This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Prof. Shashank S. Bhamble Mechanical Engineering Department
Shri Sant Gajanan Maharaj College of Engineering, Shegaon
For example. In grinding. Due to the oscillation. Since each slice of the wheel repeatedly contacts the same slice of the workpiece. each slice of the honing stones touch a large area of the workpiece. Generally. Instead both the bore and the honing stones conform to the average shape of the honing stones' motion. the grains are bound together with an adhesive to form a honing stone (or hone).500 mesh grit). the wheel moves in towards the axis of the part. The accuracy becomes even worse as the grind wheel wears. The purpose of grinding is to achieve a tight size tolerance. which in the case of bore honing is a cylinder. grinds it. A honing stone is similar to a grinding wheel in many ways. Honing stones Honing is classified as an abrasive machining manufacturing process. it is better to think of it as a self-truing grinding process. The stones are pressed radially outward to enlarge the hole while they simultaneously oscillate axially. CBN or diamond. any inaccuracies in the geometric shape of the grinding wheel will be transferred onto the part. in plunge grinding a shaft. To counteract their friability. wax is usually preferred for environmental reasons. Process mechanics Since honing stones look similar to grinding wheels. Honing machines are much more compliant than grinders. As with all abrasive machining processes. As a result of the averaging effect.Advanced Manufacturing Techniques HONING (METALWORKING) Honing is a manufacturing process that produces a precision surface on a workpiece by scrubbing an abrasive stone against it along a controlled path. they also differ in the stiffness of their construction. and then moves back out. Any abrasive material may be used to create a honing stone. there is no need to true them. In bore honing for example. material is cut away from the workpiece using abrasive grains. This averaging effect occurs in all honing processes. Honing is primarily used to improve the geometric form of a surface. but extremely hard workpiece materials must be honed using superabrasives. so truing must occur periodically to reshape it. The choice of abrasive material is usually driven by the characteristics of the workpiece material. To do this. the grinding wheel Page | 1 . but honing stones are usually more friable so that they conform to the shape of the workpiece as they wear in. Therefore. but the most commonly used are corundum. the accuracy of a honed component often exceeds the accuracy of the machine tool that created it. Smaller grain sizes produce a smoother surface on the workpiece. imperfections in the honing stone's profile cannot transfer to the bore. silicon carbide. honing stones may be treated with wax or sulfur to improve life. but may also improve surface texture. corundum or silicon carbide are acceptable. Instead. The path of the stone is not the only difference between grinding and honing machines. Therefore. honing grains are irregularly shaped and about 10 to 50 micrometers in diameter (300 to 1. the wheel follows a simple path. In most cases. The limitation on geometric accuracy is overcome in honing because the honing stone follows a complex path. both the workpiece and stones erode until they conform to the average shape of the stones' cutting surface. the accuracy of the finished workpiece geometry is limited to the accuracy of the truing dresser. the stone moves along two paths simultaneously. Since the honing stones tend to erode towards a desired geometric shape. In the case of honing. it is tempting to think of honing as a form of low-stock removal grinding.
Therefore it is only used in components that demand the highest level of precision. it relies on the averaging effect between the stone and the workpiece. flatness. Grinding determines the size. while in honing the stone is actuated with pneumatic or hydraulic pressure. Page | 2 . ironically. Therefore a grinding machine must be very stiff and its axes must move with very high precision. A superfinishing machine must move the stone in a compound or orbital motion relative to the part surface. Then the part is honed to improve a form characteristic such as roundness. and some honing machines are equipped with in-process gaging for size control. It is typically the last manufacturing operation before the part is shipped to a customer. In fact. it can only be economically justified for applications that require very good form accuracy. Honing configurations Track/Raceway honing Spherical honing OD through-feed honing (taper and straight) Flat honing Bore honing Comparisons to grinding Superfinishing is more expensive than grinding. A honing machine. Unlike polishing. Superfinishing stones don't need to be dressed. Performance advantages of honed surfaces Since honing is a relatively expensive manufacturing process. Many through-feed grinding operations rely on the same averaging effect as honing. This leads to an obvious difference between the two machines: in a grinder the stone is rigidly attached to a slide. the last of which is usually grinding. The dimensional size of the object is established by preceding operations. Superfinishing has lower material removal rate. The primary purpose of polishing is to improve surface finish without concern for form. superfinishing can improve the geometric form of an object. Superfinishing stones are softer and wear more quickly. Economics Since honing is a high precision process. and honing improves the shape. Instead of relying on the accuracy of the machine tool. In honing. Some grinders have complex movements and are self-truing. cylindricity. is relatively inaccurate and compliant. compliance is a requirement of a honing machine that is necessary for the averaging effect to occur. Superfinishing has lower cutting efficiency because of smaller chips. it is also relatively expensive. High-precision workpieces are usually ground and then honed. The difference between honing and grinding is not always distinct.Advanced Manufacturing Techniques must be moved to an exact position relative to the workpiece. the contact area between the abrasive and workpiece are larger than in grinding. The improved shape after honing may result in a quieter running or higher precision component. or sphericity.
