This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Q1. What is meant by „Strategy‟? Differentiate between goals and objectives? Ans. Sometimes, when clients hear, “What is your strategy?”, there is a deafening silence on the other end of the line. Not only do they have no strategy, they have no concept of the meaning of the word. So what is a strategy and how do you develop one? The American Heritage College Dictionary’s first definition of strategy is, “The Science and Art of using a nation’s forces to execute approved plans as effectively as possible.” Leaving aside the military aspect of this definition, substitute a few words, and for our purposes, you get, “The Science and Art of using a client’s resources and skills to execute detailed plans as effectively as possible.” Science and Art means that the effort is done in a meticulous way, according to laws of nature, but adjusted and finessed in the moment, as needed when circumstances require it. In practice, what are the most meaningful ideas that need to be understood about strategies? 1. The primary purpose of behaving strategically is to be as effective as possible, i.e. have the best results, and to have the intended results. 2. Strategic actions are part of a well thought out, detailed plan, a plan that has the most likely probability of success, a plan so well prepared that chance is no longer in play. 3. A client will execute their plan in a logical and realistic progression. Effective strategies are laid out on time lines, so that the client is taking the right action at the right time. With a timeline, the client can release fretting and worrying about any action but the current one. 4. Using a client’s resources and skills means that the client looks at their current resources and considers how they can be used to produce the greatest results. Has the client considered all their resources, including those that have just been sitting on a shelf? Assessing skills is equally as important. Which skills bring the greatest satisfaction? Is there a new combination of existing skills that could produce greater financial return in the market place? 5. Plans are detailed. Initially, the client spends some time brainstorming every possible idea they could conceivably put into action as part of their strategy. Later as part of the process, the client chooses some actions and deletes others. These choices are made, based on things such as clients’ likes and dislikes, likelihood of success, projected results, conditions in the marketplace, time available, and family considerations. 6. Strategies, in the end, are about being executed as effectively as possible. This means that they bring the intended results, and are almost guaranteed to do so. This means that, if executed as planned, there is a high likelihood of success as projected. It also means that skills and resources have been used as efficiently as possible. 7. Lastly, strategies are flexible. Clients should review their strategies regularly (weekly is recommended), and as needed, adjust when the need becomes obvious. If you are reviewing your strategies and evolving them as you go, you can expect even greater results Goals and Objectives: Goals and objectives create the foundation for lesson plans. If they are written well, an instructor will have an effective and meaningful structure for discussion, activities, and assessment. Goals and objectives serve as a reminder that teaching is not an end in itself, but the means to an end. Goals Goals explain the reasoning behind what you will teach in a session. They articulate what you wish to accomplish and help to map your direction. They address the question: What do I want my students to take with them after the session is completed? Once you've organized what a student should be able to do at the end of the library session; they do not describe the learning
Next. address two basic questions: What industries should we compete in? How should we compete in those industries? These questions also often involve an organization’s domestic as . refine their search if needed.Goals Worse: Students will go through a sample search in Lexis-Nexis. Better: Students will demonstrate how to use the Boolean operators AND and OR. and then choose three articles for their research paper. Define the term „Strategic Management‟. leaders must make strategic decisions.They will then evaluate their search results.reachable.' Examples . This definition captures two main elements that go to the heart of the field of strategic management. Goals Objectives What you want students to take with them after Student performances demonstrating the abilities the session is completed. Ex: Students will locate indexes as they are grouped by subject and choose one. These decisions. Concentrate on naming the most important broad concepts. decisions.Next they will perform searches using advanced search techniques. Objectives Objectives are student performances of the concepts described in your session goals. Try to avoid using vague verbs such as 'understands' and 'knows. Q2. That is. Worse: Students should know and apply evaluating strategies for choosing articles. evaluate their results. Better: Students will be able to perform a title search in the library catalog. and actions an organization undertakes in order to create and sustain competitive advantages. open it. Better: Students will be capable of selecting and searching library resources that relate to their discipline. described in your goals. Strategic management consists of the analysis. Ex: Students will be able to select and search online indexes related to their discipline. decisions. Worse: Students will understand how to use the Boolean operators AND and OR. First. Better: Students will able to distinguish between scholarly and popular magazines. They can be used to assess the effectiveness should addre Objectives should measure specific behaviors. perform a search. Worse: Students will be able to find an online periodical index. What are the types of strategies? Ans. Better: Students will be able to effectively search a commercial database. the strategic management of an organization entails three ongoing processes: analysis. broadly speaking. mission. and actions. and strategic objectives) along with the analysis of the internal and external environment of the organization. strategic management is concerned with the analysis of strategic goals (vision. Examples . They are often referred to as 'learning outcomes' because they define more specifically what skills students will be able to demonstrate after your session.Objectives Worse: Teach students to search the library catalog.
