Optical Fiber Splice Loss

Issued: July 2006, Supercedes: May 2006
Document: AN0003

Abstract
Optical power loss at the splicing point of two ends of optical fiber is known as splice loss. In this application note splice loss measurement technique, extrinsic & intrinsic factors effecting splice loss and typical settings of splicing instrument for Sterlite G652 fibers are described.

Keywords
Optical fiber , Splice Loss, Mode field diameter

Sterlite ®. Sterlite is a registered trademark of Sterlite Technologies Limied

www.sterlitetechnologies.com

04dB A to B + (-0.01 dB ---------------------------Eq.com .Definition Fusion splicing is a technique to join two fibers ends. Sterlite is a registered trademark of Sterlite Technologies Limied www. A cable section-containing splices are normally shown as knees on the optical power loss OTDR graph.sterlitetechnologies. How splice loss can be measured? An Optical Time Domain Reflectometer (OTDR) can be used for splice loss measurement. Optical power loss at the splicing point is known as splice loss. splice loss measurements with an OTDR must be conducted from both directions and averaged (by adding with signs)for accurate splice loss. the effect on actual splice loss is relatively low. (2) Sterlite ®. Splice loss A to B + Splice loss B to A Splice Loss = 2 ---- ---------------------Eq (1) Example: 0. As per the procedure (ANSI/TIA/EIA-455-8-2000).02dB) B to A Splice Loss = 2 = 0. Below is the graphical picture of ‘gainers’ and ‘exaggerated losses’ measurements. It is important to remember that actual splice-loss is the measured splice-loss in both directions divided with two.

3 9.8 8. which control loss in any fiber joining method.sterlitetechnologies.9 Figure 1 Figure 1 shows calculated splice loss as per equation 3 with various MFD combinations of range 8. Sterlite ®.02 0. Splice loss due to MFD difference 0.8 to 9.On which parameters splice loss is dependent? The parameters.9 9.6 m. With the help of the following formula splice loss due to MFD mismatch can be calculated from MFDs (in m) of two fibers 1 Splice Loss (in dB) = 20 Log 2 MFD2 MFD1 + MFD1 MFD2 -----------------------.5 9.1 9. As per the above equation splice loss between two extreme MFD values is 0.01 9.8-9. When fibers with different MFD values are spliced together.3 MFD1 (in µm) 0.03 0. The MFD is a characteristic. Intrinsic Intrinsic Parameters Intrinsic or fiber related parameters are determined when the fiber is manufactured and cannot be controlled by the individual doing splicing.4 9. Higher differences in MFD values between two fibers increases splice loss.5 9.8 8.04 0. which describes the mode field (cross-sectional area of light) traveling down a fiber at a given wavelength. Mode Field Diameter (MFD) is the most important intrinsic parameter.7 9. can be classified as Intrinsic and Extrinsic parameters.8 m.9 9 9.06 Calculated Splice Los (in dB) s 8.035 dB.2 9.1 9.05 0. Sterlite is a registered trademark of Sterlite Technologies Limied www.6 9.com .7 8.Eq. (3) MFD of PMD-LITE fibers can vary from 8.7 9. a MFD mismatch occurs at splice point. More splice loss can be observed for higher difference in MFD values.

06 Maxim um splice loss due to MFD difference (in dB) 0. Figure 3 Sterlite ®.6 m.0.7 9.05 dB at two extreme points.8 MFD (in µm) Figure 2 Figure 2 shows maximum splice loss of fiber with particular MFD value with any other fiber of MFD range 8.1 9. Splice loss increase in either side of the band and reaches 0. Splice process parameters include lateral and angular alignment.3 m is lowest when spliced with any other fiber of range 8.8-9. It has been observed that splice loss between two identical fibers with same MFD and geometry parameters is as high as 0.04 dB. These external parameters can be controlled/minimized by improving skill of the individual doing splicing and by automated fiber alignment and fusion cycles.05 0.6 m.5 9. Thus it is better to maintain MFD value close to 9.02 0.3 m to achieve least splice loss with any other fibers.3 9. Sterlite is a registered trademark of Sterlite Technologies Limied www.2 9. contamination at the fiber end and core deformation due to un-optimized heating & pressing.8-9.9 9 9. This excess loss is due to miss alignment and other splicing process parameters. Splice loss of fiber with MFD 9.4 9. or splice process related parameters are those induced by splicing methods and procedures. Extrinsic Parameters Extrinsic.sterlitetechnologies.03 0.01 0 8.com .8 8. Figure 3 shows fiber end conditions with various unoptimized splicing parameters.6 9.04 0.

It has been observed that extrinsic parameters can give splice loss as high as 0. Figure 4 is showing comparison between bad and good cleaving.Other important extrinsic parameter is fiber end angle. acceptable field splice loss can be achieved.sterlitetechnologies. End angle is dependent on condition of cleaver and cleaver blade. Typical end angle of well – maintained cleaver is around one-half degree.com . Proper fiber end preparation is the most fundamental step to get acceptable splice loss.4 dB. Generally end angle less than two degrees gives acceptable field splice loss.00µm • Overlap 15.00µm • ARC power 00. Sterlite is a registered trademark of Sterlite Technologies Limied www.50sec • Pre-fusion 00. By controlling extrinsic parameters. Figure 4 Bad vs Good Cleave Recommended Splicing parameters for Sterlite’s G652 fibers Parameters • ARC duration 01.20step Alignment method • Auto Core Alignment Fiber end check • Auto cleave angle check Measurement method • Optical time domain reflectormeter (discussed above) Sterlite ®.10sec • ARC gap 10.

sterlitetechnolo www.sterlitetechnologies.Sterlite Technologies Limited Aurangabad Bangkok Beijing Boston Haridwar Johannesburg Dadra London Moscow Mumbai New Delhi Piparia Pune Rakholi Shanghai Phone: +91-20-30514000 communications@sterlite.com Sterlite ®. Sterlite is a registered trademark of Sterlite Technologies Limied www.com .sterlitetechnologies.com www. Sterlite is a registered trademark of Sterlite Technologies Limited Sterlite ®.

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