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measurement by this instrument.
DESCRIPTION:- The essential parts of the instrument as shown in fig are as
i. Frame:- The frame is made of steel, cast steel, malleable cast iron
or light alloy.
ii. Hardened anvil:- The anvil shall protrude from the frame for a
distance of at least 3mm in order to permit of the attachment of a measuring wire support.
iii. Screwed spindle:- This spindle does the actual measuring and
possesses thread of 0.5 mm pitch.
iv. Graduated sleeve or Barrel:- It has datum or fiducial line and
fixed graduation. v. Thimble:- This is tabular cover fastened with the spindle and moves with the spindle. The beveled edge of the thimble is divided into 50 equal parts, every fifth being numbered.
vi. Ratchet or friction stop:- This is small extension to the thimble.
The ratchet slips when the pressure on the screw exceeds a certain amount. This produces uniform reading and prevents any damage or distortion of the instrument.
vii.Spindle clamp or clamp ring: This is used to lock the
instrument at any desired setting.
SPECIFICATION:1. Maker- Mitatoyo, Japan 2. Least count- 0.01 mm 3. Range- 25-50 mm
PROCEDURE:- The job is measured between the end of the anvil, which is fitted
to the frame when the micrometer is closed, the line marked “0” on the thimble coincides with the line marked “0” on the barrel. If the “0” graduation does not coincides then the micrometer require adjustment To take the readings from the micrometer, follow the following path:1. The number of main dimensions in mm above the reference line is graduated in 1 mm intervals. 2. The number of subdivisions below the reference line are graduated in 1 mm intervals but each graduation shall be placed at the middle of the two successive upper graduations to be read 5 mm.
CALCULATIONS:Main Scale Reading = 25.5 mm Circular Scale Turn = (0.01*36) = 0.36 mm Total Reading = (Main scale reading + circular scale reading) =(25.5+0.36) = 25.86 mm
VERNIER CALIPER:OBJECTIVE:- To study of the different part of an vernier caliper & measurement by this
1. Outside jaws: used to measure external diameter or width of an object 2. Inside jaws: used to measure internal diameter of an object 3. Depth probe: used to measure depths of an object or a hole 4. Main scale: scale marked every mm 5. Main scale: scale marked in inches and fractions 6. Vernier scale gives interpolated measurements to 0.1 mm or better 7. Vernier scale gives interpolated measurements in fractions of an inch 8. Retainer: used to block movable part to allow the easy transferring of a measurement The vernier caliper give a direct reading of the distance measured to high accuracy. They are functionally identical, with different ways of reading the result. These calipers comprise a calibrated scale with a fixed jaw, and another jaw, with a pointer, that slides along the scale. The distance between the jaws is then read in different ways for the three types. The simplest method is to read the position of the pointer directly on the scale. When the pointer is between two markings, the user can mentally interpolate to improve the precision of the reading. This would be a simple calibrated caliper; but the addition of a vernier scale allows more accurate interpolation, and is the universal practice; this is the vernier caliper. Vernier caliper can measure internal dimensions (using the uppermost jaws in the picture at above), external dimensions using the pictured lower jaws, and in many cases depth by the use of a probe that is
attached to the movable head and slides along the centre of the body. This probe is slender and can get into deep grooves that may prove difficult for other measuring tools. The least count of the vernier can be measured by using the formula stated below. Least count (L.C) = 1 Main scale division- 1 Vernier scale division Example A Vernier scale is constructed by taking 49 main scale divisions dividing them into 50 divisions ie. 49mm divided into 50 parts therefore 1 vsd=49/50 mm=0.98mm 1 MSD=1mm substituting in formula L.C = 1 M.S.D - 1 V.S.D L.C=1-0.98=0.02mm
SPECIFICATION:1. Maker- Mitatoyo, Japan 2. Least count- 0.02 mm 3. Range- 0-25mm,25-150 mm,0-200mm etc.