Firms must take the necessary actions to implement their strategies. Trying to do everything that your rivals do eventually leads to mutually destructive price competition. This requires leaders to allocate the necessary resources and to design the organization to bring the intended strategies to reality. pervasive and futuristic in nature. and IKEA have developed unique. unless they are acted on. That means focusing on two fundamental questions: How should we compete in order to create competitive advantages in the marketplace? For example. In the 1980s. instead of competitive advantage. Managers must also ask how to make such advantages sustainable. A company with a good strategy must make clear choices about what it wants to accomplish. managers need to determine how a firm is to compete so that it can obtain advantages that are sustainable over a lengthy period of time. Overnight. Companies such as Wal-Mart. benchmarking. . outsourcing all are about operational effectiveness. As we will see in the next section. business process reengineering. therefore. Usually small business organisations follow no change strategy with an intention to maintain the same level of operations for a long period. but none lead to sustainable competitive advantage. and difficult to imitate activity systems that have provided them with sustained competitive advantage. Most of the popular management innovations of the last two decades-total quality. or develop products and services that are unique which will enable the firm to charge premium prices-or some combination of both. all the airlines did the same thing. the organisation tries to maintain consistency by concentrating on their present resources and rapidly develops a meaningful competitiveness with the market requirements. In an effective stability strategy. instead of highly temporary. And last are the actions that must be taken. managers need to determine if the firm should position itself as the low-cost producer. Southwest Airlines. is to create competitive advantage that is sustainable. Within weeks. Corporate level strategies are innovative. frequent flyer programs became a necessary tool for competitive parity. this is an ongoing. The four grand strategies in a corporate level are: The basic approach of the stability strategy is to maintain the present status of the organisation. Michael Porter argues that sustainable competitive advantage cannot be achieved through operational effectiveness alone. Strategy is all about being different from everyone else. not competitive advantage. Operational effectiveness means performing similar activities better than rivals.well as its international operations. American Airlines tried to establish a competitive advantage by introducing the frequent flyer program. for the simple reason that everyone is doing them. the essence of strategic management is the study of why some firms outperform others. Sustainable competitive advantage is possible only through performing different activities from rivals or performing similar activities in different ways. of course. Further classifications of stability strategy are as follows: No change strategy No change strategy is the process of continuing the current operation and creating nothing new. That is: How can we create competitive advantages in the marketplace that are not only unique and valuable but also difficult for competitors to copy or substitute? Ideas that work are almost always copied by rivals immediately. The challenge. Each of these is important. evolving process that requires a great deal of interaction among these three processes. not longterm advantage. in the marketplace. internally consistent. Second. Types of Strategies: 1. just-in-time. Thus. Corporate level The board of directors and chief executive officers are involved in developing strategies at corporate level. Decisions are of little use.
The new idea of transporting unassembled furniture parts lead to minimizing the costs of transport. Expansion strategy The organisations adopt expansion strategy when it increases its level of objectives much higher than the past achievement level. Profit strategy Profit strategy is the process of reducing the amount of investments and short term discretionary expenditures in the organisation. pioneered towards expanding the industry to other geographical areas. It is also called as unrelated diversification. It is also called as related strategy. Organisations select expansion strategy to increase their profit. Expansion strategy also provides a significant increase in the performance of the organisation. or alternative technologies of the organisation.Pause/Proceed with caution strategy Pause/Proceed with caution strategy provides an opportunity to halt the growth strategy. . The further classification of expansion strategy is as follows: . Hence it is termed as pause/proceed with caution strategy. The organisation prefers to diversify concentrically either in terms of customer group. The present line of activities in an organisation indicates its real growth potential in the present activities. Later in 1970s a Swedish furniture company. and customer functions. The customers were able to easily assemble the furniture. It analyses the advantages and disadvantages before processing the growth strategy. Concentration Concentric expansion strategy is the first route towards growth in expanding the present lines of activities in the organisation. This increases the range of products and services offered to the current markets. It is also used to capitalise organisational strengths. The two basic diversification strategies are: The organisation adopts concentric diversification when it takes up an activity that relates to the characteristics of its current business activity. The two basic concentration strategies are: The organisation adopts vertical expansion when it takes over the activity to make its own supplies. Vertical expansion reduces costs. sales and market share. IKEA. This was because furniture got damaged easily while shipping and the cost of transport was high. gains control over a limited resource. Many organisations pursue expansion strategy to reduce the cost production per unit. Retrenchment strategy is followed by an organisation which aims to reduce the size of activities in terms of its customer groups. or alternative technologies of the organisation. of an organisation is discontinued due to environmental and regulatory factors. customer functions.Diversification is a process of entry into a new business in the organisation either marketwise or technology wise or both. customer functions. concentration of resources for present activity which means strategy for growth. or alternative technologies. customer functions. IKEA also lowered the costs by involving customer in the value chain. Example Prior to 1960s most of the furniture industry did not venture into expanding their industry globally. The organisation chooses to diversify conglometrically either in terms of customer group. ric diversification The organisation adopts conglometric diversification when it takes up an activity that does not relate to the characteristics of its current business activity. obtain access to potential customers. Many organisations adopt diversification strategy to minimise the risk of loss. IKEA successfully expanded in many European countries since customers were willing to purchase similar furniture. The organisation adopts horizontal growth when it takes over the activity to expand into other geographical locations. Expansion strategy also broadens the scope of customer groups.
