Network Fundamentals

,
CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide Instructor Edition
Antoon W. Rufi Priscilla Oppenheimer Belle Woodward Gerlinde Brady

Cisco Press
800 East 96th Street Indianapolis, Indiana 46240 USA

ii

Network Fundamentals, CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide

Network Fundamentals, CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide
Instructor Edition Antoon W. Rufi, Priscilla Oppenheimer, Belle Woodward, and Gerlinde Brady
Copyright© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. Published by: Cisco Press 800 East 96th Street Indianapolis, IN 46240 USA All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without written permission from the publisher, except for the inclusion of brief quotations in a review. Printed in the United States of America First Release January 2008 ISBN-10: 1-58705-583-X ISBN-13: 978-1-58705-583-6

Publisher Paul Boger Associate Publisher Dave Dusthimer Cisco Representative Anthony Wolfenden Cisco Press Program Manager Jeff Brady Executive Editor Mary Beth Ray Production Manager Patrick Kanouse Development Editor Dayna Isley Project Editors Patrick Kanouse Jennifer Gallant Copy Editors Gayle Johnson Keith Cline Technical Editors Cindy G. Layman Michael Duane Taylor Tony Chen Editorial Assistant Vanessa Evans Book and Cover Designer Louisa Adair Composition Mark Shirar Proofreader Leslie Joseph

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Warning and Disclaimer
This book is designed to provide information about the Network Fundamentals course of the Cisco Network Academy CCNA Exploration curriculum. Every effort has been made to make this book as complete and as accurate as possible, but no warranty or fitness is implied. The information is provided on an “as is” basis. The authors, Cisco Press, and Cisco Systems, Inc. shall have neither liability nor responsibility to any person or entity with respect to any loss or damages arising from the information contained in this book or from the use of the discs or programs that may accompany it. The opinions expressed in this book belong to the author and are not necessarily those of Cisco Systems, Inc.

Trademark Acknowledgments
All terms mentioned in this book that are known to be trademarks or service marks have been appropriately capitalized. Cisco Press or Cisco Systems, Inc. cannot attest to the accuracy of this information. Use of a term in this book should not be regarded as affecting the validity of any trademark or service mark.

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Network Fundamentals, CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide

About the Authors
Antoon “Tony” W. Rufi currently is the associate dean of computer and information science for all the ECPI College of Technology campuses. He also teaches the Cisco Networking Academy CCNA, CCNP, Network Security, Fundamentals of Wireless LAN, and IP Telephony curricula. Before becoming an instructor for ECPI, he spent almost 30 years in the U.S. Air Force, working on numerous electronic projects and computer programs. Tony has a master’s degree in information science from the University of Maryland and a bachelor’s degree in industrial technology from Southern Illinois University. Priscilla Oppenheimer is an author and network consultant with more than 25 years of experience in the computer industry. Priscilla has a master’s degree in information science from the University of Michigan and has worked at such big-name companies as Apple Computer and Cisco Systems. She currently teaches at Southern Oregon University and provides network consulting to companies in her hometown of Ashland, Oregon, and elsewhere. Belle Woodward, CCNA, CCAI, CCNP, is an assistant professor in the School of Information Systems and Applied Technologies in the College of Applied Sciences and Arts at Southern Illinois University (SIU) in Carbondale, Illinois. She has more than nine years experience in the networking and network security field. Belle teaches network security, advanced networking, and telecommunications. After redesigning the networking and network security undergraduate curriculum, her students took first place at the 2006 Regional Midwestern Collegiate Cyber Defense Competition (CCDC) and fourth place at the national CCDC. In addition to publishing several journal articles in the network security discipline, Belle has also contributed several chapters included in published network security and networking books. Gerlinde Brady has been teaching Cisco CCNA and CCNP courses at Cabrillo College, a Cisco Regional Networking Academy, since 1999. She holds a master’s degree in education from the University of Hannover, Germany, and a master’s degree in translation (English/German) from the Monterey Institute of International Studies. Her IT industry experience includes LAN design, network administration, technical support, and training.

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About the Technical Reviewers
Cindy G. Layman has been an instructor at Itawamba Community College in Tupelo, Mississippi, for more than 10 years. She has been teaching programming, computer servicing, and networking courses, including the full CCNA curriculum in the Cisco Networking Academy. Cindy has a bachelor of science degree in mathematics and a bachelor of science degree in computer science, both from Mississippi State University. Before teaching at ICC, she was a programmer analyst for nine years. Michael Duane Taylor is department head of computer information sciences at the Raleigh Campus of ECPI College of Technology. He has more than seven years of experience teaching introductory networking and CCNA-level curriculum and was awarded the Instructor of the Year Award. Previously, Michael was a lab supervisor with Global Knowledge working with router hardware configuration and repair. He holds a bachelor’s degree in business administration from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and a master of science degree in industrial technology/computer network management from East Carolina University. His certifications include CCNA, CCNP-router, and MCSE.

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Network Fundamentals, CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide

Dedications
I would like to dedicate this book to my wife, Linda, who is instrumental in getting me to apply myself. Always supportive, she has been the catalyst that has kept me going. —Tony Rufi This book is dedicated to my hard-working students who have inspired me to be a better teacher. — Priscilla Oppenheimer This book is dedicated to my husband, Jeff, and son, Alan, whose tireless support helped see me through another project. —Belle Woodward To my wonderful husband, Paddy, and my daughters Fiona, Teresita, and Ejay, who let me take time away from them to be a part of this project. —Gerlinde Brady

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Acknowledgments
From Tony Rufi: I’d like to give special recognition to Mike Taylor for his diligent approach to tech editing. He has provided a tremendous amount of input to get the technical aspects of this endeavor correct. I have enjoyed working with him. I also want to thank Mary Beth Ray; she has been instrumental in allowing me to pursue the dream of authoring a book. A special thank you to ECPI College of Technology, specifically President Mark Dreyfus, Vice President of Academic Affairs John Olson, and Director of Operations Barbara Larar. Without their support, I would not have been able to write this book. From Priscilla Oppenheimer: I’d like to thank Cisco Press for giving me the opportunity to work on this project. I especially want to thank Mary Beth Ray and Dayna Isley for turning this complex project into a success. Thanks also go to our technical reviewers for their persistence and attention to detail. Finally, I’d like to thank the Cisco Networking Academy for developing courses that inspire students to do amazing things with networks. From Belle Woodward: It has been a great pleasure to be part of such an outstanding group of professionals, and to these people and everyone on the team I extend my heartfelt thanks. Dayna Isley, thanks for all your help and patience. Cindy and Michael, thanks for providing your expert technical knowledge in editing the book. I want to give special recognition to Susanne Ashby, a great friend, who has always been willing to read and edit my work. From Gerlinde Brady: I would like to thank Dayna Isley and Mary Beth Ray for their unending patience. A special thanks goes to the technical editors, Cindy Layman, Mike Taylor, and Tony Chen, for their diligence and expertise.

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Network Fundamentals, CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide

Contents at a Glance
Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Chapter 10 Chapter 11 Living in a Network-Centric World Communicating over the Network 1 33 63

Application Layer Functionality and Protocols OSI Transport Layer OSI Network Layer 91 125 151

Addressing the Network: IPv4 OSI Data Link Layer OSI Physical Layer Ethernet 231 199 217

Planning and Cabling Networks

263 297

Configuring and Testing Your Network

5.3) 13 Task 1: Locate the SANS Resources Task 2: Review the SANS Resources Task 3: Collect Data Task 4: Reflection 15 16 14 15 Task 5: Challenge 16 Lab 1-1: Using Collaboration Tools: IRC and IM (1.1.6.4.1.4) 11 11 11 Task 3: Navigate the Google Earth Interface Task 5: Challenge 13 Activity 1-2: Identifying Top Security Vulnerabilities (1.1.1) 16 Task 1: Configure the Chat Client Task 2: Connect to the Chat Server Task 3: Consider the Chat Session Task 4: Reflection Task 6: Clean Up 21 22 Task 5: Challenge 22 19 20 21 .ix Contents Chapter 1 Living in a Network-Centric World Concept Questions 1 2 2 1 1 Communicating in a Network-Centric World Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Concept Questions 2 3 Communication: An Essential Part of Our Lives The Network as a Platform Vocabulary Exercise: Define Vocabulary Exercise: Identify 3 3 4 4 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Concept Questions 5 The Architecture of the Internet 5 Vocabulary Exercise: Define Concept Questions 6 5 7 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Trends in Networking 8 Multiple-Choice Questions Task 1: Install Google Earth Task 2: Run Google Earth Task 4: Reflection Task 6: Clean Up 13 13 8 10 Activity 1-1: Using Google Earth to View the World (1.

1. CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide Lab 1-2: Using Collaboration Tools: Wikis and Web Logs (1.5.6.7.2) 48 .1) 42 Task 1: Create a Peer-to-Peer Network Task 3: Cable the Peer-to-Peer Network Task 5: Reflection 48 43 43 47 43 Task 2: Identify the Cables Used in a Network Task 4: Connect Your Workstations to the Classroom Lab Switch Packet Tracer Companion: Topology Orientation and Building a Small Network (2. and Internetworks Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Protocols 36 34 35 36 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Concept Questions Using Layered Models 36 37 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Network Addressing 38 37 38 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Multiple-Choice Questions 38 Activity 2-1: Using NeoTrace to View Internetworks (2.6.6. WANs.2.1) 22 Task 1: Define the Terms Wiki and Blog Task 3: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 28 28 22 23 Task 2: Explore Wiki Features with the TWiki Tutorial Task 4: Challenge 28 Skills Integration Challenge: Introduction to Packet Tracer (1.3) 28 Task 1: Explore the PT Interface Task 2: Explore PT Operations Task 4: Reflection Chapter 2 32 30 30 32 Task 3: Review the Standard Lab Setup Communicating over the Network The Platform for Communications 33 33 Concept Questions 33 34 34 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching LANs.x Network Fundamentals.1) 39 Task 1: Trace Route to Remote Server Task 2: Trace Route Using NeoTrace Task 3: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 41 41 Task 4: Challenge 41 40 41 Lab 2-1: Topology Orientation and Building a Small Network (2.1.2.1.

1) 71 Task 1: Download.3.6.4.1.2.6.7.1. and Verify the Apache Web Server Task 2: Verify the Default Web Server Configuration File Task 3: Capture and Analyze HTTP Traffic with Wireshark Task 4: Challenge 78 Task 5: Reflection Task 6: Clean Up 78 79 79 73 77 76 Lab 3-2: E-mail Services and Protocols (3.1) 49 Task 1: Ping PDU Capture 53 Task 2: FTP PDU Capture 56 Task 3: HTTP PDU Capture 58 Task 4: Reflection Task 6: Cleanup 58 59 Task 5: Challenge 58 Packet Tracer Companion: Using Packet Tracer to View Protocol Data Units (2.1) Task 1: Configure the Pod Host Computer for E-mail Service 81 Task 2: Capture and Analyze E-mail Communication Between the Pod Host Computer and an E-mail Server 84 . Install.2.4.xi Lab 2-2: Using Wireshark to View Protocol Data Units (2.2) 59 Skills Integration Challenge: Examining Packets (2.1) 69 69 70 Task 2: Observe the Properties of the Audio File Lab 3-1: Managing a Web Server (3.4.2.3) 59 Task 1: Complete the Topology 60 61 61 61 Task 2: Add Simple PDUs in Real-Time Mode Task 3: Analyze PDUs in Simulation Mode (Packet Tracing) Task 4: Experiment with the Model of the Standard Lab Setup Task 5: Reflection CHapter 3 61 63 63 Application Layer Functionality and Protocols Applications: The Interface Between the Networks Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Concept Questions 64 64 Making Provisions for Applications and Services 65 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Multiple-Choice Questions 65 65 Application Layer Protocols and Services Examples 66 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Multiple-Choice Questions Task 1: Create a Sound File Task 3: Reflection Task 4: Clean Up 71 71 67 66 66 Activity 3-1: Data Stream Capture (3.

5.1) Task 1: Explain Common netstat Command Parameters and Outputs 96 Task 2: Use netstat to Examine Protocol Information on a Pod Host Computer 98 Task 3: Reflection Task 5: Cleanup 100 100 100 Task 4: Challenge 100 Lab 4-2: TCP/IP Transport Layer Protocols.3) Task 1: “Repair” and Test the Topology Task 3: Reflection Chapter 4 89 91 91 88 89 Task 2: Explore How DNS and HTTP Work Together OSI Transport Layer Roles of the Transport Layer Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Concept Questions 92 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Port Type Ranges Exercise Concept Questions 93 92 91 92 The TCP Protocol: Communicating with Reliability 92 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Managing TCP Sessions 93 93 Internet Research Exercise Concept Questions 94 93 The UDP Protocol: Communicating with Low Overhead 94 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion 94 95 Lab 4-1: Observing TCP and UDP Using netstat (4.5. CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide Task 3: Challenge 86 Task 4: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 86 86 87 Skills Integration Challenge: Configuring Hosts and Services (3.1) Task 1: Identify TCP Header Fields and Operation Using a Wireshark FTP Session Capture 102 Task 2: Identify UDP Header Fields and Operation Using a Wireshark TFTP Session Capture 108 Task 3: Reflection Task 5: Cleanup 110 111 111 Task 4: Challenge 111 Lab 4-3: Application and Transport Layer Protocols (4.xii Network Fundamentals.1. TCP and UDP (4.3.5.1) Task 1: Configure the Pod Host Computer to Capture Application Layer Protocols 113 Task 2: Capture and Analyze HTTP Communication Between the Pod Host Computer and a Web Server 114 Task 3: Capture and Analyze FTP Communication Between the Pod Host Computer and a Web Server 116 .2.1.5.

1) 138 136 Task 1: Use the route Command to Modify a Windows Computer Routing Table 139 Task 2: Use a Windows Telnet Client Command telnet to Connect to a Cisco Router 144 Task 3: Examine Router Routes Using Basic Cisco IOS Commands Task 4: Reflection Task 6: Clean Up 147 147 147 Task 5: Challenge 147 Packet Tracer Companion: Examining a Route (5.2) 122 Skills Integration Challenge: Analyzing the Application and Transport Layers (4.2) Lab 5-2: Examining a Route (5. and TCP Work Together 124 125 125 126 126 127 Concept Questions Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Vocabulary Exercise: Define Internet Research Exercise Networks: Dividing Hosts into Groups 127 127 127 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Concept Questions 127 128 Routing: How Our Data Packets Are Handled Vocabulary Exercise: Define Routing Processes: How Routes Are Learned 129 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion 129 130 Lab 5-1: Examining a Device’s Gateway (5.1.1) Task 1: Understand and Explain the Purpose of a Gateway Address 132 Task 2: Understand How Network Information Is Configured on a Windows Computer 134 Task 3: Troubleshoot a Hidden Gateway Address Problem Task 4: Reflection Task 6: Clean Up 137 137 137 Task 5: Challenge 137 Packet Tracer Companion: Examining a Device’s Gateway (5.2.5.1.3) 122 Task 1: Repair and Test the Topology Task 3: Reflection Chapter 5 OSI Network Layer IPv4 125 123 124 Task 2: Explore How DNS. HTTP.6.xiii Task 4: Reflection Task 6: Clean Up 121 122 Task 5: Challenge 121 Packet Tracer Companion: Application and Transport Layer Protocols Examination (4.2) 145 .5. UDP.5.3.1.5.5.2.

1) 169 Task 1: Understand the Format of ICMP Packets Task 3: Challenge 177 170 173 Task 2: Use Wireshark to Capture and Examine ICMP Messages .3) 148 Task 1: Configure a Router Interface Task 2: Examining Routes 149 149 150 150 Task 3: Configure a Route Using a GUI Task 5: Reflection Chapter 6 150 151 Task 4: Examine the Routing of the IP Packet Addressing the Network: IPv4 IPv4 Addresses 151 Concept Questions 151 152 152 Binary-to-Decimal Conversion Exercise Decimal-to-Binary Conversion Exercise Addresses for Different Purposes 152 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Internet Research Exercise Vocabulary: Completion Concept Questions Assigning Addresses 152 153 153 153 154 Internet Research Exercises Concept Questions Is It on My Network? 154 154 155 Binary Matching Exercise Concept Questions 156 Internet Research Exercise Calculating Addresses 156 155 156 Concept Questions 156 157 157 Multiple-Choice Questions Testing the Network Layer Concept Questions 157 158 159 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Lab 6-1: Ping and Traceroute (6.xiv Network Fundamentals.1) Task 1: Use the ping Command to Verify Simple TCP/IP Network Connectivity 160 Task 2: Use the tracert Command to Verify TCP/IP Connectivity Task 3: Challenge 166 Task 4: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 168 168 168 164 Packet Tracer Companion: ping and traceroute (6.7.1. CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide Skills Integration Challenge: Routing IP Packets (5.6.1.7.7.1.2.2) Lab 6-2: Examining ICMP Packets (6.

1) 203 205 Task 1: Explain the Header Fields in an Ethernet II Frame 206 209 Task 2: Use Wireshark to Capture and Analyze Ethernet II Frames . Part 1 (6.1) Task 1: Subnet the Address Space 192 193 193 Task 2: Determine Interface Addresses Task 4: Verify the Configurations Task 5: Reflection 194 193 Task 3: Configure the Serial and FastEthernet Addresses Packet Tracer Companion: Subnet and Router Configuration (6.1) Task 1: For a Given IP Address and Subnet Mask.7.2) Activity 6-1: IPv4 Address Subnetting.2.1.7.2) 194 Skills Integration Challenge: Planning Subnets and Configuring IP Addresses (6.7.5.7.4. Determine Network Information Task 2: Challenge 180 Task 3: Clean Up 182 183 Activity 6-2: IPv4 Address Subnetting. Determine Subnet Information 184 Task 2: Challenge 188 Task 3: Clean Up 191 192 Lab 6-3: Subnet and Router Configuration (6.xv Task 4: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 177 177 177 178 Packet Tracer Companion: Examining ICMP Packets (6.5.5.3) 194 Task 1: IP Subnet Planning 195 196 196 Task 2: Finish Building the Network in Packet Tracer Task 3: Configure the Network Task 4: Test the Network Task 5: Reflection chapter 7 OSI Data Link Layer 197 199 199 197 Data Link Layer: Accessing the Media Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Concept Questions 199 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Media Access Control Techniques 199 200 200 Concept Questions 200 201 201 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Concept Questions 202 Media Access Control: Addressing and Framing Data 201 Putting It All Together: Follow Data Through an Internetwork 203 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Lab 7-1: Frame Examination (7.3. Part 2 (6.7.2.8.1) 178 Task 1: For a Given IP Address.

1.6.5.1) Task 1: Become Familiar with the Most Common Functions of a Cable Tester 221 Task 2: Test Different Cables for Type and Wiring Problems Task 4: Verify Cable Length Task 5: Reflection Task 7: Clean Up 226 226 Task 6: Challenge 226 226 223 224 Task 3: Perform Initial Configuration of the Fluke LinkRunner Skills Integration Challenge: Connecting Devices and Exploring the Physical View (8.1.3) 227 Task 1: Connect the Devices in the Standard Lab Setup 228 228 Task 2: View the Standard Lab Setup in the Physical Workspace chapter 9 Ethernet 231 231 Overview of Ethernet Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Concept Questions 232 231 Ethernet: Communication Through the LAN 232 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Concept Questions 233 232 .xvi Network Fundamentals. CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide Task 3: Challenge 212 Task 4: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 212 213 213 Skills Integration Challenge: Data Link Layer Issues (7. Attending to Some Layer 2 Issues 215 Task 3: Configure the Network Task 4: Test the Network Task 5: Reflection Chapter 8 OSI Physical Layer 216 217 217 215 216 The Physical Layer: Communication Signals Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Concept Questions Concept Questions 217 217 Physical Signaling and Encoding: Representing Bits 218 218 218 218 219 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Concept Questions 219 Physical Media: Connecting Communication Vocabulary Exercise: Matching 219 220 Lab 8-1: Media Connectors Lab Activity (Lab 8.1.3) Task 1: IP Subnet Planning 214 Task 2: Finish Building the Network in Packet Tracer.4.

1) Task 1: Use the Windows arp Command Task 3: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 248 248 242 246 Task 2: Use Wireshark to Examine ARP Exchanges Task 4: Challenge 248 Packet Tracer Companion: Address Resolution Protocol (9.1.xvii The Ethernet Frame 233 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Multiple-Choice Questions Concept Questions 235 234 233 Ethernet Media Access Control 235 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Concept Questions 236 236 235 Ethernet Physical Layer Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Hubs and Switches 237 236 237 237 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Concept Question 238 Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) 238 Multiple-Choice Questions 238 240 Lab 9-1: Address Resolution Protocol (9.1.2) Lab 9-2: Cisco Switch MAC Table Examination (9.8.2) 253 Lab 9-3: Intermediary Device as an End Device (9.1) 249 248 Task 1: Use the Telnet Protocol to Log in to a Cisco Switch 251 Task 2: Use the Cisco IOS show mac-address-table Command to Examine MAC Addresses and Port Associations 251 Task 3: Challenge 253 Task 4: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 253 253 Packet Tracer Companion: Cisco Switch MAC Table Examination (9.1.9.8.8.3.8.3) 259 256 Task 1: IP Subnet Planning 260 261 Task 2: Repair Problems with the Ethernet Switched LAN .1) 253 Task 1: Use Wireshark to Capture and Analyze Frames Originating from Network Nodes 255 Task 2: Examine the Origination of Frames in a Small Network Task 3: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 258 259 Task 4: Challenge 259 Packet Tracer Companion: An Intermediary Device as an End Device (9.3.2) 259 Skills Integration Challenge: Switched Ethernet (9.2.2.8.8.

xviii Network Fundamentals.1.2.2) Task 1: Determine the Number of Subnets in Topology Diagram A 269 Task 2: Record Subnet Information Task 4: Record Subnet Information Task 6: Record Subnet Information Task 8: Record Subnet Information Task 9: Reflection 273 274 270 270 271 272 271 272 273 Task 3: Determine the Number of Subnets in Topology Diagram B Task 5: Determine the Number of Subnets in Topology Diagram C Task 7: Determine the Number of Subnets in Topology Diagram D Lab 10-2: Creating a Small Lab Topology (10.1) 282 Task 2: Configure HyperTerminal to Establish a Console Session with a Cisco IOS Router 283 .3.6.1) Task 1: Design the Logical Network 276 278 Task 2: Configure the Physical Lab Topology 278 Task 3: Configure the Logical Topology Task 4: Verify Network Connectivity Task 5: Reflection Task 7: Clean Up 281 281 281 282 280 Task 6: Challenge 281 Packet Tracer Companion: Creating a Small Topology (10.2.2) Task 1: Connect a Router and Computer with a Console Cable Lab 10-3: Establishing a Console Session with HyperTerminal (10.1.6. CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide Task 3: Test the Network Task 4: Reflection Chapter 10 261 261 Planning and Cabling Networks Concept Questions 263 264 263 263 LANs: Making the Physical Connection Multiple-Choice Questions Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Device Interconnections 264 264 Concept Questions 264 265 265 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Developing an Addressing Scheme Concept Questions 266 266 266 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Multiple-Choice Questions Calculating the Subnets 267 Concept Questions Concept Question 267 267 Device Interconnections 268 268 269 Multiple-Choice Questions Lab 10-1: How Many Networks? (10.6.

1) 290 Task 1: Connect a Router and Computer with a Console Cable 290 Task 2: Configure Minicom to Establish a Console Session with the Router 291 Task 3: Perform Basic Commands Task 4: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 292 293 292 Skills and Integration Challenge: Planning and Cabling Networks (10.2.3.6.2) 289 Lab 10-4: Establishing a Console Session with Minicom (10.3) 293 Task 1: Build the Network Topology Task 3: Interface Configuration Task 4: Testing Connectivity Chapter 11 295 294 294 Task 2: Create and Assign an Addressing Scheme 295 297 Configuring and Testing Your Network Configuring Cisco Devices: IOS Basics 297 Concept Questions 297 298 298 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Cisco IOS Command Exercises Test Your Knowledge 299 Applying a Basic Configuration Using Cisco IOS 299 Concept Questions 300 300 301 Multiple-Choice Questions Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Verifying Connectivity 301 Test Your Knowledge 301 Concept Question 301 .6.1.xix Task 3: Configure HyperTerminal to Establish a Console Session with a Cisco IOS Switch 285 Task 3: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 286 286 287 Task 4: Challenge 286 Lab 10-3 (Alternative): Establishing a Console Session with TeraTerm Task 1: Connect a Router and Computer with a Console Cable 287 Task 2: Configure TeraTerm Web to Establish a Console Session with the Router 288 Task 3: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 288 289 Task 4: Challenge 289 Packet Tracer Companion: Establishing a Console Session with PT Terminal (10.7.

2) Lab 11-3: Managing Device Configuration (11.1.2.1) Task 1: Design the Logical Lab Topology Task 3: Configure the Logical Topology Task 4: Verify Network Connectivity Task 5: Reflection Task 7: Clean Up 350 351 Task 6: Challenge 350 343 345 Task 2: Configure the Physical Lab Topology 345 349 .3) 302 Task 1: Use the ping Command to Document Network Latency Task 3: Measure Delay Effects from Larger Datagrams Task 4: Reflection 308 Task 5: Challenge 309 Lab 11-2: Basic Cisco Device Configuration (11.3.5.1.1) 310 303 Task 2: Compute Various Statistics on the Output of a ping Capture 304 306 Task 1: Configure Cisco Router Global Configuration Settings Task 2: Configure Cisco Router Password Access Task 3: Configure Cisco Router Interfaces Task 4: Save the Router Configuration Files Task 5: Configure a Cisco Switch Task 6: Reflection Task 8: Clean Up 323 325 Task 7: Challenge 324 320 317 319 315 312 Packet Tracer Companion: Basic Cisco Device Configuration (11.5.5.5.xx Network Fundamentals.3.2.4.4.5.1) 335 336 Task 1: Design the Logical Lab Topology Task 3: Configure the Logical Topology Task 4: Verify Network Connectivity Task 5: Reflection Task 7: Clean Up 341 341 342 337 338 Task 2: Configure the Physical Lab Topology 338 340 Task 6: Challenge 341 Lab 11-5: Network Testing (11.2) Lab 11-4: Configure Host Computers for IP Networking (11.1) 327 326 Task 1: Configure Network Connectivity Task 3: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 333 335 328 329 Task 2: Use TFTP to Save and Restore a Cisco IOS Configuration Task 4: Challenge 333 Packet Tracer Companion: Managing Device Configuration (11. CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide Lab 11-1: Network Latency Documentation with ping (11.5.

1.6.5.5.3) 374 Task 1: Plan 375 376 Task 2: Build and Configure the Network Task 3: Test and Analyze 377 Task 4: Reflection 377 .6.1) 352 Task 1: Design the Logical Lab Topology Task 3: Configure the Logical Topology Task 4: Verify Network Connectivity Task 5: Document the Network Task 6: Reflection Task 8: Clean Up 358 359 Task 7: Challenge 358 357 353 354 Task 2: Configure the Physical Lab Topology 354 356 Lab 11-7: Case Study: Datagram Analysis with Wireshark (11.5.1) 366 Task 1: Prepare the Lab 367 368 370 372 Task 2: Review the Process of Data Flowing Through the Network Task 3: Analyze Captured Packets Task 4: Complete the Final Analysis Task 5: Conclusion Task 6: Summary 373 374 Skills Integration Challenge: Configuring and Analyzing Networks (11.xxi Lab 11-6: Network Documentation with Utility Commands (11.

In actual configuration examples and output (not general command syntax). Italics indicate arguments for which you supply actual values. Vertical bars (|) separate alternative. Square brackets [ ] indicate optional elements. CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide Icons Used in This Book Desktop Computer Laptop Firewall Packet Streaming Video IP Phone Switch Router Route/Switch Processor Phone Server Cloud Wireless Router Hub Printer Wireless Media LAN Media WAN Media Command Syntax Conventions The conventions used to present command syntax in this book are the same conventions used in the IOS Command Reference. mutually exclusive elements.xxii Network Fundamentals. boldface indicates commands that are manually input by the user (such as a show command). Braces within brackets [{ }] indicate a required choice within an optional element. Braces { } indicate a required choice. The Command Reference describes these conventions as follows: ■ Boldface indicates commands and keywords that are entered literally as shown. ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ .

The CCNA Exploration curriculum includes four courses oriented around the topics of the Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA) certification. you will be better prepared to move on to the rest of the CCNA Exploration curriculum and ultimately to pass the CCNA certification exam (640-802).cisco. This Labs and Study Guide is just such a collection of tools. it will help you gain knowledge and practice the skills associated with the content areas of the CCNA Exploration Network Fundamentals course. By establishing a firm foundation in the fundamental topics taught in this course. and open-ended questions designed to help you ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Review vocabulary Strengthen troubleshooting skills Boost networking skills Reinforce concepts Research topics Each chapter also includes a Labs and Activities section that includes the online curriculum labs and a Packet Tracer Skills Integration Challenge activity. Many of the hands-on labs include Packet Tracer companion activities. online assessment. You can view the exam topics any time at http://www. operate. student performance tracking. CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide is a supplement to your classroom and laboratory experience with the Cisco Networking Academy. Used to its fullest extent. where you can use Packet Tracer to complete a simulation of the lab.xxiii Introduction The Cisco Networking Academy is a comprehensive e-learning program that provides students with Internet technology skills. fill-in-the-blank. Network Fundamentals. Each chapter also includes a culminating activity called the Packet Tracer Skills Integration Challenge. Each chapter is slightly different and includes multiplechoice. and hands-on labs to prepare students for industry-standard certifications. A Networking Academy delivers web-based content. but also that you can plan. Goals and Methods First and foremost. these exams are rigorously application based. These activities require you to pull together several skills learned from the chapter—and previous chapters and courses—to successfully complete one comprehensive exercise. In other words. implement. To be successful on the exam and achieve your CCNA certification. you should do everything in your power to arm yourself with a variety of tools and training materials to support your learning efforts. The Study Guide sections of this book offer dozens of exercises to help you learn the concepts crucial to your success as a CCNA exam candidate. . matching. this book is designed to help you learn all the required materials of the first course in the Networking Academy CCNA Exploration curriculum. Passing this foundation exam means that you not only have the required knowledge of the technologies covered by the exam. and troubleshoot these technologies. design.com/go/certifications.

Lab activities are an important part of networking education. Although Packet Tracer is not a substitute for real equipment. CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide A Word About Packet Tracer Packet Tracer is a self-paced.x is available only to Cisco Networking Academies through the Academy Connection website. Packet Tracer version 4. However. The Eagle Server is developed by the Cisco Networking Academy to provide network services and applications that are typically accessed over the Internet in an isolated lab environment. The Eagle Server software and complete FAQ documentation can be downloaded by your instructor from the Tools section of Academy Connection. Packet Tracer provides a visual simulation of equipment and network processes to offset the challenge of limited equipment. interactive teaching and learning tool developed by Cisco. and have the option to work from home. visual. Students can spend as much time as they like completing standard lab exercises through Packet Tracer. Your instructor needs to follow those instructions to set up the labs for you accordingly. A Word About Eagle Server The CCNA Exploration courses are designed to provide a hands-on learning approach to networking. . lab equipment can be a scarce resource.xxiv Network Fundamentals. The top-down approach adopted in the Network Fundamentals course enables students to set up and implement application layer services in a network lab environment. Many of the hands-on labs in Network Fundamentals are based on an Internet model that uses a local server to provide a range of network services and applications that students can experiment with in the lab environment. it allows students to practice using a command-line interface. This “e-doing” capability is a fundamental component of learning how to configure routers and switches from the command line. The Eagle Server provides the following network services: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ DNS Web server FTP TFTP SSH Instant messaging Wiki server E-mail The Eagle Server is required to complete most of the labs in CCNA Exploration.

The questions in the chapter focus on network architectures. data packets. to help evaluate network communications. scalability.” introduces the devices. blogs. How This Book Is Organized Because the content of Network Fundamentals. with the same numbers and similar names as the online course chapters. the application layer. Work through the different types of questions to test your knowledge of the TCP/IP application and OSI application. You learn how TCP and UDP apply to common applications. “Application Layer Functionality and Protocols. media. This chapter also includes questions and labs related to Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) tools. “Addressing the Network: IPv4. such as Wireshark.” introduces the concepts of routing packets from a device on one network to a device on a different network. you should work through this Lab Study Guide in order. Chapter 2. and network collaboration tools. ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ . “OSI Network Layer. path determination. Chapters and Topics The book has 11 chapters.” provides exercises and labs that focus on the role of the transport layer as it provides the end-to-end transfer of data between applications. and IP. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide and the online curriculum is sequential. Chapter 5. Internet Relay Chat. The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses different types of questions to test your knowledge of how devices communicate over the network.” provides exercises and labs to supplement your study of the basics of communication and how networks support the way we live. “OSI Transport Layer. to determine the number of subnetworks and hosts in a network. Chapter 3. “Living in a Network-Centric World. Activities and labs let you practice your skills using and configuring network applications such as Google Earth.” focuses on network addressing in detail and tests your knowledge of how to use the address mask. as follows: ■ Chapter 1. quality of service (QoS). or prefix length. and protocols that enable network communication. The questions and labs help you reinforce important concepts related to addressing. beginning with Chapter 1. Chapter 4. Many academies use this textbook as a required tool in the course. and Packet Tracer. “Communicating over the Network. presentation. and session layer. such as ping and trace. The book covers the major topic headings in the same sequence as the online curriculum for the CCNA Exploration Network Fundamentals course. The labs further reinforce that you have mastered the skills needed to work with the application layer of the OSI model. Chapter 6. The Lab Exercises portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum labs to further reinforce that you have mastered the practical.xxv Audience for This Book This book’s main audience is anyone taking the CCNA Exploration Network Fundamentals course of the Cisco Networking Academy curriculum.” introduces you to the top network model layer. while other academies recommend the Companion Guides as an additional source of study and practice materials. wikis. network components. hands-on skills needed to use some critical tools. This book has 11 chapters. security issues.

and Packet Tracer Challenge files that are referenced throughout the book as indicated by the Packet Tracer Activity. go to http://www. and Address Resolution Protocol (ARP). Chapter 8. Topics include the evolution of Ethernet technologies.com website.” supplements your study of how the OSI data link layer prepares network layer packets for transmission. Chapter 11. You will apply the knowledge and skills developed in the previous chapters to determine the appropriate cables to use. Packet Tracer Companion. You’ll then be prompted to log in or join Ciscopress. To register this book. The chapter also helps you develop skills related to examining Cisco switch MAC address tables. how to connect devices. and protocols associated with the physical layer (Layer 1). This chapter tests your ability to describe the encapsulation processes that occur as data travels across a LAN and a WAN.” provides questions and labs that explore the functions.ciscopress. a link to any supplemental content will be listed on your My Registered Books page. and how to develop an addressing and testing scheme. hands-on skills needed to understand and work with the OSI physical layer.com to continue registration.xxvi Network Fundamentals. This chapter continues the examination of Ethernet frames that you started in Chapter 7. “OSI Data Link Layer. and building and configuring a complex network. Becoming a member and registering is free. Chapter 9. “OSI Physical Layer. standards. Packet Tracer Companion. MAC.” focuses on designing and cabling a network. You will configure Cisco routers and switches for basic network operations. challenging labs that ask you to connect and configure a small network using basic Cisco IOS commands for routers and switches. http://www.” provides questions and extensive. About the Cisco Press Website for This Book Cisco Press may provide additional content that can be accessed by registering your individual book at the Ciscopress. The files will be updated to cover any subsequent releases of Packet Tracer. A Packet Tracer skills integration lab lets you simulate the steps of installing an Ethernet card in a PC. A Packet Tracer skills integration lab provides an opportunity to practice IP subnetting.asp and enter the book’s ISBN. You can obtain updates to these files from the website for this book. Chapter 10. and setting speed and duplex settings. . CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide ■ Chapter 7. “Planning and Cabling Networks. ■ ■ ■ ■ About the CD-ROM The CD-ROM included with this book has all the Packet Tracer Activity.ciscopress. “Configuring and Testing Your Network. and Packet Tracer Challenge icons. “Ethernet.com/title/1587132036. which is located on its back cover. The chapter also helps you study Media Access Control (MAC) and MAC addressing. After you register the book. A hands-on lab lets you practice your skills using Wireshark to capture and analyze Ethernet frames.com/bookstore/register. Use this chapter to reinforce that you have mastered the practical.” examines the technologies and operation of Ethernet. and you then gain access to exclusive deals on other resources from Cisco Press. connecting it to a switch. with a focus on ARP frames.

hands-on skills needed to understand the opportunities and challenges associated with modern networks. or country?) Answers will vary. text. and how has this changed human interactions? Answers will vary but should mention that modern networks carry voice. Study Guide Communicating in a Network-Centric World Humans are social animals who need to communicate with each other. what other breakthroughs in communication media have extended the reach of human interactions? Answers will vary but could include smoke signals. 3. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum activities and labs to ensure that you have mastered the practical. and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of the importance of data networks and the major components and characteristics of network architectures. The addition of all these different types of network traffic has enabled the creation of online communities where geographic distances and physical limitations are no longer major obstacles and where humans around the globe can collaborate in their work. movies. newspapers. telegraphy. ranging from paper to fiber-optic cabling. In addition to data networks. fill-in-the-blank. play. Concept Questions 1. but it has evolved over the years to encompass many types of media. . 2. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide for assistance. video. and graphics. multiple-choice. the written word. use Chapter 1 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum or the corresponding Chapter 1 in Network Fundamentals. High-speed data networks that span the globe with cabling and networking devices have had a profound effect on human communication and will continue to revolutionize how humans interact with each other. and education. Communication was once limited to face-to-face conversations.CHAPTER 1 Living in a Network-Centric World The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of matching. the printing press. radio. city. As you work through this chapter. and television. What types of network traffic do modern networks carry. Early data networks carried character-based messages between computer systems. telephony. school. How has data networking changed your community (your family.

Instant Messaging (IM) is a form of online real-time communication between two or more people based on entered text. Because communication is so important. Concept Questions 1. as can internal factors that are related to aspects of the message itself. . List four external factors that affect data networks.2 Network Fundamentals. 1. 4. A wiki is a web page that groups of people can edit and view together. and learn. Rules help data networks function despite the many factors that can degrade communication. Factors that are external to the message can affect reliability. Packet Tracer is a Cisco collaborative learning tool that provides a way to build virtual representations of networks that behave much like actual networks. 2. 3. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following questions. 5. communication networks include rules (or protocols) that help ensure reliable delivery of messages. Podcasting is an audio-based medium that lets people record audio and publish it on a website. A blog is a web page that is easy to update and edit by someone who wants to publish a record of his or her thoughts on a subject. Students should include at least four of the following correct answers: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ The quality of the pathway between the sender and receiver The number of times a message changes form The number of times a message is redirected The number of times a message is readdressed The number of times a message is reformatted The number of other messages sharing the communication pathway Whether a confirmation of the message was returned to the sender The amount of time allotted for successful communication List three internal factors that affect data networks. The message’s size The message’s complexity The message’s importance 2. play. Communication: An Essential Part of Our Lives Communication helps us work.

Figure 1-1 shows some of these icons. The figure shows a network topology for a typical small company. network experts have standardized many elements and components of a data network. Vocabulary Exercise: Define Table 1-1 lists the four fundamental elements of a network. speed. Figure 1-1 Network Topology Icons B C A D F G H K IP E I J L . received. Fill in the definition for each element. directed. Table 1-1 Element Network Element Definitions Definition Rule Medium Message Device An agreement or protocol that governs how messages are sent. and interpreted A means of interconnecting devices. such as a cable or the air for wireless. in which data is transferred A unit of information that travels from one device to another across a medium Equipment that connects directly to a network Vocabulary Exercise: Identify Networks consist of many elements. a physical environment. Network engineers often include these elements in network topology drawings. To achieve the scale. and reliability that are required. Engineers use a set of standard icons to refer to the elements.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 3 The Network as a Platform Data networks provide a platform for humans to communicate and thus play an increasingly important role in the business and personal lives of humans. Modern networks support fast and reliable message transfer among millions of users across the globe.

or the communication between devices on Earth and satellites in orbit. 4. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Provide the name of each element in the network topology shown in Figure 1-1. In wired connections. 2. the terrestrial wireless connection between two ground stations. . the medium is either copper. 1. Wireless media include the wireless connection between a wireless router and a computer in a home network. Table 1-2 Device Network Devices Definition a. A Firewall B Router C WAN medium D Network cloud E Server F LAN medium G LAN switch H Wireless router I IP phone J Desktop computer K Wireless media L Laptop computer Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 1-2. Serial link f. Router d. Summarizes a group of network elements in topology drawings d. e-mail. Firewall c. match the term on the left with its definition on the right.4 Network Fundamentals. and instant messaging require a network to provide services. or optical fiber. A device often found in home and small networks that lets laptop computers connect to a network without cabling c. which carries data in the form of electrical signals. Protocols are the rules that network devices use to communicate. Network applications such as web browsing. Wireless router e. Provides network security Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following questions. One form of a wide-area network (WAN) connection a. which carries data in the form of light signals. Connects two or more networks and directs messages as they travel across a set of networks b. Cloud f. 3. Switch b. Interconnects computers and cabling to form a local-area network (LAN) e.

This can save money. and security. The bits arrive at a router. scalability. education networks. and the Internet must provide fault tolerance. and why are converged networks becoming so common? What advantages do converged networks offer? A converged network carries network traffic of many different types. The Network Interface Card (NIC) converts the bits to electrical or optical signals and places them on the medium. Converged networks have become common because they allow engineers to build one common infrastructure instead of multiple specialized networks. Fill in the definition for each characteristic. 5. simplify troubleshooting. their answers should read something like the following: 1. Messages must be converted to bits (binary coded digital signals) before they are sent to their destination. such as voice or radio. Business networks.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 5 5. including the Internet. The Architecture of the Internet A network architecture describes a network’s physical infrastructure and the high-level services and protocols that move messages across that infrastructure. Concept Questions 1. 2. 4. The bits travel through network devices such as switches in the LAN. are also hierarchical. the bits get converted back into a human-readable format. List the steps that take place on a network when you send an instant message. TCP/IP is a set of standard protocols that is widely used in home and business networks as well as on the Internet. 6. Vocabulary Exercise: Define Table 1-3 lists four fundamental characteristics of network architectures. If they are just starting to learn networking and have grasped the information in “Elements of a Network” section in Chapter 1 of the curriculum and the Companion Guide. Many large networks. which directs them to their destination. At their destination. with different tiers offering different levels of service. and enable advanced applications such as videoconferencing and online gaming. The computer converts the message to bits. . Answers will vary depending on how much students already know. quality of service. What is meant by the term converged network. including traffic that was once relegated to its own separate network. The Internet’s architecture shares many of the same characteristics of any large network that supports numerous users. 2. 3.

or circuit. Even if no communication is occurring between the sender and receiver. The hierarchical structure also means that network traffic that is destined for a service that is local to the sender does not need to traverse to a central point for distribution. If there’s a problem with any device in the path during a call. Tier 3 providers are smaller yet and focus on getting end users on the Internet. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 1-3 Network Architecture Characteristics Definition Characteristic Fault tolerance Scalability Quality of service Security The capability of a network to withstand hardware and software failures and recover quickly when failures occur The capability of a network to expand quickly to support new users and applications without degrading performance for existing users A method of providing different priorities for different applications. is created through various switching locations between the sender and receiver. using all available resources. 2. How does the Internet benefit from using a hierarchical architecture? The hierarchical architecture permits Internet service providers (ISP) of different levels. which improves scalability and fault tolerance. For example. such as AT&T and Verizon. Tier 1 providers. Why was fault tolerance a major focus of the initial design for the Internet? The United States Department of Defense (DoD) designed the network that evolved into the Internet with fault tolerance because the department was concerned about a military attack or other severe problem that could destroy numerous sites and transmission facilities. Why did the Internet designers choose packet switching instead of circuit switching? With circuit switching. The early Internet designers chose packet switching because it provides better fault tolerance and scalability. A new call requires a new setup process that creates a new circuit. a call goes through a setup process whereby a temporary path. Compare and contrast circuit switching and packet switching. 3. The circuit is dedicated to the call for the duration of the call. With packet switching. Tier 2 providers are smaller and often provide regional service. the circuit and its resources remain reserved until one end disconnects. there’s no requirement for call setup. based on the requirements of the applications and their importance to users Measures taken to guard against unauthorized access to a network and the data traveling on the network Concept Questions 1. because resources are used dynamically as packets arrive at switching locations. . provide national and international connections and are optimized for carrying huge loads of traffic across the globe.6 Network Fundamentals. Packets from different sources are intermixed. Packets are routed according to the best path available at the time and can be routed around problem areas. Messages are divided into small blocks of data (packets) that can travel across many paths to the destination. Each tier can optimize its services for its unique role. The problem of underutilized idle circuits is eliminated. the call is dropped and must be reestablished.

and content security. Calls to an emergency response center are time-sensitive. List some applications that are time-sensitive and the negative consequences of their packets getting dropped or delayed. if their traffic is delayed. for example) Private customer contract details becoming known to competitors or made public. 3.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 7 4. Production control in factories can be time-sensitive. The consequence of the calls being dropped or delayed include people dying or suffering needlessly with injuries. 5. could cause death or dismemberment. and integrity Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following questions. a stock price could change while a buyer is making a purchase if traffic is delayed. and coping with network attacks. confidentiality. 4. resulting in a loss of confidence in the business Loss of sales and eventual company failure because of a loss of public trust in the company’s ability to maintain privacy. with lots of starts and stops. Answers will vary. For example. addressed. which are the rules that govern how packets are formatted. repelling. Three fundamental security measures include ensuring confidentiality so that only intended and authorized recipients can read data. Network firewalls can help ensure system reliability by detecting. Answers will vary. List some consequences of a network security breach. The two types of network security concerns are network infrastructure security. with consequent loss of business Misdirected or lost personal or business funds Stolen company intellectual property (research ideas. The consequences of a lost control signal to an automated piece of heavy machinery. or designs. 2. 1. but here are some examples based on the curriculum: A network outage that stops communications and transactions. . patents. for example. Business transactions can be time-sensitive. but here are some examples based on the curriculum: Streaming video and audio are time-sensitive and will appear or sound choppy. which protects the information carried in packets and stored on network-attached devices. maintaining integrity to ensure that information is not altered in transmission. and ensuring availability so that timely and reliable access to services is not disrupted by security breaches. which protects devices and cabling. Tools to provide security for individual messages must be implemented on top of the underlying protocols. and delivered.

A fault-tolerant network can expand quickly to support new users and applications without causing errors for existing users. Multiple-Choice Questions Choose the best answer for each of the following questions. Information security officer c. fault-tolerant. More voice and video transmissions that require a level of consistent quality and uninterrupted delivery c. b. Network technician d. c. More networks that are locked down so that new applications and services cannot be added d. Modern networks need to be ready to support increasing numbers of users who will make innovative use of the networks to enhance human communication. A fault-tolerant network supports users who have different viewpoints. Programmer b. 1.8 Network Fundamentals. Fewer services as networks converge c. Software engineer 4. d. A fault-tolerant network is built to withstand earthquakes. More networks that are open and unconcerned with protection from unauthorized access 3. The need to support circuit switching 2. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Trends in Networking Data networks continue to evolve quickly. A fault-tolerant network limits the impact of hardware or software failures and recovers quick- ly when a failure occurs. The need to protect networks from unauthorized access f. Which of the following is a relatively new information technology (IT) job title? a. work. and play. Networks will need to be scalable. The increasing number of mobile users b. Which of the following is most associated with the concept of converged networks? a. Fewer applications as networks converge d.) a. learn. Increasing use of simplified network devices e. Which of the following are major trends that are contributing to the current evolution of networks? (Choose two. More users wanting to access web pages in character mode b. . Which of the following best defines a fault-tolerant network? a. and flexible as users continue to depend on their networks to help them live.

including skyscrapers and b. A scalable network can expand quickly to support new users and applications without impact- ing the performance of the service being offered to existing users.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 9 5. A scalable network is built to support high-altitude environments. A scalable network supports redundant connections so that alternative paths are available when a device or link fails. A scalable network ensures that priorities are matched with the type of communication and its importance to an organization. . d. Which of the following best defines a scalable network? satellite dishes on mountains. a. c.

The version that fits most needs is the free version. The URL http://earth. The Google Earth Plus version includes GPS support. The Google Earth Pro version is for professional and commercial use.10 Network Fundamentals. the following minimum computer hardware requirements must be met: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Operating system: Microsoft Windows 2000 or Windows XP CPU: Pentium 3 with 500 MHz System memory (RAM): 128 MB Hard disk: 400 MB of free space Network speed: 128 kbps Graphics card: 3D-capable with 16 MB of video RAM (VRAM) Screen: 1024×768 pixels. Google Earth displays the Earth as a manipulated 2D or 3D image. is 30 minutes. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Explain the purpose of Google Earth. Estimated completion time. it requires a broadband connection to the Internet.html contains a description of the versions. Which Google Earth version supports the highest resolution? Google Earth Pro supports 4800 pixels. Experiment with Google Earth to explore continents. countries. Experiment with Google Earth features such as Help and Tutorial. a spreadsheet importer. Which versions support Tilt and 3D rotation? All versions 2. 16-bit high-color screen Scenario This activity is to be performed on a computer that has Internet access and on which you can install software. . version 4.google. To use Google Earth. and other support features. Use this link to answer the following questions: 1.1.4) Upon completion of this activity. and places of interest. three versions of Google Earth exist. Explain the different versions of Google Earth. depending on network speed.1. Explain the hardware and software requirements needed to use Google Earth (free edition). The popular world news channel CNN regularly uses Google Earth to show where a news story has occurred. Background Google Earth is a popular application that executes on the desktop of most operating systems. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Labs and Activities Activity 1-1: Using Google Earth to View the World (1. Currently. Google Earth.com/product_comparison.

and the Google Earth download should start automatically. shown in Figure 1-3. otherwise. 3.google. The Menu bar is located in the upper-left corner. They control the image magnification and position.html.com/download-earth. Remember. This handy feature provides a relative global position of the magnified image. are located in the upper-right quadrant.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 11 Task 1: Install Google Earth If Google Earth is not installed on the computer. List the three ways to move the image. choose User Guide to launch a default web browser and bring up the Google Earth User’s Guide (http://earth.google. Step 2: Review the navigation controls. Figure 1-2 shows the opening screen for Google Earth. mouse. . you may have to disable any popup blockers on your browser. What is the purpose of the left mouse button? It rotates the image. Task 3: Navigate the Google Earth Interface Step 1: Use the Overview Map feature. the opening screen. Figure 1-2 Google Earth Opening Screen Task 2: Run Google Earth Refer to Figure 1-2. Which mouse control zooms in and out? Right mouse button or scroll wheel. Before leaving the User’s Guide website.com/userguide/v4/). 2. The mouse pointer must be moved close to the controls. navigation controls. only a compass is displayed. On the Help menu. answer the following questions: 1. Choose View > Overview Map. Follow the installation instructions. Take a few minutes to browse the User’s Guide. you can download the free application from http://earth. Placemark. The navigation controls.

Is the resolution for your home the same quality as the Sightseeing location in Step 3? Answers will vary.S. seconds. Using the pointer and coordinates shown in the lower-left quadrant of the image. For longitude. but the new house next door had not yet been built. Enter 95134. Common graticule is the grid created by the longitude and latitude lines as depicted on a globe. a U.12 Network Fundamentals. zip code. experiment with the Places > Sightseeing folder. one user commented that he found his home.S. UK Step 5: Use the Fly To feature. the reference is East (E) or West (W) of the Royal Observatory. the reference is North (N) or South (S) of the equator. The combined longitude and latitude are called the common graticule. Step 6: View geographic coordinates. state and city are displayed? San Jose. What U. and double-click that location. it’s the angle east or west of an arbitrary earth point. what are the coordinates of your home? Answers will vary. The Royal Observatory. browse the surrounding area to see if you can determine approximately how old the image is. minutes. When the location has been reached. The coordinate measurements are in degrees. an image streaming indicator reports when the image resolution is complete. Choose View > Grid to display Google Earth Gridlines. The equator has a 0° latitude. For example. For example. the equator is an imaginary line dividing the globe into a Northern and Southern Hemisphere. . choose a location that you want to see. If the resolution for your neighborhood is sufficient. Step 4: Experiment with the Search > Fly To folder. and some location images are older than others. California What if you would like to “Fly To” London. On the left navigation bar. The first number is called the latitude. For latitude.2D or 3D Zoom Rotate or Move Step 3: Use the Sightseeing feature. Some locations have better resolution than others. UK? What data would you need to enter? London. Geographic coordinates are displayed in the lower-left quadrant of the image. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 1-3 Google Earth Screen Navigation Tools Tilt. The image takes you to that site. and tenths. The second number is called the longitude. United Kingdom. Expand Sightseeing. it’s the angle between a point and the equator. Try to find your home using the Search > Fly To folder. is the international zero-longitude point.

A LAN sent your image request across the Internet. Double-click Add or Remove Programs. Wikipedia also contains a useful definition of common geographic terms.5.4. Could the image be displayed faster if data compression techniques were used? Answers will vary. Locate and click Google Earth. follow these steps: Step 1. Task 5: Challenge Google Earth displays image coordinates in the lower-left quadrant of the image. Use the geographic coordinate system to describe your home with as much accuracy and detail as possible.colorado.com/support/bin/answer. satellite communication with an Earth station transmitted the image of your home to a ground location. Additional removal information is available at http://earth.edu/geography/gcraft/notes/coordsys/coordsys. For example.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 13 Task 4: Reflection Google Earth can bring the world into your home or office. Some type of database was used to store the image. While enjoying the images. Step 2. Choose Start > Settings > Control Panel. Use the SANS links to access other security-related information. Click Remove and follow the prompts. Task 6: Clean Up You may be required to remove Google Earth from the computer. Consider network security. If so. consider what digital communication resources were used. depending on the slowest speed of all network connections in the path between the database repository and your computer. Use the following URL to learn about different coordinate systems: http://www. Step 4. . List several recent security vulnerabilities.3) Upon completion of this activity.google.html. Step 3. Activity 1-2: Identifying Top Security Vulnerabilities (1. Explain how threats are organized. turn off the computer. Could someone eavesdrop on your network connection? Answers will vary. The delay in retrieving the image may have been short or long. Unless instructed otherwise.py?answer=20738&ctx=sibling. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ ■ Use the SANS site to quickly identify Internet security threats. probably through several WANs and then to another LAN with a computer that returned the image to you.

and numbers separate category topics. and management servers Network devices: Network infrastructure devices (routers. DNS servers.sans. go to http://www. Mac Applications: Cross-platform. UNIX/Linux. Security. You must complete this lab outside of the Cisco lab from a computer with Internet access. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Background One of the most popular and trusted sites related to defending against computer and network security threats is SANS. For additional information about the SANS site. and defense. N. SANS stands for SysAdmin. backup software. each a major contributor to information security. Network. SANS contains several components. as shown in Figure 1-4.org. On the resources menu.14 Network Fundamentals. A letter indicates the category type. Using a web browser. database. VoIP Servers and Phones N2. and so on). VoIP devices Human elements: Security policies. Open the SANS Top 20 List. You will use the SANS website as a tool for threat vulnerability identification. Network and Other Devices Common Configuration Weaknesses . choose top 20 list. instant messaging. Audit. Router and switch topics fall under the Network Devices category. There are two major hyperlink topics: ■ ■ N1.org/top20/. Estimated completion time is one hour. including web. Figure 1-4 SANS Menu The SANS Top-20 Internet Security Attack Targets list is organized by category. Task 1: Locate the SANS Resources Step 1. understanding. switches. media players. peer-to-peer.sans. The list is regularly updated with information related to the following: ■ ■ Operating systems: Windows. human behavior.org/ and select items from the Resources menu. How can a corporate security administrator quickly identify security threats? SANS and the FBI have compiled their list of the top 20 Internet Security Attack Targets at http://www.sans. personnel issues Special section: Security issues not related to any of the preceding categories ■ ■ ■ Scenario This activity introduces you to computer security vulnerabilities. go to http://www.

The next heading. For example. The last line under several topics’ references is Common Vulnerability Exposure (CVE). Step 2. Network and Other Devices Common Configuration Weaknesses to jump to this topic. contains links with information about the vulnerability and possible solutions. and click a sample CVE hyperlink. Failure to change the default password on these devices can lead to compromise and vulnerability by attackers. Review the contents of N2. Impact Type: Answers will vary. Overview: Answers will vary. . Last revised: Answers will vary. Range: Answers will vary. sponsored by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) National Cyber Security Division and US-CERT. Step 1: Choose a topic to investigate.2 Common Default Configuration Issues. Using the hyperlinks. Task 3: Collect Data The remainder of this lab walks you through a vulnerability investigation and solution. The Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS) severity is displayed.2 (as of this writing) contains information about threats associated with default accounts and values. write a brief description of the solution as found on those pages. which contains information about the vulnerability. Step 3. Note: Because the CVE list changes. Step 2. Source: Answers will vary. Fill in information about the vulnerability impact: CVSS Severity: Answers will vary. Authentication: Answers will vary.nist. Under the Impact heading are several values. Fill in the following information about the vulnerability: Original release date: Answers will vary. and Tools. References to Advisories. The link should open a new web browser connected to http://nvd. Solutions. Note the CVE references. The CVE name is linked to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) National Vulnerability Database (NVD). N2.2. It contains a value between 1 and 10.gov/ and the vulnerability summary page for the CVE. the current list may not contain the same vulnerabilities as those that were present at the time of this writing.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 15 Step 2: Click hyperlink N2. Answers will vary. Open Google and search on wireless router passwords to return links to multiple sites that publish a list of wireless router default administrator account names and passwords. Task 2: Review the SANS Resources Step 1.

. If you want to communicate with more than one person at a time. users can easily exchange ideas and files. and data continues to increase.” In the chat room. IRC. Using the Internet or a private corporate network. allows multiple people to interact. for security reasons. Task 5: Challenge Try to identify an organization that will meet with you to explain how vulnerabilities are tracked and solutions are applied. Think about user habits that create security risks. Although the following discussion focuses primarily on IM. It will also give representatives of the organization an opportunity to meet the class and conduct informal intern interviews. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ ■ Define Internet Relay Chat (IRC) and Instant Messaging (IM). Governments have dedicated significant resources to coordinating and disseminating information about the vulnerability and possible solutions. the telephone cannot be used to transfer files. however.16 Network Fundamentals. IM clients allow you to have an approved list of users. However. Finding an organization willing to do this may be difficult. networks. It remains the responsibility of the end user to implement the solution. share ideas. What collaborators need for communication in the human network is a tool that has the flexibility of e-mail with the responsiveness of the telephone. they are implemented differently. Each of these windows represents a two-person communication.1) Upon completion of this lab. List several misuses of and data security issues involving IM. unless the user constantly monitors the e-mail account. often called a Buddy List. Background E-mail permits multiple users to collaborate.6. IMing and chatting are both methods of real-time communication. IRC and IM fit nicely into these requirements. Think of ways that users can help strengthen security. Chat also provides a degree of anonymity. To start chatting. the telephone has been the technology of choice. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 4: Reflection The number of vulnerabilities for computers. you establish a connection to a Chat server and join a discussion on a particular topic. When you join. When people have wanted immediate contact. Use IRC to demonstrate collaboration. To initiate an instant message. unread e-mail may go unnoticed for a long period of time. Lab 1-1: Using Collaboration Tools: IRC and IM (1. The recipient of the invitation knows about—and accepts—the IM session based on the other user’s screen name. but this will provide beneficial information about how vulnerability mitigation is accomplished in the world. List several collaborative uses of IM. a brief hands-on lab will demonstrate the ease of IRC. IM provides one-on-one communication with “accepted” individuals.1. Unfortunately. and transfer files. you typically create your own identity and can give as little information about yourself as you choose. on the other hand. one person needs to “invite” another. you can open additional IM windows. you are said to “join a room.

Newer services that some IM networks are beginning to provide include videoconferencing. based on the Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (EMPP). Windows Live Messenger (MSN).Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 17 IM requires a device providing services that allows users to communicate. web conferencing. As with proprietary IM protocols. Yahoo! Messenger. The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) has attempted to standardize IM protocols. IM servers can also incorporate this support. and even IP radio and IPTV. Both Microsoft and Yahoo! have proprietary protocols but have partnered services for joint connectivity. Text messaging between clients is possible and can be logged. and many IM networks encourage parental control. Some IM client applications. Encrypted communication is supported. such as a computer. each with a dedicated following of users. This arrangement is called a client/server relationship. use a piece of software called the Instant Messenger Client. AIM and ICQ (purchased by AOL) use the proprietary Open System for Communication in Real Time (OSCAR) protocol. Figure 1-5 shows the AIM client application connected to the AIM network. Throughout this course we will learn about many different protocols. Social misuse of IM has been a concern for parents. AIM and . File sharing between IM clients enables work collaboration. ■ ■ ■ ■ Protocols Each IM network uses an agreed-upon method of communication. any existing connections can be alerted through a contact list—a list of other people that you communicate with through the IM client. such as Gaim and Trillian. Applicable IETF references are RFC 3920 and RFC 3921. Some IM networks offer audio services. This device is called the Instant Messenger Server. called a protocol. SIPv2 was originally defined in RFC 2543 and was made obsolete by RFC 3261. and the server joins clients. can differentiate between the various IM network protocols. Voice over IP (VoIP). Figure 1-5 AIM Client Features IM services have several common features: ■ When an IM client connects to the IM network. This relationship is called an IM network. The users on the end devices. The IETF formalized an open standard. and ICQ (I Seek You). Many different IM networks are available. desktop sharing. Child restrictions include limiting IM contacts and providing supervision while online. numerous open-source protocols exist. Popular IM networks include America OnLine (AOL) Instant Messenger (AIM). notably with Session Initiation Protocol (SIP). Many of the IM networks use proprietary protocols. Jabber. IM clients connect to an IM server.

Consider deploying products specifically designed for IM security. Some parental supervision tools include background logging. HTTP). have been transferred to IM client computers. For example.4 How to Protect Against IM Vulnerabilities and Unauthorized IM Usage ■ Establish policies for acceptable use of IM. Even legitimate users can congest network throughput by transferring large files. Ensure that all users are aware of those policies and clearly understand the potential risks.18 Network Fundamentals. Restrict Administrative and Power User level privileges to support personnel acting in their support capacity.org/top20/#c4: C4. viruses. Computer worms. IM clients and IM servers have experienced application vulnerabilities. If a user must have Administrative or Power User privileges. As a result. Employ antivirus and antispyware products. mobile IM supports mobile users. Do not rely on external IM servers for internal use of IM. Internet surfing. and the underlying operating system. Standard users should not be permitted to install software. Another popular handheld appli- . and disabling certain functions of the client. Most popular cellular phone manufacturers have their own form of mobile IM. enabling users to adapt new technologies for collaboration. Filter all HTTP traffic through an authenticating proxy server to provide additional capabilities of filtering and monitoring IM traffic. categorized as malware. interrelated applications. blocking specific users. which have resulted in vulnerable computers. and Trojan horses. (Note: This offers only partial protection because of the number of potential protocols and associated ports and the ability of applications to bypass port restrictions. information exchanged between users can be captured and disclosed. Create secure communication paths when using IM with trusted business partners. (Note: This offers only partial protection because of the number of potential external servers. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Yahoo! Messenger provide free supervision software tools. Block access to known public IM servers that have not been explicitly authorized. create a separate account to be used for his or her daily office functions. Security Multiple security issues have been identified with IM. Understand that many IM applications can enable associated communications to masquerade as otherwise legitimate traffic (for example. Appropriately configure intrusion detection and prevention systems. online time limits. many organizations either limit or block IM from entering the corporate network. provide a commercial-grade IM proxy or internal IM server.) Block popular IM ports. The following list is from the SANS website at http://www.) Monitor using an Intrusion Detection/Prevention system for users creating tunnels for IM or bypassing proxies. Ensure that vendor patches are promptly applied to IM software. providing IM services to handheld cellular phones. Without strong security methods. and online communication.sans. ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ The Future of IM The future of IM is promising. The SANS Institute recommends several countermeasures that system administrators can use to protect their networks from IM vulnerabilities and misuse. chat room blocking.

After verifying that the Gaim chat client is installed. Figure 1-7 Gaim Accounts Window In the Accounts window.example. as well as push e-mail. An IRC client is available for download from eagle-server at http://eagleserver. Accept the default settings during the installation. such as the Internet.example. In subsequent chapters you will study in great detail the devices and protocols that are inside the cloud. Open Gaim and select the Login window. If not. assume that a Cisco Networking Academy instructor has already set up Eagle Server and named it eagleserver. which is not the current focus of this discussion. telephony.” In networking. Task 1: Configure the Chat Client The IRC protocol is an open standard.com/pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter1. originally described in RFC 1459. .5. The Accounts window is shown in Figure 1-7.com. In this lab. Note: Eagle Server is a component of the Cisco Networking Academy. such as text messaging. and web browsing. the cloud represents the network and networking devices between an IRC client and a server called eagle-server. download and install gaim-1.example. icon Accounts. a cloud is often used to symbolize a more complex network. Figure 1-6 Topology for Lab 1-1 Eagle Server Pod#A Estimated completion time is 45 minutes. click Add.exe (a Windows executable) from ftp://eagleserver. including this one.com/pub. The BlackBerry supports common IM tools. for communicating across plain-text links. This lab uses Gaim as the IRC client. but any IRC client may be used if available.0.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 19 ance is the BlackBerry. Scenario Figure 1-6 shows two computers connected to a “cloud. Step 2: Open the Accounts window. Step 1: Verify that an IRC client is on the lab computer. Some of the labs in this book. follow the next steps to configure Gaim.

Figure 1-9 shows the IRC Connect Status window. used for chatting or IM. Task 2: Connect to the Chat Server Step 1: Sign on. Return to the Login window.com Proxy type: No Proxy Gaim Add Account Window Figure 1-8 When you’re finished. Figure 1-9 IRC Connect Status Window Figure 1-10 Gaim IRC Client Window . Click Sign-on. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Step 3: Add a new account. as shown in Figure 1-8: ■ ■ ■ ■ Protocol: IRC Screen Name: (how others will know you) Server: eagle-server. Two windows should open.20 Network Fundamentals. Figure 1-10 shows the main Gaim IM client window. Close the Accounts window. Fill in required information. expand the Show more options option.example. In the Add Account window. where the new account to eagle-server should be visible. click Save.

As a future network engineer. Figure 1-12 Participating in a Chat During the chat. the Channel name must start with #. the Gaim IM client can be used to connect to several different IM providers. and a Buddy List window appears. . If the Channel name is incorrect. Most teenagers and young adults today are familiar with IMing between friends and sharing files. Task 4: Reflection On a network with an Internet connection. consider how you—as a parent or network administrator—would manage this type of connection. you should understand the social and security issues with IM and IRC. the status window closes. Click Chat. you will be in a chat room alone (unless other students made a similar error).Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 21 Step 2: Join the chat. Figure 1-11 Joining a Chat Note: For you to join a chat channel. Answers will vary. When the IRC client connects to the IRC server. Multiple students can join and interact with each other. Task 3: Consider the Chat Session Figure 1-12 shows a brief chat between users root and student2. but you might not understand the communication between the client and server. as shown in Figure 1-11.

