49 Coatings ABS

G U I D A N C E

N O T E S

O N

the Application and Maintenance of Marine Coating Systems
S E C O N D E D I T I O N

ourM

I S S I O N
The mission of the American Bureau of Shipping is to serve the public interest as well as the needs of our clients by promoting the security of life, property and the natural environment primarily through the development and verification of standards for the design, construction and operational maintenance of marine-related facilities.

quality & environmental
P O L I C Y
It is the policy of the American Bureau of Shipping to be responsive to the individual and collective needs of our clients as well as those of the public at large, to provide quality services in support of our mission, and to provide our services consistent with international standards developed to avoid, reduce or control pollution to the environment. All of our client commitments, supporting actions, and services delivered must be recognized as expressions of Quality. We pledge to monitor our performance as an on-going activity and to strive for continuous improvement. We commit to operate consistent with applicable environmental legislation and regulations and to provide a framework for establishing and reviewing environmental objectives and targets.

C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL

FOR

F IELD S URVEYORS

G U I D A N C E

N O T E S

O N

the Application and Maintenance of Marine Coating Systems
S E C O N D E D I T I O N
First Published 1998 Copyright © 1998 Reprinted 2004 ABS 16855 Northchase Drive USA Houston, TX 77060

ABS

I

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With the emphasis on coatings in the Enhanced Survey Scheme. and with the unprecedented acceleration of coating technology. the field surveyor should have some basic factual knowledge on coating systems.C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL FOR F IELD S URVEYORS INTRODUCTION Steel structure of a vessel is prone to corrosion throughout its service life. It is the intent of this guide to meet this need in a straight forward and practical manner. and by periodic maintenance to provide effective corrosion protection to ensure continued structural integrity of the vessel. Due allowance must be made at the new-building stage. ABS A .

.......................................................NACE Denny ............Royal Chemical Madden ............................................ Buist .......................................................................................Unitor ..............................................JRS Ship & Offshore Briggs..........C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL FOR F IELD S URVEYORS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This guide draws on many sources for its contents..................................................Esgard Stanley ....................................................BP Oil Shipping...............................BP Oil Shipping Co.......................................................Hempel Paints Birleson ....................................................................Courtaulds (International Paints) Huang ..................Scherwin Williams Zagrzecki.......Chevron Shipping Jones .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Gus Bourneuf Chief Surveyor B ABS ......................................................................................Steel Structures Painting Council Bentkjaer ......................................................................................................................... Co................................................................................Matson Navigation Buffo..................Arco Transportation McIntyre ............................................................Drew Ameroid/Ashland Whiteside ............................................................. Chairman NACE TC-14B Windler..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................Marine Transport Lines Mulligan ..............................................................................Sabine Transportation Co.. ABS wishes to acknowledge the assistance and guidance provided by all who contributed to it...................Sigma Coatings Sawvel..............Devoe Coatings Raghavan................................... in particular the following active members of the ABS Ad Hoc Panel on Coatings: Bernard Michael Phil Ron Dennis Helena Jim Rong Owen Joseph Tom Tom Ramesh Bruce Bob Charles Richard Dave Frank Len Appleman....Maritime Overseas Carriers Stuckey............................................................................ Witmer.......

...................8 Solvents .......17 Detecting Bacteria ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................20 ABS C ..........................................................................................................................................................................................4 Thermoplastic Coatings.............................................................................................................3 Epoxy Resins.......................................6 Anticorrosive Pigments.....16 Deposition Corrosion...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................3 Silcone Alkyd Resins ....................................................................................................................................................16 Uniform Corrosion..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................2 Oleoresinous Varnishes .......................................3 Epoxy Ester Resins .....6 Zinc Phosphate.....................................................................................................................................1 Binders.....................................................................................................................................2 Air Drying Resins............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................4 Inorganic Resins ..............................................................................17 Types of Bacteria that Cause Corrosion .......................2 Thermoset Coatings.......................................................................................................................................12 Principals of Corrosion....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................16 Crevice Corrosion...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................2 Alkyd Resins...................................................................................................................14 Types of Corrosion .......................................................................................................................................................................................................13 Corrosion in Acidic Environment ........................7 Coloring Pigments ................................................16 Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (MIC) ...............................................................................................................5 Bituminous Binders....................6 Red Lead ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................8 Extended Pigments...........................................................................11 Steel and the Corrosion Reaction ..........................................................................................5 Chlorinated Rubber Resins .....................................................................................................14 Galvanic or Bi-metallic Corrosion ..................................................7 Zinc .........................................................................................................................................................20 Galvanic Effect................................................................................................10 Typical Groups of Paint Additives .................................................................................................................19 Inhibitor Effect ........................................................................................................................17 Coatings and MIC...........................................................................................................................................................................................................6 Zinc Chromate.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................5 Vinyl Resins ....................................................9 Other Paint Additivites .......................18 Protection from MIC ...........................19 Barrier Effect.......................C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL FOR F IELD S URVEYORS CONTENTS CHAPTER ONE: What is Paint? Paint Technology...................4 Polyurethane Resins ..................3 Urethane Oil/Alkyd Resins .....................................................................3 Styrenated and Vinyl Toluenated Alkyd Resins...............................................................18 CHAPTER THREE: Paints for Purposes Anticorrosives.................13 Corrosion in Humid Environment........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................10 CHAPTER TWO: Corrosion Introduction ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................5 Pigments and Extenders ........................................................................................................................16 Pitting Corrosion .................7 Barrier Pigments...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................34 Preparation............................................................................................................................................................. NACE No.......................................................................................................................................................................................... Swedish Sa 2 1/2....................................32 High-Volume......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................32 Airless spray..................................................................................................................29 Mechanical Descaling ................................................................................28 Power Tool Cleaning (SSPC-SP-3) .....................................................................................30 SSPC-SP-10.....................................................................................................................................................................................................23 Distribution .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................30 SSPC-SP-6.......................................30 CHAPTER FIVE: Methods of Paint Application Methods of Application ..................................... 4................................................................................................................................................................................................. Swedish Sa 2.........................................................................................................34 Method of Protection .................................................................................................................................................10) ...............................................................................................................................................35 CHAPTER SEVEN: Glossary of Frequently Used Coating Terms .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................31 Brush application. Swedish Sa 3..........................................7........................................23 The Organisms ..................................................23 Micro-Organisms.............................................................................................................................................24 Classification of Antifouling Paints ...............................................................................................................24 Soluble Matrix (non-polishing) .......................21 Types of Shop Primers ............26 CHAPTER FOUR: Surface Preparation Solvent Cleaning (SSPC-SP-1)......34 Opacity ............................................................................................................................28 Hand Tool Cleaning (SSPC-SP-2) ............................................................................22 Antifouling Paints .....................................21 Demands..........29 Rotary Power Discing ...........................................................................................................................................................................................31 Roller application....41 CHAPTER TEN: Examples................................. 2................................................30 Water Jetting and Hydroblasting...................................34 Thickness......................................24 Insoluble Matrix (non-polishing) ................................................................25 Self Polishing ................. NACE No.........................................................29 Rotary Wire Brushing...................................................................................................................................32 CHAPTER SIX: Alternatives to “Hard” Coatings & Cathodic Protection Chemistry .......................34 Application....................................................................................30 SSPC-SP-5...........26 Roughness ................................6.............................................................................. NACE No...................................29 Abrasive Blast Cleaning (SSPC-SP-5.................................................................................................................................................................................................................37 CHAPTER EIGHT: Assessment Scale for Breakdown Assessment of Existing Surface Coating Systems ....................................................................................................................................................................... 1........................................................ 3........................................................................... Swedish Sa 1.................... NACE No.................................... Low Pressure Spray...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL FOR F IELD S URVEYORS Shop Primers....................................39 CHAPTER NINE: How to Use this Guide ..............................23 Antifouling Paints.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................23 Fouling ....34 Cathodic Protection ..................................................31 Conventional spray ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................23 Macro-Organisms...............................................................................................................................................................................................30 SSPC-SP-7........................................................................................................................43 D ABS ........................................................................................................................................21 Properities.......................................................

each of which in turn has been manufactured to give certain specific properties. Basically. Reproducible products with predictable performance resulted. however. For example. The modern surface coating industry provides many different generic types of coatings used in many different circumstances and applied by many different methods.C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL FOR F IELD S URVEYORS CHAPTER ONE: What is Paint? P aint can be described as a liquid material capable of being applied or spread over a solid surface in which it subsequently dries or hardens to form a continuous adherent barrier coat. medium. and to establish a much more scientifically based industry. to powder coatings applied by electrostatic spray and cured by heat. oxides of iron were used as pigments and various blends of vegetable oils and natural resins used as binders. did generally fulfill the accepted demands of time. These traditional coatings. In the past. These were predominantly of natural origin. it leaves the film by evaporation and can therefore be considered an expensive waste product. The performance limitations of the paints produced were basically attributed to the available raw materials. PAINT TECHNOLOGY Paints are mixtures of many raw materials. polymer) • Pigment and extender • Solvent Of these. paints consist of three major components and many additives which are included in minor properties. film. their functions. These were eventually realized by the progressive introduction and development of synthetic raw materials and intermediates helping to alleviate the restrictions imposed on the paint chemist by traditional technology. These range from conventional liquid paints applied by brush and drying at ambient temperatures by oxidation. ABS 1 . resin. Solvent is necessary purely to facilitate application and initial film formation. The major components are: • Binder (other terms used include: vehicle. however. paint technology and paint making were arts or crafts developed over many years and supported by results of practical experience. Significant advances in paint technology came about with the demand for higher performance and longer life coatings. and the properties they impart to the finished product. The following notes describe the principle components of paints. only the first two form the final dry paint film.

Normally only the more “oily” materials are used for exterior primers and finishes. rosin. Reaction with an added chemical curing agent. These materials are slow drying. With a Thermoplastic coating. and weathering characteristics. Reaction with water (moisture in the atmosphere). both physical and chemical. i. The function of the binder is to give a permanent continuous film which is responsible for adhesion to the surface and which will contribute to the overall resistance of the coating to the environment. • Stage Two: The film progressively becomes more chemically complex by one of the following methods: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Reaction with atmospheric oxygen. This transformation in paint is known as drying or curing. either vegetable or animal. they change state. Radiation curing (e. crosslinking of the molecules taking place slowly in the presence of atmospheric oxygen. The following notes describe the various modifications of vegetable oils to produce suitable paint binders. 2 ABS . Air Drying Resins Historically. ultraviolet). the dry film and the wet paint differ only in solvent content. Artificial heating. • Stage One: Solvent is lost from the film by evaporation and the film becomes dry to touch. This classification is solely dependent upon how they form a film. Thermoset coatings are not affected by solvent wipe. or “cooked” with other compatible resins. Vegetable drying oils alone are unsuitable as paint binders. gloss. drying is considered a two stage process. They are predominant in determining the principle characteristics of the coating.e. One of the more important classes of binders from this group are the tung oil phenolics. once cured. binders were based on various drying oils. The description of the varnish is normally based on the amount and type of oil present. Both stages actually occur together but at different rates. known as oxidation.). etc. The addition of various metal catalysts normally referred to as dryers can significantly accelerate the drying process. all of which dry by oxidation. where good adhesion and flexibility are important requirements. but chemically these remain essentially similar. chlorinated rubber paints. THEROSET COATINGS In liquid paints where solvent is involved. it will soften and try to return to its original state. Thermoset and Thermoplastic. drying time.g. In the case of liquid paints. The films formed by the above methods are chemically different to the original binders and will not re-dissolve in their original solvent. it is necessary to modify the oil with a range of natural or synthetic resins. coumarone or phenolic resins. If solvent is applied to a thermoplastic coating.g. These are used widely in both primers and finishes particularly where improved water and chemical resistance are required from a conventional coating.g. epoxy paints. e. alkyd paints. ester gum. The introduction of the resin component upgrades the film properties and improves hardness. Oleoresinous Varnishes These materials are developed from vegetable oils where the oil is reacted. Paints are generally named after their binder component (e.C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL FOR F IELD S URVEYORS BINDERS Binders are the film forming components of paint. To obtain the optimum film properties. It will be readily appreciated that a Thermoset coating when dry will be chemically quite different from the paint in the can. Binders used in the manufacture of paints fall into two classes. and whether that film formation is reversible. from a liquid to a solid.

