Composite Construction and Design
Introduction Composite construction refers to any members composed of more than 1 material. The parts of these composite members are rigidly connected such that no relative movement can occur. Examples are:
Timber and steel ‘flitch’ beams
Typical steel and concrete composite construction
Composite construction aims to make each material perform the function it is best at, or to strengthen a given cross section of a weaker material.
Name and explain another form of composite construction.
1 C. Caprani
Behaviour of Composite Beams In the following, we consider only the case of structural steel sections and reinforced concrete slabs. A comparison of behaviours is:
The non-composite beam deflects further, hence it is less stiff. Note that the E-value hasn’t changed so it is the I-value that changes. In addition to the increase in stiffness there is also a large increase in moment capacity leading to reduced section sizes. The metal decking can also be used as permanent formwork, saving construction time.
. the concrete slab is connected to the steel section and both act together in carrying the load. The bottom surface of the concrete slab is free to slide over the top flange of the steel section and slip occurs. As it is weak in longitudinal bending.
The concrete slab is not connected to the steel section and therefore behaves independently. Slip between the slab and steel section is now prevented and the connection resists a longitudinal shear force similar in distribution to the vertical shear force shown.
In this case. it deforms to the curvature of the steel section and has its own neutral axis. The bending resistance of the slab is often so small that it is ignored.
Composite Construction Layout
Composite deck floors using shallow profiles are usually designed to span 2.
. When the deck is propped during construction the spans are around 4 to 5 m.5 to 4. The type of grid shown in Diagram B offers services integration within the depth of the floor.
Long span floors (12 to 18 m) are achieved by primary beams at 6 to 9 m centres. Shorter secondary beams support the slab (Diagram A). Alternatively the secondary beams can be designed to span the longer distance so that the depths of the primary and secondary beams can be optimized.5 m between supports.
The Asymmetric Beam (ASB) system from Corus allows a squarer panel (Diagram C) and is designed to compete with RC flat-slab construction.
buckling of the beam may also be a problem. Caprani
Propped Construction The steel beam is supported at mid. By the time construction loads can be applied to the slab. some composite behaviour can be used. Slender sections are prone to local buckling in and any intervening column may need to be strengthened to absorb the compression across its web. the steel must take the majority of the bending alone.3rd Architecture
Note that the beam layouts all describe simply-supported spans and this is usual.
Over the support the concrete cracks (and these can be large). Continuous spans of composite beams can cause problems. Propping affects speed of construction but allows smaller steel sections. and so a portion of the section is in compression.
Unpropped Construction The steel beams must carry the weight of the wet concrete on its own. though can be very useful nonetheless.
C.or quarter-span until the concrete slab has hardened sufficiently to allow composite action.
The deep deck systems are proprietary. The figure above illustrates a typical shallow deck (50–100 mm) and below is a deep deck (225 mm) supported on an ASB.
The beams are ordinary structural steel sections (except for the ASB).
The shear studs are normally 19 mm diameter 100 mm high studs. though there are different sizes. Caprani
C. though the principles are the same.3rd Architecture
Elements of Composite Construction The elements that make up composite construction are:
There are two main forms of deck: shallow and deep. we will only consider the design of shallow deck systems.
Vibration. We check to ensure it does not cause cracking of ceilings and is not dynamically ‘lively’.
C. Longitudinal shear capacity Check to prevent possible splitting of the concrete along the length of the beam. Elastic behaviour.
5. Deflection. We will not consider checks on vibration and will only outline the calculations for the elastic check.
2. these must be designed to be adequate. Shear capacity To ensure adequate capacity. we verify that it is always elastic when subjected to service loads to avoid problems with plastic strain (i. Also.e. Serviceability checks: a. Shear connector capacity To enable full composite action to be achieved. These checks are to ensure the safe and comfortable use of the beam in service. this based on the steel section alone – as per usual structural steel design.
4. permanent deflection) of the beam. Moment capacity: Design the section such that the moment capacity is greater than that required. b. and. c.3rd Architecture
Design of Composite Beams The design involves the following aspects:
Design of Composite Beams: Moment Capacity
Just as in ordinary steel and RC design. the composite moment capacity is derived from plastic theory.
When calculating the PNA location. The tensile capacity of the beam of area A is:
Fs = p y A
The compression capacity of the slab depends on the orientation of the decking (Dp).45 f cu ( Ds − D p ) Be
C. and is:
Fc = 0. based on the possible locations of the plastic neutral axis (PNA). we assume a stress of py in the steel and 0.45fcu in the concrete. There are three cases to consider. Caprani
. shown below.
