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P. Saltsidis, additions by B. Brinne

1995,1999

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Most of the problems presented here are taken from the book Sakurai, J. J., Modern Quantum Mechanics, Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1985.

Contents

I Problems

1 2 3 4 5 Fundamental Concepts . . . . . . . Quantum Dynamics . . . . . . . . . Theory of Angular Momentum . . . Symmetry in Quantum Mechanics . Approximation Methods . . . . . . Fundamental Concepts . . . . . . . Quantum Dynamics . . . . . . . . . Theory of Angular Momentum . . . Symmetry in Quantum Mechanics . Approximation Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 7 14 17 19

3

II Solutions

1 2 3 4 5

. 25 . 36 . 75 . 94 . 103

23

1

2 CONTENTS .

Part I Problems 3 .

.

There is no degeneracy. (a) Prove that Y (A . and . =2. (b) What is the signi cance of Y (A . ~ ^ 1. First observe (h j + h j) (j i + j i) 0 for any complex number then choose in such a way that the preceding inequality reduces to the Schwarz inequility. What is the probability of getting +h=2? (b) Evaluate the dispersion in Sx.3 (a) The simplest way to derive the Schwarz inequality goes as follows.1. h(Sx . a 1 (c) Illustrate (a) and (b) using A set equal to Sz of a spin 2 system. hSx i)2i: (For your own peace of mind check your answers for the special cases = 0. where n is a unit vector lying in the xz-plane that ^ makes an angle with the positive z-axis. (a) Suppose Sx is measured.1 Consider a ket space spanned by the eigenkets fja0ig of a Hermitian operator A. FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS 5 1 Fundamental Concepts a0 1. that is. a0) is a null operator.2 A spin 1 system is known to be in an eigenstate of S n with 2 eigenvalue h=2. . a00) 0 00 ? a00 6=a0 a .) 1.

1=4 exp ihpix . Evaluate the classical Poisson bracket x F (px)]classical : h( x)2i h( p)2i = h : 2 q (b) Let x and px be the corresponding quantum-mechanical operators this time. in agreement with (b). hxi) hx h 4d2 satis es the uncertainty relation q Prove that the requirement hx0j xj i = (imaginary number)hx0j pj i is indeed satis ed for such a Gaussian wave packet.6 (b) Show that the equility sign in the generalized uncertainty relation holds if the state in question satis es Aj i = B j i with purely imaginary. (x . prove that x exp iph a jx0i x x exp iph a : (xjx0i = x0jx0i) .4 (a) Let x and px be the coordinate and linear momentum in one dimension. 1. (c) Explicit calculations using the usual rules of wave mechanics show that the wave function for a Gaussian wave packet given by " 2# 0 0 0j i = (2 d2 ). Evaluate the commutator (c) Using the result obtained in (b).

It can also be solved in the Heisenberg picture. and Sz (t).1 Consider the spin-procession problem discussed in section 2. mc Sz = !Sz write the Heisenberg equations of motion for the time-dependent operators Sx(t). Solve them to obtain Sx y z as functions of time. Sy (t). QUANTUM DYNAMICS 7 is an eigenstate of the coordinate operator x.2. exp ix h 2 Quantum Dynamics 2. 2.5 (a) Prove the following: @ (i) hp0jxj i = ih @p0 hp0j i Z @ (ii) h jxj i = dp0 (p0)ih @p0 (p0) where (p0) = hp0 j i and (p0) = hp0j i are momentum-space wave functions. What is the corresponding eigenvalue? 1.1 in Jackson. Evaluate x(t) x(0)] : .2 Let x(t) be the coordinate operator for a free particle in one dimension in the Heisenberg picture. Using the Hamiltonian eB H = . (b) What is the physical signi cance of where x is the position operator and is some number with the dimension of momentum? Justify your answer.

3 Consider a particle in three dimensions whose Hamiltonian is given by 2 By calculating ~ p H ] obtain x ~ ~ H = 2pm + V (~ ): x * + d h~ ~i = p2 . 2 x 0 0 0 @x0 h m! !1=21 A: (b) Obtain a simple expression that the probability that the state is found in the ground state at t = 0.5 Consider a function.1=4x. Does this probability change for t > 0? 2.8 2. Evaluate the correlation function explicitly for the ground state of a one-dimensional simple harmonic oscillator. h~ rV i: x ~ dt x p m To identify the preceding relation with the quantum-mechanical analogue of the virial theorem it is essential that the left-hand side vanish. known as the correlation function. . Under what condition would this happen? 2.4 (a) Write down the wave function (in coordinate space) for the state ipa exp .h j0i: You may use 2 !3 x0 25 1 hx0j0i = .1=2 exp 4. de ned by C (t) = hx(t)x(0)i where x(t) is the position operator in the Heisenberg picture.

j j =2e ay j0i is a normalized coherent state. (d) Show that a coherent state can also be obtained by applying the translation ( nite-displacement) operator e. hence of E . QUANTUM DYNAMICS 9 2. without using wave functions. in general. Find the most probable value of n. that is. (c) Evaluate h( x)2i as a function of time using either picture. (a) Prove that j i = e. (b) Suppose the oscillator is in the state constructed in (a) at t = 0. (a) Construct a linear combination of j0i and j1i such that hxi is as large as possible. (b) Prove the minimum uncertainty relation for such a state.7 A coherent state of a one-dimensional simple harmonic oscillator is de ned to be an eigenstate of the (non-Hermitian) annihilation operator a: aj i = j i where is. Do the following algebraically. 2.6 Consider again a one-dimensional simple harmonic oscillator. (c) Write j i as 1 X j i = f (n)jni: 2 Show that the distribution of jf (n)j2 with respect to n is of the Poisson form. n=0 .ipl=h (where p is the momentum operator. a complex number. and l is the displacement distance) to the ground state. What is the state vector for t > 0 in the Schrodinger picture? Evaluate the expectation value hxi as a function of time for t > 0 using (i) the Schrodinger picture and (ii) the Heisenberg picture.2.

9 Prove the relation d (x) = (x) dx X sin(nrx) sin(nry) r E .) 2. 2. moving in a potential is given by: K (x y E ) = Z1 0 dteiEt=hK (x y t 0) = A where A is a constant.11 The Lagrangian of the single harmonic oscillator is 1 _ L = 2 mx2 . r etc. h22m2 n2 n where (x) is the (unit) step function. (Hint: study the e ect on testfunctions.10 (e) Show that the coherent state j i remains coherent under timeevolution and calculate the time-evolved state j (t)i. x0xT 0 T for the classical action for a harmonic oscillator moving from the point x0 at t = 0 to the point xT at t = T .10 Derive the following expression i m! h Scl = 2 sin(!T ) (x2 + 2x2 ) cos(!T ) . 2. (Hint: directly apply the time-evolution operator. ). and (x) the Dirac delta function. (a) What is the potential? (b) Determine the constant A in terms of the parameters describing the system (such as m.) 2.8 The quntum mechanical propagator. 1 m!2x2 2 . for a particle with mass m.

ta .1 7 where n = 6 . 7 and nT is its transpose.) (b) Show that G can be written as m (N2+1) Z dy : : : dy exp(. By expanding j+1 formula for the pj : pj+1 = (2 .nT n) Z dN ye.2. Write the symmetric 4 . xcl(t) be the new integration variable. 2 j =0 b where " = (tN. QUANTUM DYNAMICS 11 (a) Show that where Scl is the action along the classical path xcl from (xa ta) to (xb tb) and G is G(0 tb 0 ta) = Z lim dy1 : : : dyN 2 mh" N !1 i (N +1) 2 hxbtbjxatai = exp iScl G(0 tb 0 ta) h 8 N 9 <i X m 1 "m!2y2 = 2 exp : h j 2" (yj+1 . "2!2)pj .nT n) G = Nlim 2 ih" 1 N !1 2 3 6 y.nT n =p N=2 Hint: Diagonalize by an orhogonal matrix. De ne j j matrices j0 that con0 sist of the rst j rows and j columns of N and whose determinants 0 in minors show the following recursion are pj .] ih" 0 (d) Let 2m N det det N pN . +1) (Hint: Let y(t) = x(t) .1) det . xcl(t) being the solution of the Euler-Lagrange equation. 5 yN matrix .1 j = 1 ::: N (2. (c) Show that Z dy1 : : : dyN exp(. yj ) . pj.

12

**(e) Let (t) = "pj for t = ta + j" and show that (2.1) implies that in the limit " ! 0 (t) satis es the equation
**

d2 = ;!2 (t) dt2 = with initial conditions (t = ta) = 0 d (tdt ta) = 1.

(f) Show that

( ) im! (x2 + x2) cos(!T ) ; 2x x ] m! exp hxbtbjxatai = 2 ih sin(!T ) a b 2h sin(!T ) b a where T = tb ; ta. s

**2.12 Show the composition property
**

Z

dx1Kf (x2 t2 x1 t1)Kf (x1 t1 x0 t0) = Kf (x2 t2 x0 t0)

where Kf (x1 t1 x0 t0) is the free propagator (Sakurai 2.5.16), by explicitly performing the integral (i.e. do not use completeness). 2.13 (a) Verify the relation

i

! ihe " B j] = c ijk k

~ ~ x p where ~ m dt = ~ ; ecA and the relation

" !# x ~ ~ x d2~ = d~ = e E + 1 d~ B ; B d~ : x ~ m dt2 dt 2c dt dt

@ + r0 ~ = 0 ~ j @t

(b) Verify the continuity equation

2. QUANTUM DYNAMICS

13

with ~ given by j

! h =( r0 ) ; e Aj j2: ~ ~ ~= j m mc

**2.14 An electron moves in the presence of a uniform magnetic eld ~ in the z-direction (B = B z). ^ (a) Evaluate where
**

x x y]

(b) By comparing the Hamiltonian and the commutation relation obtained in (a) with those of the one-dimensional oscillator problem show how we can immediately write the energy eigenvalues as ! h2k2 + jeB jh n + 1 E =

2 where hk is the continuous eigenvalue of the pz operator and n is a

kn

px ; eAx c

y

py ; eAy : c

2m

mc

nonnegative integer including zero.

2.15 Consider a particle of mass m and charge q in an impenetrable cylinder with radius R and height a. Along the axis of the cylinder runs a thin, impenetrable solenoid carrying a magnetic ux . Calculate the ground state energy and wavefunction. 2.16 A particle in one dimension (;1 < x < 1) is subjected to a constant force derivable from

V= x

( > 0):

14

(a) Is the energy spectrum continuous or discrete? Write down an approximate expression for the energy eigenfunction speci ed by E. (b) Discuss brie y what changes are needed if V is replaced be V = jxj:

**3 Theory of Angular Momentum
**

e;i( + )=2 cos 2 ei( ; )=2 sin

2

**3.1 Consider a sequence of Euler rotations represented by ! ;i 3 exp ;i 2 exp ;i 3 (1=2)( D ) = exp
**

2 =

**;e;i( ; )=2 sin 2 ei( + )=2 cos
**

2

2

2 !

:

Because of the group properties of rotations, we expect that this sequence of operations is equivalent to a single rotation about some axis by an angle . Find . 3.2 An angular-momentum eigenstate jj m = mmax = j i is rotated by an in nitesimal angle " about the y-axis. Without using the j explicit form of the d(m)0m function, obtain an expression for the probability for the new rotated state to be found in the original state up to terms of order "2. 3.3 The wave function of a patricle subjected to a spherically symmetrical potential V (r) is given by

(~ ) = (x + y + 3z)f (r): x

3.1) 3. what are the possible values of l we may obtain when L2 is measured? (b) What are the probabilities for the particle to be found in various ml states? (c) Suppose it is known somehow that (~ ) is an energy eigenfuncx tion with eigenvalue E . (One example of such a particle is the %meson). Indicate how we may nd V (r). what is the l-value? If ~ not. (a) Show explicitly that in nitesimal rotations of %i(~ ) are obtained x by acting with the operator ~ i^ ~ ~ where L = h r r.4 Consider a particle with an intrinsic angular momentum (or spin) of one unit of h. Quantum-mechanically. ~ ~x ~ p~ (d) Show that r %(~ ) = h1 (S ~)% where p is the momentum oper~ ator. such a particle is described by a ketvector j%i or in ~ representation a wave function x %i(~ ) = h~ ij%i x x where j~ ii correspond to a particle at ~ with spin in the i:th dix x rection. THEORY OF ANGULAR MOMENTUM 15 ~ (a) Is an eigenfunction of L? If so. ~ (c) Show that S is a vector operator. Determine S ! ~ ~ (b) Show that L and S commute.5 We are to add angular momenta j1 = 1 and j2 = 1 to form j = 2 1 and 0 states. 2 " ~ ~ ~ u~ = 1 . 3. Using the ladder operator method express all . i h (L + S ) " (3.

examine the rotational properties of Jz2 using the spherical (irreducible) tensor language. j X m=. p j0 +i : : : (3. You may. (b) Construct a spherical tensor of rank 2 out of two di erent ~ ~ vectors U and V .j j) jd(mm0 ( )j2m 1 for any j (integer or half-integer) then check your answer for j = 2 . Explicitly write T (1)0 in 1 terms of Ux y z and Vx y z .16 (nine) j m eigenkets in terms of jj1j2 m1m2i.] 3. Write your answer as 2 2 where + and 0 stand for m1 2 = 1 0 respectively. 3. xz.2) 3. (b) Prove. 1 1 jj = 1 m = 1i = p j+ 0i . 1): 2 2 Hint: This can be proved in many ways. Write down explicitly T (2) 1 0 in terms of Ux y z 2 and Vx y z . for any j .j (j m2jdm)0 m( )j2 = 1 j (j + 1) sin + m02 + 1 (3 cos2 . for instance. . and (x2 .8 (a) Write xy.7 (a) Evaluate j X m=. y2) as components of a spherical (irreducible) tensor of rank 2.6 (a) Construct a spherical tensor of rank 1 out of two di erent ~ ~ vectors U = (Ux Uy Uz ) and V = (Vx Vy Vz ).

3 in Sakurai to refresh your knowledge of the quantum mechanics of periodic potentials. or (. 4. (b) The wave function for a plane-wave state at t = 0 is given by px a complex function ei~ ~=h. Evaluate eh j m0j(x2 . r2)j j m = j i is known as the quadrupole moment. p that is.~0). Why does this not violate time-reversal invariance? 4.2 Let (~0) be the momentum-space wave function for state j i.4. 2 : : : )in terms of Q and appropriate ClebschGordan coe cients. (~0).Is the momentum-space wave function for the p p time-reversed state j i given by (~0. SYMMETRY IN QUANTUM MECHANICS 17 (b) The expectation value Q eh j m = j j(3z2 . ika n k (x + a) = e n k (x) 4 Symmetry in Quantum Mechanics .~0)? p p p p Justify your answer. (~0) = h~0 j i. 1 j .3 Read section 4. 4.1 (a) Assuming that the Hamiltonian is invariant under time reversal. You know that the energybands in solids are described by the so called Bloch functions n k full lling. y2)j j m = j i (where m0 = j j . (. prove that the wave function for a spinless nondegenerate system at any given instant of time can always be chosen to be real.

4 Suppose a spinless particle is bound to a xed center by a potential V (~ ) so assymetrical that no energy level is degenerate. and are important in the tight-binding description of solids. Sy2): . 4. and the lattice momentum k is restricted to the Brillouin zone . The functions n are called Wannier functions. (In this simble one dimensional problem Ri = ia. Prove that any Bloch function can be written as. Rj ) ij mn m Hint: Expand the n s in Bloch functions and use their orthonormality properties. =a =a].). x Using the time-reversal invariance prove ~ hLi = 0 for any energy eigenstate.) If the wave function of such a nondegenerate eigenstate is expanded as XX l m Ri Flm(r)Ylm ( ) what kind of phase restrictions do we obtain on Flm(r)? 4. i:e: prove Z dx ? (x . Show that the Wannier functions are corresponding to di erent sites and/or di erent bands are orthogonal. Ri )e i where the sum is over all lattice vectors Ri.18 where a is the lattice constant. n labels the band. X ikR n k (x) = n (x .5 The Hamiltonian for a spin 1 system is given by 2 H = ASz2 + B (Sx . (This is known as quenching of orbital angular momemtum. Ri) n(x . but the construction generalizes easily to three dimensions.

) Is this Hamiltonian invariant under time reversal? How do the normalized eigenstates you obtained transform under time reversal? 5 Approximation Methods 5. (c) Solve the H0 + V problem exactly.1 Consider an isotropic harmonic oscillator in two dimensions.1 p2 + p2 + m!2 (x2 + y2) y x H0 = 2m 2m 2 V = m!2xy 5. APPROXIMATION METHODS 19 Solve this problem exactly to nd the normalized energy eigenstates and eigenvalues. (A spin-dependent Hamiltonian of this kind actually appears in crystal physics. The Hamiltonian is given by (a) What are the energies of the three lowest-lying states? Is there any degeneracy? (b) We now apply a perturbation where is a dimensionless real number much smaller than unity. p 0 jxjni = h=2m! (pn + 1 0 + n 0 ):] You may use hn n n+1 n n. Find the zeroth-order energy eigenket and the corresponding energy to rst order that is the unperturbed energy obtained in (a) plus the rst-order energy shift] for each of the three lowest-lying states.5.2 A system that has three unperturbed states can be represented by the perturbed Hamiltonian matrix 0 1 E1 0 a B 0 E1 b C @ A a b E2 . Compare with the perturbation results obtained in q (b).

Use the second-order nondegenerate perturbation theory to calculate the perturbed eigenvalues.20 where E2 > E1.t= (a) Using time-dependent perturbation theory to rst order. For t > 0. j . the Hamiltonian is given by ~ ~ H = 4 2 S1 S2: h Suppose the system is in j + . For t 0 it is subjected to a time-dependent but spatially uniform force (not potential!) in the x-direction. the probability for being found in each of the following states j + +i. the Hamiltonian does not depend on spin and can be taken to be zero by suitably adjusting the energy scale. as a function of time. Is this reasonable or surprising? (b) Can we nd higher excited states? q You may use hn0jxjni = h=2m! (pn + 1 n0 n+1 + pn n0 n. Find. The quantities a and b are to be regarded as perturbations that are of the same order and are small compared with E2 .i: (a) By solving the problem exactly. obtain the probability of nding the oscillator in its rst excited state for t > 0). F (t) = F0e. (Is this procedure correct?) Then diagonalize the matrix to nd the exact eigenvalues. +i. j .3 A one-dimensional harmonic oscillator is in its ground state for t < 0. .4 Consider a composite system made up of two spin 2 objects. for t < 0. Compare the three results obtained.i.1 ):] 1 5.i for t 0. . Finally. j + . E1. 5. use the second-order degenerate perturbation theory. Show that the t ! 1 ( nite) limit of your expression is independent of time.

but you should be able to show that the observable e ects are independent of L. how you may compute the angular ~ distribution of the ejected electron (in terms of and de ned with respect to the z-axis).5. Show. !t): x Using time-dependent perturbation theory.Zr=a0 : x n=1 l=0 (~ ) = p a0 3 with L very large. Discuss brie y the similarities and the di erences between this problem and the (more realistic) photoelectric e ect. Under what condition does (b) give the correct results? 5. (note: For the initial wave function use If you have a normalization problem. in particular. APPROXIMATION METHODS 21 (b) By solving the problem assuming the validity of rst-order time-dependent perturbation theory with H as a perturbation switched on at t = 0. the nal wave function may be taken to be 1 x f (~ ) = 1 Z 2e. obtain an expression for the transition rate at which the electron is emitted with momentum p.l = 0) is subjected to a time-dependent potential as follows: V (~ t) = V0cos(kz .) L 3 2 px ei~ ~=h .5 The ground state of a hydrogen atom (n = 1.

22 .

Part II Solutions 23 .

.