this pump feeds abrasive slurry onto the rotating lapping plate. etc. in which two surfaces are rubbed together with an abrasive between them. although it is similar). in between them. and used to cut a piece of hardened steel. lapping machine and jig). which is "charged" with the abrasive. Taken to the ultimate limit. a lapping jig can be used to hold the material while it is lapped (see Image 3. usually in a "figure-eight" pattern. This produces microscopic conchoidal fractures as the abrasive rolls about between the two surfaces and removes material from both. Page | 3 . That particular plate is made of cast iron. this will produce a polished surface such as with a polishing cloth on an automobile. silicon carbide. a slurry of emery powder would be spread on the plate and the workpiece simply rubbed against the plate. emery. Referring to the second picture again. The second picture is that of a commercially available lapping machine which is needed for this process. This is one twentieth of the wavelength of light from the commonly used 632. traditional loads and weights are too heavy as they would destroy delicate materials.8 nm helium neon laser light source. a small slurry pump can be seen at the side.Advanced Manufacturing Techniques LAPPING Lapping is a machining operation. The abrasive embeds within the softer material which holds it and permits it to score across and cut the harder material. The lap is then used to cut a harder material—the workpiece. When there is a requirement to lap very small specimens (from 3" down to a few millimetres). This can take two forms. diamond. lensmakers can produce surfaces that are flat to better than 30 nanometers. machines with eight to ten foot diameter plates are not uncommon and systems with tables 30 feet in diameter have been constructed. A jig allows precise control of the orientation of the specimen to the lapping plate and fine adjustment of the load applied to the specimen during the material removal process. In this machine. The weights can also be seen in the picture along with two fiber spacer disks that are just used to even the load. The other form of lapping involves a softer material for the lap. typically involves rubbing a brittle material such as glass against a surface such as iron or glass itself (also known as the "lap" or grinding tool) with an abrasive such as aluminum oxide. the lap is the large circular disk on the top of the machine. On top of the lap are two rings. the rings stay in one location as the lapping plate rotates beneath them.. For a commercial machine that is about the smallest size available. Taken to the finer limit. Due to the dimensions of such small samples. a piece of lead may be used as the lap. The small plate shown in the first picture is that of a hand lapping plate. The jig sits in a cradle on top of the lapping plate and the dial on the front of the jig indicates the amount of material removed from the specimen. In use. Surfaces this flat can be molecularly bonded (optically contacted) by bringing them together under the right conditions. (This is not the same as the wringing effect of Johansson blocks. by hand movement or by way of a machine. A weight would then be placed on top of the workpiece. charged with emery. At the other end of the size spectrum. The first type of lapping (traditionally called grinding). Operation By way of example. The workpiece would be placed inside one of these rings. In operation. with the aid of accurate interferometry and specialized polishing machines or skilled hand polishing. or a polishing cloth or polishing pitch upon glass or steel. The lap or lapping plate in this machine is 30 cm (12") in diameter.
