 packets/sec 5 minute output rate 0 bits/sec.cdef) Description: connection to Switch1 Internet address is 209. output hang never Last clearing of “show interface” counters never Input queue: 0/75/0/0 (size/max/drops/flushes). 0 CRC. output hang never Last clearing of “show interface” counters never Input queue: 0/75/0/0 (size/max/drops/flushes). reliability 255/255. 0 giants. BW 100000 Kbit. 0 packets/sec 54 packets input. 8915 bytes Received 44 broadcasts. 0 deferred 0 lost carrier. BW 100000 Kbit. 0 packets/sec 5 minute output rate 0 bits/sec.cdef (bia 001b.246/29 MTU 1500 bytes. 0 collisions.165.530c. loopback not set Keepalive not set Auto-duplex.250/30 MTU 1500 bytes. 0 frame. loopback not set Keepalive set (10 sec) Full-duplex. Total output drops: 0 Queueing strategy: fifo Output queue: 0/40 (size/max) 5 minute input rate 0 bits/sec. Auto Speed. address is 001b. output never. rxload 1/255 Encapsulation ARPA. 0 late collision.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 361 Example Router 1 Interface Fa0/0 Configuration continued Internet address is 209. 0 output buffers swapped out Example Router 1 Interface Fa0/1 Configuration Router1# show interface fa0/1 FastEthernet0/1 is up. ARP Timeout 04:00:00 Last input 00:01:27.165.

250 YES manual up 209. 0 bytes Received 0 broadcasts. 0 underruns 0 output errors. 0 late collision. 0 no carrier 0 output buffer failures. 0 giants.200.165.. 0 ignored 0 watchdog 0 input packets with dribble condition detected 91 packets output. loopback service timestamps debug uptime service timestamps log uptime no service password-encryption ! hostname Switch1 ! enable secret 5 $1$X9tO$93NSNcI66s8ESanQ/o3A60 ! interface FastEthernet0/1 description connection to Router1 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/2 description connection to Host2 no ip address .200. 1 interface resets 0 babbles.165. Current configuration : 1862 bytesad 1/255 ! version 12. 14481 bytes. 0 overrun.. 0 throttles 0 input errors.246 YES manual up unassigned unassigned YES unset YES unset administratively down down administratively down down Example Switch 1 Configuration Building configuration. 0 CRC. 0 output buffers swapped out Example Router 1 IP Address Configuration Router1# sh ip int brief Interface FastEthernet0/0 FastEthernet0/1 Serial0/1/0 Serial0/1/1 IP-Address OK? Method Status Protocol up up 209. 0 deferred 0 lost carrier.362 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example Router 1 Interface Fa0/1 Configuration continued 0 packets input. 0 frame.1 no service padARPA. 0 runts. 0 collisions.

Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 363 Example ! Switch 1 Configuration continued interface FastEthernet0/3 description connection to Host3 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/4 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/5 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/6 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/7 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/8 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/9 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/10 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/11 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/12 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/13 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/14 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/15 no ip address ! .

364 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example Switch 1 Configuration continued interface FastEthernet0/16 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/17 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/18 no ip address ! Interface FastEthernet0/19 no ip address ! Interface FastEthernet0/20 no ip address ! Interface FastEthernet0/21 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/22 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/23 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/24 no ip address ! interface GigabitEthernet0/1 no ip address !s interface GigabitEthernet0/2 no ip address ! ip http server ! banner motd ^C **** ABC network device **** **** Authorized access only **** **** Logging is enabled ***** .

165.cccd 0100.3c3a 001b. C:\> tracert 209.200.241 over a maximum of 30 hops 1 2 <1 ms 1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms 209.165. C:\> .165.242 Tracing route to 209.dddd 0016.165.250 Trace complete.250 Tracing route to 209. C:\> tracert 209.250 209.165.200.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 365 Example Switch 1 MAC Address Table Mac Address Table ------------------------------------------Vlan ---All All All All 1 1 1 Mac Address ----------000f.200.f79f.165.0ccc.0ccc.200.200.200.cccc 0100.165.242 Trace complete.8bb4.200.6cc0 0100.250 209.0cdd.242 over a maximum of 30 hops 1 2 <1 ms 1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms 209.200.165.200.530c.241 Tracing route to 209.200.241 Trace complete.165.cdef Type -------STATIC STATIC STATIC STATIC DYNAMIC DYNAMIC DYNAMIC Ports ----CPU CPU CPU CPU Fa0/3 Fa0/2 Fa0/1 Total Mac Addresses for this criterion: 7 Switch1# Example Traceroute Results Host1 C:\> tracert 209.165.76ac.200.165.250 over a maximum of 30 hops 1 <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms 209.a76a 0018.

