50530236-AnswerGuide | Cisco Certifications | Computer Network

Network Fundamentals

,
CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide Instructor Edition
Antoon W. Rufi Priscilla Oppenheimer Belle Woodward Gerlinde Brady

Cisco Press
800 East 96th Street Indianapolis, Indiana 46240 USA

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Network Fundamentals, CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide

Network Fundamentals, CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide
Instructor Edition Antoon W. Rufi, Priscilla Oppenheimer, Belle Woodward, and Gerlinde Brady
Copyright© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. Published by: Cisco Press 800 East 96th Street Indianapolis, IN 46240 USA All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without written permission from the publisher, except for the inclusion of brief quotations in a review. Printed in the United States of America First Release January 2008 ISBN-10: 1-58705-583-X ISBN-13: 978-1-58705-583-6

Publisher Paul Boger Associate Publisher Dave Dusthimer Cisco Representative Anthony Wolfenden Cisco Press Program Manager Jeff Brady Executive Editor Mary Beth Ray Production Manager Patrick Kanouse Development Editor Dayna Isley Project Editors Patrick Kanouse Jennifer Gallant Copy Editors Gayle Johnson Keith Cline Technical Editors Cindy G. Layman Michael Duane Taylor Tony Chen Editorial Assistant Vanessa Evans Book and Cover Designer Louisa Adair Composition Mark Shirar Proofreader Leslie Joseph

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Warning and Disclaimer
This book is designed to provide information about the Network Fundamentals course of the Cisco Network Academy CCNA Exploration curriculum. Every effort has been made to make this book as complete and as accurate as possible, but no warranty or fitness is implied. The information is provided on an “as is” basis. The authors, Cisco Press, and Cisco Systems, Inc. shall have neither liability nor responsibility to any person or entity with respect to any loss or damages arising from the information contained in this book or from the use of the discs or programs that may accompany it. The opinions expressed in this book belong to the author and are not necessarily those of Cisco Systems, Inc.

Trademark Acknowledgments
All terms mentioned in this book that are known to be trademarks or service marks have been appropriately capitalized. Cisco Press or Cisco Systems, Inc. cannot attest to the accuracy of this information. Use of a term in this book should not be regarded as affecting the validity of any trademark or service mark.

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Network Fundamentals, CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide

About the Authors
Antoon “Tony” W. Rufi currently is the associate dean of computer and information science for all the ECPI College of Technology campuses. He also teaches the Cisco Networking Academy CCNA, CCNP, Network Security, Fundamentals of Wireless LAN, and IP Telephony curricula. Before becoming an instructor for ECPI, he spent almost 30 years in the U.S. Air Force, working on numerous electronic projects and computer programs. Tony has a master’s degree in information science from the University of Maryland and a bachelor’s degree in industrial technology from Southern Illinois University. Priscilla Oppenheimer is an author and network consultant with more than 25 years of experience in the computer industry. Priscilla has a master’s degree in information science from the University of Michigan and has worked at such big-name companies as Apple Computer and Cisco Systems. She currently teaches at Southern Oregon University and provides network consulting to companies in her hometown of Ashland, Oregon, and elsewhere. Belle Woodward, CCNA, CCAI, CCNP, is an assistant professor in the School of Information Systems and Applied Technologies in the College of Applied Sciences and Arts at Southern Illinois University (SIU) in Carbondale, Illinois. She has more than nine years experience in the networking and network security field. Belle teaches network security, advanced networking, and telecommunications. After redesigning the networking and network security undergraduate curriculum, her students took first place at the 2006 Regional Midwestern Collegiate Cyber Defense Competition (CCDC) and fourth place at the national CCDC. In addition to publishing several journal articles in the network security discipline, Belle has also contributed several chapters included in published network security and networking books. Gerlinde Brady has been teaching Cisco CCNA and CCNP courses at Cabrillo College, a Cisco Regional Networking Academy, since 1999. She holds a master’s degree in education from the University of Hannover, Germany, and a master’s degree in translation (English/German) from the Monterey Institute of International Studies. Her IT industry experience includes LAN design, network administration, technical support, and training.

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About the Technical Reviewers
Cindy G. Layman has been an instructor at Itawamba Community College in Tupelo, Mississippi, for more than 10 years. She has been teaching programming, computer servicing, and networking courses, including the full CCNA curriculum in the Cisco Networking Academy. Cindy has a bachelor of science degree in mathematics and a bachelor of science degree in computer science, both from Mississippi State University. Before teaching at ICC, she was a programmer analyst for nine years. Michael Duane Taylor is department head of computer information sciences at the Raleigh Campus of ECPI College of Technology. He has more than seven years of experience teaching introductory networking and CCNA-level curriculum and was awarded the Instructor of the Year Award. Previously, Michael was a lab supervisor with Global Knowledge working with router hardware configuration and repair. He holds a bachelor’s degree in business administration from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and a master of science degree in industrial technology/computer network management from East Carolina University. His certifications include CCNA, CCNP-router, and MCSE.

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Network Fundamentals, CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide

Dedications
I would like to dedicate this book to my wife, Linda, who is instrumental in getting me to apply myself. Always supportive, she has been the catalyst that has kept me going. —Tony Rufi This book is dedicated to my hard-working students who have inspired me to be a better teacher. — Priscilla Oppenheimer This book is dedicated to my husband, Jeff, and son, Alan, whose tireless support helped see me through another project. —Belle Woodward To my wonderful husband, Paddy, and my daughters Fiona, Teresita, and Ejay, who let me take time away from them to be a part of this project. —Gerlinde Brady

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Acknowledgments
From Tony Rufi: I’d like to give special recognition to Mike Taylor for his diligent approach to tech editing. He has provided a tremendous amount of input to get the technical aspects of this endeavor correct. I have enjoyed working with him. I also want to thank Mary Beth Ray; she has been instrumental in allowing me to pursue the dream of authoring a book. A special thank you to ECPI College of Technology, specifically President Mark Dreyfus, Vice President of Academic Affairs John Olson, and Director of Operations Barbara Larar. Without their support, I would not have been able to write this book. From Priscilla Oppenheimer: I’d like to thank Cisco Press for giving me the opportunity to work on this project. I especially want to thank Mary Beth Ray and Dayna Isley for turning this complex project into a success. Thanks also go to our technical reviewers for their persistence and attention to detail. Finally, I’d like to thank the Cisco Networking Academy for developing courses that inspire students to do amazing things with networks. From Belle Woodward: It has been a great pleasure to be part of such an outstanding group of professionals, and to these people and everyone on the team I extend my heartfelt thanks. Dayna Isley, thanks for all your help and patience. Cindy and Michael, thanks for providing your expert technical knowledge in editing the book. I want to give special recognition to Susanne Ashby, a great friend, who has always been willing to read and edit my work. From Gerlinde Brady: I would like to thank Dayna Isley and Mary Beth Ray for their unending patience. A special thanks goes to the technical editors, Cindy Layman, Mike Taylor, and Tony Chen, for their diligence and expertise.

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Network Fundamentals, CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide

Contents at a Glance
Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Chapter 10 Chapter 11 Living in a Network-Centric World Communicating over the Network 1 33 63

Application Layer Functionality and Protocols OSI Transport Layer OSI Network Layer 91 125 151

Addressing the Network: IPv4 OSI Data Link Layer OSI Physical Layer Ethernet 231 199 217

Planning and Cabling Networks

263 297

Configuring and Testing Your Network

1.5.4.1) 16 Task 1: Configure the Chat Client Task 2: Connect to the Chat Server Task 3: Consider the Chat Session Task 4: Reflection Task 6: Clean Up 21 22 Task 5: Challenge 22 19 20 21 .1.6.ix Contents Chapter 1 Living in a Network-Centric World Concept Questions 1 2 2 1 1 Communicating in a Network-Centric World Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Concept Questions 2 3 Communication: An Essential Part of Our Lives The Network as a Platform Vocabulary Exercise: Define Vocabulary Exercise: Identify 3 3 4 4 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Concept Questions 5 The Architecture of the Internet 5 Vocabulary Exercise: Define Concept Questions 6 5 7 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Trends in Networking 8 Multiple-Choice Questions Task 1: Install Google Earth Task 2: Run Google Earth Task 4: Reflection Task 6: Clean Up 13 13 8 10 Activity 1-1: Using Google Earth to View the World (1.1.4) 11 11 11 Task 3: Navigate the Google Earth Interface Task 5: Challenge 13 Activity 1-2: Identifying Top Security Vulnerabilities (1.3) 13 Task 1: Locate the SANS Resources Task 2: Review the SANS Resources Task 3: Collect Data Task 4: Reflection 15 16 14 15 Task 5: Challenge 16 Lab 1-1: Using Collaboration Tools: IRC and IM (1.

1.1) 22 Task 1: Define the Terms Wiki and Blog Task 3: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 28 28 22 23 Task 2: Explore Wiki Features with the TWiki Tutorial Task 4: Challenge 28 Skills Integration Challenge: Introduction to Packet Tracer (1.6.3) 28 Task 1: Explore the PT Interface Task 2: Explore PT Operations Task 4: Reflection Chapter 2 32 30 30 32 Task 3: Review the Standard Lab Setup Communicating over the Network The Platform for Communications 33 33 Concept Questions 33 34 34 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching LANs.6.2.2) 48 .1) 39 Task 1: Trace Route to Remote Server Task 2: Trace Route Using NeoTrace Task 3: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 41 41 Task 4: Challenge 41 40 41 Lab 2-1: Topology Orientation and Building a Small Network (2.x Network Fundamentals.2. CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide Lab 1-2: Using Collaboration Tools: Wikis and Web Logs (1.6. and Internetworks Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Protocols 36 34 35 36 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Concept Questions Using Layered Models 36 37 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Network Addressing 38 37 38 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Multiple-Choice Questions 38 Activity 2-1: Using NeoTrace to View Internetworks (2.1) 42 Task 1: Create a Peer-to-Peer Network Task 3: Cable the Peer-to-Peer Network Task 5: Reflection 48 43 43 47 43 Task 2: Identify the Cables Used in a Network Task 4: Connect Your Workstations to the Classroom Lab Switch Packet Tracer Companion: Topology Orientation and Building a Small Network (2.1.7.5. WANs.1.

Install.3) 59 Task 1: Complete the Topology 60 61 61 61 Task 2: Add Simple PDUs in Real-Time Mode Task 3: Analyze PDUs in Simulation Mode (Packet Tracing) Task 4: Experiment with the Model of the Standard Lab Setup Task 5: Reflection CHapter 3 61 63 63 Application Layer Functionality and Protocols Applications: The Interface Between the Networks Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Concept Questions 64 64 Making Provisions for Applications and Services 65 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Multiple-Choice Questions 65 65 Application Layer Protocols and Services Examples 66 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Multiple-Choice Questions Task 1: Create a Sound File Task 3: Reflection Task 4: Clean Up 71 71 67 66 66 Activity 3-1: Data Stream Capture (3.2.4. and Verify the Apache Web Server Task 2: Verify the Default Web Server Configuration File Task 3: Capture and Analyze HTTP Traffic with Wireshark Task 4: Challenge 78 Task 5: Reflection Task 6: Clean Up 78 79 79 73 77 76 Lab 3-2: E-mail Services and Protocols (3.4.6.2) 59 Skills Integration Challenge: Examining Packets (2.2.1.1) 71 Task 1: Download.2.7.1) 49 Task 1: Ping PDU Capture 53 Task 2: FTP PDU Capture 56 Task 3: HTTP PDU Capture 58 Task 4: Reflection Task 6: Cleanup 58 59 Task 5: Challenge 58 Packet Tracer Companion: Using Packet Tracer to View Protocol Data Units (2.xi Lab 2-2: Using Wireshark to View Protocol Data Units (2.4.3.1.1) 69 69 70 Task 2: Observe the Properties of the Audio File Lab 3-1: Managing a Web Server (3.6.1) Task 1: Configure the Pod Host Computer for E-mail Service 81 Task 2: Capture and Analyze E-mail Communication Between the Pod Host Computer and an E-mail Server 84 .

1.1) Task 1: Explain Common netstat Command Parameters and Outputs 96 Task 2: Use netstat to Examine Protocol Information on a Pod Host Computer 98 Task 3: Reflection Task 5: Cleanup 100 100 100 Task 4: Challenge 100 Lab 4-2: TCP/IP Transport Layer Protocols.1) Task 1: Identify TCP Header Fields and Operation Using a Wireshark FTP Session Capture 102 Task 2: Identify UDP Header Fields and Operation Using a Wireshark TFTP Session Capture 108 Task 3: Reflection Task 5: Cleanup 110 111 111 Task 4: Challenge 111 Lab 4-3: Application and Transport Layer Protocols (4.3.5. TCP and UDP (4.3) Task 1: “Repair” and Test the Topology Task 3: Reflection Chapter 4 89 91 91 88 89 Task 2: Explore How DNS and HTTP Work Together OSI Transport Layer Roles of the Transport Layer Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Concept Questions 92 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Port Type Ranges Exercise Concept Questions 93 92 91 92 The TCP Protocol: Communicating with Reliability 92 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Managing TCP Sessions 93 93 Internet Research Exercise Concept Questions 94 93 The UDP Protocol: Communicating with Low Overhead 94 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion 94 95 Lab 4-1: Observing TCP and UDP Using netstat (4.xii Network Fundamentals.2. CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide Task 3: Challenge 86 Task 4: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 86 86 87 Skills Integration Challenge: Configuring Hosts and Services (3.1) Task 1: Configure the Pod Host Computer to Capture Application Layer Protocols 113 Task 2: Capture and Analyze HTTP Communication Between the Pod Host Computer and a Web Server 114 Task 3: Capture and Analyze FTP Communication Between the Pod Host Computer and a Web Server 116 .5.5.1.5.

5.3) 122 Task 1: Repair and Test the Topology Task 3: Reflection Chapter 5 OSI Network Layer IPv4 125 123 124 Task 2: Explore How DNS.2) 122 Skills Integration Challenge: Analyzing the Application and Transport Layers (4.3.xiii Task 4: Reflection Task 6: Clean Up 121 122 Task 5: Challenge 121 Packet Tracer Companion: Application and Transport Layer Protocols Examination (4. UDP.1.1) 138 136 Task 1: Use the route Command to Modify a Windows Computer Routing Table 139 Task 2: Use a Windows Telnet Client Command telnet to Connect to a Cisco Router 144 Task 3: Examine Router Routes Using Basic Cisco IOS Commands Task 4: Reflection Task 6: Clean Up 147 147 147 Task 5: Challenge 147 Packet Tracer Companion: Examining a Route (5. HTTP.1) Task 1: Understand and Explain the Purpose of a Gateway Address 132 Task 2: Understand How Network Information Is Configured on a Windows Computer 134 Task 3: Troubleshoot a Hidden Gateway Address Problem Task 4: Reflection Task 6: Clean Up 137 137 137 Task 5: Challenge 137 Packet Tracer Companion: Examining a Device’s Gateway (5.2) 145 . and TCP Work Together 124 125 125 126 126 127 Concept Questions Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Vocabulary Exercise: Define Internet Research Exercise Networks: Dividing Hosts into Groups 127 127 127 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Concept Questions 127 128 Routing: How Our Data Packets Are Handled Vocabulary Exercise: Define Routing Processes: How Routes Are Learned 129 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion 129 130 Lab 5-1: Examining a Device’s Gateway (5.1.1.5.5.2.2) Lab 5-2: Examining a Route (5.2.5.5.6.

2.7. CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide Skills Integration Challenge: Routing IP Packets (5.3) 148 Task 1: Configure a Router Interface Task 2: Examining Routes 149 149 150 150 Task 3: Configure a Route Using a GUI Task 5: Reflection Chapter 6 150 151 Task 4: Examine the Routing of the IP Packet Addressing the Network: IPv4 IPv4 Addresses 151 Concept Questions 151 152 152 Binary-to-Decimal Conversion Exercise Decimal-to-Binary Conversion Exercise Addresses for Different Purposes 152 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Internet Research Exercise Vocabulary: Completion Concept Questions Assigning Addresses 152 153 153 153 154 Internet Research Exercises Concept Questions Is It on My Network? 154 154 155 Binary Matching Exercise Concept Questions 156 Internet Research Exercise Calculating Addresses 156 155 156 Concept Questions 156 157 157 Multiple-Choice Questions Testing the Network Layer Concept Questions 157 158 159 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Lab 6-1: Ping and Traceroute (6.1.1.1.xiv Network Fundamentals.7.6.1) 169 Task 1: Understand the Format of ICMP Packets Task 3: Challenge 177 170 173 Task 2: Use Wireshark to Capture and Examine ICMP Messages .1) Task 1: Use the ping Command to Verify Simple TCP/IP Network Connectivity 160 Task 2: Use the tracert Command to Verify TCP/IP Connectivity Task 3: Challenge 166 Task 4: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 168 168 168 164 Packet Tracer Companion: ping and traceroute (6.2) Lab 6-2: Examining ICMP Packets (6.7.

1) Task 1: Subnet the Address Space 192 193 193 Task 2: Determine Interface Addresses Task 4: Verify the Configurations Task 5: Reflection 194 193 Task 3: Configure the Serial and FastEthernet Addresses Packet Tracer Companion: Subnet and Router Configuration (6.7.2.5. Part 2 (6. Determine Network Information Task 2: Challenge 180 Task 3: Clean Up 182 183 Activity 6-2: IPv4 Address Subnetting.7.7.7.1) 203 205 Task 1: Explain the Header Fields in an Ethernet II Frame 206 209 Task 2: Use Wireshark to Capture and Analyze Ethernet II Frames .8.7.1) 178 Task 1: For a Given IP Address.3) 194 Task 1: IP Subnet Planning 195 196 196 Task 2: Finish Building the Network in Packet Tracer Task 3: Configure the Network Task 4: Test the Network Task 5: Reflection chapter 7 OSI Data Link Layer 197 199 199 197 Data Link Layer: Accessing the Media Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Concept Questions 199 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Media Access Control Techniques 199 200 200 Concept Questions 200 201 201 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Concept Questions 202 Media Access Control: Addressing and Framing Data 201 Putting It All Together: Follow Data Through an Internetwork 203 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Lab 7-1: Frame Examination (7.1. Determine Subnet Information 184 Task 2: Challenge 188 Task 3: Clean Up 191 192 Lab 6-3: Subnet and Router Configuration (6.4.5.2. Part 1 (6.5.3.2) 194 Skills Integration Challenge: Planning Subnets and Configuring IP Addresses (6.2) Activity 6-1: IPv4 Address Subnetting.1) Task 1: For a Given IP Address and Subnet Mask.xv Task 4: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 177 177 177 178 Packet Tracer Companion: Examining ICMP Packets (6.

5.3) 227 Task 1: Connect the Devices in the Standard Lab Setup 228 228 Task 2: View the Standard Lab Setup in the Physical Workspace chapter 9 Ethernet 231 231 Overview of Ethernet Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Concept Questions 232 231 Ethernet: Communication Through the LAN 232 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Concept Questions 233 232 .4. Attending to Some Layer 2 Issues 215 Task 3: Configure the Network Task 4: Test the Network Task 5: Reflection Chapter 8 OSI Physical Layer 216 217 217 215 216 The Physical Layer: Communication Signals Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Concept Questions Concept Questions 217 217 Physical Signaling and Encoding: Representing Bits 218 218 218 218 219 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Concept Questions 219 Physical Media: Connecting Communication Vocabulary Exercise: Matching 219 220 Lab 8-1: Media Connectors Lab Activity (Lab 8.6.1.1) Task 1: Become Familiar with the Most Common Functions of a Cable Tester 221 Task 2: Test Different Cables for Type and Wiring Problems Task 4: Verify Cable Length Task 5: Reflection Task 7: Clean Up 226 226 Task 6: Challenge 226 226 223 224 Task 3: Perform Initial Configuration of the Fluke LinkRunner Skills Integration Challenge: Connecting Devices and Exploring the Physical View (8.3) Task 1: IP Subnet Planning 214 Task 2: Finish Building the Network in Packet Tracer.1. CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide Task 3: Challenge 212 Task 4: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 212 213 213 Skills Integration Challenge: Data Link Layer Issues (7.1.xvi Network Fundamentals.

3) 259 256 Task 1: IP Subnet Planning 260 261 Task 2: Repair Problems with the Ethernet Switched LAN .3.2) 253 Lab 9-3: Intermediary Device as an End Device (9.8.1) 249 248 Task 1: Use the Telnet Protocol to Log in to a Cisco Switch 251 Task 2: Use the Cisco IOS show mac-address-table Command to Examine MAC Addresses and Port Associations 251 Task 3: Challenge 253 Task 4: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 253 253 Packet Tracer Companion: Cisco Switch MAC Table Examination (9.2) 259 Skills Integration Challenge: Switched Ethernet (9.2.1.xvii The Ethernet Frame 233 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Multiple-Choice Questions Concept Questions 235 234 233 Ethernet Media Access Control 235 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Concept Questions 236 236 235 Ethernet Physical Layer Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Hubs and Switches 237 236 237 237 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Concept Question 238 Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) 238 Multiple-Choice Questions 238 240 Lab 9-1: Address Resolution Protocol (9.1.2) Lab 9-2: Cisco Switch MAC Table Examination (9.8.2.1.8.8.9.1) Task 1: Use the Windows arp Command Task 3: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 248 248 242 246 Task 2: Use Wireshark to Examine ARP Exchanges Task 4: Challenge 248 Packet Tracer Companion: Address Resolution Protocol (9.1) 253 Task 1: Use Wireshark to Capture and Analyze Frames Originating from Network Nodes 255 Task 2: Examine the Origination of Frames in a Small Network Task 3: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 258 259 Task 4: Challenge 259 Packet Tracer Companion: An Intermediary Device as an End Device (9.3.8.8.

2) Task 1: Determine the Number of Subnets in Topology Diagram A 269 Task 2: Record Subnet Information Task 4: Record Subnet Information Task 6: Record Subnet Information Task 8: Record Subnet Information Task 9: Reflection 273 274 270 270 271 272 271 272 273 Task 3: Determine the Number of Subnets in Topology Diagram B Task 5: Determine the Number of Subnets in Topology Diagram C Task 7: Determine the Number of Subnets in Topology Diagram D Lab 10-2: Creating a Small Lab Topology (10.2.1.xviii Network Fundamentals.6.6.2) Task 1: Connect a Router and Computer with a Console Cable Lab 10-3: Establishing a Console Session with HyperTerminal (10.2.6.1) 282 Task 2: Configure HyperTerminal to Establish a Console Session with a Cisco IOS Router 283 .1) Task 1: Design the Logical Network 276 278 Task 2: Configure the Physical Lab Topology 278 Task 3: Configure the Logical Topology Task 4: Verify Network Connectivity Task 5: Reflection Task 7: Clean Up 281 281 281 282 280 Task 6: Challenge 281 Packet Tracer Companion: Creating a Small Topology (10.1.3. CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide Task 3: Test the Network Task 4: Reflection Chapter 10 261 261 Planning and Cabling Networks Concept Questions 263 264 263 263 LANs: Making the Physical Connection Multiple-Choice Questions Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Device Interconnections 264 264 Concept Questions 264 265 265 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Developing an Addressing Scheme Concept Questions 266 266 266 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Multiple-Choice Questions Calculating the Subnets 267 Concept Questions Concept Question 267 267 Device Interconnections 268 268 269 Multiple-Choice Questions Lab 10-1: How Many Networks? (10.

1) 290 Task 1: Connect a Router and Computer with a Console Cable 290 Task 2: Configure Minicom to Establish a Console Session with the Router 291 Task 3: Perform Basic Commands Task 4: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 292 293 292 Skills and Integration Challenge: Planning and Cabling Networks (10.2.3) 293 Task 1: Build the Network Topology Task 3: Interface Configuration Task 4: Testing Connectivity Chapter 11 295 294 294 Task 2: Create and Assign an Addressing Scheme 295 297 Configuring and Testing Your Network Configuring Cisco Devices: IOS Basics 297 Concept Questions 297 298 298 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Cisco IOS Command Exercises Test Your Knowledge 299 Applying a Basic Configuration Using Cisco IOS 299 Concept Questions 300 300 301 Multiple-Choice Questions Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Verifying Connectivity 301 Test Your Knowledge 301 Concept Question 301 .3.6.1.2) 289 Lab 10-4: Establishing a Console Session with Minicom (10.6.7.xix Task 3: Configure HyperTerminal to Establish a Console Session with a Cisco IOS Switch 285 Task 3: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 286 286 287 Task 4: Challenge 286 Lab 10-3 (Alternative): Establishing a Console Session with TeraTerm Task 1: Connect a Router and Computer with a Console Cable 287 Task 2: Configure TeraTerm Web to Establish a Console Session with the Router 288 Task 3: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 288 289 Task 4: Challenge 289 Packet Tracer Companion: Establishing a Console Session with PT Terminal (10.

3. CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide Lab 11-1: Network Latency Documentation with ping (11.4.1) 335 336 Task 1: Design the Logical Lab Topology Task 3: Configure the Logical Topology Task 4: Verify Network Connectivity Task 5: Reflection Task 7: Clean Up 341 341 342 337 338 Task 2: Configure the Physical Lab Topology 338 340 Task 6: Challenge 341 Lab 11-5: Network Testing (11.1) 310 303 Task 2: Compute Various Statistics on the Output of a ping Capture 304 306 Task 1: Configure Cisco Router Global Configuration Settings Task 2: Configure Cisco Router Password Access Task 3: Configure Cisco Router Interfaces Task 4: Save the Router Configuration Files Task 5: Configure a Cisco Switch Task 6: Reflection Task 8: Clean Up 323 325 Task 7: Challenge 324 320 317 319 315 312 Packet Tracer Companion: Basic Cisco Device Configuration (11.2) Lab 11-4: Configure Host Computers for IP Networking (11.4.1.2.5.1) Task 1: Design the Logical Lab Topology Task 3: Configure the Logical Topology Task 4: Verify Network Connectivity Task 5: Reflection Task 7: Clean Up 350 351 Task 6: Challenge 350 343 345 Task 2: Configure the Physical Lab Topology 345 349 .5.3.2.2) Lab 11-3: Managing Device Configuration (11.xx Network Fundamentals.1.5.5.1) 327 326 Task 1: Configure Network Connectivity Task 3: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 333 335 328 329 Task 2: Use TFTP to Save and Restore a Cisco IOS Configuration Task 4: Challenge 333 Packet Tracer Companion: Managing Device Configuration (11.3) 302 Task 1: Use the ping Command to Document Network Latency Task 3: Measure Delay Effects from Larger Datagrams Task 4: Reflection 308 Task 5: Challenge 309 Lab 11-2: Basic Cisco Device Configuration (11.5.5.

6.1.6.xxi Lab 11-6: Network Documentation with Utility Commands (11.1) 366 Task 1: Prepare the Lab 367 368 370 372 Task 2: Review the Process of Data Flowing Through the Network Task 3: Analyze Captured Packets Task 4: Complete the Final Analysis Task 5: Conclusion Task 6: Summary 373 374 Skills Integration Challenge: Configuring and Analyzing Networks (11.1) 352 Task 1: Design the Logical Lab Topology Task 3: Configure the Logical Topology Task 4: Verify Network Connectivity Task 5: Document the Network Task 6: Reflection Task 8: Clean Up 358 359 Task 7: Challenge 358 357 353 354 Task 2: Configure the Physical Lab Topology 354 356 Lab 11-7: Case Study: Datagram Analysis with Wireshark (11.5.5.5.3) 374 Task 1: Plan 375 376 Task 2: Build and Configure the Network Task 3: Test and Analyze 377 Task 4: Reflection 377 .

In actual configuration examples and output (not general command syntax). Square brackets [ ] indicate optional elements. mutually exclusive elements. Braces within brackets [{ }] indicate a required choice within an optional element. Italics indicate arguments for which you supply actual values. Vertical bars (|) separate alternative. boldface indicates commands that are manually input by the user (such as a show command). CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide Icons Used in This Book Desktop Computer Laptop Firewall Packet Streaming Video IP Phone Switch Router Route/Switch Processor Phone Server Cloud Wireless Router Hub Printer Wireless Media LAN Media WAN Media Command Syntax Conventions The conventions used to present command syntax in this book are the same conventions used in the IOS Command Reference. ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ . Braces { } indicate a required choice. The Command Reference describes these conventions as follows: ■ Boldface indicates commands and keywords that are entered literally as shown.xxii Network Fundamentals.

CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide is a supplement to your classroom and laboratory experience with the Cisco Networking Academy. Goals and Methods First and foremost. The Study Guide sections of this book offer dozens of exercises to help you learn the concepts crucial to your success as a CCNA exam candidate.com/go/certifications. design. Many of the hands-on labs include Packet Tracer companion activities. By establishing a firm foundation in the fundamental topics taught in this course. The CCNA Exploration curriculum includes four courses oriented around the topics of the Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA) certification. implement. You can view the exam topics any time at http://www. fill-in-the-blank. this book is designed to help you learn all the required materials of the first course in the Networking Academy CCNA Exploration curriculum. In other words. and open-ended questions designed to help you ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Review vocabulary Strengthen troubleshooting skills Boost networking skills Reinforce concepts Research topics Each chapter also includes a Labs and Activities section that includes the online curriculum labs and a Packet Tracer Skills Integration Challenge activity.cisco. where you can use Packet Tracer to complete a simulation of the lab. matching. it will help you gain knowledge and practice the skills associated with the content areas of the CCNA Exploration Network Fundamentals course. Each chapter also includes a culminating activity called the Packet Tracer Skills Integration Challenge. you will be better prepared to move on to the rest of the CCNA Exploration curriculum and ultimately to pass the CCNA certification exam (640-802). . and hands-on labs to prepare students for industry-standard certifications. operate. and troubleshoot these technologies. These activities require you to pull together several skills learned from the chapter—and previous chapters and courses—to successfully complete one comprehensive exercise. Each chapter is slightly different and includes multiplechoice. but also that you can plan. Passing this foundation exam means that you not only have the required knowledge of the technologies covered by the exam. A Networking Academy delivers web-based content. student performance tracking. Network Fundamentals. you should do everything in your power to arm yourself with a variety of tools and training materials to support your learning efforts. To be successful on the exam and achieve your CCNA certification. Used to its fullest extent.xxiii Introduction The Cisco Networking Academy is a comprehensive e-learning program that provides students with Internet technology skills. these exams are rigorously application based. This Labs and Study Guide is just such a collection of tools. online assessment.

xxiv Network Fundamentals. However. Students can spend as much time as they like completing standard lab exercises through Packet Tracer. CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide A Word About Packet Tracer Packet Tracer is a self-paced. Your instructor needs to follow those instructions to set up the labs for you accordingly. The top-down approach adopted in the Network Fundamentals course enables students to set up and implement application layer services in a network lab environment. lab equipment can be a scarce resource. interactive teaching and learning tool developed by Cisco. A Word About Eagle Server The CCNA Exploration courses are designed to provide a hands-on learning approach to networking. Although Packet Tracer is not a substitute for real equipment. it allows students to practice using a command-line interface. Lab activities are an important part of networking education. The Eagle Server provides the following network services: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ DNS Web server FTP TFTP SSH Instant messaging Wiki server E-mail The Eagle Server is required to complete most of the labs in CCNA Exploration. Packet Tracer provides a visual simulation of equipment and network processes to offset the challenge of limited equipment. The Eagle Server software and complete FAQ documentation can be downloaded by your instructor from the Tools section of Academy Connection. The Eagle Server is developed by the Cisco Networking Academy to provide network services and applications that are typically accessed over the Internet in an isolated lab environment. Packet Tracer version 4. This “e-doing” capability is a fundamental component of learning how to configure routers and switches from the command line. Many of the hands-on labs in Network Fundamentals are based on an Internet model that uses a local server to provide a range of network services and applications that students can experiment with in the lab environment.x is available only to Cisco Networking Academies through the Academy Connection website. visual. . and have the option to work from home.

security issues. Internet Relay Chat. “Living in a Network-Centric World. path determination. such as Wireshark. to help evaluate network communications. How This Book Is Organized Because the content of Network Fundamentals. ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ . Chapters and Topics The book has 11 chapters. scalability. quality of service (QoS). “OSI Transport Layer. This chapter also includes questions and labs related to Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) tools. network components. The labs further reinforce that you have mastered the skills needed to work with the application layer of the OSI model. with the same numbers and similar names as the online course chapters.” provides exercises and labs to supplement your study of the basics of communication and how networks support the way we live. Chapter 5. the application layer. or prefix length. This book has 11 chapters. you should work through this Lab Study Guide in order. presentation. wikis.” introduces you to the top network model layer. beginning with Chapter 1. to determine the number of subnetworks and hosts in a network. The questions in the chapter focus on network architectures. The questions and labs help you reinforce important concepts related to addressing. hands-on skills needed to use some critical tools. and Packet Tracer. as follows: ■ Chapter 1. The Lab Exercises portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum labs to further reinforce that you have mastered the practical.” introduces the concepts of routing packets from a device on one network to a device on a different network. Chapter 3. You learn how TCP and UDP apply to common applications. Chapter 6. The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses different types of questions to test your knowledge of how devices communicate over the network.xxv Audience for This Book This book’s main audience is anyone taking the CCNA Exploration Network Fundamentals course of the Cisco Networking Academy curriculum. Chapter 2. Many academies use this textbook as a required tool in the course. “Addressing the Network: IPv4. and protocols that enable network communication. Work through the different types of questions to test your knowledge of the TCP/IP application and OSI application. “OSI Network Layer.” focuses on network addressing in detail and tests your knowledge of how to use the address mask. “Communicating over the Network. and session layer. Activities and labs let you practice your skills using and configuring network applications such as Google Earth. and network collaboration tools. Chapter 4. The book covers the major topic headings in the same sequence as the online curriculum for the CCNA Exploration Network Fundamentals course. blogs. data packets.” introduces the devices. media.” provides exercises and labs that focus on the role of the transport layer as it provides the end-to-end transfer of data between applications. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide and the online curriculum is sequential. while other academies recommend the Companion Guides as an additional source of study and practice materials. such as ping and trace. “Application Layer Functionality and Protocols. and IP.

and Address Resolution Protocol (ARP). A Packet Tracer skills integration lab provides an opportunity to practice IP subnetting. To register this book. http://www. hands-on skills needed to understand and work with the OSI physical layer.ciscopress.com/bookstore/register. Packet Tracer Companion. standards. and how to develop an addressing and testing scheme. how to connect devices. You’ll then be prompted to log in or join Ciscopress.” supplements your study of how the OSI data link layer prepares network layer packets for transmission. The chapter also helps you develop skills related to examining Cisco switch MAC address tables. A Packet Tracer skills integration lab lets you simulate the steps of installing an Ethernet card in a PC. A hands-on lab lets you practice your skills using Wireshark to capture and analyze Ethernet frames.com website. Chapter 10. Chapter 11. The files will be updated to cover any subsequent releases of Packet Tracer. “Planning and Cabling Networks. This chapter tests your ability to describe the encapsulation processes that occur as data travels across a LAN and a WAN. and Packet Tracer Challenge icons. Use this chapter to reinforce that you have mastered the practical. and protocols associated with the physical layer (Layer 1). You will configure Cisco routers and switches for basic network operations. go to http://www.xxvi Network Fundamentals. Packet Tracer Companion.” provides questions and extensive. a link to any supplemental content will be listed on your My Registered Books page. Topics include the evolution of Ethernet technologies. and setting speed and duplex settings. challenging labs that ask you to connect and configure a small network using basic Cisco IOS commands for routers and switches.” focuses on designing and cabling a network. with a focus on ARP frames. About the Cisco Press Website for This Book Cisco Press may provide additional content that can be accessed by registering your individual book at the Ciscopress.com to continue registration.” provides questions and labs that explore the functions. Becoming a member and registering is free. . “OSI Data Link Layer. The chapter also helps you study Media Access Control (MAC) and MAC addressing. and Packet Tracer Challenge files that are referenced throughout the book as indicated by the Packet Tracer Activity. “OSI Physical Layer. and you then gain access to exclusive deals on other resources from Cisco Press. which is located on its back cover.ciscopress. CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide ■ Chapter 7. and building and configuring a complex network. “Configuring and Testing Your Network. You will apply the knowledge and skills developed in the previous chapters to determine the appropriate cables to use.asp and enter the book’s ISBN. “Ethernet. You can obtain updates to these files from the website for this book. After you register the book. MAC. connecting it to a switch. Chapter 9. Chapter 8.” examines the technologies and operation of Ethernet. ■ ■ ■ ■ About the CD-ROM The CD-ROM included with this book has all the Packet Tracer Activity.com/title/1587132036. This chapter continues the examination of Ethernet frames that you started in Chapter 7.

2. and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of the importance of data networks and the major components and characteristics of network architectures. telegraphy. play. radio. or country?) Answers will vary. High-speed data networks that span the globe with cabling and networking devices have had a profound effect on human communication and will continue to revolutionize how humans interact with each other. but it has evolved over the years to encompass many types of media. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide for assistance. Concept Questions 1. How has data networking changed your community (your family. The addition of all these different types of network traffic has enabled the creation of online communities where geographic distances and physical limitations are no longer major obstacles and where humans around the globe can collaborate in their work. and television. city. fill-in-the-blank. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum activities and labs to ensure that you have mastered the practical. . telephony. the printing press. multiple-choice. Communication was once limited to face-to-face conversations. video. what other breakthroughs in communication media have extended the reach of human interactions? Answers will vary but could include smoke signals. hands-on skills needed to understand the opportunities and challenges associated with modern networks. In addition to data networks. the written word. and how has this changed human interactions? Answers will vary but should mention that modern networks carry voice. What types of network traffic do modern networks carry. As you work through this chapter. movies. 3. ranging from paper to fiber-optic cabling. Early data networks carried character-based messages between computer systems. newspapers.CHAPTER 1 Living in a Network-Centric World The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of matching. and education. school. use Chapter 1 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum or the corresponding Chapter 1 in Network Fundamentals. Study Guide Communicating in a Network-Centric World Humans are social animals who need to communicate with each other. text. and graphics.

Communication: An Essential Part of Our Lives Communication helps us work. Packet Tracer is a Cisco collaborative learning tool that provides a way to build virtual representations of networks that behave much like actual networks. and learn.2 Network Fundamentals. Concept Questions 1. Because communication is so important. Students should include at least four of the following correct answers: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ The quality of the pathway between the sender and receiver The number of times a message changes form The number of times a message is redirected The number of times a message is readdressed The number of times a message is reformatted The number of other messages sharing the communication pathway Whether a confirmation of the message was returned to the sender The amount of time allotted for successful communication List three internal factors that affect data networks. play. 1. . 2. 4. 5. communication networks include rules (or protocols) that help ensure reliable delivery of messages. Rules help data networks function despite the many factors that can degrade communication. as can internal factors that are related to aspects of the message itself. Instant Messaging (IM) is a form of online real-time communication between two or more people based on entered text. List four external factors that affect data networks. A blog is a web page that is easy to update and edit by someone who wants to publish a record of his or her thoughts on a subject. The message’s size The message’s complexity The message’s importance 2. Podcasting is an audio-based medium that lets people record audio and publish it on a website. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following questions. 3. Factors that are external to the message can affect reliability. A wiki is a web page that groups of people can edit and view together.

speed. Fill in the definition for each element. Vocabulary Exercise: Define Table 1-1 lists the four fundamental elements of a network. directed. Engineers use a set of standard icons to refer to the elements. network experts have standardized many elements and components of a data network. Network engineers often include these elements in network topology drawings. a physical environment. such as a cable or the air for wireless. and interpreted A means of interconnecting devices. The figure shows a network topology for a typical small company.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 3 The Network as a Platform Data networks provide a platform for humans to communicate and thus play an increasingly important role in the business and personal lives of humans. Figure 1-1 shows some of these icons. Figure 1-1 Network Topology Icons B C A D F G H K IP E I J L . and reliability that are required. in which data is transferred A unit of information that travels from one device to another across a medium Equipment that connects directly to a network Vocabulary Exercise: Identify Networks consist of many elements. Table 1-1 Element Network Element Definitions Definition Rule Medium Message Device An agreement or protocol that governs how messages are sent. To achieve the scale. received. Modern networks support fast and reliable message transfer among millions of users across the globe.

Provides network security Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following questions. Firewall c. Switch b. e-mail. Protocols are the rules that network devices use to communicate. Wireless media include the wireless connection between a wireless router and a computer in a home network. In wired connections. Cloud f. match the term on the left with its definition on the right.4 Network Fundamentals. 1. One form of a wide-area network (WAN) connection a. Network applications such as web browsing. A Firewall B Router C WAN medium D Network cloud E Server F LAN medium G LAN switch H Wireless router I IP phone J Desktop computer K Wireless media L Laptop computer Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 1-2. which carries data in the form of electrical signals. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Provide the name of each element in the network topology shown in Figure 1-1. 4. Table 1-2 Device Network Devices Definition a. Wireless router e. or optical fiber. 3. A device often found in home and small networks that lets laptop computers connect to a network without cabling c. the terrestrial wireless connection between two ground stations. Connects two or more networks and directs messages as they travel across a set of networks b. 2. and instant messaging require a network to provide services. Serial link f. the medium is either copper. . Router d. Interconnects computers and cabling to form a local-area network (LAN) e. which carries data in the form of light signals. Summarizes a group of network elements in topology drawings d. or the communication between devices on Earth and satellites in orbit.

Messages must be converted to bits (binary coded digital signals) before they are sent to their destination. and security. Converged networks have become common because they allow engineers to build one common infrastructure instead of multiple specialized networks. The computer converts the message to bits. Answers will vary depending on how much students already know. What is meant by the term converged network. with different tiers offering different levels of service. including the Internet. which directs them to their destination. simplify troubleshooting. the bits get converted back into a human-readable format. If they are just starting to learn networking and have grasped the information in “Elements of a Network” section in Chapter 1 of the curriculum and the Companion Guide. Fill in the definition for each characteristic. Business networks. Many large networks. including traffic that was once relegated to its own separate network. TCP/IP is a set of standard protocols that is widely used in home and business networks as well as on the Internet. 2. The Architecture of the Internet A network architecture describes a network’s physical infrastructure and the high-level services and protocols that move messages across that infrastructure. and why are converged networks becoming so common? What advantages do converged networks offer? A converged network carries network traffic of many different types. education networks. 6. This can save money. The Internet’s architecture shares many of the same characteristics of any large network that supports numerous users. Concept Questions 1. are also hierarchical. 2. their answers should read something like the following: 1. Vocabulary Exercise: Define Table 1-3 lists four fundamental characteristics of network architectures. scalability.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 5 5. and the Internet must provide fault tolerance. 5. At their destination. List the steps that take place on a network when you send an instant message. . quality of service. The bits arrive at a router. and enable advanced applications such as videoconferencing and online gaming. The Network Interface Card (NIC) converts the bits to electrical or optical signals and places them on the medium. The bits travel through network devices such as switches in the LAN. 3. 4. such as voice or radio.

. Why was fault tolerance a major focus of the initial design for the Internet? The United States Department of Defense (DoD) designed the network that evolved into the Internet with fault tolerance because the department was concerned about a military attack or other severe problem that could destroy numerous sites and transmission facilities. Compare and contrast circuit switching and packet switching. Messages are divided into small blocks of data (packets) that can travel across many paths to the destination. provide national and international connections and are optimized for carrying huge loads of traffic across the globe. Packets from different sources are intermixed. using all available resources. A new call requires a new setup process that creates a new circuit. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 1-3 Network Architecture Characteristics Definition Characteristic Fault tolerance Scalability Quality of service Security The capability of a network to withstand hardware and software failures and recover quickly when failures occur The capability of a network to expand quickly to support new users and applications without degrading performance for existing users A method of providing different priorities for different applications. or circuit. Why did the Internet designers choose packet switching instead of circuit switching? With circuit switching. Tier 1 providers. The hierarchical structure also means that network traffic that is destined for a service that is local to the sender does not need to traverse to a central point for distribution. How does the Internet benefit from using a hierarchical architecture? The hierarchical architecture permits Internet service providers (ISP) of different levels. Packets are routed according to the best path available at the time and can be routed around problem areas. Each tier can optimize its services for its unique role. If there’s a problem with any device in the path during a call. 3. because resources are used dynamically as packets arrive at switching locations. Tier 3 providers are smaller yet and focus on getting end users on the Internet. a call goes through a setup process whereby a temporary path. based on the requirements of the applications and their importance to users Measures taken to guard against unauthorized access to a network and the data traveling on the network Concept Questions 1. 2. For example.6 Network Fundamentals. such as AT&T and Verizon. Tier 2 providers are smaller and often provide regional service. Even if no communication is occurring between the sender and receiver. which improves scalability and fault tolerance. is created through various switching locations between the sender and receiver. With packet switching. The problem of underutilized idle circuits is eliminated. the call is dropped and must be reestablished. The circuit is dedicated to the call for the duration of the call. The early Internet designers chose packet switching because it provides better fault tolerance and scalability. there’s no requirement for call setup. the circuit and its resources remain reserved until one end disconnects.

could cause death or dismemberment. and coping with network attacks. Answers will vary. Business transactions can be time-sensitive. which protects the information carried in packets and stored on network-attached devices. and delivered. List some applications that are time-sensitive and the negative consequences of their packets getting dropped or delayed. and integrity Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following questions. 2. repelling. The two types of network security concerns are network infrastructure security. patents. Answers will vary. for example. with lots of starts and stops. for example) Private customer contract details becoming known to competitors or made public. 3. 4. Tools to provide security for individual messages must be implemented on top of the underlying protocols. resulting in a loss of confidence in the business Loss of sales and eventual company failure because of a loss of public trust in the company’s ability to maintain privacy. 5. confidentiality. a stock price could change while a buyer is making a purchase if traffic is delayed. which protects devices and cabling. Three fundamental security measures include ensuring confidentiality so that only intended and authorized recipients can read data. The consequences of a lost control signal to an automated piece of heavy machinery. if their traffic is delayed. Network firewalls can help ensure system reliability by detecting. maintaining integrity to ensure that information is not altered in transmission. which are the rules that govern how packets are formatted. with consequent loss of business Misdirected or lost personal or business funds Stolen company intellectual property (research ideas. List some consequences of a network security breach. 1.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 7 4. but here are some examples based on the curriculum: Streaming video and audio are time-sensitive and will appear or sound choppy. but here are some examples based on the curriculum: A network outage that stops communications and transactions. and content security. The consequence of the calls being dropped or delayed include people dying or suffering needlessly with injuries. and ensuring availability so that timely and reliable access to services is not disrupted by security breaches. Production control in factories can be time-sensitive. or designs. For example. Calls to an emergency response center are time-sensitive. addressed. .

A fault-tolerant network supports users who have different viewpoints. More voice and video transmissions that require a level of consistent quality and uninterrupted delivery c. b. The increasing number of mobile users b. Software engineer 4. and flexible as users continue to depend on their networks to help them live. Networks will need to be scalable. Which of the following are major trends that are contributing to the current evolution of networks? (Choose two. fault-tolerant. Fewer services as networks converge c. . Increasing use of simplified network devices e. The need to support circuit switching 2. 1. The need to protect networks from unauthorized access f. A fault-tolerant network can expand quickly to support new users and applications without causing errors for existing users. work. Network technician d. Fewer applications as networks converge d. More users wanting to access web pages in character mode b. and play. Which of the following best defines a fault-tolerant network? a.) a. More networks that are open and unconcerned with protection from unauthorized access 3. Which of the following is a relatively new information technology (IT) job title? a. Information security officer c. A fault-tolerant network is built to withstand earthquakes. A fault-tolerant network limits the impact of hardware or software failures and recovers quick- ly when a failure occurs. Multiple-Choice Questions Choose the best answer for each of the following questions. Which of the following is most associated with the concept of converged networks? a. Modern networks need to be ready to support increasing numbers of users who will make innovative use of the networks to enhance human communication. c. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Trends in Networking Data networks continue to evolve quickly.8 Network Fundamentals. d. learn. More networks that are locked down so that new applications and services cannot be added d. Programmer b.

. A scalable network is built to support high-altitude environments. A scalable network can expand quickly to support new users and applications without impact- ing the performance of the service being offered to existing users. A scalable network supports redundant connections so that alternative paths are available when a device or link fails. A scalable network ensures that priorities are matched with the type of communication and its importance to an organization. c. d.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 9 5. including skyscrapers and b. a. Which of the following best defines a scalable network? satellite dishes on mountains.

10 Network Fundamentals. The Google Earth Plus version includes GPS support.1. Experiment with Google Earth to explore continents. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Labs and Activities Activity 1-1: Using Google Earth to View the World (1.com/product_comparison. Estimated completion time. 16-bit high-color screen Scenario This activity is to be performed on a computer that has Internet access and on which you can install software.html contains a description of the versions. Which versions support Tilt and 3D rotation? All versions 2. and places of interest. The version that fits most needs is the free version. The URL http://earth.4) Upon completion of this activity. version 4. Explain the different versions of Google Earth. a spreadsheet importer.google. To use Google Earth. Which Google Earth version supports the highest resolution? Google Earth Pro supports 4800 pixels. countries. the following minimum computer hardware requirements must be met: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Operating system: Microsoft Windows 2000 or Windows XP CPU: Pentium 3 with 500 MHz System memory (RAM): 128 MB Hard disk: 400 MB of free space Network speed: 128 kbps Graphics card: 3D-capable with 16 MB of video RAM (VRAM) Screen: 1024×768 pixels. is 30 minutes. Experiment with Google Earth features such as Help and Tutorial. Background Google Earth is a popular application that executes on the desktop of most operating systems. it requires a broadband connection to the Internet. Google Earth. depending on network speed. Google Earth displays the Earth as a manipulated 2D or 3D image. Currently. and other support features. The Google Earth Pro version is for professional and commercial use. Explain the hardware and software requirements needed to use Google Earth (free edition).1. The popular world news channel CNN regularly uses Google Earth to show where a news story has occurred. Use this link to answer the following questions: 1. . three versions of Google Earth exist. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Explain the purpose of Google Earth.

The Menu bar is located in the upper-left corner. Choose View > Overview Map. mouse. 3. On the Help menu. Step 2: Review the navigation controls. only a compass is displayed.com/userguide/v4/). Follow the installation instructions. . Figure 1-2 Google Earth Opening Screen Task 2: Run Google Earth Refer to Figure 1-2. Task 3: Navigate the Google Earth Interface Step 1: Use the Overview Map feature. Placemark.html. answer the following questions: 1. Before leaving the User’s Guide website. Remember. choose User Guide to launch a default web browser and bring up the Google Earth User’s Guide (http://earth. List the three ways to move the image. navigation controls. The navigation controls. 2.google. and the Google Earth download should start automatically. This handy feature provides a relative global position of the magnified image. Take a few minutes to browse the User’s Guide. are located in the upper-right quadrant. otherwise. They control the image magnification and position. shown in Figure 1-3.google. The mouse pointer must be moved close to the controls. you can download the free application from http://earth. What is the purpose of the left mouse button? It rotates the image.com/download-earth. Which mouse control zooms in and out? Right mouse button or scroll wheel. you may have to disable any popup blockers on your browser.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 11 Task 1: Install Google Earth If Google Earth is not installed on the computer. Figure 1-2 shows the opening screen for Google Earth. the opening screen.

UK? What data would you need to enter? London. Step 6: View geographic coordinates. What U. When the location has been reached. what are the coordinates of your home? Answers will vary. The image takes you to that site. the reference is North (N) or South (S) of the equator. the equator is an imaginary line dividing the globe into a Northern and Southern Hemisphere. Using the pointer and coordinates shown in the lower-left quadrant of the image. minutes. experiment with the Places > Sightseeing folder. it’s the angle east or west of an arbitrary earth point.12 Network Fundamentals. state and city are displayed? San Jose. The combined longitude and latitude are called the common graticule. is the international zero-longitude point. For example. choose a location that you want to see. but the new house next door had not yet been built. California What if you would like to “Fly To” London. zip code. browse the surrounding area to see if you can determine approximately how old the image is. . United Kingdom. The equator has a 0° latitude. the reference is East (E) or West (W) of the Royal Observatory. Expand Sightseeing. and tenths. Try to find your home using the Search > Fly To folder.2D or 3D Zoom Rotate or Move Step 3: Use the Sightseeing feature. and double-click that location.S. Geographic coordinates are displayed in the lower-left quadrant of the image. Common graticule is the grid created by the longitude and latitude lines as depicted on a globe. one user commented that he found his home. On the left navigation bar. UK Step 5: Use the Fly To feature. it’s the angle between a point and the equator. For latitude. For example. The second number is called the longitude. and some location images are older than others. Some locations have better resolution than others.S. seconds. The Royal Observatory. The first number is called the latitude. The coordinate measurements are in degrees. Is the resolution for your home the same quality as the Sightseeing location in Step 3? Answers will vary. Step 4: Experiment with the Search > Fly To folder. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 1-3 Google Earth Screen Navigation Tools Tilt. If the resolution for your neighborhood is sufficient. For longitude. a U. an image streaming indicator reports when the image resolution is complete. Choose View > Grid to display Google Earth Gridlines. Enter 95134.

Some type of database was used to store the image. Use the following URL to learn about different coordinate systems: http://www. Click Remove and follow the prompts. List several recent security vulnerabilities.colorado. While enjoying the images. Activity 1-2: Identifying Top Security Vulnerabilities (1. follow these steps: Step 1. Use the geographic coordinate system to describe your home with as much accuracy and detail as possible. satellite communication with an Earth station transmitted the image of your home to a ground location. Step 3. Could the image be displayed faster if data compression techniques were used? Answers will vary. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ ■ Use the SANS site to quickly identify Internet security threats.4. Choose Start > Settings > Control Panel. If so. consider what digital communication resources were used.5. Consider network security. Additional removal information is available at http://earth.3) Upon completion of this activity. Wikipedia also contains a useful definition of common geographic terms. The delay in retrieving the image may have been short or long. A LAN sent your image request across the Internet. Could someone eavesdrop on your network connection? Answers will vary. Step 4. depending on the slowest speed of all network connections in the path between the database repository and your computer. probably through several WANs and then to another LAN with a computer that returned the image to you.edu/geography/gcraft/notes/coordsys/coordsys. Task 5: Challenge Google Earth displays image coordinates in the lower-left quadrant of the image. Task 6: Clean Up You may be required to remove Google Earth from the computer. turn off the computer. For example. Double-click Add or Remove Programs. Step 2. Explain how threats are organized. . Use the SANS links to access other security-related information.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 13 Task 4: Reflection Google Earth can bring the world into your home or office.google. Unless instructed otherwise.html.py?answer=20738&ctx=sibling. Locate and click Google Earth.com/support/bin/answer.

N.14 Network Fundamentals.org/ and select items from the Resources menu.sans. Estimated completion time is one hour. and defense. On the resources menu. For additional information about the SANS site. There are two major hyperlink topics: ■ ■ N1. You will use the SANS website as a tool for threat vulnerability identification. How can a corporate security administrator quickly identify security threats? SANS and the FBI have compiled their list of the top 20 Internet Security Attack Targets at http://www. instant messaging. You must complete this lab outside of the Cisco lab from a computer with Internet access. switches. backup software. choose top 20 list. Router and switch topics fall under the Network Devices category. personnel issues Special section: Security issues not related to any of the preceding categories ■ ■ ■ Scenario This activity introduces you to computer security vulnerabilities. SANS stands for SysAdmin. each a major contributor to information security. and numbers separate category topics. UNIX/Linux. Figure 1-4 SANS Menu The SANS Top-20 Internet Security Attack Targets list is organized by category. human behavior.sans. Audit.sans. Network and Other Devices Common Configuration Weaknesses . SANS contains several components. DNS servers. VoIP Servers and Phones N2. go to http://www. go to http://www. Mac Applications: Cross-platform. Task 1: Locate the SANS Resources Step 1. Security. Network. and so on). A letter indicates the category type. VoIP devices Human elements: Security policies. Open the SANS Top 20 List. Using a web browser. database. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Background One of the most popular and trusted sites related to defending against computer and network security threats is SANS. including web. understanding.org/top20/. peer-to-peer. media players.org. as shown in Figure 1-4. The list is regularly updated with information related to the following: ■ ■ Operating systems: Windows. and management servers Network devices: Network infrastructure devices (routers.

Answers will vary. the current list may not contain the same vulnerabilities as those that were present at the time of this writing. Range: Answers will vary. Fill in information about the vulnerability impact: CVSS Severity: Answers will vary. Step 3. The next heading. Using the hyperlinks. The CVE name is linked to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) National Vulnerability Database (NVD).2 (as of this writing) contains information about threats associated with default accounts and values. write a brief description of the solution as found on those pages. and click a sample CVE hyperlink. The Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS) severity is displayed. N2.gov/ and the vulnerability summary page for the CVE. References to Advisories.2 Common Default Configuration Issues. and Tools. which contains information about the vulnerability.2. Network and Other Devices Common Configuration Weaknesses to jump to this topic. Step 1: Choose a topic to investigate. Task 3: Collect Data The remainder of this lab walks you through a vulnerability investigation and solution. The link should open a new web browser connected to http://nvd. The last line under several topics’ references is Common Vulnerability Exposure (CVE). . Note: Because the CVE list changes.nist. Review the contents of N2. contains links with information about the vulnerability and possible solutions. Open Google and search on wireless router passwords to return links to multiple sites that publish a list of wireless router default administrator account names and passwords. Source: Answers will vary. Step 2. Task 2: Review the SANS Resources Step 1. Impact Type: Answers will vary. Step 2. Authentication: Answers will vary.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 15 Step 2: Click hyperlink N2. Under the Impact heading are several values. Solutions. It contains a value between 1 and 10. Fill in the following information about the vulnerability: Original release date: Answers will vary. Failure to change the default password on these devices can lead to compromise and vulnerability by attackers. For example. Overview: Answers will vary. Note the CVE references. Last revised: Answers will vary. sponsored by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) National Cyber Security Division and US-CERT.

When people have wanted immediate contact. Governments have dedicated significant resources to coordinating and disseminating information about the vulnerability and possible solutions. Background E-mail permits multiple users to collaborate. Task 5: Challenge Try to identify an organization that will meet with you to explain how vulnerabilities are tracked and solutions are applied. often called a Buddy List. the telephone cannot be used to transfer files. When you join. Although the following discussion focuses primarily on IM. you can open additional IM windows. To start chatting. To initiate an instant message. users can easily exchange ideas and files. The recipient of the invitation knows about—and accepts—the IM session based on the other user’s screen name. Using the Internet or a private corporate network. If you want to communicate with more than one person at a time. It will also give representatives of the organization an opportunity to meet the class and conduct informal intern interviews. allows multiple people to interact. IM provides one-on-one communication with “accepted” individuals. unless the user constantly monitors the e-mail account.1. Use IRC to demonstrate collaboration. IRC and IM fit nicely into these requirements. however. networks. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ ■ Define Internet Relay Chat (IRC) and Instant Messaging (IM). the telephone has been the technology of choice. However. Finding an organization willing to do this may be difficult. Unfortunately. and transfer files. Think of ways that users can help strengthen security. unread e-mail may go unnoticed for a long period of time. What collaborators need for communication in the human network is a tool that has the flexibility of e-mail with the responsiveness of the telephone. IMing and chatting are both methods of real-time communication. you establish a connection to a Chat server and join a discussion on a particular topic. and data continues to increase.1) Upon completion of this lab. they are implemented differently. IM clients allow you to have an approved list of users. List several collaborative uses of IM. Each of these windows represents a two-person communication. It remains the responsibility of the end user to implement the solution.6.16 Network Fundamentals. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 4: Reflection The number of vulnerabilities for computers. . a brief hands-on lab will demonstrate the ease of IRC. for security reasons. Think about user habits that create security risks.” In the chat room. you are said to “join a room. on the other hand. Chat also provides a degree of anonymity. you typically create your own identity and can give as little information about yourself as you choose. share ideas. one person needs to “invite” another. List several misuses of and data security issues involving IM. but this will provide beneficial information about how vulnerability mitigation is accomplished in the world. Lab 1-1: Using Collaboration Tools: IRC and IM (1. IRC.

The users on the end devices. Newer services that some IM networks are beginning to provide include videoconferencing. IM servers can also incorporate this support. IM clients connect to an IM server. Windows Live Messenger (MSN). Voice over IP (VoIP). and the server joins clients. Yahoo! Messenger. SIPv2 was originally defined in RFC 2543 and was made obsolete by RFC 3261. can differentiate between the various IM network protocols. This arrangement is called a client/server relationship. Many of the IM networks use proprietary protocols. based on the Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (EMPP). The IETF formalized an open standard. Popular IM networks include America OnLine (AOL) Instant Messenger (AIM). and many IM networks encourage parental control. Figure 1-5 shows the AIM client application connected to the AIM network. called a protocol. Social misuse of IM has been a concern for parents. Text messaging between clients is possible and can be logged. use a piece of software called the Instant Messenger Client. such as a computer. such as Gaim and Trillian. notably with Session Initiation Protocol (SIP). Throughout this course we will learn about many different protocols. and even IP radio and IPTV. Some IM client applications. The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) has attempted to standardize IM protocols. Encrypted communication is supported. web conferencing. desktop sharing. ■ ■ ■ ■ Protocols Each IM network uses an agreed-upon method of communication. Many different IM networks are available. numerous open-source protocols exist. AIM and ICQ (purchased by AOL) use the proprietary Open System for Communication in Real Time (OSCAR) protocol. Both Microsoft and Yahoo! have proprietary protocols but have partnered services for joint connectivity. File sharing between IM clients enables work collaboration. AIM and . Child restrictions include limiting IM contacts and providing supervision while online.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 17 IM requires a device providing services that allows users to communicate. each with a dedicated following of users. This relationship is called an IM network. any existing connections can be alerted through a contact list—a list of other people that you communicate with through the IM client. Jabber. Figure 1-5 AIM Client Features IM services have several common features: ■ When an IM client connects to the IM network. As with proprietary IM protocols. Applicable IETF references are RFC 3920 and RFC 3921. Some IM networks offer audio services. and ICQ (I Seek You). This device is called the Instant Messenger Server.

Filter all HTTP traffic through an authenticating proxy server to provide additional capabilities of filtering and monitoring IM traffic. viruses. and online communication. chat room blocking. and the underlying operating system. Do not rely on external IM servers for internal use of IM. have been transferred to IM client computers. Block access to known public IM servers that have not been explicitly authorized. (Note: This offers only partial protection because of the number of potential external servers. The following list is from the SANS website at http://www. As a result. provide a commercial-grade IM proxy or internal IM server. If a user must have Administrative or Power User privileges.) Monitor using an Intrusion Detection/Prevention system for users creating tunnels for IM or bypassing proxies. Another popular handheld appli- .18 Network Fundamentals. Computer worms. The SANS Institute recommends several countermeasures that system administrators can use to protect their networks from IM vulnerabilities and misuse. IM clients and IM servers have experienced application vulnerabilities. Internet surfing.sans. Understand that many IM applications can enable associated communications to masquerade as otherwise legitimate traffic (for example. Create secure communication paths when using IM with trusted business partners. and Trojan horses. interrelated applications. and disabling certain functions of the client. Appropriately configure intrusion detection and prevention systems. which have resulted in vulnerable computers. enabling users to adapt new technologies for collaboration. create a separate account to be used for his or her daily office functions.4 How to Protect Against IM Vulnerabilities and Unauthorized IM Usage ■ Establish policies for acceptable use of IM. Ensure that all users are aware of those policies and clearly understand the potential risks. HTTP). For example. ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ The Future of IM The future of IM is promising. providing IM services to handheld cellular phones. Restrict Administrative and Power User level privileges to support personnel acting in their support capacity. Some parental supervision tools include background logging. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Yahoo! Messenger provide free supervision software tools. (Note: This offers only partial protection because of the number of potential protocols and associated ports and the ability of applications to bypass port restrictions.) Block popular IM ports. mobile IM supports mobile users. many organizations either limit or block IM from entering the corporate network. Security Multiple security issues have been identified with IM. Consider deploying products specifically designed for IM security. Ensure that vendor patches are promptly applied to IM software.org/top20/#c4: C4. categorized as malware. Most popular cellular phone manufacturers have their own form of mobile IM. Standard users should not be permitted to install software. blocking specific users. Even legitimate users can congest network throughput by transferring large files. Without strong security methods. information exchanged between users can be captured and disclosed. online time limits. Employ antivirus and antispyware products.

download and install gaim-1. but any IRC client may be used if available. This lab uses Gaim as the IRC client. assume that a Cisco Networking Academy instructor has already set up Eagle Server and named it eagleserver. follow the next steps to configure Gaim. If not. including this one. telephony. the cloud represents the network and networking devices between an IRC client and a server called eagle-server.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 19 ance is the BlackBerry. Accept the default settings during the installation.com. Some of the labs in this book.0. such as text messaging.com/pub. The BlackBerry supports common IM tools. . An IRC client is available for download from eagle-server at http://eagleserver. Scenario Figure 1-6 shows two computers connected to a “cloud. Figure 1-7 Gaim Accounts Window In the Accounts window. which is not the current focus of this discussion. Open Gaim and select the Login window. such as the Internet. icon Accounts.5. click Add.exe (a Windows executable) from ftp://eagleserver. Task 1: Configure the Chat Client The IRC protocol is an open standard.example. Note: Eagle Server is a component of the Cisco Networking Academy. as well as push e-mail. In subsequent chapters you will study in great detail the devices and protocols that are inside the cloud. a cloud is often used to symbolize a more complex network.com/pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter1. and web browsing.example. for communicating across plain-text links.” In networking. originally described in RFC 1459. In this lab. Step 2: Open the Accounts window. Figure 1-6 Topology for Lab 1-1 Eagle Server Pod#A Estimated completion time is 45 minutes. Step 1: Verify that an IRC client is on the lab computer. The Accounts window is shown in Figure 1-7. After verifying that the Gaim chat client is installed.example.

Click Sign-on.com Proxy type: No Proxy Gaim Add Account Window Figure 1-8 When you’re finished. click Save. Return to the Login window. used for chatting or IM. Figure 1-9 IRC Connect Status Window Figure 1-10 Gaim IRC Client Window . CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Step 3: Add a new account. where the new account to eagle-server should be visible. expand the Show more options option. Task 2: Connect to the Chat Server Step 1: Sign on. as shown in Figure 1-8: ■ ■ ■ ■ Protocol: IRC Screen Name: (how others will know you) Server: eagle-server. Fill in required information. In the Add Account window. Close the Accounts window.example. Figure 1-10 shows the main Gaim IM client window. Two windows should open. Figure 1-9 shows the IRC Connect Status window.20 Network Fundamentals.

and a Buddy List window appears.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 21 Step 2: Join the chat. Multiple students can join and interact with each other. Click Chat. the Channel name must start with #. Figure 1-12 Participating in a Chat During the chat. When the IRC client connects to the IRC server. Task 4: Reflection On a network with an Internet connection. Answers will vary. the Gaim IM client can be used to connect to several different IM providers. Task 3: Consider the Chat Session Figure 1-12 shows a brief chat between users root and student2. If the Channel name is incorrect. the status window closes. Figure 1-11 Joining a Chat Note: For you to join a chat channel. Most teenagers and young adults today are familiar with IMing between friends and sharing files. consider how you—as a parent or network administrator—would manage this type of connection. you will be in a chat room alone (unless other students made a similar error). as shown in Figure 1-11. but you might not understand the communication between the client and server. you should understand the social and security issues with IM and IRC. As a future network engineer. .

