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Core 2 Revision notes

This is how I think about/answer some common exam questions. This does not
necessarily cover every question that could come up in your C2 exam. It does not
include modelling curves.
Differentiation questions
• Type 1
Question just asks you to differentiate.
If
n
kx y · , then
1 −
·
n
nkx
dx
dy
for n and k are all real constants.
e.g.1
3 2
4 7 8 y x x x · + + + then
2
12 14 1
dy
x x
dx
· + +
e.g.2 y x · first change into indice form
1
2
y x ·
then use the ordinary rule
1
2
1
2
dy
x
dx

· which is the same as
1
2
dy
dx x
·
e.g. 3
3
1
y
x
· first change into indice form
3
y x

· then use the ordinary rule
4
3
dy
x
dx

· − which is the same as
4
3 dy
dx x

·
• Type 2
This type of question asks you to differentiate a given equation and then find the
gradient of the graph of the function at a given point. To do this, first
differentiate using the standard formula on the formula sheet and then substitute
in the x co-ordinate given.
E.g. Q: Find gradient of graph 1 4 3
3
+ − · x x y at the point (2,9).
A: 4 9
2
− · x
dx
dy
, when x =2, gradient = 32 4 ) 2 ( 9
2
· −
• Type 3
This type of question asks you to find the turning or stationary points of a graph
and determine their nature. To do this you have to differentiate to find the
gradient and then find where the gradient is zero. Then differentiate again to
find
2
2
dx
y d
and use the following table to determine the nature of the turning
point.
0
2
2
<
dx
y d
The point is a maximum
0
2
2
>
dx
y d
The point is a minimum
0
2
2
·
dx
y d
The point could be a maximum, a minimum or a point of inflection
E.g. Q: Find the co-ordinates and the nature of the turning points of the graph
3
3 4 1 y x x · − +
A: 4 9
2
− · x
dx
dy
, 4 9 0
2
− · x ,
2
9 4 x · ,
9
4
2
· x ,
3
2
· x or
3
2
− · x
Remember to substitute into original equation to find y co-ordinates of
turning points.
3
3 4 1 y x x · − + when
3
2
· x ,
3
2 2 8 2 7
3 4 1 2 1
3 3 9 3 9
y
¸ _ ¸ _
· − + · − + · −

¸ , ¸ ,
3
3 4 1 y x x · − + when
3
2
− · x ,
3
2 2 8 2 7
3 4 1 2 1 2
3 3 9 3 9
y
¸ _ ¸ _
· − − − + · − + + ·

¸ , ¸ ,

co-ordinates of turning points are
2 7
,
3 9
¸ _


¸ ,
and
2 7
, 2
3 9
¸ _


¸ ,
To determine the nature,
x
dx
y d
18
2
2
· Substitute in
3
2
· x , min 0 12
2
2
⇒ > ·
dx
y d
Substitute in
3
2
− · x , max 0 12
2
2
⇒ < − ·
dx
y d
If you find 0
2
2
·
dx
y d
, then you have to use a different techniques for
determining the nature of a turning point. i.e. look at the sign of the gradient just
before and just after the turning point, then use the following,
Sign of gradient Type of turning point
-ve

+ve Minimum
+ve

-ve Maximum
-ve

-ve
or
+ve

+ve
Point of inflection

n.b.1 It is possible to have a point of inflection hat is not a turning point, i.e. a non-
stationary point of inflection, this occurs when 0
2
2
·
dx
y d
but 0 ≠
dx
dy
.
n.b. 2 You can also differentiate fractional and negative indices, just use the same
standard rules.
• Type 4
This type of question asks you to find the equation of either the tangent or the
normal to a given equation at a given point. To do this, follow these steps.
Step 0: Sub the x value into the original equation to find the corresponding y
vaule. (You might be able to miss this step out if you already know from the
question what the y value is)
Step 1: Differentiate original curve.
Step 2: Sub in the x value. This gives you the value of m.
Stap 2(b): (Only do this step if trying to find normal.) Turn the gradient upside
down and change the sign.
Step 3: Write out y=mx+c but with your number value for m.
Step 4: Sub in the point to find the value of c.
Step 5: Write out y=mx+c with your values of m and c in.
• Type 5
If a questions asks if a function is increasing, must show it has a positive
gradient.
If a questions asks if a function is decreasing, must show it has a negative
gradient.
• Type 6 Proving a result
Question asks you to show that the gradient of a
2
y x · at the point (1,1) is
2
dy
dx
· .
Integration
• Type 1 Just integrating. Use the rule, if
n
kx y · , then
c x
n
k
ydx
n
+
+
·
+

