# Mechanical Vibrations: 4600-431 December 20, 2006

Example Problems

Contents
1 Free Vibration of Single Degree-of-freedom Systems 2 Frictionally Damped Systems 3 Forced Single Degree-of-freedom Systems 4 Multi Degree-of-freedom Systems 1 33 42 69

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Free Vibration of Single Degree-of-freedom Systems

Problem 1: In the ﬁgure, the disk and the block have mass m and the radius of the disk is r. a) Find the equations of motion for this system. b) What are the natural frequency and damping ratio of the system in terms of m, c, and k? c) If the block is displaced 18 cm to the right and released from rest ﬁnd the resulting angular displacement of the disk with m = 3 kg, k = 21 N/m, r = 9 cm, c = 63 N · s/m, c k m (m, r)

k

4k

1

Problem 2: For the system shown to the right, the disk of mass m rolls without slip and x measures the displacement of the disk from the unstretched position of the spring. a) Find the equations of motion. b) With c = 16 N/(m/s), m = 2 kg, r = 0.10 m for what value of the spring stiﬀness k is the damping ratio of the system onehalf of the critically damped value, so that ζ = ζcr /2? c) With these parameter values, ﬁnd the displacement of the disk if it is rolled 20 cm to the right (from static equilibrium) and released from rest. Problem 3: From the ﬁgure shown to the right a) ﬁnd the equations of motion in terms of the angular rotation of the disk; b) what are the damping ratio and natural frequency of the system in terms of the parameters m, b, k1 , and k2 ; c) can you draw an equivalent springmass-damper system?
k2 c

x

k

(m, r)

r

k1

m

r 2

m

b

2

Problem 4: For the mechanical system shown to the right, the uniform rigid bar has mass m and pinned at point O. For this system: a) ﬁnd the equations of motion; b) Identify the damping ratio and natural frequency in terms of the parameters m, c, k, and ℓ. c) For: m = 1.50 kg, c = 0.125 N/(m/s), ℓ = 45 cm, k = 250 N/m,
O

ˆ  k ˆ ı m
ℓ 2

y θ
ℓ 2

2m

ﬁnd the angular displacement of the bar θ(t) for the following initial conditions: θ(0) = 0, ˙ θ(0) = 10 rad/s.
k

x c

Assume that in the horizontal position the system is in static equilibrium and that all angles remain small. Solution: a) In addition to the coordinate θ identiﬁed in the original ﬁgure, we also deﬁne x and y as the displacment of the block and end of the bar respecively. The directions ˆ and ˆ are ı  deﬁned as shown in the ﬁgure. A free body diagram for this system is shown to the right. Note that the tension in the cable between the bar and the block is unknown and represented with T while the reaction force FR is included, although both its magnitude and direction are unspeciﬁed. In terms of the identifed coordinates, the angular acceleration of the bar αβ/F and the F linear acceleration of the block aG are αβ/F ¨ˆ = θ k,
F

−k y ˆ 

−T ˆ 

FR

Tˆ 

−k x ˆ 

−c x ˆ ˙

aG = x ˆ. ¨

We can also relate the identiﬁed coordinates as ℓ x = θ, y = ℓ θ. 2 The equations of motion for this system can be obtained with linear momentum balance applied to the block and angular momentum balance aout O on the bar. These can be written as
F F = m aG −→ T − k x − c x ˆ = ˙ 

2 m x ˆ, ¨ m ℓ2 ¨ ˆ θ k. 3

M O = I O αβ/F −→ 3

−T

ℓ −kyℓ 2

ˆ k

=

Solving the ﬁrst equation for T and substituting into the second equation yields − (2 m x + k x + c x) ¨ ˙ ℓ m ℓ2 ¨ −kyℓ = θ. 2 3

Using the coordinate relations we can obtain the equation of motion as 5 m ℓ2 ¨ c ℓ2 ˙ 5 k ℓ2 θ+ θ+ θ = 0. 6 4 4 b) In the above equation the equivalent mass, damping, and stiﬀness are meq = 5 m ℓ2 , 6 beq = c ℓ2 , 4 keq = 5 k ℓ2 . 4

From these the damping ratio and natural frequency are ζ= beq = keq meq 2 ωn = keq = meq
c ℓ2 4 5 k ℓ 2 5 m ℓ2 4 6 5 k ℓ2 4 5 m ℓ2 6

2

=

√ 3c √ , 2 50 k m 3k 2m

=

c) Evaluating the damping ratio and natural frequency we ﬁnd that for the given values of the parameters ωn = 15.8 rad/s, ζ = 7.91 × 10−4 . Therefore the system is underdamped and the general solution can be written as θ(t) = e−ζ ωn t a sin ωn 1 − ζ 2 t + b cos ωn 1 − ζ2 t ,

where a and b are arbitrary constants used to ﬁt the initial conditions. Evaluating θ(t) ˙ and θ(t) at t = 0 yields θ(0) = b = 0, ˙ θ(0) = −ζ ωn b + ωn 1 − ζ 2 a = 10 rad/s,

so that the general solution becomes θ(t) = 0.632 e−0.0125 t sin 15.8 t .

4

c. c) For: m = 2 kg. m z ℓ 2 k ℓ 2 θ m x ˆ ı c ˆ  k d) for this motion. b) If the disk is released from rest with θ(0) = − π rad. ℓ = 25 cm. k. ﬁnd the resulting an2 gular displacement θ(t) for m = 3 kg. ˙ θ(0) = 10 rad/s. Assume that the system is in static equilibrium at θ = 0.25 N/(m/s). Solution: a) We identify the coordinates x and z as shown above. the uniform rigid bar has mass m and pinned at point O. the disk has mass m. c = 3 N · s/m. k g c k G (m.Problem 5: In the ﬁgure. k = 36 N/m. and that all angles remain small. 2 and moment of inertia IG = mr about the 2 mass center G and is assumed to roll without slip. ﬁnd the tension in the cable connecting the rod and the block as a function of time. ﬁnd the angular displacement of the bar θ(t) for the following initial conditions: θ(0) = 0. k = 50 N/m. The identiﬁed coordiante θ measures the rotation of the disk with respect to the equilibrium position. c = 0. r = 15 cm. For this system: a) ﬁnd the equations of motion. which are related to the angular 5 . and ℓ. a) Find the equations of motion for this system. r) c) What is the force in the upper spring during this motion? Problem 6: For the mechanical system shown to the right. radius r. b) Identify the damping ratio and natural frequency in terms of the parameters m.

12 −k x ˆ  −c x ˆ ˙  Combining these equations and eliminating the tension. k2 = 0. Find the response of the system if the block is displaced from its static equilibrium position 15 cm to the right and released from rest.0 kg. Notice that the two springs are eﬀectively in parallel. Linear momentum balance on this block provides F = m aG . 7m ζ= 2 √ 3b beq . and stiﬀness are meq = 7m . ˆ  x k1 m b ˆ ı k2 Solution: An appropriate free-body diagram is shown to the right. b = 0. =√ keq meq 28k m Problem 7: The block shown to the right rests on a frictionless surface.50 N/(m/s). 2  kz ˆ −T ˆ  T ˆ  FR An appropriate free-body diagram is shown to the right. keq = 2 k. ˙ ı ¨ı 6 .displacement θ as: x= ℓ θ. damping.25 N/(m/s). = m ℓ2 ¨ ˆ θ k. ˙  ¨ Likewise. angular momentum balance on the bar provides MO ℓ ℓ −T − k z 2 2 ˆ k = I O αβ/F . Applying linear momentum balance on the block yields F = m aG . F −k1 x ˆ ı −k2 x ˆ ı −b x ˆ ˙ ı (−k1 x − k2 x − b x) ˆ = m x ˆ. k1 = 1. and the natural frequency and damping ratio are ωn = keq = meq 12 k . m = 4. 2 z= ℓ θ. the equation of motion can be written as 7m ¨ ˙ θ + c θ + 2 k θ = 0. 6 beq = b. F (T − k x − c x) ˆ = m x ˆ. as the displacement across each spring is identical.5 N/m. 6 b) For the above equation the equivalent mass.

We note that (ˆ. the system is released from rest so that the initial conditions are x(0) = x0 = 15 cm. The surface is inclined at an angle of φ with respect to vertical. ¨ ˙ Further. x(0) = 0 cm/s. ˆ ˆ ı ˆ = − sin φ e1 + cos φ e2 . d) what is the static equilibrium displacement of the disk? φ ˆ  c k z x (m.or. and m. the displacement across the spring and the rotation of the disk respectively. we identify the coordinates z and θ. 2 . e2 ) as e ˆ ˆ = cos φ e1 + sin φ e2 . the disk of mass m rolls without slip and x measures the displacement of the disk from the unstretched position of the spring. = 3 m r2 ¨ ˆ θ k. c) for what value of the damping constant c is the system critically damped. Do not neglect gravity. ˙ Problem 8: For the system shown to the right. a) ﬁnd the equations of motion. what is the frequency of the free vibrations of this system in terms of the parameters k. These additional coordinates are related to x as z = 2 x.  = ˆ fr e1 ˆ N e2 ˆ ˆ (r e2 ) × (−m g ˆ) = −m g r sin φ k. c. b) if the system is underdamped. r) C ˆ ı θ ˆ e2 ˆ e1 Solution: a) In addition to x.  Angular momentum balance about the contact point C yields MC ˆ (2 r) k z + r c x − m g r sin φ k ˙ 7 = I C αD/F . the displacement of the center of the disk. x = −r θ. ˆ) are related to the direcı  tions (ˆ1 . writing this in standard form m x + b x + (k1 + k2 ) x = 0. ˆ −k z e1 −c x e1 ˙ ˆ −m g ˆ  An appropriate free-body diagram is shown to the right. ˆ ˆ  The moment produced by gravity about point C is Mgravity = rGC × (−m g ˆ).

we can write the equation of motion in terms of x as 3m x + c x + 4 k x = m g sin φ. the equilibrium displacement is x0 = m g sin φ . 3m ζ= c beq = √ . 24 k m c) The system is critically damped when ζ = 1. where ωn = keq = meq 8k . b) Assuming the system is underdamped. d) The system is stationary in static equilibrium. so that x ≡ x0 = constant—both x and ˙ x vanish. and the equation of motion reduces to ¨ 4 k x0 = m g sin φ.Eliminating the coordinates z and θ. which corresponds to a damping coeﬃcient of √ ccr = 2 6 k m. the coordinates are measured with respect to the unstretched position of the spring. 2 keq meq 2 6km so that ωd = 8k 3m 1− c2 . the frequency of the free vibrations is ωd = ωn 1 − ζ 2 . Solving for x0 . 4k 8 . ¨ ˙ 2 Since the gravitational force has been included in the development of this equation of motion.

the equation of motion becomes 2 2 2 ¨ I + m r1 θ + k1 r1 + k2 r2 θ = m g r1 . F FR −T ˆ  T ˆ   k1 z1 ˆ (T − m g) ˆ = m x ˆ. which are related as x = −r1 θ. ı −k2 z2 ˆ Notice that because of these coordinate deﬁnitions. and z2 as shown in the ﬁgure. Eliminating the unknown tension T from these equations and using the coordinate relations. ¨ˆ = I θ k. a rotation with positive θ gives rise to a negative value in both x and z2 . b) If the system is released from the unstretched position of the springs. 9 . Using the free-body diagram shown to the right. z1 . z1 = r1 θ. in the absence of gravity the springs are unstretched in the equilibrium position. what is the maximum angular velocity of the disk during the resulting motion? ˆ  k2 z2 r2 θ I r1 ˆ ı m x k1 z1 Solution: a) We deﬁne the coordinates x.  ¨ while angular momentum balance on the disk yields MO ˆ (T r1 − k1 z1 r1 + k2 z2 r2 ) k −m g ˆ  = I O αD/F . Likewise. z2 = −r2 θ. we see that x = −z1 . linear momentum balance on the block provides F = m aG . θ.Problem 9: In the ﬁgure shown to the right. a) Determine the deﬂection of each spring from its unstretched length when the system shown is in equilibrium.

and ωn = 2 2 k1 r1 + k2 r2 2 . 2 k1 r1 + k2 r2 m g r1 r2 =− 2.eq = −r2 θeq 2 m g r1 2. k1 r1 + k2 r2 With this. Therefore the solution is θ(t) = θeq (1 − cos(ωn t)) = m g r1 2 2 k1 r1 + k2 r2 1 − cos 2 2 k1 r1 + k2 r2 t 2 I + m r1 ˙ θ(0) = 0. 2 k1 r1 + k2 r2 b) The general free response of the disk can be expressed as θ(t) = θeq + A sin(ωn t) + B cos(ωn t). . where θeq is given above. the equilibrium deﬂection of each spring is found to be z1. so that solving for the arbitrary constants A = 0. B = −θeq .The equilibrium rotation of the disk thus is found to be θeq = m g r1 2 2. I + m r1 The system is released with the initial conditions: θ(0) = 0. The angular velocity of the disk becomes ˙ θ(t) = θeq ωn sin(ωn t). which has amplitude Ω = θeq ωn = m g r1 2 (k1 r1 2 2 + k2 r2 ) (I + m r1 ) 10 . A and B are arbitrary constants.eq = r1 θeq = z2.

b) what is the frequency of oscillation of the system. c) what value of the damping coeﬃcient b corresponds to critical damping? d) if k = 2 N/m. If the surface is assumed to be frictionless: a) determine the governing equations of motion. 11 . the uniform rigid bar has mass m and pinned at point O. x(0) = 0 m/s. b) what value of the damping constant c gives rise to a critically damped system? z1 z2 ℓ 2 k m k m ℓ 2 θ ˆ  ˆ ı c Solution: a) In addition to θ. and m = 3 kg. ﬁnd the displacement of the mass x(t) when the system is started with the initial conditions: x(0) = 0. x is measured from the static equilibrium position.Problem 10: (Spring 2003) For the spring-mass-damper system shown to the right. z1 and z2 .10 m. to measure the deﬂection at the left and right ends of the bar. b = 4 N/(m/s). ˙ 6k x m b Problem 11: (Spring 2003) For the mechanical system shown to the right. For this system: a) ﬁnd the equations of motion. we deﬁne two additional coordinates.

the two springs in series may be replaced by an equivalent spring. 3 4 2 b) A critically damped system occurs when ζ = 1. + k2 1 2 k1 12 . ζ=√ 32 k m Solving for ccr yields: ccr = 32 k m .25 N/(m/s). k1 = 0. 2 ℓ z 2 = θ = z1 . m = 2.5 N/m.5 N/(m/s). F − k z2 − T ˆ = m¨2 ˆ  z  Eliminating the unknown tension T and solving for z1 in terms of z2 . For this system: √ 3c . 2  −k z2 ˆ A free-body diagram for this system is shown to the right. the equation of motion becomes: m ℓ2 ¨ c ℓ2 ˙ k ℓ2 θ+ θ+ θ = 0. b = 0. k1 b k2 m x ˆ  ˆ ı Solution: For this system. k2 = 0. 3 Problem 12: (Spring 2003) Find the response of the system shown to the right if the block is pulled down by 15 cm and released form rest. m ℓ2 ¨ ˆ θ k. with constant: 1 k1 k2 keq = 1 1 = k +k .These coordinates are related as: ℓ z1 = θ. application of linear momentum balance on the block yields: F = m aG . Applying angular momentum balance on the bar eliminates the appearance of the reaction force and leads to: MG T − k z1 − cz1 ˙ ℓ ˆ k 2 = I = G −T ˆ  k z1 ˆ  T ˆ  G FR c z1 ˆ ˙  ¨ˆ θ k.0 kg. 12 Likewise.