22 Network Fundamentals. transfer files between partners. If you have ever used Wikipedia. Figure 1-13 shows two computers connected to a “cloud.” In networking. Scenario In this lab. Background The lab topology shown in Figure 1-13 should be configured and ready for use. Use a continuous ping from the host to Eagle Server to monitor network throughput.2. Explore wiki features. Write a brief description of the network response time—during file transfers and without file transfers. Task 6: Clean Up Check with your instructor before removing Gaim and shutting down the computer. you are probably familiar with the look and feel of a wiki. In networking terms. a wiki is a web-based collaboration tool that permits almost anyone to immediately post information.1) Upon completion of this lab. you will be able to ■ ■ Define the terms wiki and blog. A wiki lets you access a home page (first page) that provides a search tool to assist you in locating the articles that interest you. Figure 1-13 Topology for Lab 1-2 Eagle Server Pod#A Note to Instructor: The lab should be preconfigured for students. you explore the TWiki wiki server installed on Eagle Server in this lab. ask the instructor for assistance. Observe the response time before and during the file transfer. To gain experience with a wiki. Lab 1-2: Using Collaboration Tools: Wikis and Web Logs (1. In subsequent chapters you will study in great detail the devices and protocols that are inside the cloud. If there are connectivity issues with the lab computer connecting to Eagle Server. Task 1: Define the Terms Wiki and Blog Wiki is a Hawaiian-language word that means fast. a cloud is often used to symbolize a more complex network that is not the current focus of discussion.6. you will use a host computer that connects across the cloud to access the TWiki wiki server. files. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 5: Challenge While you are connected in chat. you have the opportunity to learn about the different parts of a wiki. A wiki can be installed for . In this lab. or graphics to a common site for other users to read and modify. Use the Orientation lab to configure and test connectivity before students arrive in class.

. Get e-mail alerts whenever pages are changed. Free Internet blog hosting is available.wiki. Use your browser to upload files as page attachments. 4. Edit and auto links are available to edit a page and automatically link pages.org/wiki. Note that you won’t be able to carry out the instructions in the “3. from such providers as www. Text formatting is similar to creating an e-mail. Instead.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 23 the Internet community or behind a corporate firewall for employee use. 6. Although many different wiki servers are available. the following common features have been formalized into every wiki: ■ ■ Any web browser can be used to edit pages or create new content. It covers the following major topics: 1. It is recommended that you open two browsers. The power of a wiki is in the rich hyperlink content. TWiki requires e-mail verification for new accounts. 7.. Some blogs permit users to leave comments and provide feedback to the author. Blogs are normally the creation of a single person. Get set. 3. Check out TWiki users. 2. complete the questions in this task. and . Point one browser at the TWiki URL. ■ ■ ■ For more information on wikis. and the blog owner controls blog content.com/ A web log. called a blog. Test the page controls. but others are more restrictive. Following hyperlinks can present continuity problems. Open a private account. users have already been created for steps that require login privileges. 5. A wiki web is a grouping of pages with different collaboration groups.cgi?WhatIsWiki http://www. and e-mail has not been configured on the lab host computers. Change a page and create a new one. similar to a free website or e-mail account. Open a private account” topic. Task 2: Explore Wiki Features with the TWiki Tutorial The TWiki tutorial explores some of the more common features of a wiki. Access control can be set by the topic creator. visit the following URLs outside of class: http://www. defining who is permitted to edit content. A search engine is used for quick content location.com. groups. is similar to a wiki in that users create and post content for others to read. 8.blogger. The user not only reads wiki contents but also participates by creating content within a web browser.wikispaces. Take a quick tour. As you investigate each topic in the tutorial.

CCNA Exploration Companion Guide use the other browser for “working” pages. therefore. Step 1: Establish a web client connection to the Eagle Server wiki. user IDs have been created for you to use later in this lab.24 Network Fundamentals.. topic 3. Open a web browser and connect to the TWiki Sandbox at http://eagleserver. The URL name is case-sensitive. How many results are returned from a search of WebSearch? 5 Refer to the tutorial. Refer to the tutorial. that hyperlinks to the topic.example. Any external links that are selected will result in an error. First. “Take a quick tour. answer the following questions: What is a WikiWord? A WikiWord is a topic name.” E-mail is not possible at this time. made up of two or more words with initial capital letters. “Get set. to open the wiki tutorial page. users fill in registration information and submit the form to TWiki. Figure 1-14 TWiki Sandbox Web Step 2: Open the TWiki Tutorial. topic 1. you will not be able to register. List the mandatory information required for registration: First Name Last Name E-mail address Your password Retype password Organization name Country . is a web topic designed to test wiki features.” and topic 2. shown in Figure 1-14. The Sandbox. “Open a private account.. highlighted in Figure 1-14.” After completing the first two tutorial sections. Instead.com/twiki/bin/view/Sandbox/WebHome. The key point to understand about this step is that registration is a two-part process. Step 3: Complete the TWiki tutorial. Adjust the browser window sizes so that instructions can be viewed in one browser and actions can be performed in the other. so enter it exactly as shown. Click the TWiki Tutorial link.

“Change a page and create a new one. version control. “Test the page controls. Table 1-4 Description Action Links Action Link Add to or edit the topic Show the source text without editing the topic Attach files to a topic Find out what other topics link to this topic (reverse link) Additional controls. groups. At this time. answer the following questions related to user and group issues: How is a user’s password reset? The user selects WikiWord “Reset Password” and enters the login ID. topic 4. Backlinks. The user logs in with the new password and creates a new. Recognize the student who has the best topic page! . Complete this tutorial.” is an opportunity for you to add content to the wiki. memorable password. and setting the topic’s parent Topics are under revision control—shows the topic’s complete change history. answer the following question: What is the latest revision number? 15 In Table 1-4. Tutorial topic 5. such as who changed what and when View a previous version of the topic or the difference between two versions Goes to a stripped-down version of the page. How can inappropriate changes be fixed in a wiki topic? A topic revision can be undone by a member of the TWikiAdminGroup. Note to Instructor: This tutorial is an opportunity for the student to create a personalized page. Refer to the tutorial. More. “Check out TWiki users. After completing this tutorial section. and Raw View. the user account is added to the TWiki database.” makes you familiar with page-editing commands. r3 > r2 > r1. Printable. using Table 1-5 to log in to the wiki server. After completing this tutorial section. The second part of the registration process is when the user either enters the code in the activation window or responds with e-mail by clicking the TWiki response link. History. Place the following action links: Attach.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 25 TWiki responds to a registration request by sending an e-mail to the user that contains a unique activation code. place the correct action link next to the descriptions of page controls.” A list of TWiki users and groups is displayed. Edit. such as rename/move. The TWiki system generates a new password and sends it to the user’s e-mail account. good for printing Edit Raw View Attach Backlinks More History r3 > r2 > r1 Printable Tutorial topic 6.

Refer to Table 1-5. All accounts have the same password. located in the upper-left corner of the page. a group with private accounts has been created to allow participation in a private TWiki topic. . CCNA Exploration Companion Guide On Eagle Server.26 Network Fundamentals. click the Log In link. Table 1-5 Account Logins Account Login ID (Case-Sensitive) Lab pod#host# Pod1host1 Pod1host2 Pod2host1 Pod2host2 Pod3host1 Pod3host2 Pod4host1 Pod4host2 Pod5host1 Pod5host2 Pod6host1 Pod6host2 Pod7host1 Pod7host2 Pod8host1 Pod8host2 Pod9host1 Pod9host2 Pod10host1 Pod10host2 Pod11host1 Pod11host2 StudentCcna1 StudentCcna2 StudentCcna3 StudentCcna4 StudentCcna5 StudentCcna6 StudentCcna7 StudentCcna8 StudentCcna9 StudentCcna10 StudentCcna11 StudentCcna12 StudentCcna13 StudentCcna14 StudentCcna15 StudentCcna16 StudentCcna17 StudentCcna18 StudentCcna19 StudentCcna20 StudentCcna21 StudentCcna22 From the lab Wiki Welcome Screen. cisco. See Figure 1-15. You should use the account that reflects your pod and host computer number. These accounts are StudentCcna1 through StudentCcna22.

Figure 1-16 Login Box This should bring up your wiki topic page.” describes the process of uploading files into the wiki. What is the default maximum file size that can be transferred? 10 MB Tutorial topic 8. “Use your browser to upload files as page attachments. and upload it to the wiki server. Figure 1-17 Wiki Topic Page Tutorial topic 7. To complete this tutorial. create a document using Notepad. Sometimes it is not convenient to return regularly to a . similar to the one shown in Figure 1-17. “Get e-mail alerts whenever pages are changed.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 27 Figure 1-15 Log In Link A login box similar to the one shown in Figure 1-16 should appear.” details how to receive e-mail alerts whenever a particular page has been updated. Both the username and password are case-sensitive. Enter the applicable TWiki username and password cisco.

7.com: CiscoStudentsStuff Task 3: Reflection This lab presented the mechanics of a wiki. Usefulness and collaboration will not be realized until you actually join a wiki.3) Figure 1-18 shows the topology for this challenge. ] wikiName : topics ° ccna1@example. ] wikiName .com/index.org/wiki/Network_Plus_Certification/Study_Guide Network Dictionary: http://wiki. and add the web name and your e-mail address.networkdictionary.wikibooks.SMTP mail address three spaces * [ webName . ] wikiName three spaces * SMTP mail address three spaces * SMTP mail address : topics three spaces * [ webname .wikibooks. Here are some wikis of possible interest: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ CCNA: http://en. Answers will vary. .org/wiki/CCNA_Certification Cisco Systems corporate history: http://en.nyetwork.org/wiki/Cisco Network+: http://en. Edit the WebNotify page.wikipedia.php/Main_Page Wireshark network protocol analyzer: http://wiki. Because e-mail is not configured on the host computer.org/wiki/Cisco_Systems Wiki web about Cisco equipment and technology: http://www. Describe how you could receive e-mail notifications whenever a topic changes.1. alerts are not sent.wireshark. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide wiki simply to check for updates to postings. Create a personal blog of your network education experience. Internet access is required. Task 5: Clean Up Close all web browsers and shut down the computer unless instructed otherwise. and Table 1-6 reflects the addressing information.28 Network Fundamentals.org/ Task 4: Challenge Depending on the type of Eagle Server installation. the class may be able use the TWiki wiki server to post interesting topics related to computer network theory and class progress. Here’s a possible format: three spaces * [ webname . Packet Tracer Challenge Skills Integration Challenge: Introduction to Packet Tracer (1.

16.16.10.255. Explore Packet Tracer operation.254.253 10. Connect devices.16.1.0 255.254.16.252 255.0 — — 10.255.6 172.255.1.255.10.254 172.0.0.10.2 192.254.10.1 172.254 10.255.5 172.16. Examine a device configuration. .1 172.255.254.255.10.0 255.0. Explore the Logical Workplace.16.10.255.0 255.10.252 255. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Explore Packet Tracer Real-time mode.255.254 255.254 172.6 10.255. Describe the devices.168.255.6 172.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 29 Figure 1-18 Topology for Skills Integration Challenge 1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server 2960-24TT S1-Central 1841 R2-Central PC-PT 1A PC-PT 1B Table 1-6 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP R2-Central S1-Central PC 1A PC 1B Eagle Server Fa0/0 S0/0/0 Fa0/0 S0/0/0 VLAN 1 NIC NIC NIC 192. Review the standard lab setup.168.255.0 255.168.16.255.10.0.255.254 192.255.253 Upon completion of this activity.255.0 255.

This activity gives you an opportunity to explore the standard lab setup using the Packet Tracer simulator.pkt file format.pkt files (network simulation model files) and .” tutorials. these instructions appeared. The specific connection symbols provide different cable types that can be used to connect devices. below the yellow bar. This method provides the widest range of features and the most realistic experience. Packet Tracer provides a set of protocols. Because equipment and time are limited.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to perform this exercise using Packet Tracer. When you launched this activity from the curriculum. You are also encouraged to examine the Help files built into Packet Tracer. When you click this symbol. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Background Throughout the course you will use a standard lab setup created from actual PCs. and information on the strengths and limitations of using Packet Tracer to model networks. The main part of the PT interface is the Logical Workplace. routers. Task 1: Explore the PT Interface Step 1: Examine the Logical Workplace. equipment. When Packet Tracer starts. . The first specific type. you will often use the .pka files (activity files for practice). which include an extensive “My First PT Lab.pka Packet Tracer activity file format. the pointer resembles a cable connector. The simulator that is used in this course is Packet Tracer. Reset Activity restarts the activity if you want to clear your work or get more practice. Task 2: Explore PT Operations Step 1: Connect the devices using auto connect. They are the result of the . and study the various devices that are available and their symbols. this experience can be supplemented by a simulated environment. You are encouraged to compare the results obtained from Packet Tracer network models with the behavior of real equipment. The first box in the lower left contains symbols that represent groups of devices. and switches to learn networking concepts. Step 2: Explore symbols navigation. The lower-left portion of the PT interface.30 Network Fundamentals. Packet Tracer is a supplement and not a replacement for experience with real equipment. the gold lightning bolt. Packet Tracer can create two file formats: . a description of the device appears in the text box below the specific devices. or modify existing files from your instructor or your peers. automatically selects the connection type based on the interfaces available on the devices. As you move the mouse pointer over these symbols. Click each group. Open the file LSG01-PTSkills1. the specific devices in the group appear in the box to the right. When you click one of these symbols. Click the connections group symbol. As you point to the specific devices. At the bottom of these instructions are two buttons: ■ ■ Check Results gives you feedback on how much of the activity you have completed. and features but only a fraction of what is possible with real equipment. servers. When you create your own networks in Packet Tracer. is the portion of the interface that you use to select and place devices into the Logical Workplace. This is the large area where devices are placed and connected. it presents a logical view of the network in realtime mode. the name of the group appears in the text box in the center.

The Physical tab displays physical components of the device. such as device name. Server displays IP address. subnet mask. The Physical tab displays components of the device. Step 2: Examine device configuration with a mouseover. and VLAN membership. and Desktop. DNS server. Click each device type found in the Logical Workplace to view the device configuration: ■ Router and Switch devices contain three tabs—Physical. Using the auto connection symbol. and CLI (command-line interface). Config. PC displays IP address. including IP address. MAC address. and then click the second device. A terminal emulator. The Config tab displays the device name. default gateway. and gateway information. DNS. and MAC address. New modules can also be added using this tab. MAC address. subnet mask. port status. port status. and wireless. The Config tab displays the general configuration information. As you move the mouse pointer over these symbols. IP address. New modules can also be added using this tab. The CLI tab allows the user to configure the device using the command-line interface.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 31 To connect two devices. The Desktop tab allows the user to configure IP address. Config. such as modules. make the following connection: ■ ■ Connect Eagle Server to the R1-ISP router. and a simulated web browser can also be accessed using the Desktop tab. The Config tab displays the general information. the command prompt. the device configurations appear in a text box: ■ Router displays port configuration information. such as ports. such as device name. including IP address. Connect PC-PT 1A to the S1-Central switch. and gateway information. New modules can also be added using this tab. . ■ ■ ■ Step 3: Examine device configuration. Switch displays port configuration information. click the auto connection symbol. Move the mouse over the devices found in the Logical Workplace. ■ Server and Hub devices contain two tabs—Physical and Config. dialup. and gateway information. ■ PC devices contain three tabs—Physical. The Physical tab displays components of the device. click the first device. MAC address.

IP addresses. and two PCs. Task 4: Reflection You have completed your first Packet Tracer lab. if you have not done so already. one switch. .32 Network Fundamentals. and connections. one server. Each of these devices is preconfigured with such information as device names. You are encouraged to obtain Packet Tracer from your instructor or Academy Connections. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 3: Review the Standard Lab Setup The standard lab setup consists of two routers. gateways.

or information. into smaller. or flow of data. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum activities and labs to further reinforce that you have mastered the practical. matching. Study Guide The Platform for Communications Communication begins with a message. ■ ■ ■ What are the three elements of communication? Message source or sender Destination or receiver Channel or media What is the process of breaking large messages. that must be sent from one individual or device to another. As you work through this chapter. fill-in-the-blank. What is the process used to allow many different conversations to be interleaved on a network called? Multiplexing 4. for assistance. 3. hands-on skills needed to use some critical tools to help evaluate network communications. Concept Questions 1. easier-to-manage pieces called? Segmentation 2. use Chapter 2 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum or use the corresponding Chapter 2 in the Networking Fundamentals. All of these methods have three elements in common. Modern networks primarily use three types of media to interconnect devices. People exchange ideas using many different communication methods. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide.CHAPTER 2 Communicating over the Network The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of multiple-choice. and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of how devices communicate over the network. What are these three types? Metallic wires within cables Glass or plastic fibers (fiber-optic cable) Wireless transmission ■ ■ ■ .

Table 2-1 Term Components of the Network Definition a. Computer. WANs.34 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 2-1. or others with authorization. and internetworks. Media c. employees. web servers) Mobile handheld devices (such as wireless barcode scanners. and Internetworks Network infrastructures can vary greatly in terms of the following: ■ ■ ■ The size of the area covered The number of users connected The number and types of services available This section tests your knowledge of the differences between LANs. . file servers. PDAs) Network access devices (hubs. identify the definition on the left with either end devices or intermediary devices on the right. 1. router c. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks for the following statements. laptops. The term intranet is often used to refer to a private connection of LANs and WANs that belongs to an organization. web browser In Table 2-2. switch. match the definition on the right with a term on the left. and wireless access points) Network printers Internetworking devices (routers) VoIP phones Communication servers and modems Security cameras Security devices (firewalls) End devices End devices Intermediary device End devices Intermediary device End devices Intermediary device End devices Intermediary device LANs. WANs. wireless connection. fiber-optic cable a. E-mail. switches. Cat5 cable. and is designed to be accessible only by the organization’s members. Services b. Table 2-2 Definition End or Intermediary Device Device Type Computers (work stations. Devices b.

a. it might be necessary to use a telecommunications service provider (TSP) to interconnect the LANs at the different locations. 4. or region. such as a single business. The media connecting the PC to the networking device plugs directly into the NIC. Table 2-4 Device LANs. and Internetworks Definition a. providing services and applications to people within a common organizational structure. 3. Table 2-3 Term LANs. campus. WANs use specifically designed network devices to make the interconnections between LANs. match the definition on the right with a term on the left. and Internetworks Number Router Firewall Wireless access point LAN hub LAN switch IP phone Wireless router Wireless media Server Laptop LAN media Desktop computer WAN media 1 7 9 3 2 8 10 13 4 6 12 5 11 .Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 35 2. b. Internetworks In Table 2-4. WANs. WANs c. When a company or organization has locations that are separated by large geographic distances. Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 2-3. WANs. An individual network usually spans a single geographic area. A LAN is usually administered by a single organization. LANs b. match the term on the left with the correct symbol number from Figure 2-1. A global mesh of interconnected networks. c.

3. 4. A standard is a process or protocol that has been endorsed by the networking industry and ratified by a standards organization. Successful communication between hosts on a network requires the interaction of many different protocols. 2. All communication. ■ What processes do networking protocol suites describe? The process by which networking devices share information about pathways with other networks How and when error and system messages are passed between devices The setup and termination of data transfer sessions ■ ■ .36 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 2-1 Common Data Network Symbols 1 7 2 IP 8 3 9 4 10 11 5 12 6 13 Protocols All communication. Concept Questions 1. whether face to face or over a network. is governed by predetermined rules called protocols. The most common internetwork protocol is Internet Protocol (IP). is governed by predetermined rules called protocols. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks for the following statements. A group of interrelated protocols that are necessary to perform a communication function is called a protocol suite. These protocols are specific to the characteristics of the conversation. whether face to face or over a network. 1.

Table 2-6 Term OSI Model Definition a. Application layer b. A layered model depicts the operation of the protocols occurring within each layer. Provides the means for end-to-end connectivity between individuals in the human network using data networks. Provides services to the presentation layer to organize its dialogue and to manage data exchange. Determines the best path through the network In Table 2-6. it is common to use a layered model. a. Network layer . Transport layer c. Internet layer d. Table 2-5 Term TCP/IP Model Definition a. Controls the hardware devices and media that make up the network c.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 37 2. Session layer f. c. and deactivate physical connections for bit transmission to and from a network device. g. Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 2-5. Uses packet sequencing and application mapping through port numbers a. match the definition on the right with a term on the left. maintain. Application layer b. functional. because protocols that operate at a specific layer have defined information that they act upon and a defined interface to the layers above and below Fosters competition because products from different vendors can work together Prevents technology or capability changes in one layer from affecting other layers above and below Provides a common language to describe networking functions and capabilities ■ ■ ■ Using Layered Models To visualize the interaction between various protocols. Provides for common representation of the data transferred between application layer services. Describes the mechanical. and the interaction with the layers above and below it. Represents data to the user plus encoding and dialog control d. continues d. Protocols describe methods for exchanging data frames between devices over a common media. ■ What are some benefits to using a layered model to describe network protocols and operations? Assists in protocol design. Ensures that loss of connection can be recovered and reset if data flow is interrupted before all data is received. Network access layer b. Transport layer e. b. match the definition on the right with a term on the left. Presentation layer c. and procedural means to activate. electrical.

and reassemble the data for individual communications between the end devices. is contained in the header of the Layer 2 protocol data unit (PDU). A unique dialogue between devices is identified with a pair of Layer 4 source and destination port numbers that are representative of the two communicating applications. Layer 4 2. Layer 2 is concerned with the delivery of messages on a single local network. In a LAN using Ethernet. Provides connectivity services that route packets from source network to destination network. Layer 1 b. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks for the following statements. Physical layer e.38 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 2-6 Term OSI Model continued Definition f. the host physical address. Multiple-Choice Questions Choose the best answer for each of the questions that follow. 1. Layer 3 d. Data link layer g. Servers . you can see the different addresses and identifiers that are necessary at each layer. Hubs d. Using the OSI model as a guide. 2. Which devices make Layer 3 decisions? a. Layer 2 c. The first identifier. Defines services to segment. Switches c. Network Addressing Various types of addresses must be included in a packet to successfully deliver the data from a source application running on one host to the correct destination application running on another. transfer. Routers b. The Layer 2 address is unique on the local network and represents the address of the end device on the physical media. called a frame. this address is called the Media Access Control (MAC) address. d. 1. What kind of protocols are primarily designed to move data from one local network to another local network within an internetwork? a.

This lab assumes the installation of NeoTrace. you might have to turn your firewalls off for this lab. Describe the interconnected and global nature of the Internet with respect to data flow. two trace routes between the same source and destination conducted some time apart might produce different results. however. that because of the “meshed” nature of the interconnected networks that make up the Internet and IP’s capability to select different pathways over which to send packets. This network tool is typically executed in UNIX and similar systems at the command line as follows: traceroute <destination network name or end device address> This network tool is typically executed in Microsoft Windows systems at the command line as follows: tracert <destination network name or end device address> This tool determines the route taken by packets across an IP network. you use the Windows embedded tracert utility. . and then the more enhanced NeoTrace program. Background Route-tracing software is a utility that lists the networks data has to traverse from the user’s originating device to a distant destination network device. The displayed list can help identify data-flow problems when trying to access a service such as a website. for example. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ Explain the use of route tracing programs. it enables the user to identify the path taken to reach a particular destination on the network or across internetworks.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 39 Labs and Activities Activity 2-1: Using NeoTrace to View Internetworks (2. Note. First. You should perform this activity on a computer that has Internet access and access to a command line.1) Upon completion of this activity.2. The traceroute (or tracert) tool is often used for network troubleshooting. Use tracert and NeoTrace to trace a route from its PC to a distant server. one can trace each mirror to get a good idea of which mirror would be the fastest to use. Others such as NeoTrace are proprietary programs that provide extra information. you use two route-tracing programs to examine the Internet pathway to destination networks. By showing a list of routers traversed.5. It can also be useful when performing tasks such as downloading data. Scenario Using an Internet connection. The number of routers is known as the number of “hops” the data traveled from source to destination. NeoTrace uses available online information to graphically display the route traced on a global map. some computers running Windows XP might have firewall programs enabled that might prevent tracert and NeoTrace from operating. Remember. If multiple websites (mirrors) are available for the same file of data. Tools such as traceroute/tracert are usually embedded within the operating system of the end device. Each router represents a point where one network connects to another network and the packet was forwarded through. such as tracert and NeoTrace.

cisco.com.de [188.gblx.sprintlink.cisco.3.232. If DNS is not available. because this tool operates at the TCP/IP layers.de [188.9.11 ar-augsburg2.73] so0-0-0-2488M.232.cisco. . the PC being used must have a working connection to the class/lab network.net [62.40 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 1: Trace Route to Remote Server Step 1.net [208.de [188.219.FRA2. the IP address of the destination device rather than the server name has to be entered after the tracert command.207.694] sl-bb22-sj-5-1.g-win.125] sl-bb25-sj-12-0. The first output line should show the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) followed by the IP address.69] sl-bb20-rly-15-1.dfn.11] 194.48.232.228.sprintlink.8.cisco.74. Without this name resolution.g-win. The lab Domain Name Service (DNS) server was able to resolve the name to an IP address.5] sjck-sdf-ciod-gw1.sprintlink.106] www.cisco. At the command-line prompt.206.14] sjck-dirty-gw1.net [144.133.com [198.1.cr2.cr1.gblx.174] pos1-0-622M.95.gblx.1.net [144.dillingen.internal.sprintllink. Trace the route to a distant network.alp.32.189] sl-bb21-lon-5-0.0.com from a location in Bavaria. To trace the route to a distant network.107.23.de [188.239. Step 3. the tracert would have failed.37.net [213.net [195.317.107.FRA2. Germany. enter tracert www.16.96.ar2.net [144.25] Over a maximum of 30 hops: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 <10 ms <10 ms 20 ms <10 ms <10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 30 ms 30 ms 30 ms 100 ms 110 ms 171 ms 161 ms 160 ms 170 ms 170 ms 160 ms 160 ms 10 ms <10 ms <10 ms <10 ms <10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 30 ms 30 ms 30 ms 100 ms <10 ms <10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 20 ms 20 ms 31 ms 90 ms 10-37-00-1. Examine the output displayed.25] 110 ms 110 ms 160 ms 170 ms 160 ms 170 ms 181 ms 160 ms 151 ms 160 ms 151 ms 160 ms 160 ms 161 ms 150 ms 161 ms Trace complete.br1. Example 2-1 tracert Output C:\> tracert www.19.219.net [144.net [195.44.193] cr-muenchen1.LON3.239.com [128. How many hops between the source and destination? Answer varies based on location Example 2-1 shows the successful result when running tracert www.sprintlink.com [198.3. which understand valid IP addresses only.134] sl-ciscopsn2-11-0-0. Step 2.232.1.1.gblx.8.210] sl-gw11-sj-10-0.dfn.com Tracing route to www.74.dfn.sprintlink.sprintlink.net [144.141] pos3-0-622M.131.81] so-6-0-0.dfn.cisco.133.18.g-win.96.LON3.cisco.33] cr-frankfurt1.de [10.net [144.19.g-win.25] sl-bb20-msq-10-0.145] ar-augsburg1.com [128.232.

Relate the displays of the output of NeoTrace to the concept of interconnected networks and the global nature of the Internet. and in the Home Location section click the Set Home Location button. choose Options. Step 3. Enter www. Alternatively.com in the Target field and click Go. Try the same trace route on a PC connected to the Internet and examine your output: Number of hops to www. which enables you to enter the precise latitude and longitude of your location. a DNS server was able to resolve the name to an IP address. followed by the IP address. Map View from the View menu displays the links and routers in their geographic location on a global map. Follow the instructions to select your country and location within your country.com: Answer varies based on location Step 5. Node View from the View menu displays the connections graphically with symbols. Unless instructed otherwise by your instructor. Destination URL: Answer varies based on URL Destination IP address: Answer varies based on URL Task 2: Trace Route Using NeoTrace Step 1. Then. and examine your output. . Step 2. List View displays the list of routers similar to tracert. you can click the Advanced button. properly shut down the computer. Consider which technical details are revealed and how this information could perhaps be misused. Try another trace route on the same PC. On the View menu.cisco. Click the Map tab. From the View menu. Step 4.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 41 The first output line shows the FQDN. Therefore. Launch the NeoTrace program. Task 3: Reflection Review the purpose and usefulness of route-tracing programs. Step 6. Step 5. there are listings of all routers through which the tracert requests had to pass to get to the destination. Select each view in turn and note the differences and similarities. Task 4: Challenge Consider and discuss possible network security issues that could arise from the use of programs such as traceroute and NeoTrace. Step 7.cisco. Step 4. Task 5: Clean Up Exit the NeoTrace program. Try a number of different URLs and view the routes to those destinations.

The type of media required depends on the type of device being connected. Verify basic connectivity on each network. end devices must be connected by media (cables). At the physical layer (Layer 1) of the OSI model. Figure 2-2 Topology for Lab 2-1 Peer-to-Peer Network Switched Network . In addition. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ Correctly identify cables for use in the network. Addressing for this lab is applied to the workstations and is used to enable communication between the devices.1. as shown in Figure 2-2. Therefore. The network layer (Layer 3) requires a unique address (also known as a logical address or IP address). Scenario This lab starts with the simplest form of networking (peer to peer) and ends with the lab connecting through a switch. you need to understand clearly which cables to use for your network connections.1) Upon completion of this lab. In the basic portion of this lab. Physically cable a peer-to-peer and switched network.6. which allows the data to reach the appropriate destination device. Background Many network problems can be fixed at the physical layer of a network. two or more devices communicate through an address.42 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Lab 2-1: Topology Orientation and Building a Small Network (2. you use straight-through or patch cables to connect workstations and switches.

Connect two workstations. Obtain the following equipment and resources for the lab: ■ ■ ■ ■ Two workstations Two straight-through (patch) cables One crossover cable One switch (or hub) Task 2: Identify the Cables Used in a Network Before the devices can be cabled. Figure 2-3 Peer-to-Peer Cabling Which cable did you use? Crossover cable Step 2. To complete this task. you must identify the types of media you intend to use. The Network Connections window should appear. as shown in Figure 2-3. This is also an Ethernet cable. This is an Ethernet cable. with icons showing the different network connections. On your computer. Use a straight-through cable to connect the router’s Ethernet port to a switch port or a workstation to a switch port.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 43 Task 1: Create a Peer-to-Peer Network Step 1. Notice when you look at the plug that the orange and green wires are in opposite positions on each end of the cable. Task 3: Cable the Peer-to-Peer Network Step 1. Steps may differ slightly if you are using a different operating system. a. See Figure 2-4. Step 2. Using the correct Ethernet cable. The instructions are for Windows XP. right-click My Network Places. and then click Properties. Apply a Layer 3 address to the workstations. connect two workstations together. Note: These steps must be completed on each workstation. Use a crossover cable to connect two workstations to each other through their network interface card (NIC) Ethernet port. . use the following step-by-step instructions. Connect one end of the cable to the NIC port on PC1 and the other end of the cable to PC2. Notice when you look at the plug that both ends of the cable are exactly the same in each pin position. Select a lab partner. The cables used in this lab are crossover and straight-through. click Start.

Select the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) item as shown in Figure 2-5. select the Use the following IP address option. In the IP address box.168.2 for PC1. enter the IP address 192.1. c. Enter the IP address 192. e. . On the General tab of the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties window. and then click the Properties button.44 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 2-4 Network Connections b. Right-click the Local Area Connection and click Properties.3 for PC2.1. Figure 2-5 Local Area Connection Properties d.168.

The DOS command (cmd.0. On your computer.255. For the purposes of this lab. the subnet mask lists automatically. Close the Local Area Connection Properties window. Figure 2-6 Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties g. and then click Run. You can enter DOS commands using this window. you enter basic network commands to test your computer connections.exe) window will appear as shown in Figure 2-8. h.255. Figure 2-7 Run Command Enter cmd in the Open box. enter the address manually. and then click OK. . Verify connectivity. Step 3. The dialog box shown in Figure 2-7 appears.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 45 f. Press the Tab key. Click OK. as shown in Figure 2-6. If this address is not automatically listed. click Start. The subnet address should be 255.

2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 192.3: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 192.1. enter ping 192.168.46 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 2-8 cmd Command The ping command is a computer network tool used to test whether a host (workstation. From the PC1 DOS command prompt.1.2.3: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 192. Step 4.1. troubleshoot as necessary.3: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Answer for PC2: Reply from 192.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 192.3: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 192. and so on) is reachable across an IP network.1. What is the output of the ping command? Answer for PC1: Reply from 192.168.168.1. From the PC2 DOS command prompt. server.1.168.1.168. Possible areas to troubleshoot include the following: ■ Verifying the correct IP addresses on both workstations .168. Use the ping command to verify that PC1 can reach PC2 and PC2 can reach PC1.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 192. router.168.168.1.1.1.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 If the ping command displays an error message or doesn’t receive a reply from the other workstation.3. enter ping 192.168.168.

Using the correct cable. Figure 2-9 Switched Network 1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server 2960-24TT S1-Central 1841 R2-Central PC-PT 1A PC-PT 1B Step 2. as shown in Figure 2-9. Repeat this process for each workstation on your network. Which cable did you use? Straight-through cable . Connect the workstation to a switch. connect one end of the cable to the NIC port on the workstation and the other end to a port on the switch.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 47 ■ Ensuring that the correct type of cable is used between the workstations What is the output of the ping command if you unplug the network cable and ping the other workstation? Answer for PC1: Destination host unreachable Destination host unreachable Destination host unreachable Destination host unreachable Task 4: Connect Your Workstations to the Classroom Lab Switch Step 1.

1.1.168. You can access this folder across the network. When you can see it and work with the file. Place a file in the folder. however. switch powered off Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Topology Orientation and Building a Small Network (2. or a misconfiguration of the switch. On your desktop.168.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab2612. create a new folder and name it test. The test folder should appear.168.6.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer.3: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 What is the output of the ping command if you ping an address that is not connected to this network? Answer for PC1: Request timed out Request timed out Request timed out Request timed out Step 4. On the desktop. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. A hand symbol will appear under the icon.1. Right-click the folder and click Sharing and Security. Share a document between PCs.48 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Step 3. Task 5: Reflection What could prevent a ping from being sent between the workstations when they are directly connected? Wrong IP address on workstation. What is the output of the ping command? Answer for PC1: Reply from 192. Double-click the workstation icon. .1.3: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 192.3: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 192. pinging wrong IP address.168. double-click My Network Places and then Computers Near Me. Verify connectivity. media disconnected.1. and media disconnected What could prevent the ping from being sent to the workstations when they are connected through the switch? Wrong IP address. Verify network connectivity by using the ping command to reach the other workstations attached to the switch. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity.3: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 192. Remember. you have access through all seven layers of the OSI model.

the screen shown in Figure 2-10 displays. Figure 2-10 Wireshark Opening Screen . A packet sniffer (also known as a network analyzer or protocol analyzer) is computer software that can intercept and log data traffic passing over a data network. Experiment with Wireshark features and options such as PDU capture and display filtering. Perform basic PDU analysis on straightforward network data traffic.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 49 Lab 2-2: Using Wireshark to View Protocol Data Units (2. go to http://www. Scenario To capture PDUs. Wireshark is programmed to recognize the structure of different network protocols. and education. or “packet sniffer” application. For information and to download the program. and Wireshark must be running before any data can be captured. the sniffer “captures” each protocol data unit (PDU) and can decode and analyze its content according to the appropriate RFC or other specifications. software and protocol development. It is a useful tool for anyone working with networks and can be used with most labs in the CCNA courses for data analysis and troubleshooting.Wireshark. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ ■ Explain the purpose of a protocol analyzer (Wireshark). the computer on which Wireshark is installed must have a working connection to the network. As data streams travel back and forth over the network. Background Wireshark is a software protocol analyzer. analysis. Before June 2006.1) Upon completion of this lab. used for network troubleshooting.2.org. Perform basic PDU capture using Wireshark. When Wireshark is launched. This enables it to display the encapsulation and individual fields of a PDU and interpret their meaning. Wireshark was known as Ethereal.6.

select Options from the Capture menu. Then. shown in Figure 2-11. select the network adapter in use. Among those available in the Capture Options dialog box. Figure 2-12 Wireshark Capture Options . Typically. The Capture Options dialog box. From the Interface dropdown list.50 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide To start data capture. the two highlighted in Figure 2-12 deserve examination. for a computer this is the connected Ethernet adapter. you can set the other options. Figure 2-11 Wireshark: Capture Options Dialog Box First. you must ensure that Wireshark is set to monitor the correct interface. provides a range of settings and filters to determine which and how much data traffic is captured.

The Enable transport name resolution option allows you to control whether Wireshark translates network addresses found in PDUs into names.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 51 If the Capture packets in promiscuous mode feature is not checked. the name-resolution process might add extra PDUs to your captured data. The examples in Figure 2-14 show the capture of a ping process (box on left) and then accessing a web page (box on right). Clicking the Start button starts the data-capture process. those that “pass by” the NIC but are not destined for the computer) are captured. As you use different intermediary devices (hubs. routers) throughout these courses. the types and number are indicated in the message box. and a message box displays the progress of this process (as shown in Figure 2-13). perhaps distorting the analysis. you will experience the different Wireshark results. Although this is a useful feature. Note: The capturing of these other PDUs depends on the intermediary device connecting the end-device computers on this network. If this feature is checked. all PDUs destined for this computer and all those detected by the computer NIC on the same network segment (that is. . Figure 2-13 Wireshark Capture Start As data PDUs are captured. only PDUs destined for this computer will be captured. Wireshark also provides a number of other capture-filtering and capture-process settings. switches.

more details will display in the packet details pane and in the packet bytes pane. Each line in the packet list corresponds to one PDU or packet of the captured data. The PDU (or packet) details pane in the middle of Figure 2-15 displays the packet selected in the packet list pane in more detail. The packet details pane shows the current packet (selected in the pack- . the capture process is terminated and the main screen displays.Wireshark. as shown in Figure 2-15. Figure 2-15 Wireshark Capture Main Panes The PDU (or packet) list pane at the top of Figure 2-15 displays a summary of each packet captured. you control what displays in the other two panes. If you select a line in this pane. The example in Figure 2-15 shows the PDUs captured when the ping utility was used and http://www.52 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 2-14 Wireshark Capture Output When the Stop button is clicked. Packet number one is selected in this pane. This main display window of Wireshark has three panes. By clicking packets in this pane.org was accessed.

Set the capture options as described in the preceding section. launch Wireshark on a computer in a lab pod. This pane shows the protocols and protocol fields of the selected packet. and then open this file in Wireshark for later analysis without having to recapture the same data traffic. you will find this displayed information useful for examining the binary values and content of PDUs.168.254. stop the packet capture. when a more in-depth analysis is required. ping the IP address of another network-connected and poweredon end device in the lab topology. Step 2. Task 1: Ping PDU Capture Step 1. a prompt asks whether you want to save the captured PDUs. In this lab. as shown in Figure 2-16. The PDU (or packet) bytes pane at the bottom of Figure 2-15 displays the actual data (in hexadecimal form representing the actual binary) from the packet selected in the packet list pane. When closing a data-capture screen or exiting Wireshark. and then start the capture process. which you can expand and collapse. Examine the packet list pane. The packet list pane on Wireshark should now look something like Figure 2-17. You can save the information captured for the data PDUs in a file. However.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 53 et list pane) in a more detailed form. The information displayed when a capture file is opened is the same as the original capture. After ensuring that the standard lab topology and configuration is correct. From the command line. this pane is not examined in detail. Figure 2-16 Wireshark Save Option Clicking Continue without Saving closes the file and exits Wireshark without saving the captured data.254. ping the Eagle Server using the command ping 192. After receiving the successful replies to the ping in the command-line window. The protocols and fields of the packet display in a tree form. and highlights the field selected in the packet details pane. The packet bytes pane shows the data of the current packet (selected in the packet list pane) in what is known as hexdump style. . In this case.

8. particularly packet numbers 6. 11. answer the following: What protocol is used by ping? ICMP What is the full protocol name? Internet Control Message Protocol What are the names of the two ping messages? Echo Request Echo Reply Are the listed source and destination IP addresses what you expected? Why? Answers may vary. Yes. 7. . the source address is my computer. From the Wireshark packet list. match the messages displayed in the command-line window when the ping was issued with the six packets captured by Wireshark. If you performed Step 1. and the destination is the Eagle Server. 12. 9. The packet details pane will now display something similar to Figure 2-18. 14. and 15. Locate the equivalent packets on the packet list on your computer. Select (highlight) the first echo request packet on the list. Step 3.54 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 2-17 Wireshark Packet List Pane Look at the packets listed in Figure 2-17.

Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 55 Figure 2-18 Wireshark Packet Details Pane Click each of the four plus sign (+) buttons to expand the information.” Why are there two types? The Ethernet II shows the MAC addresses. The packet details pane will now display something similar to Figure 2-19. as shown in Figure 2-20. Figure 2-19 Wireshark Packet Details Pane. Spend some time scrolling through this information. Although at this stage of the course you might not fully understand the displayed information. Locate the two different types of “source” and “destination. make a note of the information you do recognize. you can further expand the details for each section and protocol. if you select (highlight) the second line (+ Ethernet II) in the details pane. What protocols are in the Ethernet frame? eth:ip:icmp:data As you select a line in the packet details pane. and the Internet Protocol shows the IP addresses. the bytes pane highlights the corresponding values. . Expanded As you can see. all or part of the information in the packet bytes pane also becomes highlighted. For example.

254. Consider using PASV. enter quit.0. Highlighted Pane This line shows the particular binary values that represent that information in the PDU. User (eagle-server. Task 2: FTP PDU Capture Step 1. it is not necessary to understand this information in detail. 150 Opening BINARY mode data connection for pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter1/gaim1. When successfully logged in. enter anonymous as the user without a password.08Kbytes/sec.56 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 2-20 Wireshark Packet Expanded. as follows: ftp> quit 221 Goodbye. enter get /pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter1/gaim-1.168. When the connection is established.example. Start packet capture.example. . C:\Documents and Settings\ccna1> When the file has successfully downloaded.example.254. Go to the File menu and select Close. ftp> get /pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter1/gaim-1. 226 File send OK. Password:<ENTER> 230 Login successful. The output will look similar to Example 2-2. At the command line on your computer running Wireshark. At this stage of the course. as follows: Userid: anonymous Password: <ENTER> You may alternatively log in with userid cisco and password cisco. start packet capture by clicking the Start option on the Capture menu of Wireshark.exe (6967072 bytes).exe 200 PORT command successful.com Connected to eagle-server.5.59Seconds 11729. stop the PDU capture in Wireshark. Assuming Wireshark is still running from the previous steps. 220 Welcome to the eagle-server FTP service. Example 2-2 Eagle Server Output C:\Documents and Settings\ccna1>ftp eagle-server. When the file download is complete. Step 4.5.exe and press the Enter key <ENTER> to start downloading the file from the FTP server.com:(none)): anonymous 331 Please specify the password.0.5.com. ftp: 6967072 bytes received in 0. Click Continue without Saving when the message box shown in Figure 2-16 appears. enter ftp 192.0.

Request: Pass. Answers will vary. Response: 331 Please specify the password. What does this indicate about the security of this FTP login process? Security isn’t high because the name and password are visible. The first group is associated with the “connection” phase and logging in to the server. Highlight a packet associated with the second phase. What protocols are encapsulated in the frame? Eth:ip:tcp:ftp-data Highlight the packets containing the username and password.] The third group of PDUs relate to logging out and “breaking the connection. Locate and note those PDUs associated with the file download. From any pane. FTP Data: 1448 bytes. . highlight and examine some packets exchanged in the third phase of the file download.0. Answers will vary. 1292 > ftp [SYN]. These will be the PDUs from the Layer 4 protocol. If you performed Step 2. ACK. the actual download request and the data transfer).” List examples of messages exchanged during this process. Examine packet details.exe. match the packets with the messages and prompts in the FTP command-line window. note the plain text visible in the bytes pane. Response: 220 Welcome to the eagle-server FTP service. FTP. 1292 > ftp [FIN. 1292 > ftp [ACK]. Response: 221 Goodbye. What feature of TCP does this indicate? Send and receipt of data Step 3. Highlight a packet containing the actual file content. Examine the highlighted portion in the packet bytes pane. Request:QUIT. Identify the three groups of PDUs associated with the file transfer. ACK]. ACK].] Locate recurring TCP exchanges throughout the FTP process. Answers will vary. TCP. List examples of messages exchanged in this phase. FTP > 1292 [SYN. and the Layer 7 protocol.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 57 Step 2.5. Select (highlight) a packet on the list associated with the first phase of the FTP process. Locate and list examples of messages exchanged in the second phase (that is. View the packet details in the details pane. 1294 > ftp-data [ACK. Increase the size of the Wireshark packet list pane and scroll through the PDUs listed. Request: User anonymous. In the details and bytes panes. ftp >1292 [FIN. The filename is gaim-1. locate the packet containing the filename.

In the packet list pane. In the packet details pane. This shows the HTML data carried by the packet. Increase the size of the Wireshark packet list pane and scroll through the PDUs listed.58 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Which features distinguish the content of these packets? A [FIN. Task 5: Challenge Discuss how you could use a protocol analyzer such as Wireshark to troubleshoot the failure of a web page to download successfully to a browser on a computer. stop the Wireshark packet capture. close the Wireshark file and continue without saving. Enter the URL of the Eagle Server as example.254.168. Note: Capture options do not have to be set if you are continuing from previous steps of this lab. close the Wireshark file and continue without saving. Step 3. After the web page has fully downloaded. Assuming Wireshark is still running from the previous steps. . Answers may vary. Wireshark could show when a request for a web page failed because of an incorrect URL. highlight an HTTP packet that has the notation “(text/html)” in the Info column. what is displayed? HTML code for the web page Examine the highlighted portion of the bytes pane. Task 3: HTTP PDU Capture Step 1. ACK] is issued to close the connection. Note the similarity between this message exchange and the FTP exchange.com or enter the IP address 192. start packet capture by clicking the Start option on the Capture menu of Wireshark. It is important that you can recognize and link both the protocols represented and the protocol layer and encapsulation types of the models with the information provided by Wireshark. Step 2. When finished. click the + box next to Line-based text data: html. When you have finished. Start packet capture. Relate this to the OSI and TCP/IP layer models. Also. User traffic could be monitored to identify errors in source or destination. Locate and identify the TCP and HTTP packets associated with the downloaded web page. Launch a web browser on the computer that is running Wireshark. When this information expands. identify data traffic on a network that is requested by users. Task 4: Reflection Consider the encapsulation information pertaining to captured network data Wireshark can provide.254.

A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity. you start building.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 59 Task 6: Cleanup Unless instructed otherwise by your instructor. Figure 2-21 shows the topology for this challenge. Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Using Packet Tracer to View Protocol Data Units (2.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab2622. and analyzing a model of the Exploration lab network.7. and Table 2-7 reflects the addressing information. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity. however. however.6. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. Remember. Skills Integration Challenge: Examining Packets (2.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to do the challenge lab using Packet Tracer.1. exit Wireshark and properly shut down the computer.3) In this activity. testing. Figure 2-21 Topology for Challenge 1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server 2960-24TT S1-Central 1841 R2-Central PC-PT 1A PC-PT 1B . You can now open the file LSG01-PTSkills2. Remember.2.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer.

10.255. in case you want to clear your work or gain more practice).0. This activity provides an opportunity to explore the standard lab setup using the Packet Tracer simulator. default gateway 172. routers.255. you will often use the PKT file format.168.10.254. or modify existing files from your instructor or your peers.16.255. Add simple PDUs in real-time mode.1. Background Throughout the course.255.255.16.254 172.252 255.255.253 R2-Central Fa0/0 S0/0/0 S1-Central PC 1A PC 1B Eagle Server VLAN 1 NIC NIC NIC Upon completion of this activity.16. and information about the strengths and weaknesses of using Packet Tracer to model networks.10. Connect PC 1B to the Fa0/2 port of the S1-Central Switch and check your work with the Check Results button to see that the topology is complete.254.255.255.16. They are the result of the PKA Packet Tracer activity file format.254 192. .255.10.16. Experiment with the model of the standard lab setup. subnet mask 255.254.10. DNS server 192.254 255. Configure it using the following parameters: IP address 172. When you launched this activity from the curriculum.0 255. In this activity.254 10. tutorials to guide you through various tasks.6 172.1. you will be using a standard lab setup created from actual PCs.60 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 2-7 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP Fa0/0 S0/0/0 192.168.168.0.253 10.254.1 172.1.5 172.0 255.0.0.16.16. Task 1: Complete the Topology Add a PC to the workspace.0.255.0. Resources include a “My First PT Lab” to help you learn the basic operation of Packet Tracer.0 255. you continue learning how to build and analyze this standard lab topology.2 192.255.16.255.10.255. display name 1B.2. servers. If you have not done so already.255.10.255.1 172. When you create your own networks in Packet Tracer.6 172. and switches to learn networking concepts.0 255.254.255.254. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ ■ Complete the topology.254 172.254.0 255. you are encouraged to examine the Help files available from the Help pull-down menu at the top of the Packet Tracer GUI.252 255.0 N/A N/A 10.16. Analyze PDUs in simulation mode.168.255. Two buttons appear at the bottom of these instructions: Check Results (which gives you feedback on how much of the activity you have completed) and Reset Activity (which starts the activity over. these instructions appeared.6 10. Packet Tracer can create two file formats: PKT files (network simulation model files) and PKA files (activity files for practice).255.10.

or click the colored square in the Info column of the event list. to examine the packet at each step in its journey. Task 3: Analyze PDUs in Simulation Mode (Packet Tracing) Switch to simulation mode. one server. Try creating different combinations of test packets and analyzing their journey through the network. Click the packet envelope. and two PCs. Each of these devices is preconfigured. Double-click the red “Fire” button in the User-Created PDU window. Use the Capture / Forward button to move the packet through the network. one switch. you are encouraged to obtain Packet Tracer from your instructor and complete My First PT Lab (available by accessing the Help pull-down menu and choosing Contents). and in the lower right as a user-created PDU that can be manipulated for testing purposes.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 61 Task 2: Add Simple PDUs in Real-Time Mode Using the Add Simple PDU. Task 5: Reflection If you have not already done so. Note that this packet will appear in the event list as something that was “detected” or “sniffed” on the network. . Task 4: Experiment with the Model of the Standard Lab Setup The standard lab setup will consist of two routers. send a test message: one between PC 1B and Eagle Server.

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How the human network generates data and how that data then enters the computer network is discussed. Study Guide Applications: The Interface Between the Networks Visualizing the mechanisms that enable communication across the network is easier if you use the layered framework of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model. use Chapter 3 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum. In this section you explore the upper layers of both the OSI and TCP/IP models.CHAPTER 3 Application Layer Functionality and Protocols The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of multiple-choice. fill-in-the-blank. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum labs to further reinforce that you have mastered the practical. the OSI and TCP/IP models provide a means by which you can visualize and discuss the flow of networking. matching. Application layer software and application layer services and protocols are examined in the labs. As you work through this chapter. hands-on skills needed to work with the application layer of the OSI model. or use the corresponding Chapter 3 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration Companion Guide. When placed side by side. for assistance. and session layers. Figure 3-1 OSI and TCP/IP Models OSI Model 7 Application 6 Presentation 5 4 3 2 1 Session Transport Network Data Link Physical Application Layers TCP/IP Model Domain Name System Application Hypertext Transfer Protocol Simple Mail Transfer Protocol Post Office Protocol Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol Transport Internet Data Flow Layers Network Access . as shown in Figure 3-1. and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of the TCP/IP model application layer and the OSI model application. presentation.

but what properties do application protocols display? Answers will vary. Protocols define the standards and data formats used. It is difficult to generalize about protocols because they vary so greatly in purpose. JPEG. Define the syntax of a message. the data network would not have a common way to format and direct data. . TIFF f. such as file transfer or network print spooling. 3. match the term on the left with its definition on the right. FTP g. What is meant by the term application layer services? Why are protocols important when used in conjunction with application layer services? Software programs need the assistance of application layer services to use network resources. HTTP. DNS. These software programs are considered network-aware if they implement the application layer protocols and can communicate directly with the lower layers of the protocol stack.64 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 3-1. Define the meaning of any informational fields. This layer provides coding. Session layer e. Graphic image formats Concept Questions 1. Define processes on either end of the communication. Functions at this layer create and maintain dialogs between source and destination applications f. compression. Define interaction with the next lower layer. 2. What does the term network-aware application mean? List a few examples. Email clients and web browsers are a couple of examples. SMTP. GIF. Protocol used to provide remote access to servers and network work devices c. and encryption e. Top layer of both the OSI and TCP/IP models d. Define the types of messages. Specify what to do with corrupted or improperly formatted messages. Table 3-1 Term OSI and TCP/IP Model Comparison Definition a. Define how messages are sent and the expected response. Request For Comments (RFC) h. Top layer of the OSI model g. Define the format of a message. The most widely known TCP/IP application layer protocols that provide for the exchange of user information b. Application layer b. Presentation layer d. Define the start and end of a message. Generally defines the protocols in the TCP/IP suite a. Without protocols. Telnet h. Layer 7 c. Network-aware applications are software programs used to communicate over the network.

Multiple-Choice Questions Choose the best answer(s) for each of the following questions. Hosted on a client e. A Telnet server may have _____________. Server c. Peer-to-peer applications can be used on which of the following? (Choose all that apply. PDA. match the term on the left with its definition on the right. Can be on a client and/or a server a. Hosted on a web server f. Client/server networks c. or some other device connected to a network. If that is the case. cell phone. Two or more computers are connected via a network and can share resources (such as printers and files) without having a dedicated server. laptop. simultaneously and as a single transaction . Device responding to the request d. Across the Internet d. Across the peer-to-server network 2. Peer-to-peer networks b.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 65 Making Provisions for Applications and Services When people attempt to access information on their device. but not at the same time c. a. a single client requesting a service b. multiple clients requesting services. the data may not be physically stored on their device. Client b. Peer-to-peer networks b. Table 3-2 Term Application Layer Terms Definition a. a request to access that information must be made to the device where the data resides. multiple clients requesting services. 1. Web services d. Telnet services f. Web browser e. Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 3-2. whether it is a PC. simultaneously but as separate transactions d. multiple clients requesting services.) a. Device requesting information c. Across the intranet only e.

the most popular network service. the web browser establishes a connection to the web service running on the server using the HTTP protocol. UDP port 110 e. 10.66 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Application Layer Protocols and Services Examples As you will see later in this course. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following statements. 7. has revolutionized how people communicate through its simplicity and speed. the transport layer uses an addressing scheme called a port number. Server programs generally use predefined port numbers that are commonly known by clients. Table 3-3 Port Number Port Numbers and Protocols Protocol a. match the port number on the left with its protocol on the right. 5. The FTP client is an application that runs on a computer that is used to push files to and pull files from a server. Port numbers identify applications and application layer services that are the source and destination of data. A DNS server provides name resolution using the name daemon. TCP port 80 c. When a client. The Server Message Block (SMB) is a client/server file-sharing protocol. 8. HTTP defines the message types that the client uses to request the web page and also the message types the server uses to respond. When a web address (or URL) is entered into a web browser. TCP port 25 d. Domain Name System (DNS) f. sends a request message to a server. Sharing files over the Internet has become extremely popular. E-mail. The e-mail server operates two separate processes: Mail Transfer Agent (MTA) and Mail Delivery Agent (MDA). DHCP allows a host to obtain an IP address dynamically when it connects to the network. Post Office Protocol (POP) e. 1. 6. Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) g. TCP/UDP port 53 b. 3. Telnet a. 9. 2. Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) d. File Transfer Protocol (FTP) c. With peer-to-peer applications . typically a web browser. DNS uses a hierarchical system to create a name database to provide name resolution. people can make files on their hard disks available to others for downloading. 4. based on the Gnutella protocol. TCP port 23 f. Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 3-3. UDP port 67 g. TCP ports 20 and 21 b.

Application. Telnet provides a standard method of emulating text-based terminal devices over the data network. transport. session. Resolve domain names to IP addresses. Application. 6. Which of the following best describes a peer-to-peer network? a. network. It centralizes the resources on a network. network. Mail User Agent (MUA) d. b. The e-mail server operates which two separate processes? a. and physical 2. transport.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 67 11. Multiple-Choice Questions Choose the best answer(s) for each of the following questions. 1. World Wide Web b. Data transfer from a client to a server is referred to as which of the following? a. transport. Resolve domain names to computer names. It uses file servers. The Domain Name System (DNS) was created to do what? a. Application. eBay 3. data link. abstract representation created as a guideline for network protocol design. E-mail c. data link. It decentralizes the resources on a network. Internet. Resolve domain names to MAC addresses. c. The Open Systems Interconnection reference model is a layered. c. P2P d. and physical c. d. presentation. Download c. data link. d. network. Internet. Query b. Mail Transfer Agent (MTA) b. Pull 5. It uses the client/server model. session. Application. b. presentation. What is the most popular application service? a. Mail Delivery Agent (MDA) 4. presentation. and physical d. The OSI model divides the networking process into which seven layers? a. session. presentation. Resolve domain names to e-mail addresses. and physical b. Mail Transfer Bridge (MTB) c. . transport. Internet. Upload d.

Telnet d. Country of origin c. STP d. SSH c. and other IP networking parameters? a. Type of organization b.) a. the e-mail client can use which of the following protocols? a.68 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide 7. To receive e-mail messages from an e-mail server. gateway. The different top-level domains represent which of the following? (Choose all correct answers. POP 10. HTTP d. HTTPS b. which protocol is used to access or post web server information? a. SHTTP c. Company or brand name d. Which service automates the assignment of IP addresses. File server name 8. SMTP b. SMTP b. DHCP . STelnet 9. subnet masks. TFTP c. For secure communication across the Internet.

the sound’s waveform should appear on the Sound Recorder interface. is 30 minutes. The data can be stored on the end device where it was created. you will use a microphone and Microsoft Sound Recorder to capture an audio stream. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ Capture or download an audio stream. or create sounds that the microphone can pick up. Speak into the microphone. If a microphone and Microsoft Sound Recorder are not available.com/dlls/podcasts/audio_feeds. .1) Upon completion of this activity. In this activity. The Sound Recorder interface is shown in Figure 3-2.1. Examine data transfer rates associated with the file.4. Estimated completion time. Microsoft Sound Recorder is a Windows accessory. Task 1: Create a Sound File Step 1. or it can be transferred for storage on another device. Open the Windows Sound Recorder application. Record the file’s characteristics. As the audio is recorded.cisco. as shown in Figure 3-3.html. the data that comprises that file must be stored somewhere. click the Record button on the Sound Recorder interface. You can find it in Windows XP by choosing Start > Programs > Accessories > Entertainment > Sound Recorder. Scenario Perform this activity on a computer that has a microphone and Microsoft Sound Recorder or Internet access so that you can download an audio file. Figure 3-2 Sound Recorder Interface Step 2. you can download an audio file to use in this activity from http://newsroom. Record an audio file. depending on network speed. You can find the application in Windows XP by choosing Start > Programs > Accessories > Entertainment > Sound Recorder. Background When an application creates a file. To begin recording.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 69 Labs and Activities Activity 3-1: Data Stream Capture (3.

and proceed to Task 2.html. When the file is open. depending on the file created. and attempt to create the recording again. download an audio file from News@Cisco at http://newsroom. Right-click the audio file you saved to the desktop. Open the audio file in Windows Media Player. What is the file size in bytes? Answers will vary. Save the audio file to the desktop. Step 2. Check the audio file that was recorded. What is the file size in kilobytes? Answers will vary.com/dlls/podcasts/audio_feeds. right-click at the top of the Media Player interface. and choose Properties from the popup menu. Save to the desktop the audio file you created. depending on the file created. If you are unable to create a recording. and choose File > Properties from the popup menu. What is the file size in bits? Answers will vary. Click the Play button to listen to the recording. View audio file properties. close the Sound Recorder application. Step 4. .70 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 3-3 Recording in Progress Click the Stop button when you are finished.wav.cisco. Task 2: Observe the Properties of the Audio File Step 1. the speakers. Figure 3-4 Playback If you are unable to hear the recording. The recording should be played back. After saving the file. as shown in Figure 3-4. check the microphone’s configuration. Right-click the audio file and choose Open With > Windows Media Player. Name the file myaudio. Save the audio file. and the volume settings. depending on the file created. Step 3.

Even with an Ethernet connection operating at 100 Mbps. Web server support is a valuable skill for network administrators.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 71 What is the length of the audio file in seconds? Answers will vary. Verify the default web server configuration file. how long would it take the file transfer to be completed? Answers will vary. delete the file from the desktop. depending on the file created. you may want to copy the audio file that you created to another computer or a portable audio device. that is necessary for the frame’s delivery. If so. Task 3: Reflection Data files do not have to remain on the end devices where they are created. All Ethernet frames contain other information.4. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ Download.2. The other half is web server support. However. Based on a survey by Netcraft in January 2007. If the Ethernet overhead uses 5 percent of the available 100 Mbps bandwidth. how long would it take for the file transfer to be completed? Answers will vary. Calculate the amount of data per second in the audio file. Background Web servers are an important part of the business plan for any organization with a presence on the Internet. depending on the file created. depending on the file created.1) Upon completion of this lab. Answers will vary. . web browsers make up only half the communication channel. and 95 percent of the bandwidth is left for the data payload. depending on the file created. Task 4: Clean Up You may be required to remove from the computer the audio file you saved. For example. the data that makes up a file is not transferred at this speed. Consumers use web browsers to access business websites. If the audio file that you saved to the desktop were to be transferred at a rate of 100 megabits per second (Mbps). Unless instructed otherwise. Capture and analyze HTTP traffic with Wireshark. install. and verify a web server application. Table 3-4 shows the top three web server applications by percentage of use. turn off the computer. and record the result. such as source and destination addresses. Lab 3-1: Managing a Web Server (3.

Analyzing the capture will help you understand how the HTTP protocol operates. If it is not. You will use a web browser to connect to the server. ask the instructor for assistance before proceeding. Figure 3-5 Topology for Lab 3-1 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 . using Wireshark to capture the communication.6 percent In this lab you will download. The lab should be configured as shown in Figure 3-5 and Table 3-5.72 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 3-4 Web Server Web Server Choices Percent of Use Apache Microsoft Sun Scenario 60 percent 31 percent 1. and configure the popular Apache web server. install.

check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central. Right-click the file. and save the software on the pod host computer.254.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 73 Table 3-5 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP S0/0/0 Fa0/0 10.254 172. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server.253 10. and that it can ping R1-ISP.255.255. ping eagle-server. Using a web browser.255.255. The next installation step requires customized configuration of the web server.16.16.16.16. If the ping test fails. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address. Choose default values and consent to the licensing agreement.0 255. Verify that all network equipment is powered on and that eagle-server is on.255.10.168.0. 172.254 172.6 192.0.10.31. and Verify the Apache Web Server Step 1.10. Step 2. verify that the host has the correct DNS address and that it can ping eagle-server.10.6. and that it can ping R2-Central.254. as shown in Table 3-5. Task 1: Download.255. 172. The Apache web server application is available for download from Eagle Server. and double-click the Apache file to begin installation. R2-Central. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity.168. R1-ISP.10.16. Take corrective action on devices that fail the ping tests.255.255.252 255.0 255.0.16.example. Install.254 R2-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Eagle Server — — Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central — — — Note to Instructor: Depending on the classroom situation.example.255.1 255.254.0 — — 10.1 172.com.254 172.24.254. the lab topology may have been modified before this class. Finally.255.10. Download the software from Eagle Server. If an individual host computer cannot connect to eagle-server.255.254 172. From a known good host computer.com.255.0 255. 10. as shown in Figure 3-6. Step 2.2 172.10.255.16.255. go to ftp://eagle-server.Pod#.254 192.0 255. Open the folder where the software was saved.255.16.255. and finally eagle-server.com/pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter3 to access and download the software. Install the Apache web server on the pod host computer.255. Verify that the host computer has the correct Gateway IP address.255.5 172.16. Step 3. . ping S1Central. troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity: Step 1.10.4 — 192.254.example.0.254.255.253 — 172.0 255.Pod#.255.252 255.168.0 255.

When the installation has finished.74 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 3-6 Customized Configuration Screen Use the values shown in Table 3-6. Table 3-6 Information Apache Server Values Value Network Domain Server Name Administrator’s E-mail Address example. Click Next. close the screen. This permits connections to the web server. as shown in Figure 3-7.com The computer’s IP address ccnaxx@example. Figure 3-7 Windows Security Alert .2\ Accept the default installation folder.com. Accept the recommended port and service status. click Unblock. Host B. and click Install.com. What is the default installation folder? C:\Program Files\Apache Software Foundation\Apache2. for users 1 through 22. Accept the default typical installation. For example. if the computer is on Pod 5. the administrator’s e-mail address is ccna10@example. click Next. Note: If a Windows Security Alert is displayed. and click Next.

Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 75 Step 3. and then click OK. Test the web server on several different IP addresses from the 127. verify that the web server is operating properly on the pod host computer. Choose Start > Run and open a command-line window.0. A web page similar to Figure 3-8 appears if the web server is working properly.0 /8 network address is reserved and is used for local IP addresses.0. The Apache web server monitor icon should be visible on the lower-right side of the screen. The same page should be displayed if the URL is changed to the IP address on the Ethernet interface or to any host IP address in the 127. Verify the web server. Enter cmd. . Fill in Table 3-7 with the results. Figure 3-8 Web Server Default Page The 127. Open a web browser.0 /8 network range. and connect to your computer’s URL.0. as shown in Example 3-1. Use the netstat -a command to discover open and connected ports on your computer. Example 3-1 netstat -a Output C:\> netstat -a Active Connections Proto TCP TCP TCP TCP Local Address GW-desktop-hom:http GW-desktop-hom:epmap Foreign Address GW-desktop-hom:0 GW-desktop-hom:0 State LISTENING LISTENING GW-desktop-hom:microsoft-ds GW-desktop-hom:3389 GW-desktop-hom:0 LISTENING LISTENING GW-desktop-hom:0 <output omitted> C:\> Using the command netstat -a.0. near the time.0.0 /8 network range.0. The netstat command displays protocol statistics and connection information for this lab computer.

The # character indicates a comment for system administrators. A system administrator may need to verify or modify the default configuration file.2\conf\httpd. use the IP address:port number. and verify the settings listed in Table 3-8. Scroll down the configuration file. Numerous configuration parameters allow the Apache web server to be fully customizable. To accept connections from only this host.255 127. Access the httpd.254 127.com ServerName 172. If there are problems.78:80 Listen 80 Listen on TCP port 80 for all incoming connections.56. e-mail the web server at this e-mail address. Table 3-8 Value Apache Web Server Settings Description #Listen 12.0 OK OK Fail Fail Legal host address Legal host address Network broadcast address Network address Task 2: Verify the Default Web Server Configuration File Step 1.255.1 80.0. This is the root directory for the web server. Figure 3-9 Apache Web Server Configuration File Step 2.1.0. ServerAdmin ccna2@example.2:80 DocumentRoot “C:/Program Files/Apache Software Foundation/ Apache2.255.34.255.0.2/htdocs” . Open the Apache web server configuration file. the web server ignores the comment.0.76 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 3-7 IP Address Web Server Test Status Description 127. Review the httpd. change the line to Listen 127.conf file.0.16. as shown in Figure 3-9.conf file.255.1 127.0.conf. C:\Program Files\Apache Software Foundation\Apache2. For servers without DNS names.

something more personal should be displayed.2\htdocs. Note that an error message is displayed in the web browser.html if it is present. Start Wireshark. choose notepad.0.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 77 Table 3-8 Value Apache Web Server Settings continued Description <IfModule dir_module> DirectoryIndex index. Why does index.html not have to be entered in the URL for the file contents to be displayed? The web server configuration directive for that server displays index. Right-click the file. access the web server by running Apache from a separate client machine. Step 1. As you make and save changes to index. Modify the web server default page. From the pulldown list. however—this is a classroom setting.0 network on a Windows computer.com </body></html> Save the file. Step 3. Open folder C:\Program Files\Apache Software Foundation\Apache2.0. Open a web browser.html. Example 3-2 htdocs Edit <html><body><h1>Welcome to the Pod1HostB Web Server!!!</h1> <center><bold> Operated by me! </center></bold> Contact web administrator: ccna2@example. and choose Open With. and connect to another computer with an active web server. Change the file content to something similar to Example 3-2. and refresh the web browser. refresh the web browser to view the new content. Some students may already be familiar with creating web pages. . The interface will not appear.16 network. Deliberately enter a web page that is not on the web server.html. Task 3: Capture and Analyze HTTP Traffic with Wireshark Wireshark will not capture packets sent from or to the 127. go to http://127. so you should encourage them to personalize the page.html should be present.0. The file index. as shown in Figure 3-10. display index.html </IfModule> DirectoryIndex sets the file that Apache serves if a directory is requested. and set the capture interface to the interface destined for the 172. Figure 3-8 shows the default web page from file index. If no page is requested from that directory. Analyze HTTP traffic.html as the default page. To complete this task. The new default page should be displayed. Although this page is sufficient for testing. Or.1. Be wary of content.0.

htm was requested from the web server. The web browser simply displayed the server response “The page cannot be found.1 error 404 and returned a file not found message to the web browser. . and identify several key configuration parameters. </p> </body></html> Task 4: Challenge Modify the default web server configuration file httpd.html and observed the effect on the web browser output. Verify with the netstat command that the new web server TCP port is 8080. This lab has demonstrated how to install and configure the Apache web server. Therefore. You modified the default web page index.htm was not found on this server. but the server did not have it.0// EN”> <html><head> <title>404 Not Found</title> </head><body> <h1>Not Found</h1> <p>The requested URL /index. The web server responded with an HTTP 1. File index.0.conf by changing the Listen 80 line to Listen 8080.0. Open a web browser and go to http://127. test for proper operation. you used Wireshark to capture an HTTP session of a file that could not be found. Finally.78 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 3-10 404 Not Found Error Figure 3-11 shows a captured HTTP session. Task 5: Reflection Web servers are an important component of e-commerce.1:8080. Depending on the organization.” Figure 3-11 Wireshark Capture of HTTP Traffic What are the contents of the HTTP session? Line-based text data: text/html <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC “-//IETF//DTD HTML 2. the network or web administrator has the responsibility of maintaining the corporate web server. the server sent a 404 error.

