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Policy ICT Policy Formulation and e - Strategy Development
A Comprehensive Guidebook
Asia-Pacific Development Information Programme
17A/1, Lajpat Nagar IV, New Delhi -110 024 Telephone: 91-11-26447160 Fascimile: 91-11-26447156 Website: www.asiaelsevier.com
UNDP-Asia Pacific Development Information Programme United Nations Service Building, 3rd Floor, Rajdamnern Nok Avenue, Bangkok 10200, G.P.O. Box 618, Bangkok 10501, Thailand. Telephone: 66-22881234, 22882129 Fascimile: 66-22883032 Website: www.apdip.net ISBN: 81-8147-752-9 © United Nations Development Programme-Asia Pacific Development Information Programme (UNDP-APDIP) – 2005 Academic Press, Butterworth-Heinemann, Digital Press, Elsevier, Focal Press, Morgan Kaufmann, North Holland, Pergamon are the Science and Technology Imprints of Elsevier. This publication is released under the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 license. For full details of the license, please refer to the following: www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/legalcode Printed and bound in India
ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development
Table of Content Foreword List of Abbreviations List of Figures List of Boxes List of Tables Preface Stage 1: Visioning and the Role of ICTs in Development What are ICTs? ICT Diffusion and Access to Information The Importance of a Strategic National ICT Vision and Agenda Defining the Process from a Human Development Perspective The Changing International Marketplace National ICT Vision and Priorities ICT Policies vis-à-vis e-Strategies ICTs as Tools for Socio-economic Development Perspective of High-income Countries Perspectives from Low Technology Adopters ICTs as Enablers of Development How do People Benefit from Access to ICTs? ICTs in the Fight Against Poverty ICTs for Local and Community Development ICTs for Greater Access to Information about Livelihoods ICTs for Better Government ICTs for Crisis Prevention and Recovery ICTs for Research. Environmental Observation and Management ICTs for Health and the Fight against Disease and HIV/AIDS ICT as an Industry Two Approaches to Building the Capacity of Business Policies to Support the ICT Industry International Business Opportunities Stage 2: Development of ICT Policy and e-Strategies What are ICT Policies and e-Strategies? Definition and Examples of e-Strategies Putting Together an e-Strategy: the Components Approach to ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development The Types of Strategies Approach to ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development Setting Macro-strategic Goals v vi viii viii viii ix 1 1 1 2 3 4 7 8 10 11 15 17 18 19 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 26 28 29 29 30 30 31 33 34 34 ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development iii .
Micro-strategic Goals and Other Considerations e-Readiness Assessments Stakeholder and Consultative Process Parameters of ICT Policy Development (the 5 Cs) The Importance of Related Policies Cross-sectoral Thematic Considerations National ICT Development Policies e-Government Policies and Regulations ICT Industry Policies Universal Access Stage 3: Identifying Priority Areas and Developing Action Plans How are Strategies Achieved? Addressing the Development Dynamic e-Strategies for Infrastructure Development e-Strategies for Human Capacity Development e-Strategies for Policy Development e-Strategies for Enterprise Development Building the Capacity of SMMEs to Use ICTs Stage 4: Management. Monitoring and Evaluation Arrangements Implementation and Management The National e-Strategy Agenda Action Plans Impact Evaluations Evaluation. Monitoring and Feedback Performance indicators Institutional Frameworks Stage 5: Financing and Resource Mobilization Financing e-Strategies Resource Mobilization – Internal and External Appendix 1. Example of Log Frame Analysis About the Author 36 41 43 47 49 49 54 57 57 57 59 59 59 60 64 65 67 69 73 73 73 73 81 82 82 83 85 85 86 87 101 iv ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development .
and achieve Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). national policies are yet to adequately reflect truly comprehensive and integrated strategies for harnessing and exploiting this potential. However. While the potential advantages of ICT for Development (ICT4D) are enormous. a directly attributable link between growing inequality within nations and the intra-national digital and information divide. information and knowledge to facilitate the formulation and adoption of ICT policies and strategies. to ‘how’ comprehensive and holistic ICT policies can unleash human potential and enhance people’s capabilities to improve their lives. is designed to provide policy-makers the necessary tools. We hope this Guidebook and the entire series will positively contribute to assisting policymakers in moving forward on this agenda. The debate on ICT has permanently shifted from ‘why’ ICT for Development. Through the examination of vital sectors and case study analysis of applied policies and strategies implemented in the AsiaPacific region. Regional Bureau for Asia and the Pacific ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development v . perhaps. This Guidebook. Recognizing this untapped potential. Sound ICT policies that are truly pro-poor must be an indispensable part of national development strategies. Hafiz Pasha UN Assistant Secretary-General UNDP Assistant Administrator Director. just as technology and knowledge gaps need to be bridged between countries. enhance human development. There is. part of the ICT4D series produced by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) through its Asia-Pacific Development Information Programme (APDIP). this publication provides tangible examples and lessons for policy-makers and practitioners involved in the field. infrastructure initiatives and development strategies incorporating ICT are being increasingly promoted and launched across the Asia-Pacific. Much mention has been made of a growing digital divide between countries. the increasing information and technology gap within countries also requires critical attention.Foreword Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are now widely accepted by developing countries as a critical tool in their efforts to eradicate poverty.
University of Sussex International Financial Institution Instant Messaging Internet Protocol Intellectual Property Rights International Records Management Trust Information Technology vi ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development . Industry and Education Code Division Multiple Access Consultative Group for International Agriculture Research Center for International Development. Singapore Institute of Development Studies. Harvard University Civil Society Organization Digital Opportunity Initiative e-Commerce for Developing Countries Electronic Data Interchange Electronic Funds Transfer European Union Food and Agriculture Organization Foreign Direct Investment Famine Early Warning System Famine Early Warning System Network Fibre-optic Link Around the Globe Former Soviet Union General Agreement on Trade in Services Gross Domestic Product Geographical Information System Gross National Product Government On-Line Government-supported Research Institutes Global System for Mobile Communications Human Development Index Human Development Report Human Resources Development Canada Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers Information and Communications Technology ICT for Development International Council of Scientific Unions Info-Communications Development Authority.List of Abbreviations A2P2 ABT ADSL AIDS APIA APDIP APNIC ASEAN ASYCUDA B2B B2C BAC BI BPCA CANARIE CDMA CGIAR CID CSO DOI ECDC EDI EFT EU FAO FDI FEWS FEWS-Net FLAG FSU GATS GDP GIS GNP GOL GRI GSM HDI HDR HRDC ICANN ICT ICT4D ICSU IDA IDS IFI IM IP IPR IRMT IT Advocacy + Advice and Pilot + Partnership Agreement on Basic Telecommunications Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line Acute Immune Deficiency Syndrome Asia-Pacific Internet Association Asia-Pacific Development Information Programme Asia-Pacific Network Information Centre Association of Southeast Asian Nations Automated SYstem for CUstoms DAta Business to Business Business to Customer Business Advisory Centre Business Incubator Bluefield Peoples’ Community Association Canadian Network for the Advancement of Research.
16 World Trade Organization World Wide Web ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development vii . Scientific and Cultural Organization United Nations Foundation United Nations Information Center United Nations Information Technology Services United States of America United States Agency for International Development Voice over Internet Protocol or Voice over IP World Bank World Customs Organization World Economic Forum Wireless fidelity . Medium and Micro Enterprises Short Message Service Sexually Transmitted Disease Trans Asia Europe Technology Achievement Index Trans-National Corporation United Kingdom United Nations United Nations Commission on International Trade Law United Nations Conference on Trade and Development United Nations Development Programme United Nations Environment Programme United Nations Education.11 Fixed wireless standard .IEEE 802.IEEE Standard 802.ITU LAN LDC MAN MCSE MDGs MIMOS MSC NGO NHDR NSF OECD OOPP PC PDA PFNet PRA PoP PTA PRSPs R&D ROAR RRA SADC SDNP SIDS SMEs SMMEs SMS STD TAE TAI TNC UK UN UNCITRAL UNCTAD UNDP UNEP UNESCO UNF UNIC UNITes USA USAID VoIP WB WCO WEF Wi-Fi WiMAX WTO WWW - International Telecommunication Union Local Area Network Least Developed Country Metropolitan Area Network Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer Millennium Development Goals Malaysian Institute of Microelectron Systems Multimedia Super Corridor Non-Government Organization National Human Development Report National Science Foundation Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development Object Oriented Project Planning methodology Personal Computers Personal Digital Assistant PeopleFirst Network Participatory Rural Appraisal Point of Presence Pacific Telecom Authority Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers Research and Development Results-Oriented Annual Report Rapid Rural Appraisal Southern African Development Community Sustainable Development Network Programme Small Island Developing States Small and Medium Enterprises Small.
WTO Language Limits Internet Penetration in Thailand Tables List of Tables Table 1 Regional Issues and National ICT Policy viii ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development .List of Figures Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Countries with Highest TAI GDP Per Capita vs. Internet Penetration Identifying Problems and their Cause-effect Relationships Identifying Policy Clusters in the ICT Objective Tree Cause-effect Relationships between Objective Tree Clusters Start of a Logical Framework from a Possible Project Resulting from the Solomon Islands ICT OOPP Workshop Box List of Boxes Box 1 Box 2 Box 3 Box 4 Box 5 Box 6 Box 7 Box 8 Definition of the Information Economy The Huoshan Agricultural Information Service Benefits and Outcomes of e-Government Some Key e-Government Applications for People ICTs Revolutionize Environmental Sciences What Information should be in the Public Domain – the Example of Brazil Basic Telecommunications Services .
In particular. and how they can organize. The Guidebook focuses on the steps required in developing ICT policies. e-business and e-commerce. It will help them understand some of the issues and concerns they should deal with.Preface The objective of this Guidebook is to explain the nature of people-focused ICT policy formulation and strategy development. ICTs applied to learning at all levels. and development agencies and organizations including NGOs. it discusses the role of ICT policy-making in human development. local and community. its potential contribution in the fight against poverty and disease. such as planning officers. the Guidebook will be helpful to development planners because their concern is the use of ICTs for the community and they measure the benefits and outcomes of using ICTs in human development terms. and the achievement of MDGs is highlighted. e-government. Using examples and practices drawn from the AsiaPacific and around the world. participatory methodologies and visioning exercises. It will assist them in dealing with the special challenges of introducing technology in conditions that a priori may not always appear conducive or. ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development ix . Also discussed are questions that need to be considered in developing an ICT strategy. This Guidebook will be useful for development actors and decision-makers in government. advocacy for the empowerment of women and other marginalized groups. in some circumstances. ICTs for scientific research and development. and the approach to ICT action planning. may seem completely inappropriate given other development needs and priorities. seeking to understand how to introduce ICTs in national development planning at every level – national. It can also be utilized at the community level by those who seek to understand ICTs’ role in development. plan and marshal resources to best meet the needs of their constituencies using ICTs. including appropriate e-readiness assessment methodologies. district or regional. prevention and management of disasters of all types. advancement of good governance. Related topics covered include strategies for various sectors in dealing with information access. ICTs for local and community development as well as the development objectives and outcomes sought through an ICT strategy. the sectors that ICT policy-making needs to deal with. The Guidebook will be useful to generalists and development specialists. Finally. Some of the principles of implementation that need to be considered from a human development perspective are outlined and discussed. e-health.
x ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development .
This definition of ICTs extends to older non-digital devices such as analogue radio and television. Working Paper 7. available at http://www. etc. Mobile devices such as cellular or mobile phones are also an especially important class of ICTs. ICTs include computer software and associated systems such as management methods and practices.Stage One Role Visioning and the Role of ICTs in Development ICTs WHAT ARE ICTs? Information technology (IT) is “a fancy name for data processing”. The term information and communications technology (ICT) was coined to reflect the seamless convergence of digital processing and telecommunications. New York.man. or the so-called application layer. Beyond hardware. ICTs and small enterprise: Findings from Botswana’. For Duncombe and Heeks. the French term is new ICTs (nouvelles technologies de l’information et de la communication – NTIC). processes. telecommunications towers.uk/idpm/idpm_dp. according to Newton1. 18th edition. Newton’s Telecom Dictionary. An ICT with a far-reaching impact is the Internet. Ibid. computers. 4 To distinguish between analogue and digital ICTs. H. wireless devices. i. These tools can be either manual or computerized (digital)3 . ICTs deal only with digital information. R. 2 3 1 ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development 1 . UK. transmission and management of bits and bytes of data between computers. processes. ICT Diffusion and Access to Information ICTs continue to be diffused at a rapid rate all over the world. Development Informatics Working Paper Series.4 . and systems that are used for storing. The information economy is a fact and there are impressive statistics and other evidence to prove that ICTs do make a Newton. Institute for Development Policy and Management. Duncombe.ac. ‘Information. IT means all equipment.e. and Heeks. Manchester.. 1999. communicating and sharing information. which permits the efficient routing. procedures and systems used to provide and support information systems (both computerized and manual) within an organization and those reaching out to customers and suppliers 2 . managing. R. a worldwide network of computers connected through a robust digital technology called the IP protocol (Internet protocol). ICTs include hardware.htm. 2002.
Some consider the extent of ICT adoption a prime factor in the rapid development of countries. this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek. The vision sets the stage and the agenda is defined by a strategic plan. the second step is defining the process.htm. planning. 2002. and method. organizations. L. Department for International Development. Doctoral dissertation. ‘Universal Declaration of Human Rights’.tulane. London. This Guidebook’s perspective is that ICTs are not an end in themselves. communities and people. available at http:// www. It is clear that ICTs have an important role to play in fighting poverty and in achieving the MDGs6 .edu/~mtruill/index-phddiss. Access to information helps people identify and seize opportunities to grow and develop. ICTs are tools to empower people and communities to become self-sufficient in meeting their basic needs and reach their full potential. THE IMPORTANCE OF A STRATEGIC NATIONAL ICT VISION AND AGENDA The ability to take full advantage of the information economy for the benefit of all in a given country or jurisdiction requires vision. 7 Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights. available at http:// studentweb. ICT visions. The MDGs capture the most important objectives or outcomes sought from development initiatives from a human development perspective. in the economy. in government. M. and to better their lives and that of their families and communities. agendas and plans need to consider MDGs. The ability to share information on a level playing field helps overcome barriers to communication and encourages exchange and collaboration. Having agreed on a people-centric approach.unhchr. agreeing on the steps involved. and managing this process. 6 Marker.html. ‘The significance of information and communication technologies for reducing poverty’. The agent of change and of empowerment is information. and Wallace. A study claims that ICT diffusion accounts for up to 90 percent of the increase in the Human Development Index (HDI)5 observed in some nations. There are three aspects that need to be considered from a strategic planning standpoint. and in the development process itself. discipline. Access to information facilitates participation in society. “Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression. In Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. McNamara. the international community via the United Nations (UN) recognizes that.difference to the competitive and comparative advantage of nations. 2001. 5 Trujillo-Mendoza. ‘The global digital divide: Exploring the relation between core national computing and national capacity and progress in human development over the last decade’. receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers”7 . The first is the importance of maintaining a human development perspective and focusing on the achievement of benefits for people through the appropriate use of ICTs.ch/udhr/lang/eng. P. The ability to use information and to communicate is fundamental to human welfare. 2 ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development . The international community also recognizes the importance of access to information. followed by an action plan.. K.
This will allow the independent audit of achievements and will help decision-makers and the constituents of the strategy to track progress. especially the telecommunications sector. development goals and objectives. scope and analyze the situation using appropriate tools. This means in part to establish the basis for action by defining and understanding the benefits and outcomes. social and economic development over the longer term. 8 Accenture. Defining the Process from a Human Development Perspective As many of the issues related to human development are complex and interlinked. While planning and implementing an ICT agenda. on the diffusion of technology and of ICTs. To understand the goal of using ICTs from a people perspective. Understanding the issues that affect access to ICTs is also important and is included here for this purpose. and by helping to define success. it is helpful to take a look at established practice. Markle Foundation and UNDP. . and a way of communicating that potential to all stakeholders. To help define. To help identify and consider the main stakeholders and their concerns. it is important to develop both the ICT vision and strategy with people in mind and with the input of these very same people. Should the national ICT agenda be sector driven or should it focus on broader issues and objectives. Final Report of the Digital Opportunities Initiative. The Digital Opportunities Initiative (DOI) report8 clearly states that while there are many types of strategies that various countries have evolved to develop ICTs. in particular. .A third aspect is the impact of changes in the international economy. ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development 3 . New York. on benefits for society and the economy as a whole? Many ICT strategies adopt a sectoral approach to ICT implementation. To instil rigour in the ICT planning process. To help compare and contrast practices (especially best practices). . . . For this to happen. To help define ways of measuring these benefits and outcomes by defining benchmarks of progress. The ICT vision and strategy should focus on people and not just on technology. . (What are we trying to do? What is the ICT strategy for and why? And who is this for? What is the ultimate vision or goal? What are the objectives to achieve the goal? How do these help countries meet MDGs?). To help identify and understand pertinent issues. Creating a Development Dynamic. . 2001. evidence suggests that an integrated approach to ICT development and deployment is most likely to yield success in human. To help define the benefits and outcomes sought in relation to the vision. a strategic planning approach is needed for the following reasons: . This aspect has a strong bearing on the strategic ICT vision and agenda. The national ICT vision is a step towards understanding the options and their possible benefits.
and it may be more reliable than depending solely on word-of-mouth when those communicating and/or receiving the information are spread over time and space. there is a need to first understand the requirements and circumstances of the people who are to benefit from the introduction of ICTs. One hundred forty-six countries (as of 2003) adhere to the WTO agreements. On the other hand. To help identify and make use of appropriate management tools in arriving at these decisions. User needs assessments are essential in planning the introduction of ICTs to communities. Understanding human requirements takes time and effort. the WTO agreements represent a 9 See http://www. but they may want efficient ways of sharing information about livelihoods and employment. Word processing may be one of the technologies or applications that will make it easier to communicate information about livelihoods. To help plan and undertake appropriate communications and consultations with stakeholders. the ways in which ICTs can help people address and meet these needs must be understood.htm. and ways to implement these priorities and move forward. ICTs for human development are not about technology. efforts to streamline its operation or at least encourage greater collaboration and interoperability have been the object of much effort. in societies where the oral tradition is important. At the same time. no matter what their status or HDI. . People do not need word processing to survive. The Changing International Marketplace As the information economy becomes predominant. for example. To help identify priorities. accessing the Internet to inform a community radio station may be a way of communicating valuable information to computer illiterate users in rural locations.org/english/thewto_e/whatis_e/tif_e/org7_e. the required resources. These include 30 of the 46 countries listed by the United Nations as least developed countries (LDCs)9 . and . 4 ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development . which regulate international trade.. Many of these issues will be discussed in this Guidebook. Understanding human needs and how ICTs can help achieve them To understand the role that ICTs can play in human development.wto. An electronic bulletin board system for sharing information about job opportunities may be useful to those who are connected to the Internet. but about people using the technology to meet some basic need. An important mechanism affecting ICT diffusion and use have been the agreements negotiated under the World Trade Organization (WTO). Considered the political underpinning of globalization. but useless to people who are not.
with advice from experts in the field such as the International Telecommunication Union (ITU). the national telecommunications operators. The main stumbling block was the issue of subsidies. If privatization is not properly managed. and the change management capacities of personnel are also issues that affect the success of privatization and delivery of services. including universal access provisions based on sound market data and an analysis of best practices. This is because of the failure of the international community to reach an agreement at the Fifth WTO Ministerial meeting under the Doha Development Agenda in Cancun in September 2003. the way privatization takes place. For signatories. By adopting an integrated ICT strategy. However. the country suffers and everyone loses.wto. This is still the case in many of the non-signatory countries and it is changing slowly in some of the signatory countries10 as well. These rules are especially important in opening up the telecommunications sector to competition and foreign investment. Many factors influence the real and potential value of an operator in the eyes of a private sector investor. There is a need to provide services to remote dwellers. However. This situation may change. they risk being one of the last far-reaching global trade agreements to be concluded in the foreseeable future. a jurisdiction can avoid some of the pitfalls discussed above. ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development 5 . Of special interest to ICT policy formulation are trade rules affecting telecommunications regulation and licensing. Until the WTO agreements.significant achievement in international collaboration. for instance. the telecommunications markets in most countries had been closed to competition and had been operated by de facto monopolies. However. tensions rise. rural and poorer users out in the cold. These include the size of the market in terms of number and density of potential customers (population density) as well as the geographic spread of these customers and their ability to pay for services. the provision of rural telephony is completely unprofitable and therefore unattractive to investors. Disparities increase. Some observers consider the break-up of monopolies a prerequisite of increasing information flows and for encouraging the diffusion of ICTs. However. especially agricultural subsidies paid by developed countries to their farmers. Geographic spread is especially important because of the provision for universal access.org/english/thewto_e/whatis_e/tif_e/ org6_e. in island communities of the South Pacific or for larger countries with small population bases such as Mongolia and many of the countries in Africa. The actual and perceived value of the market and thus of the operator. in a planned and stepwise fashion.htm. The transition can be made less difficult by proceeding cautiously. given its immense political impact on the developed countries that pursue these distortionary measures. but a resolution in the shortterm is unlikely. One of the most challenging areas of ICT in support of 10 The full listing of WTO signatories can be found at http://www. there is no magic solution. private operators will skim off the most profitable telecommunications services and leave remote. getting from one state to another is not that straightforward. the end result will be similar in all cases – more open national and international markets for telecommunications goods and services. other international agencies and private sector specialists.
and the Agreement on Basic Telecommunications (ABT). such that telecommunications services have become more competitive and the Internet has grown.htm. to the detriment of Internet development. A test is ongoing to promote competition in the allocation of Internet domain names. A regime that protects IPR allows the benefits of Research and Development (R&D) to be shared and full advantage to be taken of ICTs. Wi-Fi. Another relevant WTO agreement touches on intellectual property rights (IPR). The cost of purchasing these products would simply mean that they would cease to be used in the jurisdictions concerned if they were not otherwise available. full-duplex satellite technologies such as DirecWave) to create sustainable business models to deliver the benefits of the information economy to everyone everywhere. At present. An international board representing users from around the world governs ICANN. enforcing IPR regimes is extremely costly and only well-endowed companies and nations can afford to do so. The management of the Internet IP address naming system and the allocation of IP addresses. The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) has been created as a consensus-based private sector organization to supervise the allocation of IP addresses. Models are being developed and tested to show how countries can actually take advantage of cutting-edge technologies (WiMAX. 11 12 See http://www. change is taking place rapidly and dramatically. the Internet and the information economy.org/general/background. for example. bringing advantages to consumers and the private sector as well as governments. but in maximizing their profits. many smaller and less developed countries cannot afford to implement the international agreements on IPR with respect to software.icann. Here the problem is that of ensuring that access to IP names and classes is equitable and that each country. that allows for the selective acquisition of high value telecommunications services such as mobile telephony and data services (now IP services) while the less valuable services are funded by public sources. is another issue of broad concern in the preparation of ICT policies. The result is that many smaller or poorer companies and countries cannot enforce the requirements of IPR or ensure that their own claims are respected beyond their own jurisdictions.human development is rural telecommunications. sometimes known as Internet governance. can be guaranteed reasonable access to the number and type of IP addresses they require. 6 ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development . There are two basic WTO agreements that are of concern: the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS). The ABT states: “… governments must ensure that foreign service suppliers are given access to the public telecommunications networks without discrimination”11. is a sure recipe for disaster.htm.wto. This could lead to more than 52 entities with authorization to compete in selling domain names and related services12.org/english/thewto_e/whatis_e/tif_e/agrm6_e. and eventually each user. Also. These agreements provide for the opening up of national telecommunications markets to foreign investment and competition. Internet naming systems have been commandeered by operators interested not in ensuring that more addresses are made available. it is wise to remember that privatization. Since the formation of the WTO. In some countries. See http://www. Similarly.
etc.ap. which foresees Malaysia becoming an industrialized country by 2020. Ottawa. and e-Japan. calls for Botswana to become an educated and informed society. available at www. D. the bandwidth available on a per capita basis. IDRC. wherein the production of information goods and services dominates wealth and job creation. In Botswana. comparative analysis and benchmarking are possible. Some of the best known include Malaysia’s Vision 2020. 2001. Vision statements can and probably should include quantitative results such as the number of computers per user. one tenet of Vision 2016. Hence. the percentage of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) that can be assigned to the introduction and deployment of ICTs. this future state is e-enabled.dbsa. African Development Forum.Box 1: Definition of the Information Economy13 The term “information economy” refers to “a new global electronic structure. available at www. With quantitative results or measurable outcomes. they need to reflect on their response to the rapid transformations brought about by the information economy.org/books/ictpolsa.org/depts/eca/adf/pub. ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development 7 . Quoted in James. An Information Policy Handbook for Southern Africa: A Knowledge Base for Decision-makers. The national vision for Canada is based on rolling out infrastructure to “make the information and knowledge infrastructure accessible to all 13 Cogburn. One possible starting point is an exercise to help focus on the long-term implications of the diffusion of ICTs. a community or even a household.un.org/publications/ictpolsa and www. A vision statement could be written for an organization. T. which proposes “prosperity for all”. An outcome of this effort could be a vision statement outlining a shortto long-term scenario for ICT development. which is a vision of a society “ where everyone can actively utilize information technology (IT) and fully enjoy its benefits”. Many countries have developed visions of the future where ICTs are seen as engines of transformation to achieve a desired state. It documents outcomes that the country or jurisdiction wishes to arrive at within a given time frame.” The diffusion of ICTs affects the status and competitive position of countries and jurisdictions. a considered or strategic approach is needed in planning the diffusion of ICTs. Vision statements are always upbeat and ambitious.htm. the number of devices that will be available. Invariably. 1999. A vision is a statement of great expectations for the future. and has an impact across sectors and at all levels of society. National ICT Vision and Priorities As countries and jurisdictions position themselves to take better advantage of ICTs. Knowing what a country or jurisdiction wants and what it can achieve. including measurable outcomes or benchmarks over a given time frame. It could even incorporate personal goals. agreeing on this and communicating it as widely as possible are some of the outcomes of visioning. and is underpinned by the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) and the global information infrastructure. ‘Globalization and the information economy: Challenges and opportunities for Africa’.