(a) Prove that Y (A . a0 (a) Assume that j i is an arbitrary state ket. a00 a00 6=a0 a00 6=a0 = = 2 3 Y (A .2) .1 Consider a ket space spanned by the eigenkets fja0ig of a Hermitian operator A. a00 a So it projects to the eigenket ja0i.1) (b) Again for an arbitrary state j i we will have 2 3 2 3 1 Y (A . a000 X 000 Y (a000 . a00 j i = a0 . a )ja i = 0: a00 a0 a0 a00 a0 (1. a00) 5 4 = ja0iha0j 00 6=a0 a0 .1. a0) ja00i ha00j i = ca00 (A . a00) 0 00 ? a00 6=a0 a . a X 000 ha j i a000a0 ja000i = ha0j ija0i ) a000 a0 : (1. (b) What is the signi cance of Y (A . a 1 (c) Illustrate (a) and (b) using A set equal to Sz of a spin 2 system. a00) 5 X 000 { Y (A . a0)j i = (A . Then X Y Y Y X (A . There is no degeneracy. a00) 000 ha j i 0 00 ja i = a000 a00 6=a0 a . a00) 5 z }| 000 4 4 ja iha j i a0 . a0)ja00i | {z } a0 = a00 ca00 X Y 00 0 00 a002fa0g ca00 (a . a0) is a null operator. FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS 25 1 Fundamental Concepts 1.

ih.5) 0 z }| { = . a00 00 6=h=2 h=2 . h (j+ih+j + j. j.j).ih.j. a00) 2 = = h=2 + h=2 00 6=a0 a0 . a " # 1 h (j+ih+j .j) + h (j+ih+j + j.j) . So Y Y (Sz .h=2 we have Y (Sz .h=2 .h (1.2h=2 0 00 00 a00 6=a0 a .h 2 2 1 (. What is the probability of getting +h=2? . a01) a0 "a0 # h (j+ih+j .ih.h=2 .ih.j) 2 2 Similarly for a0 = .ih. a00) Sz .ih.hj. h 1 = = .26 (c) It is Sz h=2(j+ih+j. This operator has eigenkets j+i and j.ih. h (j+ih+j + j.j) = j.j) . j. a a00 6=.j) + h (j+ih+j + j.j+ih+j = 0 (1.j) = h 2 2 1 = h hj+ih+j = j+ih+j: (1.ih.j] hj+ih+j] = . j.h2j. a001) Sz + h 1 Y (Sz . a00 a a " # 1 h (j+ih+j .hj. a0) = (Sz . a001) Y (Sz .j: = . (a) Suppose Sx is measured.j = 1.3) where we have used that j+ih+j + j.4) ~ ^ 1. where n is a unit vector lying in the xz-plane that ^ makes an angle with the positive z-axis.ih.j) = .h=2 .ih.i h.i with eigenvalues h=2 and -h=2 respectively. For a0 = h=2 we have Y (Sz .ih. j.ih.2 A spin 1 system is known to be in an eigenstate of S n with 2 eigenvalue h=2.ih.j) = 2 2 " # h (j+ih+j .

hSx i)2i: (For your own peace of mind check your answers for the special cases = 0. h(Sx .7) we have that ! sin : ~ n = h cos S ^ 2 sin . h=2 sin ~ ^ det(S n . h sin2 = 0 ) 2 .3.4.7) : = 2 2 ~ ^ Since the system is in an eigenstate of S n with eigenvalue h=2 it has to satisfay the following equation ~ ^~ ^ ~ ^ S njS n +i = h=2jS n +i: (1. h = 0 ) = h : (1. it can be written in the following way n = ez cos + ex sin ^ ^ ^ (1. h cos2 + 2 .ih+j) sin (1. cos = a 2 sin cos = a tan 2 : (1.11) sin 2 2 .j + j. cos 2 b 2 sin2 2 b = a 1 .1.36).6) So ~ ^ S n = Sz cos + Sx sin = # (S-1. = 0 ) 2 2 2 .(S-1. b cos = b 2 sin .ih. I ) = 0 ) det h=2 sin . and .j) cos + h (j+ih.10) 4 4 4 2 ! a we will have that ~ ^ Since the system is in the eigenstate jS n +i b ! ! ! ( ) h cos sin a = h a ) a cos + b sin = a ) b a sin . FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS 27 (b) Evaluate the dispersion in Sx.18)] " # " h (j+ih+j . j.9) The eigenvalues and eigenfuncions of this operator can be found if one solves the secular equation ! h=2 cos .8) From (1. =2. that is. cos (1.h=2 cos .) Since the unit vector n makes an angle with the positive z-axis and is ^ lying in the xz-plane.

28

~ ^ But we want also the eigenstate jS n +i to be normalized, that is a2 + b2 = 1 ) a2 + a2 tan2 2 = 1 ) a2 cos2 2 a2 sin2 2 = cos2 2 r 2 = cos2 ) a = cos2 2 = cos 2 ) a (1.12) 2 where the real positive convention has been used in the last step. This means that the state in which the system is in, is given in terms of the eigenstates of the Sz operator by ~ ^ (1.13) jS n +i = cos 2 j+i + sin 2 j;i: (a) From (S-1.4.17) we know that 1 1 jSx +i = p2 j+i + p2 j;i: (1.14) So the propability of getting +h=2 when Sx is measured is given by ! 2 1 1 h+j + p h;j cos j+i + sin j;i 2 ~ ^ hSx +jS n +i = p2 2 2 2 2 1 1 = p cos 2 + p sin 2 2 2 1 cos2 + 1 sin2 + cos sin = 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 + 1 sin = 1 (1 + sin ): = 2 2 (1.15) 2

For = 0 which means that the system is in the jSz +i eigenstate we have

1 jhSx +jSz +ij2 = 2 (1) = 1 : 2

(1.16)

For = =2 which means that the system is in the jSx +i eigenstate we have

**jhSx +jSx +ij2 = 1:
**

1 1 jhSx +jSz ;ij2 = 2 (1) = 2 :

(1.17) (1.18)

For = which means that the system is in the jSz ;i eigenstate we have

1. FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS

(b) We have that

2 h(Sx ; hSxi)2i = hSx i ; (hSx i)2:

29

(1.19)

As we know

**Sx = h (j+ih;j + j;ih+j) ) 2 2 2 Sx = h (j+ih;j + j;ih+j) (j+ih;j + j;ih+j) ) 4 2 2 2 = h (j+ih+j + j;ih;j) = h : Sx {z } 4 4|
**

1

(1.20)

So

2 (hSxi)2 = h sin2 and 4 2 2 i = cos h+j + sin h;j h cos j+i + sin j;i hSx 2 2 4 2 2 h2 cos2 + sin2 ] = h2 : = 4 2 2 4 So substituting in (1.19) we will have

hSx i = cos 2 h+j + sin 2 h;j h (j+ih;j + j;ih+j) cos 2 j+i + sin 2 j;i 2 h cos sin + h sin cos = h sin ) = 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

(1.21)

**h(Sx ; hSxi)2i = h (1 ; sin2 ) = h cos2 : 4 4
**

and nally

2

2

(1.22)

h( Sx)2i =0 jSz +i = h 4 h( Sx)2i = =2 jSx +i = 0 2 h( Sx)2i =0 jSz ;i = h : 4

2

(1.23) (1.24) (1.25)

30

1.3 (a) The simplest way to derive the Schwarz inequality goes as follows. First observe (h j + h j) (j i + j i) 0 for any complex number then choose in such a way that the preceding inequality reduces to the Schwarz inequility. (b) Show that the equility sign in the generalized uncertainty relation holds if the state in question satis es Aj i = B j i with purely imaginary. (c) Explicit calculations using the usual rules of wave mechanics show that the wave function for a Gaussian wave packet given by " 2# 0 0 0j i = (2 d2 );1=4 exp ihpix ; (x ; hxi) hx

h( h( p)2i = h : 2 Prove that the requirement hx0j xj i = (imaginary number)hx0j pj i is indeed satis ed for such a Gaussian wave packet, in agreement with (b).

x)2i

(a) We know that for an arbitrary state jci the following relation holds hcjci 0: (1.26) This means that if we choose jci = j i + j i where is a complex number, we will have (h j + h j) (j i + j i) 0 ) (1.27) 2 h j i 0: h j i+ h j i+ h j i+j j (1.28)

**satis es the uncertainty relation
**

q

h

4d2

q

1.29) (1.30) when Ajai = B jai: (1.31) (1.31) holds if 1 jhf A B gij2 = 0 ) hf A B gi = 0 4 :33) ) haj A B + B Ajai = 0 (1) haj( B )2jai + haj( B )2jai = 0 ) ( + )haj( B )2jai = 0: (1. j i that is if j i and j i are colinear. (b) The uncertainty relation is To prove this relation we use the Schwarz inequality (1.34) jh A B ij2 = 4 jh A B ]ij2 + 1 jhf A B gij2 4 which means that the equality sign in the uncertainty relation (1.32) is 1 (1.35) Thus the equality sign in the uncertainty relation holds when Ajai = B jai (1. .h j i=h j i the previous relation will be 31 0 ) h j i .32) The equality sign in this relation holds according to (1. FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS If we now choose = . h jh ih ij i .33) On the other hand the right-hand side of (1.29) for the vectors j i = Ajai and j i = B jai which gives h( A)2ih( B )2i 1 jh A B ]ij2 : 4 h( A)2ih( B )2i jh A B ij2: (1.36) with purely imaginary.30) Notice that the equality sign in the last relation holds when jci = j i + j i = 0 ) j i = . h jh ih ij i + jhh jj ij j j i 2: h j ih j i jh j ij 2 (1.

hxi)j i = x0hx0j i . (x0 . hpihx0 j i " # @ ihpix0 .32 (c) We have hx0j xj i hx0j(x . hxihx0j i = (x0 . prove that x exp iph a jx0i x x exp iph a : x F (px)]classical : (xjx0i = x0jx0i) . Evaluate the commutator (c) Using the result obtained in (b).37) On the other hand hx0j pj i (1.38) But @ hx0j i = hx0j @x0 = hx0j (1. hpihx0 j i h h = 2id2 (x0 . 212 (x0 .38) we have h hx0j pj i = hpihx0 j i + 2id2 (x0 . Evaluate the classical Poisson bracket (b) Let x and px be the corresponding quantum-mechanical operators this time.ih @x0 hx0j i .i2d hx0 j pj i: hx (1.40) h 1. hxi)2 i @x0 h 4d2 # " p i ihh i . hpi)j i @ = . hxi) hx0j i .4 (a) Let x and px be the coordinate and linear momentum in one dimension.39) So substituting in (1. hxi) hx0j i = 2id2 hx0j xj i ) 2 0j xj i = . hxi)hx0j i: hx0j(p . hxi) d (1.

a exp iph a jx0i x = (x0 .1 px (.a exp iph a : (1. a exp iph a jx0i x x = x0 exp iph a jx0i .k.1 n.a) n (ih) h n=1 n! h n=1 k=0 1 n.1 X = px px = n! n.44) jx0 . @x @F (px) @x @px @px @x = @F (px) : @p x (1.42) h n=1 (c) We have now b x x x x exp iph a jx0i (=) exp iph a xjx0i . 1)! ia px = . FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS 33 is an eigenstate of the coordinate operator x.1 k px x px] pn. a) exp iph a jx0i: (1. So we can write x (1.41) (b) When x and px are treated as quantum-mechanical operators we have " 1 # 1 ipxa = x X (ia)n pn = X 1 (ia)n x pn] x x exp h n n x n=0 h n! n=0 n! h 1 X X 1 (ia)n n.k. What is the corresponding eigenvalue? (a) We have x F (px)]classical @x @F (px) .a (n .1 k n.1. .43) x So exp iph a jx0i is an eigenstate of the operator x with eigenvalue x0 . a.1 = x n n=0 n! h k=0 1 1 X 1 (ia)n n.1 X 1 x = .1 X n (ia)n. ai = C exp iph a jx0i where C is a constant which due to normalization can be taken to be 1.

5 (a) Prove the following: (i) hp0 jxj i = ih @ 0 hp0j i Z @p @ (ii) h jxj i = dp0 (p0)ih @p0 (p0) where (p0) = hp0 j i and (p0) = hp0j i are momentum-space wave functions. h hx0j i @ Z dx0hp0jx0ihx0j i = ih @ hp0 j i ) ih @p0 @p0 @ ih @p0 hp0j i: (1. (b) What is the physical signi cance of where x is the position operator and is some number with the dimension of momentum? Justify your answer.34 1. (a) We have (i) exp ix h hp0 jxj i = = = = hp0 jxj i = (ii) 1 }| { Z hp0 jx dx0jx0ihx0j i = dx0hp0 jxjx0ihx0 j i Z Z ip0 x0 dx0x0hp0jx0ihx0j i (S.45) z Z @ h jxj i = dp0 h jp0ihp0 jxj i = dp0 (p0)ih @p0 (p0) Z Z (1.46) where we have used (1.1:7:32) dx0x0Ae. h hx0j i = Z ip0 x0 ip0 x0 @ Z @ A dx0 @p0 e. .45) and that h jp0i = (p0) and hp0j i = (p0). h (ih)hx0j i = ih @p0 dx0Ae.

1 = n! ih n(. FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS 35 (b) The operator exp ix gives translation in momentum space.49) h where A is a constant which due to normalization can be taken to be 1.ih) ih = n=1 (n . p0 exp ix jp0i ) exp h = p exp h h ix jp0i = (p0 + ) exp ix jp0i : (1.1 1 X 1 X 1 ix n i = xn.1 n=1 n! h n=1 k=1 1 n.k k .1 (. .1.ih)xn. 1)! h n=0 n! h = exp ix : (1.47) h So when this commutator acts on an eigenstate jp0i of the momentum operator we will have p exp ix jp0i = p exp ix jp0i . This can h be justi ed by calculating the following operator " X 1 1 ix n # X 1 i n 1 ix p exp h = p n! h = n! h p xn ] n=0 n=0 n 1 X 1 i n X n.1 = n! h k=1 x p x]x n=1 n 1 n 1 X 1 i nX X1 = (. exp ix p0jp0i ) h h h ix ix jp0i .ih)xn.48) p exp h h Thus we have that exp ix jp0i Ajp0 + i (1.

Sy (t).3) y y dt ih x ih x z = ih dSy = 1 S H ] = 1 S !S ] (S.!S (2.A! sin !t + B! cos !t = . Solve them to obtain Sx y z as functions of time.4) we get d2Sx = .!S ) y dt . Let us rst prove the following AS BS ] = CS ) AH BH ] = CH : (2.!2S ) S (t) = C cos !t + D sin !t ) S (0) = C: y y y dt2 dt = But on the other hand dSx = .4) x dt ih y ih y z = ih x dSz = 1 S H ] = 1 S !S ] (S.1 in Jackson.1 Consider the spin-procession problem discussed in section 2. D! sin !t ) A=D C = .!2S ) S (t) = A cos !t + B sin !t ) S (0) = A : x x x 2 dt dt d2Sy = ! dSx (2:3) .1) Indeed we have h i AH BH ] = U yAS U U yBS U = U yAS BS U . and Sz (t).C! cos !t .5) z dt ih z ih z z = Di erentiating once more eqs. eB Sz = !Sz mc write the Heisenberg equations of motion for the time-dependent operators Sx(t).ihS ) = .! dSy (2=4) .3) and (2. Using the Hamiltonian H = .1:4:20) 0 ) S = constant: (2.6) 2 Quantum Dynamics .B: (2.1:4:20) ! (ihS ) = !S (2. U yBS AS U = U y AS BS ] U = U yCS U = CH : (2. It can also be solved in the Heisenberg picture.2) The Heisenberg equation of motion gives dSx = 1 S H ] = 1 S !S ] (S. (2.36 2.1:4:20) ! (.

12) Thus nally t ht t x(t) x(0)] = m p(0) + x(0) x(0) = m p(0) x(0)] = .3 Consider a particle in three dimensions whose Hamiltonian is given by 2 p H = 2~m + V (~ ): x . QUANTUM DYNAMICS So.11) " 2 (t) # 1 (t :11) (0) @x(t) = 1 x H ] = 1 x(t) p = 2mih 2p(t)ih = pm) (2= pm ) @t ih ih 2m t x(t) = m p(0) + x(0): (2.9) Sx(t) = Sx(0) cos !t . nally 37 (2. Sy (0) sin !t Sy (t) = Sy (0) cos !t + Sx(0) sin !t Sz (t) = Sz (0): 2.8) (2.2.13) 2. im : (2.2 Let x(t) be the coordinate operator for a free particle in one dimension in the Heisenberg picture.7) (2.10) This means that the Heisenberg equations of motion for the operators x and p will be " # @p(t) = 1 p(t) H (t)] = 1 p(t) p2(t) = 0 ) @t ih ih 2m p(t) = p(0) (2. Evaluate x(t) x(0)] : The Hamiltonian for a free particle in one dimension is given by 2 H = 2pm : (2.

14) will give " 2# pj xi 2m = 21 xi p2] = 21 (pj xi pj ] + xi pj ]pj ) = 21 (pj ih ij + ih ij pj ) m j m m = 21 2ih ij pj = ih ij pj : (2.17) m~ n=0 n n k=0 .14) = xi 2m pi + xi pi V (~ )] : i ij The rst commutator in (2. 1 X pi V (~ )] = pi anxn = an pi xn] = an xk pi xi] xn.38 By calculating ~ p H ] obtain x ~ * + d h~ ~i = p2 .ih @x V (~ ): (2.1 X X @ X = an (.14) now becomes X ih X @ V (~ ) x p ~ ~ H] = ij pj pi + (. Under what condition would this happen? Let us rst calculate the commutator ~ ~ H ] x p 3 " # 2X 3 p ~2 + V (~ ) = 4 3 x p X p2 + V (~ )5 j x p ~ ~ H ] = ~ ~ 2m x p x x i i i=1 j =1 2m X " p2 # X j x (2. So " X # X 1 X n.ih)xi @xi x ij m i = ih p2 .1 x i i i i X n. ih~ rV (~ ): x ~ x (2. h~ rV i: x ~ dt x p m To identify the preceding relation with the quantum-mechanical analogue of the virial theorem it is essential that the left-hand side vanish.ih annxn.k.1 = .ih @x anxn i i i i n n n k=0 @ x = .15) m m The second commutator can be calculated if we Taylor expand the function V (~ ) in terms of xi which means that we take V (~ ) = Pn anxn with an x x i independent of xi.16) i The right-hand side of (2.ih)xn.1 = .

h j0i: You may use 2 !3 x0 25 hx0j0i = . ~ rV (~ ) ) :17) p ~ x x p x p dt ih + m x * d h~ pi = p2 . Does this probability change for t > 0? (a) We have ipa j t = 0i = exp . 1 x 0 2 0 0 @x0 h m! !1=21 A: (b) Obtain a simple expression that the probability that the state is found in the ground state at t = 0.ipa j0i (Pr:=:4:c) hx0 . QUANTUM DYNAMICS The Heisenberg equation of motion gives d ~ ~ = 1 ~ ~ H ] (2= ~2 . E hnj~ ~jni) = 0: n x p dt x ~ ih x p ih n x ~ So to have the quantum-mechanical analogue of the virial theorem we can take the expectation values with respect to a stationaru state. h~ rV i x ~ dt x ~ m 39 (2. aj0i = h 2 !3 x0 . Indeed we have d hnj~ pjni = 1 hnj ~ ~ H ] jni = 1 (E hnj~ pjni .1=4x.19) .2.1=2 exp 4. 1 0 2 x0 (2.h j0i ) 1 hx0j t = 0i = hx0 exp . 2. a 25 : .1=4x. The left-hand side of the last equation vanishes for a stationary state.18) where in the last step we used the fact that the state kets in the Heisenberg picture are independent of time.1=2 exp 4.4 (a) Write down the wave function (in coordinate space) for the state ipa exp .

known as the correlation function.1=2 0 0 2 0 2 !3 x0 . 4x2 0 x 4x2 So 0 0 0 jh0j For t > 0 t = 0ij2 ! a2 : = exp .ipa j0i hexp h 2 h 0 !2 3 Z x = dx0 .1=2 exp 4.22) jh0j tij2 = jh0jU (t)j t = 0ij2 = jh0j exp .20) jh0j t = 0ij2 = jhexp .ipa j0ij2: h It is . a 25 exp 4.ipa j0i = Z dx0h0jx0ihx0 j exp . 1 x 5 . 2x2 0 (2.40 (b) This probability is given by the expression (2.iE t=hh0j t = 0i = jh0j t = 0ij2: (2. 2ax0 = dx 0 2 " 2x0 !# 1 Z dx0 exp .5 Consider a function.1=4x.21) = exp . de ned by C (t) = hx(t)x(0)i (2.23) 0 2.24) where x(t) is the position operator in the Heisenberg picture. . 1 x 2 0 " # Z 0 . iHt j t = 0ij2 h 2 = e.1=2x. a2 : (2. Evaluate the correlation function explicitly for the ground state of a one-dimensional simple harmonic oscillator. 2 x02 . 2x0 a + a2 + a2 = p x 2x2 2 4 4 0 0 ! ! 2 a p 1 p x = exp . 1 x02 + x02 + a2 .1=4x.1 exp .