separated by a distance determined by the average size of the abrasive particles. it is also used to obtain very accurate surfaces. usually very flat surfaces. part of each (some area near the edge) will be unsupported for some fraction of the rubbing movement. resulting in two surfaces evolving towards some common shape (not necessarily perfectly flat). Measurement Of flatness The easiest method for measuring flatness is with a height gage positioned on a surface plate. the process is also used to obtain other configurations such as a concave or convex surface. The name "Jo-blocking" comes from the fact that gage blocks .can be made to stick together in this manner. A typical range of surface roughness that can be obtained without resort to special equipment would fall in the range of 1 to 30 Ra (average roughness in micrometers or microinches).000011 inches (280 nm). one HLB measuring about 0. If one piece flexes due to this lack of support.sometimes called "Johansson blocks" after the manufacturer . without resort to special equipment accuracies of 1 to 3 HLB are typical. The principle is that the protrusions on one surface will both abrade and be abraded by the protrusions on the other. and fails in this manner if the workpiece itself deforms under that pressure. Accuracy and surface roughness Lapping can be used to obtain a specific surface roughness. Again. the two pieces can be lapped together. just placing the part on the surface plate and using a dial indicator to find TIR on the opposite side Page | 4 . they are concepts that are often confused by the novice. As the pieces are moved past each other. Surface roughness and surface flatness are two quite different concepts. Note that you must setup the part on three stands and find the minimum variation while adjusting them.Advanced Manufacturing Techniques Two-piece lapping Where the mating of the two surfaces is more important than the flatness. As a side note: Two parts that are lapped to a flatness of about 1HLB will exhibit "Wringing-in" or "Jo Blocking": a phenomenon where the two parts will cling to each other when placed in contact. This yields closeness-of-fit results comparable to that of two accurately-flat pieces. Surface accuracy or flatness is usually measured in Helium Light Bands. Though flatness is the most common goal of lapping.the lapping procedure assumes roughly equal pressure distribution across the whole surface at all times. with a surface roughness determined by the variation in the abrasive size. Schematic of two-piece lapping One complication in two-piece lapping is the need to ensure that neither piece flexes or is deformed during the process. and the edges of the opposite piece are heavily abraded by the same action . the edges of the opposite piece will tend to dig depressions into it a short distance in from the edge. Unfortunately. without quite the same degree of testing required for the latter.
The superfinishing process was developed by the Chrysler Corporation in 1934. it is superfinished with a finer grit solid abrasive. which can alter the metallurgical properties. The light will pass through the glass and reflect off the workpiece. a stone (rectangular shape) is for cylindrical surfaces and cups and wheels are used for flat and spherical surfaces.5μm). The first phase is when the abrasive first contacts the workpiece surface the dull grains of the abrasive fracture and fall away. kerosene is a common lubricant.Advanced Manufacturing Techniques of the part measures parallelism. This is achieved by removing just the thin amorphous surface layer left by the last process with an abrasive stone. these motions are what causes the cross-hatching. Calibration samples are available usually sold in a set and usually covering the typical range of machining operations from about 125 Ra to 1 Ra. which Page | 5 . But neither of these methods can measure flatness more accurately than about 0. The monochromatic light is then shone down through the glass. Surface roughness is measured with a profilometer. unlike polishing which produces a mirror finish. Roughness may be also measured by comparing the surface of the workpiece to a known sample. A lubricant is used to minimize heat production. the light will interfere with itself creating light and dark fringes. In the past the light source would have been provided by a Helium lamp or tube. The abrasive is oscillated or rotated while the workpiece is rotated in the opposite direction. The geometry of the abrasive depends on the geometry of the workpiece surface. As the light reflects in the gap between the workpiece and the polished surface of the glass. Superfinishing.0001" (2. but nowadays a more common source of monochromatic light is the low pressure sodium lamp. Each fringe – or band – represents a change of one half wavelength in the width of the gap between the glass and the workpiece. an instrument that measures the minute variations in height of the surface of a workpiece. A surface that exhibits an Ra of 8 consists of peaks and valleys that average no more than 8 microinches over a given distance. creates a cross-hatch pattern on the workpiece. this layer is usually about 1 μm in magnitude. The picture to the right shows a typical monochromatic light unit used in workshops and laboratories. Of roughness Surface roughness is defined by the minute variations in height of the surface of a given material or workpiece. Flatness is more easily measured with a co-ordinate measuring machine. and to carry away the swarf. A monochromatic light source and an optical flat are all that are needed. The individual variances of the peaks and valleys are averaged (Ra reading). Process After a metal piece is ground to an initial finish. Another method that is commonly used with lapped parts is the reflection and interference of monochromatic light. The light bands display a contour map of the surface of the workpiece and can be readily interpreted for flatness. or quantified by the largest difference from peak-to-valley (Rz). also known as micromachining and short-stroke honing. SUPERFINISHING Superfinishing. The optical flat – which is a piece of transparent glass that has itself been lapped and polished on one or both sides – is placed on the lapped surface. Roughness is usually expressed in microinches. is a metalworking process that improves surface finish and workpiece geometry. The abrasive cuts the surface of the workpiece in three phases.