Remove anything that was brought into the lab. Lab 3-2: E-mail Services and Protocols (3. The SMTP server listens on well-known TCP port 25. It should be uninstalled. Most Internet service providers (ISP) provide step-by-step instructions for using e-mail services. Earlier versions of both protocols should not be used. and then click Remove. you will be able to ■ ■ Configure the pod host computer for e-mail service. You will monitor the communication with Wireshark and analyze the captured packets. consuming bandwidth and network resources. the typical user may be unaware of the complexities of e-mail or the protocols used. The e-mail client is configured on a user’s computer and is configured to connect to an e-mail server. E-mail servers have had numerous vulnerabilities.3. . which have left computers open to compromise. Post Office Protocol version 3 (POPv3) is used when an external e-mail client wants to receive e-mail messages from the e-mail server. unsolicited e-mail. Also. Capture and analyze e-mail communication between the pod host computer and a mail server. secure versions of both protocols employ Secure Socket Layer/Transport Layer Security (SSL/TLS) for communication. deliver e-mail to local accounts. IMAP servers listen on well-known TCP port 143. You will use an e-mail client such as Outlook Express or Mozilla Thunderbird to connect to the eagleserver network service. the following protocols are used: ■ Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) was originally defined in RFC 821 in August 1982. and leave the room ready for the next class. you will configure and use an e-mail client application to connect to eagle-server network services. with user accounts that can send and receive external e-mail messages. Background E-mail is one of the most popular network services that uses a client/server model. and relay e-mail between SMTP servers.1) Upon completion of this lab. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. Click Apache Web Server. In this lab. Scenario In this lab. ■ ■ E-mail is subject to multiple computer security vulnerabilities. The POPv3 server listens on well-known TCP port 110. Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) is an Internet protocol that allows a central server to provide remote access to e-mail messages. turn off power to the host computers.4. RFC 2821. Consequently. Eagle-server has SMTP mail services preconfigured. SMTP is used to send e-mail messages from the external e-mail client to the e-mail server. In network environments where the Mail User Agent (MUA) client must connect to an e-mail server on another network to send and receive e-mail. Spam attacks flood networks with useless. choose Start > Control Panel > Add or Remove Programs. you will use IMAP instead of POPv3 for e-mail delivery to the client. consolidates and updates previous e-mail-related RFCs. from April 2001.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 79 Task 6: Clean Up During this lab the Apache web server was installed on the pod host computer. To uninstall the web server. It has undergone many modifications and enhancements.

0.254.10.254.253 10.0 255.24.254 172.10.80 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide The lab should be configured as shown in Figure 3-12 and Table 3-9.0 255.0.Pod#.10.254 192. Figure 3-12 Topology for Lab 3-2 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 Table 3-9 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP S0/0/0 Fa0/0 10.16.168.255.255.254 172.254 R2-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Eagle Server — — Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central — — — .0 255.254 172.168.1 172.254.255.255.16.Pod#.255.253 — 172.6 192.0.252 255.255.0 255.16. ask the instructor for assistance before proceeding.255.255.254 172.255.0.1 255.10.31.255.10.16.255.5 172.255.0 — — 10.255.16.255.16.255.10.255.4 — 192.255.0 255.168.2 172.255. If it is not.254.0 255.252 255.16.

and then select Save the file to the host pod computer.16. Step 3. as shown in Table 3-9. The download URL is ftp://eagleserver.255. you can download it from eagleserver. 172. with the information shown in Table 3-10.10. and that it can ping R1-ISP. ping S1Central. When Thunderbird starts. and click Next. Figure 3-13 FTP Download for Wireshark Double-click the Thunderbird filename. If an individual host computer cannot connect to eagle-server. When finished. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address. If prompted for Import Options. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server. If the ping test fails. as shown in Figure 3-13. R2-Central. Verify that the host computer has the correct Gateway IP address. and that it can ping R2-Central. and then click Next. Fill in the account information. and finally eagle-server. start Thunderbird. From a known good host computer. select Email account. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests.254. as prompted. Finally. ping eagle-server.254.com/pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter3. 172. the lab topology may have been modified before this class. troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity: Step 1.com.10. In the New Account Setup.16.example. Configure Thunderbird to receive and send e-mail messages.255. Download and install Mozilla Thunderbird. double-click the filename and install Thunderbird with the default settings. verify that the host has the correct DNS address and that it can ping eagle-server.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 81 Note to Instructors: Depending on the classroom situation. Step 2. 10. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity. R1-ISP.com. select Don’t import anything. Note: Depending on the connection speed of the link between the two routers and the number of students downloading the file. If Thunderbird is not installed on the pod host computer. this download may be slow.com. you must configure an e-mail account. When the file has downloaded. Verify that all network equipment is powered on and that eagle-server is on. .example. check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central.example.example.6. Task 1: Configure the Pod Host Computer for E-mail Service Step 1. Step 2.

your_name@eagle-server. labeled ccna[1. If this pod host is on Pod1. choose Tools > Account Settings > Outgoing Server (SMTP). and so on. The Thunderbird client needs to have SMTP server login disabled.example.com eagle-server.com Your Name E-mail address Type of incoming server you are using Incoming Server (SMTP) Outgoing Server (SMTP) Incoming User Name Account Name When Thunderbird starts. Host B. shown in Figure 3-14. Host A. Use the same name as the Account Name. Click Cancel.82 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 3-10 Field Account Information Value Account Name The account name is based on the pod and host computer. the account name is ccna6.example.com Use the same name as above (see Account name discussion). your_name@eagle-server. If the pod host is on Pod 3... To do this. the account name is ccna1. From the outgoing server screen. Figure 3-14 Thunderbird SMTP Server Settings . click Edit.example.example.com IMAP eagle-server. A total of 22 accounts are configured on Eagle Server.22]. you may be prompted for a password for your e-mail account.

uncheck the Use name and password box. Figure 3-15 SMTP Server Edit You may also want to verify account settings. as shown in Figure 3-16. by choosing Tools > Account Settings.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 83 On the SMTP Server screen. click Server Settings. Figure 3-16 Thunderbird Account Settings In the left pane of the Account Settings screen. . shown in Figure 3-15. Click OK. and then click OK again. A screen similar to Figure 3-17 appears.

Step 2. however. Analyze a Wireshark capture session of SMTP. check your e-mail.84 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 3-17 Thunderbird Server Settings What is the purpose of the SMTP protocol. Start Wireshark captures. Using the e-mail client. After sending and receiving one e-mail message. Wireshark displays captures based on packet type. . When you are certain that the e-mail operation is working properly for both sending and receiving. Step 3. click the Write icon. and what is the well-known TCP port number? The SMTP protocol is used to send e-mail messages to an e-mail server for forwarding to a mail recipient. again send and receive e-mail from a classmate. Task 2: Capture and Analyze E-mail Communication Between the Pod Host Computer and an E-mail Server Step 1. the e-mail transactions will be captured. each of you should compose and send an e-mail message to the other. This time. When the e-mails have been sent. To do so. To create and send an e-mail. Using the name provided in the preceding task. Please note that this is the default password that is embedded in the Eagle Server. Ask another student in the class for his or her e-mail name. you must be logged in. A partial Wireshark capture of an outgoing e-mail message using SMTP is shown in Figure 3-18. stop the Wireshark capture. SMTP listens on TCP port 25. If you have not previously logged in. Send an uncaptured e-mail. start a Wireshark capture. enter cisco as the password.

1]. Table 3-11 E-mail Client Response Table E-mail Server MAIL FROM:<ccna1@example. The syntax may vary between clients.example. The e-mail server must respond to the command.” on a line by itself 250 2. In every first SMTP exchange. What are the SMTP server name and version? Sendmail. however. this is line 7.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 85 Figure 3-18 SMTP Capture Highlight the first SMTP capture in the top Wireshark window.localdomain Hello host-1.com> RCPT TO:<ccna2@example. and e-mail servers send responses.13. Malicious attackers can gain valuable knowledge simply by learning the SMTP server type and version.5 ccna2@example. pleased to meet you\r\n The next exchanges between the e-mail client and server contain e-mail information. version 8. Using your Wireshark capture.com Sender ok 250 2.1 E-mail client applications send commands to e-mail servers.16.com> DATA (message body is sent) 250 2. closing connection. .1. In Figure 3-18.0 ccna1@example. end with “.com [172.1. What is the SMTP server response to the EHLO command? 250-localhost.1. and the command may also be HELO or HELLO.0.0 mail-serial-number Message accepted for delivery What are the contents of the last message body from the e-mail client? QUIT How does the e-mail server respond? It sends a response to the e-mail client. Many different types of SMTP servers exist. fill in the e-mail server responses to the e-mail client commands shown in Table 3-11. 221.com Recipient ok 354 Enter mail. In the second Wireshark window. the e-mail client sends the command EHLO. expand the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol record.

.com 25 220 localhost. as shown in Example 3-3.13. Recipient ok DATA 354 Please start mail input. 250 Mail queued for delivery.1. choose Start > Control Panel > Add or Remove Programs. . QUIT 221 Closing connection. Are any newer versions available? Task 4: Reflection E-mail is probably the most common network service used.0 ccna2@example.1/8.example.1.localdomain Hello [172.13.example.5 instructor@example. Good bye.1. e-mail SMTP server test..2]. To test SMTP operation. Sender ok RCPT To: instructor@example.com. . To remove Thunderbird.16...com 250 localhost..com. Sun. and then click Remove. Is the problem with the e-mail client or the e-mail server? One simple way to test SMTP server operation is to use the Windows command-line Telnet utility to telnet into the SMTP server. C:\ > Task 5: Clean Up If Thunderbird was installed on the pod host computer for this lab. The highlighted lines are what you enter into the blank Telnet window. E-mail can also experience configuration issues. open the Windows command-line window. Example 3-3 Telnet Session C:\> telnet eagle-server.com 250 2.com 250 2. the instructor may want the application removed. and leave the room ready for the next class. 28 Jan 2007 20:41:0 3 +1000 HELO eagle-server. pleased to meet you MAIL From: ccna2@example. turn off power to the host computers.86 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 3: Challenge Access a computer that has Internet access. and begin a Telnet session with the SMTP server. Scroll to and click Thunderbird. Connection to host lost.. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor.1. Look up the SMTP server name and version for known weaknesses or compromises.localdomain ESMTP Sendmail 8. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. Understanding the flow of traffic with the SMTP protocol will help you understand how the protocol manages the client/server data connection.

pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to perform this exercise using Packet Tracer. Background Throughout the course. routers. configure. At the end of each chapter.1. Upon completion of this activity.5. Explore how DNS and HTTP work together. Add. Figure 3-19 Topology for the Challenge 1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server 2960-24TT S1-Central 1841 R2-Central PC 1A PC 1B . you will be able to ■ ■ ■ ■ Configure hosts and services. servers. and connect hosts and servers. you will use a standard lab setup created from actual PCs. and switches to learn networking concepts. you will build increasingly larger parts of this topology in Packet Tracer.3) Open the file LSG01-PTSkills3. Use simulation mode to view the details of packets generated by DNS and HTTP. and Table 3-12 shows the corresponding addressing table.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 87 Packet Tracer Challenge Skills Integration Challenge: Configuring Hosts and Services (3. Figure 3-19 shows the topology for this Skills Integration Challenge.

255.254.255.255.10.254.1. Enable DNS services.254 255.168.255.0 255.255. For example.255. if you use the Delete button for Scenario 0.1.16.16.10.255.10.168.0. it shows Failed because of the ARP process.0 — — 10.0 255.252 255.2 Subnet mask: 255.10.example. the test packet you just created between PC 1B and Eagle Server is removed.255.2 192.0 Default gateway: 172.255.” The first time you issue this one-shot ping message.254 10.168.16.255.255.252 255.0. In Packet Tracer.0 255.1 172. and add a DNS entry that associates eagle-server. You can remove all test packets in a particular scenario by clicking the Delete button.0. and Scenario 1 might test packets between PC 1A and the routers.254 172.254.255.254 172.6 172.10.1 172.168. Configure it with the following settings: ■ ■ ■ ■ IP address: 172. Verify your work using feedback from the Check Results button and the Assessment Items tab.com with the server’s IP address.0 255. Test connectivity in real time by using ADD SIMPLE PDU to test connectivity between PC 1B and the Eagle Server. Turn on web services on the server by enabling HTTP.16.0.10.16.254.255. Do this before the next task.0.168.255. it appears in the PDU List Window as part of “Scenario 0.1.253 10.255.254 DNS server: 192. Double-click the Fire button in the PDU List Window to send this single test ping a second time.10.255. You can create different test packet scenarios by clicking the New button.254.254 Connect PC 1B to the Fa0/2 port of the S1-Central switch.16.255. the term scenario means a specific configuration of one or more test packets.253 R2-Central Fa0/0 S0/0/0 S1-Central PC 1A PC 1B Eagle Server VLAN 1 NIC NIC NIC Task 1: “Repair” and Test the Topology Add a PC with a display name of 1B to the topology.6 10. . Scenario 0 might have one test packet from PC 1B to Eagle Server. Connect Eagle Server to the Fa0/0 port on the R1-ISP router.5 172.0 255.6 172. For example. This time it succeeds.254 192.16.16. Note that when you add a simple PDU.255.10.88 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 3-12 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP Fa0/0 S0/0/0 192.

Outbound PDU Details) for each event in the event list. Task 3: Reflection Can you now explain the process that occurs when you enter a URL into a browser and a web page returns? What types of client/server interactions are involved? If you have not already done so.example. press Enter. click the View Previous Events button.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 89 Task 2: Explore How DNS and HTTP Work Together Switch from Realtime mode to Simulation mode.com. Examine the Packet contents (PDU Information Window. and then use the Capture / Forward button in the Event List to capture the interaction of DNS and HTTP. Open a web browser from the desktop of PC 1B. Play this animation. you are encouraged to obtain Packet Tracer from your instructor and complete My First PT Lab (choose Help > Contents). Enter eagle-server. especially when the packets are at PC 1B or at Eagle Server. Inbound PDU Details. you should be able to see how DNS and HTTP work together. . If you receive a “Buffer Full” message. Even though the processing of the packets by the switch and the routers may not make sense to you yet.

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Ensures segment sequencing so that data can be presented by the session layer to the application layer with all data intact and ready for processing. surf the web. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum labs to further reinforce that you have mastered the practical. That way. e. Facilitates data preparation for delivery by the lowest four OSI layers. c. hands-on skills needed. Manages data delivery if there is congestion on the host. stream video. Table 4-1 Term Transport Layer Matching Exercise Definition a. Ensures the application is ready to receive data. As you work through this chapter. a. Multiplexing b. matching. Flow control d. Same order delivery f. Multiple network-aware applications can use the network at the same time. Performed on the data in the segment to check if the segment was changed during transmission. fill-in-the-blank. g. The transport layer provides for data network needs by ■ ■ ■ ■ Dividing data received from an application into segments Adding a header to identify and manage each segment Using the header information to reassemble the segments back into application data Passing the assembled data to the correct application Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 4-1. Error checking d. Data segmentation c. . one computer can use instant messaging. b. and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of the OSI transport layer. and check e-mail. Reliable delivery g. use a Voice over IP (VoIP) phone. Study Guide Roles of the Transport Layer The transport layer provides vital control over the network: It enables multiple applications to work at the same time over the same network. match the definitions on the right with the terms on the left.CHAPTER 4 OSI Transport Layer The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of multiple-choice. f. Means lost segments are present so the data is received complete. Establishing a session e. use Chapter 4 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum or use the corresponding Chapter 4 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA 1 Exploration Companion Guide for assistance.

1. each segment header contains a sequence number. A complete TCP conversation requires the establishment of a session between the source and the destination in both directions. . and flow control. reliable delivery. How does the transport layer tell the difference between different data segments? To identify each segment of data. Additional functions specified by TCP are same order delivery. Table 4-2 Port Type Port Type Ranges Numbers Well-known ports Registered ports Dynamic or private ports 0 to 1023 1024 to 49151 49152 to 65535 The TCP Protocol: Communicating with Reliability The key distinction between TCP and UDP is reliability. 2. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks for the following questions. A TCP segment has 20 bytes of overhead in the header encapsulating the application layer data. As the source receives an acknowledgment from the destination. 2. How does the transport layer multiplex different applications’ communication? Dividing data into small parts and sending these parts from the source to the destination enables many different communications to be interleaved (multiplexed) on the same network. Port Type Ranges Exercise Table 4-2 lists port types. whereas each UDP segment only has 8 bytes of overhead. the transport layer adds to the segment a header containing binary data. This reliability is achieved by having fields in the TCP segment. The pieces of communication in UDP are called datagrams. 3. This ensures that the destination application has the data in the exact form the sender intended. it retransmits that data to the destination.92 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Concept Questions 1. Fill in the port number ranges in the Numbers column. it knows that the data has been successfully delivered and can quit tracking that data. In TCP. This sequence number allows the transport layer functions on the destination host to reassemble segments in the order in which they were transmitted. each with a specific function. If the source does not receive an acknowledgment within a predetermined amount of time.

segments may arrive at their destination out of order. For the original message to be understood by the recipient. be prepared to share your findings with the class. ACK b. Reset the connection c. Push function f. 2. This exercise works best if the students are required to present their website to the class or to teach each other in small groups. or communication stream between the hosts. PSH c. but encourage students to find a website. RST d. When the host is using TCP. Synchronize sequence numbers e. Using this site. Segment sequence numbers enable reliability by indicating how to reassemble and reorder received segments. why does the transport layer initiate a process to create a connection with the destination? This connection enables the tracking of a session. Sequence numbers are assigned in the header of each packet to achieve this goal. Note to instructor: Answers will vary. SYN d. Table 4-3 Flags Flag-Matching Exercise Definition a. enter the keywords “TCP segment reassembly. Internet Research Exercise Using your favorite search engine.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 93 Concept Questions 1. URG e. Define reliability. Reliability means ensuring that each segment of data that the source sends arrives at the destination. This process ensures that each host is aware of and prepared for the communication. A key feature of TCP is its reliability. Acknowledgment field significant b. FIN f. Urgent pointer field significant a. Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 4-3. No more data from sender Managing TCP Sessions When services send data using TCP. and be prepared to explain or present the information found. provide the URL. match the definition on the right with a flag on the left. the data in these segments is reassembled into the original order. .” and find a website that explains it.

What is expectational acknowledgment? Expectational acknowledgment is TCP using the acknowledgment number in segments sent back to the source to indicate the next byte in this session that the receiver expects to receive. sequencing.94 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Concept Questions 1. both hosts would have to support selective acknowledgments. 2. 2. UDP is said to be transaction based. the same pair of ports is used in the header of all datagrams used in the transaction. For the data returning to the client from the server. such as DNS. can tolerate some loss of data. . 3. After a client has chosen the source and destination ports. Some applications. The UDP Protocol: Communicating with Low Overhead User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is a simple protocol that provides the basic transport layer functions. and what does it do? Flow control assists the reliability of TCP transmission by adjusting the effective rate of data flow between the two services in the session. simply retry the request if they do not receive a response. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following sentences. 1. If these applications use TCP. In what case would it be possible for the destination to acknowledge bytes in discontiguous segments and request that the host retransmit only the missing data? In this case. What is flow control. they might experience large delays while TCP detects data loss and retransmits data. 3. It has much lower overhead than TCP because it is not connection oriented and does not provide the sophisticated retransmission. the source and destination port numbers in the datagram header are reversed. and flow-control mechanisms. Some applications. The low overhead of UDP makes it very desirable for such applications. and therefore they do not need TCP to guarantee the message delivery. These delays would be more detrimental to the application than small data losses. such as online games and VoIP.

5. Table 4-4 shows the corresponding addressing table. available on both Windows and UNIX/Linux computers. and adjust netstat output options to analyze and understand TCP/IP transport layer protocol status.1. and interface statistics.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 95 Labs and Activities Lab 4-1: Observing TCP and UDP Using netstat (4. Use netstat to examine protocol information on a pod host computer. host computer routing table information.1) Upon completion of this lab. Background netstat is an abbreviation for the network statistics utility. you examine the netstat command on a pod host computer. Passing optional parameters with the command will change output information. Figure 4-1 shows the topology for this lab. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ Explain common netstat command parameters and outputs. Figure 4-1 Topology for Lab 4-1 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 . netstat displays incoming and outgoing network connections (TCP and UDP). Scenario In this lab.

255.255.16.24.0 255. Step 2.0 255.6 192.168. 172. and can ping R2-Central.16. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests.255. and finally Eagle Server.255.16. Enter cmd.2 172.253 N/A 172. use the /? options. If the ping test fails.255.31.254 172.0.254.168.10.0 255.16.255.0 255.example. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address.10.255.0. verify that the host has the correct DNS address and can ping eagle-server.10. the lab topology may have been modified before this class. 172.com.0.5 172.10. . Task 1: Explain Common netstat Command Parameters and Outputs Open a terminal window by clicking Start > Run. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity. R2-Central.10.16. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server.16.255.96 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 4-4 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP S0/0/0 Fa0/0 10.16.6. troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity: Step 1.0 N/A N/A 10.254 172. Verify that all network equipment is powered on.168.0. Verify that the host computer has the correct gateway IP address.10. 10.252 255.com. To display help information about the netstat command.example. and that Eagle Server is on.254 172.255. ping S1-Central.255. ping eagle-server. check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central.253 10.254.254.10.252 255.1 172.Pod#.255.4 N/A 192. Step 3.255.10.255. and click OK. and can ping R1-ISP.255.255. From a known good host computer. R1-ISP.254 R2-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Eagle Server N/A N/A Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central N/A N/A N/A Note to instructor: Depending on the classroom situation.255.255. as shown here: C:\> netstat /? Use the output of the netstat /? command as reference to fill in the appropriate option that best matches the description in Table 4-5. shown in the preceding logical addressing table.255.254 192.0 255.Pod#.255. If an individual host computer cannot connect to Eagle Server.254.1 255. Finally.254.example.com.0 255.16.255.16.254 172.254.

UDP. and data may be exchanged through the connection. or this computer.1 0. as shown in Table 4-7. The local connection is waiting a default period of time after sending a connection termination request before closing the connection. meaning any. Table 4-6 State Packet State Table Connection Description LISTEN ESTABLISHED TIME-WAIT The local connection is waiting for a connection request from any remote device.0 Remote Address This address refers to the local host. The connection is open. A global address. . Multiple connections in SYN_RECEIVED state may indicate a TCP SYN attack. as reported by netstat. This is a tricky problem. compiled from RFC 793. proto may be any of IP. ICMP. the TCP state is displayed. TCPv6. TCP. If used with the –s option to display per-protocol statistics. or UDPv6. IPv6. The connection should transition quickly through this state. Display only open connections. -an 30 No options When netstat statistics are displayed for TCP connections. This is a normal condition. This is the normal state for the data-transfer phase of the connection. The address of the remote device that has a connection with this computer. CLOSE-WAIT SYN-SENT SYN_RECEIVED IP addresses displayed by netstat fall into several categories. During the life of a TCP connection. but is waiting for a termination request from the local user. Transmission Control Protocol. proto may be any of TCP. Displays addresses and port numbers in numeric form.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 97 Table 4–5 Option netstat Table Description -a -n 5 (interval) -p Displays all connections and listening ports. the connection passes through a series of states. TCPv6.0. Press Ctrl+C to stop redisplaying statistics.0. The connection is closed. The local connection is waiting for a response after sending a connection request. The local connection is waiting for a confirming connection request acknowledgment. September 1981. Table 4-7 IP Address Packet State Table Description 127. UDP. Shows connections for the protocol specified by proto.0. and will normally last between 30 and 120 seconds.0. Redisplays all connections and listening ports every 30 seconds. or UDPv6. Table 4-6 is a summary of TCP states. ICMPv6. Redisplays statistics every 5 seconds. The connection should transition quickly through this state.

issue the command netstat –a: C:\> netstat –a A table will display that lists the protocol (TCP and UDP). noting how well-known port numbers are changed to names. Note to instructor: Answers will vary.0.0:0 *:* *:* *:* *:* *:* *:* LISTENING LISTENING LISTENING LISTENING Refer to the following netstat output shown in Example 4-1.168.0:0 GW-desktop-hom:0 0. Addresses and protocols that can be translated into names are displayed. Compare outputs.0.168.0:445 TCP UDP UDP UDP GW-desktop-hom:netbios-ssn 192. local address. If fewer than three connections translate.0.0. foreign address. issue the command netstat –an: C:\> netstat –an Use the window vertical scrollbar to go back and forth between the outputs of the two commands.0. and state information.1:123 GW-desktop-hom:netbios-ns 192.168. From the terminal window.0.0.254.168. From the terminal window in Task 1.254.1:139 GW-desktop-hom:ntp 192. Use netstat to view existing connections.0:135 GW-desktop-hom:0 0. Table 4-8 provides a list of several common services on a host computer.0.0. Write down three TCP and three UDP connections from the netstat –a output and the corresponding translated port numbers from the netstat –an output.254. Table 4-8 Connection Protocol netstat Output Table Local Address Foreign Address State TCP TCP GW-desktop-hom:epmap 0. note that in Table 4-8.1:138 GW-desktop-hom:0 0.0.254.0:0 LISTENING LISTENING GW-desktop-hom:microsoft-ds 0. . The –n option forces netstat to display output in raw format.1:137 GW-desktop-hom:netbios-dgm 192.98 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 2: Use netstat to Examine Protocol Information on a Pod Host Computer Step 1.

0. The four terminal windows that will be used for Telnet connections to Eagle Server can be relatively small.1. port 53 FTP: FTP server. To close a Telnet connection. port 25 Telnet: Telnet server. port 23 Why should Telnet to UDP ports fail? Telnet is a TCP protocol. Eventually. a connection might close before all connections have been made.1:1070 127. In this task. telnet on port 21. and UDP cannot build the TCP session.example. record established connections with Eagle Server.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 99 Example 4-1 Netstat Output C:\> netstat –n Active Connections Proto TCP TCP C:\> Local Address 127. Microsoft Telnet>. telnet on port 23. approximately 1⁄2 screen width by 1⁄4 screen height. Open four additional terminal windows. How would you respond? Because the foreign address is 127.0.1:1070 State ESTABLISHED ESTABLISHED A new network engineer suspects that his host computer has been compromised by an outside attack against ports 1070 and 1071. Type quit and press Enter to close the session. The venerable telnet command is used to access Eagle Server network services.0. If typing is slow. thus providing several protocols to examine with netstat.1:1071 127.0. port 21 SMTP: SMTP mail server. Step 2.0. Several network services on Eagle Server will respond to a Telnet connection.0. connections should terminate from inactivity.0. .0. In the third terminal window. several simultaneous connections will be made with Eagle Server. press the Ctrl+] keys together. telnet to Eagle Server on port 53. Establish multiple concurrent TCP connections and record netstat output. Output should look similar to the output in Example 4-1. The terminal windows that will be used to collect connection information should be 1⁄2 screen width by full screen height. That will bring up the t=Telnet prompt. In the first Telnet terminal window.com 53 In the large terminal window.0. the host computer has made a TCP connection with itself.0. telnet on port 25. In the second terminal window. In the fourth terminal window. You will use the following: ■ ■ ■ ■ DNS: Domain Name System server. The command for a Telnet connection on port 21 follows: C:\> telnet eagle-server.1:1071 Foreign Address 127. Arrange the windows so that all are visible.

254. turn off power to the host computers. analyze TCP and UDP protocol header fields for file transfers between the host computer and Eagle Server.168. among others.254:25 192.99. and issue the netstat –an command. Scenario Using Wireshark capture.1) Upon completion of this activity.254.5.1:1691 192. If Wireshark has not been loaded on the host pod computer. January 1980. Background The two protocols in the TCP/IP transport layer are the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). among others. Lab 4-2: TCP/IP Transport Layer Protocols. Task 4: Challenge Close established sessions abruptly (close the terminal window).168.254:21 192. Task 5: Cleanup Unless directed otherwise by the instructor.exe. TCP and UDP (4. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ Identify TCP header fields and operation using a Wireshark FTP session capture.254. defined in RFC 761. host computer routing table information.168. For example.1:1694 Foreign Address 192.example. TCP is used to provide transport layer support for the HTTP and FTP protocols.254.168.2.168. file wiresharksetup-0.254.168. and User Datagram Protocol (UDP).1:1693 192. UDP provides transport layer support for Domain Name System (DNS) services and Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP).254.254. you can download it from ftp://eagle-server.254:23 State ESTABLISHED ESTABLISHED ESTABLISHED ESTABLISHED Task 3: Reflection The netstat utility displays incoming and outgoing network connections (TCP and UDP). Remove anything that was brought into the lab and leave the room ready for the next class. defined in RFC 768.com/pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter4/. Both protocols support upper-layer protocol communication.4.1:1688 192. August 1980.254. Ponder the utility of netstat in small and large networks and consider how netstat can help you diagnose problems. The ability to understand the parts of the TCP and UDP headers and operation is a critical skill for network engineers.254:53 192.168. Try to view connections in stages different from ESTABLISHED.100 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example 4-2 C:\>netstat Proto TCP TCP TCP TCP Eagle Server Output Table Local Address 192. and interface statistics. Identify UDP header fields and operation using a Wireshark TFTP session capture. .168.

5 172.255.255.168.0 255.254 172.0.253 10.10.254 R2-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Eagle Server N/A N/A Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central N/A N/A N/A .31.0.0 255.2 172.6 192.Pod#.10.254.255.10.16.255.0 255.255.254 192.252 255.254.255.10.255.168.16.254 172.10. and Table 4-9 shows the corresponding addressing table.16.Pod#.16. Figure 4-2 shows the topology for this lab.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 101 Windows command-line utilities FTP and TFTP will be used to connect to Eagle Server and download files.255.16.254 172.0 N/A N/A 10.253 N/A 172.255.254. Figure 4–2 Topology for Lab 4-2 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 Table 4-9 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP S0/0/0 Fa0/0 10.1 255.255.10.0.255.0 255.255.255.255.0.0 255.0 255.255.1 172.4 N/A 192.16.254.255.16.252 255.168.24.254 172.255.255.

com. type cmd. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server. TCP sessions are well controlled and managed by information exchanged in the TCP header fields. and can ping R2-Central. A window similar to Figure 4-3 should open. troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity using the following steps: Step 1. Figure 4–3 Command-Line Window Start a Wireshark capture on the interface that has IP address 172. the lab topology might have been modified before this class. When prompted for a password. R2-Central. press Enter.102 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Note to instructor: Depending on the classroom situation. Start an FTP connection to Eagle Server. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address. . and can ping R1-ISP.com.[1-2]. Capture an FTP session.254.255. 172. /pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter4/s1-central.6. In this task. shown in the preceding logical addressing table.example.16. and finally Eagle Server. Windows computers use the FTP client.254.example.16. A command-line window will start the FTP session. ftp. and that Eagle Server is on. ping Eagle Server. Finally. an FTP session is made to Eagle Server. and the text configuration file for S1-Central from Eagle Server will be downloaded. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity. and then click OK.16. Verify that the host computer has the correct gateway IP address. Enter the following command: > ftp eagle-server. When finished. Task 1: Identify TCP Header Fields and Operation Using a Wireshark FTP Session Capture Step 1. ping S1Central. If the ping test fails. to connect to the FTP server. Step 3. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests. verify that the host has the correct DNS address and can ping eagle-server.255. type anonymous. R1-ISP. 10.10. Step 2. If an individual host computer cannot connect to Eagle Server. 172. Verify that all network equipment is powered on. the session capture will be analyzed. From a known good host computer.com When prompted for a user ID. to the host computer.example. Open a command-line window by clicking Start > Run. check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central.10.Pod#.

and manage window size. and move the cursor to the middle window. TCP performs an orderly shutdown and termination. Step 2. the transport layer protocol TCP created a reliable session. Switch to the Wireshark capture windows. detailed TCP information is available in the middle window. verify datagram arrival. Before we delve into TCP packet details. When the FTP client is connected to the FTP server. a new TCP session is started. an explanation of the summary information is needed. Your capture should be similar to the capture shown in Figure 44. Analyze the TCP fields.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 103 Change the FTP directory to /pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter4/: ftp> cd /pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter4/ Download the file s1-central: ftp> get s1-central When finished. For each exchange of data between the FTP client and FTP server. terminate the FTP sessions in each command-line window with the FTP quit command: ftp> quit Close the command-line window with the command exit: > exit Stop the Wireshark capture. You might need to adjust the middle window and expand the TCP record by clicking the protocol expand box. TCP is routinely used during a session to control datagram delivery. Figure 4–4 FTP Capture In Wireshark. . when the FTP session is finished. Highlight the first TCP datagram from the host computer. the TCP session is closed. The top window contains summary information for each captured record. The expanded TCP datagram should look similar to Example 4-3. At the conclusion of the data transfer. Finally.

= Push: Not set . . Code Bits: U A R P S F RCS S Y I GK T HNN Code Bits Window Urgent Pointer Padding 24 TCP Destination Port Number 31 TCP Source Port Number .1. ...0 . Dst port: ftp (21)... 192...x. = Acknowledge: Not set . .x... = Congestion Window Reduced (CWR): Not Set .. Figure 4-5 shows a TCP datagram. port number 21....104 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example 4-3 Wireshark Capture of a TCP Datagram >Transmission Control Protocol.. Seq: 0.......16..254.. 0. Figure 4-5 0 TCP Packet Fields for Lab 4-2 TCP Segment 4 10 16 Sequence Number Acknowledgment Number HLEN Reserved TCP Checksum Options (If Any) Data Data. ..254... Src Port: 1052 (1052).168. . 172. and contains a SYN flag. to Eagle Server.0 = Fin: Not set Window size: 64240 Checksum: 0xb965 [correct] >Options: (8 bytes) Maximum segment size: 1460 bytes NOP NOP SACK permitted How is the first datagram in a TCP session identified? The initial datagram originates from the host computer.. = ECN-Echo: Not set ..0.. = Syn: Set ...0..... . = Urgent: Not set ... Len: 0 Source Port: 1052 (1052) Destination Port: ftp (21) Sequence number: 0 (relative sequence number) Header length: 28 bytes >Flags: 0x02 (SYN) 0.. = Reset: Not set ...0. on some port above 1023.

Urgent pointer: Is only used with an URG (Urgent) flag (when the sender needs to send urgent data to the receiver). Code bits: Have a special meaning in session management and in the treatment of segments. * 172. Among interesting values are ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ACK: Acknowledgment of a segment receipt SYN: Synchronize.254. such as Telnet. Sequence number: Specifies the number of the last octet in a segment. FTP. Acknowledgment number: Specifies the next octet expected by the receiver. ■ ■ Table 4-10 TCP Header: SYN Bit Set to 1 Answers Characteristics Source IP address Destination IP address Source port number Destination port number Sequence number Acknowledgment number Header length Window size * May differ from what student enters.168. Source Port. The quadruple field combination (Source IP Address. which is the request to close the TCP session ■ ■ Window size: Is the value of the sliding window (that is.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 105 An explanation of each field is provided to refresh your memory: ■ TCP source port number: Belongs to the TCP session host that opened a connection. Destination Port) uniquely identifies the session to both sender and receiver.1 192.16. HTTP. Using the Wireshark capture of the first TCP session start-up (SYN bit set to 1). which is only set when a new TCP session is negotiated during the TCP three-way handshake FIN: Finish.254 *1052 21 0 (relative) N/A 28 bytes * 64240 . The values in the range of 0 to 1023 represent the so-called well-known ports and are associated with popular services and applications (as described in RFC 1700. fill in information about the TCP header in Table 4-10. and so on).1. Options: The only option currently defined is the maximum TCP segment size (optional value). TCP destination port number: Is used to identify the upper-layer protocol or application on the remote site. The value is normally a random value above 1023. Destination IP Address. how many octets can be sent before waiting for an acknowledgment).

168.254.254 * 172. A crash could involve a loss of networking .1 192. a new TCP connection is started in half-open fashion. Table 4–11 TCP Header: SYN and ACK Bits Set to 1 Answers Characteristics Source IP address Destination IP address Source port number Destination port number Sequence number Acknowledgment number Header length Window size * May differ from what student enters 192.1. Instead.106 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Using the Wireshark capture of the first TCP session start-up (SYN and ACK bits are set to 1). how many other TCP datagrams contained a SYN bit? None. fill in information about the TCP header in Table 4-12.254. With sufficient TCP sessions in the half-open state. the receiving computer may exhaust resources and crash.254 *1052 21 1 (relative) 1 20 bytes * 64240 Ignoring the TCP session started when a data transfer occurred. In this sequence. fill in information about the TCP header in Table 4-11. and the receiver sends a related TCP datagram with the SYN ACK bits set.1 * 21 1052 0 (relative) 1 28 bytes * 5840 Using the Wireshark capture of the first TCP session start-up (only ACK bit is set to 1).168.16. Table 4–12 TCP Header: ACK Bits Set to 1 Answers Characteristics Source IP address Destination IP address Source port number Destination port number Sequence number Acknowledgment number Header length Window size * May differ from what student enters * 172.1. a SYN bit is only used during the beginning of a TCP session. Attackers take advantage of the three-way handshake by initiating a “half-open” connection.16. A final ACK bit is never sent to finish the TCP handshake. the opening TCP session sends a TCP datagram with the SYN bit set.

The default timeout value varies. Figure 4–7 Orderly TCP Session Termination FTP Client FTP Client. the attacker has won.” The FTP server acknowledges the FTP termination with a Response: 221 Goodbye. FTP server. and then sends its own TCP session termination.“Goodbye” TCP Acknowledgment TCP Session ACK FIN Sent TCP Acknowledgment TCP Session ACK FIN Sent TCP Acknowledgment TCP Session Ends FTP Server Without an orderly termination. visible in the Wireshark capture. This is one example of a denial-ofservice (DoS) attack. announcing the termination of the TCP session. visible in the Wireshark capture. unaware and uncaring that TCP has control and management over the session. such as when the connection is broken. This sequence.“Quit” FTP Server. receives a duplicate termination. the FTP server TCP session sends a TCP datagram to the FTP client. The FTP client TCP session acknowledges receipt of the termination datagram.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 107 services or could corrupt the operating system. is shown in Figure 4-6. The FTP client and server communicate with each other. the TCP session on the FTP client sends an acknowledgment to the TCP session on Eagle Server. At this time. an ACK datagram is sent to acknowledge the termination. the FTP client sends a command to “quit. This sequence. In either case. When the originator of the TCP termination. but is normally 5 minutes. networking service has been stopped on the receiver. is shown in Figure 4-7. When the FTP server sends a Response: 220 to the FTP client. Figure 4–6 TCP Session Management FTP Client FTP Welcome TCP Acknowledgment FTP Userid Sent TCP Acknowledgment FTP Password Response FTP Server When the FTP session has finished. . the TCP sessions will wait a certain period of time until closing. and the TCP session is closed.

No authentication is supported. host GET Specifies the local or remote host. which is different from the directory structure supported by the FTP server. The command and syntax to perform this follows: >tftp eagle-server. and then download the s1-central configuration file from Eagle Server with the Windows TFTP client. Transfers the file destination on the remote host to the file source on the local host. Example 4-4 >tftp –help TFTP Syntax for a Windows TFTP Client Transfers files to and from a remote computer running the TFTP service.example. Analyze the UDP fields. /tftpboot. Following the procedure in Task 1. In binary image mode the file is moved literally. source Specifies the file to transfer. Student capture should be similar to the capture shown in Figure 4-8. The TFTP command has a different syntax than FTP. Use this mode when transferring binary files. Example 4-4 contains Windows TFTP client syntax. Destination Start a Wireshark capture. A TFTP transfer will be used to analyze transport layer UDP operation. Specifies where to transfer the file. PUT Transfers the file source on the local host to the file destination on the remote host. GET. Switch to the Wireshark capture windows. byte by byte. . The TFTP server has its own directory on Eagle Server. For example. and PUT.com get s1-central Step 2. there is no authentication. there are only two commands. Capture a TFTP session. to retrieve a file. TFTP [-i] host [GET | PUT] source [destination] -i Specifies binary image transfer mode (also called octet). to send a file. Also. open a command-line window.108 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 2: Identify UDP Header Fields and Operation Using a Wireshark TFTP Session Capture Step 1.

The expanded UDP datagram should look similar to Figure 4-9. however. a UDP datagram diagram. Figure 4–10 UDP Format UDP Segment 0 UDP Source Port UDP Message Length Data Data. it is the responsibility of the upper-layer protocol. Figure 4–9 UDP Datagram Capture See Figure 4-10. and move the cursor to the middle window. compared to the TCP datagram. The checksum value is a hexadecimal (base 16) value. Each UDP datagram is identified by the UDP source port and UDP destination port. explain that the UDP header does not contain an acknowledgment field. detailed UDP information is available in the middle window..Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 109 Figure 4-8 UDP Session Capture Note: If students point to UDP acknowledgments. You might have to adjust the middle window and expand the UDP record by clicking the protocol expand box. in this case TFTP. There are similarities. Header information is sparse. . 16 UDP Destination Port UDP Checksum 31 Using the Wireshark capture of the first UDP datagram. denoted by the preceding 0x code. In Wireshark. Highlight the first UDP datagram from the host computer. fill in information about the UDP header in Table 4-13.. Instead. to manage data transfer and receipt information. This will be shown during the UDP datagram examination.

16. Examine the first packet returned from Eagle Server. transport data between clients and servers using application layer protocols and are appropriate for the upper-layer protocol each supports.168.16. Fill in information about the UDP header in Table 4-14.254. Both protocols have advantages . but reliability and guaranteed delivery requires additional control over the communication channel. Task 3: Reflection This lab provided you with the opportunity to analyze TCP and UDP protocol operations from captured FTP and TFTP sessions. * 172.110 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 4-13 UDP Header Table Answers Characteristics Source IP address Destination IP address Source port number Destination port number UDP message length UDP checksum * May differ from what student enters.1. only the original source port used to begin the TFTP session is used to maintain the TFTP transfer. but this source port is used for the remainder of the TFTP transfer. Both protocols. Because there is no reliable connection.___ Source port number Destination port number UDP message length UDP checksum: 0x * May differ from what student enters.254 * 1038 69 * 30 bytes * 0x1f04 (correct) How does UDP verify datagram integrity? A checksum is sent in the UDP datagram. If the computed checksum is identical with the sent checksum. and the datagram checksum value is recomputed upon receipt.168.1 * 32799 * 1038 *524 bytes * 0xc5cf (correct) Notice that the return UDP datagram has a different UDP source port.1. and the upper-layer protocol must provide some type of acknowledgment control. UDP has less overhead and control. the UDP datagram is assumed complete. however.1 192.16. Table 4-14 UDP Header Information Answers Characteristics Source IP address Destination IP address: 172. TCP manages communication much differently from UDP.254. 192.254 * 172.___.

Clients initiate communication to the appropriate server. password.3. such as a web server and client. This lab examines two popular application layer protocols. several files were transferred to the host computer and should be removed. Task 4: Challenge Because neither FTP nor TFTP are secure protocols. Application layer protocols rely on lower-level TCP/IP protocols. Lab 4-3: Application and Transport Layer Protocols (4. such as TCP and UDP. passwords. but the data field can be examined and configuration user ID and password information extracted. all data transferred is sent in clear text. you use client applications to connect to Eagle Server network services. For each network service. Task 5: Cleanup During this lab. Also examined are popular client requests and corresponding server responses. yet each client communicates exclusively with a session established between the client and server. Application layer protocols define the communication between network services. This includes any user IDs. A user may open several client applications to the same server. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. Analysis of the upper-layer FTP session will quickly identify the user ID.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 111 and disadvantages. Capture and analyze HTTP communication between the pod host computer and a web server. HTTP and FTP. Upper-layer TFTP data examination is a bit more complicated. . Consider how you would determine which protocol to use if you were designing an application. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ ■ Configure the host computer to capture application layer protocols. turn off power to the host computers. However. and an FTP server and client. Background The primary function of the transport layer is to keep track of multiple application conversations on the same host. and leave the room ready for the next class. and how transport layer protocols TCP and UDP manage the communication channel.5. or clear-text file contents.1) Upon completion of this lab. Capture and analyze FTP communication between the pod host computer and an FTP server. and configuration file passwords. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. different applications have different requirements for their data. and the server responds to the client. Applications are designed to use one protocol or another based on maximizing the advantages while minimizing the disadvantages. a different server is listening on a different port for client connections. Observe TCP establish and manage communication channels with HTTP and FTP connections. and therefore different transport protocols have been developed to meet these requirements. There may be several servers on the same end device. You monitor the communication with Wireshark and analyze the captured packets. Scenario In this lab.

16.255.254 172.255.16.255.10.0 255.Pod#. waiting to respond to client requests.168.254 192.0.0 255.2 172.255.6 192.255.10.255.255.0.255.0.0 255. The lab should be configured as shown in Figure 4-11 and Table 4-15.255.0 255.254.255.255.253 N/A 172.254 172. If it is not.1 172.254 172.1 255.255.10.255. such as HTTP.252 255.0 255. Eagle Server has several network services preconfigured.254 . ask the instructor for assistance before proceeding.252 255.254.168.254.0 255.255.10.0. The web browser will also be used to examine the FTP protocol.16.Pod#. as will the FTP command-line client.16.254 172. the underlying communication to the server remains the same. Figure 4–11 Topology for Lab 4-3 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 Table 4–15 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP R2-Central Eagle Server Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 S0/0/0 Fa0/0 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 10.5 172.4 N/A 192.255.24.10.255.253 10.112 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide A web browser such as Internet Explorer or Firefox will be used to connect to the Eagle Server network service.0 N/A N/A 10.255. This exercise demonstrates that although clients may differ.16.31.255.16.16.10.254.168.

and can ping R1-ISP. double-click the filename and install Wireshark with the default settings. If Wireshark is not installed on the pod host computer. Right-click the Wireshark filename.com. Step 3.16. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address.6. 10. 172. If students ask why the Wireshark icon is a directory folder.com.10. to another file. and that Eagle Server is on.255. The interface with the IP address of the pod host computer is the correct interface. and then save the file to the host pod computer. The download URL is ftp://eagleserver. the lab topology might have been modified before this class. Wireshark should begin to log data. or shortcut. Wireshark will be used in upcoming tasks. This is also why the file has no physical size.10. Step 3. Figure 4-12 Wireshark Interface Capture After the file has downloaded. Task 1: Configure the Pod Host Computer to Capture Application Layer Protocols Step 1.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 113 Note to instructor: Depending on the classroom situation.example. If an individual host computer cannot connect to Eagle Server. . the interface is used as the default and does not need to be changed. R2-Central.com/pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter3. check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central. Start Wireshark from Start > All Programs > Wireshark > Wireshark.16. Thereafter. Download and install Wireshark. R1-ISP. troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity using the following steps: Step 1.255. Verify that all network equipment is powered on. verify that the host has the correct DNS address and can ping eagle-server. and finally Eagle Server. Verify that the host computer has the correct gateway IP address.254. Finally.example.254. Wireshark can be started by clicking the interface Start button. Step 2. and can ping R2-Central. you can download it from eagleserver.example. Stop Wireshark for the moment. If the ping test fails. When the opening screen appears. 172.example. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server. See Figure 4-12. it is because the file is a link. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests. ping S1Central. set the correct capture interface. ping Eagle Server. From a known good host computer.com. Step 2. Start Wireshark and configure the capture interface. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity. shown in the preceding logical addressing table.

This will display a different web page. Using a web browser such as Internet Explorer or Firefox. A web page similar to Figure 4-13 will display. Before HTTP can begin. Figure 4-15 shows a sample captured HTTP session. and 12. Open a second web browser. The resulting Wireshark data will display. The third session occurred when the second web browser accessed http://eagleserver.com/page2. numbers 10. relying on lower-level protocols such as TCP to establish and manage the communication channel.com. Step 3.example.114 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 2: Capture and Analyze HTTP Communication Between the Pod Host Computer and a Web Server HTTP is an application layer protocol. There were actually at least three HTTP sessions created in Step 2.com/page2.example.example. Wireshark will display captures based on packet type. the TCP session must be created. dated 1999. connect to URL http://eagleserver. Close the web browsers. The first HTTP session started with a connection to http://eagleserver. The second session occurred with a refresh action. Stop Wireshark captures and analyze the captured data.example. HTTP version 1. This is seen in the first three session lines. Step 1. This part of the lab demonstrates how sessions between multiple web clients and the web server are kept separate. Do not close this web browser until instructed to do so. and connect to URL http://eagleserver. 11.com. Do not close either browser until Wireshark capture is stopped. Step 2. There should be no change to the display in the web client.html. Figure 4-13 Web Server Screen Click the web browser Refresh button.1 is defined in RFC 2616. . Start the pod host web browser.html. Start Wireshark captures.

254 TCP 1056 80 Which computer initiated the HTTP session.16. In the first browser. acknowledged.168. If necessary. some web servers are configured to display a default file if one is available. the GET request is on line 13. Table 4-16 HTTP Session Table Answers Characteristics Web browser IP address Web server IP address Transport layer protocol (UDP/TCP) Web browser port number Web server port number 172.16. Highlight the first line of the HTTP protocol.254 with the SYN flag set. Although no page was requested.254. the path is the root directory of the web server. and how? 192.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 115 Figure 4-14 Captured HTTP Session Fill in Table 4-16 from the information presented in the HTTP session.168.1 GET \ En-us *Request URI is the path to the requested document. Complete Table 4-17 using information from the protocol.1.2 192.1. Which computer initially signaled an end to the HTTP session.254.1.254. Table 4–17 HTTP Session Table Answer Characteristics Protocol version Request Method * Request URI Language HTTP/1. In Figure 4-14. . This is the beginning of the TCP three-way handshake.2. Which protocol is carried (encapsulated) inside the TCP segment? Hypertext Transfer Protocol Expand the last protocol record and any subfields. Move into the second (middle) Wireshark window to examine the layered protocols.168.16.254 signaled an end to the session with the FIN ACK flags set. and how? 172. and repeated by 172. a GET request from the web browser. expand the fields. This is the actual information sent to the web server.2 started the HTTP session to 192.

. Open all collapsed subfields of HTTP. 304 Not Modified. The web browser understands and correctly formats the data in the browser window. GET. is visible. for an initial response that contains millions of bytes. In this reply. Figure 4-15 Captured HTTP Session The significance of the refresh action is in the server response. Notice the information returned from the server. dated October 1985. Figure 4-15 shows a sample capture. FTP version 5.116 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide The web server responds with the next HTTP packet. With a single packet returned for both the initial GET request and refresh. the bandwidth used is minimal. the GET request contained the following additional instructions to the web server: If-modified-since: Fri. A response to the web browser is possible because the web server understands the type of request and has a file to return. Crackers sometimes send unknown or garbled requests to web servers in an attempt to stop the server or gain access to the server command line. a request for an unknown web page will result in an error message. in 1971. Highlight the web server response. Because this web page was saved in the web client’s cache. What is the web server response to the web client GET request? 200 OK. there are only a few lines of text (web server responses can contain thousands or millions of bytes). From RFC 2616 What does this response mean? The request has succeeded. 26 Jan 2007 06:19:33 GMT\r\n If-None-Match: “98072-b8-82da8740”\r\n <.1 is defined in RFC 959. Also.page tag number (ETAG) What is the ETAG response from the web server? 98072-b8-82da8740 Task 3: Capture and Analyze FTP Communication Between the Pod Host Computer and a Web Server The application layer protocol FTP has undergone significant revision since it first appeared in RFC 114. an entity corresponding to the requested resource. Scroll down the top window of Wireshark until the second HTTP session. is sent in the response. refresh. In this task. In Figure 4-14. The familiar web browser can be used to communicate with more than just the HTTP server. this is on line 15. However. the web browser and a command-line FTP utility are used to download data from an FTP server. a single reply packet can save significant bandwidth. and then move into the second (middle) window.

220 Welcome to the eagle-server FTP service. Start the pod host command-line FTP client. Commands are: FTP Client Commands ! ? append ascii bell binary bye cd close delete debug dir disconnect get glob hash help lcd literal ls mdelete mdir mget mkdir mls mput open prompt put pwd quit quote recv remotehelp rename rmdir send status trace type user verbose . using the Windows FTP client utility. This means that the FTP client is waiting for a command to send to the FTP server. Example 4-6 ftp> help Commands may be abbreviated.example. To view a list of FTP client commands. click Start > Run. If necessary. To authenticate.example. A screen similar to Figure 4-16 will display. to open Wireshark. Password: <ENTER> 230 Login successful. enter cmd.example. User (eagle-server. use user ID anonymous. as shown in Example 4-6. To do so.com.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 117 In preparation for this task. and then click OK. Figure 4-16 Windows Command Line Step 1. type help and press Enter. Start Wireshark captures. The FTP client prompt is ftp>. Step 2. Example 4-5 FTP Eagle Server Example >ftp eagle-server. refer to Task 1.com:(none)): anonymous 331 Please specify the password. Step 2. press Enter. open a command line on the host pod computer. Start a pod host computer FTP session with the FTP server. as shown in Example 4-5. In response to the password prompt.com Connected to eagle-server.

Consider using PASV. . x (access).pcap 1486 Jan 12 04:27 ping to 192.pcap 4493 Jan 12 04:27 http to eagle-server.pcap (5853 bytes). the large number of FTP client commands makes using the command-line utility difficult for a novice. The permissions are arranged as r (read). Stop Wireshark captures. 150 Here comes the directory listing.4.04Seconds 8.34Seconds 17.168. ftp: 5853 bytes received in 0. 226 File send OK. Consider using PASV.pcap” 200 PORT command successful.99. ftp: 333 bytes received in 0. ftp> quit 221 Goodbye. Subdirectories can be traversed. This is not the real root directory of the server. -rw-r—r— -rw-r—r— -rw-r—r— -rw-r—r— 1 0 100 1 0 100 1 0 100 5853 Jan 12 04:26 ftptoeagle-server. 150 Here comes the directory listing. Enter the command dir to display the current directory contents. w (write). however. the values are UNIX file permissions.118 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Unfortunately. Example 4-7 FTP Directory Output ftp> dir 200 PORT command successful. and files transferred to the pod host computer.21Kbytes/sec. Close the command-line window with the exit command. indicates that the file is a directory. Consider using PASV. We will only use a few commands for Wireshark evaluation. drwxr-xr-x 3 0 0 4096 Jan 12 04:32 pub If students ask what the values at the beginning of the line mean. and exit. Move into directory pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter2. and save the captures as FTP_Command_Line_Client. User anonymous has been placed into a root jail. download a file. World (anyone) can read and access the directory.254. but only the highest point that user anonymous can access.12Kbytes/sec. as shown in Example 4-7.pcap 1 0 100 15163750 Jan 12 04:30 wireshark-setup-0. The FTP client is at the root directory of the FTP server.exe 226 Directory send OK. See Example 4-8. d. prohibiting access outside of the current directory. ftp> dir 200 PORT command successful. group. The first character. 150 Opening BINARY mode data connection for ftptoeagle-server. for the owner. ftp> get “ftptoeagle-server. Example 4-8 FTP Subdirectory Example ftp> cd pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter2 250 Directory successfully changed.254. and world.

go down the directories until the URL path is pub/eaglelabs/eagle1/chapter2. FTP communicates using codes. the web browser logged in to the FTP server as user anonymous.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 119 Step 3. Double-click the file ftptoeagle-server. similar to HTTP. . select the FTP capture that is the first FTP protocol transmission. A browser window opens with the pub directory displayed. and enter the URL ftp://eagle-server. What is the FTP server response 220? Service is ready for a new user. Step 4. open the Wireshark capture FTP_Web_Browser_Client. When finished. Also. Open a web browser as shown in Figure 4-17. In Figure 4-18. Start the pod host web browser. and save the captures as FTP_Web_Browser_Client. Stop Wireshark captures. If not already opened.com. close the web browser. this is line 23. Response: 220. Analyze the captured data. Figure 4-18 Wireshark FTP Capture Move into the middle Wireshark window and expand the FTP protocol.pcap and save the file. as shown on the bottom of the Figure 4-17. example. Figure 4-17 Web Browser FTP Client Using the browser. Start Wireshark captures again. On the top Wireshark window.

If possible. In passive transfer mode. In Figure 4-18. In passive mode. Step 5. students should be shown a passive transfer mode. In active mode. the FTP client must permit either FTP-related connections (implying stateful packet filtering) or disable blocking. high ports are used on both ends of the connection. The Windows FTP client used for this lab did not support the passive transfer mode. there are two significant changes. See Figure 4-19. the client initiates the data connection to the server. In active transfer mode. Unless the FTP client firewall is configured to permit connections from the outside. what was the web browser reply? IEUSER@ Which port number does the FTP client use to connect to the FTP server port 21? Port number will vary. The transfer mode sets how the data port is configured. and observe the FTP communication. What is the FTP data port number used by the FTP server? The port number is 20. When data is transferred or with simple directory listings. Although the clients are different. the same connection used in the active transfer mode. a client initiates an FTP session with the server on well-known TCP port 21. the commands are similar. the port number is 1073. a new port is opened. For data transfer. Second. Both port numbers are above 1023. and the FTP client port number is some number above 1023. a client initiates an FTP session with the server on well-known TCP port 21. however. Open the Wireshark capture FTP_Web_Browser_Client. The implications between the two modes are important from an information security perspective. the client opens a new port to the server for data transfer. First. See Figure 4-20. The FTP server source port number is 20. the server initiates a connection from well-known TCP port 20 to a client’s high port. data transfer may fail. The transfer mode can be either active or passive. This is called the transfer mode. a port number above 1023. To establish connectivity for data transfer.120 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide When the FTP server issued a Response: 331 Please specify the password. For data transfer. however. . the server opens a TCP session to the FTP client and transfers data across that port. Figure 4-19 Active FTP FTP Client FTP Control Connection on TCP Port 21 FTP Server FTP Data Connection From TCP Port 20 on Server to a High Port on the Client. Compare FTP active and passive transfer modes.

Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 121 Figure 4-20 Passive FTP FTP Client FTP Control Connection on TCP Port 21 FTP Server FTP Data Connection From the Client High TCP Port to the Server High TCP Port. The server listens on port 80 for client connections. All of these services use TCP. Think about the differences between TCP and UDP. An HTTP session begins when a request is made to the HTTP server and ends when the response has been acknowledged by the HTTP client. lasts until the client signals that it is leaving with the quit command. use a web browser or command-line Telnet client to connect to a Cisco device such as S1-Central or R2-Central. FTP. uses two protocols. . as the command line. Not all FTP client applications support changes to the transfer mode. however. and Gopher. TCP manages the connection between client and server to ensure datagram delivery. the server or client may initiate the data connection. The communication protocol is normally defined in an RFC. User anonymous normally has restricted access to the FTP server and cannot upload files. Unless the FTP server is configured to permit a connection to a random high port. Telnet and Gopher may also be supported on the browser. The FTP server listens on TCP port 21. Task 4: Reflection Both HTTP and FTP protocols rely on TCP to communicate. An FTP session. data transfer will fail. Observe the Telnet protocol behavior. Telnet. sending requests and processing replies. Issue a GET request and observe the results. even if the authentication is open to the world. A client application may be either a web browser or command-line utility. Task 5: Challenge Enabling Wireshark capture. Depending on the transfer mode. guaranteed delivery of datagrams. The browser acts as a client to the server. but each must send and receive messages that can be correctly interpreted. Although only HTTP and FTP were examined here. HTTP uses a single protocol to communicate with the HTTP server. Multiple application layer protocols can be accessed through a simple web browser. however. FTP. The FTP client must authenticate to the FTP server. How is the application layer protocol Telnet similar to HTTP and FTP? How does Telnet differ? Answers will vary. but Telnet is similar to HTTP and FTP in that all three use the TCP protocol for connection-oriented. and consider why UDP is inappropriate for HTTP.

that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. UDP. click Start > Control Panel > Add or Remove Programs. To remove Wireshark.3. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. you will be using a standard lab setup created from actual PCs. turn off power to the host computers. and TCP on the model of the lab network. Remember.6. Use simulation mode to visualize the operation of DNS.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab4532. Connect and configure hosts and services on the model of the lab network. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ ■ Configure hosts and services. Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Application and Transport Layer Protocols Examination (4. Scroll to the bottom of the list. Explore How DNS. the instructor may want the application removed. and leave the room ready for the next class. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity. HTTP. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor.122 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 6: Clean Up If Wireshark was installed on the pod host computer for this lab. servers.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. HTTP. and UDP work together.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to perform this exercise using Packet Tracer.3) Open the file LSG01-PTSkills4. right-click Wireshark. however.5. delete all files retrieved from the FTP server. and analyze increasingly more complex protocol interactions. UDP.1. Upon completion of this activity. routers. At the end of each chapter. and switches to learn networking concepts. . Packet Tracer Challenge Skills Integration Challenge: Analyzing the Application and Transport Layers (4. Background Throughout the course. and then click Remove. you will build increasingly larger parts of this topology in Packet Tracer. If downloaded files need to be removed from the host pod computer. You will use the topology in Figure 4-21 and the addressing table in Table 4-18 to document your design.

252 255.255.254 192.254.255.1 172.255.168.252 255.255.10.253 R2-Central Fa0/0 S0/0/0 S1-Central PC 1A PC 1B Eagle Server VLAN 1 NIC NIC NIC Task 1: Repair and Test the Topology The server has been replaced.16.0 255.16.com with the server’s IP address HTTP enabled .255.255.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 123 Figure 4-21 Topology for Challenge 1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server 2960-24TT S1-Central 1841 R2-Central PC 1A PC 1B Table 4-18 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP Fa0/0 S0/0/0 192.16.0 N/A N/A 10.255.255.255.255.254.168.0 255.1.255.255.6 172.254 172.16.1 172.255.253 DNS enabled.0.6 10.example.254 255.255.253 10.0 255.0.0.0.10. It must be powered on.254.1.16.254.16.10.0 Default gateway 192.10.10.254 10.2 192.6 172. Then configure it with the following settings: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ IP address 192.0 255.10.255.10.168.10.255.254.168.168.16.254 Subnet mask 255.5 172. with the association of eagle-server.254 172.254.255.0 255.255.

Inbound PDU Details. the term scenario means a specific configuration of one or more test packets. the test packet you just created between PC 1A and Eagle Server will be removed.168.255. Scenario 0 might have one test packet from PC 1A to Eagle Server. and UDP and TCP.1 Subnet mask 255. it will show as Failed.” Double-clicking the Fire button in the PDU List window.0. by using the Add Simple PDU to test connectivity between PC 1A and the Eagle Server. press Enter. UDP. in real time.example.255.254 Connect PC 1A to the Fa0/1 port of the S1-Central switch using a straight-through cable. If you receive a Buffer Full message. Verify your work using feedback from the Check Results button and the Assessment Items tab. In Packet Tracer. Task 3: Reflection Can you make a diagram of the sequence of protocol events involved in requesting a web page using a URL? Where might things go wrong? Compare and contrast DNS and HTTP. UDP. You can examine the packet in two ways: by clicking the packet envelope as it is displayed in the animation. and TCP. You can create different test packet scenarios by using the New button (for example.254 DNS server 192. Configure it with the following settings: ■ ■ ■ ■ IP address 172. This time it will succeed. you should be able to see how DNS. Note that when you add a simple PDU. The first time you issue this one-shot ping message. PC 1A has lost its IP address information. Scenario 1 might have test packets between PC 1B and the routers). . Play this animation and examine the packet contents (PDU Information window. HTTP. HTTP.124 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Connect the Eagle Server to the Fa0/0 port on the R1-ISP router using a crossover cable. or by clicking the Info column for that packet instance as it is listed in the Event List. Task 2: Explore How DNS. Test connectivity. “Ethernet.1. and TCP work together by studying tracing the packets and using the PDU Information window to look “inside” them. if you use the Delete button for Scenario 0. You can remove all test packets in a particular scenario by using the Delete button. which is explained later in Chapter 9. please do this before the next task. TCP.254. HTTP. click the View Previous Events button.0 Default gateway 172. Open a web browser from the desktop of 1A.16. UDP. this is because of the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) process. Although the processing of the packets at the switch and the routers might not make sense to you yet. send this single test ping a second time. and ICMP. especially when the packets are at PC 1A or at the Eagle Server.16. it appears in the PDU List window as part of Scenario 0. UDP. Type the URL eagleserver. HTTP. and TCP Work Together Switch from real time to simulation mode. For example. Make sure Event Filter is set to display DNS. and then use the Capture / Forward button in the event List to capture the interaction of DNS. Outbound PDU Details) for each event in the event list.com.

multiple-choice. fill-in-the-blank. 4. Layer 3 uses the following four basic processes: 1. AppleTalk. IPv4 is going to be replaced by IPv6. hands-on skills needed to understand the opportunities and challenges associated with modern networks. The address space for IPv4 is 32 bit. Study Guide IPv4 The network layer provides services to exchange the individual pieces of data over the network between end devices. Novell Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX). IP version 4 (IPv4) is the network layer protocol used as an example throughout this study guide. As you work through this chapter. Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6). and Connectionless Network Service (CLNS/DECNet) 3. The data must be packaged so that it can be sent in a manageable size. whereas IPv6 is 128 bit. List three protocols implemented at the network layer that carry user data. The network layer must provide services to direct these packets to their destination host. 2. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum activities and labs to ensure you have mastered the practical. What are the four basic processes used in the network layer to accomplish end-to-end transport? To accomplish end-to-end transport. Answers will vary but could include Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4). The network layer must provide a unique address for these end devices. and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of the importance of data networks and the major components and characteristics of network architectures.CHAPTER 5 OSI Network Layer The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of matching. the most significant difference between IPv4 and IPv6 is length. Concept Questions 1. 2. These fields contain binary values that the IPv4 services reference as they forward packets across the network. What is the most significant difference between the two? Although answers will vary. The packet arrives at the destination host and is processed at Layer 3. 3. The most significant network layer protocol is the Internet Protocol (IP). . IPv4 defines many different fields in the packet header. use Chapter 5 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum or use the corresponding Chapter 5 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration Companion Guide for assistance.