Visioning is an engaging exercise. ‘How to conduct a visioning exercise’.Canadians. Individual policies themselves are rather meaningless when they are not based on an underlying national agenda. Visioning exercises Visioning exercises can be a first step in strategic planning. making Canada the most connected nation in the world”. They can also be very effective in outlining a shared vision and in securing support for its implementation. Strategies direct the body of policies and provide a framework for policy implementation. In these countries. Visioning exercises14 require a definition of personal. They have added value when a quantitative measure of achievement to be realized in the future is agreed upon and formulated. Strong leaders and governments in many countries in the Asia-Pacific have developed ambitious ICT strategies. With a description of the current development situation. especially if they are more focused on people instead of only on documenting hard evidence of technical diffusion. it is important to think strategically of ICTs as enablers of human development. available at http://www. can be helpful sources of information for visioning exercises. but does not appear to have been used much at the national level or in situations where large numbers of people are involved or could be involved. 8 ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development . community and national goals for the future. it is possible to consider the extent to which greater access to information and ICTs can contribute to bettering people’s lives. All participants have a view of what they would like themselves. As a communication tool.org/enved/ suscom-vision.html. ICT Policies vis-à-vis e-Strategies Governments develop policies. Legislation enshrines the policies in law. Thinking about a future state of affairs can captivate people’s imaginations. e-Readiness assessments. A strategic framework is necessary to help explain policy decisions and choices. the first thing to do is to identify the development priorities and challenges facing the country. In thinking strategically of the role of ICTs and information in development.wri. and to give policies personality and direction. there are regulations and supervision mechanisms 14 See World Resources Institute. Visioning works well at the corporate or community level. their children and their communities to have in the future. visioning exercises can be very effective. They are brainstorming exercises applied to scenario-building about the future. In visioning and in developing ICT strategies. It is imperative to consider how enhanced access to information can improve the lives of people as well as stimulate the economy and streamline government. which will be discussed in following sections.
the usual business incentives will help them establish themselves. this will encourage further investment. The effectiveness of the courts. Some countries naturally favour their home-grown ICT industries. They will create the necessary support for the success of the ICT strategy and its objectives. New legal frameworks will be required to implement the ICT vision and strategy of a country or jurisdiction. in fact. This change usually takes the form of increased competition and greater access to services in national markets. A country can have the best of laws and intentions but if these cannot or will not be applied. people need to be involved in developing these policies. ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development 9 . If the courts are seen to treat foreign investors in a fair and equitable manner. Prospects for outside investors to contribute to the implementation of the ICT strategy and associated actions plans will also be affected by these issues. issues that affect foreign direct investment (FDI) are also going to have a bearing on the implementation of ICT plans and strategies since foreign investors – as sources of expertise. Internationally.to ensure compliance. UNCTAD/ITE/IPC/2003/2. Ongoing consultation with stakeholders is a requisite for successful implementation of development policies. including those that apply to the diffusion of ICTs. New York and Geneva. While government sets policies. and the issue of jurisprudence to guide legal decisions and judges dealing with what may be a new area of jurisdiction and legislation. constitute an impediment. Technology for Development Series. The implication is that without the involvement of these corporations. 2003. ICT policies have to take this reality into consideration. the law alone is not enough. One of the greatest concerns is the application of laws and regulations. countries and other companies cannot expect to be able to develop a competitive ICT industrial sector. In general. they may be useless and may. the capacity of people and associations to seek and obtain legal redress. development and manufacturing costs involved in continuing to develop and market ICTs are such that only transnational corporations (TNCs) can afford them15 . However. Indeed. Policy statements and laws in themselves may not be sufficient to bring about the change that is sometimes necessary to transform business practices for the greatest possible diffusion of ICTs. but to 15 UNCTAD. especially when the intention is to grow a national ICT sector that can compete internationally. ‘Investment and technology policies for competitiveness: Review of successful country experiences’. a recent UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) report on technology and competitiveness states that the research. and the perceived equity of the government and legal decisions will greatly affect the involvement of people. Competitiveness surveys undertaken by the World Economic Forum (WEF) have shown foreign investors to be particularly sensitive to the reputation of the courts with respect to how foreigners are treated. while legislation is a necessary step to bring about change in business practices. the WTO agreements have provided the incentives that have enabled meaningful changes in business practices and telecommunications policies to create a more level playing field in the provision of telecommunications and related services. As for smaller and more local ICT industries. funds and other resources – are considered partners in the strategy and its implementation.
17 Ibid. 5. help develop entrepreneurial skills and the capacity of SMEs to become players in the ICT sector. Leaders 1. Technology creation as measured by the 3.666 . Korea. ICTs AS TOOLS FOR SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT This section uses the Technology Achievement Index (TAI)16 to rapidly group and compare countries on their abilities to use technology and ICTs as tools for development. 16.583 enrolment ratio. Introduced by UNDP. Germany 0. reflecting capacity to participate in the technological innovations of the network age. Australia 0.589 electricity consumption/capita). These measures will not only encourage private sector operators to enter the ICT business sector but. United Kingdom 0. New Zealand 0. Finland 0.585 schooling and the gross tertiary science 11. Singapore 0. Norway 0. Republic of 0.535 However. and 9.compete they must look to partnerships with international firms and TNCs. TAI is intended to help policyTAI Rank TAI makers define technology strategies. Human Development Report 2001: Making New Technologies Work for Human Development.548 social development (Figure 1)17. Technical Value achievement is directly correlated to TAI.606 . 2001. 10 ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development . Diffusion of old innovations (telephones/capita. Diffusion of recent innovations as measure by 6. Cisco. 7.514 from ICT use is itself directly related to the level of Figure 1 Countries with the economic development in a country. Policies that help incubate ICT companies as well as new businesses are also required. Sweden 0. Belgium 0.553 based on the belief that ICTs enable economic and 15. 12. Austria 0. Japan 0. more appropriately. HP and others are a clear illustration of this reality.544 17.630 the number of Internet hosts per capita. which can reach a maximum of one. For small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in developing countries. Netherlands 0. Ireland 0. the ability to generate benefits that derive 18. The partnership programmes of heavyweights such as Microsoft. such as those described by Heeks and Duncombe in their study of ICTs in smaller enterprises.698 receipts of royalties and license fees from abroad. 8. Canada 0.733 . Human skills as measured by mean years of 10.566 Countries with the highest TAI have policies that are 14. there is a need to promote policies and develop incentives. Oxford University Press. The TAI is a measure of how well a country is creating and diffusing technology and building a human skill base. Israel 0. France 0.579 13.703 number of patents granted to residents and by 4.587 . New York. Some basic Highest TAI requirements for fully exploiting the knowledge and 16 UNDP.744 TAI measures achievements in four areas: 2 United States 0.
Internet users 100 inhabitants, 2000
information economy are related to GNP (Figure 2). TAI shown here are based on data reported in 2001. However, these trends are still prevalent. Given these disparities, the digital divide is really a reflection of existing disparities between the haves and have-nots. As a meeting of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) put it,
GNP Per Capita vs. Internet Penetration
Note: GNP per capita, US$, 1999 compared to Internet penetration, 2000. Each dot represents a country. Source: ITU World Telecommunication Indicators database18.
“The digital divide is a symptom of existing economic and social divides, which will widen even further if developing countries are not helped to take advantage of ICT in tackling economic and social problems and are denied access to markets that are becoming increasingly ICTdependent as part of globalization.”19 Perspective of High-income Countries According to the Human Development Report (HDR) of 2001, “Leaders20 (TAI above 0.5) – topped by Finland, the United States, Sweden and Japan – are at the cutting edge of technological innovation. Technological innovation is selfsustaining, and these countries have high achievements in technology creation, diffusion and skills. Coming fifth is the Republic of Korea, and 10th is Singapore – two countries that have advanced rapidly in technology in recent decades. This group is set apart from the rest by its higher invention index, with a marked gap between Israel in this group and Spain in the next.” The view of industrialized countries is that ICTs can enable the economy and all sectors of human activity. There is now clear proof that the adoption of ICTs in the 1990s in the USA is directly related to increases in efficiency that have translated into increased rates of economic growth and GDP. The USA has recognized that ICTs are major enablers of the economy and, as
ITU, World Telecommunication Development Report 2002: Reinventing Telecoms, Geneva, 2002. OECD, ’Digital opportunities for poverty reduction: Addressing the international digital divide’, OECD Global Forum on the Knowledge Economy, Joint OECD/UN/UNDP/WORLD BANK Global Forum, Exploiting the Digital Opportunities for Poverty Reduction, Paris, 2001. 20 UNDP, Human Development Report 2001: Making New Technologies Work for Human Development, Oxford University Press, New York, 2001.
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a sector, major contributors to GNP. Many industrialized countries have developed ambitious plans to connect their citizens (e.g., Connecting Canadians strategy in Canada) or deploy ICTs throughout society and the economy. Australia, Great Britain, Singapore, the USA, Republic of Korea, Japan and Canada have developed ambitious strategies to provide universal access to the Internet along with universal service, usually to the telephone. These countries are also leaders in providing government online (GOL) services to their citizens.
The experience of newly industrialized countries in the Asia-Pacific
Japan and many of the Asian Tigers have predicated their development strategies on a strong and modern education system, and the promotion of science and technology. Singapore, Republic of Korea and Japan developed integrated IT master plans early on. In Singapore, the ICT plan was developed between 1980 and 1985, in Korea in 1987, and in Japan in the early 1990s. Consider Singapore21: its goal was to attain a living standard unrivalled in Asia by 2000 and is to surpass the US standard of living by 2010. Singapore is an example of what a recently industrialized country can achieve with vision, determination, investment, hard work and strong leadership. Singapore has undergone essentially three stages of economic development. The first phase is based on providing low-cost labour. The next phase is based on upgrading technology and other infrastructure. The last phase is based on developing globally competitive businesses. Singapore lost its competitiveness in low-wage job markets and was forced to move beyond this growth phase. The country then focused on building up national technology bases with increasingly sophisticated industrial and domestic research infrastructures and incentives designed to attract global technological leaders and advanced research activities. It realized that it could not attract large-scale manufacturing industries to its shores because of the uncompetitive wages of its now better-off workforce. It therefore encouraged off-shore manufacturing while retaining the headquarters and R&D facilities of these offshore enterprises in Singapore. It has undertaken all this in an energetic fashion. Its 1991-1996 five-year plan budgeted over US$3 billion to upgrade infrastructure from that of a manufacturing centre into that of an innovation hub, capable of creating new and better products and services for the region and the world. Included in the budget was US$500 million to promote innovation within companies by covering up to 70 percent of qualifying project costs. A second thrust developed specialized skills and capabilities, land requirements and infrastructure to attract international investors. A third thrust was labour skills training for emerging industries and wafer fabrication projects required for assembling microprocessors. This move to upgrade infrastructure is only the beginning of an ongoing process of reorienting traditional economies toward technology, innovativeness and institutional dynamism.
21 Boulton, R., Kelly, M.J. and Yoshida, P.G. Information Technologies in the Development Strategies of Asia, International Technology Research Institute, USA, 1999.
ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development
Continuing to improve local standards of living and build long-term economic viability requires sustained technological and business expansion. A key part of Singapore’s plan is to create an electronics industry cluster, including semiconductors, communications, display and data storage businesses. Singapore’s successful electronics development strategy produced revenues of over US$45 billion in 1995. The government is offering tax incentives for pioneering investments, incentives for skills and R&D training, and special reduced taxation for specific industries and technologies. Singapore has also introduced a value-added tax system to reduce overall taxation on individuals as well as on corporations. In a separate undertaking, Singapore is building a multi-technology, ultramodern telecommunications and information infrastructure. It plans to make its port the most automated in the world. Its Tradenet system now links (since 1999) government agencies by computer networks that can process over 10,000 customs declarations daily. The system can handle complete documentation for trade, government administrations, transportation, banking and insurance. What is striking is the high level of commitment in Singapore and other Asian countries to advancing their economies as rapidly as possible through stages of development, to achieve global economic leadership. Asian national leaders hold the conviction that electronics, information and communication technologies are key to the future competitiveness of their domestic economies, of their peoples’ standards of living, and of their countries’ abilities to fully participate in the global economy. That Singapore is a world-class leader in science and technology and R&D can clearly be appreciated from the programme of work of the Agency for Science, Technology and Research of the Government of Singapore22 . This agency focuses on two main research threads: biomedical sciences, and science and engineering. It also has two main thrusts in education: one for science and technology called “Students and scholarships” and another for industry. Like all other endeavours in Singapore, science and technology is undertaken in a multilingual, multicultural and cross-cultural, multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary learning, research and entrepreneurial environment. This is a key feature in attracting the best people and companies from around the world.
According to UNDP HDR 2001, “Potential leaders...have invested in high levels of human skills and have diffused old technologies widely but innovate little. Each tends to rank low in one or two dimensions, such as diffusion of recent innovations or of old inventions. Most countries in this group have skill levels comparable to those in the top group”23. In the Asia-Pacific, these
See http://www.a-star.edu.sg/astar/index.do. UNDP, Human Development Report 2001: Making New Technologies Work for Human Development, Oxford University Press, New York, 2001.
ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development
Technology and the Environment. By creating an advanced information network. such as Malaysia. often by expanding on relationships begun in contract labour arrangements. have relied heavily on cooperation with foreign technology leaders to enter and compete in markets for technologically advanced components and products. MIMOS projects are product-oriented and focused on boosting the competitive and innovative levels of the domestic electronics industry. International Technology Research Institute. 1. which started in 1985 within the Prime Minister’s office and which is now a department of the Ministry of Science. Non-manual workers such as engineers should account for at least 15 percent of the workforce. 25 See http://www. Malaysia is committed to the use of ICTs to achieve its development objectives. Consider the example of Malaysia24. M.J. Malaysia’s official vision is to become fully developed by the year 2020.G. USA. MIMOS. Dynamic adopters UNDP HDR 2001 defines dynamic adopters (with TAI between 0. a knowledge society and finally a values-based knowledge society.20-0. 36 institutions of higher learning. GRIs include the Standards and Industrial Research Institute of Malaysia and the Malaysian Institute for Microelectronic Systems (MIMOS). Information Technologies in the Development Strategies of Asia. and 11 incubator companies. is Malaysia’s national centre of excellence in microelectronics and information technology.031 companies have MSC status: 984 technology companies.mdc. Once foreign corporations have a stake in local markets. It is estimated that in 2004 the MSC employed 22. Part of the effort to achieve this goal involves the creation of governmentsupported research institutes (GRIs). about the size of Singapore. Prime Minister Mahathir proposed the Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC) project to attract IT industries. therefore. Kelly. especially in the 1990s. Hong Kong and Malaysia.my/xtras/fact_figures/msc. In August 1995.398 people. Singapore and Malaysia have. Malaysia plans to invest more than US$2 billion over the next decade to become the multimedia hub of South-East Asia. they typically continue to upgrade technologies. Malaysia’s government hopes to lure leading R&D companies and software developers from abroad. Qualifying firms must be suppliers of multimedia and other information technology products or services and they must be willing to transfer technology to Malaysia. Companies that joined the project by the end of 1997 are to be exempted from corporate taxes for up to 10 years. At present. Newly industrialized economies of Asia. R. Taiwan. The State has a vision to utilize ICT to transform Malaysia successively to an information society. 14 ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development .asp. 1999. overcoming the financial and technical challenges of expanding into advanced fields may be feasible only with such cooperation.. P. of whom 88 percent are knowledge workers25.countries include China. For such economies.34) as “countries [that] 24 Boulton. and Yoshida. been strongly committed to attracting and keeping the involvement of leading companies. The MSC stretches south of the capital of Kuala Lumpur to where the new international airport and new federal capital are located – a 15 km by 50 km (9 mile by 30 mile) zone.com.
Most are developing countries with significantly higher human skills than the fourth group.are dynamic in the use of new technology. India. Oxford University Press. Human Development Report 2001: Making New Technologies Work for Human Development. and there are only 28 telephones for every 1. India. then poorer and more marginalized communities will not benefit. 2001. However.1 years of education. Included are Brazil. is also well known.20. the poor can be developed. China’s efforts to connect all major centres with fibre-optic cabling is another clear example of the enthusiasm with which ICTs are being rolled out in that country. In these countries. India. 26 UNDP. ICTs other than radio are not readily accessible outside major urban centres. The agricultural information service in Huoshan County (see Box 2 on page 17) is an example of such an innovation that can have economic benefits for the farmers that take part in it. as a result. Experimentation in bringing relevant ICT-enabled applications to the people in rural areas is also evidence of the concern that ICTs be relevant to the needs of rural dwellers. but the diffusion of old inventions is slow and incomplete. which is home to a world-class technology hub in Bangalore. New York. Environmental conditions may be difficult. and usable by. 27 Ibid. Indonesia. is the extent to which applications that are useful to. China and Brazil are also known for their concern for diffusing technology to all levels of society. Apart from having technology clusters and/or centres of excellence. Efforts in India to develop the Simputer. ranks at the lower end of TAI. Survival and other development issues predominate. including rural dwellers and the poor. as many users do not have the ability to take advantage of ICTs or of the information that ICTs provide access to. much remains to be done. A clear objective is to make China a major participant in the global economy. China’s success in providing near universal access to telephones. large parts of the population have not benefited from the diffusion of old technology. as in other countries. Many of these countries have important high-technology industries and technology hubs. The digital divide will remain a major problem limiting human development. Many of these countries have large populations. China. South Africa and Tunisia. If these and other appropriate applications are not developed. are well documented. technology diffusion and skill-building have a long way to go. Why? Because Bangalore is a small enclave in a country where the average adult receives only 5. ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development 15 . among others. Perspectives from Low Technology Adopters In countries with TAI below 0. The challenge in India and China. adult illiteracy is 44 percent.000 people27. whether fixed line or wireless. China’s commitment to e-enable the country is supported at the highest levels and represents a significant national investment in technology and other capabilities. as well as other efforts at the local and community levels.”26 The Philippines and Sri Lanka also fall in this category. and are characterized by an uneven diffusion of technology. Also. electricity consumption is half that in China.
For many years the Peacesat satellite service has provided locally accessible broadcasting studios that are used for voice communications between groups of people living on the different islands. smaller markets and the vast distances that separate these countries from each other and from the rest of the world. There are no more than two million people in the South Pacific. 16 ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development . In general. small population sizes. In some cases. even basic connectivity is a challenge and only major centres have Internet connections. the South Pacific SIDS are made up of many small islands and countries covering vast reaches of the Ocean.php as well as http://www. and poorly serviced by telecommunications infrastructure.gov. Local and community groups do not have access to reliable power or telecommunications infrastructure. Discrimination against women. language conflicts and other issues such as insecurity may also prevail. Illiteracy may be an issue. a community approach to understanding the needs and circumstances of Solomon Islanders was proven to be essential to the successful introduction of ICTs.to late-1990s over the existing telephone connections to enable e-mail communication. ICTs have been especially useful in facilitating voice communications at low costs between residents of these islands. They need support in crafting and implementing strategies and related action plans to bootstrap into the information economy. In the PFNet project. unlike the SIDS islanders around Africa and the Western Indian Ocean. These countries or regions do not have the basic means to benefit from the information revolution or to fully participate in the information economy. A community-based approach is essential in the South Pacific.org/old/itpt/it. a plan to strengthen the capacity to use ICTs and establish basic connectivity and networking infrastructures has been an important consideration from the start28. The PakTok store and forward e-mail messaging service was used in the mid.There may be civil strife and the country may be in a period of conflict or undergoing reconstruction after conflict. ICT deployment in this region is focused on overcoming isolation. many of these people share common customs and languages. ICT development efforts are predicated on introducing these technologies in the community in public access sites or in schools. These countries risk being marginalized. In the work undertaken with the help of the international community in Timor-Leste. Life is more rural than in the Caribbean on average.net/news/newsart/12122000.pdf. However. Community-based networking initiatives designed to increase awareness of ICTs and to encourage their use by local populations and in schools are increasing. ICTs at the local and community levels help people communicate and contribute to 28 See http://www. Pacific Islanders live in tightly-knit island communities where family and close personal contact is an important and everyday fact of life. Special cases: small island developing states (SIDS) in the South Pacific Unlike the Caribbean and the SIDS around Africa and the Indian Ocean.apdip. They are far from major markets and concentrations of human population.east-timor. Reconstruction efforts in some of these countries have recognized the importance of including plans for developing the national capacity to use ICTs. along with a lack of basic technical and managerial skills.
30 29 ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development 17 . virtually anything can be bought or sold over the Internet using Box 2: The Huoshan Agricultural Information Service32 It is not just large corporations that have realized the advantages of the Internet. increased productivity. In Huoshan County. using the Internet. learning and decision-making are facilitated. Used in combination with satellite technologies such as satellite digital radio or fully bi-directional satellite-based Internet access services such as Hughes Direct Way or the equivalent. One technology that appears to hold great promise is community radio. taking advantage of and. and helps extend and enhance the local agricultural market while helping small-scale farmers to bypass middlemen and obtain valuable information. in his overview paper. As eBay has demonstrated. Internet via dial-up. Annual Report of the Council of Economic Advisors. and business transactions are expanded and speeded up with ICTs. E. one of the poorer counties of Anhui province in China. the county Web sites market local produce nationally and internationally and match needs for agricultural produce. Observation. 2001. Radio may be an intermediate or middleware technology for many users that have no capacity to use ICTs or no access to these tools. and larger Web-enabled centres in municipalities has been established. This service facilitates contact and promotes exchanges between buyers and sellers. bamboo products. community radio is much appreciated in some Sahelian countries where it contributes to community renewal and job creation for young people. ICTS AS ENABLERS OF DEVELOPMENT ICTs enhance all forms of information exchange. especially cash crops such as medicinal plants.unesco. small single operator agricultural information offices located in townships. radio can be a suitable enabler for learning about. reports similar results31. A network combining doorto-door information collection and exchanges (sneaker nets). In the municipalities. Washington. UNDP-APDIP. See http://www. an agricultural information service connects several townships and villages.org/webworld/highlights/internet_radio_130599. 31 Lallana. and profitability. 32 Labelle. R. This initiative is supported by the United Nations Educational. Used in conjunction with the other technologies such as the Internet and digital satellite radio. Opportunities can be identified and acted on more easily. ICTs for Poverty Reduction. telephone.local empowerment and community development. A good example of the marriage of radio and the Internet comes from Kothmale in Sri Lanka. China: Notes and observations. and team. These lead to business-related efficiencies and faster turnover. DC. ‘Huoshan county. etc. United States Government Printing Office. 2001. especially in the services sector30. An Overview of ICT Policy and e-Strategies of Select Asian Economies.html. prized mushrooms. eventually. Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)29. where community radio and Internet connectivity have been brought together to help the radio station meet the information needs of its listeners. Markets operate more efficiently and are more accessible. Anhui province assessment mission’. Lallana. 2004. UNDP China.