Glycerol or Pentaerythritol). but have poorer weathering properties. these resins are more closely allied in performance properties to alkyds. ABS 3 . This results in a premature loss of gloss. they can be described as pure polyesters. They are manufactured by reacting fatty acids from vegetable oils with high molecular weight epoxy resins. Silicone Alkyd Resins The modification of an alkyd with a silicon resin results in a material which probably has the best retention properties available in resistance. This severely limits their use.g. The final properties of the alkyd depend on the percentage of oil (termed ‘oil length’) and also on the alcohol and organic acid used. Styrenated and Vinyl Toluenated Alkyd Resins Reaction of alkyds with either styrene or vinyl toluene monomers produces rapid drying resins with good chemical resistance. silicone alkyds are three to four times more expensive than conventional alkyds.g. Medium oil length alkyds (40-60% oil) Used in undercoats or in quick drying finishes where appearance and flexibility are of less importance. however they have a tendency to yellow on aging and their exterior durability is inferior to that of conventional alkyds. Only soluble in stronger solvents like xylol (aromatic solvent). and a vegetable oil or its fatty acids. Short oil length alkyds (less than 40% oil) Suitable as binders for quick drying paints. being stable to temperatures in excess of 200oC. They are formed by the reaction between a special organic acid (e. gloss. Urethane Oil/Alkyd Resins Often referred to as a one-pack polyurethanes. The resulting materials give similar properties to alkyds with improved chemical resistance. They are formed by the reaction between an alkyd and isocyanate to produce a product with improved drying. Not normally suitable for brushing paints. Epoxy Ester Resins Sometimes called one-pack epoxies. Unlike oleoresinous materials. Alkyds are not resistant to acids or alkalis and many of the modifications given below are aimed at improving this weakness. due to the high cost of silicone resins. it is better to consider them as modified alkyds. Typical variations are shown as follows: Long oil length alkyds (60-80% oil) Normally used in gloss finishes for brush application and also in primers for hand prepared steel. and hardness over the corresponding alkyd but which can sometimes be more difficult to overcoat after aging. Phthalic acid). Epoxy ester paints also suffer from ‘chalking’. Unfortunately. but as with epoxy esters. however. none provide complete resistance. a special alcohol (e.C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL FOR F IELD S URVEYORS Alkyd Resins These are the most widely used air drying resins. an effect caused by degradation of the uppermost layers of the paint by UV radiation.

The choice of curing agent is very important as this determines the principle resistance properties of the film. The reaction conditions and relative proportions of the reactants determine the properties of the final product. and temperature resistant. and to obtain optimal film properties. The resins are produced by the condensation or polymerization of epichlorhydrin and diphenylol propane (bis-phenol ‘A’).C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL FOR F IELD S URVEYORS Epoxy Resins These resins are particularly important. giving full polymerization or film cure. There are inorganic silicates based on lithium. and provide high polymer materials of predetermined structure. Unfortunately they are expensive and can be difficult to overcoat after aging and require very clean surfaces for optimum adhesion. Inorganic Resins These types comprise the silicates which are almost always used in conjunction with zinc dust. full cure is essential. 4 ABS . and polymides. when applied as a film. This health hazard has been reduced by minimizing the presence of “free” isocyantes. Thus epoxy resins can vary from low molecular weight. the molecular weight or chain length. Inorganic types are by far the most commonly used. There is a wide choice of both resins and curing agents which allows for formulation of products to suit most applications. to fairly high molecular weight high melting point solids. amine adducts. In two-pack systems a special polyether or polyester resin with free hydroxyl groups is reacted with a high molecular weight isocyanate curing agent. polyurethane paints are considered to be the best all-around coatings produced. Liquid epoxy resins give high cross-link densities whereas solid materials have fewer reactive groups resulting in a less cross-linked film. potassium. Situated at the terminal ends of each resin molecule are cyclic epoxide groups which cross-link by chemically reacting with added curing agents such as amines. Coatings based on these resins are very hard. For example. and the number of reactive cross-linkable groups can be varied with wide limits. gloss retention. Because of the isocyanate curing agent there is also a health hazard when sprayed. Below 5oC the curing rate is considerably reduced. further reaction with atmospheric moisture occurs. Polyurethane finish coats are very hard and have extremely good gloss. Polyurethane resins have excellent chemical and solvent resistance and are superior to standard epoxies in acid resistance. or sodium silicate and organic silicates normally based on ethyl silicate. corrosion resistant. These have predictable properties which can be tailored to suit numerous uses. The resins are available in both one-pack and two-pack forms. In fact. They are examples of the modern approach to synthetic resins. some very high molecular weight epoxy resins are used as uncured one-pack coatings. The rate of cross-linking or curing is dependent on temperature. and can be formulated to be nonyellowing. low viscosity liquids at room temperature. and their development for use as binders was one of the most significant advances in paint technology. A major problem with these materials is their water sensitivity on storage and one application. The one-pack material is based on a resin which has been partially reacted to give a prepolymer. In view of all these good film properties. Polyurethane Resins These are polymers formed by reaction between hydroxy compounds and compounds containing isocyanates.

Generic types of binders in this category include: • • • • Chlorinated Rubber Resins Vinyl Resins Bituminous Binders Cellulose Derivatives Chlorinated Rubber Resins These are normally considered to be chlorinated polyisoprene (polyisoprene being synthetic rubber) but also included in the group are chlorinated polypropylene and chlorinated polyethylene. such as chemical and water resistance.C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL FOR F IELD S URVEYORS THERMOPLASTIC COATINGS These types of paint binders are simple solutions of various resins or polymers dissolved in suitable solvent(s). only dark colored paints can be made. it is only possible to make paints with maximum volume solids of about 45%. making them particularly suitable and popular for maintenance purposes. normally between 30% and 50% of the total binder. Chlorinate rubber resins have very good chemical and water resistance. Plasticiser types used are tricresyl phosphate or dioctyl phthalate. they are disappearing from markets where volatile organic content is regulated. in most formulations. high levels of plasticiser are required. The plasticising level necessary is about 20-25% of the total resin component. These properties are somewhat adversely affected by the addition of plasticiser and the chemical make-up of these binders provides the reason for their poor resistance to some oils and greases. vinyl resins require ketone or ester solvents. Another inherent property of the binder is its thermoplasticity which makes these coatings unsuitable for use at temperatures above 80oC. This temperature sensitivity can lead to various film defects when used in very hot climates. Whereas chlorinated rubbers are soluble in aromatic solvents. white and pale colors have a pronounced tendency to yellow when exposed to bright sunlight. Chlorinated rubber paints will dry at low temperatures and give excellent intercoat adhesion in both freshly applied and aged systems. Vinyl Resins These are based on film forming polymers consisting of varying ratios of polyvinyl chloride. The latter material has the better water resistance and is more chemically complex requiring stronger solvents for solution. However. Due to the viscosity of chlorinated rubber resin solutions. and form solutions which are film-forming in their own right. The resulting film is therefore always readily soluble in the original solvent and can also be softened by heat. These modifications detract from some of the more positive properties of the vinyl resins. No more than about 25-30% volume solids can be achieved without the paint becoming too thick for application. For spraying versions. All of these polymers are similar in their general properties. Like chlorinated rubbers. The plasticisers normally used are chlorinated paraffin. Generally the film properties and weathering characteristics also show good low temperature drying and excellent intercoat adhesion characteristics. The volume of solids in vinyl resin paints are relatively low because of their high solution viscosity. ABS 5 . In addition. This is termed physical drying as no chemical change takes place. and polyvinyl alcohol. much lower volume solids are necessary. Thus. Drying is simply effected by the loss of the solvent by evaporation. This obviously creates a problem in formulating high build coatings. Higher volume solid materials can be produced by blending the vinyl resin with other materials such as acrylic resins. they produce brittle films. Because of their inherent composition. particularly the USA. polyvinyl acetate. Bituminous Binders Asphaltum and similar materials have been used for thousands of years as water proofing systems. Pigmentation of both types produces easy to use cheap products. vinyls form brittle films and therefore require plasticising. The resins are dissolved in aromatic hydrocarbon solvents like xylene. require the presence of significant amounts of solvent. by definition. Composition of the final polymer depends on the ratios of the components used in the polymerization. The majority of materials used today in paint form are based on either petroleum bitumen or coal tar pitch. Since these coatings.

The slow drying time of the linseed oil. These materials can be divided into the following types: Type Anticorrosive pigments Barrier pigments Coloring pigments Extending pigments Purpose To prevent corrosion of metals by chemical and electrochemical means. (2) zinc tetroxy chromate. Once again. vinyl or epoxy resins red lead is much less effective. Other anticorrosive pigments based on lead are metallic lead. together with the toxicity of the red lead. consequently in quick drying binders based on chlorinated rubber. Both function as anticorrosive pigments by releasing water soluble chromate ions which help to passivate the steel surface. the use of chromates is becoming rare. lead is not used on coatings in most developed countries. When used in conjunction with linseed oil it gives excellent corrosion protection. health considerations out weigh the benefits “heavy metals “ bring to coatings. They are used in a wide variety of binders and are not restricted to oil based types. Zinc Chromate There are two types. All of these traditional pigments are decreasing in importance for the same reasons as red lead.C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL FOR F IELD S URVEYORS PIGMENTS AND EXTENDERS Pigments and extenders are used in paints in the form of fine powders. 6 ABS . It depends largely on its own inertness. because of environmental and health considerations. These are dispersed into the binder to particle sizes of about 5-10 microns for finishing paints and approximately 50 microns for primers. The afforded is due to the lead complexes (‘soaps’) which suppress the corrosion reaction of steel. therefore. however. drastically restricts the use of this type of coating. The lead soaps are not formed with “non-oil” binders. To increase impermeability of the paint film To give permanent color To help give film properties required ANTICORROSIVE PIGMENTS Red Lead This is probably the best known anticorrosive pigment. calcium plumbate is often used for use on galvanized surfaces. (1) zinc potassium chromate. but the actual mechanism of corrosion protection is uncertain. while also reinforcing the film and giving good penetration and adhesion even to weathered corroded steel.

To give good galvanic and barrier protection. Both have particle shapes which are termed lamellar (plate-like). and because of its low opacity or transparent nature. Glass flake is also often used as a barrier pigment. the lamellar shape helping to make the film more water impermeable.I. Zinc Metallic zinc is widely used in primers giving excellent resistance to corrosion of steel. However. silicate.C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL FOR F IELD S URVEYORS Zinc Phosphate This is also a widely used anticorrosive pigment although the actual mechanism of protection is uncertain. of the order of 80% if the total pigment. and it is assumed that this is because the phosphate ion becomes more active in these conditions and electrochemically protects steel in a way similar to that of chromate ions.O. are necessary. Obviously. High degrees of surface cleanliness are therefore necessary. The diagram below illustrates how the impermeability of the film is increased and how the binder is protected. high levels of M. The most suitable resins are epoxy. Other available anticorrosive pigments which have not found general acceptance because of their lack of cost effectiveness are: • • • • Barium Metaborate Calcium Molybate Zinc Molybate Lead Silicochromate Barrier Pigments The most common types of these pigments are aluminum (leafing aluminum) and micaceous iron oxide (M. a progressive build up of zinc corrosion products occurs. it is thought that under normal exposure condition protection is afforded by a barrier effect. Because corrosion products of zinc with rain water are alkaline. In acidic atmospheres. paints of any color can be produced. the aluminum lightening the almost black shade of M. it has to be in intimate contact with the steel substrate. about 80% of zinc in dry film. zinc phosphate primers perform surprisingly well. Initial protection is by galvanic action.I. UV DIRECT PATH W ATER UV W ATER NON-LAMELLAR PIGMENTS LAMELLAR PIGMENTS Figure 1-1 ABS 7 . producing an impermeable barrier with little or no galvanic protection.O. This is reflected in the necessity of having to have high pigmentation levels to give adequate protection. high levels of zinc are required. both benefits being promoted by the lamellar structure of the incorporate pigment.O. for the zinc to function correctly. Aluminum has been used for many years as the principle pigment in paints for use underwater. pigmented films have durability. as the coating is exposed to the atmosphere. M.). These materials are often used in combination. and consequently these types should not be used as binders for zinc primers. However. Zinc phosphate can be incorporated into almost any binder. reaction would occur with saponifiable binders such as alkyds.I.O. but to achieve this. or chlorinated rubber.I.

