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NEW GL CONF!GURAT!ON









FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING

NEW GENERAL LEDGER ACCOUNTING
CONFIGURATION IN
ENTERPRISE CORE COMPONENT [ECC 6.0]











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NEW GL CONF!GURAT!ON


TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.0 PURPOSE ..................................................................................................................................................... 3
2.0 NEW GENERAL LEDGER: CONF!GURAT!ON PROCESS FLOW !N SAP .............................................................................. +
3.0 ACT!vAT!ON OF NEW GENERAL LEDGER ACCOUNT!NG ............................................................................................. +
+.0 D!SPLAY SCENAR!OS FOR GENERAL LEDGER ACCOUNT!NG ........................................................................................ 6
5.0 CONF!GURAT!ON OF THE LEDGERS ..................................................................................................................... 8
5.1 DEF!NE LEDGERS FOR GENERAL LEDGER ACCOUNT!NG ........................................................................................ 9
5.2 DEF!NE CURRENC!ES FOR LEAD!NG LEDGER .................................................................................................... 10
5.3 DEF!NE AND ACT!vATE NON-LEAD!NG LEDGERS ............................................................................................... 11
5.+ ASS!GN SCENAR!OS AND CUSTONER F!ELDS TO LEDGERS ................................................................................... 12
5.5 ACT!vATE THE COST OF SALES ACCOUNT!NG .................................................................................................. 13
5.6 DEF!NE LEDGER GROUP ............................................................................................................................. 1+
6.0 DOCUNENT SPL!TT!NG: SETT!NGS 8 CONF!GURAT!ON .......................................................................................... 15
6.1 CLASS!FY GL ACCOUNTS FOR DOCUNENT SPL!TT!NG ........................................................................................ 16
6.2 CLASS!FY DOCUNENT TYPES FOR DOCUNENT SPL!TT!NG .................................................................................... 17
6.3 DEF!NE ZERO-BALANCE CLEAR!NG ACCOUNT .................................................................................................. 18
6.+ DEF!NE DOCUNENT SPL!TT!NG CHARACTER!ST!CS FOR THE GENERAL LEDGER ACCOUNT!NG ........................................ 18
6.5 DEF!NE DOCUNENT SPL!TT!NG CHARACTER!ST!CS FOR THE CONTROLL!NG.............................................................. 19
6.6 DEF!NE POST CAP!TAL!ZAT!ON OF CASH D!SCOUNT TO F!XED ASSETS .................................................................... 20
6.7 ED!T CONSTANTS FOR NON-ASS!GNED PROCESSES........................................................................................... 20
6.8 ACT!vATE THE DOCUNENT SPL!TT!NG ........................................................................................................... 22
7.0 EXTENDED DOCUNENT SPL!TT!NG: CONF!GURAT!ON ............................................................................................. 23
7.1 DEF!NE DOCUNENT SPL!TT!NG NETHOD ........................................................................................................ 23
7.2 DEF!NE DOCUNENT SPL!TT!NG RULE ............................................................................................................ 2+
7.3 ASS!GN DOCUNENT SPL!TT!NG NETHOD ........................................................................................................ 26
7.+ DEF!NE BUS!NESS TRANSACT!ON vAR!ANTS .................................................................................................... 27

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1.0 PURPOSE
The main purpose of GfL accounting is to provide a comprehensive picture of external accounting and accounts.
Recording all business transactions (primary postings as well as settlements from internal accounting) that is fully
integrated with all the other operational areas of a company ensures that the accounting data is always complete and
accurate.
Beyond fulfilling the legal requirements, General Ledger Accounting also fulfills other requirements for modern
accounting:
1. Parallel Accounting
2. !ntegration of Legal and Nanagement Reporting
3. Segment Reporting
+. Cost of Sales Accounting
1. PARALLEL ACCOUNTING
General Ledger Accounting allows you to perform parallel accounting by managing several parallel ledgers for different
accounting principles.
2. INTEGRATION OF LEGAL AND MANAGEMENT REPORTING
The General Ledger Accounting allows to perform internal management reporting in parallel with legal reporting. This
is achieved by allowing the Profit Center Accounting functions to be integrated with General Ledger Accounting. The
concept of dimension has been introduced which can be standard SAP defined like Profit Center etc or can be
customer defined as well. With this enhanced functionality of the dimension it is possible to generate financial
statements for the given dimension.
3. SEGMENT REPORTING
The General Ledger Accounting also supports the segment reports required by the accounting principles !FRS
(!nternational Financial Reporting Standards) and US GAAP (Generally Accepted Accounting Principles). This is
achieved with the help of the introduction of the dimension segment in the General Ledger Accounting.
4. COST OF SALES ACCOUNTING
The General Ledger Accounting further supports the cost of sales accounting methodology as well. The Functional
Area dimension has been introduced for this purpose in the General Ledger Accounting.
Therefore the General Ledger Accounting comprises some of the below mentioned functions for the analysis of the
data:
Choice between group level or company level;
Automatic and simultaneous posting of all sub-ledger items in the appropriate general ledger accounts
(reconciliation accounts);
Simultaneous updating of the parallel general ledgers and of the cost accounting areas; and
Real-time evaluation of and reporting on current posting data, in the form of account displays, financial
statements with different balance sheet versions, and additional analyses.
Going forward, the General Ledger Accounting serves as a complete record of all business transactions, with
option to analyze and report the data for the required dimension.
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2.0 NEW GENERAL LEDGER: CONFIGURATION PROCESS FLOW IN SAP
The process flow for the configuration of the New General Ledger is as follows:
Activate the New General Ledger Accounting;
Perform the general settings for the Fiscal Year, Posting Periods and Currencies;
Configuration of the Ledgers [Leading 8 Non-Leading ledgers|;
Configuration of the Real Time !ntegration with Controlling, if required; and
Setting up the Parallel Ledgers for various purposes.
3.0 ACTIVATION OF NEW GENERAL LEDGER ACCOUNTING
For using the New General Ledger Accounting, this new functionality needs to be activated first.
Nenu Path SPRO Financial Accounting Financial Accounting Global Settings Activate New General Ledger
Accounting
T.Code FAGL_ACT!vAT!ON

Activate the New General Ledger here by executing this transaction. Once the New General Ledger is activated, the
table for the New General Ledger are activated and updated. This can be validated by checking the table
FAGL_ACTIVEC through the T.Code SE11.

Referring to the properties as per the screen above, the update to the Classic General Ledger [GLT0| has been de-
activated. Once the New General Ledger has been activated, then the following needs to be done:
Comparison of the Ledgers to validate that the updation to the New General Ledger Table is correct.
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NEW GL CONF!GURAT!ON

!n the standard system, the tables from Classic General Ledger Accounting (GLT0) as well as the tables in the
New Ledger Accounting after the activation. This enables to perform the ledger comparison between the
Classic General Ledger Accounting (GLT0) and the New General Ledger Accounting (FAGLFLEXT). This can be
done in Customizing through ledger comparison
Nenu Path SPRO Financial Accounting (New) Financial Accounting Global Settings (New) Compare
Ledgers
T.Code GCAC

Enter the Base Ledger and the Comparison Ledger details for the comparison of the ledgers.


Click to execute the report and identify the differences, if any exists. The output of the report shows the balances
for every GL Account and its corresponding differences between the Base Ledger and Comparison Ledger. !dentify 8
analyze the differences and do the requisite steps to rectify the same.

