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ANCIENT

SHIPS

Sonton: C.

J.

CLAY AND

SONS,

CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS WAREHOUSE, AVE MARIA LANE.
ffilasgofo:

263,

ARGYLE STREET.

F. A.

BROCKHAUS.
CO.

Sorfe:

MACMILLAN AND

ANCIENT

SHIPS
BY

CECIL TORR,

M.A.

ILLUSTRATED

*7

CAMBRIDGE
UNIVERSITY PRESS
1895
[All Rights reserved.}

Viv

!

PRINTED BY

J.

&

C. F.

CLAY,

AT THE UNIVERSITY

PRESS.

PREFACE.

FOR ancient

some while

have been at work upon a history of shipping; and the following pages are meant
I

to form a portion of that history.

Assuming

that ancient

shipping means shipping in the Mediterranean between IOOOB.C. and 1000 A.D., and that a history of shipping should
deal with everything connected with ships, I find that I have upon my hands a task of no small magnitude and I do not
;

quite
so, I

know when

this task will

be accomplished.

That being
;

am

bringing out this portion of the work before the rest

portion being tolerably complete already, and dealing with a question that may conveniently be discussed apart
this

from any other, namely, the character of the ships themselves.

Ancient ships have already formed the subject of dozens of books and pamphlets and I necessarily have made myself acquainted with the bulk of this literature, from Dr Assmann's
;

latest article

in

treatise

De Re

Navail published by L. de Baif
my

the Archaologisches Jahrbuch back to the
in 1536.
I

do

obligations to previous writers on the subject, for they have informed me of many things that

not wish to underrate

I

was not

at all likely to discover for myself.
I

them

altogether,

But, taking found their works more voluminous have

than valuable.

As

a

rule,

they have relied too

much upon

their predecessors.

great many of their works are nothing more than careless compilations from those of earlier date ;

A

and hardly any of them
T.

fail

to

repeat a few exploded

B

vi

PREFACE.

blunders.
directed.

And

Author

then a great deal of energy has been misafter author has written as though the

question was simply how he would set to work, if he were called upon to build a trireme; and accordingly there has

been a crop of so-called restorations, which are principally works of the imagination, and do not always agree with the evidence on the few points that happen to be known for
of the writers on the subject have thus contented themselves with a very slender knowledge of
certain.

And

while

many

the evidence available, nearly all of them have shewn more zeal in collecting evidence than in sifting it sufficiently to
ascertain
its

value.

The

best of the written evidence

comes from

inscriptions.

In digging the foundations for a building at the Peiraeus in 1834, the workmen came upon a Roman or Byzantine drain,

and found that
inscriptions.

it

was lined with slabs of marble covered with

These were some of the inventories of the
light
latest

since then, the earliest of

Athenian dockyards, and a few others have come to them dating from 373 and the
B.C.

from 323

or thereabouts.

are shattered and defaced in

Unhappily, these inscriptions many places but where the
;

reading

is

clear, their testimony

is

conclusive*.

Next

in

ancient literature

importance are the statements that occur in but, unfortunately, very few of these are
:

and the only one that enters into details is open to suspicion. This is the account that Athenaeos gives of some stupendous ships that were built
allusions
;

more than passing

about 400 years before his time. In my opinion, this account is not to be accepted as a description of those particular
but I imagine that its authors based their statements on what they knew of ships in general so that, with due allowance for exaggerations and anachronisms, every detail is
ships
:

;

vol.

ii,

All these inscriptions are printed in the Corpus Inscriptionum Atticarum, nos. 789812. The original set were edited by August Bockh in 1840

from copies by Ludwig Ross.

PREFACE.

vii

times

admissible as evidence in dealing with the ships of ancient b Of course, the literary evidence has all to be sub.

jected to the ordinary tests, each statement being estimated

by the value that we put upon
of information
difficulties

its

author and his means
hand.

about the matter

in

And

peculiar

mentioned only once in literature, the question being whether this is due to chance, or must be taken to imply that the thing was not in vogue
arise
is

when a thing

for any length of time. But that conclusion is not inevitable, even when a thing is mentioned several times by authors of one period and never once by those of earlier or later date
;

for those

authors

may

only be repeating a simile or

illustra-

had struck the fancy of their generation. And, conversely, authors might go on repeating phrases that were
tion that

no longer applicable
akatian

;

just as Plutarch

and Lucian

talk about

sails, although these sails had probably gone out of the explanation being that the use some centuries before
:

akatians were mentioned in a famous saying of Epicures There are also the statements of the scholiasts and lexico.

graphers

:

but their evidence

may
;

be rejected altogether.

So

matters that admit of proof, are oftener wrong than right and there is no reason for they supposing that they were any better informed on matters that do not admit of proof. Such people felt bound to find
far as their assertions relate to

a meaning for every word or phrase that came within their range and if they did not happen to know, they simply had
;

to guess.

The evidence from

written sources

evidence from material sources.

is supplemented by There are the ruins of the

docks at Athens to give a notion of the dimensions and
proportions of the war-ships
b
:

and there are some rams and

44, quoting Moschion. 39, quoting Callixenos, and v. 40 10 and 77 to 29 as to the reasons for suspecting these descriptions; and also note 118 on p. 50 for an example of the mode of dealing c with such evidence. See p. 86 as to this.

Athenseos,

v.

37

See especially pp.

9,

viii

PREFACE.

figure-heads and anchors, but practically no other remnants few models have been found: of the ships themselves.

A

but these are
are

all

too rough to be instructive

;

and the chances

against our finding the splendid model that Lysander placed at Delphi a trireme, three feet long, and made of
d There are plenty of pictures of the ships on ivory and gold vases and in frescos and mosaics, and figures of them painted
.

on
for

reliefs

and coins and gems and works of

art of every class

;

they were constantly in favour with the artists of antiquity. But these works of art must all be taken at a discount. In

dealing with so large a subject as a ship, an ancient artist

would

and give prominence other features; and then would to these by suppressing modify the whole design to suit the space at his disposal.
seize
characteristics,

upon some

Moreover, the treatment would vary with the form of
painters

art,

and sculptors seeing things from different points of view; and it would vary also with the period, as art went through its phases. So, works of art may easily be taken to
imply a difference
is

in the ships themselves,

when

the difference

only

in the

mode

of representing them.
is

necessary in getting this evidence If a restorer has handled the at second hand from books.
original relief or painting, his mistakes are sure to
;

The

greatest caution

be em-

bodied in the copy and generally some fresh mistakes are introduced by draughtsmen and engravers and the people

who touch up photographs. The

result

is

that very few of the

published copies are trustworthy in every detail, while many of them might rank as caricatures and yet those copies are handed on from book to book, and quoted as autho:

rities.

made a

But obviously the authors of these books have never search for the originals, for then they would have
all
6
.

discovered that not a few of these supposed copies have

no originals at
d

Plutarch, Lysander, 18.

2, T/H^/WJS,

Sid xpixrou

Treiroir)fj,^vr)

KO! IX^curos, dvelv

PREFACE.

IX
falls

The evidence from

all

sources

short
;

of

what

is

needed for a complete description of the ships for although our information on certain points is ample and conclusive, there are many points on which we have no information
whatever.
Practically, this
likely to

nobody

is

not a matter of importance, as resuscitate the ancient style of shipis

and hitherto no attention has been building for given to devices that might still be serviceable. Thus,
in its entirety;
sail
its

example, the ancients saw their way to supplement a squareby a triangular topsail with its base along the yard and

apex at the top of the mast, so that no additional yard was needed and to reinforce the ram by a series of auxiliary rams above, which not only increased the damage to an
;

e

For example,
ii,

in the last edition of Smith's Dictionary of Greek
p. 218, there is a picture of

and Roman

an ancient anchor with flukes to A note says that the picture is taken from Baumeister. It its arms and no stock. occurs on p. 1614 in vol. iii of Baumeister's Denkmdler des klassischen Altcrtums; and there the statement is that the picture is taken from Kekule, and that the round the temple of Athena Nike at original may be seen upon the balustrade But in Kekule's Reliefs an der Balustrade der Athena Nike the picture Athens.
Antiquities , vol.
is

might have

the Ergiinzungsskizzen, merely as a suggestion of what a vacant place; and on the balustrade itself there is not the Again, in Smith's Dictionary, vol. i, p. 361, a slightest trace of any anchor at all. "The illustration, picture of a boat, or coracle, is introduced with these remarks :

given on p. 12

among

filled

given both by Rich and Saglio, is taken from Veteruniy who describes it as from an ancient

Scheffer,

De

Militia Navali

MS.

