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ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide network of national standard institutes. The ISO 14692 standard is an international standard dealing with the qualification, manufacturing, design and installation of GRE piping systems. This document gives a brief summary of the ISO 14692 standard only and is not intended to replace the ISO 14692 standard.
To ensure a trouble free GRE pipe system, three major important conditions must be met: 1. Use qualified products. 2. Perform system design. 3. Install according to manufacturers standards and guidelines. The above mentioned three points are addressed in the ISO 14692 Standard in Part 2, Part 3 and Part 4 respectively.
Troublefree pipe system Installation
Figure 1. The key to success
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Introduction What is ISO 14692? Part 1: Vocabulary, symbols, applications and materials Part 2: Qualification of components Part 3: System design Part 4: Fabrication, installation and operation Conclusion ISO in brief References Deviations list to the ISO quality program 1 2 3 3 5 7 9 9 9 10
© Ameron 2006. EB 1. 05/06. Page 1 of 12. Printed in the Netherlands
The disadvantages of the ISO 14692 standard are: . ISO 14692 covers the design of suspended pipe systems and the qualification of GRP/GRE products. Page 2 of 12. from design through manufacture to operation. Printed in the Netherlands . i. Therefore. The ISO 14692 consists of 4 parts: Part 1: Vocabulary.Main engineering and installation of GRP/GRE issues are handled. norms. . What is ISO 14692? ISO 14692. . joints and pipes for certain applications. . It is primarily intended for offshore applications on both fixed and floating topsides facilities. The advantages of the ISO 14692 standard are: . on basis of this design examination statement the scope can include also application of GRP/GRE piping systems onshore (buried and suspended). installers. Part 2: Qualification and manufacture. This examination statement consists out of a combination of two specifications namely: ISO 14692 and AWWA M45. working methods. ISO 14692-2. installation and operation. Ameron has obtained a Design Examination Statement from DNV. manufacturers. In cases the specifications conflict the ISO 14692 supersedes the AWWA.e. is an international standard dealing with the qualification of fittings. EB 1. third party inspection companies and governments. . . how to conduct system design and finally it gives guidelines for fabrication. Platform under construction © Ameron 2006.For qualification. ISO 14692-3. Each part is therefore aimed at the relevant parties involved in that particular case. installation and operation. expensive tests are required.Needs thorough studying.Accepted by all engineering companies. testing and installation of GRP/GRE piping systems in other similar applications found onshore. Main users of the ISO 14692 document are: governments.Standardizing principles.Allows everybody to have the same understanding. Together these specifications cover all design and installation aspects. manufacture. ISO 14692-4.Accepted in Europe by convention of Vienna and equal to CEN-standards. Part 3: System design. engineering companies. symbols. Part 4: Fabrication. AWWA M45 covers the design and installation of buried pipe systems.Everybody speaks the same language.2. applications and materials. end users. . . 05/06. inspection companies.Expensive quality control requirements. Photo 1. follow each individual phase in the life cycle of a GRP/GRE piping system. the standard is certainly difficult. but may also be used as guidance for the specification. It describes how to qualify and manufacture GRP/GRE (Glass Reinforced Epoxy) pipe and fittings.