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De-activation of the Updation to the Classic General Ledger.
Once it is validated that the New General Ledger Accounting is working correctly, and then it is advisable to
de-activate the updation to the Classic General Ledger Accounting Tables.
Nenu Path SPRO Financial Accounting (New) Financial Accounting Global Settings (New) Deactivate the
update of Classic General Ledger (GLT0)
T.Code SPRO

Ensure that the ¨WritefRead Classic General Ledger (GLT0)" is not activated. This will ensure that the same data is not
written twice in different tables.


4.0 DISPLAY SCENARIOS FOR GENERAL LEDGER ACCOUNTING
Display the SAP delivered scenario, for the New General Ledger Accounting.
Nenu Path SPRO Financial Accounting (New) Financial Accounting Global Settings (New) Ledgers
Fields Display Scenario's for the General Ledger Accounting
T.Code SPRO

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NEW GL CONF!GURAT!ON

!n this customizing activity, it provides an overview of the scenarios that SAP has provided by default for General
Ledger Accounting. A scenario determines which fields are updated when postings are received from other
application components. !t is also possible to define our own scenarios, for which the steps are given below:
1. Define the Scenario for the General Ledger Accounting
2. Assign the Scenario Fields for the Scenario as defined.
This table is a cross client table. Hence be absolutely careful, before making any changes to this table.



Click on the particular scenario, and go to the sub-menu Scenario Fields to see the fields, which will be updated if
the particular scenario is assigned to the Ledger. For eg: select the scenario "Business Area [FIN_GSBER]" to
check the fields assigned to this particular scenario.



The fields as seen above are as follows:

• RBUSA - Receiver Business Area
• SBUSA - Sender Business Area

Also select the scenario "Profit Center Update [FIN_PCA]" to check the fields assigned to this particular scenario.


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Also select the scenario "Segmentation [FIN_SEGM]" to check the fields assigned to this particular scenario.


5.0 CONFIGURATION OF THE LEDGERS
The following are the configuration, which needs to be carried out to implement the Ledgers for the New General
Ledger Accounting:
1. Define Ledgers for General Ledger Accounting;
2. Define Currencies for the Leading Ledger;
3. Define and Activate Non-Leading Ledgers;
+. Assign Scenarios and Customer Fields to Ledgers;
5. Activate Cost of Sales Accounting; if required;
6. Define Ledger Group.
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5.1 DEFINE LEDGERS FOR GENERAL LEDGER ACCOUNTING
A Ledger is a section of a database table. A ledger only contains those dimensions of the Totals Table that the
ledger is based on and that are required for reporting.
A ledger uses several dimensions from the totals table it is based on. Each dimension of the totals table represents a
subset of the coding block. !t is possible to include customer fields in the ledgers. To do this, add the customer field to
the coding block and then include this field in the totals table that the ledger is based on.
!t is essential that atleast one ledger should be designated as a "Leading Ledger".
There are different kinds of Ledgers in the New General Ledger Accounting, which are as follows:
• Parallel Ledgers;
o Leading Ledgers; and
o Non-Leading Ledgers;
• Roll Up Ledgers; and
• Day Ledger
{1){a) Leading Ledger:
The leading ledger is based on the same accounting principle as that of the consolidated financial statements.
!f the account approach is used for parallel accounting, all the transaction data is posted to the leading ledger. This
leading ledger is integrated with all subsidiary ledgers and is updated in all company codes. This means that it is
automatically assigned to all company codes.
!n each company code, the leading ledger receives exactly the same settings that apply to that company code: the
currencies, the fiscal year variant, and the variant of the posting periods. !t is possible to define a second and third
parallel currency for the leading ledger for each company code.
{1){b) Non-Leading Ledger{s):
The non-leading ledgers are parallel ledgers to the leading ledger. They can be based on a local accounting principle,
for example. !t is necessary to activate a non-leading ledger for the individual company codes.
Non-leading ledgers can have different fiscal year variants and different posting period variants per
company code to the leading ledger of this company code. The second and third currency of the non-leading
ledger must be a currency that is managed as second or third currency in the respective company code. However, it is
not required to have a second and third currency in the parallel ledgers; as these are optional. Alternative currencies
are not possible.
NOTE:
Posting procedures with sub ledger or GfL accounts managed on an open item basis always affect all ledgers. This
means that it is not possible to perform ledger-specific postings to sub ledger or GfL accounts managed on an open
item basis. !f certain GfL accounts are managed on an open item basis to monitor accounting aspects such as reserve
allocations and reversals, it is necessary to take additional measures in the internal controls system.
{2) Rollup Ledger{s):
!n addition to the parallel ledgers, it is also possible to define a rollup ledger for special reporting purposes. !n a rollup
ledger, it is possible to combine summarized data from other ledgers in General Ledger Accounting. This enables to
compile cumulated reports on different ledgers.
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{3) Day Ledger{s):
Use a day ledger, if the reports need to be created for average balances (reports for displaying average daily
balances). Based on the Business Requirements, activate the day ledger for drilldown reporting.
NOTE:
We do not define day ledgers as the leading ledger or as the representative ledger in a ledger group.
Also note that when a ledger is created, the system automatically creates a LEDGER GROUP with the same name.
Nenu Path SPRO Financial Accounting (New) Financial Accounting Global Settings (New) Ledgers
Ledger Define Ledgers for General Ledger Accounting
T.Code SPRO



The Totals Table as defined as SAP for the General Ledger Accounting is FAGLFLEXT. However it is also possible to
create our own Totals Table. However SAP recommends to work with Standard Totals Table as delivered.

Ensure that the Leading !ndicator is activated for the Leading Ledger, as per the Business Requirements.
5.2 DEFINE CURRENCIES FOR LEADING LEDGER

!n this customizing activity, specify the currency that is to be applied in the leading ledger. The Local Currency, as
specified in the Company Code Currency, is specified in the Company Code settings. !t is possible to define one or two
additional local currencies, per company code, in parallel to the first local currency.

Nenu Path SPRO Financial Accounting (New) Financial Accounting Global Settings (New) Ledgers
Ledger Define Currencies for the Leading Ledger
T.Code SPRO



Select the company code and click to see the details.

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5.3 DEFINE AND ACTIVATE NON-LEADING LEDGERS

!n this customizing activity, define and activate the Non-Leading Ledgers. The Non-Leading Ledgers are activated for
the Company Code.

Since the Non-Leading Ledgers are activated for the Company Code, the first local currency of the Non-Leading Ledger
will be always that of the Leading Ledger. Since the First Local Currency is defined for the Company Code, it will be
the Local Currency of the Company Code. For Second and Third Local Currencies, it is possible to use only those
currency types as mentioned in the Leading Ledger.

Further it is also possible to enter a different fiscal year variant than that of the Leading Ledger. This is very important
because for NNC's operating in different parts of the Globe, a Non-Leading Ledger can be defined as per the
requirements of their Head Office, with a different fiscal year variant as per the Business Requirements.

This functionality was earlier available in Special Purpose Ledger, from where it has been introduced into the New
General Ledger Accounting.

Nenu Path SPRO Financial Accounting (New) Financial Accounting Global Settings (New) Ledgers
Ledger Define and activate Non-Leading Ledgers
T.Code SPRO

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NEW GL CONF!GURAT!ON


Enter the Non-Leading Ledger as defined earlier [Refer to Step 5.1| and click to specify the details for the Ledger.


5.4 ASSIGN SCENARIOS AND CUSTOMER FIELDS TO LEDGERS

!n this customizing activity, the following are assigned to the Ledgers:

The Scenarios, which determines the fields that needs to be updated when it receives postings from other
applications.
!nclude the custom fields that have already been defined to the ledgers.
!n the versions, configure whether the Actual data is recorded, whether the manual planning is allowed 8
whether the planning integration with Controlling is activated.