!2x(t) ) x(t) = A cos !t + B sin !t ) x(0) = A :27) 2 dt m dt d2p(t) = 1 dx(t) (2= .25) 2 So the Heisenberg equations of motion will give " # dx(t) = 1 x(t) H ] = 1 x(t) p2(t) + 1 m!2x2(t) dt ih ih 2m 2 i 1 h i 1 h = 2mih x(t) p2(t) + 2 m!2 i1 x(t) x2(t) h (t ih (2.26) = 22hm p(t) = pm) i # " dp(t) = 1 p(t) H ] = 1 p(t) p2 (t) + 1 m!2x2(t) dt ih ih 2m 2 m!2 hp(t) x2(t)i = m!2 .27) = 2ih 2 ih Di erentiating once more the equations (2.27) we get d2x(t) = 1 dp(t) (2= . QUANTUM DYNAMICS 41 But on the other hand from (2.2.29) (2.!2p(t) ) p(t) = C cos !t + D sin !t ) p(0) = C: :26) 2 dt m dt (2.2ihx(t)] = .28) (2.30) .26) and (2.26) we have dx(t) = p(t) ) dt m p(0) cos !t + D sin !t ) .m!2x(t): (2.m!x(0): So x(t) = x(0) cos !t + p(0) sin !t m! and the correlation function will be 1 :29) C (t) = hx(t)x(0)i (2= hx2(0)i cos !t + hp(0)x(0)i m! sin !t: The Hamiltonian for a one-dimensional harmonic oscillator is given by 2 (t H = p2m) + 1 m!2x2(t): (2.!x(0) sin !t + B! cos !t = m m p(0) B = m! D = .

jc j2 : c1 = jc1je 0 (2.6 Consider a one-dimensional simple harmonic oscillator. (a) Construct a linear combination of j0i and j1i such that hxi is as large as possible.32) = . without using wave functions. The state j i should be normalized. What is the state vector for t > 0 in the Schrodinger picture? Evaluate the expectation value hxi as a function of time for t > 0 using (i) the Schrodinger picture and (ii) the Heisenberg picture. (b) Suppose the oscillator is in the state constructed in (a) at t = 0. that is. (a) We want to nd a state j i = c0j0i + c1j1i such that hxi is as large as possible. (c) Evaluate h( x)2i as a function of time using either picture.i!t: (2. a)(a + ay)j0i hp(0)x(0)i = i 2 2m! (2.i h : 2 2 Thus h h h C (t) = 2m! cos !t .34) We can write the constands c0 and c1 in the following form c0 = jc0jei 0 q :34) i 1 (2= ei 1 1 .33) 2. jc0j2: (2.35) .i h h0jaayj0i = . i 2m! sin !t = 2m! e. Do the following algebraically. This means q jc0j2 + jc1j2 = 1 ) jc1j = 1 .31) h hx2(0)i = h0j 2m! (a + ay)(a + ay)j0i = 2m! h0jaayj0i = 2m! s s mh! h h0j(ay .42 Since we are interested in the ground state the expectation values appearing in the last relation will be h h (2.

What we need is to nd the values of jc0j and 1 .41) s hxi = h jxj i = (c0h0j + c1h1j) x (c0j0i + c1j1i) = jc0j2h0jxj0i + c0c1h0jxj1i + c1csh1jxj0i + jc1j2h1jxj1i 0 s h h = jc0j2 2m! h0ja + ayj0i + c0c1 2m! h0ja + ayj1i . @ hxi = 0 ) q1 .39) 2 @ 1 1= 1max < 0 ) n = 2k k 2 Z : So we can write that 1 1 1 j i = ei 0 p2 j0i + ei( 0+2k ) p2 j1i = ei 0 p2 (j0i + j1i): (2. )jc jq1 .36) 0 1 0 0 q h where we have used that x = 2m! (a + ay).2. ) = 0 ) = + n n 2 Z : (2. q jc0j2 jc) 1 1 . jc j2 = 2 2m! (2. sin( . Thus 1 j i = p2 (j0i + j1i): (2.40) We can always take 0 = 0. jc j2 = 0 0 j6= 0 0 0 @ jc0j 1 . jc0j2 1 ) jc0j = p (2. jc j2 . QUANTUM DYNAMICS by 43 The average hxi in a one-dimensional simple harmonic oscillator is given s h h1ja + ayj0i + jc j2 h h1ja + ayj1i +c1c0 2m! 1 2m! s s h h = 2m! (c0c1 + c1c0) = 2 2m! <(c0c1) s h cos( .38) 1 0 1 0 @1 But for hxi maximum we want also @ 2hxi (2.37) 2 @ hxi = 0 ) . 0 that make the average hxi as large as possible. jc j2 .

29) that xH (t) = x(0) cos !t + p(0) sin !t: m! So hxiH = h jxH j i !" " # # 1 1 h0j + p h1j x(0) cos !t + p(0) sin !t p j0i + p j1i 1 1 = p m! 2 2 2 2 1 1 = 2 cos !th0jxj1i + 1 cos !th1jxj0i + 1 m! sin !th0jpj1i 2 2 1 1 + 2 m! sin !th1jpj0i s s s h cos !t + 1 h cos !t + 1 sin !t(.43) = 2 e. hxi2 (2.i!3t=2j1i = p e.iE t=hj1i 0 1 1 1 = p e.i!t=2 j0i + e.45) .i) mh! 1 = 2 2m! 2 2m! 2m! 2 s h! 1 + 2m! sin !ti m2 s h = 2m! cos !t: (2.42) 2 2 (i) In the Schrodinger picture hxiS = h t0 tjxS j t0 tiS " # " # 1 ei!t=2h0j + ei!3t=2h1j x p e. So 1 1 j t0 ti = U (t t0 = 0)j t0i = e.44 (b) We have j t0i = j i.iE t=hj0i + p2 e.iHt=hj i = p2 e.i!t=2j0i + e.i!t=2j0i + e.!t=2)h1jxj0i s s s2 h + 1 ei!t h = h cos !t: 1 (2.44) (c) It is known that h( x)2i = hx2i .i!3t=2j1i 1 = p 2 2 1 = 2 ei(!t=2.i!t 2m! 2 2m! 2m! (ii) In the Heisenberg picture we have from (2.!3t=2)h0jxj1i + 1 ei(!3t=2.i!tj1i :(2.

2m! cos2 !t = 2m! sin2 !t: (2. aya) sin2 !t m2s ! i 2 + m! hmh! (a + ay)(ay .47) = 2 + 2 2 + 2 2m! = 2m! : h h :43) h h( x)2iS (2= 2m! .i!t=2j0i + e. QUANTUM DYNAMICS In the Schodinger picture we have 32 2s h (a + ay)5 = h (a2 + ay2 + aay + aya) 2 = 4 x 2m! 2m! which means that 45 (2.i!3t=2j1i 1 = p 2 2 = So i h 1 ei(!t=2.2.48) h1 In the Heisenberg picture " # p(0) sin !t 2 x2 (t) = x(0) cos !t + m! H p2 = x2(0) cos2 !t + m2(0) sin2 !t !2 + x(0)p(0) cos !t sin !t + p(0)x(0) cos !t sin !t m! m! h = 2m! (a2 + ay2 + aay + aya) cos2 !t .46) hxi2 = h t0 tjx2j t0 tiS S " # " # 1 ei!t=2h0j + ei!3t=2h1j x2 p e. a)(a + ay) sin2 !t 4m! h (a2 + ay2 + aay + aya) cos2 !t = 2m! . a) sin2 !t s 4m! i 2 + m! hmh! (ay . aay .!t=2)h0jaayj0i + 1 ei(!3t=2. 2mh!2 (a2 + ay2 .!3t=2)h1jaayj1i + 2 h1jayaj1i 2m! 2 2 h1 1 1i h h (2.

(b) Prove the minimum uncertainty relation for such a state.51) (2. a2) sin 2!t which means that h ih . 2 .46 h h h = 2m! (aay + aya) + 2m! a2 cos 2!t + 2m! ay2 cos 2!t ih + 2m! (ay2 .7 A coherent state of a one-dimensional simple harmonic oscillator is de ned to be an eigenstate of the (non-Hermitian) annihilation operator a: aj i = j i where is. 2m! (a2 + ay2 .49) hx2 iH = h jx2 " iH H Hj # 1 h p h0j + p h1j 1 = 2m! 2 2 " # 1 j0i + p j1i 1 p 2 2 h y y i aa + a a + a2 cos 2!t + ay2 cos 2!t + i(ay2 . 2m! cos2 !t = 2m! sin2 !t: 2.j j =2e ay j0i is a normalized coherent state. in general. (a) Prove that j i = e. a2) sin 2!t i h h = 4m! h0jaayj0i + h1jaayj1i + h1jayaj1i h h = 4m! 1 + 2 + 1] = m! : (2. a complex number. a2) sin 2!t (2. aay .50) So h h :44) h h( x)2iH (2= 2m! . aya) sin2 !t + 2m! (ay2 .

(Hint: directly apply the time-evolution operator.52) since aj0i = 0. QUANTUM DYNAMICS 47 1 X n=0 (c) Write j i as j i= f (n)jni: Show that the distribution of jf (n)j2 with respect to n is of the Poisson form. If it is normalized.j j2=2 e ay j0i = j i (2.1 (a ) = ( a ) = e ay : (2. hence of E . and l is the displacement distance) to the ground state.1 X n = (ay)k.j j2=2 a e ay j0i (2.52) aj i = e.1 a a (a ) = n! (a ) n=1 n! k=1 n=1 k=1 1 1 X 1 yn X 1 n y n.) (a) We have h i aj i = e.54) which means that j i is a coherent state. The commutator is # 1 " X 1 1 h ay i y)n = X 1 n ha (ay)n i ae = a n! ( a n=0 n! n=0 1 1 X n 1 n h yi y n. 1)! So from (2.k X 1 n X y n. Find the most probable value of n.j j h0je ae ay j0i 2 2 . (e) Show that the coherent state j i remains coherent under timeevolution and calculate the time-evolved state j (t)i. it should satisfy also h j i = 1.j j2=2ae ay j0i = e. Indeed h j i = h0je ae.ipl=h (where p is the momentum operator.j j e ay j0i = e.53) = n=0 n! n=1 (n . (d) Show that a coherent state can also be obtained by applying the translation ( nite-displacement) operator e.2.

56) (b) According to problem (1.61) .j j2 ej j2 e p p )n mh0jan j(ay)m j0i (ay)mj0i = m!jmi] p n! m! ( )n mhnjmi = e.60) s and so h xj i = (x . h jpj i and c is a purely imaginary number. a) we have s p s mh! y h! pj i = i 2 (a . )j i: q h! Similarly for the momentum p = i m2 (ay .58) s h h j(a + ay)j i = h (h jaj i + h jayj i) hxi = h jxj i = 2m! 2m! s h = 2m! ( + ) (2.48 = e.j j2 nm . )j i (2.j = = j2 X 1 ( n m n!m! X e.j j2 X 1 (j j2)n n! m! n n! = 1: (2.3) the state should satisfy the following relation where x x . p p . hxi)j i = 2m! (ay .55) xj i = c pj i (2. a)j i = i m2 (ay .59) s (2.57) (2. h jxj i. Since j i is a coherent state we have aj i = j i ) h jay = h j : Using this relation we can write s s h (a + ay)j i = h ( + ay)j i xj i = 2m! 2m! and (2.

60) s s h (. ) (2.64) | {z } purely imaginary and thus the minimum uncertainty condition is satis ed.67) which means that the distribution of jf (n)j2 with respect to n is of the Poisson type about some mean value n = j j2. m! for the expansion coe cients f (n) we have f (n) = hnj i = hnje.j j2=2hnje ay j0i 1 1 .j j2=2 p1 n ) (2.j j2=2e ay j0i = e.65) n=0 n=0 i .66) n! m=0 2 n jf (n)j2 = (j nj! ) exp(. a)j i = i mh! (h jayj i . )j i = . (c) The coherent state can be expressed as a superposition of energy eigenstates 1 1 X X j i = jnihnj i = f (n)jni: (2.j j2 =2hnj X 1 ( ay)m j0i = e. h jaj i) hpi = h jpj i = i 2 2 s h! = i m2 ( .i m2 pj i: h! So using the last relation in (2.i) 2 pj i = xj i = 2m! mh! s pj i (2.j j2=2 m! m m!hnjmi = e.j j2) (2.2.62) and so s h! pj i = (p . QUANTUM DYNAMICS and 49 s mh! h j(ay . .63) (ay . )j i ) s (2.j j2=2 X 1 m hnj(ay)m j0i = e m=0 m! m=0 m! 1 1 p X = e. hpi)j i = i m2 (ay .

50 The most probable value of n is given by the maximum of the distribution jf (n)j2 which can be found in the following way j j2 1 = n+1 (2. a] = i mh! : a p] = i 2 (2. (d) We should check if the state exp (.ipl=h) j0i (2.ipl=h) j0i is a coherent state with eigenvalue l m! .ipl=h) j0i] = l 2h exp (. We have h i a exp (.72) which q means that the state exp (.ipl=h) j0i is an eigenstate of the anjf (n + 1)j2 = jf (n)j2 nihilation operator a.j j2 ) n! .70) = l 2h e(.il !n X k. For the commutator in the last relation we have 1 n 1 h (.71) 2 So substituting (2.ipl=h) where we have used that s s mh! a ay .1 = i 2 h n=1 (n .iHt=hj i (2= e.ilp !n.il X 1 .ipl=h) j0i] (2.ipl=h) j0i = a e(.69) we get r m! a exp (.1 i m2 = n=1 n! h s !k=1 1 mh! .70) in (2.iHt=h e.il !n X n X h! pn.il !n n X 1 .69) since aj0i = 0.j j2) (n+1)! (j j2 )n exp(.68) which means that the most probable value of n is j j2. 2h (e) Using the hint we have 1 X :66) j (t)i = U (t)j i = e.1 ae = a p ] = n! h p a p]pn. 1)! h r m! (2.k n! h n=0 n=1 k=1 s 1 1 .j j2=2 p1n! n jni n=0 (j j2)n+1 exp(.ipl=h)i X 1 .

i!t=2j e. (a) What is the potential? (b) Determine the constant A in terms of the parameters describing the system (such as m. We have X sin(nrx) sin(nry) r E . r etc. for a particle with mass m.iHt=hjnihnjyi n Z01 iEt=h X e.73) n! n=0 Thus aj (t)i = e.i!t j (t)i: (2.i!t=2 .i!t )n X :66) p jni (2= e.i!t=2j e. ).j e.iEnt=he.i!t=2 e.it e. QUANTUM DYNAMICS = 1 X 51 1 1 :3 X .iEn t=hhxjnihnjy i = dte 0 nZ 1 i(E .i!t n .74) 2. h22m2 n2 n K (x y E ) = = Z1 Z01 Z01 dteiEt=hK (x y t 0) Z1 0 dteiEt=hhx tjy 0i X dteiEt=h hxje.i!t=2aj e.E )t=h X e n dt = n (x) n (y ) n 0 dteiEt=hhxje.j j2=2 p1 njni (2=:9) e h h!(n+ 2 )e.8 The quntum mechanical propagator.i!ti = e.j j2=2 1 n p jni = e e e n! n=0 1 .2. moving in a potential is given by: K (x y E ) = Z1 0 dteiEt=hK (x y t 0) = A where A is a constant.iHt=hjyi .i!tj2=2 ( e (2.i!t e.i!ti = e.i!ti = e.j j2=2 p1 n jni n! n! n=0 n=0 1 X .

78) (2.77) n (x) = L L X n (x) n (y ) E .1 dx (x)f (x)] dx . (Hint: study the e ect on testfunctions.76) we get L = r ) L = r and ( 0 V = 1 for 0 < x < r otherwise while (2.ih ei(E.75) X sin(nrx) sin(nry) ) r E .9 Prove the relation where (x) is the (unit) step function.En+i")t=h n (x) n (y ) lim "!0 E . En ih =A . h22m2 n2 n n s 2 r2 (x) = iA sin(nrx) En = h m n2: (2.79) A = 2r ) A = i 2hr : ih d (x) = (x) dx 2.52 = = So X X n n ih : n (x) n (y ) E .1 dx . . En Comparing with (2. and (x) the Dirac delta function.1 (x) dx dx .76) n h 2 For a one dimensional in nite square well potential with size L the energy eigenvalue En and eigenfunctions n(x) are given by s 2 2 sin n x h2 En = 2m L n2: (2.) For an arbitrary test function f (x) we have Z +1 d (x) Z +1 d Z +1 df (x) f (x)dx = . En + i" " #1 0 (2.

1 (2. QUANTUM DYNAMICS = (x)f (x) 53 +1 .85) B = xT . d (mx) = 0 ) :81) @x dt @ x _ dt _ x + ! 2 x = 0: (2. The Lagrangian for the one dimensional harmonic oscillator is given by i m! h Scl = 2 sin(!T ) (x2 + 2x2 ) cos(!T ) .10 Derive the following expression for the classical action for a harmonic oscillator moving from the point x0 at t = 0 to the point xT at t = T . d @ L = 0 (2) . x0 cos !T ) cos (2. f (x) = f (0) lim 0 Z +1 = (x)f (x)dx ) . x0!T !T : sin . 2 m!2x2: _ 1 _ 1 From the Lagrange equation we have @ L .83) which is the equation of motion for the system. This can be solved to give x(t) = A cos !t + B sin !t with boundary conditions x(t = 0) = x0 = A (2.81) (2.1 dx dx 0 +1 = x!+1 f (x) . d (x) = (x): dx Z +1 df (x) .84) x(t = T ) = xT = x0 cos !T + B sin !T ) B sin !T = xT .2.80) 2.m!2x . x0xT 0 T L(x x) = 2 mx2 .82) (2.

2x x i : = 2 sin !T T 0 (2. x x . 1 m! 2 x2 = dt 2 dt _ 2 2 0 ZT T 1 _ = . x x + x2 cos !T i = 0 T 0 T 0 2 sin !T h T m! (x2 + x2) cos !T . x0 cos !T sin !t = sin !T sin (2. x0 cos !T ) 2 sin !T sin !T m! hx2 cos !T .88) 0 T 2.86) = xT sin !t + x0!T !(T . x0!T !T sin !t sin x0 cos !t sin !T + xT sin !t . x0!Tcos !(T .87) sin With these at hand we have ZT ZT 1 _ S = dtL(x x) = dt 2 mx2 . x0! (xT . 1 m!2x2 _ 2 0 0 # ZT " d 1 m (xx) . x0) . x(0)x(0)] x _ = m xT ! (xT cos !T . t) : _ (2. 2 m dtx x + !2x] + m xx 2 0 0 (2:82) m = 2 x(T )_ (T ) . t) ) sin ! x(t) = xT ! cos !t . 1 m!2x2 2 _ 2 (a) Show that hxb tbjxatai = exp iScl G(0 tb 0 ta) h where Scl is the action along the classical path xcl from (xa ta) to (xb tb) and G is G(0 tb 0 ta) = . 1 mxx .11 The Lagrangian of the single harmonic oscillator is L = 1 mx2 .54 So cos x(t) = x0 cos !t + xT .

