(Excerpts from


The Confidence of the House May 1940
GMW Wemyss

The Confidence of the House Motion: The first day 7 May 1940

Motion: The first day

FOURTEEN ad%ourn&'


calculated aggression, the Government Chief

Whi , Ca tain !argesson, had moved that the "ouse #do no$

There are ghosts at Westminster( echoes, voices half)heard and half) recalled, old feuds that hang in the air, formless foreshado$ings' The* are not the sort of ghosts in $hom the credulous and the earnestl* s*chic +elieve, having imagined them ex nihilo, +ut the* are there' Some call them, collectivel*, a sense of histor*, or the +urden of office, or the traditions and conventions of the "ouse' !r S ea,er sensed them, $ithout articulating them, and felt them and the $eight of them, as +eing the care and *o,e of his office' The* $ere the heft and heaviness of the $ig and the go$n, the confines of the S ea,er&s Chair' -nd the* $ere eculiarl* a+road, sensed *et un,no$a+l*, s eciall*, o ressive, u on this da*'

.t is the +usiness of the Chief Whi also to sense these things' fortnight and more +efore this da*, Ca tain !argesson had managed to loc, himself in a cu +oard for much of the night' Standing alone, this $as an incident on $hich to dine out/ re orted at home and a+road, it $as a meta hor that could too easil* +ecome an omen' -nd if Ca tain !argesson, +alding and ugnacious $ith his ears standing out for em hasis, $as not one for cinemas, it $as nevertheless his +usiness and dut* to ac0uire the ,no$ledge, on his o$n or from his de uties and agents, that $ell $ithin the ast fortnight, the Great 1ritish 2u+lic, in serried ran,s $ithin the icture alaces, intent u on the ne$sreels, had res onded cooll* to an* footage of the 2rime !inister 3and of the no+le Foreign Secretar*, 4ord "alifa56, and had cheered and a lauded ever* reference to the First 4ord of the -dmiralt*' This also $as a felt, uncom rehended $eight u on the close air $ithin the Cham+er, $hether the Whi &s Office ,ne$ it or no' There are ghosts at Westminster( of sacredness and of violence' "ere had small incidents had sudden conse0uences, the deaths of ,ings, the fall of governments' Where 2arliament sate $as once Thorne* .sland, the E*ot of Thorns u on the dar,, secret Thames' -ncient trac,$a*s had met here, and eo les and moots and em+assies from $aril* hostile tri+es' -fter, it had +een the %unction of straight roads carved u on the rostrate land +* the legions of Rome/ and for much of its time, +efore it silted itself to the river&s +an,s, it $as $here the T*+urn ran into Father Thames, carr*ing $ith it the traditions of deaths at T*+urn' Tothill Fields had +een a lace of sacred violence in dar, *ears +efore the coming of the

Roman Eagles, and the site of the West !inster had once +een sacred to 7iana $ith her tem le there' The West !inster itself had +een founded u on a dream, a vision, 2eter rivalling the Cit*&s 2aul, and its com letion had +een the last act of Ed$ard, d*ing and ha less, a good Christian erha s +ut a $retched ,ing, $ho had left a cro$n half)com romised and de+ata+le to "arold' Within the *ear, Ed$ard had +een +uried in his ne$ minster, "arold cro$ned there, and William of Normand* cro$ned there after "arold had fallen to an invasion from the Continent' Slac, government had its cost, and that cost could not al$a*s +e redeemed in time' This $as a lace of sacral violence, of Charles& e5ecution and the trium h of 2arliament, of the +itter ash that $as 2arliament&s lot, dismissed +* Charles& e5ecutioner' These $ere among the ghosts of Westminster, a goodl* com an*, a cloud of $itnesses, and all the ghosts of Westminster $al,ed a+road in this hour' !r S ea,er, +lac,)+ro$ed and silver)haired, $ith his cli ed moustaches and iron %a$, a stud* in monochrome framed in the $hite of his $ig and the +lac, of his go$n, did not +elieve in ghosts, nor dis+elieve( he had no interest in so foolish a su+%ect' "e did +elieve in the mood and tem er of the "ouse' .f there $ere ghosts of *ears gone ast to haunt him, the* $ere those of S ea,er 4enthall, that lum , urse)mouthed Caroline trimmer, 2arliament) man and Restoration Ro*alist +* turns, that rudent, timorous ci her $ith the ainted smile and inscruta+le e*es, $ho had at the crisis had neither eyes to see nor tongue to speak in this place but as the House was pleased to direct him, whose servant he was here; and of S ea,er 7enison, a Roman death)mas, in a $ig, acute and

so+er, $ho had esta+lished the rule that a S ea,er&s casting vote must never end de+ate, must al$a*s refer the status 0uo, and must never +ring do$n a government on a vote of confidence or of su l*'

These $ere the ghosts $ho, !arle*)li,e, shac,led their successors $ith the chains the* had forged for their o$n constraints' !r S ea,er could ta,e the tem erature of the "ouse/ he could not, must not, rescri+e h*sic for it' The "ouse $ere restive, fe+rile' 2ra* God it should not come to a casting vote 8 for !r S ea,er could feel in the air that "!G&s a er ma%orit* of some t$o hundred $as thin as a er no$' The 0uestion of ad%ournment $as +efore the "ouse' !r S ea,er sate in his chair, marmoreal, grave, successor to S ea,er 4enthall $ho had defied the first Charles/ !r S ea,er, the right "on' Ed$ard -lgernon Fit9Ro*, scion of the Southam tons and the du,es of Grafton, sate in his chair, he $ho once, as a +o*, had served as 2age of "onour to :ueen ;ictoria, and $as himself the si5th)generation descendant of the second Charles' -nd the echoes $ere $a,ened, and the ghosts of Westminster +egan to $al,'

T"E 2R.!E !.N.STER rose' The dead and d*ing of the $rec, of the Nor$egian cam aign, of o erations against the Na9i enem* that $ere even no$ ongoing around Narvi, and in Nor$egian $aters, rose $ith him, im al a+le and ghostl*'