Don’t Panic! Case (a) is frequent. occurs when Fs > Fc
⎛ Ds − D p D M c = Fs + Fc ⎜ 2 2 ⎝
2 ⎞ ⎧ ( Fs − Fc ) T ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⋅ ⎬ ⎟−⎨ Ff 4⎪ ⎠ ⎩ ⎪ ⎭
(the term in the braces is small and may be safely ignored).
Case (c): PNA is in the steel web. we have three capacities:
Case (a): PNA is in the slab. We also define the axial capacities of the flange and web as:
Ff = BTp y Fw = Fs − 2 Ff or Fw = Dtp y
Using the notation given.
The effective breadth Be is taken as:
B ≤ Be = 0.5 m) and L is the (simply-supported) span of the beam. (b) less so. for usual design. Note that if Fs > Fc . check that Fw > Fc / to ensure that you are using Case (b). occurs when Fw > Fc
⎛ Ds + D p + D ⎞ Fc2 D M c = M s + Fc ⎜ ⋅ ⎟− 2 ⎝ ⎠ Fw 4
where M s = p y S x is the moment capacity of the steel section alone. but (c) is very rare.25 L ≤ S
where B is the width of the steel section and S is the centre-to-centre spacing of the
composite beams (2.5 to 4. only Fc and Fs are required (ignoring the term in the braces). Caprani
where Be is the effective breadth of the slab. where the depth of the PNA is yp. occurs when Fc > Fs :
⎡D F ⎛ Ds − D p ⎞ ⎤ M c = Fs ⎢ + Ds − s ⎜ ⎟⎥ Fc ⎝ 2 ⎠⎦ ⎣2
Case (b): PNA is in the steel flange.
Design of Composite Beams: Shear Capacity The shear capacity is based on the capacity of the steel section only.
The capacity is: Pv = 0.6 p y Av where Av = tD .
Design of Composite Beams: Shear Connector Capacity The shear connectors used in ordinary composite construction are dowel-type studs. Therefore the number of shear Shear plane connectors required in each half of the span (see diagram above) is:
Np = min ( Fc . but headed-studs are now standard. We only need to transfer shear in the zones between zero and maximum moment. after the deck has been laid.
Note that although some slip does occur (which reduces the capacity slightly) we usually design for full shear connection. Caprani
The shear force to be transmitted is the smaller of Fc and Fs as calculated earlier. Fs ) Qp
C. or uplift. They allow easy construction as they can be shot fixed or welded through the deck onto the beam. the headed studs prevent the vertical separation. Other forms used to be used. In addition to the shear strength. though partial interaction is also possible. of the concrete from the steel.
the spacing along the full length is:
s= L 2N p −1
The stud should project 25 mm into the compression zone. Spacing limits are: > 4 Ds . > 600 mm. fcu (N/mm2) 30 126 100 74 35 132 104 78 40 139 109 82
From these figures. Qk (kN) Stud Diameter (mm) 22 19 16 Stud Height (mm) 100 100 75 Concrete strength.
Shear Stud Strength. Caprani
. longitudinally and as shown in the figure: / /
C. and is given in the following table.3rd Architecture
Where Qp is the force in each shear connector.8Qk /
where Qk is the (empirical) characteristic strength of the shear studs. and
Q p < 0.
per unit length. Some such planes are shown:
Failure planes a-a. d-d has no strength contribution from the decking itself (which is possible. though we will always ignore this safely). Also. Any reinforcement in the slab that crosses these planes is taken to contribute.7 Asv f y < 0. Asv = 2 ( As + Asc )
13 C. This must be less than the capacity which is:
vr = ( 0.03 f cu ) Ls + 0.3rd Architecture
Design of Composite Beams: Longitudinal Shear Capacity The force transmitted by the shear studs can potentially split the concrete along the weakest failure plane. b-b and c-c are usually critical. crossing the failure plane and Ls is the length of the failure plane:
Plane a-a and c-c: Ls = 2 Dp and Asv = 2 As Plane b-b: Ls = 2h + d + st where st is the transverse spacing of the 2 studs and st = 0 for only 1 stud.8 f cu Ls
where Asv is the area of reinforcement. Caprani
. The force per unit length to be resisted is:
v= NT Q p s
where s is the shear-stud spacing and NT is the number of studs across the width of the beam (1 or 2).