Through-feed This type of superfinishing is used for cylindrical workpieces. cubic boron nitride (CBN). but find use with specialized materials. If the two are parallel then the result if a flat finish. CBN and diamond are not as commonly used. which also move the machine as well. The pressure applied to the abrasive is very light. When a stone is used it is oscillated at 200 to 1000 cycles with an amplitude of 1 to 5 mm (0.06 MPa (299 psi). piston pins. Aluminium oxide is used for "roughing" operations.07 MPa (3 to 10 psi). Page | 6 . usually between 0.9 MPa (490 to 1. Finally.990 to 19. The wheel and workpiece are rotated in opposite directions.01 μm. which improves the surface geometry.910 psi).20 in). Silicone carbide is harder than aluminium oxide. Examples of parts that would be produced by process include tapered rolls. In the second phase the abrasive "self dresses".3 MPa (1.039 to 0. and needles. the abrasive grains dull. The stones contact the workpiece at a 90° angle and are oscillated axially. Advantages & disadvantages Advantages of superfinishing include: increasing part life. where a most of the stock is removed. Note that graphite may be mixed with other abrasives to add lubricity and to enhance the appearance of the finish.4 to 6. usually 5–8 μm. which creates the cross-hatching. shock absorber rods. and elimination of a break in period. but can be as high as 2. Four to eight progressively finer abrasive stones are used to superfinish the workpiece. The main disadvantage is that superfinishing requires grinding or a hard turning operation beforehand. higher load bearing surfaces.02 to 0. and wheels. plunge. Honing is usually 3. Types There are three types superfinishing: Through-feed. The workpiece is rotated between two drive rollers. such as ceramics and M50. shafts.000 psi) and grinding is between 13. closer tolerances. so it is used for "finishing" operations. This adds cost to the finished product. decreasing wear.7 to 137. The average rotational speed of abrasive wheel and/or workpiece is 1 to 15 surface m/min. The workpiece is rotated while the abrasive plunges onto the desired surface. Plunge This type is used to finish irregularly shaped surfaces. Wheels Abrasive cups or wheels are used to superfinish flat and spherical surfaces. with 6 to 14 m/min preferred.Advanced Manufacturing Techniques produces a sharp new cutting surface. this is much slower compared to grinding speeds around 1800 to 3500 m/min. and diamond. silicon carbide. Abrasives Common abrasives used for superfinishing include: aluminium oxide. better sealing capabilities. but if the wheel is tilted slightly a convex or concave surfaces will form. Superfinishing can give a surface finish of 0. Abrasive grains must be very fine to be used with superfinishing.
bearing races. BURNISH Burnishing is a form of pottery treatment in which the surface of the pot is polished. Page | 7 . such as grinding. burr formation is of critical importance because it can affect engine performance. After firing. and sharpening stones and wheels. but cross ways will still work. for example. As one could imagine.Advanced Manufacturing Techniques Applications Common applications include: steering rack components. the surface is extremely shiny. after being struck a blow from an equally hard. before firing. Burnishing can also apply to relief printing. smooth stones. Burnishing does not protect the wood like a varnish does. It is usually an unwanted piece of material and when removed the process is called deburring. fuel injector components. transmission components. pistons and other engine components are cast then milled to a specific dimension. so choose carefully and perform a test rub first. This technique can be applied to concrete masonry. using a hard smooth surface such as a wooden or bone spatula.e. milling is also a source of burr formation in machining. the more important one should be rubbed down its grain. or heavy object. but in certain ceramic traditions there is 'pattern burnishing' where the outside and.3 million holes drilled in it. One good example of unwanted burrs is in the automotive industry where cylinder blocks. Burnishing can also be applied to wood. or even glass bulbs. engraving or turning. are common when drilling almost any material. or is colored in some way. in the case of open bowls. It has been proven that superfinishing certain parts makes them more durable. milling. the cost and time needed to perform these drilling and deburring operations is significant. It may be present in the form of a fine wire on the edge of a freshly sharpened tool or as a raised portion on a surface. hydraulic cylinder rods. while it still is in a leathery 'green' state. If one wood has a dye in it. and durability. and shortly a glossy sheen will come up and the wood will become slick. Burr formation in machining accounts for a significant portion of machining costs for manufacturers throughout the world. In addition to drilling. Hard woods are best to use with this. Often the whole outer surface of the pot is thus decorated. creating a polished finish. i. drilling. camshaft lobes. but you do not have to wait for a burnished piece of wood to dry as you would if you had varnished it. it may rub off onto the other wood. Burrs are most commonly created after machining operations. needle rollers. Drilling burrs. plastic. reliability. are decorated with burnished patterns in which some areas are left matte. Rub them along one another. The Boeing 747 airplane has approximately 1. the inside. With higher and higher demands placed on accuracy and precision. Burr (edge) A burr is a raised edge or small pieces of material remaining attached to a workpiece after a modification process. For example if the teeth in a gear are superfinished they will last up to four times as long. most of which have to be deburred to some extent.