#When . s o,e on Thursda* last, . stated that . could give onl* an incom lete account of the o erations, and that a further statement $ould +e made this $ee,, $hen . ho ed to +e a+le to give a fuller stor*'& Onl* a fuller, and convincing, account could save him no$' The 2rime !inister, $ith a huge ma%orit* at his +ac,, and a ma%orit* *et $ra t in the increasingl* tattered vestments of a #national& government, $as in eril of events from overseas, from across the Channel' <et he $as the 2rime !inister( his father had failed of it, his +rother -usten, $ho had +een cultivated to attain it +* that father, had failed of it, his rivals 8 no least his ne$ First 4ord 8 had failed of it even as that First 4ord&s father had failed of it' Were it not for the crash of all his ho es and lans in foreign olic*, he $ould +e in fact as he *et seemed, the masterful, ,een)e*ed, a0uiline commander of a ma%orit* that could not ossi+l* give $a*' "is father and his mother and his aunts had seen him as merel* the second string to the Cham+erlain +o$, the dutiful lieutenant $ho should ,ee their 1rummagem fiefdom in hand $hilst -usten, the elder son, the son of the first marriage, on $hom the mone* and the olish and the education $ere lavished even +* the second $ife, should rise to the remiershi as =oe, to his o$n shoc,, had not' =ose h Cham+erlain had +een sil,il* daggered +* 1alfour, the true aristocrat des atching the clim+er, and then stric,en +* an a o le5* as he rose again/ -usten, though he +ecame Chancellor and Foreign Secretar*, had chanced to singe his fingers in the >?@@ revolt, and forever after had forfeited his chances at moving elegantl* into >A

7o$ning Street' Father and elder son, monocles gleaming and rare orchids in +uttonholes, had soared almost as airil* and languidl* as 1alfour himself, +orne u +* o ular sentiment and a onl* to fall in flame and s ar,' .t $as Neville, in$ardl* steel* and out$ardl* content to lod, the *ounger son in $hom onl* his s inster sisters had trul* +elieved, $ho $as master of the "ouse no$, as full* and as fatall* as had +een Stanle* 1ald$in' !r S ea,er surve*ed the scene( the 2rime !inister stiff and commanding, nominall* +ac,ed +* an insu era+le ma%orit*, the true rotBgB and successor of 1ald$in +efore him/ +ut it had +een 1ald$in&s cousin, erha s, $ho had foreseen this hour' Ci ling had ,no$n in some instinctive $a* the e hemeral nature of im erium, as $hen !a5imus 8 as 2arnesius told 7an and Una 8 $as chaired along the Wall +* the legions( chaired, and cheered, and, had he failed to hold the e*es of his soldier* in that instant $ho cheered him, had +een torn a art and a ne$ Em eror created even then' D'''E <es( #ris, to our troo s&( the* clustered a+out him, the dead of this $ar, and the dead of the last' Since >?FG, at the least, $henever the 2rime !inister had stood to the 7es atch 1o5, the* had stood im al a+le +eside him' .n 7ecem+er >?>H, 4lo*d George had called u on Neville Cham+erlain, then 4ord !a*or of 1irmingham, to +ecome 7irector of National Service' "e had stood it, and stood the Welsh Wi9ard, until -ugust >?>I' For eight months, it had +een he earing even in the features of !iss Sa*ers& gentleman detective( had soared,

$ho had +een the chooser of the slain, sending one man to the mines or the lathe and another, conscri ted, to the Front' -nd on I 7ecem+er >?>I, a date other$ise o+scure, his +eloved cousin Norman had +een re orted missing' Norman, fifteen *ears his %unior, the golden lad $hom all the Cham+erlains loved +est in his generation, sle t no$ in Fins Ne$ 1ritish Cemeter*, Sorel)le) Grand/ *et he did not slee , nor did the other dead of the Caiser&s War, nor those $ho had died since Se tem+er >?F?( the* stood unslee ing at the 2rime !inister&s el+o$' The 2rime !inister had not fought in the $ar that men had thought should +e the last forever' Others $ho had +een in their forties in age, $hen $ar came, had done( the* faced him from the O osition 1enches, filled his +ac,+enches, and shared the Treasur* 1ench $ith him' DJE For seven *ears and more, it had +een the o+%ect of !r 1ald$in and of his successor, not to ,ee German* out of the Rhineland or France or -ustria or C9echo)Slova,ia or 2oland, so much as it had +een to ,ee the First 4ord of the -dmiralt* out of the Ca+inet, if ossi+le, and out of the remiershi 8 at all costs' -nd erha s that com arison, too clever +* half, $as directed less against the First 4ord than those $ho might +e tem ted to su his ta,ing the 2rime !inister&s that cam aign' .t $as on ort lace, not a fe$ of $hom arliamentar*

remem+ered Galli oli not as oliticians +ut as $ho had served in a er a neat +it of s$ord la*/ and it $as $orse than a crime, it $as a +lunder' Even no$, in this "ouse in $hich ghosts stirred, Galli oli $as to

honoura+le !em+ers in all arties $hat 2anama had +een in the French Cham+er +efore the Caiser&s War, $hen ! 7BroulKde&s friends $aited u on ! Clemenceau&s seconds' DJE The justified reproach that the Prime Minister and HM overnment cared nothing for the freedom of small nations! the ghosts, im al a+le, of C9echo)Slova,ia and of -ustria cro$ded thic, $ithin the cham+er' This echo could not +e dro$ned out( the 2rime !inister, se ulchrall* intoning in his strangulated vo$els, #"o$ horri+le, fantastic, incredi+le it is that $e should +e digging trenches and tr*ing on gas)mas,s here +ecause of a 0uarrel in a far a$a* countr* +et$een eo le of $hom $e ,no$ nothing&/ and, in rum+ling basso counter oint, the First)4ord)to)+e, #a total and unmitigated defeat ''' *ou $ill find that in a eriod of time, $hich ma* +e measured +* *ears, +ut ma* +e measured +* months, C9echo)Slova,ia $ill +e engulfed in the Na9i rBgime' We are in the resence of a disaster of the first magnitude ''' $e have sustained a defeat $ithout a $ar, the conse0uences of $hich $ill travel far $ith us along our road ''' $e have assed an a$ful milestone in our histor* J the terri+le $ords have for the time +eing +een ronounced against the Western democracies( LThou art $eighed in the +alance and found $antingM' -nd do not su ose that this is the end' This is onl* the +eginning of the rec,oning' This is onl* the first si , the first foretaste of a +itter cu $hich $ill +e roffered to us *ear +* *ear, unless, +* a su reme recover* of moral health and martial vigour, $e arise again and ta,e our stand for freedom as in the olden time&J'

