ARCHI TECT’ S GUI DE TO

Feng Shui
EXPLODING THE MYTH
This Page Intentionally Left Blank
ARCHI TECT’ S GUI DE TO
Feng Shui
EXPLODING THE MYTH
BY
CATE BRAMBLE
AMSTERDAM BOSTON HEIDELBERG LONDON
NEW YORK OXFORD PARIS SAN DIEGO
SAN FRANCISCO SINGAPORE SYDNEY TOKYO
Architectural Press
An imprint of Elsevier
Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8DP
200 Wheeler Road, Burlington, MA 01803
First published 2003
Copyright © 2003, Cate Bramble. All rights reserved
The right of Cate Bramble to be identified as the author of this work
has been asserted in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and
Patents Act 1988
No part of this publication may be reproduced in any material form
(including photocopying or storing in any medium by electronic means
and whether or not transiently or incidentally to some other use of this
publication) without the written permission of the copyright holder except
in accordance with the provisions of the Copyright, Designs and Patents
Act 1988 or under the terms of a licence issued by the Copyright
Licensing Agency Ltd, 90 Tottenham Court Road, London, England W1T
4LP. Applications for the copyright holder's written permission to
reproduce any part of this publication should be addressed
to the publisher
Permissions may be sought directly from Elsevier’s Science and
Technology Rights Department in Oxford, UK: phone: (+44) (0) 1865 843830;
fax: (+44) (0) 1865 853333; e-mail: permissions@elsevier.co.uk. You may
also complete your request on-line via the Elsevier homepage
(http://www.elsevier.com), by selecting ‘Customer Support’ and then
‘Obtaining Permissions’
British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
Library of Congress Cataloguing in Publication Data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the Library of Congress
ISBN 0 7506 56069
Typeset by Newgen Imaging Systems (P)Ltd, Chennai, India
Printed and bound in Great Britain
For information on all Architectural Press publications
visit our website at www.architecturalpress.com
Contents
Acknowledgements vii
Foreword ix
Chapter 1
Introduction: global perspective 3
Chapter 2
Expert rules 17
Chapter 3
Protoscientific and pseudoscientific
conventions 35
Chapter 4
Calculations 57
Chapter 5
Planning 67
Chapter 6
Environmental assessment 85
4 9
3 5
8 1
vi Contents
Chapter 7
Human factors 111
Chapter 8
Crime and its relation to the
environment 127
Chapter 9
Structures 133
Chapter 10
An overview of the theory of
time and space 141
Chapter 11
Form and shape theory in
time and space theory 147
Chapter 12
Services 151
Chapter 13
Overlooked and overblown issues of drainage,
water supply and storage, ventilation, electrical
supply and installation, lighting, and sound 157
Chapter 14
Building elements 165
Chapter 15
Resources 173
Bibliography 177
Index 193
Acknowledgements
I have always relied on the kindness of strangers. This book would
be about parrots had I not had the good luck to study with Master
Larry Sang and to meet Master Joseph Yu, Joey Yap and
Grandmaster Yap Cheng Hai (whose generosity widened my world
to include Master Eva Wong, Master Raymond Lo, and many other
notables in this global community). I may never be able to thank all
of you enough but I will keep trying.
I am also deeply grateful to my friends, most notably Danny Thorn,
Elizabeth Moran, Nani Shaked, and Nancy Chen, who supplied
endless hours of advice, suggestions, enlightenment, encourage-
ment, and humour. Joey Yap and Grandmaster Yap provided
much-needed wisdom. Architects Simona Mainini and David Wong
were kind enough to read the manuscript and provide a much-
needed reality check. Loraine Scott, I cannot thank you enough for
the Mac that I entrusted with my thoughts. It never failed and for
that I am glad.
Without the staff at Architectural Press (Katherine, Alison, and
Elizabeth) none of this would be. Thank you all.
This Page Intentionally Left Blank
Foreword
When I first got onto the internet 5 years ago and searched about
Feng Shui, I was surprised it appeared that this ancient Chinese
practice was quite well received by westerners. However, when I
examined the websites and went to the book stores to find out what
were available, to my dismay, it was not what Feng Shui was meant
to be. I was happy when Cate Bramble’s website ‘Feng Shui for
Dummies’ caught my eyes. The articles not only showed that Cate
was sincere about learning Feng Shui, she was brave enough to
declare war on what was not. She continues to make an effort to
fulfill her mission and her website grows to become ‘Feng Shui
Ultimate Resource’ today.
A lot of Feng-Shui practices can be explained in terms of science.
A lot of Feng Shui theories will be proved using scientific approach
in the future. Although it may take another 1000 years or even
longer before scientists can explain why and how Feng Shui works,
it should be our target. Therefore, the way to study Feng Shui and
other ancient metaphysics is to use a logical system. I am glad that
Cate is following this line.
Cate’s book is timely as there are people who claim to be practising
traditional Feng Shui but they are actually promoting superstition.
This gives a bad name to Feng Shui and gives a bad impression to
scientists, architects, and interior designers. It is true that there are
phenomena that cannot be explained using science. We cannot
use this as an excuse to practise something that insults our com-
mon sense and logical reasoning. Cate’s standpoint is very firm.
x Foreword
I am sure her readers will welcome her effort to dismiss supersti-
tion disguised as Feng Shui.
I am sure architects will find traditional Feng-Shui practices
reasonable after reading this book. We can expect more and more
architects will be interested in designing houses in accordance with
Feng Shui principles.
Joseph Yu
Chapter 1
Introduction: global perspective
Macrocosm to microcosm
The jewel that we find, we stop and take it
Because we see it; but what we do not see
We tread upon.
William Shakespeare: Measure for Measure II, 1
Christopher Alexander in A Pattern Language (1977) and The
Timeless Way of Building (1979) says there is only one way to cre-
ate human structures that express our humanity and aliveness.
Perhaps that explains why Benoit Mandelbrot saw fractal structures
only in classic architecture.
1
There must be something to an
ancient building if it has managed to sustain us for thousands of
years and still compels innovative thinkers to return to its fertile
roots.
We want to believe that cities developed almost accidentally,
according to political and commercial interests. We acquire that
idea from our culture, which understands life as linear history
against the traditional view of life as cyclical myth.
2
Yet, cities as we
understand them are a very recent phenomenon for human com-
munities. The current idea developed from something the Greeks
called the polis (which functioned like an extended family) but did
not form what we would identify as a ‘city’ before the European
Middle Ages. Before then, and all around the world until quite
recently, cities were an expression of the sacred.
4 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui
F|gure 1.1
v|eWed lror aoove, 0audi's Casa V||o |oo|s
as orgar|c ard l|re|ess as ary ralura| sell|rg.
Fror a rode| |r 0es|grwor|srop L|le.
James and Thorpe (1999), in Ancient Mysteries, wonder why our
ancestors shared the urge to reshape the planet for reasons that
do not look quite sane to us. Mound building, straight and wide
paths that run for kilometers to nowhere, stone monuments that
chart the movements of celestial objects, cities that align to the
cardinal directions and whose buildings can be used as astronomi-
cal instruments are part of our human heritage. Wheatley (1971),
in The Pivot of the Four Quarters, showed that urban design
expressed in a variety of Asian literature and architecture, and in
some nineteenth-century American towns, conveyed the same
designs. What were our ancestors thinking?
Human urban design in many places and times has conformed to
the same mythic vision because it most profoundly expresses what
makes us human. The planning of human habitations has generally
been meant for a larger spiritual purpose—and generally an
unconscious one.
3
Traditional habitation seeks to mirror nature’s
ways as a form of respect, and human cultures provide mythic jus-
tification for these acts. Buildings everywhere used to be imbued
Introduction: global perspective 5
F|gure 1.2
Tre 0ore ol lre Roc|
prov|des lre squared c|rc|e
ol a lrad|l|ora| ou||d|rg. Fror
a rode| |r 0es|grwor|srop
L|le.
6 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui
with magic, carefull oriented to the heavens and nearby spiritual
features of the land, and integrated with the world at large.
Planetary rotation helped us define cardinal directions which, along
with the centre, ‘here’, assumed importance for humans more than
10000 years ago. Cardinal and intercardinal directions impose
cultural structure on nature and serve as a memory aid that
strengthens and transmits modes of thought over generations.
Humans first mapped the heavens, identified the celestial land-
scape with land formations, and arranged their dwellings and cities
according to the scheme. Settlements were built to invoke these
features. Designing on this scheme revealed the underlying move-
ments of the universe.
Myth provides the ultimate technology because it uses our brain
and its capacity for memes and memeplexes to encode extremely
sophisticated information and transmit it far beyond our own time.
A culture’s myths make it possible for its members to acknowledge
reality (nature). Myth served as the original way to encode tradi-
tional knowledge, including the science of a culture.
Petroglyphs at Teotihuacán orient the city on an east–west axis
with respect to the sky and can be used for astronomy (one pair of
markers indicates the Tropic of Cancer). The Talmud says that if a
town is to be laid out in a square (which identifies what is made by
humans), its sides must correspond to the cardinal directions and
align with Ursa Major and Scorpio (Eruvim 56a). The practices of
al-qibla, built into the Ka’aba and all mosques, orient east and west
sides to sunrise at the summer solstice and sunset at the winter
solstice. The south faces of mosques and the Ka’aba align to the
rising of Suhail (Canopus). Spatial configurations like these form
part of many cultures’ scientific systems, but Westerners often can-
not breach their cultural framework and accept this understanding
of the world.
4
Jauch (1973) in Are Quanta Real? considered that cyclical move-
ment, a common feature in traditional and mythic thought, helps
humans understand the enormity of the universe—including their
own insignificance—as well as reality. (Cyclical thought, in Jauch’s
opinion, is eminently useful today as a heuristic technique simply
because it works so well.) Traditional building provides a way for
humans to be constantly reminded of their insignificance, just as
myths typically celebrate the deeds of those who humble them-
selves. The mythic model articulates a respectful interaction with
nature to draw upon its inspiration and power.
Cosmology and the city
The city of Shang was carefully laid out, it is the centre of the
four quarters; majestic is its fame, bright is its divine power; in
longevity and peace it protects us, the descendants.
From the Book of Odes
Our architecture and other cultural artefacts unconsciously reflect
ideas of cosmic order and embody our values and social reality.
They also have the potential to inspire our species’ more trouble-
some instincts to conform to specific customs. Studies indicate that
our instinctive urges can be guided merely by the presence and
arrangement of nonhuman beings, landscape, and architecture.
Introduction: global perspective 7
F|gure 1.3
Tre 0|ooe Trealre ol
E||zaoelrar Erg|ard lealures
c|ass|c srapes a||gred lor
good v|eW|rg, ard acousl|cs.
Voreover, lre ou|| ol lre
ou||d|rg ||es al lre oac|. Fror
a rode| |r 0es|grwor|srop
L|le.
To the ancients, subtly persuading humans to be their best meant
creating habitations in harmony with nature. The ancients
assessed all probable consequences of erecting a structure on the
balance of nature and designed for the relationship between a
building and the cosmos. Out of Greek geometry a few centuries ago
Western culture fashioned the concept of ‘sacred geometry’ to
supply a spiritual plan for monumental architecture.
5
However,
thousands of years earlier Chinese culture devised its own system—
a radically different approach to addressing the same issues.
Careful planning in traditional building was essential—especially
with capital cities, which assumed the responsibility for the welfare
of a state. What you see in the planning of a traditional city—and
especially in the planning of premodern Chinese cities—flows from
what Mircea Eliade identified as the sacred practice of building.
6
Reality is a function by which humans imitate
the celestial archetype
Trinh Xuan Thuan in Chaos and Harmony (2001) sees the universe
applying certain laws to create diversity. Harmony supplies the pat-
tern and chaos supplies creative freedom. All the high cultures of
Asia and most of the high cultures of the premodern world built
their cities as a terrestrial celebration of the universe.
8 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui
F|gure 1.4
A |arge corp|ex |||e Krossos
lo||oWs lre c|ass|c srapes, oul
|l a|so or||||arl|y corveys lre
ger|us ol lre soc|ely lral cor-
slrucled |l. Fror a rode| |r
0es|grwor|srop L|le.
The traditional worldview of Chinese culture supplies a profound
cosmology for generating symbolism. A Chinese city was built only
after a considerable list of requirements was satisfied. Local
influences (xingqi), dynamic powers of what an ancient Roman
might call the genius loci or ‘spirit’ of a place, were determined
before construction in accordance with the shape of local terrain
and the stars and planets wheeling overhead. No expense was
spared to ensure that the city conformed to traditional design
principles. Space–time is paramount in the traditional ideology of
Chinese building, which resides in the ‘Kaogong ji’ (Manual of
Crafts) section of the Zhou li. The site and date for groundbreaking
had to be confirmed by heaven in advance. In the Book of Odes
one Neolithic ruler consults tortoise shells to obtain information
whether a particular area offers the appropriate place and time for
construction.
Introduction: global perspective 9
F|gure 1.5
Tre Parlreor corp|ex |s a||gred
syrrelr|ca||y oul lo||oWs lre pal-
lerrs rurars expecl. Fror a
rode| |r 0es|grwor|srop L|le.
10 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui
Humans mimic the macrocosm and the microcosm by
conducting themselves so that they maintain harmony
between the cosmos and their world
All rites used in the founding of settlements and cities seek to bring
the human world to life within the cosmic scheme. Determining
structural orientation, laying a foundation stone, and performing a
sacrifice express the primordial creation of the world.
Orienting a structure to a particular time and place creates a
microcosm of a meaningful instant. Founding rites also pull a civic
entity from the quantum world (unpredictable, invisible, no direction
of time) into the human one (visible, predictable, distinct matter and
energy, forward direction of time).
Most traditional African religions promote the idea of harmony
between humans, the natural world, and the world that cannot be
seen—which, depending on your viewpoint, could be anything from
spirits to dark matter, bacteria, and viruses. Daoist thinking con-
sists of working with the planet, even to the point of cultivating
‘uselessness’ to avoid exploitation. In China, master builders
applied the primary scientific theories of Chinese civilization to indi-
vidual structures. Significant numbers and celestial objects were
conveyed in the design of government buildings and humble
dwellings,
7
just as Renaissance artists sought to incorporate ‘divine
proportions’ in paintings and monumental architecture. Traditional
Korean architects analysed terrain before building so that
their structures did not usurp the primacy of nature. They hid or
de-emphasized necessary building or engineering devices and
accentuated natural features. Building materials were used as if
they had appeared naturally.
Reality is achieved by participating in a symbolic centre
For example, the circumpolar constellation Purple Palace (Zigong)
was the model for the palace in the Ming city of Beijing.
8
The archi-
tectural symbolism of the centre validated and demonstrated the
power of the emperor who embodied the pole star and the nation’s
subservience to the forces of nature.
Orientation techniques for defining sacred territory in
profane space emphasize the cardinal
compass directions
Many cultures established cities on cosmology. Traditional people
align primary streets to cosmic markers, establish streets on a
cosmic grid, and place major gates on the primary axes. An entire
city (including the palace and related structures) often aligns
with a direction and/or a particular celestial object. A later design
could inherited whatever symbolism accumulated over centuries if
not millennia. This made it simpler for conquerors to legitimize their
rule by utilizing native cosmology and architecture.
Carl Jung thought that four directions were part of human brain
functions, because they often appeared in people’s dreams when
they were stressed. Humans do have an automatic ‘direction
sense’ that provides a frame of reference so that we can orient
(‘east’) ourselves. This innate cognitive map typically provides four
directions (back/front, right/left) and includes a form of internal
compass that provides awareness of familiar environments.
However, it works only if we stay in our home areas. Our cognitive
map includes ‘gestalt laws’ regarding the orientation of buildings to
take advantage of solar gain.
9
Brave new world
It took approximately three centuries of aggressive work to unseat
the traditional view of the world as a holistic system—typically
known to us as ‘paganism’ or ‘primitive superstition’—and replace
it with the rational, Cartesian one. However, a tidal wave of scien-
tific discoveries threatens to resurrect this old worldview—one that
many hoped had been relegated to history (or at least restricted to
pseudoscientists, artistes, and other belittled groups). In a classic
case of ‘revenge effect’ or philosophical hubris,
10
the ancient world-
view has been partially reinstated through rational scientific inquiry
and romantic popularizers such as Fred Alan Wolf and Fritjof
Capra. Evidently, everything is more closely linked than previously
Introduction: global perspective 11
thought, so that the effects of actions are likely to be more widely
felt than previously acknowledged.
11
This is a scary thought to
people who have not adjusted to ideas of nonlinear systems,
quantum mechanics, and chaos theory (sensitivity to initial
conditions)—the scientific concepts that overthrew reductionism
and renewed interest in the ancient worldview.
Claude Lévi-Strauss anticipated that science would eventually be
sophisticated enough to explain the validity of mythological thinking
and help us to close the gap between our mindset and the rest of
the universe. Science can explain how much of what makes us
human is built on metaphors for our experience of the natural
world.
12
Now we have a better understanding of why myth cannot
and should not be eradicated. It is time to engage the natural world
and ancient traditions before they disappear and humanity goes
completely insane.
We have met a traditional human—us
Humans are a product of the natural world and our bodies respond
favourably to the introduction of natural elements because we are
‘hard-wired’ that way.
12 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui
F|gure 1.ô
Tre Perlagor corveys c|ass|c
des|gr |r a lavoured srape
ol v|lruv|us. Prolo lror u3
0eparlrerl ol 0elerse.
A substantial body of research indicates that human concepts of
what Jiahua Wu (1995) calls ‘landscape aesthetics’ construct the
natural world before the Industrial Revolution. Across national,
racial, and cultural differences, humans largely tend to choose an
unspectacular or even mediocre natural setting over an urban
setting devoid of nature. A large and consistent volume of research
demonstrates the stress-reducing effects of natural settings and
human observation of animals. Other studies conclude that an
appreciation of natural pattern, natural beauty, and natural harmony
are part of humanity’s genetic makeup.
If we succeed in replacing the natural world that shaped us with
objects of our own design our entire species is likely to go mad—if
we are not nearly there already. Science advises us that the
natural world preserves our mental health. That is why pets, ponds,
wild animals, and views of parks and waves reduce our blood
pressure and lower the production of adrenaline. Contrary to
conventional wisdom, crime rates drop when the amount of vege-
tation around us increases.
Humans associate relaxation and peacefulness with natural
settings that include a water feature. We prefer calm water
before us to refresh us and to offer a soothing view. We prefer the
presence of vegetation and animals in our vicinity, and desire a
mountain or other imposing natural feature at our backs. Our early,
not-quite-human ancestors also located their settlements this way.
We also prefer the mechanics and infrastructure of modern living
to be quiet and unobtrusive. Feng shui’s ideal conditions for human
happiness and well-being are programmed into our genes.
Traditional methods of feng shui supply a creative problem-solving
system to analyse the built and natural environments and to better
understand and improve the quality of life. This traditional, sustain-
able philosophy provides time-honoured techniques of environ-
mental protection. On an extremely simplified level, feng shui can
be understood as an attempt to re-establish a dialogue between
humanity’s deepest needs and our long-estranged, much-abused
planet.
Introduction: global perspective 13
A final note
This book is not designed as self-help for the study of feng shui.
You can locate the worthwhile self-help books in Chapter 15, but
none can provide instruction on all aspects of authentic feng shui
and none can compare to study with a competent instructor. What
this book hopes to provide is factual information on aspects of
authentic feng shui practise, and suggestions on integrating princi-
ples of traditional feng shui into the modern practise of architecture.
It hopes to offer a perspective on scientific principles that seem to
underpin certain aspects of the traditional practice.
You definitely will not find much ‘new age’ thinking in these pages
because that mindset has nothing to do with feng shui. Traditional
feng shui is part of Chinese traditional science (ethnoscience) and
follows a long history of interactions and knowledge of the world—
empirical knowledge built up over generations and grounded in
practical evidence.
13
It also emphasizes attachment to place. Anything
‘new age’ (and especially ‘new age’ feng shui which I call McFengshui)
is just nineteenth-century spiritual and occult ideology in posh
packaging.
14
Moreover, ‘new age’ feng shui has no basis in tradi-
tional science, legitimate science, or traditional practices.
If feng shui is going to work in the modern world it has to meet the
world’s criteria. Let us see if it can.
Notes
1
Researcr oased or aer|a| prolos ol lrad|l|ora| sell|ererls |r Wesl ard cerlra| Alr|ca
sroWs lral lrey lerd lo rave a lracla| slruclure (sca||rg |r slreel orarcr|rg, recurs|ve rec-
largu|ar erc|osures, c|rc|es ol c|rcu|ar dWe|||rgs, elc.). Trese are lre resu|l ol |rlerl|ora|
des|grs ard are lourd |r olrer areas ol Alr|car raler|a| cu|lure.
2
Vylr, |r ore arlrropo|og|sl's v|eW, creales lre |||us|or lral rurars car corlro| ard cor-
p|ele|y urderslard lre ur|verse.
3
lr lre preva|||rg sc|erl|l|c v|eW, rurars process v|sua| |rlorral|or ouls|de lre|r locus ol
allerl|or; sore say lr|s rappers auloral|ca||y (Craver, 2002). Vosl ol Wral rappers
W|lr|r us |s oeyord our perceplua| rarge. Corsc|ous ard urcorsc|ous |rlerprelal|ors ard
rol|ves oller corl||cl. Peop|e arourd us gerera||y |roW oeller aooul Wral |s go|rg or |rs|de
us lrar We do, oased or lre|r ooserval|ors ol our oerav|our (w||sor, 2002).
14 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui
1
3ee Josepr (1991) ard Ascrer (2002).
5
0eorelry |s lourd |r a|| ou||d|rgs oul Cr|rese georelry |s rol weslerr georelry÷ro
Cr|rese rour correspords lo 'lr|arg|e' lor exarp|e. lr Cr|rese georelry, slra|grl ||res are
Waler, po|rled srapes are l|re, rourd srapes are so||/earlr, curved srapes are Wood, ard
square srapes are rela|.
ê
3ee E||ade (1991).
Z
Trad|l|ora||y, ore parl ol ar |rper|a| pa|ace |r a cap|la| Was rared Ta|¡|, aller lre po|e
slar. 8e|j|rg |s sorel|res |roWr as Z|¡|n 0neng, lre Po|ar Foro|dder C|ly.
8
Z|ue| ,uan (Purp|e Courl) cors|sls ol severa| slars |r lre corsle||al|or weslerrers |roW
as 0raco. Tre cosro|ogy oer|rd Cr|rese use ol lre c|rcurpo|ar slars |s very arc|erl.
9
3ee Jorrssor (2002, pp. 31ê-1Z).
10
Tre revenge ellecr, rucr |||e lre LaW ol ur|rlerded Corsequerces, |s del|red as lre
s|lual|or Wrer reW slruclures, dev|ces, ard orgar|srs reacl W|lr rea| peop|e ard rea| crea-
lures |r rea| s|lual|ors |r Ways lral Were rol loreseer or |rlerded. Trese are cors|dered
sysler ellecls ard lrey car oe l|grl|y or |oose|y coup|ed. Corp|ex|ly ra|es |l d|ll|cu|l lo
delerr|re roW a sysler r|grl acl. A l|grl|y coup|ed sysler car creale proo|ers lror lre
oeg|rr|rg. Corp|ex|ly ard l|grl coup||rg creale a r|grer polerl|a| lor reW d|saslers, espe-
c|a||y ol g|ooa| proporl|ors.
11
3pec|es |r a var|ely ol rao|lals rave oeer sroWr lo oe gerera||y W|lr|r lrree ||r|s ol ore
arolrer, W|lr lre average ruroer ol ||r|s oelWeer orgar|srs oe|rg jusl lWo. FeW spec|es
|r a corrur|ly are lour ||r|s lror eacr olrer. Tr|s rears lral every spec|es |s eco|og|ca||y
correcled lo every olrer spec|es |r a corrur|ly (0urre el a|., 2002; w||||ars el a|., 2002).
12
3ee La|oll ard Jorrsor (1999).
13
Elrrosc|erce |s lre sludy ol |rleracl|ors ard ol lrad|l|ora| |roW|edge ol lre Wor|d. ll |s
oased or lre Wor| ol laro|d Cor|||r arorg lre laruroo ol lre Pr|||pp|res |r lre 1950s.
Trad|l|ora| peop|e are gerera||y recogr|zed oy sc|erce as a polerl|a| source ol |roW|edge.
lrleresl|rg|y, Josepr Needrar crarp|ored lre v|eW lral lerg sru| |s ar elrrosc|erce, par-
l|a||y or lre lacl lral |ls pr|rc|p|es lo||oW lre sc|erl|l|c rode| ard are oased or ca|cu|al|ors
ard corp|ex ralreral|ca| lorru|ae.
11
3ee Krupp (1991, p. 320). 'NeW age' a|so draWs upor d|sluro|rg r|releerlr-cerlury
cu|lura| lreres, a|org W|lr apoca|ypl|c v|s|ors lror lre V|dd|e Ages (see 0oodr|c|-C|ar|e,
1992; Corr, 2001).
Introduction: global perspective 15
Chapter 2
Expert rules
If a man climbs a mountain, the oxen below look like sheep and
the sheep like hedgehogs.
Yet their real shape is different.
It is a question of the observer’s viewpoint.
From the Lushi chunqiu
T
he theories of yin and yang and the five elements (wuxing)
form the philosophical basis of traditional Chinese science.
Professor Liu Yanchi (1998) suggests the best way for a
Westerner to appreciate these theories may be to think of them in
terms of concepts like systems theory (which blends the study of
quantities with the study of form or pattern) and complexity theory
(which tries to explain how something might begin from a random
or chaotic state and yet produce complex order).
1
Concepts of
disorder and randomness—also called chaos—are included in the
study of complex systems. Scientifically, a child’s room is not ‘a
cluttered mess’, it is a ‘complex environment’ (complex can refer to
deliberately created anarchy and to random messiness).
The theories of yin and yang and the five elements also contain the
concept of resonance, ganying, which is something like the
so-called butterfly effect.
2
Neils Bohr sounded like a Daoist when
he said that one cannot assume the universe has separate and
independent units. In Chinese thinking, the Dao or Naturally So
embraces and underlies all things, and a disturbance in one area
of a system resonates in another. Science shows us this side of the
world. People used to think elephants were psychic or something
because of their ‘uncanny’ abilities to find one another over long
distances—now we know they communicate infrasonically.
3
Bacteria ‘talk’ through the air and they transmit information that
apparently confers antibiotic resistance.
4
Microbes and marine
algae seemingly use clouds to further their own ends and may in
fact control our planet’s climate.
5
In the traditional mind, activity and anomalies in the sky connect to
events on Earth—this can be broadly interpreted as the earliest
18 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui
a)
understanding of space weather (see Chapter 3). Ancient Greeks
thought that celestial bodies actually changed the Earth, while
Babylonians and Chinese believed that there was only a corre-
spondence. A Babylonian textbook for celestial forecasters
explained that aerial phenomena, like terrestrial phenomena, pro-
vide ‘signals’ for us. People heeded these ‘signals’ to understand
local manifestations of cosmic energy.
Yin yang theory
[The natural] laws are not forces external to things, but rep-
resent the harmony of movement immanent in them.
An excerpt from the Yi jing
This theory uses an explanation of motion and changes in nature as
its foundation. It is used with its corollary wuxing (five-element theory)
in understanding and interpreting nature with the stated goal of
harmonization.Yin yang theory, categorized by some as the ancients’
understanding of fractals and complexity theory, and wuxing provide
ecological techniques for approaching and appreciating nature.
Professor Liu Yanchi characterized the relationship of yin and yang
of the following aspects:
● Opposition. Yin and yang consist of two stages of a cyclical, even
wavelike, continually changing relationship; the terms explain the
intrinsic contradictions of natural objects or phenomena.
● Interdependence and intertransformation. Yin and yang are not
independent because they can change into each other. This is a
difficult concept for Westerners, whose thinking typically oscil-
lates between is and is not. In Chinese science, just as in
Western complexity theory, phenomena are more readily
accepted as inherently paradoxical.
6
● Dynamic balance. The qualities of yin and yang counter and
complement because they exist in oscillating flux.
7
This tension
of opposites expresses as unity—the Taiji or Supreme Ultimate,
which is both first and last (see Figure 2.1)—and creates a
potential that might manifest energy at any time.
8
Expert rules 19
20 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui
In our universe of constant change there is the Taiji, the centre as
Dao, and zero, a unified representation of Liang Yi, the two primal
energies (yin and yang, which suggest that the universe is inher-
ently female because its primary representation is ‘cracked in two’).
Taiji also identifies the circumpolar region.
9
The Taiji evolved into
four images, the si-xiang that refer to four original constellations
(dragon, tiger, turtle, and bird) divided along the celestial equator
to indicate astronomical markers (two solstices and two
equinoxes).
10
These four images, in turn, evolved into eight
elemental trigrams to represent all cosmic and physical conditions
affecting living beings and also to identify the winds and direc-
tions.
11
From earliest times the eight symbols or bagua have been
associated with astronomical and topographical features, while the
number five at the centre preserved the original astronomical
meaning.
Phenomena can be defined in yin yang theory as gradients on a
scale of complete yin and yang. There are also opposing states of
accumulation—yang for lighter things, yin for heavier things. Yang
expands and rises, creates and activates. At its purest and most
rarefied, yang is entirely immaterial and consists of pure energy.
Yin condenses and materializes, contracts and descends. Yin at its
F|gure 2.1
Tre Ta|¡| (3uprere u|l|rale),
corslrucled aslroror|ca||y us|rg
a groror.
most coarse and dense is matter. One famous representation of
yin–yang generation is shown in Figure 2.2.
Westerners see matter and energy in terms of the first law of thermo-
dynamics, with energy constantly transforming to matter and vice
versa. Substitute yang for ‘energy’ and yin for ‘matter’ and you have
a basic understanding of yin yang theory. Table 2.1 describes some
of the many qualitative aspects of yin yang theory.
Wuxing (five element theory)
Try to explain wuxing to Westerners and you invariably run into the
five Greek elements, which were in fact material substances—
Earth, air, fire, water, and quintessence. (Unfortunately, the Greeks
did not know about chemical elements; they also did not know that
Expert rules 21
F|gure 2.2
Evo|ul|or ol y|r ard yarg, aller 3rao Yorg. 0a|,ang (o|d, slao|e yarg) ard X|ao,|n (yourg,
crarg|rg y|r) are surrer so|sl|ce ard spr|rg equ|rox, respecl|ve|y. 0a|,|n (o|d, slao|e y|r)
ard X|ao,ang (yourg, crarg|rg yarg) are W|rler so|sl|ce ard aulurra| equ|rox, respec-
l|ve|y. Tre or|g|ra|, 'crargeao|e' lr|grars are lre so-ca||ed Easl 0roup ol Kar ard Xur,
L| ard Zrer. Tre 'slao|e' lr|grars are lre wesl 0roup ol Kur ard 0er, 0u| ard 0|ar.
22 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui
Tab|e 2.1
3ore qua||lal|ve aspecls ol y|r ard yarg
0ua||l|es ol yarg 0ua||l|es ol y|r
Aoove 8e|oW
lrlers|ly Pers|slerce
8ac| s|de Frorl s|de
8r|grl 0ar|
Corluc|ar|sr 0ao|sr
0ay N|grl
0ry wel
Easl wesl
Expard Corlracl
Fasl 3|oW
Fealures ol |ardscape Rela|red Waler
F|re waler
F|y wa||
Furcl|or 3lruclure
0ererale 0roW
lard 3oll
lrraler|a| Valer|a|
lrlerl|ora||ly Pass|v|ly
Lell R|grl
No|sy 0u|el
Noor V|dr|grl
Norlr ol lre ec||pl|c 3oulr ol lre ec||pl|c
0uls|de lrs|de
Produce erergy Produce lorr
0|
1
F|u|ds
Rap|d 0radua|, ||rger|rg
Resl|ve 3l|||
R|se 0escerd
Rourd F|al
3roolr Rougr
3oulr Norlr
3urrer so|sl|ce w|rler so|sl|ce
3ur Voor
T|re 3pace
1
D| (|r ear||er syslers rerdered cn´| ) |rp||es rary lr|rgs lo weslerrers÷
rosl ol lrer |rappropr|ale. (us|rg lre Word 'erergy' lo rear q| car oe r|s-
|ead|rg; |derl|ly|rg q| as 'lre Force' as |r $rar wars |s |ud|crous.) D| car reler
lo lre acl|v|ly ol ||le (ard lo lre lrad|l|ora| r|rd ||le |s ar aspecl ol oe|rg). ll
car a|so reler lo rood or lo ar acl|ve |rl|uerce (perraps sorelr|rg aud|lory,
alrosprer|c, oacler|a|, v|ra|, or crer|ca|). lr Cr|rese sc|erce, ruroers (snu)
a|org W|lr pr|rc|p|es (|| ) ard q| descr|oe ard d|recl roW ralure lurcl|ors.
atoms do not exhibit the geometrical structures they assigned to
them.) Wuxing does not express this thinking at all. The term actu-
ally identifies processes, qualities, and phases of cycles, inherent
capabilities, or changing phenomena. At its most basic, according to
Professor Liu, wuxing explains how systems (objects or phenomena)
contain structural qualities that interact with each other and how
these interactions produce outcomes in predictable patterns. A sci-
entist can describe the cycle of life on Earth in a wavelike motion
according to wuxing as living creatures coming out of rocks and going
back into rocks, and explain H
2
O in ‘phases’ of water, steam, and ice.
Wuxing provides a framework for viewing the components of any
system, their relationship, and the pattern of motion based on their
interaction. With wuxing we can employ analogy to understand the
world. We can use the obvious qualities of one system to describe
unknown and/or unspecified qualities of another. We can explain
the behaviour of objects and phenomena in nature, including
cycles of change over time.
The ancients selected common natural materials—wood, fire,
Earth, metal, and water
12
—to characterize the behaviour of all
natural objects and phenomena. Each symbol represents an ana-
logy with its own rules for actions and results of movement for any
phenomenon or object. Positive outcomes occur in xiang sheng
(mutual production, the order of wood–fire–soil–metal–water) and
negative outcomes occur in xiang ke (mutual destruction, the order
of metal–wood–soil–water–fire). Table 2.2 depicts one of innumer-
able Chinese ‘analogy maps’ of five element theory.
Time and space
Perhaps it was during the period of the Yin (Shang) (fourteenth to
eleventh centuries BCE) that astronomers divided the celestial
circle into the four ‘palaces’ (animals) consisting of four wedges
oriented to the cardinal points—the shape of the character ya.
13
After all, the Shang believed their world was shaped like a ya. In
Chinese thought, connecting the four points within the celestial
Expert rules 23
24 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui
Tab|e 2.2
A Cr|rese ara|ogy rap ol l|ve e|ererl lreory
wood/vegelal|or F|re Earlr/so|| Vela| waler
Earlr|y Y|r, Vao 3|, wu Four seasors 3rer, You la|, Z|
orarcres
1
3easora| 3pr|rg equ|rox 3urrer 8elWeer Aulurra| w|rler
rar|er
2
so|sl|ce equ|rox so|sl|ce
Co|our 8|uegreer Red Ye||oW wr|le, 8|ac|,
rela|||c p|ur-o|ac|
Corsle||al|or
3
8|uegreer Red o|rd, Ce|esl|a| rorlr wr|le l|ger, Vysler|ous
dragor, Znuque po|e, 3e|¡| 3a|nu Turl|e-Warr|or,
0ang|ong Xuanuu
1
Corpass Easl 3oulr Cerlre (or wesl Norlr
po|rl
5
'rere')
Lurar |odges Jue, Karg, 0orj|rg, Ku|, Lou, Nardou, N|u,
(x|u)
ê
0|, Farg, X|r, Yugu|, L|u, we|, Vao, 8|, Xuru, Xu,
we|, J| 0|x|rg, Z|x|, 3rer we|, Y|rgsr|,
Zrarg, Y|, 0orgo|
Z
Zrer
0rgar L|ver learl 3p|eer Lurg K|drey
P|arel Year 3lar, $u| 3par|||rg 0ue|||rg 3lar, 0real wr|le, Crrorograpr
(Jup|ler) 0e|uder, Zneng (3alurr) Ta| oa| or 3lar, 0nen
Rongnuo Execul|orer's (Vercury)
(Vars) 3lar (verus)
Process/acl|v|ly lrcreas|rg yarg, Vax|rur Polerl|a| ard lrcreas|rg Vax|rur
rea||zed Wood yarg, rea||zed y|r, rea||zed y|r, rea||zed
rea||zed l|re Earlr/so|| rela| Waler
Ce|esl|a| slers
8
J|a, Y| 8|rg, 0|rg wu, Cr| 0erg, X|r Rer, 0u|
T|re 3urr|se Noor 8elWeer 3ursel V|dr|grl
wealrer (ard w|rdy lol lur|d 0ry Co|d
palroger|c
laclors)
w|rd 8r|grl 8r||||arl, 0ale ol 8road
aourdarce, J|ng leaver, d|rress,
V|ngsnu 0nangne Suangmo
Y|r yarg Yarg W|lr|r y|r Yarg W|lr|r 8uller or Y|r W|lr|r Y|r W|lr|r y|r
lreory yarg reulra| yarg
Expert rules 25
1
TWe|ve orarcres eacr |rd|cale a rorlr ol lre year ard eacr 'rorlr' rar|s ar Earlr-year |r lre oro|l
ol Jup|ler (rourded lo 12 years lror ar aclua| 11.8ê years) ard lre rovererl ol Ta|su|, a|so |roWr as
0a|,|n. Vovererls ol 0a,|n/Ta|su| Were |rd|caled or lre sn|, a 0|r-era ooard lerlal|ve|y |derl|l|ed as lre
or|g|ra| lerg-sru| |rslrurerl. 0a,|n ca|cu|al|ors Were parl ol r|||lary lorecasl|rg, accord|rg lo lre X|ngoe
lexls urearlred al VaWargdu|, ard 0a,|n (as Ta|su|) |s sl||| ca|cu|aled |r lerg sru|. Tre orarcres are
a|so parl ol lre 21 Vourla|rs sequerce (see Crapler 3). F|ve ru|l|p|es ol 12 orarcres |rd|cale lre
Jup|ler cyc|e ol grard corjurcl|ors W|lr 3alurr (5ϫ12ϭê0). Ta|su| |s lre 'r|r|sler ol l|re' W|lr a slall
ol 120; |r ar urpror|s|rg aspecl |l rarrs rores ard aryore or a lrorougrlare.
2
Trese |rd|cale lre yarg area ol Earlr (aoove lre ec||pl|c); oov|ous|y, lre seasors Wou|d oe
reversed lor lre y|r area (oe|oW lre ec||pl|c) oul ro olrer des|gral|ors crarge÷Wrelrer aoove or
oe|oW lre ec||pl|c We ||ve or lre sare p|arel ard everyore exper|erces days ol equa| |erglr al lre
equ|roxes.
3
lr 18Z5, 0uslav 3cr|ege| puo||sred uranograpn|e 0n|no|se ard lre slurr|rg rypolres|s lral sore
Cr|rese corsle||al|ors car oe daled lo 15 ê00 8CE. Ju||us 3laa| lrars|aled 3cr|ege|'s ooo| ard
erp|oyed a Ze|ss p|arelar|ur projeclor lo reproduce 3cr|ege|'s Wor|. 3laa| puo||sred r|s l|rd|rgs |r
$rars ol Jaoe (1981). urlorlurale|y, r|s Wor| ras rol rece|ved a greal dea| ol allerl|or. Recerl ara|yses
ol 'slar raps' dep|cled |r sore grollos al Lascaux suggesl lral 3cr|ege|'s rypolres|s srou|d oe lu||y
|rvesl|galed. 3upposed|y, lre '|arge ra||' corla|rs |rlorral|or or a reW year ce|eoraled al lre aulurra|
equ|rox. Tre ca|erdar used oy lre peop|e Wro crealed lre Wor|s |r Lascaux ray rave co||aled lre greal
so|ar year (18 yearsϫ3ϭ51 years) ard lre |urar year (18ϩ19ϩ19ϭ5ê years).
1
lr sore represerlal|ors lr|s ar|ra| eroraces a sra|e, Wr|cr srou|d |rslead oe |rlerpreled as a
dragor. X|u seclor J| ol lre dragor corla|rs ar arc|erl corsle||al|or |roWr as 3|e (Turl|e), lre arc|erl
vers|or ol XuarWu (0orona /usrra||s, rear lre erd ol 3corp|o). Tengsne, lre sra|e ol reaver ard lre
aWa|er|rg serperl, |s parl ol XuarWu (lre weslerr corsle||al|or ol a|pna lacerrae). Tr|s lurl|e a|so
ecroes Ao lre greal sea lurl|e Wrose |egs Were used oy lre greal goddess Nu 0ua lo supporl lre Wor|d
aller lre l||l|rg ol lre Earlr's ax|s. 8|e's sre|| ras lre rar||rgs ol corsle||al|ors (lre oagua); r|s read |s
sra|e-sraped ard r|s rec| |s dragor-sraped. Turl|e ard sra|e al rorlr lourd lre|r Way |rlo lre
/mr|ramanrnana as Kasryapa, lre ce|esl|a| p|vol.
5
lr lre r|relo|d screre ol lerg sru|, lre r|re l|e|ds cors|sl ol a c|rc|e surrourded oy e|grl Wedges
exlerd|rg |r e|grl d|recl|ors. Tr|s de||real|or |s rade oy arcs Wrose r|dpo|rls correspord lo card|ra|
ard |rlercard|ra| d|recl|ors. 'Norlr' |s 15Њ or e|lrer s|de ol ce|esl|a| rorlr ard lre 'rorlrerr seclor' |s 22.5Њ
or e|lrer s|de ol ce|esl|a| rorlr (Vajor, 1993, pp. 3ê-8).
ê
Trese ara|og|es rel|ecl lre s|y |r lre lar era. Arourd 2300 8CE, lre l|re ol Yao accord|rg lo lre
'Yaod|ar' secl|or |r lre 3ook ol 0ocumenrs, lre seasora| |rd|calors lral lurcl|ored as card|ra| d|recl|ors
(Vao, Xu, h|ao, ano luo) Were lre sare oul le|| |r d|llererl l|res due lo lre ellecls ol precess|or, Wr|cr
roves lre slars 1Њ |r ZZ.3 years. luo (Arlares) appear|rg aoove lre easlerr ror|zor al dus| rera|ded
spr|rg |r lre Y|r (3rarg) per|od.
Z
0ongo| ard Y|ngsn| lorr Wral weslerrers ca|| lre 3quare ol Pegasus.
8
Ter slers rave oeer used s|rce 3rarg ||rgs |rsl|luled a 10-day Wee| (10 surs) ard 30-day rorlr
(10 surs appear|rg lrree l|res a rorlr). lr Yargsrao cu|lure, a lrree-|egged o|rd Was |derl|l|ed W|lr lre
ruroer 3, lre qua||ly ol yarg ard lre sur; a croW or raver |r a c|rc|e Was |derl|l|ed as lre sur. Tre
surs Were o|ac| o|rds ard lre arceslor ol lre 3rarg, 8|ac| K|rg, |s dep|cled as a oea|ed read ard
ore |arge lool, or a l|gure |r a croucr|rg pos|l|or. AleW lrousard years oelore 0ree| aslrorory, Cr|rese
ooserved surspols (poel|ca||y |roWr as 'lre lrree-|egged croW ol lre sur') lrrougr sro|y roc| crysla|s
ard ser|lrarsparerl jade. Lerses grourd lror roc| crysla| rave oeer lourd ard daled lo 2300 8CE
(lre l|re ol Yao).
circle created the equinoctial cross or ya-xing. The lower shell of a
turtle (plastron) that was used for divination also symbolized the
ya-xing. Sifang, four directions, consisted of four mythical lands
where winds originated; they surrounded a central square.
14
The
ya-xing as mandala inside the celestial circle also appears in
ancient Egypt as part of the hieroglyph for ‘the black (fertile) land’
or Kemit, as the nation was then called.
A squared circle or fang yuan represents the union of heaven and
Earth, the primary Chinese mandala tian-yuan di-fang—heaven as
round (natural world) and Earth as square (human experience and
concepts of order).
15
Although tian-yuan di-fang is visible in the
architecture of the Altar and Temple of Heaven at Beijing, it is also
built into sites of Hongshan culture at Dongshanzui, and at
Niuheliang where the southern end of the complex features a
round altar like the Temple of Heaven.
16
A rectangular building at
the north end of the Niuheliang complex reminded excavating
archaeologists of the Qinian Temple, one of the first buildings con-
structed at the Temple of Heaven.
17
Chinese traditional science established directions on the assump-
tion that one faced south (the direction of yang, heaven and ‘top’)
and kept one’s back to the north (the direction of yin, Earth and
‘bottom’).
18
The left was identified with east and sunrise (yang) and
the right was identified with west and sunset (yin). In the Northern
Hemisphere when one faces south and observes the sun it appar-
ently moves ‘clockwise’ (where we get the term, actually),
19
which
is one reason why the Taiji turns ‘clockwise’ with the white (yang
part) up and the black (yin part) down.
Things are looking up
Archaeology indicates that, from at least the Neolithic, Chinese
thinking encompassed a spatial organization with heaven above,
humanity in the middle, and Earth below. Space itself was rep-
resented as a cube with six coordinates (cardinal or intercardinal
directions plus up and down), and indicated valuation in terms of
yin (square) and yang (round).
26 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui
Analysing positions in space-time was of paramount importance to
officials in premodern China. They sited buildings according to
astronomical phenomena. At the close of the second millennium
BCE, construction on the capital of Luoyang began when the con-
stellation we call Pegasus was at its zenith. A Yangshao grave
(Banpo phase) at Xishuipo near Puyang faces its round side to the
south and its square side to the north (see Figure 2.3).
20
This site
provides additional physical proof of the antiquity of basic aspects
of feng shui. To the west of the dead chief lies a mosaic of the
ancient constellation Baihu (White Tiger) and to the east lies a
mosaic of the constellation Canglong (Bluegreen Dragon), both
with their backs to the chief. Below the dead man’s feet (to
the north) lie leg bones and shells that apparently indicate the
constellation of Beidou (what Westerners call the Plough, Wagon,
Big Dipper, and Bear). On all sides except south excavators found
the remains of other people.
Expert rules 27
F|gure 2.3
Yargsrao cr|ella|r's grave W|lr
lre dragor ard l|ger.
28 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui
An old story claims that the ancient method of siting a capital used
meridian transits at night to find the cardinal directions. This prob-
ably explains why the Shang-era sites align to celestial north of the
time they were built.
21
By employing simple astronomical techniques people determined
that solstices and equinoxes marked out a square, which was the
‘flat earth’,
22
and the heavens were visualised as moving in a
circle or on a dome overhead with the pole star as the axis of the
universe (‘the round heavens’). The Zhou li says this enabled spe-
cialists to calculate an axis mundi (a centre or ‘here’) personified by
the ruler and the pole star: ‘the place where Earth and sky meet,
where the four seasons merge, where wind and rain are gathered
in, and where yin and yang are in harmony’.
The emperor presided over the Middle Kingdom (Zhongguo) in the
position of the pole star and functioned as the pivot of Chinese civ-
ilization. Building customs imbued Chinese capitals and their rulers
with spiritual significance. Someone sitting in a house in a neigh-
bourhood of such a city could truly feel they and their nation were
at one with the cosmos.
Each month the position of the emperor’s throne was determined by
the court astronomers, who observed the sun in conjunction with the
moon in a xiu (lunar lodge) or with a particular star. The ruler varied
the direction he faced to the appropriate part of the sky. In the first
3 months of the year he faced east as he presided in the three east-
ern rooms of a nine-chambered palace called the Ming Tang
23
—first
northeast, then centre-east, and then southeast (see Figure 2.4). In
the first moon of summer the emperor faced south as he resided in
the southeast room. By facing south his spleen was to the left (east),
his lungs in front (south), his liver at right (west), his kidneys behind
(north), and his heart at the centre of the Middle Kingdom.
In this system each season was assigned a number (see Figure 2.5).
The number of spring is eight (5ϩ3, because the 5 of soil is
associated with all four seasons, and 3 is the number of the wood
element). It is displayed in the bottom-left corner of the Luoshu
magic square. The number of summer is 7 (5ϩ2) and the number
Expert rules 29
(a)
(b)
F|gure 2.4
(a) A represerlal|or ol a V|rg Targ, aller 0a| Jer. Tr|s d|agrar cou|d oe app||ed lo ou||d-
|rgs or |arge areas ol |ard. lr lr|s case, lre sra|| squares represerl W|rdoWs ard lre dar|
c|rc|es represerl rousero|ds. (o) Represerlal|or ol a V|rg Targ |r lre Zrou per|od. Tre
draW|rg represerls a p|ar ol rousero|ds (sra||er squares), Wr|cr lyp|ca||y Wou|d oe sur-
rourded oy a rea||sl|c draW|rg ol rarred-earlr Wa||s ard loWers. 0ur|rg lre Zrou per|od
a V|rg Targ cors|sled ol l|ve squares. 0ur|rg lre 0|r per|od lre V|rg Targ exparded lo
r|re squares.
30 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui
of autumn is 9 (5ϩ4), displayed at the top middle; the number of
winter is 6 (5ϩ1), which is displayed in the bottom-right corner.
The numbers shift as the months progress. The Luoshu in one
sense represents the daily circle of the sun envisioned by Neolithic
(and possibly earlier) astronomers, the seasonal cycle of nature,
the process of growth and decay. The sequence of symbols (tri-
grams) built into the diagram mark the world changing from
winter/sleep/death (Kan) to conception (Gen), birth (Zhen), adult-
hood to midlife (Kun), and old age (Qian).
Notice that the yin (even) numbers displayed at the corners and the
yang (odd) numbers form the ya character. A much later interpre-
tation regarding the construction of the Luoshu was that it was a
‘calculation of nine halls’, which could have any number of levels of
significance.
24
The diagram contains (among other things) nine
‘star-gods’, nine provinces and their emblematic cauldrons, nine
‘floating stars’, plus nine ritual steps in the pattern of Beidou—used
to stop floods and avert evil—known as the Yubu or ‘steps’ of Yu.
The Luoshu also shows agreement with ancient emblems of Sirius
and the planet Venus (both assigned the value of 15 in ancient
Western Asia), which gave rise to the so-called ‘sigil of Saturn’.
25
The kamea (amulet) of the sigil is the Luoshu, also known as the
magic square of Huangdi the Yellow Emperor—and the gematria
equivalent of the shortened form of the Tetragrammaton.
26
Rotate
the sigil of Saturn 90Њ to reveal the cone of precession (the wobble
of Earth’s axis displayed as a cone) and the seven sefirot of the
Sefer Yetzirah. The Luoshu also indicates the kabbalistic cube of
space with Shabtai (the Hebrew version of Saturn; Huangdi to
Chinese), the transmitter of mysteries, at its centre. The Luoshu
found its way from China (through Jewish and Muslim sources) to
medieval Christian Europe as a charm on dinner plates to avert
plague.
27
4 9 2
3 5 7
8 1 6
F|gure 2.5
Tre Luosru.
Expert rules 31
In the Hetu, the numbers 1 through 10 are arranged to pair an odd
number with an even number so that 5 and 10 are at the centre
(see Figure 2.6). Odd numbers add to 25, even numbers add to 30,
and all numbers added together total 55.
In legend, the Hetu discovered by Fuxi came from the Yellow River
via a ‘horse’ (synechedoche for dragon) and was traditionally writ-
ten in red. Along with red, white, and black, green was used to code
star systems on Chinese star maps, which used dark circles and
light circles connected by lines to indicate constellations. The
Luoshu ‘map’ is traditionally written in green.
Notes
1
Tre 0ao oe ¡|ng says lral Wrer peop|e d|scovered Wral 0ao Was lrey |augred al |l.
Ev|derl|y lrere |s ro urderslard|rg ol 0ao W|lroul |augrler. wrelrer |l |s a |augr ol 'No
rea||,l' or '0l coursel' |s rol spec|l|ed.
2
0erera||y allr|ouled lo EdWard Lorerlz, lre oullerl|y ellecl see|s lo exp|a|r roW seer-
|rg|y |rs|gr|l|carl acls corla|r lar-reacr|rg corsequerces (prov|ded lral cerla|r cord|l|ors
ex|sl lor sers|l|v|ly lo sra|| perluroal|ors). loWever, lrere |s ar |ssue ol sca|e: |r rary
cases Wrer sucr spec|a| cord|l|ors ex|sl, lrey are sers|l|ve lo a var|er, ol poss|o|e sra||
d|sluroarces. Lols ol oullerl||es Wou|d oe reeded lo |rl|uerce lre Wealrer÷or perraps a
leW e|eprarls Wou|d oe sull|c|erl, as lrese |arge orgar|c garderers creale ecolores ard
olrer r|croc||rales.
3
3ee Payre (1998). Tre sare corrur|cal|or relrod |s used oy g|ralles (see 3rerr, 199Z).
1
3ee lea| ard Parsors (2002).
5
3ee lar||lor ard Lerlor (1998).
8
3
5
10
4
9
F|gure 2.ô
Tre lelu.
7 2 1 6
32 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui
ê
Ev|derl|y paradox corsl|lules lre or|g|ra| corceplua| lrareWor| lor rurar oe||el
syslers (8errar, 2000).
Z
Tre lua|nanz| says lral yarg |s oorr al Z| ard y|r |s oorr al wu. X|u seclor Z| corla|rs
lre W|rler so|sl|ce. ll |s |derl|l|ed W|lr rorlr ard |ocaled al a po|rl or lre ce|esl|a| c|rc|e
equa| lo lre r|dpo|rl ol lre rorlrerr edge ol l|al, square 'earlr' or a ||re lral correcls lre
po|rls al rorlrWesl ard rorlreasl or lre ce|esl|a| c|rc|e. Tr|s excerpl lror a lar-per|od
ooo| evo|es lre lrad|l|ora| exp|aral|or ol lre or|g|rs ol lre Ta|j| |r arc|erl aslrorory. Tre
corlrasl|rg ||grl ard dar| porl|ors or F|gure 2.Z derole seasora| crarges.
8
lr lre d|agrar ca||ed lre lelu or prereaver sequerce |l |s 0|ar lral oeg|rs rovererl.
lr lre d|agrar ca||ed lre Luosru or poslreaver sequerce, acl|v|ly slarls W|lr Zrer |r lre
easl |||e a surr|se, Wr|cr slarls lre rea| Wor|d |r rol|or. Zrer ard Xur syroo||ze oeg|r-
r|rgs, 0er ard 0u| syroo||ze erd|rgs.
9
Ta|¡| relers lo lre r|dgepo|e ol a lrad|l|ora| dWe|||rg, suggesls lre cerlre ol arylr|rg as a
po|e lral lurcl|ors as a groror (ga|r|an), ard |rd|cales lre po|e slar. A lyp|ca| |||uslral|or
sroWs lre lour syroo||c ar|ra|s arrarged arourd lre Cr|rese erperor as lre po|e slar.
10
Tr|s arc|erl sysler or|g|ra||y prov|ded l|ve 'pa|aces' or 'resl|rg p|aces' lo orgar|ze lre
reavers, dWe|||rgs, ard Earlr. lr lre c|rcurpo|ar reg|or lre rard|e ol lre 0|pper, 8e|dou,
l|c|s oll lre seasors |||e a ce|esl|a| c|oc|, W|lr lre card|ra| po|rls |rd|caled oy lre
equ|roxes ard so|sl|ces.
11
Tr|s evo|ul|or |s read or a lr|grar lror lre oollor up: Earlr, rurar|ly |r lre r|dd|e, ard
lre cosros.
12
3ore Cr|rese ralura| sc|erl|sls cors|dered 0ra|r as lre s|xlr e|ererl.
13
Tre srape a|so lorred lre Cr|rese craracler represerl|rg cereror|a|, re||g|ous, ard
d|v|ralory spec|a||sls (Wral weslerrers ca|| mag|) ard lre rolrer-arceslor ol lre 3rarg.
11
3quare sell|ererls are corror |r arc|erl Cr|ra. For exarp|e, lre L|rgj|alar cu|lura|
s|le (5000 years o|d) |s s|lualed or a rorlr-soulr ax|s. Tre rorlr-cerlra| area corla|rs a
|arge square |a|d |r l|red or|c| lral lealures lWo a|lars surrourded oy graveyards. Large
slores Were p|aced |r sucr a Way lral lrey ray rave oeer used lor aslroror|ca| lurcl|ors
(Cao, 2000).
15
Ta|rud|sls exp|a|red lre square as lre prys|ca| Wor|d ard lre c|rc|e as lre sr|ll|rg ur|-
verse ol sou|s; lre 3an|r says, 'A c|rc|e |rs|de a square car rove', a||ud|rg lo lre sur ger-
eral|rg quarler cyc|es ol l|re ard seasors.

3ore experls see lre r|an-,uan o|-lang |r lre syroo||sr ol lre o| (c|rcu|ar d|s|) ard
cong (ro||oW, square luoe) urearlred W|lr Neo||lr|c Cr|rese our|a|s. 3| Were gerera||y
p|aced or lre cresls ol lre dead (ard sorel|res urder lrer as We||), Wr||e cong r|grl oe
arrarged arourd lre oody |r lre card|ra| d|recl|ors, or po|rled al lre read.
1Z
3ee Ar (1991).
)
18
A Cr|rese corpass (Luopar) reed|e apparerl|y po|rls soulr. loWever, oppos|le rag-
rel|c po|es allracl ard |||e ragrel|c po|es repe|; lre so-ca||ed 'soulr po|e' |s aclua||y our
p|arel's norrn po|e. Tre rares ol lre po|es are corverl|ors lor oppos|le erds ol a sp|r÷
lre erd ol lre sp|r ol ar alor ol cooa|l-ê0 lral l||rgs oul lre rosl e|eclrors |s Wral We ca||
'soulr'. To avo|d corlus|or, sc|erce uses lre corverl|or ol |derl|ly|rg our p|arel's rorlr
ragrel|c po|e as lre 3oulr Po|e so lral Wral We ca|| lre 'soulr geograpr|c po|e' ralcres
Wral We ca|| lre 'soulr ragrel|c po|e'. Cr|rese lrad|l|ora| sc|erl|sls rad |l r|grl lror lre
oeg|rr|rg, oul proved |l |r lre 1950s us|rg lre relrods ol roderr sc|erce÷ard earred a
Nooe| Pr|ze lor lre|r ellorls (0ard|rer, 19Z8).
19
3radoWs rove c|oc|W|se |r lre Norlrerr ler|sprere ard rove arl|c|oc|W|se |r lre
3oulrerr ler|sprere. lr lre Norlrerr ler|sprere, lre sur |s due soulr Wrer al |ls r|gr-
esl po|rl |r lre s|y or Wrer ar oojecl casls ro rol|ceao|e sradoW. lr lre 3oulrerr
ler|sprere, lre sare roorday sur |rd|cales due rorlr.
20
3ee 0org (2002). P|ac|rg our|a|s |r ou||d|rgs Was lyp|ca| ol X|rg|orgWa cu|lure |r
Cr|ra's Vorgo||a Aulororous Reg|or. loWever, as ol roW |l |s rol |roWr |l lre |arge cor-
p|ex al Cr|lerg ras ary aslroror|ca| s|gr|l|carce. louse ruroer 22 ray rave oeer lre
rore ol lre corrur|ly |eader oecause |l |s d|llererl |r s|ze ard sly|e (|l |rc|udes s|x syr-
relr|ca| co|urrs) ard corla|red de||cale p|eces ol jade. A lola| ol 150 ser|suolerrarear
dWe|||rgs (,aooong) rave oeer |ocaled (Augusl ard larrord, 2002).
21
N|rely per cerl ol surveyed X|rg|orgWa s|les are s|lualed or lerraces c|ose lo lre rorlr-
Wesl s|de ol a r|ver, or la|r|y |eve| grourd, prolecled lror lre W|rd ard lac|rg lre sur.
Aslroror|ca| s|gr|l|carce ras rol oeer corl|rred (Ta La el a|. (2002)). Zraogaooou cu|lure
apparerl|y a|so prelerred lr|s s|l|rg; lre sell|ererls so lar urearlred sroW a prelererce lor
lre rorlrWesl s|de ol a r|ver, or lre soulreasl s|de.
22
3lrarge|y, lr|s car oe ver|l|ed aslroror|ca||y or|y |l ore lrave|s lar lo lre rorlr ol Cr|ra.
23
V|rg Targ ard |ls |egerdary upper slorey L|rgla| res|de |r lre corsle||al|or Leo, as does
lre arc|erl preserce ol lre Ye||oW 0ragor (Xuan Yuan, lre or|g|ra| rare ol luargd|).
21
Tre |rp||cal|or ol r|re ra||s |s lral lr|s vers|or ol a V|rg Targ dales lror lre 0|r per|od.
25
Tre 's|g|| ol 3alurr' |s aclua||y lre syroo| ol lre p|arel's deror, Zaze|.