˙ With this.Therefore. the damping ratio and natural frequency are: ωn = 1 −1 s . Problem 13: (Spring 2003) In the ﬁgure shown to the right. a) Determine the deﬂection of each spring from its unstretched length when the system shown is in equilibrium.  ¨ which can ﬁnally be written as: m x + b x + keq x = 0. ¨ ˙ With the numerical values given above. this becomes: (2 kg) x + ¨ 1 N 2 m/s x+ ˙ 1 N 6 m x = 0. 4 Therefore. we ﬁnd: √ 13 3 −t/8 3 √ t + x(t) = e cos cos 20 13 8 3 √ 13 √ t 8 3 . 20 x(0) = 0 m/s. b) If the system is released from the unstretched position of the springs. what is the maximum angular velocity of the disk during the resulting motion? ˆ  x2 k2 r2 θ r1 ˆ ı m x1 k1 13 . Applying linear momentum balance to the block yields: F keq x + b x ˙ = m aG . in the absence of gravity the springs are unstretched in the equilibrium position. x(0) = 3 m. F keq x ˆ  bxˆ ˙  ˆ = −m x ˆ. the free-body diagram is shown to the right. 12 √ 3 ζ= . the system is underdamped and the general response can be written as: x(t) = e−ζ ωn t A cos(ωd t) + B sin(ωd t) . Using the initial conditions to solve for A and B.

that is: z1 = x1 − x1. angular momentum balance is applied about the center. ¨ This equation of motion determines the equilibrium position θeq (with θeq = 0) to be: θeq = m g r1 2. F ˆ = m x1 ˆ. Also.eq . ı −k2 x2 ˆ G FR −T ˆ  T ˆ  −m g ˆ   −k1 x1 ˆ ¨ˆ θ k. 14 .  ¨  Finally. Likewise.Solution: a) We deﬁne θ. eliminating the unknown tension from these equations and using the above coordinate transformations. yielding: MG T r1 + k2 r2 x2 ˆ k = I G x2 = −r2 θ. Notice that the gravitational force must be included to determine the equilibrium deﬂection in the system.eq = −r2 θeq = m g r1 r2 2. x1 and x2 represent the displacement in their respective springs as measured from their unstretched position. and x2 as indicated in the above ﬁgure. These coordinates are related through the following transformations: x1 = −r1 θ. let φ represent the angular displacement of the disk from the static equilibrium position: φ = θ − θeq . x1 . applying linear momentum balance to the block yields: F T − k1 x1 − m g = m aG . 2 k1 r1 + k2 r2 b) Deﬁne new coordinates z1 and z2 . To eliminate the reaction force on the disk. ¨ˆ = I G θ k. An appropriate free-body diagram for this system is shown to the right. which measure the displacement in springs 1 and 2 with respect to the static equilibrium position.eq . z2 = x2 − x2. 2 k1 r1 + k2 r2 Therefore. k1 r1 2 2 x2. In particular. this single-degree-of-freedom system can be modeled with the equation: 2 2 2 ¨ I G + m r1 θ + k1 r1 + k2 r2 θ = (m g r1 ).eq = −r1 θeq = 2 m g r1 2 + k r2 . the equilibrium displacements in each spring are: x1.

and m. related as: x = −r θ. the potential and kinetic energies become: T0 = 0. 2 2 1 2 2 k1 r1 + k2 r2 φ2 . E = T + V remains constant. the kinetic energy becomes: T = = 1 G ˙2 1 I φ + m z1 . conservation of energy implies that V0 = T1 . . k1 r1 + k2 r2 ˙ φ(0) = 0. c. a) ﬁnd the equations of motion. the potential energy is minimal. when the kinetic energy is maximal. 2 1 1 2 2 k1 z1 + k2 z2 .Therefore. 15 z = −2 r θ. At this initial state. z = 2 x. the disk of mass m rolls without slip and x measures the displacement of the disk from the unstretched position of the spring. then: φ(0) = −θeq = − m g r1 2 2. b) if the system is underdamped. the potential energy of this system can be written as: V = = Also. 2 If the system is released from rest at the unstretched position of the springs. 2 2 + m r1 )(k1 r1 + k2 r2 ) Problem 14: (Spring 2003) For the system shown to the right. 2(k1 r1 + k2 r2 ) Because this system is conservative. ˙2 2 2 1 G 2 ˙ I + m r1 φ2 . the total energy. that is: V1 = 0. and solving for φmax we ﬁnd that: ˙ φmax = (I G (m g r1 )2 2 . Therefore. max ˙ Finally. what is the frequency of the free vibrations of this system in terms of the parameters k. V0 = (m g r1 )2 2 2 . T1 = 1 G 2 I + m r1 2 ˙ φ2 . x 3k z ˆ  ˆ ı θ k m c Solution: a) We deﬁne the three coordinates as shown as the ﬁgure.

b) For an underdamped response. With so that: ωd = 26 k 2 c2 . 3m ζ=√ c . we are unable to specify the value of f . −3k z ˆ ı G −k x ˆ ı C fˆ ı −c x ˆ ˙ ı The equations of motions can be developed directly with angular momentum balance about the contact point. rather than x. c) For what value of the damping constant is the system critically damped? r r 2 m m k k c Solution: 16 . Notice that the force in the upper spring depends on z. 2 Finally. − 3m 9 m2 Problem 15: In the system shown to the right. so that: MC ˆ (3k z) 2r + (k x) r + (c x) r k ˙ ¨ˆ = I C θ k. b) Find the frequency of oscillation for free vibrations of the system. but instead can relate the displacement and rotation of the disk through the coordinate relations above. the frequency of oscillation is ωd = ωn this system. 2 a) Find the governing equations of motion. while the friction force has an unknown magnitude f . we obtain: 3 m r2 2 ¨ ˙ θ + (c r2 ) θ + 13 k r2 θ = 0. 78 k m 1 − ζ 2 . writing this equation in terms of a single coordinate. Because the disk is assumed to roll without slip. = 3 m r2 ¨ ˆ θ k. so that the moment 2 of inertia about the mass center is IG = mr .A free-body diagram for this system is shown to the right. the pulley has mass m and radius r. we ﬁnd that: ωn = 26 k .

ζ = 1. and k = 8 N/m. the damped natural frequency becomes: ωd = ωn 1 − ζ2 = 5k 7m 1− c2 . Further. 17 b G k m . θ). x1 = θ. the generalized force resulting from the viscous damper becomes: Qθ = − cr2 ˙ θ. b) for m = 2 kg. while the block moves without friction: a) ﬁnd the equations of motion for this system. 140 km c) For a critically damped system. If the disk rolls without slip (µ is suﬃciently large).5 (N · s)/m.   ˆ and θ measures the angular rotation of the wheel in the k direction. and is attached to a block of mass m which rolls across the surface. The kinetic and potential energies for this system are: T V = = 1 1 1 mr2 ˙2 θ . 2 Therefore. so that we may solve for c = ccr to yield: √ ccr = 2 35 km. b) For this system the natural frequency and damping ratio are: ωn = 5k . 4 so that the equation of motion for this system can be reduced to: ¨ ˙ (7m) θ + c θ + (5k) θ = 0. m x2 + m x2 + ˙1 ˙2 2 2 2 2 1 1 k x2 + k x2 . the disk has mass m. ﬁnd the frequency of oscillation for the system. radius r. b = 0. Problem 16: In the ﬁgure. 1 2 2 2 However. x2 measures the displacement of the second mass in the ˆ direction. the Lagrangian reduces to: L=T −V = 1 2 7mr2 4 1 ˙ θ2 − 2 5kr2 4 θ2 . 7m c . these three coordinates are dependent through the transformations: r x2 = r θ.a) We choose coordinates (x1 . x2 . where x1 measures the displacement of the ﬁrst mass in the −ˆ direction. 2 and moment of inertia IG = mr about the 2 mass center G. ζ= √ 2 35 km Therefore.

ξ=√ . a) Determine the equivalent damping constant. and we measure the response as shown. In free vibration we experimentally determine the equivalent spring constant to be k = 4 N/m. ı xı In addition.00 m x2 = 0. ˙ ı xı mr2 ¨ ˆ ˆ θ k. If T is the tension between the disk and the mass and f is the frictional force acting on the disk. 5m 10km Thus. 25m2 For the given values of the parameters. x ˙ and experimentally measure the mass as m = kg. this reduces to ωd = 1. x and θ are related through the kinematic constraint: x = −rθ. Eliminating (θ.Solution: a) Let x denote the translational displacement of G in the ˆ direction. ¨ ˙ 2 b) From the above equation we identify the undamped natural frequency and damping ratio as: 2k b ωn = . the equations of motion on the disk and the mass are: (−kx − bx + T + f ) ˆ = m¨ ˆ. T. the damped natural frequency is: ωd = ωn 1 − ξ2 = 10km − b2 . b) What is the exponential decay rate of the transient solution? Solution: 18 x1 = 1. (rf ) k = 2 (−T ) ˆ = m¨ ˆ.264 rad/s. f ) we obtain a single degree-of-freedom system on x of the form: 5m x + bx + kx = 0.75 m . Problem 17: We model a nonuniform beam as a singledegree-of-freedom system in the form: m¨ + bx + kx = 0. while θ denotes the ı ˆ angular displacement of the disk in the k direction.

˙ 3 We assume that the coordinates θ and z are related by z = l sin θ. (m. We note that with m given. ¨ ˙ 3 For the parameter values given above. and is pinned to the ground. which for small rotations reduces to z = lθ. and we ﬁnd that ζ = 0.288. the relative displacement between the end of the beam and the ground. c) if the mass of the spring is taken to be mspring = 1 kg. k 2π b) The exponential decay rate is σ = ζωn . we ﬁnd: mbar l2 ¨ θ + bl z + kl z = 0. using angular momentum balance about the point of rotation. δ1 = − ln x1 x0 = − ln 0. so that the ¨ ˆ angular acceleration is θ k.0914 s−1 .a) We use the logarithmic decrement so that: ζ= δ1 4π 2 + 2 δ1 .00 m = 0. we can also ﬁnd the period of the oscillations to be: T = 2π ωd = = . ﬁnd the new frequency of the oscillations. this becomes: 2 kg 3 z + 2 N/(m/s) ¨ 19 z + 4 N/m ˙ z = 0. Solution: a) We will deﬁne the inclination of the bar from the horizontal position as θ. Therefore.183 N/(m/s). l) z b k . length l = 1. Problem 18: The rigid beam (mass m = 2 kg.0457.5 m) is supported by an elastic spring (k = 4 N/m) and damper (b = 2 N/(m/s)).75 m 1. which is found to be σ = 0. a) Find the linearized equations of motion in terms of z. ωn 1 − ζ 2 √ 2 m 4π 2 + δ1 √ = 3. b) what is the frequency of the resulting motion. the equation of motion reduces to: mbar z + b z + k z = 0. the damping constant b is given as: √ b = 2ζ km = 0. With m = 1 kg. Using this constraint to eliminate θ.145 s.