. Access to information can help level the playing field by increasing participation in economic and human development activities and in those applications that depend on information. Access to information for private and professional decision-making: ICTs expand the range of choices and opportunities by facilitating greater access to economic. available at http://www. Access to opportunities: ICTs empower individuals. Countries must transform themselves into information economies and knowledge-based societies. FAO maintains another such Web site with a global purview35. Several online markets – the so-called horizontal marketplaces – have been established to expand access to Asian goods and services33. . ICTs make information acquisition and management easier and more efficient. . 35 See http://www. ‘Horizontal marketplaces in Asia’. educational and development-related information. Asia-Pacific countries have recognized this and so have many entrepreneurs. FEWS-Net. especially SMEs. only better. Early adopters will win. The specific advantages of using ICTs include: . earth observation is used to predict crop failure and prepare for emergency food relief34. . businesses. 33 Momentum Technologies. Greater ability to learn: distance learning permits students to get accreditations online from recognized universities. More awareness of factors affecting individual well-being.shtml. The expectation is clearly that e-commerce will become essential for international trade. 2003. available at http://www. local and community groups.org/WAICENT/faoinfo/economic/giews/english/alertes/sptoc. especially through the Internet. women and marginalized or disenfranchised people or groups to do what they do. such as markets. Greater ability to influence and participate in decision-making. these groups can access the same information that government and large corporations use. It can help to predict and prepare for environmental perturbations and catastrophes. Information and knowledge empower people to become more self-sufficient.online marketplaces. With ICTs and the capacity to use ICTs.sourceguides. .fao. this is the basis of their ICT policies. facilitating access to international markets for Chinese goods and services is one of the most important drivers of ICT policy. 34 Famine Early Warning System. HOW DO PEOPLE BENEFIT FROM ACCESS TO ICTs? Information opens up more possibilities and opportunities for people. including many Asian countries.htm.net/networks/. .com/ markets/byI/horizon/byR/Asia/Asia. In Sub Saharan Africa. For many countries.fews. Indeed. 18 ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development . and open up possibilities for universal access to knowledge and markets. for China. Reduction of geography and distance as a factor in social and economic participation: research is much easier with ICTs. Greater environmental awareness: information about the weather and the environment is more readily available.
some more modest models have demonstrated success. including radio. the telecentres are part and parcel of the business plan of the national operator and there is an existing market or demand for their services. or identify prime grazing areas. Geneva. if any. and . used courses at the multipurpose community telecentre to improve their skills. available at http://www. In this case. Latin America or Asia37. 2001. According to one study. The main lesson here was that the telecentre served a need that was not being met. ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development 19 . 1998. ICTs for Local and Community Development Successful – that is. or manage land. storm early warning systems use ICTs. For women. depending on their requirements. R. The telecentres are not as exclusively focused on the public good as some of the donor-supported initiatives referred to above. In Malanville in northern Benin in Africa. There was marked interest in computer training. UNDP Evaluation Office.futureworks. farmers and herdsmen to locate schools of fish. Improved trade: ICTs enhance and facilitate trade. ICTs are considered to have a good potential to help women entrepreneurs and small business holders36. Commerce is enabled and extended. ICTs have created employment opportunities in back office services and call centres. Similarly. and are especially important for business and government transactions. 38 Fuchs. IDRC Study/Acacia Initiative. ‘e-Commerce for Development Report 2002’. drought prediction is based on satellite imagery. with many women taking courses that were otherwise unavailable to them so that they could better qualify for job opportunities. With ICTs. Transaction processing: ICTs speed up and ease transactions of all types. September 2001. In Africa. In Niger. No 5. The data from these earth observation platforms are increasingly integrated into data networks and the Internet and are thus readily available to resource users and managers. examples of successful donorsupported community access or telecentre projects in Africa. there are few.htm. where women operate 35 percent of SMEs. ICTs in the Fight Against Poverty ICTs have been used to help fishermen. the community access centre was a major investment for all parties concerned. In the Asia-Pacific especially. Tools used for environmental management and earth observation are especially helpful. In Bangladesh. Senegal’s experience with telecentres operated by private sector entrepreneurs has had great success in extending the reach of the national telecommunications operator. community radios have had great success in allowing people to share local and relevant information. UNDP.. to warn fishermen in the Gulf of Bengal. ICTs make markets more efficient. ‘The little engine that did: Case histories from the global telecenter movement’. many of the local professionals and managers. all markets have the potential of being international or of being selective. but they are a commercial success38. However. sustainable – models of the use of ICTs at the local and community level are limited.ca/engine/eng_3. ICTs have also contributed to job creation. 36 37 UNCTAD. ‘Information communications technology for development essentials: Synthesis of lessons learned’. including civil servants.
2003. In Canada.gc. Survey results are fed back into policymaking at the national level.ca/engdoc/main. educators. First draft. One thousand two hundred households are being surveyed to measure impact and to determine what improvements may be necessary. it is important to base interventions on local needs and circumstances and the participation of local actors. This model of piloting. Strategis also tries to provide impartial information for consumers through a “consumer information gateway”42 . Virtual agricultural marketplaces exist. public-private partnerships have been struck to help people working in a given sector buy and sell goods and services. The best way to develop appropriate policies and projects is to undertake extensive surveys of local needs. including aboriginal businesses. In some cases.D. D. ICTs for Greater Access to Information about Livelihoods Government can put in place policies encouraging various stakeholders – government departments and ministries. Governments need to be aware of these and other applications as well as examples of best practices in order to learn from them.ic. 20 ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development . the private sector. available at http://www. 39 Wang.cgi?Language=E. ‘Note to the UNDP SURF-IT discussion list under the heading: ICTD practice note on rural poverty’. the project will not be sustainable. Agri-trader-online is a Chinese online agricultural marketplace trading in agricultural commodities40 that has registered over 44 million hits. along with a business capabilities index to promote these capabilities internationally. If there is no local buy-in. October 8. Strategis has proven to be very popular as a model application of interest to other countries and jurisdictions. certainly not at the level proposed in China39. 40 Global Agricultural Trader Online. They could then apply. local government – to develop applications and provide information about livelihoods.com/english/index. China provides a good example of this.html. China is now experimenting with several models of ICT access at the rural and community levels. Virtual markets have been developed in the US and elsewhere to help bring together suppliers and buyers in given industries. bringing together buyers and sellers and those seeking new opportunities for trade in agricultural products and services. 42 See http://consumerinformation.In developing community access centres. Government portals and other e-applications aimed at helping people find employment or information that can support them in their work have been demonstrated to be very useful in many countries. The site includes databases listing over 50.000 businesses. Strategis41 is a business and consumer portal developed by Industry Canada with the objective of helping Canadian businesses establish themselves in Canada and secure opportunities and markets abroad.asp. A pilot project has been undertaken in collaboration with the Ministry of Science and Technology and has been running for nearly two-and-a-half years. adapt and possibly adopt variants more compatible with their own contexts.agri-trader. publishers.ca/cgi-bin/main. 41 See http://strategis. testing and surveying does not appear to have been undertaken in a systematic way in many other countries.
Enhanced opportunities for smart partnerships with civil society and the private sector. ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development 21 . . More local (distributed) access. Increased trust in government. . .ICTs for Better Government e-Government. . Decentralization and strengthening of local government. helpful and userfriendly service for the people. . as well as a strong commitment to openness and transparency. accessible. and . Increased participation in government. . and . applications. Collaborative software combined with awareness promotion. Faster. What are the development objectives of egovernment? One objective is the modernization of the government and its transformation into a service-oriented public enterprise that works for the public good. Increased efficiency in government operations. . Greater access to and availability of public information: less need to travel and queue. greater ubiquity. Increase in the efficiency and effectiveness of government. Principal outcomes . Increase in service expectations by the public and increasing satisfaction of these expectations. . These and related development benefits and outcomes are listed in the following box. . Increased access to government decision-makers and parliamentarians. There is a tendency in planning for e-government to assume that the introduction of ICTs will lead automatically to changes in behaviour. are the cornerstones of e-government. . This means going beyond the usual office productivity Box 3: Benefits and Outcomes of e-Government Key benefits . smoother transactions with government agencies. A planned and stepwise introduction and use of ICTs in government can lead to the transformation of the public sector into an open. . Automation of most government services and transactions. electronic government and government online are various expressions of e-business in government and the public sector. Increased participation in government. Government leaders must show the way and encourage this transformation. . Increased public satisfaction with government. The full benefits of e-government require policy-makers and planners to assess the state of government readiness for transformation into a service-based and client-focused enterprise for public good. More accessible government information and services. A stronger national identity. informative. training and mentoring.
A concerted effort is needed to influence the attitude and change the behaviour of government employees and the public that will interact with them.Box 4: Some Key e-Government Applications for People . etc. . and to help manage disasters and mitigate their impact when they do happen. Smart communities: municipalities and other communities that have mainstreamed ICTs and especially PCs and IP networks for local and community development: . and . World Bank and other international financial institutions.). as well as other national procurement portals in a given trading block. Could include a community calendar. passports and other documents and authorizations.Transactional portals (online tax filing and receipt issuance. In some countries. renewals.Brochure portals: static information. read only.Knowledge portals: health network. An egovernment policy and strategy will be useful. business and investment portal + interactive and ancillary services such as e-mail. available online to encourage local shopping and spending. etc.A people database and calendar of events that tracks important dates such as date of renewal of permits. along with an action plan to implement the transformation of government into an e-enabled public enterprise.). .Interactive service portals (interactive forms: applications. This is not the case.. registrations. and . to reduce the likelihood of natural disasters. Web portals in local and other languages: . . ICTs for Crisis Prevention and Recovery The development objectives here are to improve the quality of life by reducing the risks associated with natural phenomena. possibly as a result of free trade agreements). Could include online marketplaces or shopping malls. licenses. mailing lists. etc. .Creation of a community database where all community-based events are logged and available. valueadded services. Fully interactive and transactional public procurement portals linked to the major international development portals (UN Business. including local shopping opportunities. . . . online banking applications. data and databases. Community-based access centres or telecentres to provide access to government information. the aim is to provide public access within walking distance for everyone. for example. Public kiosks in government offices and public spaces such as clinics or post offices. and beyond. ICTs for remote sensing and earth observation as well as analytical applications such as 22 ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development . online public procurement services. for users.Community resources and services.
Canada and the National Science Foundation. This network is growing and becoming international. For this reason. grids and Web services have long been associated with sharing distributed computer resources. or the so-called cyber-infrastructure. These networks facilitate international participation. which focuses on joint scientific and education projects. Many countries may not have the human and technological resources to fully exploit these tools and use the available information for research and/or environmental management. 2004. 43 44 See http://www. soil and air contaminants. Source: Bill St-Arnaud. ICTs for Research.fews. Environmental Observation and Management The use of GIS and related applications has been described above. the deployment of ICT infrastructure. 2004 The use of ICTs in environmental management is especially important.org. Box 5: ICTs Revolutionize Environmental Sciences44 Cyber-infrastructure. However. has provided benefits for research. Russia and China. has been established45. aggregate. Similarly. 45 See http://www. Computers help collect. medical patients. February 9. Perhaps the biggest impact of cyber-infrastructure will be in linking sensor and instrumentation grids to databases and other devices for environment studies. oceanography and other disciplines. but their application goes way beyond that. A global network of environmental monitoring and collaboration exists in the form of meteorological and environmental services. analyze. interpret and communicate vast amounts of data that are sensed and recorded by a variety of earth observation technologies. National Science Foundation. One of the best examples is the Famine Early Warning System (FEWS) that has been established in Africa by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID)43. some supported through international and/or regional entities or collaboration. buildings. a research network linking the USA. including the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).gov/od/lpa/news/03/pr03151. especially for environmental research and management. Many early warning systems exist.htm. bridges and other man-made structures.Geographic Information Systems (GISs) and appropriate communications infrastructure can have an important role to play here. USA. February 9. CANARIE. ‘Cyber-infrastructure poised to revolutionize environmental sciences and other disciplines’.nsf. policy-makers need to be made aware of their availability through various international networks and mechanisms. The increasingly widespread availability of wireless technologies is helping this happen everywhere and broadening the network accordingly. Policy-makers need to be aware of these possibilities and the opportunities that they present when developing national ICT policies and strategies. ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development 23 . Networks of smart sensors are being deployed to monitor and collect information on endangered species.
For chronic diseases such as tuberculosis and AIDS. access to information about health has been demonstrated to be a priority in some of the poorer provinces. In some countries. 24 ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development . people can no longer get free advice or visit the doctor for free. ICTs for Health and the Fight against Disease and HIV/AIDS e-Health applications bring efficiency and productivity advantages to the management and delivery of health and medical services. can serve women and men equally. Access to information about public health issues is a major concern. Personal observation recorded during research for UNDP Uzbekistan in preparation of the Programme Area document on Human Development for Change. In China. see http://www. women are especially at risk because they have fewer opportunities to access independent and trustworthy information about maternal and child health. check out the NSF press release at http://morris. health professionals are predominantly men and this may hinder women’s access to medical and public health information. In Uzbekistan. especially in the rural areas. Telemedicine has been considered of great use. December 2000. although it depends on access to broadband as well as modern medical or hospital services that are not always available in developing countries. Some key applications can have an important impact on health delivery.ICTs for research and for environmental management are an important area of endeavour. these applications have proven to be very 46 Labelle. astronomers at the National Academy of Sciences (NSF) were able to benefit from a research grant from the National Science Foundation of the USA and receive ongoing support and exchanges to train and equip a solar observatory and participate in international research networking46 . 47 For more information and resources on ICTs for environmental management. along with radio and television. Some countries have developed partnerships between governments and civil society organizations (CSOs) working in health care to establish health portals dedicated to helping citizens become better informed in matters related to their own health. Policy-makers need to be aware of these issues and of ways in which the Internet and community health and access centres. In many societies. But this is not always recognized in ICT strategic planning efforts.ca/special/ aol_home_e_pub. 48 Government of Canada.canarie.html.canadian-health-network. with the recent de facto privatization of health services in that country.ca/MLISTS/news2003/0164. Tashkent was selected by virtue of its central position on the Asian continent. Health Canada. This is especially important since. R. Countries and jurisdictions need to be especially aware of the opportunities that international research represents. a valuable asset in solar observation47 . Short message service (SMS) applications have been developed to remind patients to take their medicine. An example is the Canadian Health Network48. the rapid increase in the use of wireless devices presents some opportunities to deliver health messages to patients in appropriate languages and dialects.html. Moreover. Tashkent.
effective49. Policy-makers also need to be aware of these specialized applications for the delivery of health services. ICT AS AN INDUSTRY The ICT industry is either service-based or focused on hardware manufacturing and/or assembly. Some companies are involved in all aspects of the business. A national ICT policy can contribute to the establishment, development and growth of ICT businesses by providing incentives and support to this sector. This can include giving consumers incentives to buy the products and services offered by the ICT industry. Incentives could also take the form of encouraging foreign partnerships or joint ventures, including foreign direct investment, as well as empowering local businesses. Encouragement can include tax incentives and reduction or removal of taxes on the import of computer hardware and peripherals on the assumption that the resultant economic benefits will far outweigh the loss of revenue. Other incentives include encouraging access to credit, lowering taxation rates or providing tax holidays, etc. These incentives encourage the creation of a demand and a local market for ICT goods and services. As already mentioned, a recent report by UNCTAD50 states that TNCs exert an influence on ICT development and diffusion since they control much of the market for development and sale of cutting-edge technologies. The lack of skills and capital prevents the entry of newer and smaller firms. Countries may, therefore, want to consider policies that will encourage national investment by TNCs as a way of helping local firms, especially small, medium and micro enterprises (SMMEs), gain the necessary skills and technologies to participate in what is becoming an increasingly closed marketplace. Costa Rica, which succeeded in attracting Intel, provides a good example of this51 as do many of the Asian Tigers. Beyond the use of classical fiscal incentives, policies that actively strengthen the capacity of local businesses are also needed. These policies should target those local firms – SMMEs really – that have the potential to become “flyers”, as Duncombe and Heeks have put it. Otherwise, the effort may be dispersed. As already mentioned, the creation of business incubators to help build local capacity may be required. Business incubators strengthen the entrepreneurial base of a country or jurisdiction52. Governments may support business incubators as part of their policies to promote economic development.
http://www.Bridges.org, ‘Case study: The compliance service uses SMS technology for TB treatment’, ICT-enabled Development Case Studies Series: Africa, IICD and Bridges.org, 2003; available at http://www.bridges.org/ iicd_casestudies/compliance/index.html. 50 UNCTAD, Investment and Technology Policies for Competitiveness: Review of Successful Country Experiences, Technology for Development Series, UN, Geneva, 2003. 51 Gonzalez, A. Key Drivers for Investing in Costa Rica: The Intel Case, OECD Global Forum on International Investment, New Horizons and Policy Challenges for Foreign Direct Investment in the 21st Century, 2001; available at http:// www.oecd.org/dataoecd/53/53/2407839.pdf; Nathan Associates, 2003, ‘Successful integration in the global economy: Costa Rica and Mauritius’, Research report, USAID; available at http://www.dec.org/pdf_docs/PNACS269.pdf. 52 UNIDO, ‘Business incubators: The concept’, 2003; available at http://www.unido.org/en/doc/3736.
ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development
Two Approaches to Building the Capacity of Business There are two approaches that can be considered for building the capacity of businesses.
Approach I: Building the capacity for businesses to use ICTs
This approach would include building capacity to use productivity and efficiency applications as well as collaborative software and other specialized business applications necessary for ecommerce, such as specialized Web- and Internet-based applications, electronic data interchange (EDI) and electronic funds transfer (EFT), among others. For export-oriented firms, the ability to use e-enabled customs trading services, if available, is an important component of SMME capacity building. Government policies to strengthen and support the competitive capacity of local firms should include support for e-commerce trading and customs clearing applications such as the Automated SYstem for CUstoms DAta (ASYCUDA) e-trading system53. This system has been demonstrated to reduce rent seeking behaviour and graft, and help countries collect tax. The advantages are significant and represent an important source of income for the government. An efficient and transparent customs clearing operation greatly contributes to good governance and encourages companies to adopt modern technologies and management practices, to better participate in local, regional and international markets. The World Customs Organization(WCO)54 helps its members enhance national economic wealth and social protection by promoting an honest, transparent and predictable customs environment. This allows legitimate international trade to flourish and effective action to be taken against illegal activity. The WCO has developed a customs capacity-building strategy that is downloadable online55.
Approach II: Strengthening competitive capacity of the national ICT industry
The second approach involves support for the creation and/or strengthening of the national or local ICT industry. This may require some of the interventions already mentioned, as well as an industrial development policy focused on enabling the ICT sector and attracting TNCs. Policies that make it easy for firms in the ICT sector to operate may need to be developed, in a manner consistent with established international and regional trade rules and practices. Policies to Support the ICT Industry For larger players, especially international firms such as large financial institutions, policies that encourage and facilitate the use of e-commerce tools and applications will be important. This means policies that legitimize electronic signatures and contracts. It also means policies
See http://www.asycuda.org. See http://www.wcoomd.org/ie/En/AboutUs/aboutus.html. 55 See http://www.wcoomd.org/ie/En/en.html.
ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development
that establish the basis for secure transactions over the Internet and use of wireless devices, and facilitate the use of EDI and EFT transactions. These are the necessary building blocks for e-commerce. Smaller, and usually local, firms will need support to develop capacity to use ICTs and benefit from e-commerce. Also needed are policies supporting entrepreneurs in the ICT industry in their efforts to establish firms able to compete locally and abroad. Business incubators may be useful in building the capacity to use generic e-business applications. More importantly, they can help ICT firms establish themselves by providing logistic and strategic support for business planning and for helping firms tap into networks of contacts and expertise as well as new markets and venture capital. Incubators can provide coaching and mentoring, some of which may come from investors with the requisite experience and technical know-how, to help the firms establish themselves. This may be easier to come by if efforts are exerted to attract world-class ICT companies and TNCs. Government policies should aim to support entrepreneurship, especially in the ICT sector. They should help drive the demand side for ICT goods and services, especially PCs, peripherals and related hardware and software, including wireless devices. Promoting the use of ICTs and the development of the ICT industry will also be closely associated with support for the private sector in general. Businesses need to first adopt sound business practices and develop a sound business plan. Governments need to create conditions that encourage the development of the private sector and recognize the importance of market mechanisms that encourage open competition. For most businesses, ICTs are not ends in themselves but tools to facilitate business processes. For the ICT sector, policies should aim to strengthen the competitive and comparative advantage of hardware and ICT service providers locally, regionally and internationally. Some countries have policies favouring local companies over foreign-owned companies. Such policies may be difficult to justify under current trading regimes and with the WTO because of their discriminatory nature. Efforts to strengthen the capacity of local businesses, especially SMMEs, are easier to justify. Many countries have policies supporting and promoting SMMEs because of their potential to create employment at the local level. This applies to all SMMEs, whether in the ICT sector or not. Incentives to develop demand for ICTs, especially for PCs and peripherals, need to be considered. Many countries have dramatically reduced, if not eliminated, duties on the import of PCs and peripherals. Other policies to encourage greater access to credit are also important to stimulate demand from the public.
ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development
Ireland and India are the established leaders in this area. adherence to WTO agreements will be important in helping ICT firms establish a foothold in foreign markets. Policies that encourage this outsourcing must be considered. In India. 28 ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development . the gains are not easily realized as competition is severe. However. costs and risks associated with these endeavours. In addition. Indian firms have also spent billions in order to establish the business relationships in the first place.7 billion. However. given the potential benefits. Several other countries are trying to establish their presence in this market. Policy-makers seeking to encourage local businesses in the international marketplace need to be aware of these requirements and tendencies. gaining a foothold does not come easy. Many countries have shown great interest in participating in the off-shore outsourcing market. revenues have been estimated at US$7.International Business Opportunities The global economy is information-driven and the ability of local firms to compete will be tied to their ability to use appropriate information technologies and management practices. There is great enthusiasm about the opportunities that global outsourcing represents. One of the biggest opportunities for ICT businesses is offshore information technology outsourcing. However. Market assessments need to be undertaken to properly determine the opportunities.
Strategies e- WHAT ARE ICT POLICIES AND E-STRATEGIES? National ICT policies help guide a country or jurisdiction in its use of these tools and secure the benefits of the information economy for all. The strategy to deliver ICT policies has to consider institutional and operational issues. Only then will it ensure that content on the Internet is relevant and reflects national specificities while protecting IPR. government. information and ICT policies must take into account local. and so on. commensurate with national needs. in this case an e-strategy. Thus. An ICT policy for national development requires policies for learning and education. private sector and industrial development. ICT policies and strategies need to be integrated into broad development concerns and mainstreamed into all aspects of society and of development planning. as well as sectoral concerns. One of the main objectives of ICT policies and strategies is to ensure the greatest possible diffusion of ICTs. ICT policies deal with issues related to information dissemination and use as well as issues related to the spread and use of the technology itself. national and international issues. A strategic approach denotes a process involving analysis of priorities and constraints before arriving at a recommendation for the resolution of a given issue. Policy-making must be based on the best information and intelligence available. Since these issues are ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development 29 . it is necessary to think in terms of a strategy. ICT policies require to be planned in order to marry the needs of people with the opportunities and possibilities that are available through the use of ICTs. When considering a larger whole. jurisdiction or country. specificities and concerns. This Guidebook considers both. empowering women and other groups. and promoting research and development especially in applied sciences. local and community development.Stage Two Policy Development of ICT Policy and e. An action plan details the organization required to implement the strategy. It should be undertaken in consultation with stakeholders to help secure beneficial and realistic outcomes. ambitions. such as the development needs of a community. Policies alone address specific issues.
