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S. Anil Kumar The Glosten Associates, Inc. 1201 Western Avenue, Suite 200 Seattle, WA 98101 USA
Abstract - This paper describes the application of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to a few problems relating to the design and operation of research vessels and platforms. The first application presented is the prediction of the speed-power relationship for a twin-strut SWATH. Calculations of the shaft horsepower curve for a predecessor SWATH design show good comparison with available experimental data. The CFD calculations help to determine the main propulsion levels and to suggest a design improvement that would be conducive to a fixed-pitch propeller solution. The second application presented is the calculation of the wind field around a semi-submersible platform. The calculations quantify the wind field distortion in the presence of the platform and show how two suitably positioned anemometers may be used together to obtain a good estimate of the far-field wind environment. Finally, brief mention is made of a third application involving the minimization of the resistance penalty incurred by Gondola-type sonar transducer assemblies. I.
rent configuration, as a science platform. The SSP Kaimalino was developed as an experimental vessel by the United States Navy in the late 1960s and was in service as a research vessel in the 1970s. Ref.  traces the development ofthe vessel.
Figure 1. Picture of the Current SSP Kaimalino
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods are increasingly being used in the ship design process at shipyards and design firms. This is particularly the case for analyzing the flow field and making comparative rankings of hull design variations areas in which the methods have attained a certain level of maturity. Progress in the development of CFD methods for ship hydrodynamic problems and the present state of the art are reviewed in, e.g.,  and . Evidently, many problems still do not lend themselves to CFD analysis. This may be due to inherent limitations of the underlying methodologies or simply difficulties in modeling a complex hull form. The present paper describes the creative use of CFD methods to surmount such difficulties in studying two problems relating to the design and operation of research vessels and platforms: 1. Predicting the speed-power relationship for a complex, twin-strut SWATH (Small Waterplane Area Twin Hull), to determine the main propulsion levels 2. Calculating the wind field around a semi-submersible platform, to guide the suitable positioning of anemometers for measuring far-field winds
II. SPEED-POWER RELATIONSHIP FOR A TWIN-STRUT SWATH
A main difference between the vessel's original configuration and the current configuration lies in the enlargement of the lower hulls (see Fig. 2). Re-powering is thought to be necessary due to obsolescence and deterioration of the existing propulsion plant and also because the vessel was originally powered for higher speeds.
(a) Original Configuration
(b) Current Configuration
The first application is the prediction of the speed-power relationship for the Stable Semi-Submerged Platform SSP Kaimalino in its current configuration (Fig. 1). The analysis is part of a feasibility study to evaluate the vessel's use again, in its cur1-4244-01 15-1/06/$20.00 ©2006 IEEE
(c) Proposed Configuration Figure 2. Comparison ofthe Kaimalino's configurations
4 also shows the predicted SUP curve for the current configuration. V (knots) Figure 4...... 3 shows the calculated wave field at 10 knots. appendage drag..::::::D :: :: / X _ . 4 presents a validation against data from sea trials of the calculated speed-power curve for the original configuration... The wave-making resistance.. between 8. the hump in the SUP curve at about 10 knots would be removed.. the propulsive coefficient (PC) was calculated for each speed of interest. appendage drag and liftinduced drag (due to the canards and the aft hydrofoil)... the SUP was calculated using the calculated effective horsepower (EHP.0004. about 250 hp less at 10 knots). 1:::::::::: .::::::: :::::: :::::::::::::: ::::::: :::::: :::::: 6 10 11 12 13 Vessel Speed. Therefore.. compared with the original configuration (e. Fig. Air drag due to a head wind of 10 knots was estimated. so as to reduce the wave-making resistance and form drag of the hull. < rre nlt ~~~Original Kaimalino CFD a77mal77 :::: . .. 3U000=-=-2500_ = Q Due to inherent limitations of the computational method.. Details on how the Kaimalino was panelized to resolve these complicated features are in a working paper ... There is little difference in the calculated SUP between the three configurations up to about 8. ....5 and about 12 knots.. . Fig... an aft hydrofoil. Potential-flow calculations were first performed using SHIPFLOW and the total resistance was calculated for a number of speeds ranging from 7 to 15 knots.... for brevity..6 (documented in ). [\ Instal le = v :1 low 2x< ....5 knots (Fig.. a CFD analysis was undertaken with the specific objective of identifying the propulsion levels. Therefore. However... considering the axisymmetric shape of the vessel's lower hulls and the tail cones leading into the propeller planes. The calculated total resistance also includes a correlation allowance  of 0. Essentially.. the product of the total resistance and the vessel speed) and the PC... prominent submerged bodies of revolution of varying cross-sectional areas. Fig.. Since controllable-pitch propellers were in use on the original Kaimalino.. and canards at the bow).0.. 2).... 