______________________________ .N !-NOR "OUSE "os ital, lost in the north 4ondon s ra$l, the right "on' George 4ans+ur* !2, acifist, former 4a+our leader, mem+er for 2o lar 1o$ and 1romle*, $as d*ing this da*, d*ing, dead, $as dead 3as the stale de+ate $ent grinding on6, had died( dead of cancer at the age of one)and)eight* *ears' With him died the immediate em+arrassment of 4a+our&s inter$ar commitment to unilateral disarmament' -nother ghost haunted the cham+er as another *et $as e5orcised' ______________________________ DJE Out$ith the "ouse, at The Times, scandalousl* in the Civil Service, and u on the Front 1ench in or t$o cases, there $ere True 1elievers, men $ho $ould do and dare an*thing, stoo to an* recourse, to su ort the 2rime !inister, not +ecause he $as the 2rime !inister, +ut, rather, +ecause the* $ere ideologues committed even +e*ond honour to a easement, to ra rochement $ith German* 8 even a Na9i German* 8, to enmit* $ith 1olshevism, to acifism at all costs' Contem ti+le creatures, reall*, thought the Chief Whi ( 1all, "orace Wilson, Ra+( ghastl* little sods, an* man of $hom should ositivel* clamour to +e the :uisling of a defeated 1ritain' 7amned if he had an* use for an* of the +uggers/ than, God, dealing $ith &em $asn&t his igeon' No, Ca tain !argesson $as not such a man( he $as a gentleman, damn it all' Slavish ideological commitment $as ungentlemanl*, uns orting, and damned un)1ritish' "e $as the Chief Whi 8 and of

a National Government, at that' .t $as all ver* $ell to com lain that art* disci line had throttled democrac*, that hon' !em+ers $ere made into mere u ets ans$era+le onl* to the atronage office and neither to their constituencies or their consciences 8 such of &em as had consciences, $hich, after long e5 erience of men and affairs, the Chief Whi +egged leave in most instances to dou+t 8 and it $as true enough that through *ears of crises internal and e5ternal, disci line had erforce +een rather tightened than other$ise, and the a*roll vote s read ver* $idel* indeed' 1ut $hat $ould the* have, the croa,ersN Theirs $as, after all, a arliamentar* democrac*' -t one time, and a time of a restricted franchise at that, a First 4ord of the Treasur* had +een the Cing&s remier onl* so far and so long as he ,e t the Cing&s confidence' !odern 2rime !inisters de ended u on the confidence of the "ouse, $hich might +e, in the high theor* of the thing, the Cro$n in 2arliament, +ut $as in fact, in a arliamentar* democrac*, sim l* the confidence of the eo le' The eo le had assed their %udgement in the last General Election, and no +*)election since had overturned it +* a $hit 3des ite that sill* ass Randol h&s +est efforts( one felt actual s*m ath* for Winston, lum+ered $ith a son of that ,idne*6' "e $as the Chief Whi , damn it all, after all( it $as not his %o+ onl*, it $as his ositive dut*, to ,ee the field from overrunning the hounds and the !aster, or $hat the devil $ere elections and the eo le&s votes for, he&d li,e to ,no$' DJE Ca tain !argesson ran a ractised e*e over the green leather +enches' .f Neville +uggered this u , as he loo,ed to +e doing, it must necessaril* +e Winston as 2!' "alifa5 J the Socialists

shouldn&t $ear a tall, ic*, fo5hunting atrician, #4ord "ol* Fo5&, as 2! for five minutes, and if the division on ad%ournment $eren&t sufficient to ,ee Neville ato the greas* ole, there&d +e no choice +ut to ma,e the National Government trul* National' -nd "alifa5 $as caged in the gilt cage of the 4ords' "e&d +e at +est a figurehead, as useless as S0uiff* in the last $ar once the Goat too, effective o$er 3+efore ta,ing on the office as $ell6, as urel* decorative as Ramsa* $hen S1 called the shots $ell +efore S1 moved himself into Num+er >A' Effective o$er $ere Winston&s in an* case, should that +efall, +ecause effective o$er 8 u held +* a lo*al and effective Whi &s Office 8 resided here, in this "ouse' -t least one ,ne$ that Winston ,ne$ the score' "e and the Chief Whi +ore one another no grudge( +usiness $as +usiness' -nd if, as no$ seemed suddenl*, alarmingl* ossi+le, Winston should +ecome 2!, $h*, then, the full resources and a+solute lo*alt* of the Whi &s Office should +e ut firml* at Winston&s dis osal, and a $ar to $in' ______________________________ .N 1ER4.N, GENER-4 Staff officers $ere +us* $ith the final re arations for the great offensive in the West' ______________________________ DJE Could the 2rime !inister reall* +e setting out to do this, to lecture the "ouse 8 and the countr* 8 u on the $a* in $hich well" meaning, honest people who do not pay any meticulous attention to

what is going on $ilfull* misunderstand events that might challenge their cherished vie$sN What else had +een !unichN The tem erature of the "ouse $as mounting' DJE #<es, Sir' !* right hon' Friend feels that that $ould +e the +est arrangement, and . am inclined to thin, that the im ortant $or, at the -dmiralt* should remain in his hands if it is ossi+le, +ut . am rel*ing u on him to let me ,no$ if he finds that the ne$ tas,s $hich have +een im osed u on him ma,e it difficult for him to fulfil them and the $or, at the -dmiralt* as $ell' Then, of course, in such a case . shall ta,e ste s to relieve him'& #elieve the $irst %ord & did he say & of which role & but &' 1ut there $as no time for the "ouse to $onder, hardl* time to notice, for no$ the tra that the 2rime !inister had thought himself to have evaded in confronting his great foe the right hon' !em+er for Carnarvon 1oroughs, $as s rung $ith e50uisite recision' "ac,ne* South, metro olitan and 4a+ourite, fever and marshes, 7issenters and rioters, no lost El*sium of rural !iddlese5 +eside the River 4ee( "omerton, and South "ac,ne* on the fra*ed fringes of ;ictoria 2ar,, Stamford "ill $ith its Roman remains u on Ermine Street and its Roman Catholics %ostling its =e$s, a art of Cla ton 2ar, $ith its strange cults and ro$d* u+lic houses( its right hon' !em+er $as u , $ith a fateful 0uestion, "er+ert !orrison the half) +lind son of a olice consta+le, the Great War conch* $ho had, +ut five *ears rior, challenged !a%or -ttlee for the 4a+our leadershi 8 and lost'