Also included are the institutional mechanisms for implementation and supervision. this organization is associated with or attached to a high-level government decision-making body such as Parliament or the Office of the President. youth and the handicapped. the poor. e-government. Simply put. risk assessment and mitigation. A good example of this is the introduction of Voice over IP (VoIP) technologies or EDI applications. their outcomes. Putting Together an e-Strategy: the Components There are several parts to an e-strategy: the assessment. Consultation. intended results and their justification.largely cross-cutting and interrelated. the action plan or master plan for implementation and the consultation plan. the strategic plan itself. perceptions and observations1. facts and figures. It also includes a schedule for implementation. the vision. Steps have to be taken to ensure that consultation is representative and that marginalized groups. the introduction of ICTs radically transforms the way things are done. it will be useful to consider establishing an independent entity created by the government or identifying an independent organization or a not-for-profit association to manage and implement the ICT strategy. The assessment is based on consultation. e-health (which is sometimes confused with telemedicine). 1 The World Economic Forum Africa Competitiveness Report is based on perception and observation. 30 ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development . For the same reason. are included. The action plan for implementation can include detailed projects. cost and other detailed resource requirements. They apply specifically to sectors such as e-commerce. such as women. In some cases. In many cases. Definition and Examples of e-Strategies e-Strategies are plans based on the selection of scenarios and options for applying ICTs to national development. In some cases. which must be ongoing. The dedicated organization has the authority and full support of the chief executive and government. rural dwellers. and indicators of success. is required in putting together an ICT4D e-strategy so that the outcomes have a better chance of succeeding because they are more likely to meet the expressed needs of stakeholders. Institutional arrangements for implementation may require that an organization be designated as the agent responsible for the strategy and the action plan. research. and related e-enabled sectors and activities. as well as monitoring and evaluation. the organization responsible for implementation is separate from the institutional arrangement responsible for overseeing. these e-enabled activities are the application of ICTs to the usual business processes that are specific to each sector and area of human activity. e-learning (which is sometimes confused with distance learning). a participatory mechanism is essential to ensure that policies will correspond to real concerns and be supported by stakeholders.
strategy and action plan are also marketing tools used to communicate the intentions of the government and supporters of the strategy to use ICTs for human and national development. 2. Some jurisdictions have created an ICT observatory or equivalent structure with responsibility for monitoring. they represent significant assets and opportunities for countries with the landing rights for the cable access points. In Mongolia.htm. policies and legislation. ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development 31 . available at http://www.org/resource/mongolia/links/MnICTPlan. The potential of linking such 2 Labelle. 2000. Just as in some regional trading blocks. including national poverty reduction strategies. sharing of undersea cabling is essential for justifying the business case for these investments. cross-border agreements may also have to be considered. The strategy and the action plan are dynamic and change over time. evaluation and follow-up. Consider the regional context. so may high-speed broadband connections be shared in this fashion as IP networks are considered a public utility.For example. to make it happen2. a draft Mongolia ICT Action Plan prepared in 2000 called for the creation of an ICT Advisory Council to oversee the strategy and an ICT Development Agency to undertake the work. Regional agreements may stipulate conditions that affect ICT diffusion. including infrastructure development. They are rolling plans with a continuing time horizon of three years and a medium. Today.eurasianet. The vision. The starting point in ICT policy formulation is a review of existing vision statements. This includes developing an understanding of national and other development policies and plans. ‘Draft plan of action: ICT development in Mongolia over the period 2000-2003’. there may be real advantages to a common approach to the diffusion of ICTs. as well as proposed policies or policy directions. the growth and meshing of computer networks of various types. and the proliferation of fixed and mobile wireless solutions. Approach to ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development 1. This is important especially if the country in question belongs to or is interested in integrating with a regional or other trading block and/or establishing free trade agreements on a bilateral basis. prepared for UNDP Mongolia. electricity grids are established across national and other boundaries to share regional resources. R. as a result of the widespread use of satellite technologies. Similarly. Indeed. Review existing policies and plans.to longer-term horizon that is predetermined. a fibre-optic network crosses the country from north to south as it follows the path of the main railway line. Initial work in learning about the policy environment may also require understanding the regional context. The southern terminus of this line meets a Chinese railhead with its own fibre-optic cable. Indeed.
Regional Issues and National ICT Policy Issues Regional broadband connectivity Comments . GSM. Satellite and other broadband services . Wireless networks . GSM. Create investment consortia to share overland/undersea fibre cables . Trans Asia Europe (TAE) cable. Adherence to international efforts to combat cyber threats and online insecurity in general . More transparency in the allocation of IP numbers and domain names Services available regionally . Greater involvement in ICANN and regional. Treaties and other obligations between neighbours may influence ICT policy . Use same standards as neighbouring countries . DirectWay. Hughes satellite Direct and others Internet governance 32 ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development . CDMA . tall buildings . and especially national. APNIC . Policies that encourage/limit access may be required Network security issues . ICANN . Internet governance bodies and/or discussions . APIA . CDMA Standards and interoperability Regional service operators . Need to ensure interoperability between regional markets . Sharing wireless infrastructure such as towers. Landlocked countries must negotiate access to marine undersea cables Regional trading blocks . Regional or international satellite service providers may offer services . Larger economies may provide services to smaller economies . FLAG.Table 1. etc. hills. ASEAN and other blocks Example .
ICT policy-making has the greatest chance of being successful when undertaken in a pro-development way. These may be the level and extent of poverty. In poorer countries. instability due to conflict. for example. there are opportunities. Take Niger. This.infrastructure exists and the idea of creating another transcontinental fibre link to Russia and Europe via Mongolia could be contemplated. one of the poorest countries in the world located in the Sahel region of Africa. a research project completed in 2001 by UNDP. For poorer countries or regions. a surprising level of interest was demonstrated in the use of community radios. it is best to avoid generalizations. as the Digital Opportunities Initiative (DOI) report has shown. The next step is to consult extensively with key development stakeholders. In these conditions. but there are some issues that need to be taken into consideration. The DOI. Even the poor have ambitions and can recognize an opportunity when they see one. The ambition is to install them in 160 different communities throughout the country. Distance learning is another application of ICTs that may have an important role to play in ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development 33 . 3. Twenty-seven community radios were installed by 2002 and 20 more are planned. examined the evidence of ICT diffusion around the world while looking at the evidence of success and failure. As already mentioned. diseases such as HIV/AIDS. the development status of a country or jurisdiction is greatly affected by several factors. The capacity to implement an ICT strategy and action plan under these and similar circumstances is likely to be very limited. Here. Does this mean that a different approach needs to be considered when developing ICT strategies for poor or less-developed countries and those at the bottom of the HDI rankings? Based on experience gained in many countries. starting with government decision-makers and policy-makers. Keep a broad perspective. but the opportunities remain. Proposals need to be consistent with national capabilities. But in poorer countries. The scale and pace of the interventions proposed may need to be reduced. applies to all countries and not only in dealing with poverty. The Types of Strategies Although each country and jurisdiction has its own specificities. ICT strategies will need to focus on capacity building and especially on education. ICT strategies and the accompanying efforts that they entail. of course. ICT strategies must be consistent with national poverty reduction strategies (PRSPs) as well as other national development initiatives. the Markle Foundation and Accenture. it is most important to ensure that ICT strategizing takes into consideration efforts at poverty reduction as well as other development initiatives. including e-readiness and other user needs and market assessments. Parliamentarians may also need to be approached. as well as reconstruction and reconciliation efforts in post-conflict situations. these are not likely to be on the same scale as in countries where there is more capacity. and leaders and actors at all levels who are prepared to make a difference. can lead to novel. Even in the poorest of countries. workable and promising interventions.
Use a development approach. such as software development or industrial development. the DOI report made it clear that those that were most successful in making beneficial use of ICTs for national development had adopted an integrated approach to ICT diffusion. Instead of focusing on ICT deployment in a given sector of the economy. local and community levels and in different sectors across the country or jurisdiction in question? APPROACH TO ICT POLICY FORMULATION AND E-STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT Setting Macro-strategic Goals In planning for the use of ICTs. based on the DOI report When comparing policies adopted by various countries. not the other way round. In the ICT strategic planning exercises that we have undertaken. regardless of poverty levels. for example. a cross-disciplinary approach is required. the private sector and communities. Efforts to support key government departments and sectors of the economy will be a priority. The DOI report makes this clear. how can ICTs assist the country in meeting its basic human development needs at the national. However. Many studies compare the level of e-readiness between countries in terms of the number of PCs per capita or the number of Internet sites. This multipronged approach builds the capacity of society as a whole to use and benefit from ICTs. are readily quoted in the media. this means that ICT policies should be directly related to a development objective or outcome. there is sometimes a tendency to focus on the rollout of technology. their is a need for a special focus on the role of ICTs in education. where Internet access is available. parents will do their utmost to help their offspring take advantage of opportunities to learn and advance. Hence.poor countries as well as those in post-conflict transition. especially Internet diffusion statistics. The evidence is clear: mainstreaming is the approach to take in ICT policy formulation for national development. ICT deployment is best considered a part of efforts to strengthen the capacity of government. since there are some crosscutting issues related to infrastructure and need. several questions will have to be posed. etc. it is best to remember that ICT strategies exist to support existing development priorities. ICT statistics. Poorer countries will not have the infrastructure to support their full transformation and inclusion in the information economy. In all countries. the cost of Internet access. As poorer countries will more likely be faced with human survival issues. we have found it easiest to explain the intentions of the policies and decisions that accompany 34 ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development . Policies should be expressed in terms of their development objectives In practical terms. especially hardware and computer applications as measured by the number of PCs. these countries used a broader and more general approach to ICT deployment to meet their objectives and to ensure that ICT diffusion benefited as many people as possible. To what extent can the country afford to invest in ICTs when basic human needs are not being met? Better still. At the same time.
is summarized as follows4: 3 Accascina. This could be to build the capacity of a city. 2003. problems. Information and communications technology applications and interventions for poverty alleviation.it4dev. G. Many national strategies will never be implemented because they do not correspond to local.Practice note on national information society policies (e-strategies)’. UNDP’s approach. Version 1. Coordination of ICT policy within and across countries. . avaialable at http://www. and . ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development 35 . . including access to social services. Accascina 3 suggests six components as part of a multi-pronged approach to information-driven change within and across developing countries and regions: . Multi-level human capacity building.pdf. with positive impacts on people. . Promote partnerships between development actors. Leave no one behind.. R. The immediate objective here is to create the network.policy proposals.g. strengthen the business sector and enhance competitiveness. Consult widely and often and do not forget the marginalized community. . In summary. . 4 Rohozinski. Adopt a participatory approach in all steps in the development and implementation of the vision and the ICT strategy. Adopt an integrated and pro-development approach. by benefiting from recent information access technologies. rather than technology deployment. . especially public-private partnerships. Other complementary approaches have also been suggested.net/papers/ICT_in_DC. National level assessment of the present ICT situation. the creation of a metropolitan area network (MAN) – it is easier for stakeholders to speak in terms of the development outcome. ‘Information and Communications Technologies (ICTs) as Development Tools’. UNDP. as the main outcome. . background paper commissioned by the Italian Government 2001. Promote the greatest access possible to information and ICTs that are consistent with national and human development goals. Base policies and interventions on local needs assessments and on what the market can bear. to increase the efficiency of local government. opportunities and trends. Be realistic. . Government information systems designed for efficiency. attract investment and jobs. ‘Draft . the following principles of ICT policy and strategy development and implementation are proposed: . regional and international realities. So instead of a policy on infrastructure – e.. This means that everyone and every group should be included.0a 10/07/ 13 (RR). In a current review of National Information Society Policies. if they can be related to the creation of some sort of public good such as greater access to educational opportunities or jobs. and . which is based on the DOI report. Information access and availability of technical capacity. transparency and equitable access.
. Malaysia provides a good example. 36 ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development . and . A premium on partnerships. research and training. Outcomes should benefit all of these sectors and levels and act throughout the country. including lifelong learning and professional development). 3. especially WWW content. based on economic indicators and indices of human development such as HDI. This implies a whole set of societal transformations for the development and application of the capacity needed to meet this outcome and overcome any given constraints. . telecommunications. local and community development. government. needs to be considered when planning for using ICTs. The same approach used in development planning. that is. Development outcomes brought about by ICTs and access to information ICTs and information help people lead better and fuller lives. . the Internet. at all levels of society throughout the geographic range of the jurisdiction concerned. the ICT industry. especially in planning human development outcomes. Malaysia will be an industrialized country according to accepted norms for defining an industrialized country. the outcome sought will invariably lead to a higher level of development. An emphasis on a multi-stakeholder participatory approach. Broad sectoral issues dealing with: . The same applies to planning for the use of ICTs for national development. . . By 2020. Countries will want to promote national self-sufficiency and the capacities of citizens to find meaningful employment. The centrality of policy frameworks (the potential benefits of ICTs are conditioned by the existence of an appropriate enabling environment). norms based on those set by the OECD Development Assistance Committee. At the national level. but focused on science and technology). . National vision. Development planning operates on all sectors of the economy. An accent on development issues. . private sector (e-commerce). National development goals. . research and development (part of learning. Micro-strategic Goals and Other Considerations Sectoral concerns in the development of ICT policies and strategies include: 1. I. 2. . and . health. The development outcomes sought contribute to human development and to the achievement of MDGs. learning (education. .
municipalities. . Harnessing ICTs for local and community development means thinking about outcomes that will benefit regions. content five. Examples of development outcomes sought Outcomes for people and communities.However. and especially by their employability. Increase in national or local share of content on the World Wide Web. servers. certified staff. Development objective: Modernization or transformation of the civil service into a service-based operation with citizens as the main beneficiary. Increase in employment figures. towns. more women are employed in e-economy related tasks. based on currently used measures of educational achievement and employability. National outcomes. Greater participation in the global economy as measured by figures for trade and exports in goods and services. etc. III. GNP.and knowledgebased societies. . . While countries will consider how to transform themselves into information. for example: . businesses. . . These can include a higher level of development as measured by HDI and economic indicators such as GDP.Collaborative software tools encourage sharing of information as well as the opening up. Increased share of GDP derived from use of ICTs. communities may want to think in terms of smart cities or regions or in terms of community-based sharing in the benefits of greater access to information and knowledge for local economic and human development. Increase in ICT use: PCs. . More economic growth and diversification as measured by GDP in general and contributions from many different and diverse sectors of the economy. . employment. both among and between parliamentarians and their constituents. it is also important to think in terms of more local areas of intervention and the outcomes that are sought at this level. Local and community development as measured by improvements in access to and/or delivery of some services may be a benefit sought in development planning. II. for example. and development of an information culture in the civil service. Increased access to education as measured by the level and quality of graduates. Increased contributions to GNP by specific sectors. Government .Greater access to government decision-makers and civil servants helps instil a service ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development 37 . More equitable distribution of economic benefits throughout the country and across sectors of the economy and throughout different levels of society. . cities. smaller communities and more remote areas. bandwidth.or ten-fold over time. . hosts. decrease in poverty levels and marginalization. . There are two overarching outcomes sought for people: ICTs should contribute to self-sufficiency and empower those who use these tools as measured by income. investment. and . level of education and job satisfaction figures. cell phones.
. across a country and even beyond. .There is better ability to plan. . 38 ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development .There is increased communication between parliamentarians and their constituents. ‘e-Commerce for Development Report 2002’. Private sector . and . 2001. and especially as a result of the use of EDI and EFT.There is greater transparency in government business. .Governments become more solvent and better able to respond to public needs and contribute in a positive way to economic growth as a result of: . . This is brought about by greater access to information about the market and its operation.There is more equitable access to government opportunities: contracts. encourages the private sector to modernize and to adopt e-business. . online collection of taxes may also contribute to improved ability of governments to collect taxes. .. this may not be applicable to all types of businesses. Improvements in governance: . . which increases efficiency and trade competitiveness. Business operators and investors at all levels. · Transaction processing decreases as a result of the widespread use of e-business technologies and practices.Efficiencies and cost savings incurred through the use of ICTs. Geneva. and lowered government operating and carrying costs (i.There is greater efficiency in government operations.Increased efficiency in tax collection as a result of electronic registration of businesses and integration of computerized systems.Support for government decentralization efforts by strengthening communication and collaboration between local.mentality among them and helps transform the government into a service-oriented organization. Markets become more accessible and more efficient. . . regional and national levels of government.Reductions in the number of public employees.e. . SMEs and businesses that are set up in rural and poorer areas may not have the human capacity or the necessary access to infrastructure to be able to benefit from these tools.There is easier access to government information and services. . a smaller and more efficient civil service). leading eventually and hopefully to lower taxes. and . The cost of doing business decreases as a result of increased access to and efficiencies resulting from ICTs and telecommunications infrastructure. There are more job opportunities for women in ICT services5.Use of e-enabled customs clearance services. IV. · The economy becomes more open to foreign scrutiny and investment as a result of greater access to information and advice online.More effective use of civil servants. However. · Opportunities for tourism increase as a result of an increased online presence advocating 5 UNCTAD. including parliament and procurement. brings in much needed tax resources and reduces rent seeking behaviours and other forms of corruption. can participate in a market. . jobs and procurement.Government decision-makers are more accessible.
· More access to higher education and specialized training. · Better and more learning experiences because of: . · Creation of an R&D base to support national ambitions as well as the needs of society as a whole and of the private sector.. · More graduates able to meet internationally accepted educational levels and skills. when countries are increasing ethnic profiling and screening. for example. · Greater involvement in international events. Singapore creating a business-friendly environment for R&D that has attracted many companies to establish their regional operations in that country). · There is more investment. Education and learning · Better educated citizens as a result of more access to increasingly diverse.Access to infrastructure and incentives. and . . Research and development · Better quality. · More research collaboration and networking. . to complete educational requirements. meetings.The creation of an enabling environment that constitutes a comparative advantage and compels investors to locate their businesses in the jurisdiction in question (e. and . Costa Rica and its efforts to attract Intel to establish a plant in Costa Rica. increased relevance and capacity of national research. as well as a trained and technically competent workforce. especially.more appropriate resources available because they are better adapted and accessible in terms of language and format. At a time of global instability. · More opportunities for lifelong learning.Accessible ICT infrastructure.and selling tourist experiences in the country. · Fewer requirements to travel to foreign locations for schooling. V. · Greater access to cutting-edge technologies and management practices. · A better qualified workforce and more qualified technicians and managers. and among learners through online discussion. more interactive and better adapted learning opportunities as well as resources. business opportunities. negotiations and networks of all types. consortia. · More effective use of teaching resources. e-learning technologies offer an option for those who are or who feel they are excluded or selected against. more opportunities to use e-learning and related practices such as distance learning. VI.more interactive resources available online. business development and job creation as a result of: .g. · Greater access to education and learning opportunities for all. increased participation in international research activities. · Increased efficiency in teaching.more intense interaction between teachers and learners. · More awareness of international trends. in particular. improved access to international research grants ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development 39 . especially for girls and women who have so far not been able to take advantage of these opportunities for cultural or religious reasons in some societies.
· More opportunities to work at home and in safer working conditions or environments (e.). · Improved ability of associations of young people. VII. IX. 40 ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development . including financial resources. and . Health · A healthier population.. USA. including development and empowerment. including specialized diagnosis and prevention information. more opportunities to take advantage of health research. . a population free of disease and AIDS. . Women’s groups · Increased awareness of and access to opportunities in education and work for women. health centres. exchanges and public-private partnerships leading to increased investment in R&D. as well as increased participation in international disease prevention and early warning networks and systems (World Health Organization. especially those associated with sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Local and community-based groups and organizations · Viable rural communities as a result of ICTs connecting these communities to the mainstream of economic and social activity. . the Center for Disease Control in Atlanta. local businesses and individual residences to the Internet. VIII.Increased access to health information and services. as well as partnerships. the marginalized and other groups to take advantage of information and knowledge resources for their own purposes.Increased health research networking and access to relevant health sciences information and databases. as well as disease treatment (international monitoring and early warning of epidemics). X. call centres or information processing centres). · More networking of women on issues of common concern.g.Increased effectiveness of health care and disease early warning and prevention efforts. · Greater access to resources. as a result of: . etc.Better ability and capacity to follow up and treat chronic diseases such as tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS (anti-retroviral treatments and follow-up using SMS).Increased awareness of disease risks. NGOs and special interest groups as well as other social networks · Improved ability of NGOs to participate in community and national life as a result of increased awareness and access to resources and other like-minded groups and organizations.Increased access to quality health care for all. This can be achieved through communitybased access services and by connecting schools. the handicapped. local administrations. . coupled with activities such as training and mentoring.and funds.
Countries need to tick off a long list of prerequisites.bvom. as exemplified by the achievements of some industrialized countries. A pro-West bias in assessment methodologies? While undertaking an assessment in the context of an ICT strategic planning exercise.this=64. including some listed by www.ebusinessforum. Indeed. For some. from the sophistication of the telecoms infrastructure to the security of credit-card transactions and the literacy of the population.com/news/english/news/index. There is a need for a better understanding of what people want and what the market can bear.org. Consider the following: “e-Readiness is shorthand for the extent to which a country’s business environment is conducive to Internet-based commercial opportunities. In rural areas and among poorer or more marginalized communities. e-Readiness methodologies should be more people-centred and deal with human circumstances. available at http://www. This means analyzing ICT use in all sectors of the economy and at all levels of society. It is a concept that spans a wide range of factors. we assume. 7 See http://www. 6 Economist Intelligence Unit eBusiness Forum. they rarely consider the role of ICTs in less productive areas of society such as in remote and rural areas and especially among the poor or less economically productive elements of the economy. Therefore. Some e-readiness assessment methodologies are undertaken from the perspective of business or economic development.e-Readiness Assessments Most e-readiness assessment methodologies are rapid assessment tools designed to measure the diffusion and potential use of ICTs in a country. looking at ways of strengthening the capacity of the poor to contribute to the economy is bound to fail. many assessments. instead of merely being a prescriptive analysis of a given state compared to what exists in industrialized countries. They identify areas of health and those that need to be remedied to reach a higher state of readiness. They think that it is better to focus on the productive side of the economy than to waste meagre resources on the non-performing poor.”7 Some e-readiness reports read like a post-mortem analysis. they are essential. do not even concern themselves with the requirements of people for ICTs and information. one specialist recommended bluntly to this author that the best way for the country to move ahead and use ICTs was for everyone to learn English.asp?layout=rich_story&doc_id=367. e-Readiness methodologies such as those used by The Economist fall under this category6. ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development 41 . before they can stimulate the creative ferment that the US has witnessed over the past five years.asp?.sequence=3767&. 2001.com/index. ‘The Economist Intelligence Unit/Pyramid Research e-readiness rankings’. This post facto analysis is a limiting factor in many e-readiness assessments. In-depth user needs assessments and market analyses can be very helpful.bridges.
org/. the poor. The poor are relegated to the zero column and completely forgotten – they do not compute! It is necessary to strengthen assessment tools so that they better reflect the needs for ICTs strategizing from a human development perspective. e-readiness assessments are largely insufficient in painting a broad-based picture in support of ICT4D. we have undertaken remote analysis of ICT diffusion. Bridges.org speaks of digital divide analysis as a complement to e-readiness assessments. Amazon and others. such analyses are easier to perform. e-Readiness is supposed to be about potential. hands-on e-readiness assessments that include a strong marketing component to really assess constraints.bridges. Some countries will have to be concerned about the impact that greater – indeed unfettered – access to ICTs may have on the cultural and learning landscape that their citizens. Without these. rural dwellers and others. Inclusiveness must include measuring society’s readiness and potential for taking advantage of ICTs. 8 These are described at the bridges. Without these complementary analyses. are exposed to. 42 ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development . Methodologies that are more inclusive have been used and adapted to various national situations8. the following is proposed: · Adapt e-readiness assessments to the needs of all people. In some countries.Cultural sensitivity has to be applied as well. it will not be possible to develop appropriate scenarios and realistic plans. greater access to the Internet and broadband connectivity has prompted the government to seriously consider ways of encouraging consumers to buy at home and not only from US-based online retailers such as eBay. In our research. There is a real concern that the downside of the ubiquitous access to broadband Internet connectivity will lead to the hollowing out of the business sectors of small towns and communities. Several e-readiness assessment methodologies listed on the Internet are not concerned with the poor and other non-business users. risks and opportunities.org site: http://www. such as Canada. This aspect of e-readiness assessment is rarely considered. constraints. But do they really paint an accurate picture? Based on our experience. including the marginalized. especially their learners and young people. Strengthening e-readiness assessments To strengthen the methodology for e-readiness assessments to provide more and better information about human development concerns for creating ICT strategies and action plans. With the proliferation of the Internet. yet it is important. Some methodologies can be applied online without any or very little in-country consultation. Information from all people is needed and can often be very important and useful in understanding local specificities. The Harvard CID Methodology has proven adaptable. nothing can equal in situ.
which are more or less public gatherings of representatives of involved stakeholder groups. ICT strategies cannot be complete. They can be helpful in trying to understand how the public may react to certain ideas or policies because participants may not be specialists. Stakeholder and Consultative Process In order to have the greatest chance of succeeding. In field work undertaken in China and Botswana. several issues were considered important in understanding factors affecting the use of information and ICTs. focus groups are relatively homogeneous (for example. Consultation can take many forms. These were the development status and priorities of the community. One way of doing this is by talking to people and asking them about their concerns. Focus groups can be very helpful in determining whether projects are on track. for the ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development 43 . Consultations are needed to ensure buy-in and support. there is no institutional or legal mechanism that builds consultation into the process. Round table meetings discuss issues related to implementation and usually call for many participants to come forward. and the challenges and opportunities that may exist. Without information about people’s needs and circumstances. especially at the formal launch of an event. Focus group discussions involve small groups of people who are selected because they are representative of a given target group. However. Models of stakeholder collaboration Some ideas for stakeholder collaboration and project implementation have been discussed above. these consultations are often not undertaken on an ongoing basis and in many cases. the challenges they face. To ensure the greatest participation possible. Round table meetings should be organized on a regular basis and involve a core of interested and affected stakeholders. like many other social initiatives. and their understanding of the issues. and to limit resistance from various groups. e-Readiness assessment methodologies should capture this kind of information. they are made up of young entrepreneurs). The consultations can yield useful insights but require much energy to organize and manage. a stakeholder participation plan may be helpful. require participation and support from all sectors of the economy and all levels of society throughout the country. Public consultations are the norm in many countries. depending on the number of participants.opportunities and options. In some cases. or may not be possible to carry out for political reasons. its information needs and the communication vehicles used by people who live there. Even then they may not succeed. along with a regular and institutionalized process that builds in consultation at all stages of policy and strategy development and implementation. ICT policies and strategies. Some examples are: Round table meetings.