The configuration needs to be done for the Leading as well as Non-Leading Ledgers.

Nenu Path SPRO Financial Accounting (New) Financial Accounting Global Settings (New) Ledgers
Ledger Assign Scenarios and Customer Fields to Ledgers
T.Code SPRO


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Select the particular ledger and go to the sub-menu "Scenarios" to see the scenarios attached for the ledgers.



For the inclusion of the Customer Fields in the Ledger, the following are the steps to be followed, before they can be
attached here for the Ledger:

1. Create the New Custom Field in the Coding Block and activate the same.
2. Add the newly defined Custom Field in the Totals Table.
3. Then the field will be available for their attachment to the Ledgers in the above configuration
5.5 ACTIVATE THE COST OF SALES ACCOUNTING

!n this customizing activity, the Cost of Sales Accounting is activated for the Company Codes individually. This means
that when the entries are posted to these company codes, the Functional Area is derived and updated for those
entries.

!n order to activate the Cost of Sales Accounting, atleast one of the below mentioned settings should have been done:

Assign the Functional Area to the Naster Data of the Account Assignment Objects.
A Substitution has been defined and activated for the derivation of the Functional Area.
!t is also possible to have a combination of the above for the derivation of the Functional Area.

Nenu Path SPRO Financial Accounting (New) Financial Accounting Global Settings (New) Ledgers
Ledger Activate Cost of Sales Accounting
T.Code SPRO


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5.6 DEFINE LEDGER GROUP

!n this customizing activity, define the Ledger Group.

A Ledger Group is a combination of ledgers for the purpose of applying the functions and processes of the General
Ledger Accounting to the Group as a whole. For eg: when the posting is made, it is possible to restrict the update of
the individual's postings to a Ledger group so that the system only posts to those Ledgers in that group.

!t is possible to combine any number of ledgers in a Ledger Group. When a Ledger is created, the system
automatically generates a Ledger Group with the same name. !t is possible to change the name of the Ledger Group
that was taken from the Ledger.

Nenu Path SPRO Financial Accounting (New) Financial Accounting Global Settings (New) Ledgers
Ledger Define Ledger Group
T.Code SPRO



Select the Ledger Group and proceed to the sub-menu "Ledger Assignment".



!n a Ledger Group, select atleast one Ledger as a Representative Ledger. !n the case of the Ledger Group for the
Leading Ledger, the Leading Ledger is always selected as the Representative Ledger. The Representative Ledger has
the following functionalities:

Representative Ledger determines and checks the posting period during the postings.
Once the posting period is determined and checked, the system makes the postings to all the assigned ledgers
of the Ledger Group, depending upon the fiscal year variant of the each individual ledger.
When the posting period of the Representative Ledger is open, the postings are made to all the assigned
ledgers within that ledger group, even if the posting periods are closed for those ledgers.

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6.0 DOCUMENT SPLITTING: SETTINGS & CONFIGURATION
Document splitting allows displaying documents using a differentiated representation. !n the representation, line items
are split according to selected dimensions. !n this way, it is possible to draw up complete financial statements for the
selected dimensions at any time.
!n addition, it is possible to allocate at the time of posting the additional costs (such as realized or valuated exchange
rate differences) to the CO account assignment objects to which the costs relate. Assets can also be subsequently
capitalized at the time of posting.
(A) DOCUNENT SPL!TT!NG CHARACTER!ST!C:

The first step in the configuration of the Document Splitting is to identify and define the Document Splitting
Characteristic. A Document Splitting Characteristic generally corresponds to a field in the Ledger. !t is for this field
the Clearing Line !tems are created at the time of Document Splitting.

Document Splitting Characteristics are classified as follows:

Characteristics that are relevant for General Ledger Accounting
Characteristics that are relevant for Controlling

Some of the examples for the Document Splitting Characteristics are as below:

Profit Center;
Segment;
Business Area; or
Any other Customer Defined Field.

(B) DOCUNENT SPL!TT!NG: A NEW FUNCT!ONAL!TY

SAP has provided the Standard Document Splitting Functionality. However if the Standard Document Splitting
functionality does not suite the Business Requirements, then it is possible to define own splitting method under the
Extended Document Splitting

The following are the configuration, which needs to be carried out to implement the Document Splitting for the New
General Ledger Accounting:
1. Classification of the GL Accounts for the Document Splitting;
2. Classification of the Document Types for the Document Splitting;
3. Define Zero Balance Clearing Accounts;
+. Define Document Splitting Characteristics for the General Ledger;
5. Define Document Splitting Characteristics for the Controlling;
6. Define Post Capitalization of Cash Discounts to Assets;
7. Edit Constants for Non Assigned Processes; and
8. Activate Document Splitting

!n case the Standard SAP configuration does not suite the Business Requirements, then the own rules for the
Document Splitting can be defined through Extended Document Splitting, for which the steps as below:

1. Define Splitting Nethod;
2. Define Splitting Rule;
3. Assign Splitting Nethod ; and
+. Define Business Transaction variants

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6.1 CLASSIFY GL ACCOUNTS FOR DOCUMENT SPLITTING
Each business transaction that is entered is analyzed during the document splitting procedure. !n this analysis, the
system determines for each line item whether it is an item that remains unchanged or an item that should be split.
!n order that document splitting recognizes how the individual document items are to be handled, it is required to
classify GL Accounts. This is carried out by assigning them to an Item category. The !tem category is determined by
the account number. !n this customizing activity, assign the following accounts in the system:
• Revenue account;
• Expense account;
• Bank accountfcash account
• Balance sheet account
The classification of all other accounts is known to the system; hence it is not required to enter them here. !t is
possible to enter an account interval since the system recognizes SAP-specific classifications and does not allow SAP
settings to be overwritten by your own settings.
Standard settings
!tem categories are included in the standard SAP System. Hence it is not required to define any additional item
categories. !f the item categories included in the system do not meet the needs, it is advisable to contact SAP.
Nenu Path SPRO Financial Accounting (New) General Ledger Accounting (New) Business Transactions
Document Splitting Classify GL Accounts for Document Splitting
T.Code SPRO



Click to enter the detailed screen.


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6.2 CLASSIFY DOCUMENT TYPES FOR DOCUMENT SPLITTING
Every business transaction that is entered is analyzed during the document splitting process. !n this process, the
system determines which splitting rule is applied to the document. !n order that the system can determine the splitting
rule, it is necessary to assign a business transaction variant to each document type.
To ensure that a splitting rule is used appropriately, the relevant documents must meet certain requirements. These
requirements relate in particular to certain item categories that either must or must not be available. This
information is specified for each business transaction variant and is checked against the current document during
posting. !f the document does not meet these requirements, the system rejects the posting.
Standard settings
With the document types delivered in the standard system, SAP delivers a classification for document splitting. This
classification is a proposal that is required to be checked against how client's document types are organized. !t is
required to check whether the classification or assignment to a business transaction variant produces the desired
result in document splitting.
SAP includes business transactions in the standard system. The item categories that are allowed for each accounting
transaction are also defined. Accounting transaction variants are also included. These are additional limitations of the
accounting transaction.
!t is not possible to define additional business transactions.
Further notes
Document splitting is essentially controlled by the document type. Hence it is absolutely essential to ensure that the
documents used for business transactions are assigned uniquely in document splitting to a business transaction variant
and in this way to a splitting rule.
Example:
The document type SA is assigned to business transaction 0000 Unspecified Posting with variant 0001.
!n the methods delivered, no splitting rules are defined for the business transaction variant Unspecified Posting (with
the exception of company code clearing). !f an account assignment is expected in these documents, it has to be
specified for all lines. This means that the system does not project any account assignments to non-assigned lines due
to the absence of a splitting rule.
However, this document type is generally used for a large variety of business transactions that would also have to be
treated differently in document splitting. !n such cases, it is necessary to define additional document types and to
assign them to the specific fiscal year variants.
Nenu Path SPRO Financial Accounting (New) General Ledger Accounting (New) Business Transactions
Document Splitting Classify Document Types for Document Splitting
T.Code SPRO