14 15 16 . at a given speed. The transmission efficiency was assumed to be 0... The software has been validated and verified for a wide variety of ship hydrodynamic applications featuring not only monohulls but also catamarans and trimarans.... Viscous-flow calculations were also performed using SHIPFLOW to calculate the wake fraction and.5 knots.. the power required to propel the vessel is significantly lower for the current configuration.g. The proposed configuration's SUP curve shows that it would have the advantage of a slightly lower required SUP between 9.. simplifying assumptions needed to be made to the model so that the wake fraction and thrust deduction factor could be calculated. iteratively.. the proposed modification may be conducive to a fixedpitch propeller solution and merits consideration.. These assumptions and the procedure for calculating the shaft horsepower are also detailed in . [ ~~~Proposed KZ7a1mal71 7 8 9 CFED. ..95. From these.. the Kaimalino has multiple surface-piercing struts with raked bows.. frictional resistance.. Unlike traditional ship hulls. Calculated speed-power curves for the SSP Kaimalino . and a Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) method for calculating the viscous wake. providing confidence in the calculations. The ITTC-57 model-correlation line  was used along with the calculated form factor to obtain the frictional resistance. in the form of the addition of a conical plate for a smoother enlargement of the lower hulls at the bow (Fig. Open-water propeller efficiency was determined using data for standard B-series (conventional blade) propellers .. :::::::::::: ::::.. A modification was then proposed to the current configuration. multiple lifting surfaces (twin rudders.. Finally. Computational Method and Results The difficulties in performing a CFD analysis of the Kaimalino are to a large extent due to the complexities in the hull form and the interactions between the various features. liftinduced drag. ..... momentum integral methods for calculating the boundary layer along the hull surface.A reliable speed-power curve was available only for the original configuration (from field trials). the thrust deduction factor (the propellers were modeled as actuator disks that exert a uniform thrust). 500_ -: : : ::::::::: .. The expanded blade area ratio was set to the design value of 0..... More significantly. Good agreement is found between the calculations and the data. Schedule and cost constraints meant that it was not feasible to perform model tests or field trials to obtain the speed-power relationship for the current configuration....5 and 10.. Perspective view of the calculated wave field at 10 knots total resistance at the given speed. and air drag then make up the B C0 2000 _g 1500 1000 .. bulbous bows. the hull efficiency at a given speed was obtained. in calculating the shaft horsepower (SUP) the propeller face pitch ratio was allowed to vary. The relative rotative efficiency was assumed to be 1. It employs an interactive zonal approach consisting of a potential-flow method for calculating the inviscid flow away from the hull surface. yF Figure 3... The CFD calculations were carried out using SHIPFLOWTM . accounting for losses in the gearbox and bearings. and the form factor... 4). only the salient points are mentioned here. SHIPFLOW was used to calculate the wave-making resistance.... . From these efficiencies. and twin propellers..
flow solving and post-processing in a single environment. FAR-FIELD WINDS OVER AN OFFSHORE PLATFORM The second application describes the use of CFD to predict the wind velocity distribution around a proprietary semisubmersible platform (Fig. 11. As such. illustrating how anemometers at those locations may be used to obtain a good representation of far-field winds. the problem is an area of ongoing research.. Fig. 8 presents a polar plot comparing calculated wind speeds (normalized by the free-stream wind speed) at different anemometer location alternatives. using another commercial CFD code. Computational Method and Results CFD analysis was undertaken to guide the selection of suitable anemometer locations. 5). COMET-Design was used to calculate the detailed flow field around the platform. The problem is a challenging one because the wind field is inevitably distorted by the presence of the platform and the platform's orientation in the wind field. Figure 6. including the wind velocities at a number of candidate anemometer locations for a range of wind headings.III. Fig. Illustration of the proprietary semi-submersible platform The analysis was motivated by the need to obtain a good representation of the complex far-field wind environment. Finally. along a longitudinal section through the centerplane.250 T 315 X g 45 F /~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~. COMET-DesignTM. which offers the benefits of rapid mesh creation and flexibility with high levels of accuracy. Figure 7.g. 6 shows the computational domain and a close-up (inset) of the platform. Further details of the flow solver are discussed in general in . Close-up of the computational mesh for the platform Figure 5. Fig. Further. Wind velocity vectors along a longitudinal section through the semi-submersible platform' s centerplane 0 1. Fig. This is of particular relevance to research vessels and platforms. COMET-Design is a design-centric CFD tool that combines meshing.EF-/} l2F 270 90 ft 3F -O5F 225 < 8135 180 Figure 8. and 12]. 7 shows calculated wind speed contours and wind velocity vectors for the platform in a uniform wind stream. [10. e. see. physical limitations generally exist on where anemometers may be placed on the vessel or platform. Polar plot comparing wind speeds at different anemometer location alternatives. for a range of wind headings -4F Port -4F Starboard 270 F 180 Figure 9. The software uses automatic meshing algorithms to produce a polyhedral cell mesh. The underlying flow solver is a finite-volumebased algorithm that solves the Navier-Stokes equations on the unstructured mesh and uses classic turbulence models (standard k-c turbulence model with wall functions) for modeling the boundary layer development and viscous effects. 9 presents a polar plot of normalized wind speed magnitudes at two suitable locations. Polar plot illustrating use of two anemometers to obtain a representation of far-field winds for a full range of headings .