QUANTUM DYNAMICS N !1 55 (N +1) 2 lim Z dy1 : : : dyN m 2 ih" 8 N 9 <i X m 1 "m!2y2 = 2 exp : h j 2" (yj+1 .1 j = 1 ::: N (2.] (b) Show that G can be written as m (N2+1) Z dy : : : dy exp(. 5 yN matrix . (c) Show that Z dy1 : : : dyN exp(. yj ) . .ta . 7 and nT is its transpose. De ne j j matrices j0 that con0 sist of the rst j rows and j columns of N and whose determinants are pj .nT n) G = Nlim 2 ih" 1 N !1 2 3 6 y.89) implies that in the limit " ! 0 (t) satis es the equation d2 = .!2 (t) dt2 with initial conditions (t = ta) = 0 d (t=ta) dt = 1. xcl(t) be the new integration variable.89) (e) Let (t) = "pj for t = ta + j" and show that (2. +1) Hint: Let y(t) = x(t) . pj.] ih" 0 (d) Let 2m N det det N pN . Write the symmetric 4 . "2!2)pj . xcl(t) being the solution of the Euler-Lagrange equation.nT n = p det N=2 Hint: Diagonalize by an orthogonal matrix. 2 j =0 b where " = (tN. By expanding j0 +1 in minors show the following recursion formula for the pj : pj+1 = (2 .nT n) Z dN ne.1 7 where n = 6 .2.

iH (ti . s (a) Because at any given point the position kets in the Heisenberg picture form a complete set.i h 2m jx i = hxi+1 je dpi hxi+1je.pi m (xi+1 .i h ( 2 mp + 2 m! x )jxii (since " is very small) "1 "p = hxi+1 je.i h 2 m! x jxii "1 "p (2.xi )2.i 2mh p2. it is legitimate to insert the identity operator written as Z dxjxtihxtj = 1 (2.i h 2m jpiihpi jxii i Z " p2 i = dpi e.92) = e.xi)+ m22 (xi+1.i 2mh pi.1tN .xi )=h h i " 1 Z dp e.i h m e.xi)]2 " " = 2 h i .iH"=hjxii 1 " 1 = hxi+1 je.xi)2 i " " " = 2 h i i" " 1 e 2mh m22 (xi+1.2pi m (xi+1 .i h 2m hxi+1jpi ihpi jxii Z "p2 = 2 1h dpi e.90) So hxbtbjxatai = Nlim dx1dx2 : : : dxN hxb tbjxN tN ihxN tN jxN .i h m jxii: +1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 For the second term in this last equation we have Z " p2 " p2 .i h 2 m! xi hxi+1 je.56 (f) Show that ( ) m! exp im! (x2 + x2) cos(!T ) . m22 (xi+1.ti )=hjxii = hxi+1je.i h 2im eipi(xi+1.1i : : : !1 hxi+1ti+1jxitii : : : hx1t1jxatai: (2.91) It is Z hxi+1ti+1jxitii = hxi+1 je. ta.xi)2 Z dp e. 2x x ] hxbtbjxatai = 2 ih sin(!T ) a b 2h sin(!T ) b a where T = tb .

91): Z i hxbtbjxatai Dx exp h S x] = 8 N 9 Z m (N2+1) exp < i X m (x . QUANTUM DYNAMICS s i" 1 e 2mh m22 (xi+1. 2 m!2y2 dt a 2 = exp iScl G(0 tb 0 ta) (2. xcl(t) ) x(t) = y(t) + xcl(t) ) x(t) = y(t) + xcl(t) with _ _ _ boundary conditions y(ta) = y(tb) = 0: For this new integration variable we have Dx = Dy and Z tb S x] = S y + xcl] = L(y + xcl y + xcl)dt _ _ ta 3 Z tb 2 @ L y + @ L y + 1 @ 2L y 2 + 1 @ 2L y 25 4L(xcl xcl) + = _ 2 @ x2 @x xcl @ x xcl _ 2 @ 2x xcl _ _ xcl _ ta " !# Z tb h i @ L y tb + Z tb @ L .95) h (N +1) 2 9 8 N <i X m 1 "m!2y2 = : 2 exp : h j 2" (yj+1 . 2 j =0 .xi )2 2hm " = 2 h i" r m im = 2 hi" e 2h" (xi+1. yj ) .93) m 1 e hi 2m" (xi+1.xi)2 : Substituting this in (2. d @ L 1 my 2 .94) and this into (2. 1 "m!2 xi] 2 hxi+1ti+1jxitii = 2 ih" 2 (2. 1 "m!2x2 = : lim dx1 : : :dxN j :h N !1 2 ih" 2" j+1 j 2 j =0 with G(0 tb 0 ta) = Z lim dy1 : : : dyN 2 mh" N !1 i Let y(t) = x(t) .xi )2.92) we get 57 (2.2. x )2 . 1 m! 2 y 2 dt: y+ = Scl + @ x _ 2 _ ta ta @x dt @ x xcl _ ta 2 So Z i i iZt h 1 hxb tbjxatai = Dy exp h Scl + h t b 1 my_ 2 .

6... .. . i X 1 "m!2y y (yN +1 =0) = i ij j h j=0 2" j+1 j j+1 j j j+1 h i j=1 2 N N 2 X m X .1 5 6 0 0 0 ::: 1 0 7 4 4 5 0 0 0 : : : .1 2 0 0 0 ::: 0 1 (c) We can diagonalize by a unitary matrix U .97) G = Nlim 2 ih" 1 N !1 with 2 3 2 3 2 .. (2. y )2 . . 2"ih (2yi ij yj .101) . 7: .7 6 6 7 6 0 0 0 : : : 2 .7 .7 .96) i j =1 where the last step is written in such a form so that the matrix will be symmetric.1 2 : : : 0 0 7 7 6 6 7 i"m!2 6 0 0 1 : : : 0 0 7 7 m 6 7+ 6 = 2"ih 6 . . 7 2h 6 .1 0 : : : 0 0 1 0 0 ::: 0 0 6 . . .nT RT Rn Rn= d d = dN e. T Z Z Z 2 2 2 . .nT n = N ne.nT n) (2.1 : : : 0 0 7 6 0 1 0 ::: 0 0 7 6 6 7 6 0 .7 . . 1 "m!2y2 (y0= =0) j +1 j j h j=0 2" 2 N N i X m (y2 + y2 . 2 a2 : : : d e. . So = RT D R and det R = 1 (2. . Since is symmetric the following will hold = U y DU ) T = U T D(U y)T = U T D U = ) U = U : (2.1 2 . N aN = d 1e d 2e N s s s N=2 N=2 qQN = p = a a ::: a = det D 1 2 N a = p N=2 i=1 i det (2. Thus we have m (N2+1) Z dy : : : dy exp(.98) .58 (b) For the argument of the exponential in the last relation we have N i X m (y . . i"m! 2h i j=1 yi ij yj :(2. y y . .. yi i+1 j yj ) .. . y y ) .7 6 . yi i j+1yj . . 1 a1 .99) So we can diagonalize by an orthogonal matrix R.100) whichZmeans that Z Z N ne. .

. " . QUANTUM DYNAMICS where ai are the diagonal elements of the matrix D . "): (2.2.1 : : : 0 0 0 7 6 .103) with p0 = 1 and p1 = 2 .7 6 . . .1 7 60 >4 5 4 > : 0 0 0 : : : . . "2!2 . . pj. (d) From (2.104) . 7> . .1 2 . . "2!2 : : : 0 0 0 7 6 7 6 0 6 7 . . "2!2 6 0 6. 6 . .. .1 ) = (2 .98) we have ! 2ih" N det = m 82 21 > 2 . (t . det j0 . "2!2)pj . 0 0 0 0 1 .. 0 0 39 ::: 0 0 > : : : 0 0 7> 7> > 7= : : : 0 0 7> 7 = . 1)") 2 (t) .1 2 . 7: . 6.1 2 (ta + j") .7 >6 6 >6 0 0 0 : : : 2 .1 : : : 0 0 0 3 6 . 7 6 7 6 0 2!2 0 ::: 2 . .1 0 : : : 0 0 3 >6 .1 2 : : : 0 0 7 <6 7 . . 7 det j0 +1 = det 6 . " From the above it is obvious that det 0 j +1 pj+1 = (2 .102) We de ne j j matrices j0 that consist of the rst j rows and j columns of 0 N .1 : : : 0 0 7 60 >6 7 6 >6 7 6 >6 0 . .1 2 . . det >6 .7 . .1 2 . .1 0 7 6 7 6 0 2!2 4 5 0 : : : . . . (e) We have (t) (ta + j") ) (ta + (j + 1)") = = ) (t + ") = "pj "pj+1 = (2 . "pj. . . . (ta + (j . "2!2) det j0 . 7> : : : 1 0 7> 5> ::: 0 1 (2. .1 for j = 2 3 : : : N (2. .. "2!2.1 7 2! 2 0 0 ::: 0 . " . . 6. "2!2 (t) . "2!2 (ta + j") . ..1 2 0 0 det N pN : 59 0 1 0 . 7> . . "2!2)"pj . So 2 2 .

1 ! 1: The general solution to (2.") " (2. "2!2 .106) and (2.!ta + n n 2 Z which gives that (t) = A sin !(t .111) (f) Gathering all the previous results together we get # " m (N +1) p N 1=2 G = Nlim 2 ih" !1 det . ta). (t) " . "2!2 (t) ) = . (t .106) (ta) = "p0 ! 0 Thus d (t ) = (ta + ") . p0) = p .107) (2. " (t). (ta) = "(p1 . t ) ) 0(t ) = A! (2) :107) a a dt 1 A! = 1 ) A = ! t (t) = sin !(! .!2 (t) ) 0 0 2 lim (t) .!2 (t): "!0 dt From (c) we have also that (t+").105) (2. ") .105) is (t) = A sin(!t + ) and from the boundary conditions (2.110) (2. (t) = (t) .108) (2.107) we have (ta) = 0 ) A sin(!ta + ) = 0 ) = . (t. p 1 0 dt a " " = 2 . ta) : and (2. ") = . while d = A! cos(t .!2 (t) ) d 2 = . " (t .60 So (t + ") .109) (2.

1 2" 1 1 0 # Z im x2 + im x2 .1=2 ! m 1=2 4 lim " 2ih" N det 5 N !1 2 ih m m 1=2 lim "p . QUANTUM DYNAMICS = (d) 61 = (2:111) = 2 3. x1)2 = dx1 2 ih(t . t0) 2 1 .2. t )(t . by explicitly performing the integral (i. t ) 1 0 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 . 2x x i : b a 2 ih sin(!T ) 2h sin !T b a 2.112) 2 ih sin(!T ) : So from (a) hxbtbjxatai = exp iScl G(0 tb 0 ta) s h (2:88) = m! exp im! h(x2 + x2 ) cos !T .12 Show the composition property Z dx1Kf (x2 t2 x1 t1)Kf (x1 t1 x0 t0) = Kf (x2 t2 x0 t0) where Kf (x1 t1 x0 t0) is the free propagator (Sakurai 2.16).e. We have Z dx1Kf (x2 t2 x1 t1)Kf (x1 t1 x0 t0) " # Z s m im(x2 . t0 s 2 2 1 = 2 mh (t . x0) 2 ih(t1 . t ) exp 2h(t . im 2x x dx1 exp 2h(t . im 2x x . t ) 1 2h(t . do not use completeness). t ) 1 2h(t .1=2 (=) m 1=2 (t )]. t ) 1 2 2h(t . t ) exp 2h(imx2 t ) exp 2h(imx0 t ) i t2 . 1 t2 .1=2 e N b 2 ih s2 ih m! N !1 (2. t ) 2 1 2 1 " s 2# m (x ) exp imh(t1 .5.

t 2h # t2 . t0) + x0(t2 . t1)(t2 . t ) 2 1 2 1 1 0 s ( 1 "0 2 2 #) 1 m exp im x2 + x0 2 ih (t2 ( t1)("1 . 2x2x02(t1 . tt1)(t2 . t0) + x0(t2 . t ) h 1 s 2 1 1 0 ( " 2 (t2 .1 t+)(0) . t1)2 . 2h (t . t0 . t1) ( " 2 t t + 2( exp im x2(t1 .113) . t0) ( Z dx1 exp . t1) 5 2ih (t2 . im x dx1 exp 2h (t . t0) + x0 . t0) exp 2h (t2 . t )(t . " . (t2 .t2 . t0) m(t2 .tt0. t0 im x x2(t1 . t0) #) 2( 1 m t exp im x2(t(1t. t ) (t2 . t ) s 2 0m 2 1 1" im0(x . t1) (t1 " t0) .m t2 .0t) +tx0. t0) x2(t1 . t0) (t2 t0 ( ) im 1 x2(t1 . 2h x1 im (t . t ) 2 ih (t2 . 2h #) 2 0 t2 t1 1 . t1) 2 0 (t2 . x2(t2 . t0) 2 1 1 v0 s u 2ih(t . x0)(tt2 . t0) #) x2(t1 . t0)(t2 . t )(t . t1)(t1 .. t 0) 2 ih(t .tt2 . t ) 2 0 Kf (x2 t2 x0 t0): 2 0 (2. t ) x1 h 1 (t . t1) (t1 . t )(t . t0) s m 2 ih(t2 . t ) (t . t0) . t1)(t1 .62 = = = = = = = s ( " 2 #) 1 m im x2 + x2 0 2 ih (t2 ( t1)(t1 .. t ) (t . 0) 2x2x02(t1 . t )(t . t1) 2 2h 2 1)( 1 t0 ) 8 2Z ih (t2 . # #) Z im 1 + 1 x2 + x0 2 . t0 + 4 dx1 exp : x1 . t0) #" #293 = < . t ) 2 h 2 1)( 1 0" " ##) t2 . t1) (t .im (t . t0)(t2 . t0) . t1)(t1 . x0)(t2 . t1)]2 exp . t )(t . x2(t1 . t1)(t1". t0) 2 1 1 0 " 2 2(t2 . t ) ( im u 1 m 1 2 1 1 0 t exp 2h (t . t0(t. t )(t . t1) 2 . x )2 # exp 2h(t2 . t0)(t2 . t0)2 . t0)(t2 . t2 + t1) .

e Aj j2: ~ ~ ~= j m mc (a) We have i j] = pi . ihe @Ai = ihe @Aj . ecA and the relation " !# d2~ = d~ = e E + 1 d~ B . B d~ : x x ~ ~ x ~ m dt2 dt 2c dt dt @ + r0 ~ = 0 ~ j @t (b) Verify the continuity equation with ~ given by j ! h =( r0 ) . eAj = . @Ai c @xi c @xj c @xi @xj ! ihe " B : = c ijk k (2. QUANTUM DYNAMICS 63 2.13 (a) Verify the relation i ! ihe " B j] = c ijk k ~ x p ~ where ~ m dt = ~ . eAi pj .2. e pi Aj ] .114) We have also that 2 3 2 3 dxi = 1 x H ] = 1 4x ~ 2 + e 5 = 1 4x ~ 2 5 dt ih i ih i 2m ih i 2m 1 = ih1m f xi j ] j + j xi j ]g = ih2m f xi pj ] 2 2ih = 2ihm j ij = mi ) j+ j xi pj ]g . e Ai pj ] c c c c! = ihe @Aj .

h2r02 (~ 0 t)0 + e ih r0 A (~ 0 t) + e ihA(~ 0) r0 (~ 0 t) x m c c x # e A(~ 0) r0 (~ 0 t) + e2 A2(~ 0) (~ 0 t) + e (~ 0) (~ 0 t) + ih c ~ x ~ x x x c2 x x " # 1 . B ~ ) x ~ x ~ eEi + 2c dt dt i " !# i ~ ~ ~ ~ x x ~ e E + 21c dt B . ec + e j t0 ti m 2 3 2 3 ~ (~ 0) 5 4 ~ 0 eA(~ 0) 5 0 ~x ~ = 21 4. eAi 2m2ih c ijk k j c ijk j k ihm i c e (. B dt : (2.h2r02 + e ih r0 A + 2ih e A r0 + e2 A2 + e : (2." B + " B ) + e p ] 2m2c ikj k j ijk j k ihm i e m " xj B .115) (b) The time-dependent Schrodinger equation is 0 1 ~ A2 @ p A ih @t hx0j t0 ti = hx0jH j t0 ti = hx0j 21 @~ . c hx j t0 ti + e (~ 0)hx0j t0 ti x m " # 1 .64 d2xi dt2 = = (2:114) = = = m ddtxi 2 2 2 = = x md ~ dt2 2 3 " # 1 dxi H = 1 4 ~ 2 + e 5 ih dt ihm i 2m 1 f e i j ] j + j i j ]g + i ] 2 ih2m " i #hm 1 ihe " B + ihe " B + e p .h2r0 r0 + e ihr0 A(~ 0) + ih e A(~ 0) r0 + e2 A2(~ 0) (~ 0 t) ~ ~ ~ ~x ~ ~ x = 2m c c x c2 x +e (~ 0) (~ 0 t) x x ~ ~ x ~ ~ x = 21 .ihr0 .ihr . e @ ) 2m2c "ijk dt k ! ikj k dt !m @xi # e ~ B .116) ~ ~ ~ ~ = 2m c c c2 Multiplying the last equation by we get @ ih @t = . " B xj . eAcx .

e Aj j2 = 0 ) ~ ~ ~ @t m mc @ + r0 ~ = 0 ~ j (2.h2 r02 + e ih r0 A j j2 + 2ih e A ~ ~ ~ 2m c c 65 ~ r0 # e2 A2j j2 + e j j2: + c2 The complex conjugate of this eqution is @ . ^ (a) Evaluate where x x y] px . mc Aj j2: and = j j2 j h 2. e ih r0 A j j2 . h r0 h=( r0 )i + e r0 hAj j2i ) ~ ~ ~ ~ @t m" mc # @ j j2 + r0 h =( r0 ) . QUANTUM DYNAMICS " 1 . r02 e e ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ + mc ih r0 A j j2 + mc ihA ( r0 + r0 ) ! @ + @ = ih @t @t ) 2 e e ~ h ~ ~ i ~ ~ ~ ~ .ih @t = " # 1 . r0 + mc ih r0 A j j2 + mc ihA (r0j j2) = ih @ j j2 ) @t @ j j2 = . 2hm r0 r0 .h2 r02 . 2hm r02 .14 An electron moves in the presence of a uniform magnetic eld ~ in the z-direction (B = B z). 2ih e A r0 + e2 A2j j2 + e j j2: ~ ~ ~ ~ 2m c c c2 Thus subtracting the last two equations we get 2 h i . eAx c y py .2. eAy : c .117) @t e ~ ~ with ~ = m =( r0 ) .

By Ay = Bx Az = 0: (2. ~ ~x The magentic eld B = B z can be derived from a vector petential A(~ ) ^ of the form Ax = . eBx 2 p2 = 0 (2. y x c c 2c y 2c = . eAy (2:= p + eBy p . So if hk is the continious eigegenvalue of the operator pz and jk ni its eigenstate we will have 2k2 2 z H2jk ni = 2pm jk ni = h m : (2.121) H1 H2] = 4m2 x 2c y z 2c there exists a set of simultaneous eigenstates jk ni of the operators H1 and H2. eBx 118) x y ] = px .120) and H2 21 p2.122) 2 .66 2 where hk is the continuous eigenvalue of the pz operator and n is a (b) By comparing the Hamiltonian and the commutation relation obtained in (a) with those of the one-dimensional oscillator problem show how we can immediately write the energy eigenvalues as ! h2k2 + jeB jh n + 1 E = kn 2m mc nonnegative integer including zero. Since m z " # 1 p + eBy 2 + p . eB px x] + eB y py ] = iheB + iheB 2c 2c 2c 2c eB : = ih c (2.119) (b) The Hamiltonian for this system is given by 0 1 ~ 2 1 @p .118) 2 2 Thus we have eAx p . eA A = 1 2 + 1 2 + 1 p2 = H + H H = 2m ~ c 1 2 2m x 2m y 2m z where H1 1 2 1 2 2m x + 2m y (2.