the depth to the elastic neutral axis:
Ds − D p xe = 2 ⎛D ⎞ + α e r ⎜ + Ds ⎟ ⎝2 ⎠ (1 + α e r )
A Be ( Ds − D p )
.the second moment of area of the un-cracked composite section:
Ig = Ix + A ( D + Ds + D p ) 4 (1 + α e r )
Be ( Ds − D p ) 12α e
where α e is the effective modular ratio which can be taken as 10 for most purposes. Caprani
14 C.5–2. and the section modulus 1. and the other symbols have their previous meanings.the section modulus for the steel and concrete:
Zs = Ig D + Ds − xe Zc =
αe I g
The composite stiffness can be 3–5 times. .3rd Architecture
Design of Composite Beams: Serviceability checks
For these checks we define the following: . Ix is the second moment of area of the steel section alone.5 times that of the steel section alone.
.45 f cu Zc
where M ser = c.3rd Architecture
a. that is. Vibration
wser L2 . the allowable deflection is:
δ allow =
Assuming a uniformly distributed load. ser =
M ser < 0. Deflection Deflection is checked similarly to ordinary steel design. the deflection is:
5wq L4 384 EI g
where wq is the imposed UDL only and E = 205 kN/mm2. Elastic behaviour We check that the stresses in the steel or concrete remain elastic under the service loads. 8
We will not check this. ser =
M ser < py Zs
σ c . b. under wser = wg + wq :
σ s .
D = 449. tw = 7. beams at 6 m centre to centre. Ix = 21345×104 mm4.457×152×52 UB Grade 43A (py = 275 N/mm2)
.8 mm.Span: 7 m simply supported.5 kN/m2
Check that the proposed scheme shown is adequate. .754 mm2/mm
C.Section properties: A = 66.6 mm.4 mm Slab: .5 cm2. Caprani
.Reinforcement T12-150: Asv = 754 mm2/m = 0.9 mm.Ds = 250 mm . b = 152.Grade 30N concrete (fcu = 30 N/mm2) .
Design Data Beam: . tf = 10.3rd Architecture
Qk = 6.
5 = 39 kN/m
So the serviceability and ultimate loads are:
wser = 36 + 0.25 kN
10 = 1828.5 kN/m
wult = 1.75 kN
Thus we have Case (a): PNA is in the slab because Fc > Fs :
⎡D F ⎛ D − Dp ⎞ ⎤ M c = Fs ⎢ + Ds − s ⎜ s ⎟⎥ Fc ⎝ 2 ⎠⎦ ⎣2 ⎡ 449. the UDL to beam.25 × 7000 = 1750 mm
Fc = 0.25L = 0.5 × 7 = = 397.2 kNm 8 8
wult L 113.6 ( 39 ) = 113.25 ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎦ ⎣ 2 = 797.81 = 0.4 ( 36 + 0. Caprani
.5 ) + 1.45 f cu ( Ds − D p ) Be = 0. including self weight:
wg = 6 × 6 = 36 kN/m wsw = 52 × 9.3rd Architecture
Solution Loading: The dead load of slab is:
Gk = 0.75 ⎛ 250 − 0 ⎞ ⎤ −3 = (1828. Be = 0.7 kNm
M c > M ult ∴ OK
C.75 ) ⎢ + 250 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ × 10 5906.5 × 7 2 = = 695.8 1828.3 kN 2 2
Moment Capacity: Effective width.25 × 24 = 6 kN/m 2
Hence.5 × 102
10 = 5906.5 + 39 = 75.5 × 7 2 = = 462.5 kN/m 103 wq = 6 × 6.45 ( 30 )( 250 )(1750 )
Fs = p y A = 275 66.4 kNm 8 8 M ult = wult L2 113.5 kN/m
Design moments and shear:
M ser = Vult = wser L2 75.
Pv = 0.6 ( 275 )( 449.75 80 = 22.