2. In this lab. In networking terms. Observe the response time before and during the file transfer. or graphics to a common site for other users to read and modify. Explore wiki features.6. In subsequent chapters you will study in great detail the devices and protocols that are inside the cloud. transfer files between partners. a cloud is often used to symbolize a more complex network that is not the current focus of discussion. you explore the TWiki wiki server installed on Eagle Server in this lab. A wiki lets you access a home page (first page) that provides a search tool to assist you in locating the articles that interest you. Figure 1-13 Topology for Lab 1-2 Eagle Server Pod#A Note to Instructor: The lab should be preconfigured for students. Background The lab topology shown in Figure 1-13 should be configured and ready for use. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 5: Challenge While you are connected in chat. If you have ever used Wikipedia. a wiki is a web-based collaboration tool that permits almost anyone to immediately post information. Task 6: Clean Up Check with your instructor before removing Gaim and shutting down the computer. ask the instructor for assistance.” In networking. Scenario In this lab. To gain experience with a wiki.22 Network Fundamentals. Use the Orientation lab to configure and test connectivity before students arrive in class. you have the opportunity to learn about the different parts of a wiki. you will be able to ■ ■ Define the terms wiki and blog. Figure 1-13 shows two computers connected to a “cloud. you will use a host computer that connects across the cloud to access the TWiki wiki server. A wiki can be installed for . files. Use a continuous ping from the host to Eagle Server to monitor network throughput. If there are connectivity issues with the lab computer connecting to Eagle Server.1) Upon completion of this lab. Lab 1-2: Using Collaboration Tools: Wikis and Web Logs (1. Write a brief description of the network response time—during file transfers and without file transfers. you are probably familiar with the look and feel of a wiki. Task 1: Define the Terms Wiki and Blog Wiki is a Hawaiian-language word that means fast.

wiki. Instead. Access control can be set by the topic creator. Note that you won’t be able to carry out the instructions in the “3.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 23 the Internet community or behind a corporate firewall for employee use. Text formatting is similar to creating an e-mail. defining who is permitted to edit content. Use your browser to upload files as page attachments. is similar to a wiki in that users create and post content for others to read. Following hyperlinks can present continuity problems. 6. Task 2: Explore Wiki Features with the TWiki Tutorial The TWiki tutorial explores some of the more common features of a wiki. Free Internet blog hosting is available. It is recommended that you open two browsers. Test the page controls. Get e-mail alerts whenever pages are changed. 8. Open a private account. Check out TWiki users. but others are more restrictive.blogger. Change a page and create a new one. TWiki requires e-mail verification for new accounts. A search engine is used for quick content location. the following common features have been formalized into every wiki: ■ ■ Any web browser can be used to edit pages or create new content.wikispaces. Blogs are normally the creation of a single person. Point one browser at the TWiki URL. and . Some blogs permit users to leave comments and provide feedback to the author..org/wiki. called a blog. 5. and e-mail has not been configured on the lab host computers. visit the following URLs outside of class: http://www. ■ ■ ■ For more information on wikis. users have already been created for steps that require login privileges. complete the questions in this task. As you investigate each topic in the tutorial. Take a quick tour. The user not only reads wiki contents but also participates by creating content within a web browser. 7. from such providers as www.com.. Open a private account” topic. Get set. Although many different wiki servers are available.cgi?WhatIsWiki http://www. 3. It covers the following major topics: 1.com/ A web log. similar to a free website or e-mail account. groups. The power of a wiki is in the rich hyperlink content. Edit and auto links are available to edit a page and automatically link pages. 2. A wiki web is a grouping of pages with different collaboration groups. 4. and the blog owner controls blog content.

Adjust the browser window sizes so that instructions can be viewed in one browser and actions can be performed in the other. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide use the other browser for “working” pages. List the mandatory information required for registration: First Name Last Name E-mail address Your password Retype password Organization name Country .24 Network Fundamentals. How many results are returned from a search of WebSearch? 5 Refer to the tutorial.. The key point to understand about this step is that registration is a two-part process. Figure 1-14 TWiki Sandbox Web Step 2: Open the TWiki Tutorial. to open the wiki tutorial page. “Take a quick tour. that hyperlinks to the topic. “Open a private account. Instead. users fill in registration information and submit the form to TWiki.” and topic 2. user IDs have been created for you to use later in this lab.” After completing the first two tutorial sections. highlighted in Figure 1-14. made up of two or more words with initial capital letters. The Sandbox. Step 1: Establish a web client connection to the Eagle Server wiki. Open a web browser and connect to the TWiki Sandbox at http://eagleserver. Refer to the tutorial. Click the TWiki Tutorial link.” E-mail is not possible at this time.com/twiki/bin/view/Sandbox/WebHome. The URL name is case-sensitive.. so enter it exactly as shown. Any external links that are selected will result in an error. answer the following questions: What is a WikiWord? A WikiWord is a topic name. therefore. you will not be able to register. topic 1. shown in Figure 1-14. First. topic 3. “Get set.example. Step 3: Complete the TWiki tutorial. is a web topic designed to test wiki features.

The second part of the registration process is when the user either enters the code in the activation window or responds with e-mail by clicking the TWiki response link. Tutorial topic 5. such as who changed what and when View a previous version of the topic or the difference between two versions Goes to a stripped-down version of the page.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 25 TWiki responds to a registration request by sending an e-mail to the user that contains a unique activation code.” makes you familiar with page-editing commands. More. Note to Instructor: This tutorial is an opportunity for the student to create a personalized page. Edit. After completing this tutorial section. r3 > r2 > r1. memorable password. “Change a page and create a new one. Recognize the student who has the best topic page! . History. Backlinks. answer the following question: What is the latest revision number? 15 In Table 1-4.” A list of TWiki users and groups is displayed. The TWiki system generates a new password and sends it to the user’s e-mail account. good for printing Edit Raw View Attach Backlinks More History r3 > r2 > r1 Printable Tutorial topic 6. such as rename/move. the user account is added to the TWiki database. topic 4. How can inappropriate changes be fixed in a wiki topic? A topic revision can be undone by a member of the TWikiAdminGroup. “Test the page controls. After completing this tutorial section. Table 1-4 Description Action Links Action Link Add to or edit the topic Show the source text without editing the topic Attach files to a topic Find out what other topics link to this topic (reverse link) Additional controls. and setting the topic’s parent Topics are under revision control—shows the topic’s complete change history. Complete this tutorial. At this time. Refer to the tutorial. answer the following questions related to user and group issues: How is a user’s password reset? The user selects WikiWord “Reset Password” and enters the login ID. place the correct action link next to the descriptions of page controls. using Table 1-5 to log in to the wiki server. Place the following action links: Attach. The user logs in with the new password and creates a new. version control. and Raw View. groups.” is an opportunity for you to add content to the wiki. Printable. “Check out TWiki users.

You should use the account that reflects your pod and host computer number. These accounts are StudentCcna1 through StudentCcna22. .26 Network Fundamentals. See Figure 1-15. All accounts have the same password. Table 1-5 Account Logins Account Login ID (Case-Sensitive) Lab pod#host# Pod1host1 Pod1host2 Pod2host1 Pod2host2 Pod3host1 Pod3host2 Pod4host1 Pod4host2 Pod5host1 Pod5host2 Pod6host1 Pod6host2 Pod7host1 Pod7host2 Pod8host1 Pod8host2 Pod9host1 Pod9host2 Pod10host1 Pod10host2 Pod11host1 Pod11host2 StudentCcna1 StudentCcna2 StudentCcna3 StudentCcna4 StudentCcna5 StudentCcna6 StudentCcna7 StudentCcna8 StudentCcna9 StudentCcna10 StudentCcna11 StudentCcna12 StudentCcna13 StudentCcna14 StudentCcna15 StudentCcna16 StudentCcna17 StudentCcna18 StudentCcna19 StudentCcna20 StudentCcna21 StudentCcna22 From the lab Wiki Welcome Screen. cisco. click the Log In link. located in the upper-left corner of the page. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide On Eagle Server. a group with private accounts has been created to allow participation in a private TWiki topic. Refer to Table 1-5.

Both the username and password are case-sensitive. create a document using Notepad. similar to the one shown in Figure 1-17. “Get e-mail alerts whenever pages are changed. What is the default maximum file size that can be transferred? 10 MB Tutorial topic 8. To complete this tutorial. Figure 1-17 Wiki Topic Page Tutorial topic 7.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 27 Figure 1-15 Log In Link A login box similar to the one shown in Figure 1-16 should appear. Sometimes it is not convenient to return regularly to a . “Use your browser to upload files as page attachments. Figure 1-16 Login Box This should bring up your wiki topic page. and upload it to the wiki server. Enter the applicable TWiki username and password cisco.” details how to receive e-mail alerts whenever a particular page has been updated.” describes the process of uploading files into the wiki.

com: CiscoStudentsStuff Task 3: Reflection This lab presented the mechanics of a wiki. the class may be able use the TWiki wiki server to post interesting topics related to computer network theory and class progress. Packet Tracer Challenge Skills Integration Challenge: Introduction to Packet Tracer (1. Edit the WebNotify page.7. Internet access is required.org/ Task 4: Challenge Depending on the type of Eagle Server installation. Create a personal blog of your network education experience.org/wiki/Cisco Network+: http://en.com/index. alerts are not sent. ] wikiName : topics ° ccna1@example.wikipedia.org/wiki/Network_Plus_Certification/Study_Guide Network Dictionary: http://wiki. Here’s a possible format: three spaces * [ webname .wireshark.1.wikibooks.php/Main_Page Wireshark network protocol analyzer: http://wiki. Describe how you could receive e-mail notifications whenever a topic changes.3) Figure 1-18 shows the topology for this challenge.28 Network Fundamentals. Task 5: Clean Up Close all web browsers and shut down the computer unless instructed otherwise.SMTP mail address three spaces * [ webName . Here are some wikis of possible interest: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ CCNA: http://en. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide wiki simply to check for updates to postings. ] wikiName three spaces * SMTP mail address three spaces * SMTP mail address : topics three spaces * [ webname .networkdictionary. Answers will vary. ] wikiName .wikibooks.nyetwork. and Table 1-6 reflects the addressing information. . Usefulness and collaboration will not be realized until you actually join a wiki.org/wiki/CCNA_Certification Cisco Systems corporate history: http://en. and add the web name and your e-mail address.org/wiki/Cisco_Systems Wiki web about Cisco equipment and technology: http://www. Because e-mail is not configured on the host computer.

255. Explore Packet Tracer operation.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 29 Figure 1-18 Topology for Skills Integration Challenge 1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server 2960-24TT S1-Central 1841 R2-Central PC-PT 1A PC-PT 1B Table 1-6 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP R2-Central S1-Central PC 1A PC 1B Eagle Server Fa0/0 S0/0/0 Fa0/0 S0/0/0 VLAN 1 NIC NIC NIC 192.1 172.255.1 172.255.255.168. .254 172.16. Explore the Logical Workplace.6 172.6 172.16.254 10.6 10.10.10.254 172. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Explore Packet Tracer Real-time mode.10.253 10.0 — — 10.255.10.16.10.10.255. Connect devices.253 Upon completion of this activity. Review the standard lab setup.255.0.255.254.0.10.254.16.0 255.0 255.255.0 255.255.16.0.0 255. Describe the devices.255.255.10.0 255.255.254.254.1.5 172.254 192.2 192.0.168.255.16.254 255.16.255.1.168. Examine a device configuration.252 255.252 255.255.

When you click one of these symbols. . this experience can be supplemented by a simulated environment. automatically selects the connection type based on the interfaces available on the devices. You are encouraged to compare the results obtained from Packet Tracer network models with the behavior of real equipment. a description of the device appears in the text box below the specific devices. you will often use the . and features but only a fraction of what is possible with real equipment. This method provides the widest range of features and the most realistic experience.pkt file format.” tutorials. Open the file LSG01-PTSkills1. Step 2: Explore symbols navigation. The specific connection symbols provide different cable types that can be used to connect devices.pka Packet Tracer activity file format. servers. When you click this symbol. which include an extensive “My First PT Lab. Packet Tracer can create two file formats: . At the bottom of these instructions are two buttons: ■ ■ Check Results gives you feedback on how much of the activity you have completed. the pointer resembles a cable connector. Click each group. The main part of the PT interface is the Logical Workplace. below the yellow bar. They are the result of the . Task 2: Explore PT Operations Step 1: Connect the devices using auto connect. The simulator that is used in this course is Packet Tracer.pka files (activity files for practice). Reset Activity restarts the activity if you want to clear your work or get more practice. is the portion of the interface that you use to select and place devices into the Logical Workplace. When Packet Tracer starts.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to perform this exercise using Packet Tracer. This activity gives you an opportunity to explore the standard lab setup using the Packet Tracer simulator. This is the large area where devices are placed and connected. the gold lightning bolt. or modify existing files from your instructor or your peers. The first specific type. the name of the group appears in the text box in the center. routers. Because equipment and time are limited. As you move the mouse pointer over these symbols. equipment. Click the connections group symbol. As you point to the specific devices. Task 1: Explore the PT Interface Step 1: Examine the Logical Workplace. and switches to learn networking concepts. and information on the strengths and limitations of using Packet Tracer to model networks. and study the various devices that are available and their symbols. The lower-left portion of the PT interface. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Background Throughout the course you will use a standard lab setup created from actual PCs. these instructions appeared. You are also encouraged to examine the Help files built into Packet Tracer. When you launched this activity from the curriculum. Packet Tracer provides a set of protocols. Packet Tracer is a supplement and not a replacement for experience with real equipment.30 Network Fundamentals. The first box in the lower left contains symbols that represent groups of devices.pkt files (network simulation model files) and . it presents a logical view of the network in realtime mode. When you create your own networks in Packet Tracer. the specific devices in the group appear in the box to the right.

click the first device.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 31 To connect two devices. the device configurations appear in a text box: ■ Router displays port configuration information. dialup. The Config tab displays the general information. Using the auto connection symbol. The Physical tab displays components of the device. including IP address. MAC address. . default gateway. The Physical tab displays components of the device. and CLI (command-line interface). Config. The CLI tab allows the user to configure the device using the command-line interface. port status. and VLAN membership. New modules can also be added using this tab. ■ Server and Hub devices contain two tabs—Physical and Config. such as device name. including IP address. New modules can also be added using this tab. Server displays IP address. the command prompt. and wireless. and then click the second device. such as ports. subnet mask. Step 2: Examine device configuration with a mouseover. Connect PC-PT 1A to the S1-Central switch. and gateway information. MAC address. Config. and gateway information. Switch displays port configuration information. and a simulated web browser can also be accessed using the Desktop tab. The Desktop tab allows the user to configure IP address. port status. The Config tab displays the general configuration information. New modules can also be added using this tab. MAC address. such as modules. and gateway information. ■ ■ ■ Step 3: Examine device configuration. Click each device type found in the Logical Workplace to view the device configuration: ■ Router and Switch devices contain three tabs—Physical. The Config tab displays the device name. click the auto connection symbol. DNS. PC displays IP address. and MAC address. ■ PC devices contain three tabs—Physical. Move the mouse over the devices found in the Logical Workplace. IP address. make the following connection: ■ ■ Connect Eagle Server to the R1-ISP router. As you move the mouse pointer over these symbols. A terminal emulator. subnet mask. The Physical tab displays physical components of the device. such as device name. and Desktop. DNS server.

one server. if you have not done so already. Task 4: Reflection You have completed your first Packet Tracer lab. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 3: Review the Standard Lab Setup The standard lab setup consists of two routers. IP addresses. Each of these devices is preconfigured with such information as device names. one switch.32 Network Fundamentals. and two PCs. . gateways. You are encouraged to obtain Packet Tracer from your instructor or Academy Connections. and connections.

■ ■ ■ What are the three elements of communication? Message source or sender Destination or receiver Channel or media What is the process of breaking large messages. for assistance. What is the process used to allow many different conversations to be interleaved on a network called? Multiplexing 4. easier-to-manage pieces called? Segmentation 2. into smaller. As you work through this chapter. Study Guide The Platform for Communications Communication begins with a message. or information. 3. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum activities and labs to further reinforce that you have mastered the practical. People exchange ideas using many different communication methods. All of these methods have three elements in common. fill-in-the-blank. or flow of data. use Chapter 2 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum or use the corresponding Chapter 2 in the Networking Fundamentals. What are these three types? Metallic wires within cables Glass or plastic fibers (fiber-optic cable) Wireless transmission ■ ■ ■ . CCNA Exploration Companion Guide. Concept Questions 1.CHAPTER 2 Communicating over the Network The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of multiple-choice. hands-on skills needed to use some critical tools to help evaluate network communications. that must be sent from one individual or device to another. and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of how devices communicate over the network. Modern networks primarily use three types of media to interconnect devices. matching.

Services b. laptops. router c. identify the definition on the left with either end devices or intermediary devices on the right. WANs. web servers) Mobile handheld devices (such as wireless barcode scanners. Table 2-2 Definition End or Intermediary Device Device Type Computers (work stations. Cat5 cable. Table 2-1 Term Components of the Network Definition a. and internetworks. WANs. Devices b. . or others with authorization. switches. wireless connection. and Internetworks Network infrastructures can vary greatly in terms of the following: ■ ■ ■ The size of the area covered The number of users connected The number and types of services available This section tests your knowledge of the differences between LANs. and wireless access points) Network printers Internetworking devices (routers) VoIP phones Communication servers and modems Security cameras Security devices (firewalls) End devices End devices Intermediary device End devices Intermediary device End devices Intermediary device End devices Intermediary device LANs. match the definition on the right with a term on the left. 1. PDAs) Network access devices (hubs. Media c. file servers. switch. The term intranet is often used to refer to a private connection of LANs and WANs that belongs to an organization. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks for the following statements. Computer. E-mail. fiber-optic cable a. employees. web browser In Table 2-2. and is designed to be accessible only by the organization’s members.34 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 2-1.

Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 35 2. 4. a. providing services and applications to people within a common organizational structure. Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 2-3. it might be necessary to use a telecommunications service provider (TSP) to interconnect the LANs at the different locations. LANs b. such as a single business. WANs. b. The media connecting the PC to the networking device plugs directly into the NIC. An individual network usually spans a single geographic area. c. or region. WANs. match the definition on the right with a term on the left. 3. Table 2-4 Device LANs. A global mesh of interconnected networks. When a company or organization has locations that are separated by large geographic distances. A LAN is usually administered by a single organization. match the term on the left with the correct symbol number from Figure 2-1. and Internetworks Definition a. WANs use specifically designed network devices to make the interconnections between LANs. Internetworks In Table 2-4. campus. WANs c. Table 2-3 Term LANs. and Internetworks Number Router Firewall Wireless access point LAN hub LAN switch IP phone Wireless router Wireless media Server Laptop LAN media Desktop computer WAN media 1 7 9 3 2 8 10 13 4 6 12 5 11 .

Concept Questions 1. is governed by predetermined rules called protocols. Successful communication between hosts on a network requires the interaction of many different protocols. A group of interrelated protocols that are necessary to perform a communication function is called a protocol suite. 1. 4. whether face to face or over a network. These protocols are specific to the characteristics of the conversation.36 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 2-1 Common Data Network Symbols 1 7 2 IP 8 3 9 4 10 11 5 12 6 13 Protocols All communication. 2. whether face to face or over a network. The most common internetwork protocol is Internet Protocol (IP). Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks for the following statements. ■ What processes do networking protocol suites describe? The process by which networking devices share information about pathways with other networks How and when error and system messages are passed between devices The setup and termination of data transfer sessions ■ ■ . is governed by predetermined rules called protocols. A standard is a process or protocol that has been endorsed by the networking industry and ratified by a standards organization. 3. All communication.

electrical. Table 2-5 Term TCP/IP Model Definition a. A layered model depicts the operation of the protocols occurring within each layer. match the definition on the right with a term on the left. Provides for common representation of the data transferred between application layer services. Session layer f. Determines the best path through the network In Table 2-6. Controls the hardware devices and media that make up the network c. functional. Network access layer b. Protocols describe methods for exchanging data frames between devices over a common media. Application layer b. Provides services to the presentation layer to organize its dialogue and to manage data exchange. Transport layer e. maintain. Internet layer d. Provides the means for end-to-end connectivity between individuals in the human network using data networks. and the interaction with the layers above and below it. and procedural means to activate. c. ■ What are some benefits to using a layered model to describe network protocols and operations? Assists in protocol design.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 37 2. Application layer b. Table 2-6 Term OSI Model Definition a. b. and deactivate physical connections for bit transmission to and from a network device. continues d. Describes the mechanical. a. it is common to use a layered model. because protocols that operate at a specific layer have defined information that they act upon and a defined interface to the layers above and below Fosters competition because products from different vendors can work together Prevents technology or capability changes in one layer from affecting other layers above and below Provides a common language to describe networking functions and capabilities ■ ■ ■ Using Layered Models To visualize the interaction between various protocols. Uses packet sequencing and application mapping through port numbers a. Presentation layer c. Ensures that loss of connection can be recovered and reset if data flow is interrupted before all data is received. Represents data to the user plus encoding and dialog control d. match the definition on the right with a term on the left. Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 2-5. g. Transport layer c. Network layer .

d. Data link layer g. Physical layer e. Which devices make Layer 3 decisions? a. Hubs d. Servers . Defines services to segment. Provides connectivity services that route packets from source network to destination network. Network Addressing Various types of addresses must be included in a packet to successfully deliver the data from a source application running on one host to the correct destination application running on another. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks for the following statements.38 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 2-6 Term OSI Model continued Definition f. 1. 1. What kind of protocols are primarily designed to move data from one local network to another local network within an internetwork? a. The Layer 2 address is unique on the local network and represents the address of the end device on the physical media. Switches c. is contained in the header of the Layer 2 protocol data unit (PDU). transfer. In a LAN using Ethernet. A unique dialogue between devices is identified with a pair of Layer 4 source and destination port numbers that are representative of the two communicating applications. 2. Layer 4 2. Using the OSI model as a guide. Layer 2 is concerned with the delivery of messages on a single local network. Layer 2 c. Layer 3 d. you can see the different addresses and identifiers that are necessary at each layer. and reassemble the data for individual communications between the end devices. Multiple-Choice Questions Choose the best answer for each of the questions that follow. The first identifier. this address is called the Media Access Control (MAC) address. called a frame. Routers b. the host physical address. Layer 1 b.

Each router represents a point where one network connects to another network and the packet was forwarded through. Background Route-tracing software is a utility that lists the networks data has to traverse from the user’s originating device to a distant destination network device. The displayed list can help identify data-flow problems when trying to access a service such as a website. Use tracert and NeoTrace to trace a route from its PC to a distant server.1) Upon completion of this activity. This lab assumes the installation of NeoTrace. such as tracert and NeoTrace. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ Explain the use of route tracing programs. You should perform this activity on a computer that has Internet access and access to a command line. two trace routes between the same source and destination conducted some time apart might produce different results. Describe the interconnected and global nature of the Internet with respect to data flow. it enables the user to identify the path taken to reach a particular destination on the network or across internetworks. you might have to turn your firewalls off for this lab. NeoTrace uses available online information to graphically display the route traced on a global map. First. This network tool is typically executed in UNIX and similar systems at the command line as follows: traceroute <destination network name or end device address> This network tool is typically executed in Microsoft Windows systems at the command line as follows: tracert <destination network name or end device address> This tool determines the route taken by packets across an IP network. that because of the “meshed” nature of the interconnected networks that make up the Internet and IP’s capability to select different pathways over which to send packets. for example.2. If multiple websites (mirrors) are available for the same file of data. you use two route-tracing programs to examine the Internet pathway to destination networks. The number of routers is known as the number of “hops” the data traveled from source to destination. and then the more enhanced NeoTrace program. one can trace each mirror to get a good idea of which mirror would be the fastest to use. Scenario Using an Internet connection.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 39 Labs and Activities Activity 2-1: Using NeoTrace to View Internetworks (2. By showing a list of routers traversed. The traceroute (or tracert) tool is often used for network troubleshooting. Remember. you use the Windows embedded tracert utility. Tools such as traceroute/tracert are usually embedded within the operating system of the end device. however. Note. It can also be useful when performing tasks such as downloading data. some computers running Windows XP might have firewall programs enabled that might prevent tracert and NeoTrace from operating.5. . Others such as NeoTrace are proprietary programs that provide extra information.

gblx. The first output line should show the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) followed by the IP address.11 ar-augsburg2.internal.cisco.cisco. the IP address of the destination device rather than the server name has to be entered after the tracert command.com from a location in Bavaria.sprintlink.193] cr-muenchen1.net [213. because this tool operates at the TCP/IP layers.317.37.210] sl-gw11-sj-10-0. the PC being used must have a working connection to the class/lab network.com [198.145] ar-augsburg1.206.alp.19.134] sl-ciscopsn2-11-0-0.net [195.131.189] sl-bb21-lon-5-0.dfn. How many hops between the source and destination? Answer varies based on location Example 2-1 shows the successful result when running tracert www.133.dfn.9.8.net [144.239.16.48. To trace the route to a distant network.25] 110 ms 110 ms 160 ms 170 ms 160 ms 170 ms 181 ms 160 ms 151 ms 160 ms 151 ms 160 ms 160 ms 161 ms 150 ms 161 ms Trace complete.141] pos3-0-622M.de [10.sprintlink.18. Germany.de [188.1.gblx.174] pos1-0-622M.com.com [128.de [188.96.694] sl-bb22-sj-5-1.232.FRA2. Example 2-1 tracert Output C:\> tracert www.69] sl-bb20-rly-15-1.133.br1.1.73] so0-0-0-2488M. Step 3.sprintlink.g-win.net [144.232.219.44.228.14] sjck-dirty-gw1.gblx.5] sjck-sdf-ciod-gw1.107.107.33] cr-frankfurt1.sprintlink.sprintlink.net [144.96.74. The lab Domain Name Service (DNS) server was able to resolve the name to an IP address.net [144.cisco.dfn.net [208.net [195.40 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 1: Trace Route to Remote Server Step 1.net [62.11] 194.125] sl-bb25-sj-12-0.com Tracing route to www.net [144.219.95.cisco.25] sl-bb20-msq-10-0.239.de [188.FRA2. Step 2.cisco. which understand valid IP addresses only.3.dfn.sprintllink. If DNS is not available.74.g-win.106] www. At the command-line prompt.8.gblx.0. Trace the route to a distant network. the tracert would have failed.207.81] so-6-0-0.25] Over a maximum of 30 hops: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 <10 ms <10 ms 20 ms <10 ms <10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 30 ms 30 ms 30 ms 100 ms 110 ms 171 ms 161 ms 160 ms 170 ms 170 ms 160 ms 160 ms 10 ms <10 ms <10 ms <10 ms <10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 30 ms 30 ms 30 ms 100 ms <10 ms <10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 20 ms 20 ms 31 ms 90 ms 10-37-00-1.LON3. Without this name resolution.232. .g-win.32.com [128.dillingen.1.de [188.cr1.cisco.ar2.cisco.com [198.g-win.net [144.232. enter tracert www.23.1. Examine the output displayed.sprintlink.3.cr2.LON3.232.19.

you can click the Advanced button. Unless instructed otherwise by your instructor. and in the Home Location section click the Set Home Location button.cisco. Step 4. Try a number of different URLs and view the routes to those destinations. Enter www.com in the Target field and click Go.cisco. Try another trace route on the same PC. Relate the displays of the output of NeoTrace to the concept of interconnected networks and the global nature of the Internet. Select each view in turn and note the differences and similarities. which enables you to enter the precise latitude and longitude of your location. Alternatively. followed by the IP address. choose Options. Task 4: Challenge Consider and discuss possible network security issues that could arise from the use of programs such as traceroute and NeoTrace. Then. Step 6. Therefore. Task 3: Reflection Review the purpose and usefulness of route-tracing programs. List View displays the list of routers similar to tracert.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 41 The first output line shows the FQDN. properly shut down the computer. Step 3. Step 7. Consider which technical details are revealed and how this information could perhaps be misused. Step 2. Try the same trace route on a PC connected to the Internet and examine your output: Number of hops to www. Destination URL: Answer varies based on URL Destination IP address: Answer varies based on URL Task 2: Trace Route Using NeoTrace Step 1. From the View menu. there are listings of all routers through which the tracert requests had to pass to get to the destination. a DNS server was able to resolve the name to an IP address. Follow the instructions to select your country and location within your country. . Task 5: Clean Up Exit the NeoTrace program. Launch the NeoTrace program. Step 5. Step 4. Click the Map tab. On the View menu. and examine your output. Node View from the View menu displays the connections graphically with symbols.com: Answer varies based on location Step 5. Map View from the View menu displays the links and routers in their geographic location on a global map.

1) Upon completion of this lab.1.42 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Lab 2-1: Topology Orientation and Building a Small Network (2. In the basic portion of this lab. which allows the data to reach the appropriate destination device. Physically cable a peer-to-peer and switched network. Verify basic connectivity on each network. Addressing for this lab is applied to the workstations and is used to enable communication between the devices. you use straight-through or patch cables to connect workstations and switches. In addition. Therefore. as shown in Figure 2-2. At the physical layer (Layer 1) of the OSI model. you need to understand clearly which cables to use for your network connections. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ Correctly identify cables for use in the network. Figure 2-2 Topology for Lab 2-1 Peer-to-Peer Network Switched Network . end devices must be connected by media (cables). The network layer (Layer 3) requires a unique address (also known as a logical address or IP address). two or more devices communicate through an address. Background Many network problems can be fixed at the physical layer of a network. Scenario This lab starts with the simplest form of networking (peer to peer) and ends with the lab connecting through a switch.6. The type of media required depends on the type of device being connected.

. and then click Properties. Select a lab partner. click Start. Step 2. Apply a Layer 3 address to the workstations. See Figure 2-4. The cables used in this lab are crossover and straight-through. Notice when you look at the plug that the orange and green wires are in opposite positions on each end of the cable. right-click My Network Places. use the following step-by-step instructions. as shown in Figure 2-3. Obtain the following equipment and resources for the lab: ■ ■ ■ ■ Two workstations Two straight-through (patch) cables One crossover cable One switch (or hub) Task 2: Identify the Cables Used in a Network Before the devices can be cabled. To complete this task. On your computer.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 43 Task 1: Create a Peer-to-Peer Network Step 1. Task 3: Cable the Peer-to-Peer Network Step 1. Note: These steps must be completed on each workstation. with icons showing the different network connections. Using the correct Ethernet cable. The instructions are for Windows XP. This is an Ethernet cable. Use a straight-through cable to connect the router’s Ethernet port to a switch port or a workstation to a switch port. The Network Connections window should appear. Use a crossover cable to connect two workstations to each other through their network interface card (NIC) Ethernet port. This is also an Ethernet cable. Connect two workstations. connect two workstations together. you must identify the types of media you intend to use. Figure 2-3 Peer-to-Peer Cabling Which cable did you use? Crossover cable Step 2. Steps may differ slightly if you are using a different operating system. a. Connect one end of the cable to the NIC port on PC1 and the other end of the cable to PC2. Notice when you look at the plug that both ends of the cable are exactly the same in each pin position.

. Right-click the Local Area Connection and click Properties. Select the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) item as shown in Figure 2-5. Enter the IP address 192.168. e.168.3 for PC2.44 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 2-4 Network Connections b. c. In the IP address box. select the Use the following IP address option.1. On the General tab of the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties window.2 for PC1. Figure 2-5 Local Area Connection Properties d.1. enter the IP address 192. and then click the Properties button.

Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 45 f. as shown in Figure 2-6. Press the Tab key. and then click Run. Step 3. Click OK. You can enter DOS commands using this window. click Start.0.exe) window will appear as shown in Figure 2-8. Figure 2-7 Run Command Enter cmd in the Open box.255. h. you enter basic network commands to test your computer connections. the subnet mask lists automatically. If this address is not automatically listed. Figure 2-6 Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties g. The DOS command (cmd. Close the Local Area Connection Properties window. Verify connectivity. and then click OK. The subnet address should be 255. enter the address manually. On your computer. For the purposes of this lab.255. . The dialog box shown in Figure 2-7 appears.

1.1. server.168. From the PC1 DOS command prompt.168.168.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 192. enter ping 192.168.168.3: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 192.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 192.168. Use the ping command to verify that PC1 can reach PC2 and PC2 can reach PC1.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 If the ping command displays an error message or doesn’t receive a reply from the other workstation. and so on) is reachable across an IP network.168.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 192.1. troubleshoot as necessary.2.1.1. What is the output of the ping command? Answer for PC1: Reply from 192.46 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 2-8 cmd Command The ping command is a computer network tool used to test whether a host (workstation. enter ping 192.3.1.1.1.3: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Answer for PC2: Reply from 192.168. Step 4.3: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 192.1.168.3: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 192. Possible areas to troubleshoot include the following: ■ Verifying the correct IP addresses on both workstations .168. From the PC2 DOS command prompt. router.1.

connect one end of the cable to the NIC port on the workstation and the other end to a port on the switch. Which cable did you use? Straight-through cable . as shown in Figure 2-9.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 47 ■ Ensuring that the correct type of cable is used between the workstations What is the output of the ping command if you unplug the network cable and ping the other workstation? Answer for PC1: Destination host unreachable Destination host unreachable Destination host unreachable Destination host unreachable Task 4: Connect Your Workstations to the Classroom Lab Switch Step 1. Figure 2-9 Switched Network 1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server 2960-24TT S1-Central 1841 R2-Central PC-PT 1A PC-PT 1B Step 2. Repeat this process for each workstation on your network. Connect the workstation to a switch. Using the correct cable.

you have access through all seven layers of the OSI model. On the desktop. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity.168. Verify network connectivity by using the ping command to reach the other workstations attached to the switch. The test folder should appear.168. When you can see it and work with the file. Share a document between PCs.1. Verify connectivity. and media disconnected What could prevent the ping from being sent to the workstations when they are connected through the switch? Wrong IP address. Remember. however. Double-click the workstation icon. You can access this folder across the network.168.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab2612.3: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 192.1.3: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 What is the output of the ping command if you ping an address that is not connected to this network? Answer for PC1: Request timed out Request timed out Request timed out Request timed out Step 4. switch powered off Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Topology Orientation and Building a Small Network (2. What is the output of the ping command? Answer for PC1: Reply from 192. Place a file in the folder. . double-click My Network Places and then Computers Near Me. Right-click the folder and click Sharing and Security. A hand symbol will appear under the icon. or a misconfiguration of the switch.48 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Step 3.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. create a new folder and name it test.1. On your desktop.3: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 192. media disconnected.168.3: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 192. pinging wrong IP address. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment.1.1. Task 5: Reflection What could prevent a ping from being sent between the workstations when they are directly connected? Wrong IP address on workstation.6.

org. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ ■ Explain the purpose of a protocol analyzer (Wireshark). analysis. go to http://www. When Wireshark is launched. the sniffer “captures” each protocol data unit (PDU) and can decode and analyze its content according to the appropriate RFC or other specifications. This enables it to display the encapsulation and individual fields of a PDU and interpret their meaning. Wireshark is programmed to recognize the structure of different network protocols. the screen shown in Figure 2-10 displays. Scenario To capture PDUs. the computer on which Wireshark is installed must have a working connection to the network. Figure 2-10 Wireshark Opening Screen .2.Wireshark. used for network troubleshooting. Experiment with Wireshark features and options such as PDU capture and display filtering. Before June 2006. Perform basic PDU analysis on straightforward network data traffic. Perform basic PDU capture using Wireshark. For information and to download the program. As data streams travel back and forth over the network. and education. Background Wireshark is a software protocol analyzer. It is a useful tool for anyone working with networks and can be used with most labs in the CCNA courses for data analysis and troubleshooting.1) Upon completion of this lab. Wireshark was known as Ethereal. software and protocol development. or “packet sniffer” application.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 49 Lab 2-2: Using Wireshark to View Protocol Data Units (2. and Wireshark must be running before any data can be captured. A packet sniffer (also known as a network analyzer or protocol analyzer) is computer software that can intercept and log data traffic passing over a data network.6.

the two highlighted in Figure 2-12 deserve examination.50 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide To start data capture. for a computer this is the connected Ethernet adapter. Among those available in the Capture Options dialog box. shown in Figure 2-11. provides a range of settings and filters to determine which and how much data traffic is captured. Figure 2-11 Wireshark: Capture Options Dialog Box First. Then. you must ensure that Wireshark is set to monitor the correct interface. The Capture Options dialog box. select Options from the Capture menu. From the Interface dropdown list. you can set the other options. select the network adapter in use. Typically. Figure 2-12 Wireshark Capture Options .

If this feature is checked. and a message box displays the progress of this process (as shown in Figure 2-13). The Enable transport name resolution option allows you to control whether Wireshark translates network addresses found in PDUs into names. Figure 2-13 Wireshark Capture Start As data PDUs are captured. As you use different intermediary devices (hubs. routers) throughout these courses. Wireshark also provides a number of other capture-filtering and capture-process settings. perhaps distorting the analysis. switches.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 51 If the Capture packets in promiscuous mode feature is not checked. the name-resolution process might add extra PDUs to your captured data. you will experience the different Wireshark results. those that “pass by” the NIC but are not destined for the computer) are captured. The examples in Figure 2-14 show the capture of a ping process (box on left) and then accessing a web page (box on right). only PDUs destined for this computer will be captured. . the types and number are indicated in the message box. Clicking the Start button starts the data-capture process. Note: The capturing of these other PDUs depends on the intermediary device connecting the end-device computers on this network. all PDUs destined for this computer and all those detected by the computer NIC on the same network segment (that is. Although this is a useful feature.

Figure 2-15 Wireshark Capture Main Panes The PDU (or packet) list pane at the top of Figure 2-15 displays a summary of each packet captured. By clicking packets in this pane. Each line in the packet list corresponds to one PDU or packet of the captured data. you control what displays in the other two panes.org was accessed. as shown in Figure 2-15. The example in Figure 2-15 shows the PDUs captured when the ping utility was used and http://www. This main display window of Wireshark has three panes. the capture process is terminated and the main screen displays. more details will display in the packet details pane and in the packet bytes pane. If you select a line in this pane.Wireshark. The PDU (or packet) details pane in the middle of Figure 2-15 displays the packet selected in the packet list pane in more detail.52 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 2-14 Wireshark Capture Output When the Stop button is clicked. The packet details pane shows the current packet (selected in the pack- . Packet number one is selected in this pane.

You can save the information captured for the data PDUs in a file. Task 1: Ping PDU Capture Step 1. as shown in Figure 2-16. launch Wireshark on a computer in a lab pod.254.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 53 et list pane) in a more detailed form. stop the packet capture. This pane shows the protocols and protocol fields of the selected packet. In this case. However.168. which you can expand and collapse. and then start the capture process. and then open this file in Wireshark for later analysis without having to recapture the same data traffic. After receiving the successful replies to the ping in the command-line window. The packet bytes pane shows the data of the current packet (selected in the packet list pane) in what is known as hexdump style. Figure 2-16 Wireshark Save Option Clicking Continue without Saving closes the file and exits Wireshark without saving the captured data. The information displayed when a capture file is opened is the same as the original capture. The protocols and fields of the packet display in a tree form. ping the IP address of another network-connected and poweredon end device in the lab topology. In this lab. you will find this displayed information useful for examining the binary values and content of PDUs. ping the Eagle Server using the command ping 192. From the command line. The PDU (or packet) bytes pane at the bottom of Figure 2-15 displays the actual data (in hexadecimal form representing the actual binary) from the packet selected in the packet list pane. and highlights the field selected in the packet details pane. Step 2. when a more in-depth analysis is required. . a prompt asks whether you want to save the captured PDUs.254. Examine the packet list pane. this pane is not examined in detail. The packet list pane on Wireshark should now look something like Figure 2-17. After ensuring that the standard lab topology and configuration is correct. Set the capture options as described in the preceding section. When closing a data-capture screen or exiting Wireshark.

9. match the messages displayed in the command-line window when the ping was issued with the six packets captured by Wireshark. 8. Yes. particularly packet numbers 6. the source address is my computer. Select (highlight) the first echo request packet on the list. 7. The packet details pane will now display something similar to Figure 2-18. Step 3. . answer the following: What protocol is used by ping? ICMP What is the full protocol name? Internet Control Message Protocol What are the names of the two ping messages? Echo Request Echo Reply Are the listed source and destination IP addresses what you expected? Why? Answers may vary. If you performed Step 1. and the destination is the Eagle Server.54 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 2-17 Wireshark Packet List Pane Look at the packets listed in Figure 2-17. Locate the equivalent packets on the packet list on your computer. 11. 12. and 15. 14. From the Wireshark packet list.

as shown in Figure 2-20. if you select (highlight) the second line (+ Ethernet II) in the details pane. Expanded As you can see. Although at this stage of the course you might not fully understand the displayed information. Locate the two different types of “source” and “destination. Figure 2-19 Wireshark Packet Details Pane. the bytes pane highlights the corresponding values. For example. you can further expand the details for each section and protocol. What protocols are in the Ethernet frame? eth:ip:icmp:data As you select a line in the packet details pane. . and the Internet Protocol shows the IP addresses. all or part of the information in the packet bytes pane also becomes highlighted. Spend some time scrolling through this information. The packet details pane will now display something similar to Figure 2-19.” Why are there two types? The Ethernet II shows the MAC addresses. make a note of the information you do recognize.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 55 Figure 2-18 Wireshark Packet Details Pane Click each of the four plus sign (+) buttons to expand the information.

0.exe 200 PORT command successful. Assuming Wireshark is still running from the previous steps.exe (6967072 bytes). Click Continue without Saving when the message box shown in Figure 2-16 appears. When the connection is established.59Seconds 11729. 150 Opening BINARY mode data connection for pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter1/gaim1.com:(none)): anonymous 331 Please specify the password. Password:<ENTER> 230 Login successful.0.254. At this stage of the course.0. start packet capture by clicking the Start option on the Capture menu of Wireshark. stop the PDU capture in Wireshark.254. as follows: Userid: anonymous Password: <ENTER> You may alternatively log in with userid cisco and password cisco. enter get /pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter1/gaim-1.168.example.example.56 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 2-20 Wireshark Packet Expanded. enter ftp 192.5.com.5.com Connected to eagle-server. When successfully logged in.exe and press the Enter key <ENTER> to start downloading the file from the FTP server. Example 2-2 Eagle Server Output C:\Documents and Settings\ccna1>ftp eagle-server. 226 File send OK. .08Kbytes/sec. Highlighted Pane This line shows the particular binary values that represent that information in the PDU. enter quit. ftp: 6967072 bytes received in 0. Task 2: FTP PDU Capture Step 1. Start packet capture.5. as follows: ftp> quit 221 Goodbye. Go to the File menu and select Close. When the file download is complete. ftp> get /pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter1/gaim-1. Step 4. enter anonymous as the user without a password. User (eagle-server. C:\Documents and Settings\ccna1> When the file has successfully downloaded. At the command line on your computer running Wireshark. it is not necessary to understand this information in detail. Consider using PASV. The output will look similar to Example 2-2. 220 Welcome to the eagle-server FTP service.example.

Identify the three groups of PDUs associated with the file transfer. match the packets with the messages and prompts in the FTP command-line window. Answers will vary. ACK. Increase the size of the Wireshark packet list pane and scroll through the PDUs listed. The filename is gaim-1. note the plain text visible in the bytes pane. These will be the PDUs from the Layer 4 protocol. Response: 220 Welcome to the eagle-server FTP service. 1292 > ftp [ACK].0. ACK]. Locate and note those PDUs associated with the file download. FTP. From any pane. The first group is associated with the “connection” phase and logging in to the server. Examine the highlighted portion in the packet bytes pane.] The third group of PDUs relate to logging out and “breaking the connection. What feature of TCP does this indicate? Send and receipt of data Step 3. View the packet details in the details pane. Highlight a packet containing the actual file content. ftp >1292 [FIN. Response: 331 Please specify the password. highlight and examine some packets exchanged in the third phase of the file download. Request: Pass. Response: 221 Goodbye. 1292 > ftp [SYN]. What protocols are encapsulated in the frame? Eth:ip:tcp:ftp-data Highlight the packets containing the username and password. ACK].5. Answers will vary. What does this indicate about the security of this FTP login process? Security isn’t high because the name and password are visible. Request:QUIT.] Locate recurring TCP exchanges throughout the FTP process. .exe. 1292 > ftp [FIN. Locate and list examples of messages exchanged in the second phase (that is. 1294 > ftp-data [ACK. and the Layer 7 protocol. Select (highlight) a packet on the list associated with the first phase of the FTP process. FTP > 1292 [SYN.” List examples of messages exchanged during this process. Request: User anonymous. If you performed Step 2. List examples of messages exchanged in this phase. Answers will vary. FTP Data: 1448 bytes. the actual download request and the data transfer). In the details and bytes panes. Examine packet details. TCP. locate the packet containing the filename.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 57 Step 2. Highlight a packet associated with the second phase.

Step 3. close the Wireshark file and continue without saving. Also. After the web page has fully downloaded. Note the similarity between this message exchange and the FTP exchange.254. what is displayed? HTML code for the web page Examine the highlighted portion of the bytes pane. start packet capture by clicking the Start option on the Capture menu of Wireshark. Task 5: Challenge Discuss how you could use a protocol analyzer such as Wireshark to troubleshoot the failure of a web page to download successfully to a browser on a computer. Increase the size of the Wireshark packet list pane and scroll through the PDUs listed. Answers may vary. . Enter the URL of the Eagle Server as example. Start packet capture.58 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Which features distinguish the content of these packets? A [FIN. Assuming Wireshark is still running from the previous steps. click the + box next to Line-based text data: html. highlight an HTTP packet that has the notation “(text/html)” in the Info column. When finished. Wireshark could show when a request for a web page failed because of an incorrect URL. Task 3: HTTP PDU Capture Step 1. identify data traffic on a network that is requested by users. When you have finished. It is important that you can recognize and link both the protocols represented and the protocol layer and encapsulation types of the models with the information provided by Wireshark. User traffic could be monitored to identify errors in source or destination. Launch a web browser on the computer that is running Wireshark. Locate and identify the TCP and HTTP packets associated with the downloaded web page.168.com or enter the IP address 192. close the Wireshark file and continue without saving. In the packet list pane. Note: Capture options do not have to be set if you are continuing from previous steps of this lab. Task 4: Reflection Consider the encapsulation information pertaining to captured network data Wireshark can provide. This shows the HTML data carried by the packet. When this information expands. In the packet details pane.254. Step 2. Relate this to the OSI and TCP/IP layer models. stop the Wireshark packet capture. ACK] is issued to close the connection.

you start building. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity. testing. Figure 2-21 Topology for Challenge 1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server 2960-24TT S1-Central 1841 R2-Central PC-PT 1A PC-PT 1B . and analyzing a model of the Exploration lab network. exit Wireshark and properly shut down the computer.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab2622. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity. however. however.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer.6.7.2.1. and Table 2-7 reflects the addressing information. Remember. Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Using Packet Tracer to View Protocol Data Units (2. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. You can now open the file LSG01-PTSkills2. Skills Integration Challenge: Examining Packets (2.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 59 Task 6: Cleanup Unless instructed otherwise by your instructor. Remember.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to do the challenge lab using Packet Tracer.3) In this activity. Figure 2-21 shows the topology for this challenge. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment.

you will often use the PKT file format. Two buttons appear at the bottom of these instructions: Check Results (which gives you feedback on how much of the activity you have completed) and Reset Activity (which starts the activity over.255.10.16.255.16. When you launched this activity from the curriculum.0 255. you will be using a standard lab setup created from actual PCs.0.254. Analyze PDUs in simulation mode.254. or modify existing files from your instructor or your peers.168.252 255.168.1.252 255. Task 1: Complete the Topology Add a PC to the workspace.255. and switches to learn networking concepts.16.0.1 172.16.10. routers. tutorials to guide you through various tasks.0.255.168. Add simple PDUs in real-time mode.255. Experiment with the model of the standard lab setup.10.2 192. you continue learning how to build and analyze this standard lab topology.0.255. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ ■ Complete the topology.6 10. .255.10.16.255.253 R2-Central Fa0/0 S0/0/0 S1-Central PC 1A PC 1B Eagle Server VLAN 1 NIC NIC NIC Upon completion of this activity.0 N/A N/A 10.253 10.1.0 255.16.10.16. Background Throughout the course.10. This activity provides an opportunity to explore the standard lab setup using the Packet Tracer simulator. They are the result of the PKA Packet Tracer activity file format. you are encouraged to examine the Help files available from the Help pull-down menu at the top of the Packet Tracer GUI.0 255.255.255.254 192. Packet Tracer can create two file formats: PKT files (network simulation model files) and PKA files (activity files for practice).1. servers. When you create your own networks in Packet Tracer.254.1 172. Configure it using the following parameters: IP address 172.254 255. default gateway 172. these instructions appeared.255.255.6 172.16.5 172. Connect PC 1B to the Fa0/2 port of the S1-Central Switch and check your work with the Check Results button to see that the topology is complete.6 172.2. In this activity.254. Resources include a “My First PT Lab” to help you learn the basic operation of Packet Tracer.168.255. subnet mask 255. and information about the strengths and weaknesses of using Packet Tracer to model networks.254 172.255.254.254.254 10.255.254. If you have not done so already.16.0. DNS server 192.255.60 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 2-7 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP Fa0/0 S0/0/0 192. display name 1B.10.0.0 255.255.0 255.255.254 172. in case you want to clear your work or gain more practice).10.

Note that this packet will appear in the event list as something that was “detected” or “sniffed” on the network. and in the lower right as a user-created PDU that can be manipulated for testing purposes. and two PCs. Task 3: Analyze PDUs in Simulation Mode (Packet Tracing) Switch to simulation mode.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 61 Task 2: Add Simple PDUs in Real-Time Mode Using the Add Simple PDU. you are encouraged to obtain Packet Tracer from your instructor and complete My First PT Lab (available by accessing the Help pull-down menu and choosing Contents). . send a test message: one between PC 1B and Eagle Server. one server. one switch. to examine the packet at each step in its journey. Task 4: Experiment with the Model of the Standard Lab Setup The standard lab setup will consist of two routers. Each of these devices is preconfigured. Double-click the red “Fire” button in the User-Created PDU window. Use the Capture / Forward button to move the packet through the network. or click the colored square in the Info column of the event list. Task 5: Reflection If you have not already done so. Try creating different combinations of test packets and analyzing their journey through the network. Click the packet envelope.

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When placed side by side. or use the corresponding Chapter 3 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration Companion Guide. and session layers. Study Guide Applications: The Interface Between the Networks Visualizing the mechanisms that enable communication across the network is easier if you use the layered framework of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model. As you work through this chapter. use Chapter 3 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum. How the human network generates data and how that data then enters the computer network is discussed. Application layer software and application layer services and protocols are examined in the labs. fill-in-the-blank. the OSI and TCP/IP models provide a means by which you can visualize and discuss the flow of networking.CHAPTER 3 Application Layer Functionality and Protocols The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of multiple-choice. hands-on skills needed to work with the application layer of the OSI model. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum labs to further reinforce that you have mastered the practical. matching. as shown in Figure 3-1. presentation. for assistance. Figure 3-1 OSI and TCP/IP Models OSI Model 7 Application 6 Presentation 5 4 3 2 1 Session Transport Network Data Link Physical Application Layers TCP/IP Model Domain Name System Application Hypertext Transfer Protocol Simple Mail Transfer Protocol Post Office Protocol Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol Transport Internet Data Flow Layers Network Access . and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of the TCP/IP model application layer and the OSI model application. In this section you explore the upper layers of both the OSI and TCP/IP models.

match the term on the left with its definition on the right. What is meant by the term application layer services? Why are protocols important when used in conjunction with application layer services? Software programs need the assistance of application layer services to use network resources. such as file transfer or network print spooling. Telnet h. but what properties do application protocols display? Answers will vary. It is difficult to generalize about protocols because they vary so greatly in purpose. Layer 7 c. 3. Define processes on either end of the communication. This layer provides coding. Network-aware applications are software programs used to communicate over the network. Define the types of messages. GIF. SMTP. 2. The most widely known TCP/IP application layer protocols that provide for the exchange of user information b.64 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 3-1. Define interaction with the next lower layer. Define how messages are sent and the expected response. Top layer of both the OSI and TCP/IP models d. Protocol used to provide remote access to servers and network work devices c. and encryption e. Generally defines the protocols in the TCP/IP suite a. Protocols define the standards and data formats used. compression. Define the syntax of a message. Top layer of the OSI model g. JPEG. the data network would not have a common way to format and direct data. TIFF f. FTP g. Define the format of a message. Table 3-1 Term OSI and TCP/IP Model Comparison Definition a. Define the meaning of any informational fields. Presentation layer d. . Email clients and web browsers are a couple of examples. Application layer b. Specify what to do with corrupted or improperly formatted messages. Without protocols. Define the start and end of a message. What does the term network-aware application mean? List a few examples. Session layer e. Request For Comments (RFC) h. DNS. HTTP. Graphic image formats Concept Questions 1. These software programs are considered network-aware if they implement the application layer protocols and can communicate directly with the lower layers of the protocol stack. Functions at this layer create and maintain dialogs between source and destination applications f.

Web browser e.) a. Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 3-2. Peer-to-peer applications can be used on which of the following? (Choose all that apply. a single client requesting a service b. match the term on the left with its definition on the right. simultaneously and as a single transaction . Across the intranet only e. Client/server networks c. Peer-to-peer networks b. Two or more computers are connected via a network and can share resources (such as printers and files) without having a dedicated server. Peer-to-peer networks b. PDA. If that is the case. Telnet services f. Multiple-Choice Questions Choose the best answer(s) for each of the following questions. A Telnet server may have _____________.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 65 Making Provisions for Applications and Services When people attempt to access information on their device. simultaneously but as separate transactions d. a request to access that information must be made to the device where the data resides. the data may not be physically stored on their device. Device responding to the request d. Across the Internet d. multiple clients requesting services. Hosted on a client e. Can be on a client and/or a server a. laptop. Web services d. Device requesting information c. a. but not at the same time c. multiple clients requesting services. cell phone. multiple clients requesting services. Server c. Table 3-2 Term Application Layer Terms Definition a. Client b. 1. Hosted on a web server f. whether it is a PC. or some other device connected to a network. Across the peer-to-server network 2.

DHCP allows a host to obtain an IP address dynamically when it connects to the network. 5. 3. match the port number on the left with its protocol on the right. Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) d. the transport layer uses an addressing scheme called a port number. 1. Domain Name System (DNS) f. TCP port 80 c. has revolutionized how people communicate through its simplicity and speed. 8. Server programs generally use predefined port numbers that are commonly known by clients. HTTP defines the message types that the client uses to request the web page and also the message types the server uses to respond. TCP ports 20 and 21 b. E-mail. UDP port 110 e. based on the Gnutella protocol. 4. When a client. 7. The e-mail server operates two separate processes: Mail Transfer Agent (MTA) and Mail Delivery Agent (MDA).66 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Application Layer Protocols and Services Examples As you will see later in this course. 10. Post Office Protocol (POP) e. Port numbers identify applications and application layer services that are the source and destination of data. UDP port 67 g. File Transfer Protocol (FTP) c. typically a web browser. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following statements. The FTP client is an application that runs on a computer that is used to push files to and pull files from a server. The Server Message Block (SMB) is a client/server file-sharing protocol. Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 3-3. Table 3-3 Port Number Port Numbers and Protocols Protocol a. the most popular network service. the web browser establishes a connection to the web service running on the server using the HTTP protocol. Telnet a. With peer-to-peer applications . DNS uses a hierarchical system to create a name database to provide name resolution. TCP port 25 d. A DNS server provides name resolution using the name daemon. people can make files on their hard disks available to others for downloading. Sharing files over the Internet has become extremely popular. 2. Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) g. TCP/UDP port 53 b. sends a request message to a server. When a web address (or URL) is entered into a web browser. TCP port 23 f. 6. 9.

Upload d. data link.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 67 11. World Wide Web b. session. Data transfer from a client to a server is referred to as which of the following? a. network. Mail Transfer Bridge (MTB) c. Application. E-mail c. transport. Download c. It decentralizes the resources on a network. c. The Domain Name System (DNS) was created to do what? a. transport. Application. network. Mail User Agent (MUA) d. transport. d. and physical d. Mail Delivery Agent (MDA) 4. and physical c. Pull 5. presentation. Mail Transfer Agent (MTA) b. presentation. The Open Systems Interconnection reference model is a layered. abstract representation created as a guideline for network protocol design. The e-mail server operates which two separate processes? a. session. It centralizes the resources on a network. Resolve domain names to MAC addresses. It uses the client/server model. data link. Resolve domain names to IP addresses. and physical b. presentation. Query b. session. Resolve domain names to computer names. presentation. d. Resolve domain names to e-mail addresses. 6. Multiple-Choice Questions Choose the best answer(s) for each of the following questions. and physical 2. data link. eBay 3. Telnet provides a standard method of emulating text-based terminal devices over the data network. 1. Internet. The OSI model divides the networking process into which seven layers? a. Application. . P2P d. Internet. Application. What is the most popular application service? a. b. network. Internet. b. c. It uses file servers. Which of the following best describes a peer-to-peer network? a. transport.

HTTP d. The different top-level domains represent which of the following? (Choose all correct answers. File server name 8. STP d. SHTTP c. SMTP b. DHCP .) a. the e-mail client can use which of the following protocols? a. Which service automates the assignment of IP addresses. POP 10. HTTPS b. Telnet d. and other IP networking parameters? a. STelnet 9. SMTP b. Country of origin c. TFTP c.68 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide 7. Company or brand name d. Type of organization b. gateway. subnet masks. For secure communication across the Internet. SSH c. To receive e-mail messages from an e-mail server. which protocol is used to access or post web server information? a.

Task 1: Create a Sound File Step 1. Record an audio file. In this activity. Estimated completion time. the sound’s waveform should appear on the Sound Recorder interface. You can find it in Windows XP by choosing Start > Programs > Accessories > Entertainment > Sound Recorder.1) Upon completion of this activity.com/dlls/podcasts/audio_feeds.1. Examine data transfer rates associated with the file. The Sound Recorder interface is shown in Figure 3-2. Record the file’s characteristics. The data can be stored on the end device where it was created.4. depending on network speed. . You can find the application in Windows XP by choosing Start > Programs > Accessories > Entertainment > Sound Recorder. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ Capture or download an audio stream. you will use a microphone and Microsoft Sound Recorder to capture an audio stream. Microsoft Sound Recorder is a Windows accessory. or create sounds that the microphone can pick up.html. as shown in Figure 3-3. or it can be transferred for storage on another device. To begin recording. Open the Windows Sound Recorder application.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 69 Labs and Activities Activity 3-1: Data Stream Capture (3. Scenario Perform this activity on a computer that has a microphone and Microsoft Sound Recorder or Internet access so that you can download an audio file. Speak into the microphone. As the audio is recorded. click the Record button on the Sound Recorder interface.cisco. the data that comprises that file must be stored somewhere. Figure 3-2 Sound Recorder Interface Step 2. you can download an audio file to use in this activity from http://newsroom. is 30 minutes. Background When an application creates a file. If a microphone and Microsoft Sound Recorder are not available.

Task 2: Observe the Properties of the Audio File Step 1. right-click at the top of the Media Player interface. Right-click the audio file you saved to the desktop. close the Sound Recorder application. and the volume settings. depending on the file created. Save the audio file to the desktop. Figure 3-4 Playback If you are unable to hear the recording. the speakers. If you are unable to create a recording.wav. Step 4. View audio file properties. Click the Play button to listen to the recording. as shown in Figure 3-4.com/dlls/podcasts/audio_feeds. What is the file size in bytes? Answers will vary. download an audio file from News@Cisco at http://newsroom. When the file is open. Right-click the audio file and choose Open With > Windows Media Player. The recording should be played back. Check the audio file that was recorded.cisco. Save to the desktop the audio file you created. depending on the file created. Step 2. Name the file myaudio.70 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 3-3 Recording in Progress Click the Stop button when you are finished. What is the file size in bits? Answers will vary. Save the audio file. Step 3. and choose File > Properties from the popup menu. What is the file size in kilobytes? Answers will vary. . and proceed to Task 2. After saving the file.html. Open the audio file in Windows Media Player. check the microphone’s configuration. and choose Properties from the popup menu. and attempt to create the recording again. depending on the file created.

delete the file from the desktop. If the Ethernet overhead uses 5 percent of the available 100 Mbps bandwidth. web browsers make up only half the communication channel. Table 3-4 shows the top three web server applications by percentage of use. Based on a survey by Netcraft in January 2007. how long would it take for the file transfer to be completed? Answers will vary. .2. The other half is web server support. depending on the file created. Task 3: Reflection Data files do not have to remain on the end devices where they are created.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 71 What is the length of the audio file in seconds? Answers will vary. depending on the file created. However. If so. the data that makes up a file is not transferred at this speed. Verify the default web server configuration file. Background Web servers are an important part of the business plan for any organization with a presence on the Internet. turn off the computer. and 95 percent of the bandwidth is left for the data payload. All Ethernet frames contain other information. Lab 3-1: Managing a Web Server (3. Answers will vary. and record the result. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ Download. Consumers use web browsers to access business websites. Capture and analyze HTTP traffic with Wireshark. install.1) Upon completion of this lab. Task 4: Clean Up You may be required to remove from the computer the audio file you saved. you may want to copy the audio file that you created to another computer or a portable audio device. Unless instructed otherwise. depending on the file created. how long would it take the file transfer to be completed? Answers will vary. depending on the file created. For example.4. Even with an Ethernet connection operating at 100 Mbps. and verify a web server application. such as source and destination addresses. If the audio file that you saved to the desktop were to be transferred at a rate of 100 megabits per second (Mbps). that is necessary for the frame’s delivery. Calculate the amount of data per second in the audio file. Web server support is a valuable skill for network administrators.

Figure 3-5 Topology for Lab 3-1 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 . If it is not.6 percent In this lab you will download. using Wireshark to capture the communication. The lab should be configured as shown in Figure 3-5 and Table 3-5. install. and configure the popular Apache web server. ask the instructor for assistance before proceeding.72 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 3-4 Web Server Web Server Choices Percent of Use Apache Microsoft Sun Scenario 60 percent 31 percent 1. Analyzing the capture will help you understand how the HTTP protocol operates. You will use a web browser to connect to the server.

If an individual host computer cannot connect to eagle-server. ping S1Central. ping eagle-server. and save the software on the pod host computer. Right-click the file. and finally eagle-server.255. troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity: Step 1.254 R2-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Eagle Server — — Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central — — — Note to Instructor: Depending on the classroom situation.254 172.6 192.254 192.255. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address. and double-click the Apache file to begin installation.16. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server.example.16. 172.0.255. Open the folder where the software was saved.254.10.0 255.255.255. and Verify the Apache Web Server Step 1. the lab topology may have been modified before this class.254 172.example. Take corrective action on devices that fail the ping tests. and that it can ping R2-Central.Pod#. Using a web browser. as shown in Table 3-5.example.254.10.168. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity. Step 2. check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central.16.1 255.255.253 — 172.255.10.254.5 172.168. Install the Apache web server on the pod host computer. go to ftp://eagle-server.1 172. Verify that the host computer has the correct Gateway IP address.16.10. The next installation step requires customized configuration of the web server.255. as shown in Figure 3-6.255.31.255. The Apache web server application is available for download from Eagle Server.0.16. Task 1: Download. If the ping test fails.0.0 255.255.0.254.255.255.0 255. R1-ISP. Step 2.16.255.0 — — 10.255.4 — 192.255.24. Choose default values and consent to the licensing agreement.10.6.0 255. Download the software from Eagle Server. Step 3.16. .10.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 73 Table 3-5 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP S0/0/0 Fa0/0 10. Install.255.254.16. and that it can ping R1-ISP.com.252 255. 10.255. R2-Central.16.252 255.com/pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter3 to access and download the software.0 255.253 10. Verify that all network equipment is powered on and that eagle-server is on.0 255. 172.2 172.254. verify that the host has the correct DNS address and that it can ping eagle-server. Finally.254 172.255. From a known good host computer.255.10.168.com.Pod#.254 172.10.

and click Install.74 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 3-6 Customized Configuration Screen Use the values shown in Table 3-6. For example.com. This permits connections to the web server.com The computer’s IP address ccnaxx@example. What is the default installation folder? C:\Program Files\Apache Software Foundation\Apache2. click Next. as shown in Figure 3-7. Note: If a Windows Security Alert is displayed.2\ Accept the default installation folder. Accept the default typical installation. close the screen. When the installation has finished. if the computer is on Pod 5. Host B. for users 1 through 22. Table 3-6 Information Apache Server Values Value Network Domain Server Name Administrator’s E-mail Address example. the administrator’s e-mail address is ccna10@example. Figure 3-7 Windows Security Alert . Click Next. and click Next. Accept the recommended port and service status.com. click Unblock.

0 /8 network range. Use the netstat -a command to discover open and connected ports on your computer. A web page similar to Figure 3-8 appears if the web server is working properly. The Apache web server monitor icon should be visible on the lower-right side of the screen. Figure 3-8 Web Server Default Page The 127. as shown in Example 3-1.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 75 Step 3. Example 3-1 netstat -a Output C:\> netstat -a Active Connections Proto TCP TCP TCP TCP Local Address GW-desktop-hom:http GW-desktop-hom:epmap Foreign Address GW-desktop-hom:0 GW-desktop-hom:0 State LISTENING LISTENING GW-desktop-hom:microsoft-ds GW-desktop-hom:3389 GW-desktop-hom:0 LISTENING LISTENING GW-desktop-hom:0 <output omitted> C:\> Using the command netstat -a. .0 /8 network address is reserved and is used for local IP addresses.0. verify that the web server is operating properly on the pod host computer. Fill in Table 3-7 with the results. The same page should be displayed if the URL is changed to the IP address on the Ethernet interface or to any host IP address in the 127. Verify the web server. Choose Start > Run and open a command-line window. Open a web browser.0. Enter cmd.0.0. near the time. and then click OK. The netstat command displays protocol statistics and connection information for this lab computer. Test the web server on several different IP addresses from the 127.0 /8 network range.0. and connect to your computer’s URL.0.

and verify the settings listed in Table 3-8. e-mail the web server at this e-mail address. use the IP address:port number. For servers without DNS names.76 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 3-7 IP Address Web Server Test Status Description 127.0. Figure 3-9 Apache Web Server Configuration File Step 2.78:80 Listen 80 Listen on TCP port 80 for all incoming connections.0.34.255.0.254 127.1.2\conf\httpd. Table 3-8 Value Apache Web Server Settings Description #Listen 12. Access the httpd. ServerAdmin ccna2@example. Scroll down the configuration file.0.16.255.1 127.com ServerName 172. change the line to Listen 127. If there are problems.1 80. This is the root directory for the web server. Review the httpd.conf. To accept connections from only this host. Numerous configuration parameters allow the Apache web server to be fully customizable. C:\Program Files\Apache Software Foundation\Apache2.2:80 DocumentRoot “C:/Program Files/Apache Software Foundation/ Apache2. The # character indicates a comment for system administrators. Open the Apache web server configuration file.255.conf file.56.0. the web server ignores the comment.255 127. A system administrator may need to verify or modify the default configuration file. as shown in Figure 3-9.0 OK OK Fail Fail Legal host address Legal host address Network broadcast address Network address Task 2: Verify the Default Web Server Configuration File Step 1.conf file.2/htdocs” .255.0.

Open a web browser. so you should encourage them to personalize the page.html if it is present. go to http://127. To complete this task.html as the default page. Modify the web server default page.1. Note that an error message is displayed in the web browser. Or. refresh the web browser to view the new content. Why does index.html </IfModule> DirectoryIndex sets the file that Apache serves if a directory is requested. Figure 3-8 shows the default web page from file index. and set the capture interface to the interface destined for the 172. Deliberately enter a web page that is not on the web server. and refresh the web browser. Task 3: Capture and Analyze HTTP Traffic with Wireshark Wireshark will not capture packets sent from or to the 127. Start Wireshark. and connect to another computer with an active web server.html not have to be entered in the URL for the file contents to be displayed? The web server configuration directive for that server displays index. If no page is requested from that directory. as shown in Figure 3-10.0 network on a Windows computer. choose notepad. and choose Open With. As you make and save changes to index. Right-click the file. Example 3-2 htdocs Edit <html><body><h1>Welcome to the Pod1HostB Web Server!!!</h1> <center><bold> Operated by me! </center></bold> Contact web administrator: ccna2@example.html. Step 3.0. something more personal should be displayed. Step 1. The interface will not appear. Analyze HTTP traffic.html should be present. access the web server by running Apache from a separate client machine. The file index. however—this is a classroom setting. Some students may already be familiar with creating web pages. From the pulldown list. display index.0. Open folder C:\Program Files\Apache Software Foundation\Apache2. Although this page is sufficient for testing. The new default page should be displayed.2\htdocs.com </body></html> Save the file.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 77 Table 3-8 Value Apache Web Server Settings continued Description <IfModule dir_module> DirectoryIndex index.16 network. .html. Change the file content to something similar to Example 3-2.0.0. Be wary of content.