5.126 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide 4. Each route that a packet takes to reach the next device is called a hop. IPv4 is connectionless. Number of hops before packet is dropped: This value is decremented at each hop to prevent packets being passed around the network in routing loops. Intermediary devices that connect the networks are called routers. These 13 bits allow a receiver to determine the place of a particular fragment in the original IP datagram. What is this process called? Fragmentation Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks for the following questions. The header of an IPv4 packet does not include fields required for reliable data delivery. 4. best effort (unreliable). usually a router. 2. and media independent. because these transport layer protocols manage the receipt of their protocol data units (PDU) differently. 3. 6. There is no error control for data. an intermediary device. In some cases. If out-of-order or missing packets create problems for the application using the data. Table 5-1 Field Key Fields of IPv4 Header Purpose IP source address IP destination address Time-to-Live (TTL) Type-of-Service (ToS) Protocol IPv4 address of host sending the packet: enables the destination host to respond to the source if required. Vocabulary Exercise: Define Table 5-1 lists the six key fields in a typical IPv4 header. as optical signals over fiber. Fragment offset . There are no acknowledgments of packet delivery. Any individual IP packet can be communicated electrically over cable. or wirelessly as radio signals. Fill in the purpose of each field. List three basic characteristics of IPv4. will need to split up a packet when forwarding it from one media to a media with a smaller maximum transmission unit (MTU). The data payload protocol type: Denotes whether the data is a UDP datagram or TCP segment. Data quality of service (QoS) priority: Enables router to give priority to voice and network route information over regular data. which services have to resolve these issues? The upper-layer services resolve these issues. 1. IPv4 address of host to receive the packet: enables routers at each hop to forward the packet towards the destination.

The firewall function performed by an intermediary permits only known. they present problems that can be at least partially alleviated by dividing the network into smaller interconnected networks. Internet Research Exercise Use your favorite Internet search engine to find a website that describes the advantages to using hierarchical addressing. To support data communications between networks over internetworks.Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 127 Networks: Dividing Hosts into Groups As networks get larger. Be prepared to discuss and present your findings in class. Using a hierarchical addressing scheme means that the higher levels of the address can be retained. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks for the following questions. it is a good idea to break the network into groups. acts as a gateway to the other network. 3. also known as the default gateway. A router will do one of the following with a packet: ■ ■ ■ Forward it to the next-hop router Forward it to the destination host Drop it Concept Questions 1. The gateway. When a host needs to communicate with another network. 5. Broadcasts are contained within a broadcast domain. trusted data to access the network. Routing is done packet by packet and hop by hop. Please be prepared to allot class time for discussions/presentations. with the middle level denoting the network addresses and the lower level the individual hosts. what graphical user interface (GUI) tool do you use to configure the default gateway IPv4 address? The Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties tools . Separating networks is relatively simple if you use hierarchical addressing. As networks grow larger. A hierarchical address uniquely identifies each host. an intermediary device. Routing: How Our Data Packets Are Handled Within a network or a subnetwork. A broadcast is a message sent from one host to all other hosts on the network. or router. hosts communicate with each other without the need for any network layer intermediary device. Answers will vary. 2. The default gateway is a router on a network that serves as an exit from that network. 7. network layer addressing schemes are hierarchical. 4. 1. 6. On a Windows computer. Dividing large networks so that hosts who need to communicate are grouped together reduces the unnecessary overhead of all hosts needing to know all addresses. is needed to send a packet out of the local network.

Table 5-2 Terms Routing Terms Definitions Definition Next hop A next hop is the address of the device that will process the packet next. Vocabulary Exercise: Define Table 5-2 lists some terms about routing.0. and metric. the router will select the most specific route. Packets with a destination network address that does not match a more specific route in the routing table are forwarded to the next-hop router associated with the default route. 8. 7. a packet cannot be forwarded without a route. Why is Layer 3 addressing hierarchical? The hierarchical nature of Layer 3 addressing means that one route entry could refer to a large general network and another entry could refer to a subnet of that same network. 3. Default route Gateway . The default route is used to forward packets for which there is no entry in the routing table for the destination network.0. if used) portion of their respective addresses. A default route is a route that will match all destination networks. which route will a router select? When forwarding a packet. In IPv4 networks.128 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide 2. When forwarding a packet.0 is used for this purpose. To do this. What is a default route? A default route is a route that will match all destination networks. The default gateway is needed to send a packet out of the local network. Can a packet be forwarded without a route? No. the packet has to be routed outside the original network. Define each term and write your responses in the definition column. the packet is sent to the gateway. When should you use a default route? A default route is used to forward packets for which there is no entry in the routing table for the destination network. Routes must have which three main features in a routing table? The three main features that routes must have in a routing table are destination network. next hop. What piece of addressing information should both the IPv4 host address and its default gateway share? The host IPv4 address and gateway address both must have the same network (and subnet. 6. 4. For a host on a network. 5. the address 0. If the network portion of the destination address of the packet is different from the network of the originating host. Packets with a destination network address that does not match a more specific route in the routing table are forwarded to the next-hop router associated with the default route. the address of the default gateway (router interface) is the next hop for all packets destined for another network.

3. For the routing decisions. 1. along the path to a packet’s destination have a route to forward the packet. Routing is the process of finding a path to a destination host. 2. or router. When a router receives information about new or changed routes. Static routing is routing that depends on manually entered routes in the routing table. Because packets are forwarded at every hop. Out-of-date routing information means that packets might not be forwarded to the most appropriate next hop. it updates its own routing table and. Otherwise. the packet is dropped at that hop. Routing protocols are the set of rules by which routers dynamically share their routing information. the routing table needs to represent the most accurate state of network pathways that the router can access. in turn.Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 129 Routing Processes: How Routes Are Learned Routing requires that every hop. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks for the following questions. Each router in a path does not need a route to all networks. To ensure that packets are routed to use the best possible next hops. As routers become aware of changes to the networks for which they act as the gateway. or changes to links between routers. each known destination network needs to either have a route or a default route configured. every router must be configured with static routes to next hops that reflect its location in the internetwork. this information is passed on to other routers. causing delays or packet loss. The routing table contains the information that a router uses in its packet-forwarding decisions. It only needs to know the next hop on the path to the packet’s destination network. . passes the information to other routers.

However. This is called the 80/20 rule. The network portion of the IP address is used to identify when a packet must be sent to a gateway address. if a gateway cannot be reached by the LAN devices.1. connectivity with Eagle Server will fail. One purpose of a router is to serve as an entry point for packets coming into the network and exit point for packets leaving the network.5. Scenario Pod host computers must communicate with Eagle Server. Understand how network information is configured on a Windows computer. Troubleshoot a hidden gateway address problem. devices on different networks have different source and destination network numbers. network configuration on a pod host computer will be verified. which is assigned to a network device that forwards packets between distant networks. A router is assigned the gateway address for all the devices on the LAN. the host portion of the IP address is used as the host identifier. Cisco estimates that 80 percent of network traffic will be destined to devices on other networks. Figure 5-1 shows the topology for this lab. For devices on the same LAN. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ Understand and explain the purpose of a gateway address. and Table 5-3 shows the corresponding addressing table.1) Upon completion of this lab. By the use of several common utilities. . A computer that communicates with another device must first know how to reach the device. If the pod host computer gateway address is not configured properly. Background An IP address is composed of a network portion and a host portion. users will not be able to perform their job. but Eagle Server is located on a different network.130 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Labs and Activities Lab 5-1: Examining a Device’s Gateway (5. Therefore. Gateway addresses are important to users. and only 20 percent of network traffic will go to local devices. The network portion of the destination device is the same as the network portion of the host device.

254.Pod#.1 255.255.0 255.255.255.1 172.255.255.255.0 N/A N/A 10.0.16.16.5 172.255.255.254 172.0.0.Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 131 Figure 5-1 Topology for Lab 5-1 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 Table 5-3 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP S0/0/0 Fa0/0 10.254 172.0 255.254 192.168.24.255.255.253 10.252 255.16.16.0 255.2 172.255.10.255.0 255.10.252 255.0 255.31.6 192.255.255.254.255.255.0 255.16.6 N/A 192.10.254 R2-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Eagle Server N/A N/A Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central N/A N/A N/A .254.16.253 N/A 172.16.10.10.255.254.255.254 172.Pod#.254 172.0.168.10.168.

254. The fourth highlighted line displays the information in humanreadable form.0. Any device that has the same network address (in this example.16. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity.com.0. and can ping R2-Central.com. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address. is automatically assigned to the 127. the netstat –r command is used to view the gateway addresses for this computer. Step 2.0. 172. Verify that the host computer has the correct gateway IP address. troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity with the following steps: Step 1. what is the MAC address of the network device on IP address 172.10. This interface is . verify that the host has the correct DNS address and can ping eagle-server. ping S1Central. called the loopback interface. and that Eagle Server is on.0.16. 0. Step 3. The “quad-zero” Network Destination and Netmask values.10. check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central. and can ping R1-ISP. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests. Verify that all network equipment is powered on. 172. More specific networks are reached through other gateway addresses. shown in the preceding logical addressing table. The first highlighted line shows what gateway address is used to forward all network packets destined outside of the LAN.255.0. One popular command is netstat –r.0. the lab topology might have been modified before this class.6. Finally.132 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Note to instructor: Depending on the classroom situation. R2-Central.example. In Example 5-1. ping Eagle Server.254 as the default gateway. Figure 5-2 shows two devices on the same network communicating with the ping command.example.1? 00:10:a4:7b:01:5f Several Windows commands will display a network gateway address. the gateway address is the address of the Ethernet device. If the ping test fails. refer to any network not specifically known.254.0 and 0.0) is on the same LAN.16. From a known good host computer.1. 172.255.0 network.16.0. If an individual host computer cannot connect to Eagle Server. this computer will use 172. and finally Eagle Server. R1-ISP. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server. Figure 5-2 Communication Between LAN Devices Referring to Figure 5-2. A local interface. Task 1: Understand and Explain the Purpose of a Gateway Address For LAN traffic. For any nonlocal network.0. 10.16.255.

Use the ping command to verify connectivity with IP address 127..16. no. 127.0.0.255 is the network broadcast address.255.2 Metric 1 1 20 20 20 1 ======================================================================= Persistent Routes: None C:\> Step 1.255. See the second highlighted entry.255.00 16 76 ac a7 6a Intel(R) 82562V 10/100 Network Connection ======================================================================= ======================================================================= Active Routes: Network Destination 0.1 172. For 127.0 172.1.2 172.. the IP address for this Ethernet interface. Finally.10..16.2 172.255.2..255. Use the ping command to ping different IP addresses on the 127.1.2 127.1 172.255 172.1 172.2 Interface 172. Pings will fail.2 172.16.255. .255.0...1.0 network. 127.. Pings are successful to any valid 127.1.16.255.16..16.255.0..1.0.16.0 is accessed through gateway 172.0 127.1.255 255.16.1.1.1.0..254 Step 2.. Open a terminal window on a pod host computer.255 255. and 127.0.0.254 127.0.0.. why? For 127.1.255.254 Gateway 172.255.16.1. What is the default gateway address? 172.16.255.1...255.Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 133 used to identify the local host to local network services.255..255.2 127.0.255.10.0.0...255. MS TCP Loopback interface 0x20005 .0 255.0...0.1. Were responses successful? If not.1.255..1 172.255.0.0..0..0..16.0..2 127. Example 5-1 Output of the netstat Command C:\>netstat –r Route Table ======================================================================= Interface List 0x1 . Was the ping successful? Yes Step 3.255..0 255.0.255 255..16.255.0 host IP address. This entry is the third highlighted line.16.16. yes.0.255 Default Gateway: Netmask 0.0.0.16.0 255.0. any device on network 172.0 172.

initiates a ping to IP address 192. Figure 5-3 Communication Between Devices on Different Networks Referring to Figure 5-3.168.2. IP address 172. A window similar to the one in Figure 5-4 will display.254.254 is only important to the gateway device on the same LAN that must eventually deliver the packet to that IP address. Examine network properties settings. scroll down the list of items in the pane. Because IP address 192.168. what is the MAC address of the gateway device? 00:0c:85:cf:66:40 Referring to Figure 5-3. several tools are available to quickly determine the network configuration for any Windows computer. Click Start > Control Panel > Network Connections.254. the pod host computer requests the MAC address of the default gateway device.168. Pod host computer 2. To access this window. For troubleshooting connectivity issues. the Layer 2 MAC addresses will change before the packet reaches its destination. This gateway device. Right-click Local Area Connection.0.168. The computer composes the Layer 2 header with the destination MAC address of the router and places frames on the wire to the gateway device.254. responds with its MAC address. select Internet Protocol (TCP/IP).0 differs from 192. it is the door to other networks. The MAC address of 192. Task 2: Understand How Network Information Is Configured on a Windows Computer Many times connectivity issues are attributed to incorrect network settings. On the General tab.254. In essence.254 is on a different network. a router. All traffic destined to different networks must go through the network device that has the default gateway address.254.16.254.1.0. The information cannot be determined from any device on this LAN. . Because network 172. Step 1.254. for which IP can you not find a MAC address? 192.16. One method that might prove useful to determine the network interface IP properties is to examine the pod host computer’s Network Properties settings.134 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide A default gateway address permits a network device to communicate with other devices on different networks. and choose Properties. As shown in Figure 5-3.168. and click the Properties button. communication between devices on different networks is different than on a LAN.

0 . . The second highlight shows the subnet mask. . .Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 135 Figure 5-4 Network Interface with Static IP Address However. . . : IP Address. . a dynamic IP address may be configured. . . .16. Example 5-2 Output of the ipconfig Command C:\>ipconfig Windows IP Configuration Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection: Connection-specific DNS Suffix . . . Figure 5-5 Network Interface with Dynamic IP Address A more consistently reliable method for determining network settings on a Windows computer is to use the ipconfig command. . as shown in Example 5-2. .255.0.254 The first highlight shows the IP address for this pod host computer. : 172. . . .255. In this case. . The third highlight shows the default gateway address.2 Subnet Mask . . as shown in Figure 5-5. the Network Properties settings window is not very useful for determining IP address information. . .1. . Default Gateway . . .16. . : 172. . . : 255.

.16.0 Default Gateway . .16. : 00-16-76-AC-A7-6A Dhcp Enabled. . complaining that computer host 11B. . . . . . . : 255. . .0.136 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Several options are available with the ipconfig command. host-11B. use the command ipconfig /all. : No . . . . . . The technician verified the cables and network settings on both computers. : Node Type . . . : 192. . The technician received a trouble ticket from a user on computer host 1A.2 255. . Task 3: Troubleshoot a Hidden Gateway Address Problem When troubleshooting network issues. . .255. Refer to the network topology in Figure 5-1 and the logical IP address assignments in Table 5-3.254 Description . . . . .1. but nothing unusual was found. .255. As the third-shift help desk Cisco engineer. . Using the command ipconfig /all. does not respond to pings. . . . . . . . . . The highlighted line shows the domain name server IP address. . . . To show the most information about the network connections. . : Intel (R) 82562V 10/100 Step 2. who reports that R2-Central has been temporarily brought down for a hardware upgrade. . . . . . . : No IP Address. . . . . .254. .168. . all other values should be the same as shown. . . fill in the Table 5-4 with information from your pod host computer.254 DNS Servers . . : Unknown Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection: Connection-specific DNS Suffix Network Connection Physical Address. . .2 Subnet Mask . . . . .com. .example. . . . . . . . . accessible with the command ipconfig /?. . . . . . : GW-desktop-hom Primary Dns Suffix IP Routing Enabled WINS Proxy Enabled . . . . : No . You check with the corporate network engineer. . Example 5-3 Output of the ipconfig /all Command C:\>ipconfig /all Windows IP Configuration Host Name .168.255. . . : 172. . you are asked for assistance from the help desk technician. .16. .0 172. .16. .255. . ipconfig Table Address Table 5-4 Description IP address Subnet mask Default gateway DNS server 172. . .254. .0. . as shown in Example 5-3. . . : 172. . . . . . : .254 192. a thorough understanding of the network can often assist in identifying the real problem. . . . . . . .1. .254 Note to instructors: Only the IP address should be different on a student’s pod host computer.

the gateway router is back on line and normal network operation resumes. The pings succeed. DNS requests from the LAN devices must go through the gateway device. Task 6: Clean Up Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. First. You might have to restart the host computer to flush the DNS cache. Packet Tracer Activity Packet Tracer Companion: Examining a Device’s Gateway (5. Task 5: Challenge Use Wireshark to capture a ping between two pod host computers. If the gateway is down.5.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. but DNS will not work. You instruct the help desk technician to tell the user to use the IP address for host 11B temporarily.254. What is wrong? Because the DNS server is on a different network than the LAN.16. LAN computers still have connectivity between each other. Then. Within the hour. however. and the pings fail.254. you ask the technician to ping the gateway IP address.2 from host 1A.1. Windows command-line utilities such as netstat –r and ipconfig /all will report gateway settings on host computers. .254. The gateway address should not be needed.0.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab5512. and in some instances LAN devices require a default gateway to communicate with other devices on the LAN.Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 137 Nodding your head in understanding. use the hostname of the destination pod computer for DNS to reply with the destination IP address. R2-Central. the user is able to establish connectivity with the computer. especially the gateway. Task 4: Reflection A gateway address is critical to network connectivity. 172. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. Observe the communication sequence between network devices. capture a ping between network devices using only IP addresses.168.11. you ask the technician to ping the IP address for host 11B. 172. Next. Remember.16. and leave the room ready for the next class. after that. turn off power to the host computers. IP network 192. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity.

Scenario Using a pod host computer. For networks that are not directly connected.1) Learning Objectives Upon completion of this lab. Use a Windows Telnet client command telnet to connect to a Cisco router. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ Use the route command to modify a Windows computer routing table. This lab compares how routes are used in Windows computers and the Cisco router. a device must know the route to the destination network. based upon configuration information on the network interface. Examine router routes using basic Cisco IOS commands.138 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Lab 5-2: Examining a Route (5. test the connection. and Table 5-5 shows the corresponding addressing table. a default gateway IP address is configured that will send traffic to a device that should know about the network. Background For packets to travel across a network. Figure 5-6 Topology for Lab 5-2 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 . Delete the default gateway route. and the network route is automatically entered into the routing table. Figure 5-6 shows the topology for this lab.2. and then add the default gateway route back to the host table. and examine the routing table. Some routes are added to routing tables automatically. Use a pod host computer to telnet into R2-Central. examine the routing table with the route command and identify the different routes and gateway IP address for the route.5. The device considers a network directly connected when it has an IP address and network mask configured.

0 255.6 192.255. 10.10.0.com.31. ping Eagle Server. Task 1: Use the route Command to Modify a Windows Computer Routing Table Shown in Example 5-4.254 172.Pod#.255.0 255. In this lab. 172.255.16.0 255.10.example.253 N/A 172.16.0 255.254.254.255. .255.255. R1-ISP.Pod#.255.1 172.254.0. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests.252 255.255.255.255.168.16.0 255.254 172. Step 3.10. and that Eagle Server is on. shown in the preceding logical addressing table.2 172.255.168.16.10.10.255. the lab topology might have been modified before this class.0.254 172. From a known good host computer.16. ping S1Central. and finally Eagle Server.example.254 192. and can ping R2-Central.254 172.16.255. 172. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity.255.1 255.10. Finally.254 R2-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Eagle Server N/A N/A Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central N/A N/A N/A Note to instructor: Depending on the classroom situation.6. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address.com.Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 139 Table 5-5 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP S0/0/0 Fa0/0 10.255. If an individual host computer cannot connect to Eagle Server. If the ping test fails. and can ping R1-ISP. and can ping eagle-server. verify that the host has the correct DNS address.10. R2-Central.255. Step 2. Verify that the host computer has the correct gateway IP address.6 N/A 192.255.16.168. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server. check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central.254. Ensure that the privileged exec password has been changed from the default value of cisco.253 10.255.10. students telnet into R2-Central and view the routing table.16.252 255.16.0 255.0 N/A N/A 10. Verify that all network equipment is powered on.254.24.254. output from the netstat –r command is useful to determine route and gateway information. troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity using the following steps: Step 1.255.0.255.5 172.

.0.....2 Metric 1 1 20 20 20 1 ======================================================================= Persistent Routes: None C:\> Step 1.16.0.0.1.16. To view detailed information about the route command.2 Interface 172.255.1.1...0 172. A useful command to modify the routing table is the route command. Unlike the netstat –r command..255 255.16.16.254 127...255.2 172.0 255.1 172.0.140 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example 5-4 Output of the netstat Command C:\>netstat –r Route Table ======================================================================= Interface List 0x1 .0.0..1 172.16.255.16.255.16...1.255 Default Gateway: Netmask 0.0.0.255. as shown in Example 5-5. issue the command route PRINT.1.1 172...255.0 255.16.. the route command can be used to view.16.. Examine the active routes on a Windows computer.0 127.255 172..0. Example 5-5 Output of the route Command C:\>route /? An abbreviated option list for the route command is shown below: route PRINT route ADD route DELETE route CHANGE Prints active routes Adds a route: Deletes a route: Modifies an existing route route ADD network MASK mask gateway route DELETE network To view active routes.0.2 172..255.1 172.2 127.255.254 Gateway 172.0. as shown in Example 5-6.255.255 255..0 172.1..2 172.255.0.16.0.0. use the option route /?.1.00 16 76 ac a7 6a Intel(R) 82562V 10/100 Network Connection ======================================================================= ======================================================================= Active Routes: Network Destination 0..16.0.16....0..255 255.0.0 255..2 127. MS TCP Loopback interface 0x20005 . add.255.2 127. or change routing table entries. delete.0.255.1.

How important is the default gateway route? Delete the gateway route.255.00 16 76 ac a7 6a . Lost = 0 (0% loss).255 Default Gateway: Persistent Routes: None C:\> Netmask 0...0.0..0.168.16.254.255.2 172.0..254 Step 2....0.168..255.0.com [192..0 255.0..1.1.. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms.0.168..255.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Ping statistics for 192.2 127.0.255 255.16.16.0.0 255..2 127.0.255 255..16.1.255 255.0..0.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192..16.16.255..16.255.0..example.com Pinging eagle-server.0 255.2 172.254.0 .255.com? 172.1 172..1.255.1.255.254.168.254.. MS TCP Loopback interface 0x70003 ...254: Packets: Sent = 4. The syntax to remove the default gateway route is this: route DELETE network The full command is as follows: C:/> route DELETE 0.16..254.255.255 172. Delete a route from the Windows computer routing table.2 Interface 172.1.0.254.16.0 172.254] with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 192.0 172. Average = 0ms C:\> What is the gateway address to eagle-server.1 172..168.255.2 127.255.. Maximum = 0ms.168.0.Intel(R) 82562V 10/100 Network Connection ======================================================================= Active Routes: Network Destination 0.16. as shown in Example 5-7.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 141 Example 5-6 Output of the route PRINT Command C:\ >route PRINT ======================================================================= Interface List 0x1 .1. Example 5-7 Output of the ping Command C:\> ping eagle-server.example.1 172.1 172.example..2 172.. Received = 4..0.16.16.255.16.0.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.1.0.2 Metric 1 1 20 20 20 1 ======================================================================= Verify network connectivity to Eagle Server.0.0 127.254 127.254 Gateway 172. and try to ping Eagle Server.

.com is stored in the computer’s cache..16..255. such as 172. there is no default gateway IP address.1..0.255.254 ..0.0.16.0..2 172. If the computer is rebooted.255 Persistent Routes: None C:\> Netmask 255..16. Step 3..1.0. how can the DNS server be reached to resolve eagle-server.255.16..0 255.16..0.16.1 172.0. Insert a route into the Windows computer routing table.0.0.00 16 76 ac a7 6a ..255.255.255. The syntax to add a route to the Windows computer routing table is this: route ADD network MASK mask gateway-IP address The full command appears is as follows: C:/> route ADD 0.255. the name will not be resolved because the DNS server is not on the LAN.. use the IP address assigned to your host pod interface.example.1.16.255. What are the results? Eagle Server cannot be reached.16.example.2 172.. and verify that the default gateway route has been removed: What is the default gateway IP address? With the default route removed. C:\> route PRINT ======================================================================= Interface List 0x1 .0. In the following configuration..255 240.2 172. If the default gateway IP address is removed.0..0.com? The IP address for eagle-server.16..0.0 172. or the cache times out.0..0.16.0 MASK 0.0.255..1.MS TCP Loopback interface 0x70003 .254? Yes.0.1 172.Intel(R) 82562V 10/100 Network Connection ======================================================================= ======================================================================= Active Routes: Network Destination 127.2 Metric 1 20 20 20 20 1 ======================================================================= Try to ping Eagle Server..16.1.255 Gateway 127.1.2 127.2 Interface 127..0 172..142 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Examine the active routing table....1 172.1.1 172.0. Can other LAN devices be reached.0 172. Removing the default gateway has no effect on LAN connectivity.16.255 224..1.255..0.0 255.0 255.255..1.16.255.0.255 255.2 127.0 255.0.0.2 172.2 172.

.168.0..254.255 Gateway 172.0...com [192.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.1..1 172.0 255.0. MS TCP Loopback interface 0x70003 .16.16.16..16.255.255.255.255..16.254.0.0.168.255 Netmask 0.255. What are the results? Eagle Server can be reached again.1.1...254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.255..255.16...16.255 255.255.168.168.254 ======================================================================= Persistent Routes: None C:\> Try to ping Eagle Server...255.254.2 127...0.254.1..16..0 127.com Pinging eagle-server.254.255.0 172.168.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.2 172.168.1 172..0.254] with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 192.255.1.0.16.0.255 Default Gateway: 172.example...0.254 127.2 127.1.2 172.0. Lost = 0 (0% loss)..16. Average = 0ms C:\> .254: Packets: Sent = 4. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms.. Has the default gateway route been restored? Yes C:\ >route PRINT ======================================================================= Interface List 0x1 .0.255 255. C:\> ping eagle-server...1.0.Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 143 Examine the active routing table.2 Interface 172. Maximum = 0ms..Intel(R) 82562V 10/100 Network Connection ======================================================================= ======================================================================= Active Routes: NetworkDestination 0.16.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Ping statistics for 192.255..0 255.1 172.2 127. Received = 4.1 172.0 172.254.0 255.0.00 16 76 ac a7 6a .1..2 Metric 1 1 20 20 20 1 255.0.0.0.example.2 172.16.0.

you telnet into the R2-Central router and use common Cisco IOS commands to examine the router routing table. Step 1. Ensure that the privileged exec password has been changed from the default value of cisco. Table 5-6 Pod Number Pod Number Table Username 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 ccna1 ccna2 ccna3 ccna4 ccna5 ccna6 ccna7 ccna8 ccna9 ccna10 ccna11 To start a Telnet session with router R2-Central. Type the password. A username and password will be required to log in to the router. and requires a username and password. Table 5-6 shows the pod numbers and the corresponding usernames. The router prompt should be visible after a successful login. and press Enter. The password for all usernames is cisco. students telnet into R2-Central and view the routing table. The Telnet utility has several options and can be viewed with the telnet /? command. however. For all usernames. Access to the router is restricted. and press Enter. .16. Username ccna1 is for users on pod 1 computers.144 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 2: Use a Windows Telnet Client Command telnet to Connect to a Cisco Router In this task. Note to instructors: In this lab. For instructors. cisco. log in to a Cisco router. if properly configured. as shown in Example 5-8. A terminal window and prompt should be available. Using the Windows Telnet client. the corresponding password is cisco. The default password should have been changed to something other than cisco. Enter the applicable username. and then click OK. ccna2 is for students on pod 2 computers. enter the following command: C:/> telnet 172. The username depends on the pod.254 <ENTER> A login window will prompt for a username. the username is instructor. Open a terminal window by clicking Start > Run. will permit remote logins.255. and so on. Type cmd. Cisco devices have a Telnet server and.

but instead uses a common IOS command to view the routing table.6 to network 0. IA . is not difficult to glean.Static. Task 3: Examine Router Routes Using Basic Cisco IOS Commands As with any network device. The information required of this task. Example 5-9 shows the routing table for R2-Central. This is to be expected. however. The purpose of this task was to establish a Telnet session.10.IS-IS inter area. E2 . N2 . In the next task.0. because the job of a router is to route traffic between networks.10. L1 . Example 5-9 Output of the show ip route Command R2-Central#show ip route Codes: C .ODR. EX .per-user static route o .candidate default. Authorized access only. Also similar to a host computer.OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 . Similar to the host computer default gateway IP address. M . ************************************************************ User Access Verification Username: ccna1 Password: cisco !The password is hidden when typed in R2-Central> At the prompt. a successful Telnet login has been created. O . R . This task does not examine Cisco IOS commands in detail.BGP D .connected.RIP.OSPF external type 2 i . U . L2 .IS-IS. R2-Central#. gateway addresses instruct the device about how to reach other networks when no other information is available. P . The syntax to view the routing table is this: show ip route <ENTER> Enter the command to display the router routing table.0 . S .Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 145 Example 5-8 Output for R2-Central ************************************************************ This is Eagle 1 lab router R2-Central. B . a router may also employ a default gateway. it is not possible to modify router settings or view the configuration.EIGRP.IS-IS level-1. * . The route information displayed is much more detailed than the route information on a host computer.IS-IS level-2 ia .0. Only limited permissions for ccnax usernames are available.OSPF NSSA external type 1. therefore.periodic downloaded static route Gateway of last resort is 10. a router is knowledgeable about directly connected networks.mobile. su . the router routing table is examined.OSPF inter area N1 .OSPF.OSPF external type 1. which has been accomplished.EIGRP external.IS-IS summary.

EIGRP external.IS-IS level-2 ia .0.0. What would the router do with packets destined to 192. If there is no other route in the routing table. P .OSPF NSSA external type 1.0/0 [1/0] via 10. which is manually entered by the network administrator.4 is directly connected.10.RIP.254.10.IS-IS.0/16 is directly connected.10.IS-IS summary.6 R2-Central# The Codes section shown in Example 5-10 explains the symbols to the left of each route entry. 1 subnets C S* 10. IP mask information is displayed as a numeric value (prefix).0. B .candidate default. Close the terminal window. FastEthernet0/0 10.0.IS-IS level-1.10. exit the router with the command exit. M .16. The Telnet client will also close the connection with the Telnet escape sequence Ctrl+] and quit. How is IP mask information displayed in a router routing table? Unlike the pod host computer.10.BGP D .0). 1 subnets C S* 10.168.10.per-user static route o .OSPF inter area N1 .146 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example 5-9 Output of the show ip route Command continued C 172.0. S .OSPF.0/30 is subnetted. because the route is “quad-zero”(0. such as /30 or /16.4 is directly connected. denoting a static route. The asterisk shows the example is a candidate default route. EX . FastEthernet0/0 10.OSPF external type 1. One highlighted line shows S. U .10. Example 5-10 Explanation of Codes R2-Central#show ip route Codes:?C .0.0. O .16.0/30 is subnetted.0 C 172.0/0 [1/0] via 10.Static. which denotes directly connected networks and the interface that supports the connection. su .254.IS-IS inter area.254? The router will use gateway of last resort IP address to forward packets destined to 192. * . .0. use the gateway of last resort IP address to forward packets.periodic downloaded static route Gateway of last resort is 10.0.6 R2-Central# Two highlighted lines in the example show C. When finished examining the routing table.0.168.0. E2 .0. N2 .254. L1 .ODR.10. IA .0/16 is directly connected. Serial0/2/0 0.10.0.EIGRP.6 to network 0.mobile.10.OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 .connected. Serial0/2/0 0.OSPF external type 2 i .0. R . L2 .

R2-Central#show hosts Default domain is not set Name/address lookup uses domain service Name servers are 192.2. turn off power to the host computers. This technique will be used in other labs to connect to Cisco network devices.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer.5. The Cisco router.5 unassigned OK? Method Status YES manual up YES unset Protocol up administratively down down up YES manual up YES unset administratively down down Using Windows commands and the Cisco IOS commands in this lab. . The router routing table was examined with the Cisco IOS command show ip route.254. Routes for directly connected networks. The Windows Telnet client. and leave the room ready for the next class. R2-Central. and gateway of last resort information are displayed.Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 147 Task 4: Reflection Two new Windows commands were used in this lab. compare network information output. telnet. was used to connect to a lab router. Similar to the Windows ipconfig command. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity.255.10. delete.254 <output omitted> R2-Central# Task 6: Clean Up Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. Task 5: Challenge You can use other Cisco IOS commands to view IP address information on a router. What was missing? What critical network information was similar? Both devices displayed directly connected routes and a default gateway route.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab5522. Example 5-11 Output of the show ip interface brief Command R2-Central#show ip interface brief Interface FastEthernet0/0 FastEthernet0/1 Serial0/2/0 Serial0/2/1 R2-Central# IP-Address 172.16.254 unassigned 10. The route command was used to view. statically assigned routes. Remove anything that was brought into the lab.168. and add route information on the pod host computer. however. Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Examining a Route (5. the Cisco IOS command show ip interface brief shown in Example 511 will display IP address assignments.10. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. however. Remember. did not display DNS server information.

0 255. TCP and UDP. works in the context of a simple example of IP routing.16.6 172.253 R2-Central Fa0/0 S0/0/0 S1-Central PC 1A PC 1B Eagle Server VLAN 1 NIC NIC NIC . DHCP. and Table 5-7 shows the corresponding addressing table.10. You may have noticed that regardless of what application and transport protocols were involved.255. Configure a static route using a GUI.1 172.255.6 10.10.0.16. Upon completion of this activity.0.0 255. TFTP.255.255. such as DNS.254.5 172. Figure 5-7 shows the topology for this skills integration challenge.255.255. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ ■ Configure a router interface using a GUI.10.16.255.0 255. Explore a routing table.252 255.0.10.2 192.255.254.255.10. You have already studied a variety of application protocols. HTTP. and two transport layer protocols.6.10. routers.1 172. In this activity.16. you will build increasingly larger parts of this topology in Packet Tracer.254 255.168. Explore the routing of IP packets.6 172.1.3) Open the file LSG01-PTSkills5.16.16.254 172.255.16.10. Table 5-7 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP Fa0/0 S0/0/0 192. you will examine how IP.168. the dominant network layer protocol of the Internet.254 172.255. At the end of each chapter.254 10.1.252 255.148 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Packet Tracer Challenge Skills Integration Challenge: Routing IP Packets (5. you will be using a standard lab setup created from actual PCs.255.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to perform this exercise using Packet Tracer. servers.0. Background Throughout the course.253 10. and Telnet.168. and switches to learn networking concepts.254.255. and analyze increasingly more complex protocol interactions. in Inbound and Outbound PDU Details view they were always encapsulated in IP packets.0 255.0 255.255.255.254.255.1.10.0 N/A N/A 10.254 192.

What are some possible reasons why? One possible reason Eagle Server cannot be reached is the fact that it is using a static IP and not the default route. In the list shown. It appears there is a problem with the router.255. find INTERFACE.0. For now.Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 149 Figure 5-7 Topology for Challenge 1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server 2960-24TT S1-Central 1841 R2-Central PC 1A PC 1B Task 1: Configure a Router Interface There is a problem on the LAN: PC 1A cannot reach the Eagle Server (verify this in real-time mode). FastEthernet0/0. At the end of the course.254 with subnet mask 255. Verify that the router interface (port) is now working by using the mouse over. Close the router window. . Move your cursor over the R2-Central router.16. and note the condition of the Fa0/0 interface (to which switch is connected). Task 2: Examining Routes Use the Inspect tool (magnifying glass) to examine the routing table of R2-Central.255. You will see the router’s directly connected networks. Click router R2-Central and go to the Config tab.0. the Config tab is easier and will allow you to focus on the basic idea of IP routing. but there is no way to reach the Eagle Server network. and turn the port on. and be turned on to act as the default gateway for the LAN. you will learn how to use the Cisco IOS command-line interface (CLI) to perform this task. This interface must have an IP address. Add the IP address 172. The request still fails. Try reaching Eagle Server. subnet mask.

Using the PDU you created in Task 3.0. find ROUTING. Configure what is known as a default static route. Static. The PDU. Verify your work using feedback from the Check Results button and the Assessment Items tab. click the Save button to save the interface and route configuration you have just done to NVRAM (in case the router is power cycled). they will go to the R1-ISP router. Use the Inspect tool (magnifying glass) to examine the routing table of R2-Central again. In the list shown. You should now see the route you configured in the routing table.0.0.10.6 (the S0/0/0 interface on the R1-ISP router) and click the Add button.0 /16 LAN are destined.10. in real time. mask 0. This route is configured so that wherever packets from the 172. by using Add Simple PDU to test connectivity between PC 1A and the Eagle Server.0.16. a one-shot ping. Settings. too.150 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 3: Configure a Route Using a GUI Click router R2-Central and go to the Config tab. double-click Fire to send it again. Task 5: Reflection What data can an IP packet contain? What is meant by the phrase “the IP packet is routed”? What is a route? Where might things go wrong? .0. Trace the packet’s journey from PC 1A to Eagle Server and back using the Capture / Forward button and examining the packet’s contents by either clicking the envelope or clicking the colored square in the Info column of the event list. Under GLOBAL.0. Test connectivity. Task 4: Examine the Routing of the IP Packet Switch to simulation mode. and the next hop of 10. will appear in the User Created PDU list for future use.0. using the address 0.

These addresses are used in the data network as binary patterns. What is another way to refer to 1 byte or 8 bits? Octet. . hands-on skills needed to understand the opportunities and challenges associated with IPv4. multiple-choice. This means that we look at each byte as a decimal number in the range of 0 to 255. use Chapter 6 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum. some portion of the high-order bits represents the network address. Concept Questions 1. As you work through this chapter. or use the corresponding Chapter 6 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration Companion Guide. each packet has a 32-bit source address and a 32-bit destination address in the Layer 3 header. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum activities and labs to ensure you have mastered the practical. In this chapter.CHAPTER 6 Addressing the Network: IPv4 The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of matching. At Layer 3. fill-in-the-blank. for assistance. 3. What is another name for digital logic? Boolean logic. 2. What does IPv4 provide for packets that carry data? Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) provides hierarchical addressing for packets that carry data. and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of network addressing. Study Guide IPv4 Addresses With IPv4. For each IPv4 address. Data that appears in binary may represent many different forms of data to the human network. we refer to binary as it relates to IPv4 addressing. we define a network as a group of hosts that have identical bit patterns in the network address portion of their addresses. What is the format used for IP addresses called? Dotted decimal. 4.

Network address B. Table 6-2 Communication Type Matching Exercise Communication Type Definition A. The process of sending a packet from one host to all hosts in the network C.16.20 Decimal-to-Binary Conversion Exercise Convert the following IP address into a 32-bit binary number.4. The process of sending a packet from one host to an individual host . match the type of communication on the left to its definition on the right.16. Add a “dot” between each decimal. Table 6-1 Network Address Type Matching Exercise Definition Address Type A. Convert each octet to decimal. An address assigned to an end device in the network A. Multicast B. Binary number: 10101100000100000000010000010100 IP address: 172. The process of sending a packet from one host to a selected group of hosts A. keeping in mind the following: ■ ■ ■ Divide the 32 bits into four octets.152 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Binary-to-Decimal Conversion Exercise Convert the following 32-bit binary number into an IP address. A special address used to send data to all hosts in the network C. Broadcast C. Broadcast address C. IP address: 172. match the type of network address on the left to its definition on the right.20 Binary number: 10101100000100000000010100010100 Addresses for Different Purposes Within the address range of each IPv4 network are three types of addresses: ■ ■ ■ Network addresses Broadcast addresses Host addresses Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 6-1. The address by which we refer to the network In Table 6-2. Host address B. Unicast B.5.

0.255.0.255 (10.255 (169.0. What block of addresses is designated “TEST-NET”? 192.0 to 239.16. What are the private address blocks? 10. What is the reserved block for default routing? 0.1.0 /8) 6.0 to 169.31.0.255.255.0 /16) 8.168. 3. 1. and what block is reserved for loopback? Although only the single 127.0.2. Be sure to include class time for presentations or discussions.255. look up a website detailing the utility of calculating addresses by hand.0.254.255.255.0 to 10. the IPv4 address range is 0. Concept Questions 1.168.0.0 to 127.255. Vocabulary: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following sentences.255.255.255. What block of addresses is designated “link-local”? 169. 7.0.255.0 /24) .0.168. Currently. 2.0 /16) 4.255.0 to 255. What is the loopback address.254. Another major block of addresses reserved for special purposes is the IPv4 multicast address range 224. 4.0.0.0 to 192. these addresses are listed as reserved for future use (RFC 3330). addresses 127.255. How do you know how many bits represent the network portion and how many bits represent the host portion? When we express an IPv4 network address.0.0 to 192.2. The globally scoped multicast addresses are 224. What is the prefix length? The prefix length is the number of bits in the address that gives us the network portion.2. we add a prefix length to the network address.0.0. or find a calculator for the three address types.0 /12) 192.0.255.0.0.255. One major block of addresses reserved for special purposes is the IPv4 experimental address range 240. Answers will vary.255 are reserved.0. 2.255. 5.0.254.0.0 to 238.1 address is used.0.0.255.0.255.0.254.255.0 /8) 172. Which addresses in a network cannot be assigned to hosts? The first (network address) and last (broadcast address).255 (192. 3.255 (172.0 to 255.0.255.255 (192.0 to 172.0.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 153 Internet Research Exercise Using any search engine available on the Internet.16.255 (0. Expressed in dotted-decimal format.

DHCP generally is the preferred method of assigning IP addresses to hosts on large networks because it reduces the burden on network support staff and virtually eliminates entry errors. it would cause problems if that address changed. If the host is powered down or taken off the network. and other networking devices that need to be accessible to clients on the network. and spend a few minutes familiarizing yourself with the site. Be prepared to present your findings. Answers will vary. Any of the following. The allocation of these addresses inside the networks should be planned and documented for the following reasons: ■ ■ ■ Preventing duplication of addresses Providing and controlling access Monitoring security and performance Internet Research Exercises Using your favorite search engine. Go to the IANA website at http://www. List four types of devices that work best using static IP addresses. Assigning Addresses The allocation of network layer address space within the corporate network needs to be well designed. peripherals. firewalls. servers. the address is returned to the pool for reuse. routers. Another benefit of DHCP is that an address is not permanently assigned to a host but is only “leased” for a period of time. it can be time-consuming to enter the information on each host. Answers will vary.154 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide 9. Define classless addressing. Describe the pros and cons of using DHCP for addressing. If hosts normally access a server at a particular IP address. static assignment of addressing information can provide increased control over network resources. Answers will vary. in any order. This feature is especially helpful for mobile users who come and go on a network. Be sure to include class time for presentations or discussions. However. Nor should address assignment within the network be random. search for an example of an IPv4 addressing scheme or an article about IPv4’s addressing. 2. 3. With the classless system.org. Be prepared to discuss your opinions of the IANA with the class. Static addresses are useful for printers. intermediary devices. Network administrators should not randomly select the addresses used in their networks. Additionally. hosts that are accessible from the Internet. Concept Questions 1. . Describe the pros and cons of static addressing.iana. Answers will vary for both exercises. address blocks appropriate to the number of hosts are assigned to companies or organizations without regard to the unicast class. are acceptable: Servers.

QoS mechanisms. 11111110 i. Is It on My Network? To define the network and host portions of an address. List some improvements that IPv6 will provide. 10000000 c. 11110000 f. 248 e. 224 f. 11111100 h. In Table 6-3. improved support for extensions and options. What is the primary focus of each of the three tiers of ISPs? Tier 1: The primary focus of Tier 1 ISPs is reliability and/or speed. 11111111 c. Binary Matching Exercise There are a limited number of subnet mask octets. 11000000 d. and any of these may appear in any order: Improved packet handling. authentication and privacy capabilities. 192 d. the devices use a separate 32-bit pattern called a subnet mask. The prefix and the subnet mask are different ways of representing the same thing—the network portion of an address. Tier 2: Tier 2 ISPs generally focus on business customers. 128 . Answers will vary. 11100000 e. header format simplification. 5. 128-bit hierarchical addressing. 11111000 g. 0 i. 254 b. increased scalability and longevity. match the binary number to its numeric value. flow labeling capability.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 155 4. Table 6-3 IPv4 Binary Matching Exercise Numeric Value Binary Number a. 255 g. We express the subnet mask in the same dotted-decimal format as the IPv4 address. 252 h. integrated security. 240 a. 00000000 b. Tier 3: The focus of these ISPs is the retail and home markets in a specific locale.

Using VLSM makes it easier to group networks around what commonalities? VLSM makes it easier to group based on common geographic location. What are the two most useful tools in designing a network? A network diagram and a spreadsheet of IP addresses are the two most useful tools. Calculating Addresses Subnetting lets you create multiple logical networks from a single address block. 2. and to group hosts used for specific purposes. 2. 4. . the more students understand and can predict the operation of a network. What is the formula to calculate the number of subnets? 2^n. Allow class time for presentations or discussions. Every node on that link is on the same network. Be prepared to present your findings. 3. the more equipped they are to design and administer one. 3. Internet Research Exercise Using your favorite search engine. each interface on a router must have a unique network ID. to group based on ownership. Why do routers use ANDing? Routers use ANDing to determine an acceptable route for an incoming packet. Answers will vary.156 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Concept Questions 1. Concept Questions 1. If the routers and end devices calculate these processes without your intervention. How is a subnet mask created? The subnet mask is created by placing a binary 1 in each bit position that represents the network portion and placing a binary 0 in each bit position that represents the host portion. why do you need to learn how to AND? Answers will vary. Because we use a router to connect these networks. Basically. where n = the number of bits borrowed. research ANDing (be sure to specify that you mean in IPv4 networks). How does ANDing help an originating host? An originating host must determine if a packet should be sent directly to a host in the local network or be directed to the gateway.

Ping has a timeout value for the response. 2. After all the requests have been sent. Ping uses a Layer 3 protocol that is a part of the TCP/IP suite called Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP). If a response is not received within that timeout. Variant Language Superior Model c.0. Variable-Length Subnet Mask 3.1 indicate? A response from 127. This is a measure of the network performance. SNMP c. Concept Questions 1. What utility attempts to trace the path that a packet takes through the network? a. As each response is received.0. Why would you use a VLSM chart? a. Using a chart makes calculating VLSM easier. For what is VLSM an acronym? a. the ping utility provides output that summarizes the responses. Very Long String of Marbles b. How does ping work? Be as specific as you can.0. This method lets you assign addresses that have already been allocated.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 157 Multiple-Choice Questions 1. If the host at the specified address receives the Echo request. 2. ping measures the time required for the reply. For each packet sent.0. Ping uses an ICMP Echo Request datagram. What does a response from 127. it responds with an ICMP Echo Reply datagram. Configmaker Testing the Network Layer Ping is a utility for testing IP connectivity between hosts. ping displays the time between when the ping was sent and the response was received. c. Variable-Length Subsidiary Mode d. Ping sends out requests for responses from a specified host address. ping gives up and sends a message indicating that a response was not received. b. This output includes the success rate and average round-trip time to the destination. .1 indicates that IP is properly installed on the host. d. This method prevents addresses from being allocated. ping b. traceroute d. This method helps prevent assigning addresses that have already been allocated.

what sort of problem could this indicate? Answers will vary. the lack of a ping response could be caused by security restrictions. What does traceroute do? Traceroute (tracert) is a utility that lets you observe the path between hosts. Assume that you ping your gateway. A destination host may also send a source quench message if datagrams arrive too fast to be processed. 6. the router discards these packets. 4. What does TTL stand for? Time to Live 8. Host Confirmation. . Name the different ICMP message types. One possibility is that we have the wrong address for the gateway. 1. 5.158 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide 3. Another possibility is that the router interface might be fully operational but might have security applied to it that is preventing it from processing or responding to ping requests. The following may be in any order. This could indicate a problem with the router’s interface serving as the gateway. It is also possible that other hosts may have the same security restriction applied. Many network administrators limit or prohibit the entry of ICMP datagrams into the corporate network. not by nonoperational network elements. Unreachable Destination or Service. Source Quench. Time Exceeded. Why is ping not always the most reliable test for connectivity on a network? Answers will vary. but another host does. If a router does not have enough buffer space to receive incoming packets. What does RTT stand for? Round-Trip Time 7. Route Redirection. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following statements. If the gateway does not respond. but any of the following are correct. What do the first four Destination Unreachable codes mean? 0 = Net unreachable 1 = Host unreachable 2 = Protocol unreachable 3 = Port unreachable 2. Therefore.

1.255.255.255.255. The tracert utility is available on Windows. Linux.255.0 — — 10.254 172. In addition to testing for connectivity.168. Scenario This lab examines the ping and tracert commands.1 172.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 159 Labs and Activities Lab 6-1: Ping and Traceroute (6.253 — 172.Pod#.1 255. when a web browser fails to connect to a web server.0 255.10. ICMP message types were later expanded in RFC 1700. and a similar utility.6 — 192. Figure 6-1 shows the topology for this lab. tracert can be used to check for network latency. Use the tracert/traceroute command to verify TCP/IP connectivity.16.1) Upon completion of this lab.254 R2-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Eagle Server — — Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central — — — . it usually depends on the experience of the network engineer and familiarity with the network. This is because the Eagle Server lab has little network traffic.254 172. the tracert command would be used.254. and Table 6-4 is the corresponding addressing table.0 255.255.0.31.10.0.6 192.255. ICMP is a TCP/IP network layer protocol.0 255.252 255. the problem can be anywhere between the client and the server. A network engineer may use the ping command to test for local network connectivity or connections where there are few devices. Where to begin connectivity tests has been the subject of much debate. Table 6-4 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP S0/0/0 Fa0/0 10. devices in the Cisco lab will be tested.10.Pod#. Both ping and tracert use Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) to send messages between devices. For example.253 10.255.0. In a complex network.255.254.254.10.16.16.16.255.254 172.24. is available on Linux and Cisco IOS.168. The ping utility is available on Windows.0 255.16.255.10. first defined in RFC 792 in September 1981.5 172.252 255.254 172.10.254 192.0. it tests network connectivity.254.255. and Cisco IOS. Background Two tools that are indispensable when testing TCP/IP network connectivity are ping and tracert.255. To familiarize you with the use of the commands. Measured delay time will probably be less than that on a production network.255.255.2 172.16. traceroute.0 255.255.255. you will be able to ■ ■ Use the ping command to verify simple TCP/IP network connectivity. Command options will be used to modify the command behavior.7.0 255.168.16.255.

Verify that the host computer has the correct Gateway IP address.com. troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity with the following steps: Step 1. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity.com. ping S1Central.16.255. as shown in Table 6-4. 10. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server. and finally eagle-server. and that it can ping R2-Central.254. R1-ISP.6. For this . If an individual host computer cannot connect to eagle-server. the lab topology may have been modified before this class. Step 2.example. 172.255.16. Verify that all network equipment is powered on and that eagle-server is on. 172. check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central.10. Task 1: Use the ping Command to Verify Simple TCP/IP Network Connectivity The ping command is used to verify TCP/IP network layer connectivity on the local host computer or another device in the network. and that it can ping R1-ISP. This command can be used with a destination IP address or qualified name. verify that the host has the correct DNS address and that it can ping eagle-server. to test Domain Name System (DNS) functionality. From a known good host computer.example.160 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 6-1 Topology for Lab 6-1 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 Note to Instructor: Depending on the classroom situation.com. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests.254. If the ping test fails. R2-Central. Step 3.example. ping eagle-server. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address. Finally.10. such as eagle-server.

2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 172.0. .16.255.255.1. Example 6-1 C:\> ipconfig Output of the ipconfig Command Windows IP Configuration Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection: Connection-specific DNS Suffix . By default. . . . . . . The destination responds with an echo reply. If there is a break between the source and destination.16.1 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 172. : 255. . .2 Pinging 172.254 C:\> The output should look the same except for the IP address. as shown in Example 6-1. a router may respond with an ICMP message that the host is unknown or the destination network is unknown. and reply information is received. If the information is missing or if the subnet mask and default gateway are different. : IP Address. . .Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 161 lab. Open a Windows terminal and determine the IP address of the pod host computer with the ipconfig command.1. . Example 6-2 Output of the ping Command on the Local TCP/IP Stack C:\> ping 172. . . . . Step 1. Each pod host computer should have the same network mask and default gateway address.16. only the IP address may differ.0 172.16.16. : 172.1.16.16.16. only IP addresses are used. Verify TCP/IP network layer connectivity on the local host computer. .2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 172. reconfigure the TCP/IP settings to match the settings for this pod host computer.1. : 172.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 172. The ping operation is straightforward.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 . Table 6-5 TCP/IP Information Value TCP/IP Information IP address Subnet mask Default gateway Depends on the pod host computer. . The source computer sends an ICMP echo request to the destination. .255. . . . . 255. .0 Default Gateway . four ping requests are sent to the destination. . .16.1.254 Use the ping command to verify TCP/IP network layer connectivity on the local host computer.0.2 Subnet Mask .1. The output should look similar to that shown in Example 6-2. . . .1. Record local TCP/IP network information in Table 6-5.255.

32 bytes 4 4 0 0 ms 0 ms 0 ms Verify TCP/IP network layer connectivity on the LAN. TTL: Default TTL value of the destination device. four packets are sent. measured in milliseconds. Packets lost: The difference between the number of packets sent and received. Values faster than 10 milliseconds display 0. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms. Time: Elapsed time between transmission and reply.162 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example 6-2 Output of the ping Command on the Local TCP/IP Stack continued Ping statistics for 172. Cisco IOS is 255. Received = 4.16. The second highlighted entry shows the following reply information: ■ ■ ■ Bytes: Size of the ICMP packet. In Table 6-6. The third highlighted line shows summary information about the replies: ■ ■ ■ Packets sent: The number of packets transmitted. Lower round-trip times indicate faster links. A computer timer is set to 10 milliseconds. Maximum = 0ms.1. Table 6-6 Field Field Information Value Size of packet Number of packets sent Number of replies Number of lost packets Minimum delay Maximum delay Average delay Step 2. Packets received: The number of packets received. The default TTL value of the Windows XP computer is 128. By default. set to the IP address of the local computer. Students may ask why default TTL values differ when different devices are accessed. For newer Windows machines the default value is 128. Lost = 0 (0% loss). The results should be similar to those shown in Example 6-3. minus the number of routers in the path. The maximum TTL value is 255. Example 6-2 also shows information about the delay in replies. Use the ping command to verify TCP/IP network layer connectivity to the default gateway.2: Packets: Sent = 4. . and the Linux computer is 64. fill in the results of the ping command on your computer. Average = 0ms C:\> The first highlighted line shows the destination address.

254.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=255 Ping statistics for 172. Use the ping command to verify TCP/IP network layer connectivity to a device on a remote network. users may complain that the Eagle Server web server is down.255.168.16.168. Table 6-7 Field Field Information Value Size of packet Number of packets sent Number of replies Number of lost packets Minimum delay Maximum delay Average delay 32 bytes 4 4 0 0 ms 0 ms 0 ms What would be the result of a loss of connectivity to the default gateway? No external networks would be reachable.254: Packets: Sent = 4. Step 3. fill in the results of the ping command to the default gateway. Maximum = 1ms. In reality. the TTL value returned is 255.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 163 Example 6-3 Output of the ping Command to the Default Gateway C:\> ping 172.168.16. The results should be similar to those shown in Example 6-4. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms.255. Example 6-4 Output of the ping Command to Eagle Server C:\> ping 192.255.16.168. Eagle Server is used. For example. In this case.254 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 192.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=62 Reply from 192.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=255 Reply from 172.255.16.254 Pinging 172.168. Lost = 0 (0% loss).16.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=255 Reply from 172. In Table 6-7.254. Verify TCP/IP network layer connectivity to a remote network. Because the router was not crossed.255.255.254 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 172.16.254 Pinging 192.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=62 .254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=62 Reply from 192.254: bytes=32 time=1ms TTL=255 Reply from 172. Received = 4. Average = 0ms C:\> The Cisco IOS default TTL value is set to 255. it is the default Gateway that has failed or that has misconfigured TCP/IP network settings.255.16.254.

there are limitations. However.254 Pinging 192.254. Maximum = 0ms. the output shows that a user cannot reach Eagle Server.168.168. Instead of using the ping command to test the connectivity of each device to the destination. Request timed out.254: Packets: Sent = 4. C:\> Task 2: Use the tracert Command to Verify TCP/IP Connectivity The tracert command is useful for learning about network latency and path information. Example 6-5 Output of the ping Command to the Lost Packets C:\> ping 192.254: Packets: Sent = 4. can display network latency and path information. Request timed out. Lost = 0 (0% loss).168.254.168. Step 4: In Table 6-8. therefore.254. Two routers were crossed to reach Eagle Server. one by one.168.254 with 32 bytes of data: Request timed out.164 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example 6-4 Output of the ping Command to Eagle Server continued Reply from 192.254. examined next. you can use the tracert command.254. In Example 6-5. Is the problem with Eagle Server or a device in the path? The tracert command. Request timed out. the returned TTL value is 62. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms. .254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=62 Ping statistics for 192. Lost = 4 (100% loss). Average = 0ms C:\> The Linux default TTL value is set to 64. Table 6-8 Field Field Information Value Size of packet Number of packets sent Number of replies Number of lost packets Minimum delay Maximum delay Average delay 32 bytes 4 4 0 0 ms 0 ms 0 ms The ping command is extremely useful when you’re troubleshooting network connectivity. Received = 4. fill in the results of the ping command on your computer. Ping statistics for 192. Received = 0.

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On Linux and Cisco IOS devices, the equivalent command is traceroute.
Step 1.

Verify TCP/IP network layer connectivity with the tracert command. Open a Windows terminal, and issue the following command: C:\> tracert 192.168.254.254 The output from the tracert command should be similar to that shown in Example 6-6.

Example 6-6

Output of the tracert Command to Eagle Server

C:\> tracert 192.168.254.254 Tracing route to 192.168.254.254 over a maximum of 30 hops 1 2 3 <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms 172.16.255.254 10.10.10.6 192.168.254.254

Trace complete. C:\>

Record your results in Table 6-9.
Table 6-9 Field Field Information Value

Maximum number of hops First router IP address Second router IP address Destination reached?
Step 2.

30 172.16.255.254 10.10.10.6 Yes

Observe tracert output to a host that lost network connectivity. S1-Central is a switch and does not decrement the packet TTL value. If there is a loss of connectivity to an end device such as Eagle Server, the tracert command can give you valuable clues about the source of the problem. The ping command would show the failure but not any other kind of information about the devices in the path. Referring to the topology diagram shown in Figure 6-1, both R2-Central and R1-ISP are used for connectivity between the pod host computers and Eagle Server. Refer to Example 6-7. Options are used with the tracert command to reduce wait time (in milliseconds), -w 5, and maximum hop count, -h 4. If Eagle Server were disconnected from the network, the default gateway would respond correctly, as well as R1-ISP. The problem must be on the 192.168.254.0/24 network. In this example, Eagle Server has been turned off.

Example 6-7

Output of the tracert Command

C:\> tracert -w 5 -h 4 192.168.254.254 Tracing route to 192.168.254.254 over a maximum of 4 hops 1 2 <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms 172.16.255.254 10.10.10.6

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Example 6-7
3 4 * *

Output of the tracert Command
* * * *

continued

Request timed out. Request timed out.

Trace complete. C:\>

What would the tracert output be if R1-ISP failed? Connectivity would stop after R2-Central. What would the tracert output be if R2-Central failed? There would be no connectivity.

Task 3: Challenge
The default values for the ping command normally work for most troubleshooting scenarios. There are times, however, when fine-tuning ping options may be useful. Issuing the ping command without any destination address displays the options shown in Example 6-8.
Example 6-8
C:\> ping

Output of a ping Command with No Destination Address

Usage: ping [-t] [-a] [-n count] [-l size] [-f] [-i TTL] [-v TOS] [-r count] [-s count] [[-j host-list] | [-k host-list]] [-w timeout] target_name

Options: -t Ping the specified host until stopped. To see statistics and continue - type Control-Break; To stop - type Control-C. -a -n count -l size -f -i TTL -v TOS -r count -s count -j host-list -k host-list -w timeout C:\> Resolve addresses to hostnames. Number of echo requests to send. Send buffer size. Set Don’t Fragment flag in packet. Time To Live. Type Of Service. Record route for count hops. Timestamp for count hops. Loose source route along host-list. Strict source route along host-list. Timeout in milliseconds to wait for each reply.

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The most useful options are highlighted. Some options do not work together, such as the -t and -n options. Other options can be used together. Experiment with those described in this section. To ping the destination address until stopped, use the -t option, as shown in Example 6-9. To stop the output, press Ctrl-C.
Example 6-9 Output of a ping Command Using the -t Option

C:\> ping -t 192.168.254.254 Pinging 192.168.254.254 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 192.168.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.168.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.168.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.168.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.168.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.168.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Ping statistics for 192.168.254.254: Packets: Sent = 6, Received = 6, Lost = 0 (0% loss), Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms, Maximum = 0ms, Average = 0ms Control-C ^C C:\>

To ping the destination once and record router hops, use the -n and -r options, as shown in Example 6-10.
Note: Not all devices honor the -r option. Example 6-10 Output of a ping Command Using the -n and -r Options

C:\> ping -n 1 -r 9 192.168.254.254 Pinging 192.168.254.254 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 192.168.254.254: bytes=32 time=1ms TTL=63 Route: 10.10.10.5 -> 192.168.254.253 -> 192.168.254.254 -> 10.10.10.6 -> 172.16.255.254 Ping statistics for 192.168.254.254: Packets: Sent = 1, Received = 1, Lost = 0 (0% loss), Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 1ms, Maximum = 1ms, Average = 1ms C:\>

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Task 4: Reflection
Network engineers use both ping and tracert to test network connectivity. For basic network connectivity, the ping command works best. To test latency and the network path, the tracert command is preferred. The ability to accurately and quickly diagnose network connectivity issues is a skill expected from a network engineer. Knowledge about the TCP/IP protocols and practice with troubleshooting commands will build that skill.

Task 5: Clean Up
Unless directed otherwise by the instructor, turn off power to the host computers. Remove anything that was brought into the lab, and leave the room ready for the next class.
Packet Tracer Companion

Packet Tracer Companion: ping and traceroute (6.7.1.2)
You can now open the file LSG01-Lab6712.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. Remember, however, that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. The instructions are summarized within the activity.

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Lab 6-2: Examining ICMP Packets (6.7.2.1)
Upon completion of this lab, you will be able to
■ ■

Understand the format of ICMP packets. Use Wireshark to capture and examine ICMP messages.

Background Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) was first defined in RFC 792 in September 1981. ICMP message types were later expanded in RFC 1700. ICMP operates at the TCP/IP network layer and is used to exchange information between devices. ICMP packets serve many uses in today’s computer networks. When a router cannot deliver a packet to a destination network or host, an informational message is returned to the source. Also, the ping and tracert commands send ICMP messages to destinations, and destinations respond with ICMP messages. Scenario Using Eagle Server, Wireshark captures will be made of ICMP packets between network devices. Figure 6-2 shows the topology for this lab, and Table 6-10 is the corresponding addressing table.
Figure 6-2 Topology for Lab 6-2

R1-ISP

S0/0/0 DCE

Eagle Server

S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24

S1-Central

R2-Central

1A

1B

11A

11B

Pod#1

Pod#11

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Table 6-10 Device

Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway

R1-ISP

S0/0/0 Fa0/0

10.10.10.6 192.168.254.253 10.10.10.5 172.16.255.254 192.168.254.254 172.31.24.254 172.16.Pod#.1 172.16.Pod#.2 172.16.254.1

255.255.255.252 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.252 255.255.0.0 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.0.0

— — 10.10.10.6 — 192.168.254.253 — 172.16.255.254 172.16.255.254 172.16.255.254

R2-Central

S0/0/0 Fa0/0

Eagle Server

— —

Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central

— — —

Note to Instructor: Depending on the classroom situation, the lab topology may have been modified before this class. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server.example.com, troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity using the following steps:
Step 1. Step 2.

Verify that all network equipment is powered on and that eagle-server is on. From a known good host computer, ping eagle-server. If the ping test fails, ping S1Central, R2-Central, R1-ISP, and finally eagle-server. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests. If an individual host computer cannot connect to eagle-server, check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address, as shown in Table 6-10, and that it can ping R2-Central, 172.16.255.254. Verify that the host computer has the correct Gateway IP address, 172.16.255.254, and that it can ping R1-ISP, 10.10.10.6. Finally, verify that the host has the correct DNS address and that it can ping eagle-server.example.com.

Step 3.

Task 1: Understand the Format of ICMP Packets
Refer to Figure 6-3, which shows the ICMP header fields common to all ICMP message types. Each ICMP message starts with an 8-bit Type field, an 8-bit Code field, and a computed 16-bit Checksum. The ICMP message type describes the remaining ICMP fields. Table 6-11 shows ICMP message types from RFC 792.
Figure 6-3
0 Type

ICMP Message Header
7 8 Code 16 24 Checksum 31

Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4

171

Table 6-11 Value

ICMP Message Types Meaning

0 3 4 5 8 11 12 13 14 15 16

Echo Reply Destination Unreachable Source Quench Redirect Echo Time Exceeded Parameter Problem Timestamp Timestamp Reply Information Request Information Reply

Codes provide additional information to the Type field. For example, if the Type field is 3, Destination Unreachable, additional information about the problem is returned in the Code field. Table 6-12 shows message codes for an ICMP Type 3 message, Destination Unreachable, from RFC 1700.
Table 6-12 Code Value ICMP Type 3 Message Codes Meaning

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Net Unreachable Host Unreachable Protocol Unreachable Port Unreachable Fragmentation Needed and Don’t Fragment Was Set Source Route Failed Destination Network Unknown Destination Host Unknown Source Host Isolated Communication with Destination Network Is Administratively Prohibited Communication with Destination Host Is Administratively Prohibited Destination Network Unreachable for Type of Service Destination Host Unreachable for Type of Service

172

Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide

Using the ICMP message capture shown in Example 6-11, fill in the fields in Figure 6-4 for the ICMP packet echo request. Values beginning with 0x are hexadecimal numbers.
Example 6-11 ICMP Packet Echo Request

Internet Control Message Protocol Type: 8 (Echo (Ping) request) Code: 0 Checksum: 0x365c [correct] Identifier: 0x0200 Sequence number: 0x1500 Data (32 bytes)

Figure 6-4
0

ICMP Packet Echo Request
7 8 16 24 31

Data...

Using the ICMP message capture shown in Example 6-12, fill in the fields in Figure 6-5 for the ICMP packet echo reply.
Example 6-12 ICMP Packet Echo Reply

Internet Control Message Protocol Type: 0 (Echo (Ping) reply) Code: 0 Checksum: 0x3e5c [correct] Identifier: 0x0200 Sequence number: 0x1500 Data (32 bytes)

Figure 6-5
0

ICMP Packet Echo Reply
7 8 16 24 31

Data...

At the TCP/IP network layer, communication between devices is not guaranteed. However, ICMP does provide minimal checks for a reply to match the request. From the information provided in the ICMP messages just shown, how does the sender know that the reply is to a specific echo? The identifier is used to identify this host computer, and the sequence number is used to identify this echo request.

Open a Windows terminal on the pod host computer.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.254. In this step. 2. open and install Wireshark.254. Figure 6-6 Wireshark Capture of ping Requests and Replies .168.254. 3. start the Wireshark capture.254: Packets: Sent = 4.254] with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 192. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms.168.168. When ready. Open a web browser and go to ftp://eagle-server.254.254.168. When the file has been downloaded.168. and save the file to the pod host computer. There should be a total of four ICMP echo requests and matching echo replies.168. Lost = 0 (0% loss).com Pinging eagle-server.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Ping statistics for 192.example.com [192. choose Save Link As.example. ping Eagle Server. Right-click the Wireshark filename. Step 1. Average = 0ms C:\> Stop the Wireshark capture. you use Wireshark to examine ICMP echo messages. From the Windows terminal. Maximum = 0ms.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192. Received = 4. Example 6-13 Successful ping Replies from Eagle Server C:\> ping eagle-server.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 173 Task 2: Use Wireshark to Capture and Examine ICMP Messages If Wireshark has not been loaded on the pod host computer. similar to those shown in Figure 6-6. as shown in Example 6-13.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.254. you can download it from Eagle Server: 1.example. You should receive four successful replies.com/pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter6. Capture and evaluate ICMP echo messages to Eagle Server.

and expand the Internet Control Message Protocol record until all fields are visible. changed from the echo request? Type field and Checksum field Note: The Identifier field may change for subsequent echo request messages. if any. depending on the operating system. Cisco IOS increments the Identifier field by 1. The bottom window also is needed to examine the Data field. In Table 6-15. fill in information from each new ping. record information from the first echo request packet to Eagle Server. Continue to evaluate the remaining echo requests and replies. For example. In Table 6-13. Table 6-14 Field Ping Echo Reply Fields Value Type Code Checksum Identifier Sequence number Data 0 (Echo (ping) reply) 0 Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary acdefghijklmnopqrstuvwabcdefghi Which fields. record information from the first echo reply packet from Eagle Server. .174 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Which network device responds to the ICMP echo request? The destination device Expand the middle window in Wireshark. Table 6-13 Field Ping Echo Request Fields Value Type Code Checksum Identifier Sequence number Data 8 (Echo (ping) request) 0 Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwabcdefghi Are there 32 bytes of data? Yes In Table 6-14. but Windows keeps the Identifier field the same.