purpose of getting a preliminary understanding of a particular group or market so that this information can feedback into the planning process. Identify the trends that are most likely to impact nationally or at the community level. Online consultations. It is important to go beyond the technology and think about services. Agreeing on priorities: how? Priorities can be agreed through consultation and negotiation. in all sectors of the economy and at all levels of society across the country. · Don’t forget the rural dwellers and the poor as well as others who may be marginalized for a variety of reasons. The quality and success of the strategy-setting exercise will increase with the number of different stakeholders and development actors involved. The consultation may work at a more local and manageable level and may lead to success in delivering benefits to intended target groups. This could include participation in the board of trustees. e. 44 ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development . but are not that useful in many countries where online access is not readily available. applications and delivery mechanisms that can answer the needs of people. The same can be said for visioning exercises. If the time for negotiation is not right.g. Then. only in part of a jurisdiction or to deal with some specific issue or sector. The participation of representatives of key stakeholders in the governance of the ICT strategy and action plan is another example. · At the national level. In developing ICT strategies. do allow for outside consultation as and when desired or deemed appropriate. Online consultation and exchanges are another example. The former is probably the better solution. the following should be taken into consideration: · Think ‘out of the box’. and/or during implementation as part of the implementation team. however.. it may be useful to start small before moving to a broader initiative. · Track development and technology issues using the Internet and learn from that “online intelligence”. Brainstorming ICT strategies – some considerations Developing ICT strategies is a collaborative effort that requires the participation of many. a visioning or strategic planning exercise and/or consultation can become the basis for a larger application of a process leading to a national strategy or example. then launching the ICT initiative may not be opportune or the initiative should be on a smaller scale. up to a point. · Engage as many stakeholders as can reasonably be managed. Look at information and ICTs in all walks of life. In this case. think about how ICTs and greater access to information can provide an impetus to national development.
most national strategies do not include extensive assessments at the local and community levels. China. · Look for compelling examples and success stories that capture the imagination of people. The national strategy will better reflect local. If participation includes all levels and all sectors. and to deliver a host of services more effectively and efficiently to citizens9. as mentioned elsewhere in this document.html. The latter are especially useful for reaching people who are more used to voice-based communications. This may lead to ICT policies focused on economic development or on high profile activities. especially young people.ca/aboutsmartcapital/index. with public and private institutions. SmartCapital is an initiative to accelerate the development of online services for all sectors of Ottawa. then it has a better chance of capturing the true needs and concerns of the public and of special interest groups. 10 See http://www. Rural areas are invariably overlooked. and with the world10. to affect productivity efficiencies. as they are likely to be less industrialized and have inadequate infrastructure. which the poor and marginalized groups are not considered.· Don’t forget radio and television as well as wireless technologies. Another reason is that many assessment methodologies focus on harnessing ICTs as an engine of growth. Working in collaboration with numerous partners. Several assessment methodologies. India. Hong Kong. Cite examples: Estonia. a favourite policy proposal among many national ICT planners 9 See http://www.html. and touches all parts of the country or jurisdiction in question. For this reason. In Ottawa. The cost of assessing representatives of key groups across a country is a limiting factor.gov. ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development 45 .smartcapital.edinburgh. This is also because some of these assessment methodologies are focused on immediate or existing evidence of ICT use. These assessment methodologies are less likely to consider a longer-term horizon and social or developmental issues. do not consider the less economically or commercially active members of the country. For example. another approach to the Smart City concept has been developed – SmartCapital. SmartCapital is launching services that are transforming the way in which citizens interact with one another. etc. What scale for national strategies? Should everyone be included? Strategies for ICT deployment can be undertaken at the national level or on other scales such as a regional or provincial level. municipalities have developed ICT strategies that are sometime called Smart City strategies. The city of Edinburgh in Scotland has developed a Smart City strategy to bring the city council closer to the people. However. Singapore. a communication and consultation plan should be an integral part of policy-planning and policy-making activities.uk/CEC/Corporate_Services/Strategic_Support_Services/Smart_City/ deliver_smart_city. In many countries around the world. regional and other concerns. Participation is needed for development planning to be a success. Canada.
calls for the creation of a Techno Park to attract large international manufacturers in the ICT industry to establish their offices and regional centres in the countries concerned. F. have a digital divide to deal with. August 2003. a communication plan is part of policy-making initiatives to help build support for the preparation of the policy and its implementation. why. ICTs are a part of the development strategy of Bluefields and have been so for some time. ICTD and Poverty Reduction Groups.html. 2003. Strategies should be adaptable to scale A national ICT strategy does not preclude creating strategies that apply to smaller jurisdictions. BPCA allows the community to reach beyond the confines of the local scene and seek resources and collaboration overseas. Because it is impossible to consult with everyone. National policies and the strategy must address this. and how these needs rate on a relative scale of priorities). This has been recognized in the form of information audits and needs assessments. there are communities that have developed and adopted strategies for using ICTs to overcome isolation and a sense that central government cannot deal adequately with their concerns due to lack of awareness. it will also be important to become aware about the informationsharing behaviour of people in the community: what are their favourite communication media. the more important it is to learn from the community about their development needs and circumstances.bluefieldsjamaica. Public meetings and the media should be used to inform people.jm/bpca/index. It is equally imperative to know about their priorities for information (what information they want. regardless of their level of ICT use. ‘Practice note on ICTs for rural poverty reduction’. and has been applied with useful results in the case of the Solomon Islands People’s First Network (PFNet)11. 12 See http://www. As part of the ICT strategy-setting exercises. In Jamaica. Draft. For example. Most countries. community development strategies that seek to take advantage of ICTs for local and community development should be encouraged. to raise awareness and to build support for the strategy-setting exercise as well as for other aspects of the ICT development plan. the Bluefields Peoples’ Community Association (BPCA) was created to support the community in achieving its development goals12. special interest groups and stakeholders about the ICT strategy. In general. usually in areas of poverty or where there are few people and little by way of infrastructure and markets. what use is made of these and what type of information needs do they answer. As part of this learning process. Beyond the city type of strategic plans such as the Smart City plans. 11 Fortier. 46 ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development . As mentioned earlier. the less ICTs have penetrated a society or community.org. UNDP. surveys and assessments need to be undertaken to describe the current situation and to help identify and rate the needs and challenges that planners and strategists must be aware of. efforts should be made to communicate with the public.
In many countries. Parameters of ICT Policy Development (the 5 Cs) The following parameters have to be considered during ICT policy-making and strategizing. paging companies and fixed line operators) can interconnect their networks locally. · Peering arrangements need to be made to ensure that the telecommunications service providers (GSM operators. if not most. regulations and laws need to be put in place. recognized by the law. Non-discriminatory clauses may be required. · There are special considerations for the private sector. a national ICT strategy needs to consider everyone. · Enact policies to encourage community participation at all levels. Connectivity · Provide the greatest access to ICTs as possible. but ensure that rollout is demand-driven as well as equitable and consistent with the need to ensure universal access. Thus. Universal access provisions are very difficult to guarantee and are usually laid out over long time scales because of the need to pay for the investment and the limited capacities of operators and governments to do so all at once. · Privacy and confidentiality policies.In summary. and this has to be dealt with by the law. the building code may need to be modified accordingly. It is important to respect the privacy of people and organizations while ensuring connectivity. · Recognize the role of community or public access: cybercafes and cyber centres. ISPs. In the case of intelligent buildings. community access centres or their equivalent are the cornerstone of e-government. ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development 47 . · Put in place policies that guarantee a given level of service to the consumer and that mandate regular audits of network performance and service delivery by the regulator. This is part of a requirement for reviewing and revising the needs and rights of the consumer to be protected from fraud and other wrongdoing in cyberspace. Many. Techno Parks and intelligent buildings may be useful applications and investments if they are backed by comprehensive business and marketing plans and studies. community access centres and telecentres. The state and/or privatized telecommunications operators must undertake a market survey to decide on the extent of their investments in connectivity. Community · Promote the use of ICTs for local and community development. service providers deliver less than the nominal levels of service (bandwidth is the most common or obvious one) that they promise to their clients. · The question of universal access will have to be considered and a model discussed. Incentives to allow the private sector to connect and to compete are also important. This is especially important to help bridge the digital divide and to provide local access to the Internet and other government applications and services. and respected. it may not be a good idea to centralize all databases with personal information in one government facility.
· Build capacity for managing change in the public sector as a prerequisite to the introduction of e-government and greater access to public information and services. educators and researchers can import and purchase PCs free of tax. where the costs are lowest.or municipalitybased policies to encourage the development of an e-enabled community. · Adapt Smart City or Smart Community ideas: local and community. in hospitals and medical centres. Apple and Microsoft already have these policies. · Develop policies that will encourage access to credit for the purchase of PCs and related technologies. · Encourage the private sector to make educational software and hardware more affordable to students. · Encourage investment through fiscal and other financial incentives. · Strengthen the regulator to make sure that it can intervene to promote a level playing field in the marketplace and to recognize and limit uncompetitive and/or monopolistic behaviour. as well as examples of best practices.· Enact policies to encourage early adoption of computers and related technologies and skills for learning. donors and supporters. Incentives to encourage this may be required. consistent with the principles of human development. in association with community resources such as schools. · Encourage ICT manufacturers and others to establish ICT technical training facilities locally. ensure that networks interconnect locally. as well as in community and other public access sites and facilities. The Cisco Academy endeavour is one example. development and learning. · Promote the use of ICTs by the medical profession. Special applications can include distance learning and ICT-assisted learning activities in general. The R&D community can benefit from the use of ICTs to access research and grant-making opportunities. · Encourage peering. students. Capacity · Develop policies that will encourage learning. For example. there are others. Cash · ICT policies should result in the development of a realistic and doable ICT Action Plan that includes several proposals for bankable projects that can be submitted to and considered by a variety of potential investors. Training and education are part of this. Collaboration · Ensure that ICT policy development takes place in an open and collaborative fashion. Develop a service mentality among politicians and the civil service about the role of government as a service and a public good. · Provide incentives and tax breaks for learning and using ICTs. 48 ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development . · Harness the research and learning community by focusing on policies that will encourage the deployment and use of ICTs in research. · Raise awareness of the importance of a government and civil service dedicated to serving the public.
e. etc. viruses and Trojan horses. · Local and regional entities and trade groups: consider the establishment of regional telecommunications regulatory agencies as a way of sharing the cost of developing appropriate policies and of regulating the sector. · Policies dealing with convergence of media. information flows are privileged and often restricted. spam. and that it is equitable in perception and in fact. especially with regard to cyber security in all its diverse forms and expressions: hacking. able to use the advantage of the latest technologies and management practices. spam. · Intellectual property rights. TNCs have significant skills and resources that countries may more readily access through joint ventures and/or other partnership arrangements.g. for example. · Policies that permit securing and auditing network operations and performance.· Encourage public-private partnerships that will bring much needed expertise. management and financing to the table. Information Access Policies Policies regarding access to information can be contentious. and elders and other traditional decision-makers are ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development 49 . · Policies governing the financial and banking sectors. terrorism. In many traditional societies. identity theft. hacking and fraud. CROSS-SECTORAL THEMATIC CONSIDERATIONS A variety of issues must be considered in national ICT policy-making. These can also be established under the auspices of regional trading blocks or development cooperation agencies such as the Southern African Development Community (SADC) in Africa. the child sex trade and sexual tourism. · Trade and economic development: ensuring that this sector is supported by appropriate policies that strengthen the competitive position of the country or jurisdiction. · Information policies mentioned previously (these in fact should be considered as part of an ICT strategy). · Consumer protection policies to ensure that users of the Internet. if not controlled. pornography. The right to information proceeds on a need-to-know basis. Sectoral Policies · Banking and the financial sector: without a viable and modern banking sector. The Importance of Related Policies · Policies related to the treatment of investors and especially foreign investors and companies: make sure the rule of law applies in general and to foreign entities especially. broadcasting policies designed to recognize and encourage convergence as and when appropriate.. the private sector upon which the ICT infrastructure depends will suffer. phishing. Some of the most relevant and important are described below. crime in all its forms including online fraud. are protected from scams.
The public remains largely uninformed about State-related information of relevance to them. However. 13 Fraser Institute. policies affecting the flow of information are a secondary consideration in the rolling out of ICTs. UNDP’s flagship Sustainable Development Network Programme (SDNP) endeavour was designed to accelerate the introduction of the Internet for development. including most developing countries. have replaced elders and colonial governments have inherited secrecy rules. The rise of the information economy and the knowledge society challenges and undermines this state of affairs. 16 Fundamentally. It was being considered in about 80 countries at one time or another. W.org/ga/country. Government officials. The colonial legacy has also left its mark. available at http://www. available at: http:/ www. 15 Pope. In many countries. The grounds for resistance were that the Internet was little more than a tool of the West to spy on foreign entities and that. anyway. there is a wealth of information available to those with the resources to access it. 14 Ibid.publicintegrity. 2003. all information belongs to the public and it should be in the public domain unless compelling reasons exist to withhold it.gatekeepers. ‘Economic freedom of the world index 2003’.aspx?cc=br and http://www. J. In the early 1990s when the Internet was just becoming established internationally. op cit. the Internet was not compatible with the values of many societies.freetheworld. those very same societies are at the forefront of Internet development. Brazil delivers much more information via the Internet than any of its Latin American neighbours. All acts must be made public.org/ga/country. public officials tend to make access to information difficult. and was resisted in more than one country. in Brazil. The Center for Public Integrity. ‘Brazil: Integrity assessment’. At the federal level of government. controlling access to information and decision-making. Today. innovation and diffusion.com/ release. However.html. the Brazilian Constitution guarantees that all citizens have the right to access information held by the State. and the need for a law establishing maximum times to respond to requests for information is generally recognized. 2002. the majority of Brazilians obtain information from television. C. The ideal approach is seen in Brazil: to create a legal requirement that official information must be made available to anyone who seeks it unless there is good reason to withhold it. There is concern that China restricts access to certain types of information Box 6: What Information should be in the Public Domain – the Example of Brazil15. In practice. 50 ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development . especially at the federal government level.publicintegrity. ostensibly acting for the public good. 16 Abramo. Singapore ranks second in the economic freedom of the world index for 200313 but access to information is severely controlled there14. Brazil has no specific law guaranteeing citizens’ access to information. although there is resistance to change.aspx?cc=br&act=ia.
Freedom of Information and Access to Government Record Laws Around the World. China. One of the requirements of open access to information policies is the need to organize and structure government records.Freedominfo.org/books/ictpolsa/ 18 Banisar. Pakistan. IDRC. Bhutan. Ottawa. The thinking here appears to be that once these technologies have been mastered. available at http:// www. especially those aimed at building capacity for e-government. 2003. There are several issues related to the operation of markets and regulatory authorities that still constitute a threat to the level playing field. Lao PDR. Republic of Korea and Thailand have laws.org/evidence/wbabout. available at http:/ /www. The International Records Management Trust (IRMT) has identified the need to improve the management of public records in order to ensure that the public record is maintained. Nepal.html. including the rural poor? The answer is clear. T. in so doing. The implication of information access policies for management of public records Policies governing freedom of access to information are the cornerstone of e-government.irmt. ICT policy-making needs to be concerned about information policies. and a foundation of good governance. available at www. Cambodia. then why would China undertake one of the most ambitious transformations of society anywhere through its aggressive rollout of ICT infrastructure and access opportunities for its citizens. (ed). as do many other countries. Access to public information and services is partly what e-government is all about. p. An Information Policy Handbook for Southern Africa.org/. One of the most important is the question of transparency. It needs to modernize and compete internationally and. According to www. over 50 countries worldwide have adopted freedom of access to information laws18. The business case for ICTs is compelling and most countries realize this. 19 International Records Management Trust. Accessible. and in the remaining countries. a cornerstone of the rule of law19. but not overly so.org. raise the quality of people’s lives.ictpolsa/ and www. complete and well-managed public records are the basis for evidence-based decision-making. However. Efforts to ensure this should be a part of ICT development efforts. Democratic People’s Republic of Korea and Malaysia have no freedom of access to information laws.freedominfo.available on the Internet. A Knowledge Base for Decision-makers. approval of the laws is pending.apc. Viet Nam. if this were really the case. the outcome remains to be seen as it is unclear how the average person will benefit. everyone will gain because of the economic benefits that will accrue. which itself is an information access issue. 2003. 17 See James. D. India. Some view this as a form of censorship. Evidence based governance in the electronic age.dbsa. Related policies include17 freedom of expression and the right to communicate. 2001. 16. Policies to enshrine these should also be considered along with the legal and regulatory frameworks to ensure that these policies and rights are respected. Myanmar.org/publications. ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development 51 . Mongolia. However. In East and South Asia.
Similarly. Many countries are very aggressive in trying to encourage foreign and local investors to establish themselves in their jurisdictions. The following are some of the issues that may need to be dealt with in developing national telecommunications policies: · Reform and regulation of the telecommunications sector. This is a challenging enough idea. protocols and regulations in order to ensure and benefit from the greatest interoperability possible. and without the deregulation of VoIP. Telecommunications operators and governments. TNCs that manufacture wireless devices must come together to ensure the adoption of common standards such as Wi-Fi and WiMAX. The liberalization of telecommunications markets has meant increased competition among telecommunications service providers as well as increased access to telecommunications infrastructure in and between WTO signatory countries. following global trends but in consideration of local implications: WTO telecommunications policies and reforms and what they mean. As more powerful handheld devices enter the market. especially national ones. especially countries that share borders. Concerned that this will spell the end of their lucrative telephone monopolies and operations. this will not happen or it will fail. have been reluctant to adopt VoIP. even mobile phones will have access to VoIP. · The importance of and need for market liberalization and for putting in place policies 52 ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development .Telecom Policies and Regulations Telecommunications infrastructure and services provide the connectivity upon which the information economy is based. countries and trading blocks. VoIP is an important technology that is fast becoming mainstream as a result of the rapid deployment of PCs. are key features and drivers of telecommunications liberalization and globalization today. with a special focus on GATS and ABT. what you cannot see you cannot ban. usually an international financial services centre or some sort of an international e-enabled hub. In addition. especially wireless technologies. including free Internet telephony. are developed and come into the mainstream. These operators have not learned from the experience of Call-back telephone services. and 3G and WiMAX and related wireless technologies come on stream. should adopt common standards. many governments have banned VoIP outright. policies respecting the regulation of the wireless spectrum – are compatible within and between jurisdictions. The growing number and type of interconnections as well as the extension of the global Internet as more countries and markets come online and connect with each other. However. which were banned. but which people continue to use. there is an increasing need to ensure that policies opening up and regulating the airwaves – that is. broadband and freely available bundled instant messaging (IM) services such as Yahoo Messenger and MSN Messenger. as new access technologies. Techno Parks are all the rage and every jurisdiction wants to become an international services centre. through national telecommunications regulators.
’World Telecommunication Development Report 2002: Reinventing Telecoms’. · The creation of an independent regulator. speed of action and reaction. the railways. These conditions are considered helpful. There is a need to strengthen the capacity of these countries to regulate. Managing IP networks and services requires high-level technical skills that some operators do not have. policies that encourage market liberalization and are procompetition have been enacted in several jurisdictions. the sector may flounder and languish.. for example. One way of doing this is to strengthen agencies such as the ITU and the WTO to help countries that are confronted by these and 20 ITU. However. frequency checking. China. against each other in the delivery of ICT infrastructure and services. especially those in smaller jurisdictions. cannot cope with the management and technical requirements of new and ever-changing ICTs.that encourage competition in the telecoms marketplace. has established a very aggressive competition policy. An independent regulator is considered essential to promote infrastructure development and to ensure that the telecommunications market operates on a level playing field. The demands placed on national regulators are invariably extreme because regulatory affairs require such a breadth of expertise to cover business and technological aspects of the telecommunications market. China Unicom. including many former State-sponsored monopolies. and · Regional collaboration on telecommunications issues: sharing the burden and the cost advantages and disadvantages. The evidence so far has been positive20. in making sure that the right conditions for facilitating access to telecommunications infrastructure and ICTs prevail at a rate and pace that is consistent with the capacity of the local market. Geneva. China Telecom. it can be hoped that investors with the requisite technical and business skills will participate in the local telecommunications market and strengthen the level and quality of service. many telecommunications operators. · Strengthening and supporting the regulator to adequately deal with sometimes very technical or complex business issues such as ensuring a level playing field. A competent telecommunications operator is essential for delivering the benefits of the information economy and the supporting infrastructure. 2002. pitting former State enterprises. etc. To help overcome this situation. and capacity of the telecommunications regulator. If the regulator cannot act quickly and conclusively. When developments take place at Internet speed. ITU. Large State-owned firms have been broken up and the entities that have been created forced to compete with one another. Smaller and poorer jurisdictions cannot readily cope and neither can larger ones. the television and other former State-owned entities are competing in a no holds barred fight to gain a foothold in this rapidly growing – indeed the largest – ICT marketplace. supervision of peering arrangements between service providers. The key issues here are the independence. competitiveness. the regulator can quickly become a bottleneck and not an enabler. ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development 53 . if not essential. With liberalization and more competition.