and reds are more commonly obtained as organic pigments. degree of gloss. all pigments are normally dispersed to a very fine particle size in order to give maximum color and opacity (hiding power). anti-settling properties. sprayablility. They are generally bright in color and their low toxicity makes them more generally acceptable for decorative coatings. which is white. firm build (volume solids. water and chemical resistance. The lamellar properties of this material enable it to act to some extent as a barrier pigment to reduce permeability. anticorrosive pigments and coloring pigments. Extended Pigments More commonly known as extenders. Can have a similar effect to MICA but to a lesser degree. Although making little or no contribution to the color opacity of the paint. They are all inorganic powders with various particle shapes and sizes.C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL FOR F IELD S URVEYORS Coloring Pigments These pigments provide both color and opacity and can be divided into either inorganic or organic types. INORGANIC ORGANIC NA TURAL SYNTHETIC Figure 1-2 The most common coloring pigment is titanium dioxide. hold up thixotrophy). Commonly used inorganic pigments include oxides of iron. TALC 8 ABS . blues. mechanical strength and hardness. Yellows. They are relatively inexpensive when compared to resins. Has a relatively high oil absorption. It can also improve film durability by preventing cracking. they can have significant influence on physical properties. and as the name suggests. Common Extenders Extender Barytes (Barium Sulphate) China Clay MICA Uses A medium hard powder which helps to reinforce the film. they basically adjust or “extend” the pigmentation of the paint until the required pigment volume concentration (PVC) is achieved. which can be black. Sometimes used to vary the level of gloss. In paint. red-brown or yellow-brown in color and lead chromates which can vary from yellow to scarlet. These include flow. Mixtures of extenders are often used to obtain the desired properties. greens. Inorganic pigments can be either naturally occurring or synthetically produced whereas all the organic pigments are nowadays synthetically manufactured.

odor. However. brush. There are numerous solvents used in the paint industry. airless spray. Their function is to dissolve the binder and consequently reduce the viscosity of the paint to a level which is suitable for the various methods of application.1 The table below outlines typical solvents and their uses. vinyl. when mixed with a true solvent. Quick drying primers for automatic plants. Application properties. This is partly due to the number of different properties which have to be considered when selecting a solvent or solvent mixture. and suitability. ABS 9 . A diluent solvent for epoxies. (HAPS) dictates a time line for removing many solvents and extenders from coatings. A slow evaporating true solvent to give good flow in vinyls and epoxies. alkyds. e. Modified alkyds. This is especially true in the USA. Liquids used as solvents in paints can be described in one of three ways: True Solvents A liquid which will dissolve the binder and is completely compatible with it. where the Hazardous Air Pollutant Substances Act. Latent solvents for vinyls. Cellosolve Acetate Water 1 In certain countries certain types of solvents are not allowed. Quick drying primers. the mix has stronger dissolving properties than the true solvent alone. the solvent evaporates and plays no further part in the final paint film. these include toxicity. After application. volatility. Solvent Type Aliphatic Aromatic Typical Solvent Name White Spirit Tobuol Xylol Typical Paint Types Most conventional paints based on vegetable oils.C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL FOR F IELD S URVEYORS SOLVENTS Solvents are used in paints principally to facilitate application. polyurethanes. True solvent for vinyls used sometimes for epoxies. Emulsion paints-some special epoxies. Some stoving paints used for epoxies in conjunction with aromatics. Normally used as a blend with true solvent/latent solvent mixes to reduce the cost.e. wash and etch primers. True solvent for vinyls. conventional spray. Polyurethane and vinyls. flammability. Ketones Acetone Methylethy Ketone (MEK) Methyl Isobutyl Ketone (MIBK) Cyckihexanone Alcohol Isopropanol Butanol Esters Water Butyl Acetate. Chlorinated rubbers. etc. i. Diluent Solvent A liquid which is not a true solvent. and overcoat windows will most likely be affected as this AACT is implemented. some stoving paints. Binders will only tolerate a limited quantity of diluent. the solvent therefore becomes a high cost waste material. roller. dipping. Quick drying primers for automatic plants. compatibility. dry times. In addition to commercial factors such as price and availability.g. Latent Solvent A liquid which is not a true solvent.

but which are used in minor proportions of the whole paint. film curing and film properties of the paint. application. The term additive covers a very wide range of materials which are essential to good formulation.e. shelf life. require various other additives which aid manufacture.C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL FOR F IELD S URVEYORS OTHER PAINT ADDITIVES Modern paints along with the principle ingredients. film formation. pigment/binder/solvent. i. Typical Groups of Paint Additives Aids to Manufacture • Dispersion agents • De-foamers Aids to Shelf Life • Stabilizers • Antisetting agents • Antiskinning agents (antioxidants) • Preservatives • Thickening agents • Moisture absorbers Aids to Application • Flow promoting agents • Solvent retarders • Conductivity controllers • Antistatic agents Aids to Smoothness • Antifloating agents • Pattern additives • Matting agents • Thixotropes • Antigas Checking agents Aid to Film Curing • Driers • Curing agents/catalysts • Adhesion promoters Aids to Film Formation • Heat stabilizers • Fire retarders • Optical brighteners • Slip and anti-slip agents • Anti-fouling agents • Fungicides • Bactericides • Insecticides • Absorbers • Antiscuff agents • Corrosion inhibitors Others • Deodorants • Flash point controllers 10 ABS .

or other compound. ABS 11 . As a consequence of this large energy input the metal is in a high energy condition and will endeavor to return to its former stable oxidized low energy state as quickly as environmental conditions will allow. The extraction of a metal from the appropriate mineral involves a reduction process in which a great deal of energy is absorbed. It is this energy difference between the pure metal and its oxidized forms which is the driving force for corrosion of the metal. sulfides. but it is the atomic structure at its very surface that determines its tendency to corrode. similar to the ore from which it was originally won. sulfates. chlorides. etc. carbonates. that is. which if analyzed is found to have a composition similar to the mineral ore. The strength of any metal is determined by the arrangement of atoms within the metal. In the presence of moisture the iron metal so obtained is oxidized rust. Iron. Many corrosion products show a chemical similarity to the corresponding minerals. in their stable oxidized condition as oxides.C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL FOR F IELD S URVEYORS CHAPTER TWO: Corrosion orrosion of metals may be defined as an electromechanical process in which the metal reacts with its environment to form an oxide. C IRON ORE Iron Oxide HEA T IRON METAL O XYGEN W ATER REVERSION REA CTION RUST IRON OXIDE Chemically similar to origin Figure 2-1: The Reversion Reaction The majority of metals are found in nature in the mineral state. mainly oxide and carbonate. is extracted from its ores. for example. by reduction with carbon in a blast furnace.

Mild Steel W ater e Cathode OH Ð O2 Anode Fe Fe++ Cathode OH Ð e Figure 2-2 O2 12 ABS . The metal will surrender atoms to its environment and in return absorb some atoms from the environment. or for the corrosion process to continue. accompanied by a flow of electrons from the anode to the cathode which in turn react with both oxygen and water to form hydroxyl ions. On the atomic scale there is no distinct borderline between a metal and its environment. leaving behind negatively charged electrons. The manner and speed with which these excess electrons can be removed determines the rate of corrosion. Freshwater or seawater contain dissolved atmospheric oxygen which readily serves this purpose. This makes it increasingly difficult or impossible for the remaining metal atoms to escape as positively charged ions as they are being held by the negative charge of the metal. equilibrium. The oxygen is electrochemically reduced to hydroxyl ions in the cathodic reaction. the metal becomes more negatively charged. causing it to progressively become thinner. The important step in the corrosion of steel is the transformation of a metal atom to metal ion by the loss of two electrons. For the process of releasing atoms as positively charged ions to continue. This is the anodic reaction: (1) Fe IRON ATOM (FERROUS) This reaction can only occur if there is a suitable electron acceptor to combine with the electrons released by the ion atom.C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL FOR F IELD S URVEYORS Steel and the Corrosion Reaction All surfaces strive to achieve a certain balance. Consequently. the excess of electrons in the metal must be done away with. Figure 2-2 shows the progress of corrosion where metal is lost from the anode. with their surroundings. (2) O2 OXYGEN + 2H2O WATER + 4e ELECTRONS = = 4OH HYDROXYL IONS = = Fe++ IRON ATOM + 2e ELECTRONS The heterogeneous character of the metal surface allows for some areas or sites to favor reaction (1) anodes and others reaction (2) cathodes. The whole surface of the metal is therefore divided up into large numbers of anodes and cathodes. Metal atoms leave the metal and they go into solution as positively charged metal ions.

and the rate or speed of corrosion is almost exclusively determined by the rate at which oxygen reaches the cathode areas. (4) 2Fe (OH)2 FERROUS HYDROXIDE + O2 OXYGEN = = Fe2O32H2O RUST The above reactions. ABS 13 . O2 eÐ eÐ 2H 2O eÐ eÐ eÐ eÐ eÐ eÐ eÐ eÐ eÐ Fe++ Fe++ Fe++ Fe++ Fe++ Fe++ 4OH Ð eÐ Figure 2-3 Areas from where iron ions go into solution (the anodes) and areas where electrons are consumed in a reaction with the environment (the cathodes). are the basic reactions which occur when iron or steel transforms to rust or. In an electrolyte of seawater. (1) (2) (3) (4). oxides. that prevent or retard further corrosion. corrosion of steel in seawater or in polluted atmospheres results in more rapid and complicated reactions producing corrosion products in association with iron oxide. a major component of rust. Principles of Corrosion Corrosion in Humid Environment Steel immersed in seawater or exposed to high humidity will corrode as shown in Figure 2-3. For instance. more specifically. there is nothing to retard the dissolution of iron. In practical situations the process is not so simple.C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL FOR F IELD S URVEYORS (3) Fe+ FERROUS IONS + 2OH HYDROXYL IONS = = Fe (OH)2 FERROUS HYDROXIDE Ferrous hydroxide in the presence of an abundant supply of oxygen is oxidized to the familiar reddish brown rust. Some of these iron salts are water soluble and can cause major problems to paint coatings if not removed before application. may continuously change resulting in a comparatively even corrosion. to iron oxide. Hydroxyl ions and iron ions with the addition of oxygen react further to form iron hydroxide. In given environments certain metals will form protective corrosion products. Aluminum and stainless steel are examples of this.

H2 eÐ eÐ eÐ eÐ eÐ Fe++ Fe++ eÐ Fe++ eÐ eÐ eÐ eÐ 2H + eÐ eÐ eÐ Fe++ eÐ Fe++ Figure 2-4 The rate of corrosion of steel in an acid solution is much higher than in a neutral environment. partly because the hydrogen gas easily and quickly escapes the steel surface and partly because the corrosion products are soluble in acid.e. i. metallic contact between the two would cause any excess electrons to travel from the steel to the copper. and the electron generating process on the anode. This prevents the formation of a rust layer that could retard the corrosion process. steel will corrode evenly while creating hydrogen gas. The cathode will strive to rid itself of the excess electrons it receives. such as diluted sulfuric acid. An expression for the rate of corrosion is the flow of electrical current that can be maintained through the electron consuming process on the cathode. 14 ABS . eÐ Ð STEEL COPPER + eÐ eÐ Fe++ eÐ Fe++ eÐ Ð Fe++ e Fe++ Ð Ð eÐ Fe++ e e Ð eÐ Ð e e ++ Fe++ Fe eÐ Ð eÐ eÐ e ++ 4OH Ð Fe ++ Fe++ Fe H 2O 2O 2 Figure 2-5 In accordance with the traditional concept. See figure 2-4. releases electrons more easily than copper. The anode. will strive to regain it’s negative potential by releasing more metal ions. on the other hand. an electrical current travels from the copper to the steel (from the positive cathode to the negative anode). corroding.C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL FOR F IELD S URVEYORS Corrosion in an Acidic Environment In a very acidic environment. Galvanic or Bi-metallic Corrosion Since steel is less noble. See figure 2-5.