Task 5: Reflection Web servers are an important component of e-commerce.htm was requested from the web server. but the server did not have it. and identify several key configuration parameters.1 error 404 and returned a file not found message to the web browser.conf by changing the Listen 80 line to Listen 8080. Therefore. </p> </body></html> Task 4: Challenge Modify the default web server configuration file httpd.0.html and observed the effect on the web browser output. the server sent a 404 error. You modified the default web page index.htm was not found on this server. This lab has demonstrated how to install and configure the Apache web server. Depending on the organization. you used Wireshark to capture an HTTP session of a file that could not be found.0// EN”> <html><head> <title>404 Not Found</title> </head><body> <h1>Not Found</h1> <p>The requested URL /index. File index.” Figure 3-11 Wireshark Capture of HTTP Traffic What are the contents of the HTTP session? Line-based text data: text/html <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC “-//IETF//DTD HTML 2. The web browser simply displayed the server response “The page cannot be found. Open a web browser and go to http://127.1:8080. .0. Verify with the netstat command that the new web server TCP port is 8080. The web server responded with an HTTP 1. test for proper operation. the network or web administrator has the responsibility of maintaining the corporate web server. Finally.78 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 3-10 404 Not Found Error Figure 3-11 shows a captured HTTP session.

The POPv3 server listens on well-known TCP port 110. E-mail servers have had numerous vulnerabilities. you will configure and use an e-mail client application to connect to eagle-server network services. Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) is an Internet protocol that allows a central server to provide remote access to e-mail messages. RFC 2821. you will use IMAP instead of POPv3 for e-mail delivery to the client.4. In network environments where the Mail User Agent (MUA) client must connect to an e-mail server on another network to send and receive e-mail. which have left computers open to compromise. and relay e-mail between SMTP servers. IMAP servers listen on well-known TCP port 143. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. with user accounts that can send and receive external e-mail messages. Eagle-server has SMTP mail services preconfigured. You will monitor the communication with Wireshark and analyze the captured packets. and then click Remove. Background E-mail is one of the most popular network services that uses a client/server model. . Consequently. Scenario In this lab. You will use an e-mail client such as Outlook Express or Mozilla Thunderbird to connect to the eagleserver network service. Also.1) Upon completion of this lab. you will be able to ■ ■ Configure the pod host computer for e-mail service. the typical user may be unaware of the complexities of e-mail or the protocols used. consolidates and updates previous e-mail-related RFCs. deliver e-mail to local accounts. The SMTP server listens on well-known TCP port 25. from April 2001. Spam attacks flood networks with useless. Most Internet service providers (ISP) provide step-by-step instructions for using e-mail services. To uninstall the web server. unsolicited e-mail.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 79 Task 6: Clean Up During this lab the Apache web server was installed on the pod host computer. consuming bandwidth and network resources. Earlier versions of both protocols should not be used. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. the following protocols are used: ■ Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) was originally defined in RFC 821 in August 1982. Capture and analyze e-mail communication between the pod host computer and a mail server. turn off power to the host computers. In this lab. Click Apache Web Server. It should be uninstalled. Lab 3-2: E-mail Services and Protocols (3. secure versions of both protocols employ Secure Socket Layer/Transport Layer Security (SSL/TLS) for communication. ■ ■ E-mail is subject to multiple computer security vulnerabilities. and leave the room ready for the next class. choose Start > Control Panel > Add or Remove Programs. It has undergone many modifications and enhancements.3. SMTP is used to send e-mail messages from the external e-mail client to the e-mail server. Post Office Protocol version 3 (POPv3) is used when an external e-mail client wants to receive e-mail messages from the e-mail server. The e-mail client is configured on a user’s computer and is configured to connect to an e-mail server.

255.16.255.255.0 255.255.10.168.168.255.10.0.255.253 — 172.0 255.10.Pod#.0.80 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide The lab should be configured as shown in Figure 3-12 and Table 3-9.253 10.254.10.16.254 R2-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Eagle Server — — Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central — — — .255.254 172.0 255.255.254.0.0 255.6 192.254 172.254 192.254 172.1 172.255. If it is not.255.10.16.252 255.0 — — 10.10. ask the instructor for assistance before proceeding.254.16.255.4 — 192.1 255.255.5 172.255.16.0 255.2 172.0. Figure 3-12 Topology for Lab 3-2 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 Table 3-9 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP S0/0/0 Fa0/0 10.0 255.252 255.255.16.255.Pod#.255.255.255.168.254 172.24.31.254.16.

this download may be slow. Note: Depending on the connection speed of the link between the two routers and the number of students downloading the file. 10. as shown in Table 3-9. as prompted.10. From a known good host computer. select Don’t import anything. verify that the host has the correct DNS address and that it can ping eagle-server. check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central. 172.16.6.example. and finally eagle-server. Download and install Mozilla Thunderbird.16. If prompted for Import Options. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server. Step 2. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity. you must configure an e-mail account. In the New Account Setup.example. R1-ISP. as shown in Figure 3-13. When Thunderbird starts.com. and that it can ping R2-Central.com.com/pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter3. you can download it from eagleserver.255. troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity: Step 1. Fill in the account information. select Email account. Step 2. Finally. ping S1Central. ping eagle-server. double-click the filename and install Thunderbird with the default settings. When finished. Figure 3-13 FTP Download for Wireshark Double-click the Thunderbird filename. with the information shown in Table 3-10. If an individual host computer cannot connect to eagle-server. When the file has downloaded.example. R2-Central. start Thunderbird. If Thunderbird is not installed on the pod host computer.254. Verify that the host computer has the correct Gateway IP address. the lab topology may have been modified before this class. and that it can ping R1-ISP. 172. If the ping test fails. and then click Next.255. Step 3. and then select Save the file to the host pod computer. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 81 Note to Instructors: Depending on the classroom situation. .example.254. Verify that all network equipment is powered on and that eagle-server is on.com. Configure Thunderbird to receive and send e-mail messages.10. and click Next. Task 1: Configure the Pod Host Computer for E-mail Service Step 1. The download URL is ftp://eagleserver. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests.

com Your Name E-mail address Type of incoming server you are using Incoming Server (SMTP) Outgoing Server (SMTP) Incoming User Name Account Name When Thunderbird starts. click Edit. and so on. Use the same name as the Account Name. Figure 3-14 Thunderbird SMTP Server Settings . shown in Figure 3-14. choose Tools > Account Settings > Outgoing Server (SMTP). labeled ccna[1.example. you may be prompted for a password for your e-mail account. Host A.. Host B. To do this. A total of 22 accounts are configured on Eagle Server.com Use the same name as above (see Account name discussion).example. If the pod host is on Pod 3. Click Cancel.example. the account name is ccna1. From the outgoing server screen. your_name@eagle-server.com IMAP eagle-server.82 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 3-10 Field Account Information Value Account Name The account name is based on the pod and host computer.com eagle-server.example. The Thunderbird client needs to have SMTP server login disabled.22].. If this pod host is on Pod1. the account name is ccna6. your_name@eagle-server.

and then click OK again. . Figure 3-15 SMTP Server Edit You may also want to verify account settings. shown in Figure 3-15. click Server Settings. uncheck the Use name and password box. A screen similar to Figure 3-17 appears. by choosing Tools > Account Settings.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 83 On the SMTP Server screen. Click OK. as shown in Figure 3-16. Figure 3-16 Thunderbird Account Settings In the left pane of the Account Settings screen.

Start Wireshark captures. check your e-mail. SMTP listens on TCP port 25. the e-mail transactions will be captured. Using the name provided in the preceding task. again send and receive e-mail from a classmate. Using the e-mail client. . Wireshark displays captures based on packet type. Step 3. A partial Wireshark capture of an outgoing e-mail message using SMTP is shown in Figure 3-18. This time. however. Please note that this is the default password that is embedded in the Eagle Server. you must be logged in. To do so. When the e-mails have been sent. If you have not previously logged in. Task 2: Capture and Analyze E-mail Communication Between the Pod Host Computer and an E-mail Server Step 1. Send an uncaptured e-mail. Analyze a Wireshark capture session of SMTP. click the Write icon. After sending and receiving one e-mail message. enter cisco as the password. and what is the well-known TCP port number? The SMTP protocol is used to send e-mail messages to an e-mail server for forwarding to a mail recipient. Ask another student in the class for his or her e-mail name. When you are certain that the e-mail operation is working properly for both sending and receiving. start a Wireshark capture. each of you should compose and send an e-mail message to the other.84 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 3-17 Thunderbird Server Settings What is the purpose of the SMTP protocol. stop the Wireshark capture. Step 2. To create and send an e-mail.

1].13. this is line 7. fill in the e-mail server responses to the e-mail client commands shown in Table 3-11.com [172. and the command may also be HELO or HELLO. however.com Recipient ok 354 Enter mail. The e-mail server must respond to the command.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 85 Figure 3-18 SMTP Capture Highlight the first SMTP capture in the top Wireshark window. end with “. and e-mail servers send responses.1.com Sender ok 250 2.16.1. Many different types of SMTP servers exist. the e-mail client sends the command EHLO.com> DATA (message body is sent) 250 2. expand the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol record. version 8.com> RCPT TO:<ccna2@example.1 E-mail client applications send commands to e-mail servers. . Table 3-11 E-mail Client Response Table E-mail Server MAIL FROM:<ccna1@example.1.0 mail-serial-number Message accepted for delivery What are the contents of the last message body from the e-mail client? QUIT How does the e-mail server respond? It sends a response to the e-mail client. What is the SMTP server response to the EHLO command? 250-localhost. Using your Wireshark capture. pleased to meet you\r\n The next exchanges between the e-mail client and server contain e-mail information. What are the SMTP server name and version? Sendmail.0.” on a line by itself 250 2. Malicious attackers can gain valuable knowledge simply by learning the SMTP server type and version.0 ccna1@example. The syntax may vary between clients.example. In Figure 3-18.localdomain Hello host-1.5 ccna2@example. In every first SMTP exchange. 221. In the second Wireshark window. closing connection.

Are any newer versions available? Task 4: Reflection E-mail is probably the most common network service used.example. Connection to host lost. . e-mail SMTP server test. E-mail can also experience configuration issues. choose Start > Control Panel > Add or Remove Programs.0 ccna2@example.16.86 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 3: Challenge Access a computer that has Internet access. turn off power to the host computers. as shown in Example 3-3.example. QUIT 221 Closing connection.1. C:\ > Task 5: Clean Up If Thunderbird was installed on the pod host computer for this lab. Good bye.1. Example 3-3 Telnet Session C:\> telnet eagle-server. Look up the SMTP server name and version for known weaknesses or compromises.com. Sun.com.localdomain Hello [172.1/8.com 250 localhost.13. and leave the room ready for the next class.13. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. Scroll to and click Thunderbird.com 250 2.2]..1.. Recipient ok DATA 354 Please start mail input..1.localdomain ESMTP Sendmail 8. 28 Jan 2007 20:41:0 3 +1000 HELO eagle-server. To test SMTP operation. Sender ok RCPT To: instructor@example..com 250 2. To remove Thunderbird.com 25 220 localhost. and begin a Telnet session with the SMTP server. Is the problem with the e-mail client or the e-mail server? One simple way to test SMTP server operation is to use the Windows command-line Telnet utility to telnet into the SMTP server. Understanding the flow of traffic with the SMTP protocol will help you understand how the protocol manages the client/server data connection. open the Windows command-line window. 250 Mail queued for delivery... pleased to meet you MAIL From: ccna2@example.5 instructor@example. the instructor may want the application removed. and then click Remove. The highlighted lines are what you enter into the blank Telnet window. .

servers. Explore how DNS and HTTP work together. configure. and switches to learn networking concepts. Use simulation mode to view the details of packets generated by DNS and HTTP.1. and Table 3-12 shows the corresponding addressing table. you will build increasingly larger parts of this topology in Packet Tracer. and connect hosts and servers. Background Throughout the course. Add. Figure 3-19 Topology for the Challenge 1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server 2960-24TT S1-Central 1841 R2-Central PC 1A PC 1B . Upon completion of this activity. At the end of each chapter.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to perform this exercise using Packet Tracer. Figure 3-19 shows the topology for this Skills Integration Challenge. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ ■ Configure hosts and services. routers.3) Open the file LSG01-PTSkills3.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 87 Packet Tracer Challenge Skills Integration Challenge: Configuring Hosts and Services (3. you will use a standard lab setup created from actual PCs.5.

255.10.1.10.255.255.0 Default gateway: 172.255.253 10.10.254 10.1 172. This time it succeeds. Turn on web services on the server by enabling HTTP.255.255. it appears in the PDU List Window as part of “Scenario 0.0. You can remove all test packets in a particular scenario by clicking the Delete button. if you use the Delete button for Scenario 0.254 172.com with the server’s IP address. it shows Failed because of the ARP process. Configure it with the following settings: ■ ■ ■ ■ IP address: 172. and add a DNS entry that associates eagle-server.88 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 3-12 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP Fa0/0 S0/0/0 192.255.5 172.0. Scenario 0 might have one test packet from PC 1B to Eagle Server.16. For example.168.253 R2-Central Fa0/0 S0/0/0 S1-Central PC 1A PC 1B Eagle Server VLAN 1 NIC NIC NIC Task 1: “Repair” and Test the Topology Add a PC with a display name of 1B to the topology.16.1 172.252 255. In Packet Tracer. Verify your work using feedback from the Check Results button and the Assessment Items tab.10. . For example.168.example. the term scenario means a specific configuration of one or more test packets.16.0 255.16.255.0 255.0.0.2 Subnet mask: 255.254 255.10.255.255.255.254. and Scenario 1 might test packets between PC 1A and the routers.254 172. Double-click the Fire button in the PDU List Window to send this single test ping a second time.1.254 DNS server: 192.16.255.6 172.10. Test connectivity in real time by using ADD SIMPLE PDU to test connectivity between PC 1B and the Eagle Server.255.0 — — 10.254 192.168. Note that when you add a simple PDU.16.255.10.254.10.254. Enable DNS services.254.” The first time you issue this one-shot ping message.168.254 Connect PC 1B to the Fa0/2 port of the S1-Central switch.254.2 192.0 255.1.168.255.6 172.0 255. Do this before the next task.255. Connect Eagle Server to the Fa0/0 port on the R1-ISP router.0 255.0.252 255. the test packet you just created between PC 1B and Eagle Server is removed.255.16. You can create different test packet scenarios by clicking the New button.16.6 10.255.

click the View Previous Events button.com.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 89 Task 2: Explore How DNS and HTTP Work Together Switch from Realtime mode to Simulation mode. Open a web browser from the desktop of PC 1B. If you receive a “Buffer Full” message. you are encouraged to obtain Packet Tracer from your instructor and complete My First PT Lab (choose Help > Contents). Outbound PDU Details) for each event in the event list. Enter eagle-server. Examine the Packet contents (PDU Information Window. Play this animation. Even though the processing of the packets by the switch and the routers may not make sense to you yet. press Enter.example. . especially when the packets are at PC 1B or at Eagle Server. Inbound PDU Details. you should be able to see how DNS and HTTP work together. and then use the Capture / Forward button in the Event List to capture the interaction of DNS and HTTP. Task 3: Reflection Can you now explain the process that occurs when you enter a URL into a browser and a web page returns? What types of client/server interactions are involved? If you have not already done so.

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Reliable delivery g. use a Voice over IP (VoIP) phone. use Chapter 4 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum or use the corresponding Chapter 4 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA 1 Exploration Companion Guide for assistance. a. Flow control d. Ensures segment sequencing so that data can be presented by the session layer to the application layer with all data intact and ready for processing. c. e. Performed on the data in the segment to check if the segment was changed during transmission. matching. Error checking d. match the definitions on the right with the terms on the left. Facilitates data preparation for delivery by the lowest four OSI layers. f. Manages data delivery if there is congestion on the host. Study Guide Roles of the Transport Layer The transport layer provides vital control over the network: It enables multiple applications to work at the same time over the same network. and check e-mail. g. Means lost segments are present so the data is received complete. Table 4-1 Term Transport Layer Matching Exercise Definition a. As you work through this chapter. Multiplexing b. hands-on skills needed. stream video. That way. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum labs to further reinforce that you have mastered the practical. Establishing a session e. . The transport layer provides for data network needs by ■ ■ ■ ■ Dividing data received from an application into segments Adding a header to identify and manage each segment Using the header information to reassemble the segments back into application data Passing the assembled data to the correct application Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 4-1. Same order delivery f. Multiple network-aware applications can use the network at the same time.CHAPTER 4 OSI Transport Layer The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of multiple-choice. surf the web. and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of the OSI transport layer. Ensures the application is ready to receive data. Data segmentation c. fill-in-the-blank. one computer can use instant messaging. b.

and flow control. 2.92 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Concept Questions 1. The pieces of communication in UDP are called datagrams. reliable delivery. This ensures that the destination application has the data in the exact form the sender intended. A complete TCP conversation requires the establishment of a session between the source and the destination in both directions. each segment header contains a sequence number. 3. This sequence number allows the transport layer functions on the destination host to reassemble segments in the order in which they were transmitted. Fill in the port number ranges in the Numbers column. it retransmits that data to the destination. How does the transport layer tell the difference between different data segments? To identify each segment of data. the transport layer adds to the segment a header containing binary data. A TCP segment has 20 bytes of overhead in the header encapsulating the application layer data. In TCP. If the source does not receive an acknowledgment within a predetermined amount of time. 2. As the source receives an acknowledgment from the destination. . This reliability is achieved by having fields in the TCP segment. How does the transport layer multiplex different applications’ communication? Dividing data into small parts and sending these parts from the source to the destination enables many different communications to be interleaved (multiplexed) on the same network. 1. Port Type Ranges Exercise Table 4-2 lists port types. whereas each UDP segment only has 8 bytes of overhead. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks for the following questions. Additional functions specified by TCP are same order delivery. Table 4-2 Port Type Port Type Ranges Numbers Well-known ports Registered ports Dynamic or private ports 0 to 1023 1024 to 49151 49152 to 65535 The TCP Protocol: Communicating with Reliability The key distinction between TCP and UDP is reliability. it knows that the data has been successfully delivered and can quit tracking that data. each with a specific function.

be prepared to share your findings with the class.” and find a website that explains it. Urgent pointer field significant a. match the definition on the right with a flag on the left. Define reliability. A key feature of TCP is its reliability. Table 4-3 Flags Flag-Matching Exercise Definition a. . 2. or communication stream between the hosts. SYN d. RST d. This process ensures that each host is aware of and prepared for the communication. the data in these segments is reassembled into the original order. Reset the connection c. No more data from sender Managing TCP Sessions When services send data using TCP. For the original message to be understood by the recipient. Synchronize sequence numbers e. Internet Research Exercise Using your favorite search engine. Push function f. Reliability means ensuring that each segment of data that the source sends arrives at the destination. and be prepared to explain or present the information found. but encourage students to find a website. This exercise works best if the students are required to present their website to the class or to teach each other in small groups. Note to instructor: Answers will vary.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 93 Concept Questions 1. provide the URL. PSH c. Sequence numbers are assigned in the header of each packet to achieve this goal. When the host is using TCP. Using this site. Segment sequence numbers enable reliability by indicating how to reassemble and reorder received segments. Acknowledgment field significant b. segments may arrive at their destination out of order. Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 4-3. FIN f. enter the keywords “TCP segment reassembly. URG e. why does the transport layer initiate a process to create a connection with the destination? This connection enables the tracking of a session. ACK b.

they might experience large delays while TCP detects data loss and retransmits data. After a client has chosen the source and destination ports. For the data returning to the client from the server. such as online games and VoIP. In what case would it be possible for the destination to acknowledge bytes in discontiguous segments and request that the host retransmit only the missing data? In this case. 3. both hosts would have to support selective acknowledgments. Some applications.94 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Concept Questions 1. What is expectational acknowledgment? Expectational acknowledgment is TCP using the acknowledgment number in segments sent back to the source to indicate the next byte in this session that the receiver expects to receive. the same pair of ports is used in the header of all datagrams used in the transaction. If these applications use TCP. The UDP Protocol: Communicating with Low Overhead User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is a simple protocol that provides the basic transport layer functions. What is flow control. 2. and what does it do? Flow control assists the reliability of TCP transmission by adjusting the effective rate of data flow between the two services in the session. simply retry the request if they do not receive a response. The low overhead of UDP makes it very desirable for such applications. sequencing. and flow-control mechanisms. can tolerate some loss of data. It has much lower overhead than TCP because it is not connection oriented and does not provide the sophisticated retransmission. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following sentences. such as DNS. . the source and destination port numbers in the datagram header are reversed. 3. These delays would be more detrimental to the application than small data losses. 2. and therefore they do not need TCP to guarantee the message delivery. UDP is said to be transaction based. Some applications. 1.

Use netstat to examine protocol information on a pod host computer. available on both Windows and UNIX/Linux computers. host computer routing table information. you examine the netstat command on a pod host computer.1) Upon completion of this lab. and adjust netstat output options to analyze and understand TCP/IP transport layer protocol status. Table 4-4 shows the corresponding addressing table. Background netstat is an abbreviation for the network statistics utility.1. Passing optional parameters with the command will change output information. netstat displays incoming and outgoing network connections (TCP and UDP). Scenario In this lab. and interface statistics.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 95 Labs and Activities Lab 4-1: Observing TCP and UDP Using netstat (4. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ Explain common netstat command parameters and outputs. Figure 4-1 Topology for Lab 4-1 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 . Figure 4-1 shows the topology for this lab.5.

254.254.6.255.254 192.1 172.Pod#.5 172.com.16. ping eagle-server.253 N/A 172. Step 2.0 255. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests.2 172.31. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity.254 R2-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Eagle Server N/A N/A Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central N/A N/A N/A Note to instructor: Depending on the classroom situation. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address.255.255. as shown here: C:\> netstat /? Use the output of the netstat /? command as reference to fill in the appropriate option that best matches the description in Table 4-5.com. troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity: Step 1. and can ping R1-ISP.255.com.255. From a known good host computer.252 255.0 N/A N/A 10. Step 3.255.254.10.252 255. and click OK.0. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server.10.255.0 255.4 N/A 192. 172.255.96 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 4-4 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP S0/0/0 Fa0/0 10.255.168.255.10.example. Finally. shown in the preceding logical addressing table.255.0.254.255.254. the lab topology may have been modified before this class.254 172. Enter cmd. and that Eagle Server is on.16.255. ping S1-Central. Verify that the host computer has the correct gateway IP address. R1-ISP. 10.0. If an individual host computer cannot connect to Eagle Server.10.255.10. Task 1: Explain Common netstat Command Parameters and Outputs Open a terminal window by clicking Start > Run. 172.255.16.16.168.0 255.255.10.Pod#.6 192. and can ping R2-Central.255. and finally Eagle Server.0.255.255.16.16.example.0 255.16.10. .10.16.255. R2-Central.16. To display help information about the netstat command.example.1 255. verify that the host has the correct DNS address and can ping eagle-server.0 255.254 172. If the ping test fails.254 172. use the /? options.168.253 10.24. check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central.254.0 255.254 172. Verify that all network equipment is powered on.

. Redisplays statistics every 5 seconds. or UDPv6. CLOSE-WAIT SYN-SENT SYN_RECEIVED IP addresses displayed by netstat fall into several categories. or UDPv6. ICMPv6. UDP. A global address.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 97 Table 4–5 Option netstat Table Description -a -n 5 (interval) -p Displays all connections and listening ports. Table 4-6 State Packet State Table Connection Description LISTEN ESTABLISHED TIME-WAIT The local connection is waiting for a connection request from any remote device. This is the normal state for the data-transfer phase of the connection. The connection is closed. Transmission Control Protocol. Shows connections for the protocol specified by proto. as shown in Table 4-7. meaning any. The connection should transition quickly through this state.1 0.0 Remote Address This address refers to the local host. TCPv6. Display only open connections.0. This is a normal condition. The connection is open. If used with the –s option to display per-protocol statistics. as reported by netstat. but is waiting for a termination request from the local user. proto may be any of TCP. the connection passes through a series of states. TCPv6. -an 30 No options When netstat statistics are displayed for TCP connections. IPv6. or this computer. Table 4-7 IP Address Packet State Table Description 127. During the life of a TCP connection. and will normally last between 30 and 120 seconds. The local connection is waiting for a confirming connection request acknowledgment. Displays addresses and port numbers in numeric form. the TCP state is displayed. The address of the remote device that has a connection with this computer. Press Ctrl+C to stop redisplaying statistics.0.0. The local connection is waiting for a response after sending a connection request. TCP. UDP. The local connection is waiting a default period of time after sending a connection termination request before closing the connection.0. proto may be any of IP. Table 4-6 is a summary of TCP states. and data may be exchanged through the connection. September 1981. Redisplays all connections and listening ports every 30 seconds. ICMP. This is a tricky problem. The connection should transition quickly through this state. compiled from RFC 793. Multiple connections in SYN_RECEIVED state may indicate a TCP SYN attack.

Compare outputs.168.1:138 GW-desktop-hom:0 0. .1:123 GW-desktop-hom:netbios-ns 192. Note to instructor: Answers will vary. The –n option forces netstat to display output in raw format.0. Table 4-8 Connection Protocol netstat Output Table Local Address Foreign Address State TCP TCP GW-desktop-hom:epmap 0. foreign address.0. Use netstat to view existing connections. From the terminal window in Task 1. If fewer than three connections translate.0.254. local address.0.254. Addresses and protocols that can be translated into names are displayed. noting how well-known port numbers are changed to names. issue the command netstat –a: C:\> netstat –a A table will display that lists the protocol (TCP and UDP).1:137 GW-desktop-hom:netbios-dgm 192. issue the command netstat –an: C:\> netstat –an Use the window vertical scrollbar to go back and forth between the outputs of the two commands.0:0 GW-desktop-hom:0 0. Table 4-8 provides a list of several common services on a host computer. and state information. Write down three TCP and three UDP connections from the netstat –a output and the corresponding translated port numbers from the netstat –an output.0:0 *:* *:* *:* *:* *:* *:* LISTENING LISTENING LISTENING LISTENING Refer to the following netstat output shown in Example 4-1.0.254.0:0 LISTENING LISTENING GW-desktop-hom:microsoft-ds 0.0.168. From the terminal window.168.0. note that in Table 4-8.98 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 2: Use netstat to Examine Protocol Information on a Pod Host Computer Step 1.0.1:139 GW-desktop-hom:ntp 192.0:135 GW-desktop-hom:0 0.0:445 TCP UDP UDP UDP GW-desktop-hom:netbios-ssn 192.0.254.168.0.

0. In the fourth terminal window. In the second terminal window. press the Ctrl+] keys together. How would you respond? Because the foreign address is 127. port 53 FTP: FTP server. a connection might close before all connections have been made.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 99 Example 4-1 Netstat Output C:\> netstat –n Active Connections Proto TCP TCP C:\> Local Address 127. the host computer has made a TCP connection with itself. Arrange the windows so that all are visible. port 21 SMTP: SMTP mail server. thus providing several protocols to examine with netstat.1. If typing is slow.1:1070 127.0.com 53 In the large terminal window.0. Eventually. The four terminal windows that will be used for Telnet connections to Eagle Server can be relatively small. To close a Telnet connection. port 23 Why should Telnet to UDP ports fail? Telnet is a TCP protocol. Several network services on Eagle Server will respond to a Telnet connection.0. .1:1071 127. approximately 1⁄2 screen width by 1⁄4 screen height. telnet on port 21. Establish multiple concurrent TCP connections and record netstat output.1:1071 Foreign Address 127. Output should look similar to the output in Example 4-1. Step 2. The venerable telnet command is used to access Eagle Server network services. In the first Telnet terminal window. several simultaneous connections will be made with Eagle Server. telnet on port 23.0. You will use the following: ■ ■ ■ ■ DNS: Domain Name System server. and UDP cannot build the TCP session. telnet on port 25. In the third terminal window. The command for a Telnet connection on port 21 follows: C:\> telnet eagle-server. telnet to Eagle Server on port 53.1:1070 State ESTABLISHED ESTABLISHED A new network engineer suspects that his host computer has been compromised by an outside attack against ports 1070 and 1071. Open four additional terminal windows.0.0.example.0. port 25 Telnet: Telnet server.0. Type quit and press Enter to close the session.0. In this task. connections should terminate from inactivity. The terminal windows that will be used to collect connection information should be 1⁄2 screen width by full screen height. record established connections with Eagle Server. That will bring up the t=Telnet prompt. Microsoft Telnet>.

host computer routing table information.exe. file wiresharksetup-0. January 1980.168.100 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example 4-2 C:\>netstat Proto TCP TCP TCP TCP Eagle Server Output Table Local Address 192. turn off power to the host computers.168.1:1693 192. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ Identify TCP header fields and operation using a Wireshark FTP session capture. and User Datagram Protocol (UDP). TCP is used to provide transport layer support for the HTTP and FTP protocols. and interface statistics.1:1688 192.254. Lab 4-2: TCP/IP Transport Layer Protocols. Task 5: Cleanup Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. Both protocols support upper-layer protocol communication. Background The two protocols in the TCP/IP transport layer are the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP).254. The ability to understand the parts of the TCP and UDP headers and operation is a critical skill for network engineers. analyze TCP and UDP protocol header fields for file transfers between the host computer and Eagle Server.254.4.2. August 1980.254:25 192. TCP and UDP (4.254:23 State ESTABLISHED ESTABLISHED ESTABLISHED ESTABLISHED Task 3: Reflection The netstat utility displays incoming and outgoing network connections (TCP and UDP). and issue the netstat –an command.168. .example.1:1691 192. For example.168. among others.99.1) Upon completion of this activity.168. among others.5.254.254.254. Try to view connections in stages different from ESTABLISHED. Scenario Using Wireshark capture. Ponder the utility of netstat in small and large networks and consider how netstat can help you diagnose problems. Identify UDP header fields and operation using a Wireshark TFTP session capture.com/pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter4/. If Wireshark has not been loaded on the host pod computer.254:53 192.1:1694 Foreign Address 192.168.254. defined in RFC 768.168. UDP provides transport layer support for Domain Name System (DNS) services and Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP).254:21 192. Task 4: Challenge Close established sessions abruptly (close the terminal window). Remove anything that was brought into the lab and leave the room ready for the next class. you can download it from ftp://eagle-server. defined in RFC 761.168.254.

10.16. Figure 4–2 Topology for Lab 4-2 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 Table 4-9 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP S0/0/0 Fa0/0 10.16.0 255.31.0 255.255.Pod#.254 R2-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Eagle Server N/A N/A Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central N/A N/A N/A .10. and Table 4-9 shows the corresponding addressing table.254 172.0.255.255.10.255.255.10.255.254.0 255.254.254 172.1 172.0 255.255.0 255.24.16.0 255.0.255.Pod#.254 192.252 255.254.255.16.255.255.254 172.254 172.0 N/A N/A 10.255.168.253 10.255.6 192.2 172.255.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 101 Windows command-line utilities FTP and TFTP will be used to connect to Eagle Server and download files.168.254.16.10.168.255.255.16.1 255.0.255. Figure 4-2 shows the topology for this lab.4 N/A 192.5 172.16.252 255.253 N/A 172.0.10.255.

the lab topology might have been modified before this class. type anonymous. and can ping R2-Central. Capture an FTP session. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity. Verify that the host computer has the correct gateway IP address. R2-Central.[1-2]. verify that the host has the correct DNS address and can ping eagle-server.10. and the text configuration file for S1-Central from Eagle Server will be downloaded. In this task. /pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter4/s1-central. Step 2.example. and then click OK.com.16. the session capture will be analyzed. press Enter. When prompted for a password.10. R1-ISP. Windows computers use the FTP client.255. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address. type cmd. to connect to the FTP server.com. an FTP session is made to Eagle Server. and can ping R1-ISP. check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central. and that Eagle Server is on. When finished.example. If the ping test fails.Pod#.example. ping Eagle Server.255. Finally. . Open a command-line window by clicking Start > Run. Step 3. TCP sessions are well controlled and managed by information exchanged in the TCP header fields. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests.6. Task 1: Identify TCP Header Fields and Operation Using a Wireshark FTP Session Capture Step 1. 172.com When prompted for a user ID.16. and finally Eagle Server. Figure 4–3 Command-Line Window Start a Wireshark capture on the interface that has IP address 172. to the host computer. ftp. A window similar to Figure 4-3 should open. Verify that all network equipment is powered on. shown in the preceding logical addressing table. A command-line window will start the FTP session. Enter the following command: > ftp eagle-server. 10. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server. From a known good host computer. Start an FTP connection to Eagle Server.16. ping S1Central.102 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Note to instructor: Depending on the classroom situation.254. troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity using the following steps: Step 1. 172.254. If an individual host computer cannot connect to Eagle Server.

Your capture should be similar to the capture shown in Figure 44. verify datagram arrival.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 103 Change the FTP directory to /pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter4/: ftp> cd /pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter4/ Download the file s1-central: ftp> get s1-central When finished. when the FTP session is finished. the TCP session is closed. . terminate the FTP sessions in each command-line window with the FTP quit command: ftp> quit Close the command-line window with the command exit: > exit Stop the Wireshark capture. For each exchange of data between the FTP client and FTP server. TCP performs an orderly shutdown and termination. You might need to adjust the middle window and expand the TCP record by clicking the protocol expand box. and move the cursor to the middle window. Figure 4–4 FTP Capture In Wireshark. TCP is routinely used during a session to control datagram delivery. Finally. an explanation of the summary information is needed. Before we delve into TCP packet details. detailed TCP information is available in the middle window. When the FTP client is connected to the FTP server. At the conclusion of the data transfer. The expanded TCP datagram should look similar to Example 4-3. The top window contains summary information for each captured record. Analyze the TCP fields. Switch to the Wireshark capture windows. Highlight the first TCP datagram from the host computer. Step 2. a new TCP session is started. and manage window size. the transport layer protocol TCP created a reliable session.

.. port number 21. on some port above 1023. = Reset: Not set . 172...0 = Fin: Not set Window size: 64240 Checksum: 0xb965 [correct] >Options: (8 bytes) Maximum segment size: 1460 bytes NOP NOP SACK permitted How is the first datagram in a TCP session identified? The initial datagram originates from the host computer.. Figure 4-5 0 TCP Packet Fields for Lab 4-2 TCP Segment 4 10 16 Sequence Number Acknowledgment Number HLEN Reserved TCP Checksum Options (If Any) Data Data.254..1... = Urgent: Not set ..... Figure 4-5 shows a TCP datagram...0. Src Port: 1052 (1052).. .x.... ..104 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example 4-3 Wireshark Capture of a TCP Datagram >Transmission Control Protocol.168.... = Syn: Set ..0.. .. Dst port: ftp (21).. Seq: 0.x. and contains a SYN flag. to Eagle Server... = Push: Not set .. . .... = Congestion Window Reduced (CWR): Not Set . . = ECN-Echo: Not set .16. 192...254.. Len: 0 Source Port: 1052 (1052) Destination Port: ftp (21) Sequence number: 0 (relative sequence number) Header length: 28 bytes >Flags: 0x02 (SYN) 0..0. 0. = Acknowledge: Not set .. Code Bits: U A R P S F RCS S Y I GK T HNN Code Bits Window Urgent Pointer Padding 24 TCP Destination Port Number 31 TCP Source Port Number .0 ..

Sequence number: Specifies the number of the last octet in a segment. such as Telnet. which is only set when a new TCP session is negotiated during the TCP three-way handshake FIN: Finish. and so on). TCP destination port number: Is used to identify the upper-layer protocol or application on the remote site. Code bits: Have a special meaning in session management and in the treatment of segments. * 172. Acknowledgment number: Specifies the next octet expected by the receiver. Options: The only option currently defined is the maximum TCP segment size (optional value). The values in the range of 0 to 1023 represent the so-called well-known ports and are associated with popular services and applications (as described in RFC 1700.16. HTTP. ■ ■ Table 4-10 TCP Header: SYN Bit Set to 1 Answers Characteristics Source IP address Destination IP address Source port number Destination port number Sequence number Acknowledgment number Header length Window size * May differ from what student enters. Urgent pointer: Is only used with an URG (Urgent) flag (when the sender needs to send urgent data to the receiver).254.254 *1052 21 0 (relative) N/A 28 bytes * 64240 .168. Source Port. The value is normally a random value above 1023. The quadruple field combination (Source IP Address. which is the request to close the TCP session ■ ■ Window size: Is the value of the sliding window (that is. how many octets can be sent before waiting for an acknowledgment). Using the Wireshark capture of the first TCP session start-up (SYN bit set to 1). Destination IP Address.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 105 An explanation of each field is provided to refresh your memory: ■ TCP source port number: Belongs to the TCP session host that opened a connection. Destination Port) uniquely identifies the session to both sender and receiver. Among interesting values are ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ACK: Acknowledgment of a segment receipt SYN: Synchronize. fill in information about the TCP header in Table 4-10.1 192. FTP.1.

Table 4–12 TCP Header: ACK Bits Set to 1 Answers Characteristics Source IP address Destination IP address Source port number Destination port number Sequence number Acknowledgment number Header length Window size * May differ from what student enters * 172. a new TCP connection is started in half-open fashion. In this sequence. a SYN bit is only used during the beginning of a TCP session. fill in information about the TCP header in Table 4-12. With sufficient TCP sessions in the half-open state.16.168. the opening TCP session sends a TCP datagram with the SYN bit set. the receiving computer may exhaust resources and crash.1 192.1 * 21 1052 0 (relative) 1 28 bytes * 5840 Using the Wireshark capture of the first TCP session start-up (only ACK bit is set to 1).168.1. and the receiver sends a related TCP datagram with the SYN ACK bits set.254.1.106 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Using the Wireshark capture of the first TCP session start-up (SYN and ACK bits are set to 1). A crash could involve a loss of networking . Table 4–11 TCP Header: SYN and ACK Bits Set to 1 Answers Characteristics Source IP address Destination IP address Source port number Destination port number Sequence number Acknowledgment number Header length Window size * May differ from what student enters 192.254 *1052 21 1 (relative) 1 20 bytes * 64240 Ignoring the TCP session started when a data transfer occurred.254. Instead.16. fill in information about the TCP header in Table 4-11.254 * 172. A final ACK bit is never sent to finish the TCP handshake. how many other TCP datagrams contained a SYN bit? None. Attackers take advantage of the three-way handshake by initiating a “half-open” connection.

At this time. Figure 4–6 TCP Session Management FTP Client FTP Welcome TCP Acknowledgment FTP Userid Sent TCP Acknowledgment FTP Password Response FTP Server When the FTP session has finished. but is normally 5 minutes. such as when the connection is broken. This sequence. unaware and uncaring that TCP has control and management over the session. .“Goodbye” TCP Acknowledgment TCP Session ACK FIN Sent TCP Acknowledgment TCP Session ACK FIN Sent TCP Acknowledgment TCP Session Ends FTP Server Without an orderly termination. The FTP client TCP session acknowledges receipt of the termination datagram. receives a duplicate termination. the TCP session on the FTP client sends an acknowledgment to the TCP session on Eagle Server. and the TCP session is closed. is shown in Figure 4-6.” The FTP server acknowledges the FTP termination with a Response: 221 Goodbye. networking service has been stopped on the receiver. the TCP sessions will wait a certain period of time until closing. When the originator of the TCP termination. the FTP server TCP session sends a TCP datagram to the FTP client. the attacker has won. The default timeout value varies. This sequence. the FTP client sends a command to “quit. When the FTP server sends a Response: 220 to the FTP client. In either case. visible in the Wireshark capture. Figure 4–7 Orderly TCP Session Termination FTP Client FTP Client. an ACK datagram is sent to acknowledge the termination. visible in the Wireshark capture. is shown in Figure 4-7. The FTP client and server communicate with each other. FTP server. and then sends its own TCP session termination. This is one example of a denial-ofservice (DoS) attack.“Quit” FTP Server. announcing the termination of the TCP session.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 107 services or could corrupt the operating system.

which is different from the directory structure supported by the FTP server. Following the procedure in Task 1. A TFTP transfer will be used to analyze transport layer UDP operation. byte by byte. Specifies where to transfer the file. No authentication is supported.example. Example 4-4 contains Windows TFTP client syntax.108 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 2: Identify UDP Header Fields and Operation Using a Wireshark TFTP Session Capture Step 1. Capture a TFTP session. The TFTP command has a different syntax than FTP. GET.com get s1-central Step 2. host GET Specifies the local or remote host. and PUT. Use this mode when transferring binary files. The command and syntax to perform this follows: >tftp eagle-server. there are only two commands. source Specifies the file to transfer. Example 4-4 >tftp –help TFTP Syntax for a Windows TFTP Client Transfers files to and from a remote computer running the TFTP service. /tftpboot. For example. Analyze the UDP fields. Student capture should be similar to the capture shown in Figure 4-8. Also. Switch to the Wireshark capture windows. PUT Transfers the file source on the local host to the file destination on the remote host. In binary image mode the file is moved literally. TFTP [-i] host [GET | PUT] source [destination] -i Specifies binary image transfer mode (also called octet). there is no authentication. and then download the s1-central configuration file from Eagle Server with the Windows TFTP client. The TFTP server has its own directory on Eagle Server. open a command-line window. to send a file. Destination Start a Wireshark capture. . Transfers the file destination on the remote host to the file source on the local host. to retrieve a file.

denoted by the preceding 0x code. detailed UDP information is available in the middle window. to manage data transfer and receipt information. Highlight the first UDP datagram from the host computer.. and move the cursor to the middle window. in this case TFTP.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 109 Figure 4-8 UDP Session Capture Note: If students point to UDP acknowledgments. 16 UDP Destination Port UDP Checksum 31 Using the Wireshark capture of the first UDP datagram.. explain that the UDP header does not contain an acknowledgment field. Figure 4–10 UDP Format UDP Segment 0 UDP Source Port UDP Message Length Data Data. There are similarities. compared to the TCP datagram. Header information is sparse. . a UDP datagram diagram. In Wireshark. fill in information about the UDP header in Table 4-13. The expanded UDP datagram should look similar to Figure 4-9. Instead. You might have to adjust the middle window and expand the UDP record by clicking the protocol expand box. it is the responsibility of the upper-layer protocol. Each UDP datagram is identified by the UDP source port and UDP destination port. Figure 4–9 UDP Datagram Capture See Figure 4-10. however. This will be shown during the UDP datagram examination. The checksum value is a hexadecimal (base 16) value.

TCP manages communication much differently from UDP. the UDP datagram is assumed complete.16.16. Examine the first packet returned from Eagle Server.254.168.254 * 172. however. Both protocols have advantages . Because there is no reliable connection. and the upper-layer protocol must provide some type of acknowledgment control.168. Both protocols. * 172. and the datagram checksum value is recomputed upon receipt. but reliability and guaranteed delivery requires additional control over the communication channel.110 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 4-13 UDP Header Table Answers Characteristics Source IP address Destination IP address Source port number Destination port number UDP message length UDP checksum * May differ from what student enters. transport data between clients and servers using application layer protocols and are appropriate for the upper-layer protocol each supports. UDP has less overhead and control. Table 4-14 UDP Header Information Answers Characteristics Source IP address Destination IP address: 172. 192. but this source port is used for the remainder of the TFTP transfer.1 * 32799 * 1038 *524 bytes * 0xc5cf (correct) Notice that the return UDP datagram has a different UDP source port.1. Fill in information about the UDP header in Table 4-14.254 * 1038 69 * 30 bytes * 0x1f04 (correct) How does UDP verify datagram integrity? A checksum is sent in the UDP datagram.___ Source port number Destination port number UDP message length UDP checksum: 0x * May differ from what student enters.254. Task 3: Reflection This lab provided you with the opportunity to analyze TCP and UDP protocol operations from captured FTP and TFTP sessions.1 192. If the computed checksum is identical with the sent checksum.1. only the original source port used to begin the TFTP session is used to maintain the TFTP transfer.___.16.

or clear-text file contents. For each network service. several files were transferred to the host computer and should be removed. This lab examines two popular application layer protocols. Lab 4-3: Application and Transport Layer Protocols (4. yet each client communicates exclusively with a session established between the client and server. such as TCP and UDP. a different server is listening on a different port for client connections. such as a web server and client. Application layer protocols rely on lower-level TCP/IP protocols. and an FTP server and client. Also examined are popular client requests and corresponding server responses. Clients initiate communication to the appropriate server. This includes any user IDs. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ ■ Configure the host computer to capture application layer protocols. and how transport layer protocols TCP and UDP manage the communication channel. A user may open several client applications to the same server. Task 5: Cleanup During this lab. and therefore different transport protocols have been developed to meet these requirements. turn off power to the host computers. you use client applications to connect to Eagle Server network services. Background The primary function of the transport layer is to keep track of multiple application conversations on the same host. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. Upper-layer TFTP data examination is a bit more complicated. passwords. and configuration file passwords. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. but the data field can be examined and configuration user ID and password information extracted.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 111 and disadvantages. Capture and analyze HTTP communication between the pod host computer and a web server. However. Observe TCP establish and manage communication channels with HTTP and FTP connections. password. There may be several servers on the same end device. Application layer protocols define the communication between network services. You monitor the communication with Wireshark and analyze the captured packets. and leave the room ready for the next class. different applications have different requirements for their data. . all data transferred is sent in clear text. Task 4: Challenge Because neither FTP nor TFTP are secure protocols. Analysis of the upper-layer FTP session will quickly identify the user ID. Applications are designed to use one protocol or another based on maximizing the advantages while minimizing the disadvantages. Capture and analyze FTP communication between the pod host computer and an FTP server.1) Upon completion of this lab. HTTP and FTP.3. Consider how you would determine which protocol to use if you were designing an application.5. and the server responds to the client. Scenario In this lab.

5 172.168.0 N/A N/A 10.1 172.10.0 255.254 192.0.254.255.255.16.254.10.0.4 N/A 192.16.255.254 172.112 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide A web browser such as Internet Explorer or Firefox will be used to connect to the Eagle Server network service.253 10.16.2 172.31.0 255.255. This exercise demonstrates that although clients may differ.168.255.16.10.255.255.255.255. Figure 4–11 Topology for Lab 4-3 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 Table 4–15 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP R2-Central Eagle Server Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 S0/0/0 Fa0/0 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 10. ask the instructor for assistance before proceeding. The lab should be configured as shown in Figure 4-11 and Table 4-15. such as HTTP.255.255.255.255.0.252 255.254 .10.252 255.0 255. The web browser will also be used to examine the FTP protocol.16.255. the underlying communication to the server remains the same.0 255.254 172.Pod#. Eagle Server has several network services preconfigured.255.254 172.6 192.10. waiting to respond to client requests.255.254.0.24.255.Pod#.10.253 N/A 172.168.16. as will the FTP command-line client.254.0 255.16. If it is not.0 255.255.1 255.254 172.

Thereafter. and can ping R1-ISP. it is because the file is a link.10. Verify that all network equipment is powered on. Figure 4-12 Wireshark Interface Capture After the file has downloaded. and finally Eagle Server.255.10. If an individual host computer cannot connect to Eagle Server.16.com/pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter3. Step 3. Step 2.6. Wireshark can be started by clicking the interface Start button. shown in the preceding logical addressing table.example. From a known good host computer. Stop Wireshark for the moment.254.com. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity.example.255.16. the interface is used as the default and does not need to be changed. double-click the filename and install Wireshark with the default settings. R2-Central. 172. . 10.example. to another file. ping S1Central. verify that the host has the correct DNS address and can ping eagle-server. ping Eagle Server. Start Wireshark from Start > All Programs > Wireshark > Wireshark. or shortcut. The download URL is ftp://eagleserver.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 113 Note to instructor: Depending on the classroom situation. If students ask why the Wireshark icon is a directory folder. and can ping R2-Central. Start Wireshark and configure the capture interface. Right-click the Wireshark filename. check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central.254. and then save the file to the host pod computer. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server. Task 1: Configure the Pod Host Computer to Capture Application Layer Protocols Step 1. the lab topology might have been modified before this class. If Wireshark is not installed on the pod host computer. R1-ISP. Wireshark will be used in upcoming tasks. Verify that the host computer has the correct gateway IP address.com. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests. Step 2. and that Eagle Server is on.example. troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity using the following steps: Step 1. If the ping test fails. See Figure 4-12. Wireshark should begin to log data. This is also why the file has no physical size. When the opening screen appears. Download and install Wireshark. The interface with the IP address of the pod host computer is the correct interface.com. Finally. you can download it from eagleserver. 172. set the correct capture interface. Step 3. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address.

Close the web browsers. Step 3. The third session occurred when the second web browser accessed http://eagleserver. This will display a different web page. A web page similar to Figure 4-13 will display. Figure 4-13 Web Server Screen Click the web browser Refresh button. Start Wireshark captures.example.html. Open a second web browser. numbers 10.114 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 2: Capture and Analyze HTTP Communication Between the Pod Host Computer and a Web Server HTTP is an application layer protocol.com.com. dated 1999.com/page2. Stop Wireshark captures and analyze the captured data. Figure 4-15 shows a sample captured HTTP session. The resulting Wireshark data will display. HTTP version 1.example. Do not close either browser until Wireshark capture is stopped. The first HTTP session started with a connection to http://eagleserver.example.example. Do not close this web browser until instructed to do so. The second session occurred with a refresh action. This is seen in the first three session lines.com/page2. There should be no change to the display in the web client. Before HTTP can begin. relying on lower-level protocols such as TCP to establish and manage the communication channel.html. There were actually at least three HTTP sessions created in Step 2. Step 2. and connect to URL http://eagleserver. Using a web browser such as Internet Explorer or Firefox. Step 1. Wireshark will display captures based on packet type.1 is defined in RFC 2616. the TCP session must be created. and 12. connect to URL http://eagleserver. 11. This part of the lab demonstrates how sessions between multiple web clients and the web server are kept separate. . Start the pod host web browser.

If necessary. acknowledged. and repeated by 172.1 GET \ En-us *Request URI is the path to the requested document.2 started the HTTP session to 192.254 signaled an end to the session with the FIN ACK flags set. Highlight the first line of the HTTP protocol.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 115 Figure 4-14 Captured HTTP Session Fill in Table 4-16 from the information presented in the HTTP session. This is the beginning of the TCP three-way handshake.1. .254.168. Move into the second (middle) Wireshark window to examine the layered protocols.254. Which protocol is carried (encapsulated) inside the TCP segment? Hypertext Transfer Protocol Expand the last protocol record and any subfields. expand the fields. Complete Table 4-17 using information from the protocol. Table 4–17 HTTP Session Table Answer Characteristics Protocol version Request Method * Request URI Language HTTP/1. and how? 192. a GET request from the web browser.168. some web servers are configured to display a default file if one is available. In Figure 4-14.254. and how? 172.254 with the SYN flag set.1.168. In the first browser.2. Table 4-16 HTTP Session Table Answers Characteristics Web browser IP address Web server IP address Transport layer protocol (UDP/TCP) Web browser port number Web server port number 172. This is the actual information sent to the web server.254 TCP 1056 80 Which computer initiated the HTTP session.16. Which computer initially signaled an end to the HTTP session.2 192.1. Although no page was requested.16. the GET request is on line 13. the path is the root directory of the web server.16.

Highlight the web server response. The web browser understands and correctly formats the data in the browser window. this is on line 15. is visible. However. In Figure 4-14. Open all collapsed subfields of HTTP. . dated October 1985. GET. FTP version 5. Because this web page was saved in the web client’s cache. for an initial response that contains millions of bytes. In this task. Figure 4-15 shows a sample capture. 26 Jan 2007 06:19:33 GMT\r\n If-None-Match: “98072-b8-82da8740”\r\n <. and then move into the second (middle) window. 304 Not Modified. A response to the web browser is possible because the web server understands the type of request and has a file to return. the bandwidth used is minimal. is sent in the response. From RFC 2616 What does this response mean? The request has succeeded. Scroll down the top window of Wireshark until the second HTTP session. Also.page tag number (ETAG) What is the ETAG response from the web server? 98072-b8-82da8740 Task 3: Capture and Analyze FTP Communication Between the Pod Host Computer and a Web Server The application layer protocol FTP has undergone significant revision since it first appeared in RFC 114. the web browser and a command-line FTP utility are used to download data from an FTP server. In this reply. in 1971. What is the web server response to the web client GET request? 200 OK. Crackers sometimes send unknown or garbled requests to web servers in an attempt to stop the server or gain access to the server command line. a request for an unknown web page will result in an error message. the GET request contained the following additional instructions to the web server: If-modified-since: Fri. refresh. an entity corresponding to the requested resource. there are only a few lines of text (web server responses can contain thousands or millions of bytes). Notice the information returned from the server. The familiar web browser can be used to communicate with more than just the HTTP server.1 is defined in RFC 959.116 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide The web server responds with the next HTTP packet. a single reply packet can save significant bandwidth. With a single packet returned for both the initial GET request and refresh. Figure 4-15 Captured HTTP Session The significance of the refresh action is in the server response.

Example 4-5 FTP Eagle Server Example >ftp eagle-server. 220 Welcome to the eagle-server FTP service. Step 2. enter cmd. User (eagle-server. In response to the password prompt. Example 4-6 ftp> help Commands may be abbreviated.com Connected to eagle-server.example.com. type help and press Enter.com:(none)): anonymous 331 Please specify the password. as shown in Example 4-6. as shown in Example 4-5.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 117 In preparation for this task. press Enter. Start the pod host command-line FTP client. open a command line on the host pod computer. use user ID anonymous. Start a pod host computer FTP session with the FTP server. Start Wireshark captures. Password: <ENTER> 230 Login successful. and then click OK. to open Wireshark. Figure 4-16 Windows Command Line Step 1. using the Windows FTP client utility. This means that the FTP client is waiting for a command to send to the FTP server. Step 2. To authenticate. To view a list of FTP client commands. click Start > Run. refer to Task 1.example. If necessary.example. Commands are: FTP Client Commands ! ? append ascii bell binary bye cd close delete debug dir disconnect get glob hash help lcd literal ls mdelete mdir mget mkdir mls mput open prompt put pwd quit quote recv remotehelp rename rmdir send status trace type user verbose . The FTP client prompt is ftp>. A screen similar to Figure 4-16 will display. To do so.

04Seconds 8.pcap (5853 bytes). -rw-r—r— -rw-r—r— -rw-r—r— -rw-r—r— 1 0 100 1 0 100 1 0 100 5853 Jan 12 04:26 ftptoeagle-server.168. Consider using PASV. ftp> get “ftptoeagle-server. ftp> quit 221 Goodbye. the values are UNIX file permissions. 150 Here comes the directory listing. group.21Kbytes/sec.118 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Unfortunately. We will only use a few commands for Wireshark evaluation. and exit. Consider using PASV.pcap 1 0 100 15163750 Jan 12 04:30 wireshark-setup-0. and world.254.pcap 1486 Jan 12 04:27 ping to 192. Example 4-8 FTP Subdirectory Example ftp> cd pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter2 250 Directory successfully changed. Consider using PASV. This is not the real root directory of the server. Stop Wireshark captures. User anonymous has been placed into a root jail. The permissions are arranged as r (read). and files transferred to the pod host computer. . ftp> dir 200 PORT command successful. download a file. Move into directory pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter2.exe 226 Directory send OK. ftp: 333 bytes received in 0. Close the command-line window with the exit command. and save the captures as FTP_Command_Line_Client. 226 File send OK. however. See Example 4-8. Subdirectories can be traversed.254. 150 Opening BINARY mode data connection for ftptoeagle-server. prohibiting access outside of the current directory. World (anyone) can read and access the directory.12Kbytes/sec. the large number of FTP client commands makes using the command-line utility difficult for a novice. drwxr-xr-x 3 0 0 4096 Jan 12 04:32 pub If students ask what the values at the beginning of the line mean. The first character. for the owner. Example 4-7 FTP Directory Output ftp> dir 200 PORT command successful.4.pcap 4493 Jan 12 04:27 http to eagle-server. indicates that the file is a directory.34Seconds 17. as shown in Example 4-7. 150 Here comes the directory listing. x (access).99. w (write). but only the highest point that user anonymous can access. Enter the command dir to display the current directory contents. ftp: 5853 bytes received in 0. d. The FTP client is at the root directory of the FTP server.pcap” 200 PORT command successful.

Figure 4-18 Wireshark FTP Capture Move into the middle Wireshark window and expand the FTP protocol. as shown on the bottom of the Figure 4-17. Stop Wireshark captures. When finished. Step 4. In Figure 4-18.pcap and save the file. this is line 23. Start Wireshark captures again.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 119 Step 3. Start the pod host web browser. Response: 220. open the Wireshark capture FTP_Web_Browser_Client. go down the directories until the URL path is pub/eaglelabs/eagle1/chapter2.com. What is the FTP server response 220? Service is ready for a new user. Also. FTP communicates using codes. select the FTP capture that is the first FTP protocol transmission. close the web browser. Analyze the captured data. similar to HTTP. the web browser logged in to the FTP server as user anonymous. Double-click the file ftptoeagle-server. Open a web browser as shown in Figure 4-17. On the top Wireshark window. . and enter the URL ftp://eagle-server. If not already opened. A browser window opens with the pub directory displayed. Figure 4-17 Web Browser FTP Client Using the browser. and save the captures as FTP_Web_Browser_Client. example.

Although the clients are different. Figure 4-19 Active FTP FTP Client FTP Control Connection on TCP Port 21 FTP Server FTP Data Connection From TCP Port 20 on Server to a High Port on the Client. Second. the server initiates a connection from well-known TCP port 20 to a client’s high port. and observe the FTP communication. however. high ports are used on both ends of the connection.120 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide When the FTP server issued a Response: 331 Please specify the password. To establish connectivity for data transfer. the client initiates the data connection to the server. the same connection used in the active transfer mode. In Figure 4-18. When data is transferred or with simple directory listings. In active transfer mode. a client initiates an FTP session with the server on well-known TCP port 21. the FTP client must permit either FTP-related connections (implying stateful packet filtering) or disable blocking. a port number above 1023. The implications between the two modes are important from an information security perspective. The transfer mode can be either active or passive. The FTP server source port number is 20. See Figure 4-19. See Figure 4-20. a new port is opened. In active mode. The Windows FTP client used for this lab did not support the passive transfer mode. If possible. however. Open the Wireshark capture FTP_Web_Browser_Client. First. a client initiates an FTP session with the server on well-known TCP port 21. and the FTP client port number is some number above 1023. Both port numbers are above 1023. students should be shown a passive transfer mode. Unless the FTP client firewall is configured to permit connections from the outside. the port number is 1073. the server opens a TCP session to the FTP client and transfers data across that port. What is the FTP data port number used by the FTP server? The port number is 20. what was the web browser reply? IEUSER@ Which port number does the FTP client use to connect to the FTP server port 21? Port number will vary. In passive mode. the commands are similar. In passive transfer mode. Compare FTP active and passive transfer modes. For data transfer. the client opens a new port to the server for data transfer. Step 5. there are two significant changes. data transfer may fail. . For data transfer. This is called the transfer mode. The transfer mode sets how the data port is configured.

Multiple application layer protocols can be accessed through a simple web browser. Observe the Telnet protocol behavior. Depending on the transfer mode. uses two protocols. but Telnet is similar to HTTP and FTP in that all three use the TCP protocol for connection-oriented. FTP. A client application may be either a web browser or command-line utility. The server listens on port 80 for client connections. Task 4: Reflection Both HTTP and FTP protocols rely on TCP to communicate. HTTP uses a single protocol to communicate with the HTTP server. even if the authentication is open to the world. TCP manages the connection between client and server to ensure datagram delivery. Telnet and Gopher may also be supported on the browser. Although only HTTP and FTP were examined here. An FTP session. The FTP client must authenticate to the FTP server. . use a web browser or command-line Telnet client to connect to a Cisco device such as S1-Central or R2-Central. data transfer will fail. All of these services use TCP. as the command line. lasts until the client signals that it is leaving with the quit command. Not all FTP client applications support changes to the transfer mode. sending requests and processing replies. An HTTP session begins when a request is made to the HTTP server and ends when the response has been acknowledged by the HTTP client. Unless the FTP server is configured to permit a connection to a random high port. however. The FTP server listens on TCP port 21. Telnet. Think about the differences between TCP and UDP. FTP. Issue a GET request and observe the results. but each must send and receive messages that can be correctly interpreted. User anonymous normally has restricted access to the FTP server and cannot upload files. the server or client may initiate the data connection.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 121 Figure 4-20 Passive FTP FTP Client FTP Control Connection on TCP Port 21 FTP Server FTP Data Connection From the Client High TCP Port to the Server High TCP Port. Task 5: Challenge Enabling Wireshark capture. however. and Gopher. guaranteed delivery of datagrams. The communication protocol is normally defined in an RFC. How is the application layer protocol Telnet similar to HTTP and FTP? How does Telnet differ? Answers will vary. and consider why UDP is inappropriate for HTTP. The browser acts as a client to the server.

At the end of each chapter.3. and analyze increasingly more complex protocol interactions.5. Packet Tracer Challenge Skills Integration Challenge: Analyzing the Application and Transport Layers (4. .pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to perform this exercise using Packet Tracer.122 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 6: Clean Up If Wireshark was installed on the pod host computer for this lab. Scroll to the bottom of the list.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. delete all files retrieved from the FTP server. Remember. UDP. you will build increasingly larger parts of this topology in Packet Tracer. click Start > Control Panel > Add or Remove Programs. right-click Wireshark. routers.6. Background Throughout the course. and UDP work together.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab4532. and then click Remove. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ ■ Configure hosts and services. and switches to learn networking concepts. Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Application and Transport Layer Protocols Examination (4. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor.3) Open the file LSG01-PTSkills4. Connect and configure hosts and services on the model of the lab network. and leave the room ready for the next class. servers. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity. HTTP. HTTP. If downloaded files need to be removed from the host pod computer. however. you will be using a standard lab setup created from actual PCs. turn off power to the host computers. and TCP on the model of the lab network. Explore How DNS. Use simulation mode to visualize the operation of DNS. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. To remove Wireshark.1. You will use the topology in Figure 4-21 and the addressing table in Table 4-18 to document your design. the instructor may want the application removed. UDP. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. Upon completion of this activity.

253 DNS enabled.255.255.5 172.0.255.255.168.252 255.16.10.255.254.254.0 Default gateway 192.0 255.254 192.255.1 172. It must be powered on.6 172.example.6 172.254.10.10.0 N/A N/A 10.0 255.10.10.255.1.6 10. Then configure it with the following settings: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ IP address 192.254.10.255.254.16.255.16.16.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 123 Figure 4-21 Topology for Challenge 1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server 2960-24TT S1-Central 1841 R2-Central PC 1A PC 1B Table 4-18 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP Fa0/0 S0/0/0 192.168.255.16.252 255.255.com with the server’s IP address HTTP enabled .0 255.16.1.0.254.255.0.16.168.168.254 172.0 255.254 255.254 Subnet mask 255.0 255.10.254 172.2 192.253 10.254 10.10.0.168.255. with the association of eagle-server.1 172.255.255.255.253 R2-Central Fa0/0 S0/0/0 S1-Central PC 1A PC 1B Eagle Server VLAN 1 NIC NIC NIC Task 1: Repair and Test the Topology The server has been replaced.255.255.

HTTP. “Ethernet. HTTP. the term scenario means a specific configuration of one or more test packets. In Packet Tracer.254 Connect PC 1A to the Fa0/1 port of the S1-Central switch using a straight-through cable. If you receive a Buffer Full message. Inbound PDU Details. which is explained later in Chapter 9.0.255.254. Although the processing of the packets at the switch and the routers might not make sense to you yet. Configure it with the following settings: ■ ■ ■ ■ IP address 172. Open a web browser from the desktop of 1A. you should be able to see how DNS. Scenario 1 might have test packets between PC 1B and the routers). the test packet you just created between PC 1A and Eagle Server will be removed. and TCP work together by studying tracing the packets and using the PDU Information window to look “inside” them. Task 2: Explore How DNS.254 DNS server 192. Make sure Event Filter is set to display DNS. You can examine the packet in two ways: by clicking the packet envelope as it is displayed in the animation. UDP. this is because of the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) process. Verify your work using feedback from the Check Results button and the Assessment Items tab. UDP. Scenario 0 might have one test packet from PC 1A to Eagle Server. by using the Add Simple PDU to test connectivity between PC 1A and the Eagle Server.1.124 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Connect the Eagle Server to the Fa0/0 port on the R1-ISP router using a crossover cable. and TCP.16. UDP.0 Default gateway 172. especially when the packets are at PC 1A or at the Eagle Server. Play this animation and examine the packet contents (PDU Information window. and TCP Work Together Switch from real time to simulation mode. please do this before the next task. Task 3: Reflection Can you make a diagram of the sequence of protocol events involved in requesting a web page using a URL? Where might things go wrong? Compare and contrast DNS and HTTP. click the View Previous Events button.16. or by clicking the Info column for that packet instance as it is listed in the Event List. UDP. PC 1A has lost its IP address information. and UDP and TCP. press Enter. HTTP. This time it will succeed. You can remove all test packets in a particular scenario by using the Delete button. Outbound PDU Details) for each event in the event list. .com. The first time you issue this one-shot ping message. and then use the Capture / Forward button in the event List to capture the interaction of DNS. Test connectivity. You can create different test packet scenarios by using the New button (for example. HTTP.example.168. and ICMP.” Double-clicking the Fire button in the PDU List window.255. if you use the Delete button for Scenario 0. TCP. it appears in the PDU List window as part of Scenario 0. it will show as Failed.1 Subnet mask 255. For example. Note that when you add a simple PDU. in real time. send this single test ping a second time. Type the URL eagleserver.

Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6). What is the most significant difference between the two? Although answers will vary. These fields contain binary values that the IPv4 services reference as they forward packets across the network. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum activities and labs to ensure you have mastered the practical. Layer 3 uses the following four basic processes: 1. Study Guide IPv4 The network layer provides services to exchange the individual pieces of data over the network between end devices. multiple-choice. IP version 4 (IPv4) is the network layer protocol used as an example throughout this study guide. List three protocols implemented at the network layer that carry user data. the most significant difference between IPv4 and IPv6 is length. The address space for IPv4 is 32 bit. Concept Questions 1. The network layer must provide services to direct these packets to their destination host. The most significant network layer protocol is the Internet Protocol (IP). and Connectionless Network Service (CLNS/DECNet) 3. The data must be packaged so that it can be sent in a manageable size.CHAPTER 5 OSI Network Layer The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of matching. use Chapter 5 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum or use the corresponding Chapter 5 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration Companion Guide for assistance. 2. IPv4 is going to be replaced by IPv6. As you work through this chapter. 2. What are the four basic processes used in the network layer to accomplish end-to-end transport? To accomplish end-to-end transport. 3. Novell Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX). and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of the importance of data networks and the major components and characteristics of network architectures. . The network layer must provide a unique address for these end devices. AppleTalk. Answers will vary but could include Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4). fill-in-the-blank. whereas IPv6 is 128 bit. hands-on skills needed to understand the opportunities and challenges associated with modern networks. IPv4 defines many different fields in the packet header. 4. The packet arrives at the destination host and is processed at Layer 3.