Captive company strategy Captive company strategy is a process of tying up with larger organisations and staying viable as an exclusive supplier to the large organisations. Divestment strategy Divestment strategy is followed when an organisation involves in the sale of one or more portion of its business. An organisation may also be taken as captive if their competitive position is irreparably weak. Turnaround strategy acts as a doctor when issues like negative profits. It results in unemployment. selling the current resources. Bankruptcy Bankruptcy is a legal protective strategy that does not allow others to restructure the organisations debt obligations or other payments. It results in better performance of the organisation. This was due to the manufacture of jeans that did not attract the younger generation. Mainly strategic business unit (SBU) managers are involved in this level.stability. operations. Example Levis & co. Synergy is obtained in terms of sales. The effect towards the success is greater when there is a synergy between the strategies. mid-level and lower level management. Business level Business level strategy relates to a unit within an organisation. Hence. Combination strategy is a process of combining . a jeans manufacturing company suffered corrosion in market share in 1990. Hence there was a change in strategies laid at the corporate level with diversification of products. changing the personnel at various levels of management and analysing the competitors in the market. With these changes the company was able to make profits and achieved success.Example A healthcare hospital decides to focus only on special treatment to obtain higher revenue and hence reduces its commitment to the treatment of general cases which is less profitable. 2. It is reorganising and reassigning of roles and responsibilities of the personnel due to unsatisfactory performance and poor results. It is the process of formulating the objectives of the organisation and allocating the resources among various functional areas. mismanagement and decline in market share arise in the organisation. Business level strategy is more specific and action oriented. This change affects the structure of the organisation. The main aspects of business level strategies are related with: n . Corporate restructuring is the process of fundamental change in the current strategy and direction of the organisation. most of the managers work hard to avoid this strategy. Different types of retrenchment strategies are: Turnaround Turnaround is a process of undertaking temporary reduction in the activities to make a stronger organisation. selling of buildings and equipments and the products become obsolete. This is used either at the same time in various businesses or at different times in the same business. expansion and retrenchment strategies. This kind of processing is called downsizing or rightsizing. Usually if any unit within the organisation is performing poorly then that unit is sold and the money is reinvested in another business which has a greater potential. This process involves in closing down an organisation and selling its assets. It mainly relates to how a strategy functions rather than what a strategy is in corporate level. If an organisation declares bankruptcy with customers then there is a possibility of turnaround strategy. The idea behind this strategy is to have a temporary reduction of activities in the organisation to pursue growth strategy at some future point. This led to the change in acquiring new resources. investments and management in the organisation. Liquidation Liquidation strategy is considered to be the most unattractive process in an organisation. Corporate restructuring involves increasing or decreasing the levels of personnel among top level.
efficient sales and a unique collection of features in the product or services. impact of changes in strategies. Other indirect business stakeholders are competitors. the organisation that succeeds in cost leadership and differentiation often has the following internal strengths: The company possesses the skills in designing efficient products High level of expertise in the manufacturing process Well organised distribution channel Industry reputation for quality and innovation Strong sales department with the ability to communicate successfully the real strengths of the product Risk is the probability of good or bad things that may happen in the business. Differentiated products satisfy the customers needs. Tactical decision means involving or pertaining to actions for short term than those of a larger purpose. government etc. It must be acceptable to the characteristics as mentioned by customers. The risk factors in the business strategies include two types . But cost leadership must be pursued in conjunction with differentiation strategy to produce a cost effective. 3. . finance and personnel (employees). The aim of the functional strategy is doing things right whereas the corporate and business level strategy stresses on doing the right thing. Differentiation strategy mainly deals with providing the products or services with unique features to the customers. Tactical of functional level The functional strategy mainly includes the strategies related to specific functional area in the organisation such as production. marketing. Internal risks Internal risks include issues of employees. suppliers and the procedures that are used to communicate with their suppliers. Decisions at functional level are often described as tactical decisions. Customers value the company if it adopts cost leadership strategy. political issues. Considering tactical decisions in functional level strategy describes involving actions to specific functional area. In the management field procuring is the process of purchasing goods or services which includes ordering. security of employees and equipments. Risk will impact the objectives of the organisation. Select the seller who is matching the cost and requirement criteria as per the organisation. They play a very important role in ups and downs of the organisation. interest rates. methods. Perform the contract deal with selected seller and monitor the contract. Close the contract once the goods or services are acquired.external and internal risks. natural hazards etc. cash flows. Most of the individual organisations set procurement strategy to obtain their choice of products. maintenance of processes. Business stakeholders include employees. obtaining transport. and storage for organisation use. Cost leadership strategy is adopted by the organisations to produce a relatively standardised products or services to the customer. superior quality. The different types of strategies at functional level are: Procuring and managing Monitoring and directing resources towards the goal Procuring and managing Procuring basically means purchasing or owning. Steps involved in procuring strategy are: Identify the need of purchase and the required quantity. Any operation which is affected in business also affects the business stakeholders along with profit or loss of the business. owners and customers.Business stakeholders are a part of business. External risks External risk includes various risks experienced externally like competition with companies. According to Porters generic strategy. The unique features of the product attract the customers more when compared to the traditional features of the products. Plan the cost budget of the goods or services being purchased and the procedure of contracting by checking the cost and requirements with various sellers.