00 s. Therefore the new moment of inertia of the bar about the point of rotation is: IO = = = mbar l2 + meq l2 . Problem 19: The non-uniform beam supports an end-mass of m = 10 kg. 8 b) The frequency of oscillation.For this system.00 s x2 = 0. the damping ratio and natural frequency can be expressed as: √ 3k 3b ωn = . x1 ) (t2 . ωd = ωn ωd = 3k − mbar 1 − ζ 2 . + 3 3 (mbar + mspring ) l2 . 3 Therefore. If the response of the system is such that: x1 = 0. reduces to: 2 3b 2mbar √ 15 rad/s = 1. ﬁnd the equivalent stiﬀness and equivalent damping of the beam (assume that the beam is massless). ζ = √ mbar 2 kmbar = √ 6 rad/s = 3 . 3 mbar l2 mspring 2 l . x2 ) m as shown in the ﬁgure.25 m t1 = 1.94 rad/s.73 rad/s.20 m. it is treated as an additional equivalent mass meq = mspring /3 located at the end of the bar. t2 = 4. (t1 . = 2 c) If the mass of the spring is considered. Solution: 20 . the new frequency of oscillation is: ωd = 3k − (mbar + mspring ) 3b 2(mbar + mspring ) 2 = √ 3 rad/s = 1.

x(0) = 0. Assume the pulley is massless and neglect the eﬀects of gravity. ˙ when m = 1 kg.223.12 N/(m/s).7 N/m. c) ﬁnd the response of the system x(t) subject to the initial conditions x(0) = x0 . and the stiﬀness and damping constant reduce to: k = 24. we ﬁnd that the the equivalent spring constant is keq = k . As a result. and k = 9 N/m. the stiﬀness and damping constants reduce to: 2 k = m ωn = m (2π)2 + δ 2 . x we ﬁnd that θ is related to the linear displacement of mass m as θ = 2r . b = 12 (N · s)/m. Therefore. in the ˆ direction. we ﬁnd that T = 4 s and δ = 0. T ζ= δ (2π)2 + δ 2 . T2 b = m 2ζωn = m 2δ . b) what are the damping ratio and undamped natural frequency of this system. In terms of this quantity and the period of oscillation T . In addition. If T represents the tension in the cable supporting mass m. 4 b) The damping ratio and natural frequency are simply: b b =√ . 4 As a result.a) The logarithmic decrement is deﬁned as δ = ln |x2 /x1 |. where θ is 2 the angular displacement of the massless pulley from static equilibrium. both measured from the static equilibrium position. the damping ratio and natural frequency are deﬁned as: ωn = (2π)2 + δ 2 . T For this system. m 2 m . the equation governing the motion of the mass is:  m¨ + bx + x ˙ k x = 0. b = 1. ζ= 2 keq m km 21 ωn = √ keq k = √ . then T = kr θ. 2r k r m c Solution: a) Let x represent the displacement of mass m in the vertical direction and θ measure the angular displacement of the pulley. Problem 20: For the single-degree-of-freedom mechanical system shown in the ﬁgure: a) determine the governing equations of motion.

c)? c) For what value of c is the system critically damped? d) If the system is released with the initial conditions: x(0) = 0. .016e5. x is measured from the static equilibrium position. a) Determine the governing equations of motion. k = 48 N/m and c = 4 N/(m/s). exp −(ωn √ √ 4 + 15 3 √15t 4 − 15 − 3 √15t 2 √ √ + e e 2 2 15 2 15 = x0 e−6. we ﬁnd that: F = (−6k x − 2c x) ˆ = m¨ ˆ = m aG . we ﬁnd ζ = 4. x(0) = 5. Solution: a) In terms of x.0 m.0 m/s. We note that the damping ratio has no units.0 and ωn = 3 rad/s.0t 1. b) What is the period of each oscillation in terms of the system parameters (m. ˙ ı Using linear momentum balance on the block. ˙ ı xı F 22 . Problem 21: For the spring-mass-damper system shown to the right. the spring and damping forces can be written as: Fspring = −6k x ˆ.81t + 0. and the surface is frictionless. c) For an overdamped system. k.81t . and with these initial conditions this reduces to: x(t) = x0 exp (−ζωn t) ζ+ ζ− 2 = x0 e −6t 2 ζ2 − 1 ζ2 ζ2 − 1 −1 ζ2 − 1 exp (ωn ζ 2 − 1)t + ζ 2 − 1)t . ı Fdamper = −2c x ˆ. the general solution is: x(t) = exp(−ζωn t) c1 exp (ωn ζ 2 − 1)t + c2 exp −(ωn ζ 2 − 1)t . ˙ 6k x m 2c ﬁnd the resulting solution x(t) if m = 2 kg.In terms of the given parameters.01640e−5.

Solving for A and φ. where A and φ are arbitrary constants used to ﬁt the initial conditions.and the equation of motion can be written in standard form as: 2 x + (2ζωn ) x + (ωn ) x = 0. d) With these parameter values. ¨ ˙ so that ωn = 12 rad/s. the equation of motion reduces to: x + 4 x + 144 x = 0. for this system. and ζ = 1/6. 6km b) In terms of ζ and ωn . For these values. φ = 0 rad. the general solution can be written as: √ x(t) = A e−2 t sin 2 35 t + φ . ¨ ˙ with ωn = 6k . the period of oscillation is simply T = (2π)/ωd . ζ = 1. 28 so that the general solution can be written as: x(t) = 5 −2 e 28 t 2π 1− c √ 6km 2 m . yields: √ ccritical = 6km. Therefore. the period reduces to: T = 6k m provided c2 < 6km. = 2π √ 6km − c2 √ sin 2 35 t m. we ﬁnd: 5 A= m. where ωd = ωn 1 − ζ 2 . m c ζ=√ . 23 . c) For a critically damped system. and solving for c.

b) what is the period of the free oscillations? x k m (I. x ˙ 24 . x 3k · xˆ + b · xˆ − mgˆ = −m¨ˆ. we obtain the governing equation of motion:  m¨ + bx + 3kx = mg. the equation of motion for this system can be written: F = m (−¨ˆ) .  Fdamping = b · xˆ. c) what is the stretch in the spring when the system is in equilibrium? m k 2k b g Solution: We assume that the ˆ and ˆ directions are standard orthonormal basis in the horizontal ı  and vertical directions respectively. a) The forces due to the springs in parallel and damping are: Felastic = 3k · xˆ. ˙ With the inclusion of the gravitational force.  ˙  x Taking components in the ˆ direction.Problem 22: For the system shown to the right. If the gravitational constant is g: a) ﬁnd the equations of motion which determine x(t). x is measured from the unstretched position of the spring. r) m Problem 23: For the single-degree-of-freedom mechanical system shown in the ﬁgure: a) determine the governing equations of motion. Each block has mass m and the disk has moment of inertia I and radius r. b) what are the damping ratio and undamped natural frequency of this system.

so that xeq = 0 and xeq = 0. G (m. b) ﬁnd the frequency of oscillation for the response. 3k Problem 24: For the single-degree-of-freedom mechanical system shown in the ﬁgure: a) ﬁnd the linearized governing equations of motion for small θ. c) if the initial velocity is zero. the total moment produced by the springs about the center of mass G is: MG l2 ˆ (4k sin θ + k sin θ) k. 12 . m b . = ml2 ¨ˆ θk. 4 5kl2 ˆ = − sin θk.b) Dividing through by the mass m. m 2 ωn = c) In equilibrium. m b ζ= √ . 2 As a result. 4 = − Thus angular momentum balance about G provides: MG − 5kl2 ˆ sin θk 4 25 ¨ˆ = I G θk. m m 3k . we ﬁnd: x+ ¨ so that: 2ζωn = which can be solved to yield: ωn = 3k . l) θ k 4k Solution: a) The displacement of each end of the bar in the ˆ direction is:  x± = ± l sin θ . Substitution into ˙ ¨ the governing equations yields: 3kxeq = mg. the system is stationary. and θ(0) = θ0 . → xeq = mg . determine the time response of the system. 2 3mk b 3k x+ ˙ x = g.

m . instead. approximately how long will it take for the the amplitude of free vibration to be reduced to within 2% of zero? Solution: a) Written in nondimensional form. m ζ = 1 corresponds to critical damping. x ˙ as a model for a spring-mass-damper system with: m = 2. b) For b = 24 we ﬁnd: b ζ= √ = 2. θ+ m b) This system is undamped. m Problem 25: We obtain the diﬀerential equation: m¨ + bx + kx = 0. Therefore the frequency of the oscillation is equal to the undamped natural frequency: 15k ω = ωn = . which. a) Identify the damping constant b that gives rise to critical damping. the equations of motion are: x+ ¨ k b x + x = 0.For small angular displacements sin θ ∼ θ. yields the solution: θ(t) = θ0 cos 15k t. 2 km 26 ωn = k = 3. 2 km ωn = k . for the initial conditions given above. b) If. so that: √ bcritical = 2 km = 12. and the governing equations of motion are therefore: ¨ 15k θ = 0. b = 24. k = 18. m c) This system possesses the general solution: θ(t) = c1 sin ωt + c2 cos ωt. ˙ m m and so we identify the damping ratio and natural frequency as: b ζ= √ .

is the damping ratio.0 −6 + 3 3 Problem 26: For the single-degree-of-freedom mechanical system shown in the ﬁgure. is given as: ωd = ωn 1 − ζ 2. b) ﬁnd the frequency of oscillation for the free response. If the 3 spring is unstretched when θ = 0: a) ﬁnd the linearized governing equations of motion for small θ. we ﬁnd: MO −kl2 sin θ − c l2 ˙ ˆ θ cos θ k 4 = IO αβ/F F. θ+ 4m m b) The frequency of oscillation. the damped natural frequency. 3 so that the equation of motion can be written as: ml2 ¨ l2 ˙ θ + c θ cos θ + k l2 sin θ = 0. we obtain: ˙ ¨ 3c θ + 3k θ = 0. √ The dominant eigenvalue is λ = −6 + 3 3.2 = ωn ζ ± ζ 2 − 1 = 3(−2 ± √ 3).Therefore the eigenvalues of this system are: λ1. ζ= ωn = m 27 . = ml2 ¨ˆ θk. 8 km where ωn is the undamped natural frequency and ζ we ﬁnd: 3k . that is. Neglect gravity. l) c Solution: a) Using angular momentum balance about the ﬁxed point O. and so the time t = τ required for the amplitude of the free vibration to be reduced to within 2% of zero is: τ∼ −4 √ ∼ 5. the bar has mass 2 m and length l (so that IO = ml ). 3 4 Linearizing this equation about θ = 0. ℓ 2 k ℓ 2 θ (m. For this system √ 3c √ .

b) what is the period of each oscillation. r) m 28 . 2 and moment of inertia IG = mr about the 2 mass center G. r) x m 6k b x k m (I. x is measured from the unstretched position of the spring. If the surface is assumed to be frictionless: a) determine the governing equations of motion. If the gravitational constant is g: a) what is the displacement of the spring at static equilibrium. ﬁnd the displacement of the mass x(t) if the system is critically damped and started with the initial conditions x(0) = 0. Problem 27: In the ﬁgure. Each block has mass m and the disk has moment of inertia I. ˙ ˙ Problem 29: For the system shown to the right.so that the damped natural frequency is: ωd = 3k − m 3c 8m 2 . b) ﬁnd the kinetic energy of the system in terms of the coordinate x (and/or its velocity). radius r. Problem 28: For the spring-mass-damper system shown to the right. g x c G k (m. the disk has mass m. c) what value of the damping coeﬃcient b corresponds to critical damping? d) if k = 1 N/m and m = 4 kg. ﬁnd the minimum value of the coeﬃcient of friction for which the disk does not slip. x is measured from the static equilibrium position. b) If the disk is released from rest with initial displacement x(0) = x0 . a) Find the equations of motion for this system assuming that the disk rolls without slip. x(0) = x0 .

so that the moment 2 of inertia about the mass center is IG = mr . we ﬁnd that the equation of motion (on θ) can be reduced to: 7mr2 4 ¨ θ+ cr2 4 ˙ θ+ 5kr2 4 θ = 0. 2 a) Find the governing equations of motion. which reduces to: ωd = ωn 1 − ζ2 = 5k 7m 1− c2 . b) Examination of the above equation shows that meq = 7mr . Note that this answer is 4 not unique. 2 = m¨1 . For example. the pulley has mass m and radius r. 140km 2 29 . and x1 and x2 as the displacements of the two blocks so that: x1 = r θ. and angular momentum balance on the disk yield: r − T2 r 2 T1 − kx1 − cx1 ˙ T2 + kx2 T1 = − mr2 ¨ θ.Problem 30: In the system shown to the right. x = −m¨2 . x Eliminating the two unknown tensions from these three equations. Thus. linear momentum balance on the two blocks. We deﬁne the tension in the left and right cable as T1 and T2 respectively. 2 x2 = rθ. b) What is the equivalent mass of the system. c) The frequency of oscillation is given by ωd . the equivalent mass would be meq = 7m. but depends on the equation of motion. c) Find the frequency of oscillation for free vibrations of the system? r r 2 m m k k c Solution: ˆ a) Deﬁne θ as the angular displacement of the disk in the −k direction (clockwise). if we had written the ¨ ˙ equation of motion as 7m θ + c θ + k θ = 0.

stiﬀness. the block slides with no friction. ¨ ˙ whose characteristic equation reduces to: λ2 + 13 λ + 9 = 0. Solution: x b m k For this system the diﬀerential equation of motion can be written as: m¨ + bx + kx = 0. . becomes: x(t) = 4 m b) For this system. subject to these initial conditions. the above equation becomes: x + (6. x ˙ k b ˙ x + x + x = 0. we ﬁnd that: ˙ c1 = 4 m. the damping ratio is: b . ¨ m m subject to speciﬁed initial conditions. and the general solution to this equation. For the initial conditions x(0) = 0 m. k = 18 N/m. a) With the given values for the mass. c2 = −4 m. With m = 2 kg. The general solution is given as: 9 x(t) = c1 e− 2 t + c2 e−2t .0 m/s b) Identify the damping constant b that gives rise to critical damping. and damping coeﬃcient.Problem 31: In the spring-mass-damper system shown.0 m/s. x(0) = 10. ζ= √ 2 km 30 e−(9/2 s−1 )t − e−(2 s−1 )t . 4 Thus the system has two purely real eigenvalues and the resulting system is overdamped and decays exponentially with no sustained oscillations.5 kg/s)x + (9 kg/s2 )x = 0. 2 which has two real solutions of the form: λ= −13 ± 5 . b = 13 (N · s)/m: a) Find the resulting solution if the system is released from the unstretched position with initial velocity x(0) = ˙ −10.

a) The frictional force. b) What value of b correspond to critical damping? c) Find the displacement of the center of the disk when the system is critically damped and released from rest with x(0) = x0 . the rotation and translation of the disk can be related through the constraint equation: x = −rθ. which is unknown. we ﬁnd that: F = (f − kx − bx) ˆ = m¨ ˆ = m aG . Problem 32: In the ﬁgure. ¨ ˙ 2 b) We can write this diﬀerential equation in standard form. Solution: k g x b G (m. the disk has mass m. that is: 2 x + (2ζωn )x + (ωn )x = 0. and solving for b with m = 2 kg and k = 18 N/m. we ﬁnd the equation of motion is: 3m x + bx + kx = 0. and using the kinematic constraint. r) ˆ We deﬁne θ as the angular displacement of the disk in the k direction as measured from the equilibrium position of the disk (when the spring is unstretched). radius r. Assuming that the disk rolls without slip. 6km 31 . 2 Eliminating the unknown frictional force. for a critically damped system ζ = 1. ı Fdamper = −bx ˆ. ˙ ı xı ˆ MG = (f r) k = F mr2 ¨ ˆ θ k = IG αβ/F F. is deﬁned as f = fˆ. we ﬁnd: bcr = 12 (N · s)/m.Thus. 2 and moment of inertia IG = mr about the 2 mass center G. while the forces due to the ı spring and damper are: Fspring = −kx ˆ. ˙ ı Using linear and angular momentum balance on the disk. ¨ ˙ with ωn = ζ=√ 2k . 3m b . a) Find the equations of motion for this system assuming that the disk rolls without slip.

r) ˆ M k x + cx + kx = − ¨ ˙ M . b) what are the equivalent mass. r b) The equivalent mass. 0). then the initial conditions are (x(0). Thus. Solving for c1 and c2 . c) When the system is critically damped. solving for b when ζ = 1. keq = k. If the disk rolls without slip (µ is suﬃciently large): a) determine the governing equations of motion. while this can be diﬀerentiated with respect to time to obtain the velocity: x(t) = (c2 − ωn c1 ) − (ωn c2 ) t e−ωn t . Problem 33: In the ﬁgure. where recall that ωn = (2k)/(3m). radius r. the general solution takes the form: x(t) = c1 + c2 t e−ωn t . we ﬁnd: ˙ x0 = x(0) 0 = x(0) ˙ = c1 . and the applied moment has a constant ˆ magnitude M k. returning these to the general solution. damping. the disk has mass m.If the system is critically damped. and damping of the system. c) what is the stretch in the spring when the system is in equilibrium? Solution: a) The governing equations of motion are: m+ I r2 g x c G k (m. = c2 − ωn c1 . then this implies that the damping ratio is unity. stiﬀness. the solution to these initial conditions becomes: x(t) = x0 1 + ωn t e−ωn t . Therefore. and moment of inertia IG about the mass center. x) = (x0 . we ﬁnd: √ bcritical = 6km. 32 . ˙ If the system is released from rest when a known initial displacement. and stiﬀness are: meq = m + I . r2 ceq = c.