1
1
for
k and n are any real constant but n≠ -1.
e.g. 1
2 3
1
( 1)
3
x dx x x c + · + +

e.g. 2
3
1
dx
x

first re-write as
3
x dx


then use ordinary rule
2
1
2
x c

− + which
is the same as
2
1
2
c
x
− +
e.g. 3 With limits ( ) ( )
2
2
2 2 2
1
1
(2 1) 2 2 1 1 6 x dx x x 1 + · + · + − − ·
¸ ] ∫
• Type 2
Trapezium rule
The trapezium rule estimates the area under a graph.
To estimate an area using the trapezium rule, use the following formula,
( ) ( ) { }
1 2 1 0
..... 2
2
) (

+ + + + + ≈

n n
b
a
y y y y y
h
dx x f

y=f(x)

0
y

1
y
2
y
2 − n
y
1 − n
y

n
y
a h h b
• Type 3
( )
2
1 h +

2
1
1 1+h
B
A
2
y x ·
Gradient of chord AB =
2 1
2 1
y y
x x


=
( )
2
2
2 2
1 1
1 2 1 2
2
h
h h h h
h
h h h
+ −
+ + − +
· · · +
As
0, 2 h m → →
This type of question asks you to find the areas on graphs. Remember any area
under the x axis will come out negative. This means in many questions you will
need to divide the area up into sections and find each bit individually. Question
may ask for area between two curves, in this case subtract the two equations and
integrate the resulting function between the limits (normally found by finding
the intersection of the two curves. Finally remember the two formulae

ydx
is the area between the curve and the x axis.
• Type 4
Given the gradient of a curve and one point one the curve, you are asked to find
the equation of the curve. To do this, you have to integrate the gradient function
and then substitute in the point to find the value of the unknown constant.
E.g. Q: Find the equation of the curve with gradient function, 1 2
2
+ − · x x
dx
dy

that passes through the point ( ) 0 , 3 .
A:

+ + − · + − c x x x dx x x
2 3 2
3
1
1 2
c x x x y + + − · ⇒
2 3
3
1
To find c, substitute in the point ( ) 0 , 3 .
( ) ( ) c + + − · 3 3 3
3
1
0
2 3
c + + − · 3 9 9 0 3 − · c
Equation of curve, 3
3
1
2 3
− + − · x x x y
Sequences and series
All sequences and series questions involve using the sequences and series
formula as on formula sheet.
e.g.
Q: The third term of a geometric series is 18 and the fifth is 162. Find the
common ratio and the first term.
A: Using
1 −
·
n
n
ar a , can write
2
18 ar · and
4
162 ar ·
These are simultaneous equations, to solve first re-write as,
2
18
r
a · and
4
162
r
a ·

4 2
162 18
r r
·
162 18
2
· r
9
2
· r
Trigonometric equations
• First step for solving trigonometric equations is to re write equation so that it
only contains one trigonometric function. This can be achieved using
trigonometric identities. i.e. If have 1
cos
sin 2
·
θ
θ
, use identity
θ
θ
θ
cos
sin
tan ≡ to
re write equation as 1 tan 2 · θ .
• After you have re arranged the equation to read either θ sin , θ cos or
θ tan
equals a number, you can get the first answer from your calculator.
• Sketch the appropriate graph (either
x y sin ·
,
x y cos ·
or
x y tan ·
) and use
the symmetries in these graphs to find the other answers in the given range.
• Trigonometric identities
θ
θ
θ
tan
cos
sin