An effective managing process strengthens the critical activities in the business such as marketing.Managing is the process of monitoring the strategies that are implemented in the business. The operational efficiency comes into picture once the cost reduction is achieved with greater profits. human resource planning. Ans. Monitoring and directing resources towards the goal Monitoring and directing is the essential part of management. The usage of resources must be cost effective. Productivity is a key to success of an organisation. The systematic planning and scheduling of activities result in utilisation of less budgeted resources for greater profits in an organisation. The level of these forces determines the intensity of competition in an industry. and the activities being performed in the organisation. Monitoring means knowing what is going on. Operational level Operational level is concerned with successful implementation of strategic decisions made at corporate and business level. The basic aspects in operational level are: Achieving cost deals with achieving greater profits by reducing the cost for various resources within the organisation to balance the expenditure and investment. Michael E. and communications. Managing includes completing the task effectively in every sector of the organisation. the external and internal factors of organisation. The directing process will make path to ensure a relevant action is performed to remove the deviation and lay all the resources on the right track. Productivity basically means a relative measure of the efficiency of production in terms of converting the ratio of inputs to useful outputs. It deals with minimising the waste and maximising the resource capabilities. Organisations must implement cost achievement in targeted operational areas like HR. Usually the board of directors ensures that the process of optimal utilisation of resources is implemented and monitored on a regular basis. Porter developed the Five Force Model in his book. Productivity growth is a vital factor for continuous growth of the organisation. In an organisation monitoring includes measuring the performance of the organisation to check whether the strategy implemented is achieved or not. Directing process uses principles and statement of the objectives to solve the problem which was identified during monitoring process. Planning and scheduling activities in business plays a major impact on the utilisation of resources. It can be managing employees. 4. Optimal utilisation of resources includes usage of resources in a planned manner. manufacturing.Describe Porter‟s five forces Model. the equipments. Porter has identified five competitive forces that influence every industry and market. Many strategies are implemented at various levels of the business. Q3. Hence catering these strategies is termed as managing. The basic function of this level is translating the strategic decisions into strategic actions. Competitive Strategy. It leads to risk if monitoring of the resources show a deviation from the true path as expected by the organisation. Monitoring the resources includes monitoring the employees. supply chain. and procurement. The objective of corporate strategy should be to revise these competitive forces in a way that improves the position of the organisation. . Monitoring and directing process of resources sets the organisation to work on the right track by removing all hurdles and produces effective outcome in reaching the goals of the organisation efficiently. and the equipments. performance assessment. Monitoring is also called as measuring.
Substitute products curb the potential returns of an industry by placing a ceiling on the prices firms can profitably charge. . stakeholders . What is strategic formulation and what are its processes? Ans. and services. Its objective is to express strategical information to achieve a definite goal. they are threats to an established organisation. An entry barrier is a hindrance that makes it difficult for a company to enter an industry. local communities. competitive move by one organisation may result in a noticeable effect on its competitors and thus cause retaliation or counter efforts. It is used for the effective management of environmental opportunities and for the threats which weaken corporate management.Forces driving industry competitions are: market share and substantial resources. Q4. substitute products and services Substitute products appear different but satisfy the same needs as the original product. Therefore. The importance of stakeholders varies according to the industry.A sixth force should be included to Porters list to include a variety of stakeholder groups. The threat of an entry depends on the presence of entry barriers and the reactions can be expected from existing competitors.Identifying useful information like planning for strategic management. trade association unions. The following are the features of strategy formulation: es The main processes involved in strategy formulation are as follows: . Strategy formulation is the development of long term plans. more services. and shareholders. Some of these groups include governments. objectives to achieve the goals of the employees and the stakeholders.
new implementation procedures are introduced. provides feedback to the management to take corrective measures. the manager will have knowledge about the cause of the problem and the corrective actions. Strategic evaluation and control consists of data and reports about the performance of the organisation. Improper analysis. Strategic evaluation consists of performance and activity reports. The five step process of strategic evaluation and control are…. It compares the current performance with the desired results and if necessary. Explain strategic evaluation and its significance. . One of the obstacles to effective strategic control is the difficulty in developing appropriate measures for important activities. The core aim of strategic management succeeds only if it generates a positive outcome. Ans. The top management needs to be updated about the performance to take corrective actions for controlling the undesired performance. It is essential for the strategist to constantly evaluate the performance of the strategies on a timely basis. After the evaluation. planning or implementation of the strategies will result in negative performance of the organisation..A number of questions arising during utilisation and transfer of information have to be solved The questions that arise during utilisation and transfer of information are the following: is the nature of the requested information? Q5. Strategic control stimulates the strategic managers to investigate the use of strategic planning and implementation. Strategic evaluation and control ensures that the organisation is implementing the relevant strategy to reach its objectives. All strategies are subject to constant modifications as the internal and external factors influencing a strategy change constantly. If performance results are beyond the tolerance range.