#.t is material that the "ouse should ,no$ $hether this ne$ arrangement, $here+* the First 4ord of the -dmiralt* had certain ne$ o$ers of direction over the Committee of the Chiefs of Staff, covered the eriod of the Nor$egian o erations, or is it since the Nor$egian o erations commencedN’ The 2rime !inister $as im aled u on the oint raised, and ,ne$ it' .n the ,ingdom of the +lind, the one)e*ed man is ,ing' #. J . a reciate the oint'& The 2rime !inister steeled himself to ans$er' #No, it $as not +efore the Nor$egian o erations/ it has onl* +een made recentl* and did not arise out of the Nor$egian o erations, +ecause the change $ould have +een made in an* case' For the ur oses . have mentioned, m* right hon' Friend has +een rovided $ith a small a ersonal staff under a distinguished staff officer, !a%or)General .sma*, and General .sma* has +een ointed an additional mem+er of the Chiefs of Staff Committee' . have no dou+t other changes in the form of Government or the functions of individual mem+ers of it ma* from time to time suggest themselves as desira+le' . thin, it is ver* li,el* that changes of that ,ind in $ar)time are almost +ound to ta,e lace' -s far as . am concerned, . shall endeavour to ,ee m* mind o en to an* fresh considerations and to ta,e an* ste s $hich ma* seem to +e called for if the* $ill hel the countr*' Once again . $ant to urge hon' !em+ers that in these strenuous da*s $e should do +etter to occu * ourselves $ith increasing our $ar effort rather than dis uting a+out the form of Government'&

!a%or -ttlee, that Old "aile*+urian $ho read no oetr* later than 1ro$ning&s, and the First 4ord, that Old "arrovian $ho had the cor us of English oetr* off +* heart, caught the echo of 2o e' $or forms of government let fools contest; (hate)er is best administered is best* <et that $as the 0uestion +efore the "ouse, a "ouse not recisel* crediting the 2rime !inister $ith ossession of an o en mind( this $as the 0uestion, What $ere +est administered, and +* $homN For this $as $artime' +hall burning ,tna, if a sage re-uires, $orget to thunder, and recall her fires' .n air or sea new motions be imprest, .h, blameless /ethel0 to relieve thy breast' The 2rime !inister, a /eing darkly wise, and rudely great, $ith Euro e&s laurels $ithered and stained $ith +lood u on his +ro$, ill) e5changed for the trum er*, tinsel romise of a eace that had not lasted, drove on$ards under his ill)omened and unfortunate star' #.t is in the roduction of materials, the roduction of lanes, the roduction of tan,s and guns, and munitions, and all the countless articles of e0ui ment $hich are re0uired to fit out our $ea ons and ma,e them useful/ it is in the roduction of these things that $e $ant organisation, energ* and good $ill' -s far as $e in the Government are concerned, $e are doing all $e can to overta,e the start $hich German* has o+tained during her long *ears of re aration'& <es' The *ears the locusts had devoured, and the "ouse ,ne$ it, and ,ne$ $h* it had +een so, and $ho, com licit in it 8 and $ho had o osed it, unavailingl*'

#We are getting toda* the $holehearted co)o eration of em lo*ers and $or,ers/ $e $ant also to get the co)o eration of hon' !em+ers of all arties'& Well( a man, even a 2rime !inister, can ho e' The ne5t t$o $ords 8 one $ord, re eated em haticall*, and $ith a $ealth of meaning 8 came from Geoffre* 4e !esurier !ander, !2 for Wolverham ton East' !r !orrison, clearl* though he sa$ $ith +ut one e*e, $as *et seen +* the "ouse as the failed challenger for the 4a+our leadershi , the 4CC leader $ho had set out to build the Conservatives out of 4ondon, a $or,ing)class 4eftist of no education, $ho had +een an errand +o* and a mar,et gardener' .t $as as $ith the sudden shoc, of full and 7amascene vision, $ith +oth e*es o ened, that the "ouse sa$ the great !idlands manufacturer, the enlightened 4i+eral ca italist, the atron of the arts, rise as if in concert $ith 4lo*d George and !orrison' #No' No'& The 0uiet $ords resounded in the Cham+er, rever+erant' This $as no idle res onse, and !r !ander $as no idle hon' !em+er' !ander 1rothers $ere the leading manufacturer of in,, aint, varnish, and related chemicals in the Em ire, certainl*( +ut the !ander name stood for rather more than that' For t$o centuries, the* had +een custodians of that !idlands, Radical, 7issenting tradition of good $or,s, ro+it*, and commercial honour to $hich the Cham+erlains had as ired' !r !ander had in >?F> negotiated $ith Ernest 1evin, !a%or -ttlee&s ersonal ans$er to a 1rendan

1rac,en or a "orace Wilson, the first OA)hour $ee, in 1ritain' !r !ander, small, sand*, and fiercel* +antam, an una easa+le foe, had atronised the arts and resented his famil* home, as +lac, and $hite and uncom romising as its o$ner, to the National Trust in >?FI' !r !ander had +een a magistrate in his t$enties, the son of a ma*or of Wolverham ton, the grandson, through his mother, of a mem+er of the arliament of the 7ominion of Canada, the scion of generations of !anders $ho had relieved the oor, rotected the Nonconformists, and reformed the enal la$s/ he had long +een the 4i+eral a s o,esman on foreign relations, adamant against easement, devoted to the destruction of the dictators, a standard

+earer for collective securit*, for arms and the Covenant of the 4eague of Nations' "e $as a Great War officer of the Ro*al Fl*ing Cor s, an .nner Tem le +arrister, the +itter foe of the 2eace 2ledge Union, and the ast master of the forensicall* unans$era+le 0uestion in the "ouse' "e had ersonall* slanged and +een slanged in the u+lic ress +* !ussolini, $ho treated him as a feared and not)to)+e)des ised e0ual' "e $as a !ander' "is fore+ears had hel ed +ring do$n the slave trade, had torn do$n the #1lood !one*& act, and had assed the 7issenters& Cha els -ct >GOO' .n his famil*&s home that gave the name to their +aronetc*, The !ount, Tettenhall Wood, had 4lo*d George announced that he $as calling the General Election of >?>G' !ore than that( he was Wolverham ton' .n the last General Election, he $as one of +ut three 4i+eral candidates $ho carried an ur+an constituenc* against +oth 4a+our and Conservative