Regression curve © Ameron 2006. • Part factor f1 = ratio of the 97. The minimum wall thickness shall be 3 mm for sizes 4 inch and above. A few examples of common used abbreviations are given: • Composite pipe = pipe manufactured using fibre reinforced thermo set plastics • GRP = Glass Reinforced Plastics • GRE = Glass Reinforced Epoxy • Lower confidence limit. • Jet fire = turbulent diffusion flame resulting from the combustion of a fuel continuously released with significant momentum in a particular range of directions. vinylester and phenolic. applications and materials First part of the ISO 14692 gives the terms. Figure 2 gives an example of a regression line. Pipe samples are subject to different pressures. The reinforcement shall be glassfiber.1 Materials of construction and wall thickness limitations The GRP/GRE components shall be manufactured using a thermosetting resin such as epoxy. temperature. polyester. The minimum wall thickness for sizes below 4 inch is defined as: WT / ID 0. electrostatic performance. definitions and symbols used. EB 1. The required failure mode is weeping.3. • Part factor f2 = derating factor related to confidence in the pipe work system. • Part factor f3 = part factor that takes account of non-pressure-related axial loads.5% confidence limit of the long-term hydrostatic pressure or stress based on a 20-year lifetime. some general applications for GRP/GRE piping are given.g.2 Qualification program An extensive qualification program is required to determine the performance of the GRP/GRE components with respect to pressure. a full regression line Figure 2. 05/06.025. impact etc. 4. 4. Main objective of this chapter is to achieve that every body speaks the same language. LCL = 97. according ASTM D-2992 must be determined (witnessed by third party for example: DNV.g. e. • Impregnate = saturate the reinforcement with a resin. Printed in the Netherlands . Part 1: Vocabulary. Part 2: Qualification of components Part 2 of the standard gives requirements for the qualification and manufacture of GRP/GRE piping and fittings. symbols. The test medium is water at 65 degrees C. the nature of the application and the consequence of failure. bending Furthermore. The test setup is a closed end pressure vessel. The failures shall be in different decades. 4. The test consists out of at least 18 samples. chemical resistance. e. fire performance. continuous and/or woven rovings. Bureau Veritas). Page 3 of 12.5% confidence limit of the LTHP to the mean value of LTHP • LTHP = extrapolated long-term mean static failure pressure of a component with free ends based on a 20-year lifetime. The test pieces are plain end pipes. What has to be done to qualify a GRP/GRE piping system? For each product family (component type).
Two representative samples. For calculation of the test pressure.4 Electrical conductivity If required.Each product family (pipe. Component variants are qualified by either two 1000 hr tests or through the scaling method. tee. In absence of a regression line.250 A H N 250 . A product sector contains all the items within its diameter and pressure range. These are done to establish a baseline value for quality control. These have to be determined from the replicate samples and used by quality control during production as base line values. reducer. testing shall be carried out on each piping material system. from each product sector are taken and fully tested according ASTM 1598 (1000 hrs at 65 C). Printed in the Netherlands . See chapter 10 for the list of deviations to the quality program.800 D K Q 800 . if required and agreed with the principal.1200 E L R > 150 _ S T For quality control. Overview of product sectors Diameter (mm) Pressure range (bar) 0 . 4.400 B I O 400 . fire testing shall be conducted on each piping material system. So a 20 bar system is tested around 50 to 60 bar. Table 1. Pipe and fittings furnished to ISO 14692 shall be tested according to the ISO standard. The performance of the piping system shall be qualified in accordance with the ISO procedure and a classification code shall be assigned. 05/06. the regression line of the pipe or the fitting is used. Overview of elbows needed for qualification up to 8 inch © Ameron 2006. the so called component variants. Photo 3. Page 4 of 12. 4. EB 1. The representative samples are called the product sector representatives. a default value can be obtained from a table given in the ISO. For details on the calculation see the ISO document. usually the biggest diameter and highest pressure class. The performance of the piping system shall be qualified in accordance with the ISO procedure and a classification code shall be assigned.3 Fire performance If required. 4.5 to 3 times the design pressure. flange) is divided into product sectors. Other aspects to be considered are: the glass transition temperature.5 Quality program for manufacture Photo 2.100 100 -150 25 . The test medium is water. short term tests could be performed. In general the 1000 hr test is performed at about 2. the glass resin ratio and component dimensions.50 50 . Spool for 1000 hrs testing The piping manufacturer shall have a suitable and accredited quality assurance and quality control system.600 C J P 600 . elbow.