124) x y ] = ih y ] = ih: c eB So H1 can be written in the following form 2 1 2+ 1 2= 1 2+ 1 x c jeB j2 H1 2m x 2m y 2m y 2m eB c2 !2 2 1 2 + 1 m jeB j xc (2. From (a) we have eB ) xc (2.127) . impenetrable solenoid carrying a magnetic ux . ~ In the case where B = 0 the Schrodinger equation of motion in the cylindrical coordinates is .125) = 2m y 2 mc eB : eB In this form it is obvious that we can replace ! with jmcj to have ! h2k2 jk ni + jeB jh n + 1 jk ni H jk ni = H1jk ni + H2jk ni = 2m mc 2 " 2 2 ! # k 1 = h m + jeB jh n + 2 jk ni: (2. In order to use the eigenvalues of the harmonic oscillator 1 En = h! n + 2 we should have the same commutator between the squared operators in the Hamiltonian.123) m with x p] = ih.126) 2 mc 2. QUANTUM DYNAMICS 67 On the other hand H1 is similar to the Hamiltonian of the one-dimensional oscillator problem which is given by 1 H = 21 p2 + 2 m!2x2 (2. h2 r2 ] = 2E i ) m h h2 @ 2 + 1 @ + 1 @ 2 + @ 2 . Along the axis of the cylinder runs a thin. Calculate the ground state energy and wavefunction.2.15 Consider a particle of mass m and charge q in an impenetrable cylinder with radius R and height a. m @ 2 @ 2 @ 2 @z2 (~ ) = 2E (~ ) x x (2.

129) 1 1 Z (z) dz2 dz2 with Z (0) = 0 ) A1 + B1 = 0 ) Z (z) = A1 eilz . l ) = 0 R( ) d . l2 = 0 2 ( )d 2 R( ) d 2 R( ) d 2 2 1 2 ) R( ) d R + R( ) dR + ( ) d 2 + 2(k2 . l2) = 0 d2 d d 2 (2.68 z) = ( )R( )Z (z) and k2 = 2mE we will have h2 2 2 ( )Z (z) d R + ( )Z (z) 1 dR + R( )Z (z) d 2 2 d2 d d 2Z +R( ) ( ) d 2 + k2R( ) ( )Z (z) = 0 ) dz 2R 1 d + 1 dR + 1 d2 + 1 d2Z + k2 = 0(2.132) with ( + 2 ) = ( ) ) m 2 Z: So the Schrodinger equation is reduced to 2 d2 R dR 2 2 2 2 2 + R( ) d .ilz (2. m + (k .ilz = C sin lz Z (a) = 0 ) C sin la = 0 ) la = n ) l = ln = n a n = 1 2 : : : If we write ( So Z (z) = C sin lnz Now we will have (2. So 1 d2Z = . e.l2 ) d2Z + l2Z (z) = 0 ) Z (z) = A eilz + B e.m2 ) ( ) = e im : d (2.131) ) (1 ) d 2 = .130) 1 d2R + 1 dR + 1 d2 + k2 .128) 2 ( )d 2 R( ) d 2 R( ) d Z (z) dz2 with initial conditions ( a z) = (R z) = ( 0) = ( a) = 0.

ihr . (k2 .2.137) A= 2 2 ~ The Schrodinger equation in the presence of the magnetic eld B can be written as follows 2 3 2 3 ~x ~x 1 4.138) p p . 2m @ ^ @z @ !# 2 hc " ie ^@@ + z @z + ^ 1 @@ . l2 = R2 ) 2mE .136) nm (~ ) = Ac Jm ( R with n = 1 2 : : : and m 2 Z . This means that the energy eigenstates are given by the equation 2 2 2 p m m = R k2 . n a = R2 m h2 " # h2 2 + n 2 m (2. l2 )2 + pk2 .134) where m is the -th zero of the m-th order Bessel function Jm. l2 = m (2. l2 ) k2 . ie ) .133) In the case at hand in which a ! 0 we should take B3 = 0 since Nm ! 1 when ! 0. From the other boundary condition we get R(R) = 0 ) A3Jm(R k2 . eA(~ ) 5 4.135) ) E = 2m R2 a while the corresponding eigenfunctions are given by m x )eim sin n az (2. l2 ) + B3Nm( k2 .ihr . l2 ) + 1 . hc 2 ^@ (~ ) = E (~ ): x x (2. We can then write ^ ! ! B 2 ^= a ^: ~ (2. m2 R( ) = 0 ) d2 2 d # " d2R 1 dR m2 ) d(pk2 . eA(~ ) 5 (~ ) = E (~ ) ~ ~ x x 2m c c " !# h2 ^ @ + z @ + ^ 1 @ . QUANTUM DYNAMICS 69 " # d2R + 1 dR + (k2 . l2) . l2) = 0 ) R k2 . ~ Now suppose that B = B z. l2) 2 R( ) = 0 p p ) R( ) = A3Jm( k2 . l2 d(pk2 . l2 ) (2.

A2 = . 2iA d + (m2 . As a result the energy of the ground state will be # " h2 2 + n 2 m (2.70 ie Making now the transformation D @@ . A2) q 2iA . A2) 2iA 2im = = i(A m) ) l= 2 2 which means that ( ) = C2ei(A m) : (2.141) But ( + 2 ) = ( ) ) A m = m0 m0 2 Z ) m = (m0 . 2iA @ . 2iA @ . hc 2 we get " # " # @ + z @ + ^ 1 D (~ ) = E (~ ) h2 ^ @ + z @ + ^ 1 D ^@ ^ @z x x .139) 2 @z2 x where D2 = ! ! @ 2 . A2 = @ 2 . 2m @ ^ @z " # h2 @ 2 + 1 @ + 1 D2 + @ 2 (~ ) = E (~ ) ) . hc 2 2.142) This means that the energy eigenfunctions will be m x )eim0 sin n az (2.e.4A2 . A2 : (2. 4(m2 . So l2el . 2iAl + (m2 . 2ie @ . A2) = 0: @ 2 @ d 2 d The solution to this equation is of the form el .144) E = 2m R2 a D2 @ @ ie e . A2)el = 0 ) l2 . ( z) = R( ) ( )Z (z)) we will get the same equations with the exception of " 2 # @ .m2 ) d2 .143) nm (~ ) = Ac Jm ( R but now m is not an integer. 2iAlel + (m2 .140) = @ 2 hc 2 @ @ 2 @ Following the same procedure we used before (i. Leting A = hc 2 we get . A) m0 2 Z : (2. 2m @ 2 @ x (2.

1 < x < 1) is subjected to a constant force derivable from V= x ( > 0): (a) Is the energy spectrum continuous or discrete? Write down an approximate expression for the energy eigenfunction speci ed by E.2. From the discussion on WKB approximation we had that for E > V (x) A iZ q (x) = E . V (x)]dx I iZ q B + E . = E . V (x)]1=4 sin 3 h . QUANTUM DYNAMICS 71 where now m = m0 . A < 1. V (x)]dx ! c 1 Z x0 q2m E . 2 E .145) e 2. V (x)]1=4 sin h x 2 3 4 s 3=2 2m c 4. = E .146) . A = 0 ) hc 2 = m0 ) = 2 m hc m0 2 Z : (2. V (x)]1=4 exp h 2m E . V (x)]1=4 exp . we obtain ux quantization 0 e m0 .16 A particle in one dimension (. A is not zero in general but it corresponds to m0 2 Z such that 0 m0 . (b) Discuss brie y what changes are needed if V is replaced be V = jxj: (a) In the case under construction there is only a continuous spectrum and the eigenfunctions are non degenerate. h 2m E .4 2 1 = qc1=4 sin 3 q3=2 + 4 ] (2. V (x)]dx . x dx . V (x)]1=4 sin h 4 p x Z x0=E= ! 1=2 c 2m E . Notice also that if we require the ground state to be unchanged in the presence of B . x 5 = E .

p2 (p) ) dp h 2m ! d (p) = .148) We also have (E . On the other hand when E < V (x) ! c2 1 Z x q2m( x . 2 (.q]1=4 3 We can nd an exact solution for this problem so we can compare with the approximate solutions we got with the WKB method. E 0 ) So Z jcj2 dp exp hi (E . E ]1=4 exp .i E . E 0)p jcj22 h (E . 6pm + c1 " !# i p3 .147) . Ep : 6m (2. p2 dp ) (p) h 2m ! 3 . ) ln (p) = h i Ep . h x0=E= # c2 1 Z x q2m( x . E )d(2m x) = x .q)2=3 : = (2.150) . Ep : ) E (p) = c exp h 6m (2. E ]1=4 exp " . E )dx II (x) = x . h2m 0 x =E= c3 exp . We have H j i = E j i ) hpjH j i = hpjE j i 2 ) hpj 2pm + xj i = E hpj i 2 d ) 2pm (p) + ih dp (p) = E (p) ! d (p) = . E 0) ) (2. x and = 2h2 .149) c = p1 : 2 h (2:148) = = hE jE 0i = dphE jpihpjE 0 i = Z Z E (p) E 0 (p)dp " 1 exp i E (p) = p h 2 h !# p3 .i E .72 h i m 1=3 where q = E .

So ! ! Z +1 u3 .q): (2. 3 q3=2 q > 0 Ai(q) 2 2 1 p (. uq = p Z +1 cos u3 .151) h 6m h 2 h Using now the substitution 3 3 p (2. uq du (2.1 0 2 R +1 since . x p : = (2.156) (2. For the eigenfunctions in coordinate space we have 3 Z 1p Z dpe ipx e hi 6pm . i E .154) Ai(q) = p 3 0 we will have (x) = p Ai(.q)1=4 sin 3 (.Ep (2:150) h (x) = dphxjpihpjE i = " 2 h # Z 1p dp exp i p3 .1 2 h " 3 3 #h Z +1 = p du exp iu .153) 3 .q)3=2 + 4 q < 0 Ai(q) (2. uq du = 0.157) . In terms of the Airy functions ! 1 Z +1 cos u3 .152) u = (h2m )1=3 ) h p6m = u 3 we have " # (h2mp 1=3 Z +1 du exp iu3 . x . i E .1 sin u33 .1 2 hE i m 1=3 and q = where = 2h2 . iuq (2. QUANTUM DYNAMICS 73 These are the Hamiltonian eigenstates in momentum space.155) For large jqj. uq du du cos 3 (x) = p 3 .2. x u(h2m )1=3 ) (x) = . leading terms in the asymptotic series are as follows 2 p 1q1=4 exp .

x) 2 E . E and x2 = E . x d(. So in this case the energy eigenstates heve to satisfy the consistency relation Z x1 q 1 dx 2m E .159) x2 The turning points are x1 = .2 2m . jxj] = n + 2 h n = 0 1 2 : : : (2.E= 1=2 p Z E= E = .74 Using these approximations in (2.155) we get p q11=4 sin 2 q3=2 + 4 for E > V (x) (q) 3 2 p (.160) 4 2m p 0 . 3 (.q1)1=4 exp . (b) When V = jxj we have bound states and therefore the energy spectrum is discrete. x 3=2 E= = 2p2m 2 E 3=2 ) = .158) (q) 2 as expected from the WKB approximation. x]dx dx 2m E .q)3=2 for E < V (x) (2. So Z E= q Z E= q 1 h = n+ 2 2m E . jxj] = 2 0 .2 2m 3 3 0 1 +2 E 3=2 = 3 np 1 h ) E = 3 n + 2 h]2=3 ) 42=3(2m )1=3 4 2m 2 32=3 1 43 n + 2 h 5 : p En = (2.

3:2:45) @ cos 2 . )=2 sin 2 (1=2) ( D ) = ei( . each matrix element should be the same.i 3 exp . 1 2 " # 2 cos2 ( + ) .i( .i( + )=2 cos 2 ei( . )=2 sin 2 ei( + )=2 cos 2 2 2 ! : 3. Without using the . inz sin 2 ! ) cos 2 = cos ( + ) cos 2 2 ) cos = 2 cos2 2 cos2 ( + ) .i 2 ! exp .3. Find . That is ! ! .inx . 1 : ) = arccos 2 cos 2 (3.2) D ^ = (.2 An angular-momentum eigenstate jj m = mmax = j i is rotated by an in nitesimal angle " about the y-axis.e. In the case of Euler angles we have ! e.1 Consider a sequence of Euler rotations represented by .inx + ny ) sin 2 cos 2 + inz sin 2 Since these two operators must have the same e ect. inz sin 2 : (3.1) ei( + )=2 cos 2 2 while the same rotation will be represented by 1 0 (.e. )=2 sin (3. THEORY OF ANGULAR MOMENTUM 75 3 Theory of Angular Momentum = 3. we expect that this sequence of operations is equivalent to a single rotation about some axis by an angle .i( + )=2 cos = cos e 2 2 .3) 2 .i 3 D(1=2)( ) = exp e.i( + )=2 cos 2 . ny ) sin 2 A (1=2) ( n) (S . )=2 sin 2 2 Because of the group properties of rotations.i( .

)jj j i = . (3. J. 4 2 4 .5) y J. m + 1)jj m . J. : (3.jj mi = h (j + m)(j . 1)jj j . J. 2h + . m)(j + m + 1)jj m + 1i (3. 1i) q q q = .8) So q (J+ .7) q J. iJy 2i Subtitution of this in (3.i)2"2 J 2 jj j i = 1.4) h 2h2 y " q2j jj j . 1i . 1i + "2 qj (2j . jj j i = . J.6) jj j iR = R(" y)jj j i = d(j)(")jj j i = exp . 2i and from (3. J. J )2 jj j i jj j iR = 1 . 1i (3.76 j explicit form of the d(m)0m function. 1)jj j .9) q (J+ .J.6) We know that for the ladder operators the following relations hold q J+jj mi = h (j . The rotated state is given by up to terms of order "2. 1)jj j . 2(2j . 1i .h 2j (J+jj j . gives " # " (J . 8h2 + .h 2j jj j . iJhy " jj j i ^ " # iJy " + (. 2i: = 1. (3. J ) + "2 (J . We can write Jy in terms of the ladder operators ) J+ = Jx + iJy ) J = J+ .4).)jj j . )2jj j i = .jj j . 1i (3. 2i jj j iR = jj j i + 2 8 8 ! "2 j jj j i + " q2j jj j . obtain an expression for the probability for the new rotated state to be found in the original state up to terms of order "2. "2 2j jj j i + "2 2qj (2j .h 2j (J+ . = Jx . 1i q = .h 2j 2j jj j i .

3 The wave function of a particle subjected to a spherically symmetrical potential V (r) is given by (~ ) = (x + y + 3z)f (r): x ~ (a) Is an eigenfunction of L? If so. rf (r) (cos + sin sin sin2 @ 2 x sin2 @ So y= (3.3:6:15) . Indicate how we may nd V (r).13) (3. what are the possible values of l we may obtain when L2 is measured? (b) What are the probabilities for the particle to be found in various ml states? (c) Suppose it is known somehow that (~ ) is an energy eigenfuncx tion with eigenvalue E . " j jhj j jj j iRj = 1 . what is the l-value? If ~ not. (a) We have (~ ) h~ j i = (x + y + 3z)f (r): x x (3.10) 4 2 3. sin ) = . " j + O("4): (3.14) ) .h2 12 @ 2 + 1 @ sin @ h~ jL x = (~ ): x sin @ sin @ @ If we write (~ ) in terms of spherical coordinates (x = r sin cos x r sin sin z = r cos ) we will have (~ ) = rf (r) (sin cos + sin sin + 3 cos ) : x Then 1 @ 2 (~ ) = rf (r) sin @ (cos . THEORY OF ANGULAR MOMENTUM 77 Thus the probability for the rotated state to be found in the original state will be 2 !2 2 2 = 1.12) " !# 2 ~ 2j i (S.3.11) (3.

i)jl = 1 m = 1i and if we want it normalized we will have jN j2(18 + 2 + 2) = 1 ) N = p1 : (3. 6 cos x~ 1 = h2rf (r) sin 2 sin2 (cos + sin ) + 6 cos = 2h2rf (r) sin cos + sin sin + 3 cos ] = 2h2 (~ ) ) x 2 (~ ) = 2h2 (~ ) = 1(1 + 1)h2 (~ ) = l(l + l)h2 (~ ) L x x x x (3.1 . Y1+1 + iY1+1 + iY1. x (b) Since we already know that l = 1 we can try to write (~ ) in terms of x m ( ).78 and ! 1 @ sin @ (~ ) = rf (r) @ h.14) and (3.18) 22 .1 + Y1+1 r So we can write s i hp (~ ) = r 23 f (r) 3 2Y10 + Y1.15) in (3.iy) y = ir 23 Y1.1i + (1 .1 = 83 (x.1 x s hp i = 23 rf (r) 3 2Y10 + (1 + i)Y1.1 + (i . 1)Y1+1 : (3.11) gives 1 h~ jL2j i = .1 . sin2 )(3. We know that the spherical harmonics Y1 s s s 3 cos = 3 z ) z = r 4 Y 0 Y10 = 4 1 r 3 q q 3 (x+iy4) 9 8 Y1+1 = . 8 r = < x = r q23 Y1.6 sin cos + (cos + sin )(cos2 . sin (cos + sin )(1 .h2rf (r) . Y1+1 q ): Y1.3 sin2 + (cos + sin ) sin cos i = x sin @ sin @ @ i rf (r) h.17) But this means that the part of the state that depends on the values of m can be written in the following way hp i j im = N 3 2jl = 1 m = 0i + (1 + i)jl = 1 m = .15) : sin Substitution of (3. cos2 + sin2 ) .16) ~ which means that (~ ) is en eigenfunction of L2 with eigenvalue l = 1.

20) (3. 2 f (r) ) V (r) = E + rf (r) 2m dr r r 2 V (r) = E + rf1r) 2hm f 0(r) + f 0(r) + rf 00(r) + 2f 0(r)]] ) ( 2 rf 00 (r) + 4f 0 (r) V (r) = E + 2hm : rf (r) x E (~ ) is an energy eigenfunction then it solves the Schrodinger equation .h2 " @ 2 (~ ) + 2 @ (~ ) .23) u~ = 1 .19) (3. Quantum-mechanically. L2 (~ )# + V (r) (~ ) = E x 2m @r2 E x r @r E x h2r2 E x (3. i h (L + S ) " . (One example of such a particle is the %meson).22) 3. THEORY OF ANGULAR MOMENTUM So 9 P (m = 0) = jhl = 1 m = 0j ij2 = 9222 = 11 2 1 P (m = +1) = jhl = 1 m = +1j ij2 = 22 = 11 2 1 P (m = .3. (a) Show explicitly that in nitesimal rotations of %i(~ ) are obtained x by acting with the operator " ~ ~ ~ (3.4 Consider a particle with an intrinsic angular momentum (or spin) of one unit of h.h Y m d2 rf (r)] + 2 d rf (r)] .1) = jhl = 1 m == 1j ij2 = 22 = 11 : 79 (3.21) (c) If E E (~ ) " x 2 . such a particle is described by a ketvector j%i or in ~ representation a wave function x %i(~ ) = h~ ij%i x x where j~ ii correspond to a particle at ~ with spin in the i:th dix x rection. 2 rf (r)]# + V (r)rf (r)Y m = ) 2m l dr2 l r dr r2 Erf (r)Ylm ) " # 1 h2 d f (r) + rf 0 (r)] + 2 f (r) + rf 0 (r)] .