Supplemmtum ad Grccvium et Gronovium, v. p. 831)." on p. 915 of vol. i of Daremberg and Saglio's Dictionnaire
et

Vitruvius (Polenus, Saglio gives the picture
des Antiquites Grecques

of

from Scheffer, who took it from a MS. of Rich gives it on p. 117 of his Vitruvius, and that Rich had given it before. Dictionary of Roman and Greek Antiquities, third edition, saying that he took it
Romaines, saying that he took
it

from Scheffer, who took it from a and Polenus reprints him rightly

MS.

of Vitruvius.

But Scheffer himself,

p. 81

As a matter of
any

fact,

he

says that he took it from a MS. of Vegetius. did not take it from Vitruvius or Vegetius or from

MS.

at

all.

An

Paris in August, 1532.

edition of Vegetius, De Re Militari, was printed at An edition of Robertus Valturius, De Re Military had

been printed at the same press in July. And as the volumes were uniform, they generally were bound up together. Scheffer took the picture from an engraving on
p.

316 of the treatise by Valturius.

The

engravings in this edition of Valturius

are copied from the engravings in the original edition printed at Verona in This sort of thing is not at all 1472, and refer to matters of that period.

uncommon.

X

PREFACE.

enemy, but also protected the stem from being crushed Such devices as these, which proved of against her sides. service in antiquity, would certainly be worth a trial on
that in the passages quoted in the have silently omitted any subordinate clauses that do not bear upon the matter in hand. And also that I have

modern ships. I must warn the reader
notes
I

made a rough use of round numbers in dating Egyptian monuments my opinion being that the evidence does not
;

justify the popular

system of chronology.

The illustrations in plates I to 7 are by Mr J. A. Burt and I have never seen the those in 8 by Mr H. W. Bennett. originals of fgs. 10, n, 29 to 31, and 40; but I can guarantee the accuracy of all the rest in every point on which I cite
them
Unfortunately, the illustrations were arranged some while ago, before the book had assumed its present form and they fall short of what would be desirable.
as
authorities.
;

But

I

hope

that the complete

work

will contain a satisfactory

copy of every monument that can elucidate the subject.
C. T.

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

lips

with oars

.....
. .

PAGE
i

20.
3-

the oars arranged in banks number of oars in each bank
auxiliary oars

IO.

on sailing-ships

20.

>imensions of the ships

'onnage of the ships

....
. .

20

25.

2531.
31-38.

[aterials for ship-building

timber
tar, paint,

wax,

etc.

3437-

metal
Structure of the hull

....
.

keel, ribs, skin, waling-pieces

39-

cables for strengthening the sides port-holes in the sides

41. 43-

beams,

etc, in

the interior

4549.
54.

superstructure and upper decking lower decks, forecastle and poop

deck-houses and turrets
ballast

58.

and bilge
its

60.

the

ram and

auxiliaries

.

.

62.

figure-heads,

etc.

65.

Anchors and cables
Steering-gear

69-74.

74-78.

Xll

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

ANCIENT

SHIPS.

THE Mediterranean is a sea where a vessel with sails may becalmed for days together, while a vessel with oars could easily be traversing the smooth waters, with coasts and
lie

islands

everywhere at hand to give her shelter

in

case of

storm.

instruments of navigation
chief

In that sea, therefore, oars became the characteristic and the arrangement of oars, the
;

And so long as the Mediterproblem ranean nations dominated Western Europe, vessels of the southern type were built upon the northern coasts, though
in shipbuilding.

there generally

wave

was wind enough here for sails and too much But afterwards the nations of Western Europe filled the Mediterranean with sailing-vessels of the types they had devised for voyages on the Ocean and oars finally gave Yet, only a few years before sails began in place to sails. their turn to give place to steam, oars were still employed on vessels of considerable size that were intended for the Mediterranean alone; and probably would have been more generally employed there, had there still been an adequate
for oars.
;

supply of galley-slaves. In the ancient world, however, thej/ rower was not usually a slave and it is a strange fact that Athenian citizens in the age of Pericles, who were in no wise unconscious of their own transcendent gifts, willingly laboured
:

at the oar to

generate a mechanical force that was directed by the intelligence of others. a T.

2

THE EARLIEST SHIPS WITH OARS,
first
2,

The art of rowing can Boats with oars, as in fg.

be discerned upon the Nile.

are represented in the earliest

pictorial monuments of Egypt, dating from about 2500 B.C.: and although some crews are paddling with their faces towards the bow, others are rowing with their faces towards

the stern.

The paddling

is

certainly the older practice

;

for

the hieroglyph chen depicts two arms grasping an oar in the attitude of paddling, and the hieroglyphs were invented in the earliest ages. And that practice may really have ceased before 2500
B.C.,

date; for in

despite the testimony of monuments of that monuments dating from about 1250 B.C. crews

are represented unmistakably rowing with their faces towards the stern and yet grasping their oars in the attitude of paddling, as in fgs. 3 and 5, so that even then Egyptian
artists

which

their

mechanically followed the turn of the hieroglyph to hands were accustomed. In these reliefs there

are twenty rowers on the boats on the Nile, as in fg. 3, and but in the thirty on the ships on the Red Sea, as in fg. 5 earliest reliefs, as in fg. 2, the number varies considerably and
;

seems dependent on the amount of space at the sculptor's In the contemporary relief representing a battle disposal. in the Mediterranean about 1000 B.C. the Egyptian fought war-ships, as in fg. 6, have from twelve to twenty-two rowers
apiece according to the requirements of the sculptor, while the Asiatic war-ships, as in fgs. 7 and 8, have not any rowers
at
all.

Among the Greeks the oars of a ship were collectively termed tarsos, and among the Hebrews ships of a certain type were known as ships of tarHs\ and Tarsos and Tarsis
1

Iliad,

i.

308, 309, 'ArpelSifjs
xvi.

5'

dpa

vrja.
1

doty a\aSe
rjaav
|

Trpotpv<r<rev,

es
\

5'

ep^ras
^s
|

tKpivev telKOffiv.
Tpol-rjv rjye'iTO

168
ev line

170, Trevr'qKovT
5'

vijes

Ooai,

ri<nv

'A%tXXe()s
tiri

Ad
this

<j>l\of
last

ap'

e^dcrr^

irevT^Kovr''

2aav
:

avdpes

K\-rfiaiv

ercupot.

But

is

clearly

an interpolation

the

icXrjides

are not

mentioned elsewhere in the Iliad though often mentioned in the Odyssey see note no on p. 46 and the number of rowers is unparalleled in the Iliad
outside the Catalogue, while the
logue,
2
ii.

number of the ships 685, would incite an interpolator to repetition.
i.

according to the Catas

Iliad,

402

404,

u>x'

3

The

Atyatuva. story of the Minyse, for example, as narrated by Herodotos,
\

aXtovffi 6eol, avdpes 8

tKarbyxetpov re Trdvres

/coX^cracr'

[JLaKpbv

*0\v[ji.7rov,

&v
\

iv.

148.

AND THE OARS USED ON THEM.
were the Greek and Hebrew names for Tarsus
in

3
Cilicia.

The coincidence

suggests that this city was pre-eminent in' the use of oars upon the Mediterranean. But of furthering The early progress of the Phoenithis there are no records.

and their neighbours must be divined from the progress In the Iliad, apart from the^x of their disciples, the Greeks. 1 but the Catalogue, the Greeks have ships with twenty rowers allusion to Briareos, the hundred-handed giant of the ^Egean,
cians
:

indicates some knowledge of the fifty-oared ship which forms so essential a feature in legends of somewhat later date, such as those of the fifty daughters of Danaos or the fifty comrades

of Jason
later

2
.

