# Applications of the Z-transform

March 19, 2006

• Partial fraction expansion method. . Inverse Z-transform • Power series method. • Residue method.1.

g.2. e. z>a z−a x(z) = z − a. z=∞ ⇒ Y (z) = 1. ROC : all z H(z) = ∞ H(z) = n=−∞ h(n)z −n – System Function . Convolution Property and System Functions x(n) h(n) y(n) = x(n)*h(n) Y (z) = H(z)X(z). ROC at least the intersection of the ROCs of H(z) and X(z). 1 . Can be larger if there are pole/zero cancellation.

................................................................... Causal ⇔ N1 ≥ 0 ............. If N1 < 0.. then h(N1)z −N1 → ∞ at z = ∞... ...... ROC outside a circle... then ROC is the exterior of a circle: ∞ H(z) = n=N1 h(n)z −n........ but does not include ∞. A discrete-time linear time-invariant system function H(z) is causal when..............3........ and only when the ROC of H(z) is the exterior of a circle and includes z=∞ ........... Causality When h(n) right-sided...................

4. Structure of a Digital System Symbols for Digital Operations Delay x(n) ∆T x(n−1) Multiplication x(n) x(n)y(n) y(n) Addition x(n) x(n)+y(n) y(n) Branch x(n) x(n) x(n) .1.4.

Cumulative Averaging System We want a system that calculates: 1 y(n) = n+1 n x(k) k=0 x(n) y(n) 1 n+1 z−1 n y(n) = n 1 y(n − 1) + x(n) n+1 n+1 . Example .4.2.

For causal systems .ROC is outside the outermost pole. . or two-sided. DT LTI systems described by LCCDE’s N M ak y(n − k) = k=0 k=0 bk x(n − k) Using the time-shift property: N M ak z −k Y (z) = k=0 k=0 bk z −k X(z) ⇓ Y (z) = H(z)X(z) H(z) = M −k k=0 bk z N −k k=0 ak z ROC: Depends on boundary conditions. right-.5. left-.

A DT LTI system is causal if the ROC is the exterior of a circle outside outermost pole include ∞. . N inﬁnite poles at z = p1 . for a causal system . . . . zN and N-M zeros (if N > M ) or poles (if N < M ) at the origin z = 0.6. Thus N ≥ M. Rational Z-Transform N (z) b0 + b1z −1 + · · · + bM z −M = X(z) = D(z) a0 + a1z −1 + · · · + aN z −N X(z) = b0 N −M (z − z1)(z − z2) · · · (z − zM ) z a0 (z − p1)(z − p2) · · · (z − pN ) The transform has M ﬁnite zeros at z = z1. . zM .

5 0 −1 0 1 Im 1 Re 0 −1 .5 |X(z)| 2 1. Poles .Zero Description of Discrete-Time Systems 4 3.7.5 3 2.5 1 0.

1.7. Time-domain behavior .Single real-pole causal signal z−plane x(n) z−plane x(n) 0 1 0 1 z−plane x(n) z−plane x(n) 0 1 0 1 z−plane x(n) z−plane x(n) 0 1 0 1 .

Time-domain behavior .7.Complex-conjugate poles z−plane ω 0 1 x(n) z−plane ω 0 1 x(n) z−plane ω 0 1 x(n) .2.

i. The frequency response exists. • A causal LTI system with rational system function is stable when all poles are inside the unit circle.8.e. Stability • LTI is stable when ∞ n=−∞ | h(t) |< ∞. have a magnitude < 1 . ROC of H(z) includes the unit circle | z |= 1.

Geometric Evaluation of a Rational z-Transform Example #1: Example #2: Example #3: All same as in s-plane .

Geometric Evaluation of DT Frequency Responses First-Order System — one real pole .

|H| peaks near ω = ±θ .Second-Order System Two poles that are a complex conjugate pair (z1= rejθ =z2*) Clearly.

. Identical to the two-sided z-transform of the signal x(n)u(n). Unique only for causal signals. No information about x(n) for n < 0.1. 2. The one-sided z-transform Deﬁnition and characteristics Deﬁnition: X(z) = ∞ x(n)z −n n=0 Characteristics: 1. 3.9. 9.

2. n=1 k−1 k>0 k>0 x(n + k) ↔ z −k X(z) − n=0 x(n)z n .9. • Final value theorem n→∞ lim x(n) = lim (z − 1)X(z) n→1 . Properties All properties are like for the two-sided Z-transform except for: • Shifting property: k x(n − k) ↔ z z z −k X(z) + x(−n)z n .

3. Determine a closed-form expression for the nth term of the Fibonacci sequence. 8. Algorithms and Applications” by Proakis and Manolakis . 5. Example taken from ”Digital Signal Processing. . Principles. 2. .10. The ﬁrst few terms of the sequence are: 1. 1. . Solution of Diﬀerence Equations Example The well known Fibonacci sequence of integer numbers is obtained by computing each term as a sum of the two previous ones.