13-22. and A. van Manen. Molland." SNAME Transactions. vol. 23. Kumar and B. vol. By enabling a quick and cost-effective comparison of several design alternatives. no. pp. San Diego.). vol. "The Wageningen B-Screw Series.A. Oosterveld. 3. "Static and Dynamic Stability." Naval Ship Research and Development Center. "The SWATH Ship Concept and its Potential. Figure 10. and M. 44.W." International Journal ofClimatology. June 1972. "Quantifying the Airflow Distortion over Merchant Ships." 18th Georg Weinblum Memorial Lecture.  L." unpublished. no.V.J. 1989. Peric. 7. II: Resistance. Stenson. 2006.  B. APPENDAGE RESISTANCE AND DESIGN ACKNOWLEDGMENT The third application discusses how CFD may be used to minimize the resistance penalty incurred by a Gondola-type sonar transducer assembly. Fein. 204-214. thereby aiding the hull design process.G. CFD offers the benefit of leading to reduced physical model testing and a faster development of hull lines. Lang. no." The Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers." Brodogradnja Shipbuilding. REFERENCES  R. Gondola-type sonar transducers are appendage-like assemblies at a lower submergence than the keel (Fig.W.  S. 2006. However. Dejhalla and J.I.P. M. "SSP Kaimalino Trial Agenda: Phase 1 SWATH-Related Trials. "Principles of Naval Architecture. Bubbles swept down from the bow of research vessels are known to cause interference with sonar transducers as they pass under the transducers. Yelland. 1575-1589. 1. 25. By allowing the swept bubbles to pass between them and the hull surface. pp. unpublished. "CFD in Ship Design . M.  J. van Lammeren. 351-360. as they are external to the hull surface. Propulsion.IV. vol. M.J. "A Review of the State-of-the-Art in Marine Hydrodynamics. "Experimental and Numerical Study of the Turbulence Characteristics of Airflow around a Research Vessel. "An Overview of the Airflow Distortion at Anemometer Sites on Ships. Gorski. Control Surface.L. May 2002. pp. California.Prospects and Limitations." Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology. Molland. 1994. vol. vol. "Speed-Power Prediction for a TwinStrut SWATH. vol. Lewis (Ed. and A. 41.I. 425-H-04. pp. R. 1997. Part II: Application of the Model Results.J.  E." August 1973. to FLOWTECH International and CD-adapco for technical support provided over the course of the work.  T. Vol.  W. Prpic-Orsic. "Present State of Numerical Ship Hydrodynamics and Validation Experiments.  R. and to Bruce Hutchison. 10). M. Yelland.C. 77. 997-1006. Stevens.F. they result in a resistance penalty." Ship Technology Research. J.  B." Journal ofOffshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering. Hutchison.D. pp. Popinet. 57. . and Jay Edgar for helpful discussions. Ship Technology Research. Larsson. and Propulsion Characteristics of the Stable Semi-Submerged Platform (SSP). April 1978." Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology. "Computation of Engineering Flows. Image of research vessel showing a Gondola-type transducer installed below the keel within the forward third of vessel (Image courtesy of Kongsberg Maritime) CFD may be used to calculate the resistance penalty that would be incurred by alternative transducer assembly configurations. they see less interference to the transducer measurements. Pascal. Moat. and C. Smith." AIAA/SNAME Advanced Marine Vehicles Conference.A. no. 2005. E Report no. and Vibration. 1969.J. 74-80. 10. 2004.A. Moat.F. 21.  J. The author is thankful to the University of Hawaii Marine Center for their permission to present this paper. pp. Dirk Kristensen.  S.
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