Tre lrad|l|ora| dales lor lre re|gr ol lre Ye||oW Erperor (2ê9Z-259Z 8CE) rougr|y cor-
respord lo Prase ll ol way|ard's 3r|lry |r lre uK. Semarr|a |s ralreral|ca| |rlorral|or
|r a poel|c lorr.
2Z
For rore ralreral|ca| r|slory ol lr|s rag|c square see Josepr, pp. 118-5ê.
Expert rules 33
Chapter 3
Protoscientific and pseudoscientific
conventions
A
rchitects have to live down the stereotype of the architect-
hero in Ayn Rand’s The Fountainhead. Feng shui suffers
the stereotypes of ‘geomancy’,
1
superstition, and
pseudoscience—never mind that feng shui was the original method
of measuring local bioclimatic conditions.
A willing suspension of disbelief?
‘Science’ consists of any attempt by members of a culture to create
a system that makes their observations of nature understandable.
Humans have always noticed patterns in nature: night and day, tides
and lunar cycles, the changing seasons, animal and plant life
cycles. Pattern recognition contains meaning for us because cycles
and steady states are important for our existence. In fact, our ability
to recognize patterns supplies our basic notions of intuition.
Authentic feng shui is typically identified as a protoscience or an
ethnoscience.
2
It allows the data to speak for themselves—which
means that people do not analyse a structure with any precon-
ceived ideas about the way things ought to be. Feng shui applies
expert rules (see Chapter 2) and provides an abundance of formulae
that assign numeric values to everything from compass readings to
time periods (see Chapter 4).
Feng shui ‘lite’ (which I call McFengshui ) is more of a lifestyle issue
or a pseudoscience, which replaces scientific uncertainty with
views based on political or religious beliefs and seeks to provide
answers for everything. McFengshui uses no instrumentation and
cannot collect quantitative data. This belief system is forced to rely
on its concepts such as ‘clutter’ and the idea of ‘corners’ needing
‘activation’.
The forecast
Numbers manipulated and interpreted according to their qualities
(numerology) form the core of many ancient number systems.
36 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui
This type of mathematics uses speculative and/or symbolic meanings
of numbers to understand the structure of the world. (Numbers,
mathematics, and astronomy developed from each other.) Numbers
formed the basis of Chinese forecasting—more colourfully known as
divination—from at least the Yin (Shang) period (fourteenth to
eleventh centuries BCE). In ancient Chinese culture, writing was the
key to predictive power because knowledge from the past (such as
histories) linked the living and the dead. Chinese corresponded with
the world through
events, numbers,
and their symbolism.
Numbers were asso-
ciated with crypto-
graphic mathematics
in the Hetu (River
Chart) and Luoshu
(Lo River Writing),
which represented
models of the world
and conveyed an
inner meaning for life
(see Figure 3.1).
In a technique
Joseph Needham
called ‘threes and
sevens riding the qi’, 60 divisions with 24 azimuthal compass
points and 36 divisions with odd numbers, it is obvious that the
numbers relate to astronomy. Heaven’s 7 and Earth’s 3 refer to
Hetu numbers (7ϭfire and 3ϭwood, 7ϩ3ϭ10). Ten is the central
number of the Hetu and symbolizes Dao as present.
Divination in modern life
Nuclear physics is full of uncertainties and probabilities, yet the
bombs still kill you.
Jim Washburn, California journalist
Protoscientific and pseudoscientific conventions 37
F|gure 3.1
Ar r|slor|c rerder|rg
ol lre equalor, lrop-
|cs, po|ar c|rc|es, ard
ec||pl|c. Treasures ol
lre N0AA L|orary
Co||ecl|or. Arcr|va|
prolograpr oy 3ear
L|rerar, N03, N03.
38 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui
F|gure 3.2
A Wealrer d|v|ral|or experl.
Nal|ora| lrage L|orary.
We may scoff at divination but we use it daily. Probably the most
famous form of American divination is the annual celebration of
Groundhog Day (2 February, known to Europeans as Candlemas).
A large, native American rodent (a woodchuck, Marmota monax)
is used to forecast the weather. According to research on this
practice conducted by the US Weather Service, weather divination
by groundhog is statistically as reliable as a weather newscaster
(see Figure 3.2).
Modern divination does not stop at furry prophets. Women still toss
their wedding bouquets for unmarried female guests—a form of
spontaneous divination no different than dowsers or people who
pick up ‘psychic vibrations’ from household and personal objects.
If feng shui consists of divination why do scholars prefer to com-
pare Chinese divination to the forecasting methods of an econo-
mist or some other boffin? Because we are not talking about
foretelling the future (which cannot be done). Chinese divination
describes probabilities. Consider feng shui an ancestor of complexity
theory, which for some assumes the guise of divination.
In complexity theory forecasting involves a statement, usually in
probabilistic terms, about the future state or properties of a system
based on a known past and present. A conditional forecast states
in probabilistic terms what the future will be if one follows a partic-
ular course of action. A prediction is a forecast that states with a
high degree of confidence what the future will be. A scenario is
a forecast that is a hypothesis rather than a formally justified infer-
ence from past data. A forecasting horizon indicates the length of
time ahead of now for which one can make a reasonable forecast.
It depends, in general, on available data.
Humans cannot make long-term plans if they cannot predict the
outcome. High trust in a forecasting horizon is critical when some-
one does not have the confidence to proceed. Science yields pre-
dictive information (usually through the use of statistics), but every
day people face decisions where it is impractical or impossible to
gather justification by statistics. They have to base at least part of
their choices on unproven beliefs.
People often rely on some form of divination in these situations
because it offers a decision-making system within the phase
transition space of creative thinking. Divination as a decision-
making technique begins with an acceptable level of control and
certainty (such as ritual or tradition), proceeds to the far reaches of
ideology and vision (including belief systems) right to the border of
creative thinking and chaos (ecstatic experience and madness).
This is a fairly comprehensive appraisal of human consciousness
according to complexity theory.
The recording of sequences of unusual or important events is one
of the most enduring forms of divination. Volume after volume of
Chinese history offers documented occurrences of strange births,
the tracking of natural phenomena, and other data. Chinese gov-
ernmental planning relied on this method of forecasting for long-
range strategy. It is not unreasonable to assume that modern
scientific inquiry originated in such forms of divination (Joseph
Needham’s work considers this very theory).
We rely on this today, but do not think to associate it with divina-
tion. For example, the US National Climatic Data Center publishes
a monthly publication, Storm Data, which contains a by-state and
by-date listing of storms and unusual weather occurrences.
Protoscientific and pseudoscientific conventions 39
The publication provides information on paths of storms plus
deaths, injuries, and property damage. It includes a feature on the
‘outstanding storms of the month’ concerning freak and severe
weather events. Cataloguing information and cryptographic mathe-
matics correspond to what is called ‘human observer capability’
in complexity theory. They also relate to decision-making.
Why would someone practice divination to site a house or a city?
Consider how a typical building affects the environment and how
such an imposition contains unforeseen risks—the butterfly effect,
bad feng shui, the revenge effect—that require precautionary
measures. In Asia and increasingly throughout the world, feng shui
determines and assesses such risks and provides remedies. Its
methods for instilling high trust in the forecasting horizon have
been relied on for millennia to produce results.
Drawing conventions
Forget about the Greeks for a minute because China currently
holds the record for the world’s oldest map. Zhao yutu or ‘map of
the area of the mausoleum’ shows the locations of buildings in the
funerary architecture of Wang Cuo (reigned 344 to 313 BCE) and
his consorts. The map indicates more than 70 locations and is
scaled at 1: 500. But most importantly for our purposes is that
south is positioned at the top of the map. You will find this convention
used in feng shui when the mountain (sitting direction) is drawn at
the bottom (‘north’) and the water (facing direction) is drawn facing
up (‘south’) (see Figures 3.1 and 3.3).
Astronomical issues
Cosmic systems convey a speculative attempt to understand the
world based on small solar effects in the environment. Ancient
Chinese culture provides thousands of years of written materials
on the study of cosmic effects. What is most intriguing is how much
these extremely old studies complement scientific research.
40 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui
Space weather, geomagnetism, and feng shui
Daoism aims to conform to the laws of nature. Ancient ‘natural
scientists’ and later Daoists observed, recorded, and contemplated
natural phenomena and cycles to better understand natural laws
and to provide people with guidelines for living. Daoist emphasis on
an understanding of human place in nature generated technology
Protoscientific and pseudoscientific conventions 41
F|gure 3.3
A rud|rerlary lerg sru| ara|ys|s W|lr lre s|ll|rg d|recl|or al lre oollor ard lre lac|rg
d|recl|or al lre lop. Tre Cr|rese craracler snan, 'rourla|r', |derl|l|es lre s|ll|rg d|recl|or.
42 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui
F|gure 3.4
A d|agrar ol ore lype ol Luopar
(lre lrree oas|c lypes used loday
cors|sl ol 3ar le, 3ar Yuar,
ard Zorg le).
and natural science. They seem to have been very busy people,
because they also discovered sunspots and geomagnetism.
However, contrary to New Age belief, geomagnetism was not real-
ized from psychic ability or intuition—magnetite in the human brain
is not found in the same form as that observed in creatures relying
on magnetoreception.
3
More than 50 years ago, Professor Max Knoll provided intriguing
research that feng shui tracks space weather in the form of ion radi-
ation and contrary cyclical effects, including climatic changes and
induced Earth currents. Whether or not the research is convincing,
most scientists agree that feng shui practitioners observe geomag-
netic field anomalies (low-amplitude, localized magnetic irregulari-
ties in space-time) with their Luopans (see Figure 3.4).
Never try to fool Mother Nature
Feng shui siting and calculations require knowledge of the precise
orientation of a site or structure to create an event model. One or
more readings with a Luopan are taken to determine orientation to
the local magnetic field.
Besides measuring direction, magnetic declination, and the hori-
zontal and vertical intensity of magnetic fields (called dip), a
Luopan provides qualitative observation of magnetic storms—
especially whenever there are high magnetic field gradients.
Depending on what technicians are seeking determines when they
want to take their readings—amidst a howling geomagnetic storm
or when the geomagnetic field is quiet.
Some ill-advised individuals think the Luopan’s use is confined to
finding the north magnetic pole. However, one would not need such
a complex instrument, or need to apply the many complex formu-
lae used in traditional feng shui, to accomplish this task. Besides, if
we are looking for the magnetic pole we are actually looking for its
average position, because it wanders daily in a rough ellipsis and
may frequently move as much as 80km off the mark when the
Earth’s magnetic field is disturbed. (Space weather in 1989 caused
instruments that steer the heads of drilling equipment in North Sea
oil exploration to register compass readings that varied by as much
as 12Њ.) This happens because the daylight side of our planet
faces the solar particle stream and then, as night approaches, the
dark side faces away from the stream. Because of this effect early
morning or late afternoon generally remain the best times for
baseline Luopan readings.
The magnetic field measured by a Luopan, the main field of Earth,
actually consists of several magnetic fields produced by a variety
of overlapping sources, and it extends tens of thousands of
kilometers into space. More than 90 per cent of the geomagnetic
field is generated by the Earth’s outer core. Other fields include
magnetized elements of the Earth’s crust, electric currents in the
ionosphere and magnetosphere (the magnetic field generated by
currents flowing in the ionized layers of the Earth’s atmosphere
occurs when streams of particles or proton events arrive from the
sun), and the effects of ocean currents. Other possible influences
on a Luopan if a practitioner is not careful include the magnetism
of manufactured objects such as railroads, metal buildings, cars,
and fences. All geomagnetic fields vary in space and in time
periods that range from fractions of a second (micropulsations)
to millions of years (magnetic reversals).
4
Protoscientific and pseudoscientific conventions 43
Every 27 days the sun blasts a particle stream our way. Earth’s
magnetic field undergoes a daily high (daylight) and low (darkness)
period, a 27-day period of low- and medium-level storms, and a
30-day period of intense storms. Sunspots exhibit a cycle of
33.33 years with a maxima every 100 years. Double peaks of solar
maxima are separated by 18 months. There is a 155-day cycle of
solar flares and a 16-month rhythm at the base of the sun’s con-
vection zone. The sun’s magnetic field reverses approximately
every 11 years, around the peak of the sunspot cycle. The 11-year
cycle may be related to the orbit of Sui, Jupiter. The solar magnetic
field evolves over the solar cycle along with the sunspot number,
which means there is an approximately 22-year cycle in the sun’s
magnetic polarity (see Figures 3.5 and 3.6).
Geomagnetic and ionospheric storm maxima occur at the
equinoxes in generally double the amount of storms encountered
44 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui
F|gure 3.ô
3urspols caplured |r a |arge-sca|e wr|le L|grl
|rage ol Reg|or 8591. Rece|ved 99/0ê/22 al
11:31 lo||orar AF8, NeW Vex|co. Nal|ora|
0cear|c ard Alrosprer|c Adr|r|slral|or, 3pace
Erv|rorrerl Cerler (rllp://WWW.sec.roaa.gov/).
F|gure 3.5
Tre sur d|sp|ayed al lre Wave|erglr ol |ror÷Fe Xv
(281 A). Ta|er |r lre ever|rg ol 28 Feoruary 2000, oy
30l0's Exlrere-u|lrav|o|el lrag|rg Te|escope. Courlesy
ol lre ElT Corsorl|ur ard Nal|ora| 0cear|c ard
Alrosprer|c Adr|r|slral|or, 3pace Erv|rorrerl Cerler
(rllp://WWW.sec.roaa.gov/).
during summer and winter. (Interestingly, the first ‘seasons’ recog-
nized by many ancient cultures—including the Chinese—were
marked by the equinoxes, not the solstices.) In geomagnetic
storms, electric currents travel along the planet’s latitudinal fields
and create an inaudible ‘wind’ that moves from the auroral region
to the lower latitudes (see Figures 3.7 and 3.8).
If particles hit Earth’s surface they can confuse compasses and
produce nearly direct currents in transmission lines that knock
Protoscientific and pseudoscientific conventions 45
F|gure 3.7
/urora oorea||s d|sp|ay rear
Arcrorage, A|as|a, |r 19ZZ.
Treasures ol lre N0AA L|orary
Co||ecl|or÷l|slor|c Nw3
Co||ecl|or. Prolograprer: 0oclor
Yorsu|e Kar|de, Nagoya
ur|vers|ly. Fror lre co||ecl|or ol
0r leroerl Kroer|, N00C.
F|gure 3.8
/urora ausrra||s al Arlarcl|ca, 3oulr Po|e 3lal|or, |r
19Z9. Treasures ol lre N0AA L|orary Co||ecl|or÷
N0AA Corps Co||ecl|or. Prolograprer:
Corrarder Jorr 8orlr|a|, N0AA Corps.
out power systems, create malfunctions in machinery, and cause
massive blackouts. In August 1972, a transformer at the British
Columbia Hydroelectric Authority exploded when shifting
magnetic fields generated a current spike. In March 1989, space
weather hit the power grid in North America and left large parts
of Canada, Sweden, and the United States sitting in the dark
(see Figure 3.9).
Long, uninterrupted stretches of pipe can also convey solar storms
to the surface, and the storm currents affect pipelines by amplifying
46 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui
F|gure 3.9
0ala lror N0AA P0E3 sale|||le. Cerlre l|re ol rosl recerl po|ar pass reasurererl:
3 Augusl 2002 0138 uT. Nal|ora| 0cear|c ard Alrosprer|c Adr|r|slral|or, 3pace
Erv|rorrerl Cerler (rllp://WWW.sec.roaa.gov/).
corrosion. Space weather in June 1989 created enough corrosive
effects on a gas pipeline that it exploded and took with it part of the
Trans-Siberian Railway, two passenger trains, and 500 people.
You do not really need to know all this to perform a feng shui analy-
sis, but it helps to understand exactly what is being measured and
how science and feng shui agree.
The flaming ring of fire
One ring on a Luopan consists of 24 seasons and climates: the
12 jieqi (minor solar terms that include equinoxes and solstices)
and 12 zhongqi (major solar terms). The markings indicate the
solar cycle determined by the tropical year, and they show good
agreement with the annual frequency of magnetic storms. A total of
360 du (degrees) contain 24 four-week periods of 15 days. Every
15Њ the sun passes on the ecliptic indicates one of these solar
energy nodes. Every 30Њ ticks off a month (interestingly, there is a
30-year cycle of Saturn through the ecliptic but Chinese set it to
28 years). This means that the Loupan ring functions like a clock—
in fact, you can use this ring to measure time as an angle. On a San
Yuan Luopan you can combine constellations with the 24
Mountains to track time.
In China, the seasons and climates measured on a Luopan still
match the growing cycle and function as a farmer’s calendar with a
year that begins at midnight at the winter solstice (Zi)—just as the
official calendar did during the Zhou period (see Table 3.1). Notice
that the four beginnings mark quarter-days that were commonly
used throughout the Neolithic world in farmers’ calendars and
astronomy in monuments (such as Newgrange).
The Yi Jing pairs the 24 nodes in Table 3.1 to create 12 months in
fluctuating combinations of yin and yang. The months are
more than just ‘moonths’, for the ‘year’ of Jupiter also begins at
the winter solstice, heralded by the year-marker Xing Ji (during the
Han period this was the star Spica, in our constellation of the
Virgin). Now the solar terms provide four seasons, 12 months, and
72 weeks.
Protoscientific and pseudoscientific conventions 47
Interestingly, two feng shui techniques pair the solar periods with
the 24 Mountains and calculate clockwise (Daiyang, the orbit of
Jupiter) or anticlockwise (Daiyin, the invisible, counterorbital version
of Jupiter). Whatever is to the left or ‘ahead’ of Daiyin is diminished;
whatever is to the right or ‘behind’ Daiyin is increased. Daiyang
and Daiyin provide additional date calculations, and of course the
24 Mountains form the backbone of orientation calculations.
48 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui
Tab|e 3.1
Tre 21 c||ral|c per|ods ol lre so|ar cyc|e W|lr 0regor|ar dales ard so|ar |org|lude
Per|od Approx|rale 3o|ar
0regor|ar dale |org|lude
8eg|rr|rg ol 3pr|rg 5 Feoruary 315
Ra|r 20 Feoruary 330
Exc|led lrsecls Z Varcr 315
3pr|rg Equ|rox 22 Varcr 0
C|ear ard 8r|grl ê Apr|| 15
0ra|r Ra|r 21 Apr|| 30
8eg|rr|rg ol 3urrer ê Vay 15
Lesser Fu||ress 22 Vay ê0
R|per|rg 0ra|r Z Jure Z5
3urrer 3o|sl|ce 22 Jure 90
3||grl leal 8 Ju|y 105
0real leal 21 Ju|y 120
8eg|rr|rg ol Aulurr 8 Augusl 135
Erd ol leal 21 Augusl 150
wr|le 0eW 8 3epleroer 1ê5
Aulurr Equ|rox 21 3epleroer 180
Co|d 0eW 9 0clooer 195
0escerl ol Frosl 21 0clooer 210
8eg|rr|rg ol w|rler 8 Noveroer 225
Lesser 3roW 23 Noveroer 210
0real 3roW Z 0eceroer 255
w|rler 3o|sl|ce 22 0eceroer 2Z0
3||grl Co|d ê Jaruary 285
0real Co|d 21 Jaruary 300
This information gets factored into calculations because you want
a structure to sync with the position of the sun and save on energy
costs, just as you want it to harmonize with local manifestations of
space weather and the local magnetic field.
Bad feng shui? A scientific opinion
The orientation of Earth’s magnetic axis relative to the sun
modifies the magnetosphere’s response to the solar wind.
Changing air pressure fronts produce fluctuations in the active
oxygen content of the atmosphere through air currents coming
from the stratosphere or out of cavities in the soil. Winds blowing
down from the stratosphere create fluctuations of ozone concen-
tration at sea level.
5
The resulting excess or deficiency of active
oxygen disturbs the balance of the autonomous nervous system.
Asthma sufferers and those with respiratory allergies and
chemical sensitivities can experience adverse symptoms at lower
concentrations of ozone.
6
Frequencies of brainwaves in humans span the range of electro-
magnetic micropulsations and the oscillations of geomagnetic
storms, but geomagnetic storms are considerably more intense
than our brainwaves. That is why there are links between mental
illness and geomagnetic field conditions, and geomagnetic activity
corresponds with convulsions and heart attacks.
7
A few studies
indicate a correspondence of death rate, disease rate, auroral
activity, magnetic storms, and the 27-day rotation of the sun.
Deaths may be related to climatic phenomena caused by ion con-
centration. Anecdotal evidence indicates that people suffering from
chronic illness feel their ailment more acutely at the solstices and
equinoxes thanks to the effects of space weather. Other ‘meteoro-
logically challenged’ individuals include people suffering from
stress, people who are generally sensitive to weather fluctuations,
and individuals exhibiting certain kinds of mental illness. Problems
can manifest not unlike orientation problems suffered by birds
during an atmospheric disturbance.
Protoscientific and pseudoscientific conventions 49
It is shocking
Human bodies can serve as partial electrical conductors and low-
frequency fields induce electric currents in humans, hence the
potential for biological harm. However, this does not explain the
New Age obsession with the natural extra low frequency resonance
better known as Schumann Resonance (SR). Some believe SR is
a planetary-mind field because SR cycles in the range of human
brainwaves—1.5–4Hz (delta waves), 5–8Hz (theta waves),
9–14Hz (alpha waves), or 15–40Hz (beta waves). Of course the
truth is not quite as exciting (see Figure 3.10).
Schumann Resonance is a frequency from 5 to 50Hz that can cre-
ate a resonating cavity when activated in the gap between the
Earth and the ionosphere. Substantial variations in the strength of
the field occur according to global deviations in lightning activity
detected by sensitive equipment. Lightning activity around the
globe is particularly responsive to changes in planetary temperature.
This explains why SR is substantially stronger in June than
in January. However, worldwide measuring stations record the
strongest signals in April, when the tropics are at their hottest.
The semiannual seasonal effect is measured in the intensity of the
vertical electric field and horizontal magnetic field. Peak frequencies
can vary daily byϮ0.5Hz from their smallest average values.
Frequency variation also depends on whether a measurement is
made from north to south or east to west.
I mention this only because one corollary activity of some feng shui
adepts was the study of winds (fengjiao). Wind seasons (fengzhi )
tracked the orbit of Mercury and used its movements in computa-
tions for cold and famine. There were eight winds to a 360-day year
divided into periods according to ganzhi (the 60-year cycle). The
device they used during the periods of Warring States, Qin, and
early Han—a peculiar astrolabe known as a shi—was used to
track Beidou and correlate the wind seasons. Practitioners kept
oral (and eventually written) records of lightning ‘seasons’. From
celestial and meteorological observations, a military leader or
attaché could read the outcome of a battle by tianshu (celestial
50 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui
F|gure 3.10
L|grlr|rg slorr over 8oslor c|rca 19êZ. Treasures ol lre
N0AA L|orary Co||ecl|or÷l|slor|c Nw3 Co||ecl|or.
Prolograprer: 3osron S|ooe.
mathematics). In Chinese science, the interaction of yin and yang
in the atmosphere produces thunder and lightning and links to the
process of evaporation from bodies of water. Using this system,
ancient feng shui practitioners donated their services to the
community as the local weather forecasters.
Look up in the sky!
The Book of Odes claims the kanyu shia of the Zhou used a compass
to read the landscape. Kanyu is the traditional time-calculation
aspect of feng shui. A kanyu shia was an expert in this method and
a feng shui xiansheng was a feng shui expert who could be an
expert in kanyu and a variety of other calculation techniques, which
is why many adepts in the Han period were called fang shi, ‘experts
Protoscientific and pseudoscientific conventions 51
in methods’. Based on the archeology of feng shui devices and on
literary references, the shi astrolabe was not a magnetic compass.
A shi contains markings a present-day feng shui practitioner would
recognize, but techniques differed somewhat. For one, it relied
more on astronomy.
As described in ancient texts, in Neolithic China the Hetu served as
a climate indicator for eastern China, and the Luoshu provided an
astral compass so that traders going to Western Asia and farther
afield could find their way home. Longshan black pottery came
from what is now Iran; some of Lady Hao’s ancient jade pieces
came from just as far to the west of Shang territories.
According to one analysis, the centre of the Hetu is a quincunx
that indicates the circumpolar region. Above and below the
quincunx are black dots indicating the square shape of Earth. From
the Mawangdui manuscripts we know the Hetu was used by
forecasters in the Warring States and Qin periods to calculate
movements of Daiyin beginning each year around 4 February in
the Gregorian calendar. In contemporary feng shui the Hetu is used
to analyse water features.
Before the shi was invented, an astronomer observed the celestial
objects that crossed the north–south meridian in their daily motion.
This information could be coded into any number of systems—
myths, diagrams, and buildings. The symbols and ancient usage of
Hetu and Luoshu were absorbed into the shi, also called a liuren
astrolabe, which gradually evolved into a contemporary Luopan. In
fact, a shi is like the Hetu, with its four ‘rings’ of black and white
dots. The five dots at the centre of the Hetu were eventually
replaced by the Celestial Lake or Central Pool of Heaven on a com-
pass (the needle housing).
The next ring of numbers conforms to the Inside Plate or Heaven
Plate (the round plate which on older devices shows Beidou or pro-
vides the base for the ladle). Out from that ring of dots is the square
Earth Plate in which the Heaven Plate sits. On shi and the later
shipan it contains the markings. The quincunx also identifies the
52 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui
Heaven Centre Cross Line or Red Cross Grid, the warp and woof
of heaven—considered the axle of the universe or ya-xing because
it is north–south (zi–wu) and east–west (mao–yu). These red
strings or cross markings are used to read direction and meaning,
but also indicate equinoctial and solstitial colures. They are part of
the Earth Plate on a shi and shipan (see Figure 3.11).
We know feng shui is old and that it works in fair agreement with
scientific understanding of space weather. But what can it do for us?
Notes
1
0eorarcy (||lera||y earrn-propnec,) cors|sls ol d|v|ral|or oy dol pallerrs lorred accord-
|rg lo prec|se ru|es aooul rardor l|gures draWr |r lre d|rl. Eacr pallerr ras a rare (sucr
as Ar|ss|o, Forlura Vajor, Pue||a, ard Ruoeus). Tre lWo 'corsle||al|ors' Pue||a ard Ruoeus
Protoscientific and pseudoscientific conventions 53
A Qin period shi (liuren astrolabe) showing the back (left) and
front (right) sides
A Han period Shipan (Sometimes called a Sinan), the oldest
working magnetic compass (left) and the hierogamy of the
baguas that echoes the earlier designs (right)
F|gure 3.11
8elore lre Luopar ex|sled lre s|nan; oelore lre s|nan lrere Was lre sn| (sn|pan or ||uren
aslro|aoe).
are lourd |r a d|scuss|or ol geomanc|e |r 0eollrey Craucer's 0anrerour, Ta|es. You car
l|rd a leW rerl|ors ol georarcy |r 3ra|espeare's p|ays.
2
Trad|l|ora| |roW|edge corsl|lules a curu|al|ve oody ol |roW|edge, |roW-roW, pracl|ces, ard
represerlal|ors ra|rla|red ard deve|oped oy peop|e W|lr exlerded r|slor|es ol |rleracl|or W|lr
lre ralura| Wor|d. ll or|g|raled |rdeperderl|y ol sc|erce |r a parl|cu|ar cu|lura| sell|rg, ard
lyp|ca||y |rdeperderl ol weslerr cu|lure. Trad|l|ora| |roW|edge |s rol |rlerded lo corpele W|lr
sc|erce, oul |l |s We|| eslao||sred |r sc|erl|l|c c|rc|es as slrerglrer|rg lrad|l|ora| sc|erce ard
corlr|oul|rg lo a W|de var|ely ol susla|rao|e deve|oprerl pracl|ces lral rarge lror red|c|re
lo erv|rorrerla| raragererl. Tre cra||erge laced oy sc|erl|sls |s lo del|re lrad|l|ora|
|roW|edge |r a Way lral recogr|zes |ls va|ue ard does jusl|ce lo |ls lrad|l|ors W|lroul g|v|rg
cred|o|||ly lo pseudosc|erce (lrlerral|ora| Courc|| lor 3c|erce, 2002o).
3
3ee V|e|czare| ard Vc0rayre (2000). Vagrel|le |eve|s |r rurar ora|rs |rcrease W|lr
lre sever|ly ol A|zre|rer's ard olrer reurodegereral|ve d|seases sucr as lurl|rglor's ard
Par||rsor's.
1
Researcrers recerl|y d|scovered a reversed ragrel|c l|e|d |r lWo reg|ors ol lre oourd-
ary oelWeer lre Earlr's core ard |ls over|y|rg rarl|e. 8erealr lre soulrerr l|p ol Alr|ca lre
ragrel|c l|e|d po|rls loWard lre cerlre ol lre Earlr, a preroreror lral rurs courler lo lre
dor|rarl oulWard-po|rl|rg l|e|d |r lre 3oulrerr ler|sprere.
5
lr lerperale |al|ludes, W|rler |s Wrer a|r lror lre Earlr's slralosprere drops lo grourd
|eve|. Tre lyp|ca| |eve| ol ozore |r lre alrosprere al sea |eve| |s approx|rale|y 0.05 parls
per r||||or. Researcr |rd|cales lral oe|oW lerperalures ol 22-2êЊC (Z0-80ЊF) ro re|al|or-
sr|p ex|sls oelWeer ozore corcerlral|ors ard lerperalure. Aoove 32ЊC (90ЊF), a slrorg
ard pos|l|ve re|al|orsr|p ex|sls.
ê
0zore decays lo rorra| oxyger |r approx|rale|y 30r|r aller |l lorrs, oul dur|rg lr|s
l|re |l reacls W|lr rearoy ro|ecu|es lo lorr var|ous ox|des. Al corcerlral|ors oe|oW
approx|rale|y 1 parl per r||||or ozore exr|o|ls a p|easarl ard craracler|sl|c odour lyp|ca||y
descr|oed as lre sre|| |r lre a|r lo||oW|rg a lrurderslorr. Corcerlral|ors r|grer lrar
2 parls per r||||or corvey a purgerl odour rer|r|scerl ol cr|or|re. Corcerlral|ors ||ll|e
grealer lrar 1 parl per r||||or creale readacres; decreased pu|se rale ard o|ood pressure;
lears; derral|l|s; ard eye, rose, ard resp|ralory |rr|lal|ors. lrcreas|rg corcerlral|ors |rler-
s|ly lre sever|ly ol syrplors ard u|l|rale|y cause pu|rorary oedera ard crror|c resp|ra-
lory d|sease.
Z
Carpoe|| (199Z, pp. 212-3).
54 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui
8 3 5 4 9
7
2
1
6
4 9 2
3 5 7
8 1 6
Chapter 4
Calculations
Y
ou must be feeling a bit overwhelmed by now if you previ-
ously assumed feng shui is all about finding a Relationship
Corner or a Money Corner, or depends on the first thing we
see upon entering a building.
A basic theory of McFengshui is that we are drawn inexorably
to whatever our eyes alight on first, which, in turn, affects how
we proceed on entering. These ‘first impressions’ supposedly
provide suggestions for someone to elaborate on the significance
of the encounter. The problem with this kind of thinking is that the
image at the eye has countless possible interpretations. Humans
construct what they see and as a minimum they also construct
what they hear, smell, taste, and feel—all human perceptions and
sensations are constructions. This is why we can construct feelings
in parts of our bodies that have been surgically removed.
1
In addi-
tion, humans are often quite unaware of environmental details from
one moment to the next. We perceive and remember only whatever
we concentrate on and can fail to notice a gorilla standing right in
front of us.
2
The theory of ‘brain plasticity’ suggests that all human sense
organs function like input devices, and our brains can adapt to new
data channels simply by creating new synapses. That is why fighter
pilots wear suits that provide physical feedback (to lessen the
reliance on instrumentation), and will soon be navigating solely by
images buzzing their tongues. The same technique has been used
to provide visual information to the blind, who can in turn ‘see’
whatever is presented in this fashion.
3
It is hard to take the ‘first
impressions’ idea seriously when people can experience entering
your home by ‘seeing’ it on their tongues.
Numerical conventions
Luoshu, Hetu, and valuations
Rest assured, this chapter is not meant to be a ‘how-to’ on theories
and techniques, or a substitute for study with a good teacher.
(Refer to Chapter 15 for schools and educational materials.) The
58 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui
information in this chapter merely provides one way of looking at
this material.
Feng-shui experts employ a variety of numerical attributes and
equivalents with formulae for particular techniques. These lists
originate in feng-shui texts, many of them more than 2000 years
old, and with traditional teachers who have passed their formulae
and techniques to their students. The material keeps adapting to
new structures, new materials, and new settlements—but always
within guidelines.
As mentioned in Chapter 2 (Time and Space), each season and
each element is assigned a numeric value. This value is part of the
analogy map shown in Table 4.1. The list by no means exhausts the
attributes for each number; more can be found in the arrangements
of the diagrams used for calculations. The manifest strength of an
attribute depends on whether the attribute is inherently yin or yang
and whether it is expressed in the native or wang cycle of the build-
ing. During the 180-year life cycle (see Chapter 10), the internal
balance of yin and yang in each number shifts so that eventually
even the best (most yang) valuation is heavily flavoured with yin.
Doing your own calculations
Providing feng-shui analyses is not a task for the novice because
so much is at stake—especially in revenge effects. According to the
ethics provided by the top feng-shui instructors (based on Daoist
codes of ethics), revenge effects created by practitioners return to
disturb practitioners. Simple carelessness—such as taking an
inappropriate stance to use a Luopan—can distort the reading.
Egregious errors, furthermore, run you the risk of litigation (bring-
ing court cases against feng-shui practitioners is quite common in
Asia—some practitioners are sentenced to gaol). Much is at stake
and a practitioner should be capable of the challenge. For all of
these reasons and more, teachers use their current projects as
case studies for their students so that they can reap the benefits of
on-site education—and not practice on paying clients.
Calculations 59
60 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui
Pros and cons
The genuine depth and sophistication of traditional feng shui intimi-
dates many people—especially anyone used to the sound-bite
psychobabble of the McFengshui.
4
Do not assume you can pop
into a bookseller and walk out with a complete how-to book,
because even the best feng-shui books admit they are not com-
prehensive! That is why you can find basic books on the Xuan
Kong subdiscipline Flying Stars, not on all of Xuan Kong.
Unfortunately, the majority of books on feng shui were written by
hacks for interior designers, not people designing buildings or
developing property. Moreover, they typically discuss little more
than lifestyle issues of the developed world.
Working with a practitioner
Finding a competent practitioner requires an interview process.
Know what you need for the job and be prepared to interview until
Tab|e 4.1
8ase||re qua||l|es dur|rg a slruclura| ||le cyc|e ol 180 years
Nuroer Pos|l|ve express|or Negal|ve express|or
1 Aourdarce, d|sl|rcl|or, 0|vorce, d|scorrecl|or,
|rle|||gerce |grorarce
2 we||-oe|rg, Wro|eress 0|sao|||l|es ard a||rerls
3 F|uercy, persuas|veress Corl||cl, prosecul|or
1 Erlrus|asr, erud|l|or lrl|de||ly ard scarda|
5 Prosper|ly ard accorp||srrerl 0|sasler ard r|slorlure
ê Aulror|ly ard |eadersr|p var|ly, |rsers|l|v|ly, a|oolress
Z 3p|r|lua||ly, relaprys|cs 0r|evarces ard |arcery
8 Vorelary aourdarce Trerors, se|zures
9 Advarcererl, ralr|cu|al|or Aud|lory ard v|sua|
proo|ers, l|res
you find someone to do the job you need and work within your plan.
Exercise due diligence to avoid your own revenge effects.
A word about marketing
Feng-shui marketing often gives the impression that a practitioner’s
services provide wide-ranging environmental benefits—including
the ability to relieve a variety of spurious problems such as the
popular but nonexistent ‘geopathic stress’. The US Federal Trade
Commission (FTC) considers it deceptive to misrepresent in any
way that a service offers a general environmental benefit (ISO
14000 was developed primarily from the FTC’s guidelines).
Moreover, environmental marketing claims should not exaggerate
or overstate attributes or benefits. Specific environmental claims
are easier to substantiate than general claims and less likely to be
deceptive.
Unfortunately, most feng-shui books and websites seem to have
lifted their marketing from Scams from the Great Beyond (Huston,
1997), and appear intent on adding another chapter to
Extraordinary Popular Delusions and the Madness of Crowds
(Mackay, 1841). The scientifically valid claims that relate to feng
shui primarily rely on evidence regarding the effects of the natural
environment on human physiology, behaviour, and psychology
(see Chapter 7).
An unqualified, general claim of environmental benefit may com-
municate that a service provides extensive environmental benefits
when it in fact it does not—unfortunately, this is all too often the
case with feng-shui marketing. Anyone making express or implied
claims about the attributes of their product, package, or service
must have a reasonable basis for their assertions. A ‘reasonable
basis’ might require competent and reliable evidence (tests, ana-
lyses, research, studies, or other evidence based on the expertise
of peers). Sadly, you will generally find that the McFengshui crowd
bristles at the mere mention of this amount of scrutiny, while plenty
of traditional practitioners would jump at the chance to document
what feng shui can do.
Calculations 61
Above all, do not fall prey to popular marketing scams that rely on
anecdotal evidence such as the popular ‘testimonials’.
Finding competent help
Interview prospective practitioners. Do they use a Luopan, and
which one do they prefer? Can they name and perform any of the
calculations? (Some people tell prospective clients that they prac-
tice ‘form school’ but cannot name or perform calculations, or name
the compass used for calculations.) Have they had extensive study
and experiment under the watchful eye of instructors? (You do not
want someone practicing on you—especially with your financial
support.) How many hours of education and what levels have been
attained? Have you ever heard of the teacher or school? Does the
school curriculum agree with what is taught by the majority of the
top Asian masters?
Do terms like ‘geopathic stress’ and other nonexistent
nonsense creep into their conversation?
Another ‘new age’ money machine, geopathic stress has no basis in
legitimate science.
5
Proponents claim it originates in geomagnetic
radiation distorted by electromagnetism emitted by the water table,
particular mineral deposits (a list of minerals that constantly varies),
earthquake fault lines, and underground caverns or cavities.
6
The
distortions create problems for anything living on the surface (but
apparently not under). Naturally, a variety of modern contrivances
conveniently cause the same problems—at unspecified frequencies.
The most common ‘geopathic’ complaints result from fuse boxes,
power lines,
7
and a variety of towers. Apparently, people find the
geopathic culprits by dowsing (a form of spontaneous divination).
A German physician claims to have discovered a terrestrial grid
(the Earth’s ‘aura’ according to some proponents) that dovetails
neatly into these fanciful ideas. Supposedly the north–south lines
of the ‘Hartmann grid’ are spaced at roughly 2.3m and the
east–west lines are spaced about every 2.5m. People claim that
the power of this grid emanates from the surface of Earth to heights
that conveniently range from 20m to nearly 10km, while the sup-
posed ‘zone’ of these lines can influence organisms at distances
from under 1 to 60m.
8
The physician claimed that harmful radiation
emanates more powerfully at the intersections of the gridlines,
although this radiation is concomitantly believed to emanate in all
directions. A variety of lucrative careers such as baubiology and
pseudo-geobiology
9
service this nonexistent ‘problem’ and claim
feng shui as the historical antecedent.
Is the term ‘energy’ used indiscriminately when willpower
or personal exertion is really being meant?
Energy is generally defined by science as the capacity to do work.
Energy cannot be created from nothing, it must be obtained from
somewhere else.
Does everything ‘mean’ something, from the positioning of
the cat’s litterbox to the condition of a piece of furniture?
Is there an obsession with clutter?
Does the individual practise spontaneous divination (the
so-called ‘intuitive’ feng-shui) to gather knowledge about
a structure, or is the assessment based on an accumulation
of facts?
Renovations
Many times a client hires a feng-shui consultant and an architect to
help with a remodel project. Often the feng-shui consultant is hired
to ensure that the construction proceeds smoothly and the desired
effect is obtained. Sometimes they make suggestions regarding
design particulars (the flow of rooms, where services are installed,
etc.). Although it may seem a practitioner is trying to tell you how
to do your job, they really want to help you excel at your job and
provide your client with the best possible results. If a feng-shui
practitioner can help you to avoid construction revenge effects that
Calculations 63
64 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui
prevent the client from paying their bills (including your fee), would
you let them?
Pros and cons
For many people feng shui is a terrific ‘new age’ swindle. The novel
Fixer Chao (Ong, 2001) contains the character of a feng-shui faker
inspired by McFengshui versions of feng-shui. A good practitioner
can provide a wealth of information if you provide only a compass
reading, a construction and/or move-in date, and a birth date. It is
not rocket science, but it is not gilded with symbolism and mean-
ingless references to ‘energy’ either.
Notes
1
3ee lollrar el a|. (2000).
2
3ee 3|rors ard Craor|s (1999).
3
3ee 8acr-y-R|la el a|. (1998) ard ur|vers|ly Corrur|cal|ors (2001).
1
A lyp|ca||y g|oW|rg assessrerl |s lral lerg sru| prov|des '|eys lor creal|rg lre lulure you
des|re', as |l |l Was a persora| orgar|ser (0eAr|c|s ard 0eAr|c|s, 2001).
5
0eopalr|c slress ras escaped delecl|or oy l|ux-gale sersors, opl|ca||y purped or a||a||-
vapour sersors, grad|orelers, ragrel|c r|crograv|ly surveys, prolor ragrelorelers,
ruo|d|ur opl|ca||y purped ragrelorelers, cryoger|c ragrelorelers, so|| corducl|v|ly
relers, ard supercorducl|rg, quarlur |rlerlererce dev|ce (30ul0) ragrelorelers. You
W||| rol l|rd geopalr|c slress rerl|ored |r ary sc|erl|l|c jourra|s, a|lrougr lrere |s p|erly or
roW speclra| ragrel|c d|sluroarces deperd or lre arourl ol georagrel|c acl|v|ly, ard
roW lre dyrar|cs ol Earlr's ragrelosprere deperd or lre or|erlal|or ol lre |rlerp|arelary
ragrel|c l|e|d (CoW|ey el a|., 2002; Rees el a|., 2002).
ê
3lrarge|y, proporerls ol lr|s odd |dea do rol rerl|or oulgass|rg ol lre rarl|e as ar
|ssue, ard assure lral Wral We slard or |s so||d÷ralrer lrar a ser|es ol corcerlr|c spreres,
W|lr lre lop |ayer (pr|rar||y corposed ol s|||cales) or|y 38-|r lr|c| (8a||erl|re el a|., 2002;
0rossrar, 2002).
Z
u3 poWer ||res operale |r lre rarge ol Z0-Zê5|v ard r|r|r|ze lre e|eclr|c l|e|d.
8
Corlrasl lr|s |rlorral|or W|lr sc|erl|l|c sludy ol lre lroposprere, Wrere ||le |s lourd ard
Wealrer occurs. ll averages 11|r aoove Earlr oul 8|r aoove lre po|es ard 1ê|r aoove
lre equalor (3uzu|| ard VcCorre||, 1998, p. 11).
8 3 5 4 9
7
2
1
6
4 9 2
3 5 7
8 1 6
9
Seoo|o|og, |r |eg|l|rale sc|erce |s gerera||y del|red as 'lre preserl ard pasl |rler-
acl|ors oelWeer ||le ard |rar|rale raller' (Arer|car Acadery ol V|croo|o|ogy, 2000).
'0eoo|o|ogy' as pseudosc|erce ras lre goa| ol erao||rg peop|e lo reproduce a rao|lal
'as rear lo ralura| ||v|rg cord|l|ors as poss|o|e' (0ooel, 1998). Proporerls a|so lerd
lo o|alrer or aooul lre 'lecrr|ca|, rarror|c, ard syroo||c' |eve|s rea||zed |r lre ou||l
erv|rorrerl.
Calculations 65
Chapter 5
Planning
E
nvironmental planning attempts through informed decisions
to integrate environmental and biophysical information into
humanity’s use of our planet. All well and good, but it has a
poor record of mitigating revenge effects, and many of its ‘informed
decisions’ have been based on greed and graft. Additionally, in
urban planning the ‘biophysical inventory’—a euphemism for biota
or the nonhuman world—has no say in its use.
Any paradigm—and that includes environmental planning—sees
only what it wants to see. One person’s ‘visual resource manage-
ment’ is another’s turfing, defined by journalist Grady Clay as ingre-
dients in the ‘geometry of territoriality’. The demarcation of civic
and private territories is often characterized by fuzzy, green trian-
gular mounds (‘pubic-hair greenery’), clipped hedges, sparse
trees, and other low-maintenance ground cover—the lowest com-
mon denominator form of urban planning
1
(see Figure 5.1).
In the developed world, urban planning builds for automobiles, not
for people. That is why a third of the land surface of Los Angeles is
covered by freeways, other streets, and parking lots. If we are not to
leave a diminished world to future generations we have to develop
better ways of dealing with the natural world (see Figure 5.2).
Tradition—or not
In China, as in so many other cultures, the traditional house plan
takes the form of a square or rectangle. Larger structures consist
of connected squares, L-shapes, circles, or rectangles with court-
yards in the middle. The Earth itself provides a primary source of
shelter. More than 10 million Chinese still live in yaodong, houses
dug out of the ground with only a courtyard showing from the sur-
face. Traditional housing is not necessarily sustainable, but it pro-
vides ecological efficiency for a particular climate and topography.
Revenge effects regularly occur only when people ignore local
weather and landscape for arbitrary design considerations, illusion,
and/or monetary benefits.
68 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui
Planning 69
(a)
(b)
F|gure 5.1(a, b}
Puo|c-ra|r greerery
al |ls l|resl. Prolos oy
lre aulror.
F|gure 5.2
3a|l La|e C|ly, ular. lrage cour-
lesy NA3A/03FC/VlTl/ER30AC/
JAR03, ard u.3./Japar A3TER
3c|erce Tear 3ale|||le: Terra
3ersor: A3TER lrage 0ale: 05-
28-2000.
70 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui
What you do not see in most traditional and sustainable buildings
even at its most grandiose is the McMansion, which boffins deride
as ‘the fast-food version of the American dream’. A McMansion is
a large suburban home seemingly built in cookie-cutter fashion.
These structures are everywhere, like McDonald’s restaurants.
2
(Sadly, in the ‘develop and be damned’ atmosphere of modern
China, there is now an entire subdivision of McMansions north of
Beijing.
3
) McMansions, like McRanches, McBungalows, and
McMediterraneans provide generic, mass-produced housing. The
structure is apparently designed to look like it has endured several
generations of add-ons—although these houses commonly consist
of pre-existing plans from developers that merely advertise archi-
tects on staff. (Clients are likely to meet only the workers and the
project manager.) At the front of these McMansions—to emphasize
what is really important—sits a ‘garage Mahal’, an extra wide and
high garage that accommodates multiple cars and SUVs (see
Figure 5.3).
Crowding McMansions together exaggerates the effect of lots that
appear small in proportion to the size of the houses, despite their
adherence to local zoning and setback requirements. Sparse land-
scaping makes them look even more outlandish. The yards look
bare because of ‘clear-cutting’: a developer hires a bulldozer for a
few days and razes the site. At the end of the project the developer
typically rolls out a s sod lawn, installs a few basic shrubs and very
young trees, a few basic shrubs, and very young trees, then leaves
the remainder of the landscaping to the buyers—who do not have
the money for such trivialities because they are in debt to their eye-
balls trying to afford their dream home.
McMansion subdivisions are usually saddled with names devel-
oped by a marketing department to sell a fantasy lifestyle. Posh
universities, pseudo-British toponyms, and whatever vegetation
and wildlife existed before the subdivision seem to be universally
popular. However, many people buy into this fantasy lifestyle only
to have it turn into a nightmare. Nearly all of these McHouses are
site-blind and poorly built—the perfect complement to a barren
spiritual landscape. Their revenge effects equal the destruction cre-
ated during their development from clear-cutting, along with their
negligent planning and workmanship.
In How Buildings Learn, Brand (1994) mentions that in the 1980s
malpractice lawsuits against architects overtook lawsuits against
doctors. Homeowners’ malpractice lawsuits provide a litany of iden-
tical problems with McHouses beyond mere misrepresentation—
framing errors, insufficient foundation structures, fireplaces that are
in multiple violation of state building codes, improper attic ventilation
due to roofing deficiencies, deviation from (pre-existing) architect’s
plans, siding problems, insulation problems leading to increased
humidity and growth of toxic moulds within the living spaces
(Stachybotrys chartarum, aspergillus, and penicillium), water leaks,
cracked foundations, shoddy stucco, cracked floors, doors that do
not close properly, bathroom fixtures that do not work, and back
yards that flood regularly. Some builders have had to buy back parts
of neighbourhoods after complaints or lawsuits over problem homes.
Planning 71
F|gure 5.3
A lyp|ca| VcVars|or ard garage Vara|.
In some cases, local government is as much to blame as poor
workmanship. Many councils relax one or more building guidelines
when they approve projects, especially critical ones like soil stud-
ies, which are used to determine the extent of grading for home
foundations. Later come the malpractice lawsuits due to severe
revenge effects, like homes sliding down the hill, or toxic mould.
And people wonder why they need feng shui!
Form and shape theory
Many feng-shui experts consider form and shape analysis to be the
foremost study of environmental influences. Known as the Three
Combination School or San He, this is widely accepted as the old-
est school of feng shui still in regular use. While more ancient types
exist, such as calculations of Xing-De, their use apparently died out
and can be only partly revived by scholarship.
Without assessing form and shape no genuine understanding of a
site’s feng shui is possible. The objective is to gently place struc-
tures and entities in the natural flow of the land.
Analyses by a variety of researchers into favourable structural
locations (xue)
4
according to traditional rules of feng shui demon-
strate these locations comprise highly suitable microclimates.
Ancient feng-shui experts said these locations provide the ability to
accumulate creative potential. Such positioning also promotes the
integration of human construction into the natural environment as
it enhances carrying capacity.
An assessment of form and shape for a site consists of three
components:
● Physical environment. This consists of land mass, open space,
and water.
● Topography. This consists of specific effects on sites of the posi-
tions and flow of water and land.
● Directional and vicinity influences. This includes microclimate
analysis and can encompass Ba Zhai (a calculation technique).
72 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui
Form and shape theory combines yin and yang theory with certain
elements of five-element theory, topography, calendar science, and
astronomy. It correlates the 24 solar periods with cardinal and inter-
cardinal directions. The practitioner analyses mountains by shape,
position, and taxonomy. Any bodies of water are likewise noted and
analysed. Compass readings determine additional characteristics,
relationships, and potential. Practitioners identify the developed
environment by the same rules. Buildings assume the characteris-
tics of mountains and valleys. Roads are analysed according to the
criteria for water.
Traditional analytical techniques consisted of looking, listening and
smelling, asking, and feeling—deceptively simple terms that can
be defined comprehensively or superficially depending on the prac-
titioner. Today, we have the opportunity to add statistical analysis
and other scientific tools to the ancient feng-shui analytical tech-
niques and create a neotraditional approach.
Principles and terminology
Traditional sources define ‘auspicious feng shui’ as positions in
space-time meeting the following criteria:
● Good celestial influences. This can be superficially interpreted as
traditional cosmological influences, or interpreted more broadly
as favourable bioclimatic as well as conventional influences.
● Good geographical features. In general, a site determined to
have ‘good features’ provides favourable conditions, a site with
‘disorganized features’ supplies no positive features, while a site
with ‘malevolent features’ provides adverse and even hostile con-
ditions. ‘Good form’ for a building or a hill consists of strong,
defined slopes and an undamaged shape that makes it easily
categorized. ‘Bad form’ consists of unidentifiable or confusing
shapes and deteriorating conditions.
● Human population in harmony with the environment. This is
measured, in general, by the emphasis of natural over human
effects and evidence of widespread social equity, along with
Planning 73
74 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui
quality of life issues. ‘Bad form’ and ‘bad feng shui’ encompass
ecosystem decay (including habitat fragmentation), energy
efficiency, health, and issues of acoustics.
Sites are analysed according to the following conditions:
● Power. Expresses the qualitative features of a component of a
site in terms of subjective but experiential perceptions of its
effects. Rivers, canyons, valleys, and mountains provide power-
ful nodes and edges. Their immense sizes can be considered
strengths. Street traffic (interpreted as water) can aid some
homes and annoy others on the same block.
● Form. Communicates qualities of a particular component of the
site determined by the shape of buildings, hills, roads, and water
features.
● Structure. Conveys relationships between geographic and/or
built features of an area.
● Condition. Expresses relationships between features near a site.
Buildings and hills
Natural and artificial forms are identified according to the five-
element theory, or catalogued in accordance with a nonary system
that manifests astronomy and time in the landscape.
Taxonomy of five-element theory
Identification of buildings according to five element theory consists
of the following:
● Wood. Indicates a shape with nearly vertical slopes and a gently
rounded peak (a shrub shape).
● Fire. Describes a shape with a steep ascent and a sharp peak
(a flame shape).
● Soil. Specifies a shape with nearly vertical slopes and a flat peak
(a mesa or plateau shape).
5
● Metal. Distinguishes a shape with very gentle slopes and a
rounded peak (a bell shape).
● Water. Identifies a shape with gentle, uneven slopes and one or
more undulating peaks (a waveform) (see Figure 5.4).
Taxonomy of nine stars
Nine stars taxonomy (such as that used in ba zhai) consists of an
ideological construction of the type of qi that changes over time. The
diagram uses the primary stars of Beidou, formed of the following:
● Greedy Wolf. Associated with the colour white. Each of the nine
‘stars’ indicates a corresponding astronomical marker. For
example, Greedy Wolf (Tan Lang) is the star Sirius.
Planning 75
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
F|gure 5.4
lderl|ly|rg ou||d|rgs ard r|||s
(lror |oWesl e|eval|or lo r|gr-
esl): (a) a Wood slruclure ard r|||;
(o) a Waler slruclure ard r|||;
(c) a so|| slruclure ard r|||; (d) a
rela| slruclure ard r|||; (e) a l|re
slruclure ard r|||.
● Wide Door or Gate Guard. Described as the soil element and
associated with the colour black.
● Prosperity or Rewards. Associated with the colour of jade.
● Scholar or Literary Art. Associated with the colour green.
● Virtue. Associated with the colour yellow.
● Military. Described as the metal element and associated with the
colour white.
● Breaker of Armies. Associated with the colour red.
● Taiyang, Left Assistant. Described as the metal element and
associated with the colour white.
● Daiyin, Right Assistant. Associated with the colour purple.
Valleys and recessed structures
These conditions are analysed as the opposite of buildings and
hills. Identifying valleys according to form and shape consists of the
following:
● Wood. A shape with nearly vertical descent and a gently
rounded base.
● Fire. A shape with steep descent and a sharp base.
● Soil. A shape with nearly vertical descent and a flat base.
● Metal. A shape with very gentle descent and a rounded base.
● Water. A shape with gentle, uneven descent and one or more
undulating bases (see Figure 5.5).
Roads and water features
‘Water dragons’ most typically consist of aquatic landscape pat-
terns, arrangements of aquatic plants, and areas where ground-
water lies near the soil surface.
6
Although roads can exhibit some
of the features of a water dragon, they generally do not display the
conventional shape of a dragon (which is the primary form of
identification). Moreover, fast-moving water (or highways), stagnant
water (perpetual gridlock or heavy stop-and-go traffic), and precipi-
tous waterfalls cannot be considered true ‘dragons’.
76 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui
From a scientific perspective, a meandering stream is a highly
stable watercourse. A narrow, slow-moving street is ideal according
to designers and promoters of the New Urbanism movement. Feng
shui stresses comparable principles.
Determine the flow by the speed of traffic and whether traffic keeps
to posted speed limits. Identify whether traffic-calming devices
were installed, should be installed, or are being considered.
Planning 77
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
F|gure 5.5
lderl|ly|rg ou||d|rgs ard r|||s: (a) a Wood slruclure ard va||ey; (o) a l|re slruclure ard
va||ey; (c) a so|| slruclure ard va||ey; (d) a rela| slruclure ard va||ey; (e) a Waler slruclure
ard va||ey.
(a)
78 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui
To analyse the flow of roads use the following rules that pertain to
the flow of water:
● Incoming water. This identifies a road or water moving toward a
site from the front (see Figure 5.6a).
● Outgoing water. This identifies a road or water moving away from
a site (see Figure 5.6b).
● Gathering water. This identifies an area in front of a site where
water or vehicles gather (including cars stopping to drop off
shoppers, etc) (see Figure 5.6c).
(a) (b)
(c) (d)
F|gure 5.ô
lderl|ly|rg lre l|oW ol Waler ard roads: (a) |rcor|rg Waler; (o) oulgo|rg Waler;
(c) galrer|rg Waler; (d) ror|zorla| Waler.
Planning 79
● Horizontal water. This identifies a road moving in front of a site
from one side to the other (see Figure 5.6d).
● Absent and/or substitute water. There is no road, or a road is
needed and missing.
How water exits a site is as important as its entry to a site.
Development and redevelopment considerations
The primary purpose of feng shui is to build with the flow of the
land. This means development maintains and follows the natural
environment. Studies indicate that the use of this principle
increases comfort, lowers costs, and reduces the need for artificial
heating and/or cooling and irrigation. It diminishes or eliminates
revenge effects.
Popular ‘cut and fill’ or ‘clear-cutting’ development produces an ugly,
disharmonious landscape of bad feng shui notorious for its revenge
effects. Proponents of this allegedly economical technique fail to
consider the long-term consequences, including costs and mainte-
nance. In the developing world, housing placed on deforested
hillsides causes heavy flooding that destroys homes and lives.
Typical structures in the developed world built on ‘cut and fill’ sites
also possess inadequate protection against flooding. Drainage and
similar problems are nearly impossible to solve and usually last the
life of the structure. Moreover, typical designs provide little access
by machinery to the back of a structure and require manual exca-
vation work at a substantial increase in cost. Modifications can also
involve substantial disruptions of the structure that further escalate
suffering.
Feng shui stipulates that where the natural world has been
destroyed it should be restored. Feng-shui principles express the
need for harmony with local conditions and resources. This vision
encourages the return of the so-called Disney Deserts
7
and other
artificial settings to their natural state.
8
Restore habitat and wildlife
to its proper place and provide evidence of human appreciation of
the natural world. In cities this practice can lower the effect of heat
islands that add to global change.
80 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui
The following rules—many of which defy modern architectural and
development techniques—are considered paramount in form and
shape theory.
Buildings on a height should face flat or lower ground
Going with the flow of the land requires that a building situated
on a hill should be supported by that hill much like someone sits on
a chair and is supported by the chair’s back. The ideal access is
provided by an opening that moves from the lower ground in front
to the higher ground (in effect against the flow). A building entered
from the higher part to the lower part often imparts the sensation
that it may tip backwards and tumble down the hill. My experience
in a house of this type included the nearly overwhelming sensation
that if I fell I would roll to the balcony and drop off. The house’s
position on the pad gave the impression it was built at a precarious
slant (see Figure 5.7).
(a)
(b)
F|gure 5.7
(a) 8u||d|rg or a re|grl lac|rg
l|al or |oWer grourd. (o) 8u||d|rg
or a re|grl lac|rg lre Wrorg Way.
Planning 81
Buildings on a level should face a height
Structures on open, level terrain should face a taller building or a
hill. This enables access to be arranged against the flow of the land
while the structure sits with the flow (see Figure 5.8).
Face water whenever possible
‘Waterfront property’ conveys a particular meaning that is often
thwarted by design. It is a cardinal rule of feng shui that the front of
a structure situated near water should have its entry facing the
water. (The biological reasons for this will be explored in a subse-
quent chapter.) A driveway should also terminate near the entrance
facing the water. Entering from the opposite side of the water has
a negative effect. Ideally, the mountain sits at the back and the
water is at the front
9
(see Figure 5.9).
(a)
(b)
F|gure 5.8
(a) 8u||d|rg or a |eve| lac|rg
a re|grl. (o) 8u||d|rg or a |eve|
lac|rg lre Wrorg Way.
82 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui
Notes
1
3ee C|ay (19Z3, p. 153). Tre APA ooard ol d|reclors ral|l|ed lre orgar|zal|or's pr|rc|p|es
ol srarl groWlr or 11 Apr|| 2002.
2
Vc0ora|d|zal|or ras oeer del|red as lre process ol |rlegral|rg pr|rc|p|es ol lasl-lood
reslaurarls |rlo soc|el|es arourd lre Wor|d (R|lzer, 199ê).
3
3ee Arlor ard Cru (2002).
1
Xue rougr|y lrars|ales lror Vardar|r as a cave ard/or a lavourao|e res|derce |ocal|or.
5
Tre p|arr|rg lasr|or ol wa|ler 0rop|us prov|ded lor slar|, r|r|ra||sl, slra|grl-s|ded ou||d-
|rgs, espec|a||y as |oW-|rcore projecls. NoW p|agued oy drugs, cr|re, ard v|o|erce, lrese
ou||d|rgs are rev||ed as prov|d|rg lre |easl rurare uroar rous|rg ard re|groourroods.
(a)
(b)
F|gure 5.9
(a) A slruclure ard erlrarce
lac|rg Waler. (o) A slruclure
W|lr ar oppos|le erlrarce ard
lre Waler oer|rd.
lr lerg sru|, lre ruroer 5÷so||÷rel|ecls lrese proo|ers.
ê
A 'Waler dragor' |r lerg sru| car cors|sl ol Wel|ards accord|rg lo lre CoWard|r sysler
used oy lre u3 goverrrerl.
Z
Accord|rg lo lre Proer|x, Ar|zora, 0|slr|cl Foresler/F|re Varagererl 0ll|ce, deve|opers
creale a '0|srey 0eserl' Wrer lrey dely ral|ve p|arl ord|rarces oy s||c||rg oll ral|ve
vegelal|or W|lr oac|roes al lre oeg|rr|rg ol corslrucl|or, lrer rep|arl W|lr rec|a|red
or-s|le p|arl raler|a| supp|ererled W|lr var|ous rursery sloc|.
8
Typ|ca| adv|ce or lr|s relurr lo ralura| rao|lal |rc|udes: (|) go lor a ralura| |oo| ralrer lrar
a lorra| ore; (||) se|ecl a ||r|led ruroer ol p|arl var|el|es ard ourcr lrer logelrer |r
dr|lls; (|||) p|arl evergreer grourd covers; (|v) se|ecl p|arls appropr|ale lo your c||rale;
(v) |rcorporale paved surlaces ard lerces.
9
Trere are excepl|ors lo lr|s ru|e, Wr|cr la|e |rlo cors|deral|or lre l|re ard space
d|rers|ors ol lerg sru| ard lre persora| d|recl|ora| ard v|c|r|ly |rl|uerces.
Planning 83
Chapter 6
Environmental assessment
A
recent cartoon shows the management of a construction
crew reviewing plans at a construction site. In front of
them a bulldozer is knocking down mature trees and
scraping the land bare of native vegetation. While pointing at the
bare ground behind the dozer the project manager says, ‘And over
there we’ll do some landscaping’.
Working with nature is the key to success. This means following the
natural contours of the land, paying attention to the natural cycles,
respecting and restoring habitat. (What a contrast to the typical
project that clear-cuts the natural world and replaces it with streets
named after what was removed.) Working with nature creates
fewer revenge effects.
The most important reason to pay attention to initial conditions
(including what we do to the land) is that the revenge effect lurks in
everything we do. Research the history of a site. Design with due
diligence.
1
Give thoughtful consideration to the life of a project, its
programme, and its contribution to the community. Project a site
into the future with a series of programmes.
A proposed programme does not stop at property lines. Think
about the interconnectedness of the world—that is the essence of
sustainability and of feng shui, the original science of environ-
mental protection.
A competent feng-shui practitioner uses a general set of tech-
niques and tools when conducting an analysis of a structure,
including but not limited to the environmental assessment. More
than a mere appraisal of landscaping, this inspection involves
observing everything in the area, generally within a 1-km radius.
‘Everything’ includes geography, adjacent buildings, bioclimate,
natural light and ventilation, sound, and rough estimates of the
thermal levels of a structure. A more scientific version would
encompass a climatic survey (temperature and relative humidity),
and documentation of wind effects. These data, when plotted on a
bioclimatic chart, would provide a diagnosis of an area’s tempera-
ture and humidity over a particular period. It could identify whether
86 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui
a particular structure is optimally oriented. Feng shui provides simi-
lar results with different methods.
Existing structures
Topography and natural features
As explained in Chapter 5, evaluation techniques involve much
more than seeing symbolism in everything. ‘Bad feng shui’ is
another way of saying environmental and personal suffering. To
alleviate these issues feng-shui practitioners identify and evaluate
the following components of a site.
Microclimate
Microclimate defines the distinctive climate of a small-scale area.
A combination of many slightly different microclimates creates the
climate for a particular area. Formed by houses, fences, vegetation,
water features, and paved surfaces, microclimates create subtle
but very real differences in temperatures and conditions. Urban
microclimates generally trap heat and produce a sweltering envi-
ronment capable of damaging plants. For example, if one area of a
yard is shaded but a spot just a few meters away is in full sun, tem-
perature differences between the two can vary by as much as 10
or 15Њ (see Figure 6.1).
The reflection of solar radiation by glass buildings and windows pro-
duces high albedo rates that raise temperature and make visibility
difficult. Moreover, structures displaying large amounts of glass take
a deadly toll on wildlife.
2
The built environment offers abundant
opportunities to reduce death and misery, save resources, reduce
waste, and restore damaged land (see Figure 6.2).
Feng-shui practitioners assess the amount and quality of vegeta-
tion, its arrangement, and its relation to the built environment. They
examine the topography and check for water features. Nearby
buildings are analysed for their effect on the site. Any wildlife or
domestic animals (and their absence) are noted. Practitioners
Environmental assessment 87
88 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui
consider how a building integrates into the natural world and build
a cognitive map of the site’s microclimate.
Pollution
More than two million children die each year from the effects of
environmental degradation. Nearly one-third of the global disease
burden can be attributed to environmental problems, and more
than 40 per cent of that burden falls on children under five—who
comprise a mere 10 per cent of the world’s population. Children run
F|gure ô.1
(a) TWo d|llererl r|croc||rales.
Tr|s |s puo||c rous|rg or lre soulr
s|de ol Cr|cago, l|||ro|s (u30A
prolo oy Ker larrord). (o) Tr|s
|s ar adooe rouse rexl lo a l|e|d ol
cr||| peppers |r 0|xor, NeW Vex|co
(u30A prolo oy Russe|| Lee).
a disproportionate risk to global environmental problems such as
climate change and loss of biodiversity.
3
These are things to think
about during the design process.
‘Pollution’ is not limited to the following.
Visual pollution
Visual pollution includes the homogenized built environment where
structures do not evolve from places or sites but are set down
whole on site-planned parcels. It can include buildings and land-
scaping blind to a region and its seasonal cycles;
4
oversized
houses slapped cheek by jowl on minimally landscaped, under-
sized parcels; and suburban fences tagged with graffiti, painted
over, and tagged again. Although sometimes a subjective observa-
tion (the concept of ‘clutter’ for instance), visual pollution more
typically includes lighting, urban blight, brownfields, and sinks
(see Figure 6.3).
A brownfield defines local land, water, and air used as a disposal
system by business or government. These sites often consist
of a piled mass of indefinable material left indefinitely to
influence the environment. They include abandoned, idled,
and underused industrial and commercial facilities where
Environmental assessment 89
F|gure ô.2
0ecepl|ve des|gr: exparses ol g|ass prov|de
a lorr|dao|e ard dead|y razard lo a|| ||rds
ol o|rds, ra|se |oca| lerperalures, ard |rpa|r
v|s|o|||ly (prolo oy lre aulror).
expansion or redevelopment stopped because of real or perceived
environmental contamination.
Sometimes brownfields include the effects of superstore sprawl
when retailers close megamalls and ‘relocate’ to other towns, leav-
ing in their wake empty stores with weeds growing through cracks
in the parking lot. In most cases the buildings stay shuttered
because the community cannot afford to demolish them and return
the land to productive use. (The National Trust for Historic
Preservation claims that fully half a billion of the five billion square
feet of retail space in the US sits empty and surrounded by a sea
of asphalt.) See Figure 6.4.
Sprawl identifies the developed world’s ‘favela syndrome’
(rapid urbanization and environmental problems) because it also
encourages racial disparity, class stratification, and environmental
degradation.
5
Robert Bullard, a sociologist who heads the
90 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui
F|gure ô.3
A slereolyp|ca| lorr ol v|sua| po||ul|or. u3 F|sr ard w||d||le 3erv|ce.
Environmental Justice Resource Center at Clark Atlanta University,
says sprawl is a kinder word than what it really is: white flight
(see Figure 6.5).
Grady Clay defined sinks as ‘places of last resort into which
powerful groups in society shunt, shove, dump, and pour whatever
or whomever they do not like or cannot use’.
6
Feng shui encom-
passes environmental justice. Any community should be planned
for social equity. Today environmental racism, often practiced in the
guise of smart growth, sites chemical industries, highways,
garbage dumps, smelters, incinerators, and other polluting facilities
in the communities of people of colour. Exclusionary and expulsive
zoning methods are regularly applied. The auto reigns supreme, so
that a form of transportation racism goes into effect. Laws and regu-
lations are haphazardly enforced—especially with regards to clean
air and water, parks and greenways, and affordable housing in all
communities. Energy conservation is most desperately needed by
the lower echelons of society, but regularly they are the ones who
least benefit.
A confusing and dangerous built environment constitutes the very
antithesis of feng shui. The built environment exists to create con-
tinuity so people do not have to think and analyse every movement
Environmental assessment 91
F|gure ô.4
3ore lyp|ca| oroWrl|e|ds. C|ly
ol Tro|ls|, Cre|yao|rs|, Cl3,
2 Apr|| 1992. Prolo courlesy ol
NA3A (3T3015-Z5-ê11)
92 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui
they make. People expect the natural world to provide a lack of
continuity and require a higher level of awareness. However, if con-
tinuity is missing from an area improved for humans there is an
increase in negative health effects.
7
Noise pollution
Noise pollution is usually identified as human- and machine-
generated sounds, although unique cases exist where natural
sounds (including frogs, crickets, roosters, and songbirds) disturb
people. Fatigue, stress, and other suffering directly related to noise
pollution diminish the quality of life and create health problems. If
people have the money they move. If they cannot afford to move
they are left to suffer.
Lack of soundproofing creates the most tenant complaints in
apartment complexes and row houses (condominiums). Thinner
walls cost less, but builders never investigate the revenge effects in
their designs—specifically how they affect the way sound travels
from one unit to another. High-quality buildings get adequate
soundproofing when developers want to retain tenants or when
soundproofing is required by law. Yet enough simple, cost-
effective techniques exist to install sufficient soundproofing in all
structures. A quiet structure induces people to stay as it keeps them
healthier.
8
F|gure ô.5
loW spraW| |oo|s lror space:
a lyp|ca| Arer|car re|groour-
rood. Prolo cred|l: NA3A.
Air pollution
Motor vehicles constitute the biggest single source of atmospheric
pollution. Sixty-five per cent of all carbon monoxide emissions
come from road vehicles. Automotive fuels account for 17 per cent
of global carbon dioxide releases—two-thirds as much as rainforest
destruction.
Air pollution remains high in US urban areas because the average
American driver spends 443h/year (the equivalent of 55 eight-hour
workdays) behind the wheel and wastes an estimated US$ 72 billion
a year in traffic jams. Americans also spend more on transportation
than any other household expense—one-fifth of their income.
Residents of sprawling communities drive three to four times as
much as those living in compact, well-planned areas, plus 80 per
cent of more than 115 million Americans making the daily commute
drive by themselves. Adding new lanes and building new roads exac-
erbates revenge effects, according to studies that show increasing
road capacity merely creates more traffic and more sprawl.
Buildings generate 35 per cent of US carbon dioxide emissions,
49 per cent of sulfur dioxide emissions, 25 per cent of nitrous oxide
emissions, and 10 per cent of particulate emissions. Thanks to
urban heat islands and the combined pollutant output of buildings
and cars, higher temperatures in metropolitan areas accelerate the
production of smog, escalate energy consumption due to increased
air conditioning, and intensify stress, illness, and suffering. Research
at the US Department of Energy at Lawrence Berkeley National
Laboratories in Berkeley, California, concluded that shrinking the
amount of ground-level ozone and smog could save US$ 5 billion
in medical costs and lost work.
9
Today, asthma is the most common and chronic childhood disease
and it is exacerbated by urban air pollution.
10
According to the
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, asthma is the fourth
leading cause of disability in kids under 18 years. Between 1980
and 1994, the prevalence of asthma increased 75 per cent overall
and 74 per cent among children 5–14 years of age. From 1992 to
1999, the number of emergency hospital visits for asthma
Environmental assessment 93
increased 36 per cent. However, environmental pollution predomi-
nantly affects people of colour. Low-income populations, minorities,
and children living in inner cities suffer disproportionately from
asthma. African Americans suffer asthma-related emergency
hospital visits, hospitalization, and death rates three times higher
than rates for whites.
Watercourses and streets
Analyse these features according to the principles examined in
Chapter 5. Resolutions to problems depend on the particulars of
a situation. Narrow streets slow vehicular traffic and encourage
pedestrian use; this makes a neighbourhood hospitable to visitors,
children, the elderly, and animals (‘good feng shui’).
11
Sometimes
a fast-moving street provides beneficial feng shui, but that is a rare
occurrence—and a judgment based solely on a case-by-case basis.
Consider street and water orientation in relation to a site. In some
feng shui techniques these provide enhancements while in others
their orientation is a detriment. The infamous T intersection, like the
long and straight watercourse, can be a force for good if a site is
constructed to capitalize on its strengths (usually sites that
accommodate the T intersection are large building complexes).
A residence facing a straight road, watercourse, or a T intersection
typically meets with trouble because the site cannot withstand the
revenge effects. Over a period of years in one southern California
neighbourhood cars regularly overshot a T intersection and
crashed into the fence and back yard of the house that it faced. The
exasperated owner took preventive measures that any decent
feng-shui practitioner would advise: he planted a massive barri-
cade of vegetation between the intersection and the back yard wall.
So far it seems to be working and, as an added bonus, it has
reduced the street noise.
Topographic problems
Other items likely to be noted by a practitioner during an analysis
include the slopes of hillsides and pads, the amount of land
94 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui
between the back of a structure on a pad and the hillside or its
retaining wall; soil conditions and erosion; cracks in the dirt, struc-
tures, water features; and the general condition of the land.
What constitutes bad feng shui can be called by any number of
contemporary labels and supported by reams of data. Cut-and-fill,
clear-cutting, and other large-scale engineering interventions
typically create appalling environments from any number of
viewpoints. In traditional feng-shui theory, misery prevails when
development amputates or redirects beneficial ‘dragons’ and in any
way impedes the natural flow of the land. Many builders think
nothing of bulldozing the tops off hills or slicing hillsides in half to
build subdivisions and condominium complexes. Property owners,
residents, and managers are left to deal with the revenge effects of
these ill-conceived designs.
Two lawsuits in 1998 on behalf of 115 northern California home-
owners claimed that the concrete foundations of all homes in their
subdivision were suffering alkali-silica reaction (a chemical process
that expands concrete until it falls apart), the usual flooding and
drainage problems associated with cut-and-fill development, inad-
equate and defective soils analysis, geotechnical planning and
preparation shortfalls, site grading deficiencies, and a host of
defective workmanship issues.
Orientation
Many buildings simply are not positioned or designed appropriately
for their orientation—energy bills tend to confirm this—and feng
shui provides categories that indicate additional orientation prob-
lems. A classic example is the ‘waterfront’ building with its front on
the dry side, but there is a short list of other structures that typically
frustrate and alienate their owners and occupants.
Double facing, or down mountain
The general level of suffering in this structure intensifies with the
presence of water at the front. Practitioners contend that this type of
building fosters professional success at the expense of relationships,
Environmental assessment 95
marriages, partnerships, and families. Often the solution is to add
berms, big trees, buildings, or boulders at an appropriate
orientation. These factors are determined during a feng-shui analysis.
Double sitting, or up mountain
The general level of suffering in this structure intensifies with the
presence of a building, large tree, boulders, or berms at the back.
Most practitioners insist this type of building is hard on finances but
good with health and relationships. Often the solution is to add a
water feature at an appropriate orientation.
Reversed
Practitioners regularly describe this type of building as inherently
bad feng shui. Consensus among practitioners is that this particu-
lar type of house forms the bulk of foreclosures, but often there
are other attendant miseries. In general, the reversed structure
requires the most extensive environmental remedies (water and
berms, large vegetation, buildings, or boulders) scaled according
to their size. The period from the late 1940s to early 1960s was a
particularly fruitful one for these structures. Entire US subdivisions
created during the post-World War II housing boom conform to
these orientations.
Up the mountain, down the river
Sometimes a structure receives additional emphasis on its
problems due to the siting of rivers or fast-moving streets, plus the
positioning of elevations and nearby hills or large buildings.
Native plants and animals
Few feng-shui practitioners are biologists, but they typically
observe a location and evaluate its natural environment.
Practitioner training reinforces the principle that, as part of the goal
of harmony with nature, even the most urban location should pro-
vide sufficient vegetation and habitat. Suggested remedies should
96 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui
stress plants and other solutions consistent with the native species
of a particular area.
12
‘Good feng shui’ provides more than a catchphrase. Jamie
Rappaport Clark of the US Fish and Wildlife Service noted that the
habitats attracting birds in urban areas (such as parks, greenways,
and tree-lined streets) improve the quality of life in any community.
An improved quality of life is also good for business: services
related to the presence of birds, such as bird-watching, housing,
and feeding, earned an estimated US$ 29 billion in 1996.
It is a practitioner’s responsibility to suggest appropriate remedies
and methods of environmental resolution. Unfortunately, some
practitioners are more knowledgeable and conscientious than
others. Practitioners need to form partnerships with local wildlife
organizations and authorities to expand their knowledge and the
solutions they offer their clients. Their websites should provide
clients and the curious with links to extensive environmental infor-
mation and encouragement.
Restoring habitat
Restoration is defined as the process of re-establishing a self-
sustaining habitat that closely resembles a natural condition in terms
of structure and function. Quality environments provide a variety of
habitats (aquatic, forest, field, and edge).
Children gain the most from habitat restoration because often they
are the most faithful users of open space in a neighbourhood. They
prize outdoor places that enable them to explore the natural world
and make use of natural materials. They do not need a big area,
but wildlife habitats that work for children should be designed into
a site, centrally located in residential developments, shielded by
homes instead of streets, and provided social and physical safety.
Species loss occurs when development isolates small areas and
expects creatures to thrive there. Too often habitat islands engulfed
by homes and businesses are too small or too isolated to provide
wildlife with their basic necessities. Many animals require a variety
Environmental assessment 97
of habitat types nearby to meet their needs. The size, vegetation
diversity, and interconnectedness of such islands determine the
number, size, and kinds of creatures a habitat can support. The
shape of a habitat patch also affects wildlife because it influences
the relative amounts of habitats.
In general, circular habitats function better than angular ones. Edge
habitat (parcels of habitat not more than several hundred meters
wide) benefits only certain kinds of wildlife, usually at the expense
of others.
13
Interior habitat provides insulation from edge effects
such as noise, wind, sun, and predators—all of which are critical to
species that dwell deeper in a wild area. An interior habitat begins
to develop approximately 50m from the edge of a habitat, although
habitats for some species may need to be as much as 550m from
an edge.
Corridors and greenways aid wildlife and provide additional value
in a developed area.
14
Maintaining and creating these systems
increases their use and the likelihood that many species of wildlife
will thrive.
Sustainability and ‘green’ issues
‘Green renovation’ or ‘green remodelling’ harmonizes with the prin-
ciples of feng shui because thinking green complements traditional
concepts of sustainability. A conventional home in a typical new
suburb consumes more resources than necessary, diminishes the
environment, and generates an enormous amount of landfill waste.
The standard wood-framed home devours more than an acre of
forest (as the stock of large-diameter trees has steadily declined)
and creates from 3 to 7 tonnes of waste during construction.
Environmentally sound renovation saves renovation costs in its use
of quality salvaged materials, decreases the amount of landfill that
is normally required for construction waste, and conserves existing
resources. It cuts energy costs by obtaining materials locally,
lowers indoor air pollution (due to the use of lower-VOC surface
finishes and fewer artificial materials for carpeting and upholstery),
98 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui
and safeguards the health and safety of workers and occupants
through its use of less-toxic materials.
15
Building colours should reflect native soil and plants as a general
interpretation of Earth hues on a vertical plane. A renovated site
should be integrated back into nature. It does not matter whether
initially the nearest ‘nature’ is kilometers away—what matters is
that the integration occurs. As more buildings are renovated and
entire city blocks ‘go native’ it will be easier to identify the ‘natural’
environment.
16
Textures used in renovation should also work towards the goal of
integration with nature. Concrete block, stone, stucco, and wood
provide symbolic variations of natural textures. At the same time,
considering the amount of yin and yang at a site means selecting
the appropriate textures with care to achieve an optimum ratio
(in general two-thirds yang to one-third yin).
Improve local microclimates during renovation. This means using
environmentally correct surface coatings on rooftops,
17
increasing
(native) vegetation by rooftop gardens or other means, adding cor-
ridors and greenways when appropriate. Do not forget to apply
innovative techniques to areas for parking, which are notorious
heat islands that devour land. For every degree increase in heat,
electricity generation rises by 2–4 per cent and smog production
increases by 4–10 per cent.
Streets and parking lots constitute the largest component of urban
impervious cover—for example, half of urban land in Florida is dedi-
cated to autos and their problems, according to the Florida
Conservation Foundation. Pavement now covers more than 2 per
cent of the total surface area of the US, and 10 per cent of all
arable land in the US.
Landscape architect Dan Kiley is credited with defining a parking
lot as a ‘garden for cars’—a pathetic concept, because cars are not
the least bit appreciative. However, a superior solution exists and it
can be valued by living creatures. Green parking refers to several
techniques collectively applied to reduce the amount of impervious
Environmental assessment 99
cover created by parking lots. A comprehensive green parking
programme can effectively reduce the amount of impervious cover,
help to protect local streams, save money in storm water manage-
ment, and beautify a site. Techniques include setting maximums for
the number of parking lots, determining average parking demand
(instead of setting parking ratios to accommodate the highest
hourly parking during the peak season), minimizing the dimensions
of parking lot spaces, utilizing alternative pavers in overflow parking
areas, creating natural areas to retain and treat storm water,
18
encouraging shared parking, and providing economic incentives for
structured parking.
Green paving consists of a combination of alternative paving
19
and
hardy plants that can withstand a fair amount of vehicular traffic.
A successful green parking programme depends on shrinking
the amount of impervious cover, and on which techniques are
combined to create the ‘greenest’ lot. Fort Bragg in North Carolina
constructed a green parking lot that reduced impervious cover
by 40 per cent, increased parking by 20 per cent, and saved
US$ 1.6 million—20 per cent—on construction costs over the initial
conventional design. A green paving system in Auburn,
Washington, consists of grass and porous structural plastic for use
as a park and for overflow parking. A combination of grass and
cement concrete block is also effective. Concrete blocks are laid on
compacted ground and a hardy variety of grass is grown through
the openings in the bricks. Mature grass is not harmed because its
roots are below the edges of the bricks, which, in turn, distribute
the loads of heavy vehicles.
Green parking and green paving reduce costs and the size of heat
islands as they beautify and enrich the urban environment.
However, at best these techniques are shortsighted sops to car
addicts. Reducing and/or eliminating vehicles and their voracious
need for their own ‘gardens’ (always at the expense of living crea-
tures) should be the goal.
20
Studies indicate that business profits
grow when cities exclude cars from their centres and provide more
areas of pedestrian-only access.
100 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui
Using environment to correct problems
in existing buildings
For feng shui, the most important and consequential remedies
involve microclimatic changes. That is why practitioners advise
strategically placed water features,
21
berms, boulders, large trees,
or other forms of vegetation (as previously explained in
Orientation). A practitioner might suggest remodelling to compensate
for unpromising calculations or to capitalize on a promising orien-
tation (as in the Castle Gate technique). Whatever the remedy, it
should be viewed as an opportunity to further integrate a structure
into the natural world. To that end, utilize local and sustainable
materials and practices whenever possible. Strive to create wildlife
habitat as part of the feng-shui remedy and receive additional ther-
apeutic benefits (see Chapter 7).
Bare land
Twice as many people buy an existing home than a new home pri-
marily because of the character of neighbourhoods. An established
neighbourhood shows whether it is successful and properly
located.
Without experience, the latest space syntax tools, or an adept
feng-shui practitioner, it is more difficult to tell whether a new com-
munity will share these features.
Most buildings are built for a particular market at a particular time.
Developers and designers can misjudge a market or follow a
design philosophy that fluctuates as quickly as any fad. Because
these buildings cannot change like the market they are quickly
dated and reduced to functional obsolescence.
22
Generally, poor orientation and fit of house to land and climate also
make these buildings quite expensive to light, heat, and cool.
Inferior landscaping choices waste excessive amounts of water
and create environmental revenge effects.
23
Many ordinary con-
struction materials produce poor indoor air quality, which can lead
to health problems.
Environmental assessment 101
Topography and natural features
Developing a new neighbourhood in the conventional sense
involves considering what to bulldoze and what to keep. Developing
yet another ‘bedroom community’ splinters what is left of any open
space and wildlife habitat, and/or removes yet more productive
farmland and forest area from use.
What stages of construction are affected by building green? Site
planning, design, the construction process, materials and specifi-
cations, foundations, structure and framing, sheathing and exterior
finish, insulation, roofing, doors and windows, floor coverings,
paints, coatings and adhesives, exterior finish and trim. Although
ethical principles inherent in feng shui correspond to sustainability
principles, they may not be workable for everyone. Some may have
to be forced by economic necessity and/or legislation to comply
with these ideas and techniques.
During the planning process, exercise due diligence toward the
natural world. Obtain the advice of biologists and other local habi-
tat experts on primary areas for preservation. A feng-shui practi-
tioner can assist in siting a development with the flow of the land,
and in minimizing the revenge effects associated with development
(including, but not limited to workmanship, construction accidents,
fires, crimes, and health hazards). A practitioner can also advise on
what orientations and layouts would be most beneficial for the
widest range of occupants—or, if this is a custom development, a
practitioner can provide additional detailed information on what
clients require as optimum conditions.
As you begin the design and development processes you will also
want to consider the following issues.
Pollution
Any new construction affects the environment. Feng-shui advice
can help, but it cannot eliminate this effect. Green building and
environmental assessment are essential and currently provide the
only way to diminish pollution.
102 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui
Watercourses and streets
Resist the temptation to turn a natural local water feature into a
cement pond or otherwise destroy it. Let feng shui aid in
analysing the position of the water dragon and redesigning its
flow, if needed, to accentuate the good features of water and the
site. The presence of this feature delights humans and wildlife.
A natural watercourse adjusts a microclimate’s air circulation,
relative humidity, temperature, and wildlife habitat. Piping water
underground as a nuisance degrades the environment and creates
bad feng shui.
Good feng shui for roadways and streets corresponds to good civic
design and planning, with certain caveats.
Positioning and average speed
Streets are like streams and rivers; revenge effects occur if the ori-
entation is not appropriate for all structures near them. Cul-de-sacs
can be good for all houses, or only one or two on the entire block—
it is all in how they are designed. Government buildings can bene-
fit from appropriate use of T intersections, while some unfortunate
suburban homeowner may find one car after another swimming in
his pool because they fail to negotiate the stop. Residential streets
whose broad design encourages speeding create fear, animosity,
and heartache in residents—fear for the lives of their children and
pets, animosity against those who feel confident enough to use the
street as a racetrack, and heartache in those who suffer tragedy as
a result of insensitive design.
Feeder and connector streets
Feng-shui principles dictate that a good environment aids the flow
of life and by extension perhaps the transition to larger and faster
thoroughfares. Facilitate a new development’s integration with pub-
lic transportation services and provide safe transitional environ-
ments for pedestrians and the natural world—sprawl is notoriously
unfriendly to public transit, bicycles, and pedestrians.
Environmental assessment 103
Topography
Was the site predetermined by the developer or by
setback limits?
Consider all possible revenge effects of development decisions (all
the more critical in these increasingly litigious times). The natural
environment—not the built one—is of paramount importance.
Are local features cherished?
Does the site preserve and enhance the local microclimate—the
flow of the land, natural water features, existing boulders, swales,
and natural rock outcroppings? Does it preserve and/or enhance
wildlife habitats? Resist the temptation to create a Disney Desert
or similar travesty. Turn difficult slopes along with wetlands, canyon
bottoms, flood plains, cliffs, buttes, and other sensitive areas into
biological reservoirs and recreation areas. Natural runoff floodways
and wetlands constitute high-energy ecological reserves that pro-
duce more than any farmland.
24
How does a structure relate to a site?
Is the structure integrated into the natural flow of the land? Is it des-
tined to be dropped on a cut-and-fill pad in a landscape ravaged by
backhoes and earthmovers, devoid of wildlife and natural beauty?
Is the natural world incorporated into the building’s design, or is this
a stereotypical urban geography blind to the planet—an egotistical
CAD fantasy?
Orientation
How should a building sit on a lot?
Take advantage of orientations to maximize comfort and minimize
energy consumption. Protect orientations that extend the seasons
and work with the land. (Turning one house 90Њ saved the occu-
pants more than 30 per cent on their energy bills.) Determine the
direction of prevailing breezes and adjust window designs to take
advantage of them. Calculate what the year of construction will
build into the house and adjust the orientation accordingly (more
on that in Chapter 7).
104 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui
Sustainability and ‘green’ issues
Green building for most developers means rethinking business and
customers. When rating the importance of energy efficiency,
resource conservation, and indoor air quality on a scale of 1 to 5
(with 5 being most important), buyers give each issue a signifi-
cantly higher mark than builders do.
One annual green building survey
25
underscores the dissimilar
mindsets of buyers and builders. Builders on average fail to satisfy
their customers’ passion for environmentally healthy homes.
Buyers want new homes that are energy-efficient, resource-
efficient, and healthy—and they are willing to pay more for these
benefits than builders assume they will.
Eight in ten consumers surveyed in 2001 said that new homes do
not meet their sustainability demands. Nine out of ten respondents
said that energy-efficient features in a new home are ‘extremely’ or
‘very important’. Six in ten respondents said the use of certified,
sustainably harvested lumber should be standard in new homes.
Eight in ten consumers prefer a home that is built without using
old-growth trees.
Builders consistently underestimate the value of green building
features to their customers. For example, little more than half of the
builders who were surveyed in 2001 regularly use formaldehyde-
free insulation in the homes they build, yet 85 per cent of buyers
say they want this kind of insulation. Seventy-three per cent of buy-
ers want low-VOC paint to be standard in new homes, but a mere
58 per cent of builders regularly use these paints.
Using the environment to correct problems
So you did not call in the feng-shui practitioner until the slabs were
poured and now she is telling you that the orientations are all
wrong. You want your project to sell and for people to be happy with
your work. What can she do to make this happen?
If you created a neighbourhood of homes with orientation prob-
lems, adjust the microclimate for each structure according to the
Environmental assessment 105
locations and orientations provided by the feng-shui practitioner.
Install the appropriate features as part of the finishing process or
landscaping. These items do not add substantially to your costs
and they substantially increase the occupants’ happiness with what
you have built.
If you created a commercial complex with an orientation problem,
work with the practitioner to resolve the issues. Adjusting the micro-
climate may be enough, but the size of the complex determines the
scale of the adjustments that need to be made.
You may find that what is required to remedy the site is beyond the
scope of your project. In that case, learn from the practitioner what
revenge effects are likely to occur as a result of the inherent
problems in the complex and see what small changes can be
made. Sometimes small remedies advantageously placed can
make enough of a difference.
Notes
1
Accord|rg lo ore l|rr, due d|||gerce cors|sls ol a d|scovery process lral |derl|l|es |alerl
delecls |r lurcl|or des|gr, sucr as lrreals ard opporlur|l|es (rllp://WWW.spaceara|yl|cs.
cor/desd.rlr).
2
Esl|raled o|rd dealrs eacr year due lo rel|ecl|ve g|ass ard g|ass W|rdoWs rarge lror 100
lo 900ϩ r||||or accord|rg lo 0r 0ar|e| K|er ol Vur|eroerg Co||ege. Fror 19ê8 lo 1998,
rore lrar 2ê000 r|gral|rg o|rds d|ed crasr|rg |rlo Cr|cago's VcCorr|c| P|ace Cor-
verl|or Cerler dur|rg spr|rg ard la|| r|gral|or. Trese ruroers represerl a sra|| lracl|or
ol lre o|rd lala||l|es lral occur every year due lo W|rdoWs, lerporary o||rdress caused oy
arl|l|c|a| ||grl|rg, ard slruclures sucr as r|croWave ard le|ev|s|or loWers. 0re 309-r loWer
rear Ta||arassee, F|or|da, ||||ed 1238ê o|rds ol 190 spec|es lror 1955 lo 1980. A 30ê-r
loWer |r Eau C|a|re, w|scors|r, ||||ed 1215ê0 o|rds ol 123 spec|es lror 195Z lo 1991.
3
3ee uNlCEF, uNEP, ard wl0 (2002).
1
Tre easlerr lr|rd ol lre u3 cors|sls ol pr|rar||y Wel |ardscape W|lr lrees ard grass. Tre
weslerr u3 gerera||y rece|ves |ess lrar 11|r. ol ra|r eacr year. Yel, uroar des|gr rare|y
d|llererl|ales oelWeer lre lWo c||rales. Tr|s corlr|oules lo lre rorogere|ly ol u3 uroar
areas dep|ored oy experls ard corrur|l|es a|||e.
5
Researcr corducled oy lre Nal|ora| w||d||le Federal|or d|scovered lral spraW| |rper||s
188 ol lre 28ê Ca||lorr|a spec|es ||sled urder lre u3 Erdargered 3pec|es Acl. Tre Nal|ora|
wel|ards lrverlory, corducled every 10 years oy lre u3 F|sr ard w||d||le 3erv|ce,
106 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui
eslao||sred lral ê11000 acres ol Wel|ards Were |osl oelWeer 198ê ard 199Z. Tr|rly per
cerl ol Wel|ard |oss÷lre s|rg|e |argesl corlr|oul|or÷care as lre resu|l ol reW deve|oprerl
(Nal|ora| w||d||le Federal|or, 2001).
ê
3ee C|ay (19Z3, p. 113).
Z
3ee 8roWr (2001).
8
3ee Ve|ared el a|. (2001).
9
3ee Roserle|d el a|. (199ê).
10
0r surrer days W|lr r|gr po||ul|or cr||drer W|lr aslrra are 10 per cerl rore |||e|y lo
suller aslrra allac|s corpared W|lr days W|lr average po||ul|or |eve|s. lrcreases |r a|r po|-
|ul|or |eve|s |r lre surrer rorlrs are assoc|aled W|lr a r|se |r lre da||y ruroer ol rosp|-
la| erergercy roor v|s|ls oy e|der|y peop|e. Tre |eve|s ol ozore ard parl|cu|ale raller
||r|ed |r lre sludy W|lr |rcreased ER v|s|ls Were We|| oe|oW currerl u3 a|r qua||ly slardards
(0e|l|ro el a|., 199Z; Trurslor el a|., 199Z).
11
Pedeslr|ar lala||ly rales are r|grer |r lre u3 lor peop|e ol co|our, accord|rg lo lre
u3 0eparlrerl ol Trarsporlal|or. lr 199Z, rore lrar 5000 pedeslr|ars Were slruc| ard
||||ed oy cars÷over lWo-lr|rds ol lre v|cl|rs Were rer. wa|||rg |s 3ê l|res rore dargerous
lrar dr|v|rg.
12
lrlroduc|rg ror-ral|ve spec|es |s aga|rsl lerg-sru| pr|rc|p|es.
13
Vosl W||d||le |rrao|l|rg edges are cors|dered gerera||sl spec|es.
11
A corr|dor |s a correcl|ve |ardscape lral ur|les rao|lal |s|ards. Ar ellecl|ve W||d||le cor-
r|dor |s W|de erougr lo prov|de lood, Waler, ard sre|ler lor ar ar|ra| as |l roves lrrougr.
15
Tre 0reer 8u||d|rg Courc|| |s lre lorerosl u3 coa||l|or ol |eaders lror across lre ou||d-
|rg |rduslry Wor||rg lo prorole ou||d|rgs lral are erv|rorrerla||y respors|o|e, prol|lao|e,
ard rea|lry p|aces lo ||ve ard Wor|. Tre courc||'s LEE0 0reer 8u||d|rg Ral|rg 3ysler lor
Ex|sl|rg 8u||d|rgs cors|sls ol perlorrarce slardards lor lre susla|rao|e operal|or ol ex|sl-
|rg ou||d|rgs. Tre LEE0-E8 cr|ler|a cover ou||d|rg operal|ors ard syslers upgrades |r
ex|sl|rg ou||d|rgs Wrere lre rajor|ly ol |rler|or or exler|or surlaces rera|r urcrarged.