As a one degree-of-freedom system.c) When the system is in equilibrium. we also deﬁne z to be the stretch in the spring parallel with the cable system. ı  ¨ı and in terms of x the equation of motion becomes m x + 5 k x = fr . ˙ı ˙ı −m g ˆ  Tˆ ı Tˆ ı fr ˆ ı Nˆ  −T ˆ ı Tˆ ı so that z = −2 x. how long will it take the block to come to rest? µ Solution: In addition to the variable x identiﬁed in the problem statement. kr 2 Frictionally Damped Systems ˆ  Problem 34: The block shown to the right rests on a rough surface with coeﬃcient of friction µ and m = 6 kg. Therefore the kinematic ˙ ˙ relationship becomes z = −2 x. An appropriate free-body diagram for this system is shown to the right. The relative velocity across the spring can be identiﬁed as F vB − vA F = z ˆ. ¨ 33 . Note that the ı unknown friction force is denoted as fr ˆ and the tension in the cable is T . the tension T and the displacement z are related as T = k z = −2 k x. the displacement of the disk is: xeq = − M . Applying linear momentum balance to the block yields −k x ˆ ı F F = (2 T − k x + fr ) ˆ + (N − m g) ˆ = m x ˆ = m aG . for what values of µ will the block remain in that position? b) With µ = 0. k = 128 N/m.50. Finally. if the block is displaced 30 cm to the right and released from rest. examining the spring in the cable. the variables x and z are directly related. ˆ ı g x A k m k z B a) If the block is displaced 3 cm to the right and released. ˙ı = (−x ˆ) − (x ˆ) .

Do not neglect gravity. the block slides on a rough surface (coeﬃcient of friction µ) inclined at an angle of φ with respect to vertical. µ = 0. If the block is subject to a periodic force of the form F (t) = F0 sin(ω t).125. then xeq ≡ 0 and the ¨ equation of motion reduces to 5 k xeq = fr .25 kg.If the block slips then fr = −µ m g sgn(x) while is sticking occurs |fr | ≤ µ m g. k = 20 N/m. a) ﬁnd the equations of motion. ˙ a) If the block is in static equilibrium at a displacement x = xeq . ω = 2. φ k g m F (t) 34 . This inequality is satisﬁed provided |xeq | ≤ µmg . F0 = 4 N. so that equilibrium is maintained provided |fr | = |5 k xeq | ≤ µ m g.00 rad/s. b) ﬁnd the amplitude of the steady-state response using Mc when m = 1. 5k Problem 35: For the system shown to the right. φ = 30◦ .

rather than x. ¨ı Therefore. but instead can relate the displacement and rotation of the disk through the coordinate relations above. Solution: The unit directions ˆ2 and ˆ2 are deﬁned to be coincident with the inclined plane and ı  the coordinate x represents the displacement of the mass from the unstretched position of the spring. at what angle θ does the block begin to slip? c) Find the value of θ so that the system comes to rest after one full cycle exactly at the equilibrium position of the system found in part a (so that the friction force vanishes when the system comes to rest). linear momentum balance yields the following equations: F = m aG . we are unable to specify the value of f . F f − k x ˆ2 + N ˆ2 − m g ˆ = m x ˆ2 . Because the disk is assumed to roll without slip. −k x ˆ2 ı −m g ˆ  N ˆ2  f ˆ2 ı Therefore. ¨ N = m g cos θ. µ ˆ  k x ˆ2  ˆ2 ı m θ ˆ ı µ = 0. while the friction force has an unknown magnitude f .35. as shown in the ﬁgure. Notice that the force in the upper spring depends on z. A free-body diagram for this system is shown to the right. ı   ¨ı f − k x + m g sin θ ˆ2 + N − m g cos θ ˆ2 ı  = m x ˆ2 . a) If µ = 0. then the friction forces vanishes and the ﬁrst of the above equations reduces 35 . this leads to the following scalar equations in the ˆ2 and ˆ2 directions: ı  m x + k x = f + m g sin θ. with: m = 2 kg. The coeﬃcient of friction for the rough surface is µ and the system is released from rest at the unstretched position of the spring (with stiﬀness k). a) If µ = 0.Problem 36: [(Spring 2003)] The system shown in the ﬁgure has mass m and rests on a plane inclined at an angle φ. k = 32 N/m. what is the equilibrium displacement of the mass (as measured from the unstretched position)? b) For µ > 0.

˙ ˙ ﬁnd the range of x0 so that the system comes ˙ to rest after exactly one cycle of motion. if the system is released from x = 0. an equilibrium state is maintained provided: f k x − m g sin θ ≤ µ N. then this decrease in amplitude must exactly match the initial displacement. Over one complete cycle of motion. then can be found to be: xeq = mg sin θ. mg 4µN = − sin θ = |z(0)|. for a frictionally damped system the amplitude decreases by a value: ∆A=− 4µN . if the system comes to rest at exactly the equilibrium position.to: m x + k x = m g sin θ. k so that the equations of motion become: m z + k z = f. If the initial conditions of the system are chosen to be x(0) = 0 and x(0) = x0 . ¨ N = m g cos θ.. k Therefore. c) Deﬁne z to be a new coordinate measuring the displacement of the system from static equilibrium: mg z =x− sin θ. ≤ µ m g cos θ. xeq . ¨ The equilibrium displacement of the mass. the block begins to slide when: tan θ = µ. k k x g m k µ 36 . with initial displacement z(0) = −(m g sin θ)/k. Therefore. k b) With µ = 0. That is: |∆ A| = − Solving for θ: tan θ = 4 µ. Problem 37: The spring mass system rests on a surface with coeﬃcient of friction µ and x is measured from the unstretched position of the spring.

Thus linear ¨ı momentum balance yields: ı  ı m¨ˆ = Fspringˆ + fµˆ + (N − mg)ˆ.e. ˙ x| ˙ ≤ µmg x = 0. Therefore. m Therefore the period of the oscillation is: T = √ 2π 2π m .Problem 38: For the spring-mass system with Coulomb damping: a) determine the governing equations of motion. If the block is stationary the magnitude of the frictional force is less than µmg. x with fµ |fµ | ˙ = −µmg |x |x| = 0. the governing equations of motion are: m¨ + 2kx = fµ .. while the force due to sliding friction opposes the velocity and is simply: x ˙ fµ = −µmg . b) what is the period of each oscillation. i. = √ ω 2k 37 . µ = 0. k µ Solution: a) We measure the displacement of the mass from the static equilibrium of the frictionless F system. N = mg. xı The spring force is Fspring = −2kx. which is simply: ω= 2k . |x| ˙ since the normal force balances the gravitational force. ˙ x m k b) Coulombic damping does not eﬀect the frequency of oscillation. i.. so that the acceleration of the block is aG = xˆ.e.

˙ x = 0. for what values of µ will the system move. what is the minimum value of x0 so that the block slips. Therefore we include the gravitational force which will inﬂuence this result. d) ﬁnd the range of initial displacements so that the system comes to rest after one complete cycle.Problem 39: For the spring-mass-damper system shown to the right. say T . x(0) = ˙ 0). since the pulley is massless. ˙ |f | ≤ µmg. x is measured from the static equilibrium position. rather than from equilibrium. If the coeﬃcient of friction is µ and the gravitational constant is g: a) determine the governing equations of motion. b) if the system is released from rest in the unstretched position (x(0) = 0. c) if the system is released from rest with x(0) = x0 > 0. Also. a) With the frictional force deﬁned as F = f ˆ. b) what is the period of each oscillation. x is measured from the unstretched position of the spring. x m¨ = mg − T. c) what is the displacement (from the unstretched position) of the upper block when it ﬁrst comes to rest? Solution: 6k x m 2k µ x k m µ I=0 m Notice that x describes the displacement of both masses and. the tension in the string connecting the masses is constant. notice that in part c we ask for the displacement from the unstretched position of the spring. If the coeﬃcient of friction is µ: a) determine the governing equations of motion. x where the frictional force is deﬁned as: x ˙ f = −µmg |x| . x = 0. Problem 40: For the spring-mass system with Coulombic damping. linear momentum balance on the upper ı and lower block yields: m¨ + kx = f + T. ˙ 38 .

Eliminating the unknown tension T . Therefore. b) if the system is released from rest. ¨ where f is deﬁned as above and depends on the motion of the system. If the coeﬃcient of friction is µ and the gravitational constant is g: a) determine the governing equations of motion. Since the initial and ﬁnal kinetic energy is zero. x is measured from the unstretched position of the spring. solving for µ with x(0) = 0. Problem 41: For the spring-mass system with Coulombic damping. the value of x. which. implies that the system does not move if µ ≥ 1. ¨ Substituting these conditions into the equations of motion we ﬁnd: |f | = |kx − mg| ≤ µmg. x k µ x g m 39 . the work done by the frictional force balances out the change in potential energy from the spring and gravity. so that x(0) = 0. the system does move when: µ < 1. or through a work-energy analysis. ˙ b) If the system is released from rest in the unstretched position. that is. k This can be found by either solving the equations of motion explicitly. c) The displacement of the upper block when it ﬁrst comes to rest is: x1 = 2(1 − µ)mg . Thus the system does not move is |f | ≤ µmg and x = 0. the equation of motion is given as: 2m x + kx = f + mg. it will remain there provided the magnitude of the frictional force is less than µmg—the transition to movement occurs when |f | = µmg. for what range of initial ˙ displacements (from the unstretched position) will the block come to rest when the block ﬁrst comes again to rest (x(t1 ) = 0 for t1 > 0)? ˙ Solution: a) The equations of motion can be written as: m¨ + kx = f.

the mass is at the position: µmg x(t1 ) = 2 − x(0). So for a block with x(0) > 0. the initial displacement must be suﬃciently large so that the block slides. modeled by Coulomb’s law of friction as: f |f | = −µmg ≤ µmg. ˙ x = 0. when the block comes again to rest at time t1 (unknown). the allowable range for x(0) is µmg < x(0) ≤ 3 µmg . x which has the general solution:   µmg  x(t) = x(0) − cos k k µmg t + . k At this point. x ˙ . k However. k k Together with an identical argument for x(0) < 0 yields the total allowable range as: µmg µmg < |x(0)| ≤ 3 . ˙ b) If the system is released from rest. µmg ≥ f = kx(0).where f is the force due to friction. if |x(0)| is too large. released from ˙ rest with initial displacement x(0) > µmg . that is. Consider the block sliding to the left (x < 0). |x| ˙ x = 0. Therefore. that for sliding to occur: |x(0)| > µmg . k µmg k . rather than remaining at rest. Thus. the block sticks if and only if |x(t1 )| ≤ we ﬁnd that: µmg x(0) ≤ 3 . Sliding does not occur if the force due to friction is suﬃcient to balance the elastic force. k k 40 . solving for x(0). m k Therefore. solving for x(0) we ﬁnd. the system will undergo multiple reversals as the amplitude of the motion decays. Thus the equation of motion becomes: k m¨ + kx = µmg.

x=0 ˙ ˙ f0 . If the gravitational constant is g: a) ﬁnd the equations of motion which determine x(t). ˙ 41 . and y which measures the displacement of the hanging mass in the −ˆ direction. which describes the rotation of ˆ the disk in the −k direction (clockwise).Problem 42: For the system shown to the right. r a) On each mass the equations of motion can be written as: F = F − k x + T1 + f ˆ + N − mg ˆ = m¨ ˆ = m aG1 . The coeﬃcient of friction between the upper block and the table is µ. what is the range of initial displacements x(0) so that the systems comes to rest after exactly one complete cycle? Solution: x k m µ (I. r) m We begin by deﬁning two additional coordinates. c) what is the period of the free oscillations? d) if the system is released from rest.  yı ¨ Notice that I O = I = 0. so that provided θ = 0 the tensions T1 and T2 are not equal. b) what is the minimum value of µ so that the system slips when release from rest with x(0) = 0. θ. Each block has mass m and the disk has moment of inertia I and radius r. while using the constraint equations. Taking the components of these equations and eliminating the unknowns (T1 . x is measured from the unstretched position of the spring. ı  xı MO = F = ˆ T1 r − T 2 r k ¨ˆ = −I O θk = I O αD/F F. |f0 | ≤ µmg. we ﬁnd that the equation of motion for this system reduces to: I ¨ 2m + 2 x + k x = f + mg. can be written as: ı f= x ˙ −µmg |x| . x = 0. θ= x . T2 ). r where f the value of the frictional force in the ˆ direction. F T2 − mg ˆ = −m¨ ˆ = m aG2 . These additional coordinates are related to the  displacement of the upper mass by the constraint equations: y = x.

