Chapter 7A 1. 2. 3. 4. Memory: Persistence of learning over time through storage and retrieval.

Encoding: Process of inserting memory into your system. Storage: Retention of encoded information from storage. Sensory Memory: The immediate and very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system. 5. Short-Term Memory: Activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten. 6. Long-Term Memory: The relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences. 7. Working Memory: A newer understanding of short-term memory that focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information. 8. Parallel Processing: The processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brains natural mode of information processing for many functions, including vision. 9. Automatic Processing: unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings. 10. Effortful Processing: Encoding that requires attention and conscious effort. 11. Rehearsal: The conscious repetition of information, either to maintain in consciousness or to encode it for storage. 12. Spacing Effect: The tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better longterm retention than is achieved through massed study or practice. 13. Serial Position Effect: Our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list. 14. Visual Encoding: The encoding of picture images. 15. Acoustic encoding: The encoding of sound, especially the sound of words. 16. Semantic Encoding: The encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words. 17. Imagery: Mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combines with semantic encoding. 18. Mnemonics: Memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices. 19. Chunking: Organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically. 20. Iconic Memory: A momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second. 21. Echoic Memory: A momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds. 22. Long-Term Potentiation: An increase in a synapse’s firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory. 23. Flashbulb Memory: A clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event. 24. Amnesia: The loss of memory. 25. Implicit Memory: Retention independent of conscious recollection.

Elizabeth Loftus: American psychologist and expert in the field of memory.26. Known as a prodigy. often unconsciously. Louis known for his study in memory. Explicit Memory: Memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and “declare”. 38. helps process explicit memories for storage. Hippocampus: A neural center that is located in the limbic system. 46. Karl Lashley: American psychologist and behaviorist know for his contribution to learning and memory. Heart of many false memories. 40. as on a multiple-choice test. Henry Molaison: Famous memory disorder patient who was studied and responsible for the link between brain function and memory. 39. Henry Roediger: Psychologist at Washington University in St. Recognition: A measure of memory in which the person need only indentify items previously learned. 43. . Repression: In psychoanalytic theory. 32. Source Amnesia: Attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced. Déjá Vu: That eerie sense that “I’ve experienced this before. 30. Richard Atkinson: Born in 1929 is an American professor of psychology and academic administrator. Working for University of Purdue. 31. or response. 44. Misinformation Effect: Incorporating misleading information into one’s memory of an event. thus predisposing one’s perception. Discovered the forgetting curve and the spacing effect. the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts. 35. George Miller: American psychologist born in 1920. Proactive Interference: The disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information. of certain associations. 28. 48. 37. 27. Mood-Congruent Memory: The tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one’s current good or bad mood. 41. 45. as on a fill-in-the-blank test. 34. 36. 33. 29. read about. and memories from consciousness.” Cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience. Author of one of the most cited psychology papers. Rajan Mahadevan: A numerically gifted memorist born in India. memory. Priming: The activation. 42. Hermann Ebbinghaus: German psychologist who experimented in memory. Recall: A measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier. or imagined. Eric Kandel: American neurophychiatrist who received a Nobel prize for his study of physiological memory. Retroactive Interference: The disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information. 47. Relearning: A measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time. Jeffrey Karpicke: American psychologist known for his study of cognition and memory. heard about. feelings.

how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgments. immediate. Functional Fixedness: The tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions. an impediment to problem solving. 14. written. Phoneme: In language. Algorithm: A methodical. knowing.49. Daniel Schacter: American psychologist at Harvard known for his research on memory and amnesia. or match. 9. remembering. Creativity: The ability to produce novel and valuable ideas. the smallest distinctive sound unit. the smallest unit that carries meaning. may be a word or a part of a word. 51. ideas. Availability Heuristic: Estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory. 20. Matching new items to a prototype provides a quick and easy method for sorting items into categories. 16. . 50. or signed words and the ways we combine then to communicate meaning. Representativeness Heuristic: Judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent. 7. Concept: A mental grouping of similar objects. 8. 17. Heuristic: A simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems. Framing: The way an issue is posed. Morpheme: In a language. Mental Set: A tendency to approach a problem in one particular way. Endel Tulving: Estonian neuroscientist whose research of memory has influenced generations of psychologists. 18. 5. 12. often a way that has been successful in the past. logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. by employing a different mental set. events. 19. Belief Perseverance: Clinging to one’s initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited. 13. Confirmation Bias: A tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence. it contrasts with strategy-based solutions. Overconfidence: The tendencies to be more confident than correct-to overestimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgments. Oliver Sacks: British neurologist and psychiatrist known for his study of neurologic disorders. Chapter 7B 1. 11. as contrasted with explicit. 6. if instances come readily to mind. 15. 3. 4. Language: Our spoken. Insight: A sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem. Intuition: An effortless. particular prototypes. Prototype: A mental image or best example of a category. 10. or people. 2. may lead us to ignore other relevant information. and communicating. Cognition: All the mental activities associated with thinking. Fixation: The inability to see a problem from a new perspective. conscious reasoning. automatic feeling or though.

One-Word Stage: The stage in speech development. the study of meaning. Syntax: The rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language. Steven Pinker: Canadian-American experimental psychologist. words.F. Skinner: American behaviorist. a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others. Benjamin Lee Whorf: American linguist. social philosopher. Two-Word Stage: Beginning about age 2. and popular science author. the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly two-word statements. B. inventor. Grammar: In a language. 27. Telegraphic Speech: Early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram—go car—using mostly nouns and verbs. also. cognitive scientist. 22.21. 25. Babbling Stage: Beginning at about 4 months. Linguistic Determinism: Whorf’s hypothesis that language determination the way we think. 29. 28. 26. 30. linguist. 31. Semantics: The set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes. the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language. author. Renowned for his theories on linguistic relativity. from about age 1 to 2. during which a child speaks mostly in single words. 24. . 23. and sentences in a given language.

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