For sore |deas see 8orrar el a|. (2002).
1Z
lr courlr|es arourd lre sur-oa|ed Ved|lerrarear peop|e are d|recled oy |aW lo Wr|le-
Wasr lre|r rools aller lre ra|ry seasor erds. Rel|ecl|ve rools d|r|r|sr lre ellecls ol real
|s|ards.
18
8|orelerl|or areas are |ardscap|rg lealures adapled lo prov|de or-s|le lrealrerl ol
slorr Waler ruroll. Trey are corror|y |ocaled |r par||rg |ol |s|ards or sra|| s|les or W|lr|r
sra|| poc|els ol res|derl|a| |ard |r r|gr|y uroar|zed sell|rgs, ard use approx|rale|y
5 per cerl ol lre area lral dra|rs lo lrer. 3urlace ruroll l|oWs |rlo sra||oW, |ardscaped
depress|ors lral |rcorporale rary ol lre po||ularl rerova| recrar|srs lourd |r loresl
eco-syslers. Nalura| areas lo rela|r slorr Waler re|p reel slorr Waler raragererl ard
Environmental assessment 107
|ardscap|rg requ|rererls as lrey r|r|r|ze ra|rlerarce cosls. A|lrougr leW slud|es ex|sl
or lre po||ularl rerova| rales ol o|orelerl|or areas, lrey are esl|raled lo oe as ell|c|erl as
a dry sWa|e, Wr|cr e||r|rales 91 per cerl ol lola| susperded so||ds, êZ per cerl ol lola|
prosprorous, 92 per cerl ol lola| r|lroger, ard 80-90 per cerl ol rela|s.
19
3ore a|lerral|ve pavers |rc|ude grave|, cooo|es, Wood ru|cr, or|c|, grass pavers, lurl
o|oc|s, ralura| slore, perv|ous corcrele, ard porous aspra|l.
20
Approx|rale|y ore r||||or ar|ra|s per day are ||||ed or u3 roads. 0ec||res |r lre rur-
oers ol erdargered ar|ra|s car, |r parl, oe allr|ouled lo r|grWay dealrs.
21
A gerera| ru|e ol lruro |s Waler vo|ure al 5 per cerl ol lre square relerage or square
loolage ol lre slruclure, rourded oll lo lre r|grer arourl ol ||lres or ga||ors.
22
rllp://WWW.spaceara|yl|cs.cor.
23
A goverrrerl 'r|l ||sl' ol |rvas|ve lrees, aqual|c p|arls, ard reros car oe lourd al
WWW.rps.gov/p|arls/a||er/.
21
A sa|l rarsr ol 3parl|ra grass produces 3500g ol o|orass per square relre eacr year.
Farr|ard car produce a rere 1Z00g lror groW|rg sugarcare, 100g lror groW|rg ra|ze,
ard 350g lror groW|rg Wreal.
25
Corducled oy lre Carrers Res|derl|a| 0roup ard Proless|ora| 8u||der, lous|rg Zore,
E-0re, Parasor|c, w|||arelle, lre wood Prorol|or NelWor|, Cerla|rTeed, ard u308C.
108 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui
Chapter 7
Human factors
The innate human need for particular
environments and views
People wonder why doctors’ offices and other stressful locations
often contain fish tanks. Studies of dentists’ offices show that
watching an aquarium before a procedure enables patients to
behave more compliantly during procedures, to recover more
quickly, and to experience less pain and trauma.
1
Other research
shows that watching an aquarium can significantly lower people’s
blood pressure below the resting level—and it does not matter
whether their blood pressure is naturally normal or high. People
constantly exposed to stress suffer immune system dysfunction yet
views of nature aid our immune system and help us regain health
quickly
2
(see Figure 7.1).
Talking to an animal lowers blood pressure and heart rate more
than talking to human familiars—in fact, as most people with pets
know, the mere presence of animals increases the level of
social interaction among humans.
3
Long-standing advice for single
men includes borrowing a friend’s dog as a way to meet women,
because women, in general, are friendlier to people with a dog.
Many people consider animals as kin, and animals elicit speech
from people. Women tend to stop to pet a dog and strike up a
conversation. The increased use of animals as assisted therapists
in the health-care industry is the direct result of research showing
how animals help us heal and increase our quality of life.
4
112 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui
F|gure 7.1
P|clures |||e lr|s |oWer rurar o|ood
pressure ard rearl rale. u3 F|sr ard
w||d||le 3erv|ce. Prolo oy 0ary V. 3lo|z.
Extended exposure to window views of nature by hospital patients
and prison inmates also provides far-reaching effects. Surgical
patients with a view of greenery have shorter hospital stays,
receive fewer negative comments in nurse’s notes, and apparently
experience fewer postoperative complications. Patients forced to
stare at a blank wall need more potent and more frequent pain
medications, while people with views of foliage need only minor
pain relievers. Similarly, studies of prison inmates provided with
views of scenery showed they had fewer sick calls and less health-
related symptoms of stress such as headaches and digestive
problems.
A Swedish hospital with psychiatric patients studied the effects of
environment for 15 years. Patients responded positively to wall art
with natural content but not to abstracts and other modern forms of
art. The research indicated that what prompted patients to attack
staff verbally and physically—and even pull items down and smash
them, a rarity for patients considered nonviolent and passive—
was abstract and chaotic content. In the 15 years of research, no
patient ever complained about or attacked a picture depicting
nature.
5
We may try to shut out the natural world, but the sense of beauty it
imparts to humans affects us more profoundly than we realize. Our
love of nature has been defined as ‘love with feeling and thinking’.
6
People stuck in offices all day but provided access to a window with
a view of greenery suffer less stress and take fewer sick days.
(I once took a tour of a corporation that stuck its artists in the
windowless basement of the building; they retaliated by hanging
posters depicting a natural view through a window. People in
behavioural studies and postoccupation studies behave the same
way.
7
) You can ‘bliss out’ watching birds, other animals, and water.
The effects of studying natural scenes apparently induce in
humans feelings not unlike those found in Zen meditation.
None of this information is new to those familiar with E.O. Wilson’s
Biophilia Hypothesis, which seeks to understand the human affin-
ity for living things. (A corollary, Biophobia, explains why we and
Human factors 113
114 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui
our fellow primates tend to exhibit similar negative reactions to
snakes and bugs, and why some people love technology more than
the natural world.) In an accumulation of books and studies, pro-
ponents of this theory see a correlation between the natural world
that humans evolved in and the optimal state of human well-being.
Scientists have also documented the debilitating effects of a world
devoid of nature or provided in diminished levels, and humans’ cor-
responding level of mental and emotional distress (see Figure 7.2).
Notice the qualifier ‘the natural world that humans evolved in’. The
natural world that we long for and need for our continued health
looks nothing like the places where most of us live. It is a world
that takes us back before the Industrial Revolution (at the latest).
Consider the ominous implications of these data, especially when
crime is considered a largely urban pathology. A few studies sug-
gest that most mental health cases live in urban areas. Some
experts link the escalating trend of events like the massacre at
Columbine High and workplace shootings with the marginalizing
landscapes of suburbia and a rising tide of mental illness. The
increase of mental illness appears to coincide with industralization,
especially urbanization, and is likely biological.
8
We may have
proof that humanity is going slowly mad and self-destructing due to
our way of building.
Viewshed, human nature, and feng shui
Humans require natural views of plants and animals for mental and
emotional health. Studies also suggest we need nature around
us as a restorative and to stimulate our higher creative functions.
(Anecdotal evidence links walks in a park or other natural
settings with ideas that eventually led their creators to receive
Nobel prizes.) Our need for the natural world is truly ancient.
Evidence from Olduvai Gorge and other archeological digs in eastern
Africa indicate that our distant ancestors made the first efforts to
achieve the same surroundings that we desire. Early hominids
generally located their camps at the edge of water. They positioned
themselves with water to their front and a hillside, cave, or other
protective natural feature at their back.
Millions of years separate the Neolithic beginnings of feng shui from
our ancestors in Africa, but key features remain the same: water in
the front, a hill or mountain at the back. Techniques merely increased
in sophistication between the time of African hominids and
Neolithic Chinese. Numbers and instrumentation provided additional
analytical techniques. People learned to improve the landscape so
that it provided the by-now ‘sacred’ features, always with the
intended goal of integrating humanity into what is Naturally So.
When Christian missionaries arrived in China in the nineteenth
century they marvelled at the beauty and fertility of the land, even
as they denounced as ‘pagan superstition’ the ancient techniques
that provided people with their rich environment. A similar situation
occurred during the Chinese Revolution and when the Communist
Party assumed the reins of government in the People’s Republic.
Mao Zedong, whose hero was Qin Shihuang, the unifier of China,
felt little love toward the ancient Chinese way of doing things. He did
everything in his power to abolish the old ways and people’s senti-
ments towards them. His government used repression, propaganda,
Human factors 115
F|gure 7.2
lurars are rard-W|red lo Warl lrees lral |oo| |||e lre ores
our d|slarl arceslors ercourlered |r Alr|ca. u3 F|sr ard
w||d||le 3erv|ce. Prolo oy 0ary V. 3lo|z.
utopian promises, and censorship to achieve its ends. What
occurred in China, as the result of his policies, shows the profound
connection between abuse of nature and abuse of people.
Mao disdained scientific study and principles. He prohibited
farmers to continue with traditional and sustainable methods of
farming, banned ‘superstitious and feudal’ sustainable practices
(including feng shui) because of their age and traditions, and insti-
tuted nationwide programmes to eradicate birds and other wildlife.
Although deforestation and other environmental degradation
occurred in Imperial China, postrevolutionary China provided a
much more cohesive state with unprecedented opportunities for
wholesale environmental destruction. In the end it has achieved
such success in remoulding the face of China that it actually
threatens human survival. Today, China provides one-tenth the per-
capita land resources of the US.
9
Western traditions never extolled the urban environment as idyllic—
cities for the most part provided a hotbed of disease and squalid
conditions and were even expected to be that way. Westerners
have been taught for centuries how to look at cities interiors and
landscape. Because we cannot see the real landscape anymore,
our primary reactions to the wasteland around us consist of stress
and an indefinable malaise.
The work of researchers such as R. M. Nesse suggests that nega-
tive emotional states like fear, depression, and anxiety represent
urgings by our embodied mind to ‘attend to the situation at hand’.
10
Current generations let the next pay for their carelessness—in
rising violence and mental distress.
11
We know something is ‘not
quite right’ but we do not know what it is—or how to fix it. Some
modern authorities accuse Americans of addressing these con-
cerns with trivialities in design and place (such as clutter, per-
haps?). Anti-anxiety medicines and tranquilizers can relax us, but
they do not work as quickly as looking at a natural scene. People
who receive training in a self-relaxation technique can become
more relaxed than any current medication makes possible simply
by combining self-relaxation with natural views.
12
116 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui
The cost of creating a positive living and working environment does
not significantly differ from the cost of creating an oppressive one.
Moreover, the bulk of scientific studies overwhelmingly conclude
that healthy human environments require the same features
advised by feng shui practitioners for millennia.
Environmental features
Curvilinear and rectangular visual contours or edges
Humans require soft, vague shapes and edges, and precise, defi-
nite shapes and edges in proportions resembling those expressed
in yin yang theory. Geometrical design in the Western sense cannot
supply what Jiahua Wu calls ‘agreeable surprise’ or even delight,
unless the buildings are based on timeless forms of construction
and their fractal nature. Differences between Western and Chinese
gardens provide a glaring point of comparison. Western gardens
dominate the natural world. Lineaments are mapped onto nature or
at least extended out from the building. Nature serves as a frame to
structure. Reflective pools mirror buildings, not aspects of nature.
For Chinese, beginning with the site and its orientation, gardens
and buildings are part of nature and humans blend into nature.
Buildings in the shape of squares and rectangles, ovals and circles
evoke that timeless quality, provide ecological efficiency, and thus
repeat in ancient and traditional habitation.
13
Consider also the
Chinese concept of the ‘taste of heaven’—a taste in the sense not
of fashion or style, but of the infinite expression of deep artistic
needs in a setting that reveres and represents natural forms. In
contrast, much of modern architecture creates stress and
misery, especially in its widespread hostility to archaeological
building forms. Factor in the absence of wildlife and vegetation, and
you have the typically wretched urban viewshed.
Wildlife
People need animals and wildlife, yet wildlife today exists solely by
our sufferance. All but 3 per cent of Earth’s biomass—including wild
Human factors 117
118 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui
animals and vegetation—are under direct control of humans. Our
misery has plenty of company (see Figure 7.3).
Returning balance to the world requires work on everyone’s part,
beginning with the restoration of habitat. Promote rooftop gardens
and greenways, backyard wilderness, and every conceivable form
of habitat renewal. When the wild things come, observe and learn to
live with them by their rules—strive to fit in with what is Naturally So.
Landscaping and vegetation
First, we need to let the volumes of environmental data speak
for themselves. Then, we need to cultivate the ability to ‘see in
between’ our viewshed stereotypes and dogma. Some viewsheds
found in feng shui seem to relate to those in Chinese painting
(shan-shui), although feng shui uses far more orientations and cal-
culations involved. The viewsheds from Chinese painting according
to Jiahua Wu consist of high-far, deep-far, and level-far.
14
High-far
This describes a combination of great height and distance. Eye-
level viewing is intentionally placed very low. Using imagination
with this viewshed creates a sense of reverence for nature that
symbolizes high morality. (Think of Ansel Adams’ photographs of
Joshua Tree, Glacier National Park, and the face of Half Dome.)
A ‘guest hill’ (salient landscape feature) that is high and far is aus-
picious (see Figure 7.4).
F|gure 7.3
lurars are rard-W|red lo oe al lre|r oesl |r
lre corpary ol ar|ra|s. u3 F|sr ard w||d||le
3erv|ce. Prolo oy 0ary V. 3lo|z.
Deep-far
This viewshed presents a means of discovery and exploration
through different layers and perspectives. It promotes the use of
human imagination by encouraging the creation of personal
‘messages’ received from intense observations of nature. Deep-far
communicates a complex scene of layers and depths that suggests
ranked, intricate qualities. It includes overhead surveying from a
distance and shifting viewpoints. Complex images and spatial
depth are built by careful observation and representation that can
take a step beyond the real scenery and potentially move into
visionary, even mystical, areas. The popularity of ‘vacations in par-
adise’ shows just how important the Deep-far viewshed is to our
imaginations and well-being.
Consider the diverse, multilayered plant life of a rainforest. Studies
show that people who are physically ill or depressed, along with
children and the elderly, gravitate toward spaces that offer layers
of vegetation as refuge. A guest hill that is close and small is not
auspicious.
Level-far
This viewshed describes seeing from a normal, albeit modest, posi-
tion. An observer receives images and composes at a typical eye
level, but with wider scope and distance. Horizontal emphasis pro-
vides intimate, smooth, and familiar scenery—exactly the ‘savanna-
like conditions’ described in Biophilia studies (see Figure 7.5). This
deceptively simple viewshed contains enormous potential for depth
and intensity. In a comparatively small space, someone can depict
complete awareness and reveal profound feelings or moods. A guest
hill that is far and faces the sitting mountain is auspicious.
Human factors 119
F|gure 7.4
E| Cap|lar as ar exarp|e ol n|gn-lar. u3
F|sr ard w||d||le 3erv|ce. Prolo oy 0ary
V. 3lo|z.
Additional viewsheds require compass readings and calculations
to determine suitability.
Aquatic habitat
Humans, and especially young children, prefer and enjoy natural
settings with water features. The only settings with water that
generally create dismay are those that contain polluted water or
water that indicates a judged set of risks, such as stormy seas.
People who prefer to be challenged by nature tend to be risk-
inclined young males (see Figure 7.6).
120 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui
F|gure 7.5
A perlecl exarp|e ol |eve|-lar ard
savarra-|||e cord|l|ors |r lre
Easl Alr|car R|ll Zore. u303
Ved|a lor 3c|erce. Prolo oy
0ordor 0av|es, courlesy ol Ce||a
NyarWeru, 3l LaWrerce ur|vers|ly,
Carlor, NeW Yor|.
F|gure 7.ô
Jerry La|e |r 0rard Telor
Nal|ora| Par|, wyor|rg, sroW|rg
Waler lealures lral appea| lo
rurars. u3 F|sr ard w||d||le
3erv|ce. Prolo oy Cra|g R|eoer.
Absence or inconspicuousness of artificial features
(autos, buildings, signage, power lines—intrusions from
the technological and commercial worlds)
People across cultural, national, and age boundaries prefer a nat-
ural landscape that hides technological intrusions. Nigerians dislike
landscapes ravaged by the activities of oil exploration. Most
Americans disapprove of oil exploration in the Arctic National
Wilderness and despise clear-cut sections of forest. People shun
viewsheds bristling with antennae, power lines, and other technol-
ogy. Traditional principles of feng shui also stress concealment and
de-emphasis of artificial features with enhancement of the natural
world (see Figure 7.7).
Interior features
Live plants
Humans prefer natural scenes with greenery over any built views.
Time and again we will choose the vista of a weed-filled, vacant lot
Human factors 121
F|gure 7.7
Tra|rs ard ourper-lo-ourper lrall|c or lre|r Way lo lre 0real wa||, Peop|e's Repuo||c ol
Cr|ra, |r 19Z9. Nal|ora| 0cear|c ard Alrosprer|c Adr|r|slral|or. Prolo oy 0eorge 3axlor,
NE30l3, N0AA.
over all except the most romanticized urban settings (such as the
skyline of New York). Sad to say, the mass of the most luxurious
forest is far exceeded by the sheer mass of buildings at the centre
of any city. Our health and that of the planet depend on reversing
that equation (see Figure 7.8).
Harmonious colour schemes
‘Colour follows content’, admonished Chinese painting masters.
Natural use of colour, applied as nature designed, is what humans
prefer. We want our built environments to echo the palette of nature
because humans are tuned to the structure of colour in the natural
world. Natural colours such as those in trees, lakes, and water are
the colours we best remember. Our brains and bodies retain a bio-
logical expectation of particular objects exhibiting certain colours.
15
These and other visual connectors reinforce our feelings of safety.
When our expectations for these items are not fulfilled their
absence can create fear, depression, and anxiety.
F|gure 7.8
A |ove|y Wa|| or lre |s|ard ol Yap.
Nal|ora| 0cear|c ard Alrosprer|c
Adr|r|slral|or. Prolo oy 0r Jares
P. Vcvey, N0AA 3ea 0rarl
Prograr.
Visual access to natural settings
Look out any window and what do you see? How do you feel about
it? Chances are that you gravitate to any view with a natural set-
ting. Our longing for greenery and wildlife is quintessentially human
and part of our genetic heritage. The trick in modern society is to
build up the natural world and conceal or otherwise cover the arti-
ficial world. To do otherwise is to risk madness (see Figure 7.9).
Notes
1
3ee u|r|cr (1993, p. 105).
2
3ee u|r|cr (1993, p. 105).
3
3ee leerWager ard 0r|ars (1993, pp. 180, 185).
1
3ee leerWager ard 0r|ars (1993, p. 181).
Human factors 123
F|gure 7.9
A ralura| sell|rg. Nal|ora| 0cear|c ard Alrosprer|c Adr|r|slral|or. Prolo oy 0r Jares
P. Vcvey, N0AA 3ea 0rarl Prograr.
5
3ee u|r|cr (1993, pp. 105-ê).
ê
3ee wu (1995, p. 25).
Z
3ee leerWager ard 0r|ars (1993, p. 1êê).
8
3ee Torrey ard V|||er (2002).
9
3ee 3rap|ro (2001, p. 19Z).
10
Tre lerlr rosl prescr|oed drug lror lre lop 200 prescr|oed drugs |r 2001 Was Xarax,
ar arx|ely re||ev|rg drug. Tre l|gures Were oased upor rore lrar 3.1 o||||or prescr|pl|ors.
(0ala lurr|sred oy N0C lea|lr; rllp://WWW.rx||sl.cor.)
11
3ee 8roWr (1999). Every year, 5000 Arer|cars oelWeer lre ages ol 15 ard 21 corr|l
su|c|de. ll |s lre lr|rd |ead|rg cause ol dealr lor 15-21 year o|ds. Tre su|c|de rale |s c||ro|rg÷
lr|p||rg s|rce 1950 lor ra|es ard rore lrar douo||rg lor lera|es. Fror 1980 lo 199ê, lre
su|c|de rale lor o|ac| ra|es oelWeer lre ages ol 15 ard 19 jurped rore lrar 100 per cerl.
ll |s a puo||c rea|lr cr|s|s, ard ro ore |roWs Wry.
12
3ee u|r|cr (1993, pp. 11ê-1Z).
13
3ee Tay|or (1983).
11
3ee wu (1995, pp. 130-1).
15
w|crrarr el a|. (2002).
Chapter 8
Crime and its relation to the
environment
What has feng shui got to do with it?
If you want to design an area featuring high crime, high vacancy
and—ultimately—utter despoliation, design a modernistic, mini-
malist high-rise with no semiprivate areas, no building entries fac-
ing streets or parking, and use ‘pubic greenery’ techniques of
landscaping. Do not forget to include streets that encourage speed-
ing and high levels of through-traffic.
Conventional wisdom and crime fighters say that vegetation pro-
motes crime by concealing criminals and their activities. Following
that logic, then, the most barren stretches of metropolitan areas
should be crime-free—yet crime grids repeatedly demonstrate this
is not the case. In fact, graffiti taggers studied in one California city
preferred open areas devoid of landscaping.
In Chicago, a few years ago, a study of nearly 100 inner-city
buildings again challenged the conventional crime-fighting wisdom.
This study examined the relationship between vegetation and
crime statistics in one poor neighbourhood over a lengthy period.
Buildings near high levels of vegetation experienced 52 per cent
fewer total crimes, 48 per cent fewer property crimes, and 56 per
cent fewer violent crimes than buildings surrounded by little veg-
etation.
1
An earlier study also concluded that people living near
trees and other vegetation reported better relations with their
neighbours and less violence than other people living nearby
whose buildings were surrounded by concrete. Unthreatening natu-
ral environments lower our stress levels and lift our emotional
states—even if we are not stressed.
2
Reducing crime may be as simple as adequate sunlight, open
space, and plant and animal life. Designers have to get the rhythm
of open and closed spaces just right, because closed spaces too
densely packed and high reduce airflow, areas for vegetation, and
access to sunlight—all of which make us uneasy because we
instinctively know they are overrunning the natural environment.
3
Research indicates that vegetation changes our responses to an
urban street—our opinions become more positive.
4
128 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui
Study after study reinforce feng shui’s requirement to assimilate
humans and their buildings into the natural world. Now combine
these revelations with the controversial concept of defensible
space, which analyses and reforms housing into more natural cir-
cumstances. The deceptively simple methods used for defensible
space achieve dramatic results in crime prevention and eradica-
tion. As if lifting quotes from a feng-shui testimonial, people can
see for themselves how restructuring the physical layout of their
community can profoundly improve their world.
5
Modern architecture can be a repressive and brutal environment
that provides little or no humanity or safety for occupants or visi-
tors. Consider the well-known fates of modern-style buildings in
public assisted housing (see Figure 8.1). People refused to live in
these structures because they were visibly oppressive—eventually
they left because of the appallingly high rate of crime. Most of these
ambitious buildings never were used the way they were envisioned
Crime and its relation to the environment 129
F|gure 8.1
Tre rous|rg pr||osopry
delealed oy sc|erl|l|c slud|es.
Posler lor lre NeW Yor| C|ly
lous|rg Aulror|ly daled
20 0clooer 193ê. wor| Projecls
Adr|r|slral|or Posler Co||ecl|or
ol lre L|orary ol Corgress.
130 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui
in concept sketches, primarily because the architects knew so little
about the intended occupants—they simply assumed they were
people like themselves. Nearly all of these terrifying modern struc-
tures have been demolished in favour of building designs that
demonstrate positive effects on human behaviour.
What seems to differ between crime-plagued housing and safe
housing comes down to the size of a project and the number of
units that share common entries. In the end, treating government
housing projects and neighbourhoods more like villages and ham-
lets (that is, traditional housing) seems to work.
Consider the environment just outside the front door, day and night
activities, and passages. A family’s maintenance of a territory
shrinks proportionally as the number of families who share mainte-
nance increase. In a complex where many people share the same
space, no one feels they can lay claim to maintenance—eventually
no one does. High-rise housing projects where many families share
the same entrance foster crime, primarily because funds do not
exist for the watchful eyes of resident superintendents, door moni-
tors, and elevator operators. Humans need to feel they are among
neighbours and share visually accessible common ground. Garden
apartments, row houses (condominiums), and walkup buildings all
create defensible space. Private entrances shared by one or two
families ensure safety and build community.
Someone sharing a floor with another family takes more interest
in their well-being than if several families share the same entry.
Substantial evidence indicates that assigning grounds (except for
the streets and sidewalks) to individual families lowers the crime
rate, dramatically increases the occupancy rate, and enables resi-
dents to experience a surge of neighbourhood pride.
Defining space is important for many animals, including humans.
Residents need the ability to exert control over their environs (as in
Jane Jacobs’ oft-quoted remark that ‘the windows have eyes’). We
do become our brother’s keeper when we understand what territory
is ‘ours’ to claim. People whose windows and entrances face the
street consider themselves accountable for what happens within
the semiprivate areas in their view. The ability to see through parks
in neighbourhood housing enables residents to keep an eye on
‘their’ open space. People using a park facility may require active
and passive use along with their need to see from one activity area
into another. Play areas and paths need to be carefully marked and
well-lighted. Ball game courts and public garden areas need good
separation.
Small is beautiful and traditional in neighbourhoods because a
small neighbourhood increases interaction, the sense of belonging,
and feelings of safety and optimism. Limiting auto access and
keeping streets narrow enables residents to feel that they—not
passing cars—control their streets. Children play safely and traffic
is restricted to people who actually have a reason for being there,
which helps residents monitor activity and prevent crime.
Conversely, the wider streets are in residential areas, the more it is
likely that drivers will exceed the speed limit and the less it is likely
that they will know their neighbours.
6
The appearance of ‘portal markers’ (indicators such as gates or
plantings at the entrance to a neighbourhood) signals to motorists
that they are entering a different kind of street. The markers elicit a
specific range of emotional responses, but all send a reminder to
visitors that they are entering the streets of a close-knit community
and should behave appropriately.
Notes
1
3ee Co|ey el a|. (199Z) ard Kuo (2001).
2
3ee u|r|cr (1993, p. 113).
3
3ee Vorr|sr ard 8roWr (1991, p. 31).
1
3ee u|r|cr (1993, p. 103).
5
3ee NeWrar (199ê).
ê
3ee 0uary el a|. (2000, pp. Z0-1).
Crime and its relation to the environment 131
Chapter 9
Structures
P
erhaps if we baby-proofed our homes we would lead
happier and safer lives. After all, a house with no sharp
corners, stairs, and other nasty surprises sounds like
a pretty nice place to live. Baby-proofing might represent the fun-
damental feng-shui approach to housing. It certainly cannot hurt.
Traditional housing encompasses a very short list of shapes that
constitute ecologically efficient forms—easy to heat and cool, to
enlarge, and to remodel. They may not be glamorous but they do
provide more spiritual and physical comfort than many modern
structures. Because these shapes are also to some extent ‘hard-
wired’ into our genetic makeup we can experience more profound
relationships with them than, say, an octagonal shape or the infa-
mous ‘California jog’ with its jagged and odd angles. People who
wonder why they do not feel at home in a particular structure
should discover the shape that does make them feel at home
(see Figure 9.1).
Basics
Feng-shui principles for structures encourage the following design
choices.
134 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui
F|gure 9.1
ll |s rol a oug, |l |s a lealurel
Tre |rlarous 'Ca||lorr|a jog' as
a d|agrar.
Safety
Like baby-proofing, this principle assumes that everyone needs a
house they can navigate comfortably in the dark or with their eyes
closed—no odd angles, weird abutments, and no surprising drops or
stairs. Any structure that you are afraid to let a toddler explore or to
invite a senior citizen over for a visit is not good feng shui for anyone.
Structures that feature a series of odd angles (like the California jog)
raise stress levels and provide little or nothing in return.
Comfort
A home should feel homey—safe, trustworthy, quiet, and secure.
No one needs to hear their neighbours’ romantic escapades,
incessant arguments, or obnoxious children (nor should they have
to endure yours). A home that shields you and others from
noise benefits everyone’s stress levels and retains occupants
longer. Insulated walls reduce energy costs and increase comfort
levels with minimal effort. Natural lighting keeps people happy and
productive. Designing for the local climate makes a structure
energy efficient (see Figure 9.2). Small, cozy homes are universally
cherished and one aspect of sustainable design (see Figure 9.3).
Structures 135
F|gure 9.2
3lruclures des|gred lor lre |oca| c||rale use |ess erergy ard prov|de rore corlorl lo
occuparls.
136 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui
Nature first
Traditional housing has succeeded where most modern housing has
not because it relies on creature comforts for a nominal investment.
Modern interpretations of the old styles provide similar benefits with
the advantages of some newer technologies like solar panels. But for
the most part any new sustainable structures have learnt from the
successes of our ancestors and expanded on their ideas.
Imagine building a subdivision into the side of a hill and using the
roof of each house for green parking. Not only does this technique
effortlessly keep the houses at an optimum temperature the year
round, it attains the goal of integrating them into the environment.
You can see a house only if you walk down a flight of natural-looking
stairs next to a parking area. The view, of course, is spectacular—
and so is the neighbours’, and that of anyone else who passes by.
In fact, if there were not any parked cars they might not necessar-
ily think there were houses in the area. Imagine the difference in
people’s lives if entire towns were constructed this way.
F|gure 9.3
3ra|| |s oeaul|lu|, susla|rao|e, ard ell|c|erl Wrer |l cores lo rore des|gr. lr lr|s case, lre
rore |s a yurl rade ol le|l. Fror a rode| |r 0es|grwor|srop L|le.
Construction
If there is a time to plant and a time to reap, then there is a time to
build and a time to occupy. While you can consult the stars or take
a psychic reading, another idea might be to investigate the calcu-
lations used by feng-shui practitioners. The optimal time for con-
struction can mean all the difference between cost overruns, labour
disputes, jobsite injuries, and other development woes. Somehow
feng-shui formulae can determine the likely revenge effects of a
particular construction date coupled with the design and the site.
For prospective buyers, these calculations can uncover the prob-
lems literally built into a home and how they can affect occupants.
The calculations also establish whether a house is a good match
for people and suggest occupation dates that mitigate revenge
effects. Traditional feng shui simplifies house-hunting because it
facilitates the selection of homes that are right for particular people.
Clients find houses that they like and send a practitioner out for
a simple yes or no analysis: is it good for them or not? Based on
information gathered from the property the practitioner can tell
clients a great deal more about a house than a realtor may feel like
divulging. This could be something as simple as detecting inherent
marital problems (with the buyers only finding out later that the
house was a divorce sale), substance abuse, financial difficulties,
or health issues.
Layout of a house can divulge a great deal. A house with aligned front
and back doors (the proverbial ‘shotgun shack’) has problems with air
circulation and privacy (see Figure 9.4). Bedrooms at the end of long
hallways give sleeping occupants the creepy feeling that something
is running down the hall towards them. Areas suffering from a lack
of sunlight cause occupants to feel depressed (and oppressed).
Improper orientation makes a house stifling hot in summer and carry
a perpetual Antarctic chill in winter.
A feng-shui practitioner can also detect any number of issues that
an inspection might uncover. I have had clients more than once
marvel that I knew where all the electrical, telephone, and cable
outlets were even before they did. Other things I find might not
Structures 137
occur to them even after months of occupation. Simple observa-
tions of site slope can uncover potential pools of standing water.
The feng-shui principle of ‘smelling’ can detect the aroma of
fungus or mould. Add to these mundane abilities the ability to
calculate the qualitative potential of a structure and feng shui
becomes a fascinating diagnostic tool.
138 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui
F|gure 9.4
Frar| L|oyd wr|grl's vers|or
ol a srolgur srac|: lre Err|s
louse (ou||l 1923) |r soulrerr
Ca||lorr|a. Fror a rode| |r
0es|grwor|srop L|le.
Chapter 10
An overview of the theory of
time and space
B
asic time calculations used in feng shui reflect calendar
systems based on Chinese astronomy. Just as the Hetu is
a map through the universe and it emerged from the Milky
Way (the Tian Ho or celestial Yellow River), the Luoshu emerged
from a tributary of the Milky Way, possibly near the Great Rift in the
Western constellation of Cygnus (consisting of some of the
Chinese constellation Tianjin, ‘ford in the Celestial River’).
1
At that
spot in the sky we can see between two of our galaxy’s spiral arms;
the opening continues to Sagittarius (near the Chinese constella-
tion of Bie, the turtle). Supposedly, the Luoshu’s nine numbers
were seen or scribbled on the back of a tortoise or bear, but they
were eventually mapped onto China as part of the nonary grid
system known as ‘well-field’ or fenye.
The Chinese lunisolar calendar appears on turtle shells known as
‘oracle bones’ dated to the period of Shang (fourteenth-century
BCE). Shang-era astronomers calculated the 19-year zhang
(Westerners call it the Metonic cycle, after Meton who lived in
the fifth-century BCE) and the 76-year bu (what Westerners call the
Calippic cycle, after another Greek astronomer active during the
fourth-century BCE). According to astronomical records from
oracle bones the civil year began at a new moon near the winter
solstice. The shang yuan (superior epoch) or taiji shang yuan
(supreme pole superior epoch) began at midnight on the first day
of the 11th month, according to the Daming li (great brilliance
calendar). This calculation was based on the time needed to align
the synodic month with the tropical year.
In June 1993, astronomers Kevin Pang of JPL and John Bangert of
the Naval Observatory revealed the start cycle of the Chinese cal-
endar as 5 March 1953 BCE, when the sun, moon, Mercury, Venus,
Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn queued ‘like a pearl necklace’ in the
eastern sky just before dawn, next to what Westerners call the
Pegasus Square. This occasion marked the jiazi or ‘initial year’ of
the calendar cycle, just as the jiazi of the current cycle began on
2 February 1984.
142 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui
Construction cycles
All buildings conform to construction cycles, which are defined as
20-year cycles based on calendar periods and work as initial con-
ditions in complexity theory. The nine-sector grid of the Luoshu is
used to plot these ‘stars’. The number assigned to a particular
20-year cycle—sometimes called by names like ‘ruling star’—is
plotted at the centre of the diagram. (Often the term ‘star’ is used to
indicate an element of a calculation. It is just feng-shui jargon for a
particular integer in a formula.) Other calculations (such as orienta-
tion) are assigned numeric equivalents and plotted on the diagram,
which provides the ‘phase space’ or event model of a structure. This
grid enables a feng-shui practitioner to make qualitative and quantita-
tive assessments using expert rules and the look-up tables that
form every decent practitioner’s bag of tricks.
Calculations involve ‘three round (cycles) and nine fortune (types)’.
Numbers 1 through 9 repeat 20 times to match three ganzhi
(stem and branch) cycles of 180 years (known as san yuan or
‘three epochs’). Ji and yuan in these calculations express units of
calendrical calculations (lifa) that associate stem–branch combina-
tions with astronomical periods. Explaining it another way, a ganzhi
cycle consists of five orbits of Jupiter divided into three 20-year
periods that each move through four of the 12 Jupiter stations
(see Figure 10.1).
Yuan are found in the ancient sifen li (quarter-day) calendar,
2
but
the ‘three sequences’ or Santong li calendar of Liu Xin is the cur-
rent basis for construction cycle calculations.
3
The Santong li was
a refinement of the Taichu calendar and consists of the following
cycles.
4
Rule cycle
The first day of the month of the civil calendar is the day of the new
moon. Zhang identifies when the new moon returns to the same
day in the solar year, usually the winter solstice. The unit of measure
is the so-called Metonic cycle (235 lunations in 19 years).
An overview of the theory of time and space 143
144 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui
Obscuration cycle
One buϭ4 zhang for a total of 76 years (the so-called Calippic
cycle).
Epoch cycle
One yuanϭ3 ji, 650 bu, or 240 zhang (4560 years).
Cycles are designated as high (water), middle (wood), and low
(metal). They provide a layer of analysis that works with annual
cycles and building orientations (see Table 10.1).
Each 20-year cycle encompasses psychological and historical
events. The advent of the eight cycle, it is said, heralds a greater
understanding of traditional feng shui in the west and increased
emphasis on our need to integrate human structures and culture
into the natural world.
F|gure 10.1
Jup|ler cyc|es lorr ore ol lre
|rporlarl aslroror|ca| rar|ers
sl||| lourd |r lerg sru|.
Prolo cred|l: NA3A.
Notes
1
Tre Luo R|ver |s a lr|oulary ol lre Ye||oW R|ver |r lre s|y ard or Earlr.
2
Tre quarler-day ca|erdar Was |r use oy al |easl lre l|llr cerlury 8CE. ll Was rep|aced oy
lre Ta|cru ca|erder |r 101 8CE.
3
Tre $anrong || Was deve|oped sorel|re arourd 2ê 8CE.
1
3ee Cu||er (199ê, pp. 21-5).
An overview of the theory of time and space 145
Tab|e 10.1
Corslrucl|or cyc|es ard oas|c ara|ogy raps
20-Year cyc|e ruroer 0regor|ar dale F|ve e|ererl
rarge des|gral|or
1 18ê1-1883 waler
2 1881-1903 3o||
3 1901-1923 wood
1 1921-1913 wood
5 1911-19ê3 Earlr
ê 19ê1-1983 Vela|
Z 1981-2003 Vela|
8 2001-2023 Earlr
9 2021-2011 F|re
Chapter 11
Form and shape theory in
time and space theory
F
eng shui as a site selection theory provides the analytical
techniques to assess structures of any time period. Like
any systems science feng shui is contextual. A building is
a chaotic system, in that it is characterized by extreme sensitivity
to initial conditions. A minute change in an initial state can lead over
time to large-scale consequences (including revenge effects).
Ultimately, there are no parts at all—just a network of relationships.
The way to understand and track the change is through calcula-
tions used in feng shui.
Without the aspect of time it is impossible to understand what hap-
pens. Subtle changes can give rise to self-reinforcing feedback
loops. For example, the leafing and flowering of a tree can partially,
albeit temporarily, remedy the incorrect siting of a reversed house.
Thomas Lee May
1
presents a case study of a Qing family town in
Wu Xi approximately 100km northwest of Shanghai. In the last
nine cycles the town was very rich but eventually lost its great
wealth due to the influence of qi from the eastern direction, which
May tracks through time. May also makes a good case for the pre-
dictive modelling techniques of feng shui in his analysis of a fire at
Southeast University, Nanjing. He shows how the ‘fire possibility
index’ reached a peak around midnight on 12 December 1912,
which was when the fire occurred. May thinks it likely that the pre-
dictive techniques available to a feng-shui practitioner could locate
areas of concern for fires, personal safety, illness, and cultural and
personality development.
2
With these thoughts in mind let us consider some possible ramifi-
cations of building orientation and design. Particular orientations
can build in problems ranging from fires, accidents, and calamities
to the bizarre and anomalous. Figures 11.1 and 11.2 convey orien-
tations in recent and future building cycles that can create such
problems. Without adequate feng-shui advice a builder can expect
a variety of troubles with these structures. Additional orientations
can cause problems if not provided with supportive design and
landscaping.
148 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui
Notes
1
3ee Vay (1995).
2
3ee Vay (1995).
Form and shape theory in time and space theory 149
(a) (b)
(c) (d)
F|gure 11.1
0r|erlal|ors ol quesl|orao|e slruclures
lor lre per|od 1 Feoruary 1981 lo
1 Feoruary 2001
F|gure 11.2
0r|erlal|ors ol quesl|orao|e slruclures lor lre per|od 1 Feoruary 2001 lo 1 Feoruary 2021.
Chapter 12
Services
L
ayout of services in new homes follows building codes, but
their placement and integration with room layout can
improve with the addition of feng shui. For example, fire-
places, heating and air conditioning systems, computer clusters,
and massive entertainment centres do best in areas where they do
not trigger revenge effects—whether it is powerful magnetic fields
or something more subtle, such as an amplifying feng-shui calcu-
lation (see Figure 12.1).
152 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui
F|gure 12.1
P|acererl ol a l|rep|ace
lo co|rc|de W|lr a 9 (lre
ruroer ol l|re) car exac-
eroale reverge ellecls.
Electrical services
The issue is not the imaginary ‘geopathic stress’ or the number of
outlets and fixtures in a room but whether ambient magnetic fields
will clash with installed services. Thankfully, designs that reduce
electrical consumption also reduce magnetic fields. Fields drop
dramatically with distance (they are proportional to current flow),
but it is still important to ensure the safety of occupants.
One way to check is with the feng-shui analysis—especially
whether a room’s intended function matches the placement of
outlets. Remedies consist of hiding outlets and fixtures, swapping
room functions, and similar avoidance techniques. Optimally, the
solution is to design rooms according to the feng-shui analysis,
which correlates function to placement (see Figure 12.2).
Services 153
F|gure 12.2
Roor lurcl|or lral
co|rc|des W|lr lerg-sru|
ara|ys|s.
154 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui
Feng shui often looks askance at the placement of bedrooms next
to kitchens and baths for reasons invented long before the advent
of indoor plumbing and power grids. However, if you plan to place a
bedroom against the wall of a kitchen or another room with multiple
appliances, ensure that exposure to magnetic fields will not cause
problems—after all, magnetic fields do not stop at the wall unless it
contains magnetic shielding (aluminum, low-carbon steel, silicon-
iron steel, or mumetal). Use active magnetic field cancellation to
substantially reduce field exposure. Do not let metal-sheathed (BX)
cable rest on appliances, heating pipes, or grounded water pipes
because current returns to the service panel or transformer through
the ground and creates a magnetic field. Try installing dielectric
couplers on plumbing lines to eliminate any possibility of currents.
Large magnetic fields are typically created in the power panels.
Mount these boxes where exposure to fields will be minimal (such
as a garage wall or on an outside closet wall). Run wires from a
service panel several metres from areas in frequent use. If power
is brought in overhead, try to avoid having it run down along
bedroom walls or the walls of other heavily used rooms. A better
solution is to run wires underneath the flooring and bring them up
to outlets.
Effective shielding from electric fields requires grounded objects;
otherwise, fields from transformers, microwave ovens, older com-
puter monitors, electrical lines and conduit, and electrical panels
are unlikely to be stopped. That is why effective design places
kitchen appliances away from bedroom and living room walls, or
any place where people spend considerable time. Similarly, place
ground-floor fluorescent ceiling fixtures away from second-floor
areas of high use at floor level.
It is the same issue with any ‘phantom load’, such as televisions
and microwaves that consume electricity even when switched off.
Use switched outlets for entertainment centres and other phantom
loads to reduce magnetic fields.
Avoid radiant heating systems that generate fields above 2mG
at less than a meter. Draft exposure guidelines set by the
International Radiation Protection Association provide 5kV/m for
continuous exposure to electric fields and 2G for magnetic fields.
Water service
The developed world frequently forgets that not everyone has easy
access to potable water. In Mexico City, for example, more than
three million people lack indoor plumbing. Even those people
who are linked to the city’s system have to endure its antiquated
and inadequate service. This scenario is repeated throughout
the world. According to the United Nations Population Fund in their
State of the World Population 2001, unclean water and associated
poor sanitation kill more than 12 million people each year. The
World Health Organization reports that roughly 1.1 billion people
do not have any access to clean water. In developing countries,
more than 90 per cent of sewage and 70 per cent of industrial
wastes are dumped, untreated, into surface waters.
Covering drains for fear of losing money—an adage common to
some flavours of feng-shui books—is at best a neurotic conceit when
compared with the water stress elsewhere on the planet.
1
Without
addressing everyone’s need for potable water there is no point in
tackling what amount to lifestyle issues in the developed world.
Perhaps the simplest advice is this: do not install pipes in walls
adjacent to bedrooms without adequate insulation against noise.
No one enjoys listening to gurgling pipes.
Note
1
A rurar rece|v|rg |ess lrar 1000 cuo|c relers ol Waler eacr year la||s urder lre
sc|erl|l|c ce|||rg lral s|gra|s 'Waler slress'. lr lre V|dd|e Easl, r|re ol 11 courlr|es currerl|y
exper|erce Waler scarc|ly. Ca||lorr|a, rorlrerr Cr|ra, lre 3are|, ard soulrerr Europe W|||
exper|erce |l |r lre rear lulure (3arsor ard Crarr|er, 199Z).
Services 155
Chapter 13
Overlooked and overblown issues of
drainage, water supply and storage,
ventilation, electrical supply and
installation, lighting, and sound
Drainage
Drainage carries an undeserved reputation in most feng-shui
books. People are made to worry needlessly about stopping their
drains and faucets when they need to concentrate on ecology and
environmental justice.
Drainage issues are comparatively simple—revenge effects occur
because drainage is misunderstood. Drainage develops where
types and structures of rock erode easily and their ability to drain
relates to topography, soil type, bedrock type, climate, and vegeta-
tion. It has nothing to do with ‘energy lines’, ‘dragon lines’, or any
other animal trails—or much else that people are encouraged to
believe. The truly sinister stuff comes from the handiwork of
humans (see Figure 13.1).
Wetlands are regularly drained to turn land into subdivisions, com-
mercial buildings, and industrial parks, which create such revenge
effects as environmental degradation, reduced (and often irre-
mediable) water quality, increased pollution, loss of ecological
158 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui
F|gure 13.1
0ra|rage |derl|l|ed as a
lerg-sru| |ssue.
sustainability, soil erosion and sedimentation, and the aesthetic
loss of natural beauty. Artificial drainage systems are rarely
designed with the whole picture in mind. That is why they generally
fail to capitalize on the wider ecological and aesthetic role of water.
So much for the so-called advancements in modern civilization!
Natural or undeveloped areas reap the advantage of natural
processes that recycle material—including pollutants—running off
the land during rainstorms. Surface runoff in developed areas
cannot use the natural world in the same way.
Consider implementing the following suggestions:
● reduce the effect of development on natural drainage;
● protect and enhance water quality;
● cherish and respect the environmental setting by obtaining
intimate knowledge of a place and the biophilic needs of the local
community, and incorporate them into the design;
● provide wildlife habitat;
● encourage natural groundwater recharge.
Water supply and storage
One of the oldest Chinese characters is ‘well’ and it is apparently
related to feng shui through the well-field system of land holding.
One of the well-field’s most ancient forms is a 3ϫ3 square grid like
the Luoshu.
1
However, this ancient connection has not stopped the
McFengshui crowd from inventing odd ideas about wells, ponds,
swimming pools, and spas.
Thankfully, traditional feng shui is not as neurotic as the New Age
variety. With traditional feng shui you have adequate tools to effec-
tively plan a site for large amounts of water and it is also possible
to remedy existing sites. There should be no need to resort to over-
wrought symbolism or other refuges of the ill-informed, who often
get their ideas from Hollywood (Poltergeist and The Amityville
Horror, for example) or old occult literature.
Overlooked and overblown issues 159
160 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui
Ventilation
Traditional cultures orient their homes to take advantage of prevail-
ing winds, an idea that should be reinforced in modern architecture.
Similarly, windows have to be used to be effective; there should not
be any hand-wringing over ‘energy’ leaking out or in from closed
windows, unless the seal is not tight. Often what McFengshui prac-
titioners call ‘energy’ is not solar gain, moisture, or any number of
identifiable elements—it is what practitioners say when they need
a technical-sounding term. So how this vague ‘energy’ substance
could be draining from a house or entering through a closed win-
dow is beyond all comprehension.
It is best to ignore these would-be pundits when they talk about
‘energy’ drains or gains through windows. Instead, look at what is
done with ventilation in traditional architecture, and copy that. At
least then you are dealing with concepts that are proven to work.
Electrical supply and installation
As explained in Chapter 12, plenty of real-world issues exist
regarding electricity in a structure so there is need for inventing
things like ‘geopathic stress’ or the hobgoblins of baubiology.
However, the real issues have not stopped some practitioners from
making up ‘energy fields’ that cannot be measured or treated
except by the most bizarre methods—such as dowsing, psychic
vibrations, and misguided applications of voltmeters.
Keep in mind that most feng-shui practitioners do not have a solid
science education and thus are prone to get things of that nature
completely wrong. Remain sceptical and make a practitioner prove
any wacky theories beyond a reasonable doubt. And even then,
check with a science-savvy friend.
Lighting
This subject is dear to the McFengshui crowd but like so many
other things they generally get it wrong. Whether it is their bizarre
notions of light therapy (unfortunately, not along the lines of proven
methods to cure Seasonal Affective Disorder) or how to illuminate
sections of a structure, they fail to take into account basic human
physiology and psychology.
A practitioner suggests high-powered illumination on the porch out-
side a home to ‘bring in qi’ or whatever they hope to draw. However,
if there are steps, a bright light on a porch can create accidents
because people tend to focus on the distraction and not where their
feet are going—so they miss the step, slip, and fall. That is prob-
ably not the sort of qi that the occupant was hoping to attract.
Others want you to place lights at angles around a structure to give
the effect that any so-called missing areas exist. Why portions of a
structure should be deemed ‘missing’ is a mystery, as is how flood-
lights would remedy this. It seems to be a technique that runs on
the placebo effect.
Sometimes practitioners want people to place a hollow tube in the
ground and add a light bulb on the top, ostensibly to draw qi out of
the ground. Perhaps this technique is supposed to work like my
grandfather’s technique for catching worms before we went fishing,
only he used a bit of current on a wire running to a wire coat hanger
and stuck that into the ground to attract the worms. Unfortunately,
for people who get sucked into using this qi-siphon method, there
is no way to measure its effectiveness, unlike my grandfather’s
worm lure.
Sound
I have neighbours I have nicknamed the Loud Family. Everyone
encounters people like this sometime in their life. You can choose
to ignore them or try any number of things to discourage their vocal
abilities. The McFengshui crowd wants you to use mirrors.
The favoured New Age technique for noisy neighbours beneath
you in a flat is to place a mirror face-down on the floor. Of course
there is no way to measure its effectiveness; and, strangely, this is
the ‘cure’ of choice rather than having a chat with the offending
Overlooked and overblown issues 161
party regarding their noise level. There are any number of feng-shui
books on the market that tell people to use mirrors to deflect
noise—then they crow about the practicality of feng shui.
Obviously, something out of the realm of soundproofing or asking
a noisy neighbour to be quiet is too mundane for some feng-shui
practitioners, but these prosaic techniques do provide more lasting
relief.
Note
1
3ee 8erg|urd (1990, pp. ê9-Z0).
162 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui
Chapter 14
Building elements
Enhancing placement of stairs and gradients,
fireplaces, doors, and windows
Stairs and gradients
You might not like living in a shotgun shack, but what could be
worse than living in a house where the interior staircase ends on a
line with the front door? Call it bad feng shui or accident-prone, it
is all the same. In fact, many alleged feng-shui problems on further
examination turn out to be design problems.
Humans, especially children and the visually impaired, need as few
distractions as possible to safely navigate a flight of stairs. In legal
terms, stairs are an ‘attractive nuisance’ that create risk because
architects and builders typically locate stairs where they are the
most dangerous (see Figure 14.1).
1
Considering that the top and
bottom two steps are where the majority of accidents on stairs
occur,
2
it makes perfect sense not to align stairs with doors or have
doors on a landing open onto a flight of stairs (see Figure 14.2).
Some feng-shui practitioners say that an interior staircase exiting
to an exterior door compels money and good things to leave
the premises. There is abundant anecdotal evidence, but to my
166 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui
F|gure 14.1
8ad lerg sru| or oad des|gr?
Tre sla|rs a||gred W|lr lrorl
door ra|es argurerls lor
e|lrer |aoe|. Fror a rode| |r
0es|grwor|srop L|le.
knowledge no practitioner can provide adequate documentation to
substantiate this claim.
Some practitioners claim that a particular number of steps can
create problems and accidents, but the facts argue otherwise.
3
However, it is known that a stairway designed to induce changes in
orientation—such as view, lighting, route direction, level, etc.—is a
higher risk for accidents because of the level of distraction
designed into it. Additionally, complex stair layouts (including heli-
cal and dogleg) should be designed so that people do not need to
make abrupt turns and ascend clockwise to ease traffic flow (see
Figure 14.3).
4
A popular McFengshui tactic is to suggest a bright light for a dimly
lit area outside a front door. This seems sensible until you review
accident statistics. A bright light at a front door with steps actually
creates more accidents than it prevents—if indeed this technique
has that effect—because the intensity of the light makes it more dif-
ficult to see the stair. Poorly lit steps are just as dangerous as
brightly lit ones. A lighting solution that makes it impossible to miss
the step is the best answer (see Figure 14.4).
Building elements 167
F|gure 14.2
A corror sla|r des|gr lral
|s ore ol lre rosl acc|derl
prore. Tr|s vers|or |s al
Fa|||rgWaler. Fror a rode|
