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**Copper Development Association
**

david.chapman@copperdev.co.uk

Copper Development Association

Busbar Design Basics

www.leonardo-energy.org

Copper Development Association

www.cda.org.uk

High electrical conductivity

• only silver is better than copper

Good thermal conductor

• heat reaches surface quickly

Strong (at working temperature)

• to withstand short circuit stresses

• low creep

Easy to joint

• resistant to corrosion

Materials for Busbar Systems

www.leonardo-energy.org

Copper Development Association

www.cda.org.uk

Busbar System Current Ratings

Busbar ratings are determined only by the

maximum desired working temperature

At working temperature:

heat generated = heat lost

www.leonardo-energy.org

Copper Development Association

www.cda.org.uk

Busbar System Current Ratings

Busbar ratings depend on:

• Working and ambient temperatures

• Heat lost from the busbar

– by convection

– by radiation

• Heat generated in the busbar

www.leonardo-energy.org

Copper Development Association

www.cda.org.uk

25 . 0

25 . 1

66 . 7

v

P

cv

u

=

Power dissipated by convection is given by:

where

u is the temperature rise above ambient

v is the vertical height of the surface

Busbar System Current Ratings

P

cv1

P

cv2

v

www.leonardo-energy.org

Copper Development Association

www.cda.org.uk

Power dissipation per metre length v Vertical height

0

40

80

120

160

0 50 100 150 200

Vertical height (mm)

P

o

w

e

r

d

i

s

s

i

p

a

t

i

o

n

p

e

r

m

e

t

r

e

l

e

n

g

t

h

(

W

)

Convection (for 80 C temperature rise)

Busbar System Current Ratings

www.leonardo-energy.org

Copper Development Association

www.cda.org.uk

Power dissipated by radiation is given by:

( )

8 4

1

4

2

10 7 . 5

÷

× ÷ = T T P

r

c

where

P

r

is the power dissipated per square metre

T

2

is the working temperature, K

T

1

is the ambient temperature, K

c is the emissivity

Busbar System Current Ratings

P

r

P

r

www.leonardo-energy.org

Copper Development Association

www.cda.org.uk

The emissivity, c, describes how effectively

the surface radiates heat

For a perfectly polished surface, the value is

close to zero - a very poor radiator

For a matt black surface, the value is close to

1 - a very good radiator

Busbar System Current Ratings

www.leonardo-energy.org

Copper Development Association

www.cda.org.uk

Bright copper has an emissivity of about 0.1

During use, the emissivity of the copper

surface increases - and the current rating

increases - as the copper darkens to reach an

emissivity value of about 0.7

Tin plated copper has an emissivity of about

0.3 to 0.5

But painting bars reduces the current rating!

Busbar System Current Ratings

www.leonardo-energy.org

Copper Development Association

www.cda.org.uk

Busbar System Current Ratings

P

r

P

r

P

r

P

r

P

r

P

r

No radiation heat loss

from internal surfaces

www.leonardo-energy.org

Copper Development Association

www.cda.org.uk

Radiation power dissipation v Working temperature

0

20

40

60

80

100

273 323 373

Absolute Working Temperature (K)

P

o

w

e

r

d

i

s

s

i

p

a

t

i

o

n

(

W

p

e

r

s

q

m

)

Radiation (for 30 C ambient)

Busbar System Current Ratings

www.leonardo-energy.org

Copper Development Association

www.cda.org.uk

for 100 mm vertical height, 30 C ambient

Total power dissipation v Working temperature

0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

1000

40 60 80 100 120 140

Working temperature (C)

P

o

w

e

r

d

i

s

s

i

p

a

t

i

o

n

(

W

p

e

r

s

q

m

)

Convection

Radiation

Total

Busbar System Current Ratings

www.leonardo-energy.org

Copper Development Association

www.cda.org.uk

R I P

2

=

a

l

I P

µ

2

=

The power generated by current in the busbar is:

where

µ is the resistivity of the material

a is the cross sectional area

l is the length

Busbar System Current Ratings

www.leonardo-energy.org

Copper Development Association

www.cda.org.uk

At some temperature, the heat generated in the

busbar is equal to the total heat lost by convection

and radiation.

| | | |

r c i

P P P + =

Busbar System Current Ratings

www.leonardo-energy.org

Copper Development Association

www.cda.org.uk

Calculation method:

1 Select working and ambient temperatures

2 Assume initial current density of 8 amps/mm

2

3 Find appropriate size in standard range

4 Calculate heat generated due to current

5 Calculate heat loss at working temperature

6 If 4>5, increase size and return to 4

When 4=<5, this is smallest possible size

Minimum size calculation

www.leonardo-energy.org

Copper Development Association

www.cda.org.uk

The most economic size gives the lowest

lifetime cost. It is the minimum total cost of

•material

•installation and

•energy costs

over the circuit lifetime.

Higher purchase cost - lower running costs

Best economic sizing

www.leonardo-energy.org

Copper Development Association

www.cda.org.uk

Best economic sizing

Cost of bar

0

5

10

15

0 100 200 300 400 500 600

Cross sectional area (sqmm)

C

o

s

t

o

f

b

a

r

p

e

r

m

e

t

r

e

(

$

)

www.leonardo-energy.org

Copper Development Association

www.cda.org.uk

Best economic sizing

Cost of losses - 5 years

0

10

20

30

0 100 200 300 400 500 600

Cross sectional area (sqmm)

C

o

s

t

o

f

l

o

s

s

e

s

o

v

e

r

5

y

e

a

r

s

(

$

)

www.leonardo-energy.org

Copper Development Association

www.cda.org.uk

Economic Sizing of Busbars

Total cost - 5 years

0

10

20

30

0 100 200 300 400 500 600

Cross sectional area (sqmm)

L

i

f

e

t

i

m

e

c

o

s

t

p

e

r

m

e

t

r

e

(

$

)

Cost of bar

Cost of loss

Total

www.leonardo-energy.org

Copper Development Association

www.cda.org.uk

Busbar calculation software

www.leonardo-energy.org

Copper Development Association

www.cda.org.uk

Busbar calculation software

www.leonardo-energy.org

Copper Development Association

www.cda.org.uk

Busbar calculation software

www.leonardo-energy.org

Copper Development Association

www.cda.org.uk

Further considerations

Having calculated the size of the bar, there

are three further considerations:

• voltage drop

• skin effect

–increases apparent resistance by reducing

effective area - important for:

^ thick busbars

^ high frequencies

^ harmonics generated by non-linear loads

• short circuit current

www.leonardo-energy.org

Copper Development Association

www.cda.org.uk

Summary of Busbar Material Characteristics

High Conductivity

• low loss, low voltage drop

• >101.5 % IACS

Easy Formability

• due to small grain size and advanced production

technology

• easy to bend without surface deformation

Good Flatness

• simple reliable jointing

Good Straightness

• easy installation, lower joint stress

David Chapman

Copper Development Association

david.chapman@copperdev.co.uk

Copper Development Association

**Materials for Busbar Systems
**

High electrical conductivity

• only silver is better than copper

** Good thermal conductor
**

• heat reaches surface quickly

** Strong (at working temperature)
**

• to withstand short circuit stresses • low creep

Easy to joint

• resistant to corrosion

Copper Development Association

www.leonardo-energy.org www.cda.org.uk

leonardo-energy.cda.Busbar System Current Ratings Busbar ratings are determined only by the maximum desired working temperature At working temperature: heat generated = heat lost Copper Development Association www.org.org www.uk .

org www.cda.uk .Busbar System Current Ratings Busbar ratings depend on: • Working and ambient temperatures • Heat lost from the busbar – by convection – by radiation • Heat generated in the busbar Copper Development Association www.org.leonardo-energy.

Busbar System Current Ratings Power dissipated by convection is given by: 7.66 Pcv 0.org www.uk .25 v 1.cda.leonardo-energy.org.25 Pcv2 Pcv1 v where is the temperature rise above ambient v is the vertical height of the surface Copper Development Association www.

org www.org.uk .cda.Busbar System Current Ratings Convection (for 80 C temperature rise) Power dissipation per metre length v Vertical height 160 Power dissipation per metre length (W) 120 80 40 0 0 50 100 Vertical height (mm) 150 200 Copper Development Association www.leonardo-energy.

org.cda.7 4 T2 4 T1 10 8 Pr where Pr is the power dissipated per square metre T2 is the working temperature. K T1 is the ambient temperature.Busbar System Current Ratings Power dissipated by radiation is given by: Pr Pr 5.org www.uk . K is the emissivity Copper Development Association www.leonardo-energy.