challenges' .n >?>G, after calling the Cou on Election at The !ount, 4lo*d George had given his #homes fit for heroes& address in Wolverham ton&s Grand Theatre' From the da*s $hen Wolverham ton $as a $ool sta le to$n to the +eginnings of the .ndustrial Revolution $hen it manufactured loc,s and ,e*s, through to its eminence in iron, steel, coal, and in,s and varnish and chemicals from !ander 1rothers, and the installation of 1ritain&s first automated traffic signals in 2rinces S0uare, Wolverham ton had +een the !anders, and the !anders, Wolverham ton' Wolverham ton $as free)trading, free)thin,ing, largel* 7issenting, serious, ros erous, and honoura+le, as $ere the !anders, loo,ing do$n a trifle u on near+* 1irmingham of the Cham+erlains' Serious, $itt*, elegant, scra *, cultivated, commercial, honest and honoura+le, the small, s are !r !ander $as one $ho, incarnating his constituenc*, $as the manner of man =oe Cham+erlain and even 4lo*d George had, erha s, as ired to +e' This $as the measure of the man $ho, in sim le res onse to the 2rime !inister&s assum tion that he might have cross) art* su handed him on a salver, dro re udiation' ______________________________ T"E stood no$ at O'OQ' The "ouse $ere no$ to osition' ort ed into the cham+er a cool


hear from the 4eader of the O

!a%or -ttlee stood, erect and dignified, trim and militar*, his high

+ro$ furro$ed, his moustaches at once neat and truculent' "e $as, certainl*, the 4a+our leader, leader of a Socialist art* that seemed not infre0uentl* to +e $holl* com osed of the -$,$ard S0uad/ *et he $as the most un)4a+our)li,e of 4a+our leaders, and the "ouse ,ne$ it' "is redecessor, George 4ans+ur*, dead this da* in hos ital, had +een a $holl* naRve advocate of disarmament/ his de ut*, -rthur Green$ood, a $ell)meaning man $ith good reason to +e ineffectual, fighting a long and ho eless fight against his alcoholism/ his rival, "er+ert !orrison, hel lessl* doctrinaire and entirel* inca a+le of art* leadershi ' The son of a 4ondon solicitor, himself a +arrister, !a%or -ttlee had +een at school at "aile*+ur*, that school dedicated to training the future s$eet, %ust, +o*ish masters of the sir,ar, the Ra%' What "aile*+ur* gave to Clement -ttlee instead $as a sudden, +linding vision u on the road to 7amascus' .n >?AH, the *oung +arrister and O5ford !- too, on the management of "aile*+ur* "ouse, his old school&s charita+le clu+ for the ragged children of the East End, and $as shoc,ed from conservatism to socialism( an initiall* Christian Socialist vie$ that, as he des aired of Christian charit*, +ecame sim l* Socialist, red in tooth and cla$' "e lunged into 4a+our activism and lecturing, $or,ing at To*n+ee "all and ta,ing u a ost at the 4SE, at the +ehest of the We++s, in >?>@' Then had come the War, the $ar to end all $ar, the $ar that should +e 8 #li,e all the others,& said a des airing 4lo*d George 8 the last $ar forever/ and the Old "aile*+urian, Old 1o* of that forcing ground of the roconsuls of em ire, had done the onl* thing an Old

"aile*+ur*ian could conceiva+l* do' -s an officer of The 2rince of Wales&s ;olunteers 3the South 4ancashire Regiment6, Ca tain -ttlee fought/ as an officer of The 2rince of Wales&s ;olunteers 3the South 4ancashire Regiment6, !a%or -ttlee $as the last man +ut one 8 and that one, the divisional commander, 4ieutenant)General Sir Stanle* !aude CC1 C!G 7SO 8 to +e evacuated from Suvla 1a*' "aving fought the Galli oli Cam aign, not in the $arren of Whitehall offices and "orse Guards 2arade, +ut rather u on the ground in the 7ardanelles, !a%or -ttlee, li,e man* of the dead $ho rose $ith him as he rose to s ea,, had concluded that the failure of that effort $as in the "ouse and u on the Staff and the !inistries, not at the door of the then and no$ First 4ord/ and that $hatever else one might sa* of that 4a+our foe, Churchill, there $as no fault in him as a $ar leader' !a%or -ttlee rose and faced the "ouse, and the Treasur* +ench, and $ith him stood the dead, innumera+le( the dead, starved or $ea,ened +* illness, of 4imehouse, of Ste ne*, of the East End $ith its doc,s and Chinato$ns, the oor $ho had +een used and discarded li,e the rags the* ic,ed and the rags the* $ore/ the dead of Galli oli, of South 4ancashire and the Regiment, of Warrington and the countr* &round' "is high, mar+le +ro$ $as smooth no$ as he faced the restive foe across the aisle, his dress so+er as +efitted a man of la$, his voice that of an officer and a gentleman, itself thus distur+ing in the leader of the Socialists $hom the Conservatives so feared' #. should li,e, in the first lace, on +ehalf of m* hon' Friends on this

side of the "ouse, to a* a tri+ute to the courage and s,ill of the Fighting Forces in the Nor$egian cam aign' The men of the -rm*, Nav* and -ir Force, men from this countr*, and men from France, and men of the Nor$egian race as $ell, have done acts of great valour in ver* difficult conditions' . should li,e, too, to e5 ress our s*m ath* $ith the eo le of Nor$a* $hose land has +een made the scene of $ar and carnage' . should li,e, further, to e5 ress our admiration of the s,ill $ith $hich that ver* difficult o eration of evacuating troo s in the face of the enem* $as carried out at -ndalsnes and Namsos' We had e5 eriences of this in the last $ar'& Galli oli and -nt$er J' -ll the ghosts of Suvla 1a*, all the dead of the Naval 7ivision at -nt$er , and al$a*s, al$a*s the memor* of the First 4ord then and First 4ord no$' DJE Galli oli once more' Galli oli, and the ghosts of the Fallen, the echoes of a +old stro,e +lunted +* muddle and a government and ur+lind ur+lind de artments/ *et an evocation also of

ghosts still more haunting' The 2rince of Wales&s ;olunteers 3the South 4ancashire Regiment6, the E5cellers, had not ,no$n that articular sorro$ in 0uite the $a* in $hich other regiments had ,no$n it, and articularl* the count* regiments of the rest of the North and the 1orders( the St "elens 2als had died in France, not at Suvla 1a* or Ca e "elles/ *et over the cham+er, $atching the de+ate $ith e*es forever sad, no$ hovered the dead of the 1antams and of the 2als' DJE -nd no$ that dee rum+le, that magnificent gro$l, that had