PROCEDURE:1. Preparation to take the measurement, loosen the locking screw and move the slider to check if the vernier scale works properly. Before measuring, do make sure the caliper reads 0 when fully closed. If the reading is not 0, adjust the caliper’s jaws until you get a 0 reading. If you can’t adjust the caliper, you will have to remember to add to subtract the correct offset from your final reading. Clean the measuring surfaces of both vernier caliper and the object, then you can take the measurement. 2. Close the jaws lightly on the item which you want to measure. If you are measuring something round, be sure the axis of the part is perpendicular to the caliper. Namely, make sure you are measuring the full diameter. An ordinary caliper has jaws you can place around an object, and on the other side jaws made to fit inside an object. These secondary jaws are for measuring the inside diameter of an object. Also, a stiff bar extends from the caliper as you open it that can be used to measure depth. 3. How to read the measured value: 1) Read the centimeter mark on the fixed scale to the left of the 0-mark on the vernier scale. (let 10mm on the fixed caliper) 2). Find the millimeter mark on the fixed scale that is just to the left of the 0-mark on the vernier scale. (let 6mm on the fixed caliper)
3). Look along the ten marks on the vernier scale and the millimeter marks on the adjacent fixed scale, until you find the two that most nearly line up. (0.25mm on the vernier scale) 4). To get the correct reading, simply add this found digit to your previous reading. (10mm + 6mm + 0.25mm= 16.25 mm) 4.Maintenance Clean the surface of the vernier caliper with dry and clean cloth (or soaked with cleaning oil) and stock in a dry environment if it stands idle for a long time.
VERNIER HEIGHT GAUGE:Vernier height gauges are used to mark out lines when accuracy is particular importan and widely used on surface plates and on machine tables. The height gage with an indicator attachment is used for checking locations of surface and holes. The height gage with a scribe attachment is used to mark reference lines, locations, and stock allowances on castings and forgings. Vernier height gauges have a large steel base for stability and a hardened steel column engraved with inch and mm units. The moving slide is engraved with vernier calibrations enabling setting to an accuracy of 0.02 mm and 0.001″. Attached to the moving slide is a wedge-shaped steel scribe that has a pointed tungsten carbide tip. The height of the scribe’s point can be finely adjusted with a thumbscrew. The method of setting and reading a vernier height gauge is the same as for other vernier instruments. The work to be marked out with a vernier height gauge must be set vertically on a surface plate, using an angle plate. The height of the scribe is set with the moving slide’s fine adjusting screw. The marking out lines are then scribe onto the work’s surface by steadily moving the vernier height gauge along the surface plate (following the same procedure as for using a surface gauge).On some vernier height gauges, the height of the main scale can also be finely adjusted. This enables measurements to start from a convenient reading, which is useful if the shape of the workpiece is such that it needs to be mounted on a parallel strip .Note that digital height gauges are now becoming more common as they are much quicker to set up and more accurate to set. Precision vernier height gauges must be stored in their original packaging case and should be carefully used and maintained. If you suspect that the instrument is inaccurate, it must be reported to your fault, so a ‘back footed’ approach could prove to be appropriate.
The essential parts of the instrument are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Instrument based with a lapped undersurface. Graduated beam or main scale. Sliding head with vernier. Sliding jaw holding the scriber. Vernier clamp which moves with the sliding head. Fine adjustment screw in the vernier clamp. Two knurled screws which lock the vernier head and clamp to the rule at any desired setting.
SPECIFICATION:1. Maker- Mitatoyo, Japan 2. Least count- 0.001 mm&0.02mm 3. Range- 0-200,20-250,30-300,40-500,60-800,60-1000mm.
DEPTH MICROMETER:OBJECTIVE:- To study of the different part of an depth micrometer & measurement by
DESCRIPTION:- It is an instrument used for measuring depth of holes to an
accuracy of 0.01mm and 0.001mm. It can only be used in places where there is a satisfactory seating for the instrument head,amd the bottom of the hole being measured is parallel with the seating. The essential parts of the instrument as shown in fig are as follow.
i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi.