The
3
.

date twenty^ rowers, while the Phaeacians at Corfu have a ship 4 An advance from twenty to fifty oars, without' with fifty
.

thirty-oared ship belongs to legends of far In the Odyssey the Greeks still have ships with

intermediate steps, seems hardly possible unless a nation was adopting the discoveries of another and a greater advance,
:

again at a single step,

in the Catalogue of the may which mentions ships with fifty rowers and ships with Ships, 5 a hundred and eighteen Ships could not be indefinitely] to accommodate an increasing number of rowers ;L lengthened
.

be traced

and consequently the oars began to be arranged in two andj then in three banks one above another. These ships with a

hundred and eighteen rowers must have been two-banked ships formed by inserting ports for eight and fifty oars in the Yet the intervals between the tholes on ships of sixty oars. Greeks never employed sixty-oared ships, and apparently never knew that such existed, for they had no name for

them
4

:

so the invention
i.

was not

theirs.
iv.

Odyssey,
Kal

280, vtf apo-as
eratpovs.
ix.

prri<nv IdKoaiv.
322,
offffov
6*

669, dXX' dye
1/7765

fj.ot

56re

1/770,

6or]v
viii.

efaocr'

Ivrbv

tKO<r6poio

/u.e\aivijs.

34

36, dXX'

076 vya
\

/-cAcui/aj/

ep6<r<rotJ.ev
drj/j-ov.

eh a\a diav

\

irpurbirXoov, Kotpw d

These fifty-two men would include KeXeii<TT7^s and Kv^epvrjTTjs, leaving fifty to row with one to mark time and one to steer for they are described as Kovpoi, not eptrai or eraipot, as otherwise was
5i5w Kal irfVT^KovTd

Kpivdcr6wv Kara

;

customary.
5

Iliad,

ii.

719, 720, eTrra
fj.kv

vewv

eptrai

5'

ev eKdarr) irevr^KOVTa
|

|

e/u^/Saaai'.

509, 510, rCov
fialvov.

TTfvr^KOVTa i^es Klov ev 5t eicdoTfl

Kovpoi

BOIWTUV

Karbv Kal

These hundred and twenty men,

Kovpoi,

would likewise include

and

4 There
is

INCREASE OF THE BANKS OF OARS
nothing to shew when or where the ancients
.

first

with a single bank of oars 6 But two-banked bmjtj wflr-shios war-ships were certainly in use in Phoenicia about 700 B.C.,
for Phoenician war-ships are represented with two banks of oars in Assyrian sculpture of that date, as in fgs. 10 and 11
:

and 600
in

three-banked war-ships were built in Egypt about B.C., as Herodotos relates, they probably were in use
if

Phoenicia

at

a

somewhat

earlier

date

7
.

According to

Thucydides, the first ships that were built by the Greeks for use in warfare, were built about 700 B.C. at Corinth and at Samos and the first three-banked war-ships that were built
;

V)

Greek fleets, were also built at Corinth but vessels of that type were not built in large numbers by the Greeks until 8 a little before 500 B.C., and then chiefly in Skily and Corfu
for
; .

6

longa nave lasonem

Various traditions about them are quoted, or misquoted, by Pliny, vii. 57, primum navigasse Philostephanus auctor est, Hegesias Para-

fecisse,

lum, Ctesias Semiramim, Archemachus ALgaonem ; biremem Damastes Erythraos triremem Thucydides Aminoclem Corinthium, qiiadriremem Aristoteles
Carthaginienses, quinqrieremem Mnesigiton Salaminios, sex ordinum
Syracusios, ab
ea

Xenagoras

ad decemremem Mnesigiton Alexandrum Magnum^ ad XII ordines Philostephanus Ptolemaum Soterem, ad xv Demetrium Antigoni, ad xxx Ptolemaum Philadelphum, ad XL Ptolemaum Philopatorem
.

7

Herodotos,

ii.

159,

Tra.vffdfji.fvos

5e

rrjs

diupvxos 6 Ne/ccbs
6a\d(T0"r)
dVoj/rt, K.r.X.

erpdirero
at
5'

irpbs

<rrparT]tas,

Kal rpnjpees at /te>

eiri

rrj

fSopylri

^TroLTjdrjffav,

ev

T

'Apa/Sty

K6\ir(f}'

Kal ratr-gal re exparo ev r

Nekau

reigned from
i.

610 to 594
TOJ^S
8

B.C.,

or thereabouts.

Clemens Alexandrinus,
re e77/>rtfero

stromateis,

16.

76,

re ^iSuivlovs (Trpwrous dicnK6afJi,v) rplKporov vavv KaraffKevdo-ai.

Thucydides,
ras vavs,
de Kal

i.

13, vavTiicd

r)

'EXXas

/cat

TTJS

da\da<rr)S fj.a\\ov

avrelxovTo.
TO.

Trpuroi 5e

Kopivdioi
rpt^pets

\yovrai eyytirara rou vvv
Trpurov
ev
~K.opii>0tos

rpbirov yueraxetp/crat
vavTnfjyr}67Jvai.
'

Trepl

Kal

KopLvdy T^S 'EXXaSos
vavn-rjybs

<t>alveTa.L

Sabots

'A/ietvoicX^s

vavs

-rrot^ffas

recraapas

07

5'

earl yuaXtcrra rpiafc6(rta es TTJV T\evrT]v rovde rod TroX^tiou ore 'A/xetvo/cX^s

ai rou Aapeiov davdrov rpiripeis 14, 6X^70^ re irpb rCjv M^St/cwv re 2iiKe\iav rots rvpavvois es TrX^os eyevovro Kal Kepxvpaiois' raOra yap reXeurata irpb rfjs S^p^ou trrparetas vavriKa di6\oya iv rr\ 'EXXaSt Ka.re<STt].

Sa^t^ots TjXflep.
irepl

AlyiVTJrai

yap Kal

'A0r)vaioi
cf.

Kal et rives aXXot jSpax^a e/c^/cr^i/ro, Kal rotrwv ra
xiv. 42, aKotiuv yap 6 Aiovuaios But while Diodoros says irp&rov ev ev

TroXXa irevTT]Kovr6povs.
vavTrrjyrjdTJvaL
rpi-f]pr)

Diodoros,

Kopivdy
KopLvdy,

-rrpurov, /c.r.X.

-rrpurov ev KopLvdy TTJS 'EXXtiSos to save the priority Thucydides can hardly mean that the Corinthians were building three-banked ships three centuries before the peace of 404 B.C. The allusion to their three-banked His meaning must be that ships is parenthetical.

Thucydides takes care to say
of the
Phoenicians.

they were only then beginning to build war-ships of any sort.
priority in
this,

But, as to their

see Herodotos,

i.

163,

oi

5e"

^w/cat^es oSrot vavri\iyffi /xa/cp^<rt

FROM TWO UP TO SEVEN.

5

For more than two hundred years the three-banded ships were the largest war-ships afloat but at length the system The extant of successive banks was tested thoroughly.
:

fragments of the inventories of the Athenian dockyards merely

shew 9 that ships of four banks were first built there shortly But before 330 B.C. and ships of five banks in 325 B.C. 10 of four and five banks were ships according to Diodoros
built

the Syracusan fleet in 398 B.C., five-banked ships 11 being then built for the first time and according to ^Elian there were ships of five and six banks in that fleet forty years
for
;

later.

Pliny states that ships of four and five and six banks'
first
;

were

built at Chalcedon and Salamis and Syracuse respec-J and then Alexander the Great made the advance to tively 12 A whole fleet of seven-banked ships was built by ten banks
.

j

Trpiirot

'EXXrjvuv CXP 7?' ai ro
'

>

KC"

T ^v T

'ASpiijj/
'

Kal TTJV

Tvpff-rjvi-rjv

Kal TT\V

'

Kal rbv TiapTrjffbv OVTOI etVt ol Karade^avres

eva\)Ti\\ovro Be ov ffTpoyyti\ri<ri

dXXa

TrevTrjKovTepoitri.
first

Herodotos, however,

may

only

mean

that the Phocaeans

were the
y

the piracy in

Greeks to employ these war-ships on trading voyages and thus defy the Western Mediterranean.
ii,

Corp. Inscr. Attic, vol.
Trapedo/j-ev
11.

no. 807, col. b,

11.