So for sliding to occur for x0 = 0. we ﬁnd: |fstatic | = |kx0 − mg| ≤ µmg. c) The period of oscillation for a frictionally damped system is identical to that of an undamped system. we resort to the value of f at static equilibrium. Therefore: T = 2π = 2π ωn 2m + k I r2 .b) The minimum value for slip is simply µmin = 0. d) Let δ describe the displacement of the system from equilibrium. solving for µ yields: µ≥ kx0 kx0 . Assuming (x. Solving for this quantity and using the frictional inequality. 0). the equations of motion reduce to: ˙ ¨ kx = fstatic + mg. this implies that µ < 1. the equilibrium position corresponds to xeq = mg . k k k 3 Forced Single Degree-of-freedom Systems 42 . If we would like to ﬁnd the range of µ for which slip occurs. Therefore. k k k k However. k k the initial displacement δ0 from the equilibrium in the absence of friction must be in the range: µmg 3µmg 5µmg µmg − +∆= < |δ0 | ≤ = + ∆. x) = (0. Since the system will come to rest within the range: − µmg µmg < |δﬁnal | ≤ . −1 = 1− mg mg which provides a necessary condition for sticking at x = x0 . and so the allowable range k of x0 is: 5µmg mg 3µmg ≤ < x0 − . where fstatic represents the force required to maintain static equilibrium. Therefore. The amplitude of oscillation will decay by a value of ∆ = 4µmg/k over one cycle of motion.

b) What is the steady-state amplitude of the forced response. with b = 16 N/(m/s). 4 1 ω = 4 rad/s.125 (rather than ζ = 0 as assumed above).Problem 43: For the system shown to the right the bar of length ℓ has mass m and is subject to a time-dependent moment of the form ˆ M (t) = M0 sin(ω t) k. the damping ratio was measured to be ζ = 0. ℓ = m.  a) Design an undamped foundation to achieve isolation ≥ 33% for all forcing frequencies ω > 3 π rad/s. (m. for the isolator that you designed. ℓ) k b k G M (t) f (t) ˆ  43 . 1 k = 8 N/m. M0 = N·m 16 Problem 44: The block of mass m = 20 kg shown to the right rests on a rigid foundation and is subject to a time-dependent load F (t) = f0 sin(ω t) ˆ. a) Find the equations of motion for this rotation of the bar. what is the minimum isolation achieved over this frequency range? m m = 3 kg. b) If.

m = 5 kg. k r ˆ M (t) k I r/2 m k b Problem 46: The unbalanced rotor shown in the ﬁgure is pinned to a frame and supported by a spring and damper. with a small rotating component (10% of the total mass) oﬀset by a distance r from the center of rotation C. the disk is subject to a time dependent moment of the form M (t) = M0 sin(ω t). ω = 5 rad/s. c) determine the steady-state amplitude of vibration when the rotor spins at an angular speed of ω = 5 rad/s with: k = 256 N/m. r = 10 cm k b r C m 44 . b) what is the damped natural frequency. r = 0. I = 0. b = 12 N/(m/s). b) With k = 280 N/m. The total mass of the structure is m.Problem 45: In the ﬁgure shown to the right. b = 12 N/(m/s). Determine the steady-state response of disk as a function of time. a) Find the distance between the center of mass of the system and the center of rotation.40 kg · m2 . m = 4 kg.10 m M0 = 3 N · m. a) Find the equations of motion for the angular displacement of the disk.

ﬁnd the amplitude of the relative displacement of the disk for m = 3 kg. ℓ = 30 cm. σ = 2. k.00 s . radius r. Assume that the system is in static equilibrium at θ = 0.25 N/(m/s). The attached plate undergoes harmonic motion of the form u(t) = u0 sin(ω t). u0 = 0. r = 0. For this system: a) ﬁnd the equations of motion. c) With m = 2 kg. r) g u(t) c k Problem 48: For the mechanical system shown to the right. and ℓ. b) What are the damping ratio and natural frequency for this system? c) If the system is critically damped.10 m c = 3 N/(m/s) ω = 5 rad/s (m. and that all angles remain small.Problem 47: In the ﬁgure. 2 and moment of inertia IG = mr about the 2 mass center G and is assumed to roll without slip. G a) Find the equation of motion in terms of the displacement between the moving plate and the center of the disk. b) Identify the damping ratio and natural frequency in terms of the parameters m. 45 . the uniform rigid bar is massless and pinned at point O while a force is applied at A of the form f (t) = t e−σ t . c.05 m. the disk has mass m. k = 50 N/m. ﬁnd the convolution integral for the response of the system. You need not evaluate the integral. −1 k θ 2ℓ 3 ℓ 3 B O A m c f (t) k c = 0. k = 36 N/m.

a) ﬁnd the damped natural frequency. b = 9 N/(m/s).Problem 49: The block shown to the right rests on a rough surface with coeﬃcient of friction µ (assume that any cables can support compression and tension).05. f0 = 40 N. The total mass of the structure is m. m = 3 kg.0 kg.5 cm k b r C m 46 . x k m µ = 0. k = 64 N/m. b) what is the steady-state amplitude of vibration when the rotor spins at an angular speed of ω = 5 rad/s with: k = 108 N/m. Find the amplitude of the vibrations of the block if f (t) = f0 cos(ω t). m −f (t) ˆ  Problem 50: The unbalanced rotor shown in the ﬁgure is pinned to a frame and supported by a spring and damper. with m = 4. r = 7. with a small rotating component (10% of the total mass) oﬀset by a distance r from the center of rotation C. ω = 4 rad/s.

Problem 51: For the mechanical system shown to the right, the uniform rigid bar has mass m and length ℓ, and is pinned at point O. A harmonic force is applied at A. For this system: a) ﬁnd the equations of motion; b) Identify the damping ratio and natural frequency in terms of the parameters m, c, k, and ℓ. c) For: m = 6 kg, ℓ = 25 cm, c = 0.50 N/(m/s), k = 80 N/m, f0 = 2.00 N, ω = 10 rad/s, 4m f0 sin(ω t) c k B A θ
ℓ 2

O

ﬁnd the steady-state amplitude of the displacement of the block. Assume that the system is in static equilibrium at θ = 0, and that all angles remain small. Problem 52: In the ﬁgure, the disk has mass m, radius r, 2 and moment of inertia IG = mr about the 2 mass center G and is assumed to roll without slip. The attached plate undergoes harmonic motion of the form u(t) = u0 sin(ω t). a) Find the equation of motion in terms of the angular rotation of the disk; b) What are the damping ratio and natural frequency for this system? c) If the system is critically damped, ﬁnd the amplitude of the rotation of the disk for m = 3 kg, u0 = 10 cm, k = 36 N/m, ω = 3 rad/s c G k (m, r)

g u(t)

47

Problem 53: The unbalanced rotor shown in the ﬁgure is pinned to a frame and supported by a spring and damper. The total mass is measured as m = 200 kg. When the system is operated at ω = 25 rad/s the phase φ of the response with respect to the rotation of the unbalanced disk is measured to be π/2 rad and the steadystate vibration amplitude is X = 2.00 cm. When the rotation rate of the disk is much larger than this value the amplitude reduces to X = 0.50 cm. Find the stiﬀness and damping constant for the foundation and the distance between the center of rotation C and the mass center G.

k

b

ε C

G

m

Problem 54: For the mechanical system shown to the right, the uniform rigid bar is massless and pinned at point O while a harmonic force is applied at A. For this system: a) ﬁnd the equations of motion; b) Identify the damping ratio and natural frequency in terms of the parameters m, c, k, and ℓ. c) For: m = 2 kg, ℓ = 30 cm, c = 0.25 N/(m/s), k = 50 N/m, f0 = 2.00 N, ω = 10 rad/s,

k θ
2ℓ 3

ℓ 3

B

O

A

m c

f0 sin(ω t)

k

ﬁnd the steady-state displacement of the block. d) What is the magnitude of the force transmitted to the ground through the sping and damper attached to the block? (Do not include the spring attached at A.) Assume that the system is in static equilibrium at θ = 0, and that all angles remain small.

48

Problem 55: The block shown to the right rests on a rough surface with coeﬃcient of friction µ and the block is subject to a compressive force of N = 20 N (do not include gravity, just this normal load and assume that any cables can support compression and tension). a) If f (t) = f0 = constant, ﬁnd the range of initial displacements for which the block will remain stationary if released from rest (it will stick). b) Find the amplitude of the vibrations of the block if f (t) = f0 cos(ω t), with m = 4.0 kg, r = 12.5 cm, f0 = 40 N, k = 64 N/m, µ = 0.50, ω = 4 rad/s.

x k

m

(m, r)

−f (t) ˆ ı

Problem 56: For the system shown to the right, the disk of mass m rolls without slip and x measures the displacement of the disk from the unstretched position of the spring. The surface is inclined at an angle of φ with respect to vertical. a) ﬁnd the equations of motion. Do not neglect gravity; b) what is the static equilibrium displacement of the disk? c) if the disk is subject to a periodic moment ˆ M (t) = M0 sin(ω t)k, ﬁnd the displacement of the center of the disk if it is released from rest at the unstretched position of the spring. φ

k x

(m, r)

M (t)

49

Problem 57: (Spring 2003) For the system shown to the right, the disk of mass m rolls without slip and the inner hub has radius ρ/2. a) Find the equations of motion (in terms of the given parameters—do not substitute in numerical values yet); b) If the applied moment takes the form: M (t) = (2 N · m) sin(4 t), ﬁnd the steady-state amplitude of the translation of the center of the disk when: k = 16 N/m, m = 2 kg, b = 2 N/(m/s), ρ = 0.125 m 2k

x z

ˆ  ˆ ı θ

b M (t)

G k (m, ρ) C

c) Determine the steady state amplitude of the friction force. Solution: a) We identify the three coordinates x, z, and θ as shown in the ﬁgure above. These are related as: x = −ρ θ, z= 3 x. 2 −2 k z ˆ ı −b x ˆ ˙ ı −k x ˆ ı −m g ˆ  ˆ M (t) k

An appropriate free-body diagram for this system is shown to the right. Since the disk is assumed to roll without slip, the equation of motion can be directly obtained with angular momentum balance about the contact point C MC = I C αD/F , which yields ρ (k x + b x) + ˙

ı fr ˆ N ˆ 

3ρ (2 k z) + M (t) 2

3 m ρ2 ¨ ˆ ˆ θ k. k= 2

Using the above coordinate transformations this equation can be written as 3m 11 k M (t) x+b x+ ¨ ˙ x=− . 2 2 ρ b) For the numerical values given above (with consistent units), this equation reduces to 3 x + 2 x + 88 x = −8 sin(4 t), ¨ ˙

50

˙ ı Therefore. 3 ζ=√ 1 . the amplitude of the translational oscillations becomes X= 8 F M(r. the friction force becomes fr (t) = 4 k − m ω 2 X sin(ω t − φ) + b ω X cos(ω t − φ). 264 r= 6 . 5 so that φ = 0. ζ) = k 88 1 1− 6 2 11 1 + 2 √264 6 11 2 1 =√ . 26 Likewise. 51 .20 rad = 11. For these parameter values f = 6.from which we can identify the appropriate parameters as: ωn = 88 . The magnitude of the friction force is then found to be f =X 4 k − m ω2 2 + bω 2 . the phase shift of the response is: 1 2 √264 2ζ r = 1 − r2 1− 6 11 6 11 tan φ = = 1 . c) In the development of the equation of motion.47 N. ¨ ˙ With x(t) represented as x(t) = X sin(ω t − φ). Using linear momentum balance we can reintroduce the friction force as F ¨ı F = fr − k x − 2 k z − b x ˆ + N − m g = m x ˆ = m aG . the friction force was eliminated by summing moments about C. solving for fr we ﬁnd that fr = m x + b x + 4 k x. where X and φ are found above.3◦ . 11 Therefore.

e. If the total mass is m while the mass center G is located at an eccentricity of ε from the the center of rotation O. b = 16 N/(m/s).. For this system: a) ﬁnd the equations of motion (in terms of the given parameters—do not substitute in numerical values yet). k z ℓ 2 f (t) = sin(ω t) ℓ 2 m ˆ  ˆ ı θ c Solution: a) In addition to θ.25 N/(m/s). ﬁnd the amplitude of the force transmitted to the ground through combination of the spring and damper when ω = 4 rad/s. m = 2 kg. we deﬁne the additional coordinate z. ε = 2. m = 4 kg. a) ﬁnd the damped natural frequency. with θ and z related as: 52 .25 m. k = 32 N/m. Problem 59: (Spring 2003) For the mechanical system shown to the right. m = 2 kg. c) if c = 0. b = 0 N/(m/s)) for what range of operating speeds (ω) will the amplitude of the force transmitted to the ground FT be less than 1 N. which measures the deﬂection at the left end of the bar.25 m. ﬁnd the value of the stiﬀness k so that the bar’s amplitude of oscillation is less than π/6 rad for all forcing frequencies greater than 20 rad/s.Problem 58: (Spring 2003) The unbalanced rotor shown in the ﬁgure is pinned to a frame and supported by a spring and damper.5 cm k b ε O G m c) If the system is undamped (i. and ℓ = 0. and ℓ = 0. b) if c = 0. b) what is the steady-state amplitude of vibration when the rotor spins at an angular speed of ω = 8 π rad with: k = 32 N/m. the uniform rigid bar has mass m and pinned at point O.

this equation of motion can be written as: ¨ θ+ 3c m ˙ θ+ 3k m θ= 6 mℓ sin(ω t). 12 4 4 2 b) In standard form. m √ 3c . the equation of motion becomes: ℓ m ℓ2 ¨ c ℓ2 ˙ k ℓ2 θ+ θ+ θ = f (t). 12  k z1 ˆ f (t) ˆ  G FR c z1 ˆ ˙  Solving for z in terms of θ. ζ= √ 2 km M0 = 6 . mℓ The amplitude of the moment transmitted to the ground can be written as: MT = (meq M0 ) ℓ 2 1 + (2 ζ r)2 (1 − r2 )2 + (2 ζ r)2 1+ 1− c ω 2 k m ω2 2 3 k . Applying angular momentum balance on the bar eliminates the appearance of the reaction force and leads to: z= MG f (t) − k z − cz ˙ ℓ ˆ k 2 ¨ˆ = I G θ k. or: FT = k− k 2 + (c ω)2 m ω2 2 3 + (c ω) 2 . we ﬁnd that: FT = 1. k 2 + (c ω)2 k− m ω2 2 3 = + c ω 2 k = ℓ 2 + (c ω) 2 .50 N c) The amplitude of the steady-state vibrations can be written as: Θ = = M0 2 ωn 2 kℓ 1 (1 − 1− r2 )2 m 3 k + (2 ζ r)2 1 2 . Substituting in the numerical values given in the problem statement. The amplitude of the force transmitted to the ground is then FT = MT /(ℓ/2). = m ℓ2 ¨ ˆ θ k.ℓ θ 2 A free-body diagram for this system is shown to the right. so that: ωn = 3k . = 2 ℓ 1 k− m ω2 2 3 ω2 + c ω 2 k + (c ω) 2 . 53 .

a) ﬁnd the equations of motion. Solution: a) We deﬁne the three coordinates as shown as the ﬁgure. 3 π Since this condition must be satisﬁed for all ω ≥ 20 rad/s. we take the second inequality and ﬁnd that: 48 2 (20)2 − = 251. f0 /2. z = 2 x. rather than x. 0 ≤ t < t0 . k≤ 3 π Problem 60: (Spring 2003) For the system shown to the right. but instead can relate the displacement and rotation of the disk through the coordinate relations above. π 3 k≤ 2 ω2 48 − . the disk of mass m rolls without slip and x measures the displacement of the disk from the unstretched position of the spring. b) if the forcing takes the form: f (t) = f0 . 3 48 π This inequality has two solutions: k≥ 48 2 ω 2 + . we ﬁnd that: Θ= 8 k− 2 ω2 3 Therefore.Substituting in the numerical values given in the problem statement. Notice that the force in the upper spring depends on z. while the friction force has an unknown magnitude fr . z = −2 r θ. −3k z ˆ ı G −k x ˆ ı C ı fr ˆ f (t) ˆ ı 54 . k m x 3k z ˆ  ˆ ı θ f (t) ﬁnd the response of the system with zero initial conditions. 6 k− 2 ω2 . Because the disk is assumed to roll without slip. t0 ≤ t. A free-body diagram for this system is shown to the right. if the amplitude of vibration is less than π/6: 8 k− 2 ω2 3 ≤ ≤ π . we are unable to specify the value of fr . related as: x = −r θ.