Micrometer head Screwed spindle:- This spindle does the actual measuring. Graduated sleeve:- This has the datum line and fixed graduatons
which are numbered 0,9,8,7,etc.reading from left to right.
A tabular cover:- This is known as the thimble fastened with the
spindle as its outer end and moves with the spindle.
Ratchet stop:-A small extension to the thimble. Locking ring:-This is to lock the instrument at any desired setting.
SPECIFICATION:1. Maker- Mitatoyo, Japan 2. Least count- 0.01 & 0.001mm
The principle of measurement is similar to that of an external micrometer. Each depth micrometer is supplied with three interchangeable spindles and thus has the measuring ranges 0-25mm,25-50mm,50-75mm,75-100mm
. Depth micrometers are available with measuring ranges of 50-75,75-175,175-600,6501250,1250-4000,2500-6000,4000-10000mm.
It is an instrument used for measuring and testing angles. It is well adapted for all classes of work where angles are to be laid out or measured to within the limits of five minutes. A bevel protractor is a graduated circular protractor with a pivoted arm; used for measuring or marking off angles. Sometimes Vernier scales are attached to give more precise readings. It has wide application in architectural and mechanical drawing, although its use is decreasing with the availability of modern drawing software or CAD. Universal bevel protractors are also used by toolmakers; as they measure angles by mechanical contact they are classed as mechanical protractors. The bevel protractor is used to establish and test angles to very close tolerances. It reads to 5 minutes or 1/12°and can measure any angle from 0° to 360°. The bevel protractor consists of a beam, a graduated dial and a blade which is connected to a swivel plate (with Vernier scale) by thumb nut and clamp. When the edges of the beam and blade are parallel, a small mark on the swivel plate coincides with the zero line on the graduated dial. To measure an angle between the beam and the blade of 90° or less, the reading may be obtained direct from the graduation number on the dial indicated by the mark on the swivel plate. To measure an angle of over 90°, subtract the number of degrees as indicated on the dial from 180°, as the dial is graduated from opposite zero marks to 90° each way.
Since the spaces, both on the main scale and the Vernier scale, are numbered both to the right and to the left from zero, any angle can be measured. The readings can be taken either to the right or to the left, according to the direction in which the zero on the main scale is moved. The above picture illustrates a variety of uses of the bevel protractor. Reading the Vernier scale:
The bevel protractor Vernier scale may have graduations of 5′ (minutes) or 1/12°. Each space on the Vernier scale is 5′ less than two spaces on the main scale. Twenty four spaces on the Vernier scale equal in extreme length twenty three double degrees. Thus the difference between the space occupied by 2° on a main scale and the space of the Vernier scale is equal to one twenty-fourth of 2°, or 5′. Read off directly from the main scale the number of whole degrees between 0 on this scale and the 0 of the Vernier scale. Then count, in the same direction, the number of spaces from the zero on the Vernier scale to a line that coincides with a line on the main scale; multiply this number by 5 and the product will be the number of minutes to be added to the whole number of degrees. For example: Zero on the vernier scale has moved 28 whole degrees to the right of the 0 on the main scale and the 3rd line on the vernier scale coincides with a line upon the main scale as indicated. Multiplying 3 by 5, the product, 15, is the number of minutes to be added to the whole number of degrees, thus indicating a setting of 28 degrees and 15 minutes. The bevel protractor vernier scale indicates every five minutes or 1/20o of a degree. Each space on the vernier scale is 5 minutes less than two spaces on the main scale. Twenty four spaces on the vernier scale equal in extreme length twenty three double degrees. Thus, the difference between the space occupied by two degrees on a main scale and the space of the vernier scale is equal to one twenty fourth of two degrees or one twelfth of one degree(or five minutes). Read off directly from the main scale the number of whole degrees between 0 on this scale and the 0 of the vernier scale. Then count, in the same direction, the number of spaces from the
zero on the vernier scale to a line that coincides with a line on the main scale; multiply this number by 5 and the product will be the number of minutes to be added to the whole number of degrees.