255.253.1 See Example 6-14. Maximum = 0ms.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 175 Table 6-15 Packet Ping Echo Requests and Replies Checksum Identifier Sequence Number Request #2 Reply #2 Request #3 Reply #3 Request #4 Reply #4 Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Same as request #2 Same as request #2 Same as request #2 Same as request #2 Same as request #2 Answers will vary Same as request #2 Answers will vary Same as request #3 Answers will vary Same as request #4 Why do the Checksum values change with each new request? The Identifier remains the same. Average = 0ms C:\> What network device responds to pings to a fictitious destination? The gateway router Figure 6-7 shows Wireshark captures to a fictitious destination.253.168. Reply from 172. Reply from 172. Capture and evaluate ICMP echo messages to 192.1.1 Pinging 192. Expand the middle Wireshark window and the Internet Control Message Protocol record.16. Try to ping IP address 192.1. Example 6-14 Ping Results from a Fictitious Destination C:\> ping 192. pings are sent to a fictitious network and host.254: Destination host unreachable.254: Destination host unreachable. Instead of a request timeout.1 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 172. but the sequence number changes.1: Packets: Sent = 4. Received = 4. The results from the Wireshark capture are evaluated. Lost = 0 (0% loss).168.255.16. an echo response occurs. C:\> ping 192.168.253.253.168.16.255. Ping statistics for 192. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms.168.168. Step 2.16.253.255.254: Destination host unreachable. In this step.254: Destination host unreachable. .253. Reply from 172.

254.176 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 6-7 Wireshark Capture from a Fictitious Destination Which ICMP message type is used to return information to the sender? Type 3 message What code is associated with the message type? Code 1. Reply from 172.254: TTL expired in transit.255. Host Unreachable Step 3. Example 6-15 Ping Results for an Exceeded TTL C:\> ping -i 1 192.254 Pinging 192.168.254 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 172. Received = 4. Lost = 0 (0% loss). simulating an unreachable destination. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms.254: TTL expired in transit.168.168.254. Figure 6-8 Wireshark Capture of TTL Value Exceeded .168.16. Capture and evaluate ICMP echo messages that exceed the TTL value. pings are sent with a low TTL value. Average = 0ms C:\> What network device responds to pings that exceed the TTL value? The gateway router Figure 6-8 shows Wireshark captures to a fictitious destination. Reply from 172. In this step.254: Packets: Sent = 4.255. Maximum = 0ms.16. Reply from 172. Ping statistics for 192. Ping Eagle Server.16.254: TTL expired in transit.255.254.255. and set the TTL value to 1: C:\> ping -i 1 192.254. Expand the middle Wireshark window and the Internet Control Message Protocol record.254 Example 6-15 shows ping replies when the TTL value has been exceeded.254: TTL expired in transit.16.

Time to live exceeded in transit Which network device is responsible for decrementing the TTL value? Routers decrement the TTL value.7. choose Start > Control Panel > Add or Remove Programs. Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Examining ICMP Packets (6.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab6722. . turn off power to the host computers. Task 4: Reflection The ICMP protocol is very useful when troubleshooting network connectivity issues.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. and leave the room ready for the next class. Click the filename. This demonstrates how the tracert command traces the network path to the destination.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 177 Which ICMP message type is used to return information to the sender? Type 11 message What code is associated with the message type? Code 0. Task 5: Clean Up Wireshark may have been loaded on the pod host computer. Remember.251.168. Remove any Wireshark pcap files that were created on the pod host computer. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. and scroll down to Wireshark. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. If the program must be removed.254. Examine the ICMP TTL exceeded message. Task 3: Challenge Use Wireshark to capture a tracert session to Eagle Server and then to 192. click Remove. Using the ping command. you can capture and evaluate different ICMP message type values. however. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. Without ICMP messages. and follow the uninstall instructions. a sender has no way to tell why a destination connection failed.2. The instructions are summarized within the activity.

1) Upon completion of this activity.7. Scenario When given an IP address and network mask.0 (/16) you will determine the following information in this task: ■ ■ ■ ■ Network address Network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts Translate the host IP address and network mask into binary notation.250 Network mask: 255. you will be able to determine other information about the IP address.0. Background This activity is designed to teach you how to compute network IP address information from a given IP address.114.3. Determine Network Information Given the following information: ■ ■ Host IP address: 172. In Table 6-16. Table 6-16 Decimal-to-Binary Conversion 172 25 114 250 IP address Network mask 10101100 11111111 255 00011001 11111111 255 01110010 00000000 0 11111010 00000000 0 . such as ■ ■ ■ ■ Network address Network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts Task 1: For a Given IP Address.25. Part 1 (6. convert the host IP address and network mask into binary.178 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Activity 6-1: IPv4 Address Subnetting. you will be able to determine network information for a given IP address and network mask. Step 1.255.

determine the broadcast address for the network address. which is 172.0. Perform a bitwise AND operation on the IP address and subnet mask. perform the following tasks: ■ ■ Draw a line under the mask. The network mask separates the network portion of the address from the host portion. you can determine the total number of usable hosts for this network. The network address has all 0s in the host portion of the address. In Table 6-18. Note: 1 AND 1 results in a 1. AND Operation 172 25 114 250 Table 6-17 IP address Subnet mask 10101100 11111111 00011001 11111111 00011001 25 01110010 00000000 00000000 0 11111010 00000000 00000000 0 Network address 10101100 172 Step 3. .534 (addresses that cannot use the all-0s address [the network address] or the all-1s address [the broadcast address]) Add this information to Table 6-19.536 – 2 = 65. Host bits: 16 Total number of hosts: 216 = 65.0. and the broadcast address has all 1s in the host portion of the address.25. Table 6-18 Broadcast Information 172 25 0 0 Network address Subnet mask 10101100 11111111 11001000 11111111 11001000 25 00000000 00000000 11111111 255 00000000 00000000 11111111 255 Broadcast address 10101100 172 By counting the number of host bits. 0 AND anything results in a 0. The result is the network address for this host IP address. Determine the network address. In Table 6-17.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 179 Step 2. ■ Express the result in dotted-decimal notation.536 65.

255.30.255.25.0.255.33 255.255 16 bits 65.1.536 – 2 = 65.33 255.255.0.255.1.250 255.0 172.534 usable hosts Task 2: Challenge For all problems.180 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 6-19 Field Host Bits: Information on the Number of Hosts Value Host IP address Network mask Network address Network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts 172.30.0.255 16 bits or 216 or 65. Table 6-20 Field Problem 1 Value Host IP address Network mask Network address Network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts Table 6-21 shows Problem 2.255 8 bits 256 – 2 = 254 .536 – 2 = 65.0 172. create a subnetting worksheet to show and record all work for each problem.30.25.0 172.25.1.0 (/16) 172. Table 6-21 Field Problem 2 172.30.30.0.1.534 Value Host IP address Network mask Network address Network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts 172.255.0 172.0 172. Table 6-20 shows Problem 1.536 total hosts 65.114.30.

255 16 bits 65.255 16 bits 65.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 181 Table 6-22 shows Problem 3.0 192.536 – 2 = 65.219 255.3.0 172.0 192.255.255.17.99.534 .17.10.17.168.234 255.0 172.534 Value Host IP address Network mask Network address Network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts 192.536 – 2 = 65.10.71 255.168. Table 6-24 Field Problem 5 172.168.0.0.255.0. Table 6-23 Field Problem 4 192.168.255.255.10.0 192.255.0 192.255 8 bits 256 – 2 = 254 Value Host IP address Network mask Network address Network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts Table 6-24 shows Problem 5.168. Table 6-22 Field Problem 3 Value Host IP address Network mask Network address Network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts Table 6-23 shows Problem 4.0.168.

255. Table 6-25 Field Problem 6 Value Host IP address Network mask Network address Network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts 192. and leave the room ready for the next class.224 192.223 5 bits 32 – 2 = 30 Task 3: Clean Up Remove anything that was brought into the lab.3.255. .168.182 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 6-25 shows Problem 6.3.168.168.192 192.219 255.3.

Because subnet masks must be contiguous 1s followed by contiguous 0s. Table 6-27 Decimal Decimal-to-Binary Conversion Binary 255 254 252 248 240 224 192 128 0 11111111 11111110 11111100 11111000 11110000 11100000 11000000 10000000 00000000 . Using the chart shown in Table 6-26.1) In this activity. subtract 2 for the usable number of hosts per subnet—one for the subnet address and one for the subnet’s broadcast address.4. Background Determine how many bits must be allocated to create a certain number of subnets or a certain number of hosts per subnet.024 9 512 8 256 7 128 6 64 5 32 4 16 3 8 2 4 1 2 1 1 Remember. it is easy to determine how many bits must be borrowed. you learn how to determine subnet information for a given IP address and subnetwork mask.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 183 Activity 6-2: IPv4 Address Subnetting. as shown in Table 6-27. the converted dotted-decimal notation can contain one of a certain number of values. Table 6-26 Hosts or Subnets 210 1.7.024 29 512 28 256 27 128 26 64 25 32 24 16 23 8 22 4 21 2 20 1 Number of bits borrowed: 10 1. Part 2 (6.

0 (/16) Subnet mask: 255. you will be able to determine other information about the IP address: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ The subnet address of this subnet The broadcast address of this subnet The range of host addresses for this subnet The maximum number of subnets for this subnet mask The number of hosts for each subnet The number of subnet bits The number of this subnet Task 1: For a Given IP Address and Subnet Mask. Determine Subnet Information Given the following information: ■ ■ ■ Host IP address: 172.114. and subnetwork mask.255. Table 6-28 Field IP address 172 10101100 25 00011001 11111111 255 114 01110010 11111111 255 250 11111010 11000000 192 Subnet mask 11111111 255 .192 (/26) you will determine the following information in this task: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Number of subnet bits Number of subnets Number of host bits per subnet Number of usable hosts per subnet Subnet address for this IP address IP address of the first host on this subnet IP address of the last host on this subnet Broadcast address for this subnet Translate the host IP address and subnet mask into binary notation in Table 6-28.255. network mask.0.255.184 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Scenario When given an IP address. Translate Host IP Addresses Value Step 1.25.250 Network mask: 255.

D.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 185 Step 2. Draw a line under the mask.D. Figure 6-9 Major Divide/Subnet Divide M. or the first 16 leftmost bits.. Table 6-29 Determine the Network 172 25 114 250 IP address Subnet mask Subnet address 10101100 11111111 10101100 172 11001000 11111111 11001000 25 01110010 11111111 01110010 114 11111010 11000000 11000000 192 Note: 1 AND 1 results in a 1. the major network mask is 255.255. The network information ends where the 1s in the mask end. .114. Determine the bit ranges for subnets and hosts.D. which can be determined by simply counting the number of bits between the M. In this example. label the subnet counting range between the M.192.D. determine the network (or subnet) where this host address belongs. Determine which bits in the address contain network information and which contain host information.0.D. which is 172. 01110010 11111111 01110010 10 Bits IP Address Subnet Mask Subnet Add.D. which in this case is 10 bits. and S.) as a wavy line where the 1s in the major network mask end (also the mask if there was no subnetting). and the S.0.D. Step 4. As shown in Figure 6-9. As shown in Figure 6-10. The result is the number of subnet bits. S.D. This range contains the bits that are being incremented to create the subnet numbers or addresses. 10101110 11111111 10001010 11001000 11111111 11001000 11 111010 11 000000 11 000000 Draw the subnet divide (S. draw the major divide (M. 0 AND anything else results in a 0. Perform a bitwise AND operation on the IP address and subnet mask. Express the result in dotted-decimal notation.) as a straight line where the 1s in the given subnet mask end.25. Step 3. In Table 6-29. The result is the subnet address of this subnet.

In the host portion (to the right of the S. Step 5.D. . This gives us the last host IP address on this subnet. Subnet Counting Range and Host Counting Range M. Next.25. which is the first part of the result for Range of Host Addresses for This Subnet. This gives us the broadcast IP address on this subnet. which is the last part of the result for Range of Host Addresses for This Subnet.114.186 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 6-10 Bit Ranges for Subnets and Hosts M. make the host bits all 1s except for the rightmost bit (or least-significant bit).D.193. which in the example is 172.255. 10101100 11111111 10101100 11001000 11111111 11001000 01110010 11111111 01110010 Subnet Counting Range Figure 6-11 S. IP Address Subnet Mask Subnet Add.).114. Use Figure 6-11 to determine the range of host addresses available on this subnet and the broadcast address on this subnet. which you make a 1. which in the example is 172. S. which you make a 0.25. This range contains the bits that are being incremented to create the host numbers or addresses.D. in the host portion (to the right of the S.D.114.254.). all bits before the S. and the last bits at the end on the right.D.).D. which in the example is 172.D.). This gives us the first host IP address on this subnet.25. 11 111010 11 000000 11 000000 Host Counting Range First Host 10101100 172 11001000 25 11001000 25 11001000 25 01110010 114 01110010 114 01110010 114 11 000001 193 11 111110 254 11 111111 255 Last Host 10101100 172 Broadcast 10101100 172 Write down all the network/subnet bits of the network address (that is.D. In the host portion (to the right of the S.D. 01110010 11111111 01110010 Subnet Counting Range IP Address Subnet Mask Subnet Add. make the host bits all 1s. 10101110 11111111 10001010 11001000 11111111 11001000 11 111010 11 000000 11 000000 Host Counting Range Label the host counting range between the S. make the host bits all 0s except for the rightmost bit (or least-significant bit). This is the result for Broadcast Address of This Subnet.

255.114.25. all 1s not used): 210 = 1024 subnets Step 7.255.0.0 172.0. 6 bits) minus 2 (1 for the subnet address and 1 for the broadcast address of the subnet).192 172. 210 = 1024 Number of subnet bits: 10 bits Number of subnets (all 0s used.536 total hosts 65.536 – 2 = 65.25.254 172.114.114. 10 bits).255 16 bits or 216 or 65.25.25.25. where n is the number of bits in the subnet counting range. 255.250 255.114. Use the formula 2n.0 (/16) 172. The number of hosts per subnet is determined by the number of host bits (in this example.193 172.25.255.534 usable hosts Subnet mask Number of subnet bits Number of subnets Number of host bits per subnet Number of usable hosts per subnet Subnet address for this IP address IP address of the first host on this subnet IP address of the last host on this subnet Broadcast address for this subnet Step 6.114. Determine the number of usable hosts per subnet. 26 – 2 = 64 – 2 = 62 hosts per subnet Number of host bits per subnet: 6 bits Number of usable hosts per subnet: 26 – 2 = 64 – 2 = 62 hosts per subnet . Table 6-30 Field Fill in the Missing Information Value Host IP address Major network mask Major (base) network address Major network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts 172.255 Determine the number of subnets.255. The number of subnets is determined by how many bits are in the subnet counting range (in this example.25.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 187 Add the missing information to Table 6-30.192 (/26) 26 bits 210 = 1024 subnets 6 bits 26 – 2 = 64 – 2 = 62 hosts per subnet 172.

0 172.114.30.1.33 255.254 172.1.250 255.255.25.1.25.255 .30.114.25.255.255. Table 6-32 shows Problem 1.193 172.255.30.188 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Step 8. Final Answers Value Table 6-31 Field Host IP address Subnet mask Number of subnet bits Number of subnets Number of host bits per subnet Number of usable hosts per subnet Subnet address for this IP address IP address of the first host on this subnet IP address of the last host on this subnet Broadcast address for this subnet 172. Review the final answers in Table 6-31.114.1 172.1.192 172.114.255 Task 2: Challenge For all problems. create a subnetting worksheet to show and record all work for each problem. Table 6-32 Field Problem 1 Value Host IP address Subnet mask Number of subnet bits Number of subnets Number of host bits per subnet Number of usable hosts per subnet Subnet address for this IP address IP address of the first host on this subnet IP address of the last host on this subnet Broadcast address for this subnet 172.254 172.25.0 8 bits 256 – 2 = 254 8 bits 256 – 2 = 254 172.192 (/26) 26 bits 210 = 1024 subnets 6 bits 26 – 2 = 64 – 2 = 62 hosts per subnet 172.25.30.1.114.30.

30.1.252 14 bits 16.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 189 Table 6-33 shows Problem 2.33 255.1.30.192.10.192.192.234 255. Table 6-33 Field Problem 2 Value Host IP address Subnet mask Number of subnet bits Number of subnets Number of host bits per subnet Number of usable hosts per subnet Subnet address for this IP address IP address of the first host on this subnet IP address of the last host on this subnet Broadcast address for this subnet Table 6-34 shows Problem 3. Table 6-34 Field Problem 3 172.35 Value Host IP address Subnet mask Number of subnet bits Number of subnets Number of host bits per subnet Number of usable hosts per subnet Subnet address for this IP address IP address of the first host on this subnet IP address of the last host on this subnet Broadcast address for this subnet 192.1 192.1.0 192.30.32 172.255.10.382 4–2=2 2 172.254 192.1.192.34 172.30.192.10.1.255.33 172.10.255 .384 – 2 = 16.0 24 bits 224 8 bits 256 – 2 = 254 192.10.255.30.255.

17.17.219 255.3.1 192.3.190 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 6-35 shows Problem 4.168.17.0 16 bits 216 – 2 16 bits 256 – 2 = 254 172.0 172.254 172.255.168.255.17.255 .0 192.168.3. Table 6-35 Field Problem 4 Value Host IP address Subnet mask Number of subnet bits Number of subnets Number of host bits per subnet Number of usable hosts per subnet Subnet address for this IP address IP address of the first host on this subnet IP address of the last host on this subnet Broadcast address for this subnet Table 6-36 shows Problem 5.168.1 172.3.255.71 255.0.254 192.255.17.3.99.0.255 Value Host IP address Subnet mask Number of subnet bits Number of subnets Number of host bits per subnet Number of usable hosts per subnet Subnet address for this IP address IP address of the first host on this subnet IP address of the last host on this subnet Broadcast address for this subnet 192.168.0.0 24 bits 224 8 bits 256 – 2 = 254 192.255. Table 6-36 Field Problem 5 172.

3.168.216 192.255.3.219 Task 3: Clean Up Remove anything that was brought into the lab.168. and leave the room ready for the next class.168.255.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 191 Table 6-37 shows Problem 6.252 6 bits 64 – 2 = 62 4–2=2 2 192. . Table 6-37 Field Problem 6 Value Host IP address Subnet mask Number of subnet bits Number of subnets Number of host bits per subnet Number of usable hosts per subnet Subnet address for this IP address IP address of the first host on this subnet IP address of the last host on this subnet Broadcast address for this subnet 192.218 255.168.218 192.3.3.168.3.217 192.

Step 2.224 What is the subnet mask for the network in slash format? /27 How many usable hosts are there per subnet? 30 Step 3.255.168.64/27 192. Consider the following questions when creating your network design: ■ ■ ■ ■ How many subnets are needed for this network? 3 What is the subnet mask for this network in dotted-decimal format? 255.0/24 address space to use in your network design. Assign subnet 3 to the network attached to R2.168. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Subnet an address space given requirements.255. You are given one address block that you must subnet to provide a logical addressing scheme for the network. When the configuration is complete.1) Upon completion of this lab. Test and verify configurations.5.168. verify that the network is working properly.168. The routers then will be ready for interface address configuration according to your IP addressing scheme. The network consists of the following segments: ■ ■ ■ The network connected to router R1 requires enough IP addresses to support 15 hosts.1. Configure and activate serial and FastEthernet interfaces. Examine the network requirements. you design and apply an IP addressing scheme for the topology shown in Figure 612.96/27 Fa0/0 PC1 S0/0/0 R1 S0/0/0 DCE PC2 R2 Task 1: Subnet the Address Space Step 1.1. Assign subnet 2 to the link between R1 and R2.1. You have been given the 192. Assign appropriate addresses to interfaces and document them. Assign subnetwork addresses to the topology diagram shown in Figure 6-12: ■ ■ ■ Assign subnet 1 to the network attached to R1. Reflect on and document the network implementation.1.7.32/27 Fa0/0 192. The link between router R1 and router R2 requires IP addresses at each end of the link. Scenario In this lab activity.192 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Lab 6-3: Subnet and Router Configuration (6. . The network connected to router R2 requires enough IP addresses to support 30 hosts. Figure 6-12 Topology for Lab 6-3 192.

126 255.224 255.97 192. When you have finished.1. can you ping the default gateway? Yes From the router R1.255.168.168.33 192. Step 2.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 193 Task 2: Determine Interface Addresses Step 1. Configure the Ethernet interfaces of PC1 and PC2 with the IP addresses and default gateways from your network design.255.224 255.168.97 R2 Fa0/0 S0/0/0 PC1 PC2 NIC NIC Task 3: Configure the Serial and FastEthernet Addresses Step 1. Assign the last valid host address in subnet 2 to the WAN interface on R2. Assign the last valid host address in subnet 1 to PC1.168.255.255.62 192.255. Step 2.1. Note that to complete the activity in Packet Tracer. Configure the router interfaces.1. Assign appropriate addresses to the device interfaces: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Assign the first valid host address in subnet 1 to the LAN interface on R1. can you ping the default gateway? Yes From the host attached to R2.224 255.255.255. Assign the last valid host address in subnet 3 to PC2. can you ping the Serial 0/0/0 interface of R1? Yes . you will use the Config tab. be sure to save the running configuration to the router’s NVRAM. Configure the PC interfaces.168.224 255. Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway Table 6-38 Device R1 Fa0/0 S0/0/0 192.255. document the addresses to be used.168.1.1. Assign the first valid host address in subnet 2 to the WAN interface on R1.1.33 192. Assign the first valid host address in subnet 3 to the LAN interface on R2.224 — — — — 192.168.1.94 192.224 255.255. Configure the interfaces on the R1 and R2 routers with the IP addresses from your network design.1.255.255.255. can you ping the Serial 0/0/0 interface of R2? Yes From the router R2. Task 4: Verify the Configurations Answer the following questions to verify that the network is operating as expected: ■ ■ ■ ■ From the host attached to R1. In Table 6-38.168.65 192.

pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to perform this exercise using Packet Tracer. Packet Tracer Challenge Skills Integration Challenge: Planning Subnets and Configuring IP Addresses (6. and router interfaces. configure services and static routing.194 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Note: The answers to the preceding questions should be yes. check the physical connections and configurations. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment.7. Task 5: Reflection Are there any devices on the network that cannot ping each other? Answers will vary What is missing from the network that is preventing communication between these devices? Answers will vary Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Subnet and Router Configuration (6. . Remember. and Inspect tools. Configure the network: Apply your subnetting scheme to servers. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ Do IP subnet planning: Practice your subnetting skills. PCs.1. however. Test the network: Using ping. Upon completion of this lab.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. ■ Background You have been asked to implement the standard lab topology. web traffic. The instructions are summarized within the activity.5. If any of the pings failed. but with a new IP addressing scheme.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab6752.3) Open the file LSG01-PTSkills6. Build the network: Connect devices with Ethernet and serial cables. trace.8.

130 192.168.252 — — 192.23.23.168.255.168.0 /24.129 192.255.255.23.62 192.23.23.23.23.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 195 You will use many of the skills you have learned to this point in the course. future student LAN. Figure 6-13 Topology for Challenge 1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server 2960-24TT S1-Central 1841 R2-Central PC-PT 1A PC-PT 1B Task 1: IP Subnet Planning You have been given an IP address block of 192.252 255.168.168.168.23.130 192.62 192.168.192 255.23.110 192.255. Figure 6-13 shows the topology for this lab. Fill in your answers in Table 6-39.255. up to 28 hosts .168.255.255.109 255.255.192 255.255.192 255.23.1 192.255.168.62 192. You must provide for existing networks as well as future growth.130 192.255.255. Table 6-39 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP Fa0/0 S0/0/0 192. up to 60 hosts Second subnet.168.2 192.23.252 255.23.255.255.168.168.168.110 R2-Central Fa0/0 S0/0/0 PC 1A PC 1B Eagle Server NIC NIC NIC Subnet assignments: ■ ■ First subnet.240 255.23. existing student LAN (off of router R2-Central).

point-to-point link Interface IP addresses: ■ ■ For the server. configure the highest usable address on the existing WAN subnet. You do not need to configure the switch. and enable HTTP services.196 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Third subnet. Connect PC 1A to the first FastEthernet port on switch S1-Central. ■ ■ Task 2: Finish Building the Network in Packet Tracer Add cables where they are missing: ■ ■ ■ ■ Connect a serial DCE cable to R1-ISP S0/0/0. with the other end to R2-Central S0/0/0. For R2-Central’s Fa0/0 interface. point-to-point link Seventh subnet. ■ ■ ■ ■ Additional configurations: ■ ■ For PCs 1A and 1B. No clock rate is needed on the DTE side—in this case. future ISP LAN. use the highest usable address on the existing student LAN subnet. enable DNS services. future WAN. Connect PC 1B to the second FastEthernet port on switch S1-Central. in addition to IP configuration. point-to-point link Sixth subnet. For the server. For R2-Central’s S0/0/0 interface. configure them to use DNS services. up to 8 hosts Fifth subnet. The static route on R1-ISP should point to the existing student LAN subnet via R2-Central’s .com. configure the second-highest usable IP address on the existing ISP LAN subnet. For hosts 1A and 1B. All you must do is configure the static routes and the interfaces via the GUI. For the R1-ISP router serial interface. R2-Central’s serial interface. nor do you need the IOS CLI to configure the routers.example. For all devices. use the lowest usable address on the existing WAN subnet. For R1-ISP’s Fa0/0 interface. existing ISP LAN. both routers. use the first two IP addresses (the two lowest usable addresses) on the existing student LAN subnet. For R1-ISP’s S0/0/0 interface. ■ Task 3: Configure the Network You need to configure the server. up to 12 hosts Fourth subnet. Part of the router configuration has already been done for you. configure the highest usable IP address on the existing ISP LAN subnet. Connect interface Fa0/0 on router R2-Central to the highest FastEthernet port on switch S1Central. you need to set the clock rate (a timing mechanism required on the DCE end of serial links) to 64000. make sure the power is on to the device and the interfaces. and the two PCs. future WAN. existing WAN. use the domain name eagle-server.

trace. to test your understanding of how the network is operating.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 197 serial interface IP address. and testing skills will serve you well throughout your networking courses. configuration. . and the Inspect tool. UDP. Task 4: Test the Network Use ping. web traffic. The static route on R2-Central should be a default static route that points to R1-ISP’s serial interface IP address. with HTTP. These procedures were explained in the Chapter 5 Skills Integration Challenge. TCP. DNS. Trace packet flow in simulation mode. and ICMP viewable. Task 5: Reflection Reflect on how much you have learned so far! Practicing IP subnetting skills and network building.

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The media can consist of many different types. and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of the data link layer. The physical means used to carry data signals a. because it is the layer that accesses the physical medium and causes network traffic to traverse different physical media. match the term on the left to its definition on the right. Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 7-1. for assistance. Study Guide Data Link Layer: Accessing the Media The data link layer plays a major role in networks. use Chapter 7 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum. A device on a network c. hands-on skills you need to work with the data link layer. fill-in-the-blank. .CHAPTER 7 OSI Data Link Layer The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of matching. What are the two main jobs of the data link layer? The data link layer allows upper layers to access media. The data link layer hides the details of these media from the upper layers and takes on the job of transmitting data across each network segment. including copper cabling. 2. What is the difference between a logical network and a physical network? The network layer defines the logical network using a hierarchical addressing scheme. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum activities and labs to ensure that you have mastered the practical. Frame b. optical fibers. and the air in the case of wireless. or use the corresponding Chapter 7 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration Companion Guide. It also controls how data is placed on and received from media. Media d. Network e. Two or more devices connected to a common medium e. Data link d. A layer of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model that frames upper-layer data and controls how data is placed on a medium b. Node c. The protocol data unit (PDU) used in Layer 2 of the OSI model Concept Questions 1. Table 7-1 Term Data Link Layer Terms Definition a. As you work through this chapter. The data link layer defines the physical network as a set of devices on a common medium.

The controlled method provides predictable. Moreover. This disadvantage is avoided by using a layered model for networking and by giving the data link layer the job of placing data on a medium and controlling access to the medium. in sequence. such as a router. has physical interfaces that can encapsulate a packet into the appropriate frame and handle the media access control method to access each link. but it can be inefficient because a device has to wait its turn before it can use the medium. 1. Compare and contrast controlled media access control and contention-based media access control. The technique for getting a frame on and off a medium is called the media access control method. Other methods are less complicated but may not scale as well. As more nodes try to access the network to send data. each node has its own time to use the medium. The adapter manages the framing and media access control. There are different ways to accomplish this regulation. 3. Media Access Control Techniques Media access control regulates the placement of data frames on a medium. IP or other network layer protocols would need to make provisions for connecting every type of media that could exist along a delivery path. all nodes compete for the use of the medium. With controlled media access control. depending on the medium and the data link layer protocols in use. With contention-based media access control. encapsulate the Layer 3 PDU into a new frame. decapsulate the frame to the Layer 3 PDU. Any device can try to access the medium whenever it has data to send. The contention-based method has less overhead but does not scale well under heavy use. to access the medium. and place the frame on the medium of the next link in the network. the probability of successful access without a data collision decreases. 4. To connect to a network. Concept Questions 1. deterministic throughput. a node uses an adapter. 2. IP would need to change every time a new network technology or medium were developed. Network devices take turns.200 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide 3. If the data link layer didn’t exist. what changes would be required of a network layer protocol such as Internet Protocol (IP)? Without a data link layer. An intermediary device. . Some methods are complicated and add overhead to the process. A router uses data link layer services to receive a frame from one medium. such as a Network Interface Card (NIC) on a local-area network (LAN). Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following statements.

5. 1. Three media access control methods used by logical multiaccess topologies include carrier sense multiple access collision detect. If a carrier signal from another node is detected. 2. Ethernet uses CSMA/CD.Chapter 7: OSI Data Link Layer 201 2. data field. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following statements. Match the field on the left to its definition on the right. transmit the data. At this point. With half-duplex communication.” Sense whether the medium is free. Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Table 7-2 lists some typical fields that appear in frame headers. You will learn more about CSMA/CD in Chapter 9. The Layer 2 PDU is called a frame. and trailer. 3. Receiving data while transmitting is not allowed. Media Access Control: Addressing and Framing Data A fundamental job of the data link layer is to encapsulate a Layer 3 PDU into a Layer 2 PDU. A logical multiaccess topology enables a number of nodes to communicate by using the same shared medium. Although different protocols place different fields in a frame. most protocols specify that the frame should have a header. both devices can transmit and receive on the medium at the same time. Data link layer rules (also called protocols) specify the media access control method that is used for a particular technology. What is the difference between full-duplex communication and half-duplex communication? With full-duplex communication. Most Layer 2 frames also have addressing fields in the header that identify the sender and receiver. 3. carrier sense multiple access collision avoidance. “Ethernet. While transmitting. If a carrier signal is not detected. 1. monitor the medium for the presence of another node’s signal. . For example. List the steps in the carrier sense multiple access collision detect (CSMA/CD) process. If another node is also transmitting. and token passing. you can keep the list simple. only one device can transmit at any given time. Receiving data while transmitting is allowed. Having many nodes share access to the medium requires a data link layer media access control method to regulate the transmission of data. 4. 3. 2. 4. wait and try again later. stop transmitting and wait a random amount of time before trying again.

Layer 3 addresses. 100. Address c. Indicates a particular type of communication service for special processing Table 7-3 lists three major data link layer protocols. Uses a flag field at the beginning of the frame c. Table 7-3 Protocol Data Link Layer Protocols Specification a. Used to start and stop traffic when overloading occurs d. Flow control g. Type d. Ethernet b. Congestion control g. Start frame b. Used to indicate overloading on the medium f. Match each protocol on the left to its specifications on the right. Defined in a Request For Comments (RFC) document b. . its Layer 2 address does not need to change. Provides unacknowledged connectionless service over a shared medium using CSMA/CD b. Indicates the upper-layer service contained in the frame a. Identifies the sender and receiver e. Point-to-Point Protocol c. Uses a preamble field at the beginning of the frame b. 1000.000 Mbps b. Priority f. it gets encapsulated in a new data link layer header with new Layer 2 addresses for each hop it takes.202 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 7-2 Field Frame Header Fields Definition a. are carried from source to destination host across an internetwork. Specifies the number of bytes in the data part of the frame c. When a packet crosses an internetwork. Establishes a logical connection (session) between two nodes a. and 10. Tells other devices on the network that a frame is coming along the medium b. Layer 2 addresses are used only for local delivery when transporting a frame across a shared local medium. Includes specifications for operation at 10. 802.3 standard a.11 c. Layer 2 addresses use a flat addressing scheme and do not indicate on what network a device is located. Defined by the IEEE 802. Compare and contrast Layer 2 addresses with Layer 3 addresses. Layer 3 addresses use a hierarchical addressing scheme and indicate a network number and host identifier. on the other hand. If a device is moved to another network. A protocol for wireless networks that uses CSMA/CA a. Uses an acknowledgment to confirm that a frame was received successfully Concept Questions 1. Length e. Often found on WANs a.

3. 3. The router sends the data to another router across a PPP WAN link.Chapter 7: OSI Data Link Layer 203 2. you should now be able to put together at a high level the events that take place on a network when a user accesses a service. or loss that would change the bit values that those signals represent. The user sends data to a router on that Ethernet LAN. Why are Layer 2 addresses not needed in point-to-point topologies? Layer 2 addresses are not needed in point-to-point topologies because there can be no confusion about the frame’s destination. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following statements that describe a user accessing a web page stored on a web server that is located on a remote network. TCP adds an acknowledgment number that tells the web server the sequence number that TCP expects in the next segment it receives. It uses its own IPv4 address as the source address. 1. The user is on an Ethernet LAN. an IP packet is constructed to identify the source and destination hosts. After it is on the medium. The client builds an Ethernet II frame to transport the IPv4 packet across the local medium. The FCS field is necessary because the signals on the medium are subject to interference. If you have done the reading in Chapter 7 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum or if you have used the corresponding Chapter 7 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration Companion Guide. At the network layer. 5. The transport layer places a destination port number of 80 in the TCP segment to indicate the WWW service. the client uses the IP address associated with the WWW server’s hostname. The user starts by clicking a link or URL on a web page. The transport layer identifies the upper-layer service that the user wants to reach as the HTTP (or World Wide Web [WWW]) service. The user’s web browser initiates a Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) GET request. The data link layer refers to the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) cache to determine the Media Access Control (MAC) address that is associated with the Ethernet interface on the client’s router. distortion. Only two devices are connected. What is the purpose of the Frame Check Sequence (FCS) in a frame trailer? The FCS field is used to determine if errors occurred in the transmission and receipt of a frame. 6. The transport layer also places the source port number for this session in the segment. a number of packets are generated and encapsulated in Layer 2 frames. Putting It All Together: Follow Data Through an Internetwork When a user on a LAN wants to access a service. A TCP three-way handshake sets up a connection with the server. The recipient router forwards the data onto an Ethernet LAN where the server resides. . 4. 2. For the destination address. The application layer adds a Layer 7 header. a frame has only one place to go (to the other device).

The data link layer frame indicates that the upper-layer data is IPv4 by placing 0x0800 in the Type field of the Ethernet II header. At the network layer. The Physical layer transmits the frame onto the medium bit by bit. The 22 steps reverse themselves. It uses CSMA/CD to verify that the medium is not already in use. 8. and a packet flows back to the client. The router includes a Protocol field in the PPP header with a value of 0x0021 to indicate that 13. At the network layer. The server compares the destination IPv4 address in the packet to its own IPv4 address. 12. 14. Because the IP network layer header identified the upper-layer protocol as 0x06. The router consults its ARP cache to determine the MAC address of the web server. The client uses the CSMA/CD media access control method to verify that the medium is not already in use. 9. The PPP session has already been established. The server compares the destination MAC address in the frame to the MAC address of the NIC in the server. Eventually. can now form a response.204 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide 7. an IPv4 packet is encapsulated. 22. 15. The recipient router checks the FCS to determine if the frame was received intact without any errors. the destination IPv4 address in the packet is compared to the routes in the 11. the server removes the data link header and pushes the packet up to the network layer. Because it matches. The router removes the data link header and pushes the packet up to the network layer. The server examines the TCP segment to determine the session to which the data belongs. The router creates a PPP frame to transport the packet across the WAN. The physical layer transmits the frame onto the medium bit by bit. the server removes the network layer header and pushes the data to the transport layer. This is done by examining the source and destination ports. the destination IPv4 address in the packet is compared to routes in the routing table. The TCP sequence number is used to place this segment in the proper order to be sent upward to the application layer. The service . It then builds an Ethernet II frame to transport the IPv4 packet to the server. It checks the FCS to determine if the frame was received intact 19. the user sees a web page. 20. 17. and the router determines that the next hop for the packet is a router at the other end of a PPP WAN link. routing table. The router removes the data link header and pushes the packet up to the network layer. At the application layer. 16. without any errors. the HTTP GET request is delivered to the WWW service. The router that receives the frame checks the FCS at the end of the frame to determine if the frame was received intact without any errors. 18. Because it matches. so the physical layer begins transmitting the frame onto the WAN medium bit by bit. the server pushes the data to TCP. The frame begins with a Preamble field and ends with an FCS field for error detection. 10. 21. The server examines the frame. The router determines that the packet should be sent out an Ethernet network to the web server. A match is found. as soon as all the necessary packets have been sent and received.

99. The file is wireshark-setup-0. Scenario Wireshark will be used to capture and analyze Ethernet II frame header fields.2.example.1) Upon completion of this lab. For example. Figure 7-1 shows the topology for this lab.4. If Wireshark has not been loaded on the host pod computer. data flows down the OSI layers and is encapsulated in a Layer 2 frame. When learning about Layer 2 concepts. The Ethernet II frame header is examined in this lab. Figure 7-1 Topology for Lab 7-1 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 .5. The frame composition depends on the media access type.Chapter 7: OSI Data Link Layer 205 Labs and Activities Lab 7-1: Frame Examination (7. it is helpful to analyze frame header information. such as TCP/IP. Use Wireshark to capture and analyze Ethernet II frames. and Table 7-4 is the corresponding addressing table. Ethernet II frames can support various upper-layer protocols. you will be able to ■ ■ Explain the header fields in an Ethernet II frame. The Windows ping command will be used to generate network traffic for Wireshark to capture. if the upper-layer protocol is TCP/IP and the media access is Ethernet.exe. you can download it from ftp://eagleserver.com/pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter7/. Background When upper-layer protocols communicate with each other. the Layer 2 frame encapsulation is Ethernet II.

6.254.0 255.255.254.16.253 — 172.1 255.10. R1-ISP.253 10.16. If the ping test fails.16.255. and finally eagle-server. Verify that all network equipment is powered on and that eagle-server is on. shown in the logical addressing table.255.255.255.252 255.255.10.255.168.255.0.10.254 R2-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Eagle Server — — Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central — — — Note to Instructor: Depending on the classroom situation. Verify that the host computer has the correct Gateway IP address. 10. Step 2.0.0. Figure 7-2 Ethernet II Frame Format Destination Address Source Address Frame Type 2 Octets Preamble Data FCS 8 Octets 6 Octets 6 Octets 46–1500 Octets 4 Octets In Figure 7-3.example. the lab topology may have been modified before this class. 172.168.206 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 7-4 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP S0/0/0 Fa0/0 10. ping S1Central. Finally.16.0 255.254 172.255. troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity by following these steps: Step 1.0 255.example.6 — 192. Step 3.16.254 172.com.10.255.0 — — 10.24.10.254 172. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server. the Panel List window shows a Wireshark capture of the ping command between a pod host computer and Eagle Server.168.10. From a known good host computer.254.1 172.16.255.255.254 172. and that it can ping R1-ISP.254. If an individual host computer cannot connect to eagle-server.5 172. 172. ping eagle-server.com.31.255. followed by a DNS query.16. . Finally.Pod#.252 255.255.254 192.0 255.0 255. check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central.255.255. Task 1: Explain the Header Fields in an Ethernet II Frame Figure 7-2 shows the format for an Ethernet II frame.0 255.16. R2-Central. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests.16.255. the ping command issues echo requests.255.254.2 172. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity.6 192.255. and that it can ping R2-Central. The session begins with the ARP protocol querying for the MAC address of the Gateway router.10.10. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address.255. verify that the host has the correct DNS address and that it can ping eagle-server.Pod#.0.254.

or 6 bytes. 0 to 9. expressed as 12 hexadecimal digits.org/forum/macid. The first six hex numbers indicate the manufacturer of the network interface card (NIC). ac:a7:6a. The Data field is between 46 and 1500 bytes. Table 7-5 Field Ethernet II Frame Header Value Description Preamble Destination Address Not shown in the capture ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff This field contains synchronizing bits. The last six hex digits. Refer to http://www. Table 7-5 shows the information you can obtain. Ethernet II supports numerous upper-layer protocols. the Packet Details window shows Frame 1 detail information. A to F.neotechcc. Using this window. The source address is always unicast. Each address is 48 bits long. Source Address Frame Type 00:16:76:ac:a7:6a 0x0806 For Ethernet II frames. The destination address may be a broadcast that contains all 1s. processed by the NIC hardware.Chapter 7: OSI Data Link Layer 207 Figure 7-3 Wireshark Capture of the ping Command In Figure 7-3. you can obtain Ethernet II frame information. Here are two common frame types: Value Description 0x0800 IPv4 protocol 0x0806 Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) Contains the encapsulated upper-layer protocol. Layer 2 addresses for the frame. this field contains a hexadecimal value that is used to indicate the type of upper-layer protocol in the data field. or unicast. Data ARP . are the serial number of the NIC. A common format is 12:34:56:78:9A:BC.htm for a list of vendor codes.

Destination Address MAC address: 00:16:76:ac:a7:6a NIC manufacturer: Intel NIC serial number: ac:a7:6a Source Address MAC address: 00:0c:85:cf:66:40 NIC manufacturer: Cisco NIC serial number: cf:66:40 Figure 7-4 is an expanded view of Frame 3 from the Wireshark capture. The value is computed by the sending machine. . From the information contained in the Packet List window for the first frame. used by the NIC to identify errors during transmission. It is verified by the receiver. type. answer the following questions about the destination and source MAC address. encompassing frame addresses. and the computer with the corresponding IP address sends a unicast reply to the source. All computers on the LAN receive the frame. and data field.208 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 7-5 Field Ethernet II Frame Header Value continued Description FCS Not shown in the capture Frame Check Sequence. Destination Address MAC address: ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff NIC manufacturer: Does not apply NIC serial number: Does not apply Source Address MAC address: 00:16:76:ac:a7:6a NIC manufacturer: Intel NIC serial number: ac:a7:6a From the information contained in the Packet List window for the second frame. What is the significance of all 1s in the destination address field? This is a broadcast address. answer the following questions about the destination and source MAC address.

and capture the session.com.example. stop the Wireshark capture. enter cmd. This begins the packet capture. Prepare Wireshark for captures. Ping eagle-server. and then click the start button that corresponds to the 172. Table 7-6 Field Ethernet II Frame Header Completion Value Preamble Destination Address Source Address Frame Type Data FCS Not shown in the capture 00:0c:85:cf:66:40 00:16:76:ac:a7:6a 0x0800 IP Not shown in the capture Task 2: Use Wireshark to Capture and Analyze Ethernet II Frames In this task.16. you use Wireshark to capture and analyze packets captured on the pod host computer. When the command has finished executing. Step 2. and click OK. Configure Wireshark for packet captures. Choose Start > Run. Open a Windows terminal window. Choose Capture > Interfaces.x. as shown in Example 7-1. Start a ping to Eagle Server.Chapter 7: OSI Data Link Layer 209 Figure 7-4 Frame 3 Fields Use the information shown in Figure 7-4 to complete Table 7-6.y interface IP address. Step 1. .

168.254.16.1 --.168.1. Next.254.example.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=62 Reply from 192. Analyze the Wireshark capture. . you can flush the ARP cache using the arp -d * command.0x30004 Internet Address 172.com is stored in the DNS cache. a DNS request is made for the IP address of eagleserver.254 C:\> arp -d * C:\> arp -a No ARP Entries Found C:\> Physical Address 00-0c-85-cf-66-40 Type dynamic If you do not see a DNS query. Use the Windows XP ipconfig /flushdns command to clear the DNS cache.com Pinging eagle-server.168.com [192.254. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms.254: Packets: Sent = 4.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=62 Reply from 192.255. Average = 0ms C:\> Step 3. C:\> ping eagle-server.2600] Copyright 1985-2001 Microsoft Corp.168.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=62 Ping statistics for 192. it is because the DNS record for eagle-server.210 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example 7-1 Pinging Eagle Server Microsoft Windows XP [Version 5.16.254. Example 7-2 Displaying and Flushing the ARP Cache C:\> arp -a Interface: 172.168. the ping command is executed. as shown in Example 7-3.com. Your capture should look similar to the one shown in Figure 7-3. Lost = 0 (0% loss).168. Finally. Received = 4.example.example.1.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=62 Reply from 192. as shown in Example 7-2.254] with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 192.254. Maximum = 0ms. If you don’t see an ARP exchange. The Wireshark Packet List window should start with an ARP request and reply for the Gateway’s MAC address.example.

: Answer PTR Record . : 549013 Data Length . . . .0.0. . . . . : 86386 Data Length . . . : 549045 Data Length . . . . . : Answer A (Host) Record . . : 12 Time To Live . . .0. . : 1 Time To Live . . . . .in-addr. : 1.0. . . . . : 4 Section .arpa --------------------------------------Record Name . : 4 Section . . . . .arpa. . . .in-addr. . .0. .in-addr. . . . . . : localhost eagle-server. : localhost Record Type . . . . : eagle-server.0. . . . . . . : 4 Section . . . . . .in-addr. .0. . . .127. . . .arpa ---------------------------------------Record Name . : 1 Time To Live . . . .1 C:\> . : 127. . . : 12 Time To Live . .127. C:\> ipconfig /displaydns Windows IP Configuration 1.127. . . . . : 192.com ---------------------------------------Record Name . . . . . . . : 127. . . . : Answer A (Host) Record . . .127. . . . . . .254. .0. . . . . Record Type . . : 4 Section . . : 549045 Data Length . : 1. . . . . : 4 Section .168. . . .0. . .254 localhost --------------------------------------Record Name . . . . : Answer PTR Record localhost --------------------------------------Record Name . .arpa. : 1 Time To Live .example. . : Answer A (Host) Record .1 C:\> ipconfig /flushdns Windows IP Configuration Successfully flushed the DNS Resolver Cache. . . . Record Type .0.example.0. : localhost Record Type .Chapter 7: OSI Data Link Layer 211 Example 7-3 Displaying and Flushing the DNS Cache C:\> ipconfig /displaydns Windows IP Configuration 1.0. : 549013 Data Length . . . . . . .com Record Type . : localhost . .

A student from another school wants to know the MAC address for Eagle Server. The first six hex digits contain the manufacturer of the NIC. the destination MAC address contains all 1s. 0x0800 is the frame type for IP. such as FTP and HTTP. Analyze the captured packets. What is the Ethernet II frame type value for an ARP Reply? 0x0806 What is the Ethernet II frame type value for a DNS query? 0x0800. What would you tell the student? MAC addresses are visible only on the LAN and are different for each LAN.212 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Use your Wireshark capture of the ping command to answer the following questions. NIC manufacturer: Answers will vary. A preamble field contains 7 bytes of alternating 1010 sequences and 1 byte that signals the beginning of the frame. What is the Ethernet II frame type value for an ARP Request? 0x0806. Ethernet II frame header information was examined. 10101011. Because the student’s Eagle Server is on a different LAN than yours. NIC manufacturer: Cisco NIC serial number: Answers will vary. What is the Ethernet II frame type value for an ICMP echo reply? 0x0800 Task 3: Challenge Use Wireshark to capture sessions from other TCP/IP protocols. DNS is encapsulated in an IP packet. 0x0800 is the frame type for IP. Destination and source MAC addresses each contain 12 hex digits. Again. Pod computer MAC address information MAC address: Answers will vary. ICMP is encapsulated in the IP packet. it must have a unique identifier. and the last six hex digits contain the NIC serial number. What is the Ethernet II frame type value for a DNS query response? 0x0800 What is the Ethernet II frame type value for an ICMP echo? 0x0800. A 2-byte frame type field contains a value that indicates the . NIC serial number: Answers will vary. different from the identifier for IP. Task 4: Reflection In this lab. and verify that the Ethernet II frame type remains 0x0800. Because ARP is not encapsulated inside an IP packet. R2-Central MAC address information MAC address: Answers will vary. If the frame is a broadcast. the information cannot be obtained from a Wireshark capture on your LAN.

Use ping. and the Inspect tool. .pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to perform this exercise using Packet Tracer. At the end of a frame. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Practice your IP subnet planning skills. and configure services and static routing. For IPv4. The data field is variable and contains the encapsulated upper-layer protocol. is called a WAN interface card (WIC). ■ ■ Background Network Interface Cards (NIC) are sometimes thought of as Layer 2 and Layer 1 devices (or as Layer 2 and Layer 1 components of devices that function at all seven layers). Connect devices with Ethernet and serial cables. Remove any files created on the pod host computer during the lab. web traffic. Also reflect on the destination and source addresses. and click Remove. Configure the network. you have been asked to implement a new IP addressing scheme for the Exploration lab topology. and leave the room ready for the next class. If Wireshark needs to be uninstalled. In addition.1. trace. Practice your subnetting skills. the value is 0x0800. Apply your subnetting scheme to server. Sometimes the NIC for a serial connection. Test the network. PCs. and Table 7-7 is the corresponding addressing table. choose Start > Control Panel. In this challenge you must add a WIC to a device to complete the network. Build the network. and consider why the developers of Ethernet chose to place the destination address first. turn off power to the host computers. Reflect on the necessity and formatting of each of these fields. For example. typically used in WAN connections. Click Add or Remove Programs. before the source address. a 4-byte FCS value is used to verify that there were no errors during transmission. Upon completion of this activity.Chapter 7: OSI Data Link Layer 213 protocol in the data field. consider why the preamble field is necessary and why it consists of alternating 1s and 0s. Task 5: Clean Up Wireshark was installed on the pod host computer. Packet Tracer Challenge Skills Integration Challenge: Data Link Layer Issues (7. Choose Wireshark. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. Figure 7-5 shows the topology for this lab.6.3) Open file LSG01-PTSkills7. and router interfaces. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor.

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Figure 7-5

Topology for the Challenge
1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server

2960-24TT S1-Central

1841 R2-Central

PC-PT 1A

PC-PT 1B

Table 7-7 Device

Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway (Route)

R1-ISP

Fa0/0 S0/0/0

172.16.3.62 172.16.3.98 172.16.1.254 172.16.3.97 172.16.0.1 172.16.0.2 172.16.3.61

255.255.255.192 255.255.255.252 255.255.254.0 255.255.255.252 255.255.254.0 255.255.254.0 255.255.255.192

— — 172.16.3.98 172.16.3.98 172.16.1.254 172.16.1.254 172.16.3.62

R2-Central

Fa0/0 S0/0/0

PC 1A PC 1B Eagle Server

NIC NIC NIC

Task 1: IP Subnet Planning
You have been given an IP address block of 172.16.0.0/22. You must provide for existing networks as well as future growth. Subnet assignments:
■ ■ ■

First subnet, existing student LAN, up to 400 hosts (Fa0/0 on R2-Central) Second subnet, future student LAN, up to 180 hosts (not yet implemented) Third subnet, existing ISP LAN, up to 40 hosts (Fa0/0 on R1-ISP)

Chapter 7: OSI Data Link Layer

215

■ ■ ■ ■

Fourth subnet, future ISP LAN, up to 18 hosts (not yet implemented) Fifth subnet, existing WAN, point-to-point link (S0/0/0 on R1-ISP and R2-Central) Sixth subnet, future WAN, point-to-point link (not yet implemented) Seventh subnet, future WAN, point-to-point link (not yet implemented)

Interface IP addresses:
■ ■

For the server, configure the second-highest usable IP address on the existing ISP LAN subnet. For R1-ISP’s Fa0/0 interface, configure the highest usable IP address on the existing ISP LAN subnet. For R1-ISP’s S0/0/0 interface, configure the highest usable address on the existing WAN subnet. For R2-Central’s S0/0/0 interface, use the lowest usable address on the existing WAN subnet. For R2-Central’s Fa0/0 interface, use the highest usable address on the existing student LAN subnet. For PCs 1A and 1B, use the first two IP addresses (the two lowest usable addresses) on the existing student LAN subnet.

■ ■

Additional configurations:
■ ■

For PCs 1A and 1B, in addition to IP configuration, configure them to use DNS services. For the server, enable DNS services, use the domain name eagle-server.example.com, and enable HTTP services.

Task 2: Finish Building the Network in Packet Tracer, Attending to Some Layer 2 Issues
On the R2-Central router, a NIC is missing for the serial connection to R1-ISP. Add a WIC-2T in the slot on the right. Also on R2-Central, Fa0/0 is shut down; turn it on. Connect a serial DCE cable to R1-ISP S0/0/0, with the other end connected to R2-Central S0/0/0. For all devices, make sure the power is on.

Task 3: Configure the Network
You need to configure the server, both routers, and the two PCs. You do not need to configure the switch, nor do you need the IOS CLI to configure the routers. Part of the router configuration has already been done for you; all you must do is configure the static routes and the interfaces via the GUI. The static route on R1-ISP should point to the existing student LAN subnet via R2-Central’s serial interface IP address. The static route on R2-Central should be a default static route that points to R1-ISP’s serial interface IP address. These procedures were explained in the Chapter 5 Skills Integration Challenge, and you practiced them in the Chapter 6 Skills Integration Challenge.

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Task 4: Test the Network
Use ping, trace, web traffic, and the Inspect tool. Trace packet flow in simulation mode, with HTTP, DNS, TCP, UDP, and ICMP viewable, to test your understanding of how the network is operating. Note in particular what Layer 2 encapsulation is used in each step of a packet’s journey, and how the headers on the Layer 2 PDUs change.

Task 5: Reflection
Consider an ICMP echo request packet sent from PC 1A to Eagle Server and the ICMP echo reply packet that results. Reflect on which addresses stay the same in this situation and which ones change.

CHAPTER 8

OSI Physical Layer

The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of multiple-choice, matching, fill-in-the-blank, and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of the OSI physical layer. The Lab Exercises portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum labs to further reinforce that you have mastered the practical, hands-on skills needed to understand and work with the physical layer. As you work through this chapter, use Chapter 8 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum or use the corresponding Chapter 8 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration Companion Guide for assistance.

Study Guide
The Physical Layer: Communication Signals
The role of the OSI physical layer is to encode the binary digits that represent data link layer frames into signals and to transmit and receive these signals across the physical media (copper wires, optical fiber, and wireless) that connect network devices.

Vocabulary Exercise: Completion
Fill in the blanks for the following statements.
1.

The purpose of the physical layer is to create the electrical, optical, or microwave signal that represents the bits in each frame. Manchester encoding indicates a 0 by a high-to-low voltage transition in the middle of the bit time. For a 1, there is a low-to-high voltage transition in the middle of the bit time.

2.

Concept Questions
1.

What are the three basic forms of network media on which data is represented? Copper cable, fiber, and wireless

2.

Physical layer standards cover what four areas? Physical and electrical properties of the media Mechanical properties (materials, dimensions, pinouts) of the connectors Bit representation by the signals (encoding) Definition of control information signals

3.

What are the three fundamental functions of the physical layer? The physical components Data encoding Signaling

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Physical Signaling and Encoding: Representing Bits
Eventually, all communication from the human network becomes binary digits, which are transported individually across the physical media.

Concept Questions
1.

Bits are represented on the medium by changing one or more of the following characteristics of a signal: Amplitude Frequency Phase

2.

Different physical media support the transfer of bits at different speeds. Data transfer can be measured in three ways: Bandwidth Throughput Goodput

Vocabulary Exercise: Completion
Fill in the blanks in the following statements.
1.

The capacity of a medium to carry data is described as the raw data bandwidth of the media. Digital bandwidth measures the amount of information that can flow from one place to another in a given amount of time. Throughput is the measure of the transfer of bits across the media over a given period of time. Goodput is the measure of usable data transferred over a given period of time, and is therefore the measure that is of most interest to network users.

2. 3.

Vocabulary Exercise: Matching
In Table 8-1, match the definition on the right with a term on the left.
Table 8-1 Term Signaling and Encoding Definition

a. NRZ signaling b. Manchester encoding

b. Bit values are represented as voltage transitions. a. Uses bandwidth inefficiently and is susceptible to electromagnetic interference. In addition, the boundaries between individual bits can be lost when long strings of 1s or 0s are transmitted consecutively. c. Each byte to be transmitted is broken into 4-bit pieces or nibbles and encoded as 5-bit values known as symbols. These symbols represent the data to be transmitted and a set of codes that help control transmission on the media.

c. 4B/5B

Chapter 8: OSI Physical Layer

219

Physical Media: Connecting Communication
The physical layer is concerned with network media and signaling. This layer produces the representation and groupings of bits as voltages, radio frequencies, or light pulses. Various standards organizations have contributed to the definition of the physical, electrical, and mechanical properties of the media available for different data communications.

Concept Questions
1.

Standards for copper media are defined by what criteria? Type of copper cabling used Bandwidth of the communication Type of connectors used Pinout and color codes of connections to the media Maximum distance of the media

2.

What can limit the susceptibility of copper cables to electronic noise? Selecting the cable type or category most suited to protect the data signals in a given networking environment Designing a cable infrastructure to avoid known and potential sources of interference in the building structure Using cabling techniques that include the proper handling and termination of the cables

Vocabulary Exercise: Matching
In Table 8-2, match a connector on the right with a media (cable) on the left.
Table 8-2 Media and Connectors Connector

Media (Cable)

a. Unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) cabling b. Coaxial cable c. Multimode optical fiber d. Single-mode optical fiber

c. Straight-Tip (ST) a. RJ-45 d. Subscriber Connector (SC) b. BNC

In Table 8-3, match the speed on the right with the wireless standard on the left.
Table 8-3 Wireless Media Speed

Wireless Standard

a. Bluetooth 802.15 b. 802.11(a,b,g,n), HiperLAN 2 c. 802, 11, MMDS, LMDS d. GSM, GPRS, CDMA, 2.5-3G

c. 22+ Mbps a. < 1 Mbps d. 10[nd]384 Kbps b. 1[nd]54+ Mbps

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Labs and Activities
Lab 8-1: Media Connectors Lab Activity (Lab 8.4.1.1)
Upon completion of this lab, you will be able to do the following:
■ ■ ■

Test cables using a Fluke 620 LAN CableMeter and a Fluke LinkRunner. Become familiar with the most common functions of a cable tester. Test different cables for type and wiring problems.

Background Category 5 (Cat 5) unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) cables are wired according to function. End devices, such as routers and host computers, connect to switches with Cat 5 straight-through cables. When connected together, however, a Cat 5 crossover cable must be used. This is also true of switches. When connecting one switch to another, a Cat 5 crossover cable is used again. Problems related to cables are one of the most common causes of network failure. Basic cable tests can prove helpful in troubleshooting cabling problems with UTP. The quality of cabling components used, the routing and installation of the cable, and the quality of the connector terminations will be the main factors in determining how trouble-free the cabling will be.
Note to instructor: Before starting the lab, the teacher or lab assistant should have several correctly

wired Cat 5 cables that are used by the student to learn cable tester operation. The cables should be both straight-through and crossover. There should also be several Cat 5 cables available with problems. Cables should be numbered to simplify the testing process and to maintain consistency. The following resources are required:
■ ■

Good Cat 5 straight-through and crossover wired cables of different colors Cat 5 straight-through and crossover wired cables with open wire connections in the middle or one or more conductors shorted at one end that are different colors and different lengths Fluke 620 LAN CableMeter or equivalent (see Figure 8-1) Fluke LinkRunner
Fluke 620 LAN CableMeter

■ ■

Figure 8-1

Chapter 8: OSI Physical Layer

221

Scenario First, you will visually determine whether the Cat 5 cable type is crossover or straight-through. Next, you use the cable tester to verify the cable type and common features available with the tester. Finally, you use the cable tester to test for bad cables that cannot be determined with a visual inspection.

Task 1: Become Familiar with the Most Common Functions of a Cable Tester
Figure 8-2 shows the TIA/EIA 568B Cat 5 UTP wire positioning for a straight-through and a crossover cable. When Cat 5 connectors are held together, wire color is a quick way to determine the cable type. TIA/EIA 568B is different from TIA/EIA 568A wiring. TIA/EIA 568A straight-through cables can be identified by the color coding.
Figure 8-2 TIA/EIA 568B Cat 5 UTP
TIA/EIA 568B CAT 5 UTP Straight Through 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 TIA/EIA 568B CAT 5 UTP Crossover 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Step 1.

Visually determine cable types.

Note to instructor: Students should be given a functional straight-through and crossover cable. These

cables will be used to learn cable tester features and build confidence in cable tester accuracy. There should be two numbered cables available. Perform a visual inspection of the cables and then fill out the chart in Table 8-4 with the cable color, type, and use.
Table 8-4 Cable Number Cable Types Cable Color Cable Type (StraightThrough or Crossover) Cable Use (Circle correct device)

1 2

Answers will vary Answers will vary

Answers will vary Answers will vary

Switch to: host / switch Switch to: host / switch

It is now time to verify the cable type and learn about the common features of the cable tester.

.or down-arrow buttons until the desired cable type of UTP is selected. Perform initial configuration of the Fluke 620 LAN CableMeter. shown in Figure 8-3. The top set of numbers displayed on the LCD screen refers to the near end. The coupler and the cable identifier are accessories that come with the Fluke 620 LAN CableMeter. Turn the rotary switch selector on the tester to the WIRE MAP position. and the bottom set of numbers refers to the far end. Press the Setup button to enter the setup mode.222 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Step 2. Place the RJ-45 to RJ-45 female coupler on the far end of the cable. The first option should be Cable. and observe the LCD screen on the tester. Press Enter to accept that setting and go to the next one. Continue pressing the up/down-arrow buttons and pressing Enter until the tester is set to the cabling settings in Table 8-5. Use the following procedure to test each cable with the LAN cable coupler and cable identifier. Table 8-5 Tester Option Cable Tester Settings for UTP Desired Setting: UTP Cable Wiring Category Wire size CAL to Cable? Beeping LCD contrast UTP 10Base-T or EIA/TIA 4PR Category 5 AWG 24 No On or Off From 1 through 10 (brightest) When satisfied with the correct settings. Step 3. and then insert the cable identifier into the other side of the coupler. Verify the cable wire map. Press the up. Figure 8-3 Cable Coupler and Cable Identifier cable coupler cable identifier Place the near end of the cable into the RJ-45 jack labeled UTP/FTP on the tester. press the Setup button to exit setup mode. The wire map function displays which pins on one end of the cable are connected to which pins on the other end. The wiring of both the near and far end of the cable will be displayed.

unknown cables are tested. perform a wire map test on each of the cables provided. Task 2: Test Different Cables for Type and Wiring Problems Obtain at least five different cables from your instructor. and whether the cable is straight-through or crossover. write down the number and color. Move the rotary switch selector on the tester to the Wire Map position. For each cable. Table 8-6 Cable Tester Settings for UTP Cable Color Cable Type (Straight-Through or Crossover) Cable Number 1 2 Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Note any problems encountered during this test: Answers will vary Step 4. and complete Table 8-7 based on the results. The tester Length function displays the length of the cable. the cable length. repeat the setup steps described in Task 1. the tester screen test results. write down the number and color. . and any problem. If power was cycled.Chapter 8: OSI Physical Layer 223 Perform a wire map test on each of the cables provided. In the next task. Verify the cable length. Then fill in Table 8-8 based on the result for each Cat 5 cable tested. Step 2. whether the cable is straight-through or crossover. and what the problem is (if one exists). If power was cycled. and fill in Table 8-6 based on the results. the tester screen test results. Move the rotary switch selector on the tester to the Length position. For each cable. Perform a basic cable test on each of the cables. Using the cable tester Wire Map function. For each cable. write down the number and color. repeat the setup steps described in Step 2. Table 8-7 Results of Basic Cable Test Cable Color Cable Length Cable Number 1 2 Answers will vary Answers will vary Note any problems encountered during this test: Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Repeat these steps until you are comfortable using the cable tester.

Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary. Fluke LinkRunner Step 2. Answers will vary Straight-through Crossover Crossover Top: 12364578 Bottom: 12364578 Top: 12364578 Bottom: 36124578 Top: 12oo4578 Bottom: 36124578 None None Pins 3 and 6 are open somewhere in the first half of the cable Pin 5 is shorted in the last half of the cable Miswire 4 Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Straight-through Top: 12364578 Bottom: 12364s78 Top: 12365478 Bottom: 12364578 5 Straight-through *Refer to the Fluke manual for a detailed description of test results for wire map.224 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 8-8 Results of Wire Map Test Cable Color Cable type (Straight-Through or Crossover) *Test Results Problem Description Cable Cable Type Number (Visual Inspection) 1 2 3 Answers will vary Answers will vary. 4. Place both ends of the cable into the LAN and MAP ports located on top of the LinkRunner. . and press the green button on the lower right along with the blue button to the left. Step 3. Answers are examples only. Rows 3. and 5 show examples of cable problems. Figure 8-4 Turn on the Fluke LinkRunner. which is shown in Figure 8-4. and will vary. Press the green button on the lower right to turn it back off. Task 3: Perform Initial Configuration of the Fluke LinkRunner Step 1.

two intersecting lines (as shown in Figure 8-6) will appear in the upper-left corner of the screen. two parallel lines (as shown in Figure 8-5) will appear in the upper-left corner of the screen. the triangle with an exclamation mark in the center will appear and details will display. Figure 8-6 Fluke LinkRunner: Crossover Cable If it is a bad cable. as shown in Figure 8-7. Figure 8-5 Fluke LinkRunner: Straight-Through Cable If it is a correct crossover cable. Figure 8-7 Fluke LinkRunner: Bad Cable .Chapter 8: OSI Physical Layer 225 If it is a correct straight-through cable.

and wire map. Skills learned in this lab will enable you to quickly troubleshoot wrong cable types and broken cables. Task 6: Challenge Look for opportunities to test other cables with the Fluke 620 LAN CableMeter. Task 7: Clean Up The cable tester is expensive and should never be left unattended. Place both ends of the cable into the LAN and MAP ports located on top of the LinkRunner. cables are constantly moved and reconnected. Figure 8-8 Task 5: Reflection Problems related to cables are one of the most common causes of network failure. Ask the instructor where to return used cables. Step 1. Network technicians should be able to determine when to use Cat 5 UTP straight-through and crossover cables. Fluke LinkRunner: Cable Length Step 2. and press the green button on the lower right along with the blue button to the left. Step 3. A cable tester is used to determine cable type. Step 4. Press the green button on the lower right to turn it back off. and is part of the learning process. Locate the length of the cable below the icon indicating the type of cable (as shown in Figure 8-8). Return the cable tester to the instructor when finished. In a lab environment. A properly functioning cable today may be broken tomorrow.226 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 4: Verify Cable Length Note: The instructions to test a cable are the same as determining cable length. Turn on the Fluke LinkRunner by pressing the green button on the lower right along with the blue button on the right. . Store the cables neatly for the next class. This isn’t unusual. length.