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6.3 DEFINE ZERO-BALANCE CLEARING ACCOUNT
For account assignment objects for which it is required to have a zero balance setting, the system checks whether the
balance of account assignment object is zero after document splitting.
!f this is not the case, the system generates additional clearing items. !n this activity, create a clearing account for
these additional clearing items.
Nenu Path SPRO Financial Accounting (New) General Ledger Accounting (New) Business Transactions
Document Splitting Define Zero Balance Clearing Account
T.Code GSP_KD



Select the appropriate Line !tem and go to the sub-menu Accounts to define the GL Account for the same. This
account should be a Balance Sheet account in the General Ledger.


6.4 DEFINE DOCUMENT SPLITTING CHARACTERISTICS FOR THE GENERAL LEDGER ACCOUNTING

Nenu Path SPRO Financial Accounting (New) General Ledger Accounting (New) Business Transactions
Document Splitting Define Document Splitting Characteristics for the General Ledger Accounting
T.Code SPRO
!n this customizing activity, specify for which characteristics document splitting needs to be performed in General
Ledger Accounting. !t is possible to define the following:
• Whether it is required to apply a zero balance setting for the characteristic; or
• Whether it is required to use a partner field to document a senderfreceiver relationship in the clearing lines
generated additionally in the document
• Whether it is required to have a characteristic to be a required entry field (whereby the system only accepts
postings when this field can be filled with a value from the document splitting)

The characteristics that are specified should be maintained in at least one of your ledgers.
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6.5 DEFINE DOCUMENT SPLITTING CHARACTERISTICS FOR THE CONTROLLING
!n this customizing activity, specify on which additional characteristics it is intended to apply document splitting. The
additional characteristics are not relevant for General Ledger Accounting. !nstead, they are relevant for other
application components (such as subcomponents in Controlling) that use documents transferred from General Ledger.
For this, the system can divide up the line items during the following General Ledger Accounting processes:
• Clearing of vendorfCustomer !tems
o Cash Discount Paid
o Cash Discount Received
o Lost Cash Discount
• Clearing of Open !tems
o Realized Exchange Rate Differences
• Foreign Currency valuation for Open !tems
o Expenses f profit from foreign currency valuation
• Flat-Rate !ndividual value Adjustment for vendorfCustomer !tems
o Expenses f profit from individual value adjustment
The selected characteristics are only transferred to the specified line items when the account to which the postings are
to be made can also take the characteristics. This means in particular that CO account assignments are only
transferred when the account has also been set up as a cost element. The field status definition of the account,
however, is explicitly excluded from this check. This means that characteristics are also transferred when they are
hidden by the field status definition of the GfL account (for manual entry).
Nenu Path SPRO Financial Accounting (New) General Ledger Accounting (New) Business Transactions
Document Splitting Define Document Splitting Characteristics for the Controlling
T.Code SPRO


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6.6 DEFINE POST CAPITALIZATION OF CASH DISCOUNT TO FIXED ASSETS
!n this customizing activity, define whether the cash discount that is applied in the payment of an asset-relevant
invoice should be capitalized to the asset. When this setting is activated, the cash discount amount is not posted to the
cash discount account in the payment document, but instead directly to the asset. This is possible only when the
Document Splitting is activated.
Invoice
Suppose a vendor invoice contains the following items:
Posting Key Account Dr J Cr Amount
31 vendor - Payable Cr 100.00
70 Asset 100000 Dr 90.00
+0 Expenses Write Off Dr 10.00
Payment
The payment for the above vendor invoice then contains the following items:
Posting Key Account Dr J Cr Amount
50 Bank Cr 95.00
75 Asset 100000 Cr 5.00
25 vendor - Payable Dr 100.00

Nenu Path SPRO Financial Accounting (New) General Ledger Accounting (New) Business Transactions
Document Splitting Define Post Capitalization of Cash Discount to Fixed Assets
T.Code SPRO
!n this customizing, choose the Asset field, if the cash discounts are to be capitalized to assets. For eg:

6.7 EDIT CONSTANTS FOR NON-ASSIGNED PROCESSES
!n this !NG activity, define default account assignments (for example, a default segment) for specific line items in
processes for which it is not possible to derive the correct account assignments at the time when the document is
posted. This is the case if the required information is not yet available when the posting occurs.
Example
The segment can be used as an example of an account assignment: For a cash receipt from a customer that is posted
to a house bank account, it is not immediately known which invoices are to be paid by this cash receipt.
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Step 1:
To make the information concerning available financial means available to the system within the shortest possible
delay, a posting from collection account against cash receipt is made. Since no additional information is available for
this, the account assignment must be made to a default segment.
Account Segment Dr J Cr Amount
Cash Collection Afc Default Dr 1000.00
Cash Receipt Default Cr 1000.00
Step 2:
The cash receipt account is then posted against the customer (with clearing of the customer). !n this way, the correct
segment(s) can be determined from the cleared invoice.
Account Segment Dr J Cr Amount
Cash Receipt 0001 Dr 1000.00
Customer 0001 Cr 1000.00
Step 3:
Finally, both items on the cash receipt account are cleared against each other. Since both positions are assigned to
different segments, corresponding clearing items must be generated on the cash receipt account.
!f a zero balance is required for a segment, additional line items that set the document balance per segment to zero
are generated on a clearing account defined in Customizing. These clearing items reflect the correction of the segment
information on the checking account. However, it is no longer possible to determine the correct checking account. This
could be ambiguous in more complex cases than this example. !t is therefore useful to assign the clearing account in
the balance sheet to the checking accounts.
Account Segment Dr J Cr Amount
Cash Receipt Default Dr 1000.00
Cash Receipt 0001 Cr 1000.00
Clearing 0001 Dr 1000.00
Clearing Default Cr 1000.00

Nenu Path SPRO Financial Accounting (New) General Ledger Accounting (New) Business Transactions
Document Splitting Edit Constants for Non-Assigned Processes
T.Code SPRO



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Select the appropriate line and go to the sub-menu ¨Assignment of values". The values proposed in the sub-menu will
be picked up from the configuration done in ¨Document Splitting Characteristics" [Refer to point 6.+ above|



Since the Profit Center is also selected for the Document Splitting Characteristics, the values need to be assigned for
that field as well for the Ledgers.


6.S ACTIVATE THE DOCUMENT SPLITTING
!n this customizing activity, active the document splitting, after the necessary configuration settings as stated
above. The splitting method used is that delivered by SAP as standard, which contains the splitting rules for the
different business transactions. The activation then applies for the entire client.
Nenu Path SPRO Financial Accounting (New) General Ledger Accounting (New) Business Transactions
Document Splitting Activate Document Splitting
T.Code SPRO

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However, it is possible to explicitly exclude individual company codes from document splitting. This means that it is no
longer able to create any cross-company-code transactions containing company codes that have divergent settings for
document splitting.
Go to the sub-menu ¨De-Activation per Company Code" for the deactivation per company code.