How an IP packet is constructed. For brevity and clarity.5. Download the following files from Eagle Server. The contents of an Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) Request and ARP Reply.2.exe Scenario This exercise details the sequence of datagrams that are created and sent across a network between a web client.1.366 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Lab 11-7: Case Study: Datagram Analysis with Wireshark (11. and explain the frame fields. you will be able to demonstrate ■ ■ ■ ■ How a TCP segment is constructed.1/24 LAN: MAC Address: 00:0c:85:cf:66:41 IP Address: 10. and explain the packet fields. Understanding the process involved in sequentially placing packets on the network will help you logically troubleshoot network failures when connectivity breaks.com. How an Ethernet II frame is constructed.1.2. and install Wireshark on your computer if it is not already installed: ■ ■ ■ eagle1_web_client. and explain the segment fields.255/24 Server S1 LAN: MAC Address: 00:0f:f7:9f:6c:c9 IP Address: 10.2.1.example. eagle1.pcap (discussed) eagle1_web_server. Figure 11-20 shows the topology for this lab. be sure to get permission in writing.1) Upon completion of this exercise.2.254/24 LAN: MAC Address: 00:0c:29:63:17:a5 IP Address: 10.250/24 DNS Server . a network protocol analyzer.1. Background This lab requires two captured packet files and Wireshark. PC_Client.251/24 R1 LAN: MAC Address: 00:0c:85:cf:66:40 IP Address: 10.pcap (reference only) wireshark. and a web server. Figure 11-20 Topology for Lab 11-7 Client LAN: MAC Address: 00:02:3f:7e:37:da IP Address: 10. Before executing a network protocol analyzer on a network that belongs to someone else.1. network packet noise has been omitted from the captures.6.1.

. .1.1. Figure 11-21 PC Client with Web Browser Task 1: Prepare the Lab Step 1. : 255. . you can display IP configuration information and the contents of the ARP cache. . . . Filter Toolbar. . Verify that Packet List and Packet Details are checked. . uncheck Name Resolution for MAC Layer and Transport Layer. .1 Subnet Mask . . .Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 367 Using Microsoft command-line tools. . . . : 10. .com is entered. . This begins the communication process to the web server. : Description . . . .255. . . . . : No IP Address. .1. and it’s where the captured packets start. : Intel(R) PRO/1000 MT Network Connection Physical Address. . . . . . : 00:02:3f:7e:37:da Dhcp Enabled. . . To ensure that there is no automatic translation in MAC addresses. Refer to Figure 11-22 for changes to the default output. Example 11-20 PC Client Initial Network State C: > ipconfig / all Windows IP Configuration Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection: Connection-specific DNS Suffix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .255.0 Default Gateway . . as shown in Figure 11-21. . . . : 10.1. and Packet Bytes. . .1. . . : 10.example.250 C: > arp -a No ARP Entries Found C: > A web client is started. . . Refer to Example 11-20. . Uncheck Main Toolbar.1. . . .254 DNS Servers . Start Wireshark on your computer. and the URL eagle1. . . . . .

Because this communication is from a web client. Consider the TCP segment shown in Figure 11-24. provided by the application layer. Figure 11-23 Wireshark with eagle1_web_client. Likewise. a sequence number has been internally generated. When PC_Client builds the datagram for a connection with eagle1. There are also two separate data windows. the datagram travels down the various network layers.pcap. Some information is unknown to PC_Client. Review transport layer operation. 1085—and knows the well-known web server port address. The top Wireshark window lists all captured packets. A screen similar to Figure 11-23 appears.com. The bottom window contains packet details. At each layer.368 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 11-22 Wireshark Default View Changes Step 2. 80. eagle1_web_client. the transport layer protocol is TCP. In the bottom window. . PC_Client generates an internal TCP port address—in this conversation. Various pull-down menus and submenus are available. important header information is added.pcap Task 2: Review the Process of Data Flowing Through the Network Step 1. Load the web client capture. so it must be discovered using other network protocols. Data is included.example. each line that contains a plus sign next to it indicates that additional information is available.

