# Analog Communications Analog – to model physical quantity that is continuously variable from the lower range limit to upper

range limit An
Upper limit

Upper limit

Upper limit: the upper most value in the measurement can have, any higher valve above that can be consider out of range. Lower limit: the lowermost value in the measurement can have, any lower valve below then that can be consider out of range. Span: the difference between upper and lower range value. Span= upper limit- lower limit. Digital: a system in which specific no of state allowed. Binary digital: two states [0, 1] Decimal no: ten states [0-9] Scaling: where analog signal quantity represent in physical quantity e.g : 1-5 V, 0%- 100%, +/- 10 V Multiplexing: placing more then one signal simultaneously on a single communication channel and extracting these signals at receiving end.

due to live zero.Analog Signal Pneumatic Electrical 3-15 PSI/ 20. the current will increase.2 V Voltage available at transmitter is 24-1. voltage does not increase or decrease current.6= 18 V Voltage drop at 4 ma = I*R= 4 (250+50) = 4*10-3* 300 = 1. Why 15 PSI. so available V= 24-11= 13 V.8 V If added another chart recorder in loop with loop resistance of 250 Ohm The voltage drop = 20*10-3* 550 = 11 V. Ohms law says when voltage is raised across the device. transmitter required 11 V so adding third device is issue. . Span= 15-3= 12 PSI. So bi polar transistor emitter base current determine the collector current not the voltage. 20psi = 100% 4-20 mA Why 3 PSI.100 kilo Pascal ISA SP 50 3 psi= 0 %.2 = 22. so can Two wires will supply current and detect air failure power. determine quantity of signal Other signal in Europe – 3. so varying above then 100 % so it is 20 PSI.does not contained But bi-polar transistor can made much energy.27 PSI 50 Ohm loop resistance due to wire 250 Ohm load R 250 Ohm load R Ohm Ohm 24 V DC Voltage drop at 20 ma = I*R= 20 (250+50) = 20*10-3* 300 = 6 V Voltage available at transmitter is 24. and must have 5 PSI for constant current.

Why 250 ohm Load resistance 250 * 4*10-3* = 1V 240* 20*10-3*= 5 V Scaling: .

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