Check the !nactive check box for the company code, if the deactivation needs to be done.
7.0 EXTENDED DOCUMENT SPLITTING: CONFIGURATION

!n the following activities, make settings for document splitting when the delivered functions are not sufficient for
business needs and there is a need to make changes or enhancements.

To do this, create the own set of rules appropriate to business needs and make the necessary settings so that the
system applies the rules as defined and not the SAP standard rules. However it is not possible to switch between
applying the SAP standard rules and your own rules.

7.1 DEFINE DOCUMENT SPLITTING METHOD
!n this customizing activity, define the own method for document splitting. A splitting method contains the rules
governing how the individual item categories are dealt with. !f the functions delivered in the SAP standard system are
not sufficient, create the own splitting method in this activity.
Ensure that the splitting method delivered in the SAP standard must not be changed.
Nenu Path SPRO Financial Accounting (New) General Ledger Accounting (New) Business Transactions
Document Splitting Extended Document Splitting Define Document Splitting Nethod
T.Code SPRO

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7.2 DEFINE DOCUMENT SPLITTING RULE
!n this activity, define the rules for document splitting.
Activities
!t is recommended to copy the delivered default settings to the splitting method and then make changes to those
settings. Proceed as follows:
• Select the entries of the splitting method template, choose Copy as..., and then specify own splitting method.
!n the dialog box that appears, choose Copy All (Dependent Entries).
• Adjust the copied splitting rules according to your needs.
The editing steps that are to performed are as follows:
1. Enter the account key for the zero balance items and the item category for the leading company code:
o Account key for zero balance item
Use the account determination key to define the account and the posting items that are used
for the clearing lines.
o !tem category for leading company code
This method is implemented for splitting company code clearing lines. Check whether this
method is appropriate for displaying one of business transactions that is needed.
2. Select the desired combination of splitting method and business transaction variant and choose !tem
Categories To Be Edited. !n this setting, specify for the desired combination which item categories are to be
edited and how they should be handled in document splitting.
Using the Processing Category, specify the basic method to be applied for splitting the items. Use the following
methods:
o Transferring a Fixed value
Use a constant with this processing category. Define constants in the !NG activity Edit
Constants for Non-assigned Processes. !n this way, no splitting occurs during document
splitting.
Use this method if there is no requirement for splitting to occur when the postings are made.
o Splitting by Base !tem Categories Specified
This processing category is the default method. !t splits the items using the base item categories that
are defined in the next activity under Base !tem Categories. The system takes the splitting information
from the document. This means that at least one base item category has to exist in the document.
o Splitting Based on Current Account Balance
With this processing category, a line item is split according to the current account balance. Use this
method if the account assignment of the individual document does not contain the required splitting
information. This processing category can be used, for example, for the advance return on tax for
salesfpurchases.

!n addition to the processing category, it is possible to set the indicators Check Tax Code and Check !f Cash-
Discount-Related for tax or cash discount lines. !n this way, the splitting is calculated using the base item
selected on the basis of the indicator.
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NEW GL CONF!GURAT!ON

3. !f processing category Splitting by Base !tem Categories Specified is selected for an item category for the
combination of splitting method and business transaction variant, it is needed to define the base item
categories in greater detail. Select the desired item category and double-click Base !tem Categories in the
navigation area.
Use the following settings to define the base item categories:
o Dependent on leading item
!f this indicator is set, company code clearing lines are split differently, depending on the
company code type. Only set this indicator for company code clearing lines.
o Automatically split
!f this indicator is set, the item category is only applied for the split when splitting is
performed automatically. Splitting occurs automatically for clearing, partial clearing, and
reversal processes. !t is not possible to configure these processes yourself. They are set as
fixed, and splitting occurs automatically.
Nenu Path SPRO Financial Accounting (New) General Ledger Accounting (New) Business Transactions
Document Splitting Extended Document Splitting Define Document Splitting Rule
T.Code SPRO

Go to the sub-menu ¨Item Categories to be edited" and select the appropriate Category to see the details.

Click to see the details for the configuration for the selected Category.
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Go to the sub-menu "Base Item Categories" to see the details.

7.3 ASSIGN DOCUMENT SPLITTING METHOD

!n this activity, assign the Splitting Nethod defined for the Document Splitting functionality.

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NEW GL CONF!GURAT!ON

!f the Inheritance is activated, then the document splitting characteristics for General Ledger Accounting are
forwarded to lines that do not have any assignments. For this, the document splitting characteristics must be unique
within a document.
This function is performed using rule-based document splitting. !t works independently of the business transaction
variant derived from the document.
• !ndicator is set('X')
!f the rule-based document splitting produces lines without account assignments, these lines inherit the
document splitting characteristics.
• !ndicator is not set (' ')
Lines can be left without account assignments, even if the document splitting characteristics in the document
are unique. Exception: You have set the Standard Account Assignment indicator.

Nenu Path SPRO Financial Accounting (New) General Ledger Accounting (New) Business Transactions
Document Splitting Extended Document Splitting Assign Document Splitting Nethod
T.Code SPRO

7.4 DEFINE BUSINESS TRANSACTION VARIANTS
!n this activity, define business transaction variants for the document split business transactions.
This is useful for the following purposes:
• For a business transaction, it is defined exactly which item categories can be posted. With a business
transaction variant, it is possible to restrict the business transaction further by excluding further item
categories from those permitted. When a document is posted, the system can check, using the business
transaction variant, whether the posting is permitted. !f an item category is not permitted, the system rejects
the posting.
• For each business transaction variant, define the rule according to which the document is to be split. !f it is
desired to split individual documents for one business transaction according to different rules, then define the
required number of business transaction variants.
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NEW GL CONF!GURAT!ON

Note:
When a new business transaction variant is defined, also define the relevant Split Rules. Then assign the business
transaction variants to a document type in the activity Classify Document Types for Document Split.
Nenu Path SPRO Financial Accounting (New) General Ledger Accounting (New) Business Transactions
Document Splitting Extended Document Splitting Define Business Transaction variants
T.Code SPRO
!n the standard, SAP delivers business transactions with permitted item categories. SAP also delivers business
transaction variants for the business transactions. !t is not possible to define own business transactions. However, it is
possible to define own business transaction variants that restrict the business transactions further.

Select the required Business Transaction and then go to the sub-menu ¨Accounting Transaction variant".

The following settings can be made for the item categories:
o Not supported
!f this indicator is set, the item category is not permitted for this business transaction category.
Prohibit the item categories that are not to be used for this business transaction variant. For example,
in an asset invoice, only the item category Asset is to be posted; the expense is not to be posted.

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NEW GL CONF!GURAT!ON

o Nandatory
!f this indicator is set, this item category must exist when the document is posted. Set the item
categories as obligatory if the business process andfor its logic require this item category. For
example, a customer invoice must contain a customer, since the leading company code is derived
from the customer line item in the subsequent processes.
o Once Only
!f this indicator is set, the item category must only appear once in the business transaction specified.
Select the appropriate variant and then go to the sub-menu Assigned !tem Categories for the details.

NOTE:
THE EXTENDED DOCUNENT SPL!TT!NG OPT!ON SHOULD BE TOUCHED UPON ONLY !F THE REGULAR DOCUNENT SPL!TT!NG (STANDARD SAP
DEL!vERED) DOES NOT SU!T THE BUS!NESS REQU!RENENTS. FURTHER TO TH!S, ANY CONF!GURAT!ON DONE !N EXTENDED DOCUNENT
SPL!TT!NG OR ANY CHANGE TO THE EX!ST!NG SETT!NGS SHOULD BE DONE ONLY W!TH THE CONSENT OF THE CL!ENT AND ON EXPERT
ADv!CE.