A full hydraulic surge analysis shall be carried out. Part 3: System design 5. • Use the flexibility of the material to accommodate axial expansion. • Valves and heavy equipment to be supported independently. 5. The designer shall evaluate system layout requirements such as: • Space requirement (fitting dimensions). • Prevention of water hammer.2 Layout requirements In general the same types of fittings available in steel are also available in GRP. • Vulnerability. 5. © Ameron 2006. pressure and temperature throughout their intended service life. • Reduction of erosion. pump testing. etc. • Pipe diameter and geometry (inertia loading). Page 5 of 12. • Prevent cavitation. provided the system is well anchored and guided. EB 1. • Piping system support. Note that the building dimensions of some GRP/GRE fittings can be larger compared to steel fittings. interior surface roughness of pipes and fittings. blast) on the layout requirements should be considered.4 Hydraulic design The aim of hydraulic design is to ensure that GRP/GRE piping systems are capable of transporting the specified fluid at the specified rate. wash-down hoses.5 mm). fluid density.3 Support distance Recommendations for system support: • Supports spaced to limit sag (< 12. • The effect of fire (incl. 5. • Control of electrostatic discharge (depending on service and location).1 Introduction/abstract The design guidelines are handled in part 3 of the ISO 14692. if pressure transients are expected. • Reduction of noise. The smooth surface of the GRP/GRE pipe may result in lower pressure losses compared to metal pipe. The analysis shall cover all anticipated operating conditions including priming. 05/06. Fluid velocity. inside diameter as well as resistance from valves and fittings shall be taken into account when estimating pressure losses.Table 2. Factors that limit the velocity are: • Unacceptable pressure losses. connections to metallic piping systems shall be anchored. Printed in the Netherlands . pipe length. Overview of qualification tests needed Product sector A Component variant 2 inch Component variant 3 inch Component variant 4 inch Component variant 6 inch Product sector representative 8 inch Family representative QC baseline Test standard ASTM D-1598 ASTM D-1598 ASTM D-1598 ASTM D-1598 ASTM D-2992 ASTM D-2992 ASTM D-1598 Pipes or scaling or scaling or scaling or scaling 2 18 5 Elbows or scaling or scaling or scaling or scaling 2 18 5 Tees or scaling or scaling or scaling or scaling 2 18 5 Flanges or scaling or scaling or scaling or scaling 2 18 5 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 5. • In general. actuated valves. • Do not use GRP/GRE piping to support other piping.
the stresses in the piping system. • The idealized long term failure envelope (3) is geometrically similar to the short term envelope with all data points being scaled.5. The sum of all hoop stresses and the sum of all axial stresses in any component in the piping system shall lie within the longterm design envelope. A2 and A3. Sustained loads: • Pressure (internal. medium. insulation. A2 is the de-rating factor for chemical resistance and A3 is the de-rating factor for cyclic service. Allowable stress curve Photo 4.8 Static electricity The use of a conductive piping system might be considered in case the GRP/GRE piping system is running in a hazardous area or if the pipe is carrying fluids capable of generating electrostatic charges. can be checked. the load on equipment nozzles etc. smoke and heat release. weight. Installation of 54 km 18 inch pipe. © Ameron 2006. Piping system design shall represent the most severe conditions experienced during installation and service life. Figure 3. wind load. the following shall be considered: • Rerouting of piping.7 Fire performance The fire performance requirements of the piping system shall be determined.5. the displacement. toxicity). flame spread. • Wind. where A1 is the de-rating factor for temperature. Printed in the Netherlands . 5. Load-cases can be setup from combinations of pressure. external. • Apply suitable fire-protective coating. • Fire reaction (ignition time. etc). Caesar II (by Coade) is commonly used to perform stress and flexibility analysis. pressure rating 20 bar 5. displacement.5 Structural design Aim of structural design is to ensure that GRP/GRE piping systems shall sustain all stresses and deformations during construction/installation and throughout the service life. This scaling factor (fscale) is derived using the long term regression line.1 Determination of the failure envelope and the long-term design envelope In the ISO14692 document an algorithm is given how to determine the failure envelope and how the long term design envelope is developed. • Thermal induced loads. Designers shall consider loads given in table 1 in the ISO document.. If piping cannot satisfy the required fire properties. hydro-test). 5. Fire performance is characterized in two properties: • Fire endurance (ability to continue to perform during fire). • Mass (self-mass. The piping system can be evaluated for several load-cases. 5. Page 6 of 12. the loads on the support. • The non factored long term design envelope (4) is based on the idealized long term envelope multiplied by the part factor f2. 05/06. • Water hammer. With the calculation output. Occasional loads: • Earthquake. • Determine the short term failure envelope (1 or 2). • Soil loads and soil subsidence. vacuum. temperature. • Use alternative materials. EB 1. earthquake etc. • The factored long term design envelope (5) is derived by multiplication with A1.6 Stress analysis Manual or computer methods can be used for structural analysis of piping systems.