|r 0es|grwor|srop L|le.
168 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui
Windows and artificial light sources placed near stairs are also
problems. Some practitioners worry about the effect of ‘energy’
coming through the window or from a light source, but accident
researchers argue that the real risk results from someone having
to include these objects and the stairs in their field of vision.
5
F|gure 14.3
Corp|ex sla|r |ayouls creale
rav|gal|or proo|ers. Tr|s
sla|r |s |r lre Lar||r
8u||d|rg. Fror a rode| |r
0es|grwor|srop L|le.
(a)
(b)
F|gure 14.4
Tre or|grl ||grl al a lrorl door
creales as rary acc|derls as
d|r ||grl|rg.
Fireplaces
There is nothing cozier than a crackling, warm fire on a wintry
evening. But what if the fireplace has been oriented so that it fig-
uratively ‘burns up’ someone’s health, career, and/or relationships?
In a subdivision it is possible that several floorplans provide just
this type of distress. Mitigating these effects requires knowledge of
advanced feng shui practices and calculations (see Figure 14.5).
Doors
The advice given for stairs applies to doors as well. Lining up
doorways may be aesthetically pleasing to some but it does create
risk for accidents. A feng-shui practitioner might express theories
about this kind of situation that range from the innocuous (possible
friction and arguments between people who occupy two bedrooms
in this kind of configuration) to the insane (overwrought symbolism
in one form or another).
Moreover, according to ba zhai, the orientation and positioning of
doorways provide insights into health, wealth, and relationship
Building elements 169
F|gure 14.5
lrproper p|acererl ol l|re-
p|aces, sloves, ard olrer oper
l|ares car creale ravoc lor
occuparls.
issues. Sometimes doorways have to be changed or avoided to
alleviate problems for occupants. Such changes are best made on
a case-by-case basis.
Windows
Just because someone worries about ‘energy’ coming in or leaking
out of a window does not mean there is a problem. The issue of
windows is generally overblown unless the window looks out onto
an ugly or demoralizing viewshed. Why some practitioners worry at
length about windows and ignore their history in Asian architecture
is beyond the scope of this book.
Materials
Comments on various materials to correct problems
with existing structures and to avoid problems
Small is good
Building size should not be dictated by image, it should reflect
function. In the last three decades, the average floor area of an
American house has increased 77 per cent as households have
shrunk. (Some feng-shui practitioners link the construction cycle
number to the household size—with metal years notorious for
creating family dysfunction and divorce.) Not only is this increase
in floor area wasteful, when people step outside their McMansions
they are confronted with a degraded environment caused by this
unwarranted expansion in personal space (see Figure 14.6).
Be effective in resource management
In many cases, the greatest harm to the natural environment (and
the greatest expenses to people, businesses, and governing
bodies) results from building on undeveloped land. Seek out sites
in already developed areas; consider rehabilitating or remodelling
an existing structure.
Stick with simple
People waste money and materials on gratuitous complexity and
decorations instead of creating timeless structures that appeal to a
sense of craftsmanship and elegant design.
Eschew rigid designs
Structures that allow a variety of functions require less remodelling
than structures built for a fleeting niche market.
Build for remodelling
Reducing valuable materials to rubble with a bulldozer or wrecking
ball is not efficient or environment-friendly. Design in the use of
bolts, screws, and recyclable composites.
Look to the future
Design and build for generations to come. Carefully crafted struc-
tures stand the test of time and cost less.
Notes
1
3ee Terp|er (1991, pp. 113, 13ê-Z, 110-1).
2
3ee Terp|er (1991, p. 113).
3
3ee Terp|er (1991, p. 110).
1
3ee Terp|er (1991, p. 139).
5
3ee Terp|er (1991, pp. 115-ê).
Building elements 171
F|gure 14.ô
Trar|s lo spraW| ard lre
uo|qu|lous VcVars|or lrere's
spraW| ard erv|rorrerla|
degradal|or |||e lr|s. Prolo
oy lre aulror.
Chapter 15
Resources
Feng-shui books for further reading
Books by Lam Kam Chuen, Raymond Lo, Larry Sang, Eva Wong; and
by Elizabeth Moran, Joseph Yu, and Val Biktashev (March 8, 2002).
‘Complete Idiot’s Guide to Feng Shui’, Alpha Books, 2nd edition.
Feng-shui instruction and information
American Feng Shui Institute, http://www.amfengshui.com/
Feng Shui and Destiny with Raymond Lo, http://www.raymond-lo.
com/
Feng Shui Research Center (Joseph Yu), http://www.astro-fengshui.
com/
Feng Shui Ultimate Resource, http://www.qi-whiz.com/
Feng-Shui information (Eva Wong), http://www.shambhala.com/
fengshui/
Yap Cheng Hai Centre of Excellence, http://www.ychfengshui.com/
Green building and other
sustainable technologies
Architectural Acoustics Consulting, Noise Control, http://www.
orpheus-acoustics.com/home.html
Arctic Circle: Social Equity and Environmental Justice,
http://arcticcircle.uconn.edu/SEEJ/
Backyard Habitat Program of the National Wildlife Federation,
http://www.nwf.org/backyardwildlifehabitat/
Cal Earth Forum, http://www.calearth.org/
Center of Excellence for Sustainable Development, http://www.
sustainable.doe.gov/
Congress for the New Urbanism, http://www.cnu.org/
Cyburbia, http://www.cyburbia.org/
EcoIQ Home: Sustainable Communties, Businesses, & Households,
http://www.ecoiq.com/
174 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui
EcoJustice Network, http://www.igc.org/envjustice/
EcoTimber, http://www.ecotimber.com/info/specification.asp
EnviroNet Base, http://www.environetbase.com/home.asp
Environmental Building News, http://www.buildinggreen.com
Environmental Design and Construction, http://www.edcmag.com/
CDA/BNPHomePage/1,4111,,00.html
Environmental Justice Resource, http://www.ejrc.cau.edu/
Factor Four, http://www.bsdglobal.com/tools/principles_factor.asp
Global Issues, http://www.globalissues.org/
Green Roofs for Healthy Cities, http://www.peck.ca/grhcc/main.htm
Honor the Earth, http://www.honorearth.com/
Humane Street Lighting, http://www.uvm.edu/histpres/HPJ/
streetlights/index.html
Implosion, http://home.worldcom.ch/~negenter/
Indigenous Environmental Network, http://www.ienearth.org/
Katarxis, http://luciensteil.tripod.com/katarxis/index.html
James Howard Kunstler, http://www.kunstler.com/
PatternLanguage, http://www.patternlanguage.com/
PLANETIZEN: Planning & Development News, Jobs, & Events,
http://www.planetizen.com/
Planum—European Journal of Planning Online,
http://www. planum.net/
Population Reference Bureau, http://www.prb.org/
Resurrecting Classical Land Use Patterns, http://www.villageat.org/
Skillful Means, Design and Construction, Strawbale,
http://www.skillful-means.com/index.html
Smart Architecture, http://www.smartarch.nl/
Sprawl Watch, http://www.sprawlwatch.org/
Sustainable Architecture, Sustainable Development, http://www.
sustainableabc.com/index.html
Resources 175
176 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui
Traffic Calming—Your Complete Guide, http://www.trafficcalming.org/
Whole Building Design Guide, http://www.wbdg.org/index.asp
Space weather
Space Environment Center, http://sec.noaa.gov/
Bibliography
Adachi, Y., M. Shigomawara, M. Higuchi, Y. Haruta, and M. Ochiai (2000).
Measurement of low frequency biomagnetic signals under non-periodical
extramural noise by continuously adjusted least squares method.
Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Biomagnetism,
pp. 899–902.
Ahern, Emily M. (1973). The Cult of the Dead in a Chinese Village. Stanford.
Alexander, Christopher (1977). A Pattern Language. Oxford University Press.
Alexander, Christopher (1979). The Timeless Way of Building. Oxford
University Press.
Allan, Sarah (1991). The Shape of the Turtle: Myth, Art, and Cosmos in
Early China. SUNY Press.
American Academy of Microbiology (1–3 December 2000). Geobiology:
Exploring the Interface Between the Biosphere and the Geosphere.
An, Zhimin, translated by W. Tsao (1991). On the origin of Chinese civiliza-
tion. Journal of Henan Normal University 18 (3), 67–72.
Anton, Mike, and Henry Chu (2002). Welcome to Orange County,
California. Los Angeles Times Valley Edition, 9 March 2002, front page.
Arie, Peled, and Schwartz Hava (March 1999). Exploring the ideal home in
psychotherapy: two case studies. Journal of Environmental Psychology
19 (1), 87–94.
Ascher, Marcia (2002). Mathematics Elsewhere: An Exploration of Ideas
Across Cultures. Princeton University Press.
Athanasiou, Tom (1998). Divided Planet: The Ecology of Rich and Poor.
University of Georgia Press.
Atlas, Randall (March 2001). The other side of CPTED. Security
Management Magazine.
August, Oliver, and Norman Hammond (31 October 2002). Chinese dig up
relics from ‘majestic’ town of 6000 BC. Times Online (http://www.
timesonline.co.uk).
178 Bibliography
Bach-y-Rita, Paul, Kurt A. Kaczmarek, Mitchell E. Tyler, Jorge Garcia-Lara
(October 1998). Form perception with a 49-point electrotactile stimulus
array on the tongue: a technical note. Journal of Rehabilitation Research
and Development 35 (4), 427–30.
Ball, Philip (20 August 2002). Urban sprawl creates unwilling
neighbours. Nature Science Update (http://www.nature.com/nsu/020819/
0208191.html).
Ballentine, Chris J., Peter E. van Keken, Don Porcelli, and Erik H. Hauri
(15 November 2002). Numerical models, geochemistry and the zero-
paradox noble-gas mantle. Philosophical Transactions: Mathematical,
Physical and Engineering Sciences. Proceedings of the Royal Society,
Series A 360 (1800). DOI: 10.1098/rsta.2002.1083.
Bamford, Christopher (ed.) (1994). Rediscovering Sacred Science. Floris.
Bender, Kenneth J. (July 2000). Transcranial magnetic stimulation reduces
auditory hallucinations. Psychiatric Times XVII (7).
Berglund, Lars (1990). The Secret of Luo Shu: Numerology in Chinese Art
and Architecture. Södra Sandby.
Berman, Morris (2000). Wandering God: A Study in Nomadic Spirituality.
SUNY Press.
Bonham Jr., J. Blaine, Gerri Spilka, and Darl Rastorfer (2002). Old Cities,
Green Cities: Communities Transform Unmanaged Land. APA Advisory
Service.
Boyd, Andrew (1962). Chinese Architecture and Town Planning 1500 BC–AD
1911. Alec Tirani.
Brand, Stewart (1995). How Buildings Learn: What Happens After They’re
Built. Penguin.
Brecher, Kenneth, and Michael Feirtag (1981). Astronomy of the Ancients.
MIT Press.
Brennan, Martin (1983). The Stars and the Stones: Ancient Art and
Astronomy in Ireland. Thames and Hudson.
Brown, David E., Mindy Fox, and Mary Rickel Pelletier (eds) (2000).
Sustainable Architecture White Papers. Earth Pledge Foundation.
Brown, M. Gordon (1998). Design and Value: Spatial Form and the
Economic Failure of a Mall. Space Analytics, LLC. Presented at the 14th
Annual Meeting of the American Real Estate Society.
Brown, M. Gordon (21 May 1999). ‘Are we closing ourselves out?’
Viewpoint. Denver Business Journal.
Bibliography 179
Brown, M. Gordon (2001). Healthy Sidewalks: A Guide. Space Analytics, LLC.
Bullard, Robert D. (ed.) (1993). Confronting Environmental Racism: Voices
from the Grassroots. South End Press.
Burden, Dan, and Peter Lagerwey (1999). Road Diets: Fixing the Big
Roads. Walkable Communities, Inc.
Burger, J. (2002). Restoration, stewardship, environmental health, and pol-
icy: understanding stakeholders’ perceptions. Environmental Management
30 (5), 631–40.
Campbell, Wallace H. (1997). Introduction to Geomagnetic Fields.
Cambridge.
Cao Bingwu (translator) (24 December 2000). News from Lingjiatan, a
famous prehistoric site in Anhui Province. China Cultural Relics News.
Capra, Fritjof (1996). The Web of Life. Anchor Doubleday.
Chang, K.C. (1976). Early Chinese Civilization: Anthropological
Perspectives. Harvard University Press.
Chang, K.C. (1983). Art, Myth and Ritual: The Path to Political Authority in
Ancient China. Harvard University Press.
Cheng Jian Jun, and Adriana Fernandes-Gonçalves (1998). Chinese Feng
Shui Compass: Step by Step Guide. Jiangxi Sciences and Technology.
Chou Yeu-Ming (1999). The Urban Planning of Chinese Ancient Cities.
1stBooks.
Clay, Grady (1973). Close-Up: How to View the American City. Praeger.
Cohn, Norman (2001). Warrant for Genocide. Serif.
Coley, R.L., F.E. Kuo, and W.C. Sullivan (1997). Where does community
grow? The social context created by nature in urban public housing.
Environment & Behaviour 29 (4), 468–92.
Coleman, Daniel A. (1994). Ecopolitics: Building a Green Society. Rutgers
University Press.
Cowley et al. (15 November 2002). Solar–wind–magnetosphere–iono-
sphere interactions in the Earth’s plasma environment. Philosophical
Transactions: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences.
Proceedings of the Royal Society, Series A 360 (1800). DOI: 10.1098/
rsta.2002.1112.
Cox, John J., David S. Maehr, and Jeffery L. Larkin (August 2002). The bio-
geography of faunal place names in the United States. Conservation
Biology 16 (4), 1143–50.
180 Bibliography
Craven, Rebecca (2002). Attention to detail. Nature Reviews Neuroscience
3, 764. DOI: 10.1038/nrh953.
Crowe, Norman (1995). Nature and the Idea of a Man-Made World.
MIT Press.
Cullen, Christopher (1996). Astronomy and Mathematics in Ancient China:
The Zhou Bi Suan Jing. Cambridge University Press.
De Araujo, D.B., O. Baffa, and R.T. Wakai (2000). Theta and alpha oscilla-
tions: dependency on navigation tasks. Proceedings of the 12th
International Conference on Biomagnetism, pp. 343–6.
Deasy, C.M. (1985). Designing Places for People. Whitney Library of Design.
DeAmicis, Ralph and Lahni (2001). Feng Shui and the Tango in Twelve
Easy Lessons: Why Feng Shui Works and How to Make it Work for You.
Cuore Libre.
Delfino, Ralph J. et al. (1997). Effects of air pollution on emergency room
visits for respiratory illnesses in Montreal, Quebec. American Journal of
Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 155, 568–76.
Devereaux, Paul (1994). Shamanism and the Mystery Lines: Ley Lines,
Spirit Paths, Shape-Shifting and Out-of-Body Travel. Llewellyn.
DeWoskin, Kenneth J. (1983). Doctors, Diviners, and Magicians of Ancient
China: Biographies of Fang-shih. Columbia University Press.
Dong, Li-zhang (2002). The races descended from the deities who
regarded the Azure Dragon, the Vermilion Bird and the White Tiger as
their Totems and the Great Ancient Tomb in Xishuipo, Puyang. Journal of
Sun Yatsen University, Social Science Edition 42 (2).
Duany, Andres, Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, and Jeff Speck (2000). Suburban
Nation: The Rise of Sprawl and the Decline of the American Dream.
North Point Press.
Dunne, Jennifer A., Richard J. Williams, and Neo D. Martinez (2002). Food-
web structure and network theory: the role of connectance and size.
Proceedings of the National Academy Sciences of the USA, 99 (20),
12917–22.
Dye, Lee (16 May 2002). Blinded by the Light: Data Shows Night Lighting
in Buildings Kills Birds (http://www.abcnews.com).
Edge, Frank (2000–2001). Aurochs in the sky. A celestial interpretation of
the Hall of Bulls in the Cave of Lascaux. Paper Presented at INSAP III.
Bibliography 181
Egretta Sutton, Sharon, and Susan P. Kemp (March 2002). Children as part-
ners in neighborhood placemaking: lessons from intergenerational design
charrettes. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 22 (1/2), 171–89.
Eliade, Mircea (1991). The Myth of the Eternal Return; Or, Cosmos and
History, 9th edn. Princeton University Press.
Evans, Gary, Peter Lercher, and Walter F. Kofler (September 2002).
Crowding and children’s mental health: the role of house type. Journal of
Environmental Psychology 22 (3), 221–31.
Evans, Gary W., and Janetta Mitchell McCoy (March 1998). When buildings
don’t work: the role of architecture in human health. Journal of
Environmental Psychology 18 (1), 85–94.
Executive Department, Maine State Planning Office (1997). The Cost of
Sprawl.
Faber Taylor, Andrea, Frances Kuo, and William C. Sullivan (March 2002).
Views of nature and self-discipline: evidence from inner city children.
Journal of Environmental Psychology 22 (1/2), 49–63.
Fagan, William F., Eli Meir, Steven S. Carroll, and Jianguo Wu (January 2001).
The ecology of urban landscapes: modeling housing starts as a density-
dependent colonization process. Landscape Ecology 16 (1), 33–9.
Fang, Zitao (2000). Feng shui in site planning and design: a new perspective
for sustainable development. Master’s thesis, Arizona State University.
Gajendran, Jyothiram (2000). Playing upon patient psychology in hospital
environment. Indian Express Group (http://www.expresshealth-
caremgmt.com).
Gardiner, Martin (1957). Fads and Fallacies in the Name of Science. Dover.
Gardiner, Martin (1978). The Ambidextrous Universe: Mirror Asymmetry
and Time-Reversed Worlds. Scribner.
Gedicks, A.L. (1993). The New Resource Wars: Native and Environmental
Struggles Against Multinational Corporations. South End Press.
Gentz, Joachim (1998). The system of the ‘monthly ordinances’ (yueling).
Paper presented at the Eighth International Conference on the History of
Science in China.
Geo Factsheet (1998). Urban Microclimates, vol. 50, September.
George, Mark S., Sarah H. Lisanby, and Harold A. Sackeim (1999).
Transcranial magnetic stimulation: applications in neuropsychiatry.
Archives of General Psychiatry 56, 300–11.
182 Bibliography
Gobet, J.M. (1998). Geobiology––The Holistic House. Transformation
Network (http://www.transformation.net/coils/geobiology.html).
Goldman, Michael (ed.) (1998). Privatizing Nature: Political Struggles for
the Global Commons. Rutgers.
Goodrick-Clarke, Nicholos (1992). The Occult Roots of Nazism: Secret
Aryan Cults and their Influence on Nazi Ideology. New York University
Press.
Grossman, Wendy M. (15 May 2002). The shifting ground beneath your
feet—new approaches to understanding the Earth’s mantle. A Summary of
Chemical Reservoirs and Convection in the Earth’s Mantle. Royal Society.
Haeuber, Richard (July 1999). Sprawl tales: Maryland’s smart growth initia-
tive and the evolution of growth management. Urban Ecosystems 3 (2),
131–47.
Hallett, Mark (13 July 2000). Transcranial magnetic stimulation and the
human brain. Nature 406, 147–50.
Hamilton, W.D., and T.M. Lenton (March 1998). Spora and Gaia: how
microbes fly with their clouds. Ethology, Ecology and Evolution 10, 1–16.
Ham-Rowbottom, Kathleen A., Robert Gifford, and Kelly T. Shaw
(June 1999). Defensible space theory and the police: assessing the vul-
nerability of residences to burglary. Journal of Environmental Psychology
19 (2), 117–29.
Hawken, Paul, Amory Lovins, and L. Hunter Lovins (1999). Natural
Capitalism: Creating the Next Industrial Revolution. Little, Brown.
Heal, R.D., and A.T. Parsons (2002). Novel intercellular communication
system in Escherichia coli that confers antibiotic resistance between
physically separated populations. Journal of Applied Microbiology 92,
1116–22.
Heath, Robin (1999). Sun, Moon, and Earth. Walker and Company.
Heerwagen, Judith H., and Gorden H. Orians (1993). ‘Humans, Habitats,
and Aesthetics’. In: Kellert, Stephen R. and Edward O. Wilson (eds).
The Biophilia Hypothesis. Shearwater.
Herdeg, Klaus (1990). Formal Structure in Indian Architecture. Rizzoli.
Herzog, Thomas R., Hong C. Chen, and Jessica S. Primeau (September
2002). Perception of the restorative potential of natural and other set-
tings. Journal of Environmental Psychology 22 (3), 295–306.
Hiss, Tony (1990). The Experience of Place. Knopf.
Bibliography 183
Ho Peng Yoke (2000). Li, Qi and Shu: An Introduction to Science and
Civilization in China. Dover.
Hobbs, Richard J (December 2001). Synergisms among habitat fragmenta-
tion, livestock grazing, and biotic invasions in southwestern Australia.
Conservation Biology 15 (6), 1522.
Hobbs, R.J., and J.A. Harris (June 2001). Restoration ecology: repairing the
earth’s ecosystems in the new millennium. Restoration Ecology 9 (2),
239–46.
Hoffman, Ralph E., Nashaat N. Boutros, Sylvia Hu, Robert M. Berman,
John H. Krystal, and Dennis S. Charney (25th March 2000). Transcranial
magnetic stimulation and auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia. The
Lancet 355, 1073–5.
Horelli, Liisa, and Mirkka Kaaja (2002). Opportunities and constraints of
‘internet-assisted urban planning’ with young people. Journal of
Environmental Psychology 22 (1/2), 191–200.
Huang, Alfred (2000). The Numerology of the I Ching. Inner Traditions
International.
Huston, Peter (1997). Scams from the Great Beyond: How to Make Easy
Money Off of ESP, Astrology, UFOs, Crop Circles, Cattle Mutilations,
Alien Abductions, Atlantis, Channeling, and Other New Age Nonsense.
Paladin Press.
Hygge, Staffan, and Igor Knez (September 2001). Effects of noise, heat and
indoor lighting on cognitive performance and self-reported affect. Journal
of Environmental Psychology 21 (3), 291–9.
International Council for Science (2002a). ICSU Series on Science for
Sustainable Development No. 4: Science, Traditional Knowledge and
Sustainable Development.
International Council for Science (2002b). Science and Traditional
Knowledge: Report from the ICSU Study Group on Science and
Traditional Knowledge. Revised 23 June 2002.
Institute for East Asian Studies (1983–1985). Early China. Volumes 9–10.
University of California at Berkeley.
Institute for East Asian Studies (1990). Early China. Volume 15. University
of California at Berkeley.
Institute for East Asian Studies (1995). Early China. Volume 20. University
of California at Berkeley.
184 Bibliography
Institute for East Asian Studies (1996). Early China. Volume 21. University
of California at Berkeley.
Institute for East Asian Studies (1998–1999). Early China. Volumes 23–24.
University of California at Berkeley.
Iverson, Louis R., and Elizabeth A. Cook (April 2000). Urban forest cover of
the Chicago region and its relation to household density and income.
Urban Ecosystems 4 (2), 105–24.
Jacobs, Jane (1992). The Death and Life of Great American Cities. Vintage.
James, Peter, and Nick Thrope (1999). Ancient Mysteries. Thames &
Hudson.
Jarvilehto, Timo (1995). The theory of the organism-environment system:
III. Role of efferent influences on receptors in the formation of knowledge.
Integrative Physiological and Behavioral Science 34, 90–100.
Jauch, J.M. (1973). Are Quanta Real ? Indiana University Press.
Johnsson, Eric (2002). Inner Navigation: Why We Get Lost and How We
Find Our Way. Scribner.
Jorgensen, Bradley S., and Richard C. Stedman (September 2001). Sense
of place as an attitude: lakeshore owners attitudes toward their proper-
ties. Journal of Environmental Psychology 21 (3), 233–48.
Joseph, George Gheverghese (1991). The Crest of the Peacock: Non-
European Roots of Mathematics. Penguin.
Kawakami, O., Y. Kaneoke, and R. Kakigi (2000). Perception of apparent
motion is related to the magnetic response from the human extrastriate
cortex. Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on
Biomagnetism, pp. 161–4.
Keightley, David N. (1995). A measure of man in early China: in search of
the neolithic inch. Chinese Science 12, 18–40.
Kellert, Stephen R., and Edward O. Wilson (1993). The Biophilia
Hypothesis. Shearwater.
Kellert, Stephen R. (1996). The Value of Life: Biological Diversity and
Human Society. Shearwater.
Kirby, Alex (2002). Progress ‘undermines African cultures’. BBC News, 8 May
(http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/sci/tech/newsid_1975000/ 1975359.stm).
Knoll, Max. (1983). Transformations of science in our age. In Joseph
Campbell (ed.). Man and Time, Volume 3. Bolligen/Princeton.
Bibliography 185
Krupp, E.C. (1991). Beyond the Blue Horizon: Myths and Legends of the
Sun, Moon, Stars, and Planets. Oxford University Press.
Kuan, S.H, K.H. Teng, and Aslaksen Helmer (1999–2000). The Chinese
Calendar of the Later Han Period. Department of Mathematics, National
University of Singapore.
Kuo, F.E. (2001). Coping with poverty: impacts of environment and attention
in the inner city. Environment & Behaviour 33 (1), 5–34.
Kuo, Frances E., William C. Sullivan, Rebekah Levine Coley, and Lisette
Brunson (December 1998). Fertile ground for community: inner-city
neighborhood common spaces. American Journal of Community
Psychology 26 (6), 823–51.
Lakoff, George, and Mark Johnson (1999). Philosophy in the Flesh: The
Embodied Mind and Its Challenge to Western Thought. Basic Books.
Langworthy, Robert H. (undated). Hot Area Topography. Paper presented at
the annual meeting of the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences as part
of the National Institute of Justice intramural research project ‘A Multi-
method Exploration of Crime Hot Spots’.
Lansing, J. Stephen (1991). Priests and Programmers: Technologies of
Power in the Engineered Landscape of Bali. Princeton.
Lappé, Frances Moore, and Anna Lappé (2002). Hope’s Edge: The New
Diet for a Small Planet. J.P. Tarcher.
Lev, Esther (October–November 1998). A regional restoration grants pro-
gram to promote preservation and enhancement of urban natural areas.
Urban Ecosystems 2 (2–3), 103–11.
Lévi-Strauss, Claude (1979). Myth and Meaning. Schocken.
Liu Yanchi (1988). The Essential Book of Traditional Chinese Medicine.
Volume I: Theory. Columbia.
Loewe, Michael (1995). Divination, Mythology and Monarchy in Han China.
Cambridge.
Luck, Matthew, and Jianguo Wu (May 2002). A gradient analysis of urban
landscape pattern: a case study from the Phoenix metropolitan region,
Arizona, USA. Landscape Ecology 17 (4), 327–39.
Mackay, Charles (1841). Extraordinary Popular Delusions and the Madness
of Crowds.
Major, John S. (1993). Heaven and Earth in Early Han Thought: Chapters
Three, Four, and Five of the Huainanzi. SUNY.
186 Bibliography
Malmivuo, Jaakko, and Robert Plonsey (1995). Bioelectromagnetism:
Principles and Applications of Bioelectric and Biomagnetic Fields. Oxford.
Marzluff, J.M., and K. Ewing (September 2001). Restoration of fragmented
landscapes for the conservation of birds: a general framework and specific
recommendations for urbanizing landscapes. Restoration Ecology 9 (3),
280–92.
May, Thomas Lee (May 1995). Temporal location theory, Kan Yu (Feng
Shui)—an ancient Chinese theory on site location. Paper Presented at
the GeoInformatics 95 Conference, Hong Kong.
May, Thomas Lee (1996). Kanyu—The book of change concept in environ-
mental and architecture planning. ‘Greening to the Blue’ Conference,
Yale University School of Architecture.
McKibben, Bill (1989). The End of Nature. Random House.
McKibben, Bill (1995). Hope, Human and Wild. Little, Brown.
Medoff, Peter, and Holly Sklar (1994). Streets of Hope: The Fall and Rise of
an Urban Neighborhood. South End Press.
Melamed, Samuel, Yitzhak Fried, and Paul Froom (2001). The interactive
effect of chronic exposure to noise and job complexity on changes in
blood pressure and job satisfaction: a longitudinal study of industrial
employees. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology 6 (3), 182–95.
Mielczarek, Eugenie Vorburger, and Sharon Bertsch McGrayne (2000).
Iron, Nature’s Universal Element: Why People Need Iron and Animals
Make Magnets. Rutgers.
Mildner, Gerald C.S., James G. Strathman, and Martha J. Bianco
(December 1996). Travel and Parking Behavior in the United States.
Center for Urban Studies, Discussion Paper No. DP96-7.
Miller, James R., and Richard J (April 2002). Hobbs. Conservation where
people live and work. Conservation Biology 16 (2), 330–7.
Morrish, William R., and Catherine R. Brown (1994). Planning to Stay.
Milkweed.
Morrison, Roy (1995). Ecological Democracy. South End Press.
Mörtberg, Ulla M (April 2001). Resident bird species in urban forest remnants;
landscape and habitat perspectives. Landscape Ecology 16 (3), 193–203.
Mumford, Lewis (1961). The City in History: Its Origins, Its Transformations,
and Its Prospects. Harvest/HBJ.
Bibliography 187
National Association of Home Builders (NAHB) Research Center (2001).
The Quiet Revolution: Building Greener, Building Better. National
Association of Home Builders.
National Wildlife Federation (2001). Paving Paradise: Sprawl’s Impact on
Wildlife and Wild Places in California. National Wildlife Federation.
Newman, Oscar (1996). Creating Defensible Space. US Department of
Housing and Urban Development, Office of Policy Development and
Research; Center for Urban Policy Research, Rutgers.
Ong, Han (2001). Fixer Chao. Farrar, Strans and Giroux.
Pankenier, David W. (2000–2001). Popular astrology and border affairs in
early Imperial China: an archaeological confirmation. Paper presented at
INSAP III.
Payne, Katy (1998). Silent Thunder: In the Presence of Elephants. Simon
and Schuster.
Pielke Sr., R.A., G. Marland, R.A. Betts, T.N. Chase, J.L. Eastman, J.O. Niles,
D. Niyogi, and S. Running (2002). The influence of land-use change and
landscape dynamics on the climate system—relevance to climate change
policy beyond the radiative effect of greenhouse gases. Philosophical
Transactions, Series A. Special Theme Issue 360, 1705–19.
Plunket, Emmeline (1997). Calendars and Constellations of the Ancient
World. Senate.
Priestley, Thomas, and Gary W. Evans (March 1996). Resident perceptions of
a nearby electric transmission line. Journal of Environmental Psychology
16 (1), 65–74.
Princen, Thomas, Michael Maniates, and Ken Conca (eds) (2002).
Confronting Consumption. MIT Press.
Puth, Linda M., and Wilson, Karen A (February 2001). Boundaries and cor-
ridors as a continuum of ecological flow control: lessons from rivers and
streams. Conservation Biology 15 (1), 21–30.
Rappenglück, Michael A. (September 1998). Palaeolithic shamanistic cos-
mography: how is the famous rock picture in the shaft of the Lascaux
Grotto to be decoded? Abstract from the ValCamonica Symposium.
Rees et al. (2002). Analysis of magnetometer data using wavelet trans-
forms. Philosophical Transactions: Mathematical, Physical and
Engineering Sciences. Proceedings of the Royal Society, Series A 360
(1800). DOI: 10.1098/rsta.2002.1115.
188 Bibliography
Register, Richard (2002). Ecocities: Building Cities in Balance with Nature.
Berkeley Hill Books.
Remen, Rachel Naomi (2000). My Grandfather’s Blessings. Riverhead/
Penguin.
Rey, H.A. (1980). The Stars: A New Way To See Them. Houghton Mifflin.
Rich, Paul M., William A. Hetrick, and Shawn C. Saving (1994). Using
viewshed models to calculate intercepted solar radiation: applications in
ecology. Proceedings of the ACSM/ASPRS Annual Convention and
Exposition, vol. 1, pp. 524–9.
Ritzer, George (1996). The McDonaldization of Society. Pine Forge Press.
Rosenfeld, Arthur, J. J. Romm, Hashem Akbari, Mel Pomerantz, and Haider
Taha (1996). Policies to reduce heat islands: magnitudes of benefits and
incentives to achieve them. In Proceedings of the ACEEE 1996 Summer
Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, 25–31 August 1996.
Washington, DC. American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy.
1996. 9. 9.177–186. LBL-38679.
Rosenfeld Arthur H., Joseph J. Romm, Hashem Akbari, and Alan C. Lloyd
(1997). Painting the town white—and green. Technology Review
February/March.
Salafsky, N., H. Cauley, G. Balachander, B. Cordes, J. Parks, C. Margoluis,
S. Bhatt, C. Encarnacion, D. Russell, and R. Margoluis (December 2002).
A systematic test of an enterprise strategy for community-based biodi-
versity conservation. Conservation Biology 15 (6), 1585.
Samson, Paul, and Bertrand Charrier (August 1997). International Freshwater
Conflict: Issues and Prevention Strategies. Green Cross International
(http://www.gci.ch/GreenCrossPrograms/waterres/gcwater/ study.html).
Sauvajot, Raymond M., Marybeth Buechner, Denise A. Kamradt, and
Christine M. Schonewald (December 1998). Patterns of human distur-
bance and response by small mammals and birds in chaparral near
urban development. Urban Ecosystems 2 (4), 279–97.
Schecter, Bruce (14 October 2002). Massive balancing act pins down big
G. New Scientist (http://www.newscientist.com).
Schiller, Andrew, and Sally P. Horn (1997). Wildlife conservation in urban
greenways of the mid-southeastern United States. Urban Ecosystems 1
(2), 103–16.
Shapiro, Judith (2001). Mao’s War Against Nature: Politics and the
Environment in Revolutionary China. Cambridge.
Bibliography 189
Sharma, Mukul (10 June 2002). Variations in solar magnetic activity during
the last 200,000 years: is there a Sun–climate connection? Earth and
Planetary Science Letters 199 (3–4), 459–72.
Shen Yuzhi (1998). Chinese city planning thoughts noted by ancient books.
Paper presented at the Eighth International Conference on the History of
Science in China.
Sherr, Lynn (1997). Tall Blondes: A Book about Giraffes. Andrew McMeel.
Shibata, Seiji, and Naoto Suzuki (September 2002). Effects of the foliage
plant on task performance and mood. Journal of Environmental
Psychology 22 (3), 265–72.
Shiva, Vandana (1997). Biopiracy: The Plunder of Nature and Knowledge.
South End Press.
Shiva, Vandana (2000). Stolen Harvest: The Hijacking of the Global Food
Supply. South End Press.
Simons, Daniel J., and Christopher F. Chabris (1999). Gorillas in our midst:
sustained inattentional blindness for dynamic events. Perception 28,
1059–74.
Smith, Richard J. (1991). Fortune-Tellers and Philosophers: Divination in
Traditional Chinese Society. Westview.
Smith, Richard J., and D.W.Y Kwok (eds) (1993). Cosmology, Ontology,
and Human Efficiacy: Essays in Chinese Thought. University of Hawaii.
Soothill, William Edward (1951). The Hall of Light: A Study of Early Chinese
Kingship. Lutterworth.
Steinhardt, Nancy Shatzman (1999). Chinese Imperial City Planning.
University of Hawaii.
Strittholt, James R., and Domonick A (December 2002). Dellasala.
Importance of roadless areas in biodiversity conservation in forested
ecosystems: case study of the Klamath–Siskiyou ecoregion of the United
States. Conservation Biology 15 (6), 1742.
Strong, Keith T., Julia L.R. Saba, Bernhard M. Haisch, and Joan T. Schmelz
(eds) (1999). The Many Faces of the Sun: A Summary of the Results
from NASA’s Solar Maximum Mission. Springer.
Sun Xiaochun, and Jacob Kistemaker (1997). The Chinese Sky During the
Han: Constellating Stars and Society. Brill.
Suzuki, David, and Amanda McConnell (1998). The Sacred Balance:
Rediscovering Our Place in Nature. Prometheus.
190 Bibliography
Swart, J.A.A., H.J. van der Windt, and J. Keulartz (June 2001). Valuation of
nature in conservation and restoration. Restoration Ecology 9 (2), 230–8.
Swenson, David X. (2002). The Ouroboros Effect: The Revenge Effects of
Unintended Consequences. Last update January 2002. (http://www.
css.edu/users/dswenson/web/REVENGE.HTM).
Ta La, Guo Zhizlong, Zhu Yanping, and Teng Minyu (September 2002).
A progress report on the 1999–2000 seasons of the regional archaeo-
logical survey of the Chifeng Region, Inner Mongolia. Abstracts of the
17th Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association Congress, Taipei.
Tarrant, M.A., and H.K. Cordell (2002). Amenity values of public and private
forests: examining the value-attitude relationship. Environmental
Management 30 (5), 692–703.
Taylor, John S. (1983). A Shelter Sketchbook: Timeless Building Solutions.
Chelsea Green.
Templer, John (1994). The Staircase: Studies of Hazards, Falls, and Safer
Design. MIT Press.
Thomas, June Manning, John Metzger, Marsha Ritzdorf, Catherine Ross,
and Bruce Stiftel (1997). Race, Racism, and Race Relations: Linkage
with Urban and Regional Planning Literature. Michigan State University.
Thurston, George D. et al. (1997). Summertime haze air pollution and chil-
dren with asthma. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care
Medicine 155, 654–60.
Tokar, Brian (1997). Earth for Sale: Reclaiming Ecology in the Age of
Corporate Greenwash. South End Press.
Torrey, E. Fuller, and Judy Miller (2002). The Invisible Plague: The Rise of
Mental Illness from 1750 to the Present. Rutgers.
Trinh Xuan Thuan (2001). Chaos and Harmony. Oxford.
Ulrich, Roger S. (1993). ‘Biophilia, Biophobia, and Natural Landscapes.’
In: Kellert, Stephen R., and Edward O. Wilson (eds). The Biophilia
Hypothesis. Shearwater.
UNFPA (2002). State of the World Population 2001.
UNICEF, UNEP, and WHO (May 2002). Children in the New Millennium:
Environmental Impact on Health. General Assembly Special Session on
Children.
Bibliography 191
University Communications (26 February 2001). Tongue Seen as Portal
to the Brain. University of Wisconsin—Madison (http://www.news.
wisc.edu/).
Van Tonder, G., M.J. Lyons, and Y. Ejima (2002). Visual structure of a
Japanese Zen garden. Nature 419, 359.
Wackernagel, Mathis, Niels B. Schulz, Diana Deumling, Alejandro Callejas
Linares, Martin Jenkins, Valerie Kapos, Chad Monfreda, Jonathan Loh,
Norman Myers, Richard Norgaard, and Jørgen Randers (2002). Tracking
the ecological overshoot of the human economy. Proceedings of the
National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 99 (14), 9266–71,
9 July 2002.
Wallenius, Marjut (June 1999). Personal projects in everyday places: per-
ceived supportiveness of the environment and psychological well-being.
Journal of Environmental Psychology 19 (2), 131–43.
Walter, Katya (1996). Tao of Chaos: Merging East and West. Element.
Wang, Yeqiao, and Debra K. Moskovits (August 2002). Tracking fragmenta-
tion of natural communities and changes in land cover: applications of
landsat data for conservation in an urban landscape (Chicago
Wilderness). Conservation Biology 15 (4), 835–43.
Waterson, Roxana (1997). The Living House: An Anthropology of
Architecture in South-East Asia. Whitney Library of Design.
Weathers, Kathleen C., Mary L. Cadenasso, and Steward T.A. Pickett
(December 2002). Forest edges as nutrient and pollutant concentrators:
potential synergisms between fragmentation, forest canopies, and the
atmosphere. Conservation Biology 15 (6), 1506.
Wheatley, Paul (1971). The Pivot of the Four Quarters. Edinburgh.
Whitehouse, Sandra, James W. Varni, Michael Seid, Clare Cooper-Marcus,
Mary Jane Ensengerg, Jenifer R. Jacobs, and Robyn. S. Mehlenbeck
(September 2002). Evaluating a children’s hospital garden environment:
utilization and consumer satisfaction. Journal of Environmental
Psychology 21 (3), 301–14.
Wichmann, Felix A., Lindsay T. Sharpe, and Karl R. Gegenfurtner (May
2002). The contributions of color to recognition memory for natural
scenes. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and
Cognition 28 (3), 509–20.
Williams, Richard J., Eric L. Berlow, Jennifer A. Dunne, Albert-László
Barabási, and Neo D. Martinez (2002). Two degrees of separation in
complex food webs. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of
the USA, Vol. 99, Issue 20, 12913–16.
Wilson, Edward O. (2002). The Future of Life. Knopf.
Wilson, Margaret A. (March 1996). The socialization of architectural prefer-
ence. Journal of Environmental Psychology 16 (1), 33–44.
Wilson, Timothy D. (2002). Strangers to Ourselves: Discovering the
Adaptive Unconscious. Belknap Press.
Wolf, Kathy (November 1998). Urban Nature Benefits: Psycho-Social
Dimensions of People and Plants. Human Dimensions of the Urban Forest,
Fact Sheet 1. Center for Urban Horticulture, University of Washington.
Wolf, Kathy (November 1998). Trees in Business Districts: Positive Effects
on Consumer Behavior! Human Dimensions of the Urban Forest, Fact
Sheet 5. Center for Urban Horticulture, University of Washington.
Wolf, Kathy (August 2000). The Calming Effect of Green: Roadside
Landscape and Driver Stress. Human Dimensions of the Urban Forest,
Fact Sheet 8. Center for Urban Horticulture, University of Washington.
Wolf, Kathy (August 2000). Community Image: Roadside Settings and Public
Perceptions. Human Dimensions of the Urban Forest, Fact Sheet 10.
Center for Urban Horticulture, University of Washington.
Woodwell, G.M. (2002). On purpose in science, conservation and govern-
ment. The functional integrity of the earth is at issue not biodiversity.
Ambio 31 (5), 432–6.
Wu, Jiahua (1995). A Comparative Study of Landscape Aesthetics:
Landscape Morphology. Edwin Mellen.
Wu, Nelson (1968). Chinese and Indian Architecture: The City of Man, the
Mountain of God, and the Realm of the Immortals. Studio Vista.
Yi-Fu Tuan (1974). Topophilia: A Study of Environmental Perception,
Attitudes, and Values. Prentice-Hall.
Zhentao Xu, David W. Pankenier, and Yaotiao Jiang (2000). East Asian
Archaeoastronomy: Historical Records of Astronomical Observations of
China, Japan and Korea. Gordon and Breach.
192 Bibliography
Index
24 Mountains, 25, 47–8
A
Abuse of nature, 116
Accidents, 148, 161, 167, 169
Adams, Ansel, 118
Adrenaline, 13
Affordable housing, 91
Africa, 14, 54, 115, 120
African religion, 10
Air circulation, 137
Air pollution, 93
Albedo rates of glass buildings, 87
Alexander, Christopher, 4
Allergies, 49
alpha brainwaves, 50
al-qibla, 6
Altar of Heaven, 26
American driver statistics, 93
American house size, 170
Analogy map, 59–60
Anecdotal evidence, 62
Animal sounds, 92
Animals, 13, 94, 112–13, 117–18,
158
See also individual animals
Antennae, 121
Anti-anxiety medicines, 116, 124
Anxiety, 116, 122
Ao (mythical sea turtle), 25
Apartment complex, 92
Arctic National Wilderness, 121
Artificial landscape features, 121,
123
Asthma, 49, 52, 93–4
Astral compass, 52
Astrolabe, 52
Astronomy, 5, 27–8, 32–3, 37, 47,
74–5, 142
Atmosphere:
levels of ozone, 54
ozone and oxygen
concentration, 49
pollution, 93
Attachment to place, 14
Aura of Earth, 62
Aurora australis, 45
Aurora borealis, 45
Auspicious feng shui, 73, 118–19
Automobiles, 68, 70, 78, 131, 136
Axis of Earth, 25
B
Ba Zhai, 71, 75, 169
Baby-proofing, 134–5
Backyard wilderness, 118
Bagua (eight symbols), 20, 25
Bangert, John, 142
Banpo, 27
Baseline Luopan reading, 43
Baths, 154
Baubiology, 63, 160
Bear, 142
Bedrooms, 137, 154–5, 169
Beidou, 27, 30, 32, 50, 52, 75
Beijing, 10, 26
Beta brainwaves, 50
Bi, 32
Bie (turtle), 25, 142
Big Dipper, 27
Bioclimate, 73, 86
Biodiversity, 89
Biological effect of urbanization, 114
Biophilia Hypothesis, 113, 119
Biophobia Hypothesis, 113
Birds, 20, 113, 116
and space weather, 49
in urban areas, 97
watching, 97
Black King, 25
Blackouts, 46
Blood pressure, 13, 54, 112
Brainwaves, 49–50
Brownfields, 89–90
Bu (Calippic Cycle), 142–3
Bugs, 114
Building:
community, 130
pollution, 93
heights, 80
slopes, 81
inner city, 128
Butterfly effect, 18, 31, 40
C
Calculations, 15, 62
Calendar, 25, 142
California, 128, 155
California jog, 134–5
Candlemas, 38
Canopus, 6
Capital siting, 28
Capra, Fritjof, 11
Carbon dioxide emissions, 93
Carbon monoxide emissions, 93
Cardinal directions, 6, 23, 25–6,
28, 32, 73
celestial north, 25, 28
north magnetic pole, 43
south, 26
South Pole, 33
Carpeting, 98
Casa Milo, 4
Celestial circle, 23, 32
Celestial equator, 20
Celestial stems, 24, 143
Centers for Disease Control, 93
Chaos theory, 12, 18
Chaotic system, 148
Characteristics of ozone, 54
Chaucer, Geoffrey, 54
Chemical elements, 21
Chemical sensitivity, 49
Chicago, 128
Chifeng, 33
Children, 93–4, 97, 119–20, 131,
135, 166
China, 115–16, 121, 148, 155
Christian missionaries in, 115
concepts of space, 26
revolution, 115
science, 19
seasons, 45
worldview, 9
Chronic illness and space weather,
49
Chronic respiratory disease, 54
194 Index
Circumpolar region, 32, 52
Civil year, 142
Class stratification, 90
Clear-cutting, 95, 71, 79, 121
Climate change, 89
Climatic survey, 86
Closet, 154
Clutter, 36, 63, 89, 116
Cognitive map, 11
Colours, 24, 76, 99, 122
Columbine High, 114
Colures, 53
Community building, 130
Commuting, 93
Compass, 11, 51–2, 62, 64, 73,
120
confusion in storms, 45
points, 24, 37
readings, 43
Complexity theory, 15, 38–40
Condominiums (row houses), 130
Confusing built environment, 91
Cong, 32
Constellations, 15, 24–5, 27, 31,
47, 53
Construction cycles, 145, 170
Construction date, 137
Convulsions, 49
Corona Australis, 25, 98–9
Corrosion and space weather, 47
Cosmology, 11
Covering drains, 155, 158
Cowardin system, 83
Crime and violence, 13, 82, 114,
128–30
grid, 128
statistics and vegetation, 128
Cube of space, 26, 30
Cut-and-fill, 95
Cutting of hillsides or hilltops, 95
Cyclical movement and thought, 6
calculation, 144
Saturn and Jupiter, 25
Sunspots, 44
Cygnus, 142
D
Daiyang (Taiyang), 21, 48, 76
Daiyin (Taiyin), 21, 25, 48, 52, 76
Daming li (great brilliance
calendar), 142
Dao (Naturally So), 18, 20, 31, 37,
115, 118
Death rate:
asthma, 94
space weather, 49
Deceptive feng shui marketing, 61
Defective workmanship, 95
Defensible space, 129–30
Deforestation, 116
Delta brainwaves, 50
Depression, 115, 119, 122, 137
Dermatitis, 54
Digestive problems, 113
Dip (magnetic), 42
Disease, 49, 116
Disney Desert, 79, 83
Divination, 37–40, 62–3
Divine proportions, 10
Divorce, 170
Documentation of events, 39
Dogleg stairs, 167
Dome of the Rock, 5
Dongshanzui, 26
Doorways, 170
Double facing/down mountain, 95
Double sitting/up mountain, 96
Dowsing, 38, 62, 160
Draco, 15
Index 195
Dragon, 20, 25, 27, 31, 33, 76, 95,
158
Drainage, 95, 158–9
Driveways, 81
Doors, 169
Due diligence, 61, 86
Dysfunctional family, 170
E
Earth currents, 42
Earthly branches, 24–5, 143
Earthquake fault lines, 62
East Group trigrams, 21
Ecliptic, 25, 47
Ecological efficiency, 117, 134
Ecosystem decay, 74
Ecotones, 31
Edge habitat, 98
Egypt, 26
El Capitan, 119
Elderly people, 119
Electric field, 64
Electricity generation, 99
Electromagnetism, 62
Elephants, 31
Eliade, Mircea, 8
Emergency hospital visits, 93
Emissions of greenhouse gases, 93
Emotions:
distress, 114
health, 115
responses to designs, 131
Emperor throne position, 28
Empty buildings, 90
Energy, 63–4
bills and orientation, 95
conservation, 91
consumption, 93
costs, 135
efficiency, 74, 135
fields, 160
lines, 158
Engineering interventions, 95
Ennis House, 138
environment:
contamination, 90
degradation, 88, 116, 158,
170–1
hazards of construction workers,
99
justice, 91
marketing clams, 61
planning, 68
pollution, 94
Equator, 64
Equinoctial cross (ya-xing), 26
Equinox, 20, 25, 28, 32, 45,
47, 49
Equinoxes at solar maxima, 44
Erosion, 95
Ethics of feng shui, 59
Ethnoscience, 14–15, 36
Europe, 155
Evaporation, 51
Event model, 42, 143
F
Fallingwater, 167
Family dysfunction, 170
Fang shi, 51–2
Farmer’s calendar, 47
Fast moving traffic, 94, 96
Fatigue, 92
Favela syndrome, 90
Fear, 116, 122
Feng shui
analysis, 138
as personal organiser, 64
196 Index
purpose, 79
xiangsheng, 51
Fengjiao (wind analysis), 50
Fengzhi (wind seasons), 50
Fenye (well-field system), 142
Fighter pilots, 58
Financial difficulties, 137
Fire possibility index, 148
First impressions, 58
First law of thermodynamics, 21
Fish tanks, 112
Five element theory. See Wuxing
Fixer Chao, 64
Flooding, 71, 79, 95
Floodlights, 161
Flow of land, 79–81
Flying Stars, 60
Foreclosures, 96
Form and shape, 72, 76
Form school, 62
Freeways, 68
Fungus, 138
Fuse boxes, 62
Fuxi, 31
G
Ganzhi (60-year cycle), 50, 143
Garage Mahal, 70
Garden apartments, 130
Gardens, 117
Gaudí, 4
Gematria, 30, 33
Genius loci, 9
Geobiology, 65
Geomagnetism, 42
activity, 64
fields, 42–3, 49
radiation, 62
storms, 43, 45, 49
Geometry, 8, 15
Geopathic stress, 62, 64, 153, 160
Gestalt laws of orientation, 11
Giraffes, 31
Glacier National Park, 118
Global change, 79
Global disease burden, 88
Globe Theatre, 7
Gnomon, 20, 32
Grading, 95
Graffiti, 89, 128
Grain element, 32
Grand Teton National Park, 120
Gravesite, 27
Great solar year, 25
Great Wall, 121
Greek science, 21, 25
Green parking, 136
Green remodeling, 98
Greenways, 91, 97–9, 118
Gropius, Walter, 82
Groundhog Day, 38
Groundwater, 76, 159
Guest hill, 118–19
H
Habitat, 96, 159
fragmentation, 74
islands, 97–8
patch, 98
Habitat restoration, 79, 83, 86, 97,
118
Half Dome, 118
Hallways, 137
Han period, 25, 32, 47, 50–1
Hartmann grid, 62
Headaches, 54, 113
Health issues, 137
Heart attacks, 49
Index 197
Heart rate, 112
Heat islands, 79, 87, 93, 99
Heights and buildings, 80
Helical stairs, 167
Hetu, 31–2, 37, 52, 58, 142
High-rise building, 128, 130
Hillside housing, 136
Hillslides, 72, 79
Hilltop or hillside cutting, 95
Hollywood, 159
Hongshan, 26
Hospital patients, 113
House layout, 137
House situation on land, 80
House-hunting, 137
Huangdi (Yellow Emperor), 30, 33
Human appreciation of natural
world, 79
Human perceptual ability, 58
Humans as electrical conductors,
50
Huo (Antares), 25
I
Illness, 93, 119, 148
Immune system dysfunction, 112
Indoor air pollution, 98
Industrialization, 114
Inner-city buildings, 128
Inner-city life and asthma, 94
Installed services, 153
Instinctive urges, 7
Insulation, 155
Intercardinal directions, 6, 25–6,
73, 98
Internal compass, 11
International Radiation Protection
Association, 155
Interplanetary magnetic field, 64
Interviewing of practitioners, 60
Intuition, 36, 42
Intuitive feng shui, 63
Ion concentration, 49
Ion radiation, 42
Ionosphere, 43, 50
Irritations of eyes, nose, respiratory
system, 54
J
Jacobs, Jane, 130
Jiazi (initial year), 142
Jieqi (minor solar terms), 47
Joshua Tree, 118
Jung, Carl, 11
Jupiter (Sui), 24, 44, 47–8,
142–43
Jupiter (Sui) and sunspot
cycle, 44
Jupiter cycle, 25, 144
K
Ka’aba, 6
Kanyu shia, 51
Kaogong ji (Manual of Crafts), 9
Kashyapa, 25
Kitchens, 154
Knossos, 8
Korean architects, 10
L
Ladle on early compass, 52
Lady Hao, 52
Land assessment, 95
198 Index
Landfill waste from construction
and remodeling, 98
Landscape aesthetics, 13
Landscaping, 7, 68, 71, 79, 83,
86, 115, 128, 131, 148
Larkin Building, 168
Lascaux, 25
Laws of the universe, 8
Lawsuits for poor construction, 95
Layout of house, 137
Leo, 33
Levi-Strauss, Claude, 12
Liang Yi (primal energies), 20
Lifa (calendrical calculations), 143
Life cycle, 59–60
Lifestyle issues of the developed
world, 155
Light therapy, 161
Lighting, 50–1, 135, 167–8
Lingjiatan, 32
Lingtai, 33
Litigation for feng shui, 59
Liu Xin, 143
Liuren astrolabe, 52–3
Living room, 154
Local climate, 135
Local conditions, 79
Local magnetic field, 42, 49
Longshan, 52
Los Angeles, 68
Lost work from poor environment,
93
Low income and asthma, 94
Low-frequency magnetic fields, 50
Low-income projects, 82
Lunar lodge. See xiu
Lunar year, 25
Lunations, 145
Luopan, 33, 42–3, 47, 52, 59, 62
Luoshu, 28, 30–1, 37, 52, 58,
142–3, 159
Luoyang, 27
M
Madness, 123
Magi, 32
Magnetism:
axis of Earth, 49
declination, 42
fields, 44, 46, 152–4
field reversal, 43, 54
polarity of sun, 44
pole, 33
shielding, 154
storms, 43, 47
manufactured objects, 43
Magnetoreception, 42
Magnetosphere, 43, 64
Malpractice suits, 71–2
Mandala, 26
Mandelbrot, Benoit, 4
Mantle outgassing, 64
Mao Zedong, 115
Map of mausoleum, 40
Marital problems, 137
Marketing, 61
Mars, 142
Mathematics, 37
Mawangdui, 25, 52
Maxima of storms, 44
McDonaldization, 82
McFengshui, 14, 36, 58, 60–1,
159–61, 167
McMansion, 70–1, 170
Medical costs of poor environment,
93
Megamalls, 90
Index 199
Mental health, 13
Mental illness, 49, 113–16
Mercury, 50, 142
Meridian transits, 28, 52
Metaphors of natural world, 12
Mexico City, 155
Microclimate, 31, 72, 99
Micropulsations, 43, 49
Middle East, 155
Milky Way, 142
Mineral deposits, 62
Ming Tang, 28–9, 31
Mirrors, 161–2
‘Missing’ areas of a building,
161
Money Corner, 58
Monumental architecture, 8
Mosaics, 27
Mould, 138
Aspergillus, 71
Penicillium, 71
Stachybotrys chartarum, 71
Mountain (sitting direction), 40–1,
81, 119
Myth, 4–7, 12, 14
N
Native species, 97
Natural style:
flow of land, 95
setting, 13
use of colours, 122
views, 113, 116
Needham, Joseph, 15, 37, 39
Needle housing, 52
Neighbourhoods and open space,
97
Nesse, R.M., 116
New Age, 14–15, 42, 50, 64,
159, 161,
New Urbanism, 77
New York, 122
Newgrange, 47
Niche market housing, 171
Nigeria, 121
Nine halls calculation, 30
Nitrous oxide emissions, 93
Niuheliang, 26
Noise pollution, 92, 135, 162
Nonlinear systems, 12
Northern Hemisphere, 26, 33
Nu Gua, 25
Number systems, 36, 37
Numbers assigned to seasons,
28, 30
Numerology, 36
O
Observations of nature,
112–13
Occult ideology, 14
Occupancy rate, 130
Oil exploration, 43, 121
Olduvai Gorge, 115
Open space, 97, 128, 131
Oracle bones, 142
Organization of space, 26
Orientation, 10–11, 48, 95–6,
118, 135, 137, 143, 148
site, 42
space weather, 49
Oxygen and ozone content of
atmosphere, 49
Ozone, 54, 93
200 Index
P
Pain and viewshed, 112–13
Pang, Kevin, 142
Pantheon, 9
Parking, 99, 128, 136
Parks, 131
Particle stream from sun, 44
Particulate emissions, 93
Peacefulness, 13
Pedestrians, 94
Pegasus, 27, 142
Pentagon, 12
People of colour, 94
Personal messages from nature,
119
Personality development, 148
Pets, 12, 112
Phantom load of appliances, 154
Philippines, 15
Placebo effect, 161
Planets, 24
Pole star, 10, 15, 28, 32
Polis, 4
Pollution, 91, 93, 120, 158
Ponds, 13
Poor construction, 95
Porch, 161
Postoccupation studies, 113
Postoperative complications, 113
Potable water, 155
Power grid, 46
Power lines, 62, 64, 121
Power panels, 154
Precession, 30
Predictive modeling techniques, 148
Prevailing winds, 160
Principles (li), 22
Prison inmates and viewshed, 113
Privacy, 137
Proton events from sun, 43
Pseudo-geobiology, 63
Pseudoscience, 11, 36, 54, 65
Psychiatric patients, 113
Psychic:
ability, 42
reading, 137
vibrations, 38, 160
‘Pubic-hair greenery’, 68–9, 128
Public assisted housing, 129
Public gardens, 131
Pulmonary oedema, 54
Pulse rate, 54
Puyang, 27
Q
Qi, 22, 37, 75, 148, 161
Qin period, 29, 33, 50, 52
Qin Shihuang, 115
Qinian Temple, 26
Qi-siphon method, 161
Quantum mechanics, 12
Quantum world, 10
Quarter-days, 47, 143
R
Racial issues:
disparity, 90
racism in built environment, 91
racism in smart growth, 91
racism in transportation, 91
Radiation, 63
Rainforest, 93, 119
Recyclable composites, 171
Redevelopment, 90
Relationship Corner, 58
Relaxation, 13
Index 201
Remodeling, 63, 98, 171
Renovation made environmentally
sound, 98
Resonance (ganying), 18
Retail space in US, 90
Revenge effects, 11, 15, 40, 59,
61, 63, 68, 71–2, 79, 86,
92–3, 95, 137, 148, 152, 158
Reversed house, 96, 148
Rivers, 96
Rooftop gardens, 99, 118
Row houses (condominiums), 92,
130
Ruling star, 143
S
Sacred geometry, 8
Sacred territory, 11
Safety, 122, 148
Sagittarius, 142
Sahel, 155
Salt Lake City, Utah, 69
San He (Three Combination
School), 72
San He Luopan, 42
San Yuan (three epochs), 143
San Yuan Luopan, 42, 47
Santong li (Three Sequences),
143, 145
Saturn, 25, 30, 33, 47, 142
Schumann Resonance (SR), 50
Scorpio, 6, 25
Seasonal Affective Disorder, 161
Seasonal indicators, 24–5
Sedimentation, 159
Sefirot, 30
Self-destruction, 115
Self-relaxation techniques, 116
Semiprivate areas, 128, 131
Shabtai (Saturn), 30
Shadow direction, 33
Shakespeare, 54
Shang (Yin) period, 7, 23, 28, 32,
52, 142
Shang yuan (superior epoch), 142
Shanghai, 148
Shan-shui (Chinese painting), 118
Shi, 25, 50, 52–3
Shielding against magnetic fields,
154
Shipan, 52–3
Shotgun shack, 137–8, 166
Sick days, 113
Sifang (four directions), 26
Sifen li (quarter-day calendar), 143
Sinks, 89, 91
Sinan, 53
Sirius, 30, 75
Site blindness, 70, 89
Site selection theory, 148
Six coordinates, 26
Si-xiang (four constellations), 20,
23
Skepticism, 160
Slopes, 94, 81
Smart growth, 82, 91
Smog, 93, 99
Snake, 25, 114
Social equity, 73, 91
Soil:
condition, 95
erosion, 159
studies, 72
type, 158
analysis, 95
Solar bird in Chinese lore, 25
Solar cycle on compass, 47, 73
202 Index
Solar gain, 11, 160
Solar longitude, 48
Solar magnetic field, 44
Solar panels, 136
Solar particle stream, 43
Solar storms, 46
Solar wind, 49
Solar year, 143
Solstices, 6, 20, 22, 28, 32, 45, 47,
49, 142, 143
Sound, 86
Soundproofing, 92, 162
Southern Hemisphere, 33, 54
Space in Chinese thought, 26
Space weather, 19, 42–3, 46–7, 49
Spas, 159
Species loss, 97
Speeding autos, 128, 131
Spica, 47
Spiritual comfort in structure, 134
Spontaneous divination, 38, 62–3
Sprawl, 90–3
Square of Pegasus, 25
Squared circle (fang yuan), 26
Stairs, 135, 166, 168–9
Standing water, 138
Star maps, 31
Statistics on American drivers, 93
Steps, 166–7
Storm water management, 159
Stratosphere, 49
Street orientation, 94
Stress, 11, 13, 49, 92–3, 128, 135,
113, 116–17
Subdivisions, 71, 136
Substance abuse, 137
Suffering, 93
Suhail (Canopus), 6
Suicide, 124
Sulfur dioxide emissions, 93
Sunlight, 128, 137
Sunspots, 25, 42, 44
Surgery patients, 113
Sustainability, 13, 98, 116, 159
design, 135–6
housing, 70
Swimming pools, 159
Symbolism, 10,
Synodic month, 142, 145
Systems science, 148
Systems theory, 18, 23
T
T intersection, 94
Taichu calendar, 143
Taiji (Supreme Ultimate), 15, 19,
20, 26, 32
Taiji shang yuan (supreme pole
superior epoch), 142
Taisui, 24
Talmud, 6
Taste of heaven, 117
Technological intrusions, 121, 123
Temple of Heaven, 26
Tenant complaints, 92
Tengshe (Snake of Heaven), 25
Teotihuacán, 6
Terrestrial grid, 62
Territory, 130
Testimonials, 62
Tetragrammaton, 30
Textures, 99
Theta brainwaves, 50
Three-legged bird of the sun
(sunspots), 25
Through traffic, 128
Tian Ho (Milky Way), 142
Index 203
Tianshu (celestial mathematics),
50–1
Tian-yuan di-fang, 26, 32
Tiger, 20, 24, 27
Time as an angle on a Luopan, 47
Tongue ‘vision’, 58
Toxic moulds, 71–2
Toxicity of construction materials,
99
Traditional lifeways
analytical techniques, 73
building, 5, 7–8, 11, 14
city planning, 8
design, 9
housing, 68, 70, 117, 130–1,
134, 136
knowledge, 15, 54
thinking, 4
Traffic, 94, 131
calming, 77
problems, 93
Tranquilizers, 116
Transportation racism, 91
Trees, 97
Trigrams, 20–1, 30, 32
Tropic of Cancer, 6
Tropical year, 47, 142, 145
Troposphere, 64
Turfing, 68
Turtle, 20, 25–6, 142
Types of habitats, 97–8
U
Unclean water, 155
Undeveloped land, 170
United Nations Population Fund,
155
Universal laws, 8
Universe as female, 20
Up the mountain, down the river,
96
Upholstery, 98
Urban issues
air pollution, 93
birds in, 97
blight, 89
design traditions, 5
pathology of crime, 114
setting, 13
Urbanization, 114
Ursa Major, 6
US Federal Trade Commission
(FTC), 61
Uselessness in Daoism, 10
V
Vacancy rates, 128
Vacant lot, 121
Vegetation and crime statistics,
128
Ventilation, 86, 160
Venus, 30, 142
Views of nature, 113
Violence and crime, 82, 116
Visual pollution, 89
Visually impaired, 166
Volatile organic compound (VOC),
98
Voltmeters, 160
Vitruvius, 12
W
Walkup buildings, 130
Wang Cuo, 40
Wang cycle, 59
204 Index
Warring States period, 50, 52
Waste from remodeling, 98
Water (facing direction), 40–1,
81
Water issues:
analysis, 52, 78–9
features, 87, 95–6, 115, 120
orientation, 94
quality, 158–9
stress, 155
Waterfront property, 81, 95
Wayland’s Smithy, 33
Weather, 24, 64
Weather forecasting, 38–9, 51
Weather sensitivity, 49
Well-field, 159
West Group trigrams, 21
Wetlands, 83, 158
White flight, 91
Wildlife, 79, 116, 117, 123
corridors, 98–9
killed by buildings, 87
organizations, 97
Wilson, E.O., 113
Windows, 170
Wolf, Fred Alan, 11
Woodchuck, 38
Workplace shootings, 114
Worm lure, 161
Wright, Frank Lloyd, 138
Wuxing (five element theory), 19,
21, 23–4, 73–4
Wyoming, 120
X
Xanax, 124
Xiang ke (mutual destruction), 23
Xiang sheng (mutual production),
23
Xiaoyang, 21
Xiaoyin, 21
Xing Ji (year-marker), 47
Xing-De, 72
Xinglongwa, 33
Xingqi (local influences), 9
Xishuipo, 27
Xiu (lunar lodge), 24–5, 28, 82
Xuan Kong, 60
Xuan Yuan, 33
Xuanwu, 25
Xue (favourable structural
locations), 72
Y
Ya character, 23
Yang (quality), 18–22, 25–6, 28,
30, 32, 47, 51, 59, 99
Yangshao, 25, 27
Yao, 25
Yaodian, 25
Yaodong (subterranean housing),
33, 68
Yap Island, 122
Ya-xing (equinoctial cross), 23,
26, 53
Year-marker (Xing Ji), 47
Yellow Emperor, 33
Yi Jing (Book of Changes), 47
Yin (quality), 18–22, 25–6, 28,
30, 32, 47, 51, 59, 99
Yin (Shang) period, 23, 25
Yin yang theory, 21, 24, 73,
117
Yubu (Steps of Yu), 30
Index 205
Z
Zen meditation, 113
Zhang (Metonic cycle), 142–3, 145
Zhaogaobou, 33
Zhongqi (major solar terms), 47
Zhou period, 29, 51
Zigong (Purple Palace), 10
Zijin Cheng (Polar Forbidden City),
15
Ziwei yuan (Purple Court), 15
Zong He Luopan, 42
Zoning methods, 91
206 Index