In some cases. There are no acknowledgments of packet delivery. 5. as optical signals over fiber. Data quality of service (QoS) priority: Enables router to give priority to voice and network route information over regular data. IPv4 address of host to receive the packet: enables routers at each hop to forward the packet towards the destination. and media independent. 1. usually a router. Number of hops before packet is dropped: This value is decremented at each hop to prevent packets being passed around the network in routing loops. There is no error control for data. The data payload protocol type: Denotes whether the data is a UDP datagram or TCP segment. Intermediary devices that connect the networks are called routers. These 13 bits allow a receiver to determine the place of a particular fragment in the original IP datagram. 3. an intermediary device. or wirelessly as radio signals. which services have to resolve these issues? The upper-layer services resolve these issues. Vocabulary Exercise: Define Table 5-1 lists the six key fields in a typical IPv4 header. best effort (unreliable). Table 5-1 Field Key Fields of IPv4 Header Purpose IP source address IP destination address Time-to-Live (TTL) Type-of-Service (ToS) Protocol IPv4 address of host sending the packet: enables the destination host to respond to the source if required. IPv4 is connectionless. because these transport layer protocols manage the receipt of their protocol data units (PDU) differently. If out-of-order or missing packets create problems for the application using the data. What is this process called? Fragmentation Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks for the following questions. 4. will need to split up a packet when forwarding it from one media to a media with a smaller maximum transmission unit (MTU).126 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide 4. The header of an IPv4 packet does not include fields required for reliable data delivery. Each route that a packet takes to reach the next device is called a hop. Fill in the purpose of each field. Any individual IP packet can be communicated electrically over cable. Fragment offset . 6. List three basic characteristics of IPv4. 2.

Routing is done packet by packet and hop by hop. Broadcasts are contained within a broadcast domain. 7. Answers will vary. The gateway. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks for the following questions. The firewall function performed by an intermediary permits only known. trusted data to access the network. 5. Dividing large networks so that hosts who need to communicate are grouped together reduces the unnecessary overhead of all hosts needing to know all addresses. A hierarchical address uniquely identifies each host. network layer addressing schemes are hierarchical. or router. they present problems that can be at least partially alleviated by dividing the network into smaller interconnected networks. with the middle level denoting the network addresses and the lower level the individual hosts. Separating networks is relatively simple if you use hierarchical addressing. it is a good idea to break the network into groups. Please be prepared to allot class time for discussions/presentations. When a host needs to communicate with another network. what graphical user interface (GUI) tool do you use to configure the default gateway IPv4 address? The Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties tools . A router will do one of the following with a packet: ■ ■ ■ Forward it to the next-hop router Forward it to the destination host Drop it Concept Questions 1. Routing: How Our Data Packets Are Handled Within a network or a subnetwork. is needed to send a packet out of the local network. hosts communicate with each other without the need for any network layer intermediary device.Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 127 Networks: Dividing Hosts into Groups As networks get larger. 2. Using a hierarchical addressing scheme means that the higher levels of the address can be retained. 4. 3. As networks grow larger. also known as the default gateway. To support data communications between networks over internetworks. Internet Research Exercise Use your favorite Internet search engine to find a website that describes the advantages to using hierarchical addressing. On a Windows computer. 6. The default gateway is a router on a network that serves as an exit from that network. Be prepared to discuss and present your findings in class. acts as a gateway to the other network. 1. an intermediary device. A broadcast is a message sent from one host to all other hosts on the network.

the packet has to be routed outside the original network. What is a default route? A default route is a route that will match all destination networks. 8. which route will a router select? When forwarding a packet. Default route Gateway .0. When should you use a default route? A default route is used to forward packets for which there is no entry in the routing table for the destination network. next hop. Table 5-2 Terms Routing Terms Definitions Definition Next hop A next hop is the address of the device that will process the packet next. When forwarding a packet.0 is used for this purpose. 6. and metric. A default route is a route that will match all destination networks. For a host on a network. Routes must have which three main features in a routing table? The three main features that routes must have in a routing table are destination network. In IPv4 networks. Packets with a destination network address that does not match a more specific route in the routing table are forwarded to the next-hop router associated with the default route. the address 0. 5. If the network portion of the destination address of the packet is different from the network of the originating host. Why is Layer 3 addressing hierarchical? The hierarchical nature of Layer 3 addressing means that one route entry could refer to a large general network and another entry could refer to a subnet of that same network. 3. Define each term and write your responses in the definition column.128 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide 2. What piece of addressing information should both the IPv4 host address and its default gateway share? The host IPv4 address and gateway address both must have the same network (and subnet. the address of the default gateway (router interface) is the next hop for all packets destined for another network. Can a packet be forwarded without a route? No. Vocabulary Exercise: Define Table 5-2 lists some terms about routing. a packet cannot be forwarded without a route. if used) portion of their respective addresses. The default route is used to forward packets for which there is no entry in the routing table for the destination network. Packets with a destination network address that does not match a more specific route in the routing table are forwarded to the next-hop router associated with the default route. 7. To do this.0. The default gateway is needed to send a packet out of the local network. 4. the packet is sent to the gateway. the router will select the most specific route.

3.Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 129 Routing Processes: How Routes Are Learned Routing requires that every hop. Otherwise. the packet is dropped at that hop. in turn. To ensure that packets are routed to use the best possible next hops. Static routing is routing that depends on manually entered routes in the routing table. this information is passed on to other routers. Because packets are forwarded at every hop. the routing table needs to represent the most accurate state of network pathways that the router can access. every router must be configured with static routes to next hops that reflect its location in the internetwork. or router. causing delays or packet loss. 2. along the path to a packet’s destination have a route to forward the packet. Each router in a path does not need a route to all networks. Out-of-date routing information means that packets might not be forwarded to the most appropriate next hop. Routing protocols are the set of rules by which routers dynamically share their routing information. or changes to links between routers. As routers become aware of changes to the networks for which they act as the gateway. it updates its own routing table and. passes the information to other routers. For the routing decisions. 1. The routing table contains the information that a router uses in its packet-forwarding decisions. each known destination network needs to either have a route or a default route configured. It only needs to know the next hop on the path to the packet’s destination network. . When a router receives information about new or changed routes. Routing is the process of finding a path to a destination host. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks for the following questions.

Figure 5-1 shows the topology for this lab. which is assigned to a network device that forwards packets between distant networks. By the use of several common utilities. For devices on the same LAN. if a gateway cannot be reached by the LAN devices. and only 20 percent of network traffic will go to local devices. If the pod host computer gateway address is not configured properly.130 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Labs and Activities Lab 5-1: Examining a Device’s Gateway (5. One purpose of a router is to serve as an entry point for packets coming into the network and exit point for packets leaving the network.1.5. Cisco estimates that 80 percent of network traffic will be destined to devices on other networks. Troubleshoot a hidden gateway address problem. Gateway addresses are important to users. The network portion of the destination device is the same as the network portion of the host device. Scenario Pod host computers must communicate with Eagle Server. but Eagle Server is located on a different network. However. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ Understand and explain the purpose of a gateway address. Therefore. The network portion of the IP address is used to identify when a packet must be sent to a gateway address. This is called the 80/20 rule.1) Upon completion of this lab. Understand how network information is configured on a Windows computer. A computer that communicates with another device must first know how to reach the device. network configuration on a pod host computer will be verified. users will not be able to perform their job. . the host portion of the IP address is used as the host identifier. connectivity with Eagle Server will fail. and Table 5-3 shows the corresponding addressing table. Background An IP address is composed of a network portion and a host portion. A router is assigned the gateway address for all the devices on the LAN. devices on different networks have different source and destination network numbers.

255.255.168.255.0 255.255.10.255.0 255.16.255.255.0 255.16.255.168.1 172.0.253 N/A 172.10.0 N/A N/A 10.0.0 255.255.10.16.255.5 172.16.255.254 172.255.255.252 255.Pod#.0.6 N/A 192.10.16.Pod#.0.254 R2-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Eagle Server N/A N/A Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central N/A N/A N/A .253 10.16.1 255.0 255.24.255.255.16.254.254 192.6 192.252 255.254.255.254 172.0 255.10.254.254.254 172.255.254 172.Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 131 Figure 5-1 Topology for Lab 5-1 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 Table 5-3 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP S0/0/0 Fa0/0 10.255.2 172.10.168.31.

check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central.254.0. and can ping R2-Central.132 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Note to instructor: Depending on the classroom situation. Figure 5-2 shows two devices on the same network communicating with the ping command. Step 2. and can ping R1-ISP. From a known good host computer. 0. and that Eagle Server is on. In Example 5-1. R2-Central. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests. If an individual host computer cannot connect to Eagle Server. the gateway address is the address of the Ethernet device.1.254. A local interface.example. Verify that the host computer has the correct gateway IP address. what is the MAC address of the network device on IP address 172.16. More specific networks are reached through other gateway addresses. Any device that has the same network address (in this example.6.16.10.com. The “quad-zero” Network Destination and Netmask values. For any nonlocal network.16.255.0. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity.254 as the default gateway.255. The fourth highlighted line displays the information in humanreadable form. If the ping test fails. troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity with the following steps: Step 1.example. shown in the preceding logical addressing table. Finally.255.0 and 0. One popular command is netstat –r. 172. 10.0) is on the same LAN. Verify that all network equipment is powered on. verify that the host has the correct DNS address and can ping eagle-server. is automatically assigned to the 127. 172. the netstat –r command is used to view the gateway addresses for this computer. ping Eagle Server. refer to any network not specifically known.0. Task 1: Understand and Explain the Purpose of a Gateway Address For LAN traffic. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address.0 network. Step 3.16.0. the lab topology might have been modified before this class. 172. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server. R1-ISP.0. this computer will use 172. This interface is . Figure 5-2 Communication Between LAN Devices Referring to Figure 5-2.16.0. ping S1Central.0.1? 00:10:a4:7b:01:5f Several Windows commands will display a network gateway address.10.0.com. called the loopback interface. and finally Eagle Server. The first highlighted line shows what gateway address is used to forward all network packets destined outside of the LAN.

0.255.1...0.254 127. .0.16.255.255.254 Gateway 172.255.0.0..0.0 172. For 127..16.0.255.255.255.255.0..2 127.0.10.2 172.1.1.16.1.1.0.. 127. Use the ping command to ping different IP addresses on the 127.255.255.. See the second highlighted entry..2 127.0 255.1..0 127.16.2 172.0.255 is the network broadcast address.255 Default Gateway: Netmask 0. Example 5-1 Output of the netstat Command C:\>netstat –r Route Table ======================================================================= Interface List 0x1 .0.0.0.16.16. What is the default gateway address? 172.. Was the ping successful? Yes Step 3.1.1.. any device on network 172.255.0. Were responses successful? If not.16.0.0 network.255.2 Interface 172.1.1. why? For 127.255.16.255 255.1 172.2 172..0.0 is accessed through gateway 172. Finally.1 172.255 255.1 172.16. yes. the IP address for this Ethernet interface..0 255.255.0.00 16 76 ac a7 6a Intel(R) 82562V 10/100 Network Connection ======================================================================= ======================================================================= Active Routes: Network Destination 0..2.0..10.255.0 host IP address.16.2 Metric 1 1 20 20 20 1 ======================================================================= Persistent Routes: None C:\> Step 1.1 172..0. and 127. Open a terminal window on a pod host computer.16.2 127.0.255 172..16.16.Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 133 used to identify the local host to local network services. Use the ping command to verify connectivity with IP address 127..1.1. MS TCP Loopback interface 0x20005 .255... This entry is the third highlighted line.0 255. Pings will fail.0. 127...255.0 172..255.16.1.. no.. Pings are successful to any valid 127.255 255.0.16.0.1.255..254 Step 2.255.0.255.

Because IP address 192.2. it is the door to other networks. Step 1.0 differs from 192. communication between devices on different networks is different than on a LAN. IP address 172. This gateway device.254. The MAC address of 192. The information cannot be determined from any device on this LAN.168. Pod host computer 2. initiates a ping to IP address 192.168. . In essence. As shown in Figure 5-3.254 is on a different network. the pod host computer requests the MAC address of the default gateway device.254. several tools are available to quickly determine the network configuration for any Windows computer. All traffic destined to different networks must go through the network device that has the default gateway address. Click Start > Control Panel > Network Connections. for which IP can you not find a MAC address? 192. scroll down the list of items in the pane.1.134 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide A default gateway address permits a network device to communicate with other devices on different networks.0. Figure 5-3 Communication Between Devices on Different Networks Referring to Figure 5-3. On the General tab. a router. responds with its MAC address. and choose Properties.254.0. the Layer 2 MAC addresses will change before the packet reaches its destination. The computer composes the Layer 2 header with the destination MAC address of the router and places frames on the wire to the gateway device. One method that might prove useful to determine the network interface IP properties is to examine the pod host computer’s Network Properties settings.254.254.254.254.16. A window similar to the one in Figure 5-4 will display. Because network 172.168. what is the MAC address of the gateway device? 00:0c:85:cf:66:40 Referring to Figure 5-3. Task 2: Understand How Network Information Is Configured on a Windows Computer Many times connectivity issues are attributed to incorrect network settings.254 is only important to the gateway device on the same LAN that must eventually deliver the packet to that IP address. Right-click Local Area Connection. To access this window.168. For troubleshooting connectivity issues.168. Examine network properties settings. select Internet Protocol (TCP/IP).16. and click the Properties button.

: 172. . . . .16. . as shown in Figure 5-5.255. . . The second highlight shows the subnet mask. . : IP Address. Example 5-2 Output of the ipconfig Command C:\>ipconfig Windows IP Configuration Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection: Connection-specific DNS Suffix . .0 . a dynamic IP address may be configured. . . . . . . . . In this case. . Figure 5-5 Network Interface with Dynamic IP Address A more consistently reliable method for determining network settings on a Windows computer is to use the ipconfig command.1.254 The first highlight shows the IP address for this pod host computer. . : 255. The third highlight shows the default gateway address.255. .16. . . the Network Properties settings window is not very useful for determining IP address information.0. . as shown in Example 5-2.Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 135 Figure 5-4 Network Interface with Static IP Address However.2 Subnet Mask . Default Gateway . : 172. . . .

Task 3: Troubleshoot a Hidden Gateway Address Problem When troubleshooting network issues.254 DNS Servers .2 255.168. .16. . . : 255. . . .168. who reports that R2-Central has been temporarily brought down for a hardware upgrade. The technician verified the cables and network settings on both computers. . . . a thorough understanding of the network can often assist in identifying the real problem. . . . : Intel (R) 82562V 10/100 Step 2. . .0. .254. As the third-shift help desk Cisco engineer.example. . . : No . . . . . . You check with the corporate network engineer.0. . complaining that computer host 11B.16. .1. . . . . . . . . .16. . as shown in Example 5-3. .16. . : GW-desktop-hom Primary Dns Suffix IP Routing Enabled WINS Proxy Enabled . . : . .2 Subnet Mask . . The highlighted line shows the domain name server IP address. use the command ipconfig /all. . Using the command ipconfig /all. . Example 5-3 Output of the ipconfig /all Command C:\>ipconfig /all Windows IP Configuration Host Name . . . accessible with the command ipconfig /?. .0 172. : Unknown Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection: Connection-specific DNS Suffix Network Connection Physical Address. . . . .0 Default Gateway . . .254. : No . . . Refer to the network topology in Figure 5-1 and the logical IP address assignments in Table 5-3. . . does not respond to pings. : 00-16-76-AC-A7-6A Dhcp Enabled. . . . .com.255. . . . . . . . The technician received a trouble ticket from a user on computer host 1A. . . . . . . To show the most information about the network connections.254 192. . . . you are asked for assistance from the help desk technician. : 172.255. : No IP Address. : 192.255. . . . . . . all other values should be the same as shown. : 172.136 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Several options are available with the ipconfig command. but nothing unusual was found. . . . .1. . .255. . . : Node Type .254 Note to instructors: Only the IP address should be different on a student’s pod host computer. . . . . . . host-11B. fill in the Table 5-4 with information from your pod host computer. . . . . .254 Description . . . . . . . . . ipconfig Table Address Table 5-4 Description IP address Subnet mask Default gateway DNS server 172. .

16.Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 137 Nodding your head in understanding. 172.16. the user is able to establish connectivity with the computer. you ask the technician to ping the gateway IP address.254. you ask the technician to ping the IP address for host 11B.254. the gateway router is back on line and normal network operation resumes. and in some instances LAN devices require a default gateway to communicate with other devices on the LAN.2 from host 1A. Task 6: Clean Up Unless directed otherwise by the instructor.1. You instruct the help desk technician to tell the user to use the IP address for host 11B temporarily.0.168. especially the gateway. Packet Tracer Activity Packet Tracer Companion: Examining a Device’s Gateway (5.11. turn off power to the host computers. Task 4: Reflection A gateway address is critical to network connectivity. The gateway address should not be needed. LAN computers still have connectivity between each other. The pings succeed. Observe the communication sequence between network devices. Task 5: Challenge Use Wireshark to capture a ping between two pod host computers. Then. capture a ping between network devices using only IP addresses.5. Next. R2-Central. First. IP network 192. Remember. Windows command-line utilities such as netstat –r and ipconfig /all will report gateway settings on host computers.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. but DNS will not work. after that.254. What is wrong? Because the DNS server is on a different network than the LAN. use the hostname of the destination pod computer for DNS to reply with the destination IP address. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. and the pings fail. and leave the room ready for the next class. DNS requests from the LAN devices must go through the gateway device.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab5512. Within the hour. however. If the gateway is down. You might have to restart the host computer to flush the DNS cache. . A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity. 172.

Figure 5-6 Topology for Lab 5-2 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 . The device considers a network directly connected when it has an IP address and network mask configured.2. Use a Windows Telnet client command telnet to connect to a Cisco router. examine the routing table with the route command and identify the different routes and gateway IP address for the route. Delete the default gateway route. This lab compares how routes are used in Windows computers and the Cisco router. Examine router routes using basic Cisco IOS commands. and Table 5-5 shows the corresponding addressing table. a device must know the route to the destination network. Some routes are added to routing tables automatically.1) Learning Objectives Upon completion of this lab. test the connection.138 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Lab 5-2: Examining a Route (5. and then add the default gateway route back to the host table. For networks that are not directly connected. Background For packets to travel across a network. Figure 5-6 shows the topology for this lab. Use a pod host computer to telnet into R2-Central. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ Use the route command to modify a Windows computer routing table. and examine the routing table. and the network route is automatically entered into the routing table. Scenario Using a pod host computer. based upon configuration information on the network interface. a default gateway IP address is configured that will send traffic to a device that should know about the network.5.

16.0.255.1 172.255.255.16. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests.255.168.0 255.Pod#.Pod#. shown in the preceding logical addressing table.252 255. 10. If an individual host computer cannot connect to Eagle Server. 172.Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 139 Table 5-5 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP S0/0/0 Fa0/0 10.254 192.255. Verify that all network equipment is powered on.0 N/A N/A 10.10.255.168.0. the lab topology might have been modified before this class. troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity using the following steps: Step 1.254 172. Task 1: Use the route Command to Modify a Windows Computer Routing Table Shown in Example 5-4.2 172.6.255.16.16. Step 2. Step 3.16.16. students telnet into R2-Central and view the routing table.255. R2-Central.16.0 255.example. In this lab.10. ping Eagle Server.255. verify that the host has the correct DNS address.255.253 N/A 172.252 255.10. ping S1Central.255.0 255.253 10.254. and can ping R1-ISP.0 255.5 172.10. From a known good host computer.255. and finally Eagle Server.0. Finally. and can ping R2-Central. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server.0 255.254.6 192.1 255.10. check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central.254 172.example.255.168. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity.255.0 255.255. Verify that the host computer has the correct gateway IP address.24.254.10.10.255.16.10. R1-ISP.254.6 N/A 192.255.254. output from the netstat –r command is useful to determine route and gateway information.com. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address. and can ping eagle-server. If the ping test fails.0.31. .com.254 172.254 172. and that Eagle Server is on. Ensure that the privileged exec password has been changed from the default value of cisco.255. 172.255.254 R2-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Eagle Server N/A N/A Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central N/A N/A N/A Note to instructor: Depending on the classroom situation.16.254.255.

254 127... as shown in Example 5-6.255. Examine the active routes on a Windows computer.16.254 Gateway 172.1. Example 5-5 Output of the route Command C:\>route /? An abbreviated option list for the route command is shown below: route PRINT route ADD route DELETE route CHANGE Prints active routes Adds a route: Deletes a route: Modifies an existing route route ADD network MASK mask gateway route DELETE network To view active routes.2 127. as shown in Example 5-5.. MS TCP Loopback interface 0x20005 .0..00 16 76 ac a7 6a Intel(R) 82562V 10/100 Network Connection ======================================================================= ======================================================================= Active Routes: Network Destination 0.16.2 Metric 1 1 20 20 20 1 ======================================================================= Persistent Routes: None C:\> Step 1.1.255 255...1.2 127.1.0 127.255.1 172.2 172.0.0..16.. To view detailed information about the route command..0.1.. Unlike the netstat –r command. A useful command to modify the routing table is the route command.....16.1.0 255.16.2 172.0 255.0 172. the route command can be used to view.2 Interface 172.. issue the command route PRINT..255.255.16. or change routing table entries..0.1.255.0.255 172...16..16.2 127.255.255.0.0.255.0.255. delete. add.0.16.140 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example 5-4 Output of the netstat Command C:\>netstat –r Route Table ======================================================================= Interface List 0x1 .1 172.255.255.1 172.0..0.16.0.0.1.0.1 172..255 255. use the option route /?..255 255..0..16.0 255.0. .255 Default Gateway: Netmask 0..2 172.0 172.255.16.0.

2 Metric 1 1 20 20 20 1 ======================================================================= Verify network connectivity to Eagle Server..16..254.com [192.16.0.example.16.0 255.0.0. MS TCP Loopback interface 0x70003 .254 127.0. Maximum = 0ms.255.0.Intel(R) 82562V 10/100 Network Connection ======================================================================= Active Routes: Network Destination 0.255 172..16.0.254 Step 2.1 172.255 255..Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 141 Example 5-6 Output of the route PRINT Command C:\ >route PRINT ======================================================================= Interface List 0x1 .254] with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 192.16.168.255. How important is the default gateway route? Delete the gateway route.0 .0 172.16.com? 172.254.0.168.example..254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.0 255.254.255.255 255.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Ping statistics for 192.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.1.1. Example 5-7 Output of the ping Command C:\> ping eagle-server.255.2 Interface 172.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.1.0.0.2 127.16.0.255 255.16...254.. Received = 4.0.0.2 172.0 255.255..16..1. Average = 0ms C:\> What is the gateway address to eagle-server.254. The syntax to remove the default gateway route is this: route DELETE network The full command is as follows: C:/> route DELETE 0.255.255..1 172.. as shown in Example 5-7.0.1.16.0..16.255..254.1.1 172..2 172..1.0.255.255. and try to ping Eagle Server.255.168..com Pinging eagle-server..example.16.168..0 127. Delete a route from the Windows computer routing table..2 127..16.254: Packets: Sent = 4..0....0. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms...2 172..1.0.0.255.168.168.255.255 Default Gateway: Persistent Routes: None C:\> Netmask 0.254 Gateway 172.1 172.0 172.0. Lost = 0 (0% loss).00 16 76 ac a7 6a .2 127.

0.0 172.255.2 Interface 127.255.2 172. use the IP address assigned to your host pod interface. If the default gateway IP address is removed.0.. such as 172. and verify that the default gateway route has been removed: What is the default gateway IP address? With the default route removed.0.2 127.255.255. Insert a route into the Windows computer routing table.254? Yes.16.MS TCP Loopback interface 0x70003 .1.16.0.255 Gateway 127.0.255.2 172..255 Persistent Routes: None C:\> Netmask 255..0.1.1.example.16. Removing the default gateway has no effect on LAN connectivity.255.255 240.1.0 MASK 0. The syntax to add a route to the Windows computer routing table is this: route ADD network MASK mask gateway-IP address The full command appears is as follows: C:/> route ADD 0.0..0.254 .0.16.16.0 255.2 172. or the cache times out.2 172.0..1 172.1 172. If the computer is rebooted..0..1.0.2 Metric 1 20 20 20 20 1 ======================================================================= Try to ping Eagle Server...com is stored in the computer’s cache..0 172.. C:\> route PRINT ======================================================================= Interface List 0x1 ...0.0.0.0 255. there is no default gateway IP address. the name will not be resolved because the DNS server is not on the LAN.16.16.0. Can other LAN devices be reached.1 172.255.255.0....0..16.16..255 224. Step 3.00 16 76 ac a7 6a .com? The IP address for eagle-server.255.1.16.16.0.255.1.0..255.255 255.142 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Examine the active routing table..1 172.0 255.16.0... how can the DNS server be reached to resolve eagle-server. In the following configuration.16.0..0 255.2 127.0 172..Intel(R) 82562V 10/100 Network Connection ======================================================================= ======================================================================= Active Routes: Network Destination 127.1. What are the results? Eagle Server cannot be reached..example..2 172..255.1.

255. Lost = 0 (0% loss). Average = 0ms C:\> .0.255.0 255.0 172.254] with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 192..255 Gateway 172.0.16.com [192...168..0.168.Intel(R) 82562V 10/100 Network Connection ======================================================================= ======================================================================= Active Routes: NetworkDestination 0.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.0.0 127..254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Ping statistics for 192.16.255.0.0.2 127.1.1.254....0.16.255..0.255 255...1.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.255..2 127.255..0..1.1 172..255.254.16.00 16 76 ac a7 6a . Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms. Received = 4.1.254 ======================================================================= Persistent Routes: None C:\> Try to ping Eagle Server.0.254.2 172.255 Default Gateway: 172. What are the results? Eagle Server can be reached again. C:\> ping eagle-server.1.16..168.255.16..0.example.Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 143 Examine the active routing table.2 127..254.168.0.2 Interface 172.254: Packets: Sent = 4.1.16.2 Metric 1 1 20 20 20 1 255.0.0 172.0.1 172.255..0.com Pinging eagle-server.1.255.16...16. Has the default gateway route been restored? Yes C:\ >route PRINT ======================================================================= Interface List 0x1 .255 Netmask 0.0..254.. MS TCP Loopback interface 0x70003 .1 172.example...255.16.2 172.254..254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.16.0.0 255.255.168.168.0.255 255.0 255.2 172.16.1 172.254 127.. Maximum = 0ms..

students telnet into R2-Central and view the routing table. Enter the applicable username. and so on. The Telnet utility has several options and can be viewed with the telnet /? command. Note to instructors: In this lab. The default password should have been changed to something other than cisco. however. Table 5-6 Pod Number Pod Number Table Username 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 ccna1 ccna2 ccna3 ccna4 ccna5 ccna6 ccna7 ccna8 ccna9 ccna10 ccna11 To start a Telnet session with router R2-Central. and requires a username and password. enter the following command: C:/> telnet 172. Step 1. The router prompt should be visible after a successful login. For instructors.144 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 2: Use a Windows Telnet Client Command telnet to Connect to a Cisco Router In this task. Using the Windows Telnet client. you telnet into the R2-Central router and use common Cisco IOS commands to examine the router routing table. Ensure that the privileged exec password has been changed from the default value of cisco. ccna2 is for students on pod 2 computers.254 <ENTER> A login window will prompt for a username. will permit remote logins. if properly configured. A terminal window and prompt should be available. Cisco devices have a Telnet server and. and press Enter. the corresponding password is cisco. Open a terminal window by clicking Start > Run.255. Username ccna1 is for users on pod 1 computers.16. as shown in Example 5-8. log in to a Cisco router. Type the password. . cisco. A username and password will be required to log in to the router. Type cmd. The password for all usernames is cisco. and press Enter. the username is instructor. For all usernames. Table 5-6 shows the pod numbers and the corresponding usernames. The username depends on the pod. and then click OK. Access to the router is restricted.

OSPF external type 1. S .EIGRP external. O . R2-Central#. This task does not examine Cisco IOS commands in detail. L2 .OSPF. a successful Telnet login has been created. The route information displayed is much more detailed than the route information on a host computer. P . Example 5-9 Output of the show ip route Command R2-Central#show ip route Codes: C . U . therefore. L1 .OSPF external type 2 i .IS-IS level-2 ia .mobile. The syntax to view the routing table is this: show ip route <ENTER> Enter the command to display the router routing table. a router is knowledgeable about directly connected networks.per-user static route o .0. Also similar to a host computer. Similar to the host computer default gateway IP address. M .BGP D . it is not possible to modify router settings or view the configuration. Task 3: Examine Router Routes Using Basic Cisco IOS Commands As with any network device.IS-IS inter area.ODR.IS-IS.IS-IS level-1.RIP. E2 . su .connected. Authorized access only. but instead uses a common IOS command to view the routing table.Static. * .10. EX . IA . because the job of a router is to route traffic between networks. The information required of this task.0 . The purpose of this task was to establish a Telnet session.candidate default. In the next task. This is to be expected. however.Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 145 Example 5-8 Output for R2-Central ************************************************************ This is Eagle 1 lab router R2-Central.10. B . ************************************************************ User Access Verification Username: ccna1 Password: cisco !The password is hidden when typed in R2-Central> At the prompt.OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 .periodic downloaded static route Gateway of last resort is 10. N2 .0. a router may also employ a default gateway.6 to network 0.OSPF inter area N1 . which has been accomplished. gateway addresses instruct the device about how to reach other networks when no other information is available. R . is not difficult to glean.EIGRP. Example 5-9 shows the routing table for R2-Central.IS-IS summary.OSPF NSSA external type 1. Only limited permissions for ccnax usernames are available. the router routing table is examined.

OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 .0 C 172. use the gateway of last resort IP address to forward packets.10.BGP D .OSPF NSSA external type 1.168. IA . What would the router do with packets destined to 192.0.254? The router will use gateway of last resort IP address to forward packets destined to 192. . N2 . S .OSPF external type 1.mobile.0/16 is directly connected.0/0 [1/0] via 10.OSPF.0/30 is subnetted.0.0.ODR.16. such as /30 or /16. M .0. P . Example 5-10 Explanation of Codes R2-Central#show ip route Codes:?C .10.10.0.16.IS-IS level-2 ia . U .Static. One highlighted line shows S. Serial0/2/0 0.EIGRP external.6 R2-Central# Two highlighted lines in the example show C. 1 subnets C S* 10.0).IS-IS level-1. exit the router with the command exit. denoting a static route.6 to network 0.254.EIGRP. The asterisk shows the example is a candidate default route. R .10. If there is no other route in the routing table. su .OSPF inter area N1 .RIP.0.10.periodic downloaded static route Gateway of last resort is 10.0.connected.10. When finished examining the routing table.6 R2-Central# The Codes section shown in Example 5-10 explains the symbols to the left of each route entry. 1 subnets C S* 10. FastEthernet0/0 10. L2 .0. * .254.168.10.10.4 is directly connected. FastEthernet0/0 10.per-user static route o .0/16 is directly connected. EX .0/30 is subnetted. which is manually entered by the network administrator.candidate default.0. How is IP mask information displayed in a router routing table? Unlike the pod host computer. Serial0/2/0 0. The Telnet client will also close the connection with the Telnet escape sequence Ctrl+] and quit.OSPF external type 2 i .0. B .IS-IS.10.0/0 [1/0] via 10.10. IP mask information is displayed as a numeric value (prefix).IS-IS summary. because the route is “quad-zero”(0. L1 .0.IS-IS inter area. Close the terminal window.4 is directly connected.0. E2 . O .0.0. which denotes directly connected networks and the interface that supports the connection.254.146 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example 5-9 Output of the show ip route Command continued C 172.

was used to connect to a lab router. . Example 5-11 Output of the show ip interface brief Command R2-Central#show ip interface brief Interface FastEthernet0/0 FastEthernet0/1 Serial0/2/0 Serial0/2/1 R2-Central# IP-Address 172. What was missing? What critical network information was similar? Both devices displayed directly connected routes and a default gateway route.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab5522. and add route information on the pod host computer. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. turn off power to the host computers.168. statically assigned routes.10. compare network information output.5 unassigned OK? Method Status YES manual up YES unset Protocol up administratively down down up YES manual up YES unset administratively down down Using Windows commands and the Cisco IOS commands in this lab. The Cisco router. and leave the room ready for the next class. did not display DNS server information. Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Examining a Route (5. and gateway of last resort information are displayed.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer.10. however.2. the Cisco IOS command show ip interface brief shown in Example 511 will display IP address assignments. The Windows Telnet client. Remember. The router routing table was examined with the Cisco IOS command show ip route. Task 5: Challenge You can use other Cisco IOS commands to view IP address information on a router.5.254.Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 147 Task 4: Reflection Two new Windows commands were used in this lab.254 unassigned 10. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity. The route command was used to view.255. telnet. Similar to the Windows ipconfig command. Routes for directly connected networks. This technique will be used in other labs to connect to Cisco network devices. R2-Central. delete. however. Remove anything that was brought into the lab.16. R2-Central#show hosts Default domain is not set Name/address lookup uses domain service Name servers are 192.254 <output omitted> R2-Central# Task 6: Clean Up Unless directed otherwise by the instructor.

252 255.255.10.255.16.253 R2-Central Fa0/0 S0/0/0 S1-Central PC 1A PC 1B Eagle Server VLAN 1 NIC NIC NIC . TFTP.254.148 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Packet Tracer Challenge Skills Integration Challenge: Routing IP Packets (5.0 255.16.255.1.254. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ ■ Configure a router interface using a GUI.6 172. and analyze increasingly more complex protocol interactions. Table 5-7 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP Fa0/0 S0/0/0 192. Figure 5-7 shows the topology for this skills integration challenge.252 255.0.0.16.168. At the end of each chapter.255.0 255. Upon completion of this activity. and switches to learn networking concepts.255. in Inbound and Outbound PDU Details view they were always encapsulated in IP packets.253 10.254 255.255. you will build increasingly larger parts of this topology in Packet Tracer.10. routers.1.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to perform this exercise using Packet Tracer.0. works in the context of a simple example of IP routing. and Table 5-7 shows the corresponding addressing table.254 172.16.254 10.10.254 192.168.255.6 172.255. You may have noticed that regardless of what application and transport protocols were involved. Explore the routing of IP packets.6 10.16.255.255.255. servers. In this activity.16.10.0 255.5 172. Explore a routing table.254 172. You have already studied a variety of application protocols.1.10. TCP and UDP.1 172. Configure a static route using a GUI. you will be using a standard lab setup created from actual PCs.10.255.0 255.254. HTTP. such as DNS.6. and two transport layer protocols.254.0 N/A N/A 10.1 172.255.255. DHCP.168.255.0. you will examine how IP. Background Throughout the course. and Telnet. the dominant network layer protocol of the Internet.2 192.3) Open the file LSG01-PTSkills5.255.16.10.0 255.10.

and note the condition of the Fa0/0 interface (to which switch is connected). It appears there is a problem with the router. Click router R2-Central and go to the Config tab. Task 2: Examining Routes Use the Inspect tool (magnifying glass) to examine the routing table of R2-Central. This interface must have an IP address. Add the IP address 172. In the list shown. You will see the router’s directly connected networks.255. the Config tab is easier and will allow you to focus on the basic idea of IP routing. but there is no way to reach the Eagle Server network.Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 149 Figure 5-7 Topology for Challenge 1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server 2960-24TT S1-Central 1841 R2-Central PC 1A PC 1B Task 1: Configure a Router Interface There is a problem on the LAN: PC 1A cannot reach the Eagle Server (verify this in real-time mode).254 with subnet mask 255. Verify that the router interface (port) is now working by using the mouse over. The request still fails.0. For now.16.0. Close the router window.255. What are some possible reasons why? One possible reason Eagle Server cannot be reached is the fact that it is using a static IP and not the default route. and turn the port on. FastEthernet0/0. subnet mask. Try reaching Eagle Server. At the end of the course. you will learn how to use the Cisco IOS command-line interface (CLI) to perform this task. . and be turned on to act as the default gateway for the LAN. find INTERFACE. Move your cursor over the R2-Central router.

and the next hop of 10.0.16. Use the Inspect tool (magnifying glass) to examine the routing table of R2-Central again. they will go to the R1-ISP router.10. find ROUTING.0.0. a one-shot ping. Static.6 (the S0/0/0 interface on the R1-ISP router) and click the Add button.10. too. Trace the packet’s journey from PC 1A to Eagle Server and back using the Capture / Forward button and examining the packet’s contents by either clicking the envelope or clicking the colored square in the Info column of the event list.0. mask 0. Task 5: Reflection What data can an IP packet contain? What is meant by the phrase “the IP packet is routed”? What is a route? Where might things go wrong? .150 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 3: Configure a Route Using a GUI Click router R2-Central and go to the Config tab. In the list shown. using the address 0. click the Save button to save the interface and route configuration you have just done to NVRAM (in case the router is power cycled).0. You should now see the route you configured in the routing table. Using the PDU you created in Task 3.0 /16 LAN are destined. Test connectivity. by using Add Simple PDU to test connectivity between PC 1A and the Eagle Server. will appear in the User Created PDU list for future use. Verify your work using feedback from the Check Results button and the Assessment Items tab. Task 4: Examine the Routing of the IP Packet Switch to simulation mode. Settings. in real time. This route is configured so that wherever packets from the 172.0. double-click Fire to send it again. Configure what is known as a default static route. Under GLOBAL.0. The PDU.

At Layer 3. Concept Questions 1. 4. . These addresses are used in the data network as binary patterns. some portion of the high-order bits represents the network address. for assistance. or use the corresponding Chapter 6 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration Companion Guide. 2. What is another way to refer to 1 byte or 8 bits? Octet. For each IPv4 address. and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of network addressing. multiple-choice. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum activities and labs to ensure you have mastered the practical. What is the format used for IP addresses called? Dotted decimal. use Chapter 6 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum. In this chapter. This means that we look at each byte as a decimal number in the range of 0 to 255. As you work through this chapter.CHAPTER 6 Addressing the Network: IPv4 The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of matching. What does IPv4 provide for packets that carry data? Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) provides hierarchical addressing for packets that carry data. we define a network as a group of hosts that have identical bit patterns in the network address portion of their addresses. hands-on skills needed to understand the opportunities and challenges associated with IPv4. each packet has a 32-bit source address and a 32-bit destination address in the Layer 3 header. 3. Study Guide IPv4 Addresses With IPv4. fill-in-the-blank. What is another name for digital logic? Boolean logic. we refer to binary as it relates to IPv4 addressing. Data that appears in binary may represent many different forms of data to the human network.

Broadcast C. match the type of network address on the left to its definition on the right. Convert each octet to decimal. The address by which we refer to the network In Table 6-2. Binary number: 10101100000100000000010000010100 IP address: 172. Table 6-2 Communication Type Matching Exercise Communication Type Definition A.4. A special address used to send data to all hosts in the network C. Unicast B. The process of sending a packet from one host to an individual host . An address assigned to an end device in the network A. match the type of communication on the left to its definition on the right. Host address B.5.20 Binary number: 10101100000100000000010100010100 Addresses for Different Purposes Within the address range of each IPv4 network are three types of addresses: ■ ■ ■ Network addresses Broadcast addresses Host addresses Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 6-1. Broadcast address C. IP address: 172. The process of sending a packet from one host to all hosts in the network C. Add a “dot” between each decimal.20 Decimal-to-Binary Conversion Exercise Convert the following IP address into a 32-bit binary number.16. Table 6-1 Network Address Type Matching Exercise Definition Address Type A. Multicast B. The process of sending a packet from one host to a selected group of hosts A.16.152 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Binary-to-Decimal Conversion Exercise Convert the following 32-bit binary number into an IP address. Network address B. keeping in mind the following: ■ ■ ■ Divide the 32 bits into four octets.

these addresses are listed as reserved for future use (RFC 3330).255.255.0 to 238.255. What is the prefix length? The prefix length is the number of bits in the address that gives us the network portion.0.0.0 to 10.0 /8) 172.255.0.0.1 address is used.0. we add a prefix length to the network address. 1.255 (10.0.0.0.0.255.16.31. Expressed in dotted-decimal format. Another major block of addresses reserved for special purposes is the IPv4 multicast address range 224.255 (192.0.255. What block of addresses is designated “link-local”? 169. Which addresses in a network cannot be assigned to hosts? The first (network address) and last (broadcast address).0.168.0 to 255. Currently. addresses 127.0 /16) 8.255 (192.0 to 127. the IPv4 address range is 0.2. or find a calculator for the three address types.255.168.255 (0.0. 7. One major block of addresses reserved for special purposes is the IPv4 experimental address range 240. The globally scoped multicast addresses are 224.0 /24) .2.2. How do you know how many bits represent the network portion and how many bits represent the host portion? When we express an IPv4 network address.255 (172.0.255. Answers will vary.0 /12) 192.254.0 to 239.254.255 are reserved.0 /16) 4.1.255. 3.0.255. What block of addresses is designated “TEST-NET”? 192.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 153 Internet Research Exercise Using any search engine available on the Internet.0.255. 5.0.0.0. 2.254.255.255. What is the loopback address.254.255.0 to 172. look up a website detailing the utility of calculating addresses by hand.255 (169.255.255.0.0 to 169. 3. Vocabulary: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following sentences. Be sure to include class time for presentations or discussions. Concept Questions 1.0 to 255.255.0 to 192.0. 4.0.255.0. What is the reserved block for default routing? 0.255.168. and what block is reserved for loopback? Although only the single 127.16. What are the private address blocks? 10.255.0.0 to 192. 2.0.0.0 /8) 6.0.

Describe the pros and cons of using DHCP for addressing. However. search for an example of an IPv4 addressing scheme or an article about IPv4’s addressing. Network administrators should not randomly select the addresses used in their networks. it would cause problems if that address changed. List four types of devices that work best using static IP addresses. and other networking devices that need to be accessible to clients on the network. hosts that are accessible from the Internet. With the classless system. in any order. Answers will vary. Additionally.iana. Static addresses are useful for printers. Be prepared to discuss your opinions of the IANA with the class. Any of the following. intermediary devices. and spend a few minutes familiarizing yourself with the site. the address is returned to the pool for reuse.org. Assigning Addresses The allocation of network layer address space within the corporate network needs to be well designed. Another benefit of DHCP is that an address is not permanently assigned to a host but is only “leased” for a period of time. Answers will vary. 3. Answers will vary. This feature is especially helpful for mobile users who come and go on a network. 2. peripherals. If hosts normally access a server at a particular IP address. Nor should address assignment within the network be random. routers. Be prepared to present your findings. Describe the pros and cons of static addressing. Define classless addressing. Concept Questions 1. address blocks appropriate to the number of hosts are assigned to companies or organizations without regard to the unicast class. static assignment of addressing information can provide increased control over network resources. Go to the IANA website at http://www. Answers will vary for both exercises. . firewalls.154 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide 9. DHCP generally is the preferred method of assigning IP addresses to hosts on large networks because it reduces the burden on network support staff and virtually eliminates entry errors. The allocation of these addresses inside the networks should be planned and documented for the following reasons: ■ ■ ■ Preventing duplication of addresses Providing and controlling access Monitoring security and performance Internet Research Exercises Using your favorite search engine. servers. are acceptable: Servers. If the host is powered down or taken off the network. it can be time-consuming to enter the information on each host. Be sure to include class time for presentations or discussions.

192 d. 5. Is It on My Network? To define the network and host portions of an address.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 155 4. Answers will vary. 240 a. 224 f. integrated security. 248 e. increased scalability and longevity. List some improvements that IPv6 will provide. 11111000 g. 0 i. 11000000 d. The prefix and the subnet mask are different ways of representing the same thing—the network portion of an address. and any of these may appear in any order: Improved packet handling. 11111100 h. Tier 3: The focus of these ISPs is the retail and home markets in a specific locale. 11111110 i. match the binary number to its numeric value. In Table 6-3. 252 h. 10000000 c. authentication and privacy capabilities. 11100000 e. improved support for extensions and options. What is the primary focus of each of the three tiers of ISPs? Tier 1: The primary focus of Tier 1 ISPs is reliability and/or speed. 255 g. the devices use a separate 32-bit pattern called a subnet mask. 128 . 11111111 c. We express the subnet mask in the same dotted-decimal format as the IPv4 address. Tier 2: Tier 2 ISPs generally focus on business customers. 00000000 b. flow labeling capability. 254 b. Binary Matching Exercise There are a limited number of subnet mask octets. header format simplification. 128-bit hierarchical addressing. Table 6-3 IPv4 Binary Matching Exercise Numeric Value Binary Number a. QoS mechanisms. 11110000 f.

4. . research ANDing (be sure to specify that you mean in IPv4 networks). What is the formula to calculate the number of subnets? 2^n. Why do routers use ANDing? Routers use ANDing to determine an acceptable route for an incoming packet. Basically. and to group hosts used for specific purposes. 3. Answers will vary. What are the two most useful tools in designing a network? A network diagram and a spreadsheet of IP addresses are the two most useful tools. Calculating Addresses Subnetting lets you create multiple logical networks from a single address block. Using VLSM makes it easier to group networks around what commonalities? VLSM makes it easier to group based on common geographic location. Because we use a router to connect these networks. Every node on that link is on the same network. Internet Research Exercise Using your favorite search engine. each interface on a router must have a unique network ID. 2. 2. to group based on ownership. where n = the number of bits borrowed. Allow class time for presentations or discussions. How is a subnet mask created? The subnet mask is created by placing a binary 1 in each bit position that represents the network portion and placing a binary 0 in each bit position that represents the host portion. How does ANDing help an originating host? An originating host must determine if a packet should be sent directly to a host in the local network or be directed to the gateway. Concept Questions 1. If the routers and end devices calculate these processes without your intervention. Be prepared to present your findings. the more students understand and can predict the operation of a network. the more equipped they are to design and administer one. 3.156 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Concept Questions 1. why do you need to learn how to AND? Answers will vary.

This output includes the success rate and average round-trip time to the destination. Concept Questions 1.1 indicate? A response from 127. After all the requests have been sent. . 2. SNMP c.0. How does ping work? Be as specific as you can.0. Configmaker Testing the Network Layer Ping is a utility for testing IP connectivity between hosts. it responds with an ICMP Echo Reply datagram. What does a response from 127. Very Long String of Marbles b. What utility attempts to trace the path that a packet takes through the network? a. This is a measure of the network performance. Ping uses a Layer 3 protocol that is a part of the TCP/IP suite called Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP). This method helps prevent assigning addresses that have already been allocated. If a response is not received within that timeout.1 indicates that IP is properly installed on the host. b. For what is VLSM an acronym? a. ping gives up and sends a message indicating that a response was not received.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 157 Multiple-Choice Questions 1. As each response is received. ping displays the time between when the ping was sent and the response was received. Variable-Length Subnet Mask 3. Ping sends out requests for responses from a specified host address. Ping uses an ICMP Echo Request datagram. c. If the host at the specified address receives the Echo request. For each packet sent. This method prevents addresses from being allocated. Why would you use a VLSM chart? a. Using a chart makes calculating VLSM easier. Variant Language Superior Model c. ping b. This method lets you assign addresses that have already been allocated. ping measures the time required for the reply. d. Ping has a timeout value for the response.0. Variable-Length Subsidiary Mode d.0. traceroute d. the ping utility provides output that summarizes the responses. 2.

If a router does not have enough buffer space to receive incoming packets. the router discards these packets. Many network administrators limit or prohibit the entry of ICMP datagrams into the corporate network. 6. Assume that you ping your gateway. 1. What does traceroute do? Traceroute (tracert) is a utility that lets you observe the path between hosts. 4. 5. A destination host may also send a source quench message if datagrams arrive too fast to be processed.158 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide 3. Source Quench. Name the different ICMP message types. Therefore. Host Confirmation. what sort of problem could this indicate? Answers will vary. If the gateway does not respond. What does TTL stand for? Time to Live 8. Unreachable Destination or Service. The following may be in any order. but another host does. One possibility is that we have the wrong address for the gateway. Time Exceeded. What does RTT stand for? Round-Trip Time 7. Route Redirection. Another possibility is that the router interface might be fully operational but might have security applied to it that is preventing it from processing or responding to ping requests. . Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following statements. Why is ping not always the most reliable test for connectivity on a network? Answers will vary. the lack of a ping response could be caused by security restrictions. This could indicate a problem with the router’s interface serving as the gateway. not by nonoperational network elements. but any of the following are correct. It is also possible that other hosts may have the same security restriction applied. What do the first four Destination Unreachable codes mean? 0 = Net unreachable 1 = Host unreachable 2 = Protocol unreachable 3 = Port unreachable 2.

ICMP message types were later expanded in RFC 1700.16. Scenario This lab examines the ping and tracert commands. Use the tracert/traceroute command to verify TCP/IP connectivity. Both ping and tracert use Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) to send messages between devices. it usually depends on the experience of the network engineer and familiarity with the network. ICMP is a TCP/IP network layer protocol.168.10. devices in the Cisco lab will be tested.255. For example. In a complex network.16.31. tracert can be used to check for network latency.254.Pod#. first defined in RFC 792 in September 1981.0 255.16. Figure 6-1 shows the topology for this lab.0.252 255.255.255.255.255. the problem can be anywhere between the client and the server.0 — — 10.10.2 172.16. A network engineer may use the ping command to test for local network connectivity or connections where there are few devices.0 255.7.0. Where to begin connectivity tests has been the subject of much debate.255.255.1 255.Pod#.24.255. Table 6-4 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP S0/0/0 Fa0/0 10.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 159 Labs and Activities Lab 6-1: Ping and Traceroute (6.0. Measured delay time will probably be less than that on a production network.255.5 172. To familiarize you with the use of the commands.254 172.16. is available on Linux and Cisco IOS.0 255.253 — 172.10.254 172. The tracert utility is available on Windows.10.255.255. traceroute. when a web browser fails to connect to a web server. In addition to testing for connectivity.254 192. The ping utility is available on Windows. and Table 6-4 is the corresponding addressing table.1 172.0 255.254 172.254.6 192. Linux.255.6 — 192.254.254 172. and a similar utility.10. Background Two tools that are indispensable when testing TCP/IP network connectivity are ping and tracert. it tests network connectivity.254. you will be able to ■ ■ Use the ping command to verify simple TCP/IP network connectivity.254 R2-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Eagle Server — — Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central — — — . This is because the Eagle Server lab has little network traffic.253 10. and Cisco IOS.10.252 255.16.0 255. the tracert command would be used. Command options will be used to modify the command behavior.255.255.255.255.168.255.168.1) Upon completion of this lab.255.1.0.16.0 255.

to test Domain Name System (DNS) functionality. Verify that all network equipment is powered on and that eagle-server is on.com.6. check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central.255.10.254.com. ping eagle-server. 172. and that it can ping R2-Central. Task 1: Use the ping Command to Verify Simple TCP/IP Network Connectivity The ping command is used to verify TCP/IP network layer connectivity on the local host computer or another device in the network. R1-ISP.255.160 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 6-1 Topology for Lab 6-1 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 Note to Instructor: Depending on the classroom situation.example. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address.example.254. the lab topology may have been modified before this class. For this .example. This command can be used with a destination IP address or qualified name. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server. ping S1Central. Step 3.16. and finally eagle-server. as shown in Table 6-4. Step 2.16. and that it can ping R1-ISP.com. such as eagle-server. If an individual host computer cannot connect to eagle-server. Verify that the host computer has the correct Gateway IP address.10. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests. From a known good host computer. troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity with the following steps: Step 1. Finally. 10. R2-Central. 172. verify that the host has the correct DNS address and that it can ping eagle-server. If the ping test fails.

255. Each pod host computer should have the same network mask and default gateway address. . 255. . four ping requests are sent to the destination. reconfigure the TCP/IP settings to match the settings for this pod host computer. and reply information is received.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 . . By default.2 Subnet Mask . .1. : 172. . Record local TCP/IP network information in Table 6-5. The ping operation is straightforward. Verify TCP/IP network layer connectivity on the local host computer. The source computer sends an ICMP echo request to the destination.1 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 172. .16. . If there is a break between the source and destination. . .16. . only the IP address may differ. Open a Windows terminal and determine the IP address of the pod host computer with the ipconfig command.16.254 C:\> The output should look the same except for the IP address.0.1.0 172. . . a router may respond with an ICMP message that the host is unknown or the destination network is unknown. . : 172. Example 6-2 Output of the ping Command on the Local TCP/IP Stack C:\> ping 172.0.16. . . : IP Address.255. Example 6-1 C:\> ipconfig Output of the ipconfig Command Windows IP Configuration Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection: Connection-specific DNS Suffix .16.255. . The output should look similar to that shown in Example 6-2.1. If the information is missing or if the subnet mask and default gateway are different. . .1. . .1.1.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 172. .0 Default Gateway .2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 172.255. : 255. .Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 161 lab. . . Table 6-5 TCP/IP Information Value TCP/IP Information IP address Subnet mask Default gateway Depends on the pod host computer. The destination responds with an echo reply. Step 1. . .16. as shown in Example 6-1. .2 Pinging 172.1.16.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 172. only IP addresses are used.16. .16.254 Use the ping command to verify TCP/IP network layer connectivity on the local host computer. .

By default. TTL: Default TTL value of the destination device. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms. Example 6-2 also shows information about the delay in replies. . The third highlighted line shows summary information about the replies: ■ ■ ■ Packets sent: The number of packets transmitted. Packets lost: The difference between the number of packets sent and received. Average = 0ms C:\> The first highlighted line shows the destination address. Packets received: The number of packets received.16. 32 bytes 4 4 0 0 ms 0 ms 0 ms Verify TCP/IP network layer connectivity on the LAN. Students may ask why default TTL values differ when different devices are accessed. For newer Windows machines the default value is 128. Maximum = 0ms. measured in milliseconds.162 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example 6-2 Output of the ping Command on the Local TCP/IP Stack continued Ping statistics for 172. set to the IP address of the local computer. The maximum TTL value is 255. Received = 4. Use the ping command to verify TCP/IP network layer connectivity to the default gateway. and the Linux computer is 64.2: Packets: Sent = 4. Lost = 0 (0% loss). In Table 6-6. fill in the results of the ping command on your computer. Cisco IOS is 255. The default TTL value of the Windows XP computer is 128. The results should be similar to those shown in Example 6-3. Table 6-6 Field Field Information Value Size of packet Number of packets sent Number of replies Number of lost packets Minimum delay Maximum delay Average delay Step 2.1. Lower round-trip times indicate faster links. A computer timer is set to 10 milliseconds. minus the number of routers in the path. Time: Elapsed time between transmission and reply. Values faster than 10 milliseconds display 0. four packets are sent. The second highlighted entry shows the following reply information: ■ ■ ■ Bytes: Size of the ICMP packet.

16.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=62 Reply from 192. Use the ping command to verify TCP/IP network layer connectivity to a device on a remote network.16.255.254 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 172.255.254 Pinging 172. For example.168.254. The results should be similar to those shown in Example 6-4. Lost = 0 (0% loss). it is the default Gateway that has failed or that has misconfigured TCP/IP network settings. Eagle Server is used. Step 3. Because the router was not crossed. Verify TCP/IP network layer connectivity to a remote network.254. fill in the results of the ping command to the default gateway.254: Packets: Sent = 4. the TTL value returned is 255. In this case. In Table 6-7. users may complain that the Eagle Server web server is down.168.254 Pinging 192.255. Table 6-7 Field Field Information Value Size of packet Number of packets sent Number of replies Number of lost packets Minimum delay Maximum delay Average delay 32 bytes 4 4 0 0 ms 0 ms 0 ms What would be the result of a loss of connectivity to the default gateway? No external networks would be reachable.254.16.16. Maximum = 1ms.16.16. In reality.254.168.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=255 Ping statistics for 172.254 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 192.255. Example 6-4 Output of the ping Command to Eagle Server C:\> ping 192.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=62 .Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 163 Example 6-3 Output of the ping Command to the Default Gateway C:\> ping 172.168. Received = 4.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=255 Reply from 172. Average = 0ms C:\> The Cisco IOS default TTL value is set to 255.254.255.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=255 Reply from 172.168.254: bytes=32 time=1ms TTL=255 Reply from 172. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=62 Reply from 192.16.255.255.

Received = 0. the output shows that a user cannot reach Eagle Server.254. one by one. Request timed out.168.254.254 with 32 bytes of data: Request timed out. Is the problem with Eagle Server or a device in the path? The tracert command. .254. Step 4: In Table 6-8. Example 6-5 Output of the ping Command to the Lost Packets C:\> ping 192. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms. you can use the tracert command.168.254: Packets: Sent = 4. Lost = 4 (100% loss). therefore. fill in the results of the ping command on your computer.254: Packets: Sent = 4. Two routers were crossed to reach Eagle Server.254. Instead of using the ping command to test the connectivity of each device to the destination.164 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example 6-4 Output of the ping Command to Eagle Server continued Reply from 192. C:\> Task 2: Use the tracert Command to Verify TCP/IP Connectivity The tracert command is useful for learning about network latency and path information. Average = 0ms C:\> The Linux default TTL value is set to 64.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=62 Ping statistics for 192. Table 6-8 Field Field Information Value Size of packet Number of packets sent Number of replies Number of lost packets Minimum delay Maximum delay Average delay 32 bytes 4 4 0 0 ms 0 ms 0 ms The ping command is extremely useful when you’re troubleshooting network connectivity. Request timed out.168.168. can display network latency and path information. Ping statistics for 192. In Example 6-5.254 Pinging 192. Lost = 0 (0% loss). Request timed out. Received = 4. However. examined next. there are limitations. the returned TTL value is 62.168.254. Maximum = 0ms.

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On Linux and Cisco IOS devices, the equivalent command is traceroute.
Step 1.

Verify TCP/IP network layer connectivity with the tracert command. Open a Windows terminal, and issue the following command: C:\> tracert 192.168.254.254 The output from the tracert command should be similar to that shown in Example 6-6.

Example 6-6

Output of the tracert Command to Eagle Server

C:\> tracert 192.168.254.254 Tracing route to 192.168.254.254 over a maximum of 30 hops 1 2 3 <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms 172.16.255.254 10.10.10.6 192.168.254.254

Trace complete. C:\>

Record your results in Table 6-9.
Table 6-9 Field Field Information Value

Maximum number of hops First router IP address Second router IP address Destination reached?
Step 2.

30 172.16.255.254 10.10.10.6 Yes

Observe tracert output to a host that lost network connectivity. S1-Central is a switch and does not decrement the packet TTL value. If there is a loss of connectivity to an end device such as Eagle Server, the tracert command can give you valuable clues about the source of the problem. The ping command would show the failure but not any other kind of information about the devices in the path. Referring to the topology diagram shown in Figure 6-1, both R2-Central and R1-ISP are used for connectivity between the pod host computers and Eagle Server. Refer to Example 6-7. Options are used with the tracert command to reduce wait time (in milliseconds), -w 5, and maximum hop count, -h 4. If Eagle Server were disconnected from the network, the default gateway would respond correctly, as well as R1-ISP. The problem must be on the 192.168.254.0/24 network. In this example, Eagle Server has been turned off.

Example 6-7

Output of the tracert Command

C:\> tracert -w 5 -h 4 192.168.254.254 Tracing route to 192.168.254.254 over a maximum of 4 hops 1 2 <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms 172.16.255.254 10.10.10.6

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Example 6-7
3 4 * *

Output of the tracert Command
* * * *

continued

Request timed out. Request timed out.

Trace complete. C:\>

What would the tracert output be if R1-ISP failed? Connectivity would stop after R2-Central. What would the tracert output be if R2-Central failed? There would be no connectivity.

Task 3: Challenge
The default values for the ping command normally work for most troubleshooting scenarios. There are times, however, when fine-tuning ping options may be useful. Issuing the ping command without any destination address displays the options shown in Example 6-8.
Example 6-8
C:\> ping

Output of a ping Command with No Destination Address

Usage: ping [-t] [-a] [-n count] [-l size] [-f] [-i TTL] [-v TOS] [-r count] [-s count] [[-j host-list] | [-k host-list]] [-w timeout] target_name

Options: -t Ping the specified host until stopped. To see statistics and continue - type Control-Break; To stop - type Control-C. -a -n count -l size -f -i TTL -v TOS -r count -s count -j host-list -k host-list -w timeout C:\> Resolve addresses to hostnames. Number of echo requests to send. Send buffer size. Set Don’t Fragment flag in packet. Time To Live. Type Of Service. Record route for count hops. Timestamp for count hops. Loose source route along host-list. Strict source route along host-list. Timeout in milliseconds to wait for each reply.

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The most useful options are highlighted. Some options do not work together, such as the -t and -n options. Other options can be used together. Experiment with those described in this section. To ping the destination address until stopped, use the -t option, as shown in Example 6-9. To stop the output, press Ctrl-C.
Example 6-9 Output of a ping Command Using the -t Option

C:\> ping -t 192.168.254.254 Pinging 192.168.254.254 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 192.168.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.168.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.168.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.168.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.168.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.168.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Ping statistics for 192.168.254.254: Packets: Sent = 6, Received = 6, Lost = 0 (0% loss), Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms, Maximum = 0ms, Average = 0ms Control-C ^C C:\>

To ping the destination once and record router hops, use the -n and -r options, as shown in Example 6-10.
Note: Not all devices honor the -r option. Example 6-10 Output of a ping Command Using the -n and -r Options

C:\> ping -n 1 -r 9 192.168.254.254 Pinging 192.168.254.254 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 192.168.254.254: bytes=32 time=1ms TTL=63 Route: 10.10.10.5 -> 192.168.254.253 -> 192.168.254.254 -> 10.10.10.6 -> 172.16.255.254 Ping statistics for 192.168.254.254: Packets: Sent = 1, Received = 1, Lost = 0 (0% loss), Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 1ms, Maximum = 1ms, Average = 1ms C:\>

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Task 4: Reflection
Network engineers use both ping and tracert to test network connectivity. For basic network connectivity, the ping command works best. To test latency and the network path, the tracert command is preferred. The ability to accurately and quickly diagnose network connectivity issues is a skill expected from a network engineer. Knowledge about the TCP/IP protocols and practice with troubleshooting commands will build that skill.

Task 5: Clean Up
Unless directed otherwise by the instructor, turn off power to the host computers. Remove anything that was brought into the lab, and leave the room ready for the next class.
Packet Tracer Companion

Packet Tracer Companion: ping and traceroute (6.7.1.2)
You can now open the file LSG01-Lab6712.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. Remember, however, that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. The instructions are summarized within the activity.

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Lab 6-2: Examining ICMP Packets (6.7.2.1)
Upon completion of this lab, you will be able to
■ ■

Understand the format of ICMP packets. Use Wireshark to capture and examine ICMP messages.

Background Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) was first defined in RFC 792 in September 1981. ICMP message types were later expanded in RFC 1700. ICMP operates at the TCP/IP network layer and is used to exchange information between devices. ICMP packets serve many uses in today’s computer networks. When a router cannot deliver a packet to a destination network or host, an informational message is returned to the source. Also, the ping and tracert commands send ICMP messages to destinations, and destinations respond with ICMP messages. Scenario Using Eagle Server, Wireshark captures will be made of ICMP packets between network devices. Figure 6-2 shows the topology for this lab, and Table 6-10 is the corresponding addressing table.
Figure 6-2 Topology for Lab 6-2

R1-ISP

S0/0/0 DCE

Eagle Server

S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24

S1-Central

R2-Central

1A

1B

11A

11B

Pod#1

Pod#11

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Table 6-10 Device

Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway

R1-ISP

S0/0/0 Fa0/0

10.10.10.6 192.168.254.253 10.10.10.5 172.16.255.254 192.168.254.254 172.31.24.254 172.16.Pod#.1 172.16.Pod#.2 172.16.254.1

255.255.255.252 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.252 255.255.0.0 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.0.0

— — 10.10.10.6 — 192.168.254.253 — 172.16.255.254 172.16.255.254 172.16.255.254

R2-Central

S0/0/0 Fa0/0

Eagle Server

— —

Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central

— — —

Note to Instructor: Depending on the classroom situation, the lab topology may have been modified before this class. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server.example.com, troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity using the following steps:
Step 1. Step 2.

Verify that all network equipment is powered on and that eagle-server is on. From a known good host computer, ping eagle-server. If the ping test fails, ping S1Central, R2-Central, R1-ISP, and finally eagle-server. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests. If an individual host computer cannot connect to eagle-server, check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address, as shown in Table 6-10, and that it can ping R2-Central, 172.16.255.254. Verify that the host computer has the correct Gateway IP address, 172.16.255.254, and that it can ping R1-ISP, 10.10.10.6. Finally, verify that the host has the correct DNS address and that it can ping eagle-server.example.com.

Step 3.

Task 1: Understand the Format of ICMP Packets
Refer to Figure 6-3, which shows the ICMP header fields common to all ICMP message types. Each ICMP message starts with an 8-bit Type field, an 8-bit Code field, and a computed 16-bit Checksum. The ICMP message type describes the remaining ICMP fields. Table 6-11 shows ICMP message types from RFC 792.
Figure 6-3
0 Type

ICMP Message Header
7 8 Code 16 24 Checksum 31

Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4

171

Table 6-11 Value

ICMP Message Types Meaning

0 3 4 5 8 11 12 13 14 15 16

Echo Reply Destination Unreachable Source Quench Redirect Echo Time Exceeded Parameter Problem Timestamp Timestamp Reply Information Request Information Reply

Codes provide additional information to the Type field. For example, if the Type field is 3, Destination Unreachable, additional information about the problem is returned in the Code field. Table 6-12 shows message codes for an ICMP Type 3 message, Destination Unreachable, from RFC 1700.
Table 6-12 Code Value ICMP Type 3 Message Codes Meaning

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Net Unreachable Host Unreachable Protocol Unreachable Port Unreachable Fragmentation Needed and Don’t Fragment Was Set Source Route Failed Destination Network Unknown Destination Host Unknown Source Host Isolated Communication with Destination Network Is Administratively Prohibited Communication with Destination Host Is Administratively Prohibited Destination Network Unreachable for Type of Service Destination Host Unreachable for Type of Service

172

Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide

Using the ICMP message capture shown in Example 6-11, fill in the fields in Figure 6-4 for the ICMP packet echo request. Values beginning with 0x are hexadecimal numbers.
Example 6-11 ICMP Packet Echo Request

Internet Control Message Protocol Type: 8 (Echo (Ping) request) Code: 0 Checksum: 0x365c [correct] Identifier: 0x0200 Sequence number: 0x1500 Data (32 bytes)

Figure 6-4
0

ICMP Packet Echo Request
7 8 16 24 31

Data...

Using the ICMP message capture shown in Example 6-12, fill in the fields in Figure 6-5 for the ICMP packet echo reply.
Example 6-12 ICMP Packet Echo Reply

Internet Control Message Protocol Type: 0 (Echo (Ping) reply) Code: 0 Checksum: 0x3e5c [correct] Identifier: 0x0200 Sequence number: 0x1500 Data (32 bytes)

Figure 6-5
0

ICMP Packet Echo Reply
7 8 16 24 31

Data...

At the TCP/IP network layer, communication between devices is not guaranteed. However, ICMP does provide minimal checks for a reply to match the request. From the information provided in the ICMP messages just shown, how does the sender know that the reply is to a specific echo? The identifier is used to identify this host computer, and the sequence number is used to identify this echo request.

168. When the file has been downloaded. 3. Example 6-13 Successful ping Replies from Eagle Server C:\> ping eagle-server. you can download it from Eagle Server: 1.254: Packets: Sent = 4.com [192. ping Eagle Server.254. Figure 6-6 Wireshark Capture of ping Requests and Replies . From the Windows terminal. Average = 0ms C:\> Stop the Wireshark capture.254] with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 192. When ready. Step 1. 2.168.com Pinging eagle-server.254.254.example. start the Wireshark capture. Received = 4. and save the file to the pod host computer.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192. Right-click the Wireshark filename.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192. you use Wireshark to examine ICMP echo messages.example. Maximum = 0ms. You should receive four successful replies. Lost = 0 (0% loss).Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 173 Task 2: Use Wireshark to Capture and Examine ICMP Messages If Wireshark has not been loaded on the pod host computer. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms. Open a web browser and go to ftp://eagle-server. choose Save Link As.example. similar to those shown in Figure 6-6.168.168. as shown in Example 6-13.254. Open a Windows terminal on the pod host computer.254. Capture and evaluate ICMP echo messages to Eagle Server. open and install Wireshark.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Ping statistics for 192.168. There should be a total of four ICMP echo requests and matching echo replies.com/pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter6.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.168. In this step.