Part 4: Fabrication. DNV. • Storage.1 Inspection It starts with checking the incoming goods • Check supplied quantity. This means that any possible problems are detected in a late phase in the project. • The theoretical part will end with a written exam for which a 70% pass mark is required.2 Installer requirements All GRP/GRE components shall be installed by qualified GRP/GRE pipe fitters and thereafter approved by a qualified GRP/GRE piping inspector. gaskets etc. installation and operation 6. it is common practice that a GRP/GRE pipe system is hydro tested as part of the commissioning procedure. Printed in the Netherlands . One of the tools to detect fabrication and installation mistakes is to hydro test the GRP/GRE pipe system. In the case of Ameron the independent organization is DNV. flange connections etc. In other words: to guarantee that a GRP/GRE pipe system is fit for purpose. Lloyds).2. third party (BV. certification) Handling and storage of the incoming goods • Use the Ameron lifting. Definitions: Pipe fitter Person working for a contractor who is responsible for the construction of the GRE pipe system.1 Introduction Part 4 of the ISO 14692 gives requirements and recommendations for fabrication. The training consists of a theoretical and a practical part. 6. chemicals etc. He must be able to make the relevant joint types according Ameron procedures. Check recommended storage temperatures. contractor. support width and stacking height. Therefore. • Pipe spools. This certificate is a personal certificate. Supervisor Person who is responsible for the quality of the installation and is able to check the quality of the work done by the pipe fitters. impact) • Check if storage is correct • Check availability of documentation (packing lists. • Preferably. the ISO 14692 demands that the qualification organization is independent of the organization that carries out the training. These tests are witnessed © Ameron 2006. Photo 6. 05/06.6. Pay attention to the stacking of the pipe. Photo 5. Page 7 of 12. loading and unloading procedure. This certificate is a personal certificate. Can be employed by client. Hydro-test of spool 6. This certificate can be compared to a welder’s certificate. Typical work of a GRE pipe fitter Training of pipe fitter • The quality of the joints is mainly dependent on craftsmanship of the pipe fitter. Repairs in this late phase of the project can be costly and difficult due to limited access.2 Fabrication and installation What can be done to prevent/reduce the above problem? 6. free from UV radiation. pipes should be transported in containers or crates. • Check nominal dimensions of supplied material • Check supplied pressures class • Perform a visual control of supplied material (transport damage. QA/QC Inspector Person who is able: to check and judge the work of contractor and is able to globally verify the soundness of the installation. installation and operation of GRP/GRE pipe systems. In all cases pipe spools should not be stacked. shall be stored in a cool place. This includes lay-out related matters such as support construction and location. Past experience with GRP/GRE installations is that a great deal of the problems that occur are associated with bad fabrication and installation. • Adhesives. EB 1. The practical part will end with making a joint that will be hydro-tested according the requirements of the ISO 14692.2. • O-rings. This person is normally employed by the responsible contractor for example as a foreman. end protection of pipe and fittings. Take care that impact damage is prevented by proper packaging and use of protection material.