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0 ' . . 7 0 ( ' 1-:++ )(' 8 . 0 )( 5 -:++ 4. 5. 56 %. 1 / ' 56 8+ /. . ( (*: ( ( 440 . .56 > . *5 . . 5 6 */ (+ 41A ' *:. 8 + 5*58(7/8 . .*+ ' 1 5. . . 5*5 ( *1 > :: 20 5( ( (1 ' 2+ :8 ( /' 86 / F / 5 . 0( + 5( /2+ ( 5/1 *:101( 458 20 5( 0 )( 5 -:++ ' *45/ + 5(7 ( .56 > . . ( 5. *5 ( 8 0 0 ' . 5+ 4. . 0 + *58 *. 7 0 ( /' . 5 6 50 1( 1 ' :+ ( = ( *1 15 8*/ > + 40 5 . !( . 7F ( 4B8 . 1+ ( *. 0 D 6 *45 + A *45 ( 5( 80 )( 51-:++ A *25/5( . 2/) 5(40 2+ / + 80 (+ H 0 )( 5 -:++ ' *45/ + E( /0-0 5 *. + .>:: :( 5( 0 + . 0 4.0 . 6 *5 . 7 5. )( . ( 5 .5( *--:+ 20 5(( 5(4:+ 5 22(( 5 . ' . 5.H11+ )( 5 2 *:. 1 . . 5(1-:++ /:( 20 5( *. 11 / 1*45 . 4( = 40 2+ / + 1(5 6 *1 15 ( ' 1 15)+. 1I ' 7 ( -/-0 8 + 5(1. . 6 5 5(1. + 1 0 . )( . -+ ( . / 86 / . .+ ( 1 / .( 45' *--/-/ (:+ *. 6 *5 . 1 0 1( . *11+ ( 20 . ' 0 8( + 4+ 440 . ' *45 *5 . + +5 7= + ' 7 4. 5. 5. 5. */ (+ 41I 2( 5 + 56 15 . + 1 0 ( + + '.+ < ( ? . ( ( *:. 56 ( ' ( 11*/ . 1 ( 8 0 ( 15 6 8 / .( + 4( :( ( / ' 4. 8A ' 4' . . . ' 0 5 . ( / *. 6 .+ < ( ? . *: *. 56 45 *5 0 )( 5 -:++ + ( 4. 1+ 11 5 1*45 . .

5./:( *. + 1 .56 > . 40 A +5(8( + + . *45 + 1A )*B 1(5 6 20 80 )( 51-:++ > ( 5(8(7/8 2.0 ((A ++-0 .H ( 45 *5 . 5 ( . */ . 5( 0 .1( 0 /:( *--/-/ (5 . 6 0 ' . . 5. + 5. . + 4' 4B. ' 0 8( 15 8*/ ). *. 40 1 2/) 80 )( 5 5. 5 ( ( 0+ ( *:5 + ( ' ' . D 15 8*/ /:( *. 4( =1(5 6 105*5 ' ' 1A ( ( ' > 52 . )(' 8 20 80 )( 51-:++ ' 1 15)+.56 > . 5 22+( 54/*5 5(0 . 45 . 1 > 7/ 51 0 -0 . 1+ 11 . 1-:++ 5 6 + *. 56 9( 8( 0 )( 5 -:++ 5. 4+ A ( ( ' > . 920 5(40 ( ' *45 ( ( 0 /' )-*.1 1 2+ ( 8 0 5( 15 8*/ /:( 0 (( + + . 8 15 $ ( *. ' 1 +5 7= . 4. 5. 11 / 1*45 . + +5 7 = 2+ ' > ( 50 / 4. *: *.*+. 0 + :( 4' (> ( *--:= 65( + ' .1 0 + 0 . + :( := 8+8. 0 D 6 *45 + A 8( . 4' 6 8 *. )( . 5 50 :+ ( . ' 0 ( 15 8*/ 1= ( */ *. . ' ++ 0 1 :0 6 / :(5 4/*5 *. / . . .( ' 5( 5. . . ' 56 :+ ( .*+ ' . ( / . 1 5 . 5. 5 ( -:+5 ( 4:. 5 6 50 . 1 20 0 + = 8( ' ' ( 7 6 . ( (*: ( ( 440 . 7 0 D = . ( 5 . 5((+* . 40 5 . 56 ( . / 5*5' 1-:++6)(' 8 8(7/8 + 5( 1. 40 5 1*45 . . 8(7 /8 + 5( 0 (. 8 4. 1 1 6 7/+ ' > 5(+ 7 *: + ) 4*56 / 1 */ 8( >5 2 5(2. 40 7 0 = 8( ' 4B5( . *. )*B 5(. 51. 4+ 520 ' ::0 + 6 +5 7+ ( ( 5.1-:++ )(' 8 + 5+*45 + 0 1. ( 5 )*B 4' 6 1 0 ( ' 4( . ( ( 81 8 ' / 1 (8 0 ( *. 1 + ' 5( 1= ( *--:+ 5(/:( *1 8( . 8 15) ( . .1 . 0 .+ < ( ? . ( *. 8+8. 56 1-:++ )(' 8 40 5 . . + . ' )( 1 5*551 . 5 6 50 . 1+ 11 . 0 I /' 8( + + -( 40 = 8( 20 5( *45 *5 . + 7 *: 40 > 7/ 51 11+ 0 9 4+ 9 8( . = 8( 0 4. ( + 4+ 440 . . 1-:++ 56 05 5(1. = . *5 .. 1+ ( *. 40 1 5*5 *7 8+ /( 5 5. 1(5 6 / ( + 80 )( 5 5. . + 1 0 0 )( 5 -:++ 4. + + 7 0 / )-*. 4/11 40 . + 1 :+ ( . *5 ( ( 81 8 ( ' ( 11*/ 5. )-*. ' . 5( /:( 5.+ < ( ? . 8 *. 5 6 50 . %. 8 .5(20 >. 1 8 0 / > . 5 11+ 5 1>5 . 5+ 4. + 1 ( 0 22+( ( 0 . ( *. 0 ( ( = 0 )-*. 8 . ' ( !( . 0 )( 5 -:++ !(' 8 2+ ( 4. )( 5 0805+ 4/*5 5(0 . 5 ' 15) ( ' . 45 . 1 / 4. ! . ( 81 0 ( .-( 0 0' . 80 ( 7 = 8( 2 ' *45 *5 . 640 = 8( / *.. )-*. 5. ( *. / )-*. / 86 / .