Table 6-13 Field Ping Echo Request Fields Value Type Code Checksum Identifier Sequence number Data 8 (Echo (ping) request) 0 Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwabcdefghi Are there 32 bytes of data? Yes In Table 6-14. Table 6-14 Field Ping Echo Reply Fields Value Type Code Checksum Identifier Sequence number Data 0 (Echo (ping) reply) 0 Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary acdefghijklmnopqrstuvwabcdefghi Which fields. fill in information from each new ping. Continue to evaluate the remaining echo requests and replies. and expand the Internet Control Message Protocol record until all fields are visible. . Cisco IOS increments the Identifier field by 1. The bottom window also is needed to examine the Data field. In Table 6-13.174 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Which network device responds to the ICMP echo request? The destination device Expand the middle window in Wireshark. changed from the echo request? Type field and Checksum field Note: The Identifier field may change for subsequent echo request messages. but Windows keeps the Identifier field the same. if any. record information from the first echo request packet to Eagle Server. For example. In Table 6-15. record information from the first echo reply packet from Eagle Server. depending on the operating system.

Lost = 0 (0% loss).254: Destination host unreachable. Capture and evaluate ICMP echo messages to 192.168. Maximum = 0ms.253.168.255. Step 2.16.253. . an echo response occurs. Received = 4.1 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 172.254: Destination host unreachable. Reply from 172. but the sequence number changes. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms.253.168. Reply from 172.255. Try to ping IP address 192.16.1 See Example 6-14.168.16. Expand the middle Wireshark window and the Internet Control Message Protocol record.168. Reply from 172.1. In this step.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 175 Table 6-15 Packet Ping Echo Requests and Replies Checksum Identifier Sequence Number Request #2 Reply #2 Request #3 Reply #3 Request #4 Reply #4 Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Same as request #2 Same as request #2 Same as request #2 Same as request #2 Same as request #2 Answers will vary Same as request #2 Answers will vary Same as request #3 Answers will vary Same as request #4 Why do the Checksum values change with each new request? The Identifier remains the same.1 Pinging 192.254: Destination host unreachable.1.254: Destination host unreachable.253. Instead of a request timeout. pings are sent to a fictitious network and host.1: Packets: Sent = 4. Average = 0ms C:\> What network device responds to pings to a fictitious destination? The gateway router Figure 6-7 shows Wireshark captures to a fictitious destination.168.253.16.255. The results from the Wireshark capture are evaluated. Ping statistics for 192. Example 6-14 Ping Results from a Fictitious Destination C:\> ping 192.253.255. C:\> ping 192.

255. Expand the middle Wireshark window and the Internet Control Message Protocol record.254.255. Received = 4. Example 6-15 Ping Results for an Exceeded TTL C:\> ping -i 1 192. Figure 6-8 Wireshark Capture of TTL Value Exceeded .254: TTL expired in transit.254 Example 6-15 shows ping replies when the TTL value has been exceeded. simulating an unreachable destination.255.254: TTL expired in transit. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms. Capture and evaluate ICMP echo messages that exceed the TTL value.176 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 6-7 Wireshark Capture from a Fictitious Destination Which ICMP message type is used to return information to the sender? Type 3 message What code is associated with the message type? Code 1.168.168.16. and set the TTL value to 1: C:\> ping -i 1 192. Reply from 172.254: Packets: Sent = 4.254.16. pings are sent with a low TTL value.168. Lost = 0 (0% loss). Maximum = 0ms. Average = 0ms C:\> What network device responds to pings that exceed the TTL value? The gateway router Figure 6-8 shows Wireshark captures to a fictitious destination. Reply from 172.168.254: TTL expired in transit. Host Unreachable Step 3.16. Ping Eagle Server.16.255.254 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 172. Reply from 172.254: TTL expired in transit. Ping statistics for 192.254.254.254 Pinging 192. In this step.

7. and follow the uninstall instructions. . Remove anything that was brought into the lab.168. Task 5: Clean Up Wireshark may have been loaded on the pod host computer. Remember. Without ICMP messages. Click the filename. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. Remove any Wireshark pcap files that were created on the pod host computer. Examine the ICMP TTL exceeded message. This demonstrates how the tracert command traces the network path to the destination. a sender has no way to tell why a destination connection failed. and scroll down to Wireshark. Using the ping command. Time to live exceeded in transit Which network device is responsible for decrementing the TTL value? Routers decrement the TTL value. choose Start > Control Panel > Add or Remove Programs. however.254. turn off power to the host computers. and leave the room ready for the next class. click Remove. Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Examining ICMP Packets (6. Task 3: Challenge Use Wireshark to capture a tracert session to Eagle Server and then to 192.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 177 Which ICMP message type is used to return information to the sender? Type 11 message What code is associated with the message type? Code 0.251. If the program must be removed. you can capture and evaluate different ICMP message type values.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer.2.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab6722. Task 4: Reflection The ICMP protocol is very useful when troubleshooting network connectivity issues. The instructions are summarized within the activity.

convert the host IP address and network mask into binary.0 (/16) you will determine the following information in this task: ■ ■ ■ ■ Network address Network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts Translate the host IP address and network mask into binary notation. Step 1. Background This activity is designed to teach you how to compute network IP address information from a given IP address.178 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Activity 6-1: IPv4 Address Subnetting.3. Scenario When given an IP address and network mask. Part 1 (6. Table 6-16 Decimal-to-Binary Conversion 172 25 114 250 IP address Network mask 10101100 11111111 255 00011001 11111111 255 01110010 00000000 0 11111010 00000000 0 .255.0. such as ■ ■ ■ ■ Network address Network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts Task 1: For a Given IP Address. you will be able to determine other information about the IP address.250 Network mask: 255.7.25.1) Upon completion of this activity.114. In Table 6-16. Determine Network Information Given the following information: ■ ■ Host IP address: 172. you will be able to determine network information for a given IP address and network mask.

0. The network mask separates the network portion of the address from the host portion.534 (addresses that cannot use the all-0s address [the network address] or the all-1s address [the broadcast address]) Add this information to Table 6-19.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 179 Step 2. determine the broadcast address for the network address. Table 6-18 Broadcast Information 172 25 0 0 Network address Subnet mask 10101100 11111111 11001000 11111111 11001000 25 00000000 00000000 11111111 255 00000000 00000000 11111111 255 Broadcast address 10101100 172 By counting the number of host bits. Note: 1 AND 1 results in a 1. ■ Express the result in dotted-decimal notation.536 65.0. and the broadcast address has all 1s in the host portion of the address. you can determine the total number of usable hosts for this network. In Table 6-17. . Host bits: 16 Total number of hosts: 216 = 65. perform the following tasks: ■ ■ Draw a line under the mask. In Table 6-18. The network address has all 0s in the host portion of the address.536 – 2 = 65. Determine the network address.25. AND Operation 172 25 114 250 Table 6-17 IP address Subnet mask 10101100 11111111 00011001 11111111 00011001 25 01110010 00000000 00000000 0 11111010 00000000 00000000 0 Network address 10101100 172 Step 3. The result is the network address for this host IP address. which is 172. 0 AND anything results in a 0. Perform a bitwise AND operation on the IP address and subnet mask.

250 255.33 255.30.30.30.255.25.0.255.534 usable hosts Task 2: Challenge For all problems.1.25.536 total hosts 65.255.30.1.255.1.30.255 16 bits or 216 or 65.114. Table 6-21 Field Problem 2 172.30.0 172.0 172.0 172.33 255. Table 6-20 shows Problem 1.255 16 bits 65.255.0.0 (/16) 172.0 172.255 8 bits 256 – 2 = 254 .534 Value Host IP address Network mask Network address Network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts 172. Table 6-20 Field Problem 1 Value Host IP address Network mask Network address Network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts Table 6-21 shows Problem 2.0.536 – 2 = 65.25.180 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 6-19 Field Host Bits: Information on the Number of Hosts Value Host IP address Network mask Network address Network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts 172.0 172.0.255.1.536 – 2 = 65. create a subnetting worksheet to show and record all work for each problem.

17.17.255.534 Value Host IP address Network mask Network address Network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts 192.0.168.168.168.168.99.168.3.168.536 – 2 = 65.255.0. Table 6-22 Field Problem 3 Value Host IP address Network mask Network address Network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts Table 6-23 shows Problem 4.10.0 192.0.536 – 2 = 65.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 181 Table 6-22 shows Problem 3.255.0 172.0 192.255.71 255.17.10.0.219 255.255.534 .234 255.0 192.255.0 172. Table 6-24 Field Problem 5 172.10. Table 6-23 Field Problem 4 192.0 192.255 8 bits 256 – 2 = 254 Value Host IP address Network mask Network address Network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts Table 6-24 shows Problem 5.255 16 bits 65.255 16 bits 65.

.3.3.3.255.192 192.223 5 bits 32 – 2 = 30 Task 3: Clean Up Remove anything that was brought into the lab.168.255.224 192. and leave the room ready for the next class.182 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 6-25 shows Problem 6. Table 6-25 Field Problem 6 Value Host IP address Network mask Network address Network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts 192.168.168.219 255.

1) In this activity. Because subnet masks must be contiguous 1s followed by contiguous 0s. Table 6-26 Hosts or Subnets 210 1. as shown in Table 6-27.4.024 29 512 28 256 27 128 26 64 25 32 24 16 23 8 22 4 21 2 20 1 Number of bits borrowed: 10 1.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 183 Activity 6-2: IPv4 Address Subnetting. the converted dotted-decimal notation can contain one of a certain number of values. Table 6-27 Decimal Decimal-to-Binary Conversion Binary 255 254 252 248 240 224 192 128 0 11111111 11111110 11111100 11111000 11110000 11100000 11000000 10000000 00000000 . Background Determine how many bits must be allocated to create a certain number of subnets or a certain number of hosts per subnet. Part 2 (6. it is easy to determine how many bits must be borrowed. Using the chart shown in Table 6-26.7. subtract 2 for the usable number of hosts per subnet—one for the subnet address and one for the subnet’s broadcast address. you learn how to determine subnet information for a given IP address and subnetwork mask.024 9 512 8 256 7 128 6 64 5 32 4 16 3 8 2 4 1 2 1 1 Remember.

0.192 (/26) you will determine the following information in this task: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Number of subnet bits Number of subnets Number of host bits per subnet Number of usable hosts per subnet Subnet address for this IP address IP address of the first host on this subnet IP address of the last host on this subnet Broadcast address for this subnet Translate the host IP address and subnet mask into binary notation in Table 6-28. Table 6-28 Field IP address 172 10101100 25 00011001 11111111 255 114 01110010 11111111 255 250 11111010 11000000 192 Subnet mask 11111111 255 .25.0 (/16) Subnet mask: 255. Determine Subnet Information Given the following information: ■ ■ ■ Host IP address: 172. Translate Host IP Addresses Value Step 1. you will be able to determine other information about the IP address: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ The subnet address of this subnet The broadcast address of this subnet The range of host addresses for this subnet The maximum number of subnets for this subnet mask The number of hosts for each subnet The number of subnet bits The number of this subnet Task 1: For a Given IP Address and Subnet Mask.255.255.250 Network mask: 255.184 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Scenario When given an IP address. and subnetwork mask. network mask.114.255.

0. draw the major divide (M.D. The result is the subnet address of this subnet. Table 6-29 Determine the Network 172 25 114 250 IP address Subnet mask Subnet address 10101100 11111111 10101100 172 11001000 11111111 11001000 25 01110010 11111111 01110010 114 11111010 11000000 11000000 192 Note: 1 AND 1 results in a 1. 0 AND anything else results in a 0.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 185 Step 2. Figure 6-9 Major Divide/Subnet Divide M. The result is the number of subnet bits. Perform a bitwise AND operation on the IP address and subnet mask. . Step 4. As shown in Figure 6-9. determine the network (or subnet) where this host address belongs. Express the result in dotted-decimal notation. Determine which bits in the address contain network information and which contain host information.) as a straight line where the 1s in the given subnet mask end.. and the S.192. label the subnet counting range between the M. Determine the bit ranges for subnets and hosts. or the first 16 leftmost bits. 10101110 11111111 10001010 11001000 11111111 11001000 11 111010 11 000000 11 000000 Draw the subnet divide (S. Step 3. which in this case is 10 bits. Draw a line under the mask. This range contains the bits that are being incremented to create the subnet numbers or addresses.) as a wavy line where the 1s in the major network mask end (also the mask if there was no subnetting). which is 172. which can be determined by simply counting the number of bits between the M.D.114.D. 01110010 11111111 01110010 10 Bits IP Address Subnet Mask Subnet Add.0.D. In this example.D. In Table 6-29. The network information ends where the 1s in the mask end.255.D.25. As shown in Figure 6-10. S. the major network mask is 255. and S.D.D.

Next.D.25. 10101100 11111111 10101100 11001000 11111111 11001000 01110010 11111111 01110010 Subnet Counting Range Figure 6-11 S.114.).255.25.D.114. make the host bits all 1s. Use Figure 6-11 to determine the range of host addresses available on this subnet and the broadcast address on this subnet. This gives us the broadcast IP address on this subnet. 11 111010 11 000000 11 000000 Host Counting Range First Host 10101100 172 11001000 25 11001000 25 11001000 25 01110010 114 01110010 114 01110010 114 11 000001 193 11 111110 254 11 111111 255 Last Host 10101100 172 Broadcast 10101100 172 Write down all the network/subnet bits of the network address (that is.186 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 6-10 Bit Ranges for Subnets and Hosts M. This gives us the first host IP address on this subnet. In the host portion (to the right of the S. This range contains the bits that are being incremented to create the host numbers or addresses. which in the example is 172.25. IP Address Subnet Mask Subnet Add. In the host portion (to the right of the S. 01110010 11111111 01110010 Subnet Counting Range IP Address Subnet Mask Subnet Add. .).D. This is the result for Broadcast Address of This Subnet. which is the first part of the result for Range of Host Addresses for This Subnet. 10101110 11111111 10001010 11001000 11111111 11001000 11 111010 11 000000 11 000000 Host Counting Range Label the host counting range between the S.D. This gives us the last host IP address on this subnet. which you make a 0. Subnet Counting Range and Host Counting Range M. in the host portion (to the right of the S.D.D.D. and the last bits at the end on the right. all bits before the S.D.). make the host bits all 1s except for the rightmost bit (or least-significant bit). which in the example is 172. Step 5.114.193. which you make a 1. which in the example is 172. which is the last part of the result for Range of Host Addresses for This Subnet. S.254.D.). make the host bits all 0s except for the rightmost bit (or least-significant bit).

114.255 Determine the number of subnets.536 – 2 = 65.254 172.25.192 172.0. The number of hosts per subnet is determined by the number of host bits (in this example.193 172.114.114. all 1s not used): 210 = 1024 subnets Step 7.25. 26 – 2 = 64 – 2 = 62 hosts per subnet Number of host bits per subnet: 6 bits Number of usable hosts per subnet: 26 – 2 = 64 – 2 = 62 hosts per subnet .250 255.0 172.255. Determine the number of usable hosts per subnet.25. 255.0 (/16) 172. The number of subnets is determined by how many bits are in the subnet counting range (in this example.534 usable hosts Subnet mask Number of subnet bits Number of subnets Number of host bits per subnet Number of usable hosts per subnet Subnet address for this IP address IP address of the first host on this subnet IP address of the last host on this subnet Broadcast address for this subnet Step 6.25.255 16 bits or 216 or 65.536 total hosts 65.114. 6 bits) minus 2 (1 for the subnet address and 1 for the broadcast address of the subnet).0.25.192 (/26) 26 bits 210 = 1024 subnets 6 bits 26 – 2 = 64 – 2 = 62 hosts per subnet 172. where n is the number of bits in the subnet counting range.25. Use the formula 2n. 210 = 1024 Number of subnet bits: 10 bits Number of subnets (all 0s used.114.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 187 Add the missing information to Table 6-30. 10 bits).255.25.255.255. Table 6-30 Field Fill in the Missing Information Value Host IP address Major network mask Major (base) network address Major network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts 172.

255.1.192 (/26) 26 bits 210 = 1024 subnets 6 bits 26 – 2 = 64 – 2 = 62 hosts per subnet 172.188 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Step 8.114. Table 6-32 shows Problem 1.25.33 255.114.114.25.255.1. Review the final answers in Table 6-31.1 172.25.30.114.193 172.255 Task 2: Challenge For all problems.30.25.254 172.255 .30. Final Answers Value Table 6-31 Field Host IP address Subnet mask Number of subnet bits Number of subnets Number of host bits per subnet Number of usable hosts per subnet Subnet address for this IP address IP address of the first host on this subnet IP address of the last host on this subnet Broadcast address for this subnet 172.1.25.255. Table 6-32 Field Problem 1 Value Host IP address Subnet mask Number of subnet bits Number of subnets Number of host bits per subnet Number of usable hosts per subnet Subnet address for this IP address IP address of the first host on this subnet IP address of the last host on this subnet Broadcast address for this subnet 172.114.0 8 bits 256 – 2 = 254 8 bits 256 – 2 = 254 172.0 172.192 172. create a subnetting worksheet to show and record all work for each problem.30.250 255.255.1.30.1.254 172.

255.33 255. Table 6-34 Field Problem 3 172.1 192.1.10.10.192.1.1.33 172.192.10.30.32 172.234 255.192.1.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 189 Table 6-33 shows Problem 2.252 14 bits 16.384 – 2 = 16.30.10.34 172.35 Value Host IP address Subnet mask Number of subnet bits Number of subnets Number of host bits per subnet Number of usable hosts per subnet Subnet address for this IP address IP address of the first host on this subnet IP address of the last host on this subnet Broadcast address for this subnet 192.255.255 .30. Table 6-33 Field Problem 2 Value Host IP address Subnet mask Number of subnet bits Number of subnets Number of host bits per subnet Number of usable hosts per subnet Subnet address for this IP address IP address of the first host on this subnet IP address of the last host on this subnet Broadcast address for this subnet Table 6-34 shows Problem 3.254 192.0 24 bits 224 8 bits 256 – 2 = 254 192.192.30.1.30.255.10.0 192.192.255.382 4–2=2 2 172.

168.3.0 172.255.1 192.255 .255.17.3.17.17.0 24 bits 224 8 bits 256 – 2 = 254 192.3.0.168.99.1 172.0 16 bits 216 – 2 16 bits 256 – 2 = 254 172.168.219 255.254 192. Table 6-35 Field Problem 4 Value Host IP address Subnet mask Number of subnet bits Number of subnets Number of host bits per subnet Number of usable hosts per subnet Subnet address for this IP address IP address of the first host on this subnet IP address of the last host on this subnet Broadcast address for this subnet Table 6-36 shows Problem 5.255.71 255.0.255.190 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 6-35 shows Problem 4.0 192.3.3.255.255 Value Host IP address Subnet mask Number of subnet bits Number of subnets Number of host bits per subnet Number of usable hosts per subnet Subnet address for this IP address IP address of the first host on this subnet IP address of the last host on this subnet Broadcast address for this subnet 192.254 172. Table 6-36 Field Problem 5 172.17.17.0.168.168.

218 192.168.252 6 bits 64 – 2 = 62 4–2=2 2 192.168.219 Task 3: Clean Up Remove anything that was brought into the lab.218 255. Table 6-37 Field Problem 6 Value Host IP address Subnet mask Number of subnet bits Number of subnets Number of host bits per subnet Number of usable hosts per subnet Subnet address for this IP address IP address of the first host on this subnet IP address of the last host on this subnet Broadcast address for this subnet 192.3.168.255.168. . and leave the room ready for the next class.216 192.3.217 192.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 191 Table 6-37 shows Problem 6.3.255.3.168.3.

you design and apply an IP addressing scheme for the topology shown in Figure 612. The routers then will be ready for interface address configuration according to your IP addressing scheme.1) Upon completion of this lab. Examine the network requirements.7.1.1.64/27 192. The link between router R1 and router R2 requires IP addresses at each end of the link. Configure and activate serial and FastEthernet interfaces. Reflect on and document the network implementation.192 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Lab 6-3: Subnet and Router Configuration (6. Assign subnet 2 to the link between R1 and R2.224 What is the subnet mask for the network in slash format? /27 How many usable hosts are there per subnet? 30 Step 3. .168. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Subnet an address space given requirements. Assign subnet 3 to the network attached to R2.255. You are given one address block that you must subnet to provide a logical addressing scheme for the network.5.168. verify that the network is working properly.0/24 address space to use in your network design. Consider the following questions when creating your network design: ■ ■ ■ ■ How many subnets are needed for this network? 3 What is the subnet mask for this network in dotted-decimal format? 255.255.168.1.1.168. When the configuration is complete.32/27 Fa0/0 192. Step 2. Figure 6-12 Topology for Lab 6-3 192. You have been given the 192. Assign subnetwork addresses to the topology diagram shown in Figure 6-12: ■ ■ ■ Assign subnet 1 to the network attached to R1. Assign appropriate addresses to interfaces and document them. The network connected to router R2 requires enough IP addresses to support 30 hosts. Test and verify configurations. The network consists of the following segments: ■ ■ ■ The network connected to router R1 requires enough IP addresses to support 15 hosts. Scenario In this lab activity.96/27 Fa0/0 PC1 S0/0/0 R1 S0/0/0 DCE PC2 R2 Task 1: Subnet the Address Space Step 1.

Note that to complete the activity in Packet Tracer.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 193 Task 2: Determine Interface Addresses Step 1. Assign the first valid host address in subnet 2 to the WAN interface on R1.1.168. you will use the Config tab.168.224 255.97 R2 Fa0/0 S0/0/0 PC1 PC2 NIC NIC Task 3: Configure the Serial and FastEthernet Addresses Step 1.255. In Table 6-38.1.33 192.1. be sure to save the running configuration to the router’s NVRAM.224 — — — — 192.1. Assign the last valid host address in subnet 2 to the WAN interface on R2.255. can you ping the Serial 0/0/0 interface of R1? Yes . Configure the interfaces on the R1 and R2 routers with the IP addresses from your network design.62 192. Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway Table 6-38 Device R1 Fa0/0 S0/0/0 192. can you ping the Serial 0/0/0 interface of R2? Yes From the router R2.65 192. Task 4: Verify the Configurations Answer the following questions to verify that the network is operating as expected: ■ ■ ■ ■ From the host attached to R1.255.255.224 255. Configure the router interfaces.224 255.94 192. Assign the first valid host address in subnet 3 to the LAN interface on R2.255.255.255. Configure the Ethernet interfaces of PC1 and PC2 with the IP addresses and default gateways from your network design.255.168.168.255. can you ping the default gateway? Yes From the host attached to R2.168.168.1.97 192. Assign the last valid host address in subnet 1 to PC1.255. When you have finished.224 255.33 192.126 255.1.168. document the addresses to be used. Assign appropriate addresses to the device interfaces: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Assign the first valid host address in subnet 1 to the LAN interface on R1.255.255. can you ping the default gateway? Yes From the router R1.224 255.1.1.168. Step 2. Configure the PC interfaces. Step 2. Assign the last valid host address in subnet 3 to PC2.

and Inspect tools. Build the network: Connect devices with Ethernet and serial cables. however.194 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Note: The answers to the preceding questions should be yes. Configure the network: Apply your subnetting scheme to servers. Packet Tracer Challenge Skills Integration Challenge: Planning Subnets and Configuring IP Addresses (6. and router interfaces. web traffic.3) Open the file LSG01-PTSkills6. Test the network: Using ping. . Task 5: Reflection Are there any devices on the network that cannot ping each other? Answers will vary What is missing from the network that is preventing communication between these devices? Answers will vary Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Subnet and Router Configuration (6. PCs. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ Do IP subnet planning: Practice your subnetting skills. ■ Background You have been asked to implement the standard lab topology.5. Remember.8.7.1.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. check the physical connections and configurations. Upon completion of this lab.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab6752. trace.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to perform this exercise using Packet Tracer. The instructions are summarized within the activity. but with a new IP addressing scheme. If any of the pings failed. configure services and static routing.

255.255.1 192.168.109 255.252 255.23. Figure 6-13 shows the topology for this lab.255.255.23.240 255. existing student LAN (off of router R2-Central).23.255.168.168.168.168.130 192.23.23. Figure 6-13 Topology for Challenge 1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server 2960-24TT S1-Central 1841 R2-Central PC-PT 1A PC-PT 1B Task 1: IP Subnet Planning You have been given an IP address block of 192.255.23.2 192.62 192.23.252 255. future student LAN.129 192.23. up to 60 hosts Second subnet.168.168.255.168.168.0 /24. up to 28 hosts .255.255.192 255.168. Table 6-39 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP Fa0/0 S0/0/0 192. You must provide for existing networks as well as future growth.23.23.130 192.192 255.255.23.23.168.255.62 192.130 192.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 195 You will use many of the skills you have learned to this point in the course.255. Fill in your answers in Table 6-39.255.110 192.252 — — 192.23.192 255.255.168.168.62 192.110 R2-Central Fa0/0 S0/0/0 PC 1A PC 1B Eagle Server NIC NIC NIC Subnet assignments: ■ ■ First subnet.

enable DNS services. both routers. configure them to use DNS services. use the highest usable address on the existing student LAN subnet. existing ISP LAN. ■ Task 3: Configure the Network You need to configure the server. and the two PCs. R2-Central’s serial interface. Connect PC 1B to the second FastEthernet port on switch S1-Central. and enable HTTP services. configure the second-highest usable IP address on the existing ISP LAN subnet. use the lowest usable address on the existing WAN subnet. up to 12 hosts Fourth subnet. ■ ■ ■ ■ Additional configurations: ■ ■ For PCs 1A and 1B. For R2-Central’s S0/0/0 interface. For the server. make sure the power is on to the device and the interfaces. up to 8 hosts Fifth subnet. ■ ■ Task 2: Finish Building the Network in Packet Tracer Add cables where they are missing: ■ ■ ■ ■ Connect a serial DCE cable to R1-ISP S0/0/0. For R1-ISP’s S0/0/0 interface. For R2-Central’s Fa0/0 interface. For hosts 1A and 1B. with the other end to R2-Central S0/0/0. The static route on R1-ISP should point to the existing student LAN subnet via R2-Central’s . future WAN. nor do you need the IOS CLI to configure the routers. point-to-point link Seventh subnet.example. use the domain name eagle-server. in addition to IP configuration. No clock rate is needed on the DTE side—in this case. future ISP LAN.com. You do not need to configure the switch. you need to set the clock rate (a timing mechanism required on the DCE end of serial links) to 64000. configure the highest usable address on the existing WAN subnet. future WAN. point-to-point link Sixth subnet. Part of the router configuration has already been done for you. For all devices. Connect PC 1A to the first FastEthernet port on switch S1-Central. use the first two IP addresses (the two lowest usable addresses) on the existing student LAN subnet. existing WAN. For the R1-ISP router serial interface. configure the highest usable IP address on the existing ISP LAN subnet. For R1-ISP’s Fa0/0 interface. Connect interface Fa0/0 on router R2-Central to the highest FastEthernet port on switch S1Central. point-to-point link Interface IP addresses: ■ ■ For the server.196 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Third subnet. All you must do is configure the static routes and the interfaces via the GUI.

DNS. and the Inspect tool. Trace packet flow in simulation mode. The static route on R2-Central should be a default static route that points to R1-ISP’s serial interface IP address. to test your understanding of how the network is operating. UDP. Task 4: Test the Network Use ping. . trace. Task 5: Reflection Reflect on how much you have learned so far! Practicing IP subnetting skills and network building. TCP. and ICMP viewable. These procedures were explained in the Chapter 5 Skills Integration Challenge. web traffic.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 197 serial interface IP address. configuration. and testing skills will serve you well throughout your networking courses. with HTTP.

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for assistance. Node c. Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 7-1. . What are the two main jobs of the data link layer? The data link layer allows upper layers to access media. fill-in-the-blank. Study Guide Data Link Layer: Accessing the Media The data link layer plays a major role in networks. Two or more devices connected to a common medium e. A device on a network c. As you work through this chapter. and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of the data link layer. The data link layer hides the details of these media from the upper layers and takes on the job of transmitting data across each network segment. Data link d. The physical means used to carry data signals a. optical fibers. Frame b. and the air in the case of wireless. because it is the layer that accesses the physical medium and causes network traffic to traverse different physical media. hands-on skills you need to work with the data link layer. including copper cabling. It also controls how data is placed on and received from media.CHAPTER 7 OSI Data Link Layer The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of matching. use Chapter 7 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum activities and labs to ensure that you have mastered the practical. The protocol data unit (PDU) used in Layer 2 of the OSI model Concept Questions 1. The media can consist of many different types. What is the difference between a logical network and a physical network? The network layer defines the logical network using a hierarchical addressing scheme. or use the corresponding Chapter 7 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration Companion Guide. The data link layer defines the physical network as a set of devices on a common medium. 2. Table 7-1 Term Data Link Layer Terms Definition a. A layer of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model that frames upper-layer data and controls how data is placed on a medium b. Network e. match the term on the left to its definition on the right. Media d.

all nodes compete for the use of the medium. There are different ways to accomplish this regulation. With controlled media access control. Compare and contrast controlled media access control and contention-based media access control. Any device can try to access the medium whenever it has data to send. With contention-based media access control. but it can be inefficient because a device has to wait its turn before it can use the medium. IP would need to change every time a new network technology or medium were developed. Concept Questions 1. the probability of successful access without a data collision decreases. a node uses an adapter. such as a Network Interface Card (NIC) on a local-area network (LAN). This disadvantage is avoided by using a layered model for networking and by giving the data link layer the job of placing data on a medium and controlling access to the medium.200 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide 3. The controlled method provides predictable. decapsulate the frame to the Layer 3 PDU. has physical interfaces that can encapsulate a packet into the appropriate frame and handle the media access control method to access each link. 1. IP or other network layer protocols would need to make provisions for connecting every type of media that could exist along a delivery path. The technique for getting a frame on and off a medium is called the media access control method. deterministic throughput. Network devices take turns. each node has its own time to use the medium. in sequence. what changes would be required of a network layer protocol such as Internet Protocol (IP)? Without a data link layer. Media Access Control Techniques Media access control regulates the placement of data frames on a medium. such as a router. The adapter manages the framing and media access control. . As more nodes try to access the network to send data. and place the frame on the medium of the next link in the network. 4. encapsulate the Layer 3 PDU into a new frame. The contention-based method has less overhead but does not scale well under heavy use. If the data link layer didn’t exist. An intermediary device. Some methods are complicated and add overhead to the process. 3. to access the medium. A router uses data link layer services to receive a frame from one medium. Other methods are less complicated but may not scale as well. To connect to a network. Moreover. 2. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following statements. depending on the medium and the data link layer protocols in use.

wait and try again later. you can keep the list simple. both devices can transmit and receive on the medium at the same time. A logical multiaccess topology enables a number of nodes to communicate by using the same shared medium. data field. What is the difference between full-duplex communication and half-duplex communication? With full-duplex communication. With half-duplex communication. You will learn more about CSMA/CD in Chapter 9. 3. carrier sense multiple access collision avoidance. Match the field on the left to its definition on the right. Although different protocols place different fields in a frame. If another node is also transmitting. Receiving data while transmitting is allowed. stop transmitting and wait a random amount of time before trying again. 3. 3. Data link layer rules (also called protocols) specify the media access control method that is used for a particular technology.Chapter 7: OSI Data Link Layer 201 2. only one device can transmit at any given time. 4. 2. Having many nodes share access to the medium requires a data link layer media access control method to regulate the transmission of data. The Layer 2 PDU is called a frame. Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Table 7-2 lists some typical fields that appear in frame headers. Three media access control methods used by logical multiaccess topologies include carrier sense multiple access collision detect. and token passing. If a carrier signal from another node is detected. most protocols specify that the frame should have a header. “Ethernet. 1. At this point. 4. If a carrier signal is not detected. Ethernet uses CSMA/CD. 2. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following statements. For example. List the steps in the carrier sense multiple access collision detect (CSMA/CD) process. While transmitting. . 1. 5. monitor the medium for the presence of another node’s signal.” Sense whether the medium is free. transmit the data. Most Layer 2 frames also have addressing fields in the header that identify the sender and receiver. Media Access Control: Addressing and Framing Data A fundamental job of the data link layer is to encapsulate a Layer 3 PDU into a Layer 2 PDU. Receiving data while transmitting is not allowed. and trailer.

Table 7-3 Protocol Data Link Layer Protocols Specification a. 1000. it gets encapsulated in a new data link layer header with new Layer 2 addresses for each hop it takes. Includes specifications for operation at 10. Flow control g. If a device is moved to another network. Establishes a logical connection (session) between two nodes a. Uses a preamble field at the beginning of the frame b. When a packet crosses an internetwork. Often found on WANs a. Length e. Defined by the IEEE 802. Indicates the upper-layer service contained in the frame a. Identifies the sender and receiver e. Used to indicate overloading on the medium f. Used to start and stop traffic when overloading occurs d.11 c. Type d. are carried from source to destination host across an internetwork. Congestion control g. Uses an acknowledgment to confirm that a frame was received successfully Concept Questions 1. Point-to-Point Protocol c. Ethernet b. Tells other devices on the network that a frame is coming along the medium b. Priority f. A protocol for wireless networks that uses CSMA/CA a. Defined in a Request For Comments (RFC) document b. on the other hand.000 Mbps b. Match each protocol on the left to its specifications on the right. Address c.3 standard a. Start frame b.202 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 7-2 Field Frame Header Fields Definition a. 100. and 10. Layer 2 addresses are used only for local delivery when transporting a frame across a shared local medium. Compare and contrast Layer 2 addresses with Layer 3 addresses. . Layer 2 addresses use a flat addressing scheme and do not indicate on what network a device is located. its Layer 2 address does not need to change. Indicates a particular type of communication service for special processing Table 7-3 lists three major data link layer protocols. Layer 3 addresses use a hierarchical addressing scheme and indicate a network number and host identifier. 802. Specifies the number of bytes in the data part of the frame c. Uses a flag field at the beginning of the frame c. Provides unacknowledged connectionless service over a shared medium using CSMA/CD b. Layer 3 addresses.

The data link layer refers to the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) cache to determine the Media Access Control (MAC) address that is associated with the Ethernet interface on the client’s router. For the destination address. The client builds an Ethernet II frame to transport the IPv4 packet across the local medium. The router sends the data to another router across a PPP WAN link. distortion. 1. The user sends data to a router on that Ethernet LAN. It uses its own IPv4 address as the source address. 5. A TCP three-way handshake sets up a connection with the server. 2. an IP packet is constructed to identify the source and destination hosts. Putting It All Together: Follow Data Through an Internetwork When a user on a LAN wants to access a service. The transport layer identifies the upper-layer service that the user wants to reach as the HTTP (or World Wide Web [WWW]) service. The transport layer places a destination port number of 80 in the TCP segment to indicate the WWW service. the client uses the IP address associated with the WWW server’s hostname.Chapter 7: OSI Data Link Layer 203 2. TCP adds an acknowledgment number that tells the web server the sequence number that TCP expects in the next segment it receives. The user starts by clicking a link or URL on a web page. The user is on an Ethernet LAN. 3. If you have done the reading in Chapter 7 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum or if you have used the corresponding Chapter 7 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration Companion Guide. 6. you should now be able to put together at a high level the events that take place on a network when a user accesses a service. 3. The application layer adds a Layer 7 header. Why are Layer 2 addresses not needed in point-to-point topologies? Layer 2 addresses are not needed in point-to-point topologies because there can be no confusion about the frame’s destination. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following statements that describe a user accessing a web page stored on a web server that is located on a remote network. After it is on the medium. 4. At the network layer. The FCS field is necessary because the signals on the medium are subject to interference. or loss that would change the bit values that those signals represent. The user’s web browser initiates a Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) GET request. a frame has only one place to go (to the other device). What is the purpose of the Frame Check Sequence (FCS) in a frame trailer? The FCS field is used to determine if errors occurred in the transmission and receipt of a frame. a number of packets are generated and encapsulated in Layer 2 frames. Only two devices are connected. . The transport layer also places the source port number for this session in the segment. The recipient router forwards the data onto an Ethernet LAN where the server resides.

so the physical layer begins transmitting the frame onto the WAN medium bit by bit. 18. The router includes a Protocol field in the PPP header with a value of 0x0021 to indicate that 13. the destination IPv4 address in the packet is compared to the routes in the 11. The router consults its ARP cache to determine the MAC address of the web server. The server compares the destination MAC address in the frame to the MAC address of the NIC in the server. 20. The physical layer transmits the frame onto the medium bit by bit. The server compares the destination IPv4 address in the packet to its own IPv4 address. 22. The client uses the CSMA/CD media access control method to verify that the medium is not already in use. 17. Because the IP network layer header identified the upper-layer protocol as 0x06. 16. the destination IPv4 address in the packet is compared to routes in the routing table. The frame begins with a Preamble field and ends with an FCS field for error detection. The data link layer frame indicates that the upper-layer data is IPv4 by placing 0x0800 in the Type field of the Ethernet II header. 21. the user sees a web page. the server pushes the data to TCP. At the network layer. the server removes the data link header and pushes the packet up to the network layer. can now form a response. The TCP sequence number is used to place this segment in the proper order to be sent upward to the application layer. Eventually. At the network layer. and a packet flows back to the client. 8. The router removes the data link header and pushes the packet up to the network layer. This is done by examining the source and destination ports. The router that receives the frame checks the FCS at the end of the frame to determine if the frame was received intact without any errors. 15. The 22 steps reverse themselves. Because it matches. At the application layer. without any errors. an IPv4 packet is encapsulated. routing table. 14. The router removes the data link header and pushes the packet up to the network layer. The Physical layer transmits the frame onto the medium bit by bit. and the router determines that the next hop for the packet is a router at the other end of a PPP WAN link. It uses CSMA/CD to verify that the medium is not already in use. The router determines that the packet should be sent out an Ethernet network to the web server. The router creates a PPP frame to transport the packet across the WAN. The server examines the TCP segment to determine the session to which the data belongs. 10. A match is found. The recipient router checks the FCS to determine if the frame was received intact without any errors. The PPP session has already been established. Because it matches.204 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide 7. The server examines the frame. It checks the FCS to determine if the frame was received intact 19. as soon as all the necessary packets have been sent and received. The service . the HTTP GET request is delivered to the WWW service. the server removes the network layer header and pushes the data to the transport layer. It then builds an Ethernet II frame to transport the IPv4 packet to the server. 12. 9.

4. When learning about Layer 2 concepts.com/pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter7/. If Wireshark has not been loaded on the host pod computer. Figure 7-1 shows the topology for this lab. it is helpful to analyze frame header information. The frame composition depends on the media access type. data flows down the OSI layers and is encapsulated in a Layer 2 frame.99. The Windows ping command will be used to generate network traffic for Wireshark to capture. you will be able to ■ ■ Explain the header fields in an Ethernet II frame.exe. Background When upper-layer protocols communicate with each other.1) Upon completion of this lab. The Ethernet II frame header is examined in this lab. such as TCP/IP. if the upper-layer protocol is TCP/IP and the media access is Ethernet. Ethernet II frames can support various upper-layer protocols. Figure 7-1 Topology for Lab 7-1 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 . the Layer 2 frame encapsulation is Ethernet II.example. Use Wireshark to capture and analyze Ethernet II frames. and Table 7-4 is the corresponding addressing table.5.2. Scenario Wireshark will be used to capture and analyze Ethernet II frame header fields. For example.Chapter 7: OSI Data Link Layer 205 Labs and Activities Lab 7-1: Frame Examination (7. The file is wireshark-setup-0. you can download it from ftp://eagleserver.

From a known good host computer.example.255.254. 10. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests.0 255.10. ping eagle-server.0 255.255.16.6 — 192.16. Verify that the host computer has the correct Gateway IP address.10.253 — 172. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server. 172.254 172.5 172. R1-ISP. Figure 7-2 Ethernet II Frame Format Destination Address Source Address Frame Type 2 Octets Preamble Data FCS 8 Octets 6 Octets 6 Octets 46–1500 Octets 4 Octets In Figure 7-3. Finally.0 255.6 192.254 172.24. If an individual host computer cannot connect to eagle-server.254 172.Pod#.0 255.0. ping S1Central.16.252 255.255. the ping command issues echo requests. Task 1: Explain the Header Fields in an Ethernet II Frame Figure 7-2 shows the format for an Ethernet II frame.206 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 7-4 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP S0/0/0 Fa0/0 10.2 172. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address.255.255.255. Verify that all network equipment is powered on and that eagle-server is on.255.16.10.16.255.1 172.0.255.0 255.0 255. If the ping test fails.0 — — 10.254.255.255.0. verify that the host has the correct DNS address and that it can ping eagle-server.254.example.10. R2-Central.254.254. the lab topology may have been modified before this class.31.255.16. followed by a DNS query.254 172. check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central.10.255.1 255.com. and finally eagle-server. The session begins with the ARP protocol querying for the MAC address of the Gateway router. shown in the logical addressing table.255.254 192.10.255.254. Step 2. Step 3.254 R2-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Eagle Server — — Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central — — — Note to Instructor: Depending on the classroom situation.6. troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity by following these steps: Step 1.16.16. and that it can ping R2-Central.168.255.255. and that it can ping R1-ISP.168.10.Pod#. Finally.16.253 10.com.168. .0. the Panel List window shows a Wireshark capture of the ping command between a pod host computer and Eagle Server. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity.255. 172.255.10.252 255.255.

The source address is always unicast.neotechcc. A common format is 12:34:56:78:9A:BC. Ethernet II supports numerous upper-layer protocols. Using this window. ac:a7:6a.org/forum/macid. The destination address may be a broadcast that contains all 1s. you can obtain Ethernet II frame information. or 6 bytes. processed by the NIC hardware. Table 7-5 shows the information you can obtain. A to F. 0 to 9. The last six hex digits. or unicast. The Data field is between 46 and 1500 bytes. The first six hex numbers indicate the manufacturer of the network interface card (NIC). Here are two common frame types: Value Description 0x0800 IPv4 protocol 0x0806 Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) Contains the encapsulated upper-layer protocol. Data ARP . Table 7-5 Field Ethernet II Frame Header Value Description Preamble Destination Address Not shown in the capture ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff This field contains synchronizing bits. this field contains a hexadecimal value that is used to indicate the type of upper-layer protocol in the data field. Source Address Frame Type 00:16:76:ac:a7:6a 0x0806 For Ethernet II frames. are the serial number of the NIC. the Packet Details window shows Frame 1 detail information. expressed as 12 hexadecimal digits.htm for a list of vendor codes. Layer 2 addresses for the frame.Chapter 7: OSI Data Link Layer 207 Figure 7-3 Wireshark Capture of the ping Command In Figure 7-3. Each address is 48 bits long. Refer to http://www.

answer the following questions about the destination and source MAC address. All computers on the LAN receive the frame. From the information contained in the Packet List window for the first frame. The value is computed by the sending machine. and data field. encompassing frame addresses. Destination Address MAC address: ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff NIC manufacturer: Does not apply NIC serial number: Does not apply Source Address MAC address: 00:16:76:ac:a7:6a NIC manufacturer: Intel NIC serial number: ac:a7:6a From the information contained in the Packet List window for the second frame. answer the following questions about the destination and source MAC address. It is verified by the receiver. used by the NIC to identify errors during transmission. What is the significance of all 1s in the destination address field? This is a broadcast address. Destination Address MAC address: 00:16:76:ac:a7:6a NIC manufacturer: Intel NIC serial number: ac:a7:6a Source Address MAC address: 00:0c:85:cf:66:40 NIC manufacturer: Cisco NIC serial number: cf:66:40 Figure 7-4 is an expanded view of Frame 3 from the Wireshark capture. type.208 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 7-5 Field Ethernet II Frame Header Value continued Description FCS Not shown in the capture Frame Check Sequence. . and the computer with the corresponding IP address sends a unicast reply to the source.

stop the Wireshark capture.com. When the command has finished executing. Configure Wireshark for packet captures.Chapter 7: OSI Data Link Layer 209 Figure 7-4 Frame 3 Fields Use the information shown in Figure 7-4 to complete Table 7-6.x. Step 2.y interface IP address. . Prepare Wireshark for captures.example. Start a ping to Eagle Server.16. Table 7-6 Field Ethernet II Frame Header Completion Value Preamble Destination Address Source Address Frame Type Data FCS Not shown in the capture 00:0c:85:cf:66:40 00:16:76:ac:a7:6a 0x0800 IP Not shown in the capture Task 2: Use Wireshark to Capture and Analyze Ethernet II Frames In this task. Step 1. and then click the start button that corresponds to the 172. you use Wireshark to capture and analyze packets captured on the pod host computer. as shown in Example 7-1. Open a Windows terminal window. This begins the packet capture. and capture the session. Choose Start > Run. enter cmd. and click OK. Choose Capture > Interfaces. Ping eagle-server.

1 --.254] with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 192. Example 7-2 Displaying and Flushing the ARP Cache C:\> arp -a Interface: 172.com [192.254. Finally.255. as shown in Example 7-3.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=62 Ping statistics for 192.254.210 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example 7-1 Pinging Eagle Server Microsoft Windows XP [Version 5.1. C:\> ping eagle-server.254: Packets: Sent = 4. a DNS request is made for the IP address of eagleserver. If you don’t see an ARP exchange. Average = 0ms C:\> Step 3.0x30004 Internet Address 172.example.2600] Copyright 1985-2001 Microsoft Corp.168.254.168.254 C:\> arp -d * C:\> arp -a No ARP Entries Found C:\> Physical Address 00-0c-85-cf-66-40 Type dynamic If you do not see a DNS query.com. Lost = 0 (0% loss).com Pinging eagle-server.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=62 Reply from 192. Maximum = 0ms. it is because the DNS record for eagle-server. as shown in Example 7-2. Your capture should look similar to the one shown in Figure 7-3.168. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms. Received = 4. you can flush the ARP cache using the arp -d * command.254. Use the Windows XP ipconfig /flushdns command to clear the DNS cache.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=62 Reply from 192.example.1.16.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=62 Reply from 192.168.16. the ping command is executed.168.example.254.168. The Wireshark Packet List window should start with an ARP request and reply for the Gateway’s MAC address.com is stored in the DNS cache. Analyze the Wireshark capture.example. Next. .

. . . . . . . : 127. . .arpa. : 1 Time To Live .0. Record Type . . : localhost eagle-server.254. : 4 Section . : Answer PTR Record . . .168. . . . .0. : 12 Time To Live . . . . : eagle-server. .Chapter 7: OSI Data Link Layer 211 Example 7-3 Displaying and Flushing the DNS Cache C:\> ipconfig /displaydns Windows IP Configuration 1. . . . . . . .in-addr. . . . . . . . : localhost Record Type . . .127. . : 4 Section . .0. .0. . : Answer A (Host) Record . . : 1. . . : 127.0. . .254 localhost --------------------------------------Record Name . : 192. . . . . . : 4 Section . .1 C:\> ipconfig /flushdns Windows IP Configuration Successfully flushed the DNS Resolver Cache. . .0. . .0. . . : 86386 Data Length . .in-addr.arpa --------------------------------------Record Name . . . . : 549013 Data Length . .0. . . . : 1 Time To Live . : 12 Time To Live .in-addr. . . Record Type . . . .0. . .0. . . . . . . . . : localhost . : Answer A (Host) Record . . . . . : 4 Section . .com Record Type . : 549045 Data Length . . .com ---------------------------------------Record Name .0. .127. : localhost Record Type . . . . . . . . . . : 4 Section .arpa ---------------------------------------Record Name . .arpa.example. .0. . . : Answer PTR Record localhost --------------------------------------Record Name . . : 1 Time To Live . .127. . . . . : 549013 Data Length .example. .127. . : 1. . . . . . : 549045 Data Length . . . . . .1 C:\> . : Answer A (Host) Record .in-addr. C:\> ipconfig /displaydns Windows IP Configuration 1.

ICMP is encapsulated in the IP packet. Task 4: Reflection In this lab. A preamble field contains 7 bytes of alternating 1010 sequences and 1 byte that signals the beginning of the frame. the destination MAC address contains all 1s. it must have a unique identifier. Because ARP is not encapsulated inside an IP packet. A student from another school wants to know the MAC address for Eagle Server. DNS is encapsulated in an IP packet. What is the Ethernet II frame type value for an ARP Request? 0x0806. different from the identifier for IP. the information cannot be obtained from a Wireshark capture on your LAN. NIC serial number: Answers will vary. A 2-byte frame type field contains a value that indicates the . and verify that the Ethernet II frame type remains 0x0800. What would you tell the student? MAC addresses are visible only on the LAN and are different for each LAN. What is the Ethernet II frame type value for an ICMP echo reply? 0x0800 Task 3: Challenge Use Wireshark to capture sessions from other TCP/IP protocols. such as FTP and HTTP. R2-Central MAC address information MAC address: Answers will vary. If the frame is a broadcast. NIC manufacturer: Cisco NIC serial number: Answers will vary. The first six hex digits contain the manufacturer of the NIC. Again. Destination and source MAC addresses each contain 12 hex digits. NIC manufacturer: Answers will vary.212 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Use your Wireshark capture of the ping command to answer the following questions. What is the Ethernet II frame type value for a DNS query response? 0x0800 What is the Ethernet II frame type value for an ICMP echo? 0x0800. 0x0800 is the frame type for IP. 0x0800 is the frame type for IP. Pod computer MAC address information MAC address: Answers will vary. Ethernet II frame header information was examined. Analyze the captured packets. What is the Ethernet II frame type value for an ARP Reply? 0x0806 What is the Ethernet II frame type value for a DNS query? 0x0800. Because the student’s Eagle Server is on a different LAN than yours. and the last six hex digits contain the NIC serial number. 10101011.

6. typically used in WAN connections. . For example. Build the network. Remove any files created on the pod host computer during the lab. Task 5: Clean Up Wireshark was installed on the pod host computer. The data field is variable and contains the encapsulated upper-layer protocol. Sometimes the NIC for a serial connection. choose Start > Control Panel. Test the network. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. you have been asked to implement a new IP addressing scheme for the Exploration lab topology. a 4-byte FCS value is used to verify that there were no errors during transmission. Practice your subnetting skills. and router interfaces. In addition. the value is 0x0800. Packet Tracer Challenge Skills Integration Challenge: Data Link Layer Issues (7. turn off power to the host computers. Click Add or Remove Programs. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Practice your IP subnet planning skills. before the source address. For IPv4.3) Open file LSG01-PTSkills7. Connect devices with Ethernet and serial cables. Use ping.Chapter 7: OSI Data Link Layer 213 protocol in the data field. and click Remove. Configure the network. is called a WAN interface card (WIC). Remove anything that was brought into the lab. web traffic. If Wireshark needs to be uninstalled.1. ■ ■ Background Network Interface Cards (NIC) are sometimes thought of as Layer 2 and Layer 1 devices (or as Layer 2 and Layer 1 components of devices that function at all seven layers). and consider why the developers of Ethernet chose to place the destination address first. and Table 7-7 is the corresponding addressing table. At the end of a frame. Also reflect on the destination and source addresses. Figure 7-5 shows the topology for this lab. consider why the preamble field is necessary and why it consists of alternating 1s and 0s. Upon completion of this activity. Choose Wireshark. Reflect on the necessity and formatting of each of these fields. and the Inspect tool.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to perform this exercise using Packet Tracer. and configure services and static routing. Apply your subnetting scheme to server. PCs. In this challenge you must add a WIC to a device to complete the network. trace. and leave the room ready for the next class.

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Figure 7-5

Topology for the Challenge
1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server

2960-24TT S1-Central

1841 R2-Central

PC-PT 1A

PC-PT 1B

Table 7-7 Device

Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway (Route)

R1-ISP

Fa0/0 S0/0/0

172.16.3.62 172.16.3.98 172.16.1.254 172.16.3.97 172.16.0.1 172.16.0.2 172.16.3.61

255.255.255.192 255.255.255.252 255.255.254.0 255.255.255.252 255.255.254.0 255.255.254.0 255.255.255.192

— — 172.16.3.98 172.16.3.98 172.16.1.254 172.16.1.254 172.16.3.62

R2-Central

Fa0/0 S0/0/0

PC 1A PC 1B Eagle Server

NIC NIC NIC

Task 1: IP Subnet Planning
You have been given an IP address block of 172.16.0.0/22. You must provide for existing networks as well as future growth. Subnet assignments:
■ ■ ■

First subnet, existing student LAN, up to 400 hosts (Fa0/0 on R2-Central) Second subnet, future student LAN, up to 180 hosts (not yet implemented) Third subnet, existing ISP LAN, up to 40 hosts (Fa0/0 on R1-ISP)

Chapter 7: OSI Data Link Layer

215

■ ■ ■ ■

Fourth subnet, future ISP LAN, up to 18 hosts (not yet implemented) Fifth subnet, existing WAN, point-to-point link (S0/0/0 on R1-ISP and R2-Central) Sixth subnet, future WAN, point-to-point link (not yet implemented) Seventh subnet, future WAN, point-to-point link (not yet implemented)

Interface IP addresses:
■ ■

For the server, configure the second-highest usable IP address on the existing ISP LAN subnet. For R1-ISP’s Fa0/0 interface, configure the highest usable IP address on the existing ISP LAN subnet. For R1-ISP’s S0/0/0 interface, configure the highest usable address on the existing WAN subnet. For R2-Central’s S0/0/0 interface, use the lowest usable address on the existing WAN subnet. For R2-Central’s Fa0/0 interface, use the highest usable address on the existing student LAN subnet. For PCs 1A and 1B, use the first two IP addresses (the two lowest usable addresses) on the existing student LAN subnet.

■ ■

Additional configurations:
■ ■

For PCs 1A and 1B, in addition to IP configuration, configure them to use DNS services. For the server, enable DNS services, use the domain name eagle-server.example.com, and enable HTTP services.

Task 2: Finish Building the Network in Packet Tracer, Attending to Some Layer 2 Issues
On the R2-Central router, a NIC is missing for the serial connection to R1-ISP. Add a WIC-2T in the slot on the right. Also on R2-Central, Fa0/0 is shut down; turn it on. Connect a serial DCE cable to R1-ISP S0/0/0, with the other end connected to R2-Central S0/0/0. For all devices, make sure the power is on.

Task 3: Configure the Network
You need to configure the server, both routers, and the two PCs. You do not need to configure the switch, nor do you need the IOS CLI to configure the routers. Part of the router configuration has already been done for you; all you must do is configure the static routes and the interfaces via the GUI. The static route on R1-ISP should point to the existing student LAN subnet via R2-Central’s serial interface IP address. The static route on R2-Central should be a default static route that points to R1-ISP’s serial interface IP address. These procedures were explained in the Chapter 5 Skills Integration Challenge, and you practiced them in the Chapter 6 Skills Integration Challenge.

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Task 4: Test the Network
Use ping, trace, web traffic, and the Inspect tool. Trace packet flow in simulation mode, with HTTP, DNS, TCP, UDP, and ICMP viewable, to test your understanding of how the network is operating. Note in particular what Layer 2 encapsulation is used in each step of a packet’s journey, and how the headers on the Layer 2 PDUs change.

Task 5: Reflection
Consider an ICMP echo request packet sent from PC 1A to Eagle Server and the ICMP echo reply packet that results. Reflect on which addresses stay the same in this situation and which ones change.

CHAPTER 8

OSI Physical Layer

The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of multiple-choice, matching, fill-in-the-blank, and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of the OSI physical layer. The Lab Exercises portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum labs to further reinforce that you have mastered the practical, hands-on skills needed to understand and work with the physical layer. As you work through this chapter, use Chapter 8 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum or use the corresponding Chapter 8 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration Companion Guide for assistance.

Study Guide
The Physical Layer: Communication Signals
The role of the OSI physical layer is to encode the binary digits that represent data link layer frames into signals and to transmit and receive these signals across the physical media (copper wires, optical fiber, and wireless) that connect network devices.

Vocabulary Exercise: Completion
Fill in the blanks for the following statements.
1.

The purpose of the physical layer is to create the electrical, optical, or microwave signal that represents the bits in each frame. Manchester encoding indicates a 0 by a high-to-low voltage transition in the middle of the bit time. For a 1, there is a low-to-high voltage transition in the middle of the bit time.

2.

Concept Questions
1.

What are the three basic forms of network media on which data is represented? Copper cable, fiber, and wireless

2.

Physical layer standards cover what four areas? Physical and electrical properties of the media Mechanical properties (materials, dimensions, pinouts) of the connectors Bit representation by the signals (encoding) Definition of control information signals

3.

What are the three fundamental functions of the physical layer? The physical components Data encoding Signaling

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Physical Signaling and Encoding: Representing Bits
Eventually, all communication from the human network becomes binary digits, which are transported individually across the physical media.

Concept Questions
1.

Bits are represented on the medium by changing one or more of the following characteristics of a signal: Amplitude Frequency Phase

2.

Different physical media support the transfer of bits at different speeds. Data transfer can be measured in three ways: Bandwidth Throughput Goodput

Vocabulary Exercise: Completion
Fill in the blanks in the following statements.
1.

The capacity of a medium to carry data is described as the raw data bandwidth of the media. Digital bandwidth measures the amount of information that can flow from one place to another in a given amount of time. Throughput is the measure of the transfer of bits across the media over a given period of time. Goodput is the measure of usable data transferred over a given period of time, and is therefore the measure that is of most interest to network users.

2. 3.

Vocabulary Exercise: Matching
In Table 8-1, match the definition on the right with a term on the left.
Table 8-1 Term Signaling and Encoding Definition

a. NRZ signaling b. Manchester encoding

b. Bit values are represented as voltage transitions. a. Uses bandwidth inefficiently and is susceptible to electromagnetic interference. In addition, the boundaries between individual bits can be lost when long strings of 1s or 0s are transmitted consecutively. c. Each byte to be transmitted is broken into 4-bit pieces or nibbles and encoded as 5-bit values known as symbols. These symbols represent the data to be transmitted and a set of codes that help control transmission on the media.

c. 4B/5B

Chapter 8: OSI Physical Layer

219

Physical Media: Connecting Communication
The physical layer is concerned with network media and signaling. This layer produces the representation and groupings of bits as voltages, radio frequencies, or light pulses. Various standards organizations have contributed to the definition of the physical, electrical, and mechanical properties of the media available for different data communications.

Concept Questions
1.

Standards for copper media are defined by what criteria? Type of copper cabling used Bandwidth of the communication Type of connectors used Pinout and color codes of connections to the media Maximum distance of the media

2.

What can limit the susceptibility of copper cables to electronic noise? Selecting the cable type or category most suited to protect the data signals in a given networking environment Designing a cable infrastructure to avoid known and potential sources of interference in the building structure Using cabling techniques that include the proper handling and termination of the cables

Vocabulary Exercise: Matching
In Table 8-2, match a connector on the right with a media (cable) on the left.
Table 8-2 Media and Connectors Connector

Media (Cable)

a. Unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) cabling b. Coaxial cable c. Multimode optical fiber d. Single-mode optical fiber

c. Straight-Tip (ST) a. RJ-45 d. Subscriber Connector (SC) b. BNC

In Table 8-3, match the speed on the right with the wireless standard on the left.
Table 8-3 Wireless Media Speed

Wireless Standard

a. Bluetooth 802.15 b. 802.11(a,b,g,n), HiperLAN 2 c. 802, 11, MMDS, LMDS d. GSM, GPRS, CDMA, 2.5-3G

c. 22+ Mbps a. < 1 Mbps d. 10[nd]384 Kbps b. 1[nd]54+ Mbps

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Labs and Activities
Lab 8-1: Media Connectors Lab Activity (Lab 8.4.1.1)
Upon completion of this lab, you will be able to do the following:
■ ■ ■

Test cables using a Fluke 620 LAN CableMeter and a Fluke LinkRunner. Become familiar with the most common functions of a cable tester. Test different cables for type and wiring problems.

Background Category 5 (Cat 5) unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) cables are wired according to function. End devices, such as routers and host computers, connect to switches with Cat 5 straight-through cables. When connected together, however, a Cat 5 crossover cable must be used. This is also true of switches. When connecting one switch to another, a Cat 5 crossover cable is used again. Problems related to cables are one of the most common causes of network failure. Basic cable tests can prove helpful in troubleshooting cabling problems with UTP. The quality of cabling components used, the routing and installation of the cable, and the quality of the connector terminations will be the main factors in determining how trouble-free the cabling will be.
Note to instructor: Before starting the lab, the teacher or lab assistant should have several correctly

wired Cat 5 cables that are used by the student to learn cable tester operation. The cables should be both straight-through and crossover. There should also be several Cat 5 cables available with problems. Cables should be numbered to simplify the testing process and to maintain consistency. The following resources are required:
■ ■

Good Cat 5 straight-through and crossover wired cables of different colors Cat 5 straight-through and crossover wired cables with open wire connections in the middle or one or more conductors shorted at one end that are different colors and different lengths Fluke 620 LAN CableMeter or equivalent (see Figure 8-1) Fluke LinkRunner
Fluke 620 LAN CableMeter

■ ■

Figure 8-1

Chapter 8: OSI Physical Layer

221

Scenario First, you will visually determine whether the Cat 5 cable type is crossover or straight-through. Next, you use the cable tester to verify the cable type and common features available with the tester. Finally, you use the cable tester to test for bad cables that cannot be determined with a visual inspection.

Task 1: Become Familiar with the Most Common Functions of a Cable Tester
Figure 8-2 shows the TIA/EIA 568B Cat 5 UTP wire positioning for a straight-through and a crossover cable. When Cat 5 connectors are held together, wire color is a quick way to determine the cable type. TIA/EIA 568B is different from TIA/EIA 568A wiring. TIA/EIA 568A straight-through cables can be identified by the color coding.
Figure 8-2 TIA/EIA 568B Cat 5 UTP
TIA/EIA 568B CAT 5 UTP Straight Through 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 TIA/EIA 568B CAT 5 UTP Crossover 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Step 1.

Visually determine cable types.

Note to instructor: Students should be given a functional straight-through and crossover cable. These

cables will be used to learn cable tester features and build confidence in cable tester accuracy. There should be two numbered cables available. Perform a visual inspection of the cables and then fill out the chart in Table 8-4 with the cable color, type, and use.
Table 8-4 Cable Number Cable Types Cable Color Cable Type (StraightThrough or Crossover) Cable Use (Circle correct device)

1 2

Answers will vary Answers will vary

Answers will vary Answers will vary

Switch to: host / switch Switch to: host / switch

It is now time to verify the cable type and learn about the common features of the cable tester.

The coupler and the cable identifier are accessories that come with the Fluke 620 LAN CableMeter. Step 3. The wiring of both the near and far end of the cable will be displayed. shown in Figure 8-3. . The top set of numbers displayed on the LCD screen refers to the near end. Continue pressing the up/down-arrow buttons and pressing Enter until the tester is set to the cabling settings in Table 8-5. and observe the LCD screen on the tester. The first option should be Cable. Verify the cable wire map. and the bottom set of numbers refers to the far end. Press the Setup button to enter the setup mode. Table 8-5 Tester Option Cable Tester Settings for UTP Desired Setting: UTP Cable Wiring Category Wire size CAL to Cable? Beeping LCD contrast UTP 10Base-T or EIA/TIA 4PR Category 5 AWG 24 No On or Off From 1 through 10 (brightest) When satisfied with the correct settings. The wire map function displays which pins on one end of the cable are connected to which pins on the other end. Press the up. Place the RJ-45 to RJ-45 female coupler on the far end of the cable. Figure 8-3 Cable Coupler and Cable Identifier cable coupler cable identifier Place the near end of the cable into the RJ-45 jack labeled UTP/FTP on the tester.222 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Step 2. press the Setup button to exit setup mode.or down-arrow buttons until the desired cable type of UTP is selected. Perform initial configuration of the Fluke 620 LAN CableMeter. and then insert the cable identifier into the other side of the coupler. Use the following procedure to test each cable with the LAN cable coupler and cable identifier. Turn the rotary switch selector on the tester to the WIRE MAP position. Press Enter to accept that setting and go to the next one.

If power was cycled. Step 2. Perform a basic cable test on each of the cables.Chapter 8: OSI Physical Layer 223 Perform a wire map test on each of the cables provided. and complete Table 8-7 based on the results. Verify the cable length. perform a wire map test on each of the cables provided. Move the rotary switch selector on the tester to the Wire Map position. and fill in Table 8-6 based on the results. repeat the setup steps described in Step 2. and whether the cable is straight-through or crossover. write down the number and color. Using the cable tester Wire Map function. and any problem. Task 2: Test Different Cables for Type and Wiring Problems Obtain at least five different cables from your instructor. For each cable. Table 8-7 Results of Basic Cable Test Cable Color Cable Length Cable Number 1 2 Answers will vary Answers will vary Note any problems encountered during this test: Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Repeat these steps until you are comfortable using the cable tester. the tester screen test results. The tester Length function displays the length of the cable. . Table 8-6 Cable Tester Settings for UTP Cable Color Cable Type (Straight-Through or Crossover) Cable Number 1 2 Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Note any problems encountered during this test: Answers will vary Step 4. Move the rotary switch selector on the tester to the Length position. repeat the setup steps described in Task 1. the cable length. If power was cycled. For each cable. the tester screen test results. unknown cables are tested. and what the problem is (if one exists). For each cable. write down the number and color. In the next task. write down the number and color. Then fill in Table 8-8 based on the result for each Cat 5 cable tested. whether the cable is straight-through or crossover.

Figure 8-4 Turn on the Fluke LinkRunner. Answers are examples only. Place both ends of the cable into the LAN and MAP ports located on top of the LinkRunner. Answers will vary Straight-through Crossover Crossover Top: 12364578 Bottom: 12364578 Top: 12364578 Bottom: 36124578 Top: 12oo4578 Bottom: 36124578 None None Pins 3 and 6 are open somewhere in the first half of the cable Pin 5 is shorted in the last half of the cable Miswire 4 Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Straight-through Top: 12364578 Bottom: 12364s78 Top: 12365478 Bottom: 12364578 5 Straight-through *Refer to the Fluke manual for a detailed description of test results for wire map. Rows 3.224 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 8-8 Results of Wire Map Test Cable Color Cable type (Straight-Through or Crossover) *Test Results Problem Description Cable Cable Type Number (Visual Inspection) 1 2 3 Answers will vary Answers will vary. Step 3. . Press the green button on the lower right to turn it back off. Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary. and 5 show examples of cable problems. Task 3: Perform Initial Configuration of the Fluke LinkRunner Step 1. and press the green button on the lower right along with the blue button to the left. and will vary. 4. Fluke LinkRunner Step 2. which is shown in Figure 8-4.

Chapter 8: OSI Physical Layer 225 If it is a correct straight-through cable. two intersecting lines (as shown in Figure 8-6) will appear in the upper-left corner of the screen. two parallel lines (as shown in Figure 8-5) will appear in the upper-left corner of the screen. as shown in Figure 8-7. the triangle with an exclamation mark in the center will appear and details will display. Figure 8-6 Fluke LinkRunner: Crossover Cable If it is a bad cable. Figure 8-7 Fluke LinkRunner: Bad Cable . Figure 8-5 Fluke LinkRunner: Straight-Through Cable If it is a correct crossover cable.

and wire map. In a lab environment. Locate the length of the cable below the icon indicating the type of cable (as shown in Figure 8-8). cables are constantly moved and reconnected. . and is part of the learning process. Step 3. Network technicians should be able to determine when to use Cat 5 UTP straight-through and crossover cables.226 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 4: Verify Cable Length Note: The instructions to test a cable are the same as determining cable length. and press the green button on the lower right along with the blue button to the left. Task 6: Challenge Look for opportunities to test other cables with the Fluke 620 LAN CableMeter. Store the cables neatly for the next class. Figure 8-8 Task 5: Reflection Problems related to cables are one of the most common causes of network failure. Return the cable tester to the instructor when finished. A cable tester is used to determine cable type. Skills learned in this lab will enable you to quickly troubleshoot wrong cable types and broken cables. Step 1. Fluke LinkRunner: Cable Length Step 2. Task 7: Clean Up The cable tester is expensive and should never be left unattended. A properly functioning cable today may be broken tomorrow. Press the green button on the lower right to turn it back off. Ask the instructor where to return used cables. Step 4. Place both ends of the cable into the LAN and MAP ports located on top of the LinkRunner. length. This isn’t unusual. Turn on the Fluke LinkRunner by pressing the green button on the lower right along with the blue button on the right.