etc. quality control. Spool fabrication shop 6.2. Examination committee will be DNV.by a third party. • The purpose of the entire training is to teach the pipe fitter those things he or she can have influence on.QA/QC inspector on a GRE pre-fabrication and installation job.QA/QC inspector • Ameron and DNV are developing an individual certification for Supervisor .Chalking.Removal of scale and blockages.Flange cracks and leaks.. joint number. The educating company will be Ameron as they have in contrast to most institutes a large knowledge.3 Installation methods Installation method shall be according manufacturers approved installation manual. 6. Page 8 of 12.g. Supporting • Follow the installation guides from the Manufacturer.3 Maintenance and repair GRP/GRE pipes are generally maintenance free. Quality program for installation The contractor shall maintain a high level of inspection to ensure compliance with all requirements. supporting. ageing and erosion. batch number of the adhesive and heating blanket. earthing of conductive piping. that they can act as Supervisor . When passing both exams the pipe fitter will receive a pipe fitter certificate issued by DNV. Water shall be used as a test medium. but the following points shall be given attention during inspection and are addressed in the ISO document: . . © Ameron 2006. relative humidity.QA/QC inspector based on ISO 14692 requirements.Electrical conductivity. Printed in the Netherlands . inspection of pipes and fittings. Installation General requirements are given in the ISO 14692 for the installation of GRP/GRE components such as bending.QA/QC inspector on aspects like storage.Surface and mechanical damage. • Other guidelines not different from the Ameron procedures are given in the ISO 14692. 6. bolt-torquing. 05/06. An important factor is that they also learn what can go wrong. Repair shall be in accordance with manufacturers procedures.2. E.: • Impact > replace (major defect) or repair (minor defect) • Misaligned joints > replace components (major defect) remake joint (minor defect) 6. . Photo 7. EB 1. Most important point is that all piping shall be installed so that they are stress-free. jointing. obtained over decades. measured temperature of the heating blanket. in this particular area. The contractor shall designate one individual to be responsible for quality control throughout the installation. The certificate that can be obtained will be a personal certificate.2. Objective is to train Supervisor . .4 System testing All GRP/GRE piping systems shall be hydrostatically pressure tested after installation. Possible defect along with acceptance criteria and corrective actions are given in the ISO document.5 Visual inspection Visual inspection shall be carried out of all joints and surfaces. etc. in such a way. hydro testing etc. tolerances. . date. pipe fitter nr. joint selection. Record of following items shall be made: starting and end time of the curing process. ambient temperature. Training of Supervisor .
References • ISO 14692-1 Petroleum and natural gas industries Glass-reinforced plastics (GRP) piping Part 1: Vocabulary. • ISO 14692-3 Petroleum and natural gas industries Glass-reinforced plastics (GRP) piping Part 3: System design. applications and materials. including developed. developing and transitional economies. government and society. When the guidelines laid down in the ISO 14692 standard are followed. 9. adopts them by transparent procedures based on national input and delivers them to be implemented worldwide. installation and operation. 05/06. ISO in brief ISO (International Organization for Standardization) is a global network that identifies what International Standards are required by business. one per country. symbols. bodies of over 149 countries. ISO – a non-governmental organization. design and installation of Glassfiber Reinforced Epoxy piping systems. that will put them in use. Conclusion ISO 14692 is a worldwide accepted standard for the manufacturing.7. ISO standards are widely respected and accepted by public and private sectors internationally. Expert input comes from those closest to the needs for the standards and also the results of implementing them. • ISO 14692-2 Petroleum and natural gas industries Glass-reinforced plastics (GRP) piping Part 2: Qualification and manufacture. Printed in the Netherlands . Page 9 of 12. – – – – © Ameron 2006. 8. although voluntary. is a federation of national standards. ISO standards distil an international consensus from the broadest possible base of stake holder groups. In this way. EB 1. from all regions of the world. qualification. it will result in a trouble-free GRE pipe system. • ISO 14692-4 Petroleum and natural gas industries Glass-reinforced plastics (GRP) piping Part 4: Fabrication. develops them in partnership with the sectors.
5 Short-term burst test: Agreed with principal Ongoing pressure tests: yearly 6x 1000hr.2.3.p. 5% of total production.4 22.214.171.124. acc.4 Retesting: by failures of one of both retested components. In case of rejected components. Acceptance: 70-82% for filament wound pipe 65-75% filament wound fittings 50-65% hand-lay-up fittings Once per three months None 8.89 times qualified pressure > 600mm 0. 8.p.0.3.2.2 Mill hydrostatic test 5% of continuous production (c. EB 126.96.36.199 The principal shall be notified of all repairs ASTM-D-2563 (visual) No notification 8.7.2 ISO 14692-2:2002(E) Quality programme for manufacture Calibration Quality Control equipment: Pressure gauges: • Accurate +/.p. Reinforced wall thickness is automatically determined by using fixed inside diameter. the whole lot to the latest successful hydrotest shall be rejected. = 130 / 140 dgr. © Ameron 2006.8.) =< 600mm 0.2. Printed in the Netherlands .8% 8.2 The following dimensions shall be determined in & accordance with ASTM D-3567 for 1% of pipe and 8. 1.10.3 each fitting: a) Internal diameter b) Outside diameter c) Mass d) Minimum total wall thickness e) Reinforced wall thickness f) Laying length Ameron conducts 100% inspection on outside diameter of pipe. Frequency of 1% on c. Page 10 of 12.6 In accordance with ASTM-D-2584 at a frequency of once a week random two types.75 times qualified pressure if pressure class > 32 bar = 100% 8.2 Visual Inspection: Table 12 and Table A1 of annexure A van ISO 14692-4:2002 8.3. 05/06.0.0 8. test from at least two product sectors Glass content in accordance with ISO 1172 at a frequency of 1% of c.5x Design Pressure 5% (if practicable) Only the failed components will be rejected.3.3. Deviations list to the ISO quality program 8. Min.3 Degree of cure: DSC according to ISO 11357-2 Determination of a QC baseline on base-resin or component.5% • Calibration every two months Ameron Standard • Accurate +/.3 Spools frequency = 100% (if practicable) 8.8. 100% will be conducted until the infected range has been determined According to API 15LR. Acceptance: 65-77% for filament wound pipe 55-65% for filament wound fittings 8.7. All dimensions and tolerances are in accordance with Ameron product drawings.3.C Once per shift 8.