Experience in southern Africa has shown that this approach is not easy to realize. Frequency and radio regulations Radio spectrum frequencies carry wireless communications. such as emergency communications. However. 54 ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development . Given convergence and the growing importance of wireless devices and of mobile Internet. but allowing them the freedom to compete is better. Licensing regimes need to be developed. Some frequencies are reserved for public use. · Introducing private sector players is good. Hence. The difficulty for regulators and countries with limited resources is the highly technical nature of these applications combined with the rapid pace of technical innovation. but giving them adequate powers and independence is better. · Creating a duopoly is good. National policy-makers need to be concerned about feasibility issues. but introducing it at an early stage of market development is better.related difficulties. The ITU’s World Telecommunications Development Report 2002 summarizes some of these issues. and · Introducing competition is good. these policies need to be linked to the marketplace. Another way may be to encourage regional or shared approaches. There is also a need to have the technical capacity to understand the use of these frequencies for data communications. as follows: · Privatization without competition is good. but allowing open competition is better. certain frequencies have been reserved for military communications. although the evidence is not encouraging that these mechanisms work. but privatization with competition is much better. In some countries. Radio frequencies are finite resources that need to be assigned and regulated. Countries need to develop policies regulating the assignment and use of these frequencies. which can arise over issues such as interference between available frequencies and other communication media such as radio and television. technical issues may force collaboration between jurisdictions in order to ensure cross-boundary compatibility and standardization of innovative and increasingly popular wireless protocols and technologies. · Creating regulators is good. regulations governing the use of the wireless spectrum have an important role to play in enabling a country’s use of ICTs for competitive advantage. The ITU and other international and bilateral agencies can help countries develop appropriate policies and operational procedures for regulating frequency use by the newer technologies that are transforming wireless devices into those capable of accessing the Internet. and to adjudicate disputes. National ICT Development Policies National ICT infrastructure development policies need to be sustainable. Regulating frequencies requires not merely the development of appropriate policies.
especially the large players. although B2B is expected to become more important in the medium to longer term. S. C.Many countries have developed very ambitious plans for ICT implementation. e-Commerce for Development Report 2002. S.E. Remarkably. and disclosure. In developing and transition economies.C. Examples include technical communications standards. the infrastructure required to support the transport of hard or durable goods purchased using B2C solutions. e-Commerce Policies and Regulations In their primer on global electronic commerce. ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development 55 . as well as the online payment 21 Mann. This is partly due to the fact that the ICT infrastructure is not as well developed as in industrialized countries. Geneva. 2000. This needs to change. e-commerce would represent about 18 percent of worldwide business-to-business (B2B) and retail transactions in 200622. and security. and laws to create an environment of certainty. 2002. what the market will bear. many ICT development strategies are not sufficiently anchored in the realities of the marketplace. Catherine Mann and her colleagues state that “electronic commerce needs standards. Washington. The international financial services centre hub is a model that has gained popularity in a few countries (Ireland especially). Some countries have focused their development strategies on the concept of becoming a services hub. According to optimistic predictions. A business planning approach must be taken to understand the needs of the marketplace. privacy and content regulations”21. Institute for International Economics. and therefore what products and services will best meet those needs in a sustainable and commercially viable way. and Knight. regulations. in many countries the rates for Internet access that are fixed by national telecommunications operators are not based on market studies but rather on an analysis of rates in other countries and jurisdictions.. Global Electronic Commerce: A Policy Primer. e-Readiness assessments alone will not do. A good example of this is the tendency found in some countries and jurisdictions to develop Techno Parks to attract ICT companies. Factors affecting e-commerce adoption e-Commerce and B2C applications are not as important in the developing world as they are in the industrialized world. it is business to consumer (B2C) e-commerce that predominates. Eckert. e-Commerce is a major component of the global information economy. trust. They also need to have the support of the business community to succeed. National ICT development plans need to be based on sound market studies and user needs assessments. the legality of electronic signatures and certifications. Also. In developing plans that are regional or international in nature. many of these plans are divorced from the realities of the national and even regional marketplaces and often fail. it will be important to also study the market from a regional or international perspective. encryption and interconnectivity standards. and policies must reflect the marketplace in which they will operate. For example. However. 22 UNCTAD. as well as nationally.
bodies exist for this purpose. The ubiquity of the Internet and of applications that promote e-commerce. Standards and mechanisms need to be set to permit international collaboration on these and related issues. UNCTAD. The global reach of the Internet and related e-commerce applications has necessitated that policies and laws that permit interoperability in applications and technologies between jurisdictions and countries be put in place. the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) has developed model laws for e-commerce23. including EDI and EFT applications. such as eBay and Amazon and their various regional and national expressions. Hong Kong and the province of Taiwan in China – are located in the Asia-Pacific. Invariably this will require awareness promotion.systems. services such as PayPal allow individuals to receive payments via credit card without necessarily having to acquire a credit card merchant account. are the drivers of these pro-business electronic credit services. 2002. op cit. the Asia. lack of payment systems.Pacific leads in the adoption of e-commerce in the developing world24.org/en-index. Another factor encouraging the spread of ecommerce is the diffusion of broadband access technologies in the Asia-Pacific. capacity-building and training. is also contributing to the diffusion of e-commerce applications and the development of m-commerce (mobile commerce). based on wireless devices and other electronic payment systems that are better adapted to the situation of consumers in the developing world.uncitral. Ready access to credit. In order to help countries with the process of developing legislation to enable the transition to e-commerce. These should also be compatible with the international policy environment. The introduction of other forms of payment. and smaller markets are other factors limiting the diffusion of B2C e-commerce. as well as handholding and incentives similar to those already discussed earlier. Similarly. 23 24 See http://www. although this is changing in some larger countries such as China and India. Policies are required to accelerate the transformation of business practices and the adoption of these technologies and procedures to facilitate participation in the information economy. with the growth of the middle class. Fortunately. Their trading partners in other parts of the world demand their integration through the use of e-commerce applications. Governments have also been very supportive of the development of the Internet and of e-commerce. 56 ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development . One reason for this is that businesses in this region are more integrated into global supply chains and trade flows. Even in developed countries. are not always available in less industrialized countries. According to UNCTAD. The three countries with the highest broadband penetration in the world – Republic of Korea. postal services may not be reliable. This is an onerous and expensive requirement for business people everywhere. The latter is based on the use of portable wireless devices such as mobile phones and wireless personal digital assistants (PDAs).htm.
the intention is that government focus on the public as the client. are considered by some people as a cornerstone of e-government. This is a cornerstone of public sector transformations around the world. including many of the strongest e-government performers in the Asia-Pacific. local and community-based access technologies and applications will need to be considered. Policies that promote freedom of access to information. government staff should be approachable to the public. For this. Universal Access Commitment to universal access is the cornerstone of efforts to reach out to include everyone in the information economy and is a first step in bridging the digital divide. as mentioned previously. Many of these policies and issues are discussed elsewhere in this report. Operators are expected to contribute to the cost of rolling out access as part of their obligations under the licensing agreements they have signed with the local regulatory authority of the government. In this policy. transparent and accessible. the value proposition driving e-government is based on easing access by reducing queues and travel to government offices. Online kiosks in government offices or in community access centres will also be required and a national e-government delivery plan will have to be developed. However. as well as facilitative.However. ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development 57 . One policy is the requirement that government be a service-based enterprise for public good. and especially in developing countries. A funding mechanism to meet the cost of universal access has to be discussed and negotiated by the telecoms regulator and/or the government department/ministry responsible for this. ICT Industry Policies As already mentioned. especially access to public and government information. not all countries have adopted freedom of access to information laws. In many countries. Another policy calls for the modernization of the government through the introduction of computers and networks. and by increasing the ease and efficiency of transactions with the government and its employees. Below are some of the policies and policy-related issues that need to be considered in transforming and modernizing the government so that it is more responsible. user-friendly. Policies that allow rural dwellers to take advantage of the benefits of e-government will likewise be necessary. As such. business and investment incentives are needed to encourage the development of the ICT industry. some countries need assistance to help them gain beneficial advantage from e-commerce applications. e-Government Policies and Regulations e-Government promises to transform the business of government. Policies that ensure that this happens will have public support.
such as mobile phones. This is the case in South Africa25 where it is estimated that to meet universal access obligations.communitysa. the objective is universal service – that is. 25 CommUnity.org.Connecting people from Timbuktu to Kabul: Initiatives in South Africa. In industrialized countries. available at http://www. Multipurpose community telecentres .int/itunews/issue/2002/05/southafrica. ‘Spanning the digital divide: Understanding and tackling the issues’. It is likely that wireless telephones and other access devices will be the primary way of meeting universal access obligations because wireless devices.In some countries.org. about 5.html. Universal access ICT projects in South Africa. 2001. Durbanville. 58 ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development . 26 ITU. the universal access policy will be achieved in part by rolling out community telecentres. Community-based access centres are likely to be important in many ways in bridging the digital divide and in helping to ensure that all benefit from the growth of the information economy. have had such success. 27 Bridges.za/ projrev.htm.itu. available at http://www. 2002. 2000. access to telephone services in every household27. South Africa.000 community access centres will be required26.
1 Labelle. including studying and comparing international experience and best practices. most jurisdictions accept the need to have freedom of access to business information and to other information that touches directly on economic development. Invariably. ICTs are tools to help this happen and to ensure that people are better able to benefit as a result. ICT strategies start with the development goals of the country and take into consideration local specificities.Stage Three Priority Identifying Priority Areas and Developing Action Plans HOW ARE STRATEGIES ACHIEVED? Strategies are achieved using a variety of tools. ‘Information and communication technologies for development in national human development reports’. especially if they touch on politics and society. Other issues are sometimes better left alone. In reality. Addressing the Development Dynamic Using ICTs is not the goal or outcome of ICT4D projects. The telecommunications and ICT regulatory agency can have a role to play here. Consultation is ongoing and iterative and may need to be institutionalized. A key component of strategic planning for human development is consultation. R. along with freedom of expression that allows people to take advantage of these resources and opportunities. It may be useful to check on progress and to ensure impartiality by bringing in outside or neutral observers to comment and contribute on an ongoing basis. New York. ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development 59 . but NGOs and other observers and participants should also be involved. develop and maintain comparative and competitive advantage. as mentioned earlier. ICT strategies and their implementation need good governance to succeed. Comparative analysis. UNDP. 2003. programmes or activities. The goal of using e-strategies is empowerment through information. the goals of national development are to seek. is another useful tool. especially in economic terms. Freedom of access to information is a key part of this. The goal is to promote human development and to reduce and eliminate poverty by bridging the digital divide1. The outcome is greater self-sufficiency of people and communities. some of which have already been described.
Universal access policies are intended to ensure that all inhabitants of a country are assured of receiving basic telecommunications services. Universal access policies. 60 ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development . for example. but government has a role in developing the policy that will guide and encourage infrastructure development efforts and investments because this is in the public interest. The concern of ICT strategy should be with ways to spur the growth of national infrastructure in a manner that keeps costs down so that the largest number can benefit from its use. This agency will be responsible for overseeing the 2 See ‘What is peering?’. · By helping developing countries catch up and be part of the evolving information economy. is assured. In order to limit expenses for unused bandwidth. consistent with the commercial operation of the telecommunications network. Encouraging competition Probably the most important consideration in preparing an infrastructure development strategy is the need to encourage competing telecommunications and Internet access solutions. services and providers. Past experience has demonstrated that monopoly operators overcharge and may also limit access to the Internet. These include ensuring bandwidth coming to the country. especially Internet service providers (ISPs). Of particular concern is the development of Internet access strategies. and by extension. The demand for access to the network will drive the growth of national ICT infrastructures and Government policies will help relate the right market conditions to make this happen.ICTs promote human development and help achieve the goal of reducing poverty in three ways: · By facilitating access to knowledge and information-sharing. ICT policies and e-strategies need to address these issues. bandwidth-provisioning solutions based on dynamic bandwidth allocation may be appropriate.seu. e-Strategies for Infrastructure Development ICT strategies will need to consider telecommunications strategies governing access to the networking and communication media.edu. A strong and independent regulatory regime A strong regulatory agency is required.cn/books/ee_dic/whatis/peering. available at http://iroi. The key is to ensure the availability of as much bandwidth as is necessary to users in the country at a cost that is as low as possible. and · By acting as enablers of development by encouraging empowerment. These services have invariably been considered to include access to the telephone but are defined more broadly by WTO (see Box 7 on next page). The development of national ICT infrastructure is the purview of the national operators.htm. Consistent with this policy is the need to ensure that peering2 among and between telecommunications. meeting bandwidth requirements within the country. Competition is key to delivering value and service to ICT users. are intended to do just that.
Some consideration has been given to the idea of regional regulatory agencies to pool these skills.aging .analogue/digital cellular/mobile telephone services . both public and private. experience and skills to adequately meet these requirements.org/english/tratop_e/serv_e/telecom_e/telecom_coverage_e. The challenge posed by current regulatory regimes to many countries is the need for strong technical. Telegraph services f. This is also consistent with the requirements of WTO agreements on telecommunications. paging. WTO recognizes the needs of developing countries for technical assistance to bridge this gap. Voice telephone services b. especially the smaller and poorer ones. data. ITU also assists in the provision of technical assistance for this purpose. Private leased circuit services h.Box 7: Basic Telecommunications Services – WTO3 Basic telecommunications include all telecommunication services.htm.g.. Countries should not hesitate to enlist WTO and ITU as well as national operators from industrialized countries to help them develop appropriate regulatory regimes and ensure that these can be implemented. Circuit-switched data transmission services d. Facsimile services g. Telex services e. 3 See http://www. that involve end-to-end transmission of customer supplier information. Many developing countries. This kind of assistance can be negotiated as part of bilateral aid programmes. For example. simply do not have the human and technical assets. telephony. have considered this. the smaller countries of the Horn of Africa.mobile data services . Others: . Regulatory policies should help ensure that the ICT marketplace operates efficiently and in an open and equitable manner consistent with the concept of maintaining a level playing field for all operators. ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development 61 . managerial and business skills to ensure that the regulator can do its job.personal communications services satellite-based mobile services (e. Examples of basic telecommunication services are: a. especially Djibouti. and/or PCS) fixed satellite services VSAT services gateway earth station services teleconferencing video transport operation of the ICT marketplace. Packet-switched data transmission services c.wto.
The infrastructure for wireless technologies is also much less costly. Techno Parks and other facilities intended to attract investors and promote the ICT industry should be based on sound market studies. Another concern will be to ensure that the private sector has access to the high-speed connections essential to business today. However. These connections are either based on fibre or metal cabling or on wireless. Techno Parks combining high-speed access to the Internet with ICT businesses. video. But more important for business are measures and infrastructure that will make it easier for any business to gain rapid.Some technical considerations There are two types of telecommunication media that are essential to the exploitation of ICTs for human development: · Wired infrastructure. Since there is a global oversupply of bandwidth. Many countries are considering. Fibre cables are preferred because of their capacity. In South Africa. multimedia and streaming application). and · Wireless telecommunications media that are gaining in popularity and geographic reach with the widespread introduction of mobile phones. One way is to encourage competition in access to international bandwidth using whatever technologies and providers are appropriate. This has been aimed at creating clusters of excellence that will hopefully attract investors or at the very least support existing firms by providing grouped services at a reasonable cost. reliable and secure connections to the Internet at a reasonable cost. which is the preferred way to connect to the Internet backbone for reasons of speed and relative reliability. Nearly all countries around the world are now connected to the Internet backbone. including satellite connections. an Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) connection is cheaper than a dial-up connection because there is no cost associated with a timed telephone call. or have already developed. National strategies should look at alternatives to connect as directly as possible to any of the international fibre-optic networks. Countries need to develop broadband connections and a key part of ICT strategies ought to be concerned with how to provide as much bandwidth as possible at the lowest cost to enable key applications and to connect the largest number of users. However. Wireless technologies are also better used in urban areas. wireless devices may be an essential component of delivering on the promise of universal access. although this is changing somewhat. they are especially beneficial in providing cost effective network access to users in more rural and remote areas where their lower cost may allow for greater penetration. It is most appropriate for transaction-intensive environments such as urban areas or Techno Parks. costs have decreased considerably and there may be good opportunities to exploit this bandwidth glut. 62 ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development . Wired or cable-based infrastructure works best for transporting vast quantities of data (audio. Under such circumstances. but not all countries are conveniently located near the Internet backbone and international fibre-optic networks.
voice and video means that a secure high-speed channel is all that is required to participate in the information economy further confirms this.compliance. credit and payment services to customers in many developing countries who cannot acquire a credit card. IPv6 will dramatically increase the number of IP addresses available. Bi-directional satellite technologies 4 ‘Automated SMS scheduling and delivery’. ICT policies need to consider these opportunities and prepare the ground for the country to take advantage of them and. It is estimated that. By 2008. ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development 63 . The potential of SMS is now being explored throughout the world and will undoubtedly support the extension of the wireless network and the Internet.The allure of wireless The rapid diffusion of wireless technologies and the rise of ‘mobile Internet’ present real opportunities for delivering a host of applications and services for individuals and especially for SMEs and business. available at http://www. Case study: the compliance service uses SMS technology for TB treatment.org/iicd_casestudies/compliance/ index. as a result. especially the Internet. especially patient follow-up. Encouraging the development of wireless technologies is the introduction of faster wireless access technologies and preparation for migration to IPv6.html. This technology likewise has great potential for treating patients with HIV/AIDS. Similarly.bridges. ITU predicts that one in three people around the world will own or have access to a wireless device5. Wireless technologies have significant potential and many advantages. Appropriate access technologies need to be tested and used. some banks in the developing world are now making it possible to check one’s bank account as well as pay bills online. Increases in bandwidth of wireless technologies may be especially useful for developing countries because they will not require investment in hard infrastructure that cable telecommunications require. appliances and technologies of many types will become connected to the Internet. 5 ITU. the upcoming revamped Internet protocol. to allow the private sector to fully integrate these into their business activities for competitive advantage.za. Increases in speed and in the diffusion of Internet-ready mobile devices will lead to the growth of global Internet. 2002. For health management. Comparative advantage comes from reliable and secure high-speed access to communications. mobile devices used in conjunction with applications such as SMS have been demonstrated to help in the treatment of people afflicted with tuberculosis in South Africa4. Building high-speed access infrastructures is the backbone to the value-added applications and services that ICT strategies seek to bring to people and countries. Internet for a Mobile Generation. available at http://www.net/. That the convergence of text. In summary: · · Infrastructure is essential for information access. Mobile devices offer real advantages in rolling out financial. especially.
e-Readiness assessments look at the number of PCs in schools and classrooms as key indicators of ICT training and awareness. There are no easy solutions. Traditional ways of exchanging information as well as non-digital ICTs such as radio need to be recognized in the selection and justification of the access technologies to be deployed. The questions to be considered as part of the vision-setting exercise. While the ministry of education may need to be strengthened. although there are some examples that are worthy of mention such as the efforts of Costa Rica to attract Intel. e-Strategies for Human Capacity Development The lack of people with the technical and managerial skills to use and apply ICTs is a severe constraint limiting ICT deployment around the world. are: What do we want for our children in the future? What vision of an ICT-enabled society is appropriate for the country and how should learning about ICTs be structured as a result? Is there sufficient 64 ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development . Radio continues to be the ICT with the greatest penetration worldwide.· · · · are now appearing around the world and these may offer possibilities for connecting even the remotest communities. compounding the problem that many developing countries face because trained personnel from the developing world are ever more likely to seek and obtain work in industrialized countries. Policies affecting the business climate and the operation of the telecommunications market will determine the extent to which private investors will underwrite the investments required to develop the telecommunications infrastructure. and to provide the applications and services that create value for consumers. The ICT strategy will have to consider ways of overcoming this situation. even industrialized countries have an insufficient number of trained ICT technicians and specialists. This has not proven easy. Local circumstances such as literacy. the place to start is the schoolroom. Educational strategy-setting for ICT diffusion starts with an assessment of human and technical capacity. Shared community or public access strategies and solutions will need to be considered because it is not possible to provide individual access solutions to everyone. for example. A severe shortage of skilled ICT labour exists. and to develop computer literacy at the primary and secondary school levels. But there is a need to go beyond the figures. In building ICT skills. this is only to ensure that it has the requisite human and technical skills to fully appreciate the situation and to understand the options available to remedy the situation. Foremost is the need to strengthen the capacity and ability of teachers and schools administrators. Today. language and availability of accompanying infrastructure such as electrical power also need to be considered. Singapore and other countries have also done this. business and government alike. except perhaps to provide local opportunities that compete with international ones. China has an ambitious programme to roll out telecommunications networks and infrastructure. This implies strengthening the capacity of the formal educational system.
The ease with which businesses can register. This will require a definition of freedom of access. This aspect of national policy is especially important in efforts to stem the brain drain. Preferential treatment and discrimination is readily reported on in publications such as the World Competitiveness Report and Transparency International Corruption Index. Organizations such as WEF and Transparency International publish assessments of government performance in applying laws and regulations. Teaching basic ICT skills should start in the early years. newer and nimbler companies that are usually operated by younger and more technologically savvy individuals. If young and able business people are not able to unleash their entrepreneurial energy and establish their businesses locally in their home countries. Information deemed ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development 65 . Spanish) is spoken or used. as well as jurisprudence in applying the laws and regulations. including what types of information it applies to. Constraints on new entrants can have serious repercussions on introducing innovations because many new technologies are often introduced to the market through the initiatives of smaller. English. In many countries where none of the major international languages (e. French. Primary schools should be able to teach pupils the basics of operating a computer and accessing the Internet. Secondary schools should teach use of the key productivity applications necessary for life in the information economy. the policy environment goes beyond simply reading and interpreting the laws and regulations governing ICT diffusion.information in the local languages to enable the efficient and desired use of PCs and the Internet? Another issue is how to measure results of ICT-supported learning and related policies. but do not provide mechanisms for applying these agreements or laws. The strategy for e-policy development The strategy for policy development may start with the basic issue of freedom of access to information. what is restricted and under which conditions. Providing computers to schools and developing SchoolNet programmes may not be sufficient. start operation and obtain financing is another measure of openness to business. As when developing curriculum materials and books.g. are evidence of a government’s intentions and of the extent of the rule of law. e-Strategies for Policy Development Importance of policies Investors and the international community use the policy environment as a gauge of the true intentions of a government. However.. secondary and other levels requires developing content in the local languages as well. ICT skills are life skills. The ease with which investors and others can obtain redress under the law or seek recourse from the regulator. exploiting the Internet for teaching at the primary. Many countries have enacted treaties and legislation. accessing the Internet may not be very helpful. then it should come as no surprise that they leave in search of greener pastures.
manupatra. including information that is “…general in nature or is of such a nature that. in order to promote openness. national and global levels.g. op cit. having regard to the volume of information required to be retrieved or processed would involve unreasonable diversion of the resources of a public authority or would adversely interfere with the functioning of such an authority.. · Personal information held by private or public bodies should be protected from any unauthorized disclosure. In each case. with the exception of personal and private information such as salaries.” Freedom of access to information as well as other aspects of information policy such as freedom of expression or freedom of association is sometimes enshrined in the Constitution. depending on the definition. In smaller markets and countries..to be of public interest ought to be readily available. · Organizations. In countries where basic freedoms are not enshrined. domain names and numbers should be open and accessible at local. available at http://www.. 7 James.org/publications/ictpolsa and www. Ottawa. · ICT-governing bodies such as regulators and government bodies must make information on rights and procedures available.ap.” The bill makes several exclusions.org/books/ictpolsa. 8 James. available at www. 9 Ibid. An Information Policy Handbook for Southern Africa: A Knowledge Base for Decision-makers. · Content diversity must be maintained and monopoly limited. ‘The freedom of information bill 2002’.dbsa. the intention of which is.com/ downloads/acts/the%20freedom%20of%20information%20act%202002. information deemed to be of importance for national security reasons is considered privileged. Some jurisdictions start with the assumption that everything is in the public domain.. 6 Lok Sabha (Parliament of India). · All decision-making processes related to the governance and development of ICTs such as assigning telephone numbers. definitions will be required. The James9 report lists other information policy concerns that may need to be considered: · The legal and regulatory frameworks that govern ICTs should be integrated with frameworks governing other media. T. IDRC. transparency and accountability in administration and in relation to matters connected therewith or incidental thereto. This is the case in South Africa. communities and individuals should be free to use the Internet to organize and engage in public or political protest. consistent with public interest. e. “To provide for freedom to every citizen to secure access to information under the control of public authorities. it may be necessary to include them on a case-to-case basis when the opportunity presents itself. in developing regulations and policies that govern the Internet8. 2001. 66 ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development . personnel files and information about the health status of the individual. local content may be limited and should be as freely accessible as possible. Consider the information access policy of the Government of India6.htm. 2001. T. Similarly. for example7. certification authorities.
Here. They are likely to be beyond the reach of the business operators. on the other hand. The objective of strategies for SMMEs is to help them harness these tools and associated information management practices to strengthen their capacity to contribute to the economy and employment and. and especially in the poorer and rural areas. and in a few but ever-increasing number of cases. and to be local in nature and extent. and far more exporters than non- ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development 67 . one of the main authors of this study. Duncombe and Heeks report that. small. especially those that can take advantage of resources and tools such as e-commerce and other forms of e-business. It also discusses strategies and approaches that need to be considered to help SMMEs make beneficial use of ICTs. businesses are especially challenged because the resources for gathering and sharing information are limited and have a tendency to be based on relationships of familiarity. Revenue generation comes from the sale of agricultural products or dry goods. SMMEs. undertook this study in Botswana in part because of the availability of relevant information there. However. Strategies that strengthen the capacity of SMMEs are also strategies that support poverty reduction.e-Strategies for Enterprise Development This section looks at strategies that help all enterprises.g. is a well-respected ICT specialist who with his colleague. information gathering and sharing behaviour is usually informal. 70 percent of respondents to their survey on information and ICTs in small enterprise undertaken in the year 2000 “frequently used fixed line telephone and fax … and about one quarter of enterprises were using mobile telephony and email. e. the results of the study undertaken in Botswana in Southern Africa are generally relevant even to the Asia-Pacific. in Botswana. There are few in-depth studies of the information-sharing habits and ICT requirements of smaller businesses in the developing world. Yet these smaller enterprises are the engines of employment and are on the front lines in the fight against poverty. the lack of infrastructure as well as the cost associated with its use also limits access to ICTs. Medium and Micro Enterprises (SMMEs) Larger businesses are more likely to have the capacity to use ICTs for comparative advantage. though far more service than manufacturing. Few appropriate technologies and modern management practices are used. Heeks. Small. if at all. help reduce poverty and bridge the digital divide. In these circumstances. In many circumstances. In many developing countries. the cellular phone. in payment of school fees or the purchase of seed and agricultural amendments. Duncombe of the University of Manchester in the UK. or the provision of some service of local utility for cash. in so doing. are less likely to have this capacity. with the possible exception of the radio or the telephone.. usually family-run businesses are associated with subsistence or the necessity to make cash payments. Strategies that can encourage SMMEs to make greater use of ICTs are therefore important.
11 Adapted from Grindle. M. and Heeks. R. these constraints are almost intractable. smaller. Institute for Development Policy and Management. Mann et al. and Heeks.” 10 Duncombe. Income provided will be enough to meet basic needs. R. 2001. informal sector.. They need help building informal linkages. University of Manchester. skills and motivation. ‘Information. 1989.exporters”10. in Seeking Solutions. Income provided may be poverty-line or even sub poverty-line. Development Informatics Working Paper Series. with a diversified customer/ supplier base.K. employment. D. For these. and they provide a greater capacity to generate wealth. ‘The framework’. West Hartford. in World Development. 1994. Flyers: those true entrepreneurs who have taken up enterprise because they see opportunities for growth. there are greater constraints that relate to markets.. ICTs can be of quite significant value and these enterprises should be the priority focus for ICT interventions: they are better placed than others to make use of ICTs. R. as cited by Duncombe. non-citizen-owned. ICTs and small enterprise: Findings from Botswana’. and are likely to want to rely most heavily on enterprise-support agencies to meet those needs. with a narrow customer/supplier base. In characterizing information-sharing practices in Botswana. ‘The contribution of small enterprises and policies to employment growth in Southern and Eastern Africa’.” Of flyers and potential flyers.. Duncombe and Heeks further characterize survivalists and trundlers as follows: “Survivalists and trundlers more often have characteristics that include: domesticoriented. Trundlers: those whose enterprise turnover is static and who show no great desire or no great capacity to expand. citizen-owned. Kumarian Press. 68 ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development . pp 1881-94. R. For these enterprises. urban. larger. money. ICTs are of limited value. 22(12). and Mead. They have the least capacity to meet information needs.. C. as follows: Small Enterprise Types11 Survivalists: those who have no choice but to take up the income-generating activity because they have no other source of livelihood. (eds). For some. Most ‘entrepreneurs’ in the late LDCs are of this type. These form the second-largest group of small entrepreneurs in LDCs. Income levels may meet more than basic needs. CN. formal sector. Only a very small proportion of LDC small entrepreneurs fall into this category. et al. and enterprises may graduate to the medium-scale category. They need help building business linkages.. They are not approaching the transition point. Duncombe and Heeks proposed a typology of small business types. there is a sense that information is not that critical an issue. information moves up the priority list but they have a greater capacity to meet their information needs. Paper no 7.. Duncombe and Heeks have this to say: “The small enterprises that are flyers and potential flyers are more likely to be exportoriented. op cit. rural. exports and innovations.