as shown in Figure 11-25. the packet version (IPv4) is known. Figure 11-26 Ethernet II Frame Fields Ethernet II Frame Format Source Frame Address Type 2 Octets Preamble Destination Address Data CRC 8 Octets 6 Octets 6 Octets 46–1500 Octets 4 Octets . For example.example. the TCP three-way handshake must be performed. Review data link layer operation. Figure 11-25 IP Packet Fields IP Packet 0 Version 4 IHL Identification TTL Protocol Source IP Address Destination IP Address Data 8 10 TOS Flags 16 Total Length Fragment Offset Header Checksum 31 The destination for this packet is eagle1. The corresponding IP address must be discovered through Domain Name System (DNS). Review network layer operation. the IPv4 (IP) packet has several fields ready with information. At the network layer. Step 2. it must be encapsulated inside a frame. but it must discover the destination MAC address.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 369 Figure 11-24 TCP Segment Field TCP Segment 0 4 7 Source Port Sequence Number Acknowledgment Number Data Offset Reserved ECN Checksum Options and Padding Data Control Bits Window Urgent Pointer 10 16 Destination Port 31 There is no acknowledgment number. fields related to the upper-layer protocols are empty. as well as the source IP address. Before the datagram is placed on the physical medium.com. Step 3. as shown in Figure 11-26. PC_Client knows the source MAC address. Until the upper-layer datagram is received. Before this segment can move to the network layer.

what can you infer about an ARP Request destination address and an ARP Reply destination address? The destination address for an ARP Request is a broadcast address. because the MAC address for the DNS server is unknown. The ARP protocol is broadcast on the LAN to learn the destination MAC address for eagle1. No. The TCP three-way handshake cannot occur. The DNS server sent an ARP Reply. The DNS server cannot be queried.1. You can view the contents of the Ethernet II frame by clicking the checkbox in the second line of the Packet Details window.com must first be completed.1.1 Based on the observation of the ARP protocol. the source MAC address of the request is stored in the receiver’s ARP cache. 1.example.example.com is unknown. What is the source MAC address for the ARP Request? 00:02:31:7e:73:da What is the destination MAC address for the ARP Request? ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff What is the unknown IP address in the ARP Request? 10. A TCP three-way handshake with eagle1.1. What is the source MAC address for the ARP Reply? 00:0c:29:63:17:a5 What is the destination MAC address for the ARP Request? 00:02:31:7e:73:da What is the Ethernet II frame type? 0x0806 (ARP) What is the destination IP address in the ARP Reply? 10. because PC_Client does not know the IP address for eagle1.com. Review the data flow sequence.370 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 3: Analyze Captured Packets Step 1. Examine the ARP request. Refer to Wireshark’s Packet List window. The ARP protocol is broadcast on the LAN to discover the MAC address for the DNS server.com.example.1. You can view the contents of the ARP Request by clicking the ARP Request line in the Packet Details window.250 What is the Ethernet II frame type? 0x0806 (ARP) Step 3. . A review of missing information will be helpful in following the captured packet sequence: ■ The TCP segment cannot be constructed because the acknowledgment field is blank. ■ ■ ■ Step 2. This is resolved with a DNS request from PC_Client to the DNS server.example. 2. The MAC address for eagle1. Refer to Wireshark’s Packet List window. Examine the ARP reply. No. The captured frame is an ARP Request. Why didn’t the DNS server have to send an ARP Request for the PC_Client MAC address? When an ARP Request is received. and the destination address for an ARP Reply is a unicast address.