4.11 Thread dimensions Conductivity 105 Ω (100V) Retest: by failures of one of both retested components. Printed in the Netherlands . the whole batch to the latest successful test shall be rejected.2 Not allowed by Ameron 11. 8.3. Records to be maintained by manufacturer: • Hydrotest reports • Dim. portable water (yes/no). All pipe and fittings shall be permanently marked with details as in Para 9. Page 11 of 12.+Vis. Ameron will test all products to trace all infected products.8.9 8. Reports • Tg • Glass content • Short term burst test report • Long term test report Markings shall be applied on the pipe and fittings within 1 m of the end. Documentation available in QC/Engineering file 8.3.4 Special Manufacturing Record Book © Ameron 2006.8. To avoid rejecting good products.3.2 11. EB 1.4.+ cond. 05/06. Manufacturing procedure shall be provided if requested by the principal Production quality control reports in acc.10 8.3 9.1 Pipes 3 locations. Fitting one location Pipes and fittings will be marked with: a) Manufacturer’s name b) Not c) Qualified pressure d) Not e) System design pressure f) System design temperature g) Nominal diameter h) Manufacturer’s identification code i) Not 9. e) System design pressure f) System design temperature g) Nominal diameter h) Manufacturer’s identification code i) Limitations or referenced to installation requirements: permissible bolt torque.4 The following dimensions shall be determined in accordance with ASTM D3567 for 1% of pipe and each fitting: a) Internal diameter b) Maximum outside diameter c) Reinforced wall thickness d) Relevant dimensions as described figure 1 e) Mass 8.3.4 shall be provided within five working days or other agreed period Ameron conducts only 100% inspection on laying lengths and directions/ positions N/A Conductivity 106 Ω (500V) Only the failed components will be rejected. electrical conductivity and fire performance classification.2: a) Manufacturer’s name b) Product line designation c) Qualified pressure d) Temperature at which qualified pressure is determined (default is 65°C).4.
S. Centron International.Website: http://www. 7A.com Website: http://www.S.com Europe Ameron B.Group Headquarters Ameron International Corporation .A.O.V.A. Inc.U.A. Tuas Avenue 3 Jurong Singapore 639407 Phone: +65 6861 6118 Fax: +65 6862 1302/6861 7834 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: http://www. Phone: +1 940 325 1341 Fax: +1 940 325 9681 E-mail: email@example.com .O.nl Asia Ameron (Pte) Ltd No.Fax: +1 832 912 9393 E-mail: marcom@ameronfpd.S. Ameron International Corporation 1004 Ameron Road P. Box 6 4190 CA Geldermalsen The Netherlands Phone: +31 345 587 587 Fax: +31 345 587 561 E-mail: info@ameron-fpg. Texas 77070 .S. Box 490 600 FM 1195 South Mineral Wells .Houston. Suite 325 .Texas 76068 U.com. Phone: +1 940 569 1471 Fax: +1 940 569 2764 U.O.ameron.ameron-fpg.S.sg .nl Website: http://www. Texas 76364 U. Fiberglass-Composite Pipe P.com. P.centrongre.A.ameron. Box 878 Burkburnett. Phone: +1 832 912 8282 .com U.Fiberglass-Composite Pipe Division 9720 Cypresswood Drive.A.
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