Hence use 300 mm c/c evenly spaced along the length of the beam.6 ) × 10−3 = 564 kN
Pv > Vult ∴ OK
Shear Connector Capacity: Assuming a 19 mm × 100 mm high connector:
Qk = 100 kN from the table of characteristic stud strengths
Q p < 0. Fs ) Qp 80
min ( 5906.
s= = L 2N p −1
7000 2 (12 ) − 1
= 304.1828.8 )( 7. Caprani
.25.6 p y Av = 0.8 (100 ) = 80 kN /
Hence the number required in each half of the span is:
Np = = = min ( Fc .8
We will use 24 studs as we are putting NT = 2 studs at each position along the beam.8Qk = 0.75 )
The capacity is:
vr = ( 0.6 = 781.7 Asv f y < 0. the shortest and most critical length is Ls = 329 mm .Plane b-b: Ls = 2h + d + st = 2 (100 ) + 19 + 110 = 329 mm
Hence.8 f cu Ls = 0. Caprani
.Plane a-a: Ls = 2 D p = 2 × 250 = 500 mm . The lengths of these planes are: . Therefore.7 N/mm
vr > v ∴ OK
C.754 )( 460 ) < 0.03 ( 30 )( 329 ) + 0.8 30 329 = 781.7 < 1441.3rd Architecture
Longitudinal Shear Capacity: Consider these failure planes:
a-a 110 250 100 b-b
The 110 mm transverse spacing is < 5d and is made as large as possible to help / prevent this type of failure. on this plane.7 ( 2 × 0. the shear force per unit length is:
v= = NT Q p s 2 ( 80 ) × 103
300 = 533.03 f cu ) Ls + 0.
Serviceability: Deflection Calculate the area ratio:
r= A 66.5 × 102 = = 0. Caprani
And the allowable is:
δ allow =
L 360 7000 = 360 = 19.5 ×10 ) ( 449.0152 )
1750 ( 250 − 0 ) 12 (10 )
= 1148 ×106 mm 4
Therefore the deflection is:
= 5wq L4 384 EI g 384 205 × 103 1148 × 106 5 ( 39 )( 7000 )
= 5.8 + 250 + 0 ) +
4 (1 + 10 × 0.0152 Be ( Ds − D p ) 1750 ( 250 − 0 )
Hence the second moment of area of the section is:
Ig = Ix + A ( D + Ds + D p ) 4 (1 + α e r )
Be ( Ds − D p ) 12α e
= 21345 ×10
( 66.4 mm
δ < δ allow
5 × 7 2 = 8 = 462.5 N/mm 2 ∴ OK
Hence both the steel and concrete stresses remain elastic under the service loads.0152 ) ) = 171.2 mm
And the elastic section modulii.8 ⎞ + 10 ( 0.
σ s .4 × 106 < 275 2. and so not permanent plastic deformations will occur.17 ×106 = 213.4 × 106 < 0.45 f cu Zc
462.17 × 106 mm3
171. ser =
M ser < 0.8 + 250 − 171.
21 C.45 ( 30 ) 67 × 106 = 6. Caprani
Zs = Ig D + Ds − xe Zc = =
αe I g
10 (1148 ×106 ) xe
1148 × 106 = 449.0152 ) ⎜ + 250 ⎟ 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ = (1 + 10 ( 0.3rd Architecture
Serviceability: Elastic behaviour In addition to our previous calculations.1 N/mm 2 ∴ OK
This design has passed all requirements and is therefore acceptable.2 = 67 ×106 mm3
And the stresses.9 < 13. ser =
= M ser < py Zs
σ c .2 = 2.4 kNm
And the section properties. first the depth to the elastic neutral axis:
Ds − D p xe = 2 ⎛D ⎞ + α e r ⎜ + Ds ⎟ ⎝2 ⎠ (1 + α e r )
250 − 0 ⎛ 449. we need:
M ser = wser L2 8 75.
Slab: . beams at 6 m centre to centre. .0 kN/m2
Check that the proposed scheme shown is adequate.Use 1 shear stud at each location.3rd Architecture
Qk = 3.UB is Grade 43A .Grade 30N concrete (fcu = 30 N/mm2)
C.Span: 7.5 m simply supported.
Design Data Beam: . Caprani
.Grade 30N concrete (fcu = 30 N/mm2)
C.Span 8 m simply supported.3rd Architecture
Qk = 3. beams at 5 m centre to centre.7 kN/m2 extra dead load is required for ceilings/services and floor tiles.
Design Data Beam: .UB is Grade 43A .5 kN/m2
180 T10-180 T10-180 457×152×52 UB
An allowance of 2. Caprani
. Slab: .Use 2 shear studs at each location.
Check that the proposed scheme shown is adequate.