3) Open the file LSG01-PTSkills8. and connecting the devices. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Connect the devices in the standard lab setup. This activity examines device configurations in Packet Tracer. Enter and view the physical workspace. Verify connectivity. and how to properly connect devices. Connect the devices. View the standard lab setup at the various levels of the physical workspace. in a lab environment. View the standard lab setup in the physical workspace. and Table 8-9 shows the corresponding addressing table. Figure 8-9 Topology for Challenge 1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server 2960-24TT S1-Central 1841 R2-Central PC 1A PC 1B . Figure 8-9 shows the topology for this skills integration challenge. selecting the proper cable based on the configuration. it is important to know how to select the proper cable.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to perform this exercise using Packet Tracer.1.5.Chapter 8: OSI Physical Layer 227 Packet Tracer Challenge Skills Integration Challenge: Connecting Devices and Exploring the Physical View (8. This activity also explores the physical view of the network in Packet Tracer. or in a corporate setting. Background When working in Packet Tracer. Upon completion of this activity.

16. Connect the proper interface on the router to interface FastEthernet0/24 on switch S1Central using the proper cable.0 255. Task 2: View the Standard Lab Setup in the Physical Workspace Step 1. such as a channel/data service unit (CSU/DSU) or modem.168.16.254.255.10. Most of our work in Packet Tracer has been done in the logical workspace.255. In an internetwork.254 10.0 255.10. routers may be in different sites.16. Click router R2-Central and examine the configuration using the Config tab.255.255. Click both routers and examine the configuration using the Config tab. The physical workspace enables you to see these relationships more clearly.255.2 192.254. from across the street to across the globe.255.10. Enter and view the physical workspace.168. The DCE connects to a service provider’s local loop.255. and the connections are repeated at the other end of the link.168.0.16.0.168.255.254. The serial link between the routers represents a dedicated leased line between two locations consisting of a DTE (data terminal equipment).253 R2-Central Fa0/0 S0/0/0 S1-Central PC 1A PC 1B Eagle Server VLAN 1 NIC NIC NIC Task 1: Connect the Devices in the Standard Lab Setup Step 1.10. From the command prompt on the desktop of both PCs. the IP address of Eagle Server.1 172.252 255.254 255. Check your configuration by clicking the Check Results button.255. Step 2.255.228 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 8-9 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP Fa0/0 S0/0/0 192. .6 172.252 255. If the pings fail. connected to a DCE (data communication equipment).0 N/A N/A 10. such as a router.0 255.255.10.255.254 192.5 172. Connect the proper interface on the router to the proper interface on Eagle Server using the proper cable.0 255.0.255.254. Click router R1-ISP and examine the configuration using the Config tab.254.0.255. issue the command ping 192.253 10.168.10. Verify connectivity. Connect the routers together using the proper interfaces and the proper cable. Connect the devices.1 172.6 172.1.254.255.6 10.0 255.10. check your connections and troubleshoot until the pings succeed.254 172.16.1.10.255. Connect PC 1A to the first port on switch S1-Central and PC 1B to the second port on switch S1-Central using the proper cable.254 172.16.

Click the wiring closet. Examine this view of the topology. It shows the connection between Central City and ISP City. Click the central office building. You will see a physical representation of the equipment installed in the wiring closet and the cabling that connects the equipment. View the standard lab setup at the various levels of the physical workspace. Step 2. Click Central City. Repeat the steps to view the equipment installed in ISP City.Chapter 8: OSI Physical Layer 229 Enter the physical workspace by clicking the tab in the upper-left corner of the workspace. You will see the floor plan of the building and the location of the wiring closet. Click Intercity on the navigation bar. You will see the city and the location of the central office building. .

.

MAC a. fill-in-the-blank. Provides an interface to the upper layers b. and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of Ethernet.2. Internet Protocol (IP). Adds a frame delimiter b. Ethernet has been so successful because it has evolved over time to incorporate new technologies such as higher speeds and fiber-optic cabling. LLC b.CHAPTER 9 Ethernet The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of matching. Ethernet’s success can also be attributed to the fact that it was adopted by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and standardized as IEEE 802. Ethernet (without LLC) is the frame encapsulation method used for the most popular network layer protocol in use today. As you work through this chapter. Controls the placement of a frame on the medium a.3. for assistance. match the function on the right with the correct IEEE sublayer of the data link layer. use Chapter 9 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum. Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 9-1. or use the corresponding Chapter 9 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration Companion Guide. Study Guide Overview of Ethernet Ethernet is the predominant LAN technology in use today. Provides a unique source and destination address . The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum activities and labs to ensure you have mastered the practical. multiple-choice. Ethernet operates at the OSI physical and data link layers. Using IEEE terminology. Table 9-1 Sublayer Data Link Layer Sublayers Function a. The upper sublayer of the data link layer. Ethernet operates at the physical layer and the Media Access Control (MAC) sublayer of the data link layer. Remains relatively independent of the physical equipment b. In addition. hands-on skills needed to work with Ethernet. Logical Link Control (LLC) or IEEE 802. can give upper-layer protocols access to Ethernet.

Intel. Uses 185 meters of thin coaxial cable f. and Xerox published the DIX V1. the fact that the Ethernet frame has remained relatively unchanged over the years has allowed applications to keep running over Ethernet even as it evolved. Ethernet forms the foundation of most industrial. What functions does data encapsulation provide? Data encapsulation provides frame delimiting. How does Ethernet handle error detection? The sending node calculates a Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) of the bits in the frame. Table 9-2 Term Ethernet Implementations Description a. 2. Switch d. Metcalfe’s goal that Ethernet become ubiquitous has been achieved. Ethernet: Communication Through the LAN The term Ethernet first appeared in 1973 when Dr. Only one station at a time can transmit c. and standardization by the IEEE. much like the ether substance that scientists in the 1800s believed filled space and matter. Its original speed of 3 Mbps evolved to 10 Mbps. and now 10 Gbps. Uses 500 meters of thick coaxial cable . If the two CRC results match. The name reflects the goal that Ethernet become ubiquitous. The cabling has also evolved from coaxial to unshielded twisted pair to fiber-optic. low cost of installation and upgrading. Robert M. and finally to a selective-forwarding environment with high-speed switches. Half duplex e. Concentrates connections. In addition. Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 9-2. Today.232 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Concept Questions 1. reliability. and then to 100 Mbps and 1 Gbps. Since 1985. After receiving a frame. Metcalfe of the Xerox Corporation circulated a memo to his colleagues. the recipient assumes that the frame arrived without error. proposing the name for their prototype network. Isolates each port and sends a frame only to its proper destination (if the destination is known) e. Why has Ethernet been so successful? Ethernet has been so successful because it has evolved with the times to incorporate new technologies. 3. also known as Ethernet II. Full duplex f. Ethernet has evolved from a shared coaxial medium. a receiving node calculates its own CRC to compare to the one in the frame.0. The node places the CRC result in the Frame Check Sequence (FCS) field in the trailer part of the Ethernet frame. to a shared hub-based network. addressing. The IEEE published the 802. 10BASE5 b. and error detection. Both ends of a connection can send at the same time a. Digital Equipment Corporation. ease of maintenance. DIX V2.0 standard for Ethernet. In 1980.3 standard for Ethernet in 1985. match the description on the right with the correct Ethernet term on the left. educational. was released in 1982. and government networks. Hub d. 10BASE2 c. Ethernet’s success also can be attributed to its simplicity. allowing the network to see a group of nodes as a single unit b.

Most Layer 2 frames also have addressing fields in the header that identify the sender and receiver. The cabling for Ethernet has evolved from coaxial to unshielded twisted pair to fiber-optic. For example. Frame check sequence g. Length/type f. Fiber-optic is reserved mostly for data centers. links between switches. it still used half-duplex communication. and what aspects have changed? Ethernet’s simplicity and ease of use and installation have remained unchanged. Data g. Source address e. Ethernet follows these conventions. Match the field on the left with the definition on the right. Carries the upper-layer data b. Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Table 9-3 lists the fields that appear in an IEEE 802. the hub was still a shared medium. Ethernet is still usually connected in a star topology. it used half-duplex communication. most protocols specify that the frame should have a header. Although the cabling could have supported full duplex. Half duplex is used on a medium that can carry only one signal at a time. Start of frame delimiter c. Transmitting and receiving simultaneously is not allowed. Specifies the frame’s sender c. 2.Chapter 9: Ethernet 233 Concept Questions 1. When Ethernet ran on coaxial cable. and high-end devices. Used for synchronization e. Compare and contrast half duplex and full duplex. Full duplex means that each end of a communications channel can send at the same time. Destination address d. Unshielded twisted pair is still widely used. and trailer. Specifies the frame’s intended recipient . Used for error detection a. unlike a hub. Only one device can send at any time. a switch port and the connected device can send at the same time.3 header and trailer. but the center of the star is a switch rather than a hub these days. Preamble b. Specifies the number of bytes in the data part of the frame or specifies the type of data (the upper-layer protocol) f. What aspects of Ethernet have remained relatively unchanged over the years. Switches are capable of full duplex because they consider each connection a separate communication channel. The Layer 2 PDU is called a frame. The Ethernet Frame A fundamental job of the data link layer is to encapsulate a Layer 3 Protocol Data Unit (PDU) into a Layer 2 PDU. which is a shared device. Tells other devices on the network that a frame is coming along the medium d. data field. When Ethernet was upgraded to run on hubs with twisted-pair cabling. The Ethernet frame has remained relatively unchanged. Although different protocols place different fields in a frame. Table 9-3 Field Frame Header Fields Definition a.

the field specifies a type. Why is padding sometimes added to the data part of an Ethernet frame? a. 1. To provide synchronization. 1522 bytes b. c. d. What does a receiving device do if it receives a frame that is less than the allowed minimum size or greater than the allowed maximum size? a. 6. The sender backs off and waits a random amount of time before trying again.3ac standard? a. 64 bytes 3. 72 bytes d. b. c. What is the minimum size of an Ethernet frame? a. b. What happens if a frame arrives damaged? frame. 128 bytes c. The sender notices the missing acknowledgment and retransmits the frame. The receiving device sends back a negative acknowledgment to the sender. . To ensure that the frame is protected from damage. 4. 1024 bytes d. The recipient requests a retransmission. The recipient sends a query to the sender to determine how the field should be interpreted. b. If the value is equal to or greater than 0x0600. To ensure that the frame is at least 64 bytes. 5. The recipient calculates a CRC that differs from the CRC in the FCS field and drops the b. 1522 bytes b. d. 64 bytes 2. The receiving device requests a retransmission. How does a recipient device know if the sender used the Length/Type field to specify a length or a type? a. The receiving device drops the frame.234 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Multiple-Choice Questions Choose the best answer for each of the following questions. To specify the Portable Application Description (PAD) that describes the encapsulated data. the field specifies a type.3. The recipient bases the decision on whether it’s been configured for Ethernet II or IEEE 802. d. What is the maximum size of an Ethernet frame according to the IEEE 802. The receiving device reports a collision. 1518 bytes c. c. If the value is equal to or less than 1536. a. d. c.

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7.

How long is a MAC address?

a. Six hexadecimal digits b. 32 bits c. 48 bits d. 8 bytes

Concept Questions
1.

Compare and contrast MAC addresses with IP addresses. MAC addresses operate at the OSI data link layer (Layer 2). Layer 2 addresses are used only for local delivery when transporting a frame across a local medium. These addresses use a flat addressing scheme and do not indicate on what network a device is located. If a device is moved to another network, its Layer 2 address does not need to change. IP addresses operate at the OSI network layer (Layer 3). Layer 3 addresses are carried from source to destination host across an internetwork. Layer 3 addresses use a hierarchical addressing scheme and indicate a network number and host identifier.

2.

Compare and contrast unicast, broadcast, and multicast communications at the MAC sublayer. Unicast, broadcast, and multicast are all 48-bit MAC address types. All of them can be destination MAC addresses. Only unicast can be a source address. A unicast address is a unique address used when a frame is sent from a single transmitting device to a single destination device. In the case of a broadcast, the frame is destined for all devices in the broadcast domain and is addressed to a MAC broadcast address of 48 1s (or FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF in hexadecimal). With multicast, a source can send to a group of devices. The low-order bit of the first byte must be a 1 for the address to be a multicast. If the multicast is also an IP multicast, the first 24 bits of the MAC address are 01-00-5E in hexadecimal.

Ethernet Media Access Control
In a shared medium, all devices have guaranteed access to the medium, but they must fairly share the medium and not interfere with each other. If more than one device transmits at the same time, the physical signals collide, and the data is damaged. Both transmitters must recognize that their data has been damaged and resend it. Ethernet uses carrier sense multiple access collision detect (CSMA/CD) to detect and handle collisions and regulate use of the shared medium.

Vocabulary Exercise: Completion
Fill in the blanks for the following statements that discuss CSMA/CD.
1.

Because devices using coaxial or hub-based Ethernet send their messages on a shared medium, a protocol (or coordination scheme or media access control method) is used to determine if the medium is already in use before a sender transmits. When a device detects that no other computer is sending a frame, the device transmits if it has something to send. All devices that have messages to send must listen before transmitting.

2.

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3. 4.

If a device detects a signal from another device, it waits before attempting to transmit. When no traffic is detected, a device transmits its message. While transmitting, the device continues to listen for traffic from another device. If another device is sending at the same time, a collision has occurred. If a collision happens, the sending devices continue to send for the time it takes to send a jam signal and then stop sending. The devices invoke a backoff algorithm that causes them to wait a random amount of time before trying to send again.

5.

Concept Questions
1.

What is interframe spacing, and why does Ethernet use it? Interframe spacing is the required time between frames on an Ethernet network. After a frame has been sent, all devices are required to wait a minimum of 96 bit times (the time it takes to send 96 bits). This gives the medium time to stabilize after transmitting a frame.

2.

Why is the backoff timing random when an Ethernet collision occurs? The backoff waiting period is intentionally designed to be random so that two stations do not delay for the same amount of time before retransmitting, which would result in more collisions.

Ethernet Physical Layer
The many implementations of Ethernet include Classic Ethernet, Fast Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet, and 10 Gigabit Ethernet. The differences occur at the physical layer, often called the Ethernet PHY. Four data rates are currently defined for operation over optical-fiber and twisted-pair cables:
■ ■ ■ ■

10 Mbps: 10BASE-T Classic Ethernet 100 Mbps: Fast Ethernet 1000 Mbps: Gigabit Ethernet 10 Gbps: 10 Gigabit Ethernet

Vocabulary Exercise: Completion
Fill in the blanks for the following statements that describe Ethernet physical layer options.
1.

10BASE-T uses two pairs of a four-pair cable and is terminated at each end with an eight-pin RJ-45 connector. The pair connected to pins 1 and 2 is used for transmitting, and the pair connected to pins 3 and 6 is used for receiving. Replacing hubs with switches in 10BASE-T networks has greatly increased the bandwidth available to these networks and has helped Ethernet maintain its dominance in the LAN market. The 10BASE-T links connected to a switch can support either half-duplex or full-duplex operation. The most popular implementations of 100 Mbps Ethernet are 100BASE-TX, which uses Category 5 or later UTP cable, and 100BASE-FX, which uses fiber-optic cable. 1000BASE-T Ethernet provides full-duplex transmission using four pairs of Category 5 or later UTP cable.

2.

3.

4.

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5.

The two fiber versions of Gigabit Ethernet are 1000BASE-SX and 1000BASE-LX. Fiber-optic cabling offers better noise immunity than UTP, a smaller physical size, and higher distances and bandwidth. A difference between 1000BASE-SX and 1000BASE-LX is the wavelength of the optical signal. The IEEE 802.3ae standard was adapted to include 10-Gbps, full-duplex transmission over fiber-optic cable. 10-Gigabit Ethernet is evolving for use not only in LANs, but also in MANs and WANs. Although Gigabit Ethernet is now widely available and 10-Gigabit products are becoming more available, the IEEE and the 10-Gigabit Ethernet Alliance are working on 40-, 100-, and even 160-Gbps standards.

6.

7.

8.

Hubs and Switches
In the 1970s and 1980s, Ethernet networks were connected in a bus topology using coaxial cable. The coaxial cable provided a shared medium. In the 1990s, administrators started connecting nodes to the shared network in a star topology using twisted-pair cabling and hubs. During the 1990s, to improve performance, administrators upgraded their hubs to switches. Switches divide collision domains into smaller domains, sometimes so small that collisions are no longer an issue. For example, in the common case where a single device is connected to a port on a switch, both ends of the communications channel can send and receive at the same time, and collisions don’t occur. Switches forward broadcast and multicast traffic to all members of a LAN but provide selective forwarding for unicast traffic. The selective forwarding greatly reduces collisions and improves performance.

Vocabulary Exercise: Matching
In Table 9-4, match the characteristic on the right with the correct term on the left.
Table 9-4 Term Characteristics of Hubs and Switches Characteristic

a. Hub b. Switch

b. Divides collision domains a. Forwards received bits out every port b. Supports full-duplex communication a. Simplifies network cabling but doesn’t have any performance benefits a. When many nodes that transmit frequently are connected to this device, latency increases, because each node must wait for an opportunity to transmit b. Provides an alternative to contention-based Ethernet b. Maintains a table that maps each MAC address to a port

Vocabulary Exercise: Completion
Fill in the blanks for the following statements that describe the selective forwarding service provided by switches.
1.

A switch selectively forwards a frame that it receives on a port to the port where the destination node is connected.

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2.

Switches use store-and-forward switching, whereby the switch receives an entire frame, checks the FCS field for errors, and forwards the frame to the appropriate port. A switch maintains a table, called the MAC table (also called MAC address table, CAM table, switch table, bridge table, filter table), that matches a MAC address with the port used to connect the node with that address.

3.

Concept Question
List and describe the five basic operations of an Ethernet LAN switch. Learning. A switch populates the MAC table by learning which port it should use to reach each MAC address. As a frame enters the switch, the switch examines the MAC source address. If no entry exists in the table for this address, the switch creates a new entry that pairs the source address with the port on which the frame arrived. The switch can now use this mapping to forward frames to the node with the MAC address in the table entry. Aging. A switch tracks how long an entry has been in the MAC table. If the entry reaches a certain age without being refreshed by a new frame from the same node on the same port, the entry is removed. Flooding. If a switch has not yet learned which port it should use to forward a frame to a destination, the switch sends the frame to all ports, except the port on which the frame arrived. Selective forwarding. A switch examines the destination MAC address in a frame and forwards the frame out the appropriate port. Filtering. After a switch has learned the address or addresses that map to a port, it filters frames from going out that port that include a destination address that is not mapped to the port.

Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
To send an IP packet to a recipient, a sender needs to learn the recipient’s MAC address. ARP provides a means for a sender to broadcast a message to find the MAC address for a known IP address.

Multiple-Choice Questions
Choose the best answer for each of the following questions.
1.

What is a basic job of ARP?

a. Resolve IPv4 addresses to MAC addresses b. Build a table that maps MAC addresses to ports c. Build a loop-free LAN from redundantly connected switches d. Provide a resource protocol for finding applications 2.

If a node has recently sent a frame to another node, where is the mapping of IPv4 address to MAC address stored?

a. MAC table b. ARP cache c. Routing table d. NVRAM

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3.

When a node has not recently sent a frame to another node, how does the node discover the correct MAC address to use for the IPv4 address of the destination node?

a. The sender sends an IPv4 query to the destination node to ask the node for its MAC address. b. The sender broadcasts an ARP request. c. The sender monitors traffic until it discovers the correct MAC address to use. d. The sender transmits a TCP SYN to the destination node. 4.

What type of header does an ARP frame contain?

a. IP b. Ethernet c. TCP d. UDP 5.

When an Ethernet transmitter sends to a destination not on its local network, what MAC destination address does it use, and how does it discover this address? request.

a. The transmitter uses the MAC address of the destination, which it discovers with an ARP b. The transmitter uses the MAC address of the local router interface, which it discovers with an

ARP request.
c. The transmitter uses the MAC address of the destination, which it discovers with a proxy ARP

request.
d. The transmitter doesn’t need a MAC address for the destination and relies on the IP destination

address to provide enough information for routers to forward the frame.
6.

What is the destination address in the frame when a node sends an ARP request to find the MAC address associated with a known IP address?

a. 255.255.255.255 b. The address of the local router interface c. The recipient’s address d. FF:FF:FF:FF:FF:FF

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Labs and Activities
Lab 9-1: Address Resolution Protocol (9.8.1.1)
Upon completion of this lab, you will be able to
■ ■

Use the Windows arp command. Use Wireshark to examine ARP exchanges.

Background TCP/IP uses ARP to map a Layer 3 IP address to a Layer 2 MAC address. When a frame is placed on the network, it must have a destination MAC address. To dynamically discover the MAC address of the destination device, an ARP request is broadcast on the LAN. The device that contains the destination IP address responds, and the MAC address is recorded in the ARP cache. Every device on the LAN keeps its own ARP cache, which is a small area in RAM that holds ARP results. An ARP cache timer removes ARP entries that have not been used for a certain period of time. Depending on the device, the times differ. For example, some Windows operating systems store ARP cache entries for 2 minutes. If the entry is used again during that time, the ARP timer for that entry is extended to 10 minutes. ARP is an excellent example of a performance trade-off. With no cache, ARP must continually request address translations each time a frame is placed on the network. This adds latency to the communication and could congest the LAN. Conversely, unlimited hold times could cause errors with devices that leave the network or change the Layer 3 address. A network engineer needs to be aware of ARP but may not interact with the protocol on a regular basis. ARP is a protocol that enables network devices to communicate with the TCP/IP protocol. Without ARP, no efficient method exists to build the datagram Layer 2 destination address. ARP is a potential security risk. ARP spoofing, or ARP poisoning, is a technique used by an attacker to inject the wrong MAC address association into a network. An attacker forges a device’s MAC address, and frames are sent to the wrong destination. Manually configuring static ARP associations is one way to prevent ARP spoofing. In addition, an authorized MAC address list may be configured in Cisco devices to restrict network access to only approved devices. Scenario With a pod host computer, use the Windows arp utility command to examine and change ARP cache entries. In Task 2, you will use Wireshark to capture and analyze ARP exchanges between network devices. If Wireshark has not been loaded on the host pod computer, you can download it from ftp://eagleserver.example.com/pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter9/. The file is wireshark-setup-0.99.4.exe. Figure 9-1 shows the topology for this lab, and Table 9-5 is the corresponding addressing table.

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Figure 9-1

Topology for Lab 9-1

R1-ISP

S0/0/0 DCE

Eagle Server

S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24

S1-Central

R2-Central

1A

1B

11A

11B

Pod#1

Pod#11

Table 9-5 Device

Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway

R1-ISP

S0/0/0 Fa0/0

10.10.10.6 192.168.254.253 10.10.10.5 172.16.255.254 192.168.254.254 172.31.24.254 172.16.Pod#.1 172.16.Pod#.2 172.16.254.1

255.255.255.252 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.252 255.255.0.0 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.0.0

— — 10.10.10.6 — 192.168.254.253 — 172.16.255.254 172.16.255.254 172.16.255.254

R2-Central

S0/0/0 Fa0/0

Eagle Server

— —

Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central

— — —

Note to Instructor: Depending on the classroom situation, the lab topology may have been modified before this class. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server.example.com, troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity:
Step 1.

Verify that all network equipment is powered on and that eagle-server is on.

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Step 2.

From a known good host computer, ping eagle-server. If the ping test fails, ping S1Central, R2-Central, R1-ISP, and finally eagle-server. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests. If an individual host computer cannot connect to eagle-server, check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address, shown in Table 9-5, and that it can ping R2-Central, 172.16.255.254. Verify that the host computer has the correct Gateway IP address, 172.16.255.254, and that it can ping R1-ISP, 10.10.10.6. Finally, verify that the host has the correct DNS address and that it can ping eagle-server.example.com.

Step 3.

Task 1: Use the Windows arp Command
Step 1.

Access the Windows terminal. Open a Windows terminal by choosing Start > Run. Enter cmd, and click OK. With no options, the arp command displays useful help information. Issue the arp command on the pod host computer, and examine the output. It should look like Example 9-1.

Example 9-1

Using the arp Command

C:\> arp Displays and modifies the IP-to-Physical address translation tables used by address resolution protocol (ARP). ARP -s inet_addr eth_addr [if_addr] ARP -d inet_addr [if_addr] ARP -a [inet_addr] [-N if_addr] -a Displays current ARP entries by interrogating the current protocol data. If inet_addr is specified, the IP and Physical addresses for only the specified computer are displayed. If more than one network interface uses ARP, entries for each ARP table are displayed. -g Same as -a. Specifies an internet address. inet_addr

-N if_addr Displays the ARP entries for the network interface specified by if_addr. -d Deletes the host specified by inet_addr. inet_addr may be wildcarded with * to delete all hosts. -s Adds the host and associates the Internet address inet_addr with the Physical address eth_addr. The Physical address is given as 6 hexadecimal bytes separated by hyphens. The entry is permanent. eth_addr if_addr interface Specifies a physical address. If present, this specifies the Internet address of the

whose address translation table should be modified. If not present, the first applicable interface will be used.

.1.1.2: Packets: Sent = 4. Adds a static entry..16. When you issued the command that displays ARP entries. Average = 0ms C:\> C:\> arp -a .16. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 172.16.16.1.16.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 172. Lost = 0 (0% loss).1.255. Example 9-3 Using the ping Command C:\> ping 172.1. Displays the arp Answer the following questions about the arp command: ■ What command is used to display all entries in the ARP cache? arp -a ■ What command is used to delete all ARP cache entries (flush the ARP cache)? arp -d * ■ What command is used to delete the ARP cache entry for 172. Received = 4.. By accessing other devices.55. C:\> .. Any entry indicates communication between the pod host computer and other network devices.212 00-aa-00-62-c6-09 > arp -a table.254 Step 2.. Step 3. what were the results? The ARP cache should be empty..16.16. Use the arp command to examine the local ARP cache. The ping command can be used to test network connectivity.16.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 172.2 Pinging 172.85. as shown in Example 9-3.1. Using the arp Command with the -a Option Example 9-2 C:\> arp -a No ARP Entries Found C:\> Without any network communication. . Maximum = 0ms.2 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 172.254? arp -d 172.255. the ARP cache should be empty. Use the ping command to dynamically add entries to the ARP cache.Chapter 9: Ethernet 243 Example 9-1 Using the arp Command continued Example: > arp -s 157.16.1. ARP associations are dynamically added to the ARP cache.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Ping statistics for 172. as shown in Example 9-2.

16. How was the address discovered? Dynamically Issue the ping command to Eagle Server. only the Gateway MAC address is displayed. Because Eagle Server is on a different network. Or. Wait between 2 and 3 minutes. Manually adjust entries in the ARP cache. Issue the ping command to the Gateway. which will retain the cache entry for approximately 10 minutes. What is the IP address of the Gateway? 172. It may be easier to ping both devices more than once.1. Was the ARP cache entry cleared? Yes If the entry was not cleared. a couple explanations are possible.16. First. and check the ARP cache again. you accessed the destination device more than once and caused the ARP timeout for the entry to rise to 10 minutes.255. Examine the ARP cache entry.0x60004 Internet Address 172. Verify that the ARP cache contains two entries: one for the Gateway and one for the destination pod host computer. Issue the ping command to that pod host computer.16.com. R2-Central. which is how long the ARP cache stores an initial entry.244 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example 9-3 Using the ping Command continued Interface: 172.1 —.1.254 What is the physical address of the Gateway? Answers will vary. Record the two ARP cache entries using Table 9-6. What is the physical address of Eagle Server? It cannot be determined. eagle-server. Dynamically What is the IP address of the destination pod host computer? Answers will vary. . Examine the ARP cache entry. Do not send any traffic to the computer accessed previously. What is the physical address of the destination pod host computer? Answers will vary.2 C:\> Physical Address 00-10-a4-7b-01-5f Type dynamic Use the command ipconfig /all to verify another pod host computer’s Layer 2 and Layer 3 information. How was the ARP entry added to the ARP cache? Hint: Review the Type column. you did not wait 2 minutes. Step 4.example.

16. You can delete addresses individually by specifying the IP address.0x60004 Internet Address 172. delete the entry for the pod host computer.2 172.2 C:\> Physical Address 00-10-a4-7b-01-5f Type dynamic Physical Address 00-10-a4-7b-01-5f 00-0c-85-cf-66-40 Type dynamic dynamic What command deletes the entry for the pod host computer? arp -d inet-addr Record the remaining ARP cache entry in Table 9-7. To delete entries in the ARP cache.1 —. Table 9-7 Device Remaining ARP Cache Entry IP Address Physical Address How Is It Discovered? Gateway 172.1.254 Answers will vary Answers will vary Dynamically Dynamically Next. or you can delete all entries using the wildcard *. All entries should be removed.254 C:\> C:\> arp -d 172.0x60004 Internet Address 172.254 C:\> arp -a Interface: 172.1. issue the arp -d {inet-addr | *} command.255.Chapter 9: Ethernet 245 Table 9-6 Device Initial ARP Cache Entries IP Address Physical Address How Is It Discovered? Pod host computer Gateway Answers will vary 172. What is one layer of security that can be applied to ARP cache entries to help counter ARP spoofing? Add a static ARP entry for the Gateway.16.16.1.255.16.1.254 Answers will vary.16.16.255. Dynamically Simulate removing all entries. . Example 9-4 Manually Deleting an ARP Cache Entry C:\> arp -a Interface: 172. and examine the ARP cache with the arp -a command.255.16. Consider a secure environment where the Gateway controls access to a web server that contains top-secret information.16. What command deletes all entries in the ARP cache? arp -d * Issue the command to remove all entries in the ARP cache on your pod host computer.1 —. Example 9-4 shows how to manually delete an ARP cache entry.

open a Windows terminal window by choosing Start > Run. You should see a Wireshark screen similar to the one shown in Figure 9-2. In this step.254. Choose Capture > Options. What command adds a static ARP entry for the Gateway to the ARP cache? arp -s 172. using the command ping -n 1 172. .255. This begins the packet capture. Step 2. Flush the ARP cache.246 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Simulate adding a static entry for the Gateway.16. What is the type of the ARP entry? Static For the next task. Capture and evaluate ARP communication. What command did you use? arp -d * Step 3.254. Prepare Wireshark for captures. and one ping request is sent to Eagle Server. The Packet Details window shows ARP protocol contents. using the command ping -n 1 192. Now.16. Click Start. Wireshark will be used to capture and examine an ARP exchange. and the ARP communication is evaluated. and click OK. you will use it to view the ARP cache. Task 2: Use Wireshark to Examine ARP Exchanges Step 1. Stop Wireshark and evaluate the communication.254 What is the physical address of the Gateway? Answers will vary. Send one ping request to the Gateway.254.168. Enter cmd. The Wireshark Packet List window displays the number of packets captured. the Wireshark capture is stopped. Select the interface that corresponds to the LAN. Prepare the pod host computer for ARP captures.255.16. If you haven’t already done so.254 MAC-address Issue the command on your pod host computer.255. Check the box to update the list of packets in real time. Configure Wireshark for packet captures. Afterward. Send one ping request to Eagle Server. this will require ARP to rediscover address maps. provide answers to these questions: ■ ■ ■ What is the IP address of the Gateway? 172. Do not close the Windows terminal. and examine the ARP cache again. one ping request is sent to the Gateway.

Chapter 9: Ethernet 247 Figure 9-2 Wireshark Screen Using your Wireshark capture.16. Table 9-9 Field Second ARP Packet Value Sender MAC address Sender IP address Target MAC address Target IP address Answers will vary 172. Table 9-8 Field First ARP Packet Value Sender MAC address Sender IP address Target MAC address Target IP address Answers will vary Answers will vary 00:00:00:00:00:00 172. .255. why does the target MAC address contain all 0s? The ARP protocol has no value yet to put in the field. answer the following questions: ■ ■ What is the first ARP packet? A request What is the second ARP packet? A reply Fill in Table 9-8 with information about the first ARP packet.16.254 Answers will vary Answers will vary If the Ethernet II frame for an ARP request is a broadcast.254 Fill in Table 9-9 with information about the second ARP packet.255.

A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity. perform a search on ARP spoofing. This sets the new timeout value to 10 minutes.8. If the entry was manually inserted in the ARP cache. and leave the room ready for the next class. and click Remove. choose Start > Control Panel. however. discuss the advantages of configuring MAC address restrictions for wireless networks. because the cache entry was accessed within the 2-minute cache timeout. How long should the Gateway mapping be stored in the ARP cache on the pod host computer? Why? 10 minutes. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Address Resolution Protocol (9. Click Add or Remove Programs. the Layer 2 MAC address changes with each hop across a router.1. Remember.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab9812. If the entry was learned dynamically. . Using outside resources. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. turn off power to the host computers. Task 3: Reflection The ARP protocol maps Layer 3 IP addresses to Layer 2 MAC addresses. Remove any files created on the pod host computer during the lab. If Wireshark needs to be uninstalled. it will eventually be deleted from cache.248 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Why was there no ARP request for the ping to Eagle Server? The TCP/IP protocol already had the MAC address for the Gateway. Task 4: Challenge Using outside resources. Discuss ways in which attackers can circumvent this security. The ARP cache stores ARP address mappings. but the Layer 3 address never changes. Task 5: Clean Up Wireshark was installed on the pod host computer. which is used to forward the packet outside the LAN. Choose Wireshark. Most wireless routers support a network administrator manually adding a list of MAC addresses to the router that are permitted access to the wireless network. If a packet must move across networks. it is a static entry and remains until the computer is turned off or the ARP cache is manually flushed.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. Discuss several techniques used to counter this type of attack. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment.

the frame is routed out all ports except the port where it originated. network engineers can log into network devices from anywhere across a secure network. a serial connection can be established. Figure 9-3 shows the topology for this lab. and Table 9-10 is the corresponding addressing table. In this course. When a switch receives a frame. or the frame is a broadcast. .2. If the network is not secure. Use the Cisco show mac-address-table command to examine MAC address and port associations. limited privileges have been configured for student use.1) Upon completion of this lab. A console port can be used if the Cisco router or switch is within proximity of a computer. Access to Cisco devices can be accomplished through several means. In this lab. network connectivity can be established through two means. You will do the following: ■ ■ ■ Telnet to S1-Central.Chapter 9: Ethernet 249 Packet Tracer Challenge Lab 9-2: Cisco Switch MAC Table Examination (9. Use the show mac-address-table command to examine the MAC addresses and association to ports.8. Log in with your student account. otherwise. the destination MAC address is checked against the table. Cisco IOS devices provide a default Telnet server. you will be able to ■ ■ Use the Telnet protocol to log into a Cisco switch. If a switch does not know which port to use to route the frame. a modem configured on the AUX port enables telephone access. and operating systems such as Windows have built-in Telnet clients. For devices physically distant from the network engineer. Background Switches maintain a table of MAC addresses and associated switch ports. The Cisco device must be configured for Telnet access. it is denied. the Cisco device can be configured for a Telnet session. you will connect to the switch via a Telnet session. and the corresponding port is used to route the frame out the switch. Scenario Telnet is a network service that uses a client/server model. For secure networks. Using the Windows hyperterm utility. Using Telnet.

254 172.255. Step 2.254 172.10.16.255.254 192.example.254 172.255.0 255.254.253 10.0.16.252 255.0.0 255.255. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity.168.10.254.5 172. Verify that all network equipment is powered on and that eagle-server is on.1 255.255.2 172.255.255.253 — 172.255.1 172.31. .252 255. troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity: Step 1.10. R2-Central.16.com.16. the lab topology may have been modified before this class.10. R1-ISP.0 255.254.255.6 192.254.168.255. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server.255.255.16.0 255.16.0 255.255.255. From a known good host computer.0.168.0.Pod#. Take corrective action on devices that fail the ping tests.24.255. If the ping test fails.255.Pod#.16.6 — 192.250 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 9-3 Topology for Lab 9-2 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 Table 9-10 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP S0/0/0 Fa0/0 10. ping S1Central.0 — — 10.255. and finally eagle-server.10.10. ping eagle-server.254 172.255.254 R2-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Eagle Server — — Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central — — — Note to Instructor: Depending on the classroom situation.0 255.

check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central. Examine the switch MAC address table. For example. This outputs all options for the command. 10. use user ID ccna1.254. Enter cmd. Step 2. . Example 9-5 Switch Access Prompt ******************************************************************* This is Lab switch S1-Central. From the Windows terminal. Use Table 9-11 to fill in a description for each command option. for host computers on pod 1. and click OK. use the user ID corresponding to your pod. Verify that the host computer has the correct Gateway IP address. Authorized access only. Task 1: Use the Telnet Protocol to Log in to a Cisco Switch Step 1. Unless directed otherwise by your instructor.16. 172. the password is cisco. Open a Windows terminal by choosing Start > Run. S1-Central has been configured with 11 student accounts. To provide access to each student. ******************************************************************* User Access Verification Username: ccna1 Password: cisco S1-Central# (*hidden*) Task 2: Use the Cisco IOS show mac-address-table Command to Examine MAC Addresses and Port Associations Step 1. shown in Table 9-10. ccna1 through ccna11.254.255.1 An access prompt is displayed.Chapter 9: Ethernet 251 Step 3. issue the Telnet command telnet destination-ip-address: C:/> telnet 172.example. similar to the one shown in Example 9-5. 172.16. If an individual host computer cannot connect to eagle-server.255. Access the Windows terminal.6. verify that the host has the correct DNS address and that it can ping eagle-server.16. Finally. and that it can ping R1-ISP. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address. Use the Windows Telnet client to access S1-Central.10. and that it can ping R2-Central. Issue the show mac-address-table ? command.com.10.254.

Issue the show mac-address-table command. Address keyword Aging-time keyword Count keyword Dynamic entry type Interface keyword Multicast information for the selected wildcard MAC notification parameters and history table Static entry type VLAN keyword Output modifiers Carriage return Examine dynamic MAC address table entries. or learned. Use Table 9-12 to list the MAC addresses and corresponding switch ports. This command displays static (CPU) and dynamic. entries.252 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 9-11 Option Show Mac-Address-Table Command Options Description address aging-time count dynamic interface multicast notification static vlan | <cr> Step 2. How many MAC addresses are listed for switch port gi0/0? 5 . Table 9-12 MAC Addresses and Ports Switch Port MAC Address Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Suppose that a hub with five active hosts is connected to switch port gi0/0.

Without a MAC address table. If a match occurs in the MAC address table. however. Remember.3. . Issue the show mac-address-table aging-time command. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity. A switch contains a MAC address table that lists the MAC address connected to each switch port.8. in seconds. This command displays the default amount of time. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. What is the default aging time for VLAN 1? 300 Task 3: Challenge What would be the result if the MAC address table were flushed of dynamic entries? The switch would broadcast frames out each port except the originating port until the switch learned all the MAC addresses connected to the switch. the switch performs a lookup of the frame destination MAC address. When a frame enters the switch. This has the benefit of permitting access to remote devices for troubleshooting and monitoring purposes. Examine MAC address table aging time. turn off power to the host computers.Chapter 9: Ethernet 253 Step 3. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ Use Wireshark to capture and analyze frames originating from network nodes.2. and leave the room ready for the next class.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab9822. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. the frame is routed out the corresponding port.1) Upon completion of this lab. network engineers can access Cisco devices remotely across secure LANs. Examine the origination of frames in a small network. the switch would have to flood the frame out each port.8. Lab 9-3: Intermediary Device as an End Device (9. Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Cisco Switch MAC Table Examination (9. Task 5: Clean Up Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. Copy and paste data captured by Wireshark into Notepad for further analysis. that MAC address entries are stored. Task 4: Reflection Using the Telnet protocol.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer.

0 255.exe. Scenario You will use Wireshark to capture and analyze Ethernet frames. and Table 9-13 is the corresponding addressing table.10.31.252 255. If Wireshark has not been loaded on the host pod computer.10.168.253 10.5 172.255.255.0.2 172.255.6 — 192.252 255.254 172.4.Pod#.254 192. you will see the switch originating frames.example.16.99.16.10. The file is wireshark-setup-0.16.255.255.0.255.10.0 255. because you will use Telnet to directly access the switch.0.255.255.0 255.16.255.0 — — 10.255.255.254 172.10.0 255.24.1 255.254 R2-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Eagle Server — — Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central — — — .255.254.16.255.6 192.16.10.1 172. however.254 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Background A switch is used to forward frames between network devices.254 172.254.255. In this lab.254. Rather.254.254 172.168. A switch normally does not originate frames to node devices.168.Pod#.255.255.0 255. Figure 9-4 shows the topology for this lab.253 — 172.255.0.255. Figure 9-4 Topology for Lab 9-3 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 Table 9-13 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP S0/0/0 Fa0/0 10.16. you can download it from ftp://eagleserver.com/pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter9/.0 255. a switch efficiently passes frames from one device to another in a LAN.

In this lab you will ping a neighbor’s pod host computer.254. Enter the appropriate username and password. and that it can ping R2-Central. making analysis a bit tedious. should be returned. use user ID ccna1.16. If the ping test fails. check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central. Enter enable to enter privileged mode. shown in Table 9-13. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address. cisco. Step 3. If an individual host computer cannot connect to eagle-server. ping S1Central. the password is cisco. R1-ISP.6.16. verify that the host has the correct DNS address and that it can ping eagle-server. Click Start.Chapter 9: Ethernet 255 Note to Instructor: Depending on the classroom situation.255. From a known good host computer. . The S1-Central prompt. For example. ping eagle-server.10. 172. Check the box to update the list of packets in real time.255. S1-Central#. Verify that the host computer has the correct Gateway IP address.254. Finally. Write down the IP address and port connection on S1-Central for the neighbor’s pod host computer: ■ ■ IP address: Answers will vary S1-Central port number: Answers will vary Task 1: Use Wireshark to Capture and Analyze Frames Originating from Network Nodes Step 1. This begins the packet capture. Choose Capture > Options.com. 10. Verify that all network equipment is powered on and that eagle-server is on.example. Examine the switch MAC address table with the show mac-address-table command.10. issue the Telnet command telnet 172. Unless directed otherwise by your instructor. 172. Configure Wireshark for packet capture.254.16.com. From the Windows terminal.example. and that it can ping R1-ISP. the lab topology may have been modified before this class. During this capture there will probably be more than 200 packets. troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity: Step 1. In addition to several static CPU entries. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity. and finally eagle-server. Step 3. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server. Examine and clear the MAC address table. for host computers on pod 1. Use Table 9-14 to list the dynamic MAC address entries. Use the Windows Telnet client to access S1-Central. Step 2. To provide access to each student. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests. numerous dynamic address table entries should be listed. use the user ID corresponding to your pod. Select the interface that corresponds to the LAN. S1-Central has been configured with 11 student accounts. R2-Central. however. The critical Telnet conversation between the pod host computer and S1-Central will be easy to filter.1. Step 2. ccna1 through ccna11.

Note to Instructor: Fa 0/24. R2-Router. You can use the show mac-address-table command again to verify that the address is added. This stops the 10-second Ethernet heartbeat. on R2-Router interface Fa 0/0. You can use the show mac-address-table command again to verify that the dynamic entries have been cleared. Stop the Wireshark capture. In Wireshark. From Wireshark. . To prove this to students. may be read within 10 seconds after flushing the MAC address table. Table 9-15 Dynamic MAC Address Entries Switch Port MAC Address Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary What conclusion can you make about how a switch learns MAC addresses connected to switch interfaces? A switch does not learn about connected devices until traffic originates from the device. Task 2: Examine the Origination of Frames in a Small Network Step 1. Open a second terminal window. which was recorded earlier: C:>\ ping -n 1 ip-address The MAC address for your neighbor’s computer should be dynamically added in the S1Central MAC address table.256 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 9-14 Dynamic MAC Address Entries Switch Port MAC Address Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary To clear dynamic MAC address table entries. using ASCII as the default display. Highlight one of the Telnet session packets. examine the Telnet session to S1-Central. If the username and passwords are not visible. choose Analyze > Follow TCP Stream. You will analyze the capture in the next task. Ping your neighbor’s IP address. because R2-Router sends Ethernet keepalive frames every 10 seconds. Use Table 9-15 to list the dynamic MAC address entries. switch to HEX Dump. A stream content window opens. use the clear mac-address-table dynamic command. issue the Cisco IOS interface configuration command no keepalive. This is normal.

0ccc. Example 9-6 MAC Address Table Before the Ping Mac Address Table {_lEMaNL. write down the dynamic MAC address and port number displayed in the output. choose Edit > Paste to copy and paste the Telnet data into Notepad.RPC —————————————————————Vlan —— All All All All 1 Mac Address —————000f. Step 2.cccd 0100. In Notepad. Does the switch port correspond to your pod host computer? Yes .0ccc. Figure 9-5 shows partial output of a Wireshark capture.f79f.0cdd.015f Type ———— STATIC STATIC STATIC STATIC DYNAMIC Ports ——CPU CPU CPU CPU Fa0/1 Total Mac Addresses for this criterion: 5 S1-Central# In Table 9-16. Right-click telnet and choose Copy Bytes (Printable Text Only).Chapter 9: Ethernet 257 Verify the username and password that you entered: ■ ■ Username: Answers will vary Password: cisco Close the stream content window. click the Filter button at the top-left corner of the screen and remove the filter string. View the packet in the Packet Details window pane.dddd 0010. Figure 9-5 Wireshark Capture of Telnet Select the last Telnet data packet from S1-Central before the ping command. You should see a dynamic mapping for your own computer similar to the output shown in Example 9-6. You will copy and paste data into Notepad for analysis. To remove any display filters.cccc 0100. In the top Wireshark Packet List pane. Open Notepad. scroll down to the captured ICMP request that was generated when you pinged.6cc0 0100.a47b. Examine output of the show mac-address-table command.

6cc0 0100. In Notepad. write down the MAC address and port number for the second dynamic entry displayed in the output.76ac. Does the switch port correspond to your neighbor’s pod host computer? Yes Table 9-17 Dynamic MAC Address Entry Type Port MAC Address Answers will vary Dynamic Answers will vary Task 3: Reflection The Wireshark capture of a Telnet session between a pod host computer and S1-Central was analyzed to show how a switch dynamically learns about nodes directly connected to it. Next.0ccc. despite having been cleared? This is the connection for the pod host computer that is telnetted into S1-Central.a76a Type ———— STATIC STATIC STATIC STATIC DYNAMIC DYNAMIC Ports ——CPU CPU CPU CPU Fa0/1 Fa0/2 Total Mac Addresses for this criterion: 6 S1-Central# In Table 9-17.0ccc.f79f.015f 0016. view the packet in the Packet Details window pane.258 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 9-16 Dynamic MAC Address Entry Type Port MAC Address Answers will vary Dynamic Answers will vary Why is your pod host computer mapping still in the MAC address table.0cdd.VP —————————————————————Vlan —— All All All All 1 1 Mac Address —————000f. The text should be similar to Example 9-7.dddd 0010. . Right-click TELNET and choose Copy Bytes (Printable Text Only).a47b.cccc 0100. choose Edit > Paste to copy and paste the Telnet data into Notepad. Example 9-7 MAC Address Table After the Ping Mac Address Table {_lEPaNM.cccd 0100. Select the last Telnet data packet following the ping reply.

Task 5: Clean Up Wireshark was installed on the pod host computer.1. Remove any files created on the pod host computer during the lab. For example. If Wireshark needs to be uninstalled. one recommendation may be to require passphrases—that is. Click Add or Remove Programs. Emphasize that security should be employed in layers. choose Analyze > Follow TCP Stream to view the login user ID and password.Chapter 9: Ethernet 259 Task 4: Challenge Use Wireshark to capture and analyze a Telnet session between the pod host computer and the Cisco switch.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab9832. Figure 9-6 shows the topology for this Skills Integration Challenge. Student answers will vary on how to secure the communication channel.8. passwords of more than nine characters.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. Repair Ethernet-related network issues. and lively discussions should be encouraged. Test the network. How secure is the Telnet protocol? What can be done to make communication with Cisco devices more secure? The Telnet protocol is very insecure and should never be used outside of secure networks. and Table 9-18 is the corresponding addressing table. Choose Wireshark. however. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. Point out that because the TCP session may be captured. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. . From Wireshark. any clear-text password can be viewed and used by an attacker. turn off power to the host computers.3) Open file LSG01-PTSkills9.3. and leave the room ready for the next class. Packet Tracer Challenge Skills Integration Challenge: Switched Ethernet (9. Remember. choose Start > Control Panel. and no one solution is a guarantee against compromise.9. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ Determine IP subnet plans.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to perform this exercise using Packet Tracer. SSH is one way to encrypt communications between devices. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. and click Remove. Upon completion of this activity. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity. Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: An Intermediary Device as an End Device (9. Background You have been asked to repair some problems in the network model related to the Ethernet LAN connected to R2-Central.

255.0/24.126 192.2 192.255. point-to-point link (already configured) .111.255.255.260 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 9-6 Topology for the Challenge 1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server 2960-24TT S1-Central 1841 R2-Central PC 1A PC 1B Table 9-18 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP Fa0/0 S0/0/0 192.128 255.168.137 192.255.128 255. up to 100 hosts (Fa0/0 on R2-Central) Second subnet.138 192.255.255.111.252 255.111.128 255.111.252 255.111.111.168.126 192. existing student LAN. The subnet assignments are as follows: ■ ■ ■ First subnet. You must provide for the three existing networks.111.111.168.111.111.168. existing ISP LAN.134 192.255. existing WAN.255.255.111.168.126 192.248 — — 192.111.134 R2-Central Fa0/0 S0/0/0 PC 1A PC 1B Eagle Server NIC NIC NIC Task 1: IP Subnet Planning You have been given an IP address block of 192.255.255.168. up to five hosts (already configured) Third subnet.1 192.255.138 192.111.168.168.133 255.255.138 192.248 255.168.168.168.168.168.

For hosts 1A and 1B. In a future course you will learn much more about switched Ethernet technologies. make sure that the power is on to the device and to the interfaces (make sure that the Ethernet interfaces are not shut down).168. ICMP. Connect the Fa0/24 interface on the switch to the R2-Central Fa0/0 interface. Add the Fast Ethernet Interface card PT-HOST-NM-1CFE to PC 1B. Assign the highest usable subnet address to the gateway and the two lowest usable addresses to the PCs. the DNS server is 192. has an IP address of 192. and Fa0/24). Connect PC 1A to the Fa0/1 interface on the switch. web traffic. UDP. Remove the wireless card from PC 1B.138 /30. Fa0/2. For all devices. R1-ISP. the S1-Central switch interfaces (Fa0/1. use the highest usable address on the existing student LAN subnet. ■ ■ ■ Task 2: Repair Problems with the Ethernet Switched LAN PC 1B has a wireless card and cannot be connected to the switch.Chapter 9: Ethernet 261 Interface IP addresses: ■ ■ The server.111. The next-hop router (to which the default route should point). Task 4: Reflection The two Layer 2 and Layer 1 technologies in this model are a serial connection (between the routers) and the Ethernet LANs (for the ISP server and with the S1-Central switch). For R2-Central’s Fa0/0 interface. and the Inspect tool to trace packet flow in simulation mode. Set all Ethernet interfaces to autonegotiate speed and duplex (which will achieve full-duplex 100-Mbps operation if both ends of the link can support it). R1-ISP. DNS. TCP. to test your understanding of how the network is operating. The static route on R2-Central should be a default static route that points to R1-ISP’s serial interface IP address. . and the PC 1A interfaces are incorrect.133 /29. and R2-Central’s serial interface have already been configured. trace. and ARP viewable. Apparently the Ethernet speed and duplex settings for the R2-Central Fa0/0 interface. These procedures were explained in the Chapter 5 and 6 Skills Integration Challenges. Connect this newly installed Fast Ethernet NIC to the Fa0/2 interface on the switch.111.168. Compare and contrast the serial connection with Ethernet. For hosts 1A and 1B. Task 3: Test the Network Use ping. Add IP addresses to the router Fa0/0 interface and to the two PCs. use the first two IP addresses (the two lowest usable addresses) on the existing student LAN subnet. with HTTP.

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Devices need to have empty slots that allow the addition of modules that have more capabilities or that support new technologies. and capabilities. expandability. more capabilities. They flood all the frames they receive on one port out all other ports. Explain how adaptability to new technologies can be taken into consideration when selecting devices for a LAN. In this chapter. As a networking professional. Hubs are less expensive and less efficient than switches. and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of planning and cabling networks. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum labs to further reinforce that you have mastered the practical. 2. Switches are Layer 2 devices. and also new technology. The design of an IP addressing scheme is presented and then practiced with the help of concept questions and the hands-on labs. Compare and contrast the function of hubs and switches. use Chapter 10 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum or use the corresponding Chapter 10 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration Companion Guide for assistance. supported speeds. They filter frames. and switches are common network devices. and speeds of different ports and interfaces. In the long run. types. All of the ports of a hub are part of one collision domain. Each switch port is its own collision domain. Hubs should be used in small LANs. hands-on skills needed. more speed. Switches segment networks into multiple collision domains. you identify the cables needed to make successful LAN and WAN connections and learn how to use device management connections. you need to be familiar with the different device selection factors. Study Guide LANs: Making the Physical Connection A networking professional needs to know how to select and interconnect the proper devices for a network. though. As you work through this chapter. Hubs do not segment networks. A hub is a Layer 1 device. Be as detailed as possible. . They also allow for the interconnection of segments with different speeds. Hubs do not filter frames. hubs. Concept Questions 1. including cost.CHAPTER 10 Planning and Cabling Networks The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of multiple-choice. devices will need to be selected that go beyond the current need of the LAN in terms of number of ports. That affects the cost calculation because the costs will seem high compared to the current network needs. this up-front investment might save money. matching. Routers. and manageability. whereas a switch is a Layer 2 device. How does this affect the cost calculations? When selecting devices for a LAN it is important to allow for future growth. fill-in-the-blank. To allow for growth. Growth consists of more user devices. It is essential that you have knowledge of the different media types and the distinct roles they play with the devices that they connect. Switches are more expensive than hubs but use bandwidth more efficiently. Explain the advantage of one device over the other.

which can increase LAN performance. Device Interconnections When planning the installation of LAN cabling. By using high-speed fiber-optic media c. c. By delpoying gigabit switches only 2. 1. By providing multiple interconnections between a number of switches d. Concept Questions 1. d. there are several physical areas to consider. How do switches create collision domains? port. 1. Even though hubs can be interconnected. By deploying one central switch with a high port density b. . The computer and the router both have Medium Dependent Interface (MDI) connections with pins 1 and 2 for transmitting and pins 3 and 6 for receiving. Pins 3 and 6 of both devices will be connected in the same way. Each switch port creates a point-to-point dedicated connection to the devices connected to that b. a. A network administrator needs to be familiar with the different standards that define devices and cabling in these areas. By allowing the interconnection of segments with different speeds. they remain in a single collision domain. 3. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks for the following statements. Switches regenerate each bit of the frames they receive. How can redundancy be provided in a switched network? a. 2. A swich is used to segment a network into multiple collision domains. and no data transfer will be possible. The transmit wires of the cables will be connected to the transmit pins on the router and the computer. A switch provides dedicated bandwidth on each port. The straight-through cable will connect with its pins 1 and 2 to pins 1 and 2 of the computer. Explain what will happen when you use a straight-through cable to connect your computer to the Fast Ethernet interface of a router. Each area has its unique requirements and standards. By using a special cable type to connect to the devices on its ports.264 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Multiple-Choice Questions Choose the best possible answer for each of the following questions.

A router is considered a DTE device. It is extremely important that you understand IP addressing. The Data Communications Equipment (DCE) is a device that supplies the clocking services to another device. There are four physical areas to consider when planning the installation of LAN cabling. 1. Answers may vary. Typically. Telecommunications room: hubs. This router will provide the clocking that is usually provided by the service provider’s equipment. hubs. Main components are jacks to connect individual devices to the network. there is no service provider. and troubleshooting networks. switches. one router will act as the DCE and uses a DCE cable. List these four areas and their main components. The routers are connected back to back.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 265 2. Developing an Addressing Scheme Developing an IP addressing scheme is one of the most important tasks that you will have to perform as a network professional. or connects telecommunications rooms. this device is at the WAN access provider end of the link. routers. configuring. This knowledge is vital in designing. patch panels. this device is at the WAN customer or user end of the link. patch cables. The ANSI/TIA/EIA-568-B standard specifies the maximum cable length in UTP installations. Therefore. including computers and radio equipment. and switches. Interference can be produced by electrical machines. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks for the following statements that discuss features and issues related to different types of media. This is where the users access the network. In the lab setting. . UTP cabling uses RJ-45 connectors. 3. patch cables. 2. Explain how the serial connection to a WAN service provider differs from the way the serial connections are set up for the curriculum labs. and other communications devices. Signal attenuation and exposure to possible interference increase with cable length. Attenuation is the decrease in signal strength along an electrical or optical cable. data service units (DSU). cabling to access outside resources. Data Circuit-Terminal Equipment (DTE) is a device that receives clocking services from another device and adjusts accordingly. 4. high-bandwidth cabling that connects the telecommunications room with the work area. Work area: Work areas are dedicated to end devices. 3. Typically. sometimes servers Backbone cabling: Cabling that connects the telecommunications room to the equipment room Distribution/horizontal cabling: Typically. lighting. 5.

administrator computers. 1. You need to consider end devices such as user computers. servers. Which formula is used to calculate the number of hosts per network or subnet? Use n to represent the number of bits. a. Broadcast address d. IP phones. Gateway address 2. 2^n c. Each subnet requires a router interface as the gateway for that subnet. (n – 2) . Why does each connection between routers count as a separate subnet if there are no hosts connected? The router interfaces on the link connecting the two routers need to have IP addresses. What are some common categories that you can use to allocate IP addresses? Explain why you should use address schemes that fit a common pattern across your network. router LAN and WAN interfaces. 1. 2. (2^n – 2) d. and server addresses. and IP cameras.266 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Concept Questions 1. It is good practice to use IP addresses that fit a common pattern across all subnets. special users. What devices do you need to consider when counting devices in your network that need IP addresses. Some common categories are general users. Which addresses cannot be assigned to hosts? Choose all that apply. Network address c. and other end devices such as printers. Management address b. A systematic allocation of IP addresses makes troubleshooting and the addition of new hosts easier. 3. a. Network devices that require IP addresses for management purposes include switches and wireless access points. You also need to consider network devices such as router LAN interfaces and router WAN (serial) interfaces. management subnets. departments. (2^n – 1) b. Subnets divide broadcast domains into a number of smaller domains. Multiple-Choice Questions Choose the best possible answer(s) for the following questions. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks for the following statements dealing with IP addressing and subnetting. network resources. 3. Network devices requiring an IP address for management purposes are switches and wireless access points. 2.

Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 267 3. Network 5 needs to support 128 host addresses. Network 4 needs to support 52 host addresses.0 2. Concept Questions 1.252. If your network uses the address 172. a serial link.252.255. routers. which requires only two IP addresses. a. Device Interconnections Cisco devices. Variable-length subnet masking (VLSM) assigns the prefix and host bits to each network based on the number of hosts in that network. Network 2 needs to support 64 host addresses. Decreased costs b. Smaller broadcast domains c. can use a bit mask of 255.16.0. This way. and other subnets that require more host addresses can use different bit masks. You have the following network requirements: Network 1 needs to support 32 host addresses. Which addressing method will allow you to design an IP addressing scheme without wasting any host addresses? How is the efficiency of this method achieved? The method that allows for the most efficient IP addressing design without wasting any addresses is called variable-length subnet masking (VLSM).255.0 and you need to create 64 subnets. Larger collision domains Calculating the Subnets Two different methods can be used for allocating addresses to an Internetwork. What are advantages of dividing networks into subnets? Choose all that apply. It is important to understand the different types of interfaces and know the types of cable required to connect to the interfaces. . and switches have several different types of interfaces associated with them. LAN and WAN interfaces require different cabling and configuration.255. VLSM allows different subnet masks within one network. what will be the subnet mask for your network? 255. These interfaces are also referred to as ports. It allows a subnet to be subnetted. Network 3 needs to support 2 host addresses. Implementation of different levels of security d. The non-VLSM approach uses the same prefix length and the same number of host bits for each subnet.

a. Briefly describe the function of each of these interfaces. To establish communication with a router via a console on a remote WAN c. A CSU/DSU is a device used to make the physical connection between data networks and WAN provider’s circuits.268 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Concept Question List the four types of interfaces on Cisco routers and switches. The Ethernet interface b. The console interface d. Serial interface: This is the WAN interface. a. It connects to LAN devices such as computers or switches. It provides physical access to the router for troubleshooting. The Telnet interface c. What can Ethernet interfaces be used for? Choose all that apply. Which interface is the primary interface for the initial configuration of a Cisco device such as a router or a switch? a. WAN interfaces are used for connecting WAN devices to the CSU/DSU. 1. To make a back-to-back connection between routers in the lab d. To connect to a terminating device such as a switch or a computer . To establish a WAN connection b. Ethernet interface: This is the LAN interface of a router or a switch. To connect the router to the DSU/CSU 2. They can also connect to other routers. The serial interface 3. What are serial interfaces used for? Choose all that apply. To connect to other routers d. Auxiliary interface: This interface provides remote management for the router. Console interface: This is the primary interface for initial configuration of a Cisco device. To connect the router to a terminal for configuration purposes b. Multiple-Choice Questions Choose the best possible answers(s) for the following questions dealing with interface types. To connect to LAN devices such as computers and switches c.

255.2) Upon completion of this lab. You must determine the number of networks needed then design an appropriate addressing scheme. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ ■ Determine the number of subnets.3. You are only required to determine the number of subnets per topology example.168.2. Examine the use of the available network address space.255.0/24 to subnet and provide the IP addressing for the networks shown in the topology diagrams. Figure 10-1 Topology Diagram A Fa0/0 S0/0/0 S0/0/0 B1 B2 How many networks are shown in Figure 10-1? 2 How many bits should you allocate to create the required number of subnets? 1 How many usable host addresses did this give you? 126 What is the new subnet mask in decimal form? 255. the number of hosts is not important. Place the correct address and mask in the addressing table. you have been given the network address 192. Design an appropriate addressing scheme.1128 How many subnets are available for future use? 0 . Assign addresses and subnet mask pairs to device interfaces. Task 1: Determine the Number of Subnets in Topology Diagram A Use the topology in Figure 10-1 to answer the questions that follow. In this example.26. Scenario In this lab.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 269 Labs and Activities Lab 10-1: How Many Networks? (10.

129 192.26.26.128 192.26.192 How many subnets are available for future use? 0 . Table 10-1 Subnet Information Subnet Address First Usable Host Address Last Usable Host Address Broadcast Address Subnet Number 0 1 192.254 192. Figure 10-2 Topology Diagram B Fa0/0 S0/0/1 HQ S0/0/0 S0/0/1 S0/0/0 B1 B2 How many networks are there? 4 How many bits should you allocate to create the required number of subnets? 2 How many usable host addresses did this give you? 30 What is the new subnet mask in decimal form? 255.168.168.0 192.168.168.26.255 Task 3: Determine the Number of Subnets in Topology Diagram B Use the topology in Figure 10-2 to answer the questions that follow.1 192.255.26.26.26.168.127 192.270 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 2: Record Subnet Information Fill in Table 10-1 with the subnet information.126 192.168.26.168.168.255.

Table 10-2 Subnet Information Subnet Address First Usable Host Address Last Usable Host Address Broadcast Address Subnet Number 0 1 2 3 192.168.26.168.254 192.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 271 Task 4: Record Subnet Information Fill in Table 10-2 with the subnet information.168.26.168.26.168.26.127 192.63 192.26.168.26.168.26.26.1 192.64 192.192 192.168.224 How many subnets are available for future use? 2 .26.255 Task 5: Determine the Number of Subnets in Topology Diagram C Use the topology in Figure 10-3 to answer the questions that follow.62 192.26.26.190 192.168.191 192.26.168.168.129 192.0 192.168. Figure 10-3 Topology Diagram C S0/0/1 S0/0/0 B1 S0/0/0 S0/0/1 HQ S0/1/0 S0/0/0 B2 S0/0/1 S0/1/0 S0/0/0 S0/0/1 B3 Fa0/0 How many networks are there? 6 How many bits should you allocate to create the required number of subnets? 3 How many usable host addresses did this give you? 30 What is the new subnet mask in decimal form? 255.168.126 192.168.26.255.128 192. Use the subnet mask from Step 4.26.26.255.26.168.65 192.193 192.168.

168.26.1 192.26.26.168.26.224 192.96 192.126 192.168.31 192.168.26.168.26.168.26.168.168.26.168.225 192.26.223 192.26.65 192.26.97 192.26.168.168.127 192.26.168.272 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 6: Record Subnet Information Fill in the Table 10-3 with the subnet information.168.168.26.26.193 192.129 192.254 192.168.26.255 Task 7: Determine the Number of Subnets in Topology Diagram D Use the topology in Figure 10-4 to answer the questions that follow.26. Table 10-3 Subnet Information Subnet Address First Usable Host Address Last Usable Host Address Broadcast Address Subnet Number 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 192.26.192 192.168.26.30 192.168.26.26.26.26.32 192.190 192.26.26.222 192.168.26.168.168.168.168.26.26.168.168.26.168.168. Figure 10-4 Topology Diagram D Fa0/0 Fa0/0 S0/0/0 S0/0/1 Fa0/0 S0/0/0 S0/0/1 S0/0/1 S0/1/1 B1 S0/0/1 HQ B2 S0/0/0 S0/0/1 S0/0/0 S0/0/1 S0/0/0 B3 Fa0/0 B4 Fa0/0 Fa0/0 B5 .33 192.63 192.159 192.95 192.94 192.160 192.26.191 192.168.26.64 192.168.168.26.0 192.168.168.161 192.62 192.168.128 192.158 192.

168.168.168.208 192.16 192.26.15 192.79 192. Table 10-4 Subnet Information Subnet Address First Usable Host Address Last Usable Host Address Broadcast Address Subnet Number 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 192.26.145 192.26.223 192.168.192 192.168.174 192.168.144 192.168.209 192.168.1 192.26.168.239 192.176 192.78 192.26.168.168.26.26.26.168.168.143 192.26.26.49 192.168.127 192.2222 192.168.26.26.26.26.225 192.26.168.26.26.168.63 192.112 192.175 192.113 192.128 192.240 192.26.168.26.168.14 192.193 192.168.80 192.26.26.26.168.26.26.168.110 192.207 192.168.168.26.26.168.168.26.168.168.26.168.168.97 192.62 192.168. .26.26.158 192.26.168.168.168.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 273 How many networks are there? 12 How many bits should you allocate to create the required number of subnets? 4 How many usable host addresses did this give you? 14 What is the new subnet mask in decimal form? 255.168.168.168.47 192.168.96 192.168.240 How many subnets are available for future use? 4 Task 8: Record Subnet Information Fill in Table 10-4 with the subnet information.168.254 192.0 192.26.26.160 192.26.142 192.168.168.26.26.168.26.26.26.177 192.65 192.255.30 192.168.26.26.26.26.26.168.26.168.17 192.31 192.46 192.129 192.26.168.168.33 192.26.26.26.95 192.168.191 192.168.255 Task 9: Reflection What information is needed when determining an appropriate addressing scheme for a network? When determining an appropriate addressing scheme for a network.224 192.111 192.64 192.26.168.26.26.206 192.168.26.168.168.26.168.126 192.238 192.48 192.159 192.255.26.241 192.168.168.161 192.26.26.81 192.26.26.168.26.190 192.26. you need the number of networks and hosts.26.26.168.168.168.32 192.168.168.26.94 192.168.