r-Mo Alloy C C Platinum Graphite .4 Ð1. 416 Nickel Silver 90-10 Copper -Nickel 80-20 Copper -Nickel Stainless Steel Ñ T ype 430 Lead 70-30 Copper -Nickel Nickel Aluminum Bronze NickelChromium Alloy 600 Silver Bronze Alloys Nickel 200 Silver Stainless Steel Ñ T ypes 302.6 Magnesium Zinc Berylium Aluminum Alloys Cadmium Mild Steel. Red Brass Tin Copper PbSn Solder (50/50) Admiralty Brass. 304. 347 NickelCopper Alloys 400. Aluminum Brass Manganese Bronze Silicone Bronze Tin Bronzes (G & M) Stainless Steel Ñ T ypes 410. Figure 2-6 Galvanic Series 15 ABS . 317 Alloy Ò20Ò Stainless Steels.0 Ð1. areas. K -500 Stainless Steel Ñ T ypes 316.8 Ð1. The most positive (noble) material will be protected against corrosion at the cost of the most negative (ignoble) material. Cast Iron Low Alloy steel Austanitic Nickel Cast Iron Aluminum Bronze Naval Brass.r-MoC Cu-Si Alloy B Titanium Ni. Cast and W rought Nickel-IronChromium Alloy 825 Ni.5 volts.2 Ð1. +0. 321.6 Ð0. may become active and exhibit a potential near Ð0. Certain alloys Alloys are listed in the order of the potential they exhibit in flowing seawater indicated by the symbol: inlow -velocity orpoorly aerated waterand atshielded .C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL FOR F IELD S URVEYORS Corrosion of the steel is accelerated through its contact with copper.2 Ð0. Y ellow Brass. See figure 2-6 table of materials in the Galvanic Series. The steel suffers galvanic corrosion while the copper is protected cathodically.2 0 Ð0.4 Ð0.

the attack is localized beneath the loose debris or sediment. Wherever loose debris collect. See figure 2-8 Deposition Corrosion. This is the easiest form of corrosion to combat or allow for because structural life time can be predicted. RUST W et Surface OH Ð Mil Scale Fe2O 2 OH Ð Cathode O2 e STEEL Anode e Figure 2-7 Crevice Corrosion Intense localized corrosion. oxygen. although the loss of metal is concentrated at the anode sites and there is a continual change in the surface with time. areas which were initially anodic cease to be active and new anodic sites take over. ranging from small pits to extensive attack over the whole surface. Pitting corrosion can be extremely intense on mill scaled steel left outside. as shown in figure 2-7 Pitting Corrosion. With progressive metal loss. Consequently. There is thus a continuous interchange between the anodic and cathodic areas.C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL FOR F IELD S URVEYORS Types of Corrosion Uniform Corrosion The most common type of corrosion encountered is the general attack of a more or less uniform nature. a feature which is not possible with the following corrosion forms. Pitting is one of the most dangerous forms of corrosion and often occurs in places where it cannot be readily seen. can readily gain access to the metal surface outside the crevice and less access to the crevice. such that over a period of time the loss of metal over the entire surface is fairly uniform. Crevice corrosion is characterized by a geometrical configuration in which the cathode reactant. for example: riveted plates or threaded joints. Pitting Corrosion The characteristic of this type of attack is that it is extremely localized and the penetration is deep in relation to the area attacked. HIGH O2 ACCUMULA TED DEBRIS Anode Cathode L O 2 OW STEEL Figure 2-8 16 ABS . Deposition Corrosion This is a similar type of attack to that occurring in crevices. there will be a depletion in a crevice. can occur within narrow crevices formed by the geometry of a structure. The metal within the crevice is therefore anodic to the surrounding steel and suffers preferential corrosion.

By consuming the small amount of oxygen about them. Detecting Bacteria Initial detection is first achieved visually by noting a black slime deposit on the surface of the steel. the detection of Hydrogen Sulfide. but prefer the organic acids given off by the APB’s. This type of corrosion has been in existence for a long time and is either completely overlooked or goes unrecognized.C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL FOR F IELD S URVEYORS Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (MIC) All metals. Corrosive bacteria thrive in low oxygen or oxygen free environments and require some type of food source. they become difficult to control and may corrode steel up to 1/16 to 1/8 inch per year. Sulfate Reducing Bacteria ( SRB’s ) Sulfate Reducing Bacteria thrive only in an oxygen free environment. rotten egg smell. but such conditions rarely exist on board vessels. could possibly be noted. even stainless steel. Create corrosive cells 4. On board ships microbes can thrive in the water layer at the bottom of oil cargo tanks and in the sediment in ballast tanks. ballast and void spaces. Stagnant waters in ballast tanks create this condition. Another method for detecting the presence of MIC can be accomplished by taking samples and sending them to a recognized laboratory where cultures are grown to determine the type of bacteria involved. SRB’s also utilize hydrocarbons as a food source. O2 OxygenContaining W ater Ð Cl ei o c A er bi Bact ra alDeposii g tn M et ei B act ra Ð Cl Ð O 2 + 2HO + 4e → 4OHÐ 2 Oxide ayer L Anode Ð M → M2 + 2e ABS 17 . In utilizing the residual oxygen about them they create a very acidic environment beneath the colony. Destroy coatings 3. APB’s thrive in conditions where there is very little oxygen. MIC. However. Enzyme tests may also be utilized. Produce hydrogen sulfide Types of Bacteria that Cause Corrosion The two most common types of bacteria that cause corrosion are Acid Producing Bacteria (APB) and Sulfate Reducing Bacteria (SRB). they discard the sulfide in the form of hydrogen sulfide. See figure 2-9. may incur corrosion from microbiologically influenced corrosion. Both live in colonies attached to the surface of the steel where they assist each other in their growth. Microbes produce acids 2. APB’s feed on organic compounds such as oil and oil products to form organic acids. The walls of the pit are generally terraced. Acid Producing Bacteria ( APB’s ) These are generally the first to colonize the surface of the steel inside ballast and cargo tanks. The reaction of microbes and steel is not very clear. Once the oxygen is removed from the sulfate ion. The pits are generally filled with a black ferrous product. but this much is known in what they can achieve: 1. In an ideal environment microbes may double their mass every 20 minutes. an oxygen free environment is developed making conditions ideal for Sulfate Reducing Bacteria to develop. Corrosion attributed to MIC is almost always highly localized pitting. The oxygen they require is extracted by removing oxygen from the sulfate ion in seawater. it is gaining attention in the marine environment as a leading cause of corrosion in cargo. The metal surface below the corrosion products is often bright and active. Also. The combination of the hydrogen sulfide and organic acids under the colonies create a condition that is highly aggressive to steel and the characteristic craters or pits are formed. Once bacteria become established.

Coatings act as a barrier between the surface of the steel and the environment it is being subjected to. at the new construction phase. The high pH creates a calcareous deposit to occur on the surface of the steel. Amine cured epoxies are the most susceptible to bacteria acid attack. being a nutrient for bacteria growth. Because alkyds have a high base organic and hydrocarbon compounds. C. it would come under attack by bacteria. Bacteria will grow on urethane. Hill — Microbiological Pitting Corrosion — Old Problems in New Places 4. and in the sediment in the bottom of the tank. Bacteria are able to utilize some of the compounds within the various coating systems as nutrients. Epoxy Novolac is an example of a good. Smart. Alkyds Alkyd coatings use an organic binder dissolved in solvents to form a protective barrier after the solvent evaporates. John S. proper drainage of all liquids to a common stripping area is desired to eliminate the possibility of stagnant water accumulating. hydrogen peroxide. If the pH level goes below this level the bacteria growth level will return to normal levels in less than a half a day. Coal Tar Epoxy has good resistance against acid attack due to the properties of the coal tar pitch. with the imide cured epoxies being the most resilient. Gregory Kobrin — Corrosion by Microbiological Organisms in Natural Waters 3. E. References 1. C. where water can become stagnant. Also. Bruce Sawvel — Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion 18 ABS . Cathodic Protection Supplementing a coating protection system with anodes causes the pH within the tank or space to increase. Also. MIC is a problem in cargo tanks in the water layer that collects in the bottom of cargo tanks where generally there is a good supply of hydrocarbon food source in this area. It resists bacterial attack due to its phenol content. Urethanes Urethanes are also chemically cured coatings and have shown good resistance to bacterial attack. design features should be utilized in eliminating areas for the accumulation of mud and sediment. and would not perform well when exposed to bacteria. they would probably be rapidly attacked by bacteria. Utilizing biocides for treating bacterial affected areas have been used. — Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion of Ships 2. Vinyl’s Vinyl’s are also rapidly attacked by some types of bacteria. Anodes protect the steel at the imperfections in the coating. causing deterioration within coating systems.D. but these have short time effects. Locations where MIC can become a problem are in the ballast tank. If the epoxy became porous or mechanical damage should occur. but will not degrade the coating.C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL FOR F IELD S URVEYORS Coatings and MIC Soft coatings Rapid attack by bacteria on soft coatings is the result of the base product. paraffin and oil. environmentally acceptable and permanent. Hill and G. Epoxies Epoxies are chemically cured and their resistance to bacteria would be dependent on the type of epoxy and the solvent used as a curing agent. Good design is safe. Bacteria do not usually thrive in areas where the pH level in the space is in the range of 10 to 11. Biocides such as chlorine. albeit expensive coating. Protection from MIC Utilizing a protective coating system or a combination of coatings and cathodic protection in cargo and ballast tanks can protect a vessel from the onslaught of MIC. iodine and quaternary amine have been used. Ph. especially molds and mildew.

such as zinc. where there is a risk of mechanical damage. than by their generic type. • Ensure metallic contact between the steel and a less noble metal. If a barrier coating is damaged. additional protection such as cathodic protection is sometimes provided. the first and often the only choice of protection in coating protection is to utilize the barrier effect. Some of these types are more often referred to by their function or purpose.. of paint with very low water permeability. Thus. The result is a much wider range of paint “types” than would off hand appear from the generic classification. Corrosion can then proceed into the steel substrate and outwards under the intact coating. modify.C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL FOR F IELD S URVEYORS CHAPTER THREE: Paints for Purposes ost of the important properties of a paint are determined by its binder and the manner in which the film is formed. or even add to these basic characteristics. The flake pigments are oriented parallel to the steel surface. and water trying to pass through has to select the more complicated and longer passage around the pigments. See figure 3-1 Figure 3-1 For permanently immersed steel. • Ensure that water on its passage through the paint coating takes on special properties or compounds inhibiting it’s corrosive action. but in the formulation of paints it is possible to enhance. These general properties cannot be notably changed. affords cathodic protection of the steel by utilizing the galvanic effect. In this chapter the following are described: M • Anticorrosives • Shop Primers/Holding Primers • Antifoulants ANTICORROSIVES In corrosion prevention with paints. the damaged area is open for corrosion to begin. 10 to 20mils. known as under rusting. a barrier effect can be achieved at lower film thickness. such as leafing aluminum. ABS 19 . Barrier Effect Barrier effect is obtained by applying thick coatings. Typical representatives are: • Bitumen • Coal tar epoxy • Epoxy By adding flake pigments. three main principles are employed: • Create a barrier that keeps out charged ions and retards the penetration of water and oxygen.

Example of types of inhibitors utilized are: • Zinc Chromate • Zinc Phosphate • Zinc Metaborate • Red lead • Calcium Plumbate (The first three inhibitors do not contain metallic zinc particles) Inhibitors are and must be somewhat water soluble. a rather well defined surface profile for a lasting coating system. cathodic protection. When damaged. To prevent them from being washed out of the primer coats. When damaged. can be achieved with paints containing large amounts of metallic zinc. When applied. Typical binder for zinc dust paints are: • Epoxy • Ethyl Silicate • Alkali Silicate The very nature of these paints requires an absolutely clean steel surface and. especially for the zinc silicates. inhibitive primers are not suited for prolonged immersion. but the damaged area is exposed to corrosion. and a barrier is formed. zinc silicates are initially rather porous. 20 ABS . top coats without inhibitors are applied to provide the barrier necessary for the inhibitive primer to last. This exposure would result in blistering and early breakdown of the coating system. a reasonable protection against rust creeping or under rusting is afforded. is the favored protection in ballast tanks. because of its superior solvent resistance. These are soluble or basic pigments designed to suppress the corrosion process. Due to water solubility of the pigments used. zinc dust paints are not normally suited for permanent water immersion service. After a while the pourousness is filled with corrosion products from the zinc. but zinc silicate. Since the corrosion products of zinc (zinc salts) are slightly water soluble. the galvanic effect is re-established at the damaged area and protected effectively against rust creeping. A condition for effective protection is that the paint is formulated to give metallic contact between the individual zinc particles and between zinc particles and the steel. Galvanic Effect Protection of steel through the galvanic effect.C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL FOR F IELD S URVEYORS Inhibitor Effect A corrosion inhibitive effect is achieved by using primers containing inhibitors.