1 cos sin
2 2
≡ + θ θ
Sectors of circles
• This type of question involves knowing an using the two formulas shown
below,
Arc length θ r s ·
Area of sector θ
2
2
1
r A · when θ in radians
• These questions are often combined with the following equations.
A Sine rule:
C
c
B
b
A
a
sin sin sin
· ·
c b
B
a C Cosine rule: A bc c b a cos 2
2 2 2
− + ·
Area: C ab A sin
2
1
· and equivalent
Changing radians to degrees
• Change radians to degrees or degrees to radians using the following,
π 2 radians = 360°
180
1
π
· °
radians 1radian=
π
180
Using logs
• To simplify use the following rules
1 log · a
a
n m mn log log log + · n m
n
m
log log log − ·

,
_

¸
¸
log1=0
m r m
r
log log ·
n
n
log
1
log − ·

,
_

¸
¸
m
r
m
r
log
1
log ·
• Solving equations when the unknown is the power.
Step 1: Make it as simple as possible.
Step 2: Take logs of both sides
Step 3: Bring the power down
Step 4: Sort out whatever is left over
e.g.
1
3 4 10
x+
− ·
Step 1:
1
3 14
x+
·
Step 2:
1
log3 log14
x+
·
Step 3: ( ) 1 log3 log14 x + ·
Using numbers from calculator
Step 4:
1 1.146128036 0.477121254 x + · ÷
2.402173503 1
1.4
x
x
· −
·

follow these steps.1 It is possible to have a point of inflection hat is not a turning point. a nondy d2y ≠ 0. (You might be able to miss this step out if you already know from the question what the y value is) Step 1: Differentiate original curve. i. 3 2 8 2 7  2  2 3 y = 3x − 4 x + 1 when x = . just use the same standard rules.e. look at the sign of the gradient just before and just after the turning point. this occurs when = 0 but dx dx 2 n. then use the following.e.b. 2 d2y d2y x= . Step 4: Sub in the point to find the value of c. Step 0: Sub the x value into the original equation to find the corresponding y vaule. = −12 < 0 ⇒ max 3 dx 2 d2y If you find = 0 . i. • Type 4 This type of question asks you to find the equation of either the tangent or the normal to a given equation at a given point. stationary point of inflection. Stap 2(b): (Only do this step if trying to find normal. 2 You can also differentiate fractional and negative indices. = 18 x Substitute in = 12 > 0 ⇒ min 3 dx 2 dx 2 2 d2y Substitute in x = − . 2  3 9  3 9 To determine the nature. Step 3: Write out y=mx+c but with your number value for m.) Turn the gradient upside down and change the sign. −  and  − . Step 2: Sub in the x value.b. To do this. Sign of gradient Type of turning point -ve → +ve Minimum +ve → -ve Maximum → -ve -ve Point of inflection or +ve → +ve n. then you have to use a different techniques for dx 2 determining the nature of a turning point. 3 3 8 2 7  2  2 y = 3  −  − 4  −  + 1 = − + 2 + 1= 2 9 3 9  3  3 2 7  2 7 ⇒ co-ordinates of turning points are  . . Step 5: Write out y=mx+c with your values of m and c in. y = 3   − 4   + 1 = − 2 + 1= − 3 9 3 9  3  3 2 y = 3x 3 − 4 x + 1 when x = − . This gives you the value of m.Remember to substitute into original equation to find y co-ordinates of turning points.

+ y n−1 )} a y=f(x) y 0 y1 y 2 a • Type 3 h y n − 2 y n −1 y n h b . b h ∫ f ( x)dx ≈ 2 { ( y 0 + y n ) + 2( y1 + y 2 + . if y = kx .. If a questions asks if a function is decreasing.g. 1 3 2 e. use the following formula.• • ( 1+ h) 12 Type 5 If a questions asks if a function is increasing.. To estimate an area using the trapezium rule.. 3 With limits ∫ (2 x + 1)dx =  x + x 1 = ( 2 + 2 ) − ( 1 − 1) = 6   2 1 2 • Type 2 Trapezium rule The trapezium rule estimates the area under a graph. 1 ∫ ( x + 1)dx = x + x + c 3 1 1 −2 −3 e.. m → 2 = = 1+h ( 1+ h) 2 − 12 1 Integration • n Type 1 Just integrating.g.g. then ∫ ydx = n + 1 x k n +1 + c for k and n are any real constant but n≠ -1. dx y2 − y1 Gradient of chord AB = x2 − x1 2 B A 1 + 2 h + h 2 − 1 2 h + h2 = = 2+h h h h As h → 0. Type 6 Proving a result Question asks you to show that the gradient of a y = x 2 at the point (1. must show it has a positive gradient. must show it has a negative gradient.1) is dy y = x2 = 2. 2 ∫ 3 dx first re-write as ∫ x dx then use ordinary rule − x + c which x 2 1 is the same as − 2 + c 2x 2 2 2 e. Use the rule.

