GSM Optimization and TEMS

Includes Brief intro on MAPINFO

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For :

Cellular Communication
Assigned By: Sir Ahmed Sikander
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Group Members

HINA MANZOOR AHMER MURTAZA IQBAL UDDIN KHAN
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Special Thanks:

Mr Muhammad Kashan
RF Engineer ( Optimization and Planning) in LCC Pakistan.
Muhammad.Kashan-lc@telenor.com.pk

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MAPINFO
• Introduction o MapInfo Professional is the power of computer mapping is at your complete disposal. o You can display your data as points, as thematically shaded regions, as pie or bar charts, as districts, etc. o You can perform geographic operations such as redistricting, combining and splitting objects, and buffering. You can also make queries against your data and access your remote data directly from MapInfo Professional.
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MAPINFO
MapInfo Professional is a desktop software product produced by Pitney Bowes Software, formerly MapInfo. It is a Geographic information system or GIS used for mapping and location analysis. It allows users to visualize, analyze, interpret, understand and output data in ways that reveal relationships, patterns, and trends.
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MAPINFO
Use of MapInfo in Cellular Communication
 To create map of each deployed region. To have a working road map, for easy route selection. To have elaborated details about each cell. Which provide platform for optimization and error removal. To generate a brief summery according to regions.

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MAPINFO’s Screen Shots

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MAPINFO’s Screen Shots

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MAPINFO’s Screen Shots

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MAPINFO’s Screen Shots

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MAPINFO’s Screen Shots

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MAPINFO’s Screen Shots

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MAPINFO’s Screen Shots

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MAPINFO’s Screen Shots

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What is TEMS Investigation?
• • • • TEMS Investigation – Complete name. TEMS stands for - TEst Mobile System. Firstly released by Ericsson. In June 2009 it came under ASCOM proprietary. • The latest release is 13.01. • Competitor - Griffin Fast Measurement.
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Why to use TEMS Investigation?
• As it is a AIR INTERFACE TEST TOOL. • Used for :  Optimization  Verification  Maintenance  Troubleshooting • To maintain QoS.
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Why to use TEMS Investigation?

Cont’d

TEMS Investigation is the industry-leading solution for troubleshooting, verification, optimization, and maintenance of wireless networks. Designed for in-vehicle, in-building, and pedestrian-area testing, TEMS Investigation has powerful, versatile, features that are essential throughout the network’s lifecycle. Using TEMS Investigation, operators can achieve improved voice quality, increased accessibility, more successful call attempts, and better service performance.
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Before moving Further

Review of GSM and Optimization

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GSM
o Global System for Mobile (GSM) is a second generation cellular standard developed to cater voice services and data delivery using digital modulation. o GSM network consist of different cells and each cell transmit signals and receive signals from the multiple mobile stations.

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GSM System Architecture
BSC MS BTS MSC GMSC

PSTN ISDN PDN

BTS MS BTS MS
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BSC VLR

EIR AUC HLR
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Radio Network Growth Flow

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Optimization
Brief Detail

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Optimization
o Every alive Network needs to be under continues control to maintain/improve the performance. o Optimization is basically the only way to keep track of the network by looking deep into statistics and collecting/analyzing drive test data. o It is keeping an eye on its growth and modifying it for the future capacity enhancements. It also helps operation and maintenance for troubleshooting purposes.
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Optimization Process
Input
Statistical Reports Customer Complaints Field Drive Tests Probe based Stats Inter Department Issues Alarm Logs

Optimization
Issue Identification Investigation Resolution Attempts *1….n+ Benchmarking *1…n+ Reversion *1…n+

Output
Soft Parameter Change -> OMC Hard Parameter Change -> Cell Planning Frequency Change -> OMC Hardware Change -> OAN BSC / LAC Redimensioning –BSS_Planning

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Optimization (Cont’d)
Successful Optimization requires: • Recognition and understanding of common reasons for call failure • Capture of RF and digital parameters of the call prior to drop • Analysis of call flow, checking messages on both forward and reverse links to establish “what happened”, where, and why.
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Optimization (Cont’d)
Purpose and Scope of Optimization o The optimization is to intend providing the best network quality using available spectrum as efficiently as possible. o The scope will consist all following:
Finding and correcting any existing problems after site implementation and integration.