View the standard lab setup in the physical workspace.1. Enter and view the physical workspace. and how to properly connect devices.5. in a lab environment. Connect the devices. Upon completion of this activity.Chapter 8: OSI Physical Layer 227 Packet Tracer Challenge Skills Integration Challenge: Connecting Devices and Exploring the Physical View (8.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to perform this exercise using Packet Tracer. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Connect the devices in the standard lab setup. or in a corporate setting. Figure 8-9 shows the topology for this skills integration challenge. View the standard lab setup at the various levels of the physical workspace. This activity also explores the physical view of the network in Packet Tracer. Verify connectivity. Background When working in Packet Tracer. and connecting the devices. Figure 8-9 Topology for Challenge 1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server 2960-24TT S1-Central 1841 R2-Central PC 1A PC 1B . it is important to know how to select the proper cable.3) Open the file LSG01-PTSkills8. and Table 8-9 shows the corresponding addressing table. This activity examines device configurations in Packet Tracer. selecting the proper cable based on the configuration.

and the connections are repeated at the other end of the link.255. From the command prompt on the desktop of both PCs.0 255.10. Check your configuration by clicking the Check Results button.0 255.255.6 172.10. The serial link between the routers represents a dedicated leased line between two locations consisting of a DTE (data terminal equipment).254 172.0 255.1 172. Verify connectivity. Connect the routers together using the proper interfaces and the proper cable.168.252 255. such as a router. Connect PC 1A to the first port on switch S1-Central and PC 1B to the second port on switch S1-Central using the proper cable.0.255.255.228 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 8-9 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP Fa0/0 S0/0/0 192.6 10.16.168. Click router R2-Central and examine the configuration using the Config tab.255. Enter and view the physical workspace.253 R2-Central Fa0/0 S0/0/0 S1-Central PC 1A PC 1B Eagle Server VLAN 1 NIC NIC NIC Task 1: Connect the Devices in the Standard Lab Setup Step 1.16. . Click router R1-ISP and examine the configuration using the Config tab.254 10.254. Step 2.16.253 10.255. In an internetwork.0. issue the command ping 192.254.10.254 192. The physical workspace enables you to see these relationships more clearly.10. Task 2: View the Standard Lab Setup in the Physical Workspace Step 1. connected to a DCE (data communication equipment).10.0 255.254.255. Most of our work in Packet Tracer has been done in the logical workspace.255. If the pings fail. Connect the proper interface on the router to interface FastEthernet0/24 on switch S1Central using the proper cable.2 192.254 172.16.10.255. The DCE connects to a service provider’s local loop.255.255.255.6 172.252 255.0 255.0 N/A N/A 10.254 255.1.0.168. check your connections and troubleshoot until the pings succeed. Click both routers and examine the configuration using the Config tab.10. the IP address of Eagle Server. Connect the proper interface on the router to the proper interface on Eagle Server using the proper cable. such as a channel/data service unit (CSU/DSU) or modem.0. from across the street to across the globe.254.10.5 172.255.255.1.255.16.168.16.254.1 172. routers may be in different sites. Connect the devices.254.168.255.

Step 2. Examine this view of the topology. View the standard lab setup at the various levels of the physical workspace.Chapter 8: OSI Physical Layer 229 Enter the physical workspace by clicking the tab in the upper-left corner of the workspace. Click the central office building. Click Central City. Click Intercity on the navigation bar. It shows the connection between Central City and ISP City. You will see the floor plan of the building and the location of the wiring closet. You will see the city and the location of the central office building. You will see a physical representation of the equipment installed in the wiring closet and the cabling that connects the equipment. Click the wiring closet. Repeat the steps to view the equipment installed in ISP City. .

.

or use the corresponding Chapter 9 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration Companion Guide. multiple-choice. Internet Protocol (IP). Logical Link Control (LLC) or IEEE 802. fill-in-the-blank. Ethernet operates at the OSI physical and data link layers. MAC a. Provides an interface to the upper layers b. Using IEEE terminology. Ethernet (without LLC) is the frame encapsulation method used for the most popular network layer protocol in use today.2. LLC b. match the function on the right with the correct IEEE sublayer of the data link layer. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum activities and labs to ensure you have mastered the practical. Ethernet operates at the physical layer and the Media Access Control (MAC) sublayer of the data link layer. In addition. Provides a unique source and destination address . can give upper-layer protocols access to Ethernet. Controls the placement of a frame on the medium a. Ethernet has been so successful because it has evolved over time to incorporate new technologies such as higher speeds and fiber-optic cabling. hands-on skills needed to work with Ethernet. Adds a frame delimiter b. Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 9-1. Table 9-1 Sublayer Data Link Layer Sublayers Function a. use Chapter 9 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum. As you work through this chapter. Remains relatively independent of the physical equipment b. Study Guide Overview of Ethernet Ethernet is the predominant LAN technology in use today. and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of Ethernet.3. Ethernet’s success can also be attributed to the fact that it was adopted by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and standardized as IEEE 802. for assistance. The upper sublayer of the data link layer.CHAPTER 9 Ethernet The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of matching.

Ethernet forms the foundation of most industrial. Only one station at a time can transmit c. a receiving node calculates its own CRC to compare to the one in the frame. 10BASE2 c. 3. Digital Equipment Corporation. If the two CRC results match. and government networks. Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 9-2.3 standard for Ethernet in 1985. and now 10 Gbps. the recipient assumes that the frame arrived without error. Ethernet has evolved from a shared coaxial medium. Switch d.0. match the description on the right with the correct Ethernet term on the left. Both ends of a connection can send at the same time a. After receiving a frame. allowing the network to see a group of nodes as a single unit b. reliability. Since 1985. In addition. and then to 100 Mbps and 1 Gbps. and error detection. the fact that the Ethernet frame has remained relatively unchanged over the years has allowed applications to keep running over Ethernet even as it evolved. ease of maintenance. The IEEE published the 802. In 1980. Robert M. 2. Intel. proposing the name for their prototype network. to a shared hub-based network. Ethernet: Communication Through the LAN The term Ethernet first appeared in 1973 when Dr. Metcalfe’s goal that Ethernet become ubiquitous has been achieved. 10BASE5 b. addressing. Today. Why has Ethernet been so successful? Ethernet has been so successful because it has evolved with the times to incorporate new technologies. educational. Half duplex e. also known as Ethernet II.232 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Concept Questions 1. What functions does data encapsulation provide? Data encapsulation provides frame delimiting. Uses 185 meters of thin coaxial cable f. and Xerox published the DIX V1. much like the ether substance that scientists in the 1800s believed filled space and matter. and standardization by the IEEE. How does Ethernet handle error detection? The sending node calculates a Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) of the bits in the frame. and finally to a selective-forwarding environment with high-speed switches. Isolates each port and sends a frame only to its proper destination (if the destination is known) e. The cabling has also evolved from coaxial to unshielded twisted pair to fiber-optic. DIX V2. Ethernet’s success also can be attributed to its simplicity. The name reflects the goal that Ethernet become ubiquitous. Table 9-2 Term Ethernet Implementations Description a. The node places the CRC result in the Frame Check Sequence (FCS) field in the trailer part of the Ethernet frame. low cost of installation and upgrading. Metcalfe of the Xerox Corporation circulated a memo to his colleagues. Uses 500 meters of thick coaxial cable . Its original speed of 3 Mbps evolved to 10 Mbps. Full duplex f. Hub d. was released in 1982. Concentrates connections.0 standard for Ethernet.

but the center of the star is a switch rather than a hub these days. most protocols specify that the frame should have a header. Used for synchronization e. Length/type f. a switch port and the connected device can send at the same time. Start of frame delimiter c. Most Layer 2 frames also have addressing fields in the header that identify the sender and receiver. The Ethernet frame has remained relatively unchanged. Only one device can send at any time. The Layer 2 PDU is called a frame. the hub was still a shared medium. which is a shared device.3 header and trailer. unlike a hub. Specifies the number of bytes in the data part of the frame or specifies the type of data (the upper-layer protocol) f. data field. and trailer. links between switches. Although the cabling could have supported full duplex. The Ethernet Frame A fundamental job of the data link layer is to encapsulate a Layer 3 Protocol Data Unit (PDU) into a Layer 2 PDU. When Ethernet was upgraded to run on hubs with twisted-pair cabling. Ethernet is still usually connected in a star topology. Match the field on the left with the definition on the right. Data g. it still used half-duplex communication. Source address e. Frame check sequence g.Chapter 9: Ethernet 233 Concept Questions 1. Compare and contrast half duplex and full duplex. Full duplex means that each end of a communications channel can send at the same time. and what aspects have changed? Ethernet’s simplicity and ease of use and installation have remained unchanged. Used for error detection a. What aspects of Ethernet have remained relatively unchanged over the years. The cabling for Ethernet has evolved from coaxial to unshielded twisted pair to fiber-optic. Preamble b. Table 9-3 Field Frame Header Fields Definition a. Transmitting and receiving simultaneously is not allowed. Unshielded twisted pair is still widely used. and high-end devices. For example. Fiber-optic is reserved mostly for data centers. Tells other devices on the network that a frame is coming along the medium d. it used half-duplex communication. 2. Destination address d. Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Table 9-3 lists the fields that appear in an IEEE 802. Switches are capable of full duplex because they consider each connection a separate communication channel. Specifies the frame’s intended recipient . Although different protocols place different fields in a frame. Carries the upper-layer data b. Specifies the frame’s sender c. When Ethernet ran on coaxial cable. Half duplex is used on a medium that can carry only one signal at a time. Ethernet follows these conventions.

The sender backs off and waits a random amount of time before trying again. d. To ensure that the frame is protected from damage. 64 bytes 3. 1024 bytes d. c. c. 1522 bytes b. . 128 bytes c. the field specifies a type. 1518 bytes c. 4.234 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Multiple-Choice Questions Choose the best answer for each of the following questions. The receiving device sends back a negative acknowledgment to the sender.3ac standard? a. b. 1522 bytes b. 64 bytes 2. d. The recipient calculates a CRC that differs from the CRC in the FCS field and drops the b. How does a recipient device know if the sender used the Length/Type field to specify a length or a type? a. To specify the Portable Application Description (PAD) that describes the encapsulated data. To provide synchronization. b. d. The recipient sends a query to the sender to determine how the field should be interpreted. If the value is equal to or less than 1536. The recipient bases the decision on whether it’s been configured for Ethernet II or IEEE 802. c. The receiving device reports a collision. Why is padding sometimes added to the data part of an Ethernet frame? a.3. The receiving device drops the frame. What happens if a frame arrives damaged? frame. 6. The receiving device requests a retransmission. What is the minimum size of an Ethernet frame? a. The recipient requests a retransmission. The sender notices the missing acknowledgment and retransmits the frame. b. a. the field specifies a type. To ensure that the frame is at least 64 bytes. c. 5. What is the maximum size of an Ethernet frame according to the IEEE 802. d. If the value is equal to or greater than 0x0600. 72 bytes d. 1. What does a receiving device do if it receives a frame that is less than the allowed minimum size or greater than the allowed maximum size? a.

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7.

How long is a MAC address?

a. Six hexadecimal digits b. 32 bits c. 48 bits d. 8 bytes

Concept Questions
1.

Compare and contrast MAC addresses with IP addresses. MAC addresses operate at the OSI data link layer (Layer 2). Layer 2 addresses are used only for local delivery when transporting a frame across a local medium. These addresses use a flat addressing scheme and do not indicate on what network a device is located. If a device is moved to another network, its Layer 2 address does not need to change. IP addresses operate at the OSI network layer (Layer 3). Layer 3 addresses are carried from source to destination host across an internetwork. Layer 3 addresses use a hierarchical addressing scheme and indicate a network number and host identifier.

2.

Compare and contrast unicast, broadcast, and multicast communications at the MAC sublayer. Unicast, broadcast, and multicast are all 48-bit MAC address types. All of them can be destination MAC addresses. Only unicast can be a source address. A unicast address is a unique address used when a frame is sent from a single transmitting device to a single destination device. In the case of a broadcast, the frame is destined for all devices in the broadcast domain and is addressed to a MAC broadcast address of 48 1s (or FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF in hexadecimal). With multicast, a source can send to a group of devices. The low-order bit of the first byte must be a 1 for the address to be a multicast. If the multicast is also an IP multicast, the first 24 bits of the MAC address are 01-00-5E in hexadecimal.

Ethernet Media Access Control
In a shared medium, all devices have guaranteed access to the medium, but they must fairly share the medium and not interfere with each other. If more than one device transmits at the same time, the physical signals collide, and the data is damaged. Both transmitters must recognize that their data has been damaged and resend it. Ethernet uses carrier sense multiple access collision detect (CSMA/CD) to detect and handle collisions and regulate use of the shared medium.

Vocabulary Exercise: Completion
Fill in the blanks for the following statements that discuss CSMA/CD.
1.

Because devices using coaxial or hub-based Ethernet send their messages on a shared medium, a protocol (or coordination scheme or media access control method) is used to determine if the medium is already in use before a sender transmits. When a device detects that no other computer is sending a frame, the device transmits if it has something to send. All devices that have messages to send must listen before transmitting.

2.

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3. 4.

If a device detects a signal from another device, it waits before attempting to transmit. When no traffic is detected, a device transmits its message. While transmitting, the device continues to listen for traffic from another device. If another device is sending at the same time, a collision has occurred. If a collision happens, the sending devices continue to send for the time it takes to send a jam signal and then stop sending. The devices invoke a backoff algorithm that causes them to wait a random amount of time before trying to send again.

5.

Concept Questions
1.

What is interframe spacing, and why does Ethernet use it? Interframe spacing is the required time between frames on an Ethernet network. After a frame has been sent, all devices are required to wait a minimum of 96 bit times (the time it takes to send 96 bits). This gives the medium time to stabilize after transmitting a frame.

2.

Why is the backoff timing random when an Ethernet collision occurs? The backoff waiting period is intentionally designed to be random so that two stations do not delay for the same amount of time before retransmitting, which would result in more collisions.

Ethernet Physical Layer
The many implementations of Ethernet include Classic Ethernet, Fast Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet, and 10 Gigabit Ethernet. The differences occur at the physical layer, often called the Ethernet PHY. Four data rates are currently defined for operation over optical-fiber and twisted-pair cables:
■ ■ ■ ■

10 Mbps: 10BASE-T Classic Ethernet 100 Mbps: Fast Ethernet 1000 Mbps: Gigabit Ethernet 10 Gbps: 10 Gigabit Ethernet

Vocabulary Exercise: Completion
Fill in the blanks for the following statements that describe Ethernet physical layer options.
1.

10BASE-T uses two pairs of a four-pair cable and is terminated at each end with an eight-pin RJ-45 connector. The pair connected to pins 1 and 2 is used for transmitting, and the pair connected to pins 3 and 6 is used for receiving. Replacing hubs with switches in 10BASE-T networks has greatly increased the bandwidth available to these networks and has helped Ethernet maintain its dominance in the LAN market. The 10BASE-T links connected to a switch can support either half-duplex or full-duplex operation. The most popular implementations of 100 Mbps Ethernet are 100BASE-TX, which uses Category 5 or later UTP cable, and 100BASE-FX, which uses fiber-optic cable. 1000BASE-T Ethernet provides full-duplex transmission using four pairs of Category 5 or later UTP cable.

2.

3.

4.

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5.

The two fiber versions of Gigabit Ethernet are 1000BASE-SX and 1000BASE-LX. Fiber-optic cabling offers better noise immunity than UTP, a smaller physical size, and higher distances and bandwidth. A difference between 1000BASE-SX and 1000BASE-LX is the wavelength of the optical signal. The IEEE 802.3ae standard was adapted to include 10-Gbps, full-duplex transmission over fiber-optic cable. 10-Gigabit Ethernet is evolving for use not only in LANs, but also in MANs and WANs. Although Gigabit Ethernet is now widely available and 10-Gigabit products are becoming more available, the IEEE and the 10-Gigabit Ethernet Alliance are working on 40-, 100-, and even 160-Gbps standards.

6.

7.

8.

Hubs and Switches
In the 1970s and 1980s, Ethernet networks were connected in a bus topology using coaxial cable. The coaxial cable provided a shared medium. In the 1990s, administrators started connecting nodes to the shared network in a star topology using twisted-pair cabling and hubs. During the 1990s, to improve performance, administrators upgraded their hubs to switches. Switches divide collision domains into smaller domains, sometimes so small that collisions are no longer an issue. For example, in the common case where a single device is connected to a port on a switch, both ends of the communications channel can send and receive at the same time, and collisions don’t occur. Switches forward broadcast and multicast traffic to all members of a LAN but provide selective forwarding for unicast traffic. The selective forwarding greatly reduces collisions and improves performance.

Vocabulary Exercise: Matching
In Table 9-4, match the characteristic on the right with the correct term on the left.
Table 9-4 Term Characteristics of Hubs and Switches Characteristic

a. Hub b. Switch

b. Divides collision domains a. Forwards received bits out every port b. Supports full-duplex communication a. Simplifies network cabling but doesn’t have any performance benefits a. When many nodes that transmit frequently are connected to this device, latency increases, because each node must wait for an opportunity to transmit b. Provides an alternative to contention-based Ethernet b. Maintains a table that maps each MAC address to a port

Vocabulary Exercise: Completion
Fill in the blanks for the following statements that describe the selective forwarding service provided by switches.
1.

A switch selectively forwards a frame that it receives on a port to the port where the destination node is connected.

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2.

Switches use store-and-forward switching, whereby the switch receives an entire frame, checks the FCS field for errors, and forwards the frame to the appropriate port. A switch maintains a table, called the MAC table (also called MAC address table, CAM table, switch table, bridge table, filter table), that matches a MAC address with the port used to connect the node with that address.

3.

Concept Question
List and describe the five basic operations of an Ethernet LAN switch. Learning. A switch populates the MAC table by learning which port it should use to reach each MAC address. As a frame enters the switch, the switch examines the MAC source address. If no entry exists in the table for this address, the switch creates a new entry that pairs the source address with the port on which the frame arrived. The switch can now use this mapping to forward frames to the node with the MAC address in the table entry. Aging. A switch tracks how long an entry has been in the MAC table. If the entry reaches a certain age without being refreshed by a new frame from the same node on the same port, the entry is removed. Flooding. If a switch has not yet learned which port it should use to forward a frame to a destination, the switch sends the frame to all ports, except the port on which the frame arrived. Selective forwarding. A switch examines the destination MAC address in a frame and forwards the frame out the appropriate port. Filtering. After a switch has learned the address or addresses that map to a port, it filters frames from going out that port that include a destination address that is not mapped to the port.

Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
To send an IP packet to a recipient, a sender needs to learn the recipient’s MAC address. ARP provides a means for a sender to broadcast a message to find the MAC address for a known IP address.

Multiple-Choice Questions
Choose the best answer for each of the following questions.
1.

What is a basic job of ARP?

a. Resolve IPv4 addresses to MAC addresses b. Build a table that maps MAC addresses to ports c. Build a loop-free LAN from redundantly connected switches d. Provide a resource protocol for finding applications 2.

If a node has recently sent a frame to another node, where is the mapping of IPv4 address to MAC address stored?

a. MAC table b. ARP cache c. Routing table d. NVRAM

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3.

When a node has not recently sent a frame to another node, how does the node discover the correct MAC address to use for the IPv4 address of the destination node?

a. The sender sends an IPv4 query to the destination node to ask the node for its MAC address. b. The sender broadcasts an ARP request. c. The sender monitors traffic until it discovers the correct MAC address to use. d. The sender transmits a TCP SYN to the destination node. 4.

What type of header does an ARP frame contain?

a. IP b. Ethernet c. TCP d. UDP 5.

When an Ethernet transmitter sends to a destination not on its local network, what MAC destination address does it use, and how does it discover this address? request.

a. The transmitter uses the MAC address of the destination, which it discovers with an ARP b. The transmitter uses the MAC address of the local router interface, which it discovers with an

ARP request.
c. The transmitter uses the MAC address of the destination, which it discovers with a proxy ARP

request.
d. The transmitter doesn’t need a MAC address for the destination and relies on the IP destination

address to provide enough information for routers to forward the frame.
6.

What is the destination address in the frame when a node sends an ARP request to find the MAC address associated with a known IP address?

a. 255.255.255.255 b. The address of the local router interface c. The recipient’s address d. FF:FF:FF:FF:FF:FF

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Labs and Activities
Lab 9-1: Address Resolution Protocol (9.8.1.1)
Upon completion of this lab, you will be able to
■ ■

Use the Windows arp command. Use Wireshark to examine ARP exchanges.

Background TCP/IP uses ARP to map a Layer 3 IP address to a Layer 2 MAC address. When a frame is placed on the network, it must have a destination MAC address. To dynamically discover the MAC address of the destination device, an ARP request is broadcast on the LAN. The device that contains the destination IP address responds, and the MAC address is recorded in the ARP cache. Every device on the LAN keeps its own ARP cache, which is a small area in RAM that holds ARP results. An ARP cache timer removes ARP entries that have not been used for a certain period of time. Depending on the device, the times differ. For example, some Windows operating systems store ARP cache entries for 2 minutes. If the entry is used again during that time, the ARP timer for that entry is extended to 10 minutes. ARP is an excellent example of a performance trade-off. With no cache, ARP must continually request address translations each time a frame is placed on the network. This adds latency to the communication and could congest the LAN. Conversely, unlimited hold times could cause errors with devices that leave the network or change the Layer 3 address. A network engineer needs to be aware of ARP but may not interact with the protocol on a regular basis. ARP is a protocol that enables network devices to communicate with the TCP/IP protocol. Without ARP, no efficient method exists to build the datagram Layer 2 destination address. ARP is a potential security risk. ARP spoofing, or ARP poisoning, is a technique used by an attacker to inject the wrong MAC address association into a network. An attacker forges a device’s MAC address, and frames are sent to the wrong destination. Manually configuring static ARP associations is one way to prevent ARP spoofing. In addition, an authorized MAC address list may be configured in Cisco devices to restrict network access to only approved devices. Scenario With a pod host computer, use the Windows arp utility command to examine and change ARP cache entries. In Task 2, you will use Wireshark to capture and analyze ARP exchanges between network devices. If Wireshark has not been loaded on the host pod computer, you can download it from ftp://eagleserver.example.com/pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter9/. The file is wireshark-setup-0.99.4.exe. Figure 9-1 shows the topology for this lab, and Table 9-5 is the corresponding addressing table.

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Figure 9-1

Topology for Lab 9-1

R1-ISP

S0/0/0 DCE

Eagle Server

S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24

S1-Central

R2-Central

1A

1B

11A

11B

Pod#1

Pod#11

Table 9-5 Device

Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway

R1-ISP

S0/0/0 Fa0/0

10.10.10.6 192.168.254.253 10.10.10.5 172.16.255.254 192.168.254.254 172.31.24.254 172.16.Pod#.1 172.16.Pod#.2 172.16.254.1

255.255.255.252 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.252 255.255.0.0 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.0.0

— — 10.10.10.6 — 192.168.254.253 — 172.16.255.254 172.16.255.254 172.16.255.254

R2-Central

S0/0/0 Fa0/0

Eagle Server

— —

Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central

— — —

Note to Instructor: Depending on the classroom situation, the lab topology may have been modified before this class. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server.example.com, troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity:
Step 1.

Verify that all network equipment is powered on and that eagle-server is on.

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Step 2.

From a known good host computer, ping eagle-server. If the ping test fails, ping S1Central, R2-Central, R1-ISP, and finally eagle-server. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests. If an individual host computer cannot connect to eagle-server, check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address, shown in Table 9-5, and that it can ping R2-Central, 172.16.255.254. Verify that the host computer has the correct Gateway IP address, 172.16.255.254, and that it can ping R1-ISP, 10.10.10.6. Finally, verify that the host has the correct DNS address and that it can ping eagle-server.example.com.

Step 3.

Task 1: Use the Windows arp Command
Step 1.

Access the Windows terminal. Open a Windows terminal by choosing Start > Run. Enter cmd, and click OK. With no options, the arp command displays useful help information. Issue the arp command on the pod host computer, and examine the output. It should look like Example 9-1.

Example 9-1

Using the arp Command

C:\> arp Displays and modifies the IP-to-Physical address translation tables used by address resolution protocol (ARP). ARP -s inet_addr eth_addr [if_addr] ARP -d inet_addr [if_addr] ARP -a [inet_addr] [-N if_addr] -a Displays current ARP entries by interrogating the current protocol data. If inet_addr is specified, the IP and Physical addresses for only the specified computer are displayed. If more than one network interface uses ARP, entries for each ARP table are displayed. -g Same as -a. Specifies an internet address. inet_addr

-N if_addr Displays the ARP entries for the network interface specified by if_addr. -d Deletes the host specified by inet_addr. inet_addr may be wildcarded with * to delete all hosts. -s Adds the host and associates the Internet address inet_addr with the Physical address eth_addr. The Physical address is given as 6 hexadecimal bytes separated by hyphens. The entry is permanent. eth_addr if_addr interface Specifies a physical address. If present, this specifies the Internet address of the

whose address translation table should be modified. If not present, the first applicable interface will be used.

255.255. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms. as shown in Example 9-3.1. Step 3.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Ping statistics for 172.2: Packets: Sent = 4. Average = 0ms C:\> C:\> arp -a . Received = 4. . ARP associations are dynamically added to the ARP cache.55. Use the ping command to dynamically add entries to the ARP cache..254? arp -d 172..1.1.1.16. When you issued the command that displays ARP entries.212 00-aa-00-62-c6-09 > arp -a table.16. what were the results? The ARP cache should be empty.16.Chapter 9: Ethernet 243 Example 9-1 Using the arp Command continued Example: > arp -s 157..85. Use the arp command to examine the local ARP cache. the ARP cache should be empty. C:\> .2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 172. Lost = 0 (0% loss).16. Displays the arp Answer the following questions about the arp command: ■ What command is used to display all entries in the ARP cache? arp -a ■ What command is used to delete all ARP cache entries (flush the ARP cache)? arp -d * ■ What command is used to delete the ARP cache entry for 172.1. Adds a static entry.16.16. Example 9-3 Using the ping Command C:\> ping 172.1..2 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 172.1. Using the arp Command with the -a Option Example 9-2 C:\> arp -a No ARP Entries Found C:\> Without any network communication. The ping command can be used to test network connectivity. Any entry indicates communication between the pod host computer and other network devices.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 172.16.2 Pinging 172.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 172. Maximum = 0ms.254 Step 2.16. as shown in Example 9-2.. By accessing other devices..16.

Or. which is how long the ARP cache stores an initial entry. What is the IP address of the Gateway? 172. How was the ARP entry added to the ARP cache? Hint: Review the Type column. Manually adjust entries in the ARP cache. Examine the ARP cache entry.1 —. Record the two ARP cache entries using Table 9-6.example.255. Was the ARP cache entry cleared? Yes If the entry was not cleared. Examine the ARP cache entry.254 What is the physical address of the Gateway? Answers will vary.2 C:\> Physical Address 00-10-a4-7b-01-5f Type dynamic Use the command ipconfig /all to verify another pod host computer’s Layer 2 and Layer 3 information. you did not wait 2 minutes.16. What is the physical address of Eagle Server? It cannot be determined. Dynamically What is the IP address of the destination pod host computer? Answers will vary.244 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example 9-3 Using the ping Command continued Interface: 172. you accessed the destination device more than once and caused the ARP timeout for the entry to rise to 10 minutes. eagle-server. First.0x60004 Internet Address 172. a couple explanations are possible.com. which will retain the cache entry for approximately 10 minutes. Do not send any traffic to the computer accessed previously. How was the address discovered? Dynamically Issue the ping command to Eagle Server. only the Gateway MAC address is displayed. Issue the ping command to the Gateway. It may be easier to ping both devices more than once. Verify that the ARP cache contains two entries: one for the Gateway and one for the destination pod host computer.1. What is the physical address of the destination pod host computer? Answers will vary. Step 4. Wait between 2 and 3 minutes.1.16. R2-Central. and check the ARP cache again. . Because Eagle Server is on a different network. Issue the ping command to that pod host computer.16.

16. issue the arp -d {inet-addr | *} command. Table 9-7 Device Remaining ARP Cache Entry IP Address Physical Address How Is It Discovered? Gateway 172. To delete entries in the ARP cache.255.16.1.16. What is one layer of security that can be applied to ARP cache entries to help counter ARP spoofing? Add a static ARP entry for the Gateway.1. What command deletes all entries in the ARP cache? arp -d * Issue the command to remove all entries in the ARP cache on your pod host computer.1 —.255. delete the entry for the pod host computer.1. and examine the ARP cache with the arp -a command.254 Answers will vary Answers will vary Dynamically Dynamically Next. Dynamically Simulate removing all entries.255. All entries should be removed. Example 9-4 shows how to manually delete an ARP cache entry.1. You can delete addresses individually by specifying the IP address.1 —. Example 9-4 Manually Deleting an ARP Cache Entry C:\> arp -a Interface: 172.0x60004 Internet Address 172.255.254 C:\> arp -a Interface: 172. or you can delete all entries using the wildcard *.16. .254 Answers will vary.254 C:\> C:\> arp -d 172.2 C:\> Physical Address 00-10-a4-7b-01-5f Type dynamic Physical Address 00-10-a4-7b-01-5f 00-0c-85-cf-66-40 Type dynamic dynamic What command deletes the entry for the pod host computer? arp -d inet-addr Record the remaining ARP cache entry in Table 9-7.16.16.16.0x60004 Internet Address 172. Consider a secure environment where the Gateway controls access to a web server that contains top-secret information.16.2 172.Chapter 9: Ethernet 245 Table 9-6 Device Initial ARP Cache Entries IP Address Physical Address How Is It Discovered? Pod host computer Gateway Answers will vary 172.

provide answers to these questions: ■ ■ ■ What is the IP address of the Gateway? 172. using the command ping -n 1 172. What command did you use? arp -d * Step 3. Enter cmd.16. Send one ping request to the Gateway. Capture and evaluate ARP communication.254. Configure Wireshark for packet captures.254.168. Stop Wireshark and evaluate the communication. Select the interface that corresponds to the LAN. You should see a Wireshark screen similar to the one shown in Figure 9-2. and the ARP communication is evaluated. Afterward. Flush the ARP cache.255. What is the type of the ARP entry? Static For the next task. this will require ARP to rediscover address maps. and one ping request is sent to Eagle Server. Task 2: Use Wireshark to Examine ARP Exchanges Step 1. . Wireshark will be used to capture and examine an ARP exchange. Click Start. If you haven’t already done so. the Wireshark capture is stopped. and click OK. Send one ping request to Eagle Server. The Wireshark Packet List window displays the number of packets captured. using the command ping -n 1 192.246 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Simulate adding a static entry for the Gateway.254 What is the physical address of the Gateway? Answers will vary. Choose Capture > Options.254. Now. Step 2. one ping request is sent to the Gateway. and examine the ARP cache again.254 MAC-address Issue the command on your pod host computer. What command adds a static ARP entry for the Gateway to the ARP cache? arp -s 172. The Packet Details window shows ARP protocol contents. you will use it to view the ARP cache. Check the box to update the list of packets in real time. This begins the packet capture.16. Do not close the Windows terminal.255.255. Prepare the pod host computer for ARP captures.16. In this step. open a Windows terminal window by choosing Start > Run. Prepare Wireshark for captures.

254 Fill in Table 9-9 with information about the second ARP packet.16. Table 9-8 Field First ARP Packet Value Sender MAC address Sender IP address Target MAC address Target IP address Answers will vary Answers will vary 00:00:00:00:00:00 172. answer the following questions: ■ ■ What is the first ARP packet? A request What is the second ARP packet? A reply Fill in Table 9-8 with information about the first ARP packet. .Chapter 9: Ethernet 247 Figure 9-2 Wireshark Screen Using your Wireshark capture. why does the target MAC address contain all 0s? The ARP protocol has no value yet to put in the field.16.255. Table 9-9 Field Second ARP Packet Value Sender MAC address Sender IP address Target MAC address Target IP address Answers will vary 172.254 Answers will vary Answers will vary If the Ethernet II frame for an ARP request is a broadcast.255.

Task 3: Reflection The ARP protocol maps Layer 3 IP addresses to Layer 2 MAC addresses. discuss the advantages of configuring MAC address restrictions for wireless networks. The ARP cache stores ARP address mappings.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. Using outside resources. which is used to forward the packet outside the LAN. Task 5: Clean Up Wireshark was installed on the pod host computer. turn off power to the host computers.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab9812. and click Remove. Choose Wireshark. however. Remove any files created on the pod host computer during the lab.8. but the Layer 3 address never changes. the Layer 2 MAC address changes with each hop across a router. and leave the room ready for the next class. Click Add or Remove Programs. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. If a packet must move across networks. Remember. Discuss ways in which attackers can circumvent this security. If the entry was manually inserted in the ARP cache. Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Address Resolution Protocol (9.248 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Why was there no ARP request for the ping to Eagle Server? The TCP/IP protocol already had the MAC address for the Gateway. If Wireshark needs to be uninstalled. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. Discuss several techniques used to counter this type of attack. it is a static entry and remains until the computer is turned off or the ARP cache is manually flushed. This sets the new timeout value to 10 minutes. because the cache entry was accessed within the 2-minute cache timeout. How long should the Gateway mapping be stored in the ARP cache on the pod host computer? Why? 10 minutes.1. If the entry was learned dynamically. Most wireless routers support a network administrator manually adding a list of MAC addresses to the router that are permitted access to the wireless network. . A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity. perform a search on ARP spoofing. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. it will eventually be deleted from cache. Task 4: Challenge Using outside resources. choose Start > Control Panel.

network connectivity can be established through two means. the frame is routed out all ports except the port where it originated. you will connect to the switch via a Telnet session. Figure 9-3 shows the topology for this lab. Scenario Telnet is a network service that uses a client/server model.Chapter 9: Ethernet 249 Packet Tracer Challenge Lab 9-2: Cisco Switch MAC Table Examination (9. In this lab. . otherwise. you will be able to ■ ■ Use the Telnet protocol to log into a Cisco switch. limited privileges have been configured for student use. a serial connection can be established.8. For secure networks. Cisco IOS devices provide a default Telnet server. and Table 9-10 is the corresponding addressing table. the destination MAC address is checked against the table. and the corresponding port is used to route the frame out the switch. Using the Windows hyperterm utility. Log in with your student account. The Cisco device must be configured for Telnet access. You will do the following: ■ ■ ■ Telnet to S1-Central. Use the Cisco show mac-address-table command to examine MAC address and port associations. or the frame is a broadcast. Background Switches maintain a table of MAC addresses and associated switch ports. and operating systems such as Windows have built-in Telnet clients. For devices physically distant from the network engineer. A console port can be used if the Cisco router or switch is within proximity of a computer. If the network is not secure. Use the show mac-address-table command to examine the MAC addresses and association to ports. Access to Cisco devices can be accomplished through several means.1) Upon completion of this lab. it is denied. Using Telnet. In this course.2. When a switch receives a frame. the Cisco device can be configured for a Telnet session. network engineers can log into network devices from anywhere across a secure network. a modem configured on the AUX port enables telephone access. If a switch does not know which port to use to route the frame.

255.255.255.255.31.168.0.255.10.254.2 172.10. ping eagle-server.255. Verify that all network equipment is powered on and that eagle-server is on.16.252 255. and finally eagle-server.254 172.255.24.0 255.254 R2-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Eagle Server — — Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central — — — Note to Instructor: Depending on the classroom situation. troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity: Step 1.168.16.0 255.6 192.0 255.1 255.255.0.254 192. .255.0 255.254.255.10.255.253 10.255.1 172.253 — 172.254 172.255. Step 2.0.250 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 9-3 Topology for Lab 9-2 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 Table 9-10 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP S0/0/0 Fa0/0 10.10.255.example. ping S1Central. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server.Pod#. the lab topology may have been modified before this class. R2-Central.16. If the ping test fails.0.16.255.5 172.255.254.168.16. Take corrective action on devices that fail the ping tests.255.0 — — 10.10. From a known good host computer. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity.Pod#.254 172.6 — 192.0 255.com.254.10.16.0 255.16.254 172. R1-ISP.252 255.255.

Step 2. Unless directed otherwise by your instructor. and click OK.com. 10. Authorized access only. Open a Windows terminal by choosing Start > Run. Verify that the host computer has the correct Gateway IP address. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address. Access the Windows terminal. check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central.6.16.254. for host computers on pod 1. S1-Central has been configured with 11 student accounts.16. Task 1: Use the Telnet Protocol to Log in to a Cisco Switch Step 1. Finally. To provide access to each student. similar to the one shown in Example 9-5.Chapter 9: Ethernet 251 Step 3. the password is cisco.10. Enter cmd. .example.254.10. and that it can ping R1-ISP. 172. From the Windows terminal. 172. shown in Table 9-10. This outputs all options for the command. Examine the switch MAC address table. verify that the host has the correct DNS address and that it can ping eagle-server. and that it can ping R2-Central. issue the Telnet command telnet destination-ip-address: C:/> telnet 172. use the user ID corresponding to your pod.1 An access prompt is displayed. If an individual host computer cannot connect to eagle-server.255. Use the Windows Telnet client to access S1-Central. Use Table 9-11 to fill in a description for each command option.254. ******************************************************************* User Access Verification Username: ccna1 Password: cisco S1-Central# (*hidden*) Task 2: Use the Cisco IOS show mac-address-table Command to Examine MAC Addresses and Port Associations Step 1. For example. use user ID ccna1. ccna1 through ccna11. Example 9-5 Switch Access Prompt ******************************************************************* This is Lab switch S1-Central.255.16. Issue the show mac-address-table ? command.

Issue the show mac-address-table command. Address keyword Aging-time keyword Count keyword Dynamic entry type Interface keyword Multicast information for the selected wildcard MAC notification parameters and history table Static entry type VLAN keyword Output modifiers Carriage return Examine dynamic MAC address table entries.252 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 9-11 Option Show Mac-Address-Table Command Options Description address aging-time count dynamic interface multicast notification static vlan | <cr> Step 2. How many MAC addresses are listed for switch port gi0/0? 5 . Table 9-12 MAC Addresses and Ports Switch Port MAC Address Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Suppose that a hub with five active hosts is connected to switch port gi0/0. This command displays static (CPU) and dynamic. or learned. Use Table 9-12 to list the MAC addresses and corresponding switch ports. entries.

you will be able to ■ ■ ■ Use Wireshark to capture and analyze frames originating from network nodes. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Cisco Switch MAC Table Examination (9. Issue the show mac-address-table aging-time command. in seconds.1) Upon completion of this lab. . turn off power to the host computers.Chapter 9: Ethernet 253 Step 3. This command displays the default amount of time.8.8. network engineers can access Cisco devices remotely across secure LANs. the switch performs a lookup of the frame destination MAC address. This has the benefit of permitting access to remote devices for troubleshooting and monitoring purposes. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity.2. Remember. Lab 9-3: Intermediary Device as an End Device (9. Task 4: Reflection Using the Telnet protocol. Task 5: Clean Up Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. Without a MAC address table. Copy and paste data captured by Wireshark into Notepad for further analysis. the frame is routed out the corresponding port. however. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. When a frame enters the switch. that MAC address entries are stored.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab9822. the switch would have to flood the frame out each port. What is the default aging time for VLAN 1? 300 Task 3: Challenge What would be the result if the MAC address table were flushed of dynamic entries? The switch would broadcast frames out each port except the originating port until the switch learned all the MAC addresses connected to the switch. and leave the room ready for the next class. A switch contains a MAC address table that lists the MAC address connected to each switch port. If a match occurs in the MAC address table. Examine the origination of frames in a small network. Examine MAC address table aging time.3.

99.255.255.10.252 255.1 172.168. If Wireshark has not been loaded on the host pod computer. a switch efficiently passes frames from one device to another in a LAN.10.16.254 172.254.0 — — 10.10.16. because you will use Telnet to directly access the switch.31. and Table 9-13 is the corresponding addressing table.254 172.255.254.0 255.168.Pod#.10.0. A switch normally does not originate frames to node devices.6 192. Figure 9-4 Topology for Lab 9-3 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 Table 9-13 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP S0/0/0 Fa0/0 10.255.16.0 255.0 255.255.10. Scenario You will use Wireshark to capture and analyze Ethernet frames.255.254 172.1 255.5 172.16.255.com/pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter9/.16.6 — 192.24. however.255.254 172. you will see the switch originating frames.254 R2-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Eagle Server — — Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central — — — .exe.255. Figure 9-4 shows the topology for this lab.0.0 255.255.254 192.168.0 255.253 10.254 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Background A switch is used to forward frames between network devices.16. you can download it from ftp://eagleserver. The file is wireshark-setup-0.4.253 — 172.16.255.example. In this lab.0 255.Pod#.255.0.255.255.10.255.252 255.0.255.255.254.254.255. Rather.2 172.

Use the Windows Telnet client to access S1-Central. Check the box to update the list of packets in real time. numerous dynamic address table entries should be listed. For example. Step 3.254. should be returned.10. Configure Wireshark for packet capture.255. Enter enable to enter privileged mode. verify that the host has the correct DNS address and that it can ping eagle-server. ccna1 through ccna11. use user ID ccna1. and finally eagle-server.16.Chapter 9: Ethernet 255 Note to Instructor: Depending on the classroom situation. however. During this capture there will probably be more than 200 packets. From a known good host computer. R1-ISP. From the Windows terminal. 172. for host computers on pod 1.6. 10. S1-Central#. check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central. Step 2.16. use the user ID corresponding to your pod. the password is cisco. and that it can ping R1-ISP. issue the Telnet command telnet 172.com. This begins the packet capture. R2-Central. 172. ping eagle-server. making analysis a bit tedious.255. The critical Telnet conversation between the pod host computer and S1-Central will be easy to filter. Write down the IP address and port connection on S1-Central for the neighbor’s pod host computer: ■ ■ IP address: Answers will vary S1-Central port number: Answers will vary Task 1: Use Wireshark to Capture and Analyze Frames Originating from Network Nodes Step 1. S1-Central has been configured with 11 student accounts. cisco. Unless directed otherwise by your instructor.example. Finally.10. Use Table 9-14 to list the dynamic MAC address entries. If the ping test fails.com. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests.1. ping S1Central. If an individual host computer cannot connect to eagle-server. . Examine the switch MAC address table with the show mac-address-table command. Verify that all network equipment is powered on and that eagle-server is on. Click Start. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address. The S1-Central prompt.16. Choose Capture > Options. Select the interface that corresponds to the LAN. troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity: Step 1. In addition to several static CPU entries.example.254. In this lab you will ping a neighbor’s pod host computer. Step 3. and that it can ping R2-Central. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity. Step 2. shown in Table 9-13. Examine and clear the MAC address table. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server. the lab topology may have been modified before this class. Enter the appropriate username and password. Verify that the host computer has the correct Gateway IP address.254. To provide access to each student.

R2-Router. . using ASCII as the default display. In Wireshark. issue the Cisco IOS interface configuration command no keepalive. If the username and passwords are not visible. switch to HEX Dump. This is normal. To prove this to students. choose Analyze > Follow TCP Stream. Task 2: Examine the Origination of Frames in a Small Network Step 1. Note to Instructor: Fa 0/24. You can use the show mac-address-table command again to verify that the dynamic entries have been cleared. From Wireshark. You will analyze the capture in the next task. use the clear mac-address-table dynamic command. Table 9-15 Dynamic MAC Address Entries Switch Port MAC Address Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary What conclusion can you make about how a switch learns MAC addresses connected to switch interfaces? A switch does not learn about connected devices until traffic originates from the device. which was recorded earlier: C:>\ ping -n 1 ip-address The MAC address for your neighbor’s computer should be dynamically added in the S1Central MAC address table.256 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 9-14 Dynamic MAC Address Entries Switch Port MAC Address Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary To clear dynamic MAC address table entries. Ping your neighbor’s IP address. may be read within 10 seconds after flushing the MAC address table. You can use the show mac-address-table command again to verify that the address is added. Use Table 9-15 to list the dynamic MAC address entries. because R2-Router sends Ethernet keepalive frames every 10 seconds. Stop the Wireshark capture. A stream content window opens. examine the Telnet session to S1-Central. Highlight one of the Telnet session packets. Open a second terminal window. on R2-Router interface Fa 0/0. This stops the 10-second Ethernet heartbeat.

Right-click telnet and choose Copy Bytes (Printable Text Only). In Notepad.Chapter 9: Ethernet 257 Verify the username and password that you entered: ■ ■ Username: Answers will vary Password: cisco Close the stream content window.cccc 0100. Open Notepad. Examine output of the show mac-address-table command. You will copy and paste data into Notepad for analysis. click the Filter button at the top-left corner of the screen and remove the filter string. In the top Wireshark Packet List pane. write down the dynamic MAC address and port number displayed in the output. choose Edit > Paste to copy and paste the Telnet data into Notepad. Figure 9-5 Wireshark Capture of Telnet Select the last Telnet data packet from S1-Central before the ping command.a47b.RPC —————————————————————Vlan —— All All All All 1 Mac Address —————000f.dddd 0010. Example 9-6 MAC Address Table Before the Ping Mac Address Table {_lEMaNL. To remove any display filters. Step 2. Figure 9-5 shows partial output of a Wireshark capture.f79f. scroll down to the captured ICMP request that was generated when you pinged. You should see a dynamic mapping for your own computer similar to the output shown in Example 9-6.cccd 0100.6cc0 0100.0ccc.015f Type ———— STATIC STATIC STATIC STATIC DYNAMIC Ports ——CPU CPU CPU CPU Fa0/1 Total Mac Addresses for this criterion: 5 S1-Central# In Table 9-16.0ccc. Does the switch port correspond to your pod host computer? Yes . View the packet in the Packet Details window pane.0cdd.

76ac. Does the switch port correspond to your neighbor’s pod host computer? Yes Table 9-17 Dynamic MAC Address Entry Type Port MAC Address Answers will vary Dynamic Answers will vary Task 3: Reflection The Wireshark capture of a Telnet session between a pod host computer and S1-Central was analyzed to show how a switch dynamically learns about nodes directly connected to it.VP —————————————————————Vlan —— All All All All 1 1 Mac Address —————000f.6cc0 0100.f79f.0ccc.0ccc.dddd 0010. write down the MAC address and port number for the second dynamic entry displayed in the output. .258 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 9-16 Dynamic MAC Address Entry Type Port MAC Address Answers will vary Dynamic Answers will vary Why is your pod host computer mapping still in the MAC address table.cccd 0100.a76a Type ———— STATIC STATIC STATIC STATIC DYNAMIC DYNAMIC Ports ——CPU CPU CPU CPU Fa0/1 Fa0/2 Total Mac Addresses for this criterion: 6 S1-Central# In Table 9-17.a47b. Select the last Telnet data packet following the ping reply.015f 0016. view the packet in the Packet Details window pane. The text should be similar to Example 9-7. despite having been cleared? This is the connection for the pod host computer that is telnetted into S1-Central. In Notepad. Right-click TELNET and choose Copy Bytes (Printable Text Only).cccc 0100.0cdd. choose Edit > Paste to copy and paste the Telnet data into Notepad. Example 9-7 MAC Address Table After the Ping Mac Address Table {_lEPaNM. Next.

choose Start > Control Panel. Emphasize that security should be employed in layers. Test the network. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ Determine IP subnet plans. and lively discussions should be encouraged.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer.1. choose Analyze > Follow TCP Stream to view the login user ID and password.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab9832. How secure is the Telnet protocol? What can be done to make communication with Cisco devices more secure? The Telnet protocol is very insecure and should never be used outside of secure networks. Repair Ethernet-related network issues. Student answers will vary on how to secure the communication channel. Remember. Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: An Intermediary Device as an End Device (9.3) Open file LSG01-PTSkills9. and Table 9-18 is the corresponding addressing table. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. Upon completion of this activity. one recommendation may be to require passphrases—that is. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. and click Remove. From Wireshark. Click Add or Remove Programs. Figure 9-6 shows the topology for this Skills Integration Challenge. however. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. and no one solution is a guarantee against compromise.Chapter 9: Ethernet 259 Task 4: Challenge Use Wireshark to capture and analyze a Telnet session between the pod host computer and the Cisco switch.8.3. and leave the room ready for the next class. turn off power to the host computers. any clear-text password can be viewed and used by an attacker. If Wireshark needs to be uninstalled. Packet Tracer Challenge Skills Integration Challenge: Switched Ethernet (9.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to perform this exercise using Packet Tracer. Background You have been asked to repair some problems in the network model related to the Ethernet LAN connected to R2-Central. Choose Wireshark. Remove any files created on the pod host computer during the lab. SSH is one way to encrypt communications between devices. Point out that because the TCP session may be captured. . For example.9. passwords of more than nine characters. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity. Task 5: Clean Up Wireshark was installed on the pod host computer.

The subnet assignments are as follows: ■ ■ ■ First subnet.255.126 192.138 192.168.1 192.255.168.111.168. existing ISP LAN.255.111.168.168.255.2 192.168. up to 100 hosts (Fa0/0 on R2-Central) Second subnet.111.126 192.168.168.138 192.248 255.111.248 — — 192.255.168.255.255.260 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 9-6 Topology for the Challenge 1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server 2960-24TT S1-Central 1841 R2-Central PC 1A PC 1B Table 9-18 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP Fa0/0 S0/0/0 192. You must provide for the three existing networks.111.128 255.111.255.252 255.133 255.111.134 R2-Central Fa0/0 S0/0/0 PC 1A PC 1B Eagle Server NIC NIC NIC Task 1: IP Subnet Planning You have been given an IP address block of 192.168.126 192. existing student LAN.111.0/24.255. up to five hosts (already configured) Third subnet.111.134 192.128 255. existing WAN.255.111.255.168. point-to-point link (already configured) .138 192.111.128 255.252 255.111.255.255.111.168.137 192.168.255.

UDP. The static route on R2-Central should be a default static route that points to R1-ISP’s serial interface IP address. The next-hop router (to which the default route should point). Apparently the Ethernet speed and duplex settings for the R2-Central Fa0/0 interface.133 /29. use the first two IP addresses (the two lowest usable addresses) on the existing student LAN subnet. For hosts 1A and 1B. Set all Ethernet interfaces to autonegotiate speed and duplex (which will achieve full-duplex 100-Mbps operation if both ends of the link can support it). These procedures were explained in the Chapter 5 and 6 Skills Integration Challenges. . R1-ISP.111. Task 4: Reflection The two Layer 2 and Layer 1 technologies in this model are a serial connection (between the routers) and the Ethernet LANs (for the ISP server and with the S1-Central switch). has an IP address of 192. and R2-Central’s serial interface have already been configured. TCP.168. In a future course you will learn much more about switched Ethernet technologies. Connect this newly installed Fast Ethernet NIC to the Fa0/2 interface on the switch. Connect the Fa0/24 interface on the switch to the R2-Central Fa0/0 interface. Task 3: Test the Network Use ping. Remove the wireless card from PC 1B.111. Assign the highest usable subnet address to the gateway and the two lowest usable addresses to the PCs. and Fa0/24). with HTTP. the DNS server is 192. Add the Fast Ethernet Interface card PT-HOST-NM-1CFE to PC 1B. ■ ■ ■ Task 2: Repair Problems with the Ethernet Switched LAN PC 1B has a wireless card and cannot be connected to the switch. trace. Connect PC 1A to the Fa0/1 interface on the switch.Chapter 9: Ethernet 261 Interface IP addresses: ■ ■ The server. and the PC 1A interfaces are incorrect. Add IP addresses to the router Fa0/0 interface and to the two PCs. R1-ISP. For all devices. ICMP.168. to test your understanding of how the network is operating. and ARP viewable. the S1-Central switch interfaces (Fa0/1. Compare and contrast the serial connection with Ethernet. For R2-Central’s Fa0/0 interface. web traffic. and the Inspect tool to trace packet flow in simulation mode.138 /30. use the highest usable address on the existing student LAN subnet. make sure that the power is on to the device and to the interfaces (make sure that the Ethernet interfaces are not shut down). DNS. Fa0/2. For hosts 1A and 1B.

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A hub is a Layer 1 device. supported speeds. expandability. As a networking professional. devices will need to be selected that go beyond the current need of the LAN in terms of number of ports. They flood all the frames they receive on one port out all other ports. though. and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of planning and cabling networks. Devices need to have empty slots that allow the addition of modules that have more capabilities or that support new technologies. this up-front investment might save money. Each switch port is its own collision domain. and speeds of different ports and interfaces. Study Guide LANs: Making the Physical Connection A networking professional needs to know how to select and interconnect the proper devices for a network. more capabilities. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum labs to further reinforce that you have mastered the practical. including cost. and capabilities. They filter frames. Hubs are less expensive and less efficient than switches. All of the ports of a hub are part of one collision domain. Switches are more expensive than hubs but use bandwidth more efficiently. matching. To allow for growth. hubs. They also allow for the interconnection of segments with different speeds. That affects the cost calculation because the costs will seem high compared to the current network needs. The design of an IP addressing scheme is presented and then practiced with the help of concept questions and the hands-on labs. whereas a switch is a Layer 2 device. Growth consists of more user devices. you need to be familiar with the different device selection factors. and manageability. and switches are common network devices. Concept Questions 1. you identify the cables needed to make successful LAN and WAN connections and learn how to use device management connections. Compare and contrast the function of hubs and switches. It is essential that you have knowledge of the different media types and the distinct roles they play with the devices that they connect. How does this affect the cost calculations? When selecting devices for a LAN it is important to allow for future growth. As you work through this chapter. types. and also new technology. use Chapter 10 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum or use the corresponding Chapter 10 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration Companion Guide for assistance. Be as detailed as possible. Hubs do not segment networks. fill-in-the-blank. more speed. Hubs should be used in small LANs. In the long run. Explain the advantage of one device over the other. 2. Routers.CHAPTER 10 Planning and Cabling Networks The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of multiple-choice. Switches segment networks into multiple collision domains. . hands-on skills needed. Switches are Layer 2 devices. Hubs do not filter frames. In this chapter. Explain how adaptability to new technologies can be taken into consideration when selecting devices for a LAN.

264 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Multiple-Choice Questions Choose the best possible answer for each of the following questions. The straight-through cable will connect with its pins 1 and 2 to pins 1 and 2 of the computer. Each area has its unique requirements and standards. How can redundancy be provided in a switched network? a. Even though hubs can be interconnected. By providing multiple interconnections between a number of switches d. . The transmit wires of the cables will be connected to the transmit pins on the router and the computer. 1. d. they remain in a single collision domain. there are several physical areas to consider. Device Interconnections When planning the installation of LAN cabling. By using a special cable type to connect to the devices on its ports. 1. A network administrator needs to be familiar with the different standards that define devices and cabling in these areas. A switch provides dedicated bandwidth on each port. The computer and the router both have Medium Dependent Interface (MDI) connections with pins 1 and 2 for transmitting and pins 3 and 6 for receiving. Explain what will happen when you use a straight-through cable to connect your computer to the Fast Ethernet interface of a router. By deploying one central switch with a high port density b. A swich is used to segment a network into multiple collision domains. Concept Questions 1. which can increase LAN performance. By using high-speed fiber-optic media c. How do switches create collision domains? port. Switches regenerate each bit of the frames they receive. c. By delpoying gigabit switches only 2. By allowing the interconnection of segments with different speeds. Each switch port creates a point-to-point dedicated connection to the devices connected to that b. Pins 3 and 6 of both devices will be connected in the same way. 2. and no data transfer will be possible. 3. a. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks for the following statements.

Signal attenuation and exposure to possible interference increase with cable length. It is extremely important that you understand IP addressing. This knowledge is vital in designing. 3. . lighting. This is where the users access the network. patch cables. Work area: Work areas are dedicated to end devices. Telecommunications room: hubs. high-bandwidth cabling that connects the telecommunications room with the work area. patch panels. A router is considered a DTE device. This router will provide the clocking that is usually provided by the service provider’s equipment. List these four areas and their main components. 3. The ANSI/TIA/EIA-568-B standard specifies the maximum cable length in UTP installations. and switches. switches. Typically. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks for the following statements that discuss features and issues related to different types of media. configuring. In the lab setting. patch cables. cabling to access outside resources. The routers are connected back to back. Developing an Addressing Scheme Developing an IP addressing scheme is one of the most important tasks that you will have to perform as a network professional.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 265 2. There are four physical areas to consider when planning the installation of LAN cabling. 4. Interference can be produced by electrical machines. Answers may vary. Explain how the serial connection to a WAN service provider differs from the way the serial connections are set up for the curriculum labs. Data Circuit-Terminal Equipment (DTE) is a device that receives clocking services from another device and adjusts accordingly. 1. sometimes servers Backbone cabling: Cabling that connects the telecommunications room to the equipment room Distribution/horizontal cabling: Typically. Attenuation is the decrease in signal strength along an electrical or optical cable. hubs. and troubleshooting networks. Typically. or connects telecommunications rooms. this device is at the WAN customer or user end of the link. Therefore. The Data Communications Equipment (DCE) is a device that supplies the clocking services to another device. and other communications devices. one router will act as the DCE and uses a DCE cable. 5. including computers and radio equipment. routers. Main components are jacks to connect individual devices to the network. 2. this device is at the WAN access provider end of the link. there is no service provider. UTP cabling uses RJ-45 connectors. data service units (DSU).

a. A systematic allocation of IP addresses makes troubleshooting and the addition of new hosts easier. 2. Multiple-Choice Questions Choose the best possible answer(s) for the following questions. Which formula is used to calculate the number of hosts per network or subnet? Use n to represent the number of bits. IP phones. Network devices requiring an IP address for management purposes are switches and wireless access points. What devices do you need to consider when counting devices in your network that need IP addresses. What are some common categories that you can use to allocate IP addresses? Explain why you should use address schemes that fit a common pattern across your network. and other end devices such as printers. administrator computers. servers.266 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Concept Questions 1. Network devices that require IP addresses for management purposes include switches and wireless access points. You also need to consider network devices such as router LAN interfaces and router WAN (serial) interfaces. (n – 2) . Subnets divide broadcast domains into a number of smaller domains. Some common categories are general users. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks for the following statements dealing with IP addressing and subnetting. (2^n – 1) b. 1. 2. (2^n – 2) d. 2^n c. special users. Network address c. It is good practice to use IP addresses that fit a common pattern across all subnets. departments. a. Gateway address 2. Each subnet requires a router interface as the gateway for that subnet. You need to consider end devices such as user computers. and IP cameras. router LAN and WAN interfaces. Management address b. and server addresses. management subnets. 3. Which addresses cannot be assigned to hosts? Choose all that apply. Why does each connection between routers count as a separate subnet if there are no hosts connected? The router interfaces on the link connecting the two routers need to have IP addresses. 1. network resources. 3. Broadcast address d.

If your network uses the address 172.255. Larger collision domains Calculating the Subnets Two different methods can be used for allocating addresses to an Internetwork. what will be the subnet mask for your network? 255. Network 5 needs to support 128 host addresses. and switches have several different types of interfaces associated with them.252. The non-VLSM approach uses the same prefix length and the same number of host bits for each subnet. can use a bit mask of 255.16. Which addressing method will allow you to design an IP addressing scheme without wasting any host addresses? How is the efficiency of this method achieved? The method that allows for the most efficient IP addressing design without wasting any addresses is called variable-length subnet masking (VLSM).255. VLSM allows different subnet masks within one network.0 2. It is important to understand the different types of interfaces and know the types of cable required to connect to the interfaces. This way. Device Interconnections Cisco devices. a serial link. These interfaces are also referred to as ports.0.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 267 3.255. Variable-length subnet masking (VLSM) assigns the prefix and host bits to each network based on the number of hosts in that network. and other subnets that require more host addresses can use different bit masks.0 and you need to create 64 subnets. a. It allows a subnet to be subnetted. Network 2 needs to support 64 host addresses. Implementation of different levels of security d.252. routers. which requires only two IP addresses. Smaller broadcast domains c. . Decreased costs b. Concept Questions 1. Network 3 needs to support 2 host addresses. Network 4 needs to support 52 host addresses. You have the following network requirements: Network 1 needs to support 32 host addresses. What are advantages of dividing networks into subnets? Choose all that apply. LAN and WAN interfaces require different cabling and configuration.

It provides physical access to the router for troubleshooting. A CSU/DSU is a device used to make the physical connection between data networks and WAN provider’s circuits. To connect the router to a terminal for configuration purposes b. Briefly describe the function of each of these interfaces. The console interface d. Multiple-Choice Questions Choose the best possible answers(s) for the following questions dealing with interface types. WAN interfaces are used for connecting WAN devices to the CSU/DSU. 1. To connect to a terminating device such as a switch or a computer . To make a back-to-back connection between routers in the lab d. To connect to LAN devices such as computers and switches c. It connects to LAN devices such as computers or switches. To connect to other routers d. To establish a WAN connection b. Serial interface: This is the WAN interface. Ethernet interface: This is the LAN interface of a router or a switch. To establish communication with a router via a console on a remote WAN c. What can Ethernet interfaces be used for? Choose all that apply. a. The Telnet interface c. The serial interface 3.268 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Concept Question List the four types of interfaces on Cisco routers and switches. Which interface is the primary interface for the initial configuration of a Cisco device such as a router or a switch? a. The Ethernet interface b. What are serial interfaces used for? Choose all that apply. To connect the router to the DSU/CSU 2. Console interface: This is the primary interface for initial configuration of a Cisco device. Auxiliary interface: This interface provides remote management for the router. a. They can also connect to other routers.

168.1128 How many subnets are available for future use? 0 . In this example. Examine the use of the available network address space. Figure 10-1 Topology Diagram A Fa0/0 S0/0/0 S0/0/0 B1 B2 How many networks are shown in Figure 10-1? 2 How many bits should you allocate to create the required number of subnets? 1 How many usable host addresses did this give you? 126 What is the new subnet mask in decimal form? 255. Task 1: Determine the Number of Subnets in Topology Diagram A Use the topology in Figure 10-1 to answer the questions that follow.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 269 Labs and Activities Lab 10-1: How Many Networks? (10. Design an appropriate addressing scheme. Place the correct address and mask in the addressing table. You must determine the number of networks needed then design an appropriate addressing scheme. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ ■ Determine the number of subnets.0/24 to subnet and provide the IP addressing for the networks shown in the topology diagrams. Scenario In this lab. you have been given the network address 192.2. You are only required to determine the number of subnets per topology example.2) Upon completion of this lab.3.255. the number of hosts is not important. Assign addresses and subnet mask pairs to device interfaces.255.26.

26.168.168.26.255.26.254 192.168.270 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 2: Record Subnet Information Fill in Table 10-1 with the subnet information. Figure 10-2 Topology Diagram B Fa0/0 S0/0/1 HQ S0/0/0 S0/0/1 S0/0/0 B1 B2 How many networks are there? 4 How many bits should you allocate to create the required number of subnets? 2 How many usable host addresses did this give you? 30 What is the new subnet mask in decimal form? 255.1 192.129 192.26.168.126 192.128 192.168.255 Task 3: Determine the Number of Subnets in Topology Diagram B Use the topology in Figure 10-2 to answer the questions that follow.26.0 192.26.192 How many subnets are available for future use? 0 .127 192.168.26.168.26.168.255. Table 10-1 Subnet Information Subnet Address First Usable Host Address Last Usable Host Address Broadcast Address Subnet Number 0 1 192.

168.168.168.26.65 192.168.62 192.168.193 192.26.26.255 Task 5: Determine the Number of Subnets in Topology Diagram C Use the topology in Figure 10-3 to answer the questions that follow.192 192.168.190 192.128 192.26.64 192.254 192.26.63 192.168.191 192.26.168.26.224 How many subnets are available for future use? 2 .0 192.26.168.168.26.168. Figure 10-3 Topology Diagram C S0/0/1 S0/0/0 B1 S0/0/0 S0/0/1 HQ S0/1/0 S0/0/0 B2 S0/0/1 S0/1/0 S0/0/0 S0/0/1 B3 Fa0/0 How many networks are there? 6 How many bits should you allocate to create the required number of subnets? 3 How many usable host addresses did this give you? 30 What is the new subnet mask in decimal form? 255.168.129 192. Use the subnet mask from Step 4.1 192. Table 10-2 Subnet Information Subnet Address First Usable Host Address Last Usable Host Address Broadcast Address Subnet Number 0 1 2 3 192.26.126 192.26.26.26.255.168.26.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 271 Task 4: Record Subnet Information Fill in Table 10-2 with the subnet information.255.26.168.168.26.127 192.168.

168.168.168.26.190 192.192 192.26.0 192.222 192.223 192.168.168.32 192.168.31 192.26.168.26. Figure 10-4 Topology Diagram D Fa0/0 Fa0/0 S0/0/0 S0/0/1 Fa0/0 S0/0/0 S0/0/1 S0/0/1 S0/1/1 B1 S0/0/1 HQ B2 S0/0/0 S0/0/1 S0/0/0 S0/0/1 S0/0/0 B3 Fa0/0 B4 Fa0/0 Fa0/0 B5 .26.26.168.26.26.168. Table 10-3 Subnet Information Subnet Address First Usable Host Address Last Usable Host Address Broadcast Address Subnet Number 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 192.26.168.62 192.63 192.168.168.272 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 6: Record Subnet Information Fill in the Table 10-3 with the subnet information.161 192.191 192.26.96 192.26.128 192.26.168.127 192.26.1 192.168.26.26.168.254 192.26.160 192.30 192.168.26.168.168.26.26.26.168.97 192.94 192.168.26.26.26.168.26.168.158 192.168.168.168.225 192.168.26.159 192.33 192.26.26.129 192.26.193 192.168.95 192.168.168.168.26.224 192.26.26.65 192.255 Task 7: Determine the Number of Subnets in Topology Diagram D Use the topology in Figure 10-4 to answer the questions that follow.26.126 192.168.168.64 192.

176 192.206 192.168.168.97 192.26.26.193 192.168.26.208 192.168.26.26.110 192.26.192 192.46 192.127 192.175 192.168.209 192.168.168.26.168.160 192.168.168.30 192.223 192.168.26.49 192.26.26.168.62 192.168.26.26.79 192.168.31 192.168.168.255.144 192.168.26.168.26.168.1 192.14 192.2222 192.168.111 192.26.168.168.177 192.64 192.26.168.26.26.168.26.26.113 192.26.168.168. you need the number of networks and hosts.168.80 192.191 192.26.168.168.174 192.32 192.142 192.168.112 192.26.26.168.94 192.95 192.63 192.26.26.78 192.168.168.26.17 192.168.168.241 192.168.26.168.168.145 192.26.26.238 192.168.161 192.168.26.168.26.26.48 192.26.207 192.81 192.168.159 192.168.26.26.168.168.26.26.129 192.26.26.26.168.168.33 192.168.168.190 192.240 How many subnets are available for future use? 4 Task 8: Record Subnet Information Fill in Table 10-4 with the subnet information.0 192.15 192.255. Table 10-4 Subnet Information Subnet Address First Usable Host Address Last Usable Host Address Broadcast Address Subnet Number 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 192.168.168.128 192.26.65 192.26.16 192.168.26.96 192.26.239 192.26.168.240 192.224 192.168.26. .255 Task 9: Reflection What information is needed when determining an appropriate addressing scheme for a network? When determining an appropriate addressing scheme for a network.26.26.168.26.26.168.26.26.168.168.168.168.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 273 How many networks are there? 12 How many bits should you allocate to create the required number of subnets? 4 How many usable host addresses did this give you? 14 What is the new subnet mask in decimal form? 255.158 192.26.26.26.26.26.143 192.168.126 192.26.26.254 192.26.225 192.26.26.168.47 192.26.168.168.

as shown in Figure 10-5.1. not yet connected to the network. you create a small network that requires connecting network devices and configuring host computers for basic network connectivity. Subnet C and Subnet D are anticipated subnets.1) Upon completion of this lab. Configure the logical LAN topology. Table 10-5 Hardware Equipment and Hardware for Lab Quantity Description Cisco Router Cisco Switch Computer (host) Cat5 better straight-through UTP cable Cat5 crossover UTP cable Scenario 1 1 3 3 1 Part of CCNA Lab bundle Part of CCNA Lab bundle Lab computer Connects Router 1 and computers Host1 and Host2 to Switch1 Connects computer Host1 to Router1 In this lab. Subnet zero will be used. Figure 10-5 Topology for Lab 10-2 Subnet A Fa0/0 Fa0/1 Subnet B Fa0/1 1 R1 Fa0/2 S1 Fa0/3 Subnet C Subnet D 2 3 Note: The CD-ROM accompanying this book contains a subnet chart for the last IP address octet.274 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Lab 10-2: Creating a Small Lab Topology (10. . Gather the necessary equipment and cables. Background Table 10-5 shows the equipment and hardware requirements for this lab. Verify LAN connectivity.6. Subnet A and Subnet B are subnets that are currently needed. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ ■ Design the logical network. Configure the physical lab topology.