40 15 5 + 5( ! *45 + . + ) 4*56 / ' 5 (+ + 5(80 )( 5 0 ' 4. 8A 20 (*)-:( 20 5(*87 4(/5/ 0 5 20 20 0 + 0 11+ 1 6 ( 0= ( 1( /9 A /' *. 4. . *11+ )( 5 2 5(+ 7 *: 80 )( 5 ( . 5(/:( 20 80 )( 5 5. 56 8 . ' ( . 8 + 5(. ' 1 5. ' -/4( .. 40 ( ( 0= / *8+ 6 )-*.( / 5. . ' *1+ 2 ' . )*5 . 2 . ' 8:( + 80 )( 5 5. 8( %*1( 5) *56 / 1 ' 1= ( 5 ( 5(1-:++ + / + ( 2+ . 1 + 0 ( ::0 1 • • ( 45 ' ( 5( 0 5(1-:++ )(' 8 5)-:*5A 4' 0 0 *1 A *. 5 *:*. 4*56 / ( .( 5(*440 . /. 5 6 20 0 2/) 5(80 )( 5 ' )( 1 5*5 :( 0 (. ( . 8 0 -= ' :+ ( ( 2*. . 8 .4' 1 13 / *1( . 5 1 ( ( 5 /. 1-:++ 5. ::0 1 . 5. 5(-0 + + )1 5*5 (. 4*56 / 4*. 5( 1-( 2=0 . ./. 4' 0 5) :( ' 1+ ( ). 8+ ( 8 0 ' = 0 :8 ( *. / 5 ( . 7 + 5*.. 4. %*:*. B=20 D/ . 5 ( 1(5(*440 . + */ 0 *. 0 ' .+ 80 )( 5 ' *= 1 5. o -:++ %*1( 0 . ( 0 ' 1( 1(5 6 /4( 8 *1 20 > 5. 80 1 0 40 5 . .*+ 5(/@ + 8 1-:++ 50 2 ' . . . 8(()+ + B=5 8( . 40 4:( + :+ 1 ' 4B> (' /5+ = 8( */ 6 . . 1-:++ 56 *56 / 1 0%( 8+ 8 ( 0+ ( 5 ( 1+ 5( /4( . ( o 5) 4*56 / 20 :( .D . 5:+ 1 . ( ' *= ' 1 5. *56 /A 1-( 2=5(. . . 4*56 /A * :+ + ) + 1-:+*4408+ 5 5(4. 5 6 )-*. 1(5 6 0 ' + 5. > ( ' 15 6 ( / 56 . o -:++ . *. . 440 .5+ 1(5 6 1-( 2=20 5(8( /8 40 + + > + + ) 4*56 / 1 */ 5 .. *.5 8 ' 15 6 5 . + *. 4+ > 5. ' 4B 2 *1' 5 0 ' 0 11+ + 0 6 ( 0= 51 11+ 0 5 ' . 5 ( ( 20 5 0 4*1'8+ . 5 6 50 8 '. 5 5/ . + ) 140 . 5( -+ 8 5. + ' ' 1 0 11+ 6 ( 0= 2+( . ( ' */ 1( 20 5(4:( + :+ 1 /' */ 6 . 1 0 5(+ 4*5/ :( ( . . (. ( . 4*56 / + 5(8( :5 50 5 5 5(+ )1 . /@ + )( 5 / 5.& ! . ( . ' ::0 + 6 / 12(/ 6* + 8 *:. 40 5/' . 5 1( 5(+ 4*5/ ' 4B *9 0 *. . 4*56 /A ++ -0 . 56 + / + . *5 . 9 *45 + . 0 5. ' *5 *15 . 0 ( 0 2+ ' *5 . ( *. + 9 ( ( 1( * 40 15 5>5 5+ -/4( . *. *. . 20 1-:++ 0 44. + 1 ' + ( 8( 0 ( 455( 8( /8 40 + + 0 1-:++ )(' 8 *. 1-:++ ( 56 & :$ $ 51 /40 + ( ))( 8( 5 40 5(8(7/8 8( :5 5.5(-0 + 1 */ )*8( ' 1 50 2 ' / 1 0 ( . . ( / *. 5(*440 . ' 0 11+ 6 6 ( 0= 4+ ' *1+ 50 0 ( ( / 5. ' (5 +5 . 40 = 8( ' )(' 8 + + )( 58 20 1-:++ 40 + 1 50 1 )-:( . 5 6 50 8 . .5+*45 + A 8( . / ( 7= ( ( 0+ ( ( 15) *B1 ' 5. ' +5 7= $ ! $ $ '. 5(+ ) 4*56 / 20 5(:( . *440 . ' 15 4. . 44. ' 5 . ( . 8 0 1( ( . . 5 ./ 1 2 ' + 5. ' 1 +5 7 = 2+ ' . ! 8( # ( ! . :( 8+ 01 ( 8( 8 ( + . ( / 5. 4( 1(5+ 5 ' ' 1 0 11+ 6 ( 0= . 8+8. 5(. ( 8 50 1 0 + *5 / 1-:*= 6 . 1+ 11 5 1*45 . 5 0 / ' . )*5 . 2 . 5(. 5( )*B 4' 6 1 5 50 . %*1( 5) *56 / 1 -( 2+ 5. 5 ( / (0 *:*.5+ > A 5(1-:++ + 4*:4. 1 56 :*58 1+ ' *1( 5 6 ( 1( 458 0 5(. 1+ 11 5 1*45 . + . 56 . ( / *. *--:+ 20 1-:++ 5(+ )1 . 40 = 8( o 440 . 5 ( /' (0 *:*. ' > 5( 1' . = 56 ( ( 0+ ( 4+ 8 ( ' -/4( . .5 6 . 0 4' ( ( 0+ ( 0 ( ( ( 58 *.5(8+ 6. . . *5 . 5 6 50 ( ( 0 1( -= 8 ' . 1 / 4. B =20 5(D/ . 1 56 / .1-:++ )(' 8 :( 5( . 1 5 5(1-:++ )(' 8 *. 5*51 . ' 5 8 56 ( )(' 81 50 o 1(5(20 >. . 0 ' 6 / 5 ( . + ) 4*56 / 1 5*5 + 0 11+ 1 6 ( 0= 1 ' 2*.1 . 4 )(' 8 5 . 5 6 50 .5 5(-/4( . ' 1 )(' 8 +5(*440 .5+ > A !1-:++ 0 / 8./ 1? -( 8( 5 5( + 8K15' 40 ( 1-:++ /:( *4408+ 5 = .5 4( + 5+ -/4( . ( ( ' 5( ' 1 )(' 8 +*--/-/ (20 8+ + 0 (0 . 0 0 / ( 81 6 ' ( 5 615-1 5*5 (5 -(20)( */ *1 20 > ( 8+ + ( ' */ 0 / / 8 ( . 4(+ )1 *.*88+ .1 / 6 4. 95*5 ' *:0 0 ' *--( 1A 4' 0 0 */ 0 1( -= :: < ( . )(' 8 1-:+ ' 5 1 ( 1+ ' *1( 5 6 ( ( 0+ ' ( */ 8( . 8+ 0 . 8 ' . 5 ( 8 ' 5 ( ( 0= /' *8+ 6 )-*. . A + 4+ / ' 1+ ( )./. *9 / 1*:( -. 4(+ ) . 56 1(5+)(' 8 +5((+. :*58 / *9 / 140 . *1( 5 1 ( ( 0= *1 0 9 .

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o ( . 5 + */ 6 .0 + 9 ( 8 5. + ) -( 8( 5 . 5( . $ ! $! $ 3 8 1( 45' *--/-/ ( ( # . . 40 5-( = 8( = ) 1( 5++ 4*5/ / )-*. 2+ ( 4. *8+ 5 6 ( 2 5+ + 4*5/+ 1(A 40 ' . . 4:+ %*1( 5) *56 / 1 + 5( ( 0+ . 0 )( 5 -:++ . 1 8+ 0 1 5 )-*. ( / *. 1-:++ 0 / *.2 -/4( .56 > .1 5)*5 56 4*::= !( . 0 $ !.0 + 1-:+ 5)*5 4*::= 5 2 5+ + 4*5/+ 1(A 5( + ) 4*56 / + 0 := *--:+ 20 5( 1-:+ > ( 1-:++ + ' . 44.+ ) 4*56 / 20 5( 0 11+ 6 ( 0= 5. . 4*56 / -:++ . ( o . 1+ 11 5 1*45 .0 + // 8 5)*5 4*::= -:++ 0 / *. 7 + 5 + + . 0 5. 56 ( . ( ( 5 22(( 5 A -( 8+ . ( #.1 56 5)*5 4*::= 20 4:( + A -*/*: 4:( + A *.