once filled the "ouse and $as no$ once more heard and attended to after long and fatal disregard, rolled from the Treasur* 1ench, $here the First 4ord, mountainous and volcanic, overshado$ed the lain of his colleagues' #. said that the* $ould ta,e a heav* toll'& !a%or -ttlee doc,eted the res onse' #. 0uite agree that the right hon' Gentleman said the* $ould not do it $ith im unit* +ut . thin, he gave us encouragement' -fter all, in considering the ince tion of this e5 edition that is one of the vital factors 8 ho$ far $e could revent those reinforcements +eing made' One has to recognise, also, that an un,no$n 0uantit* $as the e5tent of the defence $hich the Nor$egians could ut u ' 1ut the gravamen of m* attac, on the Government is that it does not seem that there $as a thin,ing)out of our lans +eforehand, that there $as not ade0uate .ntelligence, that there $as not the necessar* concentration on the essential o+%ective and . as, $hether, at an* time, there $as not dela* and discussion $here action $as necessar*N& DJE #The Times in a leading article sa*s that the 2rime !inister&s $ea,ness has al$a*s +een his devotion to colleagues $ho are either failures or need a rest' .n a life)and)death struggle $e cannot afford to have our destinies in the hands of failures or men $ho need a rest' . am not sure that The Times is right in sa*ing that that is the 2rime !inister&s $ea,ness' . thin, it is a articular $ea,ness of hon' !em+ers on the +enches o osite' The* have seen failure after failure merel* shifted along those +enches, either lo$er do$n or further u ' The* have +een content, $ee, after $ee,, $ith !inisters $hom the* ,ne$ $ere failures' The* have allo$ed their lo*alt* to

the Chief Whi to overcome their lo*alt* to the real needs of the countr*' . sa* that the "ouse of Commons must ta,e its full res onsi+ilit*' . sa* that there is a $ides read feeling in this countr*, not that $e shall lose the $ar, that $e $ill $in the $ar, +ut that to $in the $ar, $e $ant different eo le at the helm from those $ho have led us into it'& The challenge $as o en no$' ______________________________ .N OS4O, T"E German occu *ing authorities had satisfied themselves that the Nor$egian holdings of the No+el Foundation $ere in fact S$edish ro ert*, and, des ite "itler&s contem t for the institution, minuted that these neutral ro erties #must +e defended against encroachment +* all ossi+le means&( $hich $as more than the* $ere doing for "is Nor$egian !a%est*, $hom the* $ere *et see,ing to ca ture $here Cing "aa,on had set u his last redou+t at Troms' The last remnants of Wilhelmine +ureaucratic correctness and Na9i ruthlessness *o,ed together +ut ill in the ne$ German*' ______________________________ T"E at Q'>O' The 4a+our leader had thro$n do$n the


gauntlet, in a curiousl* courtl* manner for the leader of a Socialist art*' No$ there rose to ut in the +oot, $ith the +rutalit* of the true aristocrat, Sir -rchi+ald Sinclair of Ul+ster( +aronet, Sinclair of the famil* that had +een earls of Or,ne* and $ere earls no$ of

Caithness/ Eton, Sandhurst, and the Guards/ hon' !em+er for Caithness and Sutherland, the largest constituenc* +* area in the Union arliament, #Sir -rchie&, #Sir Erchie& in guid Scots, lean, daredevil, elegant and monocled, the 4eader of the 4i+eral 2art*' With him stood, im al a+le *et erce ti+le, the dead of Flodden Field, the Flo$ers of the Forest, and generations of Sinclairs $ho had served the Scots cro$n/ $ith him stood the dead of < res and the shades and manes of 2lug Street, 2loegsteert Wood, $here Guid Sir Erchie had served as second in command to the officer commanding Hth 1attalion The Scots Fusiliers 8 #the du,e of !arl+orough&s o$n&, $ho +ore 1lenheim on their colours as a +attle honour 8/ and that officer once commanding Hth 1attalion The Scots Fusiliers, !arl+orough&s heir, no$ returned Sir -rchi+ald&s ga9e from the Treasur* 1ench as First 4ord of the -dmiralt*' The 4i+eral leader rose to address the "ouse, grandson and great) great)grandson of hon' !em+ers for his constituenc*, the strong illar of anti)a easement and anti)Na9ism, the last 4i+eral leader of the traditions of 2almerston and Russell, of Gladstone of the !idlothian cam aign and Cam +ell)1annerman( leader, no$, of a d$indling +and of 4i+erals, $ho *et commanded attention and res ect +* the sheer force of his $ill' DJE #There is, ho$ever, something $hich does suggest that more foresight and energ*, and stronger and more ruthless $ill to victor*, are re0uired in the su reme direction of our $ar effort'& Where that ruthless $ill to victor* might +e found, Sir -rchi+ald

left to the silent realisation of the "ouse' Ca tain !argesson mentall* revie$ed his telling)over of the votes' DJE #Whether the occu ation of Trondheim $as a feasi+le o eration of $ar . $ill leave to other more e5 ert !em+ers of the "ouse to discuss, and . am sure the $hole "ouse $ants to hear the hon' and gallant !em+er for North 2ortsmouth on that oint'’ This $as a ortent, inaus icious for the Government' DJE ______________________________ T"E
C4OCC "-7

come &round to H'F@' "aving called u on one

armchair strategist, !r S ea,er no$ called u on another' The hon' !em+er for the +orough constituenc* of Ne$castle)under) 4*me, Colonel Wedg$ood, rose, slim and e5cita+le, a man $ith too man* ideas for his $ords to conve*' Rum creature, thought Ca tain !argesson( some sort of 0ueer untutored Wrangler +* all accounts, a gentleman mathematician and engineer, $ho ran the 2otteries as his ersonal olitical 7u,eries' - Wedg$ood, after all( rich, too clever +* half, $ith no religion left to anchor the Nonconformist conscience/ related, naturall*, to all those +luestoc,ing, over)clever "u5le*s and 7ar$ins and that *oung +lighter $ith the rather Welsh name $ho $rote the music' One $ondered $hat 7ar$in had made of all this in+reeding 8 and of the $a* in $hich the Na9is had sei9ed on $ar ed arodies of his ideas' .t might +e that $e $ere all

descended of a es/ the =erries rather seemed to +e *et at the a e stage' Savage +uggers' "e&d had a good $ar 8 ghastl* hrase 8 had had Wedg$ood/