Figure 3-2 Inherent in the formulation of shop primers are fast drying and retarded flow properties. Demands The • • • • • • • • special demands of these primers are: Provide protection against corrosion during the construction period. This exactness is usually found in automated paint facilities. (surface profile). Time between application and dry to handle is very brief. and do not interfere with the speed of cutting or welding. also referred to as pre-construction primers. are anticorrosives designed for application in automated plants to plates or profiles prior to assembly or construction. and frequently used. Must not produce noxious or toxic fumes during the welding or cutting process. Properties Consequent to the requirements listed above. DFT. holding primer with a reasonably long re-coating interval and apply it in a lower than usual film thickness. ABS 21 . shop primers possess properties not normally found in paints designed for other purposes. the dry film thickness of the primer must be closely monitored and the manufacturer’s specification followed closely. Where temporary protection to blast cleaned steel is applied by hand spray. as in a maintenance situation. 3 to 5 mils. have a pronounced tendency to crack. Should not influence the speed of welding or cutting. A side effect of this is low cohesive strength. Should be able to withstand comparatively rough handling. for this purpose are referred to as holding primers. one would choose a suitable anticorrosive. They are ideally based on the same generic type as the top coat to follow. Anticorrosive primers suitable. of the blasted steel. Shop primers applied with excessive dry film thickness. Should form a suitable base for the widest possible range of coating systems.C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL FOR F IELD S URVEYORS SHOP PRIMERS Shop primers.. They are applied in low film thickness. Must not influence the strength of the welds. Spray applicable in a variety of automatic installations. Reasonable protection at such low film thickness can only be achieved if the coating follows the contours. To achieve the desired protection and avoid immediate or subsequent cracking.

ketones. ketones aromatics 20-20 um good good sometimes critical good PVB two pack or one pack alcohols. aromatics 15-25 um fair good good limited Table 3-1 22 ABS . aromatics 12-20 um very good good sometimes critical Not usually used with ICCP Zinc Silicate two pack or one pack water or alcohols 12-20 um excellent excellent critical Not usually used with ICCP Epoxy Iron Oxide two pack esters.C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL FOR F IELD S URVEYORS Types of Shop Primers The most widely accepted shop primers are: • Poly Vinyl Butyral (PVB) • Epoxy Iron Oxide • Zinc Epoxy • Zinc Silicate A general summary of the more important properties of these shop primers are in Table 3-1 Type of Shop Primers Property Delivery Solvents and Thinners Dry Film Thickness Anticorrosive Properties Mechanical Strength Recoatability Resistance to 4 ICCP Zinc Expoxy two pack esters. ketones.

this type of fouling is predominant to a depth of approximately two meters. Some 20% of the fuel bill for the Royal Navy. Very few organisms can attach themselves at speeds in excess of four knots. and prevent undue roughness. bryozoans. The effect of roughness on the hull area is an increase in resistance to movement. below the algae zone. A relatively well defined vertical zone division can normally be observed. and coastal areas where firm surfaces on which to settle abound. barnacles. harbors. goosenecks. ABS 23 . They form the primary bio-film or slime layer. The Organisms Many of the species populating the oceans swim or are carried by the ocean currents. bryozoans. encrusting bryozoans. The flat bottom is dominated by hydroids. resulting in reduced speed and/or increased fuel consumption. The settlement of micro-organisms.C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL FOR F IELD S URVEYORS ANTIFOULINGS Ships’ underwater hulls are painted to protect the building material. Since algae depends on light for its existence. whereas animals normally require a couple of days. animals. tunicates. the growth of various marine plants. This is the algae zone and is fouled first and most heavily. Soft bodied animals found most commonly are hydroids and tunicates. Example of macro-organisms are: • Algae (sea weed or grass) • Animals (Hard and Soft Shelled) Among the hard shelled animals. tubeworms and goosenecks are common. On the vertical bottom. barnacles. tubeworms. it is estimated. The penalty is a higher operating cost. Distribution Fouling is generally regarded as being most dominant in ports.000. scattered fouling of barnacles. The distribution of macro-organisms on a ship is seldom uniform. are not confined to specific zones or areas. Micro-Organisms The micro-organisms are the first to settle. and organisms. Every available space is contested and covered by a variety of marine growth. Algae settles in a matter of hours. bacteria and diatoms. Others are compelled to attach themselves to a firm surface to fulfill their life cycles. This is due partly to differences in flow conditions on the hull and partly to differences in the settling pattern of the organisms. The most significant ones are: • Bacteria • Diatoms (unicellular algae) Macro-Organisms Macro-organisms are big enough to be seen without the aid of a microscope. usually steel. is caused by fouling. The number of species involved in fouling is estimated to be as high 4 to 5. It is comparatively uniform and independent of the vessel’s service pattern. Severity and distribution of macro-organisms on a ship’s underwater hull will be influenced by the ship’s trading and operational pattern. and mussels are the most common. Fouling The most severe hull roughness is that caused by fouling. and sometimes goosenecks. mussels.

According to the manner in which bioactive material is leached from the coating. bitumen. rat ofbioactive material required protecti for against fouling . They prevent fouling by releasing bioactive materials that interfere with the biological processes of the fouling organisms. minimum release i. Soluble Matrix (non polishing) Such antifoulants have. • The binder oxidizes and is sensitive to sunlight.e. These compounds are used either individually or as a combination of each. as a main constituent of their binder.. As the binder dissolves.C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL FOR F IELD S URVEYORS Antifoulant Paints The antifouling paints used today are based on physically drying binders. The release rate is uneven and since the binder is comparatively weak the load of bioactive material is low. 24 ABS . Non-P olishing soluble matrix 0 1⁄2 L T LT Release rate of BIOACTIVE MATERIAL TV TIME 0 LT Figure 3-3 Soluble Matrix (non polishing) Bioactive materials General Properties • Effective protection rather limited (up to approximately 12 months). Classification of Antifouling Paints Antifouling paints differ basically in their load or concentration of bioactive material and in the mechanism controlling the release of that material. Bioactive materials used today are mainly cuprous oxide or organo-tin compounds. the bioactive material is released. antifoulants may be grouped as the following: • Soluble Matrix Types (non polishing) • Insoluble Matrix Types (non polishing) • Self Polishing Types Particularly in the latter two groups a great number of grades (type /concentration of bioactive material) will be found. primers. • Only antifoulant type that can be safely applied over soft. subject to cold flow. Therefore the vessel must be launched or floated soon after curing. a sea water soluble resin. Binder Anticorrosive primer LT TV Lifetime of antifouling Threshold Value. • Sensitive to oil pollution (mineral and fish oils) • Due to the low strength of the binder.

e. therefore. • Re-activation (removal of empty matrix) possible through scrubbing (“Scamp” cleaning). • An empty matrix. 1⁄2 Non-P olishing -insoluble matrix 0 L T LT TV Self-P olishing 0 LT Figure 3-4 Insoluble Matrix (non polishing) General Properties • Medium extended effective protection (up to 24 to 30 months. • Empty matrix may become blocked by pollutants. ABS 25 . • No risk to cold flow. These have high mechanical strength and are not affected by seawater. the load of bioactive material must be high enough for the particles of this material to be in contact with each other. because of its sponge like properties. minimum release i. Bioactive materials Binder Anticorrosive primer LT TV Lifetime of antifouling Threshold Value..C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL FOR F IELD S URVEYORS Insoluble Matrix (non polishing) These antifoulants may be based on a vinyl binder. depending on trading pattern). should be scaled off prior to a fresh or new coat of antifoulant is applied. rate ofbioactive material required protection for against fouling .

since the polishing rate is higher on roughness peaks than valleys. • Remaining antifoulant becomes an effective part of the new system (can overcoat). Roughness development versus time. The use of self polishing antifoulants prevents the accumulation over the years of old and spent antifoulant systems. • No sealer coat required at subsequent dry dockings . In contact with sea water it dissolves at an even and predictable rate. • Excellent mechanical strength and stability. and thus greatly contribute to maintaining a smooth underwater hull. As the antifoulant wears off/polishes the bioactive material.C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL FOR F IELD S URVEYORS Self Polishing These are based on acrylic binders incorporating organo-tin in the very polymers of the binder. This can serve as the basis for selecting the most economical coating system for each individual vessel. can be qualified by computer simulation and the economical impact predicted. Roughness Self polishing antifoulants cannot turn a rough hull into a smooth one. even improve smoothness. 0 1⁄2 L T LT TV 0 LT Figure 3-5 Self Polishing General Properties • Medium to very high effective protection against fouling (up to 48 months). They can maintain and preserve an existing smoothness and. organo-tin is released at an even rate. • Effective life is directly proportional to applied film thickness. as a function of the type and grade of antifoulant. 26 ABS .

the most important part of the entire coating job. dirt. abrasion resistance. There are differences which can be important in some instances. All paint systems will fail prematurely unless the surface has been properly prepared to receive the coating material. Also. good surface preparation roughens the surface to assist in obtaining the proper surface profile.C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL FOR F IELD S URVEYORS CHAPTER FOUR: Surface Preparation G ood surface preparation is. If contaminants such as oil. grease. as well as the long term cosmetic appearance of the paint system. While these standards are limited to steel substrates by use of common sense. Loose rust left on the surface will cause a loosening of the coating and eventual loss of adhesion. many of the techniques. and/or osmotic blistering will occur. No paint system will give optimum performance over a poorly prepared surface. salts. care is advised when a crossover is required. The following table provides a Summary of Surface Preparation Standards and a cross-reference of those Standards by various world-wide agencies. perhaps. PREPARATION STANDARDS Nonabrasive Blast Cleaning Solvent Cleaning Hand Tool Cleaning Power Tool Cleaning Power Tool Cleaning to Bare Metal NACE1 SSPC2 SSPC-SP-1 SSPC-SP-2 SSPC-SP-3 SSPC-SP-11 Abrasive Blast Cleaning White Metal Near-White Metal Commercial Brush-Off NACE-1 NACE-2 NACE-3 NACE-4 SSPC-SP-5 SSPC-SP-10 SSPC-SP-6 SSPC-SP-7 Water Blasting NACE-5 SPS-SP-12 Figure 4-1 NACE = National Association of Corrosion Engineers SSPC = Steel Structures Painting Council ABS 27 . chemical and water resistance. hold true for substrates. are not removed from the surface to be coated. with their inherent advantages and disadvantages. in that the greatest percentage of coating failures can be traced directly to poor surface preparation. etc. adhesion will be compromised. chemicals. thereby promoting better coating performance in the areas of adhesion.

the area to be prepared should be sufficiently small to allow for the time required. but is usually considered incomplete. to remove oil. as they may become an impediment rather than a help. then safety is very important. in fact. expanded more recently to include other cleaning compounds. can make the surface worse by polishing rather than cleaning the rusted surface. If solvent cleaning is chosen.C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL FOR F IELD S URVEYORS Solvent Cleaning (SSPC-SP-1) A process of using solvents. A proprietary water soluble oil and grease remover and fresh water washing is the perfect method of achieving this standard. if not properly removed. chipping hammers. This process is best utilized as a preliminary step in the total surface preparation procedure. Solvents are no longer the recommended cleaner. Adequate ventilation and minimizing the potential fire hazard are paramount. rust or scale. (Some will also etch the surface. Clean-up rags should be changed often to prevent smearing. 28 ABS . or chisels can be used to remove loose. grease. and other contaminants. Wire brushing. For this reason. Scrapers.) Hand Tool Cleaning (SSPC-SP-2) This method is the slowest and usually the least satisfactory method of surface preparation. further promoting adhesion. non adherent pain.

is that they are generally less laborious. and becomes especially tiring when working above shoulder height. The action of these types of devices is dependent upon cutting blade or point pounding the surface and breaking away the scale. The intermediate areas are only partially cleaned. Rotary Power Discing Of the power tool methods. Care should be exercised. Cleaning is only effective at the actual points of contact. Normally silicon carbide discs are used and the grade selected to suit the conditions of the surface to be abraded. because the brittle scale disintegrates. The effectiveness of cleaning will depend on the effort and endurance of the operator. so that the surface is not excessively smoothed. discing should generally be limited to localized areas of fairly severe corrosion or more widespread light corrosion. but the lowermost layer of rust and scale remains attached to the substrate. depending upon the condition of the surface. Loose “powdery” rust can be removed but hard scale will resist the abrasion of the wire bristles. once again. this method can be quite slow and labor intensive. It is important to change the discs at regular intervals in order to maintain efficiency. but. Mechanical Descaling Needle Guns. rotary wire brushing tends to merely burnish the surface of the rust scale. When rust scale is intact and adherent to the substrate. this one is the most effective in producing a surface suitable for the application of most types of coating systems. especially for most on-board maintenance.C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL FOR F IELD S URVEYORS Power Tool Cleaning (SSPC-SP-3) The advantage of power (electrical or air) tool methods over hand tools. and other pounding type instruments are effective to some degree in removing thick rust and scale. Some of the more popular methods are as follows: Rotary Wire Brushing This method does have some value. as with manual. but does not remove it. easier to feather loose coatings back to tight impact paint. thereby reducing the ability of the paint to adhere. which is often misleading. in that the burnished surface may give the appearance of a well cleaned surface. This may be sufficient for surface tolerant epoxies. because. Care should be exercised in the selection of the grit size and type of disc to be utilized. Irregular and pitted surfaces may require a combination of the various power tool cleaning methods to maximize effectiveness. While effective. Roto-Peen. ABS 29 .