Verify LAN connectivity. not yet connected to the network. as shown in Figure 10-5. Configure the physical lab topology. Subnet zero will be used. Background Table 10-5 shows the equipment and hardware requirements for this lab. Table 10-5 Hardware Equipment and Hardware for Lab Quantity Description Cisco Router Cisco Switch Computer (host) Cat5 better straight-through UTP cable Cat5 crossover UTP cable Scenario 1 1 3 3 1 Part of CCNA Lab bundle Part of CCNA Lab bundle Lab computer Connects Router 1 and computers Host1 and Host2 to Switch1 Connects computer Host1 to Router1 In this lab. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ ■ Design the logical network.6. Subnet C and Subnet D are anticipated subnets. you create a small network that requires connecting network devices and configuring host computers for basic network connectivity.1.1) Upon completion of this lab. .274 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Lab 10-2: Creating a Small Lab Topology (10. Gather the necessary equipment and cables. Figure 10-5 Topology for Lab 10-2 Subnet A Fa0/0 Fa0/1 Subnet B Fa0/1 1 R1 Fa0/2 S1 Fa0/3 Subnet C Subnet D 2 3 Note: The CD-ROM accompanying this book contains a subnet chart for the last IP address octet. Subnet A and Subnet B are subnets that are currently needed. Configure the logical LAN topology.

255. students will learn how to configure a router.198 255. ******************************************************************* % ! . The following example contains a basic configuration for Router 1. If you do not have a router that has two Fast Ethernet interfaces. Another alternative is to use two routers connected through a serial connection and use the Fast Ethernet interfaces from each router.255. Authorized access only. Example Router 1 Configuration Router1 configuration ! service timestamps debug uptime service timestamps log uptime no service password-encryption ! no ip domain-lookup ! hostname Router1 ! enable secret cisco ! ! interface FastEthernet0/0 description connection to Host1 ip address no shutdown ! interface FastEthernet0/1 description connection LAN ip address no shutdown ! ip classless ip http server ! banner motd % ******************************************************************* 172.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 275 Note to instructor: In Chapter 11 labs.20.248 172. the router should be configured for students.0. For this lab.255.252 This is Eagle 1 lab router Router1.0.202 255. consider configuring a loopback interface as an alternative to the FastEthernet 0/1.20.255.

0. and pick the first address block that will support Subnet D.20. Begin the logical network design by satisfying the requirement of Subnet D.10000000 .0. Refer to the subnet chart on the CD-ROM.255. Table 10-6 Subnet Subnet Requirements Number of Hosts Subnet A Subnet B Subnet C Subnet D 2 6 47 125 Host computers from each subnet will use the first available IP address in the address block.11111111.1 172.20.1111111. Design Subnet D address block.0 255. which requires the largest block of IP addresses.0. Table 10-7 Subnet D IP Address Information Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast Network Address 172. Router interfaces will use the last available IP address in the address block.255.20. Fill in Table 10-7 with IP address information for Subnet D. design an IP addressing scheme that satisfies the requirements listed in Table 10-6.0/24 (address / mask).0.0.127 11111111.20.128 What is the bit mask? 172.1 172. Step 1.276 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide line con 0 password cisco ! line con 0 password cisco login line aux 0 line vty 0 4 password cisco login ! end Task 1: Design the Logical Network Given an IP address and mask of 172.20.

191 What is the bit mask? 11111111.0.201 172.202 172. Table 10-8 Subnet C IP address information Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast Network Address 172.0.20.0.20.1111111. Satisfy the requirement of Subnet A.11111000 Step 4.0. the next largest IP address block.198 172.255.255. the next largest address block. Table 10-9 Subnet B IP Address Information Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast Network Address 172.20. Table 10-10 Subnet A IP Address Information Network Address Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast 172.192 172.1111111. Refer to the subnet chart on the CD-ROM.0. Fill in Table 10-10 with IP address information for Subnet A.11111111.255.20. Satisfy the requirement for Subnet C.20.11111100 .200 255.255. and pick the next available address block that will support Subnet C. and pick the next available address block that will support Subnet A.20.0. Satisfy the requirement of Subnet B. Fill in Table 10-8 with IP address information for Subnet C.0.255.20.20.128 255. Refer to the subnet chart on the CD-ROM.252 172. Design Subnet B address block.193 172.20. Design Subnet D address block. Design Subnet A address block.20. Refer to the subnet chart on the CD-ROM.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 277 Step 2.248 172. Fill in Table 10-9 with IP address information for Subnet B.11111111.0. and pick the next available address block that will support Subnet B.11000000 Step 3.20.20.192 255.0.129 172.0.0.11111111.0.11111111.199 What is the bit mask? 11111111.203 What is the bit mask? 11111111.190 172.255.

enter the information for Host 1. Ensure that all switch connections show green. In Table 10-11. Confirm that the power is applied to the connected device.202 In Table 10-12. enter addressing information for Host 2.255. and Router 1 to Switch 1.0. the gateway address is the IP address assigned to the router interface for that subnet. Visually inspect network connections. If not already enabled. Attention to detail now will minimize the time required to troubleshoot network connectivity issues later. and why? Both devices have similar network interfaces.20. Host 2. Cable the network devices as shown in Figure 10-5.201 255.0. What cable type is needed to connect Host 1. The host computer gateway IP address is used to send IP packets to other networks. Physically connect devices.255. and why? The switch ports are dissimilar to the router and computer network interfaces. take a moment to verify the connections. From the IP address information recorded in Task 1. and like devices require a crossover cable. After cabling the network devices.20. write down the IP address information for each computer in the tables that follow. . Therefore. straight-through cables are required. Table 10-11 Host 1 Address Type Address IP address IP mask Gateway address 172. Therefore.278 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 2: Configure the Physical Lab Topology Step 1. What type of cable connects Router1 interface Fa0/0 to Host 1? Crossover cable What type of cable connects Router 1 interface Fa0/1 to Switch 1? Straight-through cable What type of cable connects Host 2 to Switch 1? Straight-through cable What type of cable connects Host 3 to Switch 1? Straight-through cable Is all equipment turned on? Yes Task 3: Configure the Logical Topology Step 1. the correct cable is used. Document logical network settings. Any switch connection that does not transition from amber to green should be investigated. turn power on to all devices. What cable type is needed to connect Host 1 to Router 1. Step 2. and the correct cable is functional.252 172.

255. On the General tab.20.194 255.248 172.0.20. Manually enter the following information. enter addressing information for Host 3. 172.0.193 255.0.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 279 Table 10-12 Host 2 Address Type Address IP address IP mask Gateway address 172.20. click Start > Control Panel > Network Connections.198 Configure the Host 1 computer.255. select Internet Protocol (TCP/IP).20.248 172.198 In Table 10-13. recorded in the preceding Step 1: ■ ■ ■ IP address: Host1 IP address Subnet mask: Host1 subnet mask Default gateway: Gateway IP address Figure 10-6 Host 1 IP Addressing and Gateway Settings .255. On Host 1. and then click the Properties button.255. Right-click the Local Area Connection device icon and choose Properties. Figure 10-6 shows Host 1 IP address and gateway settings.0. Table 10-13 Host 3 Address Type Address IP address IP mask Gateway address Step 2.

198 172.20. Remember that the default gateway address on the computers is the IP address of the Fast Ethernet interface of the router that the computers connect to via the switch.194 172.0. disable the firewall (for your ping tests to work).20.0. Step 3.0. Fa0/0 Host 1 Host 2 Gateway (Router 1. Use Table 10-14 to methodically verify and record connectivity with each network device.0. Otherwise. and then press Enter.202 172.201 172.20. Fa0/0) Router 1. Open a terminal window by clicking Start > Run. Switch 1 should have a default configuration. close the Internet Protocols (TCP/IP) Properties window by clicking OK. Network connectivity can be verified with the Windows ping command.280 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide When finished. If your computer’s operating system is Windows XP SP2.20.202 172.0. the computer might require a reboot for changes to be effective.202 172.0.20. Close the Local Area Connection window.0.20.0. Type cmd.20.20. Fa0/1) Router 1. Fa0/1 Host 2 Host 3 Host 3 Gateway (Router 1. it might be a gateway issue.20.201 Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Note any break in connectivity. using the IP address information for those computers. Try to disable and then reenable the network interface card (NIC) by right-clicking the NIC in the Local Area Connection Properties window.0.0. Depending on the Windows operating system.0.198 172. When troubleshooting connectivity issues.0. In this scenario. how can you detect a malfunctioning gateway? If Host 2 and Host 3 can successfully ping each other but not Host 1. Fa0/1) Router1. connectivity will be broken between LANs.198 172.20.20. Take corrective action to establish connectivity if a test fails. Fa0/0 Host 1 172.194 172. Repeat Step 2 for computers Host 2 and Host 3.193 172.193 172. Table 10-14 Network Connectivity Test Results From To IP Address Ping Results Host 1 Host 1 Host 1 Host 1 Host 2 Host 2 Host 2 Host 2 Host 3 Host 3 Host 3 Host 3 Gateway (Router 1. Task 4: Verify Network Connectivity Verify with your instructor that Router 1 has been configured. .20. the topology diagram shown in Figure 10-5 can prove extremely helpful. Configure Host 2 and Host 3 computers.

However. It is best to practice host computer configuration and verification several times. Task 7: Clean Up Unless directed otherwise by the instructor.6. List the problems. and then turn off power to the host computers.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. you configured host computers with network addresses and tested them for connectivity. This will reinforce the skills you learned in this lab and make you a better network technician. Step 2. Hosts cannot ping the router. Task 6: Challenge Ask your instructor or another student to introduce one or two problems in your network when you aren’t looking or are out of the lab room. document the solution. A summary of the instructions is provided within the Packet Tracer activity. Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Creating a Small Topology (10. To fix the problems. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. . follow these steps: Note to instructors: A simple way to introduce problems is to switch the Fast Ethernet connections. If the solution fixed the problem. Perform a good visual inspection.1. Use the table provided in Task 3 to identify failed connectivity. Answers may vary. Check the default gateways on the hosts. Check the IP address configuration. Step 1. Be sure that you have a thorough understanding of the procedures used to verify network connectivity. If the solution did not fix the problem. Hosts 1 and 2 cannot ping Host 3. and leave the room ready for the next class. Step 4. keep in mind that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. Test your solution.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 281 Task 5: Reflection Review any physical or logical configuration problems encountered during this lab. Reconnect cables that were disconnected for this lab. Check cabling. Answers may vary. Carefully remove cables and return them neatly to their storage. restore host computer network connectivity.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab10612. Write down your proposed solution(s). Look for green link lights on Switch 1. In addition to practicing IP subnetting. Step 3. This is a particularly important lab. continue troubleshooting. Problems can be either physical (wrong UTP cable) or logical (wrong IP address or gateway).

A serial interface on a computer is connected to the Cisco device via a rollover cable. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ Connect a router and computer using a console cable. Figure 10-7 Establishing a Console Session with HyperTerminal Straight-Through Cable Serial Cable Console (Rollover) Crossover Cable The following resources are required: ■ ■ ■ Computer with a serial interface and HyperTerminal loaded Cisco router Console (rollover) cable for connecting the workstation to the router Task 1: Connect a Router and Computer with a Console Cable Step 1.2. or a combination.1) Upon completion of this lab. Any router that meets the interface requirements may be used.282 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Lab 10-3: Establishing a Console Session with HyperTerminal (10. Possible routers include 800. 2500. Background HyperTerminal is a simple Windows-based terminal emulation program for serial communication that can be used to connect to the console port on Cisco IOS devices. Another popular serial communication utility is TeraTerm Web.6. 1600. 2600 routers. . Using HyperTerminal is the most basic way to access a router for checking or changing its configuration. Connect the other cable end to the host computer with a DB-9 or DB-25 adapter to the COM 1 port. 1700. Connect the console (rollover) cable to the console port on the router. Instructions for TeraTerm Web use are contained in the section “Lab 10-3 (Alternative): Establishing a Console Session with TeraTerm” later in this chapter. Configure HyperTerminal to establish a console session with a Cisco IOS router. Configure HyperTerminal to establish a console session with a Cisco IOS switch. Scenario Set up a network similar to the one in Figure 10-7. Set up the basic physical connection.

start the HyperTerminal program by clicking Start > All Programs > Accessories > Communications > HyperTerminal. Step 2. Figure 10-8 shows an example of the opening HyperTerminal configuration window. or leave the default. Figure 10-9 HyperTerminal Connection Type .Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 283 Step 2. enter the appropriate connection type. Task 2: Configure HyperTerminal to Establish a Console Session with a Cisco IOS Router Step 1. in the Connect using field. If not already powered on. Select an appropriate icon. Power on the devices. At the Connection Description window. Start the HyperTerminal application. Configure HyperTerminal. you might have to use an USB connection rather than the COM port. From the Windows taskbar. Click OK. the program prompts for an area code/phone number. enable power to the computer and router. COM 1. Figure 10-8 HyperTerminal Connection Description Window In the Connect To window shown in Figure 10-9. Click OK. If you are accessing HyperTerminal for the first time. enter a session name in the Name field. Note to instructors: On newer systems. You need to fill in a number to be able to continue.

Click File > Open. verify that the router has power. Enter a name for the session. Close HyperTerminal. Click File > Exit. change port settings to the values in Table 10-15. ask the instructor for assistance. this indicates that connection has been successfully completed. When finished. Check the connection to the correct COM 1 port on the PC and the console port on the router. Reopen the HyperTerminal session as described in Task 2. Step 3. Step 4. . When finished. Use this technique to reconnect the HyperTerminal session to a Cisco device without reconfiguring a new session. If there is still no connection. There should be a response from the router. 9600 8 None 1 None When the HyperTerminal session window comes up. Step 1. Select the saved session. click Cancel. When asked whether to save the session. Figure 10-10 HyperTerminal COM 1 Port Settings Table 10-15 HyperTerminal Port Settings Settings Value Bits per second Data bits Parity Stop bits Flow control Click OK. This time. and then click Open. For example.284 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide In the COM 1 Properties box shown in Figure 10-10. close the HyperTerminal session. press the Enter key. Reconnect the HyperTerminal session. when the Connection Description window opens. exit HyperTerminal. troubleshoot as necessary. click Yes. If there is no connection.

Step 3. In the Connect To window. See Figure 10-11. In the COM 1 Properties window. 9600 8 None 1 None . Set up the basic physical connection. Power on the devices.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 285 Task 3: Configure HyperTerminal to Establish a Console Session with a Cisco IOS Switch Serial connections between Cisco IOS routers and switches are similar. If not already powered on. Configure HyperTerminal. Start the HyperTerminal application. Table 10-16 Port Settings Settings Value Bits per second Data bits Parity Stop bits Flow control Click OK. Step 2. you make a serial connection between the host computer and a Cisco IOS switch. start the HyperTerminal program by clicking Start > Programs > Accessories > Communications > HyperTerminal. Use the procedure described in Task 2. change port settings to the values shown in Table 10-16. or leave the default. Step 1. In this task. At the opening HyperTerminal Connection Description window. Connect the other cable end to the host computer with a DB-9 or DB-25 adapter to the COM 1 port. Click OK. to configure HyperTerminal. Click OK. COM 1. Figure 10-11 Serial Connection Between a Host Computer and Cisco Switch 1 S1 Step 2. Step 4. enable power to the computer and switch. Connect the console (rollover) cable to the console port on the router. in the Connect using field. Select an appropriate icon. enter the appropriate connection type. From the Windows taskbar. enter a session name in the Name field.

Close HyperTerminal.286 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide When the HyperTerminal session window comes up. close the HyperTerminal session. press the Enter key. Remove the rollover cable. There should be a response from the switch. Check the connection to the correct COM 1 port on the PC and the console port on the switch. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. Click File > Exit. turn off power to the host computer and router. Task 5: Clean Up Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. If there is still no connection. and be able to identify the different cable types. Task 3: Reflection This lab provided information for establishing a console connection to a Cisco IOS router and switch. You will only be able to connect to the router if you are using the proper settings. click No. For example. If there is no connection. verify that the switch has power. When asked whether to save the session. Task 4: Challenge Draw the pin connections for the rollover cable and straight-through cable. Compare the differences. Step 5. and leave the room ready for the next class. When finished. . this indicates that connection has been successfully completed. Be sure to remember the correct HyperTerminal port settings. troubleshoot as necessary. ask the instructor for assistance.

Connect the console (rollover) cable to the console port on the router.ayera. Any router that meets the interface requirements may be used. Scenario Cable a network similar to Figure 10-12. Connect the other cable end to the PC with a DB-9 or DB-25 adapter to the COM 1 port. Ensure that power is turned off on the computer and Cisco router. Enable power to the computer and router.com/teraterm/. or a combination. Note to instructor: TeraTerm is not available on the Eagle Server. Possible routers include 800. but it can be downloaded from the following http://www.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 287 Lab 10-3 (Alternative): Establishing a Console Session with TeraTerm Upon completion of this lab. 1700. 2600 routers. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ Connect a router and computer using a console cable. Configure TeraTerm to establish a console session with the router. Step 2. Background TeraTerm Web is another simple Windows-based terminal emulation program for serial communication that can be used to connect to the console port on Cisco IOS devices. 1600. Power on the devices. Figure 10-12 Establishing a Console Session with TeraTerm Straight-Through Cable Serial Cable Console (Rollover) Crossover Cable The following resources are required: ■ ■ ■ Computer with a serial interface and TeraTerm Pro loaded Cisco router Console (rollover) cable for connecting the workstation to the router Task 1: Connect a Router and Computer with a Console Cable Step 1. . 2500. Set up the basic physical connection.

Click File > Exit. This time. Figure 10-13 TeraTerm Web Connection Configuration Window When the TeraTerm Web session window comes up. Select the saved session. when the New Description window opens (see Figure 10-13). click Yes. start the TeraTerm Web program by opening the TeraTerm Web folder. Reconnect the TeraTerm Web session. this indicates that the connection has been successfully completed. Reopen the TeraTerm Web session as described in Task 2. and then click Open. verify that the router has power. If there is no connection. close the TeraTerm Web session. ttermpro. Step 4. Start TeraTerm Web application. Step 1. If there is still no connection. When asked whether to save the session. From the Windows taskbar. . When finished. Select the appropriate serial COM port. Click File > Open. Use this technique to reconnect the TeraTerm Web session to a Cisco device without reconfiguring a new session. There should be a response from the router.288 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 2: Configure TeraTerm Web to Establish a Console Session with the Router Step 1. Refer to Figure 10-13. Configure TeraTerm Web Click File > New Connection. Close TeraTerm Web. and starting the TeraTerm Web application. ask the instructor for assistance. press the Enter key. Cisco switches are accessed in the same way. click Cancel. For example. Step 3. Task 3: Reflection This lab provided information for establishing a console connection to a Cisco router. troubleshoot as necessary. Remember that you must use the correct serial port configurations to connect to the Cisco device via Minicom. Step 2. Check the connection to the COM 1 port on the PC and the console port on the router. Enter a name for the session. Click OK.

Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 289 Task 4: Challenge Draw the pin connections for the rollover cable and straight-through cable. A summary of the instructions is provided within the Packet Tracer activity. keep in mind that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. Compare the differences. However.2. .pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab10622. and leave the room ready for the next class. Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Establishing a Console Session with PT Terminal (10.6. Task 5: Clean Up Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. Remove the rollover cable. turn off power to the host computer and router. and be able to identify the different cable types.

such as controlling a modem or accessing a Cisco router through the serial console connection.290 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Lab 10-4: Establishing a Console Session with Minicom (10. Ensure that power is turned off on the computer and Cisco router. 1700. similar to the Windows HyperTerminal program. Any router that meets the interface requirements may be used. The Linux or UNIX operating system is required. 2600 routers. Power on the devices. Background Minicom is a text-based UNIX terminal emulation program. Configure Minicom to establish a console session with the router. or a combination. . Possible routers include 800. Set up the basic physical connection. 2500. Connect the console (rollover) cable to the console port on the router. Step 2. Minicom can be used for many purposes. Enable power to the computer and router. Figure 10-14 Topology for Lab 10-4 Straight-Through Cable Serial Cable Console (Rollover) Crossover Cable The following resources are required: ■ ■ ■ Linux/UNIX computer with a serial interface and Minicom loaded Cisco router Console (rollover) cable for connecting the workstation to the router Task 1: Connect a Router and Computer with a Console Cable Step 1. Connect the other cable end to the PC with a DB-9 or DB-25 adapter to the COM 1 port.3. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ Connect a router and computer using a console cable. 1600. Scenario Set up a network similar to the one in Figure 10-14.6. Perform basic commands.1) Upon completion of this lab.

Figure 10-16 Serial Port Configuration Window Table 10-17 Serial Port Settings Option Field Value A Serial Device Dev/ttyS0 for COM 1 /dev/ttyS1 for COM 2 E Bps/Par/Bits Bps: 9600 Par: None Bits: 8 Stop bits: 1 (or.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 291 Task 2: Configure Minicom to Establish a Console Session with the Router Step 1. Use the letter by the field to change a setting. enter the minicom command with the –s option. Note: To configure Minicom. . To configure the serial port. Table 10-17 shows the correct values. Press Enter. Figure 10-15 Main Configuration Window Figure 10-16 shows the serial port configuration window. This starts Minicom in configuration mode: [root]# minicom –s <ENTER> Step 2. Configure Minicom for serial communications. scroll down the configuration list and select Serial port setup. to start Minicom. select option Q) F G Hardware Flow Control Software Flow Control Toggle: No Toggle: No Return to the Configuration menu by pressing Enter or Esc. From the Linux command prompt. root access is required. Figure 10-15 shows the main configuration window. Start the Minicom application in configuration mode.

Restart the Minicom session. Close Minicom. press the Enter key. However. use <Ctrl> A. Check the connection to the correct COM 1 port on the PC and the console port on the router. Figure 10-18 shows a list of functions and corresponding keys. verify that the router has power. When Minicom is restarted. To get help. Task 3: Perform Basic Commands Minicom is a text-based. When finished. select Save setup as dfl (default file). serial communication utility. press <Ctrl> A. If there is no connection. There should be a response from the router. troubleshoot as necessary. Step 4. followed by either Q or X. menu-driven. For example. For example. press <Ctrl> A. . Basic commands are not intuitive. close the Minicom session. to control the utility. Select Exit from Minicom. users communicate with remote devices within the terminal window. To quit Minicom. Cisco switches are accessed in the same fashion. Figure 10-18 Minicom Command Summary Screen Task 4: Reflection This lab provided information for establishing a console connection to a Cisco router using Minicom. the default values will be reloaded. as follows: [root]# minicom <ENTER> When the session window starts. Figure 10-17 Serial Port Configuration Window Step 3. followed by Z. this indicates that a connection has been successfully completed.292 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide In the window shown in Figure 10-17.

255.168.252 255.168.255.134 192.1.94 R2 Fa0/0 Fa0/1 S0/0/0 S0/0/1 R3 Fa0/0 S0/0/0 S0/0/1 PC1-A PC2-A PC3-A Eagle-Server NIC NIC NIC NIC .255.126 192. Background Table 10-18 shows the addressing for this lab.1.113 192.168.255.1.240 255. However. turn off power to the host computer and router.3) You can now open the file LSG01-PTSkills10. Test the network.192 255.255.168.255.133 192.255.1.255.252 255.1.255.255.168.168.168.168.93 255.1.97 192.1.240 255.252 255.168.1.1.224 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 192.62 192. Packet Tracer Challenge Skills and Integration Challenge: Planning and Cabling Networks (10.7.168.255.1.224 255.1.1. Upon completion of this lab.129 192.255.252 255.138 192.255. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. and leave the room ready for the next class.255.255.1. Remove the rollover cable.130 192.1.240 255.168.255.168.240 255.137 192.255.255. Plan the IP addresses.252 255. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ ■ Build the network topology.252 255.255.168.94 192.255. Table 10-18 Addressing Table Device Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1 Fa0/0 S0/0/0 S0/0/1 192.192 255.1.1 192.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer.168.168.1.168. Configure router and PC interfaces.1.62 192.255.255.168.110 192.110 192.255.255.1.126 192.1.255.255.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 293 Task 5: Clean Up Unless directed otherwise by the instructor.168.255. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity.255. keep in mind that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment.

1. Table 10-20 Switches Hostname Interface Connects To Interfaces SW-1 SW-2A SW-2B SW-3 Fa0/2 Fa0/2 Fa0/2) Fa0/2 PC-1A PC-1B Eagle-Server PC-1C FastEthernet FastEthernet FastEthernet FastEthernet Task 2: Create and Assign an Addressing Scheme You are asked to use the 192. planning. assign the networks in decreasing order of number of hosts required for efficient use of address space. Device names and routing have already been configured. Use Table 10-21 and Table 10-22 to create an effective addressing scheme. Table 10-19 shows the router information.168. Table 10-21 LAN Hostname Interface Number of Hosts R1 R2 Fa0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/1 60 10 30 7 R3 Fa0/0 . and configuration skills.0 /24 address space. Table 10-19 Routers Hostname Interface Connects To Interfaces R1 R1 R1 R2 R2 R2 R3 Fa0/0 S0/0/0 (DCE) S0/0/1 (DCE) Fa0/0 S0/0/1 (DCE) Fa0/1 Fa0/0 SW-1 R2 R3 SW-2A R3 SW-2B SW-3 Fa0/1 S0/0/0 S0/0/1 Fa0/1 S0/0/0 Fa0/1 Fa0/1 Table 10-20 shows the switch information.294 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Practice your network building. Seven total networks are required. Task 1: Build the Network Topology Use the following tables and the devices in the device pool to create the topology.

and the R2–R3 link will use the third WAN subnet. and the server. . R1 and R2 DCE interfaces should have clock rates of 56000. the R1–R3 link will use the second WAN subnet. the PCs. The R1–R2 link will use the first WAN subnet. and R3 routers. other PCs. R2. and the server according to the preceding addressing scheme. Task 4: Testing Connectivity Make sure all PCs can ping their gateways. ■ ■ Task 3: Interface Configuration Perform interface configuration of the R1. All Fast Ethernet ports on a router will use the last host address of the assigned subnet.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 295 Table 10-22 WAN Hostname Address to be Assigned Number of Hosts R1–R3 R1–R3 R2–R3 R1–First host address R1–First host address R2–First host address 2 2 2 Use the following rules to assign IP addresses: ■ PCs will use the first host address in the subnet. the server will use the second to last host address in its subnet.

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use Chapter 11 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum. Access through the AUX port does not require network services on the device. Telnet and SSH provide remote access to the device and require network services. it is important to protect it with a password. What security concerns do you need to consider for the different access methods? Answers will vary. fill-in-the-blank. such as routing and switching. The AUX port can be used to access the device either locally or through a dialup connection. Discuss when and why you would use a certain method. or use the corresponding Chapter 11 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration Companion Guide. Concept Questions 1. For security reasons. Study Guide Configuring Cisco Devices: IOS Basics Routers and switches need an operating system to function. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum activities and labs to ensure you have mastered the practical. The operating system on most Cisco devices is the Cisco IOS. and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of configuring and testing networks.CHAPTER 11 Configuring and Testing Your Network The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of matching. troubleshooting. and quality of service. just like the console port. disaster recovery. addressing. Describe the different access methods for Cisco devices. and password recovery. As you work through this chapter. hands-on skills you need. security. The console port provides a low-speed serial connection and is used mainly when network services are unavailable on the device—during initial configuration. for assistance. . multiple-choice. When an AUX port is available. SSH is preferred over Telnet. Not all devices have an AUX port. It provides a number of network services. SSH uses more secure password authentication and encrypts the data for transport. It is important to configure the console port with a password and prevent physical access to the router by keeping it in a locked room. Understanding these functions and being able to access them is essential for network administrators and technicians.

match the device prompt on the left with the correct IOS configuration mode on the right. Therefore. Switch(config-if)# b. Authentication can be configured for different modes. For example. Switch> b. Each time a device is started or reloaded.298 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide 2. which is volatile memory. the startup configuration file loads into RAM. the network administrator can grant different personnel different levels of access. The main advantage is the controlled access or security. The startup configuration file is stored in nonvolatile RAM (NVRAM). Answers may vary. location. Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 11-1. and how they relate to each other. these changes are not permanent unless they are written to the startup configuration file in NVRAM. It is important to save changes that need to be permanent. Privileged EXEC mode c. because this file is stored in RAM. A network technician might be allowed to look at configurations but not change them. Router(config)# d. 3. Router# c. Interface configuration mode Cisco IOS Command Exercises Answer these questions based on the following command: Router#show ip interface brief 1. Table 11-1 Prompt IOS Configuration Modes IOS Configuration Mode a. Describe the advantage of the hierarchical modal structure. 2. Answers may vary. it becomes the running configuration file—the file that is used to operate the device. User EXEC mode d. Compare and contrast the two main configuration files on Cisco devices in terms of function. the startup configuration file stays intact when the device is powered off. What is the name of the command? show Does this command use arguments or keywords? Keywords . These changes are active immediately. Global configuration mode a. Any configuration changes that are made to the device are written to the running configuration file. Because this file is in RAM. The running configuration file is lost when the device is powered down. After it is loaded into RAM.

Passwords establish basic security at the local level. show version: IOS information in RAM show startup-config: Backup configuration file in NVRAM show running-config: Active configuration file in RAM show flash: Operating systems stored in flash Test Your Knowledge Use Table 11-2 to test your knowledge of the command-line interface (CLI) shortcuts and hot keys. ROM. Because configuration files are critical. Possible locations are RAM. the network administrator needs to exercise proper file management by saving changes to the configuration and by backing up configuration files. Where do the following commands get the information they display? Name the file if applicable and the storage location of this information. Hostnames are important for network documentation and remote access. passwords. Table 11-2 Key IOS Command-Line Help Function Tab Ctrl-R Ctrl-Z Up arrow Down arrow Ctrl-D Ctrl-C Ctrl-Shift-6 Backspace exit Autocomplete: completes the remainder of the command or keyword Redisplays a line Exits configuration mode and returns to privileged EXEC mode Scrolls backwards through previously entered commands Scrolls forward through previously entered commands Deletes the character to the right of the cursor Aborts the current command and exits configuration mode Interrupts an IOS process such as ping or traceroute Deletes the character to the left of the cursor A command to move up one level in the configuration mode hierarchy Applying a Basic Configuration Using Cisco IOS All networking devices need a basic configuration to be functional. and IP addresses are needed to establish connectivity with other devices on the network. and the IP addresses and descriptions on the interface.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 299 3. and flash. . NVRAM. The most important initial configuration parameters include hostnames.

proper file management is very important. Enter interface configuration mode. The administrator does not have the physical devices in front of him or her to make sure they are attached to the correct piece of equipment. Which of the following interface commands allows you to enter interface configuration mode to configure a router’s interface? a. Explain why the hostname is an extremely important feature for networking devices. Enter global configuration mode. Explain how good management of configuration files can be implemented.) a. Answers may vary. 3. This means that the administrator connects to the networking devices via the network. help the administrator know what device he or she is connected to. Including dates in the naming convention can be helpful. Hostnames are a vital part of network management. The directory structure needs to be logical and should be documented. Filenaming conventions are extremely important. Banners provide a method for declaring that only authorized personnel should have access to the devices. together with up-to-date documentation. The administrator needs to have fast access to the desired files. Specify the interface address and subnet mask. and explain why they should contain some type of warning message. . such as routers and switches. Therefore. Network configuration files are extremely important on a production network. a logical naming scheme that includes version control is critical. Briefly explain the purpose of banners. 1. This can prove helpful if somebody breaks into the system and a legal case arises. Router(config)# interface 0/1/0 b. Therefore. Router# interface s0 c. Be specific in your answer. d. Which of the following steps are required to configure an Ethernet interface? (Choose all that apply. Most networking devices. Backing up configuration files is part of good file management. It is good practice to advise against unauthorized access with the help of banners. There should always be backup copies of files to aid in disaster recovery. Enable the interface. Answers will vary. such as from an office. The filename also needs to indicate the hostname of the device it belongs to.300 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Concept Questions 1. are managed remotely. Multiple-Choice Questions Choose the best possible answer(s) for the following questions dealing with interface configuration network testing. Router(config)> interface s0/1/0 2. b. They are visible to anyone who logs on to the system. 2. and they need to be worded carefully. because this lets you sort files by date if needed. Hostnames. Answers will vary. c. Router(config)# interface s0/1/0 d.

One effective way to test network connectivity is to use the ping command. show interfaces c. Testing network connectivity is a very important task. 2. Because it tests connectivity at Layers 3.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 301 3. Like other hosts. show interface description 4. 3. Because it tests all the layers of the OSI model. The output of which of the following commands shows the interface description? (Choose all that apply. and 1 of the OSI model. 2. show running-configuration d. Period (. It is possible that a router along the path did not have a route to the destination and did not send an ICMP destination unreachable message.) a. The ping 127. and Layer 3 connectivity has been established. It verifies the proper operation of the protocol stack from the network layer to the physical layer (and back) without putting a signal on the medium. A connectivity problem has occurred along the path. Time to Live (TTL) defines the number of hops that the ping packet has remaining before it will be dropped.1 command can be used to test the local host IP configuration. Why is the ping test also called testing the protocol stack? a. show IP interface brief b. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following sentences. 1.): The ping timed out. It is also possible that the ping was blocked by security measures. Because it uses a protocol stack to perform connectivity testing. A network administrator needs to be familiar with the different testing utilities such as ping and traceroute and the different show commands. Verifying Connectivity A network needs full connectivity to converge. Because the ping test tests all the layers of the TCP/IP model. Test Your Knowledge The ping utility yields useful indicators that can be used for troubleshooting. Concept Question Explain how the internal IP configuration on the local host can be tested. Describe the following indicators. Exclamation mark (!): The ping completed successfully.0. c. . The letter U: A router along the path did not have a route to the destination address and responded with an ICMP unreachable message. a switch needs a default gateway address defined to communicate with hosts outside the local network. The output provided by the utilities and the show commands provides useful information for troubleshooting. b. d. Answers may vary.0.

For this experiment to be interesting. You will note the latency value at the center of the ordered range of latency points (median) and identify the most frequently occurring delay (mode). the network cloud represents all the network devices and cabling between the student computer and the destination server computer.3) Upon completion of this lab. otherwise. Normally these devices are the ones that introduce network latency. Network engineers routinely rely on networks outside of local administration for connectivity to external networks. delay cannot be computed. You will also measure delay when the ICMP datagram size increases. and some private networks block transit ICMP echo datagrams. and during different periods of the day. a sufficiently distant destination should be chosen. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ Use the ping command to document network latency. If you’re patient. You will summarize return delay times. Some computers have this feature disabled through a firewall. Figure 11-1 Topology for Lab 11-1 Server Computer Network Cloud Student Computer . by computing the average latency (mean). The purpose of this lab is to measure and evaluate network latency over time. this lab must be performed on a live network.3. Be sure to check with your instructor for any local security restrictions on using the ping command on the network.302 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Labs and Activities Lab 11-1: Network Latency Documentation with ping (11.4. you can find a suitable destination. to capture a representative sample of typical network activity. Measure delay effects from larger datagrams. Background To obtain realistic network latency statistics. Compute various statistics on the output of a ping capture. Scenario In the topology diagram shown in Figure 11-1. which may be used in decision-making when evaluating suitable applications for wide-area network (WAN) deployment. Monitoring path latency provides some measure of administrative diligence. You will accomplish this by analyzing the return delay from a distant computer using the ping command. You will perform statistical analysis of throughput delay with the assistance of a spreadsheet application such as Microsoft Excel. The destination server computer must return ICMP echo replies. Destinations on the same LAN or within a few hops may return an unrepresentative low latency. measured in milliseconds.

.yahoo-ht3.93. you will send and analyze increasingly larger ICMP datagrams.com. Enter cmd. Use the ping command to verify connectivity with the destination.yahoo.191. When you’re done. and write down the results: Packets sent: _____________ Packets received: _________ Packets lost: _____________ Answers will vary. The idea is to note and document latency differences that occur at different times of the day. and retest.5: Packets: Sent = 1.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 303 This lab requires five days of testing. Example 11-1 Ping Test C:\> ping -n 1 www. and write down the name: Answers will vary.93. Three tests will be performed each day. such as www. Received = 1. depending on the destination server computer students choose. If packets were lost. Students might decide to ping google.yahoo. use another destination. Open a terminal window by choosing Start > Run. as shown in Example 11-1. for example. Lost = 0 (0% loss) Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 304ms.52] with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 209. and then click OK. Attempt to ping a suitably distant destination. Average = 304 ms Use the ping /? command to answer the following questions: What is the purpose of the -n option and argument 1? The -n option determines the number of echo requests to send. you will have 15 sets of data. one test should be done in the early morning.93. one around midday.com Pinging www. depending on the destination address.191.com or yahoo. What option and argument would change the default size to 100 bytes? ping IP Address -l 100 Decide on a destination server computer. Verify connectivity between the student computer and the destination server computer.akadns. Maximum = 304ms . The ping command might fail or succeed.52: bytes=32 time=304ms TTL=52 Ping statistics for 209. Note to Instructor: Answers will vary.191.net [209. To understand the delay effects from larger datagrams. Preferably. and one in the evening. Task 1: Use the ping Command to Document Network Latency Step 1.com.

and mode delay values. you can redirect output to a file by appending >day-sample#. manually fix the numbers. where day is the day the test was performed (1 through 5) and sample# is the sample period (1 through 3). Choose File > Open. Figure 11-2 Excel Text Import Wizard Step 2. median. ensure that all numeric values are separated from text characters. . When you’re done. copy the replies into Notepad. Note: The terminal remains blank until the command has finished. When you’re finished.txt. choose Fixed Width. The command syntax is ping [options] >day-sample#. Compute the mean. Perform a delay test. Highlight the filename and click Open. format the columns so that they are more readable. Step 1. you should have a spreadsheet that looks similar to Figure 11-3. Choose Start > Programs > Accessories > Notepad. follow the instructions to separate numeric values from text values. If the spreadsheet has numbers in different fields. Bring the text file into the Microsoft Excel spreadsheet application. Write down the command that sends 100 echo requests to the destination: ping -n 100 Use the ping command to send 100 echo requests to your destination.txt. In Step 2. shown in Figure 11-2.txt to the end of the ping command. In the Text Import wizard. Alternatively. Click Browse to move to the directory that holds the text file.304 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Step 2. After the spreadsheet has been opened. To format a text file for use within Excel. When the input formatting is satisfactory. Save the file using the name format day-sample#. click Finish. If it isn’t already open. Task 2: Compute Various Statistics on the Output of a ping Capture Step 1. start Microsoft Excel.

click OK. Finally. Dropped packets have a consistently large delay value. click the Header row radio button.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 305 Figure 11-3 Partial Spreadsheet Record the number of dropped packets in the column Dropped Packets. Highlight all the data fields. the delay values must be ordered (sorted) when computing the median and mode values. You do this by choosing Data > Sort. Figure 11-4 shows a partial spreadsheet highlighted and the Data dialog box opened. If a header row was highlighted. Select the column that contains the Delay values. Figure 11-4 Ordering on the Delay Column . In Figure 11-4 it is Column G. When you’re finished.

For this spreadsheet. For the mode value. the formula in cell G103 would be =median(G2:G101). 20 datagrams will be incremented by 100 bytes per ping request.–1. this would equate to the formula in cell G102: =average(G2:G101). For the median value. All 20 replies are arranged similarly. as shown in the following command. In this analysis. Perform a quick visual inspection to verify that your mean value is approximately the value shown. but you should retain the data text file. In the following command. as well as a chart that plots size versus delay. use the redirect append operator.100.step. overwrites the file each time the ping command is executed. Record this number in your chart in the Median column. To redirect output to a file. The formula used to compute the median delay. and save the file using the name variablesizedelay.1) would generate the sequence (5 4 3 2 1). Issue this command: FOR /L %i IN (100. Record this number in your chart in the Mode column. The syntax is FOR /L %variable IN (start. Record this number in your chart in the Mean column.txt Note: The terminal remains blank until the command has finished.306 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide The formula used to compute the mean.5) would generate the sequence 1 2 3 4 5.txt.end) DO command [command-parameters] The set is a sequence of numbers from start to end. You will create a spreadsheet with the reply results. FOR /L %i IN (100.2000) DO ping -n 1 -l %i destination >> variablesizedelay. . by step amount. and only the last reply is saved. Step 1. and (5. or the delay value in the center of the ordered range.100. Task 3: Measure Delay Effects from Larger Datagrams To determine if larger datagrams affect delay. The formula used to compute the modal delay. >. Perform a quick visual inspection to verify that your mode value is the most frequently occurring value in the data range. delay is the sum of the delays divided by the number of measurements. you will send increasingly larger ICMP echo requests to the destination. the formula in cell G104 would be =mode(G2:G101). You may either save or discard the new spreadsheet file. So (1. The easiest way to accomplish this task is to use the Windows built-in FOR loop command. Perform a quick visual inspection to verify that your median value is similar to what is shown midway in the data range.2000) DO ping -n 1 -l %i destination Copy the output into Notepad. or the delay value that occurs the most frequently. is also similar. is similar to the average formula. or average. The output of one line is shown in Example 11-2. The normal redirect operator.1. Perform a variable-sized delay test. >>. destination is the destination.

A chart should be clear. Clean up and organize the spreadsheet data into two columns. When larger datagrams are sent.52: Packets: Sent = 1.yahoo.52] with 100 bytes of data: Reply from 209. but there is room for individual creativity. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 383ms. save your spreadsheet and chart.txt C:\> ping -n 1 -l 100 Pinging www. Lost = 0 (0% loss). . Create a chart of the data. Bytes and Delay. When you’re finished. Open the new text file in Excel. Can you make any assumptions about delay when larger datagrams are sent across a network? Answers may vary. Maximum = 383ms. the spreadsheet should look similar to Figure 11-6. depending on available bandwidth and other traffic on the network. Highlight the Delay column data and choose Insert > Chart.akadns. When you’re finished.93. The chart shown in Figure 11-7 is a stacked line chart. Bring the text file into the Excel spreadsheet application.com >>variablesizedelay.100. Step 3. as shown in Figure 11-5.93.2000) DO ping -n 1 -l %i www.93. Step 4.191.net [209.yahoo-ht3. Figure 11-5 Excel Text Import Wizard The difference between this file and the previous one is that the variable-size file has much more information than is really needed.191.52: bytes=100 time=383ms TTL=52 Ping statistics for 209. Received = 1.191. Format the spreadsheet. and submit them to your instructor with the final delay analysis. a delay might occur. Average = 383ms Step 2. A number of charts can be used to display delay data.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 307 Example 11-2 Variable-Size Delay Test C:\> FOR /L %i IN (100.

. network devices may become overwhelmed during certain times of the day. many users subscribe to peer-to-peer applications such as Kazaa and Napster. If delays are caused by events within the organization. try to work out the problem with the ISP first. subscribing with a different or additional Internet service provider (ISP) may prove beneficial. In this case. For example.308 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 11-6 Formatted Spreadsheet Figure 11-7 Plot of Delay Versus Datagram Size Task 4: Reflection The ping command can provide important network latency information. Careful delay analysis over successive days and at different times of the day can alert the network engineer to changes in network performance. Also. When these file-sharing applications are active. and network delay spikes. when delay is less. If that does not work. When the source originates from external networks not under the control of the organization. valuable bandwidth is diverted from critical business applications. routine data transfers should be scheduled during off-peak times. and corrective action can be taken. network analysis tools can be used to determine the source.

.or two-paragraph analysis that compares these delay results against a measurement made without the download. download a large file.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 309 Task 5: Challenge If permitted. Write a one. and perform a separate delay test while the file is downloading.

Another alternative would be to use two routers connected through a serial connection and use the FastEthernet interfaces from each router. Figure 11-8 Topology for Lab 11-2 1 Fa0/0 Fa0/1 Fa0/1 R1 Fa0/2 S1 Fa0/3 2 3 Gather the necessary equipment and cables. Common configuration tasks include setting the hostname. Table 11-3 Hardware Equipment and Hardware Requirements Quantity Description Cisco router Cisco switch Computer (host) Console (rollover) cable Crossover cable Straight-through cable 1 1 3 3 1 3 Part of the CCNA Lab bundle Part of the CCNA Lab bundle Lab computer Connects computer Host1 to the router console port Connects the computer to the router LAN interface FA0/0 Connects computer hosts to the switch and the switch to the router Note to Instructor: If you do not have a router that has two FastEthernet interfaces. consider configur- ing a loopback interface as an alternative to the FastEthernet 0/1. .1) Learning Objectives Upon completion of this lab. Background Figure 11-8 shows the topology for this lab.1. make sure that the equipment listed in Table 11-3 is available.310 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Lab 11-2: Basic Cisco Device Configuration (11. Configure Cisco router interfaces. and message-of-the-day (MOTD) banner. Save the router configuration file. Configure Cisco router password access. access passwords. To configure the lab. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Configure Cisco router global configuration settings. Configure a Cisco switch.5.

79 192.191 192.133.133.133.219.241 192.133.193 192.219.133.219.133.1 192.240 First host address Last Host Address Broadcast IP address: 192.207 192.78 192.209 192.80 192.133.133. (Hint: fill in the subnet number and then the host address.133.133.160 192. Cisco IOS switch configuration is similar to Cisco IOS router configuration.142 192.133.133.255.133.133.219.133.238 192. Address information is easy to compute with the subnet number filled in first. straight-through. Mix crossover.219.133.133.219.133.133.133.219.95 192.133.219. entering a description that describes the destination connection decreases troubleshooting time. Students should be able to identify the proper cable type based on a visual inspection.133.133.133.133.219.219.0/24.133.133.133.113 192.133.133.219.219.177 192. Scenario In this lab.219.133.133.133. Maximum number of usable subnets (including the 0th subnet): 16 Number of usable hosts per subnet: 14 Table 11-4 Subnet Address Table Subnet mask: 255.219.133. Given an IP address of 198.133.133.133.133.219.219.95 192.219.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 311 Interface configuration is extremely important.219.223 192.133.46 192.219. with 4 bits borrowed for subnets.0 # Subnet 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 192.65 192.14 192.219.219.15 192.219. Configuration changes may also be saved offline in a text file for auditing or device replacement.219.159 192.208 192.219.219.219. and rollover cables.219.219.219.133.144 192.219.30 192.33 192.48 192.133.133.133.219.110 192.192 192.219.32 192.133.47 192.96 192.219.133.126 192.0 192.224 192.175 192.16 192.219. fill in Table 11-4.219.219.133.219.133.129 192.31 192.219.207 192.133.219.63 192.219.) Note to Instructor: To reinforce student cable identification.161 192.143 192.219.128 192.111 192.219.219.133.174 192.133.133.219.133.133.190 192.219.219.219.133.219. In addition to assigning a Layer 3 IP address.133.133.97 192.62 192.133.222 192.133.219.158 192.219.219.133.240 192.219.133.219.17 192.219.145 192. have several different types of cables available for the students.239 192.219 192.219. Configuration changes take effect immediately.219.219.219.219. you will configure common settings on a Cisco router and Cisco switch.219.255 .133.133.64 192.219.254 192.176 192.81 192.219.112 192.219.133.219.133.133.219.127 192.255. The changes must be saved in NVRAM to be persistent across reboot.133.225 192.

Connect host computer through HyperTerminal. From the Widows taskbar. switch. Physically connect the devices. Figure 11-9 shows the cabling for this lab.312 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Before proceeding. . The instructor will assign subnetworks. and router. Configure HyperTerminal with the proper settings: ■ ■ Name the connection description: Lab 11_5_1 Connect using: COM1 (or an appropriate COM port) Configure the COM1 properties: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Bits per second: 9600 Data bits: 8 Parity: None Stop bits: 1 Flow control: None When the HyperTerminal session window comes up. Connect the console or rollover cable to the console port on the router. Give each team of students a subnetwork number. Ensure that power has been applied to the host computer. Connect the other end of the cable to the host computer using a DB-9 adapter to the COM 1 port. Connect the crossover cable between the host computer’s network interface card (NIC) and Router interface Fa0/0. Connect a straight-through cable between the Router interface Fa0/1 and any of the switch’s interfaces (1 through 24). Figure 11-9 Lab Cabling 1 Fa0/0 Fa0/1 R1 Straight-Through Cable Serial Cable Console (Rollover) Crossover Cable Step 2. verify your addresses with the instructor. start the HyperTerminal program by choosing Start > Programs > Accessories > Communications > HyperTerminal. press the Enter key until the router responds. Task 1: Configure Cisco Router Global Configuration Settings Step 1.

255. the router attempts to translate any misspelled or unrecognized commands as a domain name. However. To terminate the domain name lookup process.255.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 313 If the router terminal is in configuration mode. your configuration may look slightly different from a typical default router’s configuration. The following shows a user mistyping a command and the router attempting a domain name lookup: Router>enabel Translating “enabel”. and describe them: confirm: Confirms replacement of running-config with a new config file memory: Configures from nonvolatile memory network: Configures from a TFTP network host overwrite-network: Overwrites nonvolatile memory from the TFTP network host replace: Replaces the running-config with a new config file terminal: Configures from the terminal <cr> . ask the instructor to remove the configuration. it should have no configured passwords or IP addresses. enter privileged EXEC mode: Router> enable Router# Verify a clean configuration file using the privileged EXEC command show runningconfig. What two commands may be used to leave privileged EXEC mode? exit or end What shortcut command can you use to enter privileged EXEC mode? en Examine the different configuration modes that can be entered with the command configure?. apply the global configuration command no ip domain-lookup.. Depending on the router’s model and the IOS version. If your router does not have a default configuration. release. a delay occurs while the request times out.. exit by entering no: Would you like to enter the initial configuration dialog? [yes/no]: no Press RETURN to get started! Router> In privileged EXEC command mode. This results in the following: Name lookup aborted Router> To disable name translation attempts. If a configuration file was previously saved. press Ctrl-Shift-6. and then press X. Configure global configuration hostname settings. it must be removed. This can take from several seconds to several minutes. and then press X. From user EXEC mode. release. Write down the list of configuration modes.255) % Press Ctrl-Shift-6.domain server (255. Because no domain server is configured. Step 3.

and applicable local laws. Only system administrators of the ABC Company are authorized users. and all connection information will be logged. Configure the MOTD banner. the end command. The corporate security policy should cover all banner messages. Unauthorized access will be prosecuted. Unauthorized access is prohibited and will be prosecuted. where ‘c’ is a delimiting character Examine the different banner modes that can be entered. connection logging. A banner should include information about authorization. and Ctrl-Z What shortcut command can be used to enter global configuration mode? config t Set the device hostname to Router1: router(config)# hostname Router1 Router1(config)# How can the hostname be removed? no hostname Router1 Step 4. exec: Sets the EXEC process creation banner incoming: Sets the incoming terminal line banner login: Sets the login banner motd: Sets the message-of-the-day banner prompt-timeout: Sets the message for the login authentication timeout slip-ppp: Sets the message for SLIP/PPP . For example. Access is granted to only current ABC system administrators with prior written approval. a court might interpret a friendly “Welcome” message as permission for an attacker to hack into the router. enter global configuration mode: Router# configuration terminal Router(config)# What three methods may be used to leave global configuration mode and return to privileged EXEC mode? The exit command. Write down the list of banner modes. and describe them.314 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide From privileged EXEC mode. Router1(config)# banner ? LINE: c banner-text c. suppose you are connected to an ABC network device. banner content may have a significant legal impact on the organization. In production networks. Create a suitable MOTD banner. For example. All connections are continuously logged. penalties for unauthorized access.

Step 1.oooO ( ) Oooo. as shown in Example 11-3. Access is granted to only current ABC company system administrators with prior written approval. Example 11-3 banner motd Output Router1(config)# banner motd % Enter TEXT message. because it controls access to configuration mode. Cisco IOS supports two commands that set access to privileged EXEC mode. The following is a banner made from ASCII art that can be copied into the router: ( o o ) +------------------. The enable secret command uses a very secure MD5 cryptographic hash algorithm. Use the terminating character on a blank line to end the MOTD entry. Configure the privileged EXEC password. End with the character %’ ***You are connected to an ABC network device. One command. and will be prosecuted. enable password.” Password security relies on the password . aux. *** All connections are continuously logged. and virtual lines. )--------------------+ ) / (_/ | | | +---------------------\ (----( \_) Task 2: Configure Cisco Router Password Access Access passwords are set for privileged EXEC mode and the user entry point such as console. *** % Router1(config)# What is the global configuration command to remove the MOTD banner? no banner motd Personal banners on nonproduction devices can be entertaining.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 315 Choose a terminating character that will not be used in the message text. The privileged EXEC mode password is the most critical password. The MOTD banner is displayed on all connections before the login prompt. *** *** Unauthorized access is prohibited.------------------+ | | | . contains no encryption or weak cryptography and should never be used if the enable secret command is available. such as % (percent). Configure the MOTD banner.oooO--(_)--Oooo. it is impossible to recover an enable secret based on the contents of a configuration file (other than by obvious dictionary attacks). Cisco says “As far as anyone at Cisco knows.

Issue the command exit. In a lab environment. Fill in Table 11-5 with the correct answers. we will use weak passwords. Exits the configuration and returns to privileged EXEC mode. only five virtual lines could be set—0 through 4. Table 11-5 Command Ways to Exit Line Configuration Mode Effect exit end Ctrl-Z Returns to global configuration mode. the number has been expanded. Unless a Telnet password is set. Router1(config)# line console 0 Router1(config-line)# password cisco Router1(config-line)# login What is the command to remove the console password? no password cisco Step 3. numbers. In production environments. A strong password consists of at least nine characters of uppercase and lowercase letters. Set the console access password to cisco. In early Cisco IOS versions. Router1(config-line)# line vty 0 4 Router1(config-line)# password cisco Router1(config-line)# login There are three ways to exit line configuration mode.316 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide algorithm and the password. access on that virtual line is blocked. Configure the console password. The virtual line password controls Telnet access to the router. Configure the virtual line password. What is the router prompt? What is the mode? Router1(config-line)# exit Router1(config)# Global configuration mode Issue the command end. In newer Cisco IOS versions. The console password controls console access to the router. strong passwords should be used at all times. What is the router prompt? What is the mode? Router1# Privileged EXEC mode . Set the privileged EXEC password to class: Router1(config)# enable secret class Router1(config)# Step 2. Set the virtual line access password to cisco. and symbols.

Figure 11-10 Network Topology 1 Fa0/0 Fa0/1 R1 Straight-Through Cable Serial Cable Console (Rollover) Crossover Cable Write down your subnet number and mask: Answers will vary.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 317 Task 3: Configure Cisco Router Interfaces All cabled interfaces should contain documentation about the connection.255.240 The first IP address will be used to configure the host computer LAN. Apply the description on the router interface with the interface configuration command description.168. interface Fa0/0. the maximum description length is 240 characters.255. as shown in Example 11-4. Configure the router interface Fa0/0. Write down the last IP address: Answers will vary. Example 11-4 Interface Configuration Router1(config)# interface fa0/0 Router1(config-if)# description Connection to Host1 with crossover cable Router1(config-if)# ip address address mask Router1(config-if)# no shutdown Router1(config-if)# end Router1# .1 The last IP address will be used to configure the router fa0/0 interface. 192. Figure 11-10 shows a network topology in which a host computer is connected to Router 1.0 255. depending on which subnet students choose from Table 11-4. 192.168. On newer Cisco IOS versions.14 Step 1. 192.1.1. Write a short description for the connections on Router1: Fa0/0 -> Connection to Host1 with crossover cable.1. Write down the first IP address: Answers will vary.168.

Recall that you access the LAN configuration window by choosing Start > Control Panel > Network Connections. Rightclick the LAN icon. What Cisco IOS command can you use to verify the interface status? show interface fa0/0 and show interface fa0/1 What Windows command can you use to verify host computer configuration? ipconfig What is the correct LAN cable between Host1 and Router1? Crossover . and choose Properties. Configure the host computer for LAN connectivity. as shown in Example 11-5. Write a short description for the connections on Router1: Fa0/1 -> Apply the description on the router interface with the interface configuration command description. Open a Windows command window.602: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet0/0. Verify network connectivity. Configure the host computer. Step 4. Use the ping command to verify network connectivity with the router. and choose Properties. Example 11-5 Interface Configuration Router1(config)# interface fa0/1 Router1(config-if)# description Connection to switch with straightthrough cable Router1(config-if)# ip address address mask Router1(config-if)# no shutdown Router1(config-if)# end Router1# Look for the interface to become active: *Mar 24 19:58:59. and then click Close.602: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet0/1. changed state to up Step 2. troubleshoot the connection.318 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Look for the interface to become active: *Mar 24 19:58:59. If ping replies are not successful. Configure the router interface Fa0/1. changed state to up Step 3. Fill in the following fields: ■ ■ ■ IP Address: The first host address Subnet Mask: The subnet mask Default Gateway: The router’s IP address Click OK. Highlight the Internet Protocol field. and verify network settings with the ipconfig command.

Table 11-6 Key Key Responses Description Spacebar Enter Q Ctrl-C Displays the next page Displays the next line Quits Quits Write down one possible shortcut command that displays the contents of NVRAM: show start Use this command to show the contents of NVRAM. and it calls nonvolatile RAM (NVRAM) configuration storage the startup configuration. The first field. (Answers will vary. the RAM configuration must be copied into NVRAM. If the output of NVRAM is missing.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 319 Task 4: Save the Router Configuration Files Cisco IOS calls RAM configuration storage the running configuration. to compute the MD5 hash. is called the salt. the resulting hash is different. The second field. Sg/E. This does not occur automatically. someone is bound to ask why the cryptotext is different. but a short answer to intrigue students may lead to independent research. For configurations to survive rebooting or power restarts. Router1# show running-config Use the output to answer the following questions: How large is the configuration file? The current configuration is 935 bytes. A line containing — more — indicates that there is additional information to display. but they will be close to 1000 bytes. . 1. Compare router RAM and NVRAM configurations. it is because there is no saved configuration. Table 11-6 describes acceptable key responses. contains the hash algorithm type—in this case.) What is the enable secret password? enable secret 5 $1$Sg/E$JnEnON09QjpibV33dJXBI0 Ask students to compare their passwords. separated by $. The cryptotext $1$Sg/E$JnEnON09QjpibV33dJXBI0 is actually composed of three fields. that is used with the password. or random value. MD5. JnEnON09QjpibV33dJXBI0. Step 1. as shown in Example 11-6. The configuration is displayed one screen at a time. The answer is beyond the scope of this curriculum. If all students used cisco as the enable secret password. cisco. Use the Cisco IOS show command to view RAM and NVRAM configurations. NVRAM must be manually updated after any changes are made. Example 11-6 Missing NVRAM Router1# show startup-config startup-config is not present Router1# Display the contents of RAM. Because the salts are different.

press Enter until the switch responds. or rollover. From user EXEC mode. The contents should be the same.. If your switch does not have a default configuration. cable to the console port on the switch. and verify that the configuration is the same as the configuration in RAM. The benefit of learning IOS commands is that they are similar to many different devices and IOS versions. Task 5: Configure a Cisco Switch Cisco IOS switch configuration is similar to configuring a Cisco IOS router. Save the RAM configuration to NVRAM. Configure the global configuration hostname setting. wr Review the contents of NVRAM. Move the console.320 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide ■ ■ ■ Does your MOTD banner contain the information you entered earlier? Yes Do your interface descriptions contain the information you entered earlier? Yes Write down one possible shortcut command that will display the contents of RAM. Save the RAM configuration to NVRAM. it must be manually saved in NVRAM. your configuration may look slightly different from the typical default switch configuration. Step 1. Depending on the switch model and IOS version. enter global configuration mode: Switch> en Switch# config t Switch(config)# Set the device hostname to Switch1: Switch(config)# hostname Switch1 Switch1(config)# . copy run start.. ask the instructor to remove the configuration. write terminal Step 2. However. wr mem. For a configuration to be used the next time the router is powered on or reloaded. Step 2. Connect the host to the switch. write mem. sh run. as shown in Example 11-7. [OK] Router1# Write down one possible shortcut command that will copy the RAM configuration to NVRAM. there should be no configured passwords. Example 11-7 Saving the RAM Configuration Router1# copy running-config startup-config Destination filename [startup-config]? <ENTER> Building configuration. In HyperTerminal. Ensure that power has been applied to the switch.

Configure the MOTD banner: Switch1(config)# banner motd % The MOTD banner is displayed on all connections before the login prompt.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 321 Step 3. Configure the virtual line password. Configure the privileged EXEC password. Access is granted to only current ABC system administrators with prior written approval. Unauthorized access will be prosecuted. Unauthorized access is prohibited. and interface Fa0/3 is connected to host computer 3. Set the virtual line access password to class. 0 through 15: Switch1(config-line)# line vty 0 15 Switch1(config-line)# password class Switch1(config-line)# login Step 7. Configure the interface description. Set the privileged EXEC password to cisco: Switch1(config)# enable secret cisco Switch1(config)# Step 5. interface Fa0/1. . Figure 11-11 shows a network topology in which Router1 is connected to Switch1. Switch1 interface Fa0/2 is connected to host computer 2.% Step 4. and all connection information will be logged. Switch1(config)# banner motd % You are connected to an ABC network device. Use the terminating character on a blank line to end the MOTD entry. and will be prosecuted. Configure the console password. Sixteen virtual lines can be configured on a Cisco IOS switch. review the similar step for configuring a switch MOTD banner. All connections are continuously logged. For assistance. Only system administrators of the ABC company are authorized users. Configure the MOTD banner. Set the console access password to class: Switch1(config)# line console 0 Switch1(config-line)# password class Switch1(config-line)# login Step 6. Create a suitable MOTD banner.

write a short description for the connections on Switch1. Example 11-9 Saving the Configuration Switch1# copy run start Destination filename [startup-config]? <ENTER> Building configuration.. The contents should be the same. and verify that the configuration is the same as the configuration in RAM. [OK] Switch1# Review the contents of NVRAM. Save the RAM configuration to NVRAM as shown in Example 11-9. For a configuration to be used the next time the switch is powered on or reloaded. Table 11-7 Interface Description Description Switch1 Interface Fa0/1 Fa0/2 Fa0/3 Connection to Router 1 Connection to host computer 2 Connection to host computer 3 Apply the descriptions on the switch interface using the interface configuration command description. Example 11-8 Interface Description Switch1(config)# interface fa0/1 Switch1(config-if)# description Connection to Router1 Switch1(config)# interface fa0/2 Switch1(config-if)# description Connection to host computer 2 Switch1(config)# interface fa0/3 Switch1(config-if)# description Connection to host computer 3 Switch1(config-if)# end Switch1# Step 8..322 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 11-11 Network Topology 1 Fa0/0 Fa0/1 Fa0/1 R1 Fa0/2 S1 Fa0/3 2 3 In Table 11-7. . as shown in Example 11-8. Save the RAM configuration to NVRAM. it must be manually saved in NVRAM.

configure terminal Example: Router> enable Router# configure terminal Router(config)# Specify the router’s name. Table 118 lists the commands covered in this lab. Router vty lines: 0 4 password password login Example: Router(config)# line vty 0 4 Router(config-line)# password class Router(config-line)# login Router(config-line)# continues . but an experienced network engineer does not need a cheat sheet to perform common configuration tasks. It is perfectly acceptable to use notes at first to help configure a device. enable secret password Example: Router(config)# enable secret cisco Router(config)# password password login Example: Router(config)# line con 0 Router(config-line)# password class Router(config-line)# login Router(config-line)# Specify a password to prevent unauthorized Telnet access. hostname name Example: Router(config)# hostname Router1 Router1(config)# Specify an encrypted password to prevent unauthorized access to privileged EXEC mode. Table 11-8 Action Commands Covered in This Lab Command Enter global configuration mode. the faster you will become at configuring a Cisco IOS router and switch.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 323 Task 6: Reflection The more you practice the commands. Specify a password to prevent unauthorized access to the console.

Figure 11-12 HyperTerminal Capture Menu All communication between the host computer and router is saved to a file. banner motd % Example: Router(config)# banner motd % banner text % Router(config)# Configure an interface.324 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 11-8 Action Commands Covered in This Lab continued Command Configure the MOTD banner. copy running-config startup-config Example: Router# copy running-config startup-config Router# Task 7: Challenge It is often necessary. One way to do so is to choose Transfer > Capture Text from HyperTerminal. as shown in Figure 11-12. from HyperTerminal choose Transfer > Capture Text. Router: Interface is off by default Switch: Interface is on by default interface type/port Example: Router(config)# interface fa0/0 Router(config-if)# description description Router(config-if)# ip address address mask Router(config-if)# no shutdown Router(config-if)# Save the configuration to NVRAM. It also can be copied and pasted into a router. Enter a path and filename. and click Start. To start a capture. The file can be edited and saved. . and always handy. Step 1. to save the configuration file to an offline text file.

Erase the NVRAM configuration file: Router1# erase start Erasing the nvram filesystem will remove all configuration files! Continue? [confirm] <ENTER> [OK] Erase of nvram: complete Step 3. and press Spacebar until all the configuration has been displayed.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 325 Step 2. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. Remove any lines that are not configuration commands. highlight the lines and choose Edit > Copy from Notepad. Open the text file and review the contents. Verify the configuration. Stop the capture. Task 8: Clean Up Before turning off power to the router and switch. and save to NVRAM. stale configuration commands may survive a paste action and have unintended consequences. The important point is to closely examine the configuration for any errors before reloading. such as the — more — prompt. Step 4. and then turn off power to the host computers. After checking the configuration file. and leave the room ready for the next class. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. restore host computer network connectivity. Otherwise. Delete any configuration files saved on the host computers. Watch closely for error messages. remove the NVRAM configuration file from each device using the privileged EXEC command erase startup-config. Choose Transfer > Capture Text > Stop. Manually correct any lines that were scrambled or places where several lines occupy the same line. Highlighting the HyperTerminal text and copying may also bring the configuration into memory. manually enable the interfaces by issuing the no shutdown command in interface configuration mode. Each message must be investigated and corrected. Reload the router: Router1# reload Proceed with reload? [confirm] <ENTER> When the router reboots. The configuration is quickly loaded to the router. Issue the privileged EXEC command show running-config. To load the configuration file. it is always a best practice to begin with a clean RAM configuration. . This places the configuration in host computer memory. After the reload is complete. enter global configuration mode: Router> en Router# config t Router(config)# Right-click inside the HyperTerminal window and choose Paste To Host.

2) You can now open the file LSG1-Lab11512. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. however. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity.326 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Basic Cisco Device Configuration (11.5. Remember. .pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer.1.

aspx or from any freeware or shareware website. . Background Figure 11-13 shows the topology for this lab.0/24 and additional 6 bits for subnets.5.250. Host1 should use the first valid host address.solarwinds. You are given an IP address of 10. save the configuration to a TFTP server. This lab requires the use of SolarWinds TFTP server software. Table 11-9 Hardware Lab Equipment and Hardware Requirements Quantity Description Cisco router Computer (host) Console (rollover) cable Crossover cable 1 1 1 1 Part of the CCNA Lab bundle Lab computer Connects computer Host1 to the router console port Connects the Host1 NIC to Router1 Fa0/0 The host computer will be used as a TFTP server. and Router1 should use the last valid host address.250.com/products/freetools/free_tftp_server. Use TFTP to save and restore a Cisco IOS configuration. You may download a free copy of the SolarWinds TFTP server software from www.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 327 Lab 11-3: Managing Device Configuration (11.1) Upon completion of this lab.2. you will configure common settings on a Cisco router. and then restore the configuration from a TFTP server. Figure 11-13 Topology for Lab 11-3 1 Fa0/0 R1 Straight-Through Cable Serial Cable Console (Rollover) Crossover Cable Table 11-9 lists the lab equipment and hardware requirements for this lab. Use the last valid subnet. Scenario In this lab. you will be able to ■ ■ Configure network connectivity. SolarWinds is a free TFTP application for Windows.

or rollover.250. subnet mask. From the Widows taskbar. Connect the console. and default gateway. cable to the console port on the router. When the HyperTerminal session window opens.250.0 Subnet Subnet mask: 255. straight-through.250 10. press the Enter key until the router responds. Physically connect the devices. Step 4. Ensure that power has been applied to both the host computer and the router. . The configuration tasks for Router1 are as follows: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Specify the router name: Router1 Specify an encrypted privileged EXEC password: cisco Specify a console access password: class Specify a Telnet access password: class Configure the MOTD banner.250.250. configure the Host1 computer with an IP address. Table 11-10 IP Addressing IP address: 10.250. Issue the no shutdown command. Configure the Router1 interface Fa0/0: ■ ■ ■ Set the description. In this lab you practice transferring a configura- tion file to a router that does not have a configuration file in NVRAM.251 To reinforce student cable identification.255. Task 1: Configure Network Connectivity Step 1.248 10. Caution: Do not save the configuration in NVRAM.255. and rollover cables. Using the IP address information from the scenario. Step 2.249 10.252 Last Host Address Broadcast First Host Address 10.250. Mix crossover.250.250. Students should be able to identify the proper cable type based on a visual inspection.250. start the HyperTerminal program by choosing Start > Programs > Accessories > Communications > HyperTerminal. Connect the host computer to the router through HyperTerminal. Configure Router1. Logically connect the devices.328 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Use Table 11-10 to record your addressing. Refer to Figure 11-13. Step 3. have several different types of cables available for the students. Connect the other cable end to the host computer with a DB-9 adapter to the COM 1 port. Set the Layer 3 address.250.