The ARP Reply was from the Gateway. answer the following questions: What is the Ethernet II frame type? 0x0800 (IP) What is the transport layer protocol. PC_Client sent an ARP Request to IP address 10. What is your response? DNS uses UDP for name translation. No. Examine the DNS query.com. only the TCP SYN flag is set on the datagram sent from PC_Client. Yes. 5 and No. Examine the DNS query response. and what is the destination port number? UDP. No.example.251 One of your colleagues. sequence number 0. MSS stands for maximum segment size.0/24.1.251 is on a different network than 10. A better approach would be to employ a stateful packet filter and create rules that permit established and related traffic through the firewall.example. and 9.2. These captures contain the TCP three-way handshake between PC_Client and eagle1. If all UDP packets were dropped at the firewall. Initially. why did eagle1. If the initial TCP sequence value from PC_Client is 0. Step 7.com responds with the TCP ACK and SYN flags set.example. along with an acknowledgment of 1 and a sequence of 0. Refer to Wireshark’s Packet List window. This means that the TCP acknowledgment number sent is for the expected sequence number of the next packet. port 53 Step 5. a firewall administrator. employees could not translate names to IP addresses. 6. asks you if you can think of any reason why all UDP packets should not be blocked from entering the internal network. 4.example respond with an acknowledgment of 1? TCP employs expectational acknowledgments. No. Using the Packet Details window. Examine the ARP Request. Step 6. No. This value is sent during connection startup. Is this IP address different from the IP address for eagle1.254. Refer to Wireshark’s Packet List window.1. and what is the destination port number? UDP. eagle1.2. This is also when TCP sliding windows are negotiated. MSS=1460.com? 10.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 371 Step 4. Using the Packet Details window. Examine the TCP three-way handshake. MSS is computed to be the maximum size of an IPv4 datagram minus 40 bytes. answer the following questions: What is the Ethernet II frame type? 0x0800 (IP) What is the transport layer protocol. When a TCP segment is transported over IPv4. In the Packet List window is an unexplained value. Refer to Wireshark’s Packet List window. Because 10. 7. . 3.example. PC_Client sent a DNS query to the DNS server. Refer to Wireshark’s Packet List window.1. PC_Client must have the ARP address to the Gateway.com? Explain.2.1. port 1043 What is the IP address for eagle1.2. The DNS server sent a DNS query response to PC_Client. 8.

. Table 11-38 TCP Flag States Bit Position Flag 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0. This is shown in Wireshark’s Packet List. . Gateway. No. 2. 4.com? Table 11-38 shows the TCP flag states. 9. . No. No. .example. No. . A TCP three-way handshake with eagle1. . .1. . More fragments (not set) When PC_Client completes the TCP three-way handshake.example. .0 Congestion Window Reduced ECN Echo Urgent ACK PSH SYN FIN Task 4: Complete the Final Analysis Step 1.example. the ARP response from the DNS server ■ ■ . . what TCP flag states are returned to eagle1. . It has taken a total of nine datagrams sent between PC_Client. . .0.com must first be completed.372 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide In eagle1. . . . 8.com The TCP three-way handshake cannot occur because PC_Client does not know the IP address for eagle1. . . No.example. DNS server. . 9. Fill in the correct Wireshark Packet List window number that satisfies each of the following missing entries: ■ The TCP segment cannot be constructed because the acknowledgment field is blank. . the DNS query response The DNS server cannot be queried because the MAC address for the DNS server is unknown. . .com. .example. . The ARP protocol is broadcast on the LAN to discover the MAC address for the DNS server. . . Match the Wireshark output to the process. Don’t fragment (set) 0 . . .0. . . where PC_Client sent a web protocol GET request. . 10. . . . . Wireshark’s Packet List.0.example.0.com. Reserved (not set) 1 . .com. the TCP ACK response to eagle1. . No. This is resolved with a DNS request from PC_Client to the DNS server.com before PC_Client has sufficient information to send the original web client request to eagle1. . .example. and eagle1. what does the IP flag value of 0x04 mean? IP flag values: 8421 0 .