They will not be able to take advantage of ICTs. it appears that smaller enterprises do not have the capacity to use ICTs effectively. Participants need not even know about the Internet per se. and of the business sector. In Huoshan County in Anhui province in China. In Huoshan County. Awareness promotion and demonstration activities will help to communicate new approaches to business management. Investments in the basic infrastructure that will make the use of ICTs easier for SMMEs should be part of any ICT promotion and support strategy focused on building the capacity of SMMEs to use ICTs. the technology most useful is the telephone and a centrally located access point to the Internet. SMMEs in rural areas – including individual farmers of the type described by Duncombe and Heeks – have shown great interest in the use of the Internet for accessing opportunities to buy and sell agricultural goods and to decide what cash crops they will plant. As in other aspects of ICT policy-making. the IT sector and travel and tourism. such as technical services. Mass media and word-of-mouth have been useful in promoting knowledge of and use of the agricultural information service. as mentioned previously. that information access benefits can be achieved as yet”. “the evidence shows that it is only in specific sectors. Policies that will strengthen the capacity of SMMEs to take advantage of ICTs may need to be considered. it is important to focus on appropriate and useful ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development 69 . in general. but they need to know about the application – an ICT-enabled agricultural marketplace and information service that depends on the Internet. Policies that will encourage the transformation of local businesses into the flyers and potential flyers may require to be put in place. possibly. Awareness promotion and capacity-building activities may also help develop the capacity of SMMEs in poorer and more rural areas. in particular. Awareness promotion activities designed to encourage greater use of ICTs by SMMEs will benefit from the use of success stories to entice target operators to pay attention. are proposed below.Duncombe and Heeks state that the “vast majority of formal sector SMMEs serve local markets and rely primarily on locally generated information”. In conclusion. the provision of business extension services similar to the extension services deployed in agriculture. Building the Capacity of SMMEs to Use ICTs Some approaches to building the capacity of SMMEs. starting with awareness promotion and. Furthermore. Perhaps there is a need to understand the key drivers that would motivate smaller enterprises to use ICTs. agricultural marketing of smallholder produce was the driver for Internet use. it is clear that some basic business development activities are required. In the example from Huoshan. Awareness promotion activities Given the situation outlined earlier.
then a business plan will be necessary to ensure viability. For business operators operating at the community level. Instead.applications or drivers that can be enabled as a result of using ICTs. developing a business incubator or other business-focused facility is probably not possible – at least not in every community. Such facilities can be established in collaboration with telecommunications operators and/or business associations. They should also reinforce current business practices and facilitate and render more efficient the operation of locally accessible markets. no e-readiness assessment will help to identify them. Business incubators should therefore focus on the use of ICTs in support of the usual business processes.php.org/resource_center/links_to_member_incubators/ intl_inc_associations. Operators obtain information about the prices of produce in a given market or via the newspaper.g. They then broadcast this information using a variety of ICTs. The best way to ensure that these centres are sustainable is to first undertake a market assessment and then a business plan. at least initially. Sound business planning and market analysis are required. to export-oriented businesses. 12 70 ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development .nbia. before progressing to e-business applications. starting with basic business and office productivity applications. Business incubators Business incubators provide common access to the resources. ICTs can then be integrated into the operation and management of their enterprises. Unfortunately. Local and community access centres for business Local and community access centres can be used by the business community and those wishing to learn basic ICT skills (e. support and services that smaller and newer businesses need to establish themselves successfully in a given environment. The National Business Incubators Association of the USA12 has developed models of business incubators and provides information and links to international sites and resources. multipurpose community ICT service centres and access centres may be more appropriate. If the market assessment is favourable. The agricultural information service described above is one of these and there are likely many others in the region. Business incubators are more concerned with business processes than with the use of ICTs per se. Marketing information services and trade information services There are examples of ICT-enabled markets that provide easier access to available information about commodities. word processing).. The latter will probably be of greater importance. including The National Business Incubation Association maintains a site with information about international business incubator associations: http://www. Some can be established with the support of the community and considered a community asset. Many SMEs and SMMEs require assistance in developing their business plans and then building their basic business management skills.
There is a need for policies that create the incentives for content providers. are concerned about what they consider threats to their language. Countries such as Canada and France. the issue of foreign language and content dominating the Internet is considered a threat to cultural sovereignty. In these countries. ITU Internet Reports. The agricultural information service in Huoshan is a good example of such a service. Also required are policies that will encourage greater access to educational resources in local 13 ITU. as well as the private sector. Several other countries with non-Roman alphabets. ICTs are the cornerstone of the efficient operation of global marketplaces. While Thailand has a high literacy rate for the region – around 95 percent – it is estimated that less than five percent of the Thai population speaks English. part of the potential value of the Internet is that it can make available information and applications that are locally appropriate. The absence of Thai language Internet content is still an obstacle to Thai users. For smaller language and cultural constituencies. Other related information may also be available. these issues are of great concern. Geneva 2002. the education and research community. ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development 71 . p 112. fisher people rely on broadcasts of weather information along with broadcasts of market prices. For example. share this problem to a greater or lesser extent. culture and values.radio. e-Strategies for content and knowledge management There is a need for locally relevant and appropriate information on the Internet. and the European Community in general. the government. the relatively poor uptake of SMS services has been attributed to the lack of Thai language support in mobile handsets. including countries of the FSU where the Cyrillic alphabet or a Romanized version of the Cyrillic alphabet is used. Similarly. and in industrialized countries and trading blocks. Also. there are policies to guarantee local content by local media such as newspapers and other media outlets. the Internet is supposed to be not only ubiquitous. probably the biggest barrier both to Internet and mobile data services usage is language. including the horizontal marketplaces in the Asia-Pacific mentioned previously. But even in larger countries and jurisdictions. especially the local media. and text broadcasts over SMS. it is not appropriate for many countries and regions (see Box 8 for the case of Thailand). Box 8: Language Limits Internet Penetration in Thailand13 In Thailand. to establish their presence in local languages and to create local content. This is because although English is a lingua franca of the global Internet. but also user-friendly. In larger and more industrialized economies. Moreover. voice over wireless devices (users call in to a given number to get the information). Internet for a Mobile Generation. including the production of films and the publication industry. Policies that recognize and encourage the creation of local content are a cornerstone of the knowledge society.
banks. Policies to ensure that legal documents are preserved and recorded and made available to the public in an appropriate fashion are essential to the operation of the State and to ensure the rule of law. public records are the documentary evidence on which the rule of law is applied. Policies encouraging the adaptation of educational resources to the classroom are a must just as they were when developing textbooks in local languages.languages and according to local values and beliefs. including the databases mentioned above. Translations will not do. the priority is the privacy of the person and the right to personal privacy. firewalls and secure applications. Clearly though. The global spread of the Internet has ensured that these policies need to be integrated with global efforts of international police networks and related agencies leading the fight against international criminality and terrorism. 72 ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development . policies to curb the spread of objectionable content such as pornography. companies and other moral and/or legal entities. They fear that this can lead to discrimination in one form or another. etc). the issue of knowledge management requires attention to such mundane activities and applications as records management in many jurisdictions. Finally. and the tendency to want to centralize these databases. Records management Finally. religious intolerance. medical professionals. poses serious challenges to the privacy of individuals. e. Canada is one such country.g. There are also the security concerns caused by criminal elements as well as hackers and crackers trying to breach the security of the Internet. Some jurisdictions have forbidden the centralization and/or consolidation of citizen databases by governments and by the private sector (that is. Managing privacy The pervasiveness of databases and of the Internet. insurance companies. and incitation to violence and hatred are required. As mentioned previously. discrimination because of health history or genetic predisposition to certain medical conditions. racism.. violence against children and other groups at risk.
It should have a list of doable and bankable projects and a list of priorities and their rationalization. Implementation methods may include a separate implementation agency responsible to the ICT strategy ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development 73 . including existing government budgets and private-public partnerships in some cases. The agenda is needed to show that the government is serious about moving ahead. Details of the agenda and the implementation of the e-strategy are given in the action plan. preferably under the tutelage of the leader of the government or of the country. commented on and agreed upon in an open and consultative fashion that involves key stakeholders. Indicators of success need to be established. The role and involvement of representatives of all stakeholders needs to be recognized. Action Plans The action plan shows what the implementation of the ICT strategy and related policies will involve and lead to. Support from the international community may be available.Stage Four Management. Arrangements for including representatives of stakeholder groups are made. High profile support and ownership of the ICT planning process is very important. these institutional arrangements include strong representation from government ministries. Monitoring and Evaluation Arrangements IMPLEMENTATION AND MANAGEMENT The National e-Strategy Agenda The national e-strategy agenda sets forth a timetable and plan for implementation of the policies and the national ICT strategy. It must be enshrined in the institutional mechanisms and arrangements necessary to oversee the implementation of the action plan. Institutional arrangements Institutional arrangements to implement the ICT strategy and the action plan are usually presided over by government. shared. Financial arrangements will come from a variety of sources. In many countries. Ongoing review and consultation should be the norm. Monitoring and evaluation needs to be built in. A national ICT committee or the equivalent is constituted.
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Finally. Focus group meetings may be called to get feedback. as well as regular reporting mechanisms. there may be a need for an entity responsible for supervision and another for detailed implementation (contract supervision. project supervision. in The Electronic Journal on Information Systems in Developing Countries.ejisdc. Solomon Islands. D.org. Leeming. two priority issues were identified: · The Solomon Islands did not have a national ICT strategy and there were no regular 1 See ’Participatory project design to combat trafficking in children and women: Objective Oriented Project Planning (OOPP) as a design tool’.ilo. In some cases.org/public/english/region/asro/ bangkok/child/trafficking/downloads/tia-d. etc). In some countries of Africa. International Labor Organization. Evaluation and performance indicators. 2 Stork.committee or its equivalent. Other stakeholder groups are also involved. Benchmarks are set and surveys undertaken to gauge progress and public support for the policies and the strategy.pdf. There are many models used. This should be separate from the ICT national committee or equivalent. may have a role to play as an impartial observer. ‘Solomon Islands ICT strategy workshop report’. 2003.. Formal and independent monitoring and evaluation procedures should be put in place. and Biliki. During the Workshop. The regulatory agency. The involvement of stakeholders can also be assured by the creation of a board of trustees or a management board to which the executives of the national ICT committee and/or the implementation agency must report on a regular basis. 18. R. a separate executing agency structured as an independent organization capable of entering into contractual arrangements works closely with all stakeholders and especially with the government departments and ministries most concerned. a risk assessment needs to be undertaken and a risk mitigation plan established and acted on. but government usually predominates. available at http://www. No 5. Implementation methods should allow for public bids to be tendered for those activities and projects for which there is funding. p 12. are developed and used. Vol 12. a national ministry will be responsible for implementation or will act as a secretariat for the implementation agency. if this exists and if it is appropriate. Object Oriented Project/Programme Planning (OOPP) methodology Object Oriented Project Planning (OOPP) methodology1 was used in the Solomon Islands during the National ICT Strategy Workshop2 . available at http://www. with some involving the creation of semi-public entities responsible for overseeing and sometimes contracting out the implementation of the ICT action plan. Honiara. 78 ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development . This is done to use the implementation of ICT strategy as a way of supporting and building the capacity of the national ICT industry in the process. UNDP Sub-office. E. Management tools Management tools include detailed lists of deliverables. In some cases.
communities. Through the development and elaboration of problem and objective trees. The following clusters were identified in the Solomon Islands workshop: · · · · · Policy. the workshop was able to highlight and identify the problems that have to be addressed and the subsequent objectives for solving these problems. Cluster or label related objectives with a similar topic from the objective tree into a clustered objective tree. Equipment/access (access to affordable equipment). NGOs. and · The PFnet project required a clear analysis of the current specific needs and problems relating to ICTs and national development in order to find new strategic areas of intervention. Build a problem tree (Figure 3) that details the cause-effect relationships between the problems identified in step 2. no sustainable Education/Training can 3 In the case of the Solomon Islands the main problem was defined thus: “ICTs are only used to a limited extent in the development of Solomon Islands by Government. the private sector. This needs to be defined before the workshop is started. 4. the workshop allowed stakeholders (government. Affordable access (access to affordable telecommunication facilities). The steps in the OOPP methodology are: 1. civil society and individuals. The clusters from the objective tree in Figure 4 can be translated into a more general tree as in Figure 5. Why?” ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development 79 . and Education and training. 3. civil society. 5. The current development situation relating to ICT issues was analyzed to lay the groundwork for developing interventions that are more likely to succeed because they correspond to the needs of people. 2. In addition. donors and private sector) to come together and reach an agreement on all current challenges to take a first step into the development of a common national ICT strategy for the Solomon Islands. Networking/awareness (awareness of the power of information and communications). 6. Define a clear main problem (or topic) to be addressed in the workshop3 . Lead the participants in reformulating the problem tree into an objective tree. In the same way. Collect from workshop participants an exhaustive list of problems that are felt to be the causes of the main problem defined in step 1. Form groups made up of participants corresponding to the different clusters of the clustered objective tree of step 5 and then analyze the identified clusters and make recommendations. Make sure there is consensus on all cause-effect relationships in the problem tree.meetings for stakeholders. Figure 5 tells us that no effective (ICT) Policy (see cluster at the top of the tree) for the Solomon Islands can be developed without first reaching the objectives for Education and Training and Networking/Awareness.
Figure 5 Cause-effect Relationships between Objective Tree Clusters take place without first attaining the objectives of Affordable Access and Equipment/Access at the bottom of the tree. and 3. Increasing awareness at all levels of the power of information and communications. 80 ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development . Increasing access to affordable equipment. objectives and outputs needed in order to achieve the desired outcome. Projects for these three areas of intervention can then be developed using log frame analysis (below). 2. the Solomon Islands should thus work on: 1. According to this OOPP analysis for the immediate future and its ICT policies. Increasing affordable access to information and communications. and provide a rapid overview of these along with the goals. In summary. the tree tells us that for the immediate future relating to the original problem (see step 1). and Networking/ Awareness) need to be realized first before the Solomon Islands can work on achieving the objective of Education and Training in the medium term and effective and sustainable (ICT) Policies can be elaborated in the longer term. Equipment/Access. the bottom-most objectives (Affordable Access. Logical framework (log frame) analysis This tool can be used to identify risks and mitigating actions.
it is because the efforts to diffuse ICTs have been largely market-driven and focused on where the buying power and the need is – that is. More likely. This is the basic logical framework of a possible project resulting from the national ICT Strategy Workshop in the Solomon Islands. As an example. Focus group meetings. However. This may be in part because the advent of the information economy is still relatively new. In remote and more rural areas. Log frame analysis methods can be used to bring together the issues. ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development 81 . way of measuring impact. meaning that the ‘Activities’ in the logical framework are on a lower level in the tree than the ‘Intermediate Results’. in the urban. The Intermediate Results are on a lower level in the tree than the ‘Project Purpose’. RRA. The ‘Overall Objective’ is on a higher level in the tree than any of the other objectives in the logical framework. In these contexts. and related rapid assessment methodologies are tools designed to help learn from people at the local level.The five clusters of the objective tree depicted in Figure 5 can each be transformed in one simple step in a log frame analysis. business plans and marketing studies are the assessment methods used. but costly. industrialized and relatively more developed areas. success factors and criteria for measuring success. in situ impact assessments are probably the most effective. Note that the hierarchical cause-effect relationships in the logical framework are taken from the objective tree. But these tools are rarely applied in the context of ICT policy planning. see Figure 6 below. rapid rural appraisal (RRA) and participatory rural appraisal (PRA). and among the poor and other disenfranchised groups. and monitoring and evaluation. Impact Evaluations The measurement of impacts can be undertaken in a variety of ways using different criteria. Figure 6 Start of a Logical Framework from a Possible Project Resulting from the Solo mon Islands ICT OOPP Workshop Consider the log frame analysis prepared for a UNDP country office as part of its efforts at ICT strategic planning in Appendix 1. project design.
the introduction of Green Revolution technologies has relied on the use of these tools to help design appropriate interventions and measure impacts. relatively low literacy among many populations of interest and few trained enumerators) as well as the lack of appreciation of the need for marketing research. FAO. available at http://www. RRA was developed in response to the disadvantages of more traditional research methods. 82 ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development .htm. Other organizations have also contributed significantly.PRA and related techniques will be helpful. ICT research in a development context can learn from experiences in RRA and PRA methodologies. I. some of which is available online. The nature of RRA is such that it holds the promise of overcoming these and other limitations of marketing research. MONITORING AND FEEDBACK Performance Indicators Before speaking about performance. In developing countries. it is sometimes difficult to apply the standard marketing research techniques employed elsewhere. 4 Crawford. poor facilities for marketing research (for example. For example. Rome. including: the time taken to produce results. focus groups and observation studies. These approaches are very different from approaches such as e-readiness assessments. The Institute of Development Studies (IDS) at the University of Sussex in the United Kingdom has been greatly involved over the years in developing and refining these methodologies. it is necessary to address outcomes.M. which focus on the diffusion of technology and not on the reasons that may motivate people to use or not to use ICTs. The planning of ICT for development projects can learn much from this experience. Chapter 8: ‘Rapid rural appraisal’.org/docrep/W3241E/w3241e09. Success indicators developed from the earliest stages of project planning and implementation need to be determined. Marketing Research and Information Systems. Crawford4 describes RRA methodology thus: “Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA) methodology owes much of its early development to Farming Systems Research and Extension as promoted by the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research Centres (CGIAR). EVALUATION. RRA is a bridge between formal surveys and unstructured research methods such as depth interviews. The IDS library and information services have documented much of this information. no sampling frames. where many of these assessment methodologies come from.” The main principle guiding these assessment methods is listening to and learning from the people. Concrete and realistic outcomes need to be defined and agreed upon as part of strategic planning and project implementation. the high cost of formal surveys and the low levels of data reliability due to non-sampling errors. There is a significant body of experience in the agriculture and rural development field. The indicators must be measurable and directly related to the outcomes sought. In this sense. There is often a paucity of baseline data.fao. 1997.
This board should be broadly representative. NGOs and other civil society organizations have a role to play in lobbying for their development objectives. the independent regulators usually report to line ministries. Local and community-based organizations. funded by government and/or by revenues from various licenses. offer another very important mechanism for ensuring that parts of the plan that fall under its jurisdiction are being monitored on an ongoing basis. Geneva. INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORKS The ICT policy development chain requires that the institutional relationships between government. the end users and beneficiaries themselves.Apart from realistic and measurable outcomes and success indicators. ITU. for example) that the agency is responsible for or negotiates. Practical tools for regulators. Other bodies. In many jurisdictions. 5 ITU. help correct the direction the strategic and action-planning process is taking. Trends in Telecommunication Reform: Promoting Universal Access to ICTs. workable institutional and management mechanisms need to be worked out in consultation with the key stakeholders and those responsible for implementation of the action plan that will realize the strategic plan. duties and revenue-sharing schemes (for universal access. Monitoring and evaluation will consider both issues. The mechanism for evaluating the ICT strategy should be planned from the very beginning. Some jurisdictions have established ICT observatories. potential and actual. the press will follow up but a formal and independent evaluation mechanism needs to be put in place to evaluate the outcomes and. youth groups and organizations. Also. 2003. such as in the Republic of Korea. such as the national regulatory agency. The regulatory agency is a public corporation or equivalent. will have an important role to play. the agency is usually run by a board of directors that is appointed by the government. In many countries. In India. if necessary. including grass-roots organizations. The institutional mechanism needs to designed and established with the involvement of all stakeholders. women’s groups. Observatories in government are mostly concerned with what the government wants. privatized operators. the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India has an obligation to prepare an annual report to the central government. The regulatory agency also offers a venue for evaluating results and achievements. be well established. Independent and multi-stakeholder mechanisms better reflect the needs of the community and can also help to ensure buy-in and success. the regulatory agency and the line ministries such as communications. the Korea Communications Commission reports to no one5. Finally. Shortfalls to the budget may be funded out of the government budget. ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development 83 . In some cases.
the Info-Communications Development Authority (IDA) is the regulator and has been established as a statutory board. 6 ITU. The ministry of communication or its equivalent implements the national ICT strategy. Effective Regulation Case Study: Singapore 2001. Geneva. IDA staff are not public servants and the board has complete autonomy to hire its own staff.In Singapore. ICT service providers. It reports to the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology6. the Info-Communications Development Authority Act of 1999. as they are independent of government financing. unless there are other institutional mechanisms in place. The IDA can also be sued in the courts. Statutory boards can raise their own funds and set their own budgets. in consultation with the various stakeholders. the regulatory agency. and representatives of the users. 84 ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development . 2001. Its statutory board status ensures that it would not be subject to short budgetary cycles of government ministries. The ministry of communication sets national telecommunication policy. It is governed by the provisions of a parliamentary act. ITU. the telecommunications operators.
It should likewise be able to justify when. Financing will come from both public and private sources. In larger markets and usually in urban areas. Public-private partnerships and obligations to ICT service providers to give universal access are the usual mechanisms that apply.. as well as support and investment of other partners (e. the opportunity of adding value to services that exist as a public good (e.g. This will require not only high-level government approval. the jurisdiction in question will want to consider securing a loan from one of the international financial institutions (IFIs). On the other hand.g. provision of faster Internet access as well as access to value-added services) may be the responsibility of a private sector entity. qualify and quantify requirements as well as opportunities. ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development 85 . The strategy should distinguish needs that are in the common good. The need to provide universal access to telecommunications services is considered a public need. when and as appropriate. the opportunity for recovering initial investments in infrastructure need to be taken into consideration. bilateral aid agencies). A complete ICT strategy will include an e-readiness assessment as well as market studies that attempt to assess.Stage Five Resource Financing and Resource Mobilization FINANCING E-STRATEGIES ICT strategies address public and private sector needs. the ICT applications and services available should be based on market principles as far as possible.. but also independent and outside scrutiny and audit in accordance with established international auditing rules and procedures. opportunities for selffinancing. where and as appropriate. It should also provide the criteria for rating priorities. and which should be financed from public sources. There should be investment strategies to attract private sector investment and support. such as the World Bank (WB) or one of the regional development banks. In the case of meeting the requirement for providing basic services to those without the buying power or readiness to take advantage of ICTs. In some cases.
Mobile phone services in many developing countries. for example. Pro-investment policies will also encourage foreign investors. 1 ITU. as well as funds.RESOURCE MOBILIZATION – INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL Policies encouraging private sector investment and competition are important to encourage local and foreign investors. have flourished as a result of competition. businesses will follow. Internet Report. to the benefit of consumers1. 2002. leading to joint ventures being established and essential sources of technical and management expertise. Geneva. Internet for a Mobile Generation. If pro-investment policies prevail. flowing into the country or jurisdiction. 86 ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development .
certified staff. bandwidth.Appendix 1. Example of Log Frame Analysis Means of verification Risks. cell phones. mass media coverage. servers. data · ICT-based development is not a priority of the government · Lack of resources to implement the programme · Adopt a planned and incremental approach in consultation and partnership with key decisionmakers in all sectors · Accelerate and concentrate on UNDP development approach A2P2 (articulated advocacy and sound advice combined with pilot interventions and strategic partnership) · Flexible and realistic resource mobilization strategy in place To open up new development opportunities by mainstreaming the use of ICTs · ICT use increases 5-10 times or more over the next three years: PCs. hosts. investment. content · Country’s share in the World Wide Web increases · Increased share of GDP derived from use of ICTs IMMEDIATE OBJECTIVE 1 · Decree adopted and national plan/strategic document adopted and developed by government · National action plans. donor coordination meetings · Limited or negative ICT perception by the Government · Poor awareness of the benefits of ICTs among consumers · Limited access to data and statistics · Incomplete or incorrect data · Intensify policy dialogue with the Government (Steering Committees and UNDP Policy Board) · Civil service reform · Institutionalize the use of ICT for financing for development ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development To create an enabling environment for ICT development and deployment · A nationwide consensus on the national policy environment regulating ICTs · Endorsement by the Cabinet of Ministers of a national vision guiding ICT deployment and use 87 . businesses. constraints and external factors Risk management actions Narrative Success indicators DEVELOPMENT OBJECTIVE · Publications and mass media · National statistics · Baseline surveys.