ARCHITECT’S GUIDE TO

Feng Shui
EXPLODING THE MYTH

This Page Intentionally Left Blank

ARCHITECT’S GUIDE TO

Feng Shui
EXPLODING THE MYTH
BY

CATE BRAMBLE

AMSTERDAM BOSTON HEIDELBERG LONDON NEW YORK OXFORD PARIS SAN DIEGO SAN FRANCISCO SINGAPORE SYDNEY TOKYO

elsevier. You may also complete your request on-line via the Elsevier homepage (http://www.com Typeset by Newgen Imaging Systems (P)Ltd. fax: (+44) (0) 1865 853333. India Printed and bound in Great Britain .com).architecturalpress.Architectural Press An imprint of Elsevier Linacre House. by selecting ‘Customer Support’ and then ‘Obtaining Permissions’ British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the Library of Congress ISBN 0 7506 56069 For information on all Architectural Press publications visit our website at www. e-mail: permissions@elsevier.co. Jordan Hill. London. Oxford OX2 8DP 200 Wheeler Road. Applications for the copyright holder's written permission to reproduce any part of this publication should be addressed to the publisher Permissions may be sought directly from Elsevier’s Science and Technology Rights Department in Oxford. Designs and Patents Act 1988 or under the terms of a licence issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency Ltd. MA 01803 First published 2003 Copyright © 2003. Chennai. Burlington. All rights reserved The right of Cate Bramble to be identified as the author of this work has been asserted in accordance with the Copyright. England W1T 4LP.uk. UK: phone: (+44) (0) 1865 843830. 90 Tottenham Court Road. Designs and Patents Act 1988 No part of this publication may be reproduced in any material form (including photocopying or storing in any medium by electronic means and whether or not transiently or incidentally to some other use of this publication) without the written permission of the copyright holder except in accordance with the provisions of the Copyright. Cate Bramble.

Contents Acknowledgements Foreword Chapter 1 Introduction: global perspective vii ix 3 Chapter 2 Expert rules 17 Chapter 3 Protoscientific and pseudoscientific conventions Chapter 4 Calculations 35 4 3 8 9 5 1 57 Chapter 5 Planning Chapter 6 Environmental assessment 67 85 .

water supply and storage. lighting. electrical supply and installation. ventilation. and sound Chapter 14 Building elements 111 127 133 141 147 151 157 165 Chapter 15 Resources 173 Bibliography Index 177 193 .vi Contents Chapter 7 Human factors Chapter 8 Crime and its relation to the environment Chapter 9 Structures Chapter 10 An overview of the theory of time and space Chapter 11 Form and shape theory in time and space theory Chapter 12 Services Chapter 13 Overlooked and overblown issues of drainage.

most notably Danny Thorn. It never failed and for that I am glad. encouragement. I am also deeply grateful to my friends. Nani Shaked. .Acknowledgements I have always relied on the kindness of strangers. Loraine Scott. I may never be able to thank all of you enough but I will keep trying. Master Raymond Lo. Alison. suggestions. enlightenment. Elizabeth Moran. Without the staff at Architectural Press (Katherine. This book would be about parrots had I not had the good luck to study with Master Larry Sang and to meet Master Joseph Yu. and Elizabeth) none of this would be. Joey Yap and Grandmaster Yap provided much-needed wisdom. Thank you all. and many other notables in this global community). who supplied endless hours of advice. Architects Simona Mainini and David Wong were kind enough to read the manuscript and provide a muchneeded reality check. and Nancy Chen. I cannot thank you enough for the Mac that I entrusted with my thoughts. Joey Yap and Grandmaster Yap Cheng Hai (whose generosity widened my world to include Master Eva Wong. and humour.

This Page Intentionally Left Blank .

I was happy when Cate Bramble’s website ‘Feng Shui for Dummies’ caught my eyes. when I examined the websites and went to the book stores to find out what were available. she was brave enough to declare war on what was not. The articles not only showed that Cate was sincere about learning Feng Shui. it was not what Feng Shui was meant to be. Therefore.Foreword When I first got onto the internet 5 years ago and searched about Feng Shui. Cate’s book is timely as there are people who claim to be practising traditional Feng Shui but they are actually promoting superstition. I am glad that Cate is following this line. the way to study Feng Shui and other ancient metaphysics is to use a logical system. It is true that there are phenomena that cannot be explained using science. to my dismay. However. This gives a bad name to Feng Shui and gives a bad impression to scientists. architects. . I was surprised it appeared that this ancient Chinese practice was quite well received by westerners. She continues to make an effort to fulfill her mission and her website grows to become ‘Feng Shui Ultimate Resource’ today. A lot of Feng-Shui practices can be explained in terms of science. A lot of Feng Shui theories will be proved using scientific approach in the future. it should be our target. Although it may take another 1000 years or even longer before scientists can explain why and how Feng Shui works. Cate’s standpoint is very firm. We cannot use this as an excuse to practise something that insults our common sense and logical reasoning. and interior designers.

Joseph Yu . I am sure architects will find traditional Feng-Shui practices reasonable after reading this book.x Foreword I am sure her readers will welcome her effort to dismiss superstition disguised as Feng Shui. We can expect more and more architects will be interested in designing houses in accordance with Feng Shui principles.

.

.

Chapter 1 Introduction: global perspective .

cities as we understand them are a very recent phenomenon for human communities. Perhaps that explains why Benoit Mandelbrot saw fractal structures only in classic architecture.4 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui Macrocosm to microcosm The jewel that we find. but what we do not see We tread upon. We acquire that idea from our culture. cities were an expression of the sacred. which understands life as linear history against the traditional view of life as cyclical myth. Before then. . 1 Christopher Alexander in A Pattern Language (1977) and The Timeless Way of Building (1979) says there is only one way to create human structures that express our humanity and aliveness. We want to believe that cities developed almost accidentally. according to political and commercial interests. we stop and take it Because we see it. William Shakespeare: Measure for Measure II.2 Yet. and all around the world until quite recently.1 There must be something to an ancient building if it has managed to sustain us for thousands of years and still compels innovative thinkers to return to its fertile roots. The current idea developed from something the Greeks called the polis (which functioned like an extended family) but did not form what we would identify as a ‘city’ before the European Middle Ages.

and human cultures provide mythic justification for these acts. Wheatley (1971). What were our ancestors thinking? Human urban design in many places and times has conformed to the same mythic vision because it most profoundly expresses what makes us human. and in some nineteenth-century American towns.Introduction: global perspective 5 James and Thorpe (1999). wonder why our ancestors shared the urge to reshape the planet for reasons that do not look quite sane to us. in The Pivot of the Four Quarters. cities that align to the cardinal directions and whose buildings can be used as astronomical instruments are part of our human heritage. conveyed the same designs. The planning of human habitations has generally been meant for a larger spiritual purpose—and generally an unconscious one. straight and wide paths that run for kilometers to nowhere. showed that urban design expressed in a variety of Asian literature and architecture. Buildings everywhere used to be imbued .3 Traditional habitation seeks to mirror nature’s ways as a form of respect. Mound building. stone monuments that chart the movements of celestial objects. in Ancient Mysteries.

Designing on this scheme revealed the underlying movements of the universe. A culture’s myths make it possible for its members to acknowledge reality (nature).6 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui with magic. Humans first mapped the heavens. (Cyclical thought. Myth provides the ultimate technology because it uses our brain and its capacity for memes and memeplexes to encode extremely sophisticated information and transmit it far beyond our own time. Cardinal and intercardinal directions impose cultural structure on nature and serve as a memory aid that strengthens and transmits modes of thought over generations. along with the centre. including the science of a culture. its sides must correspond to the cardinal directions and align with Ursa Major and Scorpio (Eruvim 56a). The practices of al-qibla. Planetary rotation helped us define cardinal directions which. The Talmud says that if a town is to be laid out in a square (which identifies what is made by humans). and arranged their dwellings and cities according to the scheme. Petroglyphs at Teotihuacán orient the city on an east–west axis with respect to the sky and can be used for astronomy (one pair of markers indicates the Tropic of Cancer). but Westerners often cannot breach their cultural framework and accept this understanding of the world. orient east and west sides to sunrise at the summer solstice and sunset at the winter solstice. helps humans understand the enormity of the universe—including their own insignificance—as well as reality. ‘here’. and integrated with the world at large. assumed importance for humans more than 10 000 years ago. a common feature in traditional and mythic thought. carefull oriented to the heavens and nearby spiritual features of the land. Spatial configurations like these form part of many cultures’ scientific systems. Myth served as the original way to encode traditional knowledge. Settlements were built to invoke these features. built into the Ka’aba and all mosques. The south faces of mosques and the Ka’aba align to the rising of Suhail (Canopus). identified the celestial landscape with land formations. in Jauch’s .4 Jauch (1973) in Are Quanta Real? considered that cyclical movement.

From the Book of Odes Our architecture and other cultural artefacts unconsciously reflect ideas of cosmic order and embody our values and social reality. and architecture. . the descendants. is eminently useful today as a heuristic technique simply because it works so well. Cosmology and the city The city of Shang was carefully laid out. it is the centre of the four quarters. They also have the potential to inspire our species’ more troublesome instincts to conform to specific customs.) Traditional building provides a way for humans to be constantly reminded of their insignificance. landscape.Introduction: global perspective 7 opinion. Studies indicate that our instinctive urges can be guided merely by the presence and arrangement of nonhuman beings. bright is its divine power. just as myths typically celebrate the deeds of those who humble themselves. The mythic model articulates a respectful interaction with nature to draw upon its inspiration and power. majestic is its fame. in longevity and peace it protects us.

thousands of years earlier Chinese culture devised its own system— a radically different approach to addressing the same issues.5 However. All the high cultures of Asia and most of the high cultures of the premodern world built their cities as a terrestrial celebration of the universe. . Harmony supplies the pattern and chaos supplies creative freedom. The ancients assessed all probable consequences of erecting a structure on the balance of nature and designed for the relationship between a building and the cosmos. Out of Greek geometry a few centuries ago Western culture fashioned the concept of ‘sacred geometry’ to supply a spiritual plan for monumental architecture. What you see in the planning of a traditional city—and especially in the planning of premodern Chinese cities—flows from what Mircea Eliade identified as the sacred practice of building.8 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui To the ancients.6 Reality is a function by which humans imitate the celestial archetype Trinh Xuan Thuan in Chaos and Harmony (2001) sees the universe applying certain laws to create diversity. which assumed the responsibility for the welfare of a state. subtly persuading humans to be their best meant creating habitations in harmony with nature. Careful planning in traditional building was essential—especially with capital cities.

. The site and date for groundbreaking had to be confirmed by heaven in advance.Introduction: global perspective 9 The traditional worldview of Chinese culture supplies a profound cosmology for generating symbolism. Space–time is paramount in the traditional ideology of Chinese building. In the Book of Odes one Neolithic ruler consults tortoise shells to obtain information whether a particular area offers the appropriate place and time for construction. No expense was spared to ensure that the city conformed to traditional design principles. were determined before construction in accordance with the shape of local terrain and the stars and planets wheeling overhead. A Chinese city was built only after a considerable list of requirements was satisfied. which resides in the ‘Kaogong ji’ (Manual of Crafts) section of the Zhou li. dynamic powers of what an ancient Roman might call the genius loci or ‘spirit’ of a place. Local influences (xingqi).

the circumpolar constellation Purple Palace (Zigong) was the model for the palace in the Ming city of Beijing. invisible. no direction of time) into the human one (visible.10 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui Humans mimic the macrocosm and the microcosm by conducting themselves so that they maintain harmony between the cosmos and their world All rites used in the founding of settlements and cities seek to bring the human world to life within the cosmic scheme. predictable. Reality is achieved by participating in a symbolic centre For example. Significant numbers and celestial objects were conveyed in the design of government buildings and humble dwellings. Building materials were used as if they had appeared naturally. . distinct matter and energy. forward direction of time). They hid or de-emphasized necessary building or engineering devices and accentuated natural features. In China. and viruses. Determining structural orientation. master builders applied the primary scientific theories of Chinese civilization to individual structures. Orienting a structure to a particular time and place creates a microcosm of a meaningful instant. Founding rites also pull a civic entity from the quantum world (unpredictable. depending on your viewpoint. Daoist thinking consists of working with the planet. laying a foundation stone. the natural world.8 The architectural symbolism of the centre validated and demonstrated the power of the emperor who embodied the pole star and the nation’s subservience to the forces of nature. Traditional Korean architects analysed terrain before building so that their structures did not usurp the primacy of nature. Most traditional African religions promote the idea of harmony between humans.7 just as Renaissance artists sought to incorporate ‘divine proportions’ in paintings and monumental architecture. even to the point of cultivating ‘uselessness’ to avoid exploitation. could be anything from spirits to dark matter. bacteria. and performing a sacrifice express the primordial creation of the world. and the world that cannot be seen—which.

However. Carl Jung thought that four directions were part of human brain functions. Cartesian one. In a classic case of ‘revenge effect’ or philosophical hubris. it works only if we stay in our home areas. and place major gates on the primary axes. a tidal wave of scientific discoveries threatens to resurrect this old worldview—one that many hoped had been relegated to history (or at least restricted to pseudoscientists. Our cognitive map includes ‘gestalt laws’ regarding the orientation of buildings to take advantage of solar gain. Humans do have an automatic ‘direction sense’ that provides a frame of reference so that we can orient (‘east’) ourselves. right/left) and includes a form of internal compass that provides awareness of familiar environments. artistes.10 the ancient worldview has been partially reinstated through rational scientific inquiry and romantic popularizers such as Fred Alan Wolf and Fritjof Capra. Evidently. and other belittled groups).Introduction: global perspective 11 Orientation techniques for defining sacred territory in profane space emphasize the cardinal compass directions Many cultures established cities on cosmology.9 Brave new world It took approximately three centuries of aggressive work to unseat the traditional view of the world as a holistic system—typically known to us as ‘paganism’ or ‘primitive superstition’—and replace it with the rational. because they often appeared in people’s dreams when they were stressed. establish streets on a cosmic grid. Traditional people align primary streets to cosmic markers. A later design could inherited whatever symbolism accumulated over centuries if not millennia. everything is more closely linked than previously . This made it simpler for conquerors to legitimize their rule by utilizing native cosmology and architecture. An entire city (including the palace and related structures) often aligns with a direction and/or a particular celestial object. However. This innate cognitive map typically provides four directions (back/front.

12 Now we have a better understanding of why myth cannot and should not be eradicated.12 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui thought. Claude Lévi-Strauss anticipated that science would eventually be sophisticated enough to explain the validity of mythological thinking and help us to close the gap between our mindset and the rest of the universe. and chaos theory (sensitivity to initial conditions)—the scientific concepts that overthrew reductionism and renewed interest in the ancient worldview. . It is time to engage the natural world and ancient traditions before they disappear and humanity goes completely insane. We have met a traditional human—us Humans are a product of the natural world and our bodies respond favourably to the introduction of natural elements because we are ‘hard-wired’ that way. Science can explain how much of what makes us human is built on metaphors for our experience of the natural world. so that the effects of actions are likely to be more widely felt than previously acknowledged. quantum mechanics.11 This is a scary thought to people who have not adjusted to ideas of nonlinear systems.

Traditional methods of feng shui supply a creative problem-solving system to analyse the built and natural environments and to better understand and improve the quality of life. racial. If we succeed in replacing the natural world that shaped us with objects of our own design our entire species is likely to go mad—if we are not nearly there already. . We prefer the presence of vegetation and animals in our vicinity. ponds. natural beauty. Humans associate relaxation and peacefulness with natural settings that include a water feature. We prefer calm water before us to refresh us and to offer a soothing view. That is why pets. Contrary to conventional wisdom. On an extremely simplified level. and natural harmony are part of humanity’s genetic makeup. and views of parks and waves reduce our blood pressure and lower the production of adrenaline. Feng shui’s ideal conditions for human happiness and well-being are programmed into our genes. Other studies conclude that an appreciation of natural pattern. We also prefer the mechanics and infrastructure of modern living to be quiet and unobtrusive. Our early. This traditional. humans largely tend to choose an unspectacular or even mediocre natural setting over an urban setting devoid of nature. much-abused planet. sustainable philosophy provides time-honoured techniques of environmental protection. wild animals.Introduction: global perspective 13 A substantial body of research indicates that human concepts of what Jiahua Wu (1995) calls ‘landscape aesthetics’ construct the natural world before the Industrial Revolution. A large and consistent volume of research demonstrates the stress-reducing effects of natural settings and human observation of animals. crime rates drop when the amount of vegetation around us increases. Across national. and desire a mountain or other imposing natural feature at our backs. not-quite-human ancestors also located their settlements this way. Science advises us that the natural world preserves our mental health. feng shui can be understood as an attempt to re-establish a dialogue between humanity’s deepest needs and our long-estranged. and cultural differences.

13 It also emphasizes attachment to place. ‘new age’ feng shui has no basis in traditional science.14 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui A final note This book is not designed as self-help for the study of feng shui. Traditional feng shui is part of Chinese traditional science (ethnoscience) and follows a long history of interactions and knowledge of the world— empirical knowledge built up over generations and grounded in practical evidence. What this book hopes to provide is factual information on aspects of authentic feng shui practise. You can locate the worthwhile self-help books in Chapter 15. You definitely will not find much ‘new age’ thinking in these pages because that mindset has nothing to do with feng shui. Anything ‘new age’ (and especially ‘new age’ feng shui which I call McFengshui) is just nineteenth-century spiritual and occult ideology in posh packaging. Let us see if it can. It hopes to offer a perspective on scientific principles that seem to underpin certain aspects of the traditional practice. but none can provide instruction on all aspects of authentic feng shui and none can compare to study with a competent instructor. or traditional practices. If feng shui is going to work in the modern world it has to meet the world’s criteria.14 Moreover. and suggestions on integrating principles of traditional feng shui into the modern practise of architecture. Notes . legitimate science.

Introduction: global perspective 15 .

.

Chapter 2 Expert rules .

a child’s room is not ‘a cluttered mess’.3 Bacteria ‘talk’ through the air and they transmit information that apparently confers antibiotic resistance.5 In the traditional mind. Yet their real shape is different. which is something like the so-called butterfly effect. activity and anomalies in the sky connect to events on Earth—this can be broadly interpreted as the earliest T From the Lushi chunqiu . it is a ‘complex environment’ (complex can refer to deliberately created anarchy and to random messiness).4 Microbes and marine algae seemingly use clouds to further their own ends and may in fact control our planet’s climate. and a disturbance in one area of a system resonates in another. he theories of yin and yang and the five elements (wuxing) form the philosophical basis of traditional Chinese science. ganying. People used to think elephants were psychic or something because of their ‘uncanny’ abilities to find one another over long distances—now we know they communicate infrasonically. Scientifically. Professor Liu Yanchi (1998) suggests the best way for a Westerner to appreciate these theories may be to think of them in terms of concepts like systems theory (which blends the study of quantities with the study of form or pattern) and complexity theory (which tries to explain how something might begin from a random or chaotic state and yet produce complex order).18 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui a) If a man climbs a mountain. The theories of yin and yang and the five elements also contain the concept of resonance. the oxen below look like sheep and the sheep like hedgehogs. Science shows us this side of the world. the Dao or Naturally So embraces and underlies all things.2 Neils Bohr sounded like a Daoist when he said that one cannot assume the universe has separate and independent units. It is a question of the observer’s viewpoint. In Chinese thinking.1 Concepts of disorder and randomness—also called chaos—are included in the study of complex systems.

the terms explain the intrinsic contradictions of natural objects or phenomena. Yin and yang are not independent because they can change into each other. Yin and yang consist of two stages of a cyclical.8 .6 Dynamic balance. even wavelike. Interdependence and intertransformation.Yin yang theory. A Babylonian textbook for celestial forecasters explained that aerial phenomena. The qualities of yin and yang counter and complement because they exist in oscillating flux. while Babylonians and Chinese believed that there was only a correspondence. phenomena are more readily accepted as inherently paradoxical. Ancient Greeks thought that celestial bodies actually changed the Earth. categorized by some as the ancients’ understanding of fractals and complexity theory. like terrestrial phenomena. Professor Liu Yanchi characterized the relationship of yin and yang of the following aspects: ● ● ● Opposition.7 This tension of opposites expresses as unity—the Taiji or Supreme Ultimate.Expert rules 19 understanding of space weather (see Chapter 3). Yin yang theory [The natural] laws are not forces external to things. continually changing relationship. but represent the harmony of movement immanent in them.1)—and creates a potential that might manifest energy at any time. This is a difficult concept for Westerners. An excerpt from the Yi jing This theory uses an explanation of motion and changes in nature as its foundation. provide ‘signals’ for us. and wuxing provide ecological techniques for approaching and appreciating nature. It is used with its corollary wuxing (five-element theory) in understanding and interpreting nature with the stated goal of harmonization. which is both first and last (see Figure 2. People heeded these ‘signals’ to understand local manifestations of cosmic energy. In Chinese science. whose thinking typically oscillates between is and is not. just as in Western complexity theory.

contracts and descends. tiger. which suggest that the universe is inherently female because its primary representation is ‘cracked in two’). Taiji also identifies the circumpolar region. evolved into eight elemental trigrams to represent all cosmic and physical conditions affecting living beings and also to identify the winds and directions.20 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui In our universe of constant change there is the Taiji. yin for heavier things. There are also opposing states of accumulation—yang for lighter things. while the number five at the centre preserved the original astronomical meaning.11 From earliest times the eight symbols or bagua have been associated with astronomical and topographical features. yang is entirely immaterial and consists of pure energy. Yang expands and rises. and bird) divided along the celestial equator to indicate astronomical markers (two solstices and two equinoxes). the si-xiang that refer to four original constellations (dragon. creates and activates. Phenomena can be defined in yin yang theory as gradients on a scale of complete yin and yang.10 These four images. turtle. a unified representation of Liang Yi.9 The Taiji evolved into four images. the two primal energies (yin and yang. in turn. Yin at its . the centre as Dao. and zero. At its purest and most rarefied. Yin condenses and materializes.

the Greeks did not know about chemical elements. water. Westerners see matter and energy in terms of the first law of thermodynamics.Expert rules 21 most coarse and dense is matter. they also did not know that .1 describes some of the many qualitative aspects of yin yang theory. Substitute yang for ‘energy’ and yin for ‘matter’ and you have a basic understanding of yin yang theory. air. with energy constantly transforming to matter and vice versa. Wuxing (five element theory) Try to explain wuxing to Westerners and you invariably run into the five Greek elements.2. and quintessence. (Unfortunately. fire. One famous representation of yin–yang generation is shown in Figure 2. which were in fact material substances— Earth. Table 2.