~ ~ ): %x " x " ~x " x (3. h ~ L%(~ ) % x i" ~~ x . ~ ~ ) + ~ %(~ .25) (3. ~ ~ ) ~ x ~ x ~x " x = ~(~ .28) = ~(~ ) .24) Under a rotation R we will have 3 XZ j%0i = U (R)j%i = U (R) j~ i jii] %i(~ )d3x x x i=1 3 3 Z XZ R X (1) = jR~ i jiiDil (R)%l (~ )d3x det==1 x x j~ iiDil (R)%l (R. ~ ~ ) = ~(~ ) . ~ ~x ~ p~ (d) Show that r %(~ ) = h1 (S ~)% where ~ is the momentum operp ator. ~ (c) Show that S is a vector operator.26) Under an in nitesimal rotation we will have R( So n)~ = ~ + ~ = ~ + (^ ~) = ~ + ~ ~: ^r r r r n r r " r %0(~ ) = R( )%(R.1~ ): x ~ x % x (3. (~ ~ ) r%(~ ) = ~(~ ) .1~ )d3x x (1) x i=1 i=1 3 XZ = j~ ii%i0~ )d3x ) x x %i0(~ ) x = i=1 (1) Dil (R)%l(R. ~ (~ r)%(~ ) % x " x ~~ x % x " x ~ ~ x (3.27) On the other hand %x " x ~(~ . Determine S ! ~ ~ (b) Show that L and S commute. 2 (a) We have j%i = 3 XZ i=1 j~ iih~ ij%i = x x 3 XZ i=1 j~ ii%i(~ )d3x: x x (3.80 ~ ~ i^ ~ where L = h r r.1~ ) = R( )%(~ .1~ ) ) %0(~ ) = R~(R.

im jk . h2 jkl iml X = h2 ( ij km .ih) ikl(.29) " ~ ~ % = "y %3 . "y %1 ez (3.30) ^ ^ ^ or in matrix form 0 10 1 0 10 1 1 % 0 . Using this in (3. Sj Si]km = (. h ~ L%(~ ) ~ x % x i" ~~ x " ~ x i" ~~ x = ~(~ ) . "z %2 ex + "z %1 .ih) jkl(.ih 0 0 0 0 0 %3 which means that i " ~% x " ~ ~ % = ."x C B %2 C = @ A @ A@ % A 30 % .27) we get %0(~ ) = ~(~ ) .3. h ~ L%(~ ) + ~ ~(~ ): % x i" ~~ x " % x But 81 (3. ij km + jm ki) X = h2 ( jm ki .ih) ilm] i Xh 2 = h ikl jml .ih) jlm .1 0 0 0 0 0 %3 2 0 1 0 1 0 13 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 ih 0 ."z "y B %20 C = B "z 0 . only on the j~ i basis and S x ~ (c) S is a vector operator since X Si Sj ]km = SiSj .32) .1 C + "y B 0 0 0 C + "z B 1 0 0 C7 B %2 C = 4 @ A @ A @ A5 @ A 0 1 0 . (. h ~ L%(~ ) + ~ %(~ ) . THEORY OF ANGULAR MOMENTUM ~ ~ x h~ x i where r%(~ ) r%i (~ ) jii. h ~ S ~(~ ) with (S )kl = ."y "x 0 %3 2 0 1 0 1 0 13 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 .ih kl. h ~ (L + S ) %(~ ) ) U~ = 1 .h 4 x @ A y@ A z@ A5 @ % A 0 ih 0 .1 0 % 6"x B 0 0 . "x%1 ey + "x%2 .31) ~ x " "% x ~ ~ ~ (b) From their de nition it is obvious that L and S commute since L acts ~ only on jii. Thus we will have that i" ~ ~ i" ~ ~ ~ x %0(~ ) = U~~(~ ) = 1 .ih C + " B 0 0 0 C + " B ih 0 0 C7 B %2 C .ih 0 i 6" B 0 0 .ih kml) = ih ijl(Sl)km : (3. h ~ (L + S ): (3. im jk ) X X X = h2 ijl kml = ih ijl(.

82 (d) It is ip ~ x i 1 ~ ~x r %(~ ) = h ~ %(~ ) = h i lp %l(~ )jii = h2 (S )lm p %m jii x ~ p~ = 12 (S ~)%: h (3. m = 2. operator on this statet we will get Jqjj = 2 m = 2i = (J1. ) h (j + m)(j . m + 1)j0+i + h (j2 + m2)(j2 .5 We are to add angular momenta j1 = 1 and j2 = 1 to form j = 2 1 and 0 states. m = 2 in (3.35) m=m1 +m2 So setting j = 2. j + +i (3.35) we get jj = 2 m = 2i = hj1j2 + + jj1j2 jmij + +i norm. Write your answer as 1 1 jj = 1 m = 1i = p2 j+ 0i . We want to add the angular momenta j1 = 1 and j2 = 1 to form j = jj1 . Let us take rst the state j = 2. m2 + 1)j + 0i p 1 1 1 1 p p ) 4jj = 2 m = 1i = 2j0+i + 2j + 0i 1 1 ) jj = 2 m = 1i = p2 j0+i + p2 j + 0i: (3. Using the ladder operator method express all (nine) j m eigenkets in terms of jj1j2 m1m2i.34) where + and 0 stand for m1 2 = 1 0 respectively. + J2. p2 j0 +i : : : (3. j2j : : : j1 + j2 = 0 1 2 states. This state is related to jj1m1 j2m2i through the following equation X j j mi = hj1j2 m1m2jj1j2 jmijj1j2 m1m2i (3.37) .)j + +i .33) 3.36) = If we apply the J. m + 1)jj = 2 m = 1i = q q h (j + m )(j .

i + p 2j0. . 0i ) 3 6 6 2 p2j0.i + p (J1. 0i ) jj = 2 m = . THEORY OF ANGULAR MOMENTUM 83 In the same way we have 1 1 J. +i + 2j00i + p 2j00i + 2j + .i: (3. + J2. +i + j + .i + p 2j . 1 1 + p (J1.)j + 0i ) 2 2 i hp p i 1 hp p p 1 6jj = 2 m = 0i = p 2j .i ) 1 4jj = 2 m = .39) jj = 2 m = .b : (3.)j + . m = 1 we will have jj = 1 m = 1i = aj + 0i + bj0+i (3.i + p p2j .jj = 2 m = 0i = s 1 1 J.3.2i = j .35). + J2.41) This state should be orthogonal to all jj mi states and in particular to jj = 2 m = 1i.i + p6 j . +i ) 6 s 6 i 1p hp p p 1p 6jj = 2 m = .1i = p2 2 J. +i 3 2 (J + J )j00i 3 1.40) Now let us return to equation (3.1i = 2 2j .jj = 2 m = .)j .i ) 2 2 p 6jj = 2 m = 0i = 2j00i + j .i + p j . + J2. . 2.)j0+i + p (J1.i + 1 p2j .2i = p 2 2 jj = 2 m = . 0i ) 2 2 p 1 p2j .)j0. + J2. 0i + 1 p2j0. If j = 1.42) .i ) s 1 1 (3. . )j .1i = p (J1. 0i + 2j0.38) jj = 2 m = 0i = 2 j00i + p6 j + . + J2.i + p (J1. So hj = 2 m = 1jj = 1 m = 1i = 0 ) p12 a + p12 b = 0 ) a + b = 0 ) a = . 0i (3.jj = 2 m = 1i = p (J1.i + 2 p2j .1i = 6 6 6 6 1 1 j0. + J2.

p (J1. +i + p2j00ii ) 1 2jj = 1 m = 0i = p 2 2 1 1 j + . p2 c3 ) c2 = c3: (3.)j + . 0i ) 2 2 1 j0. +i (3. 0i: 1 jj = 1 m = .84 In addition the state jj = 1 m = 1i should be normalized so 1 :42) hj = 1 m = 1jj = 1 m = 1i = 1 ) jaj2 + jbj2 = 1 (3) 2jaj2 = 1 ) jaj = p2 : 1 By convention we take a to be real and positive so a = p12 and b = .1i = p2 (3.43) jj = 1 m = 1i = p2 j + 0i .i + c3j . That is 1 1 (3.)j .ii .i .)j0+i ) 2 2 p 1 hp2j00i + p2j + .46) This state should be orthogonal to all states jj mi and in particulat to jj = 2 m = 0i and to j = 1 m = 0i. p2 .i .jj = 1 m = 1i = p (J1. p 2j . + J2. + J2. p (J1. So s 1 1 hj = 2 m = 0jj = 0 m = 0i = 0 ) 2 c1 + p6 c2 + p6 c3 3 ) 2c1 + c2 + c3 = 0 (3.48) . p j . + J2.44) jj = 1 m = 0i = p2 2 1 1 J. p2 j0+i: Using the same procedure we used before 1 1 J. +i: (3.i . +i ) 2 2 p p p 1 1 2jj = 1 m = .i .)j + 0i .45) 2 Returning back to (3. p hp2j .1i = p 2j0.jj = 1 m = 0i = p (J1.47) 1 1 hj = 1 m = 0jj = 0 m = 0i = 0 ) p2 c2 . p j . + J2.35) we see that the state jj = 0 m = 0i can be written as jj = 0 m = 0i = c1j00i + c2j + .

p12 j0+i 1 1 = p2 j + .50) By convention we take c2 to be real and positive so c2 = c3 = 1 c1 = . 0i 1 1 1 = p3 j + . .47).1i jj = 2 m = .1i jj = 0 m = 0i = j + +i 1 p = q2 j0+i + p12 j + 0i 1 1 = 2 j00i + p6 j + .i + p3 j .i . . +i 3 1 = p2 j0. p12 j . p3 j00i: (3. +i 1 = p2 j0. Explicitly write T (1)0 in 1 terms of Ux y z and Vx y z . +i . +i .6 (a) Construct a spherical tensor of rank 1 out of two di erent ~ ~ vectors U = (Ux Uy Uz ) and V = (Vx Vy Vz ). p3 . Write down explicitly T (2) 1 0 in terms of Ux y z 2 and Vx y z .i + p3 j .52) 3. p3 j00i: So gathering all the previous results together 1 p 3 and (3.3.i + p12 j .49) hj = 0 m = 0jj = 0 m = 0i = 1 ) jc1j2 + jc2j2 + jc3j2 = 1 ) 3jc2j2 = 1 1 ) jc2j = p3 : (3. p2 j . (b) Construct a spherical tensor of rank 2 out of two di erent ~ ~ vectors U and V . 0i = j .i + p6 j .2i jj = 1 m = 1i jj = 1 m = 0i jj = 1 m = . THEORY OF ANGULAR MOMENTUM Using the last relation in (3.i 1 = p2 j + 0i . Thus 1 1 1 jj = 0 m = 0i = p3 j + .c2: The state jj = 0 m = 0i should be normalized so 85 (3. we get 2c1 + 2c2 = 0 ) c1 + c2 = 0 ) c1 = .51) jj = 2 m = 2i jj = 2 m = 1i jj = 2 m = 0i jj = 2 m = .i .

ihUy . iVy ) It is known (S-3.86 ~ ~ (a) Since U and V are vector operators they will satisfy the following commutation relations Ui Jj ] = ih"ijk Uk Vi Jj ] = ih"ijk Vk : (3.1 = p (Ux .54) It is :53) :54) Jz Uz ] (3= 0hUz (3) Uz = U0 (3. i(ih)Ux = h(Ux .1 = p2 (Ux .58) U+1 = . iUy ) V.55) p :54) J+ U0] (3= 2hU+1 = J+ Uz ] = Jx + iJy Uz ] (3:53) = .57) 2 ~ ~ So from the vector operators U and V we can construct spherical tensors with components U0 = Uz V0 = Vz 1 1 p (Ux + iUy ) V+1 = .1 = p2 (Vx .27) that if Xq(1k1 ) and Zq(2k2) are irreducible spherical tensors of rank k1 and k2 respectively then we can construct a spherical tensor of rank k X Tq(k) = hk1 k2 q1q2jk1k2 kqiXq(1k1)Zq(2k2) (3.59) q1 q 2 .56) 2 :54) p 2hU. 2 1 1 U. Uz ] = Jx . iUy ) ) 1 U. p (Ux + iUy ) (3. iUy ) (3. iJy Uz ] J.1 = J. The de ning properties of a spherical tensor of rank 1 are the following q Jz Uq(1)] = hqUq(1) J Uq(1)] = h (1 q)(2 q)Uq(1)1 : (3.h(Ux + iUy ) ) 1 U+1 = .53) From the components of a vector operator we can construct a spherical tensor of rank 1 in the following way. p2 (Vx + IVy ) (3.10. U0] (3= (3:53) = .ihUy + i(ih)Ux = .

3. 1j11 11iU0 V. U V + iU V + iU V ) = .62) (b) In the same manner we will have :52) (2) T+2 = h11 +1 + 1j11 2 + 2iU+1 V+1 (3= U+1 V+1 = 1 (Ux + iUy )(Vx + iVy ) 2 1 (U V .1 .1 1 1 (3:52) = .1 1 1 (3:52) = .60) T0(1) = h11 00j11 10iU0 V0 + h11 .10j11 11iU. 1 (Uz Vx + UxVz + iUz Vy + iUy Vz ) 2 (3.1 2 2 1 1 = . iV ) 1 = p 2 x y x y y x y 2 22 x 1 = p UxVx + iUxVy . p U. UxVx + iUxVy . Uy Vx) (3. p U0V+1 2 2 1 (U + iU )V + 1 U (V + iV ) = .2 x y z 2 z x y 87 (3. 1j11 20iU+1 V.1V0 + p U0V.1 + 1j11 20iU. p 1 (U + iU )(V .1 2 2 1 1 (U .63) x y y x (2) T+1 = (3:52) = = h11 0 + 1j11 2 + 1iU0 V+1 + h11 +10j11 2 + 1iU+1 V0 1 1 p U0V+1 + p U+1V0 2 2 .1 V+1 +h11 +1 . p U. iUy Vx .1V+1 + p U+1V. iVy ): (3.1 = h11 .1 + 1j11 10iU. iU )(V + iV ) .61) 2 (1) T.2 x x y y (3.64) T0(2) = h11 00j11 20iU0 V0 + h11 . iUy )Vz + 2 Uz (Vx .1 V0 + h11 0 .1 V+1 +h11 +1 . 1j11 10iU+1 V. THEORY OF ANGULAR MOMENTUM In this case we have (1) T+1 = h11 +10j11 11iU+1 V0 + h11 0 + 1j11 11iU0 V+1 1 (3:52) 1 = p U+1V0 . iUy Vx + Uy Vy . 2 (Ux . Uy Vy ] 2 2 i = p (UxVy .

Uy Vy . j X m=. You may.1V.67) 2 3.1 . 1 p 1 (U + iU )(V . iUy Vx): (3.2 = h11 . for any j . 1 1 (U . for instance. 2 Uy Vy . iUy )(Vx . iU V .1 = (3:52) = = s s 2U V + 1U V + 1U V 3 0 0 s 6 . iUxVy . 1iU0 V.7 (a) Evaluate j X m=. iU )(V + iV ) . examine the rotational properties of Jz2 using the spherical (irreducible) tensor language.1 (3= U.1 = 2 (Ux .j j) jd(mm0 ( )j2m 1 for any j (integer or half-integer) then check your answer for j = 2 . (b) Prove.1 +1 6 +1 . 2 Uy Vx . 1 Uy Vy 2 s 1 (2U V .65) 6 z z x x y y h11 0 .1 V0 1 1 p U0V.10j11 2 + 1iU.1 V0 2 2 1 (U V + U V . U V ) (3.1 + h11 . 1j11 2 . iU V ) x z z y y z 2 z x (3. 1): 2 2 Hint: This can be proved in many ways. i U V + i U V 6 z z 2 x x 2 x y 2 y x i i 1 1 . iV ) y x y y x y z z 2 x 6 6 22 x s3 1 2U V . U V . 2iU. 1j11 2 .1 + p U.j (j m2jdm)0 m( )j2 = 1 j (j + 1) sin + m02 + 1 (3 cos2 .1 s s 1 2 U V . 1 U V . 2 UxVx + 2 UxVy .66) :52) (2) 1 T.1 V.] .88 (3:52) = s = = = (2) T. iVy ) = 1 (UxVx .

71) j hjm0jeiJy =hmjjmihjmje.j 1 = h .iJy =hjjm0i mhjmje. jjm0i + hm0 cos 2 0 cos : = m (3.10.3) we will have that X ^ (3. sin hjm0jJxjjm0i + cos hjm0jJz jjm0i] m=. sin hjm0j J+ + J.iJy =hjjm0i = h z m=.iJy =hjjm0i hjmje.j j X m=.iJy =hjjm0i .j j X m=. sin 0 cos So j X (j) 1 jdmm0 ( )j2m = h .iJy =hjjm0ihjm0jeiJy =hjjmi 2 j 3 1 hjm0jeiJy =hJ 4 X jjmihjmj5 e.69) D ( ey)Jz D( ey ) = Rzj ( ey )Jj : ^ ^ On the other hand we know (S-3.j j X m=.68) = h hjm0jD ( ey )Jz D( ey )jjm0i: ~ But the momentum J is a vector operator so from (S-3.j j X m=.5b) that 0 1 cos 0 sin R( ey ) = B 0 1 0 C : ^ @ (3.70) A .3.iJy =hjjm0ij2 mhjmje.j 1 hjm0jeiJy =hJ e. THEORY OF ANGULAR MOMENTUM (a) We have j X j) jd(mm0 ( )j2m 89 = = = = m=.j mjhjmje.1.iJy =hjjm0i = h z 1 ^ ^ (3.

sin 2 : (1=2) dmm0 ( ) = sin cos 2 2 0 = 1=2 So for m 1=2 X (j) jdm1=2( )j2m = .72) while for m0 = . 1 cos = m0 cos : 2 (3.iJy =hjjmi m2hjm0je.75) .1=2 1=2 X m=.j j X m=.74) (b) We have j X m=.j = 12 hjm0je.1=2 = 1 2 cos = m0 cos (3. 1 sin2 2 + 1 cos2 2 2 2 m=.j j m2jd(m)0 m( )j2 = = = = m2jhjm0je.iJy =hjjmij2 m2hjm0je.iJy =hJ 2 4 X jjmihjmj5 eiJy =hjjm0i = 2 z h m=.90 For j = 1=2 we know from (S-3.1=2 (3.j j X m=.iJy =hjjmi hjm0je.iJy =hJz2eiJy =hjjm0i h 1 = h hjm0jD( ey )Jz2Dy( ey)jjm0i: ^ ^ hjm0je.44) that ! cos 2 .j j X m=.73) j 1 1 jd(m)1=2( )j2m = . 2 cos2 2 + 2 sin2 2 = .2.iJy =hjjmihjmjeiJy =hjjm0i 2 j 3 1 hjm0je.iJy =hm2jjmihjmjeiJy =hjjm0i (3.j j X m=.

79) q0 q q q0 =.77) and since D(R)J 2Dy(R) = J 2D(R)Dy (R) = J 2 we will have Pj 2 (j ) 2 m=.2 (2) Tq(2)Dq0 0( ey )jjm0i ^ 0 q0 =.10.3.65) we know that 91 T0(2) = s 1 (3J 2 .76) where T0(2) is the 0-component of a second rank tensor.j s 1 h2j (j + 1) + 1 2 D(2)( e )hjm0jT (2)jjm0i = 2 ^y 0 3h h2 3 00 = 1 j (j + 1) + 1 d(2)( )hjm0jJz2 .78) ^y z ^y i: 3 h2 h3 3 We know that for a spherical tensor (S-3.80) But we know from the Wigner-Eckart theorem that hjm0jTq(2)0jjm0i = 0. 1 j (j + 1) = 3 2 00 3 j) m2jd(mm0 ( )j2 . J 2) 6 z (3. So 1 Jz2 = 36 T0(2) + 3 J 2 (3. THEORY OF ANGULAR MOMENTUM From (3. 1 J 2jjm0i 3 2 00 3 1 j (j + 1) + 1 d(2)( ) m02 .j m jdmm0 ( )j = s 1 1 hjm0jJ 2jjm0i + 2 1 hjm0jD( e )J 2Dy( e )jjm0(3.22b) k (k) Dy(R) = X D(k) (R)T (0k) D(R)Tq (3.2 Dq(2)( ey)hjm0jTq(2)jjm0i: ^ 00 0 (3. So 06= j X m=.k p which means in our case that hjm0jD( ey )Jz2Dy( ey )jjm0i = hjm0j ^ ^ = 2 X 2 X q0 =.

y2) as components of a spherical (irreducible) tensor of rank 2. r2)j j m = j i is known as the quadrupole moment.1 = xz . and (x2 . T+1 : (3. y2)j j m = j i (where m0 = j j . xz.2 xy = 2i (2) (2) T. y ) = 6 (3z . 00 2 3.81) = 2 2 where we have used d(2)( ) = P2(cos ) = 1 (3 cos2 .63-3. ~ (a) Using the relations (3. T.92 1 1 = 3 j (j + 1) + 2 (3 cos2 . y2 (b) We have (2) (2) = T+2 + T. y2) + ixy T. r2)j j m = j i . ixy 2 (2) (2) T+1 = .83) xz = 2 Q = eh j m = j j(3z2 . y2) . 1) = .82) q 1 2 2 2 q 1 2 2 T.(xz + izy) (3. 1) (3.1 . r ) So from the above we have x2 . 1).2 = 2 (x2 . (b) The expectation value Q eh j m = j j(3z2 . x . 2 : : : )in terms of Q and appropriate ClebschGordan coe cients. 2 6 3 2 1 j (j + 1) sin2 + m02 1 (3 cos2 .2 (2) (2) T+2 .67) we can nd that in the case where U = ~ x V = ~ the components of a spherical tensor of rank 2 will be (2) (2) 1 T+2 = 1 (x2 . izy (2) = T0 6 (2z . 1 j . 1) m02 . 1 j (j + 1) 3 1 j (j + 1) cos2 + 1 j (j + 1) + 1 j (j + 1) + m02 (3 cos2 .8 (a) Write xy. Evaluate eh j m0j(x2 .