Authorized access only. For this lab.20. students will learn how to configure a router. consider configuring a loopback interface as an alternative to the FastEthernet 0/1.202 255.248 172.0.255.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 275 Note to instructor: In Chapter 11 labs. ******************************************************************* % ! .255.0. Another alternative is to use two routers connected through a serial connection and use the Fast Ethernet interfaces from each router. Example Router 1 Configuration Router1 configuration ! service timestamps debug uptime service timestamps log uptime no service password-encryption ! no ip domain-lookup ! hostname Router1 ! enable secret cisco ! ! interface FastEthernet0/0 description connection to Host1 ip address no shutdown ! interface FastEthernet0/1 description connection LAN ip address no shutdown ! ip classless ip http server ! banner motd % ******************************************************************* 172.255.198 255.252 This is Eagle 1 lab router Router1.255. If you do not have a router that has two Fast Ethernet interfaces. The following example contains a basic configuration for Router 1.20. the router should be configured for students.

Router interfaces will use the last available IP address in the address block.0.1 172.11111111.20. which requires the largest block of IP addresses.20. Step 1. Fill in Table 10-7 with IP address information for Subnet D.20.276 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide line con 0 password cisco ! line con 0 password cisco login line aux 0 line vty 0 4 password cisco login ! end Task 1: Design the Logical Network Given an IP address and mask of 172.128 What is the bit mask? 172.0.0. design an IP addressing scheme that satisfies the requirements listed in Table 10-6.1111111.10000000 . Table 10-7 Subnet D IP Address Information Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast Network Address 172. Table 10-6 Subnet Subnet Requirements Number of Hosts Subnet A Subnet B Subnet C Subnet D 2 6 47 125 Host computers from each subnet will use the first available IP address in the address block.0.255.0.20.255.127 11111111. Refer to the subnet chart on the CD-ROM.1 172. Design Subnet D address block.20.0/24 (address / mask). and pick the first address block that will support Subnet D. Begin the logical network design by satisfying the requirement of Subnet D.0 255.

and pick the next available address block that will support Subnet C.255. Fill in Table 10-8 with IP address information for Subnet C. Satisfy the requirement of Subnet A.20.20.0.0. the next largest address block.255.20.11111111.192 172.0. Refer to the subnet chart on the CD-ROM. Table 10-8 Subnet C IP address information Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast Network Address 172.20.11111111.0.0. and pick the next available address block that will support Subnet A.11111100 . Fill in Table 10-10 with IP address information for Subnet A. and pick the next available address block that will support Subnet B.255.0.20.0.201 172.0.190 172. Refer to the subnet chart on the CD-ROM.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 277 Step 2.255.20.20. Design Subnet B address block.203 What is the bit mask? 11111111.0.0. Satisfy the requirement of Subnet B.20.198 172. Table 10-10 Subnet A IP Address Information Network Address Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast 172.200 255.20.11111111.20.11111000 Step 4.20.248 172.199 What is the bit mask? 11111111.1111111.128 255.193 172.255. Satisfy the requirement for Subnet C. Refer to the subnet chart on the CD-ROM. Fill in Table 10-9 with IP address information for Subnet B.11000000 Step 3.0.129 172.0.255.11111111.202 172. Design Subnet D address block.1111111. the next largest IP address block.192 255.191 What is the bit mask? 11111111. Table 10-9 Subnet B IP Address Information Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast Network Address 172. Design Subnet A address block.252 172.20.

and why? The switch ports are dissimilar to the router and computer network interfaces. From the IP address information recorded in Task 1.278 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 2: Configure the Physical Lab Topology Step 1.20.0. Confirm that the power is applied to the connected device. Step 2. What cable type is needed to connect Host 1 to Router 1. straight-through cables are required. What type of cable connects Router1 interface Fa0/0 to Host 1? Crossover cable What type of cable connects Router 1 interface Fa0/1 to Switch 1? Straight-through cable What type of cable connects Host 2 to Switch 1? Straight-through cable What type of cable connects Host 3 to Switch 1? Straight-through cable Is all equipment turned on? Yes Task 3: Configure the Logical Topology Step 1. Therefore. take a moment to verify the connections. write down the IP address information for each computer in the tables that follow. Physically connect devices. Therefore. Table 10-11 Host 1 Address Type Address IP address IP mask Gateway address 172. the gateway address is the IP address assigned to the router interface for that subnet. The host computer gateway IP address is used to send IP packets to other networks.201 255. Ensure that all switch connections show green. Any switch connection that does not transition from amber to green should be investigated. and the correct cable is functional.20. turn power on to all devices. and like devices require a crossover cable.252 172. If not already enabled.255. Cable the network devices as shown in Figure 10-5. and Router 1 to Switch 1.202 In Table 10-12.255. Host 2. After cabling the network devices. the correct cable is used. Attention to detail now will minimize the time required to troubleshoot network connectivity issues later. and why? Both devices have similar network interfaces. Document logical network settings. Visually inspect network connections. enter addressing information for Host 2.0. What cable type is needed to connect Host 1. enter the information for Host 1. In Table 10-11. .

0.255. Right-click the Local Area Connection device icon and choose Properties.194 255.255.20.0. Figure 10-6 shows Host 1 IP address and gateway settings.20. Table 10-13 Host 3 Address Type Address IP address IP mask Gateway address Step 2.0. Manually enter the following information. click Start > Control Panel > Network Connections. recorded in the preceding Step 1: ■ ■ ■ IP address: Host1 IP address Subnet mask: Host1 subnet mask Default gateway: Gateway IP address Figure 10-6 Host 1 IP Addressing and Gateway Settings .193 255. select Internet Protocol (TCP/IP). 172.20.255. and then click the Properties button.248 172.198 Configure the Host 1 computer. On the General tab.20.0.248 172.198 In Table 10-13. enter addressing information for Host 3.255.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 279 Table 10-12 Host 2 Address Type Address IP address IP mask Gateway address 172. On Host 1.

193 172. When troubleshooting connectivity issues.0. Network connectivity can be verified with the Windows ping command.0.193 172. Switch 1 should have a default configuration. connectivity will be broken between LANs. Repeat Step 2 for computers Host 2 and Host 3.0. . Close the Local Area Connection window.194 172.198 172.202 172.20.202 172. and then press Enter.198 172. Fa0/0 Host 1 Host 2 Gateway (Router 1. Configure Host 2 and Host 3 computers.0.0.202 172. Depending on the Windows operating system. Try to disable and then reenable the network interface card (NIC) by right-clicking the NIC in the Local Area Connection Properties window.194 172.20.0. it might be a gateway issue.0.20. Step 3.0.201 172.20. Use Table 10-14 to methodically verify and record connectivity with each network device. Remember that the default gateway address on the computers is the IP address of the Fast Ethernet interface of the router that the computers connect to via the switch.0. Open a terminal window by clicking Start > Run.0. If your computer’s operating system is Windows XP SP2.20. Task 4: Verify Network Connectivity Verify with your instructor that Router 1 has been configured.20. Fa0/1) Router1.20. Fa0/0 Host 1 172.20. Fa0/1) Router 1. Type cmd. Fa0/0) Router 1. Otherwise. the computer might require a reboot for changes to be effective.0.0. Fa0/1 Host 2 Host 3 Host 3 Gateway (Router 1. how can you detect a malfunctioning gateway? If Host 2 and Host 3 can successfully ping each other but not Host 1. Take corrective action to establish connectivity if a test fails. disable the firewall (for your ping tests to work).20.20. Table 10-14 Network Connectivity Test Results From To IP Address Ping Results Host 1 Host 1 Host 1 Host 1 Host 2 Host 2 Host 2 Host 2 Host 3 Host 3 Host 3 Host 3 Gateway (Router 1. close the Internet Protocols (TCP/IP) Properties window by clicking OK.201 Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Note any break in connectivity. the topology diagram shown in Figure 10-5 can prove extremely helpful.20. In this scenario.198 172.280 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide When finished.20. using the IP address information for those computers.

Answers may vary. and then turn off power to the host computers. If the solution fixed the problem. Answers may vary. Use the table provided in Task 3 to identify failed connectivity.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab10612. Check cabling. Hosts cannot ping the router. List the problems. and leave the room ready for the next class. Perform a good visual inspection. Task 7: Clean Up Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. . document the solution. keep in mind that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. restore host computer network connectivity. Test your solution. Look for green link lights on Switch 1. If the solution did not fix the problem. This will reinforce the skills you learned in this lab and make you a better network technician. Carefully remove cables and return them neatly to their storage.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 281 Task 5: Reflection Review any physical or logical configuration problems encountered during this lab. To fix the problems. However.6. It is best to practice host computer configuration and verification several times. you configured host computers with network addresses and tested them for connectivity. Be sure that you have a thorough understanding of the procedures used to verify network connectivity. Task 6: Challenge Ask your instructor or another student to introduce one or two problems in your network when you aren’t looking or are out of the lab room. Step 4. Check the IP address configuration. A summary of the instructions is provided within the Packet Tracer activity. Hosts 1 and 2 cannot ping Host 3. Reconnect cables that were disconnected for this lab. In addition to practicing IP subnetting. Step 2.1.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. Problems can be either physical (wrong UTP cable) or logical (wrong IP address or gateway). Write down your proposed solution(s). follow these steps: Note to instructors: A simple way to introduce problems is to switch the Fast Ethernet connections. Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Creating a Small Topology (10. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. Check the default gateways on the hosts. This is a particularly important lab. Step 3. continue troubleshooting. Step 1.

Configure HyperTerminal to establish a console session with a Cisco IOS router. or a combination. Set up the basic physical connection. Connect the console (rollover) cable to the console port on the router. Any router that meets the interface requirements may be used. Scenario Set up a network similar to the one in Figure 10-7. Instructions for TeraTerm Web use are contained in the section “Lab 10-3 (Alternative): Establishing a Console Session with TeraTerm” later in this chapter. Configure HyperTerminal to establish a console session with a Cisco IOS switch. Possible routers include 800. 1600. . 1700. Connect the other cable end to the host computer with a DB-9 or DB-25 adapter to the COM 1 port. Another popular serial communication utility is TeraTerm Web. Using HyperTerminal is the most basic way to access a router for checking or changing its configuration. Background HyperTerminal is a simple Windows-based terminal emulation program for serial communication that can be used to connect to the console port on Cisco IOS devices. 2600 routers.2. A serial interface on a computer is connected to the Cisco device via a rollover cable. Figure 10-7 Establishing a Console Session with HyperTerminal Straight-Through Cable Serial Cable Console (Rollover) Crossover Cable The following resources are required: ■ ■ ■ Computer with a serial interface and HyperTerminal loaded Cisco router Console (rollover) cable for connecting the workstation to the router Task 1: Connect a Router and Computer with a Console Cable Step 1.6.282 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Lab 10-3: Establishing a Console Session with HyperTerminal (10. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ Connect a router and computer using a console cable. 2500.1) Upon completion of this lab.

Start the HyperTerminal application. in the Connect using field. COM 1. you might have to use an USB connection rather than the COM port. enter the appropriate connection type. At the Connection Description window. enable power to the computer and router. or leave the default. You need to fill in a number to be able to continue. Click OK. Step 2. enter a session name in the Name field. From the Windows taskbar. Task 2: Configure HyperTerminal to Establish a Console Session with a Cisco IOS Router Step 1. Figure 10-8 shows an example of the opening HyperTerminal configuration window. Power on the devices. If you are accessing HyperTerminal for the first time. Figure 10-9 HyperTerminal Connection Type . start the HyperTerminal program by clicking Start > All Programs > Accessories > Communications > HyperTerminal. Figure 10-8 HyperTerminal Connection Description Window In the Connect To window shown in Figure 10-9. Click OK. If not already powered on. Note to instructors: On newer systems. Configure HyperTerminal. the program prompts for an area code/phone number.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 283 Step 2. Select an appropriate icon.

Step 3. If there is no connection. When finished. Enter a name for the session. If there is still no connection. . Step 1. and then click Open. Select the saved session. ask the instructor for assistance. this indicates that connection has been successfully completed. Click File > Open. Close HyperTerminal. This time. change port settings to the values in Table 10-15. click Cancel. There should be a response from the router. For example. verify that the router has power. Step 4. click Yes. When asked whether to save the session.284 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide In the COM 1 Properties box shown in Figure 10-10. Reconnect the HyperTerminal session. exit HyperTerminal. Check the connection to the correct COM 1 port on the PC and the console port on the router. Figure 10-10 HyperTerminal COM 1 Port Settings Table 10-15 HyperTerminal Port Settings Settings Value Bits per second Data bits Parity Stop bits Flow control Click OK. Use this technique to reconnect the HyperTerminal session to a Cisco device without reconfiguring a new session. 9600 8 None 1 None When the HyperTerminal session window comes up. Reopen the HyperTerminal session as described in Task 2. troubleshoot as necessary. press the Enter key. When finished. Click File > Exit. close the HyperTerminal session. when the Connection Description window opens.

From the Windows taskbar. change port settings to the values shown in Table 10-16. COM 1. If not already powered on. Step 4. in the Connect using field. Select an appropriate icon. enter the appropriate connection type. Configure HyperTerminal. See Figure 10-11. In the Connect To window. 9600 8 None 1 None . Step 2. Start the HyperTerminal application. Set up the basic physical connection. At the opening HyperTerminal Connection Description window. Power on the devices. Click OK. Connect the console (rollover) cable to the console port on the router. Step 3. or leave the default. you make a serial connection between the host computer and a Cisco IOS switch. Step 1. start the HyperTerminal program by clicking Start > Programs > Accessories > Communications > HyperTerminal. In this task.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 285 Task 3: Configure HyperTerminal to Establish a Console Session with a Cisco IOS Switch Serial connections between Cisco IOS routers and switches are similar. enter a session name in the Name field. enable power to the computer and switch. to configure HyperTerminal. In the COM 1 Properties window. Click OK. Connect the other cable end to the host computer with a DB-9 or DB-25 adapter to the COM 1 port. Use the procedure described in Task 2. Figure 10-11 Serial Connection Between a Host Computer and Cisco Switch 1 S1 Step 2. Table 10-16 Port Settings Settings Value Bits per second Data bits Parity Stop bits Flow control Click OK.

ask the instructor for assistance. close the HyperTerminal session. Remove the rollover cable. If there is no connection. and be able to identify the different cable types. press the Enter key. Close HyperTerminal. You will only be able to connect to the router if you are using the proper settings. click No. and leave the room ready for the next class. turn off power to the host computer and router. There should be a response from the switch. For example. Task 3: Reflection This lab provided information for establishing a console connection to a Cisco IOS router and switch. verify that the switch has power. Step 5. When asked whether to save the session. Task 5: Clean Up Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. If there is still no connection. troubleshoot as necessary. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. Check the connection to the correct COM 1 port on the PC and the console port on the switch. Be sure to remember the correct HyperTerminal port settings.286 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide When the HyperTerminal session window comes up. When finished. Compare the differences. Task 4: Challenge Draw the pin connections for the rollover cable and straight-through cable. . Click File > Exit. this indicates that connection has been successfully completed.

Any router that meets the interface requirements may be used. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ Connect a router and computer using a console cable.ayera. 2600 routers. but it can be downloaded from the following http://www. Connect the other cable end to the PC with a DB-9 or DB-25 adapter to the COM 1 port. Note to instructor: TeraTerm is not available on the Eagle Server.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 287 Lab 10-3 (Alternative): Establishing a Console Session with TeraTerm Upon completion of this lab. Connect the console (rollover) cable to the console port on the router. Configure TeraTerm to establish a console session with the router. Scenario Cable a network similar to Figure 10-12. Background TeraTerm Web is another simple Windows-based terminal emulation program for serial communication that can be used to connect to the console port on Cisco IOS devices. Ensure that power is turned off on the computer and Cisco router. 2500. Possible routers include 800. Power on the devices. Set up the basic physical connection. Step 2. or a combination. 1700. Enable power to the computer and router. . 1600.com/teraterm/. Figure 10-12 Establishing a Console Session with TeraTerm Straight-Through Cable Serial Cable Console (Rollover) Crossover Cable The following resources are required: ■ ■ ■ Computer with a serial interface and TeraTerm Pro loaded Cisco router Console (rollover) cable for connecting the workstation to the router Task 1: Connect a Router and Computer with a Console Cable Step 1.

click Yes. If there is no connection. Cisco switches are accessed in the same way. This time. Click File > Open. Step 1. ttermpro. Task 3: Reflection This lab provided information for establishing a console connection to a Cisco router. Reopen the TeraTerm Web session as described in Task 2. If there is still no connection. Start TeraTerm Web application. When asked whether to save the session. Refer to Figure 10-13. click Cancel. Check the connection to the COM 1 port on the PC and the console port on the router. . Close TeraTerm Web. this indicates that the connection has been successfully completed. Click OK. When finished. There should be a response from the router. From the Windows taskbar. Use this technique to reconnect the TeraTerm Web session to a Cisco device without reconfiguring a new session.288 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 2: Configure TeraTerm Web to Establish a Console Session with the Router Step 1. and starting the TeraTerm Web application. Step 2. ask the instructor for assistance. when the New Description window opens (see Figure 10-13). and then click Open. Remember that you must use the correct serial port configurations to connect to the Cisco device via Minicom. Step 4. Figure 10-13 TeraTerm Web Connection Configuration Window When the TeraTerm Web session window comes up. Click File > Exit. start the TeraTerm Web program by opening the TeraTerm Web folder. Configure TeraTerm Web Click File > New Connection. Step 3. close the TeraTerm Web session. Reconnect the TeraTerm Web session. press the Enter key. troubleshoot as necessary. Enter a name for the session. verify that the router has power. For example. Select the appropriate serial COM port. Select the saved session.

A summary of the instructions is provided within the Packet Tracer activity. and be able to identify the different cable types. Compare the differences. and leave the room ready for the next class.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 289 Task 4: Challenge Draw the pin connections for the rollover cable and straight-through cable.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab10622.6. However. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. keep in mind that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. Remove the rollover cable. Task 5: Clean Up Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. turn off power to the host computer and router. Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Establishing a Console Session with PT Terminal (10.2. .

Power on the devices. Set up the basic physical connection.290 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Lab 10-4: Establishing a Console Session with Minicom (10. Figure 10-14 Topology for Lab 10-4 Straight-Through Cable Serial Cable Console (Rollover) Crossover Cable The following resources are required: ■ ■ ■ Linux/UNIX computer with a serial interface and Minicom loaded Cisco router Console (rollover) cable for connecting the workstation to the router Task 1: Connect a Router and Computer with a Console Cable Step 1. Configure Minicom to establish a console session with the router. Background Minicom is a text-based UNIX terminal emulation program. Any router that meets the interface requirements may be used. or a combination. Step 2. Ensure that power is turned off on the computer and Cisco router. 1600. Perform basic commands. . you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ Connect a router and computer using a console cable. The Linux or UNIX operating system is required.6. 2500. similar to the Windows HyperTerminal program. Connect the other cable end to the PC with a DB-9 or DB-25 adapter to the COM 1 port. such as controlling a modem or accessing a Cisco router through the serial console connection. Scenario Set up a network similar to the one in Figure 10-14. 1700. Enable power to the computer and router.3. Connect the console (rollover) cable to the console port on the router. 2600 routers. Minicom can be used for many purposes. Possible routers include 800.1) Upon completion of this lab.

root access is required. Press Enter. From the Linux command prompt. Figure 10-15 shows the main configuration window. Note: To configure Minicom. To configure the serial port.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 291 Task 2: Configure Minicom to Establish a Console Session with the Router Step 1. This starts Minicom in configuration mode: [root]# minicom –s <ENTER> Step 2. Start the Minicom application in configuration mode. enter the minicom command with the –s option. . Figure 10-16 Serial Port Configuration Window Table 10-17 Serial Port Settings Option Field Value A Serial Device Dev/ttyS0 for COM 1 /dev/ttyS1 for COM 2 E Bps/Par/Bits Bps: 9600 Par: None Bits: 8 Stop bits: 1 (or. select option Q) F G Hardware Flow Control Software Flow Control Toggle: No Toggle: No Return to the Configuration menu by pressing Enter or Esc. Configure Minicom for serial communications. Figure 10-15 Main Configuration Window Figure 10-16 shows the serial port configuration window. to start Minicom. Use the letter by the field to change a setting. Table 10-17 shows the correct values. scroll down the configuration list and select Serial port setup.

use <Ctrl> A. For example. However. There should be a response from the router. For example. Task 3: Perform Basic Commands Minicom is a text-based. verify that the router has power. followed by Z. Step 4. serial communication utility. Check the connection to the correct COM 1 port on the PC and the console port on the router. Basic commands are not intuitive. Select Exit from Minicom. Restart the Minicom session. If there is no connection. the default values will be reloaded. Cisco switches are accessed in the same fashion. close the Minicom session. as follows: [root]# minicom <ENTER> When the session window starts. Figure 10-18 Minicom Command Summary Screen Task 4: Reflection This lab provided information for establishing a console connection to a Cisco router using Minicom. To quit Minicom. When Minicom is restarted. menu-driven. Figure 10-18 shows a list of functions and corresponding keys.292 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide In the window shown in Figure 10-17. press the Enter key. press <Ctrl> A. to control the utility. Figure 10-17 Serial Port Configuration Window Step 3. users communicate with remote devices within the terminal window. To get help. select Save setup as dfl (default file). followed by either Q or X. press <Ctrl> A. troubleshoot as necessary. When finished. this indicates that a connection has been successfully completed. Close Minicom. .

252 255.168.1.126 192.168.133 192.168.255. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ ■ Build the network topology.126 192.255.255. turn off power to the host computer and router. Plan the IP addresses.1.240 255.252 255.255.137 192.168.62 192.138 192.255. Upon completion of this lab.1.252 255.252 255.255.93 255.255.255.255.255.255.168.1.168.134 192.168.255.240 255. Packet Tracer Challenge Skills and Integration Challenge: Planning and Cabling Networks (10. Test the network.1 192.1.168.130 192.240 255. Remove the rollover cable.224 255.1.1.1.255.168.110 192.168.252 255.1.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer.168.94 R2 Fa0/0 Fa0/1 S0/0/0 S0/0/1 R3 Fa0/0 S0/0/0 S0/0/1 PC1-A PC2-A PC3-A Eagle-Server NIC NIC NIC NIC . Background Table 10-18 shows the addressing for this lab.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 293 Task 5: Clean Up Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. Remove anything that was brought into the lab.255.62 192.1.192 255.255.1.1.1.255. Configure router and PC interfaces.252 255.113 192. and leave the room ready for the next class.168.1.94 192.129 192.168.255.192 255.255.1.168.110 192.97 192.255. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity.255.1.3) You can now open the file LSG01-PTSkills10.255.224 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 192.168. However.168.7.1. Table 10-18 Addressing Table Device Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1 Fa0/0 S0/0/0 S0/0/1 192.1.255.255.255.1.255.168.255.240 255. keep in mind that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment.168.255.255.

0 /24 address space.1. assign the networks in decreasing order of number of hosts required for efficient use of address space. Use Table 10-21 and Table 10-22 to create an effective addressing scheme. Table 10-20 Switches Hostname Interface Connects To Interfaces SW-1 SW-2A SW-2B SW-3 Fa0/2 Fa0/2 Fa0/2) Fa0/2 PC-1A PC-1B Eagle-Server PC-1C FastEthernet FastEthernet FastEthernet FastEthernet Task 2: Create and Assign an Addressing Scheme You are asked to use the 192. and configuration skills. Seven total networks are required.168. planning.294 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Practice your network building. Table 10-19 shows the router information. Device names and routing have already been configured. Table 10-21 LAN Hostname Interface Number of Hosts R1 R2 Fa0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/1 60 10 30 7 R3 Fa0/0 . Task 1: Build the Network Topology Use the following tables and the devices in the device pool to create the topology. Table 10-19 Routers Hostname Interface Connects To Interfaces R1 R1 R1 R2 R2 R2 R3 Fa0/0 S0/0/0 (DCE) S0/0/1 (DCE) Fa0/0 S0/0/1 (DCE) Fa0/1 Fa0/0 SW-1 R2 R3 SW-2A R3 SW-2B SW-3 Fa0/1 S0/0/0 S0/0/1 Fa0/1 S0/0/0 Fa0/1 Fa0/1 Table 10-20 shows the switch information.

■ ■ Task 3: Interface Configuration Perform interface configuration of the R1. the PCs. R2. the R1–R3 link will use the second WAN subnet. Task 4: Testing Connectivity Make sure all PCs can ping their gateways. R1 and R2 DCE interfaces should have clock rates of 56000. and the server according to the preceding addressing scheme. and the R2–R3 link will use the third WAN subnet. All Fast Ethernet ports on a router will use the last host address of the assigned subnet. The R1–R2 link will use the first WAN subnet. and R3 routers. the server will use the second to last host address in its subnet.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 295 Table 10-22 WAN Hostname Address to be Assigned Number of Hosts R1–R3 R1–R3 R2–R3 R1–First host address R1–First host address R2–First host address 2 2 2 Use the following rules to assign IP addresses: ■ PCs will use the first host address in the subnet. and the server. . other PCs.

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Discuss when and why you would use a certain method. troubleshooting. Not all devices have an AUX port. hands-on skills you need. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum activities and labs to ensure you have mastered the practical. or use the corresponding Chapter 11 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration Companion Guide. Access through the AUX port does not require network services on the device. The AUX port can be used to access the device either locally or through a dialup connection. addressing. When an AUX port is available. it is important to protect it with a password. Telnet and SSH provide remote access to the device and require network services. and quality of service. SSH uses more secure password authentication and encrypts the data for transport. It provides a number of network services. Understanding these functions and being able to access them is essential for network administrators and technicians. The operating system on most Cisco devices is the Cisco IOS. such as routing and switching. fill-in-the-blank. . just like the console port. and password recovery. It is important to configure the console port with a password and prevent physical access to the router by keeping it in a locked room. security. and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of configuring and testing networks. What security concerns do you need to consider for the different access methods? Answers will vary. As you work through this chapter. SSH is preferred over Telnet. The console port provides a low-speed serial connection and is used mainly when network services are unavailable on the device—during initial configuration. Study Guide Configuring Cisco Devices: IOS Basics Routers and switches need an operating system to function. Concept Questions 1.CHAPTER 11 Configuring and Testing Your Network The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of matching. Describe the different access methods for Cisco devices. for assistance. disaster recovery. For security reasons. multiple-choice. use Chapter 11 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum.

Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 11-1. and how they relate to each other. Table 11-1 Prompt IOS Configuration Modes IOS Configuration Mode a. It is important to save changes that need to be permanent. User EXEC mode d. Switch> b. Compare and contrast the two main configuration files on Cisco devices in terms of function. The main advantage is the controlled access or security. Therefore. these changes are not permanent unless they are written to the startup configuration file in NVRAM. The running configuration file is lost when the device is powered down. Authentication can be configured for different modes. Router# c. Global configuration mode a. the startup configuration file loads into RAM. Any configuration changes that are made to the device are written to the running configuration file. 3. Answers may vary. Describe the advantage of the hierarchical modal structure. Interface configuration mode Cisco IOS Command Exercises Answer these questions based on the following command: Router#show ip interface brief 1.298 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide 2. location. it becomes the running configuration file—the file that is used to operate the device. Switch(config-if)# b. A network technician might be allowed to look at configurations but not change them. Each time a device is started or reloaded. Privileged EXEC mode c. the startup configuration file stays intact when the device is powered off. the network administrator can grant different personnel different levels of access. For example. which is volatile memory. Answers may vary. The startup configuration file is stored in nonvolatile RAM (NVRAM). because this file is stored in RAM. These changes are active immediately. Router(config)# d. 2. After it is loaded into RAM. match the device prompt on the left with the correct IOS configuration mode on the right. What is the name of the command? show Does this command use arguments or keywords? Keywords . Because this file is in RAM.

Table 11-2 Key IOS Command-Line Help Function Tab Ctrl-R Ctrl-Z Up arrow Down arrow Ctrl-D Ctrl-C Ctrl-Shift-6 Backspace exit Autocomplete: completes the remainder of the command or keyword Redisplays a line Exits configuration mode and returns to privileged EXEC mode Scrolls backwards through previously entered commands Scrolls forward through previously entered commands Deletes the character to the right of the cursor Aborts the current command and exits configuration mode Interrupts an IOS process such as ping or traceroute Deletes the character to the left of the cursor A command to move up one level in the configuration mode hierarchy Applying a Basic Configuration Using Cisco IOS All networking devices need a basic configuration to be functional. . and the IP addresses and descriptions on the interface. Because configuration files are critical. and IP addresses are needed to establish connectivity with other devices on the network. Hostnames are important for network documentation and remote access. Passwords establish basic security at the local level. and flash. ROM. show version: IOS information in RAM show startup-config: Backup configuration file in NVRAM show running-config: Active configuration file in RAM show flash: Operating systems stored in flash Test Your Knowledge Use Table 11-2 to test your knowledge of the command-line interface (CLI) shortcuts and hot keys. passwords. The most important initial configuration parameters include hostnames. the network administrator needs to exercise proper file management by saving changes to the configuration and by backing up configuration files. NVRAM. Possible locations are RAM. Where do the following commands get the information they display? Name the file if applicable and the storage location of this information.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 299 3.

3. Most networking devices. such as routers and switches. 1. Banners provide a method for declaring that only authorized personnel should have access to the devices. Router(config)# interface 0/1/0 b. This can prove helpful if somebody breaks into the system and a legal case arises. c. Therefore. and they need to be worded carefully. d. Explain why the hostname is an extremely important feature for networking devices. help the administrator know what device he or she is connected to. It is good practice to advise against unauthorized access with the help of banners. and explain why they should contain some type of warning message. Enter global configuration mode. . proper file management is very important. Network configuration files are extremely important on a production network. Answers will vary. The directory structure needs to be logical and should be documented. Router(config)# interface s0/1/0 d. They are visible to anyone who logs on to the system. Answers will vary. The filename also needs to indicate the hostname of the device it belongs to. The administrator needs to have fast access to the desired files. Enable the interface.) a. Which of the following interface commands allows you to enter interface configuration mode to configure a router’s interface? a. Hostnames are a vital part of network management. There should always be backup copies of files to aid in disaster recovery. Briefly explain the purpose of banners. Router(config)> interface s0/1/0 2. Enter interface configuration mode. Router# interface s0 c. together with up-to-date documentation. Which of the following steps are required to configure an Ethernet interface? (Choose all that apply. a logical naming scheme that includes version control is critical. because this lets you sort files by date if needed. Hostnames. Multiple-Choice Questions Choose the best possible answer(s) for the following questions dealing with interface configuration network testing. Answers may vary. Specify the interface address and subnet mask. Explain how good management of configuration files can be implemented. such as from an office. Backing up configuration files is part of good file management. Therefore. Be specific in your answer. This means that the administrator connects to the networking devices via the network. 2.300 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Concept Questions 1. Including dates in the naming convention can be helpful. are managed remotely. Filenaming conventions are extremely important. b. The administrator does not have the physical devices in front of him or her to make sure they are attached to the correct piece of equipment.

The ping 127. Like other hosts. Because it uses a protocol stack to perform connectivity testing. A connectivity problem has occurred along the path. a switch needs a default gateway address defined to communicate with hosts outside the local network. . The letter U: A router along the path did not have a route to the destination address and responded with an ICMP unreachable message. It is possible that a router along the path did not have a route to the destination and did not send an ICMP destination unreachable message. Test Your Knowledge The ping utility yields useful indicators that can be used for troubleshooting. The output provided by the utilities and the show commands provides useful information for troubleshooting. and Layer 3 connectivity has been established. Verifying Connectivity A network needs full connectivity to converge. Exclamation mark (!): The ping completed successfully. b. Because it tests connectivity at Layers 3. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following sentences. show interfaces c. show IP interface brief b. 2.): The ping timed out. show running-configuration d. Answers may vary. Because it tests all the layers of the OSI model. Describe the following indicators. It verifies the proper operation of the protocol stack from the network layer to the physical layer (and back) without putting a signal on the medium. Time to Live (TTL) defines the number of hops that the ping packet has remaining before it will be dropped. Because the ping test tests all the layers of the TCP/IP model. and 1 of the OSI model. Testing network connectivity is a very important task. 3. It is also possible that the ping was blocked by security measures. d.1 command can be used to test the local host IP configuration.) a. 1. Period (.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 301 3. A network administrator needs to be familiar with the different testing utilities such as ping and traceroute and the different show commands. c.0. Why is the ping test also called testing the protocol stack? a.0. 2. The output of which of the following commands shows the interface description? (Choose all that apply. Concept Question Explain how the internal IP configuration on the local host can be tested. One effective way to test network connectivity is to use the ping command. show interface description 4.

You will summarize return delay times. You will also measure delay when the ICMP datagram size increases. and some private networks block transit ICMP echo datagrams. The purpose of this lab is to measure and evaluate network latency over time.3) Upon completion of this lab. Scenario In the topology diagram shown in Figure 11-1. Compute various statistics on the output of a ping capture. Normally these devices are the ones that introduce network latency. the network cloud represents all the network devices and cabling between the student computer and the destination server computer.302 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Labs and Activities Lab 11-1: Network Latency Documentation with ping (11. Some computers have this feature disabled through a firewall. For this experiment to be interesting. Background To obtain realistic network latency statistics. The destination server computer must return ICMP echo replies.4. Be sure to check with your instructor for any local security restrictions on using the ping command on the network. which may be used in decision-making when evaluating suitable applications for wide-area network (WAN) deployment. otherwise. this lab must be performed on a live network. If you’re patient. measured in milliseconds. You will note the latency value at the center of the ordered range of latency points (median) and identify the most frequently occurring delay (mode). you can find a suitable destination. Monitoring path latency provides some measure of administrative diligence. by computing the average latency (mean).3. a sufficiently distant destination should be chosen. Figure 11-1 Topology for Lab 11-1 Server Computer Network Cloud Student Computer . to capture a representative sample of typical network activity. You will accomplish this by analyzing the return delay from a distant computer using the ping command. Destinations on the same LAN or within a few hops may return an unrepresentative low latency. You will perform statistical analysis of throughput delay with the assistance of a spreadsheet application such as Microsoft Excel. Measure delay effects from larger datagrams. delay cannot be computed. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ Use the ping command to document network latency. and during different periods of the day. Network engineers routinely rely on networks outside of local administration for connectivity to external networks.

com. The idea is to note and document latency differences that occur at different times of the day. Enter cmd. one around midday. If packets were lost. Verify connectivity between the student computer and the destination server computer. Note to Instructor: Answers will vary. When you’re done.yahoo. and retest. Maximum = 304ms .191. Open a terminal window by choosing Start > Run. and one in the evening. you will have 15 sets of data.52: bytes=32 time=304ms TTL=52 Ping statistics for 209. .5: Packets: Sent = 1.yahoo. use another destination. Average = 304 ms Use the ping /? command to answer the following questions: What is the purpose of the -n option and argument 1? The -n option determines the number of echo requests to send. The ping command might fail or succeed. depending on the destination server computer students choose.93. Task 1: Use the ping Command to Document Network Latency Step 1.191. To understand the delay effects from larger datagrams.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 303 This lab requires five days of testing. as shown in Example 11-1.52] with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 209. you will send and analyze increasingly larger ICMP datagrams. Attempt to ping a suitably distant destination.net [209.com or yahoo.93. one test should be done in the early morning. What option and argument would change the default size to 100 bytes? ping IP Address -l 100 Decide on a destination server computer. Lost = 0 (0% loss) Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 304ms.191. for example. and write down the name: Answers will vary. Students might decide to ping google. Preferably.93. such as www.com Pinging www. Received = 1. Three tests will be performed each day.akadns. and write down the results: Packets sent: _____________ Packets received: _________ Packets lost: _____________ Answers will vary.yahoo-ht3.com. Example 11-1 Ping Test C:\> ping -n 1 www. depending on the destination address. and then click OK. Use the ping command to verify connectivity with the destination.

Choose Start > Programs > Accessories > Notepad. manually fix the numbers. Bring the text file into the Microsoft Excel spreadsheet application. ensure that all numeric values are separated from text characters. and mode delay values. Choose File > Open. Step 1. When you’re finished. start Microsoft Excel. In the Text Import wizard. If it isn’t already open. where day is the day the test was performed (1 through 5) and sample# is the sample period (1 through 3).txt to the end of the ping command. If the spreadsheet has numbers in different fields. Click Browse to move to the directory that holds the text file. After the spreadsheet has been opened. you can redirect output to a file by appending >day-sample#. Note: The terminal remains blank until the command has finished. click Finish. copy the replies into Notepad.304 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Step 2. . To format a text file for use within Excel. Perform a delay test. follow the instructions to separate numeric values from text values. median. Compute the mean. When you’re done. Alternatively. Task 2: Compute Various Statistics on the Output of a ping Capture Step 1. In Step 2. you should have a spreadsheet that looks similar to Figure 11-3. The command syntax is ping [options] >day-sample#. Highlight the filename and click Open. Figure 11-2 Excel Text Import Wizard Step 2. choose Fixed Width.txt. Save the file using the name format day-sample#. format the columns so that they are more readable. Write down the command that sends 100 echo requests to the destination: ping -n 100 Use the ping command to send 100 echo requests to your destination. shown in Figure 11-2.txt. When the input formatting is satisfactory.

If a header row was highlighted. Finally. When you’re finished. Figure 11-4 shows a partial spreadsheet highlighted and the Data dialog box opened. Figure 11-4 Ordering on the Delay Column .Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 305 Figure 11-3 Partial Spreadsheet Record the number of dropped packets in the column Dropped Packets. In Figure 11-4 it is Column G. Dropped packets have a consistently large delay value. Select the column that contains the Delay values. You do this by choosing Data > Sort. click OK. the delay values must be ordered (sorted) when computing the median and mode values. click the Header row radio button. Highlight all the data fields.

as shown in the following command. For this spreadsheet. Perform a variable-sized delay test.txt.txt Note: The terminal remains blank until the command has finished. >>.5) would generate the sequence 1 2 3 4 5. Issue this command: FOR /L %i IN (100. or average. You may either save or discard the new spreadsheet file. Step 1. as well as a chart that plots size versus delay. The formula used to compute the median delay. and (5. The easiest way to accomplish this task is to use the Windows built-in FOR loop command. Record this number in your chart in the Median column.end) DO command [command-parameters] The set is a sequence of numbers from start to end. The formula used to compute the modal delay. For the median value. The syntax is FOR /L %variable IN (start.2000) DO ping -n 1 -l %i destination Copy the output into Notepad.1. and only the last reply is saved. but you should retain the data text file. FOR /L %i IN (100.306 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide The formula used to compute the mean. delay is the sum of the delays divided by the number of measurements. You will create a spreadsheet with the reply results. Perform a quick visual inspection to verify that your mean value is approximately the value shown. overwrites the file each time the ping command is executed. . To redirect output to a file. In this analysis.100. is similar to the average formula. All 20 replies are arranged similarly. For the mode value. destination is the destination. Record this number in your chart in the Mode column. the formula in cell G103 would be =median(G2:G101).1) would generate the sequence (5 4 3 2 1). In the following command.–1. Perform a quick visual inspection to verify that your mode value is the most frequently occurring value in the data range. Record this number in your chart in the Mean column. So (1. Perform a quick visual inspection to verify that your median value is similar to what is shown midway in the data range. Task 3: Measure Delay Effects from Larger Datagrams To determine if larger datagrams affect delay.step. this would equate to the formula in cell G102: =average(G2:G101). >. by step amount. and save the file using the name variablesizedelay. you will send increasingly larger ICMP echo requests to the destination. is also similar. or the delay value that occurs the most frequently.100. 20 datagrams will be incremented by 100 bytes per ping request. The normal redirect operator. use the redirect append operator. the formula in cell G104 would be =mode(G2:G101).2000) DO ping -n 1 -l %i destination >> variablesizedelay. The output of one line is shown in Example 11-2. or the delay value in the center of the ordered range.

191. Bring the text file into the Excel spreadsheet application.191.93. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 383ms. and submit them to your instructor with the final delay analysis.txt C:\> ping -n 1 -l 100 Pinging www. the spreadsheet should look similar to Figure 11-6.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 307 Example 11-2 Variable-Size Delay Test C:\> FOR /L %i IN (100. Highlight the Delay column data and choose Insert > Chart. A chart should be clear. When you’re finished. A number of charts can be used to display delay data.52: Packets: Sent = 1. Format the spreadsheet. Maximum = 383ms. Received = 1.93.yahoo. a delay might occur. Create a chart of the data.2000) DO ping -n 1 -l %i www. Can you make any assumptions about delay when larger datagrams are sent across a network? Answers may vary. Figure 11-5 Excel Text Import Wizard The difference between this file and the previous one is that the variable-size file has much more information than is really needed.100. save your spreadsheet and chart. but there is room for individual creativity. . as shown in Figure 11-5. Bytes and Delay.93. depending on available bandwidth and other traffic on the network. When you’re finished.52] with 100 bytes of data: Reply from 209.akadns.net [209. Step 4. Average = 383ms Step 2.52: bytes=100 time=383ms TTL=52 Ping statistics for 209. When larger datagrams are sent. The chart shown in Figure 11-7 is a stacked line chart. Step 3.191.yahoo-ht3. Lost = 0 (0% loss). Open the new text file in Excel. Clean up and organize the spreadsheet data into two columns.com >>variablesizedelay.

Also. For example. If delays are caused by events within the organization. network devices may become overwhelmed during certain times of the day. subscribing with a different or additional Internet service provider (ISP) may prove beneficial. network analysis tools can be used to determine the source. Careful delay analysis over successive days and at different times of the day can alert the network engineer to changes in network performance. If that does not work. . routine data transfers should be scheduled during off-peak times. when delay is less. and network delay spikes. When the source originates from external networks not under the control of the organization.308 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 11-6 Formatted Spreadsheet Figure 11-7 Plot of Delay Versus Datagram Size Task 4: Reflection The ping command can provide important network latency information. many users subscribe to peer-to-peer applications such as Kazaa and Napster. try to work out the problem with the ISP first. When these file-sharing applications are active. valuable bandwidth is diverted from critical business applications. In this case. and corrective action can be taken.

Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 309 Task 5: Challenge If permitted. download a large file.or two-paragraph analysis that compares these delay results against a measurement made without the download. . and perform a separate delay test while the file is downloading. Write a one.

consider configur- ing a loopback interface as an alternative to the FastEthernet 0/1. Configure Cisco router interfaces. Figure 11-8 Topology for Lab 11-2 1 Fa0/0 Fa0/1 Fa0/1 R1 Fa0/2 S1 Fa0/3 2 3 Gather the necessary equipment and cables. Configure Cisco router password access. Configure a Cisco switch. .1. To configure the lab. Common configuration tasks include setting the hostname. access passwords. Another alternative would be to use two routers connected through a serial connection and use the FastEthernet interfaces from each router.5. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Configure Cisco router global configuration settings. Table 11-3 Hardware Equipment and Hardware Requirements Quantity Description Cisco router Cisco switch Computer (host) Console (rollover) cable Crossover cable Straight-through cable 1 1 3 3 1 3 Part of the CCNA Lab bundle Part of the CCNA Lab bundle Lab computer Connects computer Host1 to the router console port Connects the computer to the router LAN interface FA0/0 Connects computer hosts to the switch and the switch to the router Note to Instructor: If you do not have a router that has two FastEthernet interfaces.1) Learning Objectives Upon completion of this lab. Save the router configuration file. make sure that the equipment listed in Table 11-3 is available.310 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Lab 11-2: Basic Cisco Device Configuration (11. and message-of-the-day (MOTD) banner. Background Figure 11-8 shows the topology for this lab.

(Hint: fill in the subnet number and then the host address.193 192. Address information is easy to compute with the subnet number filled in first.133.133.174 192.133.32 192.111 192.224 192.133.16 192.133.219.255. you will configure common settings on a Cisco router and Cisco switch.219. with 4 bits borrowed for subnets.62 192.133.133.133.112 192.219. Scenario In this lab.219.159 192.219.219.208 192.133.133.219. In addition to assigning a Layer 3 IP address.219.219.161 192.133.133.0 # Subnet 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 192.133.219. Configuration changes take effect immediately.47 192.80 192.219.219.219.133.133. Given an IP address of 198.64 192.219.219.144 192.219.133.219.223 192.133.0/24. and rollover cables.1 192.95 192.133.219.129 192.190 192.255.133.219.222 192.79 192.133.133.219.133. have several different types of cables available for the students. Cisco IOS switch configuration is similar to Cisco IOS router configuration.209 192.219.192 192. Maximum number of usable subnets (including the 0th subnet): 16 Number of usable hosts per subnet: 14 Table 11-4 Subnet Address Table Subnet mask: 255.240 First host address Last Host Address Broadcast IP address: 192.133.219.255 .219.219.15 192.239 192.219.133.133.33 192.48 192.219.240 192.219.133.133.219.219.219.65 192.219 192.133.219.95 192.133.219.133.241 192.96 192.133.133.219.133.133. straight-through.219.133.) Note to Instructor: To reinforce student cable identification.133.133.219.219.133.225 192.219.143 192.219.158 192. The changes must be saved in NVRAM to be persistent across reboot.78 192.133.160 192.133.133.110 192.219.219.142 192.219.219.133.133.219.238 192.30 192.177 192.207 192.133.219.219.133.219. fill in Table 11-4.219.219.254 192.219.219.176 192.133.219.175 192.219.128 192.133.207 192.133.191 192.219.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 311 Interface configuration is extremely important.14 192.81 192.219.133.219.133.133.219.133.219. entering a description that describes the destination connection decreases troubleshooting time.133.219.219.219.219.127 192. Students should be able to identify the proper cable type based on a visual inspection.17 192.133.126 192.133.133. Configuration changes may also be saved offline in a text file for auditing or device replacement.31 192.133.133.113 192.133.133.133.63 192.219.133.133.133.46 192.0 192.133.219.133.97 192.219.219.145 192. Mix crossover.

Configure HyperTerminal with the proper settings: ■ ■ Name the connection description: Lab 11_5_1 Connect using: COM1 (or an appropriate COM port) Configure the COM1 properties: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Bits per second: 9600 Data bits: 8 Parity: None Stop bits: 1 Flow control: None When the HyperTerminal session window comes up. Connect a straight-through cable between the Router interface Fa0/1 and any of the switch’s interfaces (1 through 24). Connect the other end of the cable to the host computer using a DB-9 adapter to the COM 1 port. and router. From the Widows taskbar.312 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Before proceeding. Physically connect the devices. Figure 11-9 Lab Cabling 1 Fa0/0 Fa0/1 R1 Straight-Through Cable Serial Cable Console (Rollover) Crossover Cable Step 2. Connect host computer through HyperTerminal. Connect the console or rollover cable to the console port on the router. switch. Give each team of students a subnetwork number. The instructor will assign subnetworks. Figure 11-9 shows the cabling for this lab. press the Enter key until the router responds. . Task 1: Configure Cisco Router Global Configuration Settings Step 1. Connect the crossover cable between the host computer’s network interface card (NIC) and Router interface Fa0/0. start the HyperTerminal program by choosing Start > Programs > Accessories > Communications > HyperTerminal. verify your addresses with the instructor. Ensure that power has been applied to the host computer.

This can take from several seconds to several minutes. However.domain server (255. release. Step 3. Because no domain server is configured. If your router does not have a default configuration. and then press X. apply the global configuration command no ip domain-lookup. From user EXEC mode...Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 313 If the router terminal is in configuration mode. it should have no configured passwords or IP addresses. your configuration may look slightly different from a typical default router’s configuration. What two commands may be used to leave privileged EXEC mode? exit or end What shortcut command can you use to enter privileged EXEC mode? en Examine the different configuration modes that can be entered with the command configure?. To terminate the domain name lookup process. Depending on the router’s model and the IOS version. release.255. and describe them: confirm: Confirms replacement of running-config with a new config file memory: Configures from nonvolatile memory network: Configures from a TFTP network host overwrite-network: Overwrites nonvolatile memory from the TFTP network host replace: Replaces the running-config with a new config file terminal: Configures from the terminal <cr> . it must be removed. press Ctrl-Shift-6. and then press X. ask the instructor to remove the configuration. Configure global configuration hostname settings. enter privileged EXEC mode: Router> enable Router# Verify a clean configuration file using the privileged EXEC command show runningconfig. The following shows a user mistyping a command and the router attempting a domain name lookup: Router>enabel Translating “enabel”. If a configuration file was previously saved. Write down the list of configuration modes. a delay occurs while the request times out. This results in the following: Name lookup aborted Router> To disable name translation attempts.255. the router attempts to translate any misspelled or unrecognized commands as a domain name.255) % Press Ctrl-Shift-6. exit by entering no: Would you like to enter the initial configuration dialog? [yes/no]: no Press RETURN to get started! Router> In privileged EXEC command mode.

The corporate security policy should cover all banner messages. a court might interpret a friendly “Welcome” message as permission for an attacker to hack into the router. Unauthorized access will be prosecuted. where ‘c’ is a delimiting character Examine the different banner modes that can be entered. suppose you are connected to an ABC network device. enter global configuration mode: Router# configuration terminal Router(config)# What three methods may be used to leave global configuration mode and return to privileged EXEC mode? The exit command. Router1(config)# banner ? LINE: c banner-text c. penalties for unauthorized access. For example. exec: Sets the EXEC process creation banner incoming: Sets the incoming terminal line banner login: Sets the login banner motd: Sets the message-of-the-day banner prompt-timeout: Sets the message for the login authentication timeout slip-ppp: Sets the message for SLIP/PPP . and applicable local laws. For example. A banner should include information about authorization. Write down the list of banner modes.314 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide From privileged EXEC mode. Access is granted to only current ABC system administrators with prior written approval. and all connection information will be logged. Create a suitable MOTD banner. the end command. Configure the MOTD banner. All connections are continuously logged. banner content may have a significant legal impact on the organization. connection logging. In production networks. Only system administrators of the ABC Company are authorized users. Unauthorized access is prohibited and will be prosecuted. and describe them. and Ctrl-Z What shortcut command can be used to enter global configuration mode? config t Set the device hostname to Router1: router(config)# hostname Router1 Router1(config)# How can the hostname be removed? no hostname Router1 Step 4.

because it controls access to configuration mode. Step 1. Cisco says “As far as anyone at Cisco knows. Configure the privileged EXEC password. Cisco IOS supports two commands that set access to privileged EXEC mode. aux.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 315 Choose a terminating character that will not be used in the message text.” Password security relies on the password .oooO--(_)--Oooo. Configure the MOTD banner. such as % (percent). *** % Router1(config)# What is the global configuration command to remove the MOTD banner? no banner motd Personal banners on nonproduction devices can be entertaining. as shown in Example 11-3. One command. *** *** Unauthorized access is prohibited. contains no encryption or weak cryptography and should never be used if the enable secret command is available. *** All connections are continuously logged. The following is a banner made from ASCII art that can be copied into the router: ( o o ) +------------------. The MOTD banner is displayed on all connections before the login prompt. )--------------------+ ) / (_/ | | | +---------------------\ (----( \_) Task 2: Configure Cisco Router Password Access Access passwords are set for privileged EXEC mode and the user entry point such as console. it is impossible to recover an enable secret based on the contents of a configuration file (other than by obvious dictionary attacks). and will be prosecuted. End with the character %’ ***You are connected to an ABC network device.oooO ( ) Oooo. The enable secret command uses a very secure MD5 cryptographic hash algorithm.------------------+ | | | . The privileged EXEC mode password is the most critical password. Access is granted to only current ABC company system administrators with prior written approval. Use the terminating character on a blank line to end the MOTD entry. Example 11-3 banner motd Output Router1(config)# banner motd % Enter TEXT message. enable password. and virtual lines.

In production environments. Table 11-5 Command Ways to Exit Line Configuration Mode Effect exit end Ctrl-Z Returns to global configuration mode. access on that virtual line is blocked. Router1(config-line)# line vty 0 4 Router1(config-line)# password cisco Router1(config-line)# login There are three ways to exit line configuration mode. Issue the command exit. Unless a Telnet password is set. In a lab environment. In early Cisco IOS versions. numbers.316 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide algorithm and the password. the number has been expanded. Set the privileged EXEC password to class: Router1(config)# enable secret class Router1(config)# Step 2. strong passwords should be used at all times. Set the virtual line access password to cisco. we will use weak passwords. Configure the console password. What is the router prompt? What is the mode? Router1(config-line)# exit Router1(config)# Global configuration mode Issue the command end. Exits the configuration and returns to privileged EXEC mode. The console password controls console access to the router. Router1(config)# line console 0 Router1(config-line)# password cisco Router1(config-line)# login What is the command to remove the console password? no password cisco Step 3. The virtual line password controls Telnet access to the router. Configure the virtual line password. only five virtual lines could be set—0 through 4. and symbols. A strong password consists of at least nine characters of uppercase and lowercase letters. Set the console access password to cisco. Fill in Table 11-5 with the correct answers. In newer Cisco IOS versions. What is the router prompt? What is the mode? Router1# Privileged EXEC mode .

Write down the last IP address: Answers will vary.1 The last IP address will be used to configure the router fa0/0 interface.255. Figure 11-10 shows a network topology in which a host computer is connected to Router 1. On newer Cisco IOS versions. Configure the router interface Fa0/0. 192.1.168.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 317 Task 3: Configure Cisco Router Interfaces All cabled interfaces should contain documentation about the connection. Apply the description on the router interface with the interface configuration command description. Example 11-4 Interface Configuration Router1(config)# interface fa0/0 Router1(config-if)# description Connection to Host1 with crossover cable Router1(config-if)# ip address address mask Router1(config-if)# no shutdown Router1(config-if)# end Router1# .1.168. Write a short description for the connections on Router1: Fa0/0 -> Connection to Host1 with crossover cable. Write down the first IP address: Answers will vary. 192. interface Fa0/0.0 255. as shown in Example 11-4.168. the maximum description length is 240 characters.1. Figure 11-10 Network Topology 1 Fa0/0 Fa0/1 R1 Straight-Through Cable Serial Cable Console (Rollover) Crossover Cable Write down your subnet number and mask: Answers will vary.240 The first IP address will be used to configure the host computer LAN.255. depending on which subnet students choose from Table 11-4.14 Step 1. 192.

and verify network settings with the ipconfig command. Verify network connectivity. Fill in the following fields: ■ ■ ■ IP Address: The first host address Subnet Mask: The subnet mask Default Gateway: The router’s IP address Click OK. Configure the router interface Fa0/1. Open a Windows command window. and choose Properties. troubleshoot the connection. Use the ping command to verify network connectivity with the router. Step 4. Rightclick the LAN icon.602: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet0/0. changed state to up Step 2. as shown in Example 11-5. Configure the host computer for LAN connectivity. changed state to up Step 3. Recall that you access the LAN configuration window by choosing Start > Control Panel > Network Connections. and choose Properties. If ping replies are not successful. and then click Close. Example 11-5 Interface Configuration Router1(config)# interface fa0/1 Router1(config-if)# description Connection to switch with straightthrough cable Router1(config-if)# ip address address mask Router1(config-if)# no shutdown Router1(config-if)# end Router1# Look for the interface to become active: *Mar 24 19:58:59.602: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet0/1.318 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Look for the interface to become active: *Mar 24 19:58:59. Highlight the Internet Protocol field. What Cisco IOS command can you use to verify the interface status? show interface fa0/0 and show interface fa0/1 What Windows command can you use to verify host computer configuration? ipconfig What is the correct LAN cable between Host1 and Router1? Crossover . Configure the host computer. Write a short description for the connections on Router1: Fa0/1 -> Apply the description on the router interface with the interface configuration command description.

NVRAM must be manually updated after any changes are made. The second field.) What is the enable secret password? enable secret 5 $1$Sg/E$JnEnON09QjpibV33dJXBI0 Ask students to compare their passwords. as shown in Example 11-6. Table 11-6 describes acceptable key responses. that is used with the password. Use the Cisco IOS show command to view RAM and NVRAM configurations. it is because there is no saved configuration. (Answers will vary. JnEnON09QjpibV33dJXBI0. Router1# show running-config Use the output to answer the following questions: How large is the configuration file? The current configuration is 935 bytes. If all students used cisco as the enable secret password. contains the hash algorithm type—in this case. or random value. but they will be close to 1000 bytes. For configurations to survive rebooting or power restarts. The answer is beyond the scope of this curriculum. If the output of NVRAM is missing. This does not occur automatically. the resulting hash is different. the RAM configuration must be copied into NVRAM. The cryptotext $1$Sg/E$JnEnON09QjpibV33dJXBI0 is actually composed of three fields. but a short answer to intrigue students may lead to independent research. Because the salts are different. MD5. is called the salt. Compare router RAM and NVRAM configurations. Sg/E. cisco. A line containing — more — indicates that there is additional information to display. The configuration is displayed one screen at a time. . 1. separated by $. and it calls nonvolatile RAM (NVRAM) configuration storage the startup configuration. The first field. to compute the MD5 hash.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 319 Task 4: Save the Router Configuration Files Cisco IOS calls RAM configuration storage the running configuration. someone is bound to ask why the cryptotext is different. Table 11-6 Key Key Responses Description Spacebar Enter Q Ctrl-C Displays the next page Displays the next line Quits Quits Write down one possible shortcut command that displays the contents of NVRAM: show start Use this command to show the contents of NVRAM. Step 1. Example 11-6 Missing NVRAM Router1# show startup-config startup-config is not present Router1# Display the contents of RAM.

. sh run. If your switch does not have a default configuration. In HyperTerminal. as shown in Example 11-7.320 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide ■ ■ ■ Does your MOTD banner contain the information you entered earlier? Yes Do your interface descriptions contain the information you entered earlier? Yes Write down one possible shortcut command that will display the contents of RAM. cable to the console port on the switch. Ensure that power has been applied to the switch. The contents should be the same. or rollover. it must be manually saved in NVRAM. For a configuration to be used the next time the router is powered on or reloaded. Example 11-7 Saving the RAM Configuration Router1# copy running-config startup-config Destination filename [startup-config]? <ENTER> Building configuration. wr mem. Save the RAM configuration to NVRAM. [OK] Router1# Write down one possible shortcut command that will copy the RAM configuration to NVRAM. Depending on the switch model and IOS version. Save the RAM configuration to NVRAM. However. copy run start. write terminal Step 2. From user EXEC mode. ask the instructor to remove the configuration. and verify that the configuration is the same as the configuration in RAM. Task 5: Configure a Cisco Switch Cisco IOS switch configuration is similar to configuring a Cisco IOS router. Step 1. Connect the host to the switch. wr Review the contents of NVRAM. Configure the global configuration hostname setting. write mem. your configuration may look slightly different from the typical default switch configuration. The benefit of learning IOS commands is that they are similar to many different devices and IOS versions. press Enter until the switch responds. enter global configuration mode: Switch> en Switch# config t Switch(config)# Set the device hostname to Switch1: Switch(config)# hostname Switch1 Switch1(config)# .. Move the console. there should be no configured passwords. Step 2.

Use the terminating character on a blank line to end the MOTD entry. Create a suitable MOTD banner. . Sixteen virtual lines can be configured on a Cisco IOS switch. Set the console access password to class: Switch1(config)# line console 0 Switch1(config-line)# password class Switch1(config-line)# login Step 6. Configure the interface description. and will be prosecuted. Configure the virtual line password. Unauthorized access is prohibited. Switch1(config)# banner motd % You are connected to an ABC network device. Access is granted to only current ABC system administrators with prior written approval. Unauthorized access will be prosecuted. Configure the privileged EXEC password. 0 through 15: Switch1(config-line)# line vty 0 15 Switch1(config-line)# password class Switch1(config-line)# login Step 7. Only system administrators of the ABC company are authorized users. Configure the MOTD banner: Switch1(config)# banner motd % The MOTD banner is displayed on all connections before the login prompt. interface Fa0/1. Set the virtual line access password to class. Configure the console password. For assistance.% Step 4. and all connection information will be logged. Set the privileged EXEC password to cisco: Switch1(config)# enable secret cisco Switch1(config)# Step 5. Configure the MOTD banner. Figure 11-11 shows a network topology in which Router1 is connected to Switch1.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 321 Step 3. and interface Fa0/3 is connected to host computer 3. All connections are continuously logged. Switch1 interface Fa0/2 is connected to host computer 2. review the similar step for configuring a switch MOTD banner.

write a short description for the connections on Switch1.322 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 11-11 Network Topology 1 Fa0/0 Fa0/1 Fa0/1 R1 Fa0/2 S1 Fa0/3 2 3 In Table 11-7. as shown in Example 11-8. [OK] Switch1# Review the contents of NVRAM. The contents should be the same. Table 11-7 Interface Description Description Switch1 Interface Fa0/1 Fa0/2 Fa0/3 Connection to Router 1 Connection to host computer 2 Connection to host computer 3 Apply the descriptions on the switch interface using the interface configuration command description. Example 11-9 Saving the Configuration Switch1# copy run start Destination filename [startup-config]? <ENTER> Building configuration. Save the RAM configuration to NVRAM. Example 11-8 Interface Description Switch1(config)# interface fa0/1 Switch1(config-if)# description Connection to Router1 Switch1(config)# interface fa0/2 Switch1(config-if)# description Connection to host computer 2 Switch1(config)# interface fa0/3 Switch1(config-if)# description Connection to host computer 3 Switch1(config-if)# end Switch1# Step 8. . Save the RAM configuration to NVRAM as shown in Example 11-9. it must be manually saved in NVRAM. For a configuration to be used the next time the switch is powered on or reloaded. and verify that the configuration is the same as the configuration in RAM...

but an experienced network engineer does not need a cheat sheet to perform common configuration tasks.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 323 Task 6: Reflection The more you practice the commands. hostname name Example: Router(config)# hostname Router1 Router1(config)# Specify an encrypted password to prevent unauthorized access to privileged EXEC mode. configure terminal Example: Router> enable Router# configure terminal Router(config)# Specify the router’s name. Table 118 lists the commands covered in this lab. Router vty lines: 0 4 password password login Example: Router(config)# line vty 0 4 Router(config-line)# password class Router(config-line)# login Router(config-line)# continues . Specify a password to prevent unauthorized access to the console. It is perfectly acceptable to use notes at first to help configure a device. the faster you will become at configuring a Cisco IOS router and switch. Table 11-8 Action Commands Covered in This Lab Command Enter global configuration mode. enable secret password Example: Router(config)# enable secret cisco Router(config)# password password login Example: Router(config)# line con 0 Router(config-line)# password class Router(config-line)# login Router(config-line)# Specify a password to prevent unauthorized Telnet access.

and click Start. and always handy. . as shown in Figure 11-12. Router: Interface is off by default Switch: Interface is on by default interface type/port Example: Router(config)# interface fa0/0 Router(config-if)# description description Router(config-if)# ip address address mask Router(config-if)# no shutdown Router(config-if)# Save the configuration to NVRAM. One way to do so is to choose Transfer > Capture Text from HyperTerminal. from HyperTerminal choose Transfer > Capture Text. Enter a path and filename. Figure 11-12 HyperTerminal Capture Menu All communication between the host computer and router is saved to a file.324 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 11-8 Action Commands Covered in This Lab continued Command Configure the MOTD banner. The file can be edited and saved. Step 1. to save the configuration file to an offline text file. copy running-config startup-config Example: Router# copy running-config startup-config Router# Task 7: Challenge It is often necessary. It also can be copied and pasted into a router. To start a capture. banner motd % Example: Router(config)# banner motd % banner text % Router(config)# Configure an interface.

Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 325 Step 2. Each message must be investigated and corrected. highlight the lines and choose Edit > Copy from Notepad. The configuration is quickly loaded to the router. stale configuration commands may survive a paste action and have unintended consequences. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. Delete any configuration files saved on the host computers. Verify the configuration. remove the NVRAM configuration file from each device using the privileged EXEC command erase startup-config. restore host computer network connectivity. This places the configuration in host computer memory. Choose Transfer > Capture Text > Stop. Task 8: Clean Up Before turning off power to the router and switch. Erase the NVRAM configuration file: Router1# erase start Erasing the nvram filesystem will remove all configuration files! Continue? [confirm] <ENTER> [OK] Erase of nvram: complete Step 3. Manually correct any lines that were scrambled or places where several lines occupy the same line. and then turn off power to the host computers. Step 4. Watch closely for error messages. and leave the room ready for the next class. After checking the configuration file. Issue the privileged EXEC command show running-config. After the reload is complete. and save to NVRAM. it is always a best practice to begin with a clean RAM configuration. Reload the router: Router1# reload Proceed with reload? [confirm] <ENTER> When the router reboots. Stop the capture. . Remove anything that was brought into the lab. such as the — more — prompt. Highlighting the HyperTerminal text and copying may also bring the configuration into memory. Otherwise. Remove any lines that are not configuration commands. manually enable the interfaces by issuing the no shutdown command in interface configuration mode. The important point is to closely examine the configuration for any errors before reloading. and press Spacebar until all the configuration has been displayed. Open the text file and review the contents. enter global configuration mode: Router> en Router# config t Router(config)# Right-click inside the HyperTerminal window and choose Paste To Host. To load the configuration file.

however.1.326 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Basic Cisco Device Configuration (11.5. Remember.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity.2) You can now open the file LSG1-Lab11512. . that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment.

1) Upon completion of this lab. Figure 11-13 Topology for Lab 11-3 1 Fa0/0 R1 Straight-Through Cable Serial Cable Console (Rollover) Crossover Cable Table 11-9 lists the lab equipment and hardware requirements for this lab. You may download a free copy of the SolarWinds TFTP server software from www.250.0/24 and additional 6 bits for subnets. and then restore the configuration from a TFTP server. .250. This lab requires the use of SolarWinds TFTP server software. Background Figure 11-13 shows the topology for this lab.aspx or from any freeware or shareware website. you will be able to ■ ■ Configure network connectivity.solarwinds. and Router1 should use the last valid host address. Use TFTP to save and restore a Cisco IOS configuration.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 327 Lab 11-3: Managing Device Configuration (11. SolarWinds is a free TFTP application for Windows. You are given an IP address of 10. Host1 should use the first valid host address. you will configure common settings on a Cisco router.5.2. Table 11-9 Hardware Lab Equipment and Hardware Requirements Quantity Description Cisco router Computer (host) Console (rollover) cable Crossover cable 1 1 1 1 Part of the CCNA Lab bundle Lab computer Connects computer Host1 to the router console port Connects the Host1 NIC to Router1 Fa0/0 The host computer will be used as a TFTP server. Scenario In this lab. save the configuration to a TFTP server.com/products/freetools/free_tftp_server. Use the last valid subnet.

straight-through.250.250. configure the Host1 computer with an IP address. In this lab you practice transferring a configura- tion file to a router that does not have a configuration file in NVRAM.248 10.250. Task 1: Configure Network Connectivity Step 1.250.251 To reinforce student cable identification. Set the Layer 3 address.250. Ensure that power has been applied to both the host computer and the router.0 Subnet Subnet mask: 255.250. Connect the console. Using the IP address information from the scenario.250. Caution: Do not save the configuration in NVRAM.252 Last Host Address Broadcast First Host Address 10. Table 11-10 IP Addressing IP address: 10.250 10. Configure the Router1 interface Fa0/0: ■ ■ ■ Set the description.255.250. Logically connect the devices. The configuration tasks for Router1 are as follows: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Specify the router name: Router1 Specify an encrypted privileged EXEC password: cisco Specify a console access password: class Specify a Telnet access password: class Configure the MOTD banner. start the HyperTerminal program by choosing Start > Programs > Accessories > Communications > HyperTerminal. Connect the host computer to the router through HyperTerminal. Step 4. Students should be able to identify the proper cable type based on a visual inspection. press the Enter key until the router responds. . Step 3. and default gateway.250. have several different types of cables available for the students. When the HyperTerminal session window opens. Step 2. Issue the no shutdown command. Refer to Figure 11-13. Connect the other cable end to the host computer with a DB-9 adapter to the COM 1 port.255. Mix crossover. cable to the console port on the router. Physically connect the devices. From the Widows taskbar.328 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Use Table 11-10 to record your addressing. subnet mask.249 10. or rollover.250. Configure Router1. and rollover cables.