22 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui .

and phases of cycles. or changing phenomena. according to Professor Liu. fire. We can explain the behaviour of objects and phenomena in nature. and water12—to characterize the behaviour of all natural objects and phenomena. The term actually identifies processes. At its most basic.) Wuxing does not express this thinking at all. Earth.Expert rules 23 atoms do not exhibit the geometrical structures they assigned to them. connecting the four points within the celestial . Time and space Perhaps it was during the period of the Yin (Shang) (fourteenth to eleventh centuries BCE) that astronomers divided the celestial circle into the four ‘palaces’ (animals) consisting of four wedges oriented to the cardinal points—the shape of the character ya.2 depicts one of innumerable Chinese ‘analogy maps’ of five element theory. qualities. and explain H2O in ‘phases’ of water. Table 2. Each symbol represents an analogy with its own rules for actions and results of movement for any phenomenon or object.13 After all. steam. In Chinese thought. Positive outcomes occur in xiang sheng (mutual production. The ancients selected common natural materials—wood. A scientist can describe the cycle of life on Earth in a wavelike motion according to wuxing as living creatures coming out of rocks and going back into rocks. the order of wood–fire–soil–metal–water) and negative outcomes occur in xiang ke (mutual destruction. We can use the obvious qualities of one system to describe unknown and/or unspecified qualities of another. wuxing explains how systems (objects or phenomena) contain structural qualities that interact with each other and how these interactions produce outcomes in predictable patterns. their relationship. metal. including cycles of change over time. and ice. inherent capabilities. Wuxing provides a framework for viewing the components of any system. the order of metal–wood–soil–water–fire). the Shang believed their world was shaped like a ya. and the pattern of motion based on their interaction. With wuxing we can employ analogy to understand the world.

24 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui .

Expert rules 25 .

consisted of four mythical lands where winds originated. and at Niuheliang where the southern end of the complex features a round altar like the Temple of Heaven.18 The left was identified with east and sunrise (yang) and the right was identified with west and sunset (yin). heaven and ‘top’) and kept one’s back to the north (the direction of yin. the primary Chinese mandala tian-yuan di-fang—heaven as round (natural world) and Earth as square (human experience and concepts of order). as the nation was then called. and Earth below. and indicated valuation in terms of yin (square) and yang (round).26 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui circle created the equinoctial cross or ya-xing. A squared circle or fang yuan represents the union of heaven and Earth. Space itself was represented as a cube with six coordinates (cardinal or intercardinal directions plus up and down). four directions. Chinese thinking encompassed a spatial organization with heaven above.17 Chinese traditional science established directions on the assumption that one faced south (the direction of yang. Earth and ‘bottom’).14 The ya-xing as mandala inside the celestial circle also appears in ancient Egypt as part of the hieroglyph for ‘the black (fertile) land’ or Kemit. humanity in the middle. from at least the Neolithic.19 which is one reason why the Taiji turns ‘clockwise’ with the white (yang part) up and the black (yin part) down. Things are looking up Archaeology indicates that. it is also built into sites of Hongshan culture at Dongshanzui. they surrounded a central square. actually). In the Northern Hemisphere when one faces south and observes the sun it apparently moves ‘clockwise’ (where we get the term. Sifang.16 A rectangular building at the north end of the Niuheliang complex reminded excavating archaeologists of the Qinian Temple.15 Although tian-yuan di-fang is visible in the architecture of the Altar and Temple of Heaven at Beijing. The lower shell of a turtle (plastron) that was used for divination also symbolized the ya-xing. one of the first buildings constructed at the Temple of Heaven. .

and Bear).3). . A Yangshao grave (Banpo phase) at Xishuipo near Puyang faces its round side to the south and its square side to the north (see Figure 2. Below the dead man’s feet (to the north) lie leg bones and shells that apparently indicate the constellation of Beidou (what Westerners call the Plough. On all sides except south excavators found the remains of other people. To the west of the dead chief lies a mosaic of the ancient constellation Baihu (White Tiger) and to the east lies a mosaic of the constellation Canglong (Bluegreen Dragon).Expert rules 27 Analysing positions in space-time was of paramount importance to officials in premodern China. Big Dipper. They sited buildings according to astronomical phenomena. construction on the capital of Luoyang began when the constellation we call Pegasus was at its zenith. both with their backs to the chief.20 This site provides additional physical proof of the antiquity of basic aspects of feng shui. Wagon. At the close of the second millennium BCE.

4). The emperor presided over the Middle Kingdom (Zhongguo) in the position of the pole star and functioned as the pivot of Chinese civilization. and where yin and yang are in harmony’. The ruler varied the direction he faced to the appropriate part of the sky. his lungs in front (south). This probably explains why the Shang-era sites align to celestial north of the time they were built.5).21 By employing simple astronomical techniques people determined that solstices and equinoxes marked out a square. and 3 is the number of the wood element). In this system each season was assigned a number (see Figure 2. In the first moon of summer the emperor faced south as he resided in the southeast room. The number of spring is eight (5 3.28 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui An old story claims that the ancient method of siting a capital used meridian transits at night to find the cardinal directions. By facing south his spleen was to the left (east). and then southeast (see Figure 2. The number of summer is 7 (5 2) and the number . which was the ‘flat earth’. where the four seasons merge. his kidneys behind (north). The Zhou li says this enabled specialists to calculate an axis mundi (a centre or ‘here’) personified by the ruler and the pole star: ‘the place where Earth and sky meet. who observed the sun in conjunction with the moon in a xiu (lunar lodge) or with a particular star. Building customs imbued Chinese capitals and their rulers with spiritual significance. and his heart at the centre of the Middle Kingdom. then centre-east. Each month the position of the emperor’s throne was determined by the court astronomers. Someone sitting in a house in a neighbourhood of such a city could truly feel they and their nation were at one with the cosmos. It is displayed in the bottom-left corner of the Luoshu magic square. his liver at right (west).22 and the heavens were visualised as moving in a circle or on a dome overhead with the pole star as the axis of the universe (‘the round heavens’). In the first 3 months of the year he faced east as he presided in the three eastern rooms of a nine-chambered palace called the Ming Tang23—first northeast. because the 5 of soil is associated with all four seasons. where wind and rain are gathered in.

Expert rules 29 (a) (b) .

A much later interpretation regarding the construction of the Luoshu was that it was a ‘calculation of nine halls’.26 Rotate the sigil of Saturn 90 to reveal the cone of precession (the wobble of Earth’s axis displayed as a cone) and the seven sefirot of the Sefer Yetzirah. The Luoshu also indicates the kabbalistic cube of space with Shabtai (the Hebrew version of Saturn. the process of growth and decay. which is displayed in the bottom-right corner. and old age (Qian). The Luoshu found its way from China (through Jewish and Muslim sources) to medieval Christian Europe as a charm on dinner plates to avert plague. Huangdi to Chinese). plus nine ritual steps in the pattern of Beidou—used to stop floods and avert evil—known as the Yubu or ‘steps’ of Yu. also known as the magic square of Huangdi the Yellow Emperor—and the gematria equivalent of the shortened form of the Tetragrammaton. at its centre. the number of winter is 6 (5 1). The Luoshu also shows agreement with ancient emblems of Sirius and the planet Venus (both assigned the value of 15 in ancient Western Asia). The numbers shift as the months progress. which could have any number of levels of significance. the transmitter of mysteries. which gave rise to the so-called ‘sigil of Saturn’.25 The kamea (amulet) of the sigil is the Luoshu.24 The diagram contains (among other things) nine ‘star-gods’.27 . The sequence of symbols (trigrams) built into the diagram mark the world changing from winter/sleep/death (Kan) to conception (Gen).30 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui 4 3 8 9 5 1 2 7 6 of autumn is 9 (5 4). displayed at the top middle. the seasonal cycle of nature. The Luoshu in one sense represents the daily circle of the sun envisioned by Neolithic (and possibly earlier) astronomers. Notice that the yin (even) numbers displayed at the corners and the yang (odd) numbers form the ya character. nine provinces and their emblematic cauldrons. adulthood to midlife (Kun). birth (Zhen). nine ‘floating stars’.

Notes . Odd numbers add to 25. white. and black. Along with red. the Hetu discovered by Fuxi came from the Yellow River via a ‘horse’ (synechedoche for dragon) and was traditionally written in red. The Luoshu ‘map’ is traditionally written in green. the numbers 1 through 10 are arranged to pair an odd number with an even number so that 5 and 10 are at the centre (see Figure 2. green was used to code star systems on Chinese star maps. even numbers add to 30. In legend. and all numbers added together total 55.6).Expert rules 31 8 3 7 2 5 10 4 9 1 6 In the Hetu. which used dark circles and light circles connected by lines to indicate constellations.

32 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui ) .

Expert rules 33 .

.

Chapter 3 Protoscientific and pseudoscientific conventions .

Authentic feng shui is typically identified as a protoscience or an ethnoscience. tides and lunar cycles. This belief system is forced to rely on its concepts such as ‘clutter’ and the idea of ‘corners’ needing ‘activation’. the changing seasons.1 superstition. Humans have always noticed patterns in nature: night and day.2 It allows the data to speak for themselves—which means that people do not analyse a structure with any preconceived ideas about the way things ought to be. McFengshui uses no instrumentation and cannot collect quantitative data. .36 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui rchitects have to live down the stereotype of the architecthero in Ayn Rand’s The Fountainhead. Feng shui ‘lite’ (which I call McFengshui ) is more of a lifestyle issue or a pseudoscience. In fact. Feng shui applies expert rules (see Chapter 2) and provides an abundance of formulae that assign numeric values to everything from compass readings to time periods (see Chapter 4). Pattern recognition contains meaning for us because cycles and steady states are important for our existence. which replaces scientific uncertainty with views based on political or religious beliefs and seeks to provide answers for everything. Feng shui suffers the stereotypes of ‘geomancy’. animal and plant life cycles. A A willing suspension of disbelief? ‘Science’ consists of any attempt by members of a culture to create a system that makes their observations of nature understandable. our ability to recognize patterns supplies our basic notions of intuition. The forecast Numbers manipulated and interpreted according to their qualities (numerology) form the core of many ancient number systems. and pseudoscience—never mind that feng shui was the original method of measuring local bioclimatic conditions.

it is obvious that the numbers relate to astronomy. Ten is the central number of the Hetu and symbolizes Dao as present.Protoscientific and pseudoscientific conventions 37 This type of mathematics uses speculative and/or symbolic meanings of numbers to understand the structure of the world. Numbers were associated with cryptographic mathematics in the Hetu (River Chart) and Luoshu (Lo River Writing). 60 divisions with 24 azimuthal compass points and 36 divisions with odd numbers. which represented models of the world and conveyed an inner meaning for life (see Figure 3. Heaven’s 7 and Earth’s 3 refer to Hetu numbers (7 fire and 3 wood. 7 3 10). In ancient Chinese culture. and astronomy developed from each other. In a technique Joseph Needham called ‘threes and sevens riding the qi’. Chinese corresponded with the world through events. and their symbolism. mathematics.1). writing was the key to predictive power because knowledge from the past (such as histories) linked the living and the dead. Divination in modern life Nuclear physics is full of uncertainties and probabilities. (Numbers.) Numbers formed the basis of Chinese forecasting—more colourfully known as divination—from at least the Yin (Shang) period (fourteenth to eleventh centuries BCE). Jim Washburn. numbers. California journalist . yet the bombs still kill you.

usually in probabilistic terms. Women still toss their wedding bouquets for unmarried female guests—a form of spontaneous divination no different than dowsers or people who pick up ‘psychic vibrations’ from household and personal objects. Consider feng shui an ancestor of complexity theory. weather divination by groundhog is statistically as reliable as a weather newscaster (see Figure 3. which for some assumes the guise of divination. known to Europeans as Candlemas). Modern divination does not stop at furry prophets.38 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui We may scoff at divination but we use it daily. If feng shui consists of divination why do scholars prefer to compare Chinese divination to the forecasting methods of an economist or some other boffin? Because we are not talking about foretelling the future (which cannot be done).2). A large. Marmota monax) is used to forecast the weather. Probably the most famous form of American divination is the annual celebration of Groundhog Day (2 February. about the future state or properties of a system based on a known past and present. native American rodent (a woodchuck. Chinese divination describes probabilities. A conditional forecast states . In complexity theory forecasting involves a statement. According to research on this practice conducted by the US Weather Service.

The recording of sequences of unusual or important events is one of the most enduring forms of divination. Storm Data. For example. Divination as a decisionmaking technique begins with an acceptable level of control and certainty (such as ritual or tradition). High trust in a forecasting horizon is critical when someone does not have the confidence to proceed. on available data. People often rely on some form of divination in these situations because it offers a decision-making system within the phase transition space of creative thinking. It depends. This is a fairly comprehensive appraisal of human consciousness according to complexity theory. in general. but every day people face decisions where it is impractical or impossible to gather justification by statistics. We rely on this today. which contains a by-state and by-date listing of storms and unusual weather occurrences. Science yields predictive information (usually through the use of statistics).Protoscientific and pseudoscientific conventions 39 in probabilistic terms what the future will be if one follows a particular course of action. It is not unreasonable to assume that modern scientific inquiry originated in such forms of divination (Joseph Needham’s work considers this very theory). Humans cannot make long-term plans if they cannot predict the outcome. Chinese governmental planning relied on this method of forecasting for longrange strategy. Volume after volume of Chinese history offers documented occurrences of strange births. A forecasting horizon indicates the length of time ahead of now for which one can make a reasonable forecast. and other data. A prediction is a forecast that states with a high degree of confidence what the future will be. They have to base at least part of their choices on unproven beliefs. proceeds to the far reaches of ideology and vision (including belief systems) right to the border of creative thinking and chaos (ecstatic experience and madness). but do not think to associate it with divination. the tracking of natural phenomena. the US National Climatic Data Center publishes a monthly publication. . A scenario is a forecast that is a hypothesis rather than a formally justified inference from past data.

and property damage. Ancient Chinese culture provides thousands of years of written materials on the study of cosmic effects. They also relate to decision-making.40 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui The publication provides information on paths of storms plus deaths. Drawing conventions Forget about the Greeks for a minute because China currently holds the record for the world’s oldest map.3).1 and 3. The map indicates more than 70 locations and is scaled at 1 : 500. Zhao yutu or ‘map of the area of the mausoleum’ shows the locations of buildings in the funerary architecture of Wang Cuo (reigned 344 to 313 BCE) and his consorts. In Asia and increasingly throughout the world. Astronomical issues Cosmic systems convey a speculative attempt to understand the world based on small solar effects in the environment. What is most intriguing is how much these extremely old studies complement scientific research. feng shui determines and assesses such risks and provides remedies. .You will find this convention used in feng shui when the mountain (sitting direction) is drawn at the bottom (‘north’) and the water (facing direction) is drawn facing up (‘south’) (see Figures 3. injuries. Its methods for instilling high trust in the forecasting horizon have been relied on for millennia to produce results. Why would someone practice divination to site a house or a city? Consider how a typical building affects the environment and how such an imposition contains unforeseen risks—the butterfly effect. But most importantly for our purposes is that south is positioned at the top of the map. Cataloguing information and cryptographic mathematics correspond to what is called ‘human observer capability’ in complexity theory. bad feng shui. the revenge effect—that require precautionary measures. It includes a feature on the ‘outstanding storms of the month’ concerning freak and severe weather events.

and feng shui Daoism aims to conform to the laws of nature. recorded. geomagnetism.Protoscientific and pseudoscientific conventions 41 Space weather. and contemplated natural phenomena and cycles to better understand natural laws and to provide people with guidelines for living. Daoist emphasis on an understanding of human place in nature generated technology . Ancient ‘natural scientists’ and later Daoists observed.

most scientists agree that feng shui practitioners observe geomagnetic field anomalies (low-amplitude. One or more readings with a Luopan are taken to determine orientation to the local magnetic field. geomagnetism was not realized from psychic ability or intuition—magnetite in the human brain is not found in the same form as that observed in creatures relying on magnetoreception.42 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui and natural science. localized magnetic irregularities in space-time) with their Luopans (see Figure 3. magnetic declination. However.4). because they also discovered sunspots and geomagnetism. They seem to have been very busy people. and the horizontal and vertical intensity of magnetic fields (called dip). including climatic changes and induced Earth currents.3 More than 50 years ago. Whether or not the research is convincing. contrary to New Age belief. a . Never try to fool Mother Nature Feng shui siting and calculations require knowledge of the precise orientation of a site or structure to create an event model. Besides measuring direction. Professor Max Knoll provided intriguing research that feng shui tracks space weather in the form of ion radiation and contrary cyclical effects.

All geomagnetic fields vary in space and in time periods that range from fractions of a second (micropulsations) to millions of years (magnetic reversals). cars. However. (Space weather in 1989 caused instruments that steer the heads of drilling equipment in North Sea oil exploration to register compass readings that varied by as much as 12 . one would not need such a complex instrument. and it extends tens of thousands of kilometers into space.) This happens because the daylight side of our planet faces the solar particle stream and then. Besides. actually consists of several magnetic fields produced by a variety of overlapping sources. or need to apply the many complex formulae used in traditional feng shui. metal buildings. to accomplish this task. Because of this effect early morning or late afternoon generally remain the best times for baseline Luopan readings. if we are looking for the magnetic pole we are actually looking for its average position. Depending on what technicians are seeking determines when they want to take their readings—amidst a howling geomagnetic storm or when the geomagnetic field is quiet. electric currents in the ionosphere and magnetosphere (the magnetic field generated by currents flowing in the ionized layers of the Earth’s atmosphere occurs when streams of particles or proton events arrive from the sun).4 . and fences. as night approaches. Some ill-advised individuals think the Luopan’s use is confined to finding the north magnetic pole. The magnetic field measured by a Luopan. More than 90 per cent of the geomagnetic field is generated by the Earth’s outer core. Other fields include magnetized elements of the Earth’s crust. and the effects of ocean currents.Protoscientific and pseudoscientific conventions 43 Luopan provides qualitative observation of magnetic storms— especially whenever there are high magnetic field gradients. the main field of Earth. Other possible influences on a Luopan if a practitioner is not careful include the magnetism of manufactured objects such as railroads. because it wanders daily in a rough ellipsis and may frequently move as much as 80 km off the mark when the Earth’s magnetic field is disturbed. the dark side faces away from the stream.

around the peak of the sunspot cycle.44 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui Every 27 days the sun blasts a particle stream our way. Jupiter.5 and 3. The sun’s magnetic field reverses approximately every 11 years.6). a 27-day period of low. The 11-year cycle may be related to the orbit of Sui. which means there is an approximately 22-year cycle in the sun’s magnetic polarity (see Figures 3. There is a 155-day cycle of solar flares and a 16-month rhythm at the base of the sun’s convection zone. Double peaks of solar maxima are separated by 18 months. Sunspots exhibit a cycle of 33.and medium-level storms.33 years with a maxima every 100 years. and a 30-day period of intense storms. Earth’s magnetic field undergoes a daily high (daylight) and low (darkness) period. The solar magnetic field evolves over the solar cycle along with the sunspot number. Geomagnetic and ionospheric storm maxima occur at the equinoxes in generally double the amount of storms encountered .

7 and 3. If particles hit Earth’s surface they can confuse compasses and produce nearly direct currents in transmission lines that knock .Protoscientific and pseudoscientific conventions 45 during summer and winter. (Interestingly.8). electric currents travel along the planet’s latitudinal fields and create an inaudible ‘wind’ that moves from the auroral region to the lower latitudes (see Figures 3. the first ‘seasons’ recognized by many ancient cultures—including the Chinese—were marked by the equinoxes.) In geomagnetic storms. not the solstices.

create malfunctions in machinery. Long. and the United States sitting in the dark (see Figure 3. space weather hit the power grid in North America and left large parts of Canada. Sweden. and the storm currents affect pipelines by amplifying . In March 1989.46 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui out power systems. a transformer at the British Columbia Hydroelectric Authority exploded when shifting magnetic fields generated a current spike.9). uninterrupted stretches of pipe can also convey solar storms to the surface. In August 1972. and cause massive blackouts.

In China. Every 15 the sun passes on the ecliptic indicates one of these solar energy nodes. there is a 30-year cycle of Saturn through the ecliptic but Chinese set it to 28 years). the seasons and climates measured on a Luopan still match the growing cycle and function as a farmer’s calendar with a year that begins at midnight at the winter solstice (Zi)—just as the official calendar did during the Zhou period (see Table 3. The markings indicate the solar cycle determined by the tropical year. for the ‘year’ of Jupiter also begins at the winter solstice. You do not really need to know all this to perform a feng shui analysis. but it helps to understand exactly what is being measured and how science and feng shui agree. and 500 people. The Yi Jing pairs the 24 nodes in Table 3. Notice that the four beginnings mark quarter-days that were commonly used throughout the Neolithic world in farmers’ calendars and astronomy in monuments (such as Newgrange). and they show good agreement with the annual frequency of magnetic storms. and 72 weeks. two passenger trains.1). Now the solar terms provide four seasons. Space weather in June 1989 created enough corrosive effects on a gas pipeline that it exploded and took with it part of the Trans-Siberian Railway. Every 30 ticks off a month (interestingly. in our constellation of the Virgin). heralded by the year-marker Xing Ji (during the Han period this was the star Spica. On a San Yuan Luopan you can combine constellations with the 24 Mountains to track time. 12 months.1 to create 12 months in fluctuating combinations of yin and yang. The flaming ring of fire One ring on a Luopan consists of 24 seasons and climates: the 12 jieqi (minor solar terms that include equinoxes and solstices) and 12 zhongqi (major solar terms). A total of 360 du (degrees) contain 24 four-week periods of 15 days.Protoscientific and pseudoscientific conventions 47 corrosion. . This means that the Loupan ring functions like a clock— in fact. you can use this ring to measure time as an angle. The months are more than just ‘moonths’.

Whatever is to the left or ‘ahead’ of Daiyin is diminished. the invisible. Daiyang and Daiyin provide additional date calculations. . two feng shui techniques pair the solar periods with the 24 Mountains and calculate clockwise (Daiyang. whatever is to the right or ‘behind’ Daiyin is increased.48 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui Interestingly. and of course the 24 Mountains form the backbone of orientation calculations. counterorbital version of Jupiter). the orbit of Jupiter) or anticlockwise (Daiyin.

Bad feng shui? A scientific opinion The orientation of Earth’s magnetic axis relative to the sun modifies the magnetosphere’s response to the solar wind. That is why there are links between mental illness and geomagnetic field conditions. .Protoscientific and pseudoscientific conventions 49 This information gets factored into calculations because you want a structure to sync with the position of the sun and save on energy costs. just as you want it to harmonize with local manifestations of space weather and the local magnetic field. Problems can manifest not unlike orientation problems suffered by birds during an atmospheric disturbance. Other ‘meteorologically challenged’ individuals include people suffering from stress. and the 27-day rotation of the sun. and individuals exhibiting certain kinds of mental illness.6 Frequencies of brainwaves in humans span the range of electromagnetic micropulsations and the oscillations of geomagnetic storms. people who are generally sensitive to weather fluctuations. Winds blowing down from the stratosphere create fluctuations of ozone concentration at sea level. but geomagnetic storms are considerably more intense than our brainwaves. Asthma sufferers and those with respiratory allergies and chemical sensitivities can experience adverse symptoms at lower concentrations of ozone. Changing air pressure fronts produce fluctuations in the active oxygen content of the atmosphere through air currents coming from the stratosphere or out of cavities in the soil. disease rate.7 A few studies indicate a correspondence of death rate. Deaths may be related to climatic phenomena caused by ion concentration. Anecdotal evidence indicates that people suffering from chronic illness feel their ailment more acutely at the solstices and equinoxes thanks to the effects of space weather.5 The resulting excess or deficiency of active oxygen disturbs the balance of the autonomous nervous system. auroral activity. and geomagnetic activity corresponds with convulsions and heart attacks. magnetic storms.

This explains why SR is substantially stronger in June than in January. Practitioners kept oral (and eventually written) records of lightning ‘seasons’. However. Some believe SR is a planetary-mind field because SR cycles in the range of human brainwaves—1. From celestial and meteorological observations.50 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui It is shocking Human bodies can serve as partial electrical conductors and lowfrequency fields induce electric currents in humans. Substantial variations in the strength of the field occur according to global deviations in lightning activity detected by sensitive equipment.5 Hz from their smallest average values. hence the potential for biological harm. The device they used during the periods of Warring States. Of course the truth is not quite as exciting (see Figure 3. a military leader or attaché could read the outcome of a battle by tianshu (celestial . There were eight winds to a 360-day year divided into periods according to ganzhi (the 60-year cycle). Peak frequencies can vary daily by 0. when the tropics are at their hottest. The semiannual seasonal effect is measured in the intensity of the vertical electric field and horizontal magnetic field. Lightning activity around the globe is particularly responsive to changes in planetary temperature. I mention this only because one corollary activity of some feng shui adepts was the study of winds (fengjiao).10). Frequency variation also depends on whether a measurement is made from north to south or east to west. worldwide measuring stations record the strongest signals in April. Wind seasons (fengzhi ) tracked the orbit of Mercury and used its movements in computations for cold and famine. and early Han—a peculiar astrolabe known as a shi—was used to track Beidou and correlate the wind seasons. Schumann Resonance is a frequency from 5 to 50 Hz that can create a resonating cavity when activated in the gap between the Earth and the ionosphere. However. this does not explain the New Age obsession with the natural extra low frequency resonance better known as Schumann Resonance (SR). 9–14 Hz (alpha waves). 5–8 Hz (theta waves). or 15– 40 Hz (beta waves).5– 4 Hz (delta waves). Qin.

A kanyu shia was an expert in this method and a feng shui xiansheng was a feng shui expert who could be an expert in kanyu and a variety of other calculation techniques. the interaction of yin and yang in the atmosphere produces thunder and lightning and links to the process of evaporation from bodies of water. Kanyu is the traditional time-calculation aspect of feng shui. In Chinese science.Protoscientific and pseudoscientific conventions 51 mathematics). Look up in the sky! The Book of Odes claims the kanyu shia of the Zhou used a compass to read the landscape. ‘experts . ancient feng shui practitioners donated their services to the community as the local weather forecasters. Using this system. which is why many adepts in the Han period were called fang shi.

the centre of the Hetu is a quincunx that indicates the circumpolar region. As described in ancient texts. a shi is like the Hetu. For one. Before the shi was invented. A shi contains markings a present-day feng shui practitioner would recognize. The symbols and ancient usage of Hetu and Luoshu were absorbed into the shi. diagrams. The next ring of numbers conforms to the Inside Plate or Heaven Plate (the round plate which on older devices shows Beidou or provides the base for the ladle). In fact. According to one analysis. Above and below the quincunx are black dots indicating the square shape of Earth. it relied more on astronomy.52 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui in methods’. This information could be coded into any number of systems— myths. with its four ‘rings’ of black and white dots. Based on the archeology of feng shui devices and on literary references. an astronomer observed the celestial objects that crossed the north–south meridian in their daily motion. also called a liuren astrolabe. but techniques differed somewhat. Longshan black pottery came from what is now Iran. From the Mawangdui manuscripts we know the Hetu was used by forecasters in the Warring States and Qin periods to calculate movements of Daiyin beginning each year around 4 February in the Gregorian calendar. Out from that ring of dots is the square Earth Plate in which the Heaven Plate sits. The five dots at the centre of the Hetu were eventually replaced by the Celestial Lake or Central Pool of Heaven on a compass (the needle housing). some of Lady Hao’s ancient jade pieces came from just as far to the west of Shang territories. which gradually evolved into a contemporary Luopan. and the Luoshu provided an astral compass so that traders going to Western Asia and farther afield could find their way home. The quincunx also identifies the . On shi and the later shipan it contains the markings. the shi astrolabe was not a magnetic compass. In contemporary feng shui the Hetu is used to analyse water features. in Neolithic China the Hetu served as a climate indicator for eastern China. and buildings.

They are part of the Earth Plate on a shi and shipan (see Figure 3. But what can it do for us? Notes . but also indicate equinoctial and solstitial colures.11). the oldest working magnetic compass (left) and the hierogamy of the baguas that echoes the earlier designs (right) Heaven Centre Cross Line or Red Cross Grid. These red strings or cross markings are used to read direction and meaning. the warp and woof of heaven—considered the axle of the universe or ya-xing because it is north–south (zi–wu) and east–west (mao–yu).Protoscientific and pseudoscientific conventions 53 A Qin period shi (liuren astrolabe) showing the back (left) and front (right) sides A Han period Shipan (Sometimes called a Sinan). We know feng shui is old and that it works in fair agreement with scientific understanding of space weather.

54 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui

4 3 8

9 5 1

2 7 6

7 2 8 3 5 4 9 1 6

Chapter 4

Calculations

who can in turn ‘see’ whatever is presented in this fashion. this chapter is not meant to be a ‘how-to’ on theories and techniques.3 It is hard to take the ‘first impressions’ idea seriously when people can experience entering your home by ‘seeing’ it on their tongues. affects how we proceed on entering. Humans construct what they see and as a minimum they also construct what they hear. (Refer to Chapter 15 for schools and educational materials. A basic theory of McFengshui is that we are drawn inexorably to whatever our eyes alight on first. which. Hetu. The same technique has been used to provide visual information to the blind.1 In addition. or a substitute for study with a good teacher. This is why we can construct feelings in parts of our bodies that have been surgically removed. and our brains can adapt to new data channels simply by creating new synapses.58 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui ou must be feeling a bit overwhelmed by now if you previously assumed feng shui is all about finding a Relationship Corner or a Money Corner. and will soon be navigating solely by images buzzing their tongues.2 The theory of ‘brain plasticity’ suggests that all human sense organs function like input devices. and feel—all human perceptions and sensations are constructions. in turn. or depends on the first thing we see upon entering a building. These ‘first impressions’ supposedly provide suggestions for someone to elaborate on the significance of the encounter. humans are often quite unaware of environmental details from one moment to the next. That is why fighter pilots wear suits that provide physical feedback (to lessen the reliance on instrumentation). taste. smell. The problem with this kind of thinking is that the image at the eye has countless possible interpretations. and valuations Rest assured.) The . We perceive and remember only whatever we concentrate on and can fail to notice a gorilla standing right in front of us. Y Numerical conventions Luoshu.

teachers use their current projects as case studies for their students so that they can reap the benefits of on-site education—and not practice on paying clients. . many of them more than 2000 years old.Calculations 59 information in this chapter merely provides one way of looking at this material. the internal balance of yin and yang in each number shifts so that eventually even the best (most yang) valuation is heavily flavoured with yin. According to the ethics provided by the top feng-shui instructors (based on Daoist codes of ethics). This value is part of the analogy map shown in Table 4. and new settlements—but always within guidelines. run you the risk of litigation (bringing court cases against feng-shui practitioners is quite common in Asia—some practitioners are sentenced to gaol). These lists originate in feng-shui texts. revenge effects created by practitioners return to disturb practitioners. more can be found in the arrangements of the diagrams used for calculations. Doing your own calculations Providing feng-shui analyses is not a task for the novice because so much is at stake—especially in revenge effects. For all of these reasons and more. new materials. Much is at stake and a practitioner should be capable of the challenge. The manifest strength of an attribute depends on whether the attribute is inherently yin or yang and whether it is expressed in the native or wang cycle of the building. During the 180-year life cycle (see Chapter 10). Egregious errors. The list by no means exhausts the attributes for each number. furthermore. The material keeps adapting to new structures. Feng-shui experts employ a variety of numerical attributes and equivalents with formulae for particular techniques. Simple carelessness—such as taking an inappropriate stance to use a Luopan—can distort the reading.1. As mentioned in Chapter 2 (Time and Space). and with traditional teachers who have passed their formulae and techniques to their students. each season and each element is assigned a numeric value.

the majority of books on feng shui were written by hacks for interior designers. Moreover. Know what you need for the job and be prepared to interview until . Working with a practitioner Finding a competent practitioner requires an interview process. Unfortunately. because even the best feng-shui books admit they are not comprehensive! That is why you can find basic books on the Xuan Kong subdiscipline Flying Stars.4 Do not assume you can pop into a bookseller and walk out with a complete how-to book. not on all of Xuan Kong.60 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui Pros and cons The genuine depth and sophistication of traditional feng shui intimidates many people—especially anyone used to the sound-bite psychobabble of the McFengshui. they typically discuss little more than lifestyle issues of the developed world. not people designing buildings or developing property.

while plenty of traditional practitioners would jump at the chance to document what feng shui can do. you will generally find that the McFengshui crowd bristles at the mere mention of this amount of scrutiny. An unqualified. 1841). behaviour. or other evidence based on the expertise of peers). . or service must have a reasonable basis for their assertions. this is all too often the case with feng-shui marketing. Specific environmental claims are easier to substantiate than general claims and less likely to be deceptive. studies. 1997). A ‘reasonable basis’ might require competent and reliable evidence (tests. and psychology (see Chapter 7). The US Federal Trade Commission (FTC) considers it deceptive to misrepresent in any way that a service offers a general environmental benefit (ISO 14000 was developed primarily from the FTC’s guidelines). environmental marketing claims should not exaggerate or overstate attributes or benefits. most feng-shui books and websites seem to have lifted their marketing from Scams from the Great Beyond (Huston. research. package. Moreover. Unfortunately.Calculations 61 you find someone to do the job you need and work within your plan. A word about marketing Feng-shui marketing often gives the impression that a practitioner’s services provide wide-ranging environmental benefits—including the ability to relieve a variety of spurious problems such as the popular but nonexistent ‘geopathic stress’. Anyone making express or implied claims about the attributes of their product. analyses. general claim of environmental benefit may communicate that a service provides extensive environmental benefits when it in fact it does not—unfortunately. The scientifically valid claims that relate to feng shui primarily rely on evidence regarding the effects of the natural environment on human physiology. Exercise due diligence to avoid your own revenge effects. and appear intent on adding another chapter to Extraordinary Popular Delusions and the Madness of Crowds (Mackay. Sadly.

Apparently. and underground caverns or cavities. Naturally.5 Proponents claim it originates in geomagnetic radiation distorted by electromagnetism emitted by the water table. Finding competent help Interview prospective practitioners. do not fall prey to popular marketing scams that rely on anecdotal evidence such as the popular ‘testimonials’. The most common ‘geopathic’ complaints result from fuse boxes. particular mineral deposits (a list of minerals that constantly varies). Supposedly the north–south lines of the ‘Hartmann grid’ are spaced at roughly 2. earthquake fault lines.5 m. and which one do they prefer? Can they name and perform any of the calculations? (Some people tell prospective clients that they practice ‘form school’ but cannot name or perform calculations. Do they use a Luopan. geopathic stress has no basis in legitimate science. or name the compass used for calculations. people find the geopathic culprits by dowsing (a form of spontaneous divination). power lines.3 m and the east–west lines are spaced about every 2.6 The distortions create problems for anything living on the surface (but apparently not under). a variety of modern contrivances conveniently cause the same problems—at unspecified frequencies.) Have they had extensive study and experiment under the watchful eye of instructors? (You do not want someone practicing on you—especially with your financial support. A German physician claims to have discovered a terrestrial grid (the Earth’s ‘aura’ according to some proponents) that dovetails neatly into these fanciful ideas.Above all.) How many hours of education and what levels have been attained? Have you ever heard of the teacher or school? Does the school curriculum agree with what is taught by the majority of the top Asian masters? Do terms like ‘geopathic stress’ and other nonexistent nonsense creep into their conversation? Another ‘new age’ money machine.7 and a variety of towers. People claim that .

Calculations 63 the power of this grid emanates from the surface of Earth to heights that conveniently range from 20 m to nearly 10 km. where services are installed. Does everything ‘mean’ something. they really want to help you excel at your job and provide your client with the best possible results.8 The physician claimed that harmful radiation emanates more powerfully at the intersections of the gridlines. Sometimes they make suggestions regarding design particulars (the flow of rooms. or is the assessment based on an accumulation of facts? Renovations Many times a client hires a feng-shui consultant and an architect to help with a remodel project. Often the feng-shui consultant is hired to ensure that the construction proceeds smoothly and the desired effect is obtained. If a feng-shui practitioner can help you to avoid construction revenge effects that .). it must be obtained from somewhere else. although this radiation is concomitantly believed to emanate in all directions. etc. A variety of lucrative careers such as baubiology and pseudo-geobiology9 service this nonexistent ‘problem’ and claim feng shui as the historical antecedent. Although it may seem a practitioner is trying to tell you how to do your job. while the supposed ‘zone’ of these lines can influence organisms at distances from under 1 to 60 m. Energy cannot be created from nothing. Is the term ‘energy’ used indiscriminately when willpower or personal exertion is really being meant? Energy is generally defined by science as the capacity to do work. from the positioning of the cat’s litterbox to the condition of a piece of furniture? Is there an obsession with clutter? Does the individual practise spontaneous divination (the so-called ‘intuitive’ feng-shui) to gather knowledge about a structure.

would you let them? Pros and cons For many people feng shui is a terrific ‘new age’ swindle. A good practitioner can provide a wealth of information if you provide only a compass reading. Notes . 2001) contains the character of a feng-shui faker inspired by McFengshui versions of feng-shui.64 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui 7 2 8 3 5 4 9 1 6 4 3 8 9 5 1 2 7 6 prevent the client from paying their bills (including your fee). and a birth date. The novel Fixer Chao (Ong. It is not rocket science. but it is not gilded with symbolism and meaningless references to ‘energy’ either. a construction and/or move-in date.

Calculations 65 .

.

Chapter 5 Planning .

clipped hedges. In the developed world. The demarcation of civic and private territories is often characterized by fuzzy. other streets. green triangular mounds (‘pubic-hair greenery’). Additionally. illusion. Traditional housing is not necessarily sustainable. One person’s ‘visual resource management’ is another’s turfing. Revenge effects regularly occur only when people ignore local weather and landscape for arbitrary design considerations. L-shapes. . and other low-maintenance ground cover—the lowest common denominator form of urban planning1 (see Figure 5. and parking lots. urban planning builds for automobiles. not for people. as in so many other cultures. Tradition—or not In China. All well and good. and many of its ‘informed decisions’ have been based on greed and graft.1). or rectangles with courtyards in the middle.68 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui E nvironmental planning attempts through informed decisions to integrate environmental and biophysical information into humanity’s use of our planet. If we are not to leave a diminished world to future generations we have to develop better ways of dealing with the natural world (see Figure 5. More than 10 million Chinese still live in yaodong. sparse trees. and/or monetary benefits. Larger structures consist of connected squares. the traditional house plan takes the form of a square or rectangle. but it provides ecological efficiency for a particular climate and topography. defined by journalist Grady Clay as ingredients in the ‘geometry of territoriality’.2). circles. The Earth itself provides a primary source of shelter. houses dug out of the ground with only a courtyard showing from the surface. but it has a poor record of mitigating revenge effects. Any paradigm—and that includes environmental planning—sees only what it wants to see. in urban planning the ‘biophysical inventory’—a euphemism for biota or the nonhuman world—has no say in its use. That is why a third of the land surface of Los Angeles is covered by freeways.

Planning 69 (a) (b) .

in the ‘develop and be damned’ atmosphere of modern China. and McMediterraneans provide generic.) At the front of these McMansions—to emphasize what is really important—sits a ‘garage Mahal’. (Clients are likely to meet only the workers and the project manager. an extra wide and high garage that accommodates multiple cars and SUVs (see Figure 5. like McDonald’s restaurants.3) McMansions. These structures are everywhere.70 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui What you do not see in most traditional and sustainable buildings even at its most grandiose is the McMansion. . McBungalows. like McRanches. there is now an entire subdivision of McMansions north of Beijing.3).2 (Sadly. which boffins deride as ‘the fast-food version of the American dream’. A McMansion is a large suburban home seemingly built in cookie-cutter fashion. mass-produced housing. The structure is apparently designed to look like it has endured several generations of add-ons—although these houses commonly consist of pre-existing plans from developers that merely advertise architects on staff.

McMansion subdivisions are usually saddled with names developed by a marketing department to sell a fantasy lifestyle. In How Buildings Learn. pseudo-British toponyms. Homeowners’ malpractice lawsuits provide a litany of identical problems with McHouses beyond mere misrepresentation— framing errors. Some builders have had to buy back parts of neighbourhoods after complaints or lawsuits over problem homes. The yards look bare because of ‘clear-cutting’: a developer hires a bulldozer for a few days and razes the site. aspergillus. bathroom fixtures that do not work. cracked foundations. Sparse landscaping makes them look even more outlandish. deviation from (pre-existing) architect’s plans. doors that do not close properly. and very young trees. insulation problems leading to increased humidity and growth of toxic moulds within the living spaces (Stachybotrys chartarum. then leaves the remainder of the landscaping to the buyers—who do not have the money for such trivialities because they are in debt to their eyeballs trying to afford their dream home. Brand (1994) mentions that in the 1980s malpractice lawsuits against architects overtook lawsuits against doctors. installs a few basic shrubs and very young trees. a few basic shrubs. Posh universities. many people buy into this fantasy lifestyle only to have it turn into a nightmare. insufficient foundation structures.Planning 71 Crowding McMansions together exaggerates the effect of lots that appear small in proportion to the size of the houses. despite their adherence to local zoning and setback requirements. improper attic ventilation due to roofing deficiencies. water leaks. Nearly all of these McHouses are site-blind and poorly built—the perfect complement to a barren spiritual landscape. Their revenge effects equal the destruction created during their development from clear-cutting. along with their negligent planning and workmanship. However. siding problems. . shoddy stucco. and penicillium). At the end of the project the developer typically rolls out a s sod lawn. fireplaces that are in multiple violation of state building codes. and whatever vegetation and wildlife existed before the subdivision seem to be universally popular. and back yards that flood regularly. cracked floors.

this is widely accepted as the oldest school of feng shui still in regular use. Later come the malpractice lawsuits due to severe revenge effects. which are used to determine the extent of grading for home foundations. Ancient feng-shui experts said these locations provide the ability to accumulate creative potential. Topography. local government is as much to blame as poor workmanship. their use apparently died out and can be only partly revived by scholarship. And people wonder why they need feng shui! Form and shape theory Many feng-shui experts consider form and shape analysis to be the foremost study of environmental influences. An assessment of form and shape for a site consists of three components: ● ● ● Physical environment. such as calculations of Xing-De. Known as the Three Combination School or San He. open space. This consists of specific effects on sites of the positions and flow of water and land. . and water. like homes sliding down the hill. Without assessing form and shape no genuine understanding of a site’s feng shui is possible. Many councils relax one or more building guidelines when they approve projects. or toxic mould. While more ancient types exist.72 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui In some cases. This consists of land mass. Analyses by a variety of researchers into favourable structural locations (xue)4 according to traditional rules of feng shui demonstrate these locations comprise highly suitable microclimates. Directional and vicinity influences. The objective is to gently place structures and entities in the natural flow of the land. Such positioning also promotes the integration of human construction into the natural environment as it enhances carrying capacity. especially critical ones like soil studies. This includes microclimate analysis and can encompass Ba Zhai (a calculation technique).

and astronomy. Compass readings determine additional characteristics. ‘Good form’ for a building or a hill consists of strong. relationships. and taxonomy. calendar science. Buildings assume the characteristics of mountains and valleys. a site with ‘disorganized features’ supplies no positive features. we have the opportunity to add statistical analysis and other scientific tools to the ancient feng-shui analytical techniques and create a neotraditional approach. Any bodies of water are likewise noted and analysed. in general. position. or interpreted more broadly as favourable bioclimatic as well as conventional influences. This is measured. defined slopes and an undamaged shape that makes it easily categorized. and feeling—deceptively simple terms that can be defined comprehensively or superficially depending on the practitioner. The practitioner analyses mountains by shape. Today. Roads are analysed according to the criteria for water. and potential. Good geographical features. It correlates the 24 solar periods with cardinal and intercardinal directions. along with . Traditional analytical techniques consisted of looking. a site determined to have ‘good features’ provides favourable conditions. Human population in harmony with the environment. Practitioners identify the developed environment by the same rules. asking. while a site with ‘malevolent features’ provides adverse and even hostile conditions. by the emphasis of natural over human effects and evidence of widespread social equity. This can be superficially interpreted as traditional cosmological influences. Principles and terminology Traditional sources define ‘auspicious feng shui’ as positions in space-time meeting the following criteria: ● ● ● Good celestial influences. listening and smelling. ‘Bad form’ consists of unidentifiable or confusing shapes and deteriorating conditions.Planning 73 Form and shape theory combines yin and yang theory with certain elements of five-element theory. topography. In general.

Distinguishes a shape with very gentle slopes and a rounded peak (a bell shape). Specifies a shape with nearly vertical slopes and a flat peak (a mesa or plateau shape). Rivers. and water features. Form. Buildings and hills Natural and artificial forms are identified according to the fiveelement theory. Indicates a shape with nearly vertical slopes and a gently rounded peak (a shrub shape). Conveys relationships between geographic and/or built features of an area. valleys. Sites are analysed according to the following conditions: ● ● ● ● Power. and issues of acoustics. Taxonomy of five-element theory Identification of buildings according to five element theory consists of the following: ● ● ● ● Wood. Condition. health. ‘Bad form’ and ‘bad feng shui’ encompass ecosystem decay (including habitat fragmentation).5 Metal. energy efficiency. . Communicates qualities of a particular component of the site determined by the shape of buildings. Soil.74 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui quality of life issues. Structure. Street traffic (interpreted as water) can aid some homes and annoy others on the same block. Expresses relationships between features near a site. Describes a shape with a steep ascent and a sharp peak (a flame shape). Expresses the qualitative features of a component of a site in terms of subjective but experiential perceptions of its effects. canyons. roads. Their immense sizes can be considered strengths. or catalogued in accordance with a nonary system that manifests astronomy and time in the landscape. and mountains provide powerful nodes and edges. hills. Fire.

Associated with the colour white. Taxonomy of nine stars Nine stars taxonomy (such as that used in ba zhai) consists of an ideological construction of the type of qi that changes over time. Each of the nine ‘stars’ indicates a corresponding astronomical marker. Identifies a shape with gentle.Planning 75 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) ● Water. For example. The diagram uses the primary stars of Beidou.4). uneven slopes and one or more undulating peaks (a waveform) (see Figure 5. . Greedy Wolf (Tan Lang) is the star Sirius. formed of the following: ● Greedy Wolf.

stagnant water (perpetual gridlock or heavy stop-and-go traffic). uneven descent and one or more undulating bases (see Figure 5. Described as the metal element and associated with the colour white.76 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Wide Door or Gate Guard. Left Assistant. Described as the metal element and associated with the colour white. ● Roads and water features ‘Water dragons’ most typically consist of aquatic landscape patterns. Breaker of Armies. arrangements of aquatic plants. Daiyin. Valleys and recessed structures These conditions are analysed as the opposite of buildings and hills. Identifying valleys according to form and shape consists of the following: Wood. Scholar or Literary Art. Associated with the colour yellow. ● Water. fast-moving water (or highways). ● Metal. Military. Right Assistant. A shape with very gentle descent and a rounded base. A shape with nearly vertical descent and a gently rounded base. Described as the soil element and associated with the colour black. ● Fire. . Taiyang. A shape with steep descent and a sharp base. Moreover. Associated with the colour of jade. A shape with nearly vertical descent and a flat base. Virtue. Prosperity or Rewards. Associated with the colour green.6 Although roads can exhibit some of the features of a water dragon. A shape with gentle.5). and precipitous waterfalls cannot be considered true ‘dragons’. Associated with the colour purple. and areas where groundwater lies near the soil surface. Associated with the colour red. ● Soil. they generally do not display the conventional shape of a dragon (which is the primary form of identification).

Planning 77 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) From a scientific perspective. . slow-moving street is ideal according to designers and promoters of the New Urbanism movement. Identify whether traffic-calming devices were installed. Determine the flow by the speed of traffic and whether traffic keeps to posted speed limits. A narrow. should be installed. a meandering stream is a highly stable watercourse. or are being considered. Feng shui stresses comparable principles.

. Outgoing water.6a). This identifies an area in front of a site where water or vehicles gather (including cars stopping to drop off shoppers.6c). etc) (see Figure 5. Gathering water.78 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui (a) (b) (c) (d) To analyse the flow of roads use the following rules that pertain to the flow of water: ● ● ● Incoming water. This identifies a road or water moving toward a site from the front (see Figure 5. This identifies a road or water moving away from a site (see Figure 5.6b).

. Feng-shui principles express the need for harmony with local conditions and resources. This vision encourages the return of the so-called Disney Deserts7 and other artificial settings to their natural state. Typical structures in the developed world built on ‘cut and fill’ sites also possess inadequate protection against flooding. Development and redevelopment considerations The primary purpose of feng shui is to build with the flow of the land. This means development maintains and follows the natural environment. There is no road. How water exits a site is as important as its entry to a site.6d). In the developing world. and reduces the need for artificial heating and/or cooling and irrigation. or a road is needed and missing. lowers costs. Moreover. This identifies a road moving in front of a site from one side to the other (see Figure 5. Modifications can also involve substantial disruptions of the structure that further escalate suffering. Absent and/or substitute water. Popular ‘cut and fill’ or ‘clear-cutting’ development produces an ugly. housing placed on deforested hillsides causes heavy flooding that destroys homes and lives. including costs and maintenance. Studies indicate that the use of this principle increases comfort.8 Restore habitat and wildlife to its proper place and provide evidence of human appreciation of the natural world.Planning 79 ● ● Horizontal water. Feng shui stipulates that where the natural world has been destroyed it should be restored. Drainage and similar problems are nearly impossible to solve and usually last the life of the structure. Proponents of this allegedly economical technique fail to consider the long-term consequences. typical designs provide little access by machinery to the back of a structure and require manual excavation work at a substantial increase in cost. disharmonious landscape of bad feng shui notorious for its revenge effects. It diminishes or eliminates revenge effects. In cities this practice can lower the effect of heat islands that add to global change.

80 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui

The following rules—many of which defy modern architectural and development techniques—are considered paramount in form and shape theory. Buildings on a height should face flat or lower ground Going with the flow of the land requires that a building situated on a hill should be supported by that hill much like someone sits on a chair and is supported by the chair’s back. The ideal access is provided by an opening that moves from the lower ground in front to the higher ground (in effect against the flow). A building entered from the higher part to the lower part often imparts the sensation that it may tip backwards and tumble down the hill. My experience in a house of this type included the nearly overwhelming sensation that if I fell I would roll to the balcony and drop off. The house’s position on the pad gave the impression it was built at a precarious slant (see Figure 5.7).
(a)

(b)

Planning

81

(a)

(b)

Buildings on a level should face a height Structures on open, level terrain should face a taller building or a hill. This enables access to be arranged against the flow of the land while the structure sits with the flow (see Figure 5.8). Face water whenever possible ‘Waterfront property’ conveys a particular meaning that is often thwarted by design. It is a cardinal rule of feng shui that the front of a structure situated near water should have its entry facing the water. (The biological reasons for this will be explored in a subsequent chapter.) A driveway should also terminate near the entrance facing the water. Entering from the opposite side of the water has a negative effect. Ideally, the mountain sits at the back and the water is at the front9 (see Figure 5.9).

82 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui
(a)

(b)

Notes

Planning 83

.

Chapter 6 Environmental assessment .

86 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui recent cartoon shows the management of a construction crew reviewing plans at a construction site. A proposed programme does not stop at property lines. These data. the original science of environmental protection. sound. Project a site into the future with a series of programmes. Think about the interconnectedness of the world—that is the essence of sustainability and of feng shui. and rough estimates of the thermal levels of a structure.1 Give thoughtful consideration to the life of a project. In front of them a bulldozer is knocking down mature trees and scraping the land bare of native vegetation. would provide a diagnosis of an area’s temperature and humidity over a particular period. A more scientific version would encompass a climatic survey (temperature and relative humidity). when plotted on a bioclimatic chart. (What a contrast to the typical project that clear-cuts the natural world and replaces it with streets named after what was removed. Design with due diligence. A competent feng-shui practitioner uses a general set of techniques and tools when conducting an analysis of a structure. Research the history of a site. and its contribution to the community. bioclimate. paying attention to the natural cycles. and documentation of wind effects. generally within a 1-km radius. this inspection involves observing everything in the area. adjacent buildings. respecting and restoring habitat. The most important reason to pay attention to initial conditions (including what we do to the land) is that the revenge effect lurks in everything we do. including but not limited to the environmental assessment. It could identify whether A . ‘And over there we’ll do some landscaping’. More than a mere appraisal of landscaping. its programme. Working with nature is the key to success. This means following the natural contours of the land. While pointing at the bare ground behind the dozer the project manager says.) Working with nature creates fewer revenge effects. ‘Everything’ includes geography. natural light and ventilation.

Environmental assessment 87 a particular structure is optimally oriented. Any wildlife or domestic animals (and their absence) are noted. fences. its arrangement. Urban microclimates generally trap heat and produce a sweltering environment capable of damaging plants. structures displaying large amounts of glass take a deadly toll on wildlife. Microclimate Microclimate defines the distinctive climate of a small-scale area. reduce waste. and paved surfaces.1). water features. Feng shui provides similar results with different methods. microclimates create subtle but very real differences in temperatures and conditions. save resources. ‘Bad feng shui’ is another way of saying environmental and personal suffering. and its relation to the built environment. A combination of many slightly different microclimates creates the climate for a particular area.2 The built environment offers abundant opportunities to reduce death and misery. evaluation techniques involve much more than seeing symbolism in everything. Formed by houses. Feng-shui practitioners assess the amount and quality of vegetation. and restore damaged land (see Figure 6. Moreover. For example. Nearby buildings are analysed for their effect on the site. They examine the topography and check for water features. vegetation.2). Existing structures Topography and natural features As explained in Chapter 5. temperature differences between the two can vary by as much as 10 or 15 (see Figure 6. To alleviate these issues feng-shui practitioners identify and evaluate the following components of a site. if one area of a yard is shaded but a spot just a few meters away is in full sun. Practitioners . The reflection of solar radiation by glass buildings and windows produces high albedo rates that raise temperature and make visibility difficult.

Nearly one-third of the global disease burden can be attributed to environmental problems. Children run .88 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui consider how a building integrates into the natural world and build a cognitive map of the site’s microclimate. and more than 40 per cent of that burden falls on children under five—who comprise a mere 10 per cent of the world’s population. Pollution More than two million children die each year from the effects of environmental degradation.

4 oversized houses slapped cheek by jowl on minimally landscaped.3 These are things to think about during the design process. urban blight. water. idled. Although sometimes a subjective observation (the concept of ‘clutter’ for instance). A brownfield defines local land.3). These sites often consist of a piled mass of indefinable material left indefinitely to influence the environment. undersized parcels. painted over.Environmental assessment 89 a disproportionate risk to global environmental problems such as climate change and loss of biodiversity. They include abandoned. visual pollution more typically includes lighting. Visual pollution Visual pollution includes the homogenized built environment where structures do not evolve from places or sites but are set down whole on site-planned parcels. and underused industrial and commercial facilities where . and suburban fences tagged with graffiti. and air used as a disposal system by business or government. ‘Pollution’ is not limited to the following. brownfields. and sinks (see Figure 6. and tagged again. It can include buildings and landscaping blind to a region and its seasonal cycles.

90 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui expansion or redevelopment stopped because of real or perceived environmental contamination. class stratification.) See Figure 6. (The National Trust for Historic Preservation claims that fully half a billion of the five billion square feet of retail space in the US sits empty and surrounded by a sea of asphalt. Sprawl identifies the developed world’s ‘favela syndrome’ (rapid urbanization and environmental problems) because it also encourages racial disparity. leaving in their wake empty stores with weeds growing through cracks in the parking lot.4. Sometimes brownfields include the effects of superstore sprawl when retailers close megamalls and ‘relocate’ to other towns. and environmental degradation. In most cases the buildings stay shuttered because the community cannot afford to demolish them and return the land to productive use. a sociologist who heads the .5 Robert Bullard.

sites chemical industries. often practiced in the guise of smart growth. The auto reigns supreme.5). Exclusionary and expulsive zoning methods are regularly applied. and pour whatever or whomever they do not like or cannot use’. parks and greenways. Laws and regulations are haphazardly enforced—especially with regards to clean air and water. so that a form of transportation racism goes into effect. dump. Today environmental racism. The built environment exists to create continuity so people do not have to think and analyse every movement . and affordable housing in all communities. smelters.Environmental assessment 91 Environmental Justice Resource Center at Clark Atlanta University.6 Feng shui encompasses environmental justice. incinerators. garbage dumps. but regularly they are the ones who least benefit. Grady Clay defined sinks as ‘places of last resort into which powerful groups in society shunt. and other polluting facilities in the communities of people of colour. says sprawl is a kinder word than what it really is: white flight (see Figure 6. highways. shove. Any community should be planned for social equity. Energy conservation is most desperately needed by the lower echelons of society. A confusing and dangerous built environment constitutes the very antithesis of feng shui.

92 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui they make. and songbirds) disturb people. but builders never investigate the revenge effects in their designs—specifically how they affect the way sound travels from one unit to another. although unique cases exist where natural sounds (including frogs. Yet enough simple. If they cannot afford to move they are left to suffer. People expect the natural world to provide a lack of continuity and require a higher level of awareness.8 . Thinner walls cost less. Fatigue.and machinegenerated sounds. crickets. if continuity is missing from an area improved for humans there is an increase in negative health effects. and other suffering directly related to noise pollution diminish the quality of life and create health problems.7 Noise pollution Noise pollution is usually identified as human. High-quality buildings get adequate soundproofing when developers want to retain tenants or when soundproofing is required by law. stress. A quiet structure induces people to stay as it keeps them healthier. roosters. costeffective techniques exist to install sufficient soundproofing in all structures. However. If people have the money they move. Lack of soundproofing creates the most tenant complaints in apartment complexes and row houses (condominiums).

Americans also spend more on transportation than any other household expense—one-fifth of their income.Environmental assessment 93 Air pollution Motor vehicles constitute the biggest single source of atmospheric pollution. higher temperatures in metropolitan areas accelerate the production of smog. 49 per cent of sulfur dioxide emissions. Residents of sprawling communities drive three to four times as much as those living in compact. Sixty-five per cent of all carbon monoxide emissions come from road vehicles. Air pollution remains high in US urban areas because the average American driver spends 443h/year (the equivalent of 55 eight-hour workdays) behind the wheel and wastes an estimated US$ 72 billion a year in traffic jams. illness. asthma is the most common and chronic childhood disease and it is exacerbated by urban air pollution. according to studies that show increasing road capacity merely creates more traffic and more sprawl. the number of emergency hospital visits for asthma . 25 per cent of nitrous oxide emissions. asthma is the fourth leading cause of disability in kids under 18 years.10 According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. and 10 per cent of particulate emissions.9 Today. escalate energy consumption due to increased air conditioning. well-planned areas. Adding new lanes and building new roads exacerbates revenge effects. the prevalence of asthma increased 75 per cent overall and 74 per cent among children 5–14 years of age. Thanks to urban heat islands and the combined pollutant output of buildings and cars. plus 80 per cent of more than 115 million Americans making the daily commute drive by themselves. Automotive fuels account for 17 per cent of global carbon dioxide releases—two-thirds as much as rainforest destruction. Buildings generate 35 per cent of US carbon dioxide emissions. concluded that shrinking the amount of ground-level ozone and smog could save US$ 5 billion in medical costs and lost work. From 1992 to 1999. California. and intensify stress. Research at the US Department of Energy at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories in Berkeley. and suffering. Between 1980 and 1994.

minorities. A residence facing a straight road. and death rates three times higher than rates for whites. children. Watercourses and streets Analyse these features according to the principles examined in Chapter 5. hospitalization. like the long and straight watercourse. In some feng shui techniques these provide enhancements while in others their orientation is a detriment. and animals (‘good feng shui’). Low-income populations. African Americans suffer asthma-related emergency hospital visits. Topographic problems Other items likely to be noted by a practitioner during an analysis include the slopes of hillsides and pads. Narrow streets slow vehicular traffic and encourage pedestrian use. the elderly. environmental pollution predominantly affects people of colour. or a T intersection typically meets with trouble because the site cannot withstand the revenge effects.94 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui increased 36 per cent. Consider street and water orientation in relation to a site.11 Sometimes a fast-moving street provides beneficial feng shui. The infamous T intersection. it has reduced the street noise. as an added bonus. watercourse. Over a period of years in one southern California neighbourhood cars regularly overshot a T intersection and crashed into the fence and back yard of the house that it faced. The exasperated owner took preventive measures that any decent feng-shui practitioner would advise: he planted a massive barricade of vegetation between the intersection and the back yard wall. this makes a neighbourhood hospitable to visitors. So far it seems to be working and. However. Resolutions to problems depend on the particulars of a situation. but that is a rare occurrence—and a judgment based solely on a case-by-case basis. and children living in inner cities suffer disproportionately from asthma. the amount of land . can be a force for good if a site is constructed to capitalize on its strengths (usually sites that accommodate the T intersection are large building complexes).

or down mountain The general level of suffering in this structure intensifies with the presence of water at the front. cracks in the dirt. Orientation Many buildings simply are not positioned or designed appropriately for their orientation—energy bills tend to confirm this—and feng shui provides categories that indicate additional orientation problems. water features. soil conditions and erosion. but there is a short list of other structures that typically frustrate and alienate their owners and occupants. the usual flooding and drainage problems associated with cut-and-fill development. geotechnical planning and preparation shortfalls. In traditional feng-shui theory. Many builders think nothing of bulldozing the tops off hills or slicing hillsides in half to build subdivisions and condominium complexes. clear-cutting. Double facing. A classic example is the ‘waterfront’ building with its front on the dry side. misery prevails when development amputates or redirects beneficial ‘dragons’ and in any way impedes the natural flow of the land. and the general condition of the land. Property owners. inadequate and defective soils analysis. structures. and other large-scale engineering interventions typically create appalling environments from any number of viewpoints. Two lawsuits in 1998 on behalf of 115 northern California homeowners claimed that the concrete foundations of all homes in their subdivision were suffering alkali-silica reaction (a chemical process that expands concrete until it falls apart). . site grading deficiencies. and managers are left to deal with the revenge effects of these ill-conceived designs.Environmental assessment 95 between the back of a structure on a pad and the hillside or its retaining wall. Cut-and-fill. and a host of defective workmanship issues. residents. What constitutes bad feng shui can be called by any number of contemporary labels and supported by reams of data. Practitioners contend that this type of building fosters professional success at the expense of relationships.