84) e h j m0j(x2 .2jj 2 j j . 2jj 2 jj . y2)j j m = j i (3:83) (2) (2) = eh j m0jT+2 j j m = j i + eh j m0jT.E:) (3.2hj 2 j . 2i = p hj 2 j 0jj 2 j j i m0 j. THEORY OF ANGULAR MOMENTUM (3:82) 93 = p 6eh j m = j jT0(2)j Q ) h j kT (2)k j i = p6e hj 2 j20jjj+ 1jj i : 2 So h jpT (2) k j i p6e j m = j i = hj 2 j 0jj 2 jj i k2j + 1 p (W:. 2i h j k2j +k1 j i (3:84) Q hj 2 j .3.2 j j m = j i 0 z }| 0 { h j kT (2)k j i (2) pT = e hj 2 j 2jj 2 jm i p2j + 1 + e m0 j.85) 6 .2: (3.

Is the momentum-space wave function for the p p .94 4. p ~ ) x n (~ 4.itH=hjni = e.i~ ~=h (4.1 (a) Assuming that the Hamiltonian is invariant under time reversal.2 Let (~0) be the momentum-space wave function for state j i. prove that the wave function for a spinless nondegenerate system at any given instant of time can always be chosen to be real.2) px px The wave functions n(2x) = e. So we cannot apply the previous result.i~ ~=h and 0n (x) = ei~ ~=h correspond to the p and so there is degeneracy since these correspond same eigenvalue E = 2m to di erent state kets j~i and j . 2Ent the wave function will be h real.1) So if we choose at any instant of time = . (b) In the case of a free particle the Schrodinger equation is p2 jni = E jni ) . h2 r (x) = E (x) ~ n 2m 2m n px px ) n (x) = Aei~ ~=h + Be.itEn=hjni = 2E t En t n eitEZ =h jni = ei( h + ) jni = ei( hn + )jn tZ = 0 ti 0 2 En t ) d3xj~ ih~ j jn t0 = 0 ti = ei( h + ) d3xj~ ih~ j jn t0 = 0 ti x x x x Z Z x x ) d3xh~ jn t0 = 0 ti j~ i = d3xei( 2Ehn t + )h~ jn t0 = 0 tij~ i x x 4 Symmetry in Quantum Mechanics 2E t t) = ei( hn + ) n(~ t): x (4. Then H jni = H jni = En jni ) jni = ei jni ) jn t0 = 0 ti = e. (b) The wave function for a plane-wave state at t = 0 is given by px a complex function ei~ ~=h. (~0) = h~0j i. p that is. pi. Why does this not violate time-reversal invariance? (a) Suppose that jni in a nondegenerate energy eigenstate.

So nally Z Z j i = d3p0h~0j i j . (. where a is the lattice constant.~ j~0i ) j~0i = j .~0j i = (.3 in Sakurai to refresh your knowledge of the quantum mechanics of periodic potentials. n labels the band. Prove that any Bloch function can be written as. (~0 ). You know that the energybands in solids are described by the so called Bloch functions n k full lling. In the momentum space we have Z Z j i = d3p0h~0 j ij~0i ) j i = d3p0 (~0)j~0i p p p p Z Z ) j i = d3p0 h~0j ij~0 i] = d3p0h~0 j i j~0i: p p p p For the momentum it is natural to require (4.5) pp = p p ~j~0i (4:4) .1 = .3) h j~j i = .~0)? p p p p Justify your answer.~0 j i j~0i p ~ p p ) h~0j j i = ~(~0) = h. Ri )e i Ri ika n k (x + a) = e n k (x) .~ h ~j ~ p p p So (4.1 j ~ i ) ~ . X ikR n k (x) = n (x . ~0i p p up to a phase factor.4.3 Read section 4.4) (4.h ~j~j ~ i ) p p . =a =a].6) 4.~0): p p p p (4. and the lattice momentum k is restricted to the Brillouin zone . p0i = d3p0h. or (.~0). SYMMETRY IN QUANTUM MECHANICS 95 time-reversed state j i given by (~0).

ikRj n k (x) = (x . a)]e i e Ri Ri Ri .7) We can show that the functions PRi n(x .8) n (x . Ri) n(x .96 where the sum is over all lattice vectors Ri.ikRj and integrate over k. Ri )e i : Ri (4.). The functions n are called Wannier functions. Ri )e i = n x . The de ning property of a Bloch function n k (x + a) = e ika n k (x) is (4. (Ri . To nd the expansion of a Wannier function in terms of Bloch functions we multiply this relation by e. (In this simble one dimensional problem Ri = ia.10) n . Ri) eik(Ri. but the construction generalizes easily to three dimensions.a=Rj ika X ikR = e (4. =a Ri . =a . i:e: prove Z dx ? (x . and are important in the tight-binding description of solids. Ri )e i Ri Z =a Z =a X ) dke.Rj )dk (4. Show that the Wannier functions are corresponding to di erent sites and/or di erent bands are orthogonal. Rj ) m ij mn Hint: Expand the n s in Bloch functions and use their orthonormality properties. X ikR n k (x) = n (x . Rj )e j Rj n k (x): which means that it is a Bloch function X ikR n k (x) = n (x .a) ika n (x + a . Ri)eikRi satisfy the same relation X X ikR ik(R .9) The last relation gives the Bloch functions in terms of Wannier functions.

Rj )] = i(R . Ri ) n(x . =a Z . Ri) = 2a .R ) e i j dk . (This is known as quenching of orbital angular momemtum. Ri ) ij a .ik0 Rj 0 0 = mn (k . Rj = na. =a = ij 2a (4. SYMMETRY IN QUANTUM MECHANICS But 97 eik(Ri.Rj )dk = 2a mn ij : (4. x Using the time-reversal invariance prove ~ hLi = 0 for any energy eigenstate. =a R Z =a i ) n(x .12) So using the orthonormality properties of the Bloch functions Z dx m(x . Rj i j . Rj ) Z Z Z a2 ikRi . =a 4. with n 2 Z .ik0 Rj 0 = m k (x) n k0 (x)dxdkdk (2 )2 e Z Z a2 ikRi .4. =a e.ikRj n k (x) = n (x . R ) Ri .) If the wave function of such a nondegenerate eigenstate is expanded as XX l m Flm(r)Ylm( ) .ikRi n k (x)dk (4.4 Suppose a spinless particle is bound to a xed center by a potential V (~ ) so assymetrical that no energy level is degenerate. So Z =a X 2 dke.Rj ) =a = 2 sin =a(Ri . k )dkdk 2e (2 ) Z =a 2 = a 2 mn eik(Ri.13) (2 ) =a ik(R .ik0 Rj n k0 (x)dkdk 0 dx = m k (x)e 2e (2 ) Z Z a2 Z ikRi .11) where in the last step we used that Ri .

hnjLjni (4= .16) For the angular-momentum operator we have from (S-4.53) ~ ~ hnjLjni = .4.18) So if we use h~ jni = Pl Pm Flm(r)Ylm( ) x X X Flm(r)Ylm ( ) = ei Flm(r)Ylm( ) ml ml (S .m ml 0 0 (r)(.1)m0 Fl0m0 (r)ei : (4.m l0l = ei Flm(r) m0 m l0l jni = Z d3xj~ ih~ jni = x x Z d3xh~ jni j~ i x x ) Fl0 . Hence jni jni = ei jni: ~ (4.m ( ) = ei X F (r)Y m ( ) ) Flm(r)(.m ( )d = ei Ylm0 Flm(r)Ylm ( )d 0 0 ml X ml m X ) Flm(r)(.17) Z = d3xh~ jni j~ i (4= ei jni ) x x :16) ~ ~ ~ hx0j jni = hx0jni = ei hx0jni: (4.1) m0 .hnjLjni ) ~ ~ ~ :16) ~ hnjLjni = 0 : We have (4.m0 (r) = (.15) If there is no degeneracy jni and jni can di er at most by a phase factor.m = ei Fl0m0 (r) ) Fl0 .1).1)m Yl.1) l lm l ml ml Z 0 X Z X ) Ylm Flm(r)(.98 what kind of phase restrictions do we obtain on Flm(r)? Since the Hamiltonian is invariant under time reversal H = H: (4.4:4:57) X m Y .19) ml .14) So if jni is an energy eigenstate with eigenvalue En we will have H jni = H jni = En jni: (4.

1 0 0 1 For the operator Sx we have S+ + S.5 The Hamiltonian for a spin 1 system is given by 2 H = ASz2 + B (Sx . For the operator Sz we have Sz jl mi = hmjl mi ) hlnjSz jl mi = hmhnjmi ) (Sz )nm = hm nm (4. Sy2): Solve this problem exactly to nd the normalized energy eigenstates and eigenvalues. j1 mi 2 2 q (S .3:5:39) 1 q 1 = h (1 . (A spin-dependent Hamiltonian of this kind actually appears in crystal physics.20) So 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 Sz = h B 0 0 0 C ) Sz2 = h2 B 0 0 0 C @ A @ A 0 0 .1 0 +1.) Is this Hamiltonian invariant under time reversal? How do the normalized eigenstates you obtained transform under time reversal? For a spin 1 system l = 1 and m = . SYMMETRY IN QUANTUM MECHANICS 99 4.1: 2 So 1 0 0 0 p 1 0 2 p C h p 0 0 0 Sx = h B 0 0 2 A + 2 B 2 p 0 C 0 @ A 2@ 0 0 0 0 2 0 p 0 1 0 0 p 2 p C = hB 2 p 0 2 A) @ 2 0 2 0 0 1 01 1 1 2 0 2 2 2 h2 B 0 4 0 C = h2 B 0 0 0 C : 2 (4. 2 h1 njSxj1 mi = 1 h1 njS+ j1 mi + 1 h1 njS.21) Sx = 4 @ A @ 1 A 1 0 1 2 0 2 2 2 . j1 mi = 1 S j1 mi + 1 S j1 mi ! Sxjl mi = 2 + 2 .4. m)(2 + m) n m+1 + 2 h (1 + m)(2 . m) n m.

) . )2(. I ) = 0 ) det B 0 . (B h2)2 = 0 ) (Ah2 . 0 B h2 C det(H .24) To nd the eigenstate jn c i that corresponds to the eigenvalue solve the following equation 0 10 1 0 1 A 0 B CB a C a 2 B 0 0 0 A@ b A = B b C: h @ c@ A B 0 A c c For 1 c we have to (4. B ): (4.2 0 2 2 Sx = . . + B h2) = 0 ) 1 = 0 2 = h2(A + B ) 3 = h2(A .25) =0 0 10 1 ( A 0 B B 0 0 0 C B a C = 0 ) aA + cB = 0 h2 @ A@ b A aB + cA = 0 c B 0 A ( ( a = . we 1 0 0 p 2 p 0 p h Sx = 2i B . ) + (B h2)2 = 0 ) (Ah . In the same manner for the operator Sy = S+2iS.1 2 C 1 0 A: 0 1 2 (4. Bh h 0 2Ah 2 i ) (Ah2 . 2 p 2 C ) 0 A @ 0 .c B2 + cA = 0 c=0 A (4.23) To nd the energy eigenvalues we have to solve the secular equation 0 2 1 Ah . h B 0 . 2 0 0 1 0 1 2 2 . 0 A=0 @ 2 2. B h2)(Ah2 .22) Thus the Hamiltonian can be represented by the matrix 0 1 A 0 B H = h2 B 0 0 0 C : @ A B 0 A (4.c B ) a = 0 A ) .2 nd 1 0 .2 1 .100 .4 0 C = h2 B 0 @ A @ 4 2 0 .26) .

c 1 1 jnA. B ) a C)< bA > 0 = b(A .4.c ) a == 0 b So 1 8 > aA + cB = a(A .1i: (4. p2 j1 .1 .1i: (4.29) For = h2(A .28) 0 1 0 1 c norm: 1 1 jnA+B i = B 0 C = p2 B 0 C ) @ A @ A c 1 1 1 jnA+B i = p2 j1 +1i + p2 j1 . B ) c (4.B i = p2 j1 +1i . SYMMETRY IN QUANTUM MECHANICS So 101 0 1 0 1 0 norm: 0 jn0i = B b C = B 1 C ) @ A @ A 0 0 jn0i = j10i: = h2(A + B ) 1 0 aC b A = (A + B ) B @ c (4.27) In the same way for 0 10 A 0 B CB B 0 0 0 A@ @ B 0 A ( =c ) a= 0 b So 1 8 a C > aA + cB = a(A + B ) < b A)> 0 = b(A + B ) : aB + cA = c(A + B ) c (4.30) 0 1 0 1 c norm: 1 B 0 C = p B 1 C) jnA+B i = @ A @ 0 A 2 . B ) we have 0 10 1 0 A 0 B a B 0 0 0 C B b C = (A . B ) B @ A@ A @ B 0 A c ( . B ) : aB + cA = c(A .31) .

mi: So (4.34) (4.102 Now we are going to check if the Hamiltonian is invariant under time reversal H .1i 1 1 (4:33) = .1 .36) (4.1 Sy (4. Sy .B i: (4.4.1 + B ( Sx .1 Sz . Sy2 .1)mjl .32) .1i (4:33) (4.37) 1 1 = . p j1 +1i 2 2 = . p j1 .35) (4.33) jn0i = :33) j10i (4= j10i = jn0i 1 1 jnA+B i = p2 j1 +1i + p2 j1 .B i = p2 j1 +1i .1i + p j1 +1i 2 2 = jnA.jnA+B i 1 1 jnA.38) . p2 j1 . Sy2) = H: .1 .1 + B ( Sx .1 ) To nd the transformation of the eigenstates under time reversal we use the relation (S-4.1) = A Sz .1i .58) jl mi = (.1 Sx 2 = ASz2 + B (Sx . p j1 .1 2 = A Sz2 .

APPROXIMATION METHODS 103 5 Approximation Methods 5. (c) Solve the H0 + V problem exactly.1 Consider an isotropic harmonic oscillator in two dimensions.1) . ipy ): ay y 2h m! From the fundamental commutation relations we can see that ax ay ] = ay ay ] = 1: x y (5. p 0 jxjni = h=2m! (pn + 1 0 You may use hn + n 0 ):] n n+1 n n. Compare with the perturbation results obtained in q (b). The Hamiltonian is given by (a) What are the energies of the three lowest-lying states? Is there any degeneracy? (b) We now apply a perturbation V = m!2xy p2 + p2 + m!2 (x2 + y2) y x H0 = 2m 2m 2 where is a dimensionless real number much smaller than unity. Find the zeroth-order energy eigenket and the corresponding energy to rst order that is the unperturbed energy obtained in (a) plus the rst-order energy shift] for each of the three lowest-lying states. m! ) x 2h r m! ipy ay (y + m! ) 2h r m! (y .5.1 De ne step operators: r m! ipx (x + m! ) ax 2h r m! ipx ay (x .

H0 ) j l0 i + j l1 i + : : : = (V . 1.3) H0 j m n i = Em n j m n i = h!(m + n + 1) j m n i: (a) The lowest lying states are state degeneracy E0 0 = h! 1 E1 0 = E0 1 = 2h! 2 E2 0 = E0 2 = E1 1 = 3h! 3 (b) Apply the perturbation V = m!2xy.104 De ning the number operators Nx ay ax x we nd Ny ay ay y H0 N Nx + Ny = h! . energy eigenkets are also eigenkets of N : (5.2) Nx j m n i = m j m n i Ny j m n i = n j m n i ) N j m n i = (m + n) j m n i so that (5. 1 ) H0 = h!(N + 1): I.4) h j l0 i + j l1 i + : : : : i .e. Full problem: (H0 + V ) j l i = E j l i Unperturbed problem: H0 j l0 i = E 0 j l0 i Expand the energy levels and the eigenkets as E = E0 + 1 + 2 + : : : j l i = j l0 i + j l1 i + : : : so that the full problem becomes h i (E 0 . 2 : : :) (5.

H0 j l1 i = 0 = h m0 j V . h 1 0 j V j 0 1 i. First excited state is degenerate j 1 0 i. 1 n i p ay j m n i = m + 1 j m + 1 n i etc: x p . 1h m0 j l0 i = h m0 j V j l0 i: 1 j l0 i ) (5. 1 j l0 i ) 1h l0 j l0 i = 1 = h l0 j V j l0 i (5. Wind back to (5.7) Now. APPROXIMATION METHODS To 1'st order: (E 0 . H0) j l1 i = (V . h m0 j l0 i is not necessarily kl since only states corresponding to di erent eigenvalues have to be orthogonal! Insert a 1: X 0 h m j V j k0 ih k0 j l0 i = 1h m0 j l0 i: This is the eigenvalue equation which gives the correct zeroth order eigenvectors! Let us use all this: 1. The ground state is non-degenerate ) 1 = h0 00 k 2D 0 j V j 0 0 i = m!2h 0 0 j xy j 0 0 i h 0 0 j (ax +ay )(ay +ay ) j 0 0 i = 0 x y 2. h 0 1 j V j 1 0 i.5. j 0 1 i. h 0 1 j V j 0 1 i.6) In the degenerate case this does not work since we're not using the right basis kets. h V = m!2xy = m!2 2m! (ax+ay )(ay +ay ) = h! (axay +ay ay +axay +ay ay ) x y x y x y 2 and ax j m n i = m j m . Multiply with h l0 j to nd 1 ) j l0 i: 105 (5.5) h l0 j E 0 . H0 j l1 i = 0 = h l0 j V .5) and multiply it with another degenerate basis ket h m0 j E 0 . We need the matrix elements h 1 0 j V j 1 0 i.

= h!(2 . j 1 0 i) E.8) ! h! 0 1 2 1 0 and so the eigenvalues (= 1) are h! : 1= 2 To get the eigenvectors we solve ! ! ! 0 1 x = x 1 0 y y and get 1 E+ = h!(2 + 2 ) j i+ = p2 ( j 0 1 i + j 1 0 i) 1 j i. j 0 2 i. = p2 ( j 0 1 i . 2 ): (5. ( 2 . .10) 2 p (where the 2 came from going from level 1 to 2 in either of the oscillators) and thus to get the eigenvalues we evaluate 0 . The second excited state is also degenerate j 2 0 i.9) 3. 2) @ A 0 1 . 1) + = (2 . j 1 1 i. so we need the corresponding 9 matrix elements. 1 C = . 1 0 1 0 = det B 1 . However the only nonvanishing ones are: h! V11 20 = V20 11 = V11 02 = V02 11 = p (5.106 Together this gives V10 10 = V01 01 = 0 V10 01 = h! h 1 0 j ax ay j 0 1 i = y 2 V01 10 = h! h 1 0 j ay ay j 0 1 i = x 2 The V -matrix becomes h! 2 h! : 2 (5.

j 2 0 i + j 0 2 i) p 1 j i.5. y )2) + (x + y )2 . (x . )y02]: m 2 p p 0 0 So we get one oscillator with !x = ! 1 + and another with !y = ! 1 . ): p 1 j i+ = 2 ( j 2 0 i + 2 j 1 1 i + j 0 2 i) 1 j i0 = p2 (. . p0x ) and (y0. = h!(3 . y) 1 (p0 . The potential is h1 i m!2 2 (x2 + y2) + xy = # " 2 1 ((x + y )2 + (x . In these new variables the problem takes the form 2 H = 21 (p0x2 + p0y2) + m! (1 + )x02 + (1 .11) = m! 4 4 Now it is natural to introduce 2 2 1 (x . By the same method E+ = h!(3 + ) E0 = 3h! E. = 2 ( j 2 0 i . The energy levels are: 1 p (x + y) 1 p (p0x + p0y ) x0 p0x E0 0 = h! p 0 E1 0 = h! + h!x = h!(1 + 1 + ) = 1 = h!(1 + 1 + 1 + : : :) = h!(2 + 2 ) + O( 2) 2 .12) 2 2 Note: x0 p0x] = y0 p0y ] = ih. y )2) : (5. p0 ): y0 p p0y p x y (5. so that (x0. APPROXIMATION METHODS which means that the eigenvalues are f0 as above we get the eigenvectors 107 h!g. 2 j 1 1 i + j 0 2 i ) (c) To solve the problem exactly we will make a variable change. p0y ) are canonically conjugate.