26 k 3m θ= 2 f (t) . 2 Finally. 3m Because the forcing function changes abruptly at t = t0 . t > t0 . so that: MC ˆ (3k z) 2r + (k x) r − f (t) r k ¨ˆ = I C θ k. and for this system: F (t) = f (t) 2 f (t) = . we obtain: 3 m r2 2 In standard form: ¨ θ+ ¨ θ + 13 k r2 θ = r f (t). 3mr b) We use the convolution integral to determine the response. = 3 m r2 ¨ ˆ θ k. ωn t > t0 . the solution becomes: x(t) = x(t) = 2 f0 1 − cos(ωn t) . t0 0 Evaluating these integrals. 26 k 0 < t ≤ t0 . 26 k f0 1 + cos(ωn (t − t0 )) − 2 cos(ωn t) . ωn sin(ωn (t − τ )) f0 dτ + ωn 3m t t0 0 < t ≤ t0 . so that: t θ(t) = 0 F (τ ) h(t − τ ) dτ. the solution must be written separately for 0 < t ≤ t0 . 55 .The equations of motions can be developed directly with angular momentum balance about the contact point. sin(ωn (t − τ )) dτ. writing this equation in terms of a single coordinate. meq 3mr h(t) = 1 sin(ωn t) = ωn 3m sin 26 k 26 k t . and t > t0 : x(t) = x(t) = 2 f0 3m 2 f0 3m t 0 sin(ωn (t − τ )) dτ.

Notice that the collection of springs can be replaced by a single equivalent spring. ¨ ˙ 56 . b = 4. k1 = 3. so that: x = z + u(t). k2 = 12. Find the steady-state response of the system in terms of z.0 N/(m/s). the acceleration of the mass center is: F aG = x ˆ = (¨ + u) ˆ. F −keq z ˆ  −b z ˆ ˙ ˆ = mxˆ  ¨ Writing this in terms of z. ¨ ˙ ¨ and in standard form: 2 z + 2 ζ ωn z + ωn z = u0 ω 2 sin(ω t).0 kg.00 N/m. the equation of motion is: m z + b z + keq z = −m u(t).50 sin(2 t) m Solution: a) We deﬁne the addition coordinate x which measures the absolute displacement of the mass with respect to the ground. ¨ Therefore. x k1 ˆ  m k1 b k2 z ˆ ı u(t) = 0.Problem 61: (Spring 2003) The system shown to the right is subject to base excitation. with: m = 2. with: keq = 1 2 k1 m keq b u(t) z 1 + 1 k2 = 2 k1 k2 = 4 N/m. ¨ z ¨  with u(t) = −(u0 ω 2 ) sin(ω t). linear momentum balance on the mass yields: F − keq z − b z ˙ = m aG . In terms of the identiﬁed coordinates. 2 k1 + k2 The new equivalent system is shown to the right. An appropriate free-body diagram is shown to the right.00 N/m.

1 m. x(t). c) If again the disk rolls without slipping.03 rad. and ﬁnd the governing equations of motion when the disk rolls with and without slip. with M0 = 4 N · m. that is.03). ﬁnd the condition which determines if the disk rolls with or without slip. b) If µ is suﬃciently large so that the disk rolls without slipping. keq m Therefore the steady state response of this system becomes: z(t) = Z sin(ω t − ψ). with Z = u0 Λ(r. ﬁnd the amplitude of the steady-state motion of G.with: ωn = keq . 57 g x c G k (m. 1 ζ=√ . what are the equivalent mass. Finally: 1 z(t) = √ sin(2 t − 2. 1 − r2 and r = ω ωn For the numerical values of this problem: ωn = √ 2. the disk has mass m. ζ). m = 1 kg. and: Λ= r2 (1 − r2 )2 + (2 ζ r)2 . and damping of the system. 5 Problem 62: In the ﬁgure. r) M (t) . so that: 2 Λ= √ . a) If the coeﬃcient of friction is µ. r = 0. stiﬀness. m ζ= 2 b . when the system is critically damped. and k = 2 N/m. radius r. so that is tan ψ is negative. so that ψ = 3. tan ψ = 2ζ r . 5 tan ψ = 2 −1 Recall that the phase shift ψ must be positive. then ψ is in the second quadrant. subject to an applied moment of the form: ˆ M (t) = M0 sin(ωt)k. 2 r= √ 2. 2 and moment of inertia IG = mr about the 2 mass center G.

ˆ. r) ˆ M (t) k Solution: a) We assume that (ˆ. c) What is the steady-state amplitude of the forced response? d) Determine the amplitude of the frictional force during the steady-state motion. 2 r b) For M (t) = 0. x ˙ 2 mr ¨ θ = −fµ r − M (t). Linear and angular ı momentum balance on the disk yield: m¨ = −kx − bx − fµ . 2 where fµ is the unknown frictional force. k) represent the standard orthonormal basis. and moment of inertia IG = α m about the mass center G. M (t) = 0. radius r. r) g x b G k (m. g x c G k f (t) (m. and. the frequency of oscillation is the damped natural frequency ωd = 58 . a) Find the governing equations of motion. while the translaı  ˆ ˆ tional displacement of G is xˆ and the angular displacement is θk. we ﬁnd the governing equation of motion can be expressed as: M (t) 3m x + bx + kx = ¨ ˙ . i. the disk has mass m. The disk is subject to a timevarying force f (t) = 4 sin(ω t). ﬁnd the amplitude of the force transmitted to the ground through the springdamper element.Problem 63: In the ﬁgure. b) Find the frequency of oscillation for the unforced response. a) Find the equations of motion for this system assuming that the disk rolls without slip. eliminating fµ from the above balance laws. If the disk rolls without slipping.e. b) After the transient solution decays. c) For what value of the damping ratio is this transmitted force less than twice the applied load for all values of the forcing frequency? Problem 64: The disk shown in the ﬁgure rolls without slip and is subject to a time-varying moment M (t) = sin(t). we ﬁnd the kinematical relation x = −rθ.

For this system we ﬁnd r = As a result.ωn 1 − ζ 2 . the system is represented as: 2 x + 2ζωn x + ωn x = F0 sin(t). c) In nondimensional form. 13 59 .577. = − 13 13 = and sin φ = √ 2 √ 3. 13 where cos φ = √1 13 so that the amplitude of the frictional force is: 4 |fµ | = √ . 13 A= 2 F0 M = √ = 0. 3 ζ=√ 1 √ 3 b 1 =√ . where: ωn = 2k = 3m 2 . and: F0 = 2 2 = . so that M = √2 . 2 ωn 13 d) The response of the disk is x(t) = A sin(t + φ). ω where r = ωn is the frequency ratio. 2 6km so that the damped natural frequency is ωd = = 0. the steady-state amplitude is: 3 2. 1 − r2 −2 From the expression for angular momentum balance. 2 r 1 = − √ sin(t + φ) − sin(t). 13 1 1 √ sin φ cos(t) + √ cos φ + 1 sin(t) . where A is given above and: √ − 3 −2ζr = tan φ = 1 . we ﬁnd: fµ M (t) m x− ¨ .555. ¨ ˙ where ζ and ωn are given above. 3m 3 Recall that the magniﬁcation factor for a harmonically driven system is: M= 1 (1 − r2 )2 + (2ζr)2 .

˙ ı Using linear and angular momentum balance on the disk. a) The frictional force. which is unknown. 2 ωn − M0 3r − ω2 2 + ω 2 6 . b = 0. x and θ are related as: x = −rθ. we ﬁnd the equation of motion is: 3m 2 x + bx + kx = − ¨ ˙ M0 sin(ωt). b) for m = 2 kg. 3 1 ζ= √ . r) M (t) In addition to x. ﬁnd the steady-state amplitude of the rotation of the disk? Solution: g x b G k (m. 2 and moment of inertia IG = mr about the 2 mass center G. we ﬁnd that: F = (f − kx − bx) ˆ = m¨ ˆ = m aG . 2 Eliminating the unknown frictional force. ˙ ı xı ˆ MG = (M0 sin(ωt) + f r) k = F mr2 ¨ ˆ θ k = IG αβ/F F. r b) For the given values of the parameters. deﬁned in the ﬁgure. we ﬁnd that: 2 ωn = 8 . subject to an applied moment of the form: ˆ M (t) = M0 sin(ωt)k. while the forces due to the ı spring and damper are: Fspring = −kx ˆ. and using the kinematic constraint. 60 . 8 6 F0 = − M0 .Problem 65: In the ﬁgure. ı Fdamper = −bx ˆ. 3r Thus. we deﬁne θ as the angular displacement of the ˆ disk from the unstretched position in the k direction. the disk has mass m. If the disk rolls without slip. is deﬁned as f = fˆ. and k = 8 N/m. If the disk rolls without slip (µ is suﬃciently large): a) ﬁnd the equations of motion for this system. radius r. the steady-state amplitude may be easily found as: X = = 8 3 F0 M.5 (N · s)/m.

the relative displacement between the mass and the foundation (assume the beam has zero mass). while AE = 16 N: a) ﬁnd the equations of motion in terms of z. If the beam has length l = 20 cm. so that.Problem 66: The mass m = 2 kg is supported by an elastic cantilever beam attached to a foundation which undergoes harmonic motion of the form: u(t) = 4 sin(ωt) m. in u ¨ terms of z. l 0. the equations of motion become: m¨ + keq z z z + 40z ¨ = −m¨. b) what is the amplitude of the resulting motion in terms of the forcing frequency ω? Solution: a) The equivalent spring for this cantilever beam is: keq = x ˆ  m ˆ ı z u(t) = 4 sin(ω t) m 16 N AE = = 80 N/m. |40 − ω 2 | 61 . u 2 = 4ω sin(ωt). the amplitude of the resulting steady-state motion is: X = 4ω 2 40 1 1− ω2 40 2 .2 m F The acceleration of the block with respect to the ground is aG = (¨ + z )ˆ. b) For this undamped system. = 4ω 2 .

with ω = ωd . not the location of the mass imbalance.Problem 67: The unbalanced rotor shown in the ﬁgure is pinned to a frame and supported by a spring and damper. where: Λ= ω2 2 (ωn − ω 2 )2 + (2ζωωn )2 . 62 . Consequently. b) what is the steady-state amplitude of vibration when the rotor spins at this angular speed. m 4m2 b) For an arbitrary forcing frequency the amplitude of oscillation is A = εΛ. which. ζ with ζ deﬁned above. As a result. 2 km so that the damped natural 1 − ζ2 = k b2 − . the mass center G is described by the position z(t) = x(t) + ε sin(ωt). ˙ m m k m a) In the above system we ﬁnd ωn = frequency can be written: ωd = ωn and ζ = √b . x ˙ 2 or in more standard form: x+ ¨ b k x + x = εω 2 sin(ωt). a) ﬁnd the damped natural frequency. ˆ  k b ˆ ı ε O G x m Solution: We deﬁne x(t) as the vertical displacement of the geometric center of the rotor as measured from static equilibrium. Note that ε measures the eccentricity of the mass center. the governing equations of motion can be written: m¨ = −kx − bx. z ˙ m¨ − εω sin(ωt) = −kx − bx. If the total mass is m while the mass center G is located at an eccentricity of ε from the the center of rotation O. reduces the amplitude to: A=ε 1 − ζ2 4 − 3ζ 2 .

F − kz − mg ˆ = m z + u ˆ. If the mass and stiﬀness are m = 2 kg. b) what is the amplitude of the resulting motion in terms of the frequency ratio r. and k = 8 N/m: a) ﬁnd the equations of motion in terms of z. However. In what follows we will dispense with the explicit inclusion of the units.81 m/s2 + 4ω 2 sin(ωt) m.  ¨ ¨  −k z ˆ  Substituting in the expression for u(t). we ﬁnd that 63 . The only forces acting on the mass arise from the gravitational force and the spring force. b) Using the above values for the natural frequency and the damping ratio. linear momentum balance takes the form: F = m aG . Notice that each term has units of acceleration. the relative displacement between the mass and the base (assume the spring has zero unstretched length). we  obtain the governing equation of motion: m¨ + kz z z + (4 s−2 )z ¨ = −mg − m¨. the acceleration of the mass with respect to the ground is written as: F −m g ˆ  aG = u + z ˆ. c) for what forcing frequencies is the resulting amplitude of the steady-state motion Z ≤ 8? x g ˆ  m ˆ ı k z u(t) = 4 sin(ω t) m Solution: a) We construct a free-body diagram as shown. and taking the component in the ˆ direction. ¨ ¨  Therefore. u = −9. m/s2 . that is. For this system ωn = 2. Thus we have frequency-squared excitation.Problem 68: The system shown in the ﬁgure is supported by a foundation that undergoes harmonic motion of the form: u(t) = 4 sin(ωt) m. ζ = 0. and the amplitude of the forcing is F = 4ω 2 .