Up the mountain. Reversed Practitioners regularly describe this type of building as inherently bad feng shui. the reversed structure requires the most extensive environmental remedies (water and berms. Entire US subdivisions created during the post-World War II housing boom conform to these orientations. Often the solution is to add a water feature at an appropriate orientation. boulders. buildings. Often the solution is to add berms. big trees. Most practitioners insist this type of building is hard on finances but good with health and relationships. These factors are determined during a feng-shui analysis. In general. and families. buildings. or berms at the back. Double sitting. partnerships. but they typically observe a location and evaluate its natural environment. Consensus among practitioners is that this particular type of house forms the bulk of foreclosures. Suggested remedies should .96 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui marriages. or boulders) scaled according to their size. Practitioner training reinforces the principle that. but often there are other attendant miseries. large tree. even the most urban location should provide sufficient vegetation and habitat. plus the positioning of elevations and nearby hills or large buildings. Native plants and animals Few feng-shui practitioners are biologists. as part of the goal of harmony with nature. The period from the late 1940s to early 1960s was a particularly fruitful one for these structures. down the river Sometimes a structure receives additional emphasis on its problems due to the siting of rivers or fast-moving streets. large vegetation. or boulders at an appropriate orientation. or up mountain The general level of suffering in this structure intensifies with the presence of a building.

Species loss occurs when development isolates small areas and expects creatures to thrive there. Restoring habitat Restoration is defined as the process of re-establishing a selfsustaining habitat that closely resembles a natural condition in terms of structure and function. Practitioners need to form partnerships with local wildlife organizations and authorities to expand their knowledge and the solutions they offer their clients. housing. Their websites should provide clients and the curious with links to extensive environmental information and encouragement. Children gain the most from habitat restoration because often they are the most faithful users of open space in a neighbourhood. Many animals require a variety . such as bird-watching. but wildlife habitats that work for children should be designed into a site. They do not need a big area. Jamie Rappaport Clark of the US Fish and Wildlife Service noted that the habitats attracting birds in urban areas (such as parks. greenways. and edge).Environmental assessment 97 stress plants and other solutions consistent with the native species of a particular area. some practitioners are more knowledgeable and conscientious than others. An improved quality of life is also good for business: services related to the presence of birds. They prize outdoor places that enable them to explore the natural world and make use of natural materials. and provided social and physical safety. Quality environments provide a variety of habitats (aquatic.12 ‘Good feng shui’ provides more than a catchphrase. forest. and feeding. centrally located in residential developments. shielded by homes instead of streets. Unfortunately. Too often habitat islands engulfed by homes and businesses are too small or too isolated to provide wildlife with their basic necessities. and tree-lined streets) improve the quality of life in any community. field. earned an estimated US$ 29 billion in 1996. It is a practitioner’s responsibility to suggest appropriate remedies and methods of environmental resolution.

circular habitats function better than angular ones.13 Interior habitat provides insulation from edge effects such as noise. The size.14 Maintaining and creating these systems increases their use and the likelihood that many species of wildlife will thrive. Sustainability and ‘green’ issues ‘Green renovation’ or ‘green remodelling’ harmonizes with the principles of feng shui because thinking green complements traditional concepts of sustainability. Edge habitat (parcels of habitat not more than several hundred meters wide) benefits only certain kinds of wildlife. . Environmentally sound renovation saves renovation costs in its use of quality salvaged materials.98 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui of habitat types nearby to meet their needs. decreases the amount of landfill that is normally required for construction waste. lowers indoor air pollution (due to the use of lower-VOC surface finishes and fewer artificial materials for carpeting and upholstery). sun. and conserves existing resources. It cuts energy costs by obtaining materials locally. size. diminishes the environment. The standard wood-framed home devours more than an acre of forest (as the stock of large-diameter trees has steadily declined) and creates from 3 to 7 tonnes of waste during construction. and kinds of creatures a habitat can support. although habitats for some species may need to be as much as 550 m from an edge. usually at the expense of others. An interior habitat begins to develop approximately 50 m from the edge of a habitat. vegetation diversity. In general. The shape of a habitat patch also affects wildlife because it influences the relative amounts of habitats. A conventional home in a typical new suburb consumes more resources than necessary. and generates an enormous amount of landfill waste. Corridors and greenways aid wildlife and provide additional value in a developed area. wind. and interconnectedness of such islands determine the number. and predators—all of which are critical to species that dwell deeper in a wild area.

considering the amount of yin and yang at a site means selecting the appropriate textures with care to achieve an optimum ratio (in general two-thirds yang to one-third yin). However. stucco. a superior solution exists and it can be valued by living creatures. Streets and parking lots constitute the largest component of urban impervious cover—for example. and wood provide symbolic variations of natural textures.16 Textures used in renovation should also work towards the goal of integration with nature. Improve local microclimates during renovation. A renovated site should be integrated back into nature. because cars are not the least bit appreciative. which are notorious heat islands that devour land. Landscape architect Dan Kiley is credited with defining a parking lot as a ‘garden for cars’—a pathetic concept.Environmental assessment 99 and safeguards the health and safety of workers and occupants through its use of less-toxic materials. half of urban land in Florida is dedicated to autos and their problems. stone. and 10 per cent of all arable land in the US. As more buildings are renovated and entire city blocks ‘go native’ it will be easier to identify the ‘natural’ environment. It does not matter whether initially the nearest ‘nature’ is kilometers away—what matters is that the integration occurs. This means using environmentally correct surface coatings on rooftops. electricity generation rises by 2–4 per cent and smog production increases by 4–10 per cent. Do not forget to apply innovative techniques to areas for parking. according to the Florida Conservation Foundation. For every degree increase in heat. adding corridors and greenways when appropriate. Pavement now covers more than 2 per cent of the total surface area of the US.17 increasing (native) vegetation by rooftop gardens or other means. Concrete block.15 Building colours should reflect native soil and plants as a general interpretation of Earth hues on a vertical plane. At the same time. Green parking refers to several techniques collectively applied to reduce the amount of impervious .

and providing economic incentives for structured parking. at best these techniques are shortsighted sops to car addicts. save money in storm water management. Techniques include setting maximums for the number of parking lots. Green parking and green paving reduce costs and the size of heat islands as they beautify and enrich the urban environment. Fort Bragg in North Carolina constructed a green parking lot that reduced impervious cover by 40 per cent. Concrete blocks are laid on compacted ground and a hardy variety of grass is grown through the openings in the bricks. A combination of grass and cement concrete block is also effective. and on which techniques are combined to create the ‘greenest’ lot. Reducing and/or eliminating vehicles and their voracious need for their own ‘gardens’ (always at the expense of living creatures) should be the goal. Mature grass is not harmed because its roots are below the edges of the bricks. Washington.18 encouraging shared parking. and saved US$ 1. minimizing the dimensions of parking lot spaces. determining average parking demand (instead of setting parking ratios to accommodate the highest hourly parking during the peak season).6 million—20 per cent—on construction costs over the initial conventional design. Green paving consists of a combination of alternative paving19 and hardy plants that can withstand a fair amount of vehicular traffic. consists of grass and porous structural plastic for use as a park and for overflow parking. However. utilizing alternative pavers in overflow parking areas. in turn. and beautify a site. which. distribute the loads of heavy vehicles. A comprehensive green parking programme can effectively reduce the amount of impervious cover. A successful green parking programme depends on shrinking the amount of impervious cover. creating natural areas to retain and treat storm water. . A green paving system in Auburn. increased parking by 20 per cent.20 Studies indicate that business profits grow when cities exclude cars from their centres and provide more areas of pedestrian-only access. help to protect local streams.100 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui cover created by parking lots.

A practitioner might suggest remodelling to compensate for unpromising calculations or to capitalize on a promising orientation (as in the Castle Gate technique). Whatever the remedy. That is why practitioners advise strategically placed water features. utilize local and sustainable materials and practices whenever possible. boulders.22 Generally. To that end. Because these buildings cannot change like the market they are quickly dated and reduced to functional obsolescence.23 Many ordinary construction materials produce poor indoor air quality. or other forms of vegetation (as previously explained in Orientation). Most buildings are built for a particular market at a particular time. Developers and designers can misjudge a market or follow a design philosophy that fluctuates as quickly as any fad. which can lead to health problems. Inferior landscaping choices waste excessive amounts of water and create environmental revenge effects. Strive to create wildlife habitat as part of the feng-shui remedy and receive additional therapeutic benefits (see Chapter 7). and cool. . heat. Without experience. An established neighbourhood shows whether it is successful and properly located. poor orientation and fit of house to land and climate also make these buildings quite expensive to light. Bare land Twice as many people buy an existing home than a new home primarily because of the character of neighbourhoods. large trees.Environmental assessment 101 Using environment to correct problems in existing buildings For feng shui. it is more difficult to tell whether a new community will share these features. the latest space syntax tools. the most important and consequential remedies involve microclimatic changes.21 berms. or an adept feng-shui practitioner. it should be viewed as an opportunity to further integrate a structure into the natural world.

As you begin the design and development processes you will also want to consider the following issues. crimes. What stages of construction are affected by building green? Site planning. fires. construction accidents. structure and framing. coatings and adhesives. doors and windows.102 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui Topography and natural features Developing a new neighbourhood in the conventional sense involves considering what to bulldoze and what to keep. During the planning process. a practitioner can provide additional detailed information on what clients require as optimum conditions. exterior finish and trim. materials and specifications. design. A practitioner can also advise on what orientations and layouts would be most beneficial for the widest range of occupants—or. A feng-shui practitioner can assist in siting a development with the flow of the land. paints. but not limited to workmanship. but it cannot eliminate this effect. exercise due diligence toward the natural world. and health hazards). Developing yet another ‘bedroom community’ splinters what is left of any open space and wildlife habitat. and in minimizing the revenge effects associated with development (including. the construction process. they may not be workable for everyone. roofing. floor coverings. sheathing and exterior finish. insulation. foundations. Pollution Any new construction affects the environment. Obtain the advice of biologists and other local habitat experts on primary areas for preservation. . Feng-shui advice can help. Some may have to be forced by economic necessity and/or legislation to comply with these ideas and techniques. Green building and environmental assessment are essential and currently provide the only way to diminish pollution. if this is a custom development. Although ethical principles inherent in feng shui correspond to sustainability principles. and/or removes yet more productive farmland and forest area from use.

Residential streets whose broad design encourages speeding create fear. Government buildings can benefit from appropriate use of T intersections. Cul-de-sacs can be good for all houses. and heartache in those who suffer tragedy as a result of insensitive design. with certain caveats. animosity. .Environmental assessment 103 Watercourses and streets Resist the temptation to turn a natural local water feature into a cement pond or otherwise destroy it. and wildlife habitat. A natural watercourse adjusts a microclimate’s air circulation. if needed. to accentuate the good features of water and the site. Positioning and average speed Streets are like streams and rivers. relative humidity. Feeder and connector streets Feng-shui principles dictate that a good environment aids the flow of life and by extension perhaps the transition to larger and faster thoroughfares. while some unfortunate suburban homeowner may find one car after another swimming in his pool because they fail to negotiate the stop. and heartache in residents—fear for the lives of their children and pets. and pedestrians. The presence of this feature delights humans and wildlife. temperature. Piping water underground as a nuisance degrades the environment and creates bad feng shui. Let feng shui aid in analysing the position of the water dragon and redesigning its flow. Good feng shui for roadways and streets corresponds to good civic design and planning. or only one or two on the entire block— it is all in how they are designed. revenge effects occur if the orientation is not appropriate for all structures near them. Facilitate a new development’s integration with public transportation services and provide safe transitional environments for pedestrians and the natural world—sprawl is notoriously unfriendly to public transit. animosity against those who feel confident enough to use the street as a racetrack. bicycles.

existing boulders. Are local features cherished? Does the site preserve and enhance the local microclimate—the flow of the land. flood plains. Natural runoff floodways and wetlands constitute high-energy ecological reserves that produce more than any farmland. or is this a stereotypical urban geography blind to the planet—an egotistical CAD fantasy? Orientation How should a building sit on a lot? Take advantage of orientations to maximize comfort and minimize energy consumption.24 How does a structure relate to a site? Is the structure integrated into the natural flow of the land? Is it destined to be dropped on a cut-and-fill pad in a landscape ravaged by backhoes and earthmovers. . and other sensitive areas into biological reservoirs and recreation areas. cliffs. Protect orientations that extend the seasons and work with the land. The natural environment—not the built one—is of paramount importance. swales. canyon bottoms. buttes. Turn difficult slopes along with wetlands.104 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui Topography Was the site predetermined by the developer or by setback limits? Consider all possible revenge effects of development decisions (all the more critical in these increasingly litigious times). natural water features. (Turning one house 90 saved the occupants more than 30 per cent on their energy bills. and natural rock outcroppings? Does it preserve and/or enhance wildlife habitats? Resist the temptation to create a Disney Desert or similar travesty. Calculate what the year of construction will build into the house and adjust the orientation accordingly (more on that in Chapter 7). devoid of wildlife and natural beauty? Is the natural world incorporated into the building’s design.) Determine the direction of prevailing breezes and adjust window designs to take advantage of them.

Six in ten respondents said the use of certified. Using the environment to correct problems So you did not call in the feng-shui practitioner until the slabs were poured and now she is telling you that the orientations are all wrong. What can she do to make this happen? If you created a neighbourhood of homes with orientation problems. yet 85 per cent of buyers say they want this kind of insulation. buyers give each issue a significantly higher mark than builders do. and indoor air quality on a scale of 1 to 5 (with 5 being most important). but a mere 58 per cent of builders regularly use these paints. Nine out of ten respondents said that energy-efficient features in a new home are ‘extremely’ or ‘very important’. resourceefficient. Builders consistently underestimate the value of green building features to their customers. Eight in ten consumers prefer a home that is built without using old-growth trees. little more than half of the builders who were surveyed in 2001 regularly use formaldehydefree insulation in the homes they build. Builders on average fail to satisfy their customers’ passion for environmentally healthy homes. For example. You want your project to sell and for people to be happy with your work. Buyers want new homes that are energy-efficient. adjust the microclimate for each structure according to the . and healthy—and they are willing to pay more for these benefits than builders assume they will. resource conservation. Seventy-three per cent of buyers want low-VOC paint to be standard in new homes.Environmental assessment 105 Sustainability and ‘green’ issues Green building for most developers means rethinking business and customers. sustainably harvested lumber should be standard in new homes. One annual green building survey25 underscores the dissimilar mindsets of buyers and builders. Eight in ten consumers surveyed in 2001 said that new homes do not meet their sustainability demands. When rating the importance of energy efficiency.

but the size of the complex determines the scale of the adjustments that need to be made. In that case. Install the appropriate features as part of the finishing process or landscaping. work with the practitioner to resolve the issues. Notes . These items do not add substantially to your costs and they substantially increase the occupants’ happiness with what you have built.106 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui locations and orientations provided by the feng-shui practitioner. You may find that what is required to remedy the site is beyond the scope of your project. learn from the practitioner what revenge effects are likely to occur as a result of the inherent problems in the complex and see what small changes can be made. Sometimes small remedies advantageously placed can make enough of a difference. Adjusting the microclimate may be enough. If you created a commercial complex with an orientation problem.

Environmental assessment 107 .

108 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui .

.

.

Chapter 7 Human factors .

Women tend to stop to pet a dog and strike up a conversation. to recover more quickly. the mere presence of animals increases the level of social interaction among humans. because women. Studies of dentists’ offices show that watching an aquarium before a procedure enables patients to behave more compliantly during procedures.4 . as most people with pets know. and animals elicit speech from people. The increased use of animals as assisted therapists in the health-care industry is the direct result of research showing how animals help us heal and increase our quality of life.112 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui The innate human need for particular environments and views People wonder why doctors’ offices and other stressful locations often contain fish tanks. Many people consider animals as kin. in general. are friendlier to people with a dog. Talking to an animal lowers blood pressure and heart rate more than talking to human familiars—in fact.3 Long-standing advice for single men includes borrowing a friend’s dog as a way to meet women.1).1 Other research shows that watching an aquarium can significantly lower people’s blood pressure below the resting level—and it does not matter whether their blood pressure is naturally normal or high. People constantly exposed to stress suffer immune system dysfunction yet views of nature aid our immune system and help us regain health quickly2 (see Figure 7. and to experience less pain and trauma.

Biophobia. while people with views of foliage need only minor pain relievers. Surgical patients with a view of greenery have shorter hospital stays. a rarity for patients considered nonviolent and passive— was abstract and chaotic content. The research indicated that what prompted patients to attack staff verbally and physically—and even pull items down and smash them. (I once took a tour of a corporation that stuck its artists in the windowless basement of the building. they retaliated by hanging posters depicting a natural view through a window. studies of prison inmates provided with views of scenery showed they had fewer sick calls and less healthrelated symptoms of stress such as headaches and digestive problems. In the 15 years of research. explains why we and . Wilson’s Biophilia Hypothesis. but the sense of beauty it imparts to humans affects us more profoundly than we realize. None of this information is new to those familiar with E. Patients responded positively to wall art with natural content but not to abstracts and other modern forms of art. A Swedish hospital with psychiatric patients studied the effects of environment for 15 years. and apparently experience fewer postoperative complications. The effects of studying natural scenes apparently induce in humans feelings not unlike those found in Zen meditation. Similarly. People in behavioural studies and postoccupation studies behave the same way.7) You can ‘bliss out’ watching birds. which seeks to understand the human affinity for living things.6 People stuck in offices all day but provided access to a window with a view of greenery suffer less stress and take fewer sick days. other animals. Patients forced to stare at a blank wall need more potent and more frequent pain medications. Our love of nature has been defined as ‘love with feeling and thinking’. no patient ever complained about or attacked a picture depicting nature.5 We may try to shut out the natural world.Human factors 113 Extended exposure to window views of nature by hospital patients and prison inmates also provides far-reaching effects. receive fewer negative comments in nurse’s notes.O. and water. (A corollary.

especially urbanization. and is likely biological. Some experts link the escalating trend of events like the massacre at Columbine High and workplace shootings with the marginalizing landscapes of suburbia and a rising tide of mental illness. especially when crime is considered a largely urban pathology. Consider the ominous implications of these data.2). proponents of this theory see a correlation between the natural world that humans evolved in and the optimal state of human well-being. Scientists have also documented the debilitating effects of a world devoid of nature or provided in diminished levels.114 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui our fellow primates tend to exhibit similar negative reactions to snakes and bugs. and why some people love technology more than the natural world. and humans’ corresponding level of mental and emotional distress (see Figure 7. A few studies suggest that most mental health cases live in urban areas. The increase of mental illness appears to coincide with industralization. Notice the qualifier ‘the natural world that humans evolved in’.) In an accumulation of books and studies. The natural world that we long for and need for our continued health looks nothing like the places where most of us live.8 We may have . It is a world that takes us back before the Industrial Revolution (at the latest).

propaganda. even as they denounced as ‘pagan superstition’ the ancient techniques that provided people with their rich environment. (Anecdotal evidence links walks in a park or other natural settings with ideas that eventually led their creators to receive Nobel prizes. Evidence from Olduvai Gorge and other archeological digs in eastern Africa indicate that our distant ancestors made the first efforts to achieve the same surroundings that we desire. When Christian missionaries arrived in China in the nineteenth century they marvelled at the beauty and fertility of the land. His government used repression. and feng shui Humans require natural views of plants and animals for mental and emotional health. a hill or mountain at the back. Techniques merely increased in sophistication between the time of African hominids and Neolithic Chinese. Viewshed. human nature. Studies also suggest we need nature around us as a restorative and to stimulate our higher creative functions. whose hero was Qin Shihuang. Numbers and instrumentation provided additional analytical techniques. . but key features remain the same: water in the front. Millions of years separate the Neolithic beginnings of feng shui from our ancestors in Africa. felt little love toward the ancient Chinese way of doing things. always with the intended goal of integrating humanity into what is Naturally So.Human factors 115 proof that humanity is going slowly mad and self-destructing due to our way of building. People learned to improve the landscape so that it provided the by-now ‘sacred’ features. the unifier of China. Early hominids generally located their camps at the edge of water. A similar situation occurred during the Chinese Revolution and when the Communist Party assumed the reins of government in the People’s Republic. Mao Zedong. cave.) Our need for the natural world is truly ancient. They positioned themselves with water to their front and a hillside. or other protective natural feature at their back. He did everything in his power to abolish the old ways and people’s sentiments towards them.

Because we cannot see the real landscape anymore. Westerners have been taught for centuries how to look at cities interiors and landscape. China provides one-tenth the percapita land resources of the US. Nesse suggests that negative emotional states like fear. but they do not work as quickly as looking at a natural scene. and instituted nationwide programmes to eradicate birds and other wildlife. Anti-anxiety medicines and tranquilizers can relax us.12 . Although deforestation and other environmental degradation occurred in Imperial China. The work of researchers such as R. as the result of his policies.116 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui utopian promises. and anxiety represent urgings by our embodied mind to ‘attend to the situation at hand’. depression.10 Current generations let the next pay for their carelessness—in rising violence and mental distress. perhaps?). M. What occurred in China.11 We know something is ‘not quite right’ but we do not know what it is—or how to fix it.9 Western traditions never extolled the urban environment as idyllic— cities for the most part provided a hotbed of disease and squalid conditions and were even expected to be that way. postrevolutionary China provided a much more cohesive state with unprecedented opportunities for wholesale environmental destruction. Mao disdained scientific study and principles. Some modern authorities accuse Americans of addressing these concerns with trivialities in design and place (such as clutter. banned ‘superstitious and feudal’ sustainable practices (including feng shui) because of their age and traditions. shows the profound connection between abuse of nature and abuse of people. In the end it has achieved such success in remoulding the face of China that it actually threatens human survival. He prohibited farmers to continue with traditional and sustainable methods of farming. Today. our primary reactions to the wasteland around us consist of stress and an indefinable malaise. People who receive training in a self-relaxation technique can become more relaxed than any current medication makes possible simply by combining self-relaxation with natural views. and censorship to achieve its ends.

13 Consider also the Chinese concept of the ‘taste of heaven’—a taste in the sense not of fashion or style. definite shapes and edges in proportions resembling those expressed in yin yang theory. gardens and buildings are part of nature and humans blend into nature. provide ecological efficiency. especially in its widespread hostility to archaeological building forms. the bulk of scientific studies overwhelmingly conclude that healthy human environments require the same features advised by feng shui practitioners for millennia. unless the buildings are based on timeless forms of construction and their fractal nature. Reflective pools mirror buildings. Lineaments are mapped onto nature or at least extended out from the building. and you have the typically wretched urban viewshed. Environmental features Curvilinear and rectangular visual contours or edges Humans require soft. Wildlife People need animals and wildlife. and precise.Human factors 117 The cost of creating a positive living and working environment does not significantly differ from the cost of creating an oppressive one. yet wildlife today exists solely by our sufferance. For Chinese. In contrast. much of modern architecture creates stress and misery. but of the infinite expression of deep artistic needs in a setting that reveres and represents natural forms. Buildings in the shape of squares and rectangles. and thus repeat in ancient and traditional habitation. Factor in the absence of wildlife and vegetation. Moreover. Nature serves as a frame to structure. beginning with the site and its orientation. ovals and circles evoke that timeless quality. All but 3 per cent of Earth’s biomass—including wild . not aspects of nature. Geometrical design in the Western sense cannot supply what Jiahua Wu calls ‘agreeable surprise’ or even delight. vague shapes and edges. Differences between Western and Chinese gardens provide a glaring point of comparison. Western gardens dominate the natural world.

we need to cultivate the ability to ‘see in between’ our viewshed stereotypes and dogma. and level-far.118 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui animals and vegetation—are under direct control of humans. When the wild things come. Eyelevel viewing is intentionally placed very low.4). Landscaping and vegetation First. Glacier National Park. Returning balance to the world requires work on everyone’s part.3). and the face of Half Dome. Then. we need to let the volumes of environmental data speak for themselves. deep-far.) A ‘guest hill’ (salient landscape feature) that is high and far is auspicious (see Figure 7.14 High-far This describes a combination of great height and distance. (Think of Ansel Adams’ photographs of Joshua Tree. and every conceivable form of habitat renewal. backyard wilderness. . observe and learn to live with them by their rules—strive to fit in with what is Naturally So. although feng shui uses far more orientations and calculations involved. Our misery has plenty of company (see Figure 7. Some viewsheds found in feng shui seem to relate to those in Chinese painting (shan-shui). The viewsheds from Chinese painting according to Jiahua Wu consist of high-far. beginning with the restoration of habitat. Using imagination with this viewshed creates a sense of reverence for nature that symbolizes high morality. Promote rooftop gardens and greenways.

intricate qualities. Consider the diverse. In a comparatively small space. smooth. Complex images and spatial depth are built by careful observation and representation that can take a step beyond the real scenery and potentially move into visionary. An observer receives images and composes at a typical eye level. It promotes the use of human imagination by encouraging the creation of personal ‘messages’ received from intense observations of nature. A guest hill that is far and faces the sitting mountain is auspicious. albeit modest. areas. position. multilayered plant life of a rainforest.Human factors 119 Deep-far This viewshed presents a means of discovery and exploration through different layers and perspectives. . It includes overhead surveying from a distance and shifting viewpoints. gravitate toward spaces that offer layers of vegetation as refuge. The popularity of ‘vacations in paradise’ shows just how important the Deep-far viewshed is to our imaginations and well-being. someone can depict complete awareness and reveal profound feelings or moods. Level-far This viewshed describes seeing from a normal. even mystical. This deceptively simple viewshed contains enormous potential for depth and intensity. A guest hill that is close and small is not auspicious. Studies show that people who are physically ill or depressed. Deep-far communicates a complex scene of layers and depths that suggests ranked. and familiar scenery—exactly the ‘savannalike conditions’ described in Biophilia studies (see Figure 7. Horizontal emphasis provides intimate.5). but with wider scope and distance. along with children and the elderly.

The only settings with water that generally create dismay are those that contain polluted water or water that indicates a judged set of risks. prefer and enjoy natural settings with water features. People who prefer to be challenged by nature tend to be riskinclined young males (see Figure 7. and especially young children. Aquatic habitat Humans. . such as stormy seas.6).120 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui Additional viewsheds require compass readings and calculations to determine suitability.

buildings. vacant lot . Traditional principles of feng shui also stress concealment and de-emphasis of artificial features with enhancement of the natural world (see Figure 7. power lines. People shun viewsheds bristling with antennae. Interior features Live plants Humans prefer natural scenes with greenery over any built views. Most Americans disapprove of oil exploration in the Arctic National Wilderness and despise clear-cut sections of forest. signage. and other technology. power lines—intrusions from the technological and commercial worlds) People across cultural.Human factors 121 Absence or inconspicuousness of artificial features (autos. Time and again we will choose the vista of a weed-filled.7). Nigerians dislike landscapes ravaged by the activities of oil exploration. national. and age boundaries prefer a natural landscape that hides technological intrusions.

. and anxiety. Our brains and bodies retain a biological expectation of particular objects exhibiting certain colours. Sad to say. Harmonious colour schemes ‘Colour follows content’.15 These and other visual connectors reinforce our feelings of safety. applied as nature designed. Our health and that of the planet depend on reversing that equation (see Figure 7.over all except the most romanticized urban settings (such as the skyline of New York).8). Natural use of colour. and water are the colours we best remember. the mass of the most luxurious forest is far exceeded by the sheer mass of buildings at the centre of any city. admonished Chinese painting masters. We want our built environments to echo the palette of nature because humans are tuned to the structure of colour in the natural world. When our expectations for these items are not fulfilled their absence can create fear. is what humans prefer. lakes. Natural colours such as those in trees. depression.

Our longing for greenery and wildlife is quintessentially human and part of our genetic heritage. To do otherwise is to risk madness (see Figure 7.Human factors 123 Visual access to natural settings Look out any window and what do you see? How do you feel about it? Chances are that you gravitate to any view with a natural setting. Notes .9). The trick in modern society is to build up the natural world and conceal or otherwise cover the artificial world.

.

.

.

Chapter 8 Crime and its relation to the environment .

Conventional wisdom and crime fighters say that vegetation promotes crime by concealing criminals and their activities. open space. and use ‘pubic greenery’ techniques of landscaping.1 An earlier study also concluded that people living near trees and other vegetation reported better relations with their neighbours and less violence than other people living nearby whose buildings were surrounded by concrete. Do not forget to include streets that encourage speeding and high levels of through-traffic. minimalist high-rise with no semiprivate areas. Unthreatening natural environments lower our stress levels and lift our emotional states—even if we are not stressed.4 . high vacancy and—ultimately—utter despoliation. Following that logic. Designers have to get the rhythm of open and closed spaces just right. a few years ago. the most barren stretches of metropolitan areas should be crime-free—yet crime grids repeatedly demonstrate this is not the case.3 Research indicates that vegetation changes our responses to an urban street—our opinions become more positive. and 56 per cent fewer violent crimes than buildings surrounded by little vegetation. graffiti taggers studied in one California city preferred open areas devoid of landscaping. In fact. and plant and animal life. design a modernistic. In Chicago. because closed spaces too densely packed and high reduce airflow. 48 per cent fewer property crimes.128 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui What has feng shui got to do with it? If you want to design an area featuring high crime. Buildings near high levels of vegetation experienced 52 per cent fewer total crimes. then. no building entries facing streets or parking. a study of nearly 100 inner-city buildings again challenged the conventional crime-fighting wisdom. areas for vegetation. and access to sunlight—all of which make us uneasy because we instinctively know they are overrunning the natural environment.2 Reducing crime may be as simple as adequate sunlight. This study examined the relationship between vegetation and crime statistics in one poor neighbourhood over a lengthy period.

people can see for themselves how restructuring the physical layout of their community can profoundly improve their world. which analyses and reforms housing into more natural circumstances.5 Modern architecture can be a repressive and brutal environment that provides little or no humanity or safety for occupants or visitors.1). The deceptively simple methods used for defensible space achieve dramatic results in crime prevention and eradication. Now combine these revelations with the controversial concept of defensible space.Crime and its relation to the environment 129 Study after study reinforce feng shui’s requirement to assimilate humans and their buildings into the natural world. People refused to live in these structures because they were visibly oppressive—eventually they left because of the appallingly high rate of crime. Most of these ambitious buildings never were used the way they were envisioned . Consider the well-known fates of modern-style buildings in public assisted housing (see Figure 8. As if lifting quotes from a feng-shui testimonial.

and walkup buildings all create defensible space. door monitors. Consider the environment just outside the front door. Someone sharing a floor with another family takes more interest in their well-being than if several families share the same entry. and elevator operators. primarily because funds do not exist for the watchful eyes of resident superintendents.130 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui in concept sketches. We do become our brother’s keeper when we understand what territory is ‘ours’ to claim. dramatically increases the occupancy rate. Private entrances shared by one or two families ensure safety and build community. In the end. including humans. traditional housing) seems to work. What seems to differ between crime-plagued housing and safe housing comes down to the size of a project and the number of units that share common entries. Nearly all of these terrifying modern structures have been demolished in favour of building designs that demonstrate positive effects on human behaviour. and enables residents to experience a surge of neighbourhood pride. treating government housing projects and neighbourhoods more like villages and hamlets (that is. Humans need to feel they are among neighbours and share visually accessible common ground. A family’s maintenance of a territory shrinks proportionally as the number of families who share maintenance increase. primarily because the architects knew so little about the intended occupants—they simply assumed they were people like themselves. People whose windows and entrances face the street consider themselves accountable for what happens within . Substantial evidence indicates that assigning grounds (except for the streets and sidewalks) to individual families lowers the crime rate. day and night activities. and passages. row houses (condominiums). In a complex where many people share the same space. no one feels they can lay claim to maintenance—eventually no one does. High-rise housing projects where many families share the same entrance foster crime. Residents need the ability to exert control over their environs (as in Jane Jacobs’ oft-quoted remark that ‘the windows have eyes’). Garden apartments. Defining space is important for many animals.

Crime and its relation to the environment 131

the semiprivate areas in their view. The ability to see through parks in neighbourhood housing enables residents to keep an eye on ‘their’ open space. People using a park facility may require active and passive use along with their need to see from one activity area into another. Play areas and paths need to be carefully marked and well-lighted. Ball game courts and public garden areas need good separation. Small is beautiful and traditional in neighbourhoods because a small neighbourhood increases interaction, the sense of belonging, and feelings of safety and optimism. Limiting auto access and keeping streets narrow enables residents to feel that they—not passing cars—control their streets. Children play safely and traffic is restricted to people who actually have a reason for being there, which helps residents monitor activity and prevent crime. Conversely, the wider streets are in residential areas, the more it is likely that drivers will exceed the speed limit and the less it is likely that they will know their neighbours.6 The appearance of ‘portal markers’ (indicators such as gates or plantings at the entrance to a neighbourhood) signals to motorists that they are entering a different kind of street. The markers elicit a specific range of emotional responses, but all send a reminder to visitors that they are entering the streets of a close-knit community and should behave appropriately.
Notes

Chapter 9

Structures

134 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui

erhaps if we baby-proofed our homes we would lead happier and safer lives. After all, a house with no sharp corners, stairs, and other nasty surprises sounds like a pretty nice place to live. Baby-proofing might represent the fundamental feng-shui approach to housing. It certainly cannot hurt. Traditional housing encompasses a very short list of shapes that constitute ecologically efficient forms—easy to heat and cool, to enlarge, and to remodel. They may not be glamorous but they do provide more spiritual and physical comfort than many modern structures. Because these shapes are also to some extent ‘hardwired’ into our genetic makeup we can experience more profound relationships with them than, say, an octagonal shape or the infamous ‘California jog’ with its jagged and odd angles. People who wonder why they do not feel at home in a particular structure should discover the shape that does make them feel at home (see Figure 9.1).

P

Basics
Feng-shui principles for structures encourage the following design choices.

this principle assumes that everyone needs a house they can navigate comfortably in the dark or with their eyes closed—no odd angles. No one needs to hear their neighbours’ romantic escapades.3). Small. Natural lighting keeps people happy and productive. Any structure that you are afraid to let a toddler explore or to invite a senior citizen over for a visit is not good feng shui for anyone. Structures that feature a series of odd angles (like the California jog) raise stress levels and provide little or nothing in return. incessant arguments. and no surprising drops or stairs. Designing for the local climate makes a structure energy efficient (see Figure 9.2). quiet. and secure. Comfort A home should feel homey—safe. weird abutments. . cozy homes are universally cherished and one aspect of sustainable design (see Figure 9. A home that shields you and others from noise benefits everyone’s stress levels and retains occupants longer. trustworthy. or obnoxious children (nor should they have to endure yours). Insulated walls reduce energy costs and increase comfort levels with minimal effort.Structures 135 Safety Like baby-proofing.

You can see a house only if you walk down a flight of natural-looking stairs next to a parking area. it attains the goal of integrating them into the environment. Imagine the difference in people’s lives if entire towns were constructed this way. of course. But for the most part any new sustainable structures have learnt from the successes of our ancestors and expanded on their ideas. Imagine building a subdivision into the side of a hill and using the roof of each house for green parking. if there were not any parked cars they might not necessarily think there were houses in the area. Not only does this technique effortlessly keep the houses at an optimum temperature the year round. In fact. Modern interpretations of the old styles provide similar benefits with the advantages of some newer technologies like solar panels. The view.136 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui Nature first Traditional housing has succeeded where most modern housing has not because it relies on creature comforts for a nominal investment. is spectacular— and so is the neighbours’. and that of anyone else who passes by. .

labour disputes. A feng-shui practitioner can also detect any number of issues that an inspection might uncover. and other development woes. A house with aligned front and back doors (the proverbial ‘shotgun shack’) has problems with air circulation and privacy (see Figure 9. While you can consult the stars or take a psychic reading. another idea might be to investigate the calculations used by feng-shui practitioners.Structures 137 Construction If there is a time to plant and a time to reap. The calculations also establish whether a house is a good match for people and suggest occupation dates that mitigate revenge effects. Bedrooms at the end of long hallways give sleeping occupants the creepy feeling that something is running down the hall towards them. telephone. or health issues. substance abuse. Improper orientation makes a house stifling hot in summer and carry a perpetual Antarctic chill in winter. jobsite injuries. financial difficulties. these calculations can uncover the problems literally built into a home and how they can affect occupants. Clients find houses that they like and send a practitioner out for a simple yes or no analysis: is it good for them or not? Based on information gathered from the property the practitioner can tell clients a great deal more about a house than a realtor may feel like divulging. and cable outlets were even before they did. Areas suffering from a lack of sunlight cause occupants to feel depressed (and oppressed).4). Layout of a house can divulge a great deal. For prospective buyers. I have had clients more than once marvel that I knew where all the electrical. This could be something as simple as detecting inherent marital problems (with the buyers only finding out later that the house was a divorce sale). Somehow feng-shui formulae can determine the likely revenge effects of a particular construction date coupled with the design and the site. The optimal time for construction can mean all the difference between cost overruns. then there is a time to build and a time to occupy. Other things I find might not . Traditional feng shui simplifies house-hunting because it facilitates the selection of homes that are right for particular people.

. Simple observations of site slope can uncover potential pools of standing water.138 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui occur to them even after months of occupation. The feng-shui principle of ‘smelling’ can detect the aroma of fungus or mould. Add to these mundane abilities the ability to calculate the qualitative potential of a structure and feng shui becomes a fascinating diagnostic tool.

.

Chapter 10

An overview of the theory of time and space

142 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui

asic time calculations used in feng shui reflect calendar systems based on Chinese astronomy. Just as the Hetu is a map through the universe and it emerged from the Milky Way (the Tian Ho or celestial Yellow River), the Luoshu emerged from a tributary of the Milky Way, possibly near the Great Rift in the Western constellation of Cygnus (consisting of some of the Chinese constellation Tianjin, ‘ford in the Celestial River’).1 At that spot in the sky we can see between two of our galaxy’s spiral arms; the opening continues to Sagittarius (near the Chinese constellation of Bie, the turtle). Supposedly, the Luoshu’s nine numbers were seen or scribbled on the back of a tortoise or bear, but they were eventually mapped onto China as part of the nonary grid system known as ‘well-field’ or fenye. The Chinese lunisolar calendar appears on turtle shells known as ‘oracle bones’ dated to the period of Shang (fourteenth-century BCE). Shang-era astronomers calculated the 19-year zhang (Westerners call it the Metonic cycle, after Meton who lived in the fifth-century BCE) and the 76-year bu (what Westerners call the Calippic cycle, after another Greek astronomer active during the fourth-century BCE). According to astronomical records from oracle bones the civil year began at a new moon near the winter solstice. The shang yuan (superior epoch) or taiji shang yuan (supreme pole superior epoch) began at midnight on the first day of the 11th month, according to the Daming li (great brilliance calendar). This calculation was based on the time needed to align the synodic month with the tropical year. In June 1993, astronomers Kevin Pang of JPL and John Bangert of the Naval Observatory revealed the start cycle of the Chinese calendar as 5 March 1953 BCE, when the sun, moon, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn queued ‘like a pearl necklace’ in the eastern sky just before dawn, next to what Westerners call the Pegasus Square. This occasion marked the jiazi or ‘initial year’ of the calendar cycle, just as the jiazi of the current cycle began on 2 February 1984.

B

An overview of the theory of time and space 143

Construction cycles
All buildings conform to construction cycles, which are defined as 20-year cycles based on calendar periods and work as initial conditions in complexity theory. The nine-sector grid of the Luoshu is used to plot these ‘stars’. The number assigned to a particular 20-year cycle—sometimes called by names like ‘ruling star’—is plotted at the centre of the diagram. (Often the term ‘star’ is used to indicate an element of a calculation. It is just feng-shui jargon for a particular integer in a formula.) Other calculations (such as orientation) are assigned numeric equivalents and plotted on the diagram, which provides the ‘phase space’ or event model of a structure. This grid enables a feng-shui practitioner to make qualitative and quantitative assessments using expert rules and the look-up tables that form every decent practitioner’s bag of tricks. Calculations involve ‘three round (cycles) and nine fortune (types)’. Numbers 1 through 9 repeat 20 times to match three ganzhi (stem and branch) cycles of 180 years (known as san yuan or ‘three epochs’). Ji and yuan in these calculations express units of calendrical calculations (lifa) that associate stem–branch combinations with astronomical periods. Explaining it another way, a ganzhi cycle consists of five orbits of Jupiter divided into three 20-year periods that each move through four of the 12 Jupiter stations (see Figure 10.1). Yuan are found in the ancient sifen li (quarter-day) calendar,2 but the ‘three sequences’ or Santong li calendar of Liu Xin is the current basis for construction cycle calculations.3 The Santong li was a refinement of the Taichu calendar and consists of the following cycles.4 Rule cycle The first day of the month of the civil calendar is the day of the new moon. Zhang identifies when the new moon returns to the same day in the solar year, usually the winter solstice. The unit of measure is the so-called Metonic cycle (235 lunations in 19 years).

650 bu. Cycles are designated as high (water). it is said. Each 20-year cycle encompasses psychological and historical events.1). 4 zhang for a total of 76 years (the so-called Calippic Epoch cycle One yuan 3 ji. They provide a layer of analysis that works with annual cycles and building orientations (see Table 10. and low (metal). or 240 zhang (4560 years). . The advent of the eight cycle.144 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui Obscuration cycle One bu cycle). middle (wood). heralds a greater understanding of traditional feng shui in the west and increased emphasis on our need to integrate human structures and culture into the natural world.

An overview of the theory of time and space 145 Notes .

.

Chapter 11 Form and shape theory in time and space theory .

illness. F . albeit temporarily. The way to understand and track the change is through calculations used in feng shui. the leafing and flowering of a tree can partially. personal safety.148 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui eng shui as a site selection theory provides the analytical techniques to assess structures of any time period. In the last nine cycles the town was very rich but eventually lost its great wealth due to the influence of qi from the eastern direction.2 convey orientations in recent and future building cycles that can create such problems. A building is a chaotic system. Subtle changes can give rise to self-reinforcing feedback loops. For example. and calamities to the bizarre and anomalous. Without adequate feng-shui advice a builder can expect a variety of troubles with these structures. Thomas Lee May1 presents a case study of a Qing family town in Wu Xi approximately 100 km northwest of Shanghai. in that it is characterized by extreme sensitivity to initial conditions. He shows how the ‘fire possibility index’ reached a peak around midnight on 12 December 1912. Without the aspect of time it is impossible to understand what happens. accidents. May thinks it likely that the predictive techniques available to a feng-shui practitioner could locate areas of concern for fires.1 and 11. Ultimately. which May tracks through time. which was when the fire occurred. Nanjing. Additional orientations can cause problems if not provided with supportive design and landscaping. and cultural and personality development.2 With these thoughts in mind let us consider some possible ramifications of building orientation and design. Particular orientations can build in problems ranging from fires. there are no parts at all—just a network of relationships. Like any systems science feng shui is contextual. May also makes a good case for the predictive modelling techniques of feng shui in his analysis of a fire at Southeast University. Figures 11. remedy the incorrect siting of a reversed house. A minute change in an initial state can lead over time to large-scale consequences (including revenge effects).

Form and shape theory in time and space theory 149 (a) (b) (c) (d) Notes .

.

Chapter 12 Services .

For example. fireplaces. such as an amplifying feng-shui calculation (see Figure 12. heating and air conditioning systems.1). .152 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui L ayout of services in new homes follows building codes. and massive entertainment centres do best in areas where they do not trigger revenge effects—whether it is powerful magnetic fields or something more subtle. computer clusters. but their placement and integration with room layout can improve with the addition of feng shui.

Services 153 Electrical services The issue is not the imaginary ‘geopathic stress’ or the number of outlets and fixtures in a room but whether ambient magnetic fields will clash with installed services. Remedies consist of hiding outlets and fixtures. . swapping room functions. the solution is to design rooms according to the feng-shui analysis. and similar avoidance techniques. One way to check is with the feng-shui analysis—especially whether a room’s intended function matches the placement of outlets. but it is still important to ensure the safety of occupants. designs that reduce electrical consumption also reduce magnetic fields. Thankfully. Fields drop dramatically with distance (they are proportional to current flow). which correlates function to placement (see Figure 12.2). Optimally.

Avoid radiant heating systems that generate fields above 2 mG at less than a meter. fields from transformers. Run wires from a service panel several metres from areas in frequent use. if you plan to place a bedroom against the wall of a kitchen or another room with multiple appliances. magnetic fields do not stop at the wall unless it contains magnetic shielding (aluminum. However. Mount these boxes where exposure to fields will be minimal (such as a garage wall or on an outside closet wall). Try installing dielectric couplers on plumbing lines to eliminate any possibility of currents. otherwise. low-carbon steel. electrical lines and conduit. such as televisions and microwaves that consume electricity even when switched off. and electrical panels are unlikely to be stopped. or any place where people spend considerable time. That is why effective design places kitchen appliances away from bedroom and living room walls. microwave ovens. siliconiron steel. try to avoid having it run down along bedroom walls or the walls of other heavily used rooms. Do not let metal-sheathed (BX) cable rest on appliances. Use active magnetic field cancellation to substantially reduce field exposure.154 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui Feng shui often looks askance at the placement of bedrooms next to kitchens and baths for reasons invented long before the advent of indoor plumbing and power grids. Large magnetic fields are typically created in the power panels. ensure that exposure to magnetic fields will not cause problems—after all. older computer monitors. place ground-floor fluorescent ceiling fixtures away from second-floor areas of high use at floor level. or mumetal). Effective shielding from electric fields requires grounded objects. Draft exposure guidelines set by the . or grounded water pipes because current returns to the service panel or transformer through the ground and creates a magnetic field. Similarly. It is the same issue with any ‘phantom load’. If power is brought in overhead. A better solution is to run wires underneath the flooring and bring them up to outlets. Use switched outlets for entertainment centres and other phantom loads to reduce magnetic fields. heating pipes.

Even those people who are linked to the city’s system have to endure its antiquated and inadequate service.Services 155 International Radiation Protection Association provide 5 kV/m for continuous exposure to electric fields and 2 G for magnetic fields. Covering drains for fear of losing money—an adage common to some flavours of feng-shui books—is at best a neurotic conceit when compared with the water stress elsewhere on the planet.1 Without addressing everyone’s need for potable water there is no point in tackling what amount to lifestyle issues in the developed world. In Mexico City. No one enjoys listening to gurgling pipes.1 billion people do not have any access to clean water. According to the United Nations Population Fund in their State of the World Population 2001. Perhaps the simplest advice is this: do not install pipes in walls adjacent to bedrooms without adequate insulation against noise. This scenario is repeated throughout the world. untreated. more than three million people lack indoor plumbing. into surface waters. more than 90 per cent of sewage and 70 per cent of industrial wastes are dumped. In developing countries. Note . for example. The World Health Organization reports that roughly 1. unclean water and associated poor sanitation kill more than 12 million people each year. Water service The developed world frequently forgets that not everyone has easy access to potable water.

.

Chapter 13 Overlooked and overblown issues of drainage. electrical supply and installation. ventilation. lighting. water supply and storage. and sound .

bedrock type. The truly sinister stuff comes from the handiwork of humans (see Figure 13.158 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui Drainage Drainage carries an undeserved reputation in most feng-shui books. climate.1). reduced (and often irremediable) water quality. Drainage issues are comparatively simple—revenge effects occur because drainage is misunderstood. It has nothing to do with ‘energy lines’. ‘dragon lines’. or any other animal trails—or much else that people are encouraged to believe. Drainage develops where types and structures of rock erode easily and their ability to drain relates to topography. loss of ecological . which create such revenge effects as environmental degradation. increased pollution. and industrial parks. Wetlands are regularly drained to turn land into subdivisions. and vegetation. People are made to worry needlessly about stopping their drains and faucets when they need to concentrate on ecology and environmental justice. commercial buildings. soil type.

swimming pools. for example) or old occult literature. and the aesthetic loss of natural beauty. That is why they generally fail to capitalize on the wider ecological and aesthetic role of water. who often get their ideas from Hollywood (Poltergeist and The Amityville Horror. Artificial drainage systems are rarely designed with the whole picture in mind. With traditional feng shui you have adequate tools to effectively plan a site for large amounts of water and it is also possible to remedy existing sites. and spas. protect and enhance water quality.1 However.Overlooked and overblown issues 159 sustainability. One of the well-field’s most ancient forms is a 3 3 square grid like the Luoshu. cherish and respect the environmental setting by obtaining intimate knowledge of a place and the biophilic needs of the local community. Surface runoff in developed areas cannot use the natural world in the same way. . ponds. this ancient connection has not stopped the McFengshui crowd from inventing odd ideas about wells. traditional feng shui is not as neurotic as the New Age variety. Water supply and storage One of the oldest Chinese characters is ‘well’ and it is apparently related to feng shui through the well-field system of land holding. Consider implementing the following suggestions: ● ● ● ● ● reduce the effect of development on natural drainage. There should be no need to resort to overwrought symbolism or other refuges of the ill-informed. provide wildlife habitat. encourage natural groundwater recharge. Thankfully. soil erosion and sedimentation. So much for the so-called advancements in modern civilization! Natural or undeveloped areas reap the advantage of natural processes that recycle material—including pollutants—running off the land during rainstorms. and incorporate them into the design.

an idea that should be reinforced in modern architecture. psychic vibrations. unless the seal is not tight. plenty of real-world issues exist regarding electricity in a structure so there is need for inventing things like ‘geopathic stress’ or the hobgoblins of baubiology. Similarly. Lighting This subject is dear to the McFengshui crowd but like so many other things they generally get it wrong. look at what is done with ventilation in traditional architecture. However. the real issues have not stopped some practitioners from making up ‘energy fields’ that cannot be measured or treated except by the most bizarre methods—such as dowsing. Instead. or any number of identifiable elements—it is what practitioners say when they need a technical-sounding term. Whether it is their bizarre . Electrical supply and installation As explained in Chapter 12. It is best to ignore these would-be pundits when they talk about ‘energy’ drains or gains through windows. At least then you are dealing with concepts that are proven to work. Often what McFengshui practitioners call ‘energy’ is not solar gain. and misguided applications of voltmeters. Keep in mind that most feng-shui practitioners do not have a solid science education and thus are prone to get things of that nature completely wrong. And even then. and copy that. Remain sceptical and make a practitioner prove any wacky theories beyond a reasonable doubt. moisture.160 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui Ventilation Traditional cultures orient their homes to take advantage of prevailing winds. So how this vague ‘energy’ substance could be draining from a house or entering through a closed window is beyond all comprehension. there should not be any hand-wringing over ‘energy’ leaking out or in from closed windows. check with a science-savvy friend. windows have to be used to be effective.

as is how floodlights would remedy this.Overlooked and overblown issues 161 notions of light therapy (unfortunately. A practitioner suggests high-powered illumination on the porch outside a home to ‘bring in qi’ or whatever they hope to draw. they fail to take into account basic human physiology and psychology. However. Sound I have neighbours I have nicknamed the Loud Family. It seems to be a technique that runs on the placebo effect. Everyone encounters people like this sometime in their life. only he used a bit of current on a wire running to a wire coat hanger and stuck that into the ground to attract the worms. The McFengshui crowd wants you to use mirrors. Sometimes practitioners want people to place a hollow tube in the ground and add a light bulb on the top. unlike my grandfather’s worm lure. You can choose to ignore them or try any number of things to discourage their vocal abilities. Why portions of a structure should be deemed ‘missing’ is a mystery. there is no way to measure its effectiveness. Perhaps this technique is supposed to work like my grandfather’s technique for catching worms before we went fishing. The favoured New Age technique for noisy neighbours beneath you in a flat is to place a mirror face-down on the floor. strangely. a bright light on a porch can create accidents because people tend to focus on the distraction and not where their feet are going—so they miss the step. not along the lines of proven methods to cure Seasonal Affective Disorder) or how to illuminate sections of a structure. Of course there is no way to measure its effectiveness. ostensibly to draw qi out of the ground. for people who get sucked into using this qi-siphon method. and. and fall. Others want you to place lights at angles around a structure to give the effect that any so-called missing areas exist. slip. That is probably not the sort of qi that the occupant was hoping to attract. this is the ‘cure’ of choice rather than having a chat with the offending . if there are steps. Unfortunately.

Note . but these prosaic techniques do provide more lasting relief. something out of the realm of soundproofing or asking a noisy neighbour to be quiet is too mundane for some feng-shui practitioners. Obviously.162 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui party regarding their noise level. There are any number of feng-shui books on the market that tell people to use mirrors to deflect noise—then they crow about the practicality of feng shui.

.

.

Chapter 14 Building elements .

In legal terms. stairs are an ‘attractive nuisance’ that create risk because architects and builders typically locate stairs where they are the most dangerous (see Figure 14. need as few distractions as possible to safely navigate a flight of stairs.1 Considering that the top and bottom two steps are where the majority of accidents on stairs occur.2).166 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui Enhancing placement of stairs and gradients.2 it makes perfect sense not to align stairs with doors or have doors on a landing open onto a flight of stairs (see Figure 14. There is abundant anecdotal evidence. it is all the same.1). Humans. doors. In fact. but to my . and windows Stairs and gradients You might not like living in a shotgun shack. many alleged feng-shui problems on further examination turn out to be design problems. especially children and the visually impaired. Some feng-shui practitioners say that an interior staircase exiting to an exterior door compels money and good things to leave the premises. fireplaces. but what could be worse than living in a house where the interior staircase ends on a line with the front door? Call it bad feng shui or accident-prone.

This seems sensible until you review accident statistics. level. it is known that a stairway designed to induce changes in orientation—such as view. Poorly lit steps are just as dangerous as brightly lit ones. but the facts argue otherwise. .Building elements 167 knowledge no practitioner can provide adequate documentation to substantiate this claim.3 However. Additionally.4). A lighting solution that makes it impossible to miss the step is the best answer (see Figure 14.—is a higher risk for accidents because of the level of distraction designed into it.4 A popular McFengshui tactic is to suggest a bright light for a dimly lit area outside a front door. lighting. etc.3). route direction. Some practitioners claim that a particular number of steps can create problems and accidents. A bright light at a front door with steps actually creates more accidents than it prevents—if indeed this technique has that effect—because the intensity of the light makes it more difficult to see the stair. complex stair layouts (including helical and dogleg) should be designed so that people do not need to make abrupt turns and ascend clockwise to ease traffic flow (see Figure 14.

5 . but accident researchers argue that the real risk results from someone having to include these objects and the stairs in their field of vision. Some practitioners worry about the effect of ‘energy’ coming through the window or from a light source.168 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui (a) (b) Windows and artificial light sources placed near stairs are also problems.

Doors The advice given for stairs applies to doors as well. according to ba zhai. wealth. the orientation and positioning of doorways provide insights into health. and/or relationships? In a subdivision it is possible that several floorplans provide just this type of distress.Building elements 169 Fireplaces There is nothing cozier than a crackling. But what if the fireplace has been oriented so that it figuratively ‘burns up’ someone’s health. warm fire on a wintry evening. Mitigating these effects requires knowledge of advanced feng shui practices and calculations (see Figure 14. Lining up doorways may be aesthetically pleasing to some but it does create risk for accidents. Moreover.5). A feng-shui practitioner might express theories about this kind of situation that range from the innocuous (possible friction and arguments between people who occupy two bedrooms in this kind of configuration) to the insane (overwrought symbolism in one form or another). and relationship . career.

Sometimes doorways have to be changed or avoided to alleviate problems for occupants. and governing bodies) results from building on undeveloped land. Windows Just because someone worries about ‘energy’ coming in or leaking out of a window does not mean there is a problem.) Not only is this increase in floor area wasteful.issues. . businesses. the average floor area of an American house has increased 77 per cent as households have shrunk. Why some practitioners worry at length about windows and ignore their history in Asian architecture is beyond the scope of this book. consider rehabilitating or remodelling an existing structure. when people step outside their McMansions they are confronted with a degraded environment caused by this unwarranted expansion in personal space (see Figure 14. the greatest harm to the natural environment (and the greatest expenses to people. it should reflect function. Be effective in resource management In many cases. (Some feng-shui practitioners link the construction cycle number to the household size—with metal years notorious for creating family dysfunction and divorce. The issue of windows is generally overblown unless the window looks out onto an ugly or demoralizing viewshed. In the last three decades. Seek out sites in already developed areas. Materials Comments on various materials to correct problems with existing structures and to avoid problems Small is good Building size should not be dictated by image.6). Such changes are best made on a case-by-case basis.

Building elements 171 Stick with simple People waste money and materials on gratuitous complexity and decorations instead of creating timeless structures that appeal to a sense of craftsmanship and elegant design. Carefully crafted structures stand the test of time and cost less. Build for remodelling Reducing valuable materials to rubble with a bulldozer or wrecking ball is not efficient or environment-friendly. Eschew rigid designs Structures that allow a variety of functions require less remodelling than structures built for a fleeting niche market. Design in the use of bolts. Look to the future Design and build for generations to come. Notes . and recyclable composites. screws.

.

Chapter 15 Resources .

org/ EcoIQ Home: Sustainable Communties. Backyard Habitat Program of the National Wildlife Federation. 2nd edition.edu/SEEJ/ Environmental Justice. http://www.uconn. http://www. Noise Control.html Arctic Circle: Social Equity and http://arcticcircle.org/backyardwildlifehabitat/ Cal Earth Forum.174 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui Feng-shui books for further reading Books by Lam Kam Chuen. http://www. Larry Sang. Eva Wong. orpheus-acoustics. http://www.gov/ Congress for the New Urbanism. Raymond Lo.ychfengshui. http://www. and by Elizabeth Moran. Businesses.amfengshui. 2002).calearth.astro-fengshui.cnu. and Val Biktashev (March 8.ecoiq. http://www.nwf. Alpha Books.org/ Cyburbia. http://www. sustainable.qi-whiz. http://www. http://www. http://www. http://www. com/ Feng Shui Ultimate Resource. Joseph Yu. Feng-shui instruction and information American Feng Shui Institute.com/ . http://www.com/home.com/ fengshui/ Yap Cheng Hai Centre of Excellence.cyburbia.shambhala.com/ Feng Shui and Destiny with Raymond Lo.doe. com/ Feng Shui Research Center (Joseph Yu). http://www. ‘Complete Idiot’s Guide to Feng Shui’. & Households.raymond-lo.com/ Feng-Shui information (Eva Wong).org/ Center of Excellence for Sustainable Development.com/ Green building and other sustainable technologies Architectural Acoustics Consulting.

ecotimber.villageat. Jobs.patternlanguage.com/home. http://www.uvm. http://www.Resources 175 EcoJustice Network.org/ Katarxis.com/info/specification. http://www.org/ Green Roofs for Healthy Cities. http://www. sustainableabc.worldcom. http://luciensteil.ch/~negenter/ Indigenous Environmental Network. http://www. Sustainable Development.ejrc.asp Global Issues.com/ CDA/BNPHomePage/1.com/tools/principles_factor.prb.com/ PatternLanguage. . http://www. http://www. http://www.com/ PLANETIZEN: Planning & Development News.edu/ Factor Four.skillful-means. Design and Construction. http://www. http://www.edcmag.00. http://www.edu/histpres/HPJ/ Implosion.ca/grhcc/main.asp Environmental Building News.com/ Humane Street Lighting.bsdglobal.peck.com/index.html James Howard Kunstler.planetizen.html http://www. http://www.asp EnviroNet Base.honorearth.nl/ Sprawl Watch.org/ Resurrecting Classical Land Use Patterns. http://www.kunstler.com/index.html Smart Architecture.com/ Planum—European Journal http://www.htm Honor the Earth.buildinggreen.org/envjustice/ EcoTimber. planum. http://www. & Events. http://www. streetlights/index. http://www.smartarch. Population Reference Bureau.org/ Skillful Means.org/ Sustainable Architecture. http://www.sprawlwatch.html Strawbale. http://www.ienearth.globalissues.html Environmental Justice Resource..igc.environetbase. http://www. http://www.tripod.com Environmental Design and Construction.net/ of Planning Online.cau. http://home.com/katarxis/index.4111.

http://www. http://sec.trafficcalming.176 Architect’s Guide to Feng Shui Traffic Calming—Your Complete Guide.org/index.noaa.gov/ .asp Space weather Space Environment Center.org/ Whole Building Design Guide.wbdg. http://www.