E h b i = (E1 . (E1 .108 E0 1 E2 0 E1 1 E0 2 = = = = 0 1 h! + h!y = : : : = h!(2 . E b = a E2 . Compare the three results obtained. E )(jbj2 + jaj2): (5. (jaj2 + jbj2) = 0 ) + E1 + E2 2 . E )] = = (E1 . E ) (E1 . E 2 . E ) . Use the second-order nondegenerate perturbation theory to calculate the perturbed eigenvalues. 2 ) + O( 2) 0 h! + 2h!x = : : : = h!(3 + ) + O( 2) 0 0 h! + h!x + h!y = : : : = 3h! + O( 2) 0 h! + 2h!y = : : : = h!(3 .13) So rst order perturbation theory worked! 5. use the second-order degenerate perturbation theory.2 A system that has three unperturbed states can be represented by the perturbed Hamiltonian matrix 0 1 E1 0 a C B 0 E1 b A @ a b E2 where E2 > E1. nd the exact result by diagonalizing the Hamiltonian: E1 . E ) . jbj2 + a 0 . Finally. E E + jaj2 + jbj2 = E = E1 + E2 1 2 2 2 . a (E1 . (jbj2 + jaj2) = 0 i. ) + O( 2): (5. (E1 + E2)Es E1E2 . (a) First. E ) . E = E1 or (E1 . E )2(E2 . E )(E2 . (Is this procedure correct?) Then diagonalize the matrix to nd the exact eigenvalues. E )(E2 . The quantities a and b are to be regarded as per- turbations that are of the same order and are small compared with E2 .e. E1.14) So. E 0 a 0 = 0 E1 .

E2 E1 . Ej : 0 0 E1 2 2. APPROXIMATION METHODS s E1 . jaj . E E1 2 2 + jb 2 E = E1 + E2 . 1 2.17) . E2 1 + 2 (jaj2 + jbj2)( E . E1 . 2 k6=1 E1 . Ej : 2 2 E1 2 (5. E )2 + : : : = 2 2 1 2 2 + jbj2 = E1 + jaj . 1 k6=3 E3 . Ek 2 2 2 + jb 2 X jVk3 j2 = = E jaj E + E jbj E = . E2 k6=2 E2 . 2 1. E2 2 + jaj2 + jbj2: E1 + E2 = 109 (5. E2 (: : :) = E2 .16) (b) Non degenerate perturbation theory to 2'nd order. The basis we use is 0 1 0 1 0 1 1C 0C 0 j1i = B 0 A j2i = B 1 A j3i = B 0 C: @ @ @ A 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 aC The matrix elements of the perturbation V = B 0 0 b A are @ a b 0 h 1 j V j 3 i = a h 2 j V j 3 i = b h 1 j V j 2 i = h k j V j k i = 0: Since (1) = h k j V j k i = 0 1'st order gives nothing. But the 2'nd order k shifts are (2) 1 (2) 2 (2) 3 2 X jVk1 j2 3 1 2 = jh Ej V jE ij = E jaj E 0 0 1. jaj .15) 2 2 Since jaj2 + jbj2 is small we can expand the square root and write the three energy levels as: E = E1 2 1 E = E1 + E2 + E1 . Ek = (5.5. Ek 2 2 X jVk2 j jh 3 j V j 2 ij = jbj2 = 0 0 = E1 .

(1)) j l0 i where of course (1) = 0 as noted above. will again give nothing. and indeed this turns out to be the case. H0) j l1 i = (V . Multiply this from the left with a bra h k0 j from outside the deg. (2) j l0 i: To get rid of the left hand side. (c) To nd the correct energy shifts for the two degenerate states we have to use degenerate perturbation theory. Inserting the expansions in (5. Since the (sub-) problem we are now solving is 2-dimensional we expect to nd two solutions corresponding to l = 1 2. H0 j l2 i = 0 = h m0 j V j l1 i .110 The unperturbed problem has two (degenerate) states j 1 i and j 2 i with energy E1. Note that the superscript index in a bra or ket denotes which order it has in the perturbation expansion.19) (E 0 .jE j l i : This expression for j l1 i we will use in the 2'nd order equation from (5. We have subspace is 0 0 to go to 2'nd order. H0 j l1 i = h k0 j V j l0 i X 0 ih 0 V 0 (5. (2)) 3 to give the correct result.18) leaves us with h i (E 0 . The V -matrix for the degenerate ! 0 0 .e. multiply with a degenerate bra h m0 j (H0 j m0 i = E 0 j m0 i) h m0 j E 0 . (2)h m0 j l0 i: k6=D k .19) At rst order in the perturbation this says: (E 0 . (2) : : :) j l0 i + j l1 i + : : : : (5. so 1'st order pert. Di erent solutions to the full problem are denoted by di erent l's. H0) j l2 i = V j l1 i . H0 ) j l0 i + j l1 i + : : : = h i (V . subspace h k0 j E 0 .20) ) j l1 i = j k E 0k. The problem we want to solve is (H0 + V ) j l i = E j l i using the expansion j l i = j l0 i + j l1 i + : : : E = E 0 + (1) + (2) + : : : (5. Using nondegenerate perturbation theory we expect only the correction to E2 (i. (1) . and one (non-degenerate) state j 3 i with energy E2.18) where H0 j l0 i = E 0 j l0 i.thy.

Ek k6=D 111 (2)h m0 j l0 i: To make this look like an eigenvalue equation we have to insert a 1: X X h m0 j V j k0 ih k0 j V j n0 i 0 0 h n j l i = (2)h m0 j l0 i: E 0 . E3 1. 2 2 V23V31 = a b jV23j = jbj2 : M21 = E .E : 1 2 . Ek k6=D = 0 h m j l0 i are expressed in the basis de ned by j l0 i.20) for j l1 i we get X h m0 j V j k0 ih k0 j V j l0 i = E 0 . E M22 = E .E2 ) ! jaj2 . APPROXIMATION METHODS Inserting the expression (5.21) 2 E . Ek n2D k6=D Maybe it looks more familiar in matrix form X Mmn xn = (2)xm n2D where Mmn = xm X h m0 j V j k0 ih k0 j V j n0 i E 0 . Evaluate M in the degenerate subspace basis D = f j 1 i j 2 ig 2 M12 = EV13V32 0 = E ab E M11 = EV13V31 0 = E jaj E 1 . = = (jaj2 . )(jbj2 .5. E2). E 1 3 1 2 1 3 1 2 With this explicit expression for M . 2 1 . E 0 E . jaj2jbj2 = = 2 . (jaj2 + jbj2) ) = 0 jaj2 + jbj2 2 2 (2) = 0 (2) = jaj + jbj ) 1 (5. ) . solve the eigenvalue equation (de ne 1 = (2)(E1 . E 0 E . E3 1. and take out a common factor E1. ab 0 = det a b jbj2 .

eqn.15): X @ ih @t cn (t) = Vnm ei!nmtcm(t) m Vnm = h n j V j m i !nm = En .22) .t= (F = .Ent=h j n i = h!(n + 1 ) 2 where we get cn (t) from its di . (a) Using time-dependent perturbation theory to rst order.t= n (5. obtain the probability of nding the oscillator in its rst excited state for t > 0. @V ) @x At t = 0 the system is in its ground state j 0 i = j 0 i.1 ):] (a) The problem is de ned by 2 2 H0 = 2pm + m!22x V (t) = . (S. F0s .112 From before we knew the non-degenerate energy shift.3 A one-dimensional harmonic oscillator is in its ground state for t < 0.F0e.t= 2m! ( m n m.t= j m i = .1 + m + 1 n m+1): 0 En F (t) = F0e. and now we see that degenerate perturbation theory leads to the correct shifts for the other two levels. 5. Everything is as we would have expected.F0xe. We want to calculate X j t i = cn (t)e. Em = !(n .5. For t 0 it is subjected to a time-dependent but spatially uniform force (not potential!) in the x-direction.t= h n j x j m i = xe p h p = . Is this reasonable or surprising? (b) Can we nd higher excited states? q You may use hn0jxjni = h=2m! (pn + 1 n0 n+1 + pn n0 n.F0e. Show that the t ! 1 ( nite) limit of your expression is independent of time. 5. m) h We need the matrix elements Vnm Vnm = h n j .

5. APPROXIMATION METHODS

Put it back into (5.22)

113

s @ c (t) = ;F e;t= h pn + 1e;i!tc (t) + pnei!tc (t) : ih @t n 0 n+1 n;1 2m! Perturbation theory means expanding cn(t) = c(0) + c(1) + : : :, and to zeroth n n order this is @ c(0)(t) = 0 ) c(0) = n0 n @t n To rst order we get Zt X c(1)(t) = i1 dt0 Vnm (t0)ei!nmt0 c(0) = n m h 0 m s p p h Zt 0 = ; Fh 2m! 0 dt0e;t= n + 1e;i!t0 c(0) (t) + nei!t0 c(0)1 (t) n+1 n; i We get one non-vanishing term for n = 1, i.e. at rst order in perturbation theory with the H.O. in the ground state at t = 0 there is just one non-zero expansion coe cient s F0 h Z t dt0ei!t0;t0 = p1 c(1)(t) = ; ih 2m! 1;1 0 = 1 0 s # " F0 h 1 e(i!; 1 )t0 t = ; ih 2m! i! ; 1 0 s h 0 = Fh 2m! 1 1 1 ; e(i!; 1 )t i i! ; and X h h j t i = c(1)(t)e ;iEnt j n i = c(1)(t)e ;iE1t j 1 i: 1 n

The probability of nding the H.O. in j 1 i is As t ! 1

n

jh 1 j t ij2 = jc(1)(t)j2: 1

s F0 h 1 = const: c(1) ! ih 2m! i! ; 1 1 This is of course reasonable since applying a static force means that the system asymptotically nds a new equilibrium.

114 (b) As remarked earlier there are no other non-vanishing cn's at rst order, so no higher excited states can be found. However, going to higher order in perturbation theory such states will be excited.

1 5.4 Consider a composite system made up of two spin 2 objects. for t < 0, the Hamiltonian does not depend on spin and can be taken to be zero by suitably adjusting the energy scale. For t > 0, the Hamiltonian is given by

~ ~ H = 4 2 S1 S2: h Suppose the system is in j + ;i for t 0. Find, as a function of

time, the probability for being found in each of the following states j + +i, j + ;i, j ; +i, j ; ;i: (a) By solving the problem exactly. (b) By solving the problem assuming the validity of rst-order time-dependent perturbation theory with H as a perturbation switched on at t = 0. Under what condition does (b) give the correct results?

(a) The basis we are using is of course j S1z S2z i. Expand the interaction potential in this basis: ~ ~ S1 S2 = S1x" 2x + S1y S2y + S1z S2z = fin this basisg S 2 = h ( j + ih ; j + j ; ih + j )1 ( j + ih ; j + j ; ih + j )2 + 4 + i2(; j + ih ; j + j ; ih + j )1 (; j + ih ; j + j ; ih + j )2 + # + ( j + ih + j ; j ; ih ; j )1 ( j + ih + j ; j ; ih ; j )2 = " h2 j + + ih ; ; j + j + ; ih ; + j + = 4 + j ; + ih + ; j + j ; ; ih + + j + 2 ( j + + ih ; ; j ; j + ; ih ; + j + + i ; j ; + ih + ; j + j ; ; ih + + j ) +

5. APPROXIMATION METHODS

+ j + + ih + + j ; j + ; ih + ; j + # ; j ; + ih ; + j + j ; ; ih ; ; j =

115

In matrix form this is (using j 1 i = j + + i j 2 i = j + ; i j 3 i = j ; + i j 4 i = j ; ; i) 01 0 0 01 B C H = B 0 ;1 ;1 0 C : B0 2 2 0C (5.23) @ A 0 0 0 1 This basis is nice to use, since even though the problem is 4-dimensional we get a 2-dimensional matrix to diagonalize. Lucky us! (Of course this luck is due to the rotational invariance of the problem.) Now diagonalize the 2 2 matrix to nd the eigenvalues and eigenkets ! ;1 ; 2 2 2 0 = det 2 ;1 ; = (;1 ; ) ; 4 = + 2 ; 3 =1:

) = 1 ;3

! ! x = x y y 1 ) ;x + 2y = x ) x = y = p2

;1 2 2 ;1

!

! ! x = ;3 x y y 1 ) ;x + 2y = ;3x ) x = ;y = p2 So, the complete spectrum is: 8 > j + + i j ; ; i p12 ( j + ; i + j ; + i with energy < > p (j + ;i ; j ; +i : 1 with energy ; 3

= ;3 :

;1 2 2 ;1

!

2

S2 1 ~2 ~2 We know that S1 = S2 = h2 2 1 2 +1 1 2 = 3h2 so 4 ~ ~ S1 S2 = S2 . so we can use the simple form of tthe time-evolution operator: i U (t t0) = exp . In the new basis H is diagonal and time-independent.e.116 This was a cumbersome but straightforward way to calculate the spectrum. In the new basis n 1 j 1 i = j + + i j 2 i = j . 3h2 ) = . i 1 1 p ( j + . ~ ~ ~ A smarter way would have been to use S = S1 + S2 to nd ~ ~2 ~2 ~ ~ ~ ~ 1 ~ ~2 ~2 S 2 = S 2 = S1 + S2 + 2S1 S2 ) S1 S2 = 2 S 2 . i + j . ~ ~ 1 S = 1 (3 states) ) S1 S2 = 2 (h21(1 + 1) . h H (t . j . and p ( j + . i .24) 3 ~1 S2 = 1 (. 3h2 ) = 1 h2 2 4 : (5. i j 3 i = p2 ( j + . i. i + j .3 : E(spin=0) = 2 4 h From Clebsch-Gordan o decomposition we know that j + + i j . . S1 . t0) : The initial state was j + . .25) . we know that two spin 2 systems add up to one triplet (spin 1) and one singlet (spin 0). + i) n (5. j . + i) o 1 j 4 i = p2 ( j + .3h2 = . 3h2 2 ! 1 Also. + i) is spin 0! 2 2 Let's get back on track and nd the dynamics. + i) are spin 1. 4 h2 ~ 2 2 S = 0 (1 state) ) S ~ ~ Since H = 4h2 S1 S2 we get h2 E(spin=1) = 4 2 14 = h 4 . i . i.

e4i!t . + i) = 1 +exp h 2 h i 1 (e.4i!t) = 1 (1 . + i = 2 where (5.27) jii = j + . i = p2 ( j 3 i + j 4 i): 117 Acting with U (t 0) on that we get 1 i j t i = p exp .i . h Ht ( j 3 i + j 4 i) = 2 1 exp . + j t ij2 = 1 (2 .4i!t 2 > jh + . e. . i + j .i dt0ei!nit0 Vni (t0): cn h t0 Here we have (using the original basis) H0 = 0. j t ij = 4 (2 + e + e ) = 2 (1 + cos4!t) ' 1 .ih t p ( j + . i t j 3 i + exp 3i t j 4 i = = p h h "2 1 = exp .6.i!t + e3i!t) j + . cos4!t) ' 4(!t)2 : : : 4 2 ! (b) First order perturbation theory (use S. + i)+ 2 # 3 i t p ( j + .i!t + e3i!t) j . j . V given by (5. APPROXIMATION METHODS the initial state is 1 j + . 5.26) h: The probability to nd the system in the state j i is as usual jh j t ij2 8 > h+ + j ti = h.23) (5. 4(!t) : : : > > : jh . i + (e.17): c(0) = ni n Zt (1) (t) = .5. i . j ti = 0 > > < 1 2 1 4i!t .

i or j + + i is thus obviously zero.28) j . The approximation breaks down when !t 1 is no longer valid.118 Vfi = 2 Vni = 0 n 6= f: Inserting this into (5.+ i h 0 dt2 = . whereas for the other two states P ( j + . .5 The ground state of a hydrogen atom (n = 1. in correspondence with the exact result.2i!t: as the only non-vanishing coe cients up to rst order.27) yields c(0) = c(0) . The probability of nding the system in j .Zr=a0 : x n=1 l=0 (~ ) = p a0 . Discuss brie y the similarities and the di erences between this problem and the (more realistic) photoelectric e ect. i t cf (5. so for a given t: h: !t 1 ) t jf i = j . +i !ni = En . obtain an expression for the transition rate at which the electron is emitted with momentum ~. i = 1 i j+ Z (1) = c(1) = . Show.l = 0) is subjected to a time-dependent potential as follows: V (~ t) = V0 cos(kz . Ei = fEn = 0g = 0 h 5. !t): x Using time-dependent perturbation theory. in particular. how you may compute the angular p distribution of the ejected electron (in terms of and de ned with respect to the z-axis). (note: For the initial wave function use 2 1 Z 3e. + i) = jc(1)(t) + c(2)(t) + : : : j2 = j2i!tj2 = 4(!t)2 f f to rst order. i) = 1 P ( j .

!t) = V ei!t + V ye.r=a0 x i (~ ) = p a0 and the nal wave-function is 1 ei~ ~=h: px x f (~ ) = L3=2 The perturbation is h i V = V0 ei(kz.r=a0 : (5. the nal wave function may be taken to be 1 with L very large. At t = 0 the perturbation V = V0 cos(kz .i~f ~ k x 1 1 3=2 = d3x L3=2 eikx3 p a e. APPROXIMATION METHODS 119 If you have a normalization problem.i(kz.i!t: (5.r=a0 = 0 Z 1 k x = 3=2p 3=2 d3xe.5. The initial wave-function is p 1 1 3=2e.30) L a0 x f (~ ) = 2 L3 px ei~ ~=h .6.i(~f ~. but you should be able to show that the observable e ects are independent of L.kx3 ). The matrix element is 2 y Vni 2 = V40 eikz ni 2 and Z ikz ~ f j eikz j n = 1 l = 0 i = d3xh ~ f j eikz j x ih x j n = 1 l = 0 i = e ni = h k k Z e.44) gives us the transition rate y 2 wi!n = 2h Vni (En .29) Time-dependent perturbation theory (S.!t) + e. !t) is turned on. (Ei + h!)) because the atom absorbs a photon h!. We want to nd the transition rate at which the electron is emitted with momentum ~f .5.) To begin with the atom is in the n = 1 l = 0 state.

39) 1 64 2 eikz ni = L3a5 h 1 i4 0 a2 + (~ f . As in (S. 5. k~z 2 = (jkf jcos . The angular dependence is in the denominator: ~ f .5.31) In a comparison between this problem and the photoelectric e ect as discussed in (S. 2kjkf jcos : (5. the volume p k element is dn n2dnd = n2d dp dpf : f Using 2 2 2 2 p kf = f2 = n (22 ) L h we get dn = 1 2L2pf = 2 h L2pf = L dp 2n (2 h)2 Lp (2 h)2 2 h which leaves f f 2 L3kf L3p2 = (2 )3h d dpf = (2 hf)3 d dpf and this is the sought density. 2 64 2 L3 p2 1 wi!~f = 2h V40 L3a5 h 1 i4 (2 hf)3 d dpf : p 0 a2 + (~ f . k) ~z + jkf jsin (cos'~x + sin'~y )]2 = k e e e e = jkf j2cos2 + k2 . On the other hand we did not make any dipole approximation but performed the x-integral exactly. Finally. We need to get that as a function of ~f = h~ f . w has no dependence on the azimuthal angle .120 So eikz ni is the 3D Fourier transform of the initial wave-function (and some constant) with ~ = ~ f . k~z )2 k e 0 The transition rate is understood to be integrated over the density of states.31). That can be extracted from (Sakurai problem q k e 5. k~z . k~z )2 k e 0 n2dnd Note that the L's cancel. 2kjkf jcos + jkf j2sin2 = 2 = kf + k2 . .7) we note that since there is no polarization vector involved.7.

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