Accompanied with this style of preparation are some known problems. each abrasive blast standard will be defined as follows: SSPC-SP-5. grease. dirt. • Lack of dust. SSPC-SP-7. 2. It does. also. slightly roughened to form a suitable profile for coatings. uniform metallic color. 4. it is also the most expensive method. Swedish Sa 3 White Metal Blast Cleaned Surface Finish. dirt. loose mill scale. For this reason. Swedish Sa 2 1/2 Near White Blast Cleaned Surface Finish. and mechanics of abrasive grit blasting. etc. rust scale. Advantages to hydroblasting are: • Water as a cleaning material is generally available in inexpensive large quantities.10) This is by far the most efficient and effective method of removing paint. rust. 30 ABS . rust. Utilized sometimes in this type of preparation are inhibitors which are added to the water to help prevent flash rusting prior to coating being applied. NACE No. NACE No. Pressures used in hydroblasting can exceed 35. or slight discolorations.7. It should be noted that hydroblasting does not produce a profile on the steel surface as does abrasive blasting. dirt. NACE No. mill scale. This finish is defined as one from which all oil. dirt. grease. it is chosen to reduce the time for surface preparation. grease. from substrates. paint.C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL FOR F IELD S URVEYORS Abrasive Blast Cleaning (SSPC-SP-5. paint. it is generally considered to provide the proper surface profile to promote coating adherence. • Lack of contamination of surrounding areas because there are no abrasive particles. grease and rust scale. it is possible to trap contaminants on the surface of the substrate being cleaned. corrosion products. To be an effective agent the water being used should be pure enough that it does not contaminate the surface being cleaned. or light residues mentioned above. streaks. or to achieve standards of cleanliness that are only attainable by some type of abrasive blasting. however. 1. Standards from both NACE and SSPC are being developed to satisfy this need. corrosion products. Water Jetting and Hydroblasting As discussed previously dry abrasive blasting is the most commonly used method of surface preparation. 3. Swedish Sa 1 Brush Off Blast Cleaned Surface. visible mill scale. At least 67% of the surface area shall be free of all visible residues and the remainder shall be limited to light discoloration. expose the original abrasive blast surface profile. oxides.000 psi. This surface shall have a color characteristic of the abrasive media used. This pressure removes most contaminants. and sizes of grit available. and foreign matter have been completely removed from the surface and all (Sa 2 provides for almost all) rust. NACE No. SSPC-SP-6. however. mill scale. This finish is defined as one from which oil. At least 95% of a surface shall have the appearance of a surface blast cleaned to a white metal surface finish. The use of hydroblasting is becoming an increasing viable means to accomplish this. SSPC-SP-10. types. rust scale. However. and the remainder shall be limited to the light discoloration mentioned above. or discolorations. In general with abrasive blasting the resultant flying abrasive particles and drifting dust may damage equipment. clog filters and create possible environmental problems. surface profiles. It is not feasible to provide a complete treatise on the types of blasting. and old paint have been completely removed except for slight shadows. Swedish Sa 2 Commercial Blast Cleaned Surface Finish. rust.6. or any other foreign mater. such as salts. This blast standard is defined as a surface with a gray-white. slight staining. oxides. very light streaks. dirt. loose rust and loose paint or coatings are removed completely. compared to the methods discussed above. and coatings are permitted to remain. Government regulations are continuously investigating and developing more environmentally sensitive and user friendly methods of surface preparation. but light mill scale and tightly adhered rust. grease. This finish surface is defined as one from which all oil. mill scale. paint or other foreign matter have been removed except for very light shadows. Also. provided they have been exposed to the abrasive blast pattern sufficiently to expose numerous flecks of the underlying metal fairly uniformly distributed over the entire surface. This surface shall be free of all oil.

Brush application is most suited to the slower drying. such as tank sides and tops and walkways and deck areas. the inherent problem with brush application. but round brushes are better for painting bolt-heads and ‘difficult’ areas. and shape. but it is not so good for ‘difficult’ areas. Choice of brush. It is often not possible to achieve the required film thickness in the same number of coats as with spray application. Special brushes are available with offset heads and long handles to facilitate painting the ‘backs’ of structures and inaccessible areas. powder coatings application. sponge or lambs wool) is dependent on type of coating and roughness and irregularity of surface being coated. but in this paper we will concentrate on the four basic methods detailed. and more sophisticated adaptations of spraying such as electrostatic. both size. and automatic plants. and multi-coat applications are necessary to give the specified film build. length and type of bristle. When painting it is important to dip the brush in paint frequently and not to ‘over-brush’ the surface. and the type of paint being applied will modify the selection. such as dipping and pouring. Brush Application The “historical” method of paint application is not as fast as spraying or rolling and is generally used for the coating of small complicated or complex areas or where the need for ‘clean’ working with no overspray precludes the use of spray application. and will not always be suitable for the more sophisticated ‘fast-drying’ or ‘hi-build’ materials. Low Pressure spray (HVLP) Other methods may also be encountered. normal build type of coatings. are important. Choice of roller pile (short or long hair. and care must always be taken that the coating is not ‘over-rolled’ in the same manner that it can be ‘over-brushed’. decoration to the structure being painted. The variables which govern the success of any application are: Surface preparation Film build and total thickness of system Methods of application Atmospheric conditions during application Methods of Application The normal methods of application of paint coatings are by: • Brush • Roller • Conventional Spray • Airless Spray • High-Volume. Thus.C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL FOR F IELD S URVEYORS CHAPTER FIVE: Methods of Paint Application T • • • • he objective in applying paint coatings are to provide films which will give protection and. ABS 31 . Roller Application Roller application is faster than brush on large. however. as this will result in large variations in film thickness. normally to a lesser extent. large flat brushes are normally used for the majority of purposes. flat surfaces. It is hard to control film thickness.

The gun should be held at right angles to the work surface with the nozzle some 6-8” (15-20 cms) away. although newer techniques using ‘pressure-pot’ or ‘hot spray’ apparatus allow application of some of the ‘higher build’ type coatings. California enacted legislation requiring all spray equipment deliver at least 65% transfer of material to the surface being coated. Paint and air are fed separately to the spray gun and mixed at the nozzle.C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL FOR F IELD S URVEYORS Conventional Spray This is a widely accepted. compared with one pint per gallon or less when using high-volume. Similar legislation is pending in other states. 32 ABS . The pattern of the ‘fan’ so produced is controlled by adjusting the air and fluid pressures. as compared with air pressure associated with conventional spray.8-5. A change in paint type can be accommodated by different sizes of nozzles. two thirds or more of every gallon of coating sprayed by conventional methods can be lost to overspray. it is a technique of spray application which does not rely on the mixing of the paints with air to provide atomization. and therefore improves finish quality. (176-246 kg/cm2). low pressure. the mechanisms is the same.6 kg/cm2). Airless Spray By far the most important and efficient method for the application of heavy duty marine coatings. as excess air gives rise to overspray and ‘rebound’ from the work surface. HVLP is made more graphic by the current trend in regulations regarding the amount of material being applied versus the amount lost to over spray. It is important to have only sufficient air to provide good atomization. Low Pressure Spray High-Volume. Low Pressure spray systems use a high volume of air delivered at 10 psi or less to atomize a coating into a soft low velocity pattern. Whatever type of equipment is used.70 psi) results in: • A more controlled spray pattern • Reduced bounce back • Reduced overspray • Reduced VOC emissions • Savings in materials • Less hazardous waste Reduced overspray improves visibility. 2500-3500 psi. As the name implies. rapid method of applying paint to large surfaces. Normal air pressure is from 40-80 psi (2. which reduces operator error. For example. High-Volume. which is achieved by forcing the paint through a specially designed nozzle or ‘tip’ at very high pressures. where the paint is atomized and air is mixed with these droplets forming a fine mist of paint which is carried by the air pressure to the work surface. The equipment is relatively simple and is usually confined to fairly low-viscosity paints. This reduction in the air stream compared to conventional spray systems (40 .

C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL FOR F IELD S URVEYORS CHAPTER SIX: Alternatives To Hard Coatings & Cathodic Protection T here are several different alternate coatings to choose from other than a hard coating. The alternative coatings are divided into two categories dependent on their properties: • Soft Coatings • Semihard Coatings Soft Coatings Soft Coatings are coatings that remain soft. but are hard enough to touch and walk upon and will not wear off or erode by ballast water movement. the semi-hard is the preferred coating for protection of steel surfaces when a good hard coating is not applied. This coating also gives temporary protection of rusted steel. These coatings always remain soft and can be damaged or removed by walking or touching. These coatings will give temporary protection of rusted steel surfaces and must be maintained or re-coated every year or every second year. Semihard Coatings Semihard Coatings are coatings that dry in such a way that they stay soft and flexible. It • • • • • • is important to note that alternative coating products are very diverse and can vary by: Chemistry Method of Protection Thickness Opacity Preparation Application ABS 33 . Of the two aforementioned coatings. so that they wear off at a low mechanical impact or evenly only when touched by hand.

C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL FOR F IELD S URVEYORS Chemistry Products can be one or a combination of the following: • Lanolin/wool grease based • Petroleum based • Vegetable oil based • Organic or inorganic Each type has its own unique characteristics and corrosion protection capabilities. Method of Protection Products can be classed by one or a combination of the following: • Corrosion inhibitor (interacts with oxides to prevent further oxidation) • Corrosion barrier (prevents oxygen from reaching metal surface) It should be noted that a pure corrosion barrier product will still allow a corrosion cell to be active underneath the product. roller. while a corrosion inhibitor stops this activity. Opacity The products are either: • Opaque (dark or black) • Gray • Transparent This feature will have an impact on the inspection of the tank. This method will require additional product. Hydroblasting. without removing the coating. This to be accomplished either by ventilation or dehumidification. 34 ABS . Old grease. Prior to application the surface should be dry. if still remaining. should be scraped off. Application Products are to be applied by either brush. grease or chemical contaminants must be removed. up to a thick film of 80 mils. Care must be taken to adhere to pollution prevention procedures when applying coatings in this method. Thickness Product film thickness can vary from a thin film of 3 mils. De-scaling until all loose material is removed is required. This is an important feature to consider when inspecting a tank. since a thicker product may be a safety hazard and require spot removal in order to view the steel surface or structure underneath. The opaque products will require spot removal to allow for inspection of the steel surface. sheet scale. but no staging. Preparation All silt. cement. followed by degreasing using hot water jetting. whereas the transparent product could allow the inspector to view most of the steel surface. should be at a recommended pressure of 6000 psi. or airless spray. Most soft coating are applied via a float method. when used. This is to a SSPC Standard of SP-2. The bare metal substrate must be visible. oil. mill scale.

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Cathodic Protection
Metallic Corrosion is an electrochemical phenomenon, metal degradation being accompanied by the passage of electrons. Consequently, as a metal corrodes it takes on its own electrical potential, known as the corrosion potential, with respect to a fixed reference. Table 6-1 gives the relative tendencies of commercially available metals to corrode in seawater.

Metal Electrode Potential (VOLTS Versus: Standard Calomel Electrode) Magnesium..........................................................................-1.50 BASE (IGNOBLE) Zinc ........................................................................................-1.03 CORRODED END Aluminum ............................................................................-0.79 Cast Iron ...............................................................................-0.61 Mils Steel..............................................................................-0.61 Lead........................................................................................-0.50 Tin...........................................................................................-0.42 Brass.......................................................................................-0.30 Copper...................................................................................-0.28 Cupro Nickel........................................................................-0.25 Bronze ...................................................................................-0.23 Nickel.....................................................................................-0.14 Silver......................................................................................-0.13 Titanium................................................................................-0.10 CORROSION RESISTANT END Table 6-1: Galvanic Series When two dissimilar metals become electrically connected and are exposed to the same solution (seawater) their individual corrosion behavior can become significantly altered, particularly if the difference in their corrosion potentials is large. When mild steel and copper are in contact, for example, the mild steel, being the more base metal, suffers greater corrosion than it would if the two metals were isolated. The corrosion of the more noble copper is reduced.
ELECTRON FL OW

COPPER (CATHODE) PRO TECTED

MILD STEEL (ANODE) ACCELERA TED CORROSION

SEA W ATER

Figure 6-1

ABS

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In the same way that the corrosion of copper is reduced, as shown above, the corrosion rate of mild steel can be significantly lowered by connecting it to zinc, which is near the end of the galvanic series. The zinc is referred to as the sacrificial anode and the prevention of corrosion of the mild steel is by cathodic protection.
ELECTRON FL OW

ZINC (ANODE) ACCELERA TED CORROSION

MILD STEEL (CATHODE) PRO TECTED

SEA W ATER

Figure 6-2 As an alternative to sacrificial cathodic corrosion protection, it is also possible to suppress the corrosion of mild steel in seawater by using impressed current cathodic protection. In the same way that coupling mild steel to zinc results in a flow of electrons to the mild steel to prevent metal loss, an auxiliary anode made from a non-consumable material, platinised niobium, replaces the anode of the sacrificial system. The arrangement is shown schematically in figure 6-3.

+ ANODE D C POWER SOURCE Ð CURRENT FLOW REF ELECTRODE

PRO TECTED STRUCTURE

Figure 6-3 Generally the structure would be coated, otherwise the current requirement for protection would be too expensive. Cathodic protection systems are generally used in conjunction with painted steel, protection being afforded to gaps or breaks in the coating.

36

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CHAPTER SEVEN: Glossary of Frequently Used Coating Terms
AIR DRYING PAINTS: are paints which dry and form a film when exposed to air, without any external heat being applied. Oil and alkyd paints are usually air drying. is a method of paint spraying which does not use compressed air to atomize the paint. In this method, the paint is put under great pressure (up tp 5000 psi - 360 kg/sq.cm) and is atomized by being forced through a small nozzle. Airless spray is a very fast and efficient method of application since the paint is forced into the surface at very high speed, which assists in wetting the surface. is a synthetic resin made by reacting two chemicals in the presence of a natural or processed oil. Because of the wide variety of possible constituents, alkyds can be ‘tailor-made’ to meet conditions found in practice. a piece of metal fixed to steel to provide cathodic protection. Anodes must be fixed so that they are in electrical contact with the steel they have to protect, and must not be greased or painted. for underwater use on hulls. Contains agents which prevent the adhesion and growth of organisms on the hull. Antifoulings are formulated so that the control agents migrate into water closest to the hull, making it repel organisms. the component in paint or varnish which binds the constituents to the surface. Depending on the type of paint, most manufacturers use binders based on alkyds, chlorinated rubbers, epoxies, etc.

AIRLESS SPRAY:

ALKYD:

ANODE:

ANTIFOULING:

BINDER:

CATHODIC PROTECTION: a method of altering the electrical characteristics of steel so that it is less liable to rust in water. Steel protected in this way has to be painted with particularly resistant paint systems. COAL TAR EPOXY: a combination of epoxy resins and tar which, in a paint, give a very water resistant film. A curing agent must be added if curing is to take place.

CONVENTIONAL PAINTS: a collective description of paints based on naturally occurring binders, such as bitumen, alkyds, and oils. They are all one pack types, and usually react with air to dry and cure. EMULSION PAINTS: paints in which the binder is dispersed in water (emulsified) e.g. polyvinyl acetate (PVA), acrylics etc. The paints dry as soon as the water evaporates and the emulsified droplets of resin join together to form a solid film. epoxy resins which are cured by chemically reacting with a curing agent such as amines, amine adducts, and polyamides. Properties can be tailored to meet a wide range of needs. is the thickness of the paint or system. The recommended film thickness for each product are given in the Technical Data Sheets. The protection given by a paint depends on the applied thickness. Specialized equipment is available to measure the film thickness. the temperature at which the vapor of a material will be ignited by a spark or open flame. It is measured under standardized conditions. is a coating which chemically converts during its curing process, normally used for new construction, or non-convertible air drying coating which may be used for maintenance purposes. Hard coating can be either inorganic or organic. a resin used in emulsion paints. powders, insoluble in resins, which give the paint its color, finish, and protective properties.

EPOXY:

FILM THICKNESS:

FLASHPOINT:

HARD COATINGS:

LATEX: PIGMENTS:

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37

and are resistant to solvents. the time for which a two pack paint or varnish can remain mixed before it should be discarded. chlorinated rubbers. a resin with special characteristics. coating which dries in such a way that it stays flexible. Paints based on polyurethane are either one or two pack. but quickly regain a gel consistency which assists in preventing runs and sags. They usually contain more than 85% zinc in the dry film and provide very hard films. or when being applied. THIXOTROPIC PAINTS: have a semi-solid or gel consistency when undisturbed. Paint must never be allowed to remain in spray equipment after the expiry of it potlife see Emulsion Paints a material used as a binder constituent which forms a noncrystalline film when dried. vinyls. zinc filled paints based on a large proportion of metallic zinc in powder form.C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL FOR F IELD S URVEYORS POLYMER: a high molecular weight material created from lower molecular weight constituents by chemical reaction. Such coatings provide temporary protection of existing structures. often based on oils (vegetable of petroleum) or lanolin (sheeps wool grease). These coatings do not appreciably erode with the usual ballast water movement. used to describe paints which are supplied in two separate containers and which have to be mixed together before use. Generally. thixo-tropic paints will flow easily as long as they are being worked. Shopprimers will protect the surface from corrosion during construction and until the final paint system is applied. but are not so simple to handle. The process is reversible. a pigment with corrosion preventing properties. and a fluid paint reverts to a gel consistency when the disturbance ceases. etc. but flow readily when stirred or shaken. They may be formulated to be exceptionally color stable and weather resistant. and are generally resistant to chemicals. POLYURETHANE: POTLIFE: PVA PAINT: RESIN: SEMI-HARD COATING: SHOPPRIMER: SOFT COATINGS: SOPHISTICATED PAINTS: are paints which are based on unconventional binders. When applied. these coatings are generally used to give temporary protection to existing structures. sophisticated paints give a higher level of protection than conventional paints. Polymers with resinous characteristics are frequently used in paints. since the curing will be so far advanced by then that the paint will not behave in the normal manner. a rust preventing paint for temporary protection of blasted steel immediately after blasting. see Coal Tar Epoxy THERMOPLASTIC PAINTS: are paints which dry by evaporation of solvent only. The binder is unreactive. zinc-filled paints based on an inorganic binder. but still hard enough to touch and walk upon. TWO PACK PAINTS: ZINC PHOSPHATE: ZINC SILICATE PAINTS: ZINC-RICH PAINTS: 38 ABS . are extremely hard wearing. The paint should be used within this time. Zinc silicates. coating that remains soft so that it wears off at low mechanical impact or when touched by hand. SPREADING RATE: TAR EPOXY: the area which is covered by one liter of paint. such as epoxies.

• FAIR condition with local breakdown at edges of stiffeners and weld connections and/or light rustling over 20% or more of areas under consideration. An ‘Assessment Scale for Breakdown’ of coatings is shown in Examples of coating system condition categorized under the above rating system. • POOR condition with general breakdown of coating over 20% or more of areas or hard scale at 10% or more of areas under consideration. Tanker Structure Co-Operative Forum has tabulated the above definitions as follows: DEFINITION OF COATING CONDITIONS Rating/Condition Spot Rust Light Rust Edges Weld Hard Scale Minor General Breakdown Other References ISO European Rust Scale RI3 RE3 RI4 RE5 RI5 RE7 Minor <10% <20% >10% >20% Good Minor Minor <20% Fair >20% >20% Poor Note: The lowest rating within any category shall govern the final rating. but less than as defined for POOR condition.C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL FOR F IELD S URVEYORS CHAPTER EIGHT: Assessment Scale for Breakdown ASSESSMENT OF EXISTING SURFACE COATING SYSTEMS For the purpose of consistent assessments of the ‘degree of effectiveness’ of an existing surface coating system. These are shown on the following pages. it is suggested that the following ‘rating’ be used: • GOOD condition with only minor spot rusting. ABS 39 .

C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL FOR F IELD S URVEYORS 40 ABS .

it is normal to judge the complete tank. if the conditions vary to a great extent between the various main parts (bottom.C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL FOR F IELD S URVEYORS CHAPTER NINE: How to Use This Guide T he coating condition should normally be judged over large areas. ABS 41 . For classification purposes. It does not set a standard. deck. However. However. it was decided to use them is this context. It is not part of the Rules for Building and Classing Steel Vessels. longitudinal bulkheads. since the coating condition is in focus here. The photographs should be considered a tool to assist the Surveyor in the performance of his duties. and transverse bulkheads) of the tank. Some of the pictures shown in this guide are not from tankers but from ballast tanks of dry cargo ships. and this Guidance Manual is intended to be used as such. then an evaluation of the various parts may be advantageous.

.

C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL FOR F IELD S URVEYORS CHAPTER TEN: Examples A small handbook is also provided for the following pages for easy reference. ABS 43 .

.

............. Surface discoloration less than 1% Coating Condition ............ GOOD Example Number: 1 ABS 1% 45 ....... Blisters 2..................C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL FOR F IELD S URVEYORS TSCF Assessment Scale: Notes: 1..............................

...... No scale less than 1% Coating Condition ...... Coating intact 2.....................C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL ® FOR F IELD S URVEYORS TSCF Assessment Scale: Notes: 1. No corrosion 4.. Filmy surface contaminant peeling 3.. GOOD Example Number: 2 46 ABS 1% ............................................

.......... GOOD Example Number: 3 ABS 1% 47 ...................... Filmy deposit much of surface less than 1% Coating Condition ... Spot rusting 3........C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL FOR F IELD S URVEYORS TSCF Assessment Scale: Notes: 1.... Minor rusting on weld seams 2..................................

... Line of sediment 2........................................................... GOOD Example Number: 4 48 1% ABS . Note absence of rust stains less than 1% Coating Condition .C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL ® FOR F IELD S URVEYORS TSCF Assessment Scale: Notes: 1................

......... GOOD Example Number: 5 ABS 1% 49 ........ Visible coating repairs 2.................C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL FOR F IELD S URVEYORS TSCF Assessment Scale: Notes: 1...................... Minor rust stains less than 1% Coating Condition ........................

. No scale less than 1% Coating Condition . Organisms 3......................... GOOD Example Number: 6 50 ABS 1% .......... No corrosion 4................................C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL ® FOR F IELD S URVEYORS TSCF Assessment Scale: Notes: 1........... Coating discolored from surface contamination 2..

.... Sediment on structure less than 1% Coating Condition .......... Dirty surface 3...................................C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL FOR F IELD S URVEYORS TSCF Assessment Scale: Notes: 1. GOOD Example Number: 7 ABS 1% 51 ......... Good coating 2......................

................... Minor corrosion 2....... Surface contamination (oily and sediment) less than 1% Coating Condition .C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL ® FOR F IELD S URVEYORS TSCF Assessment Scale: Notes: 1.................. GOOD Example Number: 8 52 1% ABS ...................................

. Discolorations due to oily contaminants and sediments less than 1% Coating Condition ...C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL FOR F IELD S URVEYORS TSCF Assessment Scale: Notes: 1........... GOOD Example Number: 9 ABS 1% 53 ......................................... Dirty coating 2........................

..... GOOD Example Number: 10 54 1% ABS ..... Coating repaired less than 1% Coating Condition ..C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL ® FOR F IELD S URVEYORS TSCF Assessment Scale: Notes: 1.............................................................. Scattered corrosion 2......

..C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL FOR F IELD S URVEYORS TSCF Assessment Scale: Notes: 1............ Drip marks on lower frames less than 1% Coating Condition ......................... GOOD Example Number: 11 ABS 1% 55 ............................. Sediment 2............