Zhimin.uk).co. 9 March 2002. Chinese dig up relics from ‘majestic’ town of 6000 BC. Geobiology: Exploring the Interface Between the Biosphere and the Geosphere. An. Stanford. and Schwartz Hava (March 1999). Security Management Magazine. American Academy of Microbiology (1–3 December 2000). The Timeless Way of Building. Alexander. The Shape of the Turtle: Myth. Sarah (1991). Divided Planet: The Ecology of Rich and Poor. A Pattern Language. 67–72. 87–94. Oliver. Christopher (1977). Arie. Anton. California. Allan. front page. Ochiai (2000). Shigomawara. and M. On the origin of Chinese civilization. M. Art. Emily M. and Cosmos in Early China. Measurement of low frequency biomagnetic signals under non-periodical extramural noise by continuously adjusted least squares method. Higuchi. Mathematics Elsewhere: An Exploration of Ideas Across Cultures. Oxford University Press. Journal of Henan Normal University 18 (3). Oxford University Press. Haruta. Tsao (1991). The Cult of the Dead in a Chinese Village. Times Online (http://www. pp. and Norman Hammond (31 October 2002). 899–902. Exploring the ideal home in psychotherapy: two case studies.. Ahern. timesonline. Christopher (1979). Welcome to Orange County. Princeton University Press. Journal of Environmental Psychology 19 (1). Mike. and Henry Chu (2002). SUNY Press. Alexander.Bibliography Adachi. Ascher. Atlas. Tom (1998). (1973). University of Georgia Press. . The other side of CPTED. August. Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Biomagnetism. Y. Los Angeles Times Valley Edition. M. translated by W. Randall (March 2001). Y. Athanasiou. Peled. Marcia (2002).

. Paul. Series A 360 (1800). Stewart (1995). Kenneth J. geochemistry and the zeroparadox noble-gas mantle. Andrew (1962). Philosophical Transactions: Mathematical. Rediscovering Sacred Science. The Stars and the Stones: Ancient Art and Astronomy in Ireland. Floris. Bamford. M. Södra Sandby. Penguin. Chris J. Boyd. Nature Science Update (http://www. . and Darl Rastorfer (2002). Gerri Spilka. APA Advisory Service. Kurt A. Old Cities. Physical and Engineering Sciences. J. Kaczmarek. How Buildings Learn: What Happens After They’re Built.1083. Brown. The Secret of Luo Shu: Numerology in Chinese Art and Architecture. Jorge Garcia-Lara (October 1998). Hauri (15 November 2002). Thames and Hudson. van Keken. Alec Tirani. and Michael Feirtag (1981). Green Cities: Communities Transform Unmanaged Land. Berglund. Mindy Fox. Philip (20 August 2002). Brown. Denver Business Journal. DOI: 10. Chinese Architecture and Town Planning 1500 BC–AD 1911.) (1994).nature.178 Bibliography Bach-y-Rita. Presented at the 14th Annual Meeting of the American Real Estate Society. Christopher (ed. Blaine. Bonham Jr. Brand. Urban sprawl creates unwilling neighbours. David E. Kenneth. Brown. M. Proceedings of the Royal Society. Transcranial magnetic stimulation reduces auditory hallucinations.html). Tyler. and Erik H. Sustainable Architecture White Papers. Gordon (21 May 1999). Ballentine. 427–30.. MIT Press. (July 2000). SUNY Press. LLC. Morris (2000). Lars (1990). Numerical models. Mitchell E. Wandering God: A Study in Nomadic Spirituality. Don Porcelli. Astronomy of the Ancients. Bender. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development 35 (4). Brecher. Peter E.1098/rsta. Berman. Brennan. Martin (1983).com/nsu/020819/ 0208191. ‘Are we closing ourselves out?’ Viewpoint. Earth Pledge Foundation. Gordon (1998). Ball. and Mary Rickel Pelletier (eds) (2000).2002. Space Analytics. Psychiatric Times XVII (7). Form perception with a 49-point electrotactile stimulus array on the tongue: a technical note. Design and Value: Spatial Form and the Economic Failure of a Mall..

and W. Space Analytics. Warrant for Genocide. Physical and Engineering Sciences. Daniel A. Environment & Behaviour 29 (4). M. Cox. (1983). Campbell. Larkin (August 2002).. Chou Yeu-Ming (1999). K. F. (1976). Bullard. China Cultural Relics News. Grady (1973). Cao Bingwu (translator) (24 December 2000). 631–40. K. (1997). Walkable Communities. Proceedings of the Royal Society. Jiangxi Sciences and Technology. Cowley et al. Burger. (ed. Kuo. Art. and Adriana Fernandes-Gonçalves (1998). Solar–wind–magnetosphere–ionosphere interactions in the Earth’s plasma environment. Road Diets: Fixing the Big Roads.C.2002. Robert D. Maehr. Healthy Sidewalks: A Guide. Myth and Ritual: The Path to Political Authority in Ancient China. Confronting Environmental Racism: Voices from the Grassroots. Rutgers University Press. Coley.1112. Ecopolitics: Building a Green Society. and Jeffery L. (15 November 2002). stewardship.E. Cheng Jian Jun. Sullivan (1997). Capra. Wallace H. R. (2002). Fritjof (1996). Coleman. Restoration.C.) (1993). The Web of Life. J. DOI: 10. Chang. Dan.. John J.C. Serif. Cambridge. environmental health. Philosophical Transactions: Mathematical. Environmental Management 30 (5). The Urban Planning of Chinese Ancient Cities. Praeger.1098/ rsta. The biogeography of faunal place names in the United States. Norman (2001). (1994). 1stBooks. Gordon (2001). Chinese Feng Shui Compass: Step by Step Guide. 1143–50. .Bibliography 179 Brown. Cohn. Close-Up: How to View the American City. Introduction to Geomagnetic Fields. Harvard University Press. Burden. and policy: understanding stakeholders’ perceptions. News from Lingjiatan.L. Chang. Series A 360 (1800). and Peter Lagerwey (1999). South End Press. Conservation Biology 16 (4). Inc. Anchor Doubleday. a famous prehistoric site in Anhui Province. Harvard University Press. David S. Clay. Where does community grow? The social context created by nature in urban public housing. Early Chinese Civilization: Anthropological Perspectives. LLC. 468–92.

Suburban Nation: The Rise of Sprawl and the Decline of the American Dream. Social Science Edition 42 (2).abcnews. 12917–22. Journal of Sun Yatsen University. Blinded by the Light: Data Shows Night Lighting in Buildings Kills Birds (http://www. Paper Presented at INSAP III. Proceedings of the National Academy Sciences of the USA. Dong. Devereaux. et al. Effects of air pollution on emergency room visits for respiratory illnesses in Montreal. Columbia University Press. Llewellyn.180 Bibliography Craven. Feng Shui and the Tango in Twelve Easy Lessons: Why Feng Shui Works and How to Make it Work for You. 99 (20). 343–6. and Neo D. Doctors. Christopher (1996). Spirit Paths. Li-zhang (2002). C. Whitney Library of Design.M. the Vermilion Bird and the White Tiger as their Totems and the Great Ancient Tomb in Xishuipo. Theta and alpha oscillations: dependency on navigation tasks. Edge. and Magicians of Ancient China: Biographies of Fang-shih. MIT Press. Cullen. and Jeff Speck (2000). (1997). Wakai (2000). Shamanism and the Mystery Lines: Ley Lines. Ralph and Lahni (2001). Shape-Shifting and Out-of-Body Travel. De Araujo. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 155. Ralph J. Williams. Norman (1995). DOI: 10. and R. Aurochs in the sky. Cambridge University Press. DeAmicis. 764. Diviners. Rebecca (2002).. Astronomy and Mathematics in Ancient China: The Zhou Bi Suan Jing. Frank (2000–2001). Richard J. Nature and the Idea of a Man-Made World. Lee (16 May 2002). Andres.B. Dunne. Baffa. DeWoskin.1038/nrh953. Puyang. The races descended from the deities who regarded the Azure Dragon. Foodweb structure and network theory: the role of connectance and size. (1985). Martinez (2002). Quebec. 568–76. Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk. . A celestial interpretation of the Hall of Bulls in the Cave of Lascaux. Dye. Jennifer A. Deasy. pp. Crowe.T. Attention to detail. D. Designing Places for People. Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Biomagnetism. O. Paul (1994). (1983). Delfino.. North Point Press. Duany. Kenneth J. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 3.com). Cuore Libre.

22 (1/2). 85–94. Scribner. Journal of Environmental Psychology. Peter Lercher. Gajendran. 33–9. 300–11.. 50. and Susan P. vol. The ecology of urban landscapes: modeling housing starts as a densitydependent colonization process. The Cost of Sprawl. . Executive Department. Paper presented at the Eighth International Conference on the History of Science in China.. Or. When buildings don’t work: the role of architecture in human health. The Myth of the Eternal Return.. Mark S. and William C. Sharon. Cosmos and History. Children as partners in neighborhood placemaking: lessons from intergenerational design charrettes. Frances Kuo. Eliade. South End Press. (1993).L. Maine State Planning Office (1997). Sarah H. Gary. and Walter F. Geo Factsheet (1998). Steven S. The system of the ‘monthly ordinances’ (yueling). Fads and Fallacies in the Name of Science. Eli Meir. A. Gardiner. William F. Dover. The Ambidextrous Universe: Mirror Asymmetry and Time-Reversed Worlds. 171–89. Gentz. Fang. Sullivan (March 2002). Journal of Environmental Psychology 22 (1/2). Mircea (1991). Landscape Ecology 16 (1). Carroll. and Jianguo Wu (January 2001). Master’s thesis. Andrea. Princeton University Press.com). Gedicks. Evans. Lisanby. Evans. The New Resource Wars: Native and Environmental Struggles Against Multinational Corporations. Archives of General Psychiatry 56. Fagan. Indian Express Group (http://www. Feng shui in site planning and design: a new perspective for sustainable development. September. 221–31. Faber Taylor. Gary W. Transcranial magnetic stimulation: applications in neuropsychiatry. George. 49–63. Journal of Environmental Psychology 22 (3). Crowding and children’s mental health: the role of house type. Arizona State University. Jyothiram (2000). Martin (1957). Kofler (September 2002). 9th edn. Joachim (1998). Playing upon patient psychology in hospital environment. Zitao (2000). Martin (1978).Bibliography 181 Egretta Sutton. Journal of Environmental Psychology 18 (1). Sackeim (1999). and Janetta Mitchell McCoy (March 1998). Views of nature and self-discipline: evidence from inner city children. Urban Microclimates. Kemp (March 2002).expresshealthcaremgmt. Gardiner. and Harold A.

‘Humans.. Formal Structure in Indian Architecture. In: Kellert. Nicholos (1992).) (1998). Transformation Network (http://www. Shearwater. Lenton (March 1998). Wendy M. Brown. Herzog. The Experience of Place. Thomas R. Orians (1993). . Richard (July 1999). Geobiology––The Holistic House. Knopf. Nature 406.html). Hawken. A Summary of Chemical Reservoirs and Convection in the Earth’s Mantle. Rizzoli. Herdeg. Heal. Ecology and Evolution 10. Judith H. Haeuber. Novel intercellular communication system in Escherichia coli that confers antibiotic resistance between physically separated populations. Hiss. Wilson (eds). (1998). Spora and Gaia: how microbes fly with their clouds. and L.D. The Occult Roots of Nazism: Secret Aryan Cults and their Influence on Nazi Ideology. J. 131–47. Rutgers.T. W.182 Bibliography Gobet. Heath. Amory Lovins. Habitats. 1–16. Hamilton. Royal Society. Grossman. Klaus (1990). Tony (1990). and Earth. Journal of Environmental Psychology 19 (2). The Biophilia Hypothesis.. Hunter Lovins (1999). Ham-Rowbottom.transformation. Primeau (September 2002). Natural Capitalism: Creating the Next Industrial Revolution. and Kelly T. Hallett. Paul. Moon. Perception of the restorative potential of natural and other settings. Walker and Company. Hong C.D. and T. New York University Press. Stephen R. Michael (ed. Parsons (2002). Heerwagen.net/coils/geobiology. Journal of Applied Microbiology 92. Goldman. and Gorden H. and Edward O. Robin (1999). Transcranial magnetic stimulation and the human brain. and A.. Sprawl tales: Maryland’s smart growth initiative and the evolution of growth management. Little. Mark (13 July 2000)..M. Urban Ecosystems 3 (2). 295–306.. Robert Gifford. 147–50. and Aesthetics’. R. Defensible space theory and the police: assessing the vulnerability of residences to burglary. (15 May 2002). Privatizing Nature: Political Struggles for the Global Commons. Journal of Environmental Psychology 22 (3). Shaw (June 1999). Sun. and Jessica S. 1116–22. Kathleen A. Ethology. 117–29.M. Chen. The shifting ground beneath your feet—new approaches to understanding the Earth’s mantle. Goodrick-Clarke.

and biotic invasions in southwestern Australia. Early China. John H. Institute for East Asian Studies (1995). 239–46. Ralph E. Science and Traditional Knowledge: Report from the ICSU Study Group on Science and Traditional Knowledge. International Council for Science (2002b). UFOs. Synergisms among habitat fragmentation. heat and indoor lighting on cognitive performance and self-reported affect. Hoffman. and Dennis S. Hygge. 1522. Huston. Hobbs. International Council for Science (2002a). Crop Circles. Institute for East Asian Studies (1990). Revised 23 June 2002. Channeling. 191–200. livestock grazing. Alien Abductions...J. R. 291–9. Krystal. Harris (June 2001). Huang. Berman. and Igor Knez (September 2001). Institute for East Asian Studies (1983–1985). and Other New Age Nonsense. Restoration ecology: repairing the earth’s ecosystems in the new millennium. Cattle Mutilations. The Numerology of the I Ching. Richard J (December 2001). Horelli. The Lancet 355. Staffan. Early China. 4: Science. Robert M. Sylvia Hu.Bibliography 183 Ho Peng Yoke (2000). Effects of noise. Volume 20. Liisa.A. Conservation Biology 15 (6). University of California at Berkeley. Traditional Knowledge and Sustainable Development. ICSU Series on Science for Sustainable Development No. Nashaat N. Early China. 1073–5. Journal of Environmental Psychology 22 (1/2). Atlantis. Astrology. Peter (1997). Restoration Ecology 9 (2). Opportunities and constraints of ‘internet-assisted urban planning’ with young people. Paladin Press. Inner Traditions International. Dover. Transcranial magnetic stimulation and auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia. Journal of Environmental Psychology 21 (3). University of California at Berkeley. and Mirkka Kaaja (2002). Qi and Shu: An Introduction to Science and Civilization in China. Li. Boutros. University of California at Berkeley. Volume 15. Scams from the Great Beyond: How to Make Easy Money Off of ESP. Hobbs. Alfred (2000). and J. . Volumes 9–10. Charney (25th March 2000).

. pp. 233–48. Thames & Hudson. Alex (2002). The Value of Life: Biological Diversity and Human Society. In Joseph Campbell (ed. University of California at Berkeley. Stephen R. Urban forest cover of the Chicago region and its relation to household density and income. Keightley. Are Quanta Real? Indiana University Press. Shearwater. Perception of apparent motion is related to the magnetic response from the human extrastriate cortex. Kaneoke. and Elizabeth A.stm). University of California at Berkeley. Y. Volume 3. The Crest of the Peacock: NonEuropean Roots of Mathematics. Kellert. A measure of man in early China: in search of the neolithic inch. 18–40. J. Knoll. Urban Ecosystems 4 (2).co. Louis R. and Edward O. Volumes 23–24. 8 May (http://news. Penguin. Wilson (1993). Kellert.. Scribner.M. (1996). Max. Jorgensen. Jacobs. Inner Navigation: Why We Get Lost and How We Find Our Way. Timo (1995). Kirby. and R. Johnsson. Role of efferent influences on receptors in the formation of knowledge. Early China.. Ancient Mysteries. Volume 21.184 Bibliography Institute for East Asian Studies (1996). Man and Time. Progress ‘undermines African cultures’. Iverson. James. Jauch. David N.uk/hi/english/sci/tech/newsid_1975000/ 1975359. Bradley S. Stedman (September 2001). 105–24. Integrative Physiological and Behavioral Science 34. . BBC News. (1973). Eric (2002). Cook (April 2000). Sense of place as an attitude: lakeshore owners attitudes toward their properties. and Richard C.bbc. O. 161–4. The Biophilia Hypothesis. George Gheverghese (1991). Kawakami. The theory of the organism-environment system: III. Shearwater. Chinese Science 12. Stephen R. (1995). Transformations of science in our age. Early China. 90–100. Bolligen/Princeton.. Kakigi (2000). The Death and Life of Great American Cities. Jane (1992). Institute for East Asian Studies (1998–1999). Peter. Journal of Environmental Psychology 21 (3). Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Biomagnetism.). Vintage. and Nick Thrope (1999). Joseph. Jarvilehto. (1983).

Lakoff. Luck. Princeton. Rebekah Levine Coley. 103–11. A regional restoration grants program to promote preservation and enhancement of urban natural areas. Mythology and Monarchy in Han China. Lappé. Langworthy. F. Tarcher. Department of Mathematics.E. National University of Singapore. and Mark Johnson (1999). Robert H. 823–51. (1993). (2001). (1991).H. A gradient analysis of urban landscape pattern: a case study from the Phoenix metropolitan region. Moon. Kuo. George. Esther (October–November 1998). Environment & Behaviour 33 (1). Urban Ecosystems 2 (2–3). and Jianguo Wu (May 2002). Lévi-Strauss.H. 327–39. Schocken. American Journal of Community Psychology 26 (6). . Fertile ground for community: inner-city neighborhood common spaces. Priests and Programmers: Technologies of Power in the Engineered Landscape of Bali. Lansing. E. Landscape Ecology 17 (4). Oxford University Press. Matthew. Hot Area Topography. and Five of the Huainanzi. Philosophy in the Flesh: The Embodied Mind and Its Challenge to Western Thought. Stephen (1991). Charles (1841).Bibliography 185 Krupp. Lev. K. The Chinese Calendar of the Later Han Period. Extraordinary Popular Delusions and the Madness of Crowds. S. Frances Moore. Frances E. and Anna Lappé (2002). USA. J. Arizona. Stars. and Planets. Columbia. Kuan. Basic Books. Cambridge. The Essential Book of Traditional Chinese Medicine. Teng. William C. Sullivan. Liu Yanchi (1988).P. Divination. Loewe. Volume I: Theory. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences as part of the National Institute of Justice intramural research project ‘A Multimethod Exploration of Crime Hot Spots’. 5–34. Kuo. Hope’s Edge: The New Diet for a Small Planet. Myth and Meaning. and Aslaksen Helmer (1999–2000).C. Beyond the Blue Horizon: Myths and Legends of the Sun. and Lisette Brunson (December 1998). John S. Claude (1979). J. (undated). Mackay. Heaven and Earth in Early Han Thought: Chapters Three.. Major. Coping with poverty: impacts of environment and attention in the inner city. SUNY. Michael (1995). Four.

Its Transformations. Ewing (September 2001). Restoration Ecology 9 (3). Roy (1995). 280–92. Lewis (1961). ‘Greening to the Blue’ Conference. Conservation Biology 16 (2). Restoration of fragmented landscapes for the conservation of birds: a general framework and specific recommendations for urbanizing landscapes. South End Press. J. and Its Prospects. 330–7. Thomas Lee (1996). Bioelectromagnetism: Principles and Applications of Bioelectric and Biomagnetic Fields. Bill (1989). Mildner.S. and Paul Froom (2001).M. Thomas Lee (May 1995). Oxford. . May. and K. James G. Jaakko. Hobbs. Kanyu—The book of change concept in environmental and architecture planning. South End Press. Little. Marzluff.186 Bibliography Malmivuo. The City in History: Its Origins. Random House. Mörtberg. Travel and Parking Behavior in the United States. The interactive effect of chronic exposure to noise and job complexity on changes in blood pressure and job satisfaction: a longitudinal study of industrial employees. Peter. and Catherine R. Streets of Hope: The Fall and Rise of an Urban Neighborhood. Miller. Hope. Gerald C. Melamed. Landscape Ecology 16 (3). Kan Yu (Feng Shui)—an ancient Chinese theory on site location. Medoff. Eugenie Vorburger. Center for Urban Studies. Brown (1994). McKibben. Conservation where people live and work. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology 6 (3). Discussion Paper No. Nature’s Universal Element: Why People Need Iron and Animals Make Magnets. May. 182–95. Resident bird species in urban forest remnants. Human and Wild. Harvest/HBJ. and Martha J. landscape and habitat perspectives. Temporal location theory. Samuel. Mielczarek. McKibben. Mumford. and Richard J (April 2002). Planning to Stay. Iron. The End of Nature. Yitzhak Fried.. Yale University School of Architecture. Bianco (December 1996). Brown. Hong Kong. Strathman. Bill (1995). Ecological Democracy.. and Robert Plonsey (1995). Morrison.. William R. Milkweed. Paper Presented at the GeoInformatics 95 Conference. DP96-7. and Holly Sklar (1994). 193–203. Rutgers. Morrish. Ulla M (April 2001). and Sharon Bertsch McGrayne (2000).. James R.

Newman.A. G. Ong. Michael Maniates. Popular astrology and border affairs in early Imperial China: an archaeological confirmation. Han (2001). Confronting Consumption. (2002). Center for Urban Policy Research. National Wildlife Federation (2001). Rappenglück. The influence of land-use change and landscape dynamics on the climate system—relevance to climate change policy beyond the radiative effect of greenhouse gases. Betts. Fixer Chao. Linda M. Rees et al.. Oscar (1996). . Conservation Biology 15 (1).O. Proceedings of the Royal Society. and Wilson. Karen A (February 2001). Farrar. Michael A. Philosophical Transactions: Mathematical. J. Princen. R. Puth. Thomas. Series A 360 (1800). Eastman. Plunket. Philosophical Transactions. Silent Thunder: In the Presence of Elephants. 1705–19. R. Pankenier. Niyogi. Series A. (2000–2001).1098/rsta. DOI: 10. Strans and Giroux. Payne.Bibliography 187 National Association of Home Builders (NAHB) Research Center (2001). Resident perceptions of a nearby electric transmission line. 65–74.. David W.. Niles.1115. 21–30. Calendars and Constellations of the Ancient World. J. Evans (March 1996). Pielke Sr.L. National Wildlife Federation. Senate. Boundaries and corridors as a continuum of ecological flow control: lessons from rivers and streams. Analysis of magnetometer data using wavelet transforms. The Quiet Revolution: Building Greener. and S. Marland. Office of Policy Development and Research. Building Better. Paving Paradise: Sprawl’s Impact on Wildlife and Wild Places in California. Creating Defensible Space. Running (2002). and Gary W. Paper presented at INSAP III. and Ken Conca (eds) (2002).2002. National Association of Home Builders. Emmeline (1997). Thomas. Simon and Schuster. (September 1998).A. Priestley. Rutgers. US Department of Housing and Urban Development. Katy (1998). Palaeolithic shamanistic cosmography: how is the famous rock picture in the shaft of the Lascaux Grotto to be decoded? Abstract from the ValCamonica Symposium. Physical and Engineering Sciences. D.N. Chase. Journal of Environmental Psychology 16 (1). Special Theme Issue 360. T. MIT Press.

Andrew. Marybeth Buechner. 25–31 August 1996. and Haider Taha (1996). Bruce (14 October 2002). 103–16.177–186. and R. and Christine M. Conservation Biology 15 (6). 1585. . H. and Shawn C. S. Houghton Mifflin. Rosenfeld Arthur H. 9. Russell. Margoluis. Hetrick. Hashem Akbari. Cordes. A systematic test of an enterprise strategy for community-based biodiversity conservation. Rachel Naomi (2000). B. 524–9. Using viewshed models to calculate intercepted solar radiation: applications in ecology. Sauvajot. Green Cross International (http://www.ch/GreenCrossPrograms/waterres/gcwater/ study. George (1996). H. Shapiro. DC. Cauley. Cambridge. Horn (1997). Balachander. Samson. New Scientist (http://www. and Sally P. My Grandfather’s Blessings.188 Bibliography Register. Rosenfeld. Painting the town white—and green. LBL-38679. and Alan C.html). Encarnacion. D.gci. Schecter. Riverhead/ Penguin. Remen.. The McDonaldization of Society. Urban Ecosystems 1 (2). Margoluis (December 2002). Paul M. vol. (1980). Saving (1994). Joseph J. International Freshwater Conflict: Issues and Prevention Strategies. Technology Review February/March. G. Rey.newscientist. Ritzer. Kamradt. 1. Lloyd (1997). Mel Pomerantz.. Paul. J. 1996.com). Romm. Policies to reduce heat islands: magnitudes of benefits and incentives to achieve them. Raymond M. and Bertrand Charrier (August 1997). Berkeley Hill Books. In Proceedings of the ACEEE 1996 Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings. N. Patterns of human disturbance and response by small mammals and birds in chaparral near urban development. Denise A. Pine Forge Press. Arthur. Judith (2001). Wildlife conservation in urban greenways of the mid-southeastern United States. Washington. William A.. J. Schonewald (December 1998). Massive balancing act pins down big G. Mao’s War Against Nature: Politics and the Environment in Revolutionary China. Urban Ecosystems 2 (4). 9. American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy. C. Ecocities: Building Cities in Balance with Nature.A. C. The Stars: A New Way To See Them. Salafsky. Parks. Richard (2002).. pp. Bhatt. Rich. Romm. Hashem Akbari. J. 279–97. Proceedings of the ACSM/ASPRS Annual Convention and Exposition. Schiller.

Richard J. Bernhard M. South End Press. Brill. Prometheus.. The Hall of Light: A Study of Early Chinese Kingship. and D.Y Kwok (eds) (1993). Dellasala.R..000 years: is there a Sun–climate connection? Earth and Planetary Science Letters 199 (3–4). and Amanda McConnell (1998). and Joan T. Strittholt. Mukul (10 June 2002). and Jacob Kistemaker (1997). Stolen Harvest: The Hijacking of the Global Food Supply. Paper presented at the Eighth International Conference on the History of Science in China. Simons. Soothill. Julia L. Strong. Schmelz (eds) (1999). Variations in solar magnetic activity during the last 200. Smith. The Sacred Balance: Rediscovering Our Place in Nature. Daniel J. Sherr. Shiva. Steinhardt. Springer. Westview. 1742.W. James R. Saba. Sun Xiaochun. Lutterworth.Bibliography 189 Sharma. South End Press. Biopiracy: The Plunder of Nature and Knowledge. Keith T. Gorillas in our midst: sustained inattentional blindness for dynamic events.. Chinese city planning thoughts noted by ancient books. Andrew McMeel. Effects of the foliage plant on task performance and mood. and Human Efficiacy: Essays in Chinese Thought. Perception 28. Lynn (1997). . Journal of Environmental Psychology 22 (3). Chinese Imperial City Planning. Haisch. (1991). and Naoto Suzuki (September 2002).. 265–72. Cosmology. Chabris (1999). David. and Domonick A (December 2002). Vandana (1997). Vandana (2000). Shibata. Suzuki. University of Hawaii. Smith. 459–72. 1059–74. Importance of roadless areas in biodiversity conservation in forested ecosystems: case study of the Klamath–Siskiyou ecoregion of the United States. The Many Faces of the Sun: A Summary of the Results from NASA’s Solar Maximum Mission. Nancy Shatzman (1999). Ontology. Richard J. Conservation Biology 15 (6). Fortune-Tellers and Philosophers: Divination in Traditional Chinese Society. and Christopher F. University of Hawaii. Seiji. The Chinese Sky During the Han: Constellating Stars and Society. Shen Yuzhi (1998). Shiva. Tall Blondes: A Book about Giraffes. William Edward (1951).

Tokar. John S. Zhu Yanping. Children in the New Millennium: Environmental Impact on Health.’ In: Kellert. (http://www. Valuation of nature in conservation and restoration. A Shelter Sketchbook: Timeless Building Solutions. State of the World Population 2001. UNICEF. van der Windt. css. E. Brian (1997). General Assembly Special Session on Children. Summertime haze air pollution and children with asthma. Taylor. UNEP. and Safer Design. Chelsea Green. Thomas. Last update January 2002.A. Trinh Xuan Thuan (2001). Catherine Ross. Michigan State University. Ulrich. South End Press. Shearwater. and WHO (May 2002). The Biophilia Hypothesis. David X. UNFPA (2002). and H. Roger S.edu/users/dswenson/web/REVENGE. M. A progress report on the 1999–2000 seasons of the regional archaeological survey of the Chifeng Region. Taipei. Biophobia. Keulartz (June 2001). ‘Biophilia.190 Bibliography Swart. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 155. Wilson (eds).. 654–60. 692–703.A. H.J. Swenson. and Race Relations: Linkage with Urban and Regional Planning Literature. Oxford. 230–8.K. and J. June Manning. Race. Earth for Sale: Reclaiming Ecology in the Age of Corporate Greenwash. Racism.. Templer. Rutgers. John Metzger. The Invisible Plague: The Rise of Mental Illness from 1750 to the Present. and Teng Minyu (September 2002). (1997).A. John (1994). Inner Mongolia. and Judy Miller (2002). Amenity values of public and private forests: examining the value-attitude relationship. (2002). Ta La. MIT Press. Guo Zhizlong. . Torrey. J. Restoration Ecology 9 (2). Tarrant. Cordell (2002). Falls. Thurston. Abstracts of the 17th Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association Congress.HTM). and Edward O.. (1993). and Bruce Stiftel (1997). Stephen R. et al. George D. The Staircase: Studies of Hazards. Chaos and Harmony. Environmental Management 30 (5). Fuller. (1983). Marsha Ritzdorf. The Ouroboros Effect: The Revenge Effects of Unintended Consequences. and Natural Landscapes.

Richard Norgaard. Forest edges as nutrient and pollutant concentrators: potential synergisms between fragmentation.. Weathers. 9 July 2002. 359. Tracking the ecological overshoot of the human economy. Waterson. Niels B. and Y. Marjut (June 1999). G. Wheatley. The Pivot of the Four Quarters. Valerie Kapos. James W. Sharpe. Mehlenbeck (September 2002). University of Wisconsin—Madison (http://www. Nature 419. Chad Monfreda. Clare Cooper-Marcus. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning. The Living House: An Anthropology of Architecture in South-East Asia. and the atmosphere. Wackernagel. Tao of Chaos: Merging East and West. Moskovits (August 2002). 131–43.. S. Lyons. Sandra. Tracking fragmentation of natural communities and changes in land cover: applications of landsat data for conservation in an urban landscape (Chicago Wilderness). Walter. Felix A.A. Van Tonder. Paul (1971). Conservation Biology 15 (4). Memory. 9266–71. Michael Seid. and Cognition 28 (3). 835–43. Wang. Jenifer R. and Robyn. Tongue Seen as Portal to the Brain. Diana Deumling. . forest canopies. and Jørgen Randers (2002). Gegenfurtner (May 2002).Bibliography 191 University Communications (26 February 2001).news. and Karl R. Element. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA. Roxana (1997). Kathleen C. Mathis. Alejandro Callejas Linares. wisc. Wichmann.J. Journal of Environmental Psychology 19 (2). Wallenius. Jonathan Loh. Whitehouse.edu/). 301–14. 99 (14). Varni. Norman Myers. 509–20. Whitney Library of Design. Mary Jane Ensengerg. 1506. and Debra K. Martin Jenkins. and Steward T.. Cadenasso. Evaluating a children’s hospital garden environment: utilization and consumer satisfaction. Mary L. Visual structure of a Japanese Zen garden. The contributions of color to recognition memory for natural scenes. Pickett (December 2002). Lindsay T. Journal of Environmental Psychology 21 (3). Edinburgh. Jacobs. Yeqiao. Ejima (2002). Schulz. Personal projects in everyday places: perceived supportiveness of the environment and psychological well-being. Katya (1996). M. Conservation Biology 15 (6).

East Asian Archaeoastronomy: Historical Records of Astronomical Observations of China. Fact Sheet 10. The functional integrity of the earth is at issue not biodiversity. On purpose in science. Edward O. Chinese and Indian Architecture: The City of Man. Wolf. Dunne. Wolf. Prentice-Hall. Eric L.192 Bibliography Williams. Wu. Wolf. Human Dimensions of the Urban Forest. Two degrees of separation in complex food webs. Strangers to Ourselves: Discovering the Adaptive Unconscious. The Calming Effect of Green: Roadside Landscape and Driver Stress. Human Dimensions of the Urban Forest. Fact Sheet 5. the Mountain of God. Berlow. A Comparative Study of Landscape Aesthetics: Landscape Morphology. and Values. Kathy (August 2000). Fact Sheet 1. and the Realm of the Immortals. Center for Urban Horticulture. University of Washington. Edwin Mellen. Timothy D. Journal of Environmental Psychology 16 (1). University of Washington. The socialization of architectural preference. Zhentao Xu. Jiahua (1995). Vol. Center for Urban Horticulture. 33–44. 99. Attitudes. The Future of Life. (2002). Woodwell. Studio Vista. Nelson (1968). G. Knopf. Urban Nature Benefits: Psycho-Social Dimensions of People and Plants. University of Washington. Community Image: Roadside Settings and Public Perceptions. Fact Sheet 8. Center for Urban Horticulture. Wilson. (2002). and Neo D. and Yaotiao Jiang (2000). Wolf. Issue 20. Jennifer A. Ambio 31 (5). Human Dimensions of the Urban Forest.. Trees in Business Districts: Positive Effects on Consumer Behavior! Human Dimensions of the Urban Forest. Kathy (August 2000). Yi-Fu Tuan (1974). Japan and Korea. Pankenier. University of Washington. Wilson. Topophilia: A Study of Environmental Perception. Richard J. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of the USA. Kathy (November 1998). Martinez (2002). Albert-László Barabási. Kathy (November 1998). . (March 1996). Wu. (2002). Gordon and Breach. David W. 12913–16. Wilson. Belknap Press. 432–6. Center for Urban Horticulture. Margaret A. conservation and government.M.

54. 131. 26 American driver statistics. 49 alpha brainwaves. 74–5. 167. 118–19 Automobiles. 20. 25 B Ba Zhai. 91 Africa. 14. 142 . 14 Aura of Earth. 117–18. 25 Apartment complex. 68. 75. 13 Affordable housing. 71. 158 See also individual animals Antennae. 121 Anti-anxiety medicines. 169 Baby-proofing. John. 116 Accidents. 25. 120 African religion. 27–8. 87 Alexander. 47–8 A Abuse of nature. 137 Air pollution. 123 Asthma. 5. 73. 142 Atmosphere: levels of ozone. 92 Arctic National Wilderness. 10 Air circulation. 148. 70. 169 Adams. 118 Adrenaline. 122 Ao (mythical sea turtle). 45 Auspicious feng shui. 93 Attachment to place. 118 Bagua (eight symbols). 121 Artificial landscape features. 112–13. 170 Analogy map. 54 ozone and oxygen concentration. 94. 92 Animals. 50 al-qibla. Ansel. 49 pollution. 115. 62 Animal sounds. 37. 78. 32–3. 59–60 Anecdotal evidence. 4 Allergies. 62 Aurora australis. 45 Aurora borealis. 93 American house size. 93 Albedo rates of glass buildings. 6 Altar of Heaven.Index 24 Mountains. 52 Astrolabe. 116. 121. 13. 124 Anxiety. 49. 52 Astronomy. Christopher. 136 Axis of Earth. 47. 116. 25 Bangert. 93–4 Astral compass. 161. 134–5 Backyard wilderness. 52.

25–6. 54 Chemical elements. 97 Black King. 26 Beta brainwaves. 9 Chronic illness and space weather. 25 Blackouts. 89–90 Bu (Calippic Cycle). Fritjof. 137. 32.194 Index Banpo. 49 Chicago. 62 Calendar. 160 Bear. 73. 115 science. 121. 116 and space weather. 134–5 Candlemas. 80 slopes. 154 Baubiology. 155 California jog. 128 Butterfly effect. 26 revolution. 113. 28. 131. 98 Casa Milo. 93 Cardinal directions. 18 Chaotic system. 89 Biological effect of urbanization. 46 Blood pressure. 23. 18. 93–4. 43 south. Geoffrey. 49 in urban areas. 93 Chaos theory. 154–5. 33 Carpeting. 148 Characteristics of ozone. 20. 135. 75 Beijing. 50. 113. 50 Bi. 142–3 Bugs. 45 worldview. 33 Children. 23. 155 Christian missionaries in. 49 Chronic respiratory disease. 93 Carbon monoxide emissions. 20 Celestial stems. 97 watching. 54 Chaucer. 27 Bioclimate. 128. 21 Chemical sensitivity. 12. 27. 6. 114 Biophilia Hypothesis. 32. 10. 19 seasons. 15. 28 north magnetic pole. 115–16. 86 Biodiversity. 73 celestial north. 113 Birds. 142 Big Dipper. 119–20. 142 California. 112 Brainwaves. 142 Bedrooms. 166 China. 40 C Calculations. 25. 143 Centers for Disease Control. 114 Building: community. 52. 93 heights. 11 Carbon dioxide emissions. 32 Bie (turtle). 30. 119 Biophobia Hypothesis. 63. 169 Beidou. 130 pollution. 54 . 115 concepts of space. 27 Baseline Luopan reading. 43 Baths. 38 Canopus. 28 Capra. 32 Celestial equator. 81 inner city. 49–50 Brownfields. 148. 24. 6 Capital siting. 54. 13. 31. 26 South Pole. 97. 4 Celestial circle. 25. 25. 128 Chifeng.

145. 20. 15 . 154 Clutter. 11 Covering drains. 96 Dowsing. 142 D Daiyang (Taiyang). 45 points. 50 Depression. 93 Compass. 142 Class stratification. 94 space weather.Index 195 Circumpolar region. 76. 5 Dongshanzui. 158 Cowardin system. 95 Cutting of hillsides or hilltops. 43 Complexity theory. 170 Double facing/down mountain. 113 Dip (magnetic). 137 Convulsions. 83 Crime and violence. 47. 15. 121 Climate change. 24–5. 61 Defective workmanship. 49 Corona Australis. 18. 53 Construction cycles. 48. 30 Cut-and-fill. 37–40. 99. 95 Double sitting/up mountain. 31. 155. 86 Closet. 137 Dermatitis. 71. 64. 76 Daiyin (Taiyin). 49. 63. 167 Dome of the Rock. 62. 53 Community building. 26 Doorways. 13. 116 Disney Desert. 89 Climatic survey. 90 Clear-cutting. 32 Constellations. 129–30 Deforestation. 27. 79. 52 Civil year. 120 confusion in storms. 54 Digestive problems. 130 Confusing built environment. 118 Death rate: asthma. 38–40 Condominiums (row houses). 25 Sunspots. 38. 21. 49 Deceptive feng shui marketing. 170 Construction date. 95 Defensible space. 10 Divorce. 21. 11. 115. 11 Colours. 51–2. 122. 130 Commuting. 15. 76 Daming li (great brilliance calendar). 32. 116 Delta brainwaves. 39 Dogleg stairs. 91 Cong. 36. 128 statistics and vegetation. 26. 89. 25. 6 calculation. 170 Documentation of events. 62–3 Divine proportions. 144 Saturn and Jupiter. 142 Dao (Naturally So). 37. 98–9 Corrosion and space weather. 128 Cube of space. 119. 122 Columbine High. 73. 114. 31. 24. 24. 25. 79. 44 Cygnus. 82. 62. 128–30 grid. 37 readings. 52. 48. 47 Cosmology. 160 Draco. 95. 115. 114 Colures. 116 Cognitive map. 42 Disease. 83 Divination. 95 Cyclical movement and thought.

31 Eliade. 143 Earthquake fault lines. 63–4 bills and orientation. 36 Europe. 134 Ecosystem decay. 64 . 92 Favela syndrome. 96 Fatigue.196 Index Dragon. 42. 25. 98 Egypt. 143 F Fallingwater. 28 Empty buildings. 32. 116. 26 Equinox. 95 Ethics of feng shui. 170 E Earth currents. 31 Edge habitat. 28. 93 Emissions of greenhouse gases. 64 Equinoctial cross (ya-xing). 27. 8 Emergency hospital visits. 117. 94 Equator. 74 Ecotones. 51–2 Farmer’s calendar. 158 Drainage. 115 responses to designs. 116. 90 Fear. 26 El Capitan. 25. 169 Due diligence. 158. 42 Earthly branches. 47 Ecological efficiency. 51 Event model. 47. 122 Feng shui analysis. 135 fields. 62 Elephants. 119 Electric field. 95 conservation. 20. 14–15. 74. 138 environment: contamination. 33. 94. 138 as personal organiser. 20. 91 marketing clams. 21 Ecliptic. 90 degradation. 44 Erosion. 167 Family dysfunction. 99 Electromagnetism. 24–5. 49 Equinoxes at solar maxima. 81 Doors. 59 Ethnoscience. 114 health. 90 Energy. 68 pollution. 93 Emotions: distress. 61 planning. 158 Engineering interventions. 131 Emperor throne position. 25. 119 Elderly people. 95. 95. 158–9 Driveways. 160 lines. 99 justice. 155 Evaporation. 47 Fast moving traffic. 64 Electricity generation. 93 costs. 135 efficiency. 170–1 hazards of construction workers. 86 Dysfunctional family. 76. 91 consumption. 170 Fang shi. 45. 61. 31. 62 East Group trigrams. 95 Ennis House. 88. Mircea.

98 Habitat restoration. 64 Flooding. 79 xiangsheng. 79. 38 Groundwater. 91. 137 Fire possibility index. 113 Health issues. 96 Form and shape. 79. 62. 128 Grain element. 138 Fuse boxes. 121 Greek science. 88 Globe Theatre. 65 Geomagnetism. 15 Geopathic stress. 159 fragmentation. 60 Foreclosures. 72. 62 Headaches. 97–8 patch. 118–19 G Ganzhi (60-year cycle). 32. 31 Geometry. 137 Han period. 96. 83. 79 Global disease burden. 49 . 25 Great Wall. 45. 21 Fish tanks. 21. 98 Greenways. 68 Fungus. 79–81 Flying Stars. 4 Gematria. 76. 33 Genius loci. 137 Heart attacks. 64. 8. 86. 9 Geobiology. 32 Grand Teton National Park. 112 Five element theory. 32 Grading. 62 Freeways. 161 Flow of land. 148 First impressions. 50 Fenye (well-field system). 153. 50 Fengzhi (wind seasons). 11 Giraffes.Index 197 purpose. 42–3. 74 islands. 64 fields. 62 Fuxi. 143 Garage Mahal. 47. 49 H Habitat. 31 Glacier National Park. 159 Guest hill. 54. 51 Fengjiao (wind analysis). 130 Gardens. See Wuxing Fixer Chao. 20. 71. 117 Gaudí. 49 radiation. 25 Green parking. 142 Fighter pilots. 70 Garden apartments. 50. 58 Financial difficulties. 7 Gnomon. 160 Gestalt laws of orientation. 50–1 Hartmann grid. 97. 82 Groundhog Day. 118 Hallways. 97–9. 89. 95 Graffiti. 136 Green remodeling. 27 Great solar year. 62 storms. 118 Gropius. 95 Floodlights. 42 activity. 76 Form school. 118 Half Dome. Walter. 118 Global change. 43. 30. 120 Gravesite. 25. 58 First law of thermodynamics.

87. 10 L Ladle on early compass. 36. 137 Huangdi (Yellow Emperor). 136 Hillslides. 80 Helical stairs. 142 High-rise building. 114 Inner-city buildings. 49 Ion radiation. 31–2. 37. 130 Hillside housing. 130 Jiazi (initial year). 153 Instinctive urges. 6 Kanyu shia. 159 Hongshan. 112 Indoor air pollution. 44. 167 Hetu. 47–8. 25 Interplanetary magnetic field. 98 Industrialization. 58. 44 Jupiter cycle. 43. 93. 54 J Jacobs. 155 K Ka’aba. 60 Intuition. 119. 30. 93. 33 Human appreciation of natural world. 137 House situation on land. 73. 80 House-hunting. 11 Jupiter (Sui). 25. 72. 142–43 Jupiter (Sui) and sunspot cycle. 42 Ionosphere. 8 Korean architects. nose. Jane. 112 Heat islands. 95 . 9 Kashyapa. 118 Jung. 26 Hospital patients. 52 Lady Hao. 128. 155 Intercardinal directions. 98 Internal compass. 63 Ion concentration. 99 Heights and buildings. 50 Irritations of eyes. 144 I Illness. 128 Inner-city life and asthma. 148 Immune system dysfunction. 47 Joshua Tree. 50 Huo (Antares). 25–6. 58 Humans as electrical conductors. 79. 94 Installed services. 79 Human perceptual ability. 95 Hollywood.198 Index Heart rate. 154 Knossos. 7 Insulation. 64 Interviewing of practitioners. 11 International Radiation Protection Association. 113 House layout. 52. 42 Intuitive feng shui. 79 Hilltop or hillside cutting. 52 Land assessment. 6. 142 Jieqi (minor solar terms). 51 Kaogong ji (Manual of Crafts). respiratory system. 25 Kitchens. 24. Carl.

168 Lascaux. 161 Lighting. 30–1. 47. 25 Lunations. 33. 32 Magnetism: axis of Earth. 95 Layout of house. 79 Local magnetic field. 148 Larkin Building. 64 Malpractice suits. 115 Map of mausoleum. 98 Landscape aesthetics. 43. 82 Lunar lodge. 131. 135 Local conditions. 52 Maxima of storms. 71–2 Mandala. 58. 44 pole. 33 Litigation for feng shui. 143 Liuren astrolabe.Index 199 Landfill waste from construction and remodeling. 159 Luoyang. 25. 145 Luopan. 50–1. 44. 32 Lingtai. 36. 59. 142–3. 59 Liu Xin. 42 Magnetosphere. See xiu Lunar year. 40 Marital problems. 14. 26 Mandelbrot. 43. 25 Laws of the universe. 4 Mantle outgassing. 7. 115. 43. 68 Lost work from poor environment. 90 . 47 manufactured objects. 64 Mao Zedong. 52 Los Angeles. 59–60 Lifestyle issues of the developed world. 44 McDonaldization. 49 declination. 154 Local climate. 46. 54 polarity of sun. 33 shielding. 60–1. 94 Low-frequency magnetic fields. 61 Mars. 42. 71. 128. 135. 159–61. 20 Lifa (calendrical calculations). 93 Low income and asthma. 82 McFengshui. 43 Magnetoreception. 49 Longshan. 137 Marketing. 27 M Madness. 142 Mathematics. 154 storms. 33 Levi-Strauss. 83. 167–8 Lingjiatan. 37 Mawangdui. 143 Life cycle. 123 Magi. 12 Liang Yi (primal energies). 42 fields. 52. 62 Luoshu. 50 Low-income projects. 79. 8 Lawsuits for poor construction. Benoit. 152–4 field reversal. 93 Megamalls. 167 McMansion. 52. 42–3. 13 Landscaping. 52–3 Living room. 155 Light therapy. 170 Medical costs of poor environment. 37. 28. 86. 58. 68. 137 Leo. 70–1. Claude.

71 Stachybotrys chartarum. 14 Nesse. 28. 10–11. 49. 93 Niuheliang. 42. 50. 49 Ozone. 148 site. 14 Occupancy rate. 115 Open space. 99 Micropulsations. 95–6. 161–2 ‘Missing’ areas of a building.200 Index Mental health. 71 Penicillium. 12. 95 setting. New Urbanism.M. 13 Mental illness. 161 Money Corner. 155 Microclimate. 137. 30 Numerology. 25 Number systems. 81. 28–9. 54. 48. 33 Nu Gua. 122 Newgrange. 26. 119 Myth. 71 Mountain (sitting direction). 12 Mexico City. 39 Needle housing. 12 Northern Hemisphere. 77 New York. R. 93 N Native species. 97 . 113. 30 Nitrous oxide emissions. 116 New Age. 28. 116 Needham. 142 Mineral deposits. 121 Nine halls calculation. 159. 130 Oil exploration. 37 Numbers assigned to seasons. 162 Nonlinear systems. 26 Noise pollution. 121 Olduvai Gorge. 8 Mosaics. 49 Middle East. 113–16 Mercury. 118. 122 views. 43. 50. 142 Organization of space. 92. 135. 47 Niche market housing. 58 Monumental architecture.. 131 Oracle bones. 31 Mirrors. 97. 13 use of colours. 31. 138 Aspergillus. 72. Joseph. 142 Meridian transits. 171 Nigeria. 64. 43. 42 space weather. 97 Natural style: flow of land. 112–13 Occult ideology. 49 Oxygen and ozone content of atmosphere. 135. 143. 36 O Observations of nature. 37. 15. 62 Ming Tang. 26 Orientation. 40–1. 52 Neighbourhoods and open space. 128. 155 Milky Way. 14–15. 52 Metaphors of natural world. 161. 36. 27 Mould. 4–7.

113 Postoperative complications. 119 Recyclable composites. 36. 46 Power lines. 95 Porch. 99. 64. 158 Ponds. 33. 9 Parking. 58 Relaxation. 15. 142 Pentagon. 54 Pulse rate. 12 Quantum world. 38. 94 Pegasus. 137 Proton events from sun. 30 Predictive modeling techniques. 42 reading. 112–13 Pang. 131 Pulmonary oedema. 24 Pole star. 120. 65 Psychiatric patients. 47. 113 Psychic: ability. 136 Parks. 15 Placebo effect. 142 Pantheon. 4 Pollution. 115 Qinian Temple. Kevin. 93. 29. 26 Qi-siphon method. 129 Public gardens. 63 Rainforest. 75. 148 Pets. 121 Power panels. 12. 62. 155 Power grid. 143 R Racial issues: disparity. 161 Quantum mechanics. 32 Polis. 93 Peacefulness. 148. 154 Precession. 91 racism in transportation. 54 Puyang. 160 Principles (li). 44 Particulate emissions. 11. 90 Relationship Corner. 28. 52 Qin Shihuang. 10 Quarter-days. 137 vibrations. 27 Q Qi. 148 Prevailing winds. 50. 91. 161 Qin period. 68–9. 161 Postoccupation studies.Index 201 P Pain and viewshed. 112 Phantom load of appliances. 37. 160 ‘Pubic-hair greenery’. 22. 113 Potable water. 93. 131 Particle stream from sun. 63 Pseudoscience. 13 Poor construction. 94 Personal messages from nature. 43 Pseudo-geobiology. 113 Privacy. 171 Redevelopment. 90 racism in built environment. 54. 10. 128 Public assisted housing. 91 racism in smart growth. 13 Pedestrians. 128. 154 Philippines. 22 Prison inmates and viewshed. 13 . 12 People of colour. 119 Personality development. 161 Planets. 91 Radiation. 27.

50. 142 Sahel. 63. 11 Safety. 93. 68. 52. 115 Self-relaxation techniques. 159 Sefirot. 6. 75 Site blindness. 131 Shabtai (Saturn). 89 Site selection theory. 92. 145 Saturn. 118 Row houses (condominiums). 96 Rooftop gardens. 94. 95 erosion. 30 Self-destruction. 23. 33 Shakespeare. 148 Shan-shui (Chinese painting). 86. 42. 148 Sagittarius. 28. 161 Seasonal indicators. 113 Sifang (four directions). 130 Ruling star. 25. 47 Santong li (Three Sequences). 98. 25 Solar cycle on compass. 159 studies. 99. 54 Shang (Yin) period. 25. 91 Smog. 148 Rivers. 82. 171 Renovation made environmentally sound. 79. 142 Schumann Resonance (SR). 95. 142 Shanghai. 25 Seasonal Affective Disorder. 23 Skepticism. 40. 15. 90 Revenge effects. 72 type. 155 Salt Lake City. 128. 137. 20. 89. 122. 95 Solar bird in Chinese lore. 70. 91 Soil: condition. 72 San He Luopan. 26 Si-xiang (four constellations). 50 Scorpio. 96. 30. 53 Sirius. 116 Semiprivate areas. 73. 8 Sacred territory. 47. 154 Shipan. 47. 143 Sinks. 148 Six coordinates. 114 Social equity. 143 San Yuan Luopan. 30. 81 Smart growth. 160 Slopes. 18 Retail space in US. 158 Reversed house. 61. 71–2. 99 Snake. Utah. 142 Shang yuan (superior epoch). 143 S Sacred geometry. 42 San Yuan (three epochs). 118 Shi. 92–3. 148. 26 Sifen li (quarter-day calendar). 52–3 Shielding against magnetic fields. 52–3 Shotgun shack. 32. 25. 91 Sinan. 137–8. 152. 24–5 Sedimentation. 98 Resonance (ganying). 11. 7. 73 . 63. 33.202 Index Remodeling. 143. 59. 69 San He (Three Combination School). 158 analysis. 166 Sick days. 30 Shadow direction.

116. 24 Talmud. 136 Solar particle stream. 25 Squared circle (fang yuan). 113. 92–3. 15. 32 Taiji shang yuan (supreme pole superior epoch). 92. 142 Taisui. 49 Spas. 143 Sound. 26. 99 Theta brainwaves. 42. 49 Street orientation. 168–9 Standing water. 142. 137 Sunspots. 113 Sustainability. 62 Territory. 62 Tetragrammaton. 28. 143 Taiji (Supreme Ultimate). 46–7. 6. 136 Substance abuse. 135–6 housing. 20. 71. 48 Solar magnetic field. 128. 47 Spiritual comfort in structure. 47. 98. 130 Testimonials.Index 203 Solar gain. 135. 25 Through traffic. 97 Speeding autos. 10. 25. 22. 148 Systems theory. 62–3 Sprawl. 93 Sunlight. 6 Suicide. 92 Tengshe (Snake of Heaven). 121. 49. Synodic month. 124 Sulfur dioxide emissions. 93 Steps. 166. 23 T T intersection. 33. 159 Symbolism. 162 Southern Hemisphere. 123 Temple of Heaven. 159 Species loss. 142 . 26 Stairs. 50 Three-legged bird of the sun (sunspots). 6 Terrestrial grid. 13. 90–3 Square of Pegasus. 159 Stratosphere. 19. 32. 128 Tian Ho (Milky Way). 117 Technological intrusions. 135. 25 Teotihuacán. 11. 131 Spica. 128. 30 Textures. 31 Statistics on American drivers. 49. 54 Space in Chinese thought. 19. 160 Solar longitude. 94 Taichu calendar. 134 Spontaneous divination. 142. 26 Space weather. 166–7 Storm water management. 26 Tenant complaints. 6 Taste of heaven. 143 Solstices. 128. 49 Solar year. 45. 138 Star maps. 93 Suhail (Canopus). 38. 116–17 Subdivisions. 44 Solar panels. 86 Soundproofing. 18. 46 Solar wind. 20. 11. 145 Systems science. 44 Surgery patients. 42–3. 94 Stress. 13. 137 Suffering. 70 Swimming pools. 159 design. 43 Solar storms.

30. 136 knowledge. 128 Ventilation. 97–8 Universe as female. 155 Undeveloped land. 13 Urbanization. 24. 98 Urban issues air pollution. 113 Violence and crime. 54 thinking. 114 setting. 131 calming.204 Index Tianshu (celestial mathematics). 6 Tropical year. 114 Ursa Major. 30. 166 Volatile organic compound (VOC). 145 Troposphere. 32 Tropic of Cancer. 93 Tranquilizers. 8 W Walkup buildings. 130 Wang Cuo. 68. 94. 70. 8 design. 116 Visual pollution. 89 design traditions. 99 Traditional lifeways analytical techniques. 89 Visually impaired. 128 Vacant lot. 142. 26. 20 Up the mountain. 97 blight. 58 Toxic moulds. 5. 134. 7–8. 20. 50–1 Tian-yuan di-fang. 116 Transportation racism. 10 V Vacancy rates. 11. 14 city planning. 160 Vitruvius. 59 . 6 US Federal Trade Commission (FTC). 130–1. 86. 170 United Nations Population Fund. 25–6. 20. 15. 12 U Unclean water. 142 Views of nature. 155 Universal laws. down the river. 68 Turtle. 27 Time as an angle on a Luopan. 64 Turfing. 5 pathology of crime. 160 Venus. 4 Traffic. 142 Types of habitats. 73 building. 40 Wang cycle. 91 Trees. 98 Voltmeters. 61 Uselessness in Daoism. 71–2 Toxicity of construction materials. 47 Tongue ‘vision’. 20–1. 82. 9 housing. 32 Tiger. 93 birds in. 97 Trigrams. 77 problems. 96 Upholstery. 121 Vegetation and crime statistics. 117. 47.

59. Frank Lloyd. 51. 21. 30. 40–1. 114 Worm lure. 161 Wright. 79. E. 33 Xingqi (local influences). 87 organizations. 25 Yaodian. 25. 24–5. 138 Wuxing (five element theory). 47 Yin (quality). 49 Well-field. 47 Xing-De. 11 Woodchuck. 91 Wildlife. 33 Yi Jing (Book of Changes). 123 corridors. 68 Yap Island. 59. 33 Weather. 24. 73. 18–22. 158 White flight. 47 Yellow Emperor. 23. 47. 60 Xuan Yuan.O. 21 Xing Ji (year-marker). 30 X Xanax. 98 Water (facing direction). 83. 81 Water issues: analysis. 94 quality. 72 Y Ya character. Fred Alan. 87. 98–9 killed by buildings. 115. 38 Workplace shootings. 30. 32. 50. 23 Yang (quality). 95 Wayland’s Smithy. 23 Xiaoyang. 81. 28.Index 205 Warring States period. 116. 23. 21 Wetlands. 25–6. 27 Xiu (lunar lodge). 28. 113 Windows. 120 orientation. 19. 99 Yin (Shang) period. 159 West Group trigrams. 117 Yubu (Steps of Yu). 33. 158–9 stress. 64 Weather forecasting. 99 Yangshao. 53 Year-marker (Xing Ji). 82 Xuan Kong. 32. 170 Wolf. 78–9 features. 21. 21 Xiaoyin. 51 Weather sensitivity. 72 Xinglongwa. 33 Xuanwu. 38–9. 27 Yao. 73–4 Wyoming. 9 Xishuipo. 124 Xiang ke (mutual destruction). 51. 25 Yin yang theory. 28.. 155 Waterfront property. 95–6. 24. 25 Yaodong (subterranean housing). 120 Xiang sheng (mutual production). 18–22. 47. 117. 26. 52 Waste from remodeling. 52. 97 Wilson. 25–6. 25 Xue (favourable structural locations). 23–4. 23 . 122 Ya-xing (equinoctial cross).

15 Zong He Luopan. 42 Zoning methods.206 Index Z Zen meditation. 113 Zhang (Metonic cycle). 145 Zhaogaobou. 29. 51 Zigong (Purple Palace). 10 Zijin Cheng (Polar Forbidden City). 15 Ziwei yuan (Purple Court). 91 . 142–3. 47 Zhou period. 33 Zhongqi (major solar terms).

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful