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TWO STAGE TEMPERING HEAT TREATMENT : LAB 2
1. Starting a new problem 2. Initialization 3. Import geometry 4. Generate mesh 5. Material definition 6. Workpiece initialization 7. Medium definition 8. Schedule definition 9. Simulation control 10. Submit simulation 11. Post processing 1 2 2 2 3 5 5 8 9 11 11
In this lab. Starting a new problem Start a new Heat Treatment Wizard problem with problem ID "Tempering". as multiple stages are involved in the heat treatment. this type of problem can also be set up in the regular Pre-Processor. This lab can also help users understand the capabilities and limitations of DEFORM-HT's phase transformation calculation scheme. but with less convenience and greater flexibility.DEFORM™-Heat Treatment Wizard Labs Problem Summary: This lab will demonstrate how to simulate a complex tempering heat treatment problem of a steel part. You can do so by clicking the “New problem” button and choose “Heat treatment” (See Figure 1). you can right click on the directory tree to create an empty directory and click “Heat treatment” on the right side of the main window. 1. Theoretically. the problem is set up using the Heat Treatment Wizard. Figure 1: GUI-MAIN Window 1 . Alternatively.
and 0. use 300 for unstructured mesh. (The structured surface mesh helps provide better thermal solution accuracy with less computing time. Use 2 layers of structured surface layer. Click "Next". Click “Next”. respectively (See Figure 3). Generate mesh In page “Mesh Generation”.) 2 . and load geometry file “TemperingPart. and set "Geometry Type" to Axisymmetric. Import geometry In page “Geometry”. choose “import from a geometry. KEY.005 and 0. or DB file” and click “Next”. set "Thickness mode" to be "ratio to object overall dimension". Click "Next". "Diffusion".GEO”. set the "Unit System" to SI. Figure 2: GUI-PRE with Initialization Window 3. and "Phase Transformation" (See Figure 2). 4.DEFORM™-Heat Treatment Wizard Lab 2. Turn on "Deformation".01 for thickness of layer 1 and 2. Initialization In the "Initialization" dialog. Go to directory Labs/HeatTreat.
DB and . We are going to use the default values for this lab. TB->A. Martensite (B). Temper Ferrite+Cementite (TFC). The transformation kinetics between the phases include A->F. Lowcarbon Martensite (LM). Ferrite (F). A->TB. choose “Import from . M->A. Temper Banite (TB).DEFORM™-Heat Treatment Wizard Labs Figure 3: Mesh Generation Window 5. Among these kinetics. A->PB. Note that this is a complex mixture material with eight constituents (phases). PB->A. LM->TFC. Material definition In page “Material”. A->F has an equilibrium volume fraction that depends on carbon contents. Pearlit+Banite (PB). Import material "Demo_Temper_Steel. A->M uses Martensitic transformation model. M->LM. A->F. M->A. and PB->A.KEY" from directory “Lab/Heat Treat”. TB->A. A>M. A->PB. hence close the “Phase Transformation window by clicking on “Close” button and then Click “Next”. and TFC->A use simplified diffusion model. and LM->TFC are diffusion-controlled defined by TTT curves. You can click button "Advance" to view and edit the material and transformation data (See Figure 4). and TFC->A. 3 . including Austenite (A). In addition. A->TB. M->LM.KEY” (See Figure 4) and click “Next”.
DEFORM™-Heat Treatment Wizard Lab Figure 4: Material Window Figure 5: GUI-PRE with Phase Transformation Window 4 .
Medium definition In page “Media details”. you will define various media and heat transfer zones associated with them (See Figure 7). Workpiece initialization In page "Workpiece initialization".0 for "Pearlite + Banite". 5 . For "Atom". choose "Uniform" and set 20 C. Click 'Next'. and zero for the rest (See Figure 6).2. for "Temperature". For "Phase volume fraction". 1) Rename the first media to “Furnace” and set the “default” heat transfer coefficient (HTC) to constant 0. choose "Uniform" and set 1. Figure 6: Work Piece Initialization Window 7.DEFORM™-Heat Treatment Wizard Labs 6. choose "Uniform" and input 0.1.
5 8. deactivate "Radiation".5 4. define the HTC as a function of temperature as follows: Temperature 20 400 700 900 HTC 3.8 4) For media “Polymer Solution”.5 8. Specify the "Diffusion Surface Reaction Rate" as a function of temperature as follows: 6 . Define HTC as a function of temperature as follows: Temperature 20 200 400 700 900 HTC 3. The zone should be on the bottom of the workpiece as shown in the Figure 8. Click on the workpiece boundary to specify this zone using the "start-and-end-point" selection mode. For its "default" zone.5 15 5.DEFORM™-Heat Treatment Wizard Lab Figure 7: Media details Window 2) Add a media “Polymer Solution”.2 3) Add a heat transfer zone to the media “Polymer Solution”.8 3.5 2.
2 0. Turn on Radiation. Click 'Next'. Input 0.02 for the default HTC (See Figure 9).6 5) Add one more media “Air”.1 0. Figure 8: Showing zone#1 Selection 7 .DEFORM™-Heat Treatment Wizard Labs Temperature 20 500 1000 RRC 0.
The temperature of the furnace is specified as a function of time. This function can be input by clicking the corresponding "Define" cell in the "Advance" column (See Figure 11). Schedule definition In “Schedule” page.DEFORM™-Heat Treatment Wizard Lab Figure 9: Media Details Window showing an addition of Air as a Media 8. Figure 10: Schedule Window 1) One hour (3600 s) of furnace heating. click on 'Add' button and input a five-stage schedule as explained below (See Figure 10) . 8 .
4) 30 minutes (1800 s) of tempering at 350C.8 at 30C 3) 30 minutes (1800 s) of tempering at 250C. To do so. Specify the "Atom" content to be 0. additional boundary conditions need to be specified here. elasto-plastic deformation will be computed. In this simulation. Alternatively. Change per step" to 2. the furnace temperature function is as follows: Time (s) 0 600 1200 3600 Temperature 20 600 880 880 2) 10 minutes (600 s) of quenching in the polymer solution. Thus.DEFORM™-Heat Treatment Wizard Labs Figure 11: Advanced Process set-up Window Here. 5) One hour (3600 s) of cooling in the air at 20C) click 'Next' 9. Make sure to 9 . change "Temp. Simulation control In "Step Definition". you can let the program generate boundary conditions for you by clicking "Auto" buttons. you need to select a boundary condition item and then assign it to appropriate boundary nodes or edges by picking the start and end points. Accept other default settings (See Figure 12).
Figure 13: File Generated Page 10 . we will accept automatically generated boundary conditions.DEFORM™-Heat Treatment Wizard Lab double-check the boundary conditions before you proceed. Here. Figure 12:GUI-PRE with Simulation Window Click "Finish" button and click “Ok” in the pop-up message to generate Database file and multiple operation control file (See Figure 13).
In the interior. very low F is formed there. Maximum residual stress was high after quench (~1320 MPa). therefore. (This is because in our kinetics data.) 2. DEFORM simulation engine will detect the multiple operation control file and execute accordingly. In this problem. more F is formed. and reduced after tempering 11 . 11. Submit simulation Exit Heat Treatment Wizard and click "Run" in the Main window. The carbon content is high near the surface due to diffusion from the environment. just as submitting a regular simulation.DEFORM™-Heat Treatment Wizard Labs 10. A->F transformation has equilibrium volume fraction that depends on atom content. The temperature min-max history should look like the lower-left graph below:( See Figure 14) Figure 14: Post Processor with Volume Fraction as a State Variable There are a few interesting points to observe in the simulation: 1. Post processing Use Post Processor to view the simulation results. both are diffusion controlled and active within the similar time-temperature range. and A->F transformation competes with A->PB.
03 after tempering. Most of M has become LM and TFC.DEFORM™-Heat Treatment Wizard Lab 3.8 on the surface. 12 . M is near 0. It reduced to 0. After quench.
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