76

d' 79, rerp^peis

fa

fiev

rots

vewpiois

Pill,

fa ir\$ de

A
5'

'Apt<TTO<t>uvTos

apxovros,

330/329

B.C.:

no. 809, col. d,
Kal Trevrripeis

87

91, rcrpripeis
5'

fa

pv
I

rots vewpLois Tra.ptdofJ.ev
'

AAAAUI

AVTIK\COVS dpxovros, 325/324 B.C. fa TrXy PI There Ships of four and five banks are not previously mentioned in these lists. is a list for the year before 325/324, no. 808, col. d, 11. 22 39 but none at present
I,

PI

rerpripeis

;

for the years immediately before 330/329. The first eighteen four-banked ships probably were built in two or three years, as the next thirty-two were built in five

years besides seven five-banked ships four-banked ship in 331 or 332 B.C.
10

;

so the Athenians probably built their

first

Diodoros, xiv. 42, rfp^aro de
TrpcDros Tavrrjv TT]V

(Atoi'i/crios)

vavTrrjyeiaOai rerpTjpeis Kal TrevTrjpiKa
cf.

0"K(i0?7,

KaracrKev^v rdov ve&v e7rt^o^o"as.

41,

Siepoetro

yap

KO.Ta.ffKeva.aai

vaCs rerpripeis Kal

TrevrTjpets, ovdtirft) /car' eKeivovs roi)s
irevrrip'ri,
fj.ev
'

Xp6?OUS (Txd^OV>

wevTTjpiKOv vevavTnjyrj/ji.frov.
11

44, aTr^aretXei' /Elian, variae historic^, vi. 12, vavs

wpurov

vevavTnjyrj/ji.&rji'.

eK^KTrjTo (Aiovtifftos 6 detirepos) OVK

^Xdrrous TUV TerpaKOfflw, e^/oets Kal Tre^r^pets
iTTTrets

ireG)v de 5vvajj.iv

els 5^/ca /ii/ptdSas,

5e cf^ea/ctcrxtX/ous.

Diodoros, xvi.

events of 357 B.C., so /Elian is nothing about the size of the ships.
12

mentions these forces in narrating the probably referring to that date but Diodoros says
9,
:

Pliny,
mateis,
i.

vii.

57, already

quoted in note
6e
TrpcDroi

6.

cf.

Clemens Alexandrinus,
KaTecrKei>a<rav,

stro-

16.

75,

Ka/)xrj56ftot

rerpripr]

evavTrriyTjffe

d

avrrjv B6cnropos,

where the allusion

not Carchedon or Carthage. would induce the error.

Bosporos shews that Chalcedon is meant, The common spelling, Calchedon for Chalcedon,
to

6

INCREASE OF THE BANKS OF OARS
in 323 B.C., according to Quintus but the other biographers of Alexander nowhere 13 According to ships of more than five banks
.

Alexander on the Euphrates
Curtius
:

mention

Diodoros, there were ships of six and seven banks in the fleet of Demetrios Poliorcetes at the battle off Cyprus in

banks in the fleet of his opponent, Ptolemy Soter; while there had been a few ships of nine and ten banks in a fleet formed in 314 B.C. by Antigonos, the father of Demetrios, though apparently no 14 other ships in that fleet were of more than five banks Pliny states that ships of twelve and fifteen banks were built
306
B.C.,

but none of more than

five

.

by Ptolemy and Demetrios respectively and a fifteen-banked 15 An eleven-banked ship is ascribed to Ptolemy by Pollux
: .

Quintus Curtius, x. i. 19, igitur Mesopotamia pratoribus imperavit (Alexander] materia in Libano monte casa devectaque ad urbem Syria "J'hapsacum, septingentarum carinas navium ponere: septiremes omnes esse, deducique Babyloniam.

13

The
KOV
'

statements of Aristobulos,

vii. 19,

Cypriorum regibus imperatum, ut ccs stuppamque et vela praberent. who was present, are cited by Arrian, anabasis, /cat TO vavn/carAajSe 5e ('AX^avdpos) ev Ba/3uXu)j>t, cos Xe^et 'AptaT6/3ovXos,
fj.j>

TO
e/c

/card Tbv Ev^pdTrjv iroTafWV dvaTre-rrXevKOS
/u,ei>

CLTTO

0a\d<rar]S TTJS
e/c

IIepo-i/c?}s'

r6 5e

foa^/CTjs dpa/ce/coyiucr/xeVoj', TrepT^pets

duo r&v
'

$>oivlKdov, rerp^peis 5e

rpets, rpi77pets 5e
iirl

5w5exa, Tpia.KOVT6povs 5e
TTOTa/j.6v
e/c

e's

Tptd/covra
e's

rairras ^WT/j.ijdeia'as KO/JU-

TOV EvcppaTyv
e's

QoiViKys

Q6.\^a.KOV irb\iv, e/ce? 5^ ^v/j.Trrjxdeio'as

Kara7rXeO(rai

X^ei 5e 6'rt /cai aXXos aury evavTrrjyeiTO oroXos Ba/SiAwva. Tas iv TT/ Ba/3uXw^t{t. Also by Strabo, xvi. i. n, rd TrXota v QoiviKr] re /cat K^Trpy vavjr^ rio'd[j.evov didXvTa re /cai yo/x,0wra., a KO/Mrds
KV7rctpi<r<rovs
/ <

eis

Qd^atfov ffTad^ols eTrrd elra r<y Trora/uy /cara/co/iKT^^at jJ^XP 1 Ba/SuXw^os,
ev TOLS d'Xcrea-i /cat rots 7rapa5ecrois KVTrapiT/cat

rd

5' tv

Ty Ba/3vXwi//a av^-r^a.^f.vov TUV

TUV.

And
were

probably also by Plutarch, Alexander, 68,

TrXota TravTodaTrd irepi

Qd\l/aKov ew^yuvTo.

that

built

These statements shew that Curtius has confounded the ships on the Euphrates with those other ships that were brought over in

from Phoenicia; and sufficiently disprove his assertion that this fleet consisted entirely of seven-banked ships. But possibly the word septiremes stands for some word like solutiles denoting that the ships were in sections.
sections
14

Diodoros, xx. 49, el^e 5e (UroXe/xatos) rds
TOIJTWV
5' TJV
i)

Trdcras

^aCs jua/cpds

e/caroi'

/cat

rerrapd/coi'Ta

/meylffTf] TrevTrjpijs,

i]

5'

eXa^tor?; rerpTyp^s.

50, ai)ros

5e (A?;/i?7Tptos) e/crd|as rds ^aus diryvTa rots TroXe/xiots, ^x wv T ^ s <*7rd(ras 6/crco irXelovs

r&v

Ka.TOv

crijv

rats TrXT/pw^etcrats

e/c

TU>V ^wp/wj'

T&V XrjtydfVTW
Kal r6
fJL^v
'

'

TOVTUV

5'

TJ<rai>

at

^yi.ffTa.1

fj.ev

eTTTTypets, at TrXetarat 5e Trevr^pets.

evwvv/mov
A^Tjj/atwj/

/ce'pas eTretxoi'

eTTT^petj

p.V eTrrd

^ou/t/cwi',

rerpTjpets

5e rptd/coj/ra

TWV

ewLirXovs Se

TOVTOLS

%Taev e^pets 5^/ca /cai Trej/TTjpets dXXas rocrairras, K.T.\. Speaking of the two hundred and forty war-ships collected by Antigonos, he says, xix. 62, TOVTUV
5' r)<rav rerp^pets
yitej/

evevrjK.ot'Tu,, vrej/r^pets

5e 5e/ca, evvrjpeis 5e rpets, 5eM7pets 5e 5^/ca.

&(ppaKToi. 5e rptd/coj/ra.

The

rest

presumably had the normal three banks.

FROM SEVEN UP TO SIXTEEN.
ship unquestionably

was

built

by Demctrios,
.

for the fact

is

mentioned by Theophrastos, a contemporary whose position 16 secured him most trustworthy information She was built in Cyprus and therefore after the naval victory in 306 B.C., which made Demetrios master of the island and its timber. 17 Demetrios had a thirteen-banked According to Plutarch ship in 301 B.C., and built ships of fifteen and sixteen banks in 288 B.C. And there certainly was a ship of sixteen banks in the Macedonian fleet a century afterwards. She was
; ,

expressly mentioned in the treaty with the Romans in 197 B.C. her arrival in the Tiber in 167 B.C. was a memorable event and she afterwards gave her name to one of the
:

;

docks at
15

Rome
vii.

18
.

Pliny,

57,

already quoted in note
'

6.

Pollux,

i.

83,

/cat

vavs, Trei'TeKai.deKrjpTjs' Kal

Kvnybvov,

Tpidp/j.evos.

For the meaning of
tv

see note 124
16

on

p. 54.
v.
8.
i,

Theophrastos, historia plantarum,
(TO,

Kinrpt^ yovv OVK
d/xa

trep-vov ol

/SaatXetj

devdpa)
elvai.

d/xa

jj,ev /j.ev

rypovvres
rCjv
ets

Kal
TT\V

rap.Levbp.evoi.

de

/cat

did

rb

dv<TK6/Ju.ffrov

fATJKOS

riv

evdeKrjpr)

rr\v

Arjfj^rjrpLov

rfJLf]6ivrwv

rpiffKaideKadpyviov, avra de rd

tfXa

ry

yu.7y/cei

6avfj,a<rrd Kal

d'oa Kal Xeta.

This

is

repeated by Pliny, xvi. 76, with some exaggerations. 17 Plutarch, Demetrius, 31, 6 yovv Aj^rptos rbre trpoaeire^e rots 'A.dr)vaiois iyKoXuv ^erptws, a&uv 5e ras vavs airoXafidv, ev als rjv Kal i] Tpt<TKaideKr)p-r]S. cf. 30,
Kal
ULCV

yap Kal vavs

e/cet

Kal

xp^ara

Kal yvvaiKa
iv

Myxave

/caraXeXotTrws.

32, irpdrepov

2Aei;/cos e<TTid<ras twl

(TKrjvrjs

T^

o-rparoTr^Sy A^^rptoj', avdis 5e ATj^rptos

y TpurKaideKripei Se^d/ievos. 43, crroXov 5e ve&v a/j,a wevTaKocrluv Karards fj^v ev Heipaiei rpbireis ^ero, rds de ev Koplvdy, rds 5e iv XaX/dfo,
rds de wepl lltXXav, avrbs iiriuv e/cao-rax^cre Kal Si.8a<iKuv a. XPV Kal <rvvTexvu/j.vos, ovdels eKTrXrjTTOfj.evuv airavruv ov rd irX^d-r) phvov dXXd Kal ra peyid-rj TUV tpywv

yap
20,

elder

avdp&Trwv
fj-ev

afire

TrevTeKaLdeKrjpT)

vavv

irpbrepov

ovre eKKaideK'rjpTj.

cf.

KCU rds

KKai5(Kr)peis avrov Kal rds Tre^Te/catSe/fTypets idav^a^ov eorwres ol

iroXt/juoi irapa TT\V yrjv
18

avr&v

irXeovffas, K.r.X.
/cat
'

This treaty is cited by Polybios, xviii. 27, rd 5' at'xAtdXcora dVa^ras d7roKarao-r?7(rat $l\nrirov 'Pw/xatots iv rots ai)rots \p^ vo ^
KarafipaKTOVs vavs,
30,
ir\T]t>

TOUS auro/i6Xoi;s
dt Kal rds
xxxiii.

ofJ-olus

irivre aKa<puv Kal rrjs e/c/cat5e/c??pous,
et

captivos

transfugasque reddere Philippum Komanis,

and by Livy, naves omnes

tectas

tradere prater quinque et

regiam

unam

sexdedm versus remorum agebant. The Plutarch, yEmilius Paulus, 30, avir\L rbv
CKKaideKrjpovs
irop<pupais,
d?s

magnitudinis, quam arrival in the Tiber is described by
Quj3pii>

inhabilis prope

irora^bv

iirl

rijs

/Sao-tXt/c^s

KareffKevaa-^vTjs
Kal

ets

K6ff/J.ov

oVXois

at'x/iaXwrots
ets

Kal

(poiviKiffi

Kal

Travrjyvplfav

Qudev

Kaddirep

rtva dpiafifiiKijs

diav

Kal irpoairoXaveLv roi>s 'Pw/xatows
701/ras,

and also by Livy,
>

ingentis

ry podiy crxtdTjv virdyovn TT]V vavv avrL 35, Paulus ipse post dies paucos regia nave magnitudinis quam sexdedm -versus remorum agebant, ornata Mace*
xlv.

8

INCREASE OF THE BANKS OF OARS

War-ships of still greater size are ascribed to Ptolemy Philadelphos and Ptolemy Philopator, who ruled Egypt from 285 to 247 B.C. and from 222 to 204 B.C. respectively. Athenaeos states that, besides various ships of thirteen banks or less, Philadelphos had one ship of twenty banks and two of
thirty banks, while Philopator built a ship of forty

banks;

and he quotes a long account of this ship from Callixenos of Rhodes 19 Plutarch states that Philopator built a ship of forty banks, and then describes her in the phrases employed 20 by Athenaeos, so that he is also quoting from Callixenos Pliny states independently, on the authority of Philostephanos of Cyrene, that Philadelphos and Philopator built ships of 21 And these amazing thirty and forty banks respectively
.

.

.

statements have partly been confirmed by an inscription that was unearthed a few years ago in the temple of Aphrodite
at

Paphos

in
11011

Cyprus, namely, a dedication by the reigning
insignium tantum armorum sed etiam regiorum textiliiiin, est subvectus, completis ripis obviam effusa multitudine,

donicis spoliis

adverso Tiberi

ad urbem

both authors doubtless copying the lost description by Polybios, who was in Rome soon afterwards and knew Paulus intimately, cf. Eutropius, iv. 8, Roinani

cum

ingenti

pompa

rediit (Paulus) in

nave

Persei, qu<z inusitat<z uiagnitudinis

fttisse traditur, adeo ut sexdeciin ordines dicatur habuisse

remorum.

The dock
ets Trjv

is

mentioned by Polybios, xxxvi.
avveK\dffdr)<rav
19 6/J.ov

3,

81

o3 TrapaKOfjucrOcvTes d<r0aXws
e/c/cat5e/c?jpous

'Pw/^i/,

Trdvrcs

ei's

r6

7-775

veupiov.
irXoiJTy Ste^epe, Kal Trepi
-rrXoiuv
Tr\r]6ei iravras

Athenaeos,
e'cTTTOfo'd/cet

v. 36, TroXXtDv 5' 6
TO,

^tXdSeX^os

/ScurtXe'aw

iravra

/caratr/cevdo-yuara

0tXo-riyUa>s,

wore Kal

u7repe'/3aXXe.
fj^ia,

rd

701?*'

^te^tcrra

T&V

ir\oi(av rjv Trap' ai)ry TpiaKOvrripeiS 8vo, eiKoarjpijs

r^crcrapes

TpLffKaideKrjpeis,

dajdeicfjpeis

dvo,

eitdeicrjpeis

TeeffapeaKaideKa, evvrjpeis

rpidKovra,
v-rrb

/c.r.X.

37, Irrel 8e Trepi ve&v KaraaKevrjs elpr^KafJiev , (pep"
'

dirw^v

/cat

TO,

TOU $tXo7rdro/)os /fa(TiX^ws KareffKeuacr^va GK&tyt}

irepl

uv

iffTOpel iv T<#

7rpt6ry Hepi 'A\e%av8peias ourwcrt Xeywv rrjv KareffKeva&ev 6 ^tXoTrdrw/), /c.r.X. The date of Callixenos cannot be fixed. certain Callixenos held some high office at Rhodes about 100 B.C., for his name
:

KaXXi^evos TecrcrapaKovTripr) vavv

6 auros

A
is

found on Rhodian coins of that period
the historian.
20

but there

is

nothing to shew that he was

evavTrrjyrjcraTO,

Plutarch, Demetrius, 43, dXX' varepov TcaaapaKOVTrip-r] IlroXe/Aatos 6 <iXo7rdrw/> fj-rJKOS 5iaKO<riwv oydorjKoi'Ta rrrjx&v, v\f/os 5e ^a?s aKpotrroXLov Trevr^-

rerpa/ctaxtXtots,

Kovra dvew dedvTUV, vaurais 5 xwpis epeT&v e^rjpTv/Jievrjv rerpaKoaiots, ^peYcus 5e X W P' S ^^ TOVTUV OTrXiras dexo[jiei>T)v iiri re rdv TrapoSuv /cat row

Karao-TpufMTOS oXiyy rpto-xtXtwj/ aTrodtovras. cf. Athenseos, v. 37, TO /JITJKOS fyovcraj' diaKO<riuv oydoTjKOvra Trrjxu>i>...ij^QS 5 eus d/cpocrroXiou TeaaapaKovra OKTCJ Trrjx^v...

ed^aro eperas

TrXeiovs

T&V

rer/)a/ct(rxtXtw^, ets 5e

rds vTnjpeffias TerpaKoaiovs

'

els

5e

r6 KaTaaTpufj.a eTrt/Sdras T/HcrxiXtous, aTroS^o^ras

e/caroi' /cat Trej/

TO TWENTY AND THIRTY OR FORTY.

9

)lemy of the statue of a man who is there described as the 22 There may have been a hitect of the thirty-banked ship ship but Callixenos seems quite untrustworthy ty-banked
. :

23 Sesostris According to Diodoros ilt a sacred barge upon the Nile two hundred and eighty cubits in length and numerous representations shew, as in were vessels of light draught fg. 3, that these sacred barges with curiously elevated stems and sterns. Now, according to Callixenos, the length of the forty-banked ship was two hundred and eighty cubits, the draught was under four cubits, and the height of the terminal ornaments at the stem and

in

his

account of her.

,

:

was forty-eight and fifty-three cubits respectively These measurements must belong to one of those sacred and barges, probably to the one mentioned by Diodoros such a barge could not possibly have forty banks of oars.
the stern
:

24

.

31

Pliny,

vii.

57,

already quoted in note 6.

Athenaeos says that Philosteviii. 3,

phanos was a friend or follower of Callimachos, and Callimachos died about 240 B.C.
-2

KaXXt/udxou 5

yvupi^os,

This inscription
Kail

is

vol. printed in the Journal of Hellenic Studies,
\ |

ix,

p.

255

:

B]acrtXei>s llroXe/^atos
ei/e[ocr?7/3?7.

rrjp-r)

The

Hvpy]oTt\Tjv ZUTJTOS dpx<-TeKTOvr]<r[ai>Ta TTJV rpiaKovterm dpx^KTwv was often applied to naval-architects
5'

:

Aristotle, res publica
23

Atheniensium, 46, xetpoTOpei
Diodoros,
iv. 41.

apx^KTovas

6 STJ/AOS ewl rds

vavs, cf. Athenoeos, v. 40,

Diodoros,

i.

57, evavjrrjyrjvaTO 5t (Secr6wcris)

/cat

TT\OLOV KtSpivov rb

ptv

JJLTJKOS

TTTJXWJ' SiaKOffluv /ecu

dydorjKOVTa, rr)v
/ecu

5'

irL<pdi>ei.av
fJ.ev

%x oit T

V

t^ v

w0/
/u-ctXicrra

iirixpvffov ,

TT]v 8'

Zvdodev KaT^yvpufj^v^v
/c.r.X.

TOUTO
is

av^drfKe

T$

0e

ry

iv Qrifiais

TifMu/jifry,

This statement
7,

not incredible.

According

to

the

Harris

papyrus

plate

line 5,

in Birch's facsimile

Ramessu III provided

the great

god at Thebes with a vessel of cedar- wood, decorated with bronze and gold, and a hundred and thirty cubits in length.
a4
/J.TJKOS
e-rri

Athenseos, v. 37, rr\v Teaa-apaKOVT-rjpri vavv /carecr/ceyacre^ 6 4>iXo7raTa;/>, rb ^x ova av SiaKoaiwv dydorjKovra Trrix&v, (J/cra; 5^ Kal rpiaKovra airb irap6dov O/CTW Trrjx&v, airb 5e TUV TrdpoSo?/, if^oj 5^ ^ws d/cpocrroX/oi; recrcra/act/fOJ/ra
'

irpv/JLvriTi.Kui>

d(f)\dcrTuv
7ri7X ets

eiri

rb
de

wpbs

ry
dirb

daXdwr]
^OLvlKrjs
r\v

(Mtpos

avrijs

rpets
TT]V

irpbs

TO?S

TrevTrjKovTa
rd(f)pov

vcrrepov
tvrjv
TTJ

rdv

rts

eTrei>6ri<re

Ka.do\Krjv,

inroffT^crd^evos
TOI>S

vijl

/caret

/XTJ/COS,

ir\r](rlot>

TOV

Xi/x^os

upve.
fiddos,

de/j.e\iovs

/car(f>/co56^7;cre

Xtc^y

crrepe^ irpbs irtvre 7nJx ets T ^

did

TOVTWV (pd\ayyas
s

eTri/capcrias

/card

TrXdros
/cat

TTJS

rdfppov

Stwcras
TTJS

<rvvX&,
6a\dffarjy

/3dc?os

T&iroj>

aTroXiTroi/cras.

Troikas efopovv dirb

tvewXrjaev

dvdpuv
water.

elo-rjyaye TTJV vavv.

was only

aur^s Trd^ra rbv opvxd^ra rd-rrov, eis 8v paStws dirb TUV TVX^VTUV As the ship was floated into the dock, and the dock four cubits in depth, the ship must have drawn less than four cubits of

10

SIZE

AND WEIGHT OF THE

OARS.

v

^

According to Callixenos, the longest oars on the alleged forty-banked ship were thirty-eight ciitSTs in length, the extreme breadth of the ship also being thirty-eight cubits, or And he adds that they were weighted with fifty-seven feet. inboard to balance the excessive length outboard but
:

this

may safely be referred to the sacred barge from which he has evolved his ship, as some such weights are represented on the steering-oars of the sacred barge in ascribed to any ancient warfg. 3, and none are elsewhere
statement

The oars of a three-banked ship must all have been of very moderate size and weight for a crew could make a forced march when each man was carrying his oar and its 26 In war-ships there were always as many appurtenances
ship'
.

25

;

.

growers
light

as oars

:

but in some smaller vessels the oars were
27
.

enough Of the two hundred oars 28 which an Athenian three-banked ship carried for her crew of two hundred men, a hundred and
seventy belonged to the three banks, while the remaining thirty VfQTZ perinedi a term which also denoted the men who
did not row in the banks
29
.

to be sculled in pairs

These

thirty

men must have

worked these
25

thirty oars from above the upper decking, for

6/crd; /cat
/cat

Athenseos, v. 37, Tr^SdXta 5' el^e r^rrapa rpta/covraTnfo;?;, /cwTras 5 0pai>m/cds TpidKovra irrix&v rds fj-eyiaras, at, 5td rb fj.6\vpdov 2x LV e(/ T0 ' s 7x;eipt5iois
etcrw /Sapetat /card TT\V ^vyuffiv, evr/peis

yeyovtvai \iav

VTrrjpxov eirl TTJS %petas.

The extreme breadth
note 24,
~6

of the ship

is

determined by the words already quoted in
\afibvTa r&v VOLVT&V
e/cacrroi'

6/crtb 5^ /cai

rptd/covra (TT^UJJ') dirb irap68ov eVi irdpodov.
ii.

Thucydides,
/cat

93,

e56/cet

6

TTJV

KUTT-^V

/cat

rb VTrrjptatov
6d\a(r<rai>,
/cat

rbv

TpoiruTTjpa

ire^y

ttvcu
es

e'/c

KopivQov eVt rty
Ka9e\KixravTas
o?Vat,
TrXei/crat

irpbs
e'/c

'A6rjvas

d<j>iKOfj.tvovs

Kara raxes

M^apa,

Ntaa/as rou

vewpiov O.VTUV reaa-apaKovra va.vs at ZTVXOV avrbdi
Iletpata.
27

ev6vs eVt rbv

Thucydides,

iv.

67, a/carto? dfj.^pLKbv ws X^crrat eiw6ecrav
rvjs

eirl d/tid^u

5td rfjs

rd<ppov

KaraKO/jiifeiv

WKrbs

iiri

rty 6d\aa<rav

/cat

e/CTrXetJ',

cf.

Leonidas of

Tarentum, in the Anthology, vi. 4. 6, /cat roi>s e d/cdrwi' dixdadiovs e/^ras. AristoLucian, Charon, i, eyu d irpea'^VT'rjs <Jov TIJV diKwiriav ep^rru //,6vos.
phanes, ecclesiazusse,
epistolse, p.

1091,
iiri

TTWS

oftv

8iKUTreti>

d^orepas

5w?j<ro/xai

;

Synesios,

/ceX^ou Stcr/cdX/iou. Cicero, de oratore, i. 38, citius hercule is, qui duorum scalmorum naviculam in portu everterit> in Euxino ponto Argonautarum navem gubernarit. Livy, xxiv. 40, legati venerunt nuntiantes
165, riKev

Philippum priinum Apolloniam
adverse subvecium, deinde
etc.,

tentasse, lembis
cf.

Virgil, georgics,

biremibus centum viginti flumine i. 201, 202, qui adverso vix

flumine lembum

\

remigiis subigit.

OARS FOR SHIPS OF THREE BANKS.
ere

II

certainly

was not any space

for

them below.

As

other hundred and seventy oars, sixty-two of these belonged to the upper bank, and fifty-four to each of the
for the

lower banks yet fifty-eight, as the mean between fifty-four and sixty-two, would naturally be the number of oars for the middle bank. In the earliest two-banked ships with a hundred 30 there clearly were fifty-eight in the and eighteen rowers lower bank and sixty in the upper bank, the lower oars being inserted in the spaces between the tholes on a sixty-oared ship. Apparently two oars were added, whereby the upper bank obtained four oars more than the bank below, and then a third bank was added with four oars less than the bank a three-banked ship therefore requiring a hundred above and seventy-four rowers. And the Athenians perhaps found
:

;

more hands were needed for other purposes, and diminished the number of rowers rather than increase the
afterwards that

crew and thereby complicate their estimates for pay; for with a crew of exactly two hundred men a talent a month a ship

gave a drachm a day a man, thirty mnas a month a ship gave
three obols a
28

day a man, and so
ii,

forth

31
.

Corp. Inscr. Attic, vol.
11.

24

31, col. c,

39 52

46, no. 798, col. a,

no. 797, col. a, 11. 17 11. 10 17, 27

24, col. b, 34, col. b,

11.
11.

6
18

13,

25,

no. 800, col. a,

11.

59, giving a total of

two hundred oars

in the last seven

instances, KUTTCU QpavLrides

RAN,

firyuu

FINN, 0aXci/uai Flllll, Trepivey

AAA,

and doubtless
for

in the first instance also,

although the mason has there cut FlAIIII
I

RAII, presumably by repetition of the III from the ends of the adjacent The full numbers occur elsewhere in the extant fragments of the inLower numbers often occur, as ventories, but not in groups that give a total.
lines.

many
- !)

oars were missing.

Thucydides,

i.

10, avreperat. 5e OTI rjffav Kal /xd%t/xoi iravTts, iv rats $I\OKTTITOV
'

vaval ("O/XT/pos) dedrjXwKev ro6ras yap iravras TreTrofy/ce TOVS TrpoffKibirovs. ireplveus 8 OVK et/cos 7roXXoi)s l;Vfj.Tr\eiv w r&v fiaaiXtuv Kai r&v /idXiOTa iv r^Xei. cf.
.

Procopios, de bello Vandalico, i. n, quoted in note 45 on p. 17. Dion Cassius, xlix. i, Kal TOVS 5ou\ovs TOVS TpiypLras fjXevd^puae, TOVS re Treplveus es TO TOV 'AvTuviov vavTiKbv dXiyavdpovv /car^rae'.

M
'

Iliad,

ii.

509, 510, already quoted in note 5
vi.

on

p. 3.
i]/j.tpas

31

Thucydides,

31, TOV ptv 5-rj^oaiov dpa.xfJ>-W TTJS
fjLtv

r

vctirrfl

Ka<TT(f

diSovTos Kal vavs Trapaax^TOS Kaivas e^-fjKOVTa.
7uryous, cf. 8,

e^Kovra rdXafra
i.

a<rr)(J.ov

Taxdas TeaffapaKovTa dt OTrXiradpyvpLov us es e^KOVTa va.vs fj.t]t>6s nurdbv.
(K0/>os) KciXcDs p.tv

Xenophon, Hellenica,
5'

5.

5

7,

6

5

tyy avTous \eyetv, ov
elvat 5t Kal

tlvai

irap

a

/3a(TtXei)s

eV^a'TeiXei'

ayry AXXa

irotflv.

ras

12

OARS FOR SHIPS OF FOUR BANKS

The number
recorded
If every
:

of oars in the four-banked ships

but
is

in the inventories of the

complete set

valued at

is nowhere Athenian dockyards a six hundred and sixty-five drachms.

bank was intended

to contain four oars

more than

the bank below, a four-banked ship could carry sixty-six oars in her upper bank and, including thirty perineoi, would thus
;

have two hundred and sixty-six altogether. This number gives exactly two drachms and a half for each oar, while the
neighbouring numbers give improbably complicated prices and that price seems highly probable, for condemned oars were then being sold for two drachms apiece, and timbers 32 The bought for three drachms apiece to make new oars five-banked ships in the Roman and Carthaginian fleets in 256 B.C. each carried three hundred rowers besides the com33 batants With fifty-four oars in the lowest bank and four more in each succeeding bank, a five-banked ship would have three hundred and ten oars in the banks, and therefore three hundred rowers approximately or perhaps exactly, if here
:
. .

1

(rvi>9r)Kas

cirrus e%otf(ras,

TpidKovra

ju.t>as

e/cd<rr77

vrjl

rov

ft-rjvbs

did6vat,

07r6<ras

av rb

rptcpeiv Aa.Kedaifji,6i>ioi.
tirei

6 5

Ati<rav5pos r6re ^ev eaiuirricre' yuerd 5
rl

aur

Trpo-rriuv

o

Kvpos

-fjpfro

av /xaXiora xa/x'^otTO

TTOIWJ',

elirev

OTI
rfv

Et
32

Trpos

rbv luaQbv e/cd<rry

j/atfrT?

ofioKbv irpoffdei^.

K 5^ Totirov Ttrrapes 6/3oXoi

6 fju<r66s, Trpbrepov 5^ jpLuftoXov.

Corp. Inscr. Attic,

vol.

ii,

no. 809, col.

c, 11.

210

214, wapa,
eiri

rappov TerprjpiTiKOv aireKa^o^v
Zpyov,
v,
cf.
11.

FHRAP,
eiffeirpiaTO,

8v ?\a(3ev

215

225, Trapa Avvaviov 2owt^ws...rappou apyov, 5v OVK
A-rj/Midrjt
etri

&

^X^ v &v
full

a.Tre\dpo/j.v>

HHHHAP,

col. b,
is

11.

115,

116, rappovs
;

payment

apparently in

The first rer^petj, oOs A^yttdS^s dffeTrplaro. but the second must be merely on account, the

round sum of 250 drachms remaining due, for the oars would be worth more than 415 drachms, even when condemned. Corp. Inscr. Attic, vol. ii, no. 803, col. c,
11.

129139, E00wos

Aa^Trrpei/s, ra/itas yevbpevos TpiypoTroiKuv
rj/u^uv
e/c

eiri

'Apxiov apxovu>v

TOJ,

XXXI

Hj

aTroXa^Swj' /ca-Tras trap

roO vewpiov rCjv
811, col.
c,

ira.paode(.a'G)v,
11.

avrbs clfffyeyKei', d5o/c^ous

x

i

^'as 6/cra/cocrias, no.

122

128, roi)j

TWJ/ j/ew/otwj/ e'Tri/AeX^rds TOVS e0' 'Ryr)<riov

apxovros dvaypdij/ai SwTroXtj/ a7ro5e5w/c6ra
et's

TUV Kuirtwv
KWTrets

e/cdo-rou

hhh

5/oax/ids

rwv dffevfjvey^vwv aury

r6 veupiov.

These

the rough. 13 Poly bios states that 330 Roman ships fought 350 Carthaginian ships at the battle of Ecnomos in 256 B.C., and that these were five-banked ships,
KUTTO.I in
i.

were

25, 'Pw/wuoi fiev TpidKovra

/cat

TptaKOffLais /xa/cpcus vav<rl /cara0/jd/crots,

AND FIVE BANKS AND EIGHT BANKS.
rain

13

some of the banks were not
.

fully

manned.