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Optimization (Cont’d)
Meeting the network quality criteria agreed in the contract. Optimization will be continuous and iterative process of improving overall network quality. Optimization can not reduce the performance of the rest of the network. Area of interest is divided in smaller areas called clusters to make optimization and follow up processes easier to handle .
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Terms to Understand
• • • • • • • • MS1 – MS3 CGI GPRS Band BCCH AFRCN TCH AFRCN BSIC Channel Mode • • • • • • • Channel Type Rx Level C/I MS Power Control TA RL Time out C1 , C2

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Terms to Understand
• MS1 – MS3

Cont’d

o Supports Up to three Mobile Stations for Data collection and Route analysis. o Can be use as :
MS1 – Idle mode MS2 – Short Call MS3 – Long Call

o Or Vice versa.

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Terms to Understand
• CGI

Cont’d

o Cell Global Identity o Each id is unique global wide. o It consists of: CGI = MCC + MNC + LAC + CI.
MCC - Mobile Country Code 0 – 999. (410 – Pakistan) MNC - Mobile Network (operator) Code 0 – 99. (06 Telenor) LAC - Location Area Code 0 ‐65535. CI - Cell Identity 0 – 65535.

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Terms to Understand
• GPRS
o General packet radio service. o Sector GPRS enable or not. (Yes / No).

Cont’d

• Band
o Freq. Band mobile is operating e.g. GSM 900/ 1800.

• AFRCN
o Allocated/Absolute Radio Frequency Channel. o Usually Each ARFCN has a bandwidth of 270.833 kbps.
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Terms to Understand
• BCCH
o Broadcast Channel.

Cont’d

• TCH
o Traffic Channel.

• BSIC
o Base Station Identity Code. o BSIC = NCC ( 0 – 7 ) + BCC ( 0 – 7 ).

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Terms to Understand
• BSIC cont’d

Cont’d

NCC = Network Color Code. It is a 3 bit ( 0 – 7 ) code, used in GSM to uniquely identify a base station within a particular geographic area. BCC = Base Station Color Code. It is also a 3 bit ( 0 – 7 ) code transmitted in the SB ( Synchronization Burst ) of GSM system.

• Channel Mode
o Mode of coding (e.g. Speech Full Rate or Half Rate).

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Terms to Understand
• Channel Type

Cont’d

o Current channel type o E.g. BCCH, SDCCH, CBCH, TCH, FACCH and SACCH.
SDCCH – Stand Alone Dedicated Control channel. CBCH – Cell Broadcast Channel. FACCH – Fast Associate Control Channel. SACCH – Slow Associate Control Channel.

• Rx Level
o Signal Strength of current Channel ( 120 dBm – 10 dBm )
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Terms to Understand
• C/I
o Carrier to Interference Ratio

Cont’d

• MS Power Control
o Power Control Level ( 0 – 8 ) according to network design.

• TA
o Timing Advance. o Base Stain sends advance burst to MS as to compensate propagation delay .
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Terms to Understand
• RL – Time Out

Cont’d

o Radio Link, radio link counter expressed in SACCH blocks. o If it is zero, call is dropped.

• C1 & C2
o Cell path loss parameter and cell selection parameter in idle mode.

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Over View of TEMS’s GUI
• 1. 2. Definitions: Time: It is system time of computer. Cell name: It displays the name of the sector which is serving according to the cell file that is loaded in TEMS. CGI : It stands for the Cell Global Identity which is unique for every sector of the site. It consists of MCC,MNC,LAC,CI. MCC: Mobile Country Code 0 – 999 (e.g. 404), MNC: Mobile Network Code 0 – 99 (e.g. 98) LAC : Location Area Code 0 65535 (e.g. 5101) CI: Cell Identity 0 – 65535 (e.g. 11001)
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3.

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Over View of TEMS’s GUI
• • • • • • •

Cont’d

Cell GPRS Support: Tells sector is having GPRS or not. Values are Yes or No. Band : It tells in which Freq. Band mobile is operating e.g. GSM 900/ 1800. BCCH ARFCN: It tells by which BCCH is the mobile station getting served. TCH ARFCN: On which Traffic Freq. call is going on. BSIC : Base Station Identity Code. Mode: It is shows in which state is mobile operating, Idle, Dedicated & Packet. Time slot: On which time slot of current TCH call is going on. Viz. time slot no. of TRX.

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Over View of TEMS’s GUI
• • • • •

Cont’d

Channel Type: Type of channel mobile is getting now. Like BCCH / SDCCH/8 + SACCH/C8 or. Channel Mode : Shows mode of coding like Speech Full Rate of Half Rate. Speech Codec: It shows FR for Full Rate, HR for Half Rate & EFR for Enhanced Full Rate. Ciphering Algorithm : It shows ciphering algorithm used by the system. E.g. Cipher by A5/2. Sub Channel Number: It is displayed at a time when mobile is on dedicated mode at time of call setup when it is getting SDCCH at that time it shows which SDCCH it is getting out of 8 available.
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Over View of TEMS’s GUI
• •

Cont’d

Hopping Channel : It shows that current sector is having hopping feature or not. Values are Yes or No. Hopping Frequencies : It displays no. of freq. on which mobile is allowed to hop. viz. MA List for hopping of that sector. Mobile Allocation Index Offset (MAIO): It is the number which tells from which freq. from given MA list for sector hopping has to be started. E.g. 0 means sector will start from first freq. to hop. Hopping Sequence Number (HSN) : Indicates sequence in which frequencies are allowed to hop from the MA List. 0- 63. 0 for Cyclic Hopping, 1 – 63 random hopping sequences.

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Over View of TEMS’s GUI

Cont’d

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Observations during Drive Test
• DT Order and Locating BTS.
Obtain BIC, Azimuth and Tilt of newly installed or complained BTS. Now using Map-Info software to locate the BTS.

• On Air the Site ( Newly Installed).
Confirm the azimuth and tilt of antenna. As it will confirm the coverage area. Use Map-Info to locate the premises of BTS.
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Observations during Drive Test
• Starting The Drive Test
INTRA CELL
o During DT, observe the intra cell handover. o DT should be Clock wise and Counter Clock wise.

Cont’d

INTER CELL
o Performs DT to check handover among cells. o Observe in both Idle and dedicated mode. o Checking is done of SQI, Rx Level, call establishing , call dropping up to 9 km of each cell.

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Observations during Drive Test
• Starting The Drive Test
TRX ( Transceiver)
o During DT, observe the intra cell handover. o DT should be Clock wise and Counter Clock wise.

Cont’d

GPRS
o Either service is enable or disable o In DT observe the service of operator.

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Observations during Drive Test
• Dropped Calls

Cont’d

There are wide possibilities of call drop, they can be observed by Call drop analysis.
o Elaborate the drop call ratio, use cell with more complains. o Check the causes and factors of call drop in that cell. o Also check the ratio of fail handovers

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Observations during Drive Test
• Handover Performance

Cont’d

Hand over is a key function in Cellular communication. Handover Performance can effect QoS. Cell stats must be observed for atleast 24 hours.

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TEMS’s Screen Shots

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TEMS’s Screen Shots

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TEMS’s Screen Shots

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TEMS’s Screen Shots

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TEMS’s Screen Shots

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Running of TEMS investigation
on previous logs

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Thank you

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Refrences
• • • • • TEMS and logs by Mr Muhammad Kashan. RF Optimization Syed Subhan Ali Rizvi. TEMS Parameters by Nirav Trivedi. Wikipedia. MapInfo – Official training manuals

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