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CARDS - 5.1 - Potential Difference, Current and Resistance

CARDS - 5.1 - Potential Difference, Current and Resistance

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Published by Simon
Electricity Revision cards
Electricity Revision cards

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Published by: Simon on Apr 23, 2012
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11/09/2012

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22/04/2012

Potential Difference
The easiest way to think about what batteries do is to use a water analogy. Batteries ‘lift’ charges (Q) to a higher Potential (V). There is a Potential Difference (V) between one end of the battery and the other. Batteries store Potential Energy as Chemical Energy.
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What are Coulombs?
Because charge is made out of electrons which are very small, it seems silly to measure charge in electrons because the numbers of charges that go round a circuit would be billions and billions. Instead Charge (Q) is measured in Coulombs (C) Using this scale 1 electron is only: 1.6x10-19 C 1 Coulomb is:
Remember!!!!

6,250,000,000,000,000,000 electrons
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Potential Difference a model

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Charge
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Current (I)
Batteries ‘lift’ charges to a higher potential. The charges then flow around the circuit. The flow of charges per second is called: current. Charge Current Time
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1C/s

What is conventional current?
Before the discovery of the electron, scientists assumed that current was due to positively-charged particles moving from the positive terminal around a circuit to the negative terminal.

This way of representing the direction of current is called Conventional Current. It is now know that charge is carried by electrons, flowing from the negative terminal to the positive terminal. This is called electron flow. Today, both conventional current and electron flow can be used to represent the direction of current.

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Current

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Conventional  Current

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Potential Difference (V)
Batteries ‘lift’ charges to a higher potential. There is a Potential Difference because each coulomb of charge has a different potential energy at either end of the battery. Energy Potential Difference Charge

..sometimes known as Voltage

1J/C
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Electromotive Force(EMF) and Potential Difference:

Potential Difference (V)
The total amount  of Electrical Energy  transferred to Heat by each Coulomb  of charge

Electromotive Force
The total amount  of Chemical Energy  in the battery  transferred to  Electrical Energy by each Coulomb  of charge 10

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Potential  Difference

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The difference between  Electromotive Force  and Potential Difference

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How do metals conduct electricity?
It is the delocalized electrons involved in metallic bonding that allow metals to conduct electricity. The delocalized electrons are free to flow through the metal and so carry a current. Insulating materials do not contain free electrons and so current is unable to flow. Ionic solutions are also able to conduct electricity because they have mobile charge-carrying particles. delocalized electrons

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Comparing  circuits to  water flow

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How do  metals  conduct?

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What is Resistivity?
Resistivity is just a property of the conductor. Every material has a resistivity. It is actually the resistance of a 1m long piece of wire with a cross-sectional area of 1m2. As you can imagine this is always a very low number. For Copper ρ = 1.72 x 10-8 Ωm

Units = Ωm

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Factors  affecting  Resistance

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Resistivity  Equation

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Ohms Law

Ohms law relates the current flowing through a conductor  with the potential difference across it.

V∝I

V=IR
R is the constant of  proportionality between I and V
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Ohmic Conductor

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Ohms Law

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Ohmic  Conductors

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Ohmic Conductor

The reason for this is that as the lightbulb gets hot there are more  collisions between the atoms so the resistance increases
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Non‐Ohmic  Conductors

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