Agree to the license agreement.249 Type escape sequence to abort. Verify connectivity.250. as shown in Figure 11-15. After SolarWinds has finished the installation.249. Example 11-10 Verify Connectivity Router1# ping 10.250.250. as shown in Example 11-10. Start the TFTP server. . Figure 11-14 TFTP Server Window Start the TFTP server by choosing Start > Programs > SolarWinds Free Tools > TFTP Server.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 329 Step 5. Configure the TFTP server. Step 3. Step 2. Install the SolarWinds TFTP application. round-trip min/avg/max = 1/1/1 ms Router1# Task 2: Use TFTP to Save and Restore a Cisco IOS Configuration Step 1. 100-byte ICMP Echos to 10. To configure the TFTP server. Click Next. Verify the settings.!!!! Success rate is 80 percent (4/5). click Finish. Double-click the SolarWinds TFTP application to begin the installation. choose File > Configure. and accept the default settings. timeout is 2 seconds: . as shown in Table 11-11. Sending 5. Figure 11-14 shows an active TFTP server window.250. Verify connectivity between Host1 and Router1.

250) 3/25/2007 12:29 :Received router1-confg from (10. click OK. Save the Router1 configuration to the TFTP server.250.250 Never Enable Log Requests to the Following File.250. The contents should be similar to the configuration shown in Example 11-12.250. Use Microsoft Word or WordPad to examine the contents of the file c:\TFTP-Root\router1-confg. Example 11-11 Saving the Router Configuration to the TFTP Server Router1#copy running-config tftp: Address or name of remote host []? 10.250.250.250 To 10.250. Open Log file c:\Program Files\SolarWinds\Free Tools\TFTP-Server. . Leave the default file. From HyperTerminal.249 Destination filename [router1-confg]? <ENTER> !! 1081 bytes copied in 2. The contents should be similar to the following: 3/25/2007 12:29 :Receiving router1-confg from (10.330 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 11-15 Active TFTP Server Window Table 11-11 TFTP Server Settings Setting Value TFTP Root Directory Security Advanced Security Auto-Close Log TFTP-Root Transmit and Receive Files 10.250. 1081 bytes Verify the transferred file.250.250).250. as shown in Example 11-11. begin a TFTP upload to the TFTP server.250.txt.008 secs (538 bytes/sec) Router1# Verify a successful upload transfer. When you’re finished. Step 4.

250.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 331 Example 11-12 Configuration File ! version 12.255. ! no aaa new-model ip cef ! interface FastEthernet0/0 description connection to host1 ip address 10.4 service timestamps debug datetime msec service timestamps log datetime msec no service password-encryption ! hostname Router1 ! boot-start-marker boot-end-marker ! enable secret 5 $1$D02B$AuX05n0HPT239yYRoQ0oE.255.250.250 255.252 duplex auto speed auto ! interface FastEthernet0/1 no ip address shutdown duplex auto speed auto ! interface Serial0/1/0 no ip address shutdown no fair-queue ! interface Serial0/1/1 no ip address shutdown clock rate 2000000 ! ip http server no ip http secure-server ! control-plane ! banner motd *** ABC COMPANY NETWORK DEVICE **** *** Authorized access only ***** *** Logging is enabled **** .

967: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet0/0. changed state to up End with CNTL/Z.255.250 255. as shown in Example 11-13. as shown in Example 11-15. Router1 fa0/0 must be configured with an IP address.255. and then reboot Router1. as shown in Example 11-16. as shown in Example 11-14. Router(config)# interface fa0/0 Router(config-if)# ip address 10. Configure the hostname of the router to TEST.252 Router(config-if)# no shutdown Router(config-if)# exit *Mar 25 16:43:03.250.332 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example 11-12 Configuration File ! line con 0 password class login line aux 0 line vty 0 4 password class login ! continued scheduler allocate 20000 1000 End Step 5. Verify that NVRAM is clear. and the interface must be enabled. one per line.095: %SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from console by console *Mar 25 16:43:04.250. Restore the Router1 configuration from the TFTP server. Example 11-13 Verify Empty NVRAM Router1# show startup-config startup-config is not present Router1# reload Proceed with reload? [confirm] <ENTER> Connectivity must be established with the TFTP server. Example 11-15 Hostname Configuration Router(config-if)# exit Router(config)# hostname TEST Test(config-if)# end TEST# Verify connectivity using the ping command. . Example 11-14 Interface Configuration Router> enable Router# conf t Enter configuration commands.

Compiled Fri 19-Jan-07 15:15 by prod_rel_team . Sending 5. efficient way to save and load Cisco IOS configuration files. Inc.249/router1-confg.250.250.. The configuration should be the same as what was configured in Task 1.250.249 (via FastEthernet0/0): ! [OK .250.250.250.250.375: %SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from tftp://10.1081 bytes] 1081 bytes copied in 9.364 secs (115 bytes/sec) Router1# *Mar 25 16:55:26. Example 11-17 File Transfer from the TFTP Server Test# copy tftp startup-config Address or name of remote host []? 10.cisco.250. timeout is 2 seconds: .” The previous configuration should be restored. Example 11-18 IOS Filename in Flash Router1# show version Cisco IOS Software.249.!!!! Success rate is 80 percent(4/5). RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc3) Technical Support: http://www.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 333 Example 11-16 Ping Test Test# ping 10. Version 12. Task 4: Challenge Similar to uploading a configuration file.249 Type escape sequence to abort.249/router1-confg by console Router1# View the configuration in NVRAM to verify an accurate transfer. and the router’s hostname should now be Router1. The filename is highlighted in Example 11-18. round-trip min/avg/max = 1/1/1ms Router# Download the Router1 configuration file from the TFTP server. 100-byte ICMP Echos to 10.. Task 3: Reflection TFTP is a fast.250. Reload the router. To discover the IOS filename. Loading router1-confg from 10. as shown in Example 11-17.249 Source filename []? router1-confg Destination filename [startup-config]? <ENTER> Accessing tftp://10.com/techsupport Copyright (c) 1986-2007 by Cisco Systems. the IOS can also be stored offline for future use. Select no at the prompt that says “Configuration has been modified.250. issue the Cisco IOS command show version.250. 1841 Software (C1841-ADVIPSERVICESK9-M).250.4(10b). Step 4.

com.html If you require further assistance.bin Address or name of remote host []? 10.com/wwl/export/crypto/tool/stqrg. distributors and users are responsible for compliance with U. export. If you are unable to comply with U. transfer and use.bin” This product contains cryptographic features and is subject to United States and local country laws governing import. and local country laws. return this product immediately.S.bin]? !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!! 22063220 bytes copied in 59.cisco. 191K bytes of NVRAM.334 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example 11-18 IOS Filename in Flash continued ROM: System Bootstrap. exporters. Version 12. Cisco 1841 (revision 6.564 secs (370412 bytes/sec) Router1# . and local laws.250. Delivery of Cisco cryptographic products does not imply third-party authority to import. as shown in Example 11-19. contact Cisco by sending email to export@cisco. 62720K bytes of ATA CompactFlash (Read/Write) Configuration register is 0x2102 Router1# The commands to upload the IOS are similar to uploading the configuration file. laws governing Cisco cryptographic products may be found at: http://www.124-10b. RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1) Router1 uptime is 17 minutes System returned to ROM by reload at 16:47:54 UTC Sun Mar 25 2007 System image file is “flash:c1841-advipservicesk9-mz. Processor board ID FHK110918KJ 2 Serial(sync/async) interfaces DRAM configuration is 64 bits wide with parity disabled.124-10b. Importers. distribute or use encryption.250. By using this product you agree to comply with applicable laws and regulations. A summary of U.249 Destination filename [c1841-advipservicesk9-mz. export. Example 11-19 File Transfer to TFTP Server Router1# copy flash tftp Source filename []? c1841-advipservicesk9-mz.124-10b.S.S.4(13r)T.0) with 174080K/22528K bytes of memory.

Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 335 Task 5: Clean Up Before turning off power to the router. and leave the room ready for the next class. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. and then turn off power to the host computers. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. . A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity. Remember. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor.5. Use the privileged EXEC command erase startup-config. Delete any configuration files saved on the host computers. Click Add or Remove Applications. Choose Start > Control Panel. Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Managing Device Configuration (11. remove the NVRAM configuration file if it was loaded.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer.2) You can now open the file LSG1-Lab11522. Accept the defaults. Choose SolarWinds and click Remove. Remove the SolarWinds TFTP server from the host computer. restore host computer network connectivity.2. however.

and rollover cables. Table 11-12 lists the lab equipment and hardware requirements. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ ■ Design the logical lab topology.5. Mix crossover. Figure 11-16 Topology for Lab 11-4 S1 Fa0/1 Fa0/2 1 2 Gather the necessary equipment and cables.3. Verify LAN connectivity. have several different types of cables available for the students. Table 11-12 Lab Equipment and Hardware Requirements Hardware Quantity Description Cisco router Cisco switch Computer (host) Category 5 or better straight-through UTP cables 1 1 2 2 Part of the CCNA Lab bundle Part of the CCNA Lab bundle Lab computer Connects computers Host1 and Host2 to Switch1 Scenario In this lab you will create a small network that requires connecting network devices and configuring host computers for basic network connectivity.1) Upon completion of this lab. Students should be able to identify the proper cable type based on a visual inspection. Background Figure 11-16 shows the topology diagram for this lab. Configure the physical lab topology. Configure the logical LAN topology. To reinforce student cable identification.336 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Lab 11-4: Configure Host Computers for IP Networking (11. straight-through. .

254.254.248 Last Host Address Broadcast 192.176 192.254.254.168.254.254.134 192.168.94 192.254.126 192.168.47 192.25 192.168.168.254.168.254.254.86 192.168.254.168.254.168.254.168.254.120 192.168.254.54 192.168.254.168.168.254.254.32 192.0 Subnet First Host Address Subnet mask: 255.39 192.254.254.168.166 192.168. and 5 bits used for subnets.97 192.168.168.168.9 192.182 192.168.168.168.168.168.254.168.129 192.254.78 192.168.168.254.254.30 192.254.254.254.254.254.168.254.72 192.168.183 continues .65 192.168.33 192.88 192.254.14 192.168.254.168.105 192.111 192.6 192.168.87 192.254.168.168.254.63 192.168.135 192.143 192.168.168.254.168.168.168.119 192.254.254.254.168.150 192.168.158 192.103 192.168.159 192.55 192.254.168.254.254.127 192.168.168.254.254.254.168.254.23 192.17 192.168.168.168.254.168.168.142 192. fill in the following information: Maximum number of usable subnets (including the 0th subnet): 31 Number of usable hosts per subnet: 6 Use Table 11-13 to record the addressing scheme.254.254.96 192.254.144 192.168.0/24.168.254.168.104 192.254.95 192.168.254.168.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 337 Task 1: Design the Logical Lab Topology Given an IP address of 192.168. Table 11-13 Addressing Table IP address: 192.254.167 192.168.112 192.254.255.168.254.254.81 192.121 192.40 192.254.254.168.160 192.254.168.254.254.168 192.254.7 192.254.168.168.16 192.48 192.168.168.168.254.168.168.254.168.254.38 192.254.110 192.168.128 192.168.168.168.254.168.64 192.254.168.254.0 192.254.153 192.254.46 192.73 192.168.62 192.145 192.168.41 192.254.168.168.168.168.57 192.89 192.169 192.49 192.22 192.254.8 192.70 192.168.254.56 192.254.168.79 192.15 192.136 192.31 192.254.254.177 192.168.254.254.175 192.151 192.161 192.254.254.71 192.168.254.168.1 192.254.168.254.168.254.174 192.24 192.254.80 192.137 192.254.254.152 192.254.113 192.254.168.102 192.254.118 192.168.254.168.168.254.255.

168.254.254. The instructor will assign one subnetwork per student or team.231 192.168.254. straightthrough cables are used.216 192.249 192.0 Subnet continued Subnet mask: 255.168.168.254.215 192.217 192.254.168.338 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 11-13 Addressing Table IP address: 192.168. Write down the IP address information for each device in Table 11-14.254.168.254.254.168. Host computers will use the first two IP addresses in the subnetwork.254.168.193 192.191 192.241 192.239 192.168.208 192.168.184 192.168.168.254.207 192.255 Before proceeding.168.254. .168.248 192.223 192.168.254. After cabling the network devices.254 192.254. Document logical network settings.255.168.254.168.206 192.168.209 192.192 192. Physically connect the devices.246 192.254. verify your addresses with the instructor.225 192.240 192.168.254. Attention to detail now will minimize the time required to troubleshoot network connectivity issues later.168.254.254.254.238 192. turn on power to all devices.201 192. If it’s not already enabled.248 Last Host Address Broadcast First Host Address 192.254. Step 2.168.254.254. Is a crossover cable needed to connect host computers to the switch? Why or why not? No.168. Because computers and the switch are not wired the same for networking.254.168.254.200 192.168.190 192.168.168. Visually inspect network connections.254.168.233 192.254.168. take a moment to verify the connections.254.254.232 192.168.254. Task 2: Configure the Physical Lab Topology Step 1.168.230 192.254.199 192.168.254.168.254.254.254.185 192. Task 3: Configure the Logical Topology Step 1.168.255. Cable the network devices as shown earlier in Figure 11-16.254.168.247 192.168.168.254.198 192.222 192.224 192.254.214 192.

248 255. and then click Close. On the General tab.255.255. choose Internet Protocol (TCP/IP). The computer may require a reboot for changes to be effective. and choose Properties.255. and then click the Properties button.248 Configure the Host1 computer.255. Right-click the LAN icon. click OK. Figure 11-17 Host IP Address and Gateway Settings When you’re finished.248 Answers will vary 255. On Computer1. Refer to Figure 11-17 for Host1 IP address and gateway settings.248 From the information given in Table 11-15. Table 11-15 Host Addressing Table Host1 IP address IP mask Host2 IP address IP mask Step 2.255. Record the output in Table 11-16.255.255. write down the IP network addressing for each computer.255. Verify proper configuration of Host1 with the ipconfig /all command. Answers will vary 255.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 339 Table 11-14 Logical Topology Device Subnetwork IP Address Mask Host1 Host2 Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary 255. choose Start > Control Panel > Network Connections. .

Note: If pings to host computers fail. Record the output in Table 11-17. choose Start > Control Panel > Windows Firewall.340 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 11-16 ipconfig Output Setting Value Ethernet device Physical address IP address Subnet mask Default gateway Step 3.255. click Off. and retest. which you filled out in Step 1. Verify proper configuration. Repeat Step 2 for Host2 using IP address information from Table 11-15. and then click OK. Use Table 11-18 to methodically verify connectivity with each network device. To disable a Windows firewall. Table 11-17 Host ipconfig Output Setting Value Ethernet device Physical address IP address Subnet mask Default gateway Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary 255. . Table 11-18 Ping Results From To IP Address Ping Result Host1 Host2 Host2 Host1 Answers will vary Answers will vary Should be successful Should be successful Take corrective action to establish connectivity if a test fails. Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary 255.255. temporarily disable the computer firewall.255.248 Unassigned Task 4: Verify Network Connectivity Network connectivity can be verified with the Windows ping command.255.248 Unassigned Configure Host2.

Possible problems: IP addresses on different subnets Incorrect or faulty cable Faulty NIC Write down your proposed solution(s). Replace the cable. To fix the problems. Use Table 11-18 to identify failed connectivity.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 341 Task 5: Reflection Review any physical or logical configuration problems encountered during this lab. Correct the IP address configuration. perform a good visual inspection. document the solution. List the problems. Replace the computer with the faulty NIC. Problems can be either physical (the wrong UTP cable) or logical (the wrong IP address). restore the host computer network connectivity. Test your solution. Make sure you have a thorough understanding of the procedures used to configure a Windows host computer. If the solution did not fix the problem. Task 7: Clean Up Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. and then turn off power to the host computers. continue troubleshooting. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. . Task 6: Challenge Ask your instructor or another student to introduce one or two problems in your network when you aren’t looking or are out of the lab room. Look for green link lights on Switch1. and leave the room ready for the next class. If the solution fixed the problem. and configure the IP address on the replacement computer.

Table 11-19 lists the equipment and hardware requirements for this lab. Table 11-19 Lab Equipment and Hardware Requirements Hardware Quantity Description Cisco router Cisco switch Computer (host) Category 5 or better straight-through UTP cables Category 5 crossover UTP cable Console (rollover) cable 1 1 3 3 1 1 Part of the CCNA Lab bundle Part of the CCNA Lab bundle Lab computer Connects Router1.342 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Lab 11-5: Network Testing (11. Host2. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ ■ Design the logical lab topology. Verify LAN connectivity. and Host3 to Switch1 Connects Host1 to Router1 Connects Host1 to the Router1 console If you do not have a router that has two FastEthernet interfaces.1) Upon completion of this lab. Background Figure 11-18 shows the topology for this lab. Configure the physical lab topology. consider configuring a loopback interface as an alternative to the FastEthernet 0/1.4. . Another alternative would be to use two routers connected through a serial connection and use the FastEthernet interfaces from each router.5. Configure the logical LAN topology. Figure 11-18 Topology for Lab 11-5 Subnet A Fa0/0 Fa0/1 Subnet B Fa0/1 1 R1 Fa0/2 S1 Fa0/3 Subnet C Subnet D Subnet E Subnet F 2 3 Gather the necessary equipment and cables.

Mix crossover. Subnet E.126 172. Therefore.0. Begin the logical network design by satisfying the requirements of Subnet B. pick the first address block that will support Subnet B. Table 11-21 Subnet B IP Address Information Network Address Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast 172. you should start with Subnet B and finish with Subnet A.255. Students should be able to identify the proper cable type based on a visual inspection. Table 11-20 Addressing Requirements Subnet Number of Hosts Subnet A Subnet B Subnet C Subnet D Subnet E Subnet F As shown in the topology diagram Between 80 and 100 Between 40 and 52 Between 20 and 29 12 5 Note: Always start with the subnet that has the largest number of hosts. Task 1: Design the Logical Lab Topology Given an IP address and mask of 172. design an IP addressing scheme that satisfies the requirements listed in Table 11-20. The 0th subnet will be used.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 343 Scenario In this lab.20. 255. Step 1.0.20. which requires the largest block of IP addresses. you will create a small network that requires connecting network devices and configuring host computers for basic network connectivity.0. and Subnet F are anticipated subnets.0 Step 2. Fill in Table 11-21 with the IP address information for Subnet B.20.0.20. Using binary numbers to create your subnet chart. and rollover cables.255.0/24 (address/mask). straight-through. .128 172. Using binary numbers to create your subnet chart. not yet connected to the network.20. have several different types of cables available for the students.1 172.127 Design the Subnet C address block. Subnet A and Subnet B are subnets that are currently needed. To reinforce student cable identification. pick the next available address block that will support Subnet C. Fill in Table 11-22 with the IP address information for Subnet C. Design the Subnet B address block. the next-largest IP address block. Subnet D. Subnet C. Satisfy the requirements of Subnet C.0. and work your way down.

193 172.20.20. Satisfy the requirements of Subnet E. the next-largest IP address block.224 255. pick the next available address block that will support Subnet F. Design the Subnet E address block.255. Table 11-23 Subnet D IP Address Information Network Address Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast 172.255.0.238 172. Fill in Table 11-24 with the Subnet E IP address information.0.20.0.0.20.20.222 172.20.223 What is the bit mask? 11111111. Fill in Table 11-25 with the Subnet F IP address information. Table 11-24 Subnet E IP Address Information Network Address Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast 172. Design the Subnet D address block.0.239 What is the bit mask? 11111111.225 172.224 172. Design the Subnet F address block.11110000 Step 5. the next-largest IP address block.11000000 Step 3.0.0.344 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 11-22 Subnet C IP Address Information Network Address Mask First Host Last Host Broadcast 172.20.11111111.1111111. Satisfy the requirements of Subnet D.192 255.0.0. pick the next available address block that will support Subnet D. Using binary numbers to create your subnet chart.255.20.240 172. the next-largest IP address block.11111111.11111111. .1111111.190 172.0. Using binary numbers to create your subnet chart.11100000 Step 4. Using binary numbers to create your subnet chart.191 What is the bit mask? 11111111.20.0.255. Fill in Table 11-23 with the Subnet D IP address information.192 172.20.1111111. Satisfy the requirements of Subnet F.255.20.255.0.128 255.129 172. pick the next available address block that will support Subnet E.20.

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Table 11-25 Subnet F IP Address Information Network Address Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast

172.20.0.240

255.255.255.248

172.20.0.241

172.20.0.246

172.20.0.24

What is the bit mask? 11111111.1111111.11111111.11111000
Step 6.

Design the Subnet A address block. Satisfy the requirements of Subnet A, the smallest IP address block. Using binary numbers to create your subnet chart, pick the next available address block that will support Subnet A. Fill in Table 11-26 with the Subnet A IP addressing table.

Table 11-26 Subnet A IP Addressing Table Network Address Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast

172.20.0.248

255.255.255.252

172.20.0.249

172.20.0.250

172.20.0.251

What is the bit mask? 11111111.1111111.11111111.11111100

Task 2: Configure the Physical Lab Topology
Step 1.

Physically connect the lab devices. Cable the network devices as shown earlier, in Figure 11-18. Pay special attention to the crossover cable required between Host1 and Router1. If it’s not already enabled, turn on power to all devices.

Step 2.

Visually inspect the network connections. After cabling the network devices, take a moment to verify the connections. Attention to detail now will minimize the time required to troubleshoot Layer 1 connectivity issues later.

Task 3: Configure the Logical Topology
Step 1.

Document logical network settings. On Subnet A, Host1 uses the first IP address in the subnet. Router1, interface Fa0/0, uses the last host address. On Subnet B, host computers use the first and second IP addresses in the subnet, respectively. Router1, interface Fa0/1, uses the last network host address. To properly route Layer 2 frames between LAN devices, Switch1 does not require Layer 3 configuration. The IP address assigned to Switch1, interface VLAN 1, is used to establish Layer 3 connectivity between external devices and the switch. Without an IP address, upper-layer protocols such as Telnet and HTTP will not work. The default gateway address

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permits the switch to respond to protocol requests from devices on distant networks. For example, the IP gateway address extends Layer 3 connectivity beyond Subnet B. Switch1 uses the next-to-last host address. Write down the IP address information for each device listed in Table 11-27.
Table 11-27 IP Address Information Device Subnet IP Address Mask Gateway

Host1 Router1-Fa0/0 Host2 Host3 Switch1 Router1-Fa0/1
Step 2.

172.20.0.248 172.20.0.248 172.20.0.0 172.20.0.0 172.20.0.0 172.20.0.0

172.20.0.249 172.20.0.250 172.20.0.1 172.20.0.2 172.20.0.125 172.20.0.126

255.255.255.252 255.255.255.252 255.255.255.128 255.255.255.128 255.255.255.128 255.255.255.128

172.20.0.250 — 172.20.0.126 172.20.0.126 172.20.0.126 —

Configure host computers. On each computer, in turn, choose Start > Control Panel > Network Connections. Right-click the LAN icon, and choose Properties. On the General tab, choose Internet Protocol (TCP/IP), and then click the Properties button. Verify that the Host1 Layer 3 IP address is on a different subnet than Host2 and Host3. Configure each host computer using the IP address information recorded in Step 1. Verify proper configuration of each host computer with the ipconfig command, and fill in Table 11-28.

Table 11-28 Host Configuration Device IP Address Mask Default Gateway

Host1 Host2 Host3
Step 3.

172.20.0.249 172.20.0.1 172.20.0.2 Configure Router1.

255.255.255.252 255.255.255.128 255.255.255.128

172.20.0.250 172.20.0.126 172.20.0.126

From the Windows taskbar, start the HyperTerminal program by choosing Start > Programs > Accessories > Communications > HyperTerminal. Configure HyperTerminal for access to Router1. Configuration for Router1 includes the following tasks:
■ ■ ■ ■ ■

Specify the router name: Router1 Specify an encrypted privileged EXEC password: cisco Specify a console access password: class Specify a Telnet access password: class Configure the MOTD banner.

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Configure Router1 interface Fa0/0:
■ ■ ■

Set the description. Set the Layer 3 address. Issue the no shutdown command.

Configure Router1 interface Fa0/1:
■ ■ ■

Set the description. Set the Layer 3 address. Issue the no shutdown command.

Save the configuration in NVRAM. What command do you use to display the contents of RAM? show running-config Record the configuration specifications:
■ ■ ■ ■ ■

Hostname: Router1 Enable secret password: cisco Console access password: class Telnet access password: class MOTD banner: Answers will vary

What command do you use to display configuration information for interface Fa0/0? show interface Fa0/0 Record the configuration specifications:
■ ■ ■

FastEthernet 0/0 status (up/down): Should be up Line protocol: Should be up MAC address: Answers will vary

What command do you use to display configuration information for interface Fa0/1? show interface Fa0/1 Record the configuration specifications:
■ ■ ■

FastEthernet 0/0 status (up/down): Should be up Line protocol: Should be up MAC address: Answers will vary

What command do you use to display brief IP address information about each interface? show ip interface brief Record the configuration specifications:
Interface FastEthernet0/0 FastEthernet0/1 IP-Address 172.20.0.250 172.20.0.126 OK? Method Status YES manual up YES manual up Protocol up up

Take corrective action with any problems, and retest.

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Step 4.

Configure Switch1. Move the console cable from Router1 to Switch1. Press Enter until you receive a response. Configuration for Switch1 includes the following:
■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■

Specify a switch name: Switch1 Specify an encrypted privileged EXEC password: cisco Specify a console access password: class Specify a Telnet access password: class Configure the MOTD banner. Configure Switch1 interface Fa0/1:

Set the description.

Configure Switch1 interface Fa0/2:

Set the description.

Configure Switch1 interface Fa0/3:

Set the description.

Configure the management VLAN1 IP address:
■ ■ ■

Set the description. Set the Layer 3 address. Issue the no shutdown command.

Configure the default IP gateway address.

What command do you use to display the contents of RAM? show running-config Write the configuration specifications:
■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■

Hostname: Switch1 Enable secret password: cisco Console access password: class Telnet access password: class MOTD banner: Answers will vary Interface VLAN 1: 172.20.0.125 Default IP gateway address: 172.20.0.126

What command do you use to display configuration information for interface VLAN 1? show interface vlan1
■ ■

VLAN 1 status (up/down): Should be up Line protocol: Should be up

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Task 4: Verify Network Connectivity
Step 1.

Use the ping command to verify network connectivity. You can verify network connectivity using the ping command. It is very important that connectivity exist throughout the network. Corrective action must be taken if a failure occurs. Use Table 11-29 to methodically verify connectivity with each network device.

Table 11-29 Connectivity Testing From To IP Address Ping Result

Host1 Host1 Host1 Host1 Host1 Host1 Host1 Host2 Host2 Host2 Host2 Host2 Host2 Host2 Host3 Host3 Host3 Host3 Host3 Host3

LocalHost (127.0.0.1) NIC IP address Gateway (Router1, Fa0/0 Router1, Fa0/1 Switch1 Host2 Host3 LocalHost (127.0.0.1) NIC IP address Host3 Switch1 Gateway (Router1, Fa0/1) Router1, Fa0/0 Host1 LocalHost (127.0.0.1) NIC IP address Host2 Switch1 Gateway (Router1, Fa0/1) Router1, Fa0/0

127.0.0.1 172.20.0.249 172.20.0.250 172.20.0.126 172.20.0.125 172.20.0.1 172.20.0.2 127.0.0.1 172.20.0.1 172.20.0.2 172.20.0.125 172.20.0.126 172.20.0.250 172.20.0.249 127.0.0.1 172.20.0.2 172.20.0.1 172.20.0.125 172.20.0.126 172.20.0.250

Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful

Take corrective action to establish connectivity if a test fails.
Note: If pings to host computers fail, temporarily disable the computer firewall, and retest. To disable a Windows firewall, choose Start > Control Panel > Windows Firewall, click Off, and then click OK.

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Step 2.

Use the tracert command to verify local connectivity. From Host1, issue the tracert command to Host2 and Host3. Record the results:
■ ■

From Host1 to Host2: Answers should show success From Host1 to Host3: Answers should show success

Step 3.

Verify Layer 2 connectivity. If it’s not already connected, move the console cable from Router1 to Switch1. Press the Enter key until Switch1 responds. Issue the command show mac-address-table. This command displays static (CPU) and dynamic, or learned, entries. List the dynamic MAC addresses and their corresponding switch ports in Table 11-30.

Table 11-30 MAC Address Table MAC Address Switch Port

Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary

Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary

Verify that there are three dynamically learned MAC addresses—one each from Fa0/1, Fa0/2, and Fa0/3.

Task 5: Reflection
Review any physical or logical configuration problems encountered during this lab. Make sure you have a thorough understanding of the procedures used to verify network connectivity.

Task 6: Challenge
Ask your instructor or another student to introduce one or two problems in your network when you aren’t looking or are out of the lab room. Problems can be either physical (the wrong UTP cable) or logical (the wrong IP address or gateway). To fix the problems, perform a good visual inspection. Look for green link lights on Switch1. Use Table 11-18 to identify failed connectivity. List the problems. Possible answers include incorrect IP addressing and incorrect cabling. Write down your proposed solution(s). Possible solutions include correcting the IP address configuration and replacing the cable. Test your solution. If the solution fixed the problem, document the solution. If the solution did not fix the problem, continue troubleshooting.

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Task 7: Clean Up
Unless directed otherwise by the instructor, restore host computer network connectivity, and then turn off power to the host computers. Before turning off power to the router and switch, remove the NVRAM configuration file from each device with the privileged EXEC command erase startup-config. Carefully remove the cables, and return them neatly to their storage. Reconnect cables that were disconnected for this lab. Remove anything that was brought into the lab, and leave the room ready for the next class.

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Lab 11-6: Network Documentation with Utility Commands (11.5.5.1)
Upon completion of this lab, you will be able to
■ ■ ■ ■ ■

Design the logical lab topology. Configure the physical lab topology. Design and configure the logical LAN topology. Verify LAN connectivity. Document the network.

Background Figure 11-19 shows the topology for this lab.
Figure 11-19 Topology for Lab 11-6
Subnet A
Fa0/0 Fa0/1

Subnet B
Fa0/1

1

R1
Fa0/2

S1
Fa0/3

Subnet C

2

3

Gather the necessary equipment and cables. Table 11-31 lists the equipment and hardware requirements for this lab.
Table 11-31 Equipment and Hardware Requirements Hardware Quantity Description

Cisco router Cisco switch Computer (host) Category 5 or better straight-through UTP cables Category 5 crossover UTP cable Console (rollover) cable

1 1 3 3 1 1

Part of the CCNA Lab bundle Part of the CCNA Lab bundle Lab computer Connects Router1, Host1, and Host2 to Switch1 Connects Host1 to Router1 Connects Host1 to the Router1 console

If you do not have a router that has two FastEthernet interfaces, consider configuring a loopback interface as an alternative to FastEthernet 0/1. Another alternative would be to use two routers connected through a serial connection and use the FastEthernet interfaces from each router.

pick the first address block that will support Subnet B. Design the Subnet B address block. the largest IP address block. In this lab you will create a small network that requires connecting network devices and configuring host computers for basic network connectivity.165. A well-documented network enables network engineers to save significant time in troubleshooting and planning future growth.200. The 0th subnet will be used.165. Students should be able to identify the proper cable type based on a visual inspection.11111111.1111111.239 What is the bit mask? 11111111. Table 11-33 Subnet C IP Address Information Network Address Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast 209.11110000 Step 2. Fill in Table 11-33 with the IP address information for Subnet C.200. not yet connected to the network. . Mix crossover. and rollover cables. Subnet A and Subnet B are subnets that are currently needed. Begin the logical network design by satisfying the requirements of Subnet C. design an IP addressing scheme that satisfies the requirements listed in Table 11-32.238 209.200.165.255. pick the next available address block that will support Subnet C.224 255.240 209. To reinforce student cable identification. Scenario Network documentation is a very important tool for the organization. Subnet C is an anticipated subnet.255. Using binary numbers to create your subnet chart.165. have several different types of cables available for the students.165. Table 11-32 IP Addressing Requirements Subnet Number of Hosts Subnet A Subnet B Subnet C Step 1. the next-largest block of IP addresses. 2 Between 2 and 6 Between 10 and 12 Design the Subnet C address block. Task 1: Design the Logical Lab Topology Given an IP address of 209. Satisfy the requirements of Subnet B.224/27 (address/mask).Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 353 In this lab. router and host output will be copied from the devices and into Notepad for use in network documentation.225 209. Using binary numbers to create your subnet chart.200. straight-through.200.

Design the Subnet A address block.111111000___ Step 3.246 209.255.11111111. Fill in Table 11-35 with the IP address information for Subnet A.248 209. The network router uses the last network host address.11111111.252 209. Satisfy the requirements of Subnet A.165. Document the logical network settings.200.200.354 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Fill in Table 11-34 with the IP address information for Subnet B. pick the next available address block that will support Subnet A.248 255.165. take a moment to verify the connections. Write down the IP address information for each device in Table 11-36. Table 11-35 Subnet A IP Address Information Network Address Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast 209.200.249 209. turn on power to all devices. . If it’s not already enabled. Task 3: Configure the Logical Topology Step 1.165. Table 11-34 Subnet B IP Address Information Network Address Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast 209.200. Using binary numbers to create your subnet chart. the smallest IP address block. Host computers use the first two IP addresses in the subnetwork.247 What is the bit mask? 11111111.165.1111111.200.165.165. Step 2. Pay special attention to the crossover cable required between Host1 and Router1.250 209.1111111.200.165. Attention to detail now will minimize the time required to troubleshoot network connectivity issues later.240 209.11111100 Task 2: Configure the Physical Lab Topology Step 1.255.251 What is the bit mask? 11111111.165.255. After cabling the network devices. Physically connect lab devices.240 255.200. Visually inspect the network connections.200.255. Cable the network devices as shown in Figure 11-19.

Verify proper configuration of each host computer using the ipconfig /all command. and choose Properties.165.165.255.200. Set the Layer 3 address.252 255.241 209. Highlight the Local Area Connection device icon.165.200.200.165.249 209. Configure Router1 interface Fa0/0: ■ ■ ■ Set the description. These are the configuration tasks for Router1: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Specify the router name: Router1 Specify an encrypted privileged EXEC password: cisco Specify a console access password: class Specify a Telnet access password: class Configure the MOTD banner.242 — 255.165.200. ■ Configure Router1 interface Fa0/1: ■ ■ ■ Set the description.248 255.246 209. and name it Documentation_Lab11-6.255.200.200.255. Set the Layer 3 address.200.255.200.255.250 209.248 255.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 355 Table 11-36 IP Address Information Device Subnet IP Address Mask Gateway Router1 -FA0/0 Host1 Router1 -FA0/1 Host2 Host2 Switch Step 2. Step 3.165. and choose Properties.200.248 209.165.200. Issue the no shutdown command.200.255. From the Windows taskbar.240 209.255.165.165. Configure HyperTerminal for access to Router1. . Issue the no shutdown command.240 — 209. Highlight Internet Protocol (TCP/IP). Configure Router1. choose Start > Control Panel > Network Connections.248 209.248 — — 209. Record your information in a separate document.165.165.246 — Configure the host computers. Verify that the Host1 Layer 3 IP address is on a different subnetwork than Host2 and Host3.200. On each computer in turn.255.240 209.165.255.250 — 209. right-click.200.165. start the HyperTerminal program by choosing Start > Programs > Accessories > Communications > HyperTerminal.255.246 209.252 255. Configure each host computer using the IP address information recorded in Step 1. 209.

■ Configure Switch1 interface Fa0/3: ■ Set the description. Copy the output of the show interface fa0/0 and show interface fa0/1 commands into your document named Documentation_Lab11-6. temporarily disable the computer firewall. Specify the command you use to display the contents of RAM: show running-configuration Copy the output of the configuration to your document named Documentation_Lab11-6. . choose Start > Control Panel > Windows Firewall. Use Table 11-37 to methodically verify connectivity with each network device. Use the ping command to verify network connectivity. click OFF. It is very important that connectivity exist throughout the network. Note: If pings to host computers fail. Press Enter until you receive a response. Take corrective action to establish connectivity if a test fails. To disable a Windows firewall. Configuration tasks for Switch1 are as follows: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Specify the switch name: Switch1 Specify an encrypted privileged EXEC password: cisco Specify a console access password: class Specify a Telnet access password: class Configure the MOTD banner. Copy the output of the show mac address-table command to your document named Documentation_Lab11-6. Move the console cable from Router1 to Switch1.356 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Specify the command you use to save the configuration in NVRAM: copy run start Specify the command you use to display the contents of RAM: show running-configuration Save the output of the configuration to your document named Documentation_Lab11-6. ■ Configure Switch1 interface Fa0/2: ■ Set the description. Copy the output of the show ip interface brief command to your document named Documentation_Lab11-6. and retest. and click OK. Corrective action must be taken if a failure occurs. Configure Switch1. Configure Switch1 interface Fa0/1: ■ Set the description. Step 4. Network connectivity can be verified with the ping command. Task 4: Verify Network Connectivity Step 1.

From Host2.200. Fa0/1) Router1.265.0.0.200.165. Fa0/0 Host1 LocalHost (127.1 209.249 209. and Host1.242 127.200.246 209. and Host3. From Host3.200.250 209. issue the tracert command to Host2.265. Task 5: Document the Network With all the work performed so far. issue the tracert command to Host3.165.200.200.249 127.1) NIC IP Address Gateway (Router1.0.243 209. Record the results in your document named Documentation_Lab11-6.241 209. issue the tracert command to Router1. Router1.0.265.0.0.200.1 209.265.1) NIC IP Address Host3 Gateway (Router1.0.0.265.0. That is.265. and Host1. Record the results in your document named Documentation_Lab11-6.265. Fa0/1) Router1. tracert results can be compared against periods of high traffic. LocalHost (127.1 209.241 209.250 209.242 209. Record the results in your document named Documentation_Lab11-6. it would seem that there is nothing left to do. Fa0/0 Host1 127. the tracert command may be used as a crude throughput tester for network baselining.241 209.200. From Host1.200.265. Results can be used to justify equipment upgrades or new purchases.200. In addition to connectivity testing. with minimal traffic.200.200. Fa0/0 Router1.0.265.265.0. Router1. Host2.265.265. Fa0/1 Host2 Host3 LocalHost (127.250 209.246126 209.200.249 Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Use the tracert command to verify local connectivity. and command output was copied into tables.200.1) NIC IP address Host2 Gateway (Router1.165.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 357 Table 11-37 Connectivity Testing From To IP Address Ping Result Host1 Host1 Host1 Host1 Host1 Host1 Host2 Host2 Host2 Host2 Host2 Host2 Host3 Host3 Host3 Host3 Host3 Host3 Step 2. The network was physically and logically configured and verified. .200.0.246 209.

subnet masks. Ensure that you understand the procedures used to verify network connectivity. document the solution. default gateways.) Who wrote the documentation? (Talent like this needs to be tracked. or cables. Use your network documentation to make sure your configurations are correct: Answers will vary Write down your proposed solution(s): Answers will vary Test your solution. Use your network documentation to troubleshoot and remedy the problems. For example. If the solution did not fix the problem. think about what might be needed six months or a year from now. Note to Instructor: You could introduce problems into the network by changing IP addresses. and submit it to your instructor. Answers will vary . answer the following questions in the documentation.358 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide The last step in network documentation is to organize your output. Look for green link lights on Switch1. As you organize.) Be sure to include the following information: ■ ■ A copy of the physical topology A copy of the logical topology Prepare your documentation in a professional format. perhaps in a cover letter: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ When was the network created? When was the network documented? Were any significant challenges overcome? Who performed the configuration? (Talent like this needs to be tracked. Task 6: Reflection Review any physical or logical configuration problems you encountered during this lab. continue troubleshooting. Perform a good visual inspection. Task 7: Challenge Ask your instructor or another student to introduce one or two problems in your network when you aren’t looking or are out of the lab room. Problems can be either physical (cables moved on the switch) or logical (the wrong IP address or gateway). If the solution fixed the problem.

4 service timestamps debug datetime msec service timestamps log datetime msec no service password-encryption ! hostname Router1 ! boot-start-marker boot-end-marker ! enable secret 5 $1$sqIx$iKGfkjNa6IlaBVnPnGrVR0 ! no aaa new-model ip cef ! interface FastEthernet0/0 description connection to Host1 ip address 209. Before turning off power to the router and switch.255. and leave the room ready for the next class.250 255.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 359 Task 8: Clean Up Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. Reconnect cables that were disconnected for this lab.255.255. Carefully remove the cables.246 255. Remove anything that was brought into the lab.255. and return them neatly to their storage. then turn off power to the host computers.200. Instructors may find the following configuration examples helpful. Example Router 1 Configuration Router1 Configuration Current configuration : 1138 bytes ! version 12.248 duplex auto speed auto .252 duplex auto speed auto ! interface FastEthernet0/1 description connection to Switch1 ip address 209.165.165. remove the NVRAM configuration file from each device using the privileged EXEC command erase startup-config. restore host computer network connectivity.200.

530c. line protocol is up Hardware is Gt96k FE. address is 001b.530c.cdee (bia 001b.360 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example ! Router 1 Configuration continued interface Serial0/1/0 no ip address shutdown no fair-queue ! interface Serial0/1/1 no ip address shutdown clock rate 2000000 ! interface Vlan1 no ip address ! ip http server no ip http secure-server ! control-plane ! banner motd ^C **** ABC network device **** **** Authorized access only **** **** Logging is enabled ***** ^C ! line con 0 password class login line aux 0 line vty 0 4 password class login ! scheduler allocate 20000 1000 end Example Router 1 Interface Fa0/0 Configuration Router1# show interface fa0/0 Router1#sh int fa0/0 FastEthernet0/0 is up.cdee) Description: connection to Host1 .

0 deferred 0 lost carrier.165. 0 late collision. Total output drops: 0 Queueing strategy: fifo Output queue: 0/40 (size/max) 5 minute input rate 0 bits/sec. 100BaseTX/FX ARP type: ARPA.200. BW 100000 Kbit.530c.246/29 MTU 1500 bytes.250/30 MTU 1500 bytes. 0 collisions. ARP Timeout 04:00:00 Last input 00:01:27. 0 packets/sec 5 minute output rate 0 bits/sec.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 361 Example Router 1 Interface Fa0/0 Configuration continued Internet address is 209. txload 1/255. 4 interface resets 0 babbles. output hang never Last clearing of “show interface” counters never Input queue: 0/75/0/0 (size/max/drops/flushes). 8915 bytes Received 44 broadcasts. 100Mb/s. reliability 255/255. line protocol is up Hardware is Gt96k FE. rxload 1/255 Encapsulation ARPA. Total output drops: 0 Queueing strategy: fifo Output queue: 0/40 (size/max) 5 minute input rate 0 bits/sec. 0 underruns 0 output errors. rxload 1/255 Encapsulation ARPA.cdef) Description: connection to Switch1 Internet address is 209. DLY 100 usec.cdef (bia 001b. 0 frame. address is 001b. 0 CRC.165. loopback not set Keepalive set (10 sec) Full-duplex. 0 packets/sec 5 minute output rate 0 bits/sec. 0 overrun. reliability 255/255. 0 ignored 0 watchdog 0 input packets with dribble condition detected 277 packets output. 0 packets/sec 54 packets input. 0 output buffers swapped out Example Router 1 Interface Fa0/1 Configuration Router1# show interface fa0/1 FastEthernet0/1 is up.530c. DLY 100 usec. 0 runts. 0 giants. txload 1/255. output never. 88733 bytes. output 00:00:02. 0 no carrier 0 output buffer failures. output hang never Last clearing of “show interface” counters never Input queue: 0/75/0/0 (size/max/drops/flushes). BW 100000 Kbit. 0 packets/sec . Auto Speed. ARP Timeout 04:00:00 Last input never.200. 0 throttles 0 input errors. 100BaseTX/FX ARP type: ARPA. loopback not set Keepalive not set Auto-duplex.

0 deferred 0 lost carrier.200.200. 0 throttles 0 input errors..165..250 YES manual up 209. 0 output buffers swapped out Example Router 1 IP Address Configuration Router1# sh ip int brief Interface FastEthernet0/0 FastEthernet0/1 Serial0/1/0 Serial0/1/1 IP-Address OK? Method Status Protocol up up 209.1 no service padARPA.246 YES manual up unassigned unassigned YES unset YES unset administratively down down administratively down down Example Switch 1 Configuration Building configuration. Current configuration : 1862 bytesad 1/255 ! version 12. 14481 bytes. loopback service timestamps debug uptime service timestamps log uptime no service password-encryption ! hostname Switch1 ! enable secret 5 $1$X9tO$93NSNcI66s8ESanQ/o3A60 ! interface FastEthernet0/1 description connection to Router1 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/2 description connection to Host2 no ip address .362 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example Router 1 Interface Fa0/1 Configuration continued 0 packets input. 0 ignored 0 watchdog 0 input packets with dribble condition detected 91 packets output. 0 collisions. 0 bytes Received 0 broadcasts. 0 underruns 0 output errors. 0 runts. 1 interface resets 0 babbles. 0 frame. 0 giants. 0 no carrier 0 output buffer failures.165. 0 overrun. 0 late collision. 0 CRC.

Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 363 Example ! Switch 1 Configuration continued interface FastEthernet0/3 description connection to Host3 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/4 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/5 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/6 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/7 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/8 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/9 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/10 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/11 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/12 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/13 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/14 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/15 no ip address ! .

364 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example Switch 1 Configuration continued interface FastEthernet0/16 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/17 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/18 no ip address ! Interface FastEthernet0/19 no ip address ! Interface FastEthernet0/20 no ip address ! Interface FastEthernet0/21 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/22 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/23 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/24 no ip address ! interface GigabitEthernet0/1 no ip address !s interface GigabitEthernet0/2 no ip address ! ip http server ! banner motd ^C **** ABC network device **** **** Authorized access only **** **** Logging is enabled ***** .

250 Trace complete.0ccc.530c.242 over a maximum of 30 hops 1 2 <1 ms 1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms 209.200.241 Tracing route to 209.165. C:\> tracert 209.200.250 Tracing route to 209.cccc 0100.242 Trace complete.165.165.8bb4.165.3c3a 001b.200.241 Trace complete.200.cccd 0100.200.250 209.dddd 0016.200.165.165.165.200. C:\> tracert 209.250 209.165.200.f79f.165.200.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 365 Example Switch 1 MAC Address Table Mac Address Table ------------------------------------------Vlan ---All All All All 1 1 1 Mac Address ----------000f.200.241 over a maximum of 30 hops 1 2 <1 ms 1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms 209.242 Tracing route to 209.165.a76a 0018.165.250 over a maximum of 30 hops 1 <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms 209.0cdd.cdef Type -------STATIC STATIC STATIC STATIC DYNAMIC DYNAMIC DYNAMIC Ports ----CPU CPU CPU CPU Fa0/3 Fa0/2 Fa0/1 Total Mac Addresses for this criterion: 7 Switch1# Example Traceroute Results Host1 C:\> tracert 209.200.0ccc.76ac.6cc0 0100. C:\> .

2.1.1.1. Background This lab requires two captured packet files and Wireshark.2.5. network packet noise has been omitted from the captures. and explain the packet fields. and explain the segment fields. be sure to get permission in writing. eagle1.1. Before executing a network protocol analyzer on a network that belongs to someone else.254/24 LAN: MAC Address: 00:0c:29:63:17:a5 IP Address: 10. Understanding the process involved in sequentially placing packets on the network will help you logically troubleshoot network failures when connectivity breaks. For brevity and clarity.pcap (reference only) wireshark.366 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Lab 11-7: Case Study: Datagram Analysis with Wireshark (11. PC_Client. How an IP packet is constructed.6.1.exe Scenario This exercise details the sequence of datagrams that are created and sent across a network between a web client.example. and a web server.250/24 DNS Server .1. you will be able to demonstrate ■ ■ ■ ■ How a TCP segment is constructed. and install Wireshark on your computer if it is not already installed: ■ ■ ■ eagle1_web_client.2.1) Upon completion of this exercise.255/24 Server S1 LAN: MAC Address: 00:0f:f7:9f:6c:c9 IP Address: 10. a network protocol analyzer. Figure 11-20 shows the topology for this lab.2.1/24 LAN: MAC Address: 00:0c:85:cf:66:41 IP Address: 10.pcap (discussed) eagle1_web_server.251/24 R1 LAN: MAC Address: 00:0c:85:cf:66:40 IP Address: 10. Download the following files from Eagle Server. and explain the frame fields. How an Ethernet II frame is constructed.com. The contents of an Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) Request and ARP Reply. Figure 11-20 Topology for Lab 11-7 Client LAN: MAC Address: 00:02:3f:7e:37:da IP Address: 10.

.255. . . . . Refer to Figure 11-22 for changes to the default output.254 DNS Servers . . Start Wireshark on your computer. . . . . . . To ensure that there is no automatic translation in MAC addresses. . . and the URL eagle1. . Filter Toolbar.1. : 10. . .0 Default Gateway . . . . . as shown in Figure 11-21. . . .example. This begins the communication process to the web server. . Refer to Example 11-20. . . . . . : 10. Verify that Packet List and Packet Details are checked. Example 11-20 PC Client Initial Network State C: > ipconfig / all Windows IP Configuration Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection: Connection-specific DNS Suffix . and Packet Bytes.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 367 Using Microsoft command-line tools. . . . : 10. . . . . . . . . Figure 11-21 PC Client with Web Browser Task 1: Prepare the Lab Step 1.1.250 C: > arp -a No ARP Entries Found C: > A web client is started. . . . .255. . . .com is entered. you can display IP configuration information and the contents of the ARP cache. . : No IP Address. .1. . . . and it’s where the captured packets start.1 Subnet Mask . . . .1. . . . : 255. . uncheck Name Resolution for MAC Layer and Transport Layer. . . . Uncheck Main Toolbar. . . .1. . : 00:02:3f:7e:37:da Dhcp Enabled. : Description . .1. : Intel(R) PRO/1000 MT Network Connection Physical Address.

Load the web client capture. . Various pull-down menus and submenus are available. The bottom window contains packet details.com. a sequence number has been internally generated. Because this communication is from a web client.pcap Task 2: Review the Process of Data Flowing Through the Network Step 1. eagle1_web_client. the transport layer protocol is TCP. Data is included.pcap. Some information is unknown to PC_Client. Review transport layer operation.368 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 11-22 Wireshark Default View Changes Step 2. When PC_Client builds the datagram for a connection with eagle1.example. The top Wireshark window lists all captured packets. Likewise. Figure 11-23 Wireshark with eagle1_web_client. At each layer. so it must be discovered using other network protocols. the datagram travels down the various network layers. Consider the TCP segment shown in Figure 11-24. 80. In the bottom window. each line that contains a plus sign next to it indicates that additional information is available. There are also two separate data windows. A screen similar to Figure 11-23 appears. provided by the application layer. 1085—and knows the well-known web server port address. important header information is added. PC_Client generates an internal TCP port address—in this conversation.

Before this segment can move to the network layer. the TCP three-way handshake must be performed. but it must discover the destination MAC address. Step 2. the packet version (IPv4) is known. as shown in Figure 11-25. fields related to the upper-layer protocols are empty. PC_Client knows the source MAC address. Step 3. as well as the source IP address.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 369 Figure 11-24 TCP Segment Field TCP Segment 0 4 7 Source Port Sequence Number Acknowledgment Number Data Offset Reserved ECN Checksum Options and Padding Data Control Bits Window Urgent Pointer 10 16 Destination Port 31 There is no acknowledgment number. For example. Before the datagram is placed on the physical medium. Until the upper-layer datagram is received. The corresponding IP address must be discovered through Domain Name System (DNS). Review network layer operation.com. the IPv4 (IP) packet has several fields ready with information.example. Review data link layer operation. Figure 11-26 Ethernet II Frame Fields Ethernet II Frame Format Source Frame Address Type 2 Octets Preamble Destination Address Data CRC 8 Octets 6 Octets 6 Octets 46–1500 Octets 4 Octets . it must be encapsulated inside a frame. Figure 11-25 IP Packet Fields IP Packet 0 Version 4 IHL Identification TTL Protocol Source IP Address Destination IP Address Data 8 10 TOS Flags 16 Total Length Fragment Offset Header Checksum 31 The destination for this packet is eagle1. At the network layer. as shown in Figure 11-26.

Review the data flow sequence. Why didn’t the DNS server have to send an ARP Request for the PC_Client MAC address? When an ARP Request is received. The ARP protocol is broadcast on the LAN to discover the MAC address for the DNS server. . A TCP three-way handshake with eagle1.com. The ARP protocol is broadcast on the LAN to learn the destination MAC address for eagle1. The DNS server cannot be queried. 1. No.1.example. No. and the destination address for an ARP Reply is a unicast address. 2.1. the source MAC address of the request is stored in the receiver’s ARP cache. Refer to Wireshark’s Packet List window. What is the source MAC address for the ARP Request? 00:02:31:7e:73:da What is the destination MAC address for the ARP Request? ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff What is the unknown IP address in the ARP Request? 10. because the MAC address for the DNS server is unknown. What is the source MAC address for the ARP Reply? 00:0c:29:63:17:a5 What is the destination MAC address for the ARP Request? 00:02:31:7e:73:da What is the Ethernet II frame type? 0x0806 (ARP) What is the destination IP address in the ARP Reply? 10. The DNS server sent an ARP Reply. This is resolved with a DNS request from PC_Client to the DNS server. because PC_Client does not know the IP address for eagle1. Examine the ARP request.370 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 3: Analyze Captured Packets Step 1.1 Based on the observation of the ARP protocol.com is unknown. You can view the contents of the ARP Request by clicking the ARP Request line in the Packet Details window. ■ ■ ■ Step 2.1. You can view the contents of the Ethernet II frame by clicking the checkbox in the second line of the Packet Details window.com must first be completed. The captured frame is an ARP Request. The MAC address for eagle1. The TCP three-way handshake cannot occur. what can you infer about an ARP Request destination address and an ARP Reply destination address? The destination address for an ARP Request is a broadcast address. Refer to Wireshark’s Packet List window. Examine the ARP reply.example.example.com. A review of missing information will be helpful in following the captured packet sequence: ■ The TCP segment cannot be constructed because the acknowledgment field is blank.250 What is the Ethernet II frame type? 0x0806 (ARP) Step 3.1.example.

PC_Client sent a DNS query to the DNS server. only the TCP SYN flag is set on the datagram sent from PC_Client. port 1043 What is the IP address for eagle1. Step 6. port 53 Step 5. Initially. What is your response? DNS uses UDP for name translation.com? Explain. eagle1. Is this IP address different from the IP address for eagle1. PC_Client must have the ARP address to the Gateway. Refer to Wireshark’s Packet List window. Refer to Wireshark’s Packet List window. why did eagle1. and 9.example respond with an acknowledgment of 1? TCP employs expectational acknowledgments. 7. If the initial TCP sequence value from PC_Client is 0.251 One of your colleagues.2.1.2.1. This is also when TCP sliding windows are negotiated. MSS stands for maximum segment size. This value is sent during connection startup.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 371 Step 4. Using the Packet Details window. Examine the TCP three-way handshake.254. Refer to Wireshark’s Packet List window.0/24. Refer to Wireshark’s Packet List window. Examine the DNS query response.com? 10. 8.example.2.1. MSS is computed to be the maximum size of an IPv4 datagram minus 40 bytes. MSS=1460.com. a firewall administrator. These captures contain the TCP three-way handshake between PC_Client and eagle1. A better approach would be to employ a stateful packet filter and create rules that permit established and related traffic through the firewall. . 3.com responds with the TCP ACK and SYN flags set. No. No. 4. The DNS server sent a DNS query response to PC_Client. PC_Client sent an ARP Request to IP address 10. sequence number 0. employees could not translate names to IP addresses. asks you if you can think of any reason why all UDP packets should not be blocked from entering the internal network.example. When a TCP segment is transported over IPv4. and what is the destination port number? UDP. Examine the ARP Request. Using the Packet Details window. Because 10.example. This means that the TCP acknowledgment number sent is for the expected sequence number of the next packet. No. Step 7. 6.example. 5 and No. Yes. along with an acknowledgment of 1 and a sequence of 0. If all UDP packets were dropped at the firewall.251 is on a different network than 10. In the Packet List window is an unexplained value.2. The ARP Reply was from the Gateway. and what is the destination port number? UDP. answer the following questions: What is the Ethernet II frame type? 0x0800 (IP) What is the transport layer protocol. Examine the DNS query. No.1. answer the following questions: What is the Ethernet II frame type? 0x0800 (IP) What is the transport layer protocol.

example. No. . No. 9.example.0 Congestion Window Reduced ECN Echo Urgent ACK PSH SYN FIN Task 4: Complete the Final Analysis Step 1.example. 9. . . . the DNS query response The DNS server cannot be queried because the MAC address for the DNS server is unknown. . . .0. No.example. .0. . .com. No.example.com must first be completed. .0. 2. . More fragments (not set) When PC_Client completes the TCP three-way handshake. This is shown in Wireshark’s Packet List. . . Reserved (not set) 1 . . This is resolved with a DNS request from PC_Client to the DNS server. where PC_Client sent a web protocol GET request.com? Table 11-38 shows the TCP flag states. . what TCP flag states are returned to eagle1. . 8. . .com. . . Wireshark’s Packet List.example.com The TCP three-way handshake cannot occur because PC_Client does not know the IP address for eagle1. .com. No.0. . . .com before PC_Client has sufficient information to send the original web client request to eagle1. It has taken a total of nine datagrams sent between PC_Client.372 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide In eagle1. the TCP ACK response to eagle1. A TCP three-way handshake with eagle1. The ARP protocol is broadcast on the LAN to discover the MAC address for the DNS server. . . . . Fill in the correct Wireshark Packet List window number that satisfies each of the following missing entries: ■ The TCP segment cannot be constructed because the acknowledgment field is blank. . No. 4. DNS server. . Gateway. . . . Match the Wireshark output to the process. what does the IP flag value of 0x04 mean? IP flag values: 8421 0 . Don’t fragment (set) 0 . . .1. . .example. . and eagle1. Table 11-38 TCP Flag States Bit Position Flag 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0. 10. the ARP response from the DNS server ■ ■ .

example.com. Next.com to the PC_Client GET request. and expand the [SEQ/ACK analysis] frame. eagle1. The ARP protocol is broadcast on the LAN to learn the destination MAC address for the gateway. Wireshark Packet List No. and unacknowledged packets. Figure 11-27 Output of TCP Stream Task 5: Conclusion Using a network protocol analyzer can be an effective learning tool for understanding critical elements of network communication. and the TCP session is closed. scroll down to the bottom of the Detail List window. Wireshark Packet List No. choose Analyze > Follow TCP Stream. there could be multiple causes. highlight Wireshark Packet List No. Use the Wireshark TCP stream. if a web browser could not connect to a web server.example. To verify the ACK.com is unknown. 14 is a response to which datagram from eagle1. 10. TCP ACK and FIN flags are sent.example. Review the information in the [SEQ/ACK analysis] frame. A window similar to the one shown in Figure 11-27 appears.example. Wireshark Packet List No. and 15 are TCP segments from eagle1. first select a TCP datagram from the Wireshark Packet List.example. Wireshark includes an option that constructs the TCP stream in a separate window. 14 and 16 are ACK datagrams from PC_Client. When PC_Client is finished. the same protocol analyzer can become an effective troubleshooting tool when the network fails. 11 is an acknowledgment from eagle1. 13. . What is the purpose of this datagram? This datagram is a TCP window update to expand the window size. from Wireshark. 6. the ARP response from the Gateway Wireshark Packet List No. 13 The Wireshark Packet List No. 18. The ACK datagram for Wireshark Packet List No. For example.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 373 ■ The MAC address for the gateway to reach eagle1.com.example. unsuccessful DNS queries. as shown in Wireshark Packet List No. Analyzing packet contents can be a daunting experience—time-consuming and errorprone. 17 datagram is sent from PC_Client to eagle1.com? No. To use this feature. As soon as the network administrator is familiar with communication protocols. A protocol analyzer shows unsuccessful ARP requests. 12. Next. No.com responds with a TCP ACK. 14. Step 2.

respectively. Behind-the-scenes protocols such as DNS and ARP are used to fill in missing parts of IP packets and Ethernet frames. and testing skills. configuring. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ Build. TCP. Ethernet. UDP. Here is an opportunity to test yourself. Figure 11-28 shows the topology for this lab.374 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 6: Summary In this exercise you have learned how a web client and web server communicate. You have also developed a conceptual understanding of networking protocols and device algorithms. you have been developing network planning. Finally. the TCP three-way handshake must build a reliable path and supply both communicating ends with initial TCP header information. IP. and configure the entire lab network. See if you can complete this entire challenge (approximately 100 configurable components.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to perform this exercise using Packet Tracer. Before a TCP session can begin. ARP. the TCP session is destroyed in an orderly manner. Integrate skills from throughout the course. Ethernet.1. Packet Tracer Challenge Skills Integration Challenge: Configuring and Analyzing Networks (11. Figure 11-28 Skills Integration Lab Topology 1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server 2960-24TT S1-Central 1841 R2-Central PC-PT 1A PC-PT 1B .3) Open file LSG01-PTSkills11. HTTP. although some are quite easy) in less than 30 minutes. test. ARP. Upon completion of this activity. IP. with the client issuing a TCP FIN flag. ICMP.6. HDLC) Tracing the route to the web server (DNS. Analyze the events involved in ■ ■ Requesting a web page (DNS. HDLC) Background Throughout this course. building.

Subnet assignments: ■ First subnet. For R2-Central’s Fa0/0 interface. For hosts 1A and 1B. You have been given an IP address block of 192. existing student LAN. configure the highest usable address on the existing WAN subnet. For R1-ISP’s Fa0/0 interface.0 /24. which has a serial DCE WAN connection to R2-Central and an Fa0/0 LAN connection to Eagle_Server. use the first two IP addresses (the two lowest usable addresses) on the existing student LAN subnet. up to 28 hosts (not yet implemented) Third subnet. all strings (names. up to seven hosts (not yet implemented) Fifth subnet.3. For the switch management interface.168. use the second-highest usable address on the student subnet. use the highest usable address on the existing student LAN subnet. point-to-point link (S0/0/0 on R1-ISP and S0/0/0 on R2-Central) ■ ■ ■ ■ IP address assignments: ■ ■ ■ For the server. For R1-ISP’s S0/0/0 interface. which has a serial DCE WAN connection to R1ISP and an Fa0/0 LAN connection to S1-Central One 2960TT switch (S1-Central) Two PCs named 1A and 1B A server named Eagle_Server ■ ■ ■ Note that both the display names and hostnames for all devices must be configured exactly. future student LAN. connected to Fa0/24 on S1-Central) Second subnet. and connect them to the Fa0/1 and Fa0/2 interfaces on S1Central. configure the second-highest usable IP address on the ISP LAN subnet. existing ISP LAN. ■ ■ ■ ■ Use Table 11-39 to record your address information. up to 14 hosts (Fa0/0 on R1-ISP) Fourth subnet. You must provide for existing networks as well as future growth. and one named R2-Central. . use the lowest usable address on the existing WAN subnet. installed in the slot on the right—one named R1-ISP. For R2-Central’s S0/0/0 interface.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 375 Task 1: Plan Use the standard Exploration lab topology as you plan your IP addressing scheme: ■ Two 1841 routers with WIC-2T interface cards. and connect it to the Fa0/24 interface on S1-Central. configure the highest usable IP address on the ISP LAN subnet. future ISP LAN. passwords. In general. banners) should be entered exactly as specified in these instructions for the grading to work properly. up to 28 hosts (Fa0/0 on R2-Central. existing WAN.

banner (**This is lab switch S1-Central. console.98 192. use a clock rate of 64000 on the R1ISP S0/0/0 interface.3.240 — — 192. the server.255. configure the display name.**).98 192.3. Configure the routers using the CLI to practice your skills.255.3.3.255.224 255. Hint: To configure static routes. console.168. interfaces (FastEthernet and serial). If you want more practice.1 192.example. and enable HTTP services. login passwords for access (enable. The static route on R1-ISP should point to the existing Student LAN subnet via R2-Central’s serial interface IP address. Whenever you configure a Cisco IOS device.97 192.224 255.255. and Telnet passwords all set to cisco). The router configuration must include “housekeeping” (display name. Configure both routers. Note to Instructor: You might want to introduce students to the concepts of static routes and discuss the command syntax and default routes. enable DNS services.2 192. default route on R2-Central). be sure to save your configuration. You can use the CLI help function to determine the command syntax.com. use ip route global configuration mode. As you work. The following login passwords should all be set to cisco: enable.77 255.255.168. and Telnet. taking care to make connections as specified. and the two PCs.376 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 11-39 Addressing Table Device Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP Fa0/0 S0/0/0 192. On the switch. be sure to save your configuration. Authorized access only. in addition to IP configuration.168. passwords.255.3.168.168. Students need to understand these concepts to successfully complete this lab.168.255. Authorized access only.3. Whenever you configure a Cisco IOS device. The static route on R2-Central should be a default static route that points via R1-ISP’s serial interface IP address. configure them to use DNS services.** and **This is lab router R2-Central.3.255.255.3. use “Reset Activity” and retime yourself doing the entire configuration again.3. The banners should say **This is lab router R1ISP.98 192.255.3.78 192.168. banner).30 192. and routing (static route on R1-ISP. .30 192. hostname. hostname.168.252 255.168. For Hosts 1A and 1B. For the server. Authorized access only.3.3.168. the switch.168.255.252 255.** The interfaces should be configured as specified in Table 11-39.255. and management interface (int vlan1).255. use “Check Results” to see what components still need to be configured.168.30 192. use the domain name eagle-server.224 255.255.78 R2-Central Fa0/0 S0/0/0 PC-1A PC-1B Eagle-Server NIC NIC NIC Task 2: Build and Configure the Network Build the network.240 255.

TCP. In simulation mode. . and to examine routing tables. ICMP. Explain the entire process to a peer. Then power-cycle the devices and reset the network. Your skills at modeling networks in Packet Tracer will serve you well in subsequent courses. Again explain the entire process to a peer. Also note the algorithms used by hosts. HTTP.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 377 Task 3: Test and Analyze It is good practice to test connectivity through ping and Telnet. Examine the packets as they are processed by the devices to study protocol behavior. issue a traceroute to the server from one of the PCs. switches. Task 4: Reflection Relate the processes observed in Task 3 to the TCP/IP Protocol Graph. UDP. Telnet. especially how IP is involved in everything. and routers. ARP. request a web page while making the following protocols visible in the event list: DNS. also in simulation mode. make sure you have saved your configurations on the Cisco IOS devices. Power-cycle the devices to clear the network again and. Examine how the trace is built from ICMP echo requests. As soon as you are convinced that your network is working.

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