3 or r> √ 2. Deﬁning Zcr as: Zcr = We may solve for r to yield: r = = . 2 Zcr ± 4Zcr . the damping ratio and natural frequency can be written as: b k . 2 Zcr − 16 Zcr . Thus for Zcr = 8. 4r2 . . ωn = ζ= √ m 2 km 64 . m m m a) In terms of the system parameters. ζ) = U = r2 (1 − r2 )2 + (2ζr)2 . |1 − r2 | c) If Z < 8 then this implies that: Z< 4r2 (1 − r2 )2 4r2 (1 − r2 )2 . where the amplitude Z is: Z = U · Λ(r. If the natural frequency is ωn = 4 rad/s and m = 1 kg: a) determine the spring and damping constants when the system is critically damped.the forced response can be written as z(t) = Z sin(ωt + φ). Zcr − 4 Zcr Zcr + 4 . we ﬁnd that Z < 8 in the range: 0<r< 2 . Solution: x F (t) = sin(ω t) N m k b The equation of motion for this system takes the form: x+ ¨ b k F (t) x+ x= ˙ . b) determine the amplitude of the total force transmitted to the ground under steady-state oscillations when ω = 1 rad/s. Problem 69: The single-degree-of-freedom system shown is subject to a harmonic force.

So. 0. You may either use the convolution integral or you may try to solve this explicitly. Thus. for a critically damped system ζ = 1. 4k x F (t) m If the system starts with zero initial conditions. m ωn F0 1 − cos(ωn t) . b = 8 N · s/m.05. Solution: The equation of motion for this system is: x+ ¨ F (t) 4k x= . t ≥ t1 . m ωn 0 ≤ t < t1 . t ≥ t1 . at which point it is removed. determine the resulting displacement of the mass x(t). 0 ≤ t < t1 . the response of the system is: t x(t) = 0 F (ξ)h(t − τ ) dτ. (1 − r2 )2 + (2ζr)2 √ F0 1 + (2ζr)2 8 5 = 1. that is: F (t) = ı F0 ˆ. = 17 (1 − r2 )2 + (2ζr)2 Problem 70: A constant force is applied to the undamped single degree-of-freedom system for a duration of t1 . using the convolution integral. m Therefore. b) The amplitude of the total force transmitted to the ground. F0 2 mωn 65 . mωn ωn = 2 k . 0 ≤ t < t1 . = F0 sin(ωn (t − τ )) dτ. for this system: Ft = = F0 2 ωn 1 2 · ωn 1 + (2ζr)2 . where X is the amplitude of the response and r = ωn = 1 is 4 the frequency ratio. t 0 τ 0 =                   F0 sin(ωn (t − τ )) dτ. is ω 2 Ft = Xωn 1 + (2ζr)2 . m m which has an impulse response of the form: h(t) = sin ωn t . and solving for k and b we ﬁnd: k = 16 N/m. 2 mωn cos(ωn (t − t1 )) − cos(ωn t) . t ≥ t1 . which is deﬁned as Ft .

Problem 71: A mass m = 2 kg is rigidly connected to a rigid massless bar of length ℓ = 40 cm. c) what is the amplitude of the oscillations as t increases (i. b) ﬁnd the resulting solution z(t) if the mass is started from rest and the spring is initially unstretched (assume g = 10 m/s2 and use the convolution integral). u(t) → 0)? g m k z u(t) 66 .e. If the mass and stiﬀness are m = 5 kg. and k = 45 N/m: a) ﬁnd the equations of motion in terms of z. If k = 12 N/m and b = 6 N/(m/s): a) ﬁnd the undamped natural frequency and the damping ratio of the system. the relative displacement between the mass and the base (assume the spring has zero unstretched length). which is pinned to a wall. b) what are the steady-state amplitude and phase of the forced response? ˆ  b M (t) ˆ ı ℓ 2 m z2 θ z1 6k k 2k Problem 72: The system shown in the ﬁgure is supported by a foundation that undergoes an exponentially decaying motion of the form: u(t) = 16e−t/4 . and subjected to a timedependent moment M (t) = 12 sin(t). The system is supported by a combination of springs and damper as shown in the ﬁgure.

c) If f (t) = sin t. 4 k = 4 N/m. r = 1 cm. ﬁnd the amplitude and phase of the resulting motion as t → ∞. ˙ k f (t) ˆ  ˆ ı m b x ﬁnd the resulting solution of x(t) for the unforced problem. determine the amplitude of the force transmitted to the supporting structure. x(0) = 2 m/s.Problem 73: In the system shown at right. 2r k r a) Determine the governing equations of motion.. f (t) m b Problem 74: In the mechanical system shown each spring is identical. with spring constant k.e. f (t) = 0. b) What is the period of oscillation. b = 1 N/(m/s). 67 . the disk is assumed to be massless while: m = 2 kg. c) with f (t) = sin(2t). i. If m = 1 kg: a) determine the spring constant k and damping constant b so that the unforced system is critically damped and the exponential rate of decay is τ = 2 s−1 . b) with the initial conditions: x(0) = 0.

4k IG b r b) What is the amplitude of the oscillations when the system is critically damped? r 2 k 2k 68 . k = 8 N/m ˆ  k b ˆ ı ε O G x m what is the steady-state amplitude of vibration when the rotor spins at this angular speed? 2k Problem 76: The disk shown in the ﬁgure has mass m = 4 kg.5 (N · s)/m. If k = 2 N/m and r = 0. b) for: m = 4 kg. ε = 0.2 m: a) Find the steady-state amplitude of the response when: b = 1 N/(m/s). b = 0. If the total mass is m while the mass center G is located at an eccentricity of ε from the the center of rotation O. a) ﬁnd the damped natural frequency. and is subject to a time-dependent moˆ ment M (t) = M0 sin(t) k. M0 = 12 N · m.Problem 75: The unbalanced rotor shown in the ﬁgure is pinned to a frame and supported by a spring and damper.1 m.

k = 20 N/m. φ k g m F (t) 4 Multi Degree-of-freedom Systems Problem 78: For the system shown to the right a) use Lagrange’s equations to determine the equations of motion. ω = 2. c) determine the modal equations for this system.25 kg. F0 = 4 N. φ = 30◦ .00 rad/s. a) ﬁnd the equations of motion. m 2k k 4m F (t) ˆ ı 69 . Do not neglect gravity. b) ﬁnd the amplitude of the steady-state response using Mc when m = 1.125. µ = 0. b) ﬁnd the mode shapes and natural frequencies of the system. If the block is subject to a periodic force of the form F (t) = F0 sin(ω t). the block slides on a rough surface (coeﬃcient of friction µ) inclined at an angle of φ with respect to vertical.Problem 77: For the system shown to the right.

4k 3m k m k k Problem 81: For the system shown to the right the bar of length ℓ is massless and the block on the right is subject to a time-dependent force of the form F (t) = F0 sin(ω t). c) Determine the modal equations. b) Determine the natural frequencies and mode shapes of this system. Normalize the mode shapes so that u T M u = 1. b) ﬁnd the mode shapes and natural frequencies of the system. b) are your equations statically coupled.Problem 79: For the system shown to the right a) ﬁnd the equations of motion. d) m f (t) 2k b Problem 80: For the system shown to the right a) use Lagrange’s equations to determine the equations of motion. dynamically coupled. d) What is the steady-state amplitude of the in-phase motion? 70 x2 k G k k x1 m m F (t) . both or neither? k (4 m . The intermediate springs are located a disℓ tance 2 from the center of the bar. a) Find the equations of motion in terms of x1 and x2 .d ) k 2 (m.

Determine the equations of motion for this system. Problem 84: (Spring 2003) In the ﬁgure shown to the right. ﬁnd the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the system and normalize the mode shapes by M . m k αk k k θ m. For this system: a) ﬁnd the equations of motion in terms of x and θ (and in terms of the given parameters—do not substitute in numerical values yet). in the absence of gravity the springs are unstretched in the equilibrium position. and ℓ = 0. ﬁnd the natural frequencies and mode shapes for this system. m = 2 kg.Problem 82: (Spring 2003) For the mechanical system shown to the right. the uniform rigid bar is supported by identical springs. b) if k = 64 N/m. ℓ x G ℓ 3 F0 sin(ω t) βm k2 x2 m b r2 IG θ r1 x3 z k1 ˆ  ˆ ı x1 m k1 71 . c) determine the equations of motion that describe the response of each mode. Problem 83: (Spring 2003) For the system shown to the right: a) ﬁnd the equations of motion (and in terms of the given parameters—do not substitute in numerical values yet).25 m. b) for α = β = 2.

k x k 2m (I. we eliminate the coordinates z and x2 . r) m 72 . determine the diﬀerential equations that govern the motion. F −(k2 x2 + b x2 ) ˆ ˙ ı T ˆ ı −T ˆ ı = m a G1 .Solution: Because we can. Problem 85: For the system shown in the ﬁgure: a) what is the degree-of-freedom for this system? b) using Lagrange’s equations. ¨ˆ = IG θ k = m a G2 . we eliminate the unknown tension T from the system to obtain: ¨ I G θ − m r2 x2 − b r2 x2 − k2 r2 x2 − k1 r1 z = 0. ¨ ˙ From this equation. FR −k1 z ˆ  k1 z ˆ  F ˆ = m x1 ˆ  ¨  ˆ = m x2 ˆ ı ¨ ı  −k1 x1 ˆ From the equations on block 2 and the disk. 0. x3 = −r1 θ. and obtain the equations of motion to be: m x1 + 2 k1 x1 + k1 r1 θ ¨ 2 I G + m r2 2 ˙ 2 2 ¨ θ + b r2 θ + k1 r1 x1 + k1 r1 + k2 r2 θ = = 0. A free-body diagram for this system is shown to the right. We develop three equations of motion based on linear momentum balance on both blocks and angular momentum balance on the disk: Block 1: F k1 z − k1 x1 Block 2: F T − b x2 − k2 x2 ˙ Disk: MG T r2 + k1 r1 z ˆ k = I G αD/F . and the equation on block 1. leading to the following transformations: x2 = −r2 θ. we deﬁne ﬁve diﬀerent coordinates to describe the dynamical behavior of this two degree-of-freedom system. z = x3 − x1 .

statically coupled. −2k3 )T . (−k2 . ˙ 2 2 2 r2 2 1 1 k x2 + k (x2 − x1 )2 − m g x2 . 1. which represent the positions of the three masses. 2k3 )T . x2 . Finally. k2 + 2k3 . −k2 . b) We utilize the coordinates x1 . x2 . V = 1 2 2 which. x3 ) = (1. b) is your system of equations dynamically coupled. However. the suspended mass moves vertically and its position can be described by the coordinate x2 . 0) (0. So this system has only two independent coordinates and therefore it is a two-degreeof-freedom system. x3 ) = (x1 . we use the stiﬀness inﬂuence coeﬃcients. or both? k1 m1 k2 m2 k3 m3 k3 Solution: We choose the coordinates (x1 . −2k3 . Thus eliminating θ. their motion can be related by: x2 = rθ. = m g. Maintaining a unit displacement of each mass in turn requires forces of the form: (x1 . x2 . x3 ). using Lagrange’s equations. 0)T . x3 ) = (x1 . a) To determine the stiﬀness matrix. The upper mass slides horizontally with displacement x1 . and θ. . while the disk rotates through an angle θ. 0. x2 and θ are related by the above relationship. 0) (0. yields the equations of motion: 2m x1 + 2 k x1 − k x2 ¨ I ¨ m + 2 x2 − k x1 + k x2 r = 0.Solution: a) This system contains three masses which are each allowed to move in only one direction. (0. 1) 73 → → → f f f = = = (k1 + k2 . Problem 86: For the system shown in the ﬁgure: a) ﬁnd the mass and the stiﬀness matrix. ˙1 ˙2 2 2 2 1 1 k x2 + k (rθ − x1 )2 − m g x2 . the kinetic and potential energies are written as: T V = = 1 1 ˙ 1 (2m) x2 + m x2 + I θ2 . 0. the energies become: 1 1 1 I 2 T = (2 m) x2 + m x2 + ˙1 ˙2 x . because the disk and the suspended mass are connected by an inextensible string. 1 2 2 However. x2 . x2 . Therefore. as measured from the unstretched position of the two springs.

b) is the system statically or dynamically coupled. k2 k1 m1 k2 m2 m1 k1 74 . with these coordinates the stiﬀness matrix is:   k1 + k2 −k2 0 k2 + 2k3 −2k3  K =  −k2 0 −2k3 2k3 Alternatively. the system is statically coupled but dynamically uncoupled. Thus. we could use the inertia inﬂuence coeﬃcients.Therefore. but. Problem 87: For the system shown at right: a) determine the governing equations of motion. for variety. ˙1 ˙2 ˙3 2 2 2 b) With this choice of coordinates. 2 2 2 1 1 1 (k1 + k2 )(x1 )2 − (2k2 )(x1 x2 ) + (k2 + 2k3 )(x2 )2 2 2 2 1 1 − (2k3 )(x2 x3 ) + (2k3 )(x3 )2 . To determine the mass matrix. we can deﬁne the potential energy of the system as: V = = 1 1 1 (k1 )(x1 )2 + k2 (x2 − x1 )2 + (2k3 )(x3 − x2 )2 . the mass matrix is diagonal and the stiﬀness matrix contains nonzero oﬀ-diagonal terms. c) ﬁnd the matrix M −1 K . 2 2 which leads to the same stiﬀness matrix. we determine the kinetic energy as: T = Therefore. the mass matrix is: m1 M = 0 0  0 m2 0  0 0  m3 1 1 1 m1 x2 + m2 x2 + m3 x2 . or both.

m = 2 kg. k2 = 2.25.1. we ﬁnd that the mass and stiﬀness matrices are: M = 2m 0 0 2m . and stiﬀness matrices.e. If the system is subject to proportional damping with α = 0. C = βM +αK . k1 = 6. damping.1 a) determine the eigenvectors of this system.0 N/m m2 = 1. with proportional damping. with: m1 = 2. the damping matrix becomes C = αK . b) what are the damped natural frequencies of this system. If m1 is subject to harmonic forcing F (t) = sin t.0 kg. ﬁnd: a) the mass. normalized by the kinetic energy inner product.0 N/m.0 kg. of the form: ı f (t) = (2 sin(t)) N ˆ. α = 0. i. c) the steady-state response of the system. β = 0. −k2 k2 k1 + k2 −k2 while the damping is proportional. b) the forced. the mass and stiﬀness matrix are: M K = = m1 0 0 m2 . and k = 4 N/m. Solution: a) Using inﬂuence coeﬃcients. K = 2k −k −k 2k . Problem 89: The two-degree-of-freedom system shown is subject to a harmonic force applied to the block of mass 2m. c) ﬁnd the steady-state amplitude of vibration of the mode of vibration with the lowest natural frequency.Problem 88: In the system shown to the right. k f (t) 2m k 2m k Therefore. damped equation (singledegree-of-freedom) that describes the motion of each mode. so that 75 ..