com responds with a TCP ACK. Wireshark Packet List No. the same protocol analyzer can become an effective troubleshooting tool when the network fails. Use the Wireshark TCP stream. 12. As soon as the network administrator is familiar with communication protocols. 18. A protocol analyzer shows unsuccessful ARP requests. Next. 10. highlight Wireshark Packet List No. first select a TCP datagram from the Wireshark Packet List.example. choose Analyze > Follow TCP Stream.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 373 ■ The MAC address for the gateway to reach eagle1. When PC_Client is finished. 14 and 16 are ACK datagrams from PC_Client. Figure 11-27 Output of TCP Stream Task 5: Conclusion Using a network protocol analyzer can be an effective learning tool for understanding critical elements of network communication. To use this feature. Analyzing packet contents can be a daunting experience—time-consuming and errorprone.com. eagle1.example. What is the purpose of this datagram? This datagram is a TCP window update to expand the window size. scroll down to the bottom of the Detail List window. there could be multiple causes. TCP ACK and FIN flags are sent. No. The ACK datagram for Wireshark Packet List No. if a web browser could not connect to a web server. and unacknowledged packets.com. Wireshark includes an option that constructs the TCP stream in a separate window.com? No. Wireshark Packet List No. and the TCP session is closed. unsuccessful DNS queries. 6. 13. 14 is a response to which datagram from eagle1. .example. The ARP protocol is broadcast on the LAN to learn the destination MAC address for the gateway. from Wireshark. For example.example. A window similar to the one shown in Figure 11-27 appears.com is unknown. Wireshark Packet List No.com to the PC_Client GET request. 13 The Wireshark Packet List No. and 15 are TCP segments from eagle1. 14. 17 datagram is sent from PC_Client to eagle1. the ARP response from the Gateway Wireshark Packet List No. Next.example. To verify the ACK.example. 11 is an acknowledgment from eagle1. as shown in Wireshark Packet List No. and expand the [SEQ/ACK analysis] frame. Review the information in the [SEQ/ACK analysis] frame. Step 2.

building. Behind-the-scenes protocols such as DNS and ARP are used to fill in missing parts of IP packets and Ethernet frames. Upon completion of this activity. respectively. Figure 11-28 Skills Integration Lab Topology 1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server 2960-24TT S1-Central 1841 R2-Central PC-PT 1A PC-PT 1B . TCP. Ethernet. Figure 11-28 shows the topology for this lab. HDLC) Background Throughout this course.1. ARP. the TCP three-way handshake must build a reliable path and supply both communicating ends with initial TCP header information. Here is an opportunity to test yourself. See if you can complete this entire challenge (approximately 100 configurable components. test. Ethernet. Analyze the events involved in ■ ■ Requesting a web page (DNS. although some are quite easy) in less than 30 minutes. You have also developed a conceptual understanding of networking protocols and device algorithms. Before a TCP session can begin. ICMP.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to perform this exercise using Packet Tracer. the TCP session is destroyed in an orderly manner. configuring. IP. UDP. with the client issuing a TCP FIN flag. ARP. HTTP. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ Build. you have been developing network planning.3) Open file LSG01-PTSkills11. Integrate skills from throughout the course. and testing skills.6. Finally. HDLC) Tracing the route to the web server (DNS. and configure the entire lab network. Packet Tracer Challenge Skills Integration Challenge: Configuring and Analyzing Networks (11.374 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 6: Summary In this exercise you have learned how a web client and web server communicate. IP.

For the switch management interface. configure the highest usable IP address on the ISP LAN subnet. up to 28 hosts (Fa0/0 on R2-Central. up to 14 hosts (Fa0/0 on R1-ISP) Fourth subnet. installed in the slot on the right—one named R1-ISP. existing ISP LAN. configure the second-highest usable IP address on the ISP LAN subnet.0 /24. For R1-ISP’s S0/0/0 interface. For R1-ISP’s Fa0/0 interface. banners) should be entered exactly as specified in these instructions for the grading to work properly. all strings (names. point-to-point link (S0/0/0 on R1-ISP and S0/0/0 on R2-Central) ■ ■ ■ ■ IP address assignments: ■ ■ ■ For the server. up to 28 hosts (not yet implemented) Third subnet. passwords. future student LAN. use the second-highest usable address on the student subnet. existing WAN. and one named R2-Central. up to seven hosts (not yet implemented) Fifth subnet. which has a serial DCE WAN connection to R1ISP and an Fa0/0 LAN connection to S1-Central One 2960TT switch (S1-Central) Two PCs named 1A and 1B A server named Eagle_Server ■ ■ ■ Note that both the display names and hostnames for all devices must be configured exactly. In general. and connect it to the Fa0/24 interface on S1-Central.3. For R2-Central’s Fa0/0 interface. future ISP LAN. Subnet assignments: ■ First subnet. ■ ■ ■ ■ Use Table 11-39 to record your address information. use the lowest usable address on the existing WAN subnet. connected to Fa0/24 on S1-Central) Second subnet. . which has a serial DCE WAN connection to R2-Central and an Fa0/0 LAN connection to Eagle_Server. For R2-Central’s S0/0/0 interface.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 375 Task 1: Plan Use the standard Exploration lab topology as you plan your IP addressing scheme: ■ Two 1841 routers with WIC-2T interface cards. use the first two IP addresses (the two lowest usable addresses) on the existing student LAN subnet. You must provide for existing networks as well as future growth.168. and connect them to the Fa0/1 and Fa0/2 interfaces on S1Central. configure the highest usable address on the existing WAN subnet. You have been given an IP address block of 192. use the highest usable address on the existing student LAN subnet. existing student LAN. For hosts 1A and 1B.