Advanced Manufacturing Techniques In the printmaking technique of drypoint. Adding and altering Blanching Case hardening Ceramic glaze Cladding Corona treatment Diffusion processes: o Carburizing o Nitriding Galvanizing Gilding Glazing Knurling Painting Passivation/Conversion coating o Anodizing o Bluing o Chromate conversion coating o Phosphate conversion coating Parkerizing o Plasma electrolytic oxidation Plasma spraying Powder coating Thin-film deposition Page | 8 . Surface finishing processes can be categorized by how they affect the workpiece: Removing or reshaping finishing Adding or altering finishing Mechanical processes may also be categorized together because of similarities the final surface finish. tarnish resistance. The rollover burr is the most common. modify electrical conductivity. adhesion or wettability. Types There are three type of burrs that can be formed from machining operations: Poisson burr. SURFACE FINISHING Surface finishing is a broad range of industrial processes that alter the surface of a manufactured item for achieve a certain property. hardness. solderability. remove burrs and other surface flaws. is highly desirable . Finishing processes may be employed to: improve appearance.the great problem with the drypoint medium is that the burr rapidly diminishes after as few as ten impressions are printed. wear resistance. which gives a rich fuzzy quality to the engraved line. In limited cases some of these techniques can be used to restore original dimensions to salvage or repair an item. corrosion resistance. chemical resistance. and control the surface friction. and breakout burr. burr. rollover burr.
Mechanical finish designations For stainless steel finish designations. see Brushed metal.Advanced Manufacturing Techniques Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) Electroplating Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) Mechanical plating Sputter deposition Physical vapor deposition (PVD) Vacuum plating Vitreous enamel o o o o o o o Removing and reshaping Abrasive blasting o Sandblasting Burnishing Chemical-mechanical planarization (CMP) Electropolishing Flame polishing Gas cluster ion beam Grinding Linishing Mass finishing processes o Tumble finishing o Vibratory finishing Pickling Polishing o Buffing Peening o Shot peening Superfinishing Mechanical finishing Mechanical finishing processes include: Abrasive blasting o Sandblasting Burnishing Grinding Mass finishing processes o Tumble finishing o Vibratory finishing Polishing o Buffing The use of abrasives in metal polishing results in what is considered a "mechanical finish". #3 Finish Page | 9 .
#4 Dairy or sanitary finish This finish is commonly used for the medical and food industry and almost exclusively used on stainless steel. This is a good way to keep polishing costs down when a part needs to be shiny but not flawless. A #4 architectural finish is characterized by fine polishing grit lines that are uniform and directional in appearance. An example would be grinding gates off of castings. roughing or rough grinding. A #4 dairy or sanitary finish is produced by polishing with a 180–240 grit belt or wheel finish softened with 120– 240 grit greaseless compound or a fine non woven abrasive belt or pad. #6 Finish Also known as a fine satin finish. if not impossible. This finish is produced by polishing with a 220–280 grit belt or wheel softened with a 220–230 greaseless compound or very fine non woven abrasive belt or pad. to polish to a #8. It is coarse in appearance and applied by using 36–100 grit abrasive. like pits. A #7 finish can be made bright by color buffing with coloring compound and a cotton buff. Carbon steel and iron are commonly polished to a #7 finish before chrome plating. Great care should be taken in removing the surface defects in the metal. Castings that have slag or pits will also be difficult. It is produced by polishing the metal with a 120–180 grit belt or wheel finish and then softened with an 80–120 grit greaseless compound or a medium non woven abrasive belt or pad. Polishing lines should be soft and less reflective than a #4 architectural finish. #8 Finish Also known as a mirror finish. This finish is much finer than a #4 architectural finish. Page | 10 . Some alloys of steel and aluminum cannot be brought to a mirror finish. These finishes are coarse in nature and usually are a preliminary finish applied before manufacturing. deburring or removing excess weld material. This finish is produced by polishing with at least a 320 grit belt or wheel finish. The part is sisal buffed and then color buffed to achieve a mirror finish. Care should be taken in making sure all surface defects are removed. that could allow bacteria to grow. This is a semi-bright finish that will still have some polishing lines but they should be very dull.Advanced Manufacturing Techniques Also known as grinding. When the finish is specified as #3. #4 Architectural finish Also known as brushed. directional or satin finish. #7 Finish A #7 finish is produced by polishing with a 280–320 belt or wheel and sisal buffing with a cut and color compound. The quality of this finish is dependent on the quality of the metal being polished. the material is polished to a uniform 60–80 grit.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.