.................C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL ® FOR F IELD S URVEYORS TSCF Assessment Scale: Notes: 1........... Rust stains 2. Moist coating or stiffeners less than 1% Coating Condition ...................... GOOD Example Number: 12 56 1% ABS .............................

....... GOOD Example Number: 13 ABS 1% 57 ........................................... Scattered corrosion less than 1% Coating Condition ..................C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL FOR F IELD S URVEYORS TSCF Assessment Scale: Notes: 1...........

.................... Marine organisms 2...... Dark stripe coat 3... Spots are contaminants less than 1% Coating Condition ....................... GOOD Example Number: 14 58 1% ABS .........C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL ® FOR F IELD S URVEYORS TSCF Assessment Scale: Notes: 1....................

.. GOOD Example Number: 15 ABS 1% 59 ........C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL FOR F IELD S URVEYORS TSCF Assessment Scale: Notes: 1......................... No corrosion 2.............................. Significant surface discoloration less than 1% Coating Condition ...............

. No corrosion less than 1% Coating Condition .........C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL ® FOR F IELD S URVEYORS TSCF Assessment Scale: Notes: 1............ Top coat failure 2....... Detachment 4....... Blisters 3......................... GOOD Example Number: 16 60 ABS 1% .....................

................. Filmy surface contamination 2.. Discolored coating ....................................C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL FOR F IELD S URVEYORS TSCF Assessment Scale: Notes: 1... No corrosion less than 1% Coating Condition .............. GOOD Example Number: 17 ABS 1% 61 ..note drip pattern 3........

............. Surface discoloration less than 1% Coating Condition .........C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL ® FOR F IELD S URVEYORS TSCF Assessment Scale: Notes: 1... Scattered corrosion on edges and welds 2................................................... GOOD Example Number: 18 62 1% ABS ....

.......... Staining ........................... Note absence of texture red/orange areas less than 1% Coating Condition .....C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL FOR F IELD S URVEYORS TSCF Assessment Scale: Notes: 1............. GOOD Example Number: 19 ABS 1% 63 .......... No edge breakdown 3............scattered over >20% 2.....

..................................... Light rusting >1% 2......... Extensive rust staining >20% less than 1% Coating Condition ......................... Scattered rusting 3..C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL ® FOR F IELD S URVEYORS TSCF Assessment Scale: Notes: 1....... GOOD Example Number: 20 64 1% ABS .

No scale less than 1% Coating Condition ............................................ Coating discolored from surface contamination 2.............. No corrosion 4................ Organisms 3. GOOD Example Number: 21 ABS 1% 65 ...C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL FOR F IELD S URVEYORS TSCF Assessment Scale: Notes: 1....

.............C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL ® FOR F IELD S URVEYORS TSCF Assessment Scale: Notes: 1............. GOOD Example Number: 22 66 2% ABS ...........................................minor spot rusting 1% Coating Condition ....... Corrosion on edges and some welds ....

..............................................C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL FOR F IELD S URVEYORS TSCF Assessment Scale: Notes: 1.... Intact coatings on welds 4..... Extensive staining 1% Coating Condition.... Corrosion 2................ FAIR Example Number: 23 ABS 20% 67 ... Localized breakdown on edges 3.......

................ (light areas) repairing 3..C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL ® FOR F IELD S URVEYORS TSCF Assessment Scale: Notes: 1.. Light rusting >20% 2................... Touch-up... Isolated breakdown at corner less than 20% Coating Condition...................................... FAIR Example Number: 24 68 20% ABS .....

. White deposits 3% 3............. Corrosion on edges 4...............C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL FOR F IELD S URVEYORS TSCF Assessment Scale: Notes: 1................... FAIR Example Number: 25 ABS 10% 69 .......... Anode working 2................. Top coat loss 5% Coating Condition..........

.......... Deposits on vertical structure 4......... FAIR Example Number: 26 70 ABS 10% ...C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL ® FOR F IELD S URVEYORS TSCF Assessment Scale: Notes: 1........ Discoloration on flats 3.............................. Active corrosion on pipe 2........................ Scattered corrosion on flat blisters less than 10% Coating Condition.

......... White deposits 3............. FAIR Example Number: 27 ABS 20% 71 .......C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL FOR F IELD S URVEYORS TSCF Assessment Scale: Notes: 1....... Edge corrosion 2................................. General corrosion 10% ...20% 10% Coating Condition.............

............ FAIR Example Number: 28 72 ABS 50% .C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL ® FOR F IELD S URVEYORS TSCF Assessment Scale: Notes: 1.. Localized heavy corrosion beside anode .... White deposits 3............. Dark scale less than 50% Coating Condition...........................................>50% on upper part of tank 2..........

......C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL FOR F IELD S URVEYORS TSCF Assessment Scale: Notes: 1............................. FAIR Example Number: 29 ABS 20% 73 ... Light rusting >20% less than 20% Coating Condition.................................... Edge corrosion 2.........

.................5% ABS ................. Coating breakdown on welds 2.............................C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL ® FOR F IELD S URVEYORS TSCF Assessment Scale: Notes: 1....... Spot rusting less than 20% Coating Condition... FAIR Example Number: 30 74 0...........

................ Anode working 3.. Edges corrosion 2.... FAIR Example Number: 31 ABS 75 .....................C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL FOR F IELD S URVEYORS TSCF Assessment Scale: Notes: 1.......................... Coating generally intact 2% Coating Condition...............

.5% Coating Condition............................ Red rust on overheads 0........ FAIR Example Number: 32 76 ABS .......... White deposits lower areas 3........ Edge corrosion 2................C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL ® FOR F IELD S URVEYORS TSCF Assessment Scale: Notes: 1..............

.. Discoloration 10% Coating Condition.......... Significant edge breakdown 2......................................C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL FOR F IELD S URVEYORS TSCF Assessment Scale: Notes: 1............ FAIR Example Number: 33 ABS 77 .....................

............ Edge corrosion 2............ FAIR Example Number: 34 78 ABS 20% ..20% 4............................ No hard scale 10% Coating Condition.... Corrosion on welds 3........ Generalized breakdown 10 ..............C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL ® FOR F IELD S URVEYORS TSCF Assessment Scale: Notes: 1......

.................... General breakdown less than 20% Coating Condition... Edge breakdown >20% 2............... FAIR Example Number: 35 ABS 20% 79 ...C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL FOR F IELD S URVEYORS TSCF Assessment Scale: Notes: 1..........................................

............................................ Hard scale >10% 3.. Light corrosion >20% 4..C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL ® FOR F IELD S URVEYORS TSCF Assessment Scale: Notes: 1.... FAIR Example Number: 36 80 ABS 20% ......... Abscence of red rust due to white deposits from Anode action 10% Coating Condition...... Edge breakdown 2..................

........... FAIR Example Number: 37 ABS 20% 81 ..............C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL FOR F IELD S URVEYORS TSCF Assessment Scale: Notes: 1..................20% 2. Rust stains less than 20% Coating Condition............................. Light rusting . Staining at waterline 3...........

.... Red rust noticeable less than 20% Coating Condition....................................... Edge breakdown 2. White deposits >5% 3................ FAIR Example Number: 38 82 20% ABS ...C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL ® FOR F IELD S URVEYORS TSCF Assessment Scale: Notes: 1.....................

.........................5% Coating Condition..... FAIR Example Number: 39 ABS 83 ....... Local corrosion on edges of stiffeneers and drain holes 0.................................C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL FOR F IELD S URVEYORS TSCF Assessment Scale: Notes: 1.............

...........C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL ® FOR F IELD S URVEYORS TSCF Assessment Scale: Notes: 1.............................. Red rust 5% Coating Condition ....... POOR Example Number: 40 84 ABS .... Edges breakdown 2........................... White deposits >5% 3...

.. FAIR Example Number: 41 ABS 20% 85 ............. Edges breakdown on vertical stiffeneers 2.............. Surface contamination below weep holes less than 20% Coating Condition.......... White deposits 3. Abscence of red rust 4.............C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL FOR F IELD S URVEYORS TSCF Assessment Scale: Notes: 1................................

C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL
®

FOR

F IELD S URVEYORS

TSCF Assessment Scale: Notes: 1. Edge breakdown 2. Corrosion on horizontal surfaces 3. Hard scale on horizontal surfaces 4. Discoloration 20% Coating Condition .............................................................................. POOR Example Number: 42
86
ABS

C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL

FOR

F IELD S URVEYORS

TSCF Assessment Scale: Notes: 1. General breakdown >20% 2. Topcoat detachment

less than 20% Coating Condition .............................................................................. POOR Example Number: 43
ABS

20%

87

C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL
®

FOR

F IELD S URVEYORS

TSCF Assessment Scale: Notes: 1. Corrosion >20% 2. Hard scale >10% 3. Deformed stiffeneer edges

20% Coating Condition .............................................................................. POOR Example Number: 44
88

10%

ABS

.... Corrosion 20% 2.................C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL FOR F IELD S URVEYORS TSCF Assessment Scale: Notes: 1...... POOR Example Number: 45 ABS 20% 89 ......... Scale not visible 3.............. Discoloration less than 20% Coating Condition ................................

...... Intact coatings on welds 4................. POOR Example Number: 46 90 ABS 20% ...... Top coat loss less than 20% Coating Condition ...C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL ® FOR F IELD S URVEYORS TSCF Assessment Scale: Notes: 1............ Discolorations 3..................................... Corrosion >20% 2..

.............. Steel cross section loss 20% Coating Condition ...C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL FOR F IELD S URVEYORS TSCF Assessment Scale: Notes: 1............................ Localized corrosion >20% 2....................... POOR Example Number: 47 ABS 91 .............

........ Hard scale >10% 25% Coating Condition ..................... Corrosion >20% 2..........C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL ® FOR F IELD S URVEYORS TSCF Assessment Scale: Notes: 1............. POOR Example Number: 48 92 10% ABS .............................

.. General breakdown on overhead >20% 2...................................................C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL FOR F IELD S URVEYORS TSCF Assessment Scale: Notes: 1... Edge breakdown 3.......... Rust staining less than 20% Coating Condition .......... POOR Example Number: 49 ABS 20% 93 ......

.............. POOR Example Number: 50 94 ABS 5% ............ Scale >5% 3............ Corrosion >20% 2.......C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL ® FOR F IELD S URVEYORS TSCF Assessment Scale: Notes: 1.... Topcoat detachment 4.............. Black staining 20% Coating Condition ....................

............. Top coat delamination 4............. Anode working 2.... Coating loss on vertical bulkheads on right less than 10% 10% Coating Condition ..........C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL FOR F IELD S URVEYORS TSCF Assessment Scale: Notes: 1.. White deposits 3................ Edge breakdown 5.............. POOR Example Number: 51 ABS 95 ............

........................... POOR Example Number: 52 96 10% ABS ......... Corrosion 20% 2................... Hard scale >10% 3.....C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL ® FOR F IELD S URVEYORS TSCF Assessment Scale: Notes: 1.................... Delamination of scale on bracket 20% Coating Condition ..

......... Surface discolorations 4............................... Rust stains 3............... POOR Example Number: 53 ABS 10% 97 . Hard scale 2... Note top surface of lower longitudinal less than 10% Coating Condition .................C OATING S YSTEMS : A G UIDANCE M ANUAL FOR F IELD S URVEYORS TSCF Assessment Scale: Notes: 1.......

eagle.org .org WEBSITE: http://www.org ABS PACIFIC DIVISION 438 Alexandra Road #10-00 Alexandra Point Singapore 119958 Republic of Singapore Mail: PSA Building.O. Box 0496 Singapore 911147 Tel: 65-6276-8700 Fax: 65-6276-8711 Email: abs-pac@eagle. TX 77060 USA Tel: 1-281-877-6000 Fax: 1-281-877-6001 Email: abs-amer@eagle.ABS WORLD HEADQUARTERS ABS Plaza 16855 Northchase Drive Houston.org ABS AMERICAS DIVISION ABS Plaza 16855 Northchase Drive Houston. 1 Frying Pan Alley London E1 7HR.org ABS EUROPE DIVISION ABS House No. UK Tel: 44-20-7247-3255 Fax: 44-20-7377-2453 Email: abs-eur@eagle. TX 77060 USA Tel: 1-281-877-5800 Fax: 1-281-877-5803 Email: abs-worldhq@eagle. P.

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