2 −1 −1 2 . If the pulley is massless: a) using Lagrange’s equations. 1 2 2 2 2 Therefore the equations of motion become 4 m x1 + 3 k x1 − k x2 ¨ 2 m x2 − k x1 + k x2 ¨ or in matrix form m 4 0 0 2 x1 ¨ x2 ¨ 76 +k 3 −1 −1 1 x1 x2 = 0. as measured from static equilibrium. ˙2 2 2 1 1 2 k x2 + k z2.we ﬁnd: M = (4 kg) 1 0 0 1 . 0. C = (1 N/(m/s)) Problem 90: In the multi-degree-of-freedom system shown in the ﬁgure. b) with m = 1 kg and k = 16 N/m. c) ﬁnd the general solution to these equations for the above values of m and k. Measuring the response from static equilibria and neglecting the gravitational potential energy. frictionless surface. = = 0. x1 z k 4m r 2k x2 2m Solution: a) We identify the three coordiantes x1 . determine the diﬀerential equations governing the motion. and z. the kinetic and potential energies for this system can be written as T V = = 1 1 4 m x2 + ˙1 2 m x2 . the block with mass 4m slides on a smooth. the potential energy becomes V= 1 1 2 k x2 + k 1 2 2 x2 − x1 2 = 1 1 1 3 k x2 + − 2 k x1 x2 + k x2 . . with z = x2 − x1 . 1 2 2 In terms of x1 and x2 . ﬁnd the natural frequencies and mode shapes for the free vibration of this system. Normalize the mode shapes so that with respect to the mass matrix the amplitude of each mode is one. K = (4 N/m) 2 −1 −1 2 . x2 .

m u2 = √1 6m √1 6m . 4m u1 = √ 1 12 m 2 − √12 m . Normalizing ui by the mass matrix implies that 1 = uiT M ui = c2 i 1 (4 βi − 3) 4m 0 0 2m 1 (4 βi − 3) . the mode shapes are deﬁned by the equation 3 1 ui1 + ui2 = βi ui1 . the normalized eigenpairs are ω1 = k . 1 −β 2 − 1 5 1 = β 2 − β + = 0. 4 4 so that ui = 1 4 βi − 3 ci u1 = 1 −2 c1 . Solving for ci ci = 1 2 m (2 + (4 βi − 3)2 ) −→ c1 = 1 . A1 sin k t 4m + B1 cos k t m k t 4m k t m √ 1 12 m 2 − √12 m √1 6m √1 6m = + A2 sin + B2 cos . ω2 = k .b) The corresponding eigenvalue problem for the above system is M −1 K u =λu −→ k m 3 4 1 −2 −1 4 1 2 = k βu m The characteristic equation is 3 −β 4 with the solution β= 5±3 8 −→ λ = ω2 = k k . c2 = 12 m 1 6m Finally. 4m m . u2 = 1 1 c2 . c) With the above mode shapes and natural frequencies the general solution becomes q (t) = x1 (t) x2 (t) 2 = i=1 (Ai sin(ωi t) + Bi cos(ωi t)) ui . 77 . 8 4 4 Returning this to the eigenvalue problem.

the system is statically coupled but dynamically uncoupled. 0 0 0 −m3 m3  0 0  k2 b) With the ﬁrst choice of coordinates. b) is your system of equations dynamically coupled. or both? k1 m1 k2 k3 m3 m2 k1 Solution: a) For coordinates we choose (x1 . with these coordinates the mass and stiﬀness matrices become:    k1 + k2 −k2 m1 0 0 k1 + k2 K =  −k2 M =  0 m2 + m3 −m3  . if we choose coordinates (x1 . 78 . x2 . we can determine the mass and stiﬀness matrices from the Lagrangian. x2 . The kinetic and potential energies are: T V = = 1 1 1 m1 x2 + m2 x2 + m3 (x2 − x3 )2 . With the latter coordinates neither matrix is diagonal so that the system is both statically and dynamically coupled. Using inﬂuence coeﬃcients. where z represents the stretch in the spring connecting m2 and m3 . 1 2 2 2 2 2 Thus. statically coupled. z). ˙1 ˙2 ˙ ˙ 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 k1 x2 + k2 (x2 − x1 )2 + k2 z 2 + k1 x2 .Problem 91: For the system shown in the ﬁgure: a) ﬁnd the mass and the stiﬀness matrices. the mass matrix is diagonal while the stiﬀness matrix is not. K =  −k2 0 −k2 k2 0 0 m3 Alternatively. x3 ) as the displacements of each mass with respect to inertial space. we ﬁnd that:     m1 0 0 k1 + k2 −k2 0 k1 + 2k2 −k2  M =  0 m2 0  .

the system has two degrees-of-freedom. using the above kinematic constraint to eliminate θ. normalized by the kinetic energy inner product? k r r 2 k m m Solution:  a) Let the displacement of the left block.Problem 92: In the system shown to the right. b) With the above coordinates. and (x2 ˆ) respectively. the governing equations are: 3m x1 + 5k x1 − 2k x2 ¨ m x2 − 2k x1 + k x2 ¨ = 0. the Lagrangian becomes: L = T − V. so that the moment 2 of inertia about the mass center is IG = mr . ˆ  (θ k). Therefore. the pulley has mass m and radius r. 2 2 2 2 1 2 1 kx + k(x2 − rθ)2 . the kinetic and potential energies can be written as: T V = = 1 1 mr2 ˙2 1 mx2 + mx2 + ˙1 ˙2 θ . and right block be described as (−x1 ˆ). 2 a) What is the degree-of-freedom for this system? b) Find the governing equations of motion. 2 1 2 Thus. what are the frequencies of oscillation for the motion and the corresponding mode shapes. = 0. c) If m = 1 kg and k = 4 N/m. 1 1 m 3x2 + x2 − k 5x2 − 4x1 x2 + x2 . 2 x2 is independent from the above two coordinates. the mass and stiﬀness matrices can be written as: M =m 3 0 0 1 79 . ˙1 ˙2 = 1 2 2 2 Using Lagrange’s equations of motion. c) From the above equations. disk. K =k 5 −2 −2 1 . Although x1 and θ are related by the following constraint: x1 = r θ.

3 Normalizing by the kinetic energy inner product. and the characteristic equation can be written as: β2 − 8 1 β + = 0. A = M −1 K becomes: A= k m −2 5 3 2 −3 1 . 3 3 k where. The elements of u then satisfy the equation: 2 5 u 1 − u 2 = β u1 . 3 3 Thus. λ = m β is an eigenvalue of the characteristic matrix A. b) Find the mode shapes and natural frequencies of the resulting motion. This quadratic equations has solutions of the from: √ 4 ± 13 β= . the surface is assumed to be frictionless. u)M = u 3u2 + u2 2 1 Problem 93: For the system shown in the ﬁgure. we return to the characteristic matrix A. determine the diﬀerential equations governing the motion (measured from static equilibrium). k 4m (m. this yields: u2 = 1∓ √ 13 2 for β= 4± √ 13 . so that Au = λu. a) Using Lagrange’s equations. r) k m 80 . if β is a solution to this equation. if u1 = 1.The characteristic matrix. we ﬁnd that: ˆ u= u (u. 3 To determine the eigenvectors.

a) Find the equations of motion in terms of the coordinates x1 . x2 . 81 . ﬁnd the resulting motion of the system. m Find the corresponding mode shapes and normalize them so that (ui . If each block is displaced by a distance d (down and to the right). and x3 . the surface is assumed to be frictionless. the natural frequencies of the system are found to be: ω1 = 0. and identify the mass and stiﬀness matrices. x2 . ω2 = 2. Problem 95: For the system shown in the ﬁgure. z = r θ − x2 . x1 (m. r) k m z x2 Solution: We deﬁne the coordinates x1 . θ. uncoupled equations of motion for the modal amplitudes Qi (t).Problem 94: The multi-degree-of-freedom system shown in the ﬁgure is subject to harmonic forcing of the form f (t) = sin(4 t).62 rad/s. k m θ f (t) m k m 2k 2k ω3 = 1. c) Determine the forced. ui )M = 1. so that x1 = −r θ.41 rad/s. b) If m = 2 kg and k = 4 N/m. and z as shown in the ﬁgure.38 rad/s.

the mass and stiﬀness matrix can be identifed as M =m 0 3 2 0 1 . 2 3 −→ ω= k . the kinetic and potential energies can be written as T = 1 1 m r2 ˙2 1 θ + m x2 + ˙1 m x2 . V= 1 2 2 Expressing these only in terms of the coordinates x1 and x2 . (M −1 K ) u = m 1 1 which is determined from the characteristic equation det M −1 K − λ I with λ = k m = k m 4 −β 3 (1 − β) − 2 = 0.With these coordinates. 3 β. The solution to this equation requires the solution of an eigenvalue problem of the form 4 2 k 3 3 u = λ u. 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 T = 1 2 3m 2 x2 + ˙1 Therefore. 82 . This quadratic equation has the solution β= 7±5 = 6 1 . normalizing the eigenvectors by the mass matrix 1 = uiT M ui = ui1 ui2 3m 2 0 0 m ui1 ui2 = m u2 i1 6 + (3 βi − 4)2 4 . we obtain 1 m x2 . −→ ui2 = ui1 = βi ui2 ui2 1 1 2 In addition. the eigenvectors are determined by returning to the original eigenvalue equation 4 2 3 βi − 4 ui1 ui1 3 3 . ˙2 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 V= k x2 + k (−x1 − x2 ) = 2 k x2 + 2 k x1 x2 + k x2 . u2 = √ 2 10 m √ 2 10 m . ˙2 2 2 2 2 1 1 k x2 + k z2. K =k 2 1 1 1 with q (t) = x1 (t) x2 (t) and the equations of motion are: m 0 3 2 0 1 x1 ¨ x2 ¨ +k 2 1 1 1 x1 x2 = 0. Solving for ui1 the normalized eigenvectors are u1 = √ 2 15 m 3 − √15 m . 3m 2k m With this.

k x1 f (t) 2m k z x2 m 2k Solution: a) We deﬁne the coordinates x1 . the solution to the speciﬁc initial conditions becomes q (t) = x1 (t) x2 (t) = d 5 cos k t 3m 4 −6 + cos 2k t m 1 1 . of the form: f (t) = (2 sin(t) N) ˆ. Since uiT M ui = 1 from our normalization.T T One can easily verify that both u1 M u2 = 0 and u2 M u1 = 0. ı If the mass and stiﬀness of the system are assumed to be m = 2 kg. ˙ uiT M q (0) = uiT M ui (Ai ωi ). The equations of motion become m 2 0 0 1 +k 2 −1 −1 3 = f (t) 0 . Problem 96: The two-degree-of-freedom system shown is subject to a harmonic force applied to the block of mass 2m. and z. 15 A2 = 0. and k = 4 N/m. x2 . damped equation (singledegree-of-freedom) that describes the motion of each mode. Premultiplying by uiT M yields uiT M q (0) = uiT M ui Bi . ﬁnd: a) the equations of motion. 83 . which are related as z = x2 − x1 . B1 = 6 d m . The general solution is written as 2 q (t) = i=1 Ai sin(ωi t) + Bi cos(ωi t) ui subject to the initial conditions q (0) = d −d . b) the forced. the constants are directly solved to be A1 = 0. ˙ q (0) = 0 0 . B2 = d m 10 Finally.

14+4 6 84 . Returning to the eigenvalue equation. the modal equation for the ﬁrst mode can be written as T T T ¨ u1 M u1 Q1 + u1 K u1 Q1 = u1 f (t). 1 ui2 = βi ui1 2 −→ ui2 = 2 (1 − βi ) ui1 ¨ Q1 + √ √ ( 8− 3) k √ 2m 1 Q1 = f (t) √ . the eigenvectors satisfy the equation ui1 − so that √ √ ( 8 − 3) k 1 √ . ¨ Q2 + √ √ ( 8+ 3) k √ 2m 2 Q2 = f (t) √ .b) The corresponding eigenvalue problem can be written as M −1 K = k m 1 −1 2 −1 3 u= k β u m and the characteristic equation becomes (1 − β) (3 − β) − 5 1 = β 2 − 4 β + = 0. u2 M u2 = 14 + 4 6. ω2 = . 6−2 2m √ √ ( 8 + 3) k √1 √ . 2 −→ ω = 2 √ √ √ √ ( 8 − 3) k ( 8 + 3) k √ √ . 2m 2m . 2 2 This quadratic equation has the solutions β =2± 3 . Finally. u1 = √ ω1 = . T u2 f (t) 2 ¨ Q2 + ω2 Q2 = u T M u2 . T u1 f (t) 2 ¨ Q1 + ω1 Q1 = u T M u1 . u2 = −( 6 + 2) 2m For each eigenvector the kinetic energy inner product is √ √ T T u1 M u1 = 14 − 4 6. 14−4 6 while the response of the second mode is governed by T T T ¨ u2 M u2 Q2 + u2 K u2 Q2 = u2 f (t).