several, in fact' "e&d +een a naval contractor +efore the South -frican $ar/ commanded a +atter* of the Ro*al Field -rtiller* against the 1oers and then sta*ed on for t$o *ears as a Resident !agistrate in the Transvaal/ volunteered in the RN;R in >?>O as a 4ieutenant)Commander/ $on the 7SO in the 7ardanelles commanded the RN-S machine gun +atter* a+oard the SS #iver 1lyde at Ca e "elles 8 another Galli oli man 8 and then $ent to South -frica as an -rm* ca tain to serve on Smuts& staff/ served on the !eso otamia S ecial Commission 3damn Croft for mentioning Cut %ust no$6/ $as romoted colonel +* >?>I to direct trench $arfare/ and then $ent off to Si+eria in ho es 8 no harm in ho ing 8 of getting Russia +ac, into the $ar' .t $as Wedg$ood, as $ell, $ho $as +ehind the idea of a histor* of 2arliament, a roso ogra h* of the "ouse from its +eginnings, that he and that clever fello$ Namier $ere utting through' -nd $ith all this, -rm* and RN service ali,e and an education at the Ro*al Naval College Green$ich, the 7SO and vast e5 erience, he hadn&t, the Chief Whi thought $ith some satisfaction, ractical sense enough to ride a +ic*cle' Croft had done the Government no favours $ith his defence of it/ $ith luc,, Wedg$ood should as com rehensivel* +ugger u the o osition res onse'

DJE #The fourth lesson that $e ought to have learnt from the last month is that lightning stro,es can al$a*s $in' .t is no use our thin,ing that $e can $in the $ar unless $e are re ared also to use lightning stro,es' The essence of a lightning stro,e is to do something $hich is illegal so that a erson does not e5 ect *ou to do it' .s it ossi+le to get the Government to realise that the* have to use %ust the same $ea ons as "err "itler uses if $e are to com+at himN .f *ou rule out an* action $hich is contrar* to international la$, an* action against a neutral $hich is une5 ected, if *ou rule out these things so com letel* that *ou do not even threaten them, *ou lose the latest $ea on in this $ar' 1ecause of the German successes in Nor$a*, $e do not ,no$ toda* $here the enem* $ill stri,e ne5t' Ever* neutral is in the same osition of a$aiting the ne5t lightning stro,e' We are immo+ilising our Fleet in the !editerranean, immo+ilising an arm* re ared to s ring to $ar in Rumania, and $e are immo+ilised ever*$here no$ +ecause $e are $aiting for him' .f $e are to succeed, $e must ma,e him $ait for us in the same $a*'& This $as #ruthless $ar)mindedness& in the First 4ord&s o$n manner' #WhereN& That $as 1ooth+*, the Glamour 1o*, the hon' !em+er for thra$n -+erdeen East, $hose file in the Chief Whi s& offices made such interesting and length* reading' Colonel Wedge$ood&s ans$er $as firm, if fantastical' #!a,e him afraid of $here $e shall stri,e ne5t'& 2How') Several +ac,+enchers e5 ressed incredulit*'

#This is not a Secret Session, +ut . thin, that S$eden had +etter ,no$ that $e should ta,e action if German troo s go u the rail$a* from 4uleaN S ain ought to ,no$ that $e should ta,e action, and .tal* ought to ,no$ that $e might ta,e action +efore the* can go to $ar, instead of $aiting for their going into the $ar' 2ortugal ought to ,no$ that there might +e a ris, if she acceded to German demands'& =' 2' !orris, the Conservative mem+er for Salford North, all mills and Eccles ca,es, as,ed, not unreasona+l*, #Would *ou $arn these nationsN& #Certainl*, . $ould, +ut the* $ould not ,no$ $here our lightning stro,e $ould come' 1ut it is no good my $arning them' 4et them +e $arned from the Front 1ench o osite, let them $arn the eo le $ho use insulting language a+out Great 1ritain' We have ut u $ith a good deal during the last month articularl*'& There&s no one, !r S ea,er reflected, li,e a good 7issenting Radical for turning into =ohn 1ull $hen crossed' DJE ______________________________ .N NORWEG.-N

the com lements of "!S 3urora and "!S

1urlew had this da* sustained losses, 1urlews ,illed in a gun

accident, 3uroras in the course of a significant air attac, u on 3urora that disa+led t$o of her turrets' 4ost a+oard 3urora $ere C l George "' "ughes and !arines Ro+ert 1ec,, Fran, Sa*er, William "' Targett, Walter Tin,ler, Ed$ard G' Tolfree, and 4eslie Wal,er' 4ost a+oard 1urlew $ere 4eading Seaman 4eslie Cla*field, Ordinar* Seaman Reginald 7' "allett, and -+le Seamen =ames S' =en,ins, Cenneth E' =ones, and 2atric, "' 4amsdale' These ghosts, not three hours dead and still sur rised at their deaths, entered the cham+er $ith -dmiral Ce*es' ______________________________ T.!E "-7 RUN on/ erha s had run out for the Government' .t $as I'? of the cloc,' Croft and Wedg$ood and Sir -rchie had all called u , con%ured, invo,ed certain ghosts, and raised the Nav*' Sir -rchi+ald had even solicited the vie$s of the hon' and gallant !em+er for North 2ortsmouth( and here he $as' -dmiral of the Fleet Sir Roger =ohn 1ro$nlo$ Ce*es 1t GC1 CC;O C!G 7SO 3and !.7, Croi5 de Guerre, and all the rest of it, foreign and 1ritish orders and decorations covering half his +reast6, 2ortsmouth North, strode in, small and seeming)frail $ith the face of a +an, manager 8 until one loo,ed a second time( in full uniform $ith all his gongs u ' - 0uiver ran through the "ouse, and Ca tain !argesson +egan to resign himself to the inevita+le' -dmiral Ce*es J $ell, that tore it for Neville' - +antam $ho did not ,no$ ho$ not to fight, overcoming his smallness and childhood delicac* of health +* force of $ill' "e had +egun in the Nav* under sail, su ressing slavers off