Subse-

juently the rowers in such five-banked ships were reckoned 34 And an increase in the number roughly at four hundred

of oars was certainly to be expected for under that system of constructing every bank for four oars more than the bank
:

in ships of ten or sixteen

below, the lower banks would prove disproportionately short banks so that some new system
;

rould be devised for these larger ships, course of time to the five-banked ships

and then applied in and possibly to the

three-banked ships themselves. Nothing is known for certain about the number or arrangement of the oars in ships of more
that as early as 280 B.C. there was an eight-banked ship in the fleet of Heracleia on the Black Sea with a hundred rowers in each file, and consequently

than

five

banks.

It is said

Thus, at

eight hundred on each side, or sixteen hundred altogether. but the multileast, Photios transcribes Memnon
:

and plication of the numbers reads like a gloss of his own these files must be the banks themselves, not the lines of
;

SOVLOI

8

irevr^KovTO.

Ka.1

rpiaKocrlais

vaval Kara0pd/crotj,
irpbs

i.

63,

jjuKpip

\dirovcr

w

eTrTaKoatois cr/cd0e<rt irevTTjpiKois

^vav^d^ffav
KO! Kal

dXX^Xous.

He

calculates that

the

Romans had about 140,000 men
for

afloat,

combatants
vavTtKTjs

each ship,
irepl

i.

26,

rb

^v

(njfj.irav

reckoning 300 rowers and 120 rjv a-rpdrev/jia TOVTUV TTJS
ws av
IKO<TI.

Swaged)?

Turret/Das

5^/ca

fj.vpid8as'

eKdcrrrjs

tdiqi

ve&s

Xa/A/3aj>oi5(T77y

eptras pev TpiaKoaiovs, ^7n/3dras 5e e/carcV

And he

estimates

that the Carthaginians

had over 150,000 men

afloat,

judging by the number

of their ships, i. 26, r6 ye /J.T]V Tr\rj9os avrCsv Jjv inrep TrevreKatdeKa /ut,vpiddas, /caret rbv T&V ve&v \6yov. He therefore reckons a Carthaginian crew at practically

the

same
34

figure as a

Roman
cum
<?

crew.
tota classe

Pliny, xxxii.

i,

quinqueremis sola non proficeret, exsilientibus

protinus qui qucererent circa navem, invenere (auspicalem piscicuhim} adhczrentem gubernaculo, ostendenmtque Gaio, indignanti hoc fuisse quod se revocaret, quadcf. Silius Italicus, xiv. ringentortimque remigum obsequio contra se intercederet. 384 388, medias inter sublimior ibat terribilis visit puppis, qua nulla per omne egressa est Libycis maior navalibus ovum : nam quater hcec centum
|
|

\

pulsabat tonsis. Silius and Pliny were contemporary but Pliny is speaking of a ship of 40 A.D., and Silius of a ship of 212 B.C. The Romans captured a seven-banked ship from the Carthaginians at the battle of

mimeroso remige pontum

:

|

Mylse in 260 B.C. and Silius must have known this, for the capture is recorded on Silius the Columna Rostrata of Duilius: see Corp. Inscr. Latin, vol. i, no. 195. is therefore allowing 400 rowers for a ship of seven banks at least and this allow;
:

ance seems too small, seeing that there were then 300 rowers on a ship of banks.

five

14

OARS ON TRANSPORTS FOR CAVALRY.
bank of two hundred oars
is

rowers, for a

beyond

belief

35
.

the forty-banked ship, if Callixenos may be believed, there were about four thousand rowers and therefore upon
;

On

36 the average a hundred rowers for every bank of oars In both these cases the total seems to be deduced from a state.

ment that there were a hundred oars in every bank and such statements might not be strictly true, for ships of a single bank were sometimes said grandiloquently to have
:

a hundred oars, although they never had more than
37

fifty

or

sixty

.

The two hundred oars of an Athenian three-banked ship were reduced to sixty when she was employed as a transport for cavalry. She then carried thirty horses; or a horse for each of the thirty spaces between the tholes of the upper
bank 38
hold being now required for the horses, the oars in the banks could not be worked for want of space,
.

The

and the oars above the upper decking would alone be
35

avail-

Memnon,

Fr. 13,

apud Photium,

p. 2-26, rjcrav 5' ev airrcus

aXXat re Kal

TTJS
i)

HpaK\das
Ka.rbv
e*

at /leraVeyUTTTOi, e^jypets re Kal Trevriypets Kal a0/m/croi, Kal d/mypT/s
eis

ju.la

AeovTO(f)6pos KaXou/ieV?;, fj.ey8ovs eW/ca Kal Kd\\ovs TjKOV(ra
jj-kv

6av/u.a'

v ra^Tfj

yap

avdpes

IZKOLCFTOV

aroi^ov TjperTOV,
ol

cos

dxraKOffiovs

etc

dartpov

/x.e'/oous

yevtadai,
/

Kar^p(i}v 5e xtXtous /cat e^aKOcrtovs,

5e aTrb rCov

KaraaTpw^arwv

y

aa%77cr6 u.evot

X^Xtot Kal 5ta/c6<rtot, Kal Kvj3epi>7jrai

8to.

The

sixteenth
last, cf.

book of Memnon's
his

history

ended with 46
850 A.D.

B.C.,

and that book was not the
later.

Photios, pp. 239, 240; so
transcript
;

he probably lived some generations

Photios
a

made

about

He

clearly

takes 0To?%os to

mean

line

of rowers

but in the

passage quoted in note 43 on p. 16, Aristeides uses o-rotxos to denote a bank of oars, and he was probably a contemporary of Memnon. The crediA bility of the figures is not enhanced by the statement about the combatants.
ship of eight banks
38

would hardly carry 1200

at a

time

when

ships of five banks

carried only 120: see note 33.

Athenaeos,
p. 8.

v. 37,

and Plutarch, Demetrius,

43, both quoted already in note

20 on

37 The term Pollux, i. 82, fKardvTopos, TrevrTjKdi'Topos, rpta/c6^ropo?, et/c6cropos. eKarbyTopos must refer, like the rest, to ships of a single bank: but there is no ground for thinking that such ships ever had an hundred oars.

38 Thucydides, vi. 43, Kal iTnraywy^ /up rptd/covra ayoto-r] 'unrtas. This was in 415 B.C. The same arrangement may perhaps be traced in the navy of the kings of Pergamos in 168 B.C. Livy, xliv. 28, mentions qiiinque et triginta naves, quas

hippagogos vocant, cum equitibus Gallis equisque, and then says octingenti ferme Gallorum occisi, ducenti vivi capti, clearly meaning that they were all killed or He therefore reckons them roughly as a thousand and they would captured.
:

have numbered a thousand and

fifty, if

those thirty-five ships carried thirty apiece.

SHIPS OF
:

ONE BANK AND A HALF.

15

able so \.\\Q perineoi oars must have been doubled in number, 89 while the rest were withdrawn Superannuated three-banked
.

ships were first utilized as cavalry-transports at Athens in 430 B.C. transports having previously been expressly built
;

for cavalry

40
.

ships termed hemioliai and triemioliai are first mentioned about 350 B.C., and thereafter frequently. These would technically be ships of a bank and a half, but

Some anomalous

must really be two-banked ships of an abnormal type. In the contemporary three-banked ships the men described as perineoi rowed an additional half-bank of oars from above
the upper decking, and could presumably do likewise in twobanked ships of the same build but if the build made this
:

and

impossible, they would have to man half an ordinary bank their oars would not count in numbering the banks, since
;

they were perineoi.

and a
39

half,

Thus, as three practically meant three one and a half would practically mean two 41
.

Corp.
^s,
. . .

Inscr.
YVW/J-TJ

Attic,

vol.

ii,

no.

807,

col.

b,

11.

42
. .

66,
.

rpnypets
/

KWTras
11.

PAv

.-' A(TK\r}irids

/cciTras

PA,

KaXXi^pa

PA,
40

no. 808, col. b,

8, 9, Kal 'nrirrjy&v rpc&v

Thucydides,

ii.

56, 7776 5

(ITept/cX^s)

KurxiMovs, Kal iTTTT^as TpiOLKOviowi ev

r&v ve&v bir\lras ABr/valuv rerpavavdv 'nnraywyois Trp&rov r6re etc r&v Tra\aiuv