3 01( 5(8(*+ $ ! 5 ( ' 5 :1 D" 5 .05 5(1. 5. 5 6 50 2+ ( /' 4. )( . 5. . 45 . $ ( # .2 ( 0' . . + *:+ 56 0 = . 8 20 5( 0 )( 5 -:++ 2.5+*45 + A *11+ 5( -:++ !(' 8 8( . . 5 ' 1 +5 7= 6 ' .

7 + 5 8( . 7 + 5 + + -0 . . ( ( 25 + . ( . 4' *45/ + 4. . + */ A 5 1 0 *. / 15 86 / . 20 5(20 >.+ -(20)( . 1+ 0 *. 5 6 . 4. / 86 / . 4*5/1 ! 1( <M 8+ 0 + $ 5 M ? + 1 4*. . + A 5 1 0 2+ ( 9 := ' 4' 5 ( ( 0+ ( ( 158 + * . 0 ' (1( 5( 5 8*/ 440 . 1-:++ 5 6 */ (+ 41 . ' 7 4. . 2+ ' 6 ( /@ + 8 . 5.*4408+ 5 8+ /. . 1-:+. *: *. 1+ 11 5 1*45 . *7 5' *. 1-:++ 5 6 */ (+ 41 15 15 ( . . 5 5 ( ( 0= 1 0 -()+( ' 15) (( 1 5 5(-0 + ' 15 6 . 5. 1+ 11 5 1*45 . 1+ ( *. . 2 ' . + 0 ( 5 51 8( /8 5 1-:++ 7 *: 80 )( 5 20 0 (. 11 / ( *. 5 *7 *. 4' *45/ + ). 1A ' . . 11 5 1*45 . . */ . ( & + *45 *58A 5( 5( 80 )( 51-:++ 4' *45/ + 20 ( (*: ( ( 440 .1A ' 1( . 8 4. 2. . 1+ 11 5 ' .+ 1 1 0 / / 8 1+ . 4*5/ (. *440 . + + 8( . ( / *. + 1 0 0 )( 5 -:++ 4. 11+ )( 5. @ 4( + 0 . ' 80 0 ' ( = ( 6 . 0 ( . . 2.+ */ ' $ 1 + ( '. + ( / *. . 6 ( 5 1*45 . :( >50 5 . ' 2. . 8 (*45 > + + ) 4*56 / 1 4*. 8 . 1-:+ 2 ++ / *4' . 1 158A ' 15) ( A 1+ ' .1 / .56 > . 5 6 0 4( .+ < ( ? . 8 80 )( 51-:++ 5> /1 + -( 8( 5 0 5(. 4. 5(/:(*4408+ 5 > + 5(80 )( 51 5 . ( (*: ( ( 440 . 20> 8( 5 :+ 1 5*5 . 0 22(( 5 . . %.56 > . . + ( / */ 8 0 . -0 ( / . ' . ( 0 . 5 6 */ (+ 41 / . + 0 7 + 5 / ( 2/) 5(80 )( 5 */ 8(+ 8 0 ' *. 1 :+ 1 >50 5*440 . . *1( 6 4. 5 6 50 D% / . ' 1 +5 7 = 2+ . ( / *. ( + . ( / *.-0 1 + 1 1( : /' ::0 + 1 6 / 1( • 0 * . • . ( 5 1*45 . / ( / *. 56 0B . .5 6 . . . 4' *45/ + + 5(80 )( 5 ' . 1+ 11 5 1*45 . + ( 9 -5 . + */ A 2+ ' . . +8+ 0 . / ' . 1+ 11 5 1*45 . . 4' 4B . . !( . 5. . + ( 8+8. ( / *. ).+ < ( ? . . 5( 1+ 0 5. 11+ :( 0 ( / ' . . 45 .2 5( 9 .5( + ) / *. . + */ A ' 5( 5( 15 6 1 / 5 8 0 *. 5 /15455( . + */ 1 0 *. . 0 ' 6 4' ' 4. 5. . .7 + 5 (. 56 11+ 0 )( 5 -:++ !(' 8 6 . / 2 . (4:. 8 80 )( 51-:++ -/8. ' 0 8( + 4+ 440 .5( . + . + 1 0 ' +. . *5 .7 + 5> (' / ' -0 + + -()+( 2 *. ' 4. -. 1+ 11 5 1*45 . 2. *11+ )( 5 (( +5(80 )( 5 5. /:(.1 . ( /. + */ 1 /' 4. *11+ )( 5 5( :+ 1 + (+ 5( ' . . .. 56 9( 8( 0 )( 5 -:++ 5. .56 ( . ( ' 5 80 )( 5 5.. 11 / 1*45 . 5( . 1+ 11 5 1*45 . 5. 1+( 5 1*45 .1A 7. 1+ 11 ( 4. 5 6 . /:( 5( 8( . • .7 + 5 20 5(80 )( 5 5 . 5.. 5 / 5 8A 5(1= ( /K45 / *. + 0 / / = 9 8+ ' 6 / /5 ' ( 4*56 / 1 2/) 50 -()+( ( 0+ 0 ' 1( / 5 8 ( 5 ' .+ ) 4*56 / + . . 4. + 0 / .:= 2 ' . . 4*5/1 8+ 0 + $& <M? M 2 5( /:(. . @ >5+ * 80 )( 5 +. * 80 )( 5+ -0 ( 5( 1= ( 4*. *1( 4. 0 *. *11+ )( 5 0 5+ 5(80 )( 5 5. 7 4. . 8( . ( / *. .5+*45 + A 8( . ' 15 4. 1-:++ 5 6 */ (+ 41 15 • .. /' ' 1A 4.

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.*+ 15)(A . 1+ 11 5 1*45 . )( . ' *8+ 4( 6 )-*. *. + 0 4+ 8 ( ( 45' *--/-/ ( */ 5 8 5( 6 5 5(1. 4( := 2 5++ 4*5/1 1(A 5(+ ) 4*56 / ). 40 9 A 15)( . */ . ' . @ ( 5 0 11( ( ( o . ' . .1-( 2+ ' . 0 / 1+ 5(:( . 0 / . ( ' 5 1 4 / 1 ( ( 0= / (*)-:( * 4. 40 5 . 1 158 5' 5 ( 4*56 / 1 *1 0 :+ 0= + 5( .6 / 2 ' . 0 :=*--( 0 4(+ 5(. + 7 4( 15 . 6 8 ( . 1( . . ( / *. 0= 8*5/ 2 5+ + 4*5/+ 1(A 5+ + ) 4*56 / * $(+ > ( 5(80 )( 5+ -0 ( ( 5(+ ) ' . -/4( 1 0 ' 15)( :+ 5 . 11+ ( 5) *56 / 1 20 5(8(*+ :( 5( 0 + *5 + *. & ! % % & N ! % ! < & ! & ? A """""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" .o !*. 1 8+ 0 + 5 ' 5 ( ( 0= 15 . . 0 + :0 + /@ + 5+ + ) 4*56 / 0 ( 0+ ( . . 1+ 11 -/4( *. *5 ( 0 11 83/ 5 6 ( . 0 0 ' . 40 + 8(+ 8 = 8( 1 /( 7 2/) 5(4. * 4. . ' 4. 1 8+ 0 1 5 ' 5 1 ( ( 0= 9 15 ' . ( 0+ /' 5 :1 ( . + ) + 5(1. 0 /+ 0 ). . ' .

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