the -frican coast/ sei9ed the Ta,u forts and the Chinese flotilla during the 1o5er Re+ellion/ $as the first man over the $alls of 2e,ing, $here he raised the Union Flag +efore racing for$ard to +ecome the first of the allied forces to reach the 4egations/ made his name in training, in naval intelligence, and as a re)>?>O naval attachB/ commanded the su+marines at "eligoland 1ight, >?>O/ tried and failed to ress his su eriors in the 7ardanelles to force the channel and ensure success at Galli oli/ too, command of the 7over 2atrol, and raided the U)+oat ens at Ostend and See+rugge/ commanded in the !ed and at 2ortsmouth/ and then entered 2arliament $hen he had hauled do$n his flag, to su Winston in urging rearmament' The -dmiral had almost singlehandedl* $rested the Fleet -ir -rm +ac, into Ro*al Nav* control, from the R-F, although it had come all too late, as events in Nor$a* had %ust no$ sho$n' "e had +een erha s the closest friend of -l+ert, ,ing of the 1elgians, and $as a surrogate father to the ne$ ,ing, 4eo old' With Sir -usten Cham+erlain, Winston, -mer*, and 4ord Salis+ur*, he had clashed s$ords $ith S1 and Neville in &FH, and had +een one of the re+els at !unich time, alongside Winston, Eden, S ears, and 7uff Coo er' "e had not had the $hi $ithdra$n( Ca tain !argesson $as not suicidal' 2ortsmouth North would return the former C)in)C 2ortsmouth there to an* arliament sitting, and one could no more ta,e on -dmiral Ce*es than one might have o osed Nelson' ort his friend

"e 8 and Winston 8 had urged from the start that Trondheim Fiord +e forced and Trondheim secured/ Sir Roger had volunteered to lead

the e5 edition' The Sea 4ords, having first tried to ,ee Sir Roger from getting through to the First 4ord, then dithered, and $ere lost' .t $as from that, the Chief Whi ,ne$, that all else had follo$ed( the loss of Nor$a*, and no$ the gravest of threats to the Government' -dmiral Sir Roger Ce*es $as the most dangerous man in the "ouse, from the Government&s oint of vie$, more even than the First 4ord, $ho had made man* enemies over the *ears( for no one dared disregard the living em+odiment of the Senior Service, $ho had +een commissioned +* the :ueen)Em ress almost si5t* *ears +efore' The Chief Whi closed his e*es, +riefl*' The -dmiral $as here, ointedl* in full uniform, more dangerous than ever, and murderousl* angr*' #-fter a +rief res ite from the irres onsi+le musings of m* right hon' and gallant Friend the !em+er for Ne$castle)under)4*me, . came +ac, to the "ouse and heard him sa*ing that the 1ritish Nav* ran to the Eastern !editerranean and had gone to -le5andria +ecause the* $ere frightened of +om+s' That is a damned insult0) !r S ea,er did not +other to re rove' #. am 0uite re ared to meet the gallant -dmiral $ith an*thing,& said Wedg$ood, stoutl*' The -dmiral had his range' #. have much more res ect for m* right hon' and gallant Friend as a machine gunner in the #iver 1lyde than

as a strategist and a s ea,er in the "ouse of Commons' "o$ever, . came to the "ouse of Commons toda* in uniform for the first time +ecause . $ish to s ea, for some officers and men of the fighting, sea)going Nav* $ho are ver* unha *'&

Well, thought the Chief Whi , that&s most assuredl* torn it' 4 speak for the fighting 5avy* Onl* Winston can save Neville no$' -nd shall no dou+t tr*( sa* $hat *ou $ill of Winston, he fights his corner, even if he has no recom ense for his lo*alt*' DJE ______________________________ .T W-S G'F in 4ondon' Or erha s it $as @ Se tem+er >?F?' The


echoes of that Se tem+er, no$ im ossi+l* remote for all the calendar might retend, rang in the Cham+er( -rthur Green$ood rising then to s ea, for the O osition, a gentle, rather +e$ildered man, fu+s* and douce, *et $ith a name that so oddl* con%ured emotion, the dux bellorum and Camelot, Ro+in and his !err* !en in the green$ood/ -rthur Green$ood rising to s ea, for the O osition, and a clamant voice from the Conservative +enches, full of loathing for the Conservative 2rime !inister, im erative( #-rthurT <ouT S ea, for EnglandT& That had +een the im erative voice of 4eo -mer*, 1irmingham S ar,+roo,, that re+el area of Cham+erlain&s 1rummagem, $ho no$ rose ane$, Old "arrovian, soldier and linguist, mountaineer

and %ournalist, im erialist, Sionist, advocate of rearmament, variousl* First 4ord, Colonial Secretar*, and .ndia Secretar*, $ho had met and de+ated in erson $ith !ussolini and "itler, 7ollfuss and Schusnigg and 1eneU( a small, fierce man, a Fello$ of -ll Souls $ho had once unched a hec,ler at a olitical s eech, !r -mer* +eing the s ea,er' .f -dmiral Ce*es $as the greatest danger to the Government, 4eo -mer* $as not far +ehindhand' -nd no$, as on that Se tem+er da* $hen $ar $as to +e declared and 2oland la* rostrate, little 4eo -mer* rose leonine from the Conservative +enches, dangerous and irre roacha+le, to confront his art* leader and 2rime !inister' DJE No time for humour no$' 4ittle -mer* $as all too clearl* re aring to set off his mine' "ere it cameJ' #Someho$ or other $e must get into the Government men $ho can match our enemies in fighting s irit, in daring, in resolution and in thirst for victor*'& Oh, 4or&( he&d called u that ghost, all right' #Some three hundred *ears ago, $hen this "ouse found that its troo s $ere +eing +eaten again and again +* the dash and daring of the Cavaliers, +* 2rince Ru ert&s Cavalr*, Oliver Crom$ell s o,e to =ohn "am den' .n one of his s eeches he recounted $hat he said' .t $as this( 4 said to him, 26our troops are most of them old, decayed serving men and tapsters and such kind of fellows*) 76ou must get

men of a spirit that are likely to go as far as the* will go, or you will be beaten still* #.t ma* not +e eas* to find these men' The* can +e found onl* +* trial and +* ruthlessl* discarding all $ho fail and have their failings discovered' We are fighting toda* for our life, for our li+ert*, for our all/ $e cannot go on +eing led as $e are' #. have 0uoted certain $ords of Oliver Crom$ell' . $ill 0uote certain other $ords' . do it $ith great reluctance, +ecause . am s ea,ing of those $ho are old friends and associates of mine, +ut the* are $ords $hich, . thin,, are a lica+le to the resent situation' This is $hat Crom$ell said to the 4ong 2arliament $hen he thought it $as no longer fit to conduct the affairs of the nation( 6ou have sat too long here for any good you have been doing* 8epart, 4 say, and let us have done with you* 4n the name of od, go*& The Cham+er $as held sus ended a moment in a deathl* silence/ still save for the susurration of ancient and otent shades'

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