For the server.30 192.78 192.2 192. interfaces (FastEthernet and serial).255.3. and management interface (int vlan1). hostname. The static route on R1-ISP should point to the existing Student LAN subnet via R2-Central’s serial interface IP address. and Telnet passwords all set to cisco).168. be sure to save your configuration.168. use “Reset Activity” and retime yourself doing the entire configuration again. The banners should say **This is lab router R1ISP.** and **This is lab router R2-Central. configure them to use DNS services. use a clock rate of 64000 on the R1ISP S0/0/0 interface.3. If you want more practice. and enable HTTP services.168. On the switch.3. taking care to make connections as specified. .example. and Telnet. The router configuration must include “housekeeping” (display name.**).255.3.255.1 192.3.3.255.3.255.252 255.168.** The interfaces should be configured as specified in Table 11-39.168.30 192. use the domain name eagle-server.168. Authorized access only.3. Authorized access only. As you work. Hint: To configure static routes.98 192. You can use the CLI help function to determine the command syntax.97 192. The following login passwords should all be set to cisco: enable.168. Students need to understand these concepts to successfully complete this lab.30 192.com. the switch.255. enable DNS services.3. Configure the routers using the CLI to practice your skills. login passwords for access (enable.255. console.255. and the two PCs. Authorized access only.168.78 R2-Central Fa0/0 S0/0/0 PC-1A PC-1B Eagle-Server NIC NIC NIC Task 2: Build and Configure the Network Build the network. The static route on R2-Central should be a default static route that points via R1-ISP’s serial interface IP address. Whenever you configure a Cisco IOS device. and routing (static route on R1-ISP. use ip route global configuration mode. For Hosts 1A and 1B. use “Check Results” to see what components still need to be configured. banner).255.255.168. hostname.255.98 192.224 255.3. banner (**This is lab switch S1-Central.240 — — 192. be sure to save your configuration.3.240 255. Configure both routers.376 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 11-39 Addressing Table Device Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP Fa0/0 S0/0/0 192.224 255.252 255.3.224 255. Note to Instructor: You might want to introduce students to the concepts of static routes and discuss the command syntax and default routes.77 255.255. passwords. default route on R2-Central).255. configure the display name.255.98 192. Whenever you configure a Cisco IOS device.168.168. the server. console.168. in addition to IP configuration.

request a web page while making the following protocols visible in the event list: DNS. Again explain the entire process to a peer. TCP. Then power-cycle the devices and reset the network. Power-cycle the devices to clear the network again and. especially how IP is involved in everything. Telnet. Explain the entire process to a peer. . Examine how the trace is built from ICMP echo requests. switches. HTTP. Also note the algorithms used by hosts.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 377 Task 3: Test and Analyze It is good practice to test connectivity through ping and Telnet. make sure you have saved your configurations on the Cisco IOS devices. UDP. also in simulation mode. issue a traceroute to the server from one of the PCs. As soon as you are convinced that your network is working. and routers. ICMP. and to examine routing tables. Your skills at modeling networks in Packet Tracer will serve you well in subsequent courses. Task 4: Reflection Relate the processes observed in Task 3 to the TCP/IP Protocol Graph. Examine the packets as they are processed by the devices to study protocol behavior. In simulation mode. ARP.

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