Agree to the license agreement. choose File > Configure. as shown in Example 11-10.249. Step 2. Step 3. and accept the default settings. Start the TFTP server. Click Next. as shown in Table 11-11. round-trip min/avg/max = 1/1/1 ms Router1# Task 2: Use TFTP to Save and Restore a Cisco IOS Configuration Step 1. Double-click the SolarWinds TFTP application to begin the installation.250.!!!! Success rate is 80 percent (4/5). click Finish. Install the SolarWinds TFTP application. Example 11-10 Verify Connectivity Router1# ping 10. Sending 5. Figure 11-14 TFTP Server Window Start the TFTP server by choosing Start > Programs > SolarWinds Free Tools > TFTP Server.250. 100-byte ICMP Echos to 10. Verify the settings.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 329 Step 5.250. After SolarWinds has finished the installation. Verify connectivity between Host1 and Router1. timeout is 2 seconds: . Configure the TFTP server. . as shown in Figure 11-15. To configure the TFTP server. Figure 11-14 shows an active TFTP server window.250.249 Type escape sequence to abort. Verify connectivity.

250.250.330 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 11-15 Active TFTP Server Window Table 11-11 TFTP Server Settings Setting Value TFTP Root Directory Security Advanced Security Auto-Close Log TFTP-Root Transmit and Receive Files 10. The contents should be similar to the configuration shown in Example 11-12.250.008 secs (538 bytes/sec) Router1# Verify a successful upload transfer. When you’re finished.250 To 10. Save the Router1 configuration to the TFTP server.250.250.250 Never Enable Log Requests to the Following File.250.txt. . Leave the default file.249 Destination filename [router1-confg]? <ENTER> !! 1081 bytes copied in 2. click OK. as shown in Example 11-11.250. Open Log file c:\Program Files\SolarWinds\Free Tools\TFTP-Server. Step 4. From HyperTerminal.250).250) 3/25/2007 12:29 :Received router1-confg from (10.250.250.250. begin a TFTP upload to the TFTP server. Use Microsoft Word or WordPad to examine the contents of the file c:\TFTP-Root\router1-confg. 1081 bytes Verify the transferred file. The contents should be similar to the following: 3/25/2007 12:29 :Receiving router1-confg from (10. Example 11-11 Saving the Router Configuration to the TFTP Server Router1#copy running-config tftp: Address or name of remote host []? 10.

255.250 255.252 duplex auto speed auto ! interface FastEthernet0/1 no ip address shutdown duplex auto speed auto ! interface Serial0/1/0 no ip address shutdown no fair-queue ! interface Serial0/1/1 no ip address shutdown clock rate 2000000 ! ip http server no ip http secure-server ! control-plane ! banner motd *** ABC COMPANY NETWORK DEVICE **** *** Authorized access only ***** *** Logging is enabled **** .4 service timestamps debug datetime msec service timestamps log datetime msec no service password-encryption ! hostname Router1 ! boot-start-marker boot-end-marker ! enable secret 5 $1$D02B$AuX05n0HPT239yYRoQ0oE.255.250.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 331 Example 11-12 Configuration File ! version 12. ! no aaa new-model ip cef ! interface FastEthernet0/0 description connection to host1 ip address 10.250.

Router1 fa0/0 must be configured with an IP address.095: %SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from console by console *Mar 25 16:43:04.250. as shown in Example 11-16.967: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet0/0. Verify that NVRAM is clear. Example 11-14 Interface Configuration Router> enable Router# conf t Enter configuration commands. as shown in Example 11-14. and then reboot Router1.255. Restore the Router1 configuration from the TFTP server. as shown in Example 11-15. .250. Example 11-13 Verify Empty NVRAM Router1# show startup-config startup-config is not present Router1# reload Proceed with reload? [confirm] <ENTER> Connectivity must be established with the TFTP server. Router(config)# interface fa0/0 Router(config-if)# ip address 10. and the interface must be enabled. Configure the hostname of the router to TEST. changed state to up End with CNTL/Z.250 255. one per line.255. as shown in Example 11-13.252 Router(config-if)# no shutdown Router(config-if)# exit *Mar 25 16:43:03. Example 11-15 Hostname Configuration Router(config-if)# exit Router(config)# hostname TEST Test(config-if)# end TEST# Verify connectivity using the ping command.332 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example 11-12 Configuration File ! line con 0 password class login line aux 0 line vty 0 4 password class login ! continued scheduler allocate 20000 1000 End Step 5.

249. Sending 5. Step 4. the IOS can also be stored offline for future use.249 Type escape sequence to abort. 1841 Software (C1841-ADVIPSERVICESK9-M).250. Select no at the prompt that says “Configuration has been modified. Example 11-18 IOS Filename in Flash Router1# show version Cisco IOS Software.250. Inc. RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc3) Technical Support: http://www. The configuration should be the same as what was configured in Task 1.250.. Task 3: Reflection TFTP is a fast.250.375: %SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from tftp://10. Task 4: Challenge Similar to uploading a configuration file.249/router1-confg by console Router1# View the configuration in NVRAM to verify an accurate transfer.250.250.250. 100-byte ICMP Echos to 10. Version 12. issue the Cisco IOS command show version.249/router1-confg. timeout is 2 seconds: .249 Source filename []? router1-confg Destination filename [startup-config]? <ENTER> Accessing tftp://10. as shown in Example 11-17.cisco.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 333 Example 11-16 Ping Test Test# ping 10.250. The filename is highlighted in Example 11-18. Compiled Fri 19-Jan-07 15:15 by prod_rel_team .250. Loading router1-confg from 10. Reload the router.250.” The previous configuration should be restored.250.1081 bytes] 1081 bytes copied in 9.com/techsupport Copyright (c) 1986-2007 by Cisco Systems. and the router’s hostname should now be Router1.!!!! Success rate is 80 percent(4/5).4(10b). round-trip min/avg/max = 1/1/1ms Router# Download the Router1 configuration file from the TFTP server.249 (via FastEthernet0/0): ! [OK .. To discover the IOS filename. Example 11-17 File Transfer from the TFTP Server Test# copy tftp startup-config Address or name of remote host []? 10.364 secs (115 bytes/sec) Router1# *Mar 25 16:55:26. efficient way to save and load Cisco IOS configuration files.250.

exporters. export. transfer and use. return this product immediately. A summary of U.S. Delivery of Cisco cryptographic products does not imply third-party authority to import. distribute or use encryption.124-10b.bin” This product contains cryptographic features and is subject to United States and local country laws governing import.cisco. 191K bytes of NVRAM. distributors and users are responsible for compliance with U. Example 11-19 File Transfer to TFTP Server Router1# copy flash tftp Source filename []? c1841-advipservicesk9-mz.124-10b. and local country laws. laws governing Cisco cryptographic products may be found at: http://www. as shown in Example 11-19. 62720K bytes of ATA CompactFlash (Read/Write) Configuration register is 0x2102 Router1# The commands to upload the IOS are similar to uploading the configuration file. and local laws.com/wwl/export/crypto/tool/stqrg. Importers.html If you require further assistance.S.S.bin Address or name of remote host []? 10.250.4(13r)T.124-10b. By using this product you agree to comply with applicable laws and regulations. contact Cisco by sending email to export@cisco. export.0) with 174080K/22528K bytes of memory.249 Destination filename [c1841-advipservicesk9-mz.334 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example 11-18 IOS Filename in Flash continued ROM: System Bootstrap.564 secs (370412 bytes/sec) Router1# .bin]? !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!! 22063220 bytes copied in 59. If you are unable to comply with U. Processor board ID FHK110918KJ 2 Serial(sync/async) interfaces DRAM configuration is 64 bits wide with parity disabled. RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1) Router1 uptime is 17 minutes System returned to ROM by reload at 16:47:54 UTC Sun Mar 25 2007 System image file is “flash:c1841-advipservicesk9-mz. Cisco 1841 (revision 6.com. Version 12.250.

5. Remember. and leave the room ready for the next class. Choose Start > Control Panel. however. Click Add or Remove Applications. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 335 Task 5: Clean Up Before turning off power to the router. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Managing Device Configuration (11. Remove the SolarWinds TFTP server from the host computer. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. restore host computer network connectivity. Delete any configuration files saved on the host computers.2. remove the NVRAM configuration file if it was loaded. Accept the defaults. and then turn off power to the host computers. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. Choose SolarWinds and click Remove. .pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer.2) You can now open the file LSG1-Lab11522. Use the privileged EXEC command erase startup-config.

Mix crossover. Table 11-12 Lab Equipment and Hardware Requirements Hardware Quantity Description Cisco router Cisco switch Computer (host) Category 5 or better straight-through UTP cables 1 1 2 2 Part of the CCNA Lab bundle Part of the CCNA Lab bundle Lab computer Connects computers Host1 and Host2 to Switch1 Scenario In this lab you will create a small network that requires connecting network devices and configuring host computers for basic network connectivity. .336 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Lab 11-4: Configure Host Computers for IP Networking (11.5. To reinforce student cable identification. Figure 11-16 Topology for Lab 11-4 S1 Fa0/1 Fa0/2 1 2 Gather the necessary equipment and cables. Verify LAN connectivity. Background Figure 11-16 shows the topology diagram for this lab. Students should be able to identify the proper cable type based on a visual inspection. Table 11-12 lists the lab equipment and hardware requirements. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ ■ Design the logical lab topology. and rollover cables. straight-through.3.1) Upon completion of this lab. Configure the physical lab topology. have several different types of cables available for the students. Configure the logical LAN topology.

0/24.254.168.254.168.254.254.38 192.89 192.254.254.254.168.254.150 192.102 192.168.105 192.168.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 337 Task 1: Design the Logical Lab Topology Given an IP address of 192.254.168.254.168.254.168.168.168.254.86 192.254.254.168.254.168.254.254.254.174 192.254.254.168.254.168.166 192.168.168.168.80 192.254.168.254.168.254.254.40 192.168.254.168.127 192.111 192.168.168.9 192.254.104 192.168. fill in the following information: Maximum number of usable subnets (including the 0th subnet): 31 Number of usable hosts per subnet: 6 Use Table 11-13 to record the addressing scheme.254.168.254.72 192.254.254.254.168.254.168.22 192.254.254.254.31 192.168.160 192.63 192.168.254.168.168.168.254.151 192.24 192.168.254.65 192.168.47 192.113 192.32 192.41 192.56 192.254.128 192.78 192.254.121 192.168.79 192.168.254.17 192.168.182 192.8 192.254.254.95 192.254.168.254.168.254.254.57 192.96 192.168.168.176 192.14 192.145 192.168.64 192.94 192.168.129 192.168.254.168.168.118 192.168.168.168.254.55 192.254.254.46 192.254.248 Last Host Address Broadcast 192.168.39 192.168.254.168.254.254.254.254.254.126 192.168.254.254.254.168.168.254.70 192.168.158 192.168.49 192.110 192.7 192.168.1 192.168 192.168.254.254.168.168.54 192.168.254.168.0 192.254.48 192.254.153 192.254.254.254.119 192.62 192.254.254.142 192.168.168.168.168.168.183 continues .254.168.120 192.168.168.168.168.88 192.177 192.254.254.6 192.168.152 192.254.168.168.254.30 192.254.25 192.168.136 192.168.0 Subnet First Host Address Subnet mask: 255.168.73 192.144 192.168.254. Table 11-13 Addressing Table IP address: 192.23 192.168.33 192.169 192.167 192.255.87 192.137 192.168.168.254.254.81 192.254.159 192.254.16 192.168.143 192.168.168.254.168.254.168.168.103 192.254.112 192.134 192.254.254.254.254.168.168.15 192.255.135 192.71 192.254.254.161 192.175 192. and 5 bits used for subnets.168.168.254.168.97 192.

224 192.168.191 192. .254.0 Subnet continued Subnet mask: 255. Document logical network settings.168.254.193 192.168.248 192.241 192. turn on power to all devices.254. Cable the network devices as shown earlier in Figure 11-16.208 192.254.254. Is a crossover cable needed to connect host computers to the switch? Why or why not? No.168.168.254.168.254.255. Because computers and the switch are not wired the same for networking.168. Step 2.200 192.168.214 192.201 192.199 192.168.254.168.168.168.168.168.254.168.254.206 192.254.168. Task 3: Configure the Logical Topology Step 1.254.254 192.168. After cabling the network devices. Visually inspect network connections.254.168.207 192.230 192.184 192.338 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 11-13 Addressing Table IP address: 192.240 192.254.168.254. If it’s not already enabled.255 Before proceeding.254.168.254.238 192.249 192. The instructor will assign one subnetwork per student or team.222 192.168.168.254.239 192.168.217 192. straightthrough cables are used.247 192. Task 2: Configure the Physical Lab Topology Step 1.246 192.168.168. Host computers will use the first two IP addresses in the subnetwork.168.254.254.254.216 192. verify your addresses with the instructor.223 192.254.254.190 192.248 Last Host Address Broadcast First Host Address 192.168.254. Write down the IP address information for each device in Table 11-14. Physically connect the devices.168. take a moment to verify the connections.215 192.168.168.254.254.168.192 192.209 192.185 192.254.254.254.168.254.254.168.225 192.254.254.168.232 192.255.198 192.233 192.231 192.254.168.254.254.168.168. Attention to detail now will minimize the time required to troubleshoot network connectivity issues later.254.

Answers will vary 255.255. On Computer1. and then click Close.255.255.255. The computer may require a reboot for changes to be effective. click OK.255.248 From the information given in Table 11-15. . Refer to Figure 11-17 for Host1 IP address and gateway settings.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 339 Table 11-14 Logical Topology Device Subnetwork IP Address Mask Host1 Host2 Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary 255. Right-click the LAN icon. and then click the Properties button.248 255.248 Configure the Host1 computer. Record the output in Table 11-16. Figure 11-17 Host IP Address and Gateway Settings When you’re finished.255. choose Internet Protocol (TCP/IP). Table 11-15 Host Addressing Table Host1 IP address IP mask Host2 IP address IP mask Step 2. choose Start > Control Panel > Network Connections.248 Answers will vary 255. Verify proper configuration of Host1 with the ipconfig /all command. On the General tab.255.255. and choose Properties. write down the IP network addressing for each computer.

and retest.248 Unassigned Task 4: Verify Network Connectivity Network connectivity can be verified with the Windows ping command. Table 11-17 Host ipconfig Output Setting Value Ethernet device Physical address IP address Subnet mask Default gateway Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary 255. Repeat Step 2 for Host2 using IP address information from Table 11-15. Verify proper configuration.255.255. . To disable a Windows firewall. choose Start > Control Panel > Windows Firewall. Note: If pings to host computers fail. Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary 255. Table 11-18 Ping Results From To IP Address Ping Result Host1 Host2 Host2 Host1 Answers will vary Answers will vary Should be successful Should be successful Take corrective action to establish connectivity if a test fails.255.248 Unassigned Configure Host2. click Off.340 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 11-16 ipconfig Output Setting Value Ethernet device Physical address IP address Subnet mask Default gateway Step 3. Record the output in Table 11-17. temporarily disable the computer firewall. Use Table 11-18 to methodically verify connectivity with each network device. and then click OK. which you filled out in Step 1.255.

Look for green link lights on Switch1. and then turn off power to the host computers. restore the host computer network connectivity. Test your solution. Task 6: Challenge Ask your instructor or another student to introduce one or two problems in your network when you aren’t looking or are out of the lab room. Use Table 11-18 to identify failed connectivity. Replace the computer with the faulty NIC. Task 7: Clean Up Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. Problems can be either physical (the wrong UTP cable) or logical (the wrong IP address).Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 341 Task 5: Reflection Review any physical or logical configuration problems encountered during this lab. and configure the IP address on the replacement computer. Make sure you have a thorough understanding of the procedures used to configure a Windows host computer. perform a good visual inspection. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. To fix the problems. continue troubleshooting. Possible problems: IP addresses on different subnets Incorrect or faulty cable Faulty NIC Write down your proposed solution(s). . If the solution did not fix the problem. Correct the IP address configuration. document the solution. and leave the room ready for the next class. List the problems. Replace the cable. If the solution fixed the problem.

1) Upon completion of this lab. Table 11-19 lists the equipment and hardware requirements for this lab. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ ■ Design the logical lab topology. consider configuring a loopback interface as an alternative to the FastEthernet 0/1. and Host3 to Switch1 Connects Host1 to Router1 Connects Host1 to the Router1 console If you do not have a router that has two FastEthernet interfaces.4. Another alternative would be to use two routers connected through a serial connection and use the FastEthernet interfaces from each router.5. Host2. . Configure the physical lab topology. Background Figure 11-18 shows the topology for this lab. Configure the logical LAN topology. Verify LAN connectivity. Figure 11-18 Topology for Lab 11-5 Subnet A Fa0/0 Fa0/1 Subnet B Fa0/1 1 R1 Fa0/2 S1 Fa0/3 Subnet C Subnet D Subnet E Subnet F 2 3 Gather the necessary equipment and cables.342 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Lab 11-5: Network Testing (11. Table 11-19 Lab Equipment and Hardware Requirements Hardware Quantity Description Cisco router Cisco switch Computer (host) Category 5 or better straight-through UTP cables Category 5 crossover UTP cable Console (rollover) cable 1 1 3 3 1 1 Part of the CCNA Lab bundle Part of the CCNA Lab bundle Lab computer Connects Router1.

Table 11-20 Addressing Requirements Subnet Number of Hosts Subnet A Subnet B Subnet C Subnet D Subnet E Subnet F As shown in the topology diagram Between 80 and 100 Between 40 and 52 Between 20 and 29 12 5 Note: Always start with the subnet that has the largest number of hosts.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 343 Scenario In this lab.0.1 172. Design the Subnet B address block. pick the next available address block that will support Subnet C. 255.0/24 (address/mask). straight-through. design an IP addressing scheme that satisfies the requirements listed in Table 11-20.255.0.0.20. Table 11-21 Subnet B IP Address Information Network Address Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast 172.126 172. Task 1: Design the Logical Lab Topology Given an IP address and mask of 172.20. Using binary numbers to create your subnet chart. To reinforce student cable identification. have several different types of cables available for the students. Fill in Table 11-21 with the IP address information for Subnet B. Subnet C. and work your way down. Subnet D.255. Subnet E. Using binary numbers to create your subnet chart. Satisfy the requirements of Subnet C. not yet connected to the network.20.0 Step 2. Subnet A and Subnet B are subnets that are currently needed.128 172. and rollover cables. Begin the logical network design by satisfying the requirements of Subnet B. and Subnet F are anticipated subnets. which requires the largest block of IP addresses. you should start with Subnet B and finish with Subnet A. Step 1. pick the first address block that will support Subnet B.127 Design the Subnet C address block. Mix crossover.20. Students should be able to identify the proper cable type based on a visual inspection. you will create a small network that requires connecting network devices and configuring host computers for basic network connectivity.20. Fill in Table 11-22 with the IP address information for Subnet C. Therefore.0. the next-largest IP address block.0. . The 0th subnet will be used.

255. Using binary numbers to create your subnet chart.11100000 Step 4.255.20.20.255.240 172.225 172.20. Table 11-24 Subnet E IP Address Information Network Address Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast 172.20.0.20.1111111.224 255.20.0.0.128 255. Design the Subnet F address block. the next-largest IP address block.11110000 Step 5.255.192 255. pick the next available address block that will support Subnet E.223 What is the bit mask? 11111111. Satisfy the requirements of Subnet E.0.238 172.0.0. Design the Subnet D address block.11111111.11111111. Fill in Table 11-24 with the Subnet E IP address information.344 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 11-22 Subnet C IP Address Information Network Address Mask First Host Last Host Broadcast 172. Satisfy the requirements of Subnet D.129 172.255.20. .0. Satisfy the requirements of Subnet F.0.191 What is the bit mask? 11111111.0.20.192 172. pick the next available address block that will support Subnet F.0. the next-largest IP address block.1111111.222 172.20. Fill in Table 11-23 with the Subnet D IP address information.224 172. Using binary numbers to create your subnet chart. Table 11-23 Subnet D IP Address Information Network Address Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast 172.11111111. Fill in Table 11-25 with the Subnet F IP address information.20.20.0.0.11000000 Step 3.255.193 172.239 What is the bit mask? 11111111. Design the Subnet E address block.20.1111111.190 172. pick the next available address block that will support Subnet D. the next-largest IP address block. Using binary numbers to create your subnet chart.

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Table 11-25 Subnet F IP Address Information Network Address Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast

172.20.0.240

255.255.255.248

172.20.0.241

172.20.0.246

172.20.0.24

What is the bit mask? 11111111.1111111.11111111.11111000
Step 6.

Design the Subnet A address block. Satisfy the requirements of Subnet A, the smallest IP address block. Using binary numbers to create your subnet chart, pick the next available address block that will support Subnet A. Fill in Table 11-26 with the Subnet A IP addressing table.

Table 11-26 Subnet A IP Addressing Table Network Address Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast

172.20.0.248

255.255.255.252

172.20.0.249

172.20.0.250

172.20.0.251

What is the bit mask? 11111111.1111111.11111111.11111100

Task 2: Configure the Physical Lab Topology
Step 1.

Physically connect the lab devices. Cable the network devices as shown earlier, in Figure 11-18. Pay special attention to the crossover cable required between Host1 and Router1. If it’s not already enabled, turn on power to all devices.

Step 2.

Visually inspect the network connections. After cabling the network devices, take a moment to verify the connections. Attention to detail now will minimize the time required to troubleshoot Layer 1 connectivity issues later.

Task 3: Configure the Logical Topology
Step 1.

Document logical network settings. On Subnet A, Host1 uses the first IP address in the subnet. Router1, interface Fa0/0, uses the last host address. On Subnet B, host computers use the first and second IP addresses in the subnet, respectively. Router1, interface Fa0/1, uses the last network host address. To properly route Layer 2 frames between LAN devices, Switch1 does not require Layer 3 configuration. The IP address assigned to Switch1, interface VLAN 1, is used to establish Layer 3 connectivity between external devices and the switch. Without an IP address, upper-layer protocols such as Telnet and HTTP will not work. The default gateway address

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permits the switch to respond to protocol requests from devices on distant networks. For example, the IP gateway address extends Layer 3 connectivity beyond Subnet B. Switch1 uses the next-to-last host address. Write down the IP address information for each device listed in Table 11-27.
Table 11-27 IP Address Information Device Subnet IP Address Mask Gateway

Host1 Router1-Fa0/0 Host2 Host3 Switch1 Router1-Fa0/1
Step 2.

172.20.0.248 172.20.0.248 172.20.0.0 172.20.0.0 172.20.0.0 172.20.0.0

172.20.0.249 172.20.0.250 172.20.0.1 172.20.0.2 172.20.0.125 172.20.0.126

255.255.255.252 255.255.255.252 255.255.255.128 255.255.255.128 255.255.255.128 255.255.255.128

172.20.0.250 — 172.20.0.126 172.20.0.126 172.20.0.126 —

Configure host computers. On each computer, in turn, choose Start > Control Panel > Network Connections. Right-click the LAN icon, and choose Properties. On the General tab, choose Internet Protocol (TCP/IP), and then click the Properties button. Verify that the Host1 Layer 3 IP address is on a different subnet than Host2 and Host3. Configure each host computer using the IP address information recorded in Step 1. Verify proper configuration of each host computer with the ipconfig command, and fill in Table 11-28.

Table 11-28 Host Configuration Device IP Address Mask Default Gateway

Host1 Host2 Host3
Step 3.

172.20.0.249 172.20.0.1 172.20.0.2 Configure Router1.

255.255.255.252 255.255.255.128 255.255.255.128

172.20.0.250 172.20.0.126 172.20.0.126

From the Windows taskbar, start the HyperTerminal program by choosing Start > Programs > Accessories > Communications > HyperTerminal. Configure HyperTerminal for access to Router1. Configuration for Router1 includes the following tasks:
■ ■ ■ ■ ■

Specify the router name: Router1 Specify an encrypted privileged EXEC password: cisco Specify a console access password: class Specify a Telnet access password: class Configure the MOTD banner.

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Configure Router1 interface Fa0/0:
■ ■ ■

Set the description. Set the Layer 3 address. Issue the no shutdown command.

Configure Router1 interface Fa0/1:
■ ■ ■

Set the description. Set the Layer 3 address. Issue the no shutdown command.

Save the configuration in NVRAM. What command do you use to display the contents of RAM? show running-config Record the configuration specifications:
■ ■ ■ ■ ■

Hostname: Router1 Enable secret password: cisco Console access password: class Telnet access password: class MOTD banner: Answers will vary

What command do you use to display configuration information for interface Fa0/0? show interface Fa0/0 Record the configuration specifications:
■ ■ ■

FastEthernet 0/0 status (up/down): Should be up Line protocol: Should be up MAC address: Answers will vary

What command do you use to display configuration information for interface Fa0/1? show interface Fa0/1 Record the configuration specifications:
■ ■ ■

FastEthernet 0/0 status (up/down): Should be up Line protocol: Should be up MAC address: Answers will vary

What command do you use to display brief IP address information about each interface? show ip interface brief Record the configuration specifications:
Interface FastEthernet0/0 FastEthernet0/1 IP-Address 172.20.0.250 172.20.0.126 OK? Method Status YES manual up YES manual up Protocol up up

Take corrective action with any problems, and retest.

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Step 4.

Configure Switch1. Move the console cable from Router1 to Switch1. Press Enter until you receive a response. Configuration for Switch1 includes the following:
■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■

Specify a switch name: Switch1 Specify an encrypted privileged EXEC password: cisco Specify a console access password: class Specify a Telnet access password: class Configure the MOTD banner. Configure Switch1 interface Fa0/1:

Set the description.

Configure Switch1 interface Fa0/2:

Set the description.

Configure Switch1 interface Fa0/3:

Set the description.

Configure the management VLAN1 IP address:
■ ■ ■

Set the description. Set the Layer 3 address. Issue the no shutdown command.

Configure the default IP gateway address.

What command do you use to display the contents of RAM? show running-config Write the configuration specifications:
■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■

Hostname: Switch1 Enable secret password: cisco Console access password: class Telnet access password: class MOTD banner: Answers will vary Interface VLAN 1: 172.20.0.125 Default IP gateway address: 172.20.0.126

What command do you use to display configuration information for interface VLAN 1? show interface vlan1
■ ■

VLAN 1 status (up/down): Should be up Line protocol: Should be up

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Task 4: Verify Network Connectivity
Step 1.

Use the ping command to verify network connectivity. You can verify network connectivity using the ping command. It is very important that connectivity exist throughout the network. Corrective action must be taken if a failure occurs. Use Table 11-29 to methodically verify connectivity with each network device.

Table 11-29 Connectivity Testing From To IP Address Ping Result

Host1 Host1 Host1 Host1 Host1 Host1 Host1 Host2 Host2 Host2 Host2 Host2 Host2 Host2 Host3 Host3 Host3 Host3 Host3 Host3

LocalHost (127.0.0.1) NIC IP address Gateway (Router1, Fa0/0 Router1, Fa0/1 Switch1 Host2 Host3 LocalHost (127.0.0.1) NIC IP address Host3 Switch1 Gateway (Router1, Fa0/1) Router1, Fa0/0 Host1 LocalHost (127.0.0.1) NIC IP address Host2 Switch1 Gateway (Router1, Fa0/1) Router1, Fa0/0

127.0.0.1 172.20.0.249 172.20.0.250 172.20.0.126 172.20.0.125 172.20.0.1 172.20.0.2 127.0.0.1 172.20.0.1 172.20.0.2 172.20.0.125 172.20.0.126 172.20.0.250 172.20.0.249 127.0.0.1 172.20.0.2 172.20.0.1 172.20.0.125 172.20.0.126 172.20.0.250

Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful

Take corrective action to establish connectivity if a test fails.
Note: If pings to host computers fail, temporarily disable the computer firewall, and retest. To disable a Windows firewall, choose Start > Control Panel > Windows Firewall, click Off, and then click OK.

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Step 2.

Use the tracert command to verify local connectivity. From Host1, issue the tracert command to Host2 and Host3. Record the results:
■ ■

From Host1 to Host2: Answers should show success From Host1 to Host3: Answers should show success

Step 3.

Verify Layer 2 connectivity. If it’s not already connected, move the console cable from Router1 to Switch1. Press the Enter key until Switch1 responds. Issue the command show mac-address-table. This command displays static (CPU) and dynamic, or learned, entries. List the dynamic MAC addresses and their corresponding switch ports in Table 11-30.

Table 11-30 MAC Address Table MAC Address Switch Port

Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary

Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary

Verify that there are three dynamically learned MAC addresses—one each from Fa0/1, Fa0/2, and Fa0/3.

Task 5: Reflection
Review any physical or logical configuration problems encountered during this lab. Make sure you have a thorough understanding of the procedures used to verify network connectivity.

Task 6: Challenge
Ask your instructor or another student to introduce one or two problems in your network when you aren’t looking or are out of the lab room. Problems can be either physical (the wrong UTP cable) or logical (the wrong IP address or gateway). To fix the problems, perform a good visual inspection. Look for green link lights on Switch1. Use Table 11-18 to identify failed connectivity. List the problems. Possible answers include incorrect IP addressing and incorrect cabling. Write down your proposed solution(s). Possible solutions include correcting the IP address configuration and replacing the cable. Test your solution. If the solution fixed the problem, document the solution. If the solution did not fix the problem, continue troubleshooting.

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Task 7: Clean Up
Unless directed otherwise by the instructor, restore host computer network connectivity, and then turn off power to the host computers. Before turning off power to the router and switch, remove the NVRAM configuration file from each device with the privileged EXEC command erase startup-config. Carefully remove the cables, and return them neatly to their storage. Reconnect cables that were disconnected for this lab. Remove anything that was brought into the lab, and leave the room ready for the next class.

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Lab 11-6: Network Documentation with Utility Commands (11.5.5.1)
Upon completion of this lab, you will be able to
■ ■ ■ ■ ■

Design the logical lab topology. Configure the physical lab topology. Design and configure the logical LAN topology. Verify LAN connectivity. Document the network.

Background Figure 11-19 shows the topology for this lab.
Figure 11-19 Topology for Lab 11-6
Subnet A
Fa0/0 Fa0/1

Subnet B
Fa0/1

1

R1
Fa0/2

S1
Fa0/3

Subnet C

2

3

Gather the necessary equipment and cables. Table 11-31 lists the equipment and hardware requirements for this lab.
Table 11-31 Equipment and Hardware Requirements Hardware Quantity Description

Cisco router Cisco switch Computer (host) Category 5 or better straight-through UTP cables Category 5 crossover UTP cable Console (rollover) cable

1 1 3 3 1 1

Part of the CCNA Lab bundle Part of the CCNA Lab bundle Lab computer Connects Router1, Host1, and Host2 to Switch1 Connects Host1 to Router1 Connects Host1 to the Router1 console

If you do not have a router that has two FastEthernet interfaces, consider configuring a loopback interface as an alternative to FastEthernet 0/1. Another alternative would be to use two routers connected through a serial connection and use the FastEthernet interfaces from each router.

165. the next-largest block of IP addresses.165. Using binary numbers to create your subnet chart. not yet connected to the network.255. Table 11-32 IP Addressing Requirements Subnet Number of Hosts Subnet A Subnet B Subnet C Step 1.200.200. design an IP addressing scheme that satisfies the requirements listed in Table 11-32.238 209. Subnet C is an anticipated subnet. Fill in Table 11-33 with the IP address information for Subnet C.224 255. router and host output will be copied from the devices and into Notepad for use in network documentation. Satisfy the requirements of Subnet B.11110000 Step 2. .200. Mix crossover. Students should be able to identify the proper cable type based on a visual inspection. the largest IP address block. pick the next available address block that will support Subnet C.165.239 What is the bit mask? 11111111. Table 11-33 Subnet C IP Address Information Network Address Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast 209.255.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 353 In this lab.165. Scenario Network documentation is a very important tool for the organization.165.240 209.225 209.200. A well-documented network enables network engineers to save significant time in troubleshooting and planning future growth.200. Subnet A and Subnet B are subnets that are currently needed. have several different types of cables available for the students. The 0th subnet will be used. pick the first address block that will support Subnet B. Task 1: Design the Logical Lab Topology Given an IP address of 209. Begin the logical network design by satisfying the requirements of Subnet C. and rollover cables. To reinforce student cable identification. Design the Subnet B address block. In this lab you will create a small network that requires connecting network devices and configuring host computers for basic network connectivity. Using binary numbers to create your subnet chart.224/27 (address/mask). 2 Between 2 and 6 Between 10 and 12 Design the Subnet C address block. straight-through.11111111.1111111.

11111100 Task 2: Configure the Physical Lab Topology Step 1.255.240 209.165.248 209.200. Table 11-34 Subnet B IP Address Information Network Address Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast 209. Attention to detail now will minimize the time required to troubleshoot network connectivity issues later.111111000___ Step 3.200.1111111. Table 11-35 Subnet A IP Address Information Network Address Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast 209. Cable the network devices as shown in Figure 11-19.354 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Fill in Table 11-34 with the IP address information for Subnet B. If it’s not already enabled. the smallest IP address block.1111111.165.255.165.250 209. Satisfy the requirements of Subnet A.11111111.200. After cabling the network devices. Pay special attention to the crossover cable required between Host1 and Router1.200. Using binary numbers to create your subnet chart.165.240 255. take a moment to verify the connections.200.251 What is the bit mask? 11111111. . Fill in Table 11-35 with the IP address information for Subnet A. Document the logical network settings.165.165.249 209.200.255. Write down the IP address information for each device in Table 11-36. pick the next available address block that will support Subnet A.11111111.165. The network router uses the last network host address.246 209.200.255. Task 3: Configure the Logical Topology Step 1. Host computers use the first two IP addresses in the subnetwork. turn on power to all devices.165. Step 2. Visually inspect the network connections.252 209. Physically connect lab devices.200.247 What is the bit mask? 11111111. Design the Subnet A address block.248 255.

Configure Router1. Step 3. Highlight Internet Protocol (TCP/IP).255.200.165. From the Windows taskbar. and choose Properties.248 255.255.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 355 Table 11-36 IP Address Information Device Subnet IP Address Mask Gateway Router1 -FA0/0 Host1 Router1 -FA0/1 Host2 Host2 Switch Step 2.200.240 209.200. Set the Layer 3 address.200. Verify that the Host1 Layer 3 IP address is on a different subnetwork than Host2 and Host3.165.200.165.248 209.241 209.165.250 209.252 255. start the HyperTerminal program by choosing Start > Programs > Accessories > Communications > HyperTerminal.248 — — 209.255.165.200. and name it Documentation_Lab11-6.248 255. Issue the no shutdown command.255.200.200.165.246 209.255.165. Verify proper configuration of each host computer using the ipconfig /all command.240 209. These are the configuration tasks for Router1: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Specify the router name: Router1 Specify an encrypted privileged EXEC password: cisco Specify a console access password: class Specify a Telnet access password: class Configure the MOTD banner.255.252 255. Issue the no shutdown command.250 — 209.246 209. .200.165. choose Start > Control Panel > Network Connections.255.255.249 209.240 — 209.242 — 255.165. 209.165. Configure each host computer using the IP address information recorded in Step 1. Highlight the Local Area Connection device icon.200.200.200. and choose Properties. Set the Layer 3 address.165.248 209. right-click. On each computer in turn.246 — Configure the host computers.165. ■ Configure Router1 interface Fa0/1: ■ ■ ■ Set the description. Configure Router1 interface Fa0/0: ■ ■ ■ Set the description.255.255. Configure HyperTerminal for access to Router1. Record your information in a separate document.200.165.

Corrective action must be taken if a failure occurs. Network connectivity can be verified with the ping command. and retest. Note: If pings to host computers fail. Configure Switch1. Copy the output of the show ip interface brief command to your document named Documentation_Lab11-6. Press Enter until you receive a response. Move the console cable from Router1 to Switch1. Take corrective action to establish connectivity if a test fails. ■ Configure Switch1 interface Fa0/3: ■ Set the description. Specify the command you use to display the contents of RAM: show running-configuration Copy the output of the configuration to your document named Documentation_Lab11-6. Configure Switch1 interface Fa0/1: ■ Set the description. Configuration tasks for Switch1 are as follows: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Specify the switch name: Switch1 Specify an encrypted privileged EXEC password: cisco Specify a console access password: class Specify a Telnet access password: class Configure the MOTD banner. Step 4. Copy the output of the show mac address-table command to your document named Documentation_Lab11-6. Use the ping command to verify network connectivity. It is very important that connectivity exist throughout the network. ■ Configure Switch1 interface Fa0/2: ■ Set the description. To disable a Windows firewall. Task 4: Verify Network Connectivity Step 1. . Copy the output of the show interface fa0/0 and show interface fa0/1 commands into your document named Documentation_Lab11-6.356 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Specify the command you use to save the configuration in NVRAM: copy run start Specify the command you use to display the contents of RAM: show running-configuration Save the output of the configuration to your document named Documentation_Lab11-6. click OFF. Use Table 11-37 to methodically verify connectivity with each network device. choose Start > Control Panel > Windows Firewall. and click OK. temporarily disable the computer firewall.

.249 Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Use the tracert command to verify local connectivity.200.265.265.265.1 209.265. From Host3.246126 209. tracert results can be compared against periods of high traffic.200.200.265. LocalHost (127. Fa0/1) Router1. Router1.1 209. Fa0/0 Host1 127.200.241 209.246 209.165.265. Record the results in your document named Documentation_Lab11-6.242 127.165.1) NIC IP Address Gateway (Router1.1) NIC IP address Host2 Gateway (Router1.200.0. Results can be used to justify equipment upgrades or new purchases.250 209. From Host2. and Host1.0.246 209. From Host1.200.200.165. In addition to connectivity testing.241 209. That is.200.265.265.250 209.265.0. and Host3.249 209.1 209.0. Fa0/0 Host1 LocalHost (127.243 209.265. Fa0/1) Router1. issue the tracert command to Host3.265.265.200.250 209.200.200. The network was physically and logically configured and verified.200.0.0.241 209. issue the tracert command to Router1.0.0.200.242 209. Record the results in your document named Documentation_Lab11-6.0. Fa0/1 Host2 Host3 LocalHost (127.1) NIC IP Address Host3 Gateway (Router1. Router1. Record the results in your document named Documentation_Lab11-6.200. Fa0/0 Router1.249 127. the tracert command may be used as a crude throughput tester for network baselining. Task 5: Document the Network With all the work performed so far.0.200. it would seem that there is nothing left to do. and command output was copied into tables. and Host1. issue the tracert command to Host2. with minimal traffic.0. Host2.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 357 Table 11-37 Connectivity Testing From To IP Address Ping Result Host1 Host1 Host1 Host1 Host1 Host1 Host2 Host2 Host2 Host2 Host2 Host2 Host3 Host3 Host3 Host3 Host3 Host3 Step 2.0.

Ensure that you understand the procedures used to verify network connectivity. Look for green link lights on Switch1. If the solution fixed the problem. subnet masks. think about what might be needed six months or a year from now. or cables. Problems can be either physical (cables moved on the switch) or logical (the wrong IP address or gateway). continue troubleshooting.) Who wrote the documentation? (Talent like this needs to be tracked. Task 7: Challenge Ask your instructor or another student to introduce one or two problems in your network when you aren’t looking or are out of the lab room. Use your network documentation to make sure your configurations are correct: Answers will vary Write down your proposed solution(s): Answers will vary Test your solution. default gateways.358 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide The last step in network documentation is to organize your output. answer the following questions in the documentation. document the solution. Note to Instructor: You could introduce problems into the network by changing IP addresses. Perform a good visual inspection. Use your network documentation to troubleshoot and remedy the problems. Task 6: Reflection Review any physical or logical configuration problems you encountered during this lab. perhaps in a cover letter: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ When was the network created? When was the network documented? Were any significant challenges overcome? Who performed the configuration? (Talent like this needs to be tracked. If the solution did not fix the problem. For example. Answers will vary . and submit it to your instructor.) Be sure to include the following information: ■ ■ A copy of the physical topology A copy of the logical topology Prepare your documentation in a professional format. As you organize.

252 duplex auto speed auto ! interface FastEthernet0/1 description connection to Switch1 ip address 209. and return them neatly to their storage. then turn off power to the host computers.255.200.246 255. Reconnect cables that were disconnected for this lab. Remove anything that was brought into the lab.165. and leave the room ready for the next class.255.255.165.255. Example Router 1 Configuration Router1 Configuration Current configuration : 1138 bytes ! version 12. remove the NVRAM configuration file from each device using the privileged EXEC command erase startup-config.4 service timestamps debug datetime msec service timestamps log datetime msec no service password-encryption ! hostname Router1 ! boot-start-marker boot-end-marker ! enable secret 5 $1$sqIx$iKGfkjNa6IlaBVnPnGrVR0 ! no aaa new-model ip cef ! interface FastEthernet0/0 description connection to Host1 ip address 209.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 359 Task 8: Clean Up Unless directed otherwise by the instructor.248 duplex auto speed auto . Carefully remove the cables. Instructors may find the following configuration examples helpful.200. restore host computer network connectivity. Before turning off power to the router and switch.250 255.

cdee (bia 001b.360 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example ! Router 1 Configuration continued interface Serial0/1/0 no ip address shutdown no fair-queue ! interface Serial0/1/1 no ip address shutdown clock rate 2000000 ! interface Vlan1 no ip address ! ip http server no ip http secure-server ! control-plane ! banner motd ^C **** ABC network device **** **** Authorized access only **** **** Logging is enabled ***** ^C ! line con 0 password class login line aux 0 line vty 0 4 password class login ! scheduler allocate 20000 1000 end Example Router 1 Interface Fa0/0 Configuration Router1# show interface fa0/0 Router1#sh int fa0/0 FastEthernet0/0 is up.530c.530c. line protocol is up Hardware is Gt96k FE.cdee) Description: connection to Host1 . address is 001b.

200. ARP Timeout 04:00:00 Last input never. Auto Speed. DLY 100 usec. 0 deferred 0 lost carrier.165. 0 no carrier 0 output buffer failures. 4 interface resets 0 babbles. output never. 0 overrun. 0 giants. txload 1/255. 0 throttles 0 input errors. 0 collisions. 0 CRC. 0 ignored 0 watchdog 0 input packets with dribble condition detected 277 packets output. output hang never Last clearing of “show interface” counters never Input queue: 0/75/0/0 (size/max/drops/flushes). 0 packets/sec 5 minute output rate 0 bits/sec. ARP Timeout 04:00:00 Last input 00:01:27.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 361 Example Router 1 Interface Fa0/0 Configuration continued Internet address is 209. rxload 1/255 Encapsulation ARPA.200. 88733 bytes. 8915 bytes Received 44 broadcasts.530c. 0 frame.246/29 MTU 1500 bytes. 0 runts. BW 100000 Kbit. output hang never Last clearing of “show interface” counters never Input queue: 0/75/0/0 (size/max/drops/flushes).165. 0 late collision. rxload 1/255 Encapsulation ARPA. 100BaseTX/FX ARP type: ARPA. loopback not set Keepalive not set Auto-duplex. output 00:00:02. 100Mb/s. 0 underruns 0 output errors. reliability 255/255.250/30 MTU 1500 bytes. 0 packets/sec . 100BaseTX/FX ARP type: ARPA. Total output drops: 0 Queueing strategy: fifo Output queue: 0/40 (size/max) 5 minute input rate 0 bits/sec.cdef (bia 001b. 0 packets/sec 5 minute output rate 0 bits/sec. loopback not set Keepalive set (10 sec) Full-duplex.cdef) Description: connection to Switch1 Internet address is 209. 0 output buffers swapped out Example Router 1 Interface Fa0/1 Configuration Router1# show interface fa0/1 FastEthernet0/1 is up. DLY 100 usec. 0 packets/sec 54 packets input. Total output drops: 0 Queueing strategy: fifo Output queue: 0/40 (size/max) 5 minute input rate 0 bits/sec. reliability 255/255.530c. line protocol is up Hardware is Gt96k FE. BW 100000 Kbit. address is 001b. txload 1/255.

0 runts.. 0 late collision. 0 bytes Received 0 broadcasts. 1 interface resets 0 babbles. 0 underruns 0 output errors. 14481 bytes. loopback service timestamps debug uptime service timestamps log uptime no service password-encryption ! hostname Switch1 ! enable secret 5 $1$X9tO$93NSNcI66s8ESanQ/o3A60 ! interface FastEthernet0/1 description connection to Router1 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/2 description connection to Host2 no ip address .200. 0 frame. 0 no carrier 0 output buffer failures. 0 collisions. 0 output buffers swapped out Example Router 1 IP Address Configuration Router1# sh ip int brief Interface FastEthernet0/0 FastEthernet0/1 Serial0/1/0 Serial0/1/1 IP-Address OK? Method Status Protocol up up 209.362 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example Router 1 Interface Fa0/1 Configuration continued 0 packets input.1 no service padARPA.. 0 CRC. 0 overrun. 0 throttles 0 input errors. 0 giants.165.165. 0 ignored 0 watchdog 0 input packets with dribble condition detected 91 packets output.250 YES manual up 209. Current configuration : 1862 bytesad 1/255 ! version 12. 0 deferred 0 lost carrier.200.246 YES manual up unassigned unassigned YES unset YES unset administratively down down administratively down down Example Switch 1 Configuration Building configuration.

Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 363 Example ! Switch 1 Configuration continued interface FastEthernet0/3 description connection to Host3 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/4 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/5 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/6 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/7 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/8 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/9 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/10 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/11 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/12 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/13 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/14 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/15 no ip address ! .

364 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example Switch 1 Configuration continued interface FastEthernet0/16 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/17 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/18 no ip address ! Interface FastEthernet0/19 no ip address ! Interface FastEthernet0/20 no ip address ! Interface FastEthernet0/21 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/22 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/23 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/24 no ip address ! interface GigabitEthernet0/1 no ip address !s interface GigabitEthernet0/2 no ip address ! ip http server ! banner motd ^C **** ABC network device **** **** Authorized access only **** **** Logging is enabled ***** .

200.8bb4.165.165.165.241 Tracing route to 209.200.a76a 0018.165.250 Trace complete.0cdd.cccd 0100. C:\> .f79f.3c3a 001b.0ccc.242 Tracing route to 209.250 Tracing route to 209.dddd 0016.200.250 over a maximum of 30 hops 1 <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms 209.200.165.165.200.200.250 209.76ac.200.241 over a maximum of 30 hops 1 2 <1 ms 1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms 209.165.165.241 Trace complete. C:\> tracert 209.165.242 Trace complete.200.165.0ccc.530c. C:\> tracert 209.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 365 Example Switch 1 MAC Address Table Mac Address Table ------------------------------------------Vlan ---All All All All 1 1 1 Mac Address ----------000f.cdef Type -------STATIC STATIC STATIC STATIC DYNAMIC DYNAMIC DYNAMIC Ports ----CPU CPU CPU CPU Fa0/3 Fa0/2 Fa0/1 Total Mac Addresses for this criterion: 7 Switch1# Example Traceroute Results Host1 C:\> tracert 209.165.250 209.200.6cc0 0100.200.cccc 0100.242 over a maximum of 30 hops 1 2 <1 ms 1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms 209.200.

Understanding the process involved in sequentially placing packets on the network will help you logically troubleshoot network failures when connectivity breaks.pcap (discussed) eagle1_web_server.2. The contents of an Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) Request and ARP Reply. and explain the segment fields. PC_Client.1.2.com.1. be sure to get permission in writing.1. and a web server.5.255/24 Server S1 LAN: MAC Address: 00:0f:f7:9f:6c:c9 IP Address: 10.250/24 DNS Server .366 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Lab 11-7: Case Study: Datagram Analysis with Wireshark (11.254/24 LAN: MAC Address: 00:0c:29:63:17:a5 IP Address: 10. and explain the frame fields. and explain the packet fields.1.1) Upon completion of this exercise. you will be able to demonstrate ■ ■ ■ ■ How a TCP segment is constructed.1/24 LAN: MAC Address: 00:0c:85:cf:66:41 IP Address: 10. Download the following files from Eagle Server. Figure 11-20 Topology for Lab 11-7 Client LAN: MAC Address: 00:02:3f:7e:37:da IP Address: 10. How an IP packet is constructed. a network protocol analyzer. How an Ethernet II frame is constructed.2.251/24 R1 LAN: MAC Address: 00:0c:85:cf:66:40 IP Address: 10.pcap (reference only) wireshark. Figure 11-20 shows the topology for this lab.2. and install Wireshark on your computer if it is not already installed: ■ ■ ■ eagle1_web_client.1.exe Scenario This exercise details the sequence of datagrams that are created and sent across a network between a web client. For brevity and clarity. network packet noise has been omitted from the captures.6. eagle1. Before executing a network protocol analyzer on a network that belongs to someone else. Background This lab requires two captured packet files and Wireshark.example.1.

Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 367 Using Microsoft command-line tools. . . Start Wireshark on your computer. : 255. . . . : No IP Address. . and Packet Bytes. . uncheck Name Resolution for MAC Layer and Transport Layer. . . . . .255. . . . . . . . . Figure 11-21 PC Client with Web Browser Task 1: Prepare the Lab Step 1.254 DNS Servers . . . . . . . . This begins the communication process to the web server. : 10.1. Uncheck Main Toolbar. .1. Example 11-20 PC Client Initial Network State C: > ipconfig / all Windows IP Configuration Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection: Connection-specific DNS Suffix .1. . .250 C: > arp -a No ARP Entries Found C: > A web client is started. . .com is entered. Refer to Figure 11-22 for changes to the default output. . : 10. and the URL eagle1. . . . Verify that Packet List and Packet Details are checked. . . . . : Description . . . . . . . as shown in Figure 11-21. . . Refer to Example 11-20. Filter Toolbar. . : Intel(R) PRO/1000 MT Network Connection Physical Address.255. . . . . .example.1.1 Subnet Mask . . . . . To ensure that there is no automatic translation in MAC addresses. . and it’s where the captured packets start. you can display IP configuration information and the contents of the ARP cache. : 10. .1.1. . . . . .0 Default Gateway . : 00:02:3f:7e:37:da Dhcp Enabled. . . .

When PC_Client builds the datagram for a connection with eagle1. Load the web client capture. The top Wireshark window lists all captured packets. Figure 11-23 Wireshark with eagle1_web_client.com. The bottom window contains packet details. There are also two separate data windows. the datagram travels down the various network layers. At each layer. so it must be discovered using other network protocols. Likewise. Because this communication is from a web client.368 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 11-22 Wireshark Default View Changes Step 2. important header information is added. Review transport layer operation. Some information is unknown to PC_Client. 80. A screen similar to Figure 11-23 appears. . provided by the application layer.example.pcap Task 2: Review the Process of Data Flowing Through the Network Step 1. eagle1_web_client. In the bottom window. Consider the TCP segment shown in Figure 11-24. PC_Client generates an internal TCP port address—in this conversation. a sequence number has been internally generated. each line that contains a plus sign next to it indicates that additional information is available. the transport layer protocol is TCP. Data is included.pcap. 1085—and knows the well-known web server port address. Various pull-down menus and submenus are available.

as shown in Figure 11-25. PC_Client knows the source MAC address. the packet version (IPv4) is known. as shown in Figure 11-26. the IPv4 (IP) packet has several fields ready with information. Until the upper-layer datagram is received.example. Figure 11-26 Ethernet II Frame Fields Ethernet II Frame Format Source Frame Address Type 2 Octets Preamble Destination Address Data CRC 8 Octets 6 Octets 6 Octets 46–1500 Octets 4 Octets . Figure 11-25 IP Packet Fields IP Packet 0 Version 4 IHL Identification TTL Protocol Source IP Address Destination IP Address Data 8 10 TOS Flags 16 Total Length Fragment Offset Header Checksum 31 The destination for this packet is eagle1. Before this segment can move to the network layer. but it must discover the destination MAC address.com. At the network layer. Step 3. the TCP three-way handshake must be performed. Review data link layer operation. fields related to the upper-layer protocols are empty. Before the datagram is placed on the physical medium. as well as the source IP address. The corresponding IP address must be discovered through Domain Name System (DNS). it must be encapsulated inside a frame. For example.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 369 Figure 11-24 TCP Segment Field TCP Segment 0 4 7 Source Port Sequence Number Acknowledgment Number Data Offset Reserved ECN Checksum Options and Padding Data Control Bits Window Urgent Pointer 10 16 Destination Port 31 There is no acknowledgment number. Step 2. Review network layer operation.

com. Examine the ARP reply. No.250 What is the Ethernet II frame type? 0x0806 (ARP) Step 3.1. The DNS server cannot be queried. 2.1. because PC_Client does not know the IP address for eagle1.com is unknown. This is resolved with a DNS request from PC_Client to the DNS server. The MAC address for eagle1. The ARP protocol is broadcast on the LAN to discover the MAC address for the DNS server. Why didn’t the DNS server have to send an ARP Request for the PC_Client MAC address? When an ARP Request is received.com must first be completed.example. No. ■ ■ ■ Step 2.example. A TCP three-way handshake with eagle1.example. You can view the contents of the Ethernet II frame by clicking the checkbox in the second line of the Packet Details window.1 Based on the observation of the ARP protocol. Refer to Wireshark’s Packet List window. The DNS server sent an ARP Reply. The TCP three-way handshake cannot occur. The ARP protocol is broadcast on the LAN to learn the destination MAC address for eagle1. and the destination address for an ARP Reply is a unicast address. what can you infer about an ARP Request destination address and an ARP Reply destination address? The destination address for an ARP Request is a broadcast address.1. A review of missing information will be helpful in following the captured packet sequence: ■ The TCP segment cannot be constructed because the acknowledgment field is blank.com.example. the source MAC address of the request is stored in the receiver’s ARP cache. What is the source MAC address for the ARP Reply? 00:0c:29:63:17:a5 What is the destination MAC address for the ARP Request? 00:02:31:7e:73:da What is the Ethernet II frame type? 0x0806 (ARP) What is the destination IP address in the ARP Reply? 10.1.370 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 3: Analyze Captured Packets Step 1. The captured frame is an ARP Request. Examine the ARP request. 1. Review the data flow sequence. You can view the contents of the ARP Request by clicking the ARP Request line in the Packet Details window. Refer to Wireshark’s Packet List window. because the MAC address for the DNS server is unknown. What is the source MAC address for the ARP Request? 00:02:31:7e:73:da What is the destination MAC address for the ARP Request? ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff What is the unknown IP address in the ARP Request? 10. .

0/24. No. Examine the DNS query response. answer the following questions: What is the Ethernet II frame type? 0x0800 (IP) What is the transport layer protocol. Examine the ARP Request. Is this IP address different from the IP address for eagle1. why did eagle1. What is your response? DNS uses UDP for name translation. 7. The ARP Reply was from the Gateway. This value is sent during connection startup. In the Packet List window is an unexplained value. Refer to Wireshark’s Packet List window.2. and what is the destination port number? UDP. When a TCP segment is transported over IPv4. Initially. and what is the destination port number? UDP. PC_Client must have the ARP address to the Gateway. Using the Packet Details window.1. 5 and No. MSS stands for maximum segment size. port 1043 What is the IP address for eagle1. This is also when TCP sliding windows are negotiated. sequence number 0. 6. only the TCP SYN flag is set on the datagram sent from PC_Client. Step 7. If the initial TCP sequence value from PC_Client is 0.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 371 Step 4.example. No. Refer to Wireshark’s Packet List window. MSS is computed to be the maximum size of an IPv4 datagram minus 40 bytes. If all UDP packets were dropped at the firewall. Examine the TCP three-way handshake. Using the Packet Details window. along with an acknowledgment of 1 and a sequence of 0. A better approach would be to employ a stateful packet filter and create rules that permit established and related traffic through the firewall. eagle1. Yes.1.1. Examine the DNS query.example respond with an acknowledgment of 1? TCP employs expectational acknowledgments.254. PC_Client sent an ARP Request to IP address 10.com. 3. MSS=1460.251 One of your colleagues.example.251 is on a different network than 10.1.2. 8. port 53 Step 5. . No. No. The DNS server sent a DNS query response to PC_Client. asks you if you can think of any reason why all UDP packets should not be blocked from entering the internal network.com? Explain. Because 10. Refer to Wireshark’s Packet List window.example. 4. Step 6. a firewall administrator.example.com responds with the TCP ACK and SYN flags set. employees could not translate names to IP addresses. and 9. These captures contain the TCP three-way handshake between PC_Client and eagle1. PC_Client sent a DNS query to the DNS server. Refer to Wireshark’s Packet List window. This means that the TCP acknowledgment number sent is for the expected sequence number of the next packet.2.2. answer the following questions: What is the Ethernet II frame type? 0x0800 (IP) What is the transport layer protocol.com? 10.

. . No. This is shown in Wireshark’s Packet List. . . .com. and eagle1. Gateway. the TCP ACK response to eagle1. No. .0. 8. . .0 Congestion Window Reduced ECN Echo Urgent ACK PSH SYN FIN Task 4: Complete the Final Analysis Step 1. . 4. . .1. . 10. The ARP protocol is broadcast on the LAN to discover the MAC address for the DNS server. .372 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide In eagle1. . . 9.com The TCP three-way handshake cannot occur because PC_Client does not know the IP address for eagle1. More fragments (not set) When PC_Client completes the TCP three-way handshake.example.example. . where PC_Client sent a web protocol GET request.com before PC_Client has sufficient information to send the original web client request to eagle1. A TCP three-way handshake with eagle1. Fill in the correct Wireshark Packet List window number that satisfies each of the following missing entries: ■ The TCP segment cannot be constructed because the acknowledgment field is blank. . . . . . . . .com? Table 11-38 shows the TCP flag states. . . what TCP flag states are returned to eagle1. It has taken a total of nine datagrams sent between PC_Client. . No. Reserved (not set) 1 . 2. .example. Don’t fragment (set) 0 . .0. .example. No.example. No. . . . 9. Match the Wireshark output to the process. Wireshark’s Packet List. .com. Table 11-38 TCP Flag States Bit Position Flag 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0. the DNS query response The DNS server cannot be queried because the MAC address for the DNS server is unknown. what does the IP flag value of 0x04 mean? IP flag values: 8421 0 . .com must first be completed. . . DNS server.0.example. This is resolved with a DNS request from PC_Client to the DNS server. No.0.com. . . the ARP response from the DNS server ■ ■ .example.

18. Analyzing packet contents can be a daunting experience—time-consuming and errorprone. 6. Review the information in the [SEQ/ACK analysis] frame. 14 and 16 are ACK datagrams from PC_Client. The ACK datagram for Wireshark Packet List No. To use this feature. When PC_Client is finished. What is the purpose of this datagram? This datagram is a TCP window update to expand the window size. A protocol analyzer shows unsuccessful ARP requests. the ARP response from the Gateway Wireshark Packet List No. To verify the ACK.example. highlight Wireshark Packet List No. and 15 are TCP segments from eagle1. the same protocol analyzer can become an effective troubleshooting tool when the network fails. 13 The Wireshark Packet List No. TCP ACK and FIN flags are sent.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 373 ■ The MAC address for the gateway to reach eagle1. 13. 11 is an acknowledgment from eagle1. from Wireshark. scroll down to the bottom of the Detail List window. 14. Next.com. Wireshark Packet List No. 12.example. Wireshark includes an option that constructs the TCP stream in a separate window. For example. and expand the [SEQ/ACK analysis] frame. No.com.com? No. unsuccessful DNS queries. As soon as the network administrator is familiar with communication protocols. first select a TCP datagram from the Wireshark Packet List. The ARP protocol is broadcast on the LAN to learn the destination MAC address for the gateway. choose Analyze > Follow TCP Stream.example. A window similar to the one shown in Figure 11-27 appears. eagle1. Wireshark Packet List No.com to the PC_Client GET request.example. Next. . 17 datagram is sent from PC_Client to eagle1. 14 is a response to which datagram from eagle1.example.com is unknown.example. 10. Step 2. and the TCP session is closed. Figure 11-27 Output of TCP Stream Task 5: Conclusion Using a network protocol analyzer can be an effective learning tool for understanding critical elements of network communication. Use the Wireshark TCP stream. there could be multiple causes. if a web browser could not connect to a web server. Wireshark Packet List No.com responds with a TCP ACK. as shown in Wireshark Packet List No. and unacknowledged packets.

pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to perform this exercise using Packet Tracer. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ Build.3) Open file LSG01-PTSkills11. IP. with the client issuing a TCP FIN flag. Integrate skills from throughout the course. UDP. and configure the entire lab network. although some are quite easy) in less than 30 minutes. Figure 11-28 Skills Integration Lab Topology 1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server 2960-24TT S1-Central 1841 R2-Central PC-PT 1A PC-PT 1B . configuring. See if you can complete this entire challenge (approximately 100 configurable components. the TCP session is destroyed in an orderly manner. HDLC) Tracing the route to the web server (DNS. Analyze the events involved in ■ ■ Requesting a web page (DNS. Upon completion of this activity. Finally.1. Packet Tracer Challenge Skills Integration Challenge: Configuring and Analyzing Networks (11. the TCP three-way handshake must build a reliable path and supply both communicating ends with initial TCP header information. respectively. Before a TCP session can begin. Behind-the-scenes protocols such as DNS and ARP are used to fill in missing parts of IP packets and Ethernet frames. HTTP. test. IP. building. You have also developed a conceptual understanding of networking protocols and device algorithms. ICMP. ARP. Here is an opportunity to test yourself.6. Figure 11-28 shows the topology for this lab. TCP. and testing skills. Ethernet. HDLC) Background Throughout this course. you have been developing network planning.374 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 6: Summary In this exercise you have learned how a web client and web server communicate. Ethernet. ARP.

Subnet assignments: ■ First subnet. connected to Fa0/24 on S1-Central) Second subnet. all strings (names. existing WAN. up to 28 hosts (Fa0/0 on R2-Central. use the second-highest usable address on the student subnet. existing ISP LAN. future student LAN. passwords. up to seven hosts (not yet implemented) Fifth subnet. point-to-point link (S0/0/0 on R1-ISP and S0/0/0 on R2-Central) ■ ■ ■ ■ IP address assignments: ■ ■ ■ For the server.3. You must provide for existing networks as well as future growth. For R2-Central’s S0/0/0 interface. configure the highest usable address on the existing WAN subnet. and connect them to the Fa0/1 and Fa0/2 interfaces on S1Central. ■ ■ ■ ■ Use Table 11-39 to record your address information. which has a serial DCE WAN connection to R1ISP and an Fa0/0 LAN connection to S1-Central One 2960TT switch (S1-Central) Two PCs named 1A and 1B A server named Eagle_Server ■ ■ ■ Note that both the display names and hostnames for all devices must be configured exactly. For the switch management interface. banners) should be entered exactly as specified in these instructions for the grading to work properly. installed in the slot on the right—one named R1-ISP. For hosts 1A and 1B. configure the second-highest usable IP address on the ISP LAN subnet. use the highest usable address on the existing student LAN subnet. future ISP LAN. configure the highest usable IP address on the ISP LAN subnet. For R1-ISP’s S0/0/0 interface.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 375 Task 1: Plan Use the standard Exploration lab topology as you plan your IP addressing scheme: ■ Two 1841 routers with WIC-2T interface cards. In general. and connect it to the Fa0/24 interface on S1-Central. For R2-Central’s Fa0/0 interface. use the lowest usable address on the existing WAN subnet. For R1-ISP’s Fa0/0 interface. . You have been given an IP address block of 192.168. up to 28 hosts (not yet implemented) Third subnet.0 /24. which has a serial DCE WAN connection to R2-Central and an Fa0/0 LAN connection to Eagle_Server. existing student LAN. use the first two IP addresses (the two lowest usable addresses) on the existing student LAN subnet. up to 14 hosts (Fa0/0 on R1-ISP) Fourth subnet. and one named R2-Central.

and routing (static route on R1-ISP.example. the server. Whenever you configure a Cisco IOS device.224 255. in addition to IP configuration. configure the display name. use “Reset Activity” and retime yourself doing the entire configuration again.168. The router configuration must include “housekeeping” (display name. Hint: To configure static routes.3.98 192.98 192. For the server.255.3. Students need to understand these concepts to successfully complete this lab.168.3.3.255.168.168.224 255.30 192.** and **This is lab router R2-Central. use the domain name eagle-server.255.376 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 11-39 Addressing Table Device Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP Fa0/0 S0/0/0 192.255. . use “Check Results” to see what components still need to be configured.1 192.252 255. and management interface (int vlan1).255. be sure to save your configuration.3. passwords. The static route on R2-Central should be a default static route that points via R1-ISP’s serial interface IP address.3. configure them to use DNS services.255. hostname. interfaces (FastEthernet and serial). Authorized access only. The following login passwords should all be set to cisco: enable.255.240 — — 192. login passwords for access (enable. The static route on R1-ISP should point to the existing Student LAN subnet via R2-Central’s serial interface IP address. For Hosts 1A and 1B.98 192.** The interfaces should be configured as specified in Table 11-39.168. and Telnet passwords all set to cisco). and enable HTTP services.224 255.3.30 192.77 255.30 192. and Telnet. Configure the routers using the CLI to practice your skills.255.168.240 255.255. use a clock rate of 64000 on the R1ISP S0/0/0 interface. Note to Instructor: You might want to introduce students to the concepts of static routes and discuss the command syntax and default routes.255. be sure to save your configuration. You can use the CLI help function to determine the command syntax.168.3. default route on R2-Central). hostname.78 R2-Central Fa0/0 S0/0/0 PC-1A PC-1B Eagle-Server NIC NIC NIC Task 2: Build and Configure the Network Build the network.255.com.255.168.252 255. On the switch. As you work. enable DNS services. banner).78 192. Whenever you configure a Cisco IOS device.168. The banners should say **This is lab router R1ISP.2 192. console.168.3.255.**). console. taking care to make connections as specified.97 192. the switch. banner (**This is lab switch S1-Central.3. Authorized access only.168.3. Configure both routers.255. use ip route global configuration mode.3. Authorized access only.168. and the two PCs. If you want more practice.

As soon as you are convinced that your network is working. UDP. . TCP. request a web page while making the following protocols visible in the event list: DNS. Task 4: Reflection Relate the processes observed in Task 3 to the TCP/IP Protocol Graph. also in simulation mode. issue a traceroute to the server from one of the PCs. switches. ICMP. Then power-cycle the devices and reset the network.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 377 Task 3: Test and Analyze It is good practice to test connectivity through ping and Telnet. ARP. HTTP. and to examine routing tables. Power-cycle the devices to clear the network again and. make sure you have saved your configurations on the Cisco IOS devices. Explain the entire process to a peer. and routers. Again explain the entire process to a peer. especially how IP is involved in everything. In simulation mode. Your skills at modeling networks in Packet Tracer will serve you well in subsequent courses. Telnet. Also note the algorithms used by hosts. Examine how the trace is built from ICMP echo requests. Examine the packets as they are processed by the devices to study protocol behavior.

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