Busbar System Current Ratings The emissivity.uk . the value is close to zero . .org www.a very poor radiator For a matt black surface.leonardo-energy. describes how effectively the surface radiates heat For a perfectly polished surface.org.cda.a very good radiator Copper Development Association www. the value is close to 1 .

and the current rating increases .leonardo-energy.as the copper darkens to reach an emissivity value of about 0.uk .Busbar System Current Ratings Bright copper has an emissivity of about 0.1 During use. the emissivity of the copper surface increases .cda.7 Tin plated copper has an emissivity of about 0.org.5 But painting bars reduces the current rating! Copper Development Association www.3 to 0.org www.

Busbar System Current Ratings Pr Pr Pr Pr Pr Pr No radiation heat loss from internal surfaces Copper Development Association www.cda.org www.uk .org.leonardo-energy.

cda.org.Busbar System Current Ratings Radiation (for 30 C ambient) Radiation power dissipation v Working temperature 100 Power dissipation (W per sqm) 80 60 40 20 0 273 323 Absolute Working Temperature (K) 373 Copper Development Association www.leonardo-energy.uk .org www.

leonardo-energy. 30 C ambient Total power dissipation v Working temperature 1000 900 Convection Radiation Total Power dissipation (W per sqm) 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 40 60 80 100 120 140 Working temperature (C) Copper Development Association www.uk .Busbar System Current Ratings for 100 mm vertical height.org.org www.cda.

leonardo-energy.org www.Busbar System Current Ratings The power generated by current in the busbar is: PI R 2 where PI 2 l a is the resistivity of the material a is the cross sectional area l is the length Copper Development Association www.uk .org.cda.

Busbar System Current Ratings At some temperature.org.org www.cda. the heat generated in the busbar is equal to the total heat lost by convection and radiation.leonardo-energy. Pi Pc Pr Copper Development Association www.uk .

org www.cda.leonardo-energy.Minimum size calculation Calculation method: 1 2 3 Select working and ambient temperatures Assume initial current density of 8 amps/mm2 Find appropriate size in standard range 4 5 6 Calculate heat generated due to current Calculate heat loss at working temperature If 4>5.org. this is smallest possible size Copper Development Association www.uk . increase size and return to 4 When 4=<5.

org www.Best economic sizing The most economic size gives the lowest lifetime cost.lower running costs Copper Development Association www. Higher purchase cost .uk . It is the minimum total cost of •material •installation and •energy costs over the circuit lifetime.org.cda.leonardo-energy.

uk .org www.org.leonardo-energy.cda.Best economic sizing Cost of bar 15 Cost of bar per metre ($) 10 5 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 Cross sectional area (sqmm) Copper Development Association www.

uk .org.5 years 30 Cost of losses over 5 years ($) 20 10 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 Cross sectional area (sqmm) Copper Development Association www.cda.Best economic sizing Cost of losses .org www.leonardo-energy.

org.org www.leonardo-energy.5 years 30 Cost of bar Cost of loss Total Lifetime cost per metre ($) 20 10 0 0 100 200 300 Cross sectional area (sqmm) 400 500 600 Copper Development Association www.cda.Economic Sizing of Busbars Total cost .uk .

org www.org.leonardo-energy.uk .Busbar calculation software Copper Development Association www.cda.

cda.org.leonardo-energy.uk .org www.Busbar calculation software Copper Development Association www.

cda.leonardo-energy.org.uk .org www.Busbar calculation software Copper Development Association www.

cda. there are three further considerations: • voltage drop • skin effect – increases apparent resistance by reducing effective area .org.leonardo-energy.org www.uk .important for: thick busbars high frequencies harmonics generated by non-linear loads • short circuit current Copper Development Association www.Further considerations Having calculated the size of the bar.

cda.5 % IACS Easy Formability • due to small grain size and advanced production technology • easy to bend without surface deformation Good Flatness • simple reliable jointing Good Straightness • easy installation.leonardo-energy.org www.uk .Summary of Busbar Material Characteristics High Conductivity • low loss. low voltage drop • >101.org. lower joint stress Copper Development Association www.

chapman@copperdev.uk Copper Development Association .co.David Chapman Copper Development Association david.

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