To do this.e. 3 1 3 2 0 = ( 3) − ( 3) + 3 + c 0 = 9 − 9 + 3 + c c = −3 3 1 3 2 Equation of curve. 18 162 a= 2 a= 4 and r r 18 162 = 4 r2 r 2 18r = 162 r2 = 9 Trigonometric equations • First step for solving trigonometric equations is to re write equation so that it only contains one trigonometric function. you are asked to find the equation of the curve. Question may ask for area between two curves. dy = x 2 − 2x + 1 E. dx that passes through the point ( 3. • After you have re arranged the equation to read either sin θ . . cos θ or tan θ equals a number. Q: Find the equation of the curve with gradient function. • This type of question asks you to find the areas on graphs. to solve first re-write as. Finally remember the two formulae ∫ ydx is the area between the curve and the x axis. This means in many questions you will need to divide the area up into sections and find each bit individually. Find the common ratio and the first term.Type 4 Given the gradient of a curve and one point one the curve. you can get the first answer from your calculator. Q: The third term of a geometric series is 18 and the fifth is 162. use identity tan θ ≡ trigonometric identities.0) . This can be achieved using 2 sin θ sin θ = 1 . y = x − x + x − 3 3 Sequences and series All sequences and series questions involve using the sequences and series formula as on formula sheet. i. Remember any area under the x axis will come out negative. n −1 A: Using a n = ar .g. in this case subtract the two equations and integrate the resulting function between the limits (normally found by finding the intersection of the two curves.0 ) .g. e. 1 3 2 2 A: ∫ x − 2 x + 1dx = x − x + x + c 3 1 3 ⇒ y = x − x 2 + x + c To find c. you have to integrate the gradient function and then substitute in the point to find the value of the unknown constant. can write and 18 = ar 2 162 = ar 4 These are simultaneous equations. If have to cos θ cos θ re write equation as 2 tan θ = 1 . substitute in the point ( 3.

π 180 1° = 2π radians = 360° radians 1radian= 180 π Using logs • To simplify use the following rules log a a = 1 m log  = log m − log n log1=0 n 1 1 log  = − log n log r m = log m log m r = r log m r n • Solving equations when the unknown is the power.402173503 − 1 x = 1. 3x+1 − 4 = 10 Step 3: Bring the power down Step 1: 3x+1 = 14 Step 4: Sort out whatever is left over Step 2: log 3x+1 = log14 Step 3: ( x + 1) log 3 = log14 log mn = log m + log n Using numbers from calculator Step 4: x + 1 = 1. Arc length s = rθ 1 2 Area of sector A = r θ when θ in radians 2 • These questions are often combined with the following equations. • Trigonometric identities sin θ ≡ tan θ sin 2 θ + cos 2 θ ≡ 1 cos θ Sectors of circles • This type of question involves knowing an using the two formulas shown below.4 . y = cos x or y = tan x ) and use the symmetries in these graphs to find the other answers in the given range. a b c = = A Sine rule: sin A sin B sin C c b • B a Area: A = C Cosine rule: a 2 = b 2 + c 2 − 2bc cos A 1 ab sin C and equivalent 2 Changing radians to degrees • Change radians to degrees or degrees to radians using the following. Step 2: Take logs of both sides e.Sketch the appropriate graph (either y = sin x .477121254 x = 2.146128036 ÷ 0.g. Step 1: Make it as simple as possible.