DIAL GAUGE:Dial indicators, also known as dial gauges and probe indicators, are instruments used to accurately measure small linear distances, and are frequently used in industrial and mechanical processes. They are named so because the measurement results are displayed in a magnified way by means of a dial. A special variety of the dial indicator is the dial test indicator (DTI) which is primarily used in machine setups. The DTI measures displacement at an angle of a lever or plunger perpendicular to the axis of the indicator. A regular dial indicator measures linear displacement along that axis. Dial indicators may be used to check the variation in tolerance during the inspection process of a machined part, measure the deflection of a beam or ring under laboratory conditions, as well as many other situations where a small measurement needs to be registered or indicated. Dial indicators typically measure ranges from 0.25 mm to 300 mm (0.015 in to 12.0 in), with graduations of 0.001 mm to 0.01 mm (metric) or 0.00005 in to 0.001 in (imperial).
A dial gauge or indicator consists of components such as bezel, indicating pointers, tool post and clamp, magnetic tool holder and sensor button. Dial indicators are available in many physical sizes and ranges. For most alignment applications the smaller sized indicators should be used to reduce indicator bar sag. Dial indicators should be chosen that have a range of 0.100 inch and accurate to 0.001 inch. Indicator readings, and many other types of readings, are expressed in several units. A reading of 1/1000" is equivalent to 0.001 inch and is commonly expressed as 1 mil. The dial gauge have two scales. One outer scale marked (0-100) and second inner scale marked (100-0).The outer scale (0-100) is to be used when dial gauge needle moves clockwise and inner scale (100-0) when dial gauge needle moves anticlockwise. When sensor of dial gauge is pushed upwards towards dial then needle on the dial moves clockwise and when sensor is moved downwards away from the dial then needle on dial gauge moves in anticlockwise direction. The dial gauge readings when needle moves clockwise are +ve where as when needle moves anticlockwise are - ve . The movement of the needle should be watched for clockwise or anticlockwise rotation through out the move to avoid any confusion of +ve or—ve sign. All readings should be recorded as viewed from the stationary machine side to define right and left direction at the time of data entry. Calculations As the dial indicator is moved around the circumference of a coupling or shaft it displays twice the difference between the projected centerline of the indicator's attachment point and the measured shaft centerline. This is true for both the vertical and horizontal readings. This is known as TIR (Total indication run out) Thus, the sum of the vertical and sum of the horizontal readings must be divided by two to represent the actual differences in the two shaft centerlines. Remember to observe the signs of the indicator readings closely to prevent errors in these calculations. Thus actual difference in shaft centre lines (offset) in vertical plane = TIR (vertical)/2 Thus actual difference in shaft centre lines (offset) in horizontal plane= TIR (horizontal)/2 Two vertical offset numbers and two horizontal offset numbers will be obtained; one set representing the readings while the bracket is installed on the shaft of the machine to be moved and another set representing the readings while the bracket is installed on the shaft of stationary machine. Horizontal offset calculations have always remained a point of confusion. Mostly people do mistake in calculating this. This is because of the reason that one side does not start at zero. This is achieved by Adding or subtracting the value equivalent to the value of right hand side reading on both sides ( in left side reading and right side reading ) so that right side reading becomes zero.
To check for run out when fitting a new disc to an automotive disc brake. Runout can rapidly ruin the disc if it exceeds the specified tolerance (typically 0.05 mm or less). In a quality environment to check for consistency and accuracy in the manufacturing process. On the workshop floor to initially set up or calibrate a machine, prior to a production run. By toolmakers (mould makers) in the process of manufacturing precision tooling. In metal engineering workshops, where a typical application is the centering of a lathe's workpiece in a four jaw chuck. The DTI is used to indicate the run out (the misalignment between the work piece's axis of rotational symmetry and the axis of rotation of the spindle) of the work piece, with the ultimate aim of reducing it to a suitably small range using small chuck jaw adjustments.