Andersen Consulting expects to contribute approximately US$3 million worth of personnel and other resources to the 12-month project. Markle Foundation and other partner contributions are expected to total an initial commitment of at least US$5 million.html. Develop in collaboration with Ministry. CSO develops the programme with Ministry. Soros or others. etc) · Fiscal & other incentives · Peering between ISPs · Decreased price for ICT access · Number of SMEs using ICTs · Number and nature of SMEs in ICT sector · Access to the international fibre-optic cable for Internet use 1 See information about the opportunITy initiative and the Global Network Readiness and Resource Initiative launched at the G-8 Summit in Japan. constraints and external factors Risk management actions · Promote awareness of authorities and consumers by emphasizing economic and educational benefits of an open ICT market · Consider appropriate examples and best practices from abroad Narrative Success indicators ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development Components and pilot schemes · A comprehensive national ICT assessment and white paper. PTA. The combined commitments of UNDP. . Includes awareness promotion activities: Comdex. conference programme with invited speakers.200007251223.1910.org/news/Release.cfm?ID=86 and http://www. See http://newsroom. Andersen Consulting. ITU.A national policy promoting universal access to the Internet and facilitating access to ICTs (PCs especially) · ICT Action Plan: implement strategy · UNDP umbrella Web site. UNDP et al.com/news/ Dynamicpressrelease. · Clear and complete set of rules regulating investment in and the provision of products and services for Internet development · Share/level of the state/private sector budget for investment in ICT deployment · Investment flowing freely to meet demand in ICT sector · Credit available for ICT investments/purchases · Ability to retain trained ICT professionals (MCSE. Andersen et al provide advice pro bono1 · ICT strategy formulation: using ICTs for national development. Both are designed to help bridge the digital divide. Other partners include World Economic Forum (WEF).markle.88 Means of verification · National Human Development Reports · Surveys measuring ICT investments by state & private sector · Market surveys · State budget · National statistics (Statistical office. and United Nations Foundation (UNF). including results of UNDP interventions.ac. Center for International Development (CID) at Harvard University. . IBM. pro bono. etc) · Legislative body · Salary survey among ICT professionals · Existing laws and regulations are not applied properly · Rural-urban split · Language issues Risks. Web site with info on ICT in country.
people and resources · Inability to use and apply the results in country · Limited circulation · Report perceived as not relevant and/or inappropriate to country · Ensure close cooperation with government and other national partners · Work with local and primary sources of information · Work closely with Ministry and other key decision-makers · Explain advantages of assessment to government and donors · Involve global UNDP collaborators (that is. of the needs for ICTs. and of the potential of country in this area · Report endorsed by all development actors · Report published and readily available to the public and development actors · Increased share of donor support ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development A national strategy for the rollout of access to the Internet. needs and opportunities related to ICT use and deployment in country · An objective and comprehensive understanding of the state of ICT deployment.OUTPUTS · Independently recognized assessment criteria. Andersen Consulting and others) · Prepare a cost-benefit analysis in time for maximum impact · Lack of consultation · Lack of resources from the national budget · Lack of private sector confidence and investment and flight of capital from sector · Perception that government may lose revenue · Inter-ministerial rivalries and bickering and no clear leadership A comprehensive national assessment report of resources. Andersen Consulting and others) · Recognize contributions of all · Encourage publicity and media coverage · Involve donors (WB. standards and methods · Composition of working group (all development actors) · NHDR 2001 · Report · Surveys and statistics · Media coverage · Incomplete access to data. discuss and develop recommendations · Involve other global UNDP collaborators (that is. · A strategic planning entity established with members drawn from the public and private sectors. and from elements of civil society · Composition of ‘task force’ for developing national strategy · Elimination of import duties on ICT goods to permit greater consumer access This will include national policies promoting access to the Internet for all development actors and facilitating access to ICTs (PCs especially). USAID and others) in the assessment · Involve key sectors/actors in preparing and executing the strategy · Use national think-tank/ conference/workshop to develop. · A comprehensive national vision of ICT use for development over the coming years · Financial and other resources required for the envisaged period are made available by government and other partners · Clear guidelines for private investment in the ICT sector · Incentives to users and providers of ICT goods and services 89 . including an enabling environment for all development actors and for the deployment of the ICT products and services required. issues.
EU project to train/reform raise skills of members of ICT Observatory · Use UNDP partners (that is. especially from the private sector– surveys · Rate and extent of investment in ICT deployment · Strong support from all sectors . etc. constraints and external factors Risk management actions · Allocation in the State budget and line items for implementing the ICT strategy in the national budget · A consultative mechanism · Surveys and statistics · Assist (UNDP) in bridging interest between private sector and government · Prepare strategy shortly after assessment undertaken and white papers produced · Ensure pilot interventions in the region · Relevant programme for Steering Committee’s decisions · Status and composition of the national ICT observatory · Amount of time spent by members for work in the observatory · ICT observatory or equivalent is not created/ delayed and there is continued reliance on outside assistance · Members of ICT Observatory not from all sectors and not sufficiently informed of ICTs · Close collaboration with UMID Foundation. UNDP. National University) · A representative multistakeholder group assembled to undertake and consult widely in preparing the assessment report · National body for ICT promotion and development established Legal environment relating to all matters concerning import. CSOs. Markle. HP. UNITeS. Civil Service Training Center. market and collection of data other developments (UNDP. baseline statistics · ICT expenditures and investments Narrative Success indicators ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development · Opportunities for consultation and mechanisms to act on feedback exist National ICT observatory to monitor implementation of national ICT strategy. technologies. Andersen Consulting and others: Cisco. Soros. Soros. market conditions (Ministry. RedHat. deployment and investment in ICTs · No confusion in interpreting laws and decrees. use. rules and regulations · NHDR · National investment plan · Surveys. UN ICT Task Force.90 Means of verification Risks.) · Government rules by decree with limited opportunity for consultation · Limited access to data and statistics · Information from surveys not relevant · ICT costs remain very high · Intensify policy dialogue with decision-makers using UNDP policy tools · Establish ICT observatory to monitor tech developments. IBM. other government departments. decrees. national universities) · Laws.
media reports · The ‘Year of ICT’ is proclaimed · International organizations reactivate their programmes in ICT · Increased media coverage · Private sector and development organizations join efforts for ICT development · Lack of government support · Low nation-wide mass media outreach · Rural-urban split · · · · · Poorly visited Web site · Limited Internet access in rural areas · Lack of donor support · Intensify policy dialogue with President’s Office · Strengthen partnerships with media through UNIC and other partners · Work with regions. Soros. · UNDP’s capacity to coordinate development aid planning enhanced Web site hits count Online surveys Data and statistics Donors‘ programme/ project and related documents · Share of information in development data system provided by the Government · Publicly accessible Web site via the Internet (id and password protected + publicly accessible area) · Apply high quality advertising techniques for promotion of Web site · ICT observatory supported by UNDP. funds. municipalities and communities to prepare campaign UNDP Web site that integrates information on the country’s transformation and development developed ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development NOTES Components and pilot schemes · Integrated development project information centre · Web-based advocacy channel established and widely used · Real time access to integrated development information system and up to date development data · Number and nature of documentation and knowledge available online · Quality and quantity of support from other donors: number of donors. Ministry · Present as extension of existing donor coordination mechanism and invite participation based on UNDP proposal · Offer UNDP server and access 91 . etc.· Elimination of barriers to access PCs and related hardware and software · Access to international fibreoptic cable (TAE) prohibitively expensive · Take particular care to produce relevant questionnaire based on national context · Increase the use of NHDR as a policy and dialogue tool · Present cost-benefit analysis showing advantages of encouraging market for PCs and software Awareness building campaign aimed at decision-makers and the public · Policy papers on ICT commissioned by government · Surveys and market research · NHDR · UNIC data.
92 Means of verification Risks. White paper on ebusiness. LAN and Web specialists · Access to relevant Web sites and number of hits · Resistance to change · Intensify dialogue with · Lack of PCs and other government (Steering equipment in all government Committee and UNDP Policy departments board level) with focus on · Lack of incentives for trained awareness. CID at Harvard University.markle. e-government. IBM. strategy and repersonnel to ensure tooling to manage change) maintenance of LAN and PCs · Present cost-benefit/ effective· Data and baseline are ness analysis to motivate inaccurate or/and non-existent investments in PCs and · Questionnaires are not tailored improved conditions for to capture information maintenance personnel required · Best practices from other · Difficulties in processing data countries (Estonia Tiger Leap) Narrative Success indicators IMMEDIATE OBJECTIVE 2 ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development To enhance information and knowledge sharing among and between users and providers of information in country · Internet connectivity facilitated for non-profit user groups · Increased volume of information made available online by beneficiaries · Increased numbers of papers based on www information resources · More information about country available from national servers · More interactive national Internet servers OUTPUTS Services online provided by Govt (procurement. e-government in country · Most government departments have intranets (LANs) connected together and to the Internet · Most government departments have access to PCs.org/news/Release. Andersen et al provide pro bono support2 · A government-wide e-government policy and initiatives · Incentives for government online including procurement · ICT infrastructure in place in offices across the country · Common design policy in place for portals and Web sites of all government departments 2 The coalition of partners include UNDP. Markle Foundation.html.200007251223. WEF. . Strategy developed. constraints and external factors Risk management actions · · · · · Project evaluation reports Media coverage Internet statistics/surveys Surveys National statistics · Legislative limitations · Absence of basic IT knowledge among researchers · Lack of info culture at the consumer level · Rural-urban split · Advocacy campaigns targeted at ICT (immediate objective 1) · Training on IT applications · Focus on rural users · A white paper on e-business. See http://www. customs) inclusive of extension to selected pilot provinces NOTES Components and pilot schemes · Develop e-government strategy. United Nations Foundation (UNF).
US. FSU. · Pilot e-government projects: . agriculture. CA. Academy of Sciences. AU. select local partners and public access sites (partner with projects developing community based access). etc. Number of government portals and online directories and databases increases · Number of subscribers to online procurement and volume of business transacted online · At least one government online information access point /region · Baseline and data · Procurement information users and providers surveys including cost of procurement · State budget and donors commitments/programmes · Evaluation of online procurement site · Cost to access to international fibre-optic cable (TAE) prohibitive ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development Internet connectivity provided to academia. At same time and in collaboration with Comdex/ CSOs. environment. etc.e-Procurement pilot project: Based on previous research and input. etc.Applications: portal info server (decide on subject – business. water. Andersen Consulting and others) · Involve middle managers · Poor technical capacity of telephone stations to channel connectivity · Partnership with donors and private companies (that is.· Regional e-government conference. port the national government portal to selected up country locations.Review international experience in this area: EU. load locally relevant info. · Online procurement portal launched for government · Costs of products and services procured online falls and choice increases · Increased access to government information · Increased funding from state budget and other sources.Regional access points (tbd). Siemens. · Take particular care to produce relevant questionnaire based on national context · Employ specialized personnel to read results of surveys · Involve global UNDP collaborators (that is.) · Extend project funding to key organizations including universities. . Daewoo Telecom. etc.) . propose rules for open procurement and implement a test procurement portal over the Internet. NGO and educational institutions · High-speed Internet channel · Project evaluation reports established · Surveys · At least 700 users connected and introduced to the modern ICT applications · At least 10 Web sites created by the beneficiaries 93 . health. Include e-procurement as theme .
constraints and external factors · Language barriers · Poor technical capacity of scientific research institutions (PCs. etc. Work with trade promotion and customs and related organizations · A comprehensive assessment · Lowered customs. conferences. scientific and research network established · High speed access to national and international backbone · Increased volume of information made available online by beneficiaries · Number of scientific links established within and without the country · Number of new scientific/ research networks · Greater participation in international research networks · Resources and recognition as a result of collaborative research Electronic business (B2B) applications introduced Components and pilot schemes . Business Woman’s Association · Other partners: International Customs Union. specific networks · Promote national contents for networks · Enhance language skill development · Use existing sites in Russian and Turkish during transition period · Subsidize during the start-up period · Mobilize additional income through advertising with government and donors · · · · Rural-urban split Language Lack of awareness Human resources · Andersen Consulting helps produce white paper as part of UNDP global collaboration · Training via BIs/BACs. B2B to facilitate trade and customs data processing. trade of priorities for B2B undertaken and transaction related delays and costs.94 Means of verification Risks. not just banking · Lowered cost of doing business · More trade in and outside country . as part of the e-readiness · Less paper assessment · A white paper on e-business · EDI used for B2B transactions in several sectors. etc. · ITU e-commerce for developing countries (ECDC) project · UNDP Fellowships Narrative Success indicators ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development A national educational.) Risk management actions · Statistics on scientific Web sites · Scientific publications · Bibliographies of scientific publications · Project evaluation reports · Contents of Forum. etc. telephone lines.
· Number of municipalities benefiting from ICT applications (distance learning. local government. BIs/BACs.) · Subsidize during the start-up period only and mobilize additional income through e-advertisement · Strengthen and facilitate partnership with donors and private companies (that is.. Daewoo Trlrcom. hospitals. security.) · Select communities based on national assessment · Share connectivity costs between projects IMMEDIATE OBJECTIVE 3 · HRDC evaluation and progress reports · Statistics and data · ROAR · Low number of ICT trained national partners to make an impact · Low return on investment due to non-conducive environment to apply the knowledge acquired · Mainstream the focus of intervention and ensure full synergy with and ownership by the government · Extensive training of government managers and procurement officials – in collaboration with other donors. including facilities (e. research organizations. Seimens. etc. (Strengthening of government administration/ assistance to civil service reform) · Strengthen cooperation with national partners at policy and working level · Expand UNDP fellowship scheme ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development To enhance national capacity for information and knowledge sharing · Number of partners enabled to manage the change as a result of training and retooling through ICT · Local capacity to meet all ICTrelated service needs 95 . etc.Community-based use and deployment of ICTs and of Internet access encouraged · Project evaluation reports · Composition of community-based centres · Composition of municipal working groups · Progress report of municipal working groups · Media coverage · Users surveys · Lack of infrastructure · High costs of services · Lack of financial sustainability · Low quality of services. etc.g. Community access centres developed in selected locations · Number of community-based Internet access centres· established in each district of capital and in pilot provinces · Municipal working groups established to link to Internet: schools. confidentiality and speed) · Language issues NOTES Components and pilot schemes .
Train teachers . UNESCO. training publications and manuals · National partners not aware of ICT advantages · Low absorption by national partners · Poor local technical capacity (Internet connectivity. Dev. Mgmt. telephone lines.Target women . strategizing and realizing ICT vision for country · Number of policy advice papers and plans (prepared by national specialists) A national educational strategy for · A white paper on ICT education and training in strengthening ICT learning at all country published levels developed · ICT curricula developed for schools and adopted by the NOTES Ministry of Public Education Components and · Adjustments to national pilot schemes education programme · Develop national ICT educational strategy · SchoolNet established in country . software. CGIAR · Training and retooling of education cadre (see above) .Strengthen curriculum .Connect teacher training centres · A2P2 approach · Involve Ministry of Higher Education and Academy of Science · Involve ICSU. etc. constraints and external factors Risk management actions · New structure of national counterpart · Synergy presentations from trained specialists · Project reports · Follow-up on training reports · UNDP facilitating the network · Papers. Center) on information sharing and ICT use · Information-sharing institutionalized · Number of UNDP fellows and their supervisors benefiting from increased use of ICT · Viable and informative UNDP fellow network established · Number of highly trained country ICT specialists from all sectors advising. PCs.96 Means of verification Risks.) for ICT applications · To develop awareness driven demand in ICT applications and new knowledge networking schemes through specific demonstrations · New national curricula · Data and statistics · Teacher/tutor surveys · Absence of technical facilities to apply new curricula in schools nationwide · Absence of well-trained cadre to deliver and apply curricula · Resistance to change Narrative Success indicators OUTPUTS ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development Capacity of national partners fully developed to implement a framework created with UNDP support NOTES Components and pilot schemes · Management of Change projects · Civil service training (Public Admin.
Dev. Center: .) · Use incremental approach. etc.Equipment / ICT labs + Internet . Acad. Universities Components and pilot schemes · ICT training integrated in curriculum and activities of the Public Admin..UNDP Fellowships extended to the Center ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development Opportunities for distance learning and knowledge networking established and managed · Center for distance learning. start small · Involve World Bank distance learning project/ WorldLinks for Development (cost financing) · Connect with SchoolNet initiatives 97 .SchoolNet. video conferencing and Internet learning facility established · Manual for distance learning developed by UNDP based on national context · Media coverage · Programme Evaluation Report · Publications and manuals · High costs of equipment for distance learning courses (video conference facilities) · Installation and run up problems (dedicated lines. WorldLinks · World-class ICT training facilities established in collaboration with international IT business sector Components and pilot schemes · Establish Cisco and other academies · Identify best location in consultation with Ministry.Training . of Sciences. Mgmt.
governor’s or local prefects’ offices as favoured location for centres Media reports · Lack of capacity and infrastructure · Training centre and access points financially unsustainable · Select locations with strong support from community leaders · Involve BI. collaborators . if appropriate Narrative Success indicators OUTPUTS NOTES Components and pilot schemes · World Bank distance learning facility for education and on cost recovery for others ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development Components and pilot schemes · Country SchoolNet and participation in WorldLinks (World Bank)· Local and community-based ICT training and access centres in selected pilot provinces NOTES Components and pilot schemes · Community access centres (see above) · e-Government activities in regions via community access centres . etc.98 Means of verification Risks. NGOs.Training . USAID. BAC and Business Women’s Association and donors · (Soros.) · Service providers may be co-located with BI and BAC at first.Equipment and Internet connections · Civil service training centre with · access to ICT curriculum and · Internet access · · Number of ICT community access centres increases steadily · Number of centre users · · Number of regional and local government supporting the centres · Focus of civil service training on networking and GroupWare · SchoolNet established in country · At least 1-5 based points of presence (PoP) per region offering access to government info and services online .Identify facilities. constraints and external factors Risk management actions Project evaluation reports Statistics and data Post offices.
EDI.) · Number of SMEs benefiting from the use of ICT · Number of SMEs online · Increased participation of SMEs in local and international trade · At least one private sector supported ICT service per region · Share of private sector investments in ICT training OUTPUTS · ROAR · Media coverage · Programme Area Evaluation Report · Failure to attract venture capital · Inability to address the right audience (attract the right donors) · No outside investors · To use UNDP umbrella mechanism to attract private sector investments · e-Service providers collaborate with BI and BAC in each region and colocate at first. if appropriate ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development e-Business incubators and venture capital funds established · At least one e-incubator and e-venture fund established NOTES Components and pilot schemes · Strengthen network business incubators across country (see above) .Use the Internet to attract capital and partners .. B2C.Encourage investors to invest in ICTs for BI network . etc.Develop local content .Create an investment fund 99 .Work with community access centres · ICT Observatory (or equivalent) working with key government decision-makers IMMEDIATE OBJECTIVE 4 (to be substantiated with PA1) · · · · National statistics Internet statistics NHDR 2001 Surveys and follow up publications · ROAR · Media coverage · Composition of ICT Observatory (including private sector) · Non-conducive legislative framework · Non-convertibility of local currency · Training centre financially not suitable · Proper situation analysis and forecasting · Business to business approach · Business to commerce approach · Business to development approach · EDI To strengthen the capacity of SMEs to use ICTs and related applications (B2B.
Novell. Cisco. Lucent.100 Means of verification Risks.Implement facility with help of large ICT companies: Microsoft (Gates Fdtn).Undertake business plan to measure potential of regional/international network certification centre in country . UNITeS and Global Network Readiness and Resource Initiative and other UNDP partners · Involve government and other partners Narrative Success indicators · SMEs using ICT supported by e-incubators and venture capital · Number of SMEs able to relinquish support from e-incubators and venture capital · Increased demand for connectivity from private sector ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development Networking technologies training facility NOTES Components and pilot schemes · Regional/ international certified networking technologies training centre . · Sufficient number of country internationally certified network engineers/ specialists · More e-businesses created · Greater ICT self-sufficiency . RedHat. Nortel. constraints and external factors · Weak capacity of e-incubators and venture funds to provide substantial support to SMEs Risk management actions · ROAR · Programme Area Evaluation Report · Guidelines for ICT-based SMEs · Optimal use of infrastructure and experience of UNDP Business Incubators project · Develop guidelines for ICTbased SMEs · Business plan · Market analysis. Oracle. including cost comparison · Surveys · National statistics · Lack of investors · Regulations affecting creation of businesses · Currency convertibility · Regulations affecting Internet access · Involve opportunITy initiative. etc.
Richard Labelle has been a self-employed and full time international consultant since 1992. local and community development. Quebec. those related to poverty alleviation. Azerbaijan. gender equality. In 2001 he was involved in assessing ICT based solutions for addressing poverty in 20 villages in 5 different provinces of rural China. the digital divide and the role of ICTs in dealing with HIV/AIDS are noteworthy. Uzbekistan and Mongolia. He is part of a team developing the national ICT strategy for Botswana. in Plant Physiology. Since 1992. Richard has undertaken a number of evaluations of Internet connectivity and ICT capacity. from Queen’s University. Canada and a Diploma in Resource Management from the University of Toronto. Richard Labelle has a B. This has included advising on appropriate policies as well as designing.Sc. he developed a world-class computerized information and documentation centre on agroforestry (IDRC & ICRAF Nairobi. Mauritania. He has over 23 years experience in institutional strengthening and on issues related to the management of information and knowledge in developing countries.About the Author Richard Labelle is an independent consultant based in Gatineau. discussing and negotiating projects that build capacities for sustainable development. he has advised governments. international development agencies and other development actors on using appropriate information technologies and management practices for meeting national development goals while dealing with a variety of human. He is presently involved in many countries in Africa. presenting. Among these issues. Kingston. In his consulting practice. Mr. Canada. in Biology (Hon) and an M. the Middle East and Central Asia. social and economic development issues at the same time. Kenya). Labelle is fluent in French and English. he has undertaken missions to over 57 developing countries on behalf of UNDP.Sc. In the 1980s. ICT Policy Formulation and e-Strategy Development 101 . developing. He has developed ICT strategies and action plans in several countries of Asia and Africa including most recently in Djibouti.
He has also worked for the Dutch government in ICT for Development projects in Peru and Swaziland. and as Programme Officer in the UNDP Fiji Multi-Country Office for 10 countries in the South Pacific. Monitoring and Evaluation Arrangements – Edo Stork Edo Stork has a Masters degree in Computing Science from Free University in Amsterdam. . Currently.About the Special Contributor to Stage 4: Management. He has worked as Project Manager of the UNDP/UNOPS regional e-Pacifika project to assist 14 countries in the South Pacific develop their national ICT policies and strategies. he is working at the UNDP headquarters in New York as a Management Specialist in the fields of business intelligence and internal consultancy.
2003 Information and Communication Technologies for Poverty Alleviation.Also available UNDPUNDP-APDIP ICT4D Series ICT Policies and e-Strategies in the Asia-Pacific: A Critical Assessment of the Way Forward. Security and Infrastructure (forthcoming) UNDPOther UNDP-APDIP Publications Promoting ICT for Human Development in Asia 2004: Realising the Millennium Development Goals . Elsevier.Technical Paper.elsevier-international. 2004 FOSS: Government Policy (forthcoming) FOSS: Licensing (forthcoming) FOSS: Localisation (forthcoming) FOSS: Network. 2003 Legal and Regulatory Issues in the Information Economy. 2003 Genes. 2004 e-P -Primers Free/Open UNDP APDIP e-Primers on Free/Open Source Software (FOSS) FOSS: A General Introduction. Elsevier. please order at www. Elsevier.net For all Elsevier publications. Webs and the Information Infrastructure.apdip. 2003 ICT in Education. 2004 ICT and Human Development:Towards Building a Composite Index for Asia: Realising the Millennium Development Goals . 2003 Nets.Summary. Elsevier. 2004 Information and Communications Technology for Development: A Sourcebook for Parliamentarians. 2004 Digital Review of Asia-Pacific: 2003-2004 For a complete list of UNDP-APDIP publications. 2004 An Overview of ICT Policies and e-Strategies of Select Asian Economies. please visit www. 2003 e-Commerce and e-Business.com .Technology and Policy. Polity Society and Polity Series The Information Age. Elsevier. 2004 UNDPe-P -Primers Economy. UNDP-APDIP e-Primers for the Information Economy. 2004 FOSS: Education. 2003 e-Government.