Business policies are the instructions laid by an organisation to manage its activities. It prevents divergence from the . Business policies should be set up before hiring the first employee in the organisation. a minor or temporary fluctuation? ii) Are the procedures being implemented appropriately? iii) Are the procedures appropriate to the achievement of the desired standard? The strategic-evaluation process with constantly updated corrective actions results in significant and long-lasting consequences. They ensure that the activities are synchronised with the objectives of the organisation. A company operates consistently. Example The process that accounts for the highest proportion of expense. It channels the thinking and action in decision making. It authorises the lower level management to resolve their issues and take decisions without consulting the top level management repeatedly. The strategy of all the important areas must be evaluated irrespective of the difficulty. Policies serve as a guidance to administer activities that are repetitive in nature. basis for assessing performance. when necessary. The policies are articulated by the management. The complete process of management is organised by business policies. -established standards Strategic objectives provide a crystal view of the standards to measure performance. demarcate the section within which decisions are to be taken. The following questions must be answered: i) Is the variation. It saves time by predicting frequent problems and providing ways to solve them. Ans. Standards can also be set for the output of intermediate stages of production along with the final output. Every policy is a guide to activities that should be followed in a particular situation.specify the implementation processes and the results that are to be evaluated. Strategy evaluation is vital to an organisations well-being as timely evaluations can alert the management about potential problems before the situation becomes critical. focus should be on the most significant elements in a process. actions must be taken to control the deviation. Business policy analyses roles and responsibilities of top level management and the decisions affecting the organisation in the long-run. The processes and results must be compared with the organisations objectives in a consistent manner. It identifies the range within which the subordinates can take decisions in an organisation. They help subordinates to take decisions with confidence without consulting their superiors every time. Policies encourage cooperation and promote initiative. the greatest number of problems etc. e range. Define the term “Business policy”. Business policies are important due to the following reasons: helps in ensuring uniformity of action throughout the organisation. It also deals with the major issues that affect the success of the organisation. It deals with the constraints of real-life business. the evaluation process stops here. Successful strategists combine patience with a willingness to take corrective actions promptly. It is a mechanism adopted by the top management to ensure that the activities are performed in the desired way. Each standard defines a tolerance range for acceptable deviations. Q6. both internally and externally when the policies are established. Explain its importance. It is important to formulate policies to achieve the organisational objectives. Business policy involves the acquirement of resources through which the organisational goals can be achieved. The limits within which the decisions are made are well defined. However.
Policies contribute in building coordination in larger organisations. The required managerial procedures can be derived from the given policies.planned course of action. Policies provide guidelines to the executives to help them in determining the suitable actions which are within the limits of the stated policies. This affects the overall efficiency of the organisation. . responsibility are clearly identified. Policies are derived objectives and provide the outline for procedures. Authority is delegated to the executives who refer the policies to work efficiently. The management tends to deviate from the objective if policies are not defined precisely.
The BCPs senior management committee is responsible for the initiation. These steps are discussed below: Initiation The senior management initiates the project and conducts the meeting to review the following: Establish a business continuity planning committee The senior management identifies a team and discusses the business continuity planning project with them. test-validated documentation. the project team should develop recommendations of strategies to provide funds for implementation. restoration and permanent recovery of the organisational operations and business activities during a business interruption event. BCP is a collection of procedures which is developed. What is meant by “Business Continuity Plan” (BCP)? Discuss the steps involved in BCP. coordinates its activities. The BCPs senior management committee also implements the BCP. Recommend disaster readiness strategy . It will provide the organisation with the following details: The identification of time sensitive business operations and services. access to vital records. approval. recovery and restoration. BIA report describes the potential risks specific to the organisation. response. An analysis of the organisations financial status and operational impacts.Based on the needs of the business and evaluation of alternatives. planning. Ans. and action instructions developed specifically for use in restoring organisation operations in the event of a declared disaster. The resumption timeframe plays an important role in examining which elements may require pre-positioning. A document containing the recovery timeline methodology. The BIA will provide a basis and cost justification for risk management.Set 2 Winter Drive – November 2011 Sikkim Manipal University Q1. supervises its creation and reviews the results of quality assurance activities. operations and functions must resume. skilled personnel. Estimate cost of business continuity alternatives Based on these strategies. BIA reveals the financial and operational impact of a major disruption. The disaster readiness strategies include the following activities: Define business continuity alternatives Using the information from BIA. recovery and restoration. the organisation develops the budgetary plan. Draw up business continuity policies The team establishes the basic principles and framework necessary to ensure emergency response for resumption and recovery. To be effective. procedures. testing and audit of the BCP.Master of Business Administration-MBA Semester 4 Assignment . and alternate recovery resources including facilities. The management forms a team and clearly defines the roles of project team members. most Business Continuity Plans also require testing. The time-frames in which the time-sensitive processes. Prepare a formal report based on the findings of the BIA for the strategy alternatives . An estimation of the resources necessary for successful resumption.MB0052 – Strategic Management & Business Policy . Business impact analysis (BIA) BIA is the most important element of the continuity plan. recorded and maintained in readiness for use in the event of an emergency or disaster. the project team should assess the alternative strategies that are available to the organisation and identify two or three strategies that are more credible.
Every entrepreneur creates a business plan and its completion will determine the feasibility of the plan. business venture is a start-up enterprise which is formed with expectations and plans of achieving financial gain. It should focus on the priorities of overall business continuity strategy. Evaluate the results of each exercise against pre-stated values and document the results along with proposed plan enhancement.that were developed and analysed Take approval from senior management to proceed with the project. The exercises can be repeated using alternate setup and it should involve whole organisation within a particular facility that may be affected by a system disaster. What is meant by “Business plan”? Describe the strategies to create a business plan. Sample emergency response exercises Emergency response exercises should be ongoing. . Audit and update the plans regularly It should regularly audit the plans to check if it meets the needs of the organisation and ensures that the documentation remains accurate and reflects any changes inside or outside the business. Once the need of the organisation is identified. Awareness and training plans It should ensure that the personnel is aware of the importance of business continuity plan and can operate effectively in case of an event . it can be started by a small investor that has valuable resources and time. The strategies for creating a business plan are as follows: tive advantage? business. Example It should detail the actions that the IT department will have to carry out if IT services are lost. On the other hand. more effort must be put on the short-term goals. Maintenance and testing includes the following activities: Establish a plan exercise program BCP should develop and schedule the exercises to achieve and maintain high levels of competence and readiness. to handle unforeseen complications like financial crisis and to make good business decisions. In the case of establishing a business venture. Develop and implement the plan includes the following activities: Emergency response and operations It establishes a crisis management process to respond to these incidents. a formal business plan is written to outline the purpose and mission of the business for the future use. Q2. An accurately made business plan helps to allocate resources properly. Develop and implement a business continuity plan The plan describes specifically how to deal with the incidents. Other investors involve themselves by providing support for further development of the venture once the business is created. Document the objectives of each exercise and it should include the measurement criteria. Strategies for creating a business plan Strategies for creating a business plan.Review the effectiveness of awareness training and identify the need for further training. Ans. It also contains the detailed plans which show how the objectives are being accomplished. Apply business unit plans for each department Describe the roles that each department has to perform in the event of an emergency. A business plan is a complete internal document that summarises the operational and financial objectives of a business.
This results in efficient production and services like that of IBM or Microsoft. whose volume of production of goods is smaller. services or production. hi-tech products and services that dominate a large international market. as it results in efficient. low-priced. You must understand the customer in terms of the following factors: have? advantages of the product/services of your business which resolve the customers problems. Extensive application of these technologies gives a competitive advantage to the MNC in international market. These technologies are patented. It can be in the areas of management. Large MNCs have access to advanced levels of technology which are either developed or acquired by the corporation. The advantages widely depend on the nature of individual corporations and the type of their business. Learn from your competitors You can learn a lot about the business and the customers by looking at the business of your competitors. To the company Superior technical knowledge The most important advantage of MNCs is the patented technical knowledge which enables them to compete internationally. MNCs are large like Wal-Mart and ExxonMobil which has sales larger than the gross national products of many countries.sted below: customer Understanding the customer is essential for a perfect business plan. Competitors. Always get the answers of the following questions which will assist you in learning from your competitor and focusing on your customer. Benefits are 1. MNCs have certain unique advantages in their operations that are not benefited by domestic oriented companies. What are the benefits of MNCs? Ans. The international success of MNCs is mainly because of the ability to capitalise the advantages. try to know the perception of the customer. Clarify the doubts of the customer regarding your profession and the products/services of your business. The large size gives the advantage of significant economic growth to the MNCs. The following are the four steps to create a marketing strategy for your business: d tools Q3. The higher volume of production leads to lower fixed costs per-unit for the companys products. They are as follows: skill which you must have. Large size of economy Generally. . tors approaching the market? decisions.
analyses. changing market trends. To the nations where it operates (domestic nations) MNCs bring advantage to the countries in which they operate. Information advantage MNCs have a global market view with which it collects. This helps in boosting the national economy. The benefits of MNCs to the nations where it operate are: Economic growth and employment An MNC comes to a country with more amount of money to invest than any local company. Wal-Mart sells products at lower prices relative to its competitors due to bulk purchasing and efficient inventory control. social and cultural changes that affect the business of MNCs in different countries. many MNCs lower the input and production costs. The countries from where the MNCs operate are also called host countries. Ability to access raw materials overseas By accessing raw materials in foreign countries. This situation implies to capital-intensive industries like steel. Example MNC like Nippon Steel of Japan can sell its products at lower prices than those of companies with smaller plants. Example Nestle. value and service.. Example Sony PlayStations do not have any modifications for different countries and the parent factory produces standardised products for the world market. which buys huge quantities of coffee from the market. This knowledge is used to create new products for potential market niches and expand the market coverage of their products. and processes the in-depth knowledge of worldwide markets. Example An MNC located in Japan can attain knowledge of Japanese management techniques and apply them successfully in a different location. capital and labour. the MNC is able to forecast government controls and gather commercial information. India. MNCs supply the technology to extract raw materials. It brings inward investment to the host countries. The network also helps in providing important information about economic conditions. Such access can give MNCs monopolistic control over raw materials because they supply technology in exchange for monopolistic control. Lower input costs due to large size The production levels of MNCs are large and thus the purchase of inputs is in large volumes. Brand image and goodwill advantage Most of the MNCs possess product lines that have created a good reputation for quality. MNCs relocate their production facilities to take advantage of lower labour costs. 2. can bargain for lower prices than small buyers can. By identifying which product sell effectively. This control enables them to supply or deny raw materials to their competitors. Wal-Mart combines low-cost purchasing with efficient inventor to achieve competitive advantage in retail market. The MNCs have good information gathering capabilities in all aspects of their operations. Bulk purchases of inputs enable the corporation to bargain for lower input costs and obtain considerable amount of discount. It provides employment to a large number of people which helps in dealing with the unemployment problem in the host countries. Many MNCs have set up factories in low-cost areas like China. Example Constructing new plants requires resources like land. Lower input costs means less expensive and more competitive products. This reputation spread to other countries through exports and promotion and adds to the goodwill or brand image of the company. This experience helps them in dealing with different business situations around the globe. They take advantage of the lower costs by exporting lower-cost goods to foreign markets. Ability to shift production overseas Another advantage of MNCs is the ability to shift the production overseas. Managerial experience and expertise The MNCs function in large number in different countries simultaneously. This enables them to integrate wealth for valuable managerial experience. In many cases. Brand names like Sony help the company to charge premium prices for its products. etc. raw materials and other incentives offered by the host countries. in which fixed costs form a major proportion of total costs. Mexico. MNCs are able to influence this brand image by standardizing their product lines in different countries.must raise the price to recover the higher fixed costs. With these information MNCs can position themselves appropriately to contingencies. Through this information network. because the customers are ready to buy quality products at premium prices. The inward investment can help in generating wealth in the local economy . automobiles etc.
This can benefit the entire country. Joint venture is the most powerful business concept that has the ability to pool two or more organisations in one project to achieve a common goal. Availability of quality goods and services Generally. Improvement in infrastructure The MNCs invest in a country for production and distribution facilities. The people have more money to spend which provides market for local companies to sell their goods. The MNCs employ local labour and train them in new skills to improve productivity and efficiency. An agreement is formed between the two parties and the nature of agreement is truly beneficial with huge rewards such that the profits are shared by both the organisations. production in a host country is aimed at the export market. the company might also invest in additional infrastructure facilities like road. The advantages of joint venture are: isations educes production time as the organisations are into join venture The organisations do not have the opportunity to take up decisions individually . However. Example Sunderland is one of the most productive car manufacturing plants in Europe. port and communication facilities. This pools the resources among the organisations and helps each other in achieving the objectives. The skills that the workers build up can be passed on the other workers which help in improving the supply of skilled labour in that area. They are obtained by the co-operation between the companies. techniques and quality human capital The MNCs bring with them new ideas and new techniques to improve the quality of production. the inward investment can gain access to the host country market to avoid trade barriers. Strategic alliances contribute in successful implementation of strategic plan because it is strategic in nature.because it increases the spending ability of the people by providing them employment. An individual partner in joint venture may offer time and services whereas the other focuses on investments. Define the term “Strategic Alliance”. As the MNCs provide employment to the people. The MNCs also attracts other smaller firms to the area where it is located. Joint venture has been the hallmark for most successful organisations in the world. Q4. Example The UK has access to high quality vehicles at cheaper price. This can be a challenge and can also lead to improvement in productivity. In a joint venture. Availability of quality goods leads to improved quality in other related industries. It is stronger when the organisations involved have balancing strengths. working practices and quality in other related industries. time and skills to achieve the objectives. The workers had to get used to different ways of working that were used in other British firms. Skills. they pay taxes to the local government. Differentiate between Joint ventures and Mergers. Strategic alliance involves the individual organisations to modify its basic business activities and join in agreement with similar organisations to reduce duplication of manufacturing products and improve performance. in some cases. It provides relationship between organisations to plan various strategies in achieving a common goal. This helps in improving the quality of human capital in the host country. These firms provide different services to the MNCs. this competition has led to improvement in prices. In addition to this. Strategic alliance is the process of mutual agreement between the organisations to achieve objectives of common interest. Ans. both the organisations invest on the resources like money.
The main purpose of this merger is to utilise financial resources. What do you mean by „innovation‟? What are the types of innovation? . A smart organisations merger helps to enter into new markets. This merger enables the new organisations to pool their products to serve a common market. The participating organisation can help the active partner in acquiring products. The new mobile consists of dual SIM smart phone with 3G technology at a cheaper rate. enlarge debt capacity and obtaining synergy of managerial functions. then it increases the risk of hurting business reputation and devastating customers trust. They achieve forty percent increase in the market share. it is also important to consider the assets like property. But when the large organisations set up horizontal merger. The main reason to involve into mergers is to join with other company and reap the rewards obtained by the combined strengths of two organisations. The participating organisations determine the intentions of joining forces that will strengthen the current positions of both the organisations and lay basis for expanding into other areas. inventories and cash assets. This type of merger either has a maximum or minimum effect on the market. development and technology. The joint venture between the two companies is to gain profits and provide affordable mobile phones to the market that consists of advanced features and aims to earn eight billion dollars in the next five years. Consider two large organisations that merge with twenty percent share in the market.the organisation enters into joint venture agreement with unprofessional selfish organisation. and excel among the competitors in the market. The organisations do not share the resources. There are no important common factors among the organisations in terms of production. This is an added advantage of the organisations over its competitors in the market. In order to explore new methods of using existing products to create a new product line for wider markets. merger: This involves the union of a customer with the vendor. The vertical merger involves careful planning. Merger is the process of combining two or more organisations to form a single organisation and achieve greater efficiencies of scale and productivity. then the effect of this merger on drug market would be minimal. The organisations under conglomerate merger are not related either horizontally or vertically. instead it focuses on the process of acquiring stability and using resources in a better way to generate additional revenue. The results of the mergers are less noticeable if the small organisations horizontally merge. The minimum effect could also be zero. It is the union of different kinds of businesses under one management organisation. The different types of mergers are: same market join together. here are a few types of mergers. The purpose of a vertical merger is to build the strengths of the two organisations for an effective future growth. Example The China Wireless Technologies. activities. then higher profits are obtained in the market share providing advantages over its competitors. distribution channel. They serve the common market. research. acquire more customers. The main purpose of this merger is to make the merging organisations to achieve higher positions in bigger markets and ensure a bigger base for client. -extension merger: Most of the organisations execute product extension merger to sell different products of a related category. technical knowledge. buildings. They share the same product line and markets. Q5. -extension merger: It is the process of merging two organisations that sell same products in different geographical areas. marketing. Consider a small local drug store that horizontally merges with another small local drug store. a mobile handset maker is getting into an agreement with the Reliance Communications Ltd (RCom) to launch its new mobile. With the perception of the organisation structure. infrastructure to drive into new levels of success. It is the process of combining assets to capture a sector of the market that it fails to acquire as an individual organisation.
Ans Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is the continuing obligation of a business to behave ethically and contribute to the economic development of the organisation. a gain. consumer protection. CSR is effective in number of areas such as human rights. and such other issues.Ans." Innovation is defined as using new ideas to apply current thinking in different ways that results in a significant change. providing correct information to the consumers. It will establish the technical and marketing agendas that will guide subsequent developments. caring for the environment. it denotes the responsibility of an organisation towards the environment and society in which it operates. climate protection. fair pricing policies. The types of innovation are as follows: process. It also assists in environmental protection and contributes towards social activities. CSR activities include commitment to product quality. and pricing. leading to the creation of social and economic value. The meaning of CSR has two folds. resorting to legal assistance in case of unresolved business problems. yet it is applied to existing markets and customers. The effect of these changes is to develop the existing skills and resources. environment conservation and occupational health safety to various regions and countries. or a profit. . Innovation is the production or implementation of ideas. Describe Corporate Social Responsibility. It provides the scope for improvement in product design. Thus CSR makes a significant contribution towards sustainability and competitiveness of the organisation. Enhances information security systems and implementing effective security measures CSR enhances the information security measures by establishing improved information security system and distributing them to overseas business sites. And on the other hand. It also improves the legal and ethical features by fulfilling the law and implementing ethical standards. so on. product promotion. sustainable management of natural resources. Example TATA implemented social welfare provisions for its employees since 1945. The following are the features of CSR: Improves the quality of an organisation in terms of economic. A) Features of CSR CSR improves the customer satisfaction through its products and services. It improves the quality of life of the organisation. legal and ethical factors CSR improves the economic features of an organisation by earning profits for the owners. The National Innovation Initiative (NII) defines innovation as "The intersection of invention and insight. Builds an improved management system CSR improves the management system by providing products which meets the essential customer needs. pplied on established technical and production competence of the existing markets and customers. The information system has improved by enhancing better responses to complex security accidents. ical and production competence that out of date. nnovation: This innovation involves development of new marketing methods for the existing products. Q6. On one hand. it exhibits the ethical behaviour that an organisation exhibit towards its internal and external stakeholders. CSR also provides health and safety measures. preserves employee rights and discourages discrimination at workplace. It develops relevant regulations through the utilisation of innovative technologies in the organisation Contributes to countries by improving the quality of management CSR contributes high quality product. safety at work. Innovation can be described as an action or implementation which results in an improvement.
Creates awareness towards environmental issues CSR serves in preventing global warming by reducing the harmful gases emitted into the atmosphere during the process of business activities. competitiveness and market positioning Improves the ability to attract and build effective and efficient supply chain relationships Improves relationships with regulators Reduces the costs through re-cycling process Enhances stronger financial performance and profitability through operational efficiency gains . The information and technology helps in establishing a safety driving assistance system.Creates a new value in transportation CSR creates a new value in transportation for the greater safety of pedestrians and automobiles. This is done by utilising information and technology for automobiles. develop and retain staff Improves the reputation and branding of the organisation Improves innovation. The following are the roles played by CSR: Improves the relationships with the investment community and develops better access to capital and risks Enhances ability to recruit. B) Roles played in terms of ethical conduct CSR plays a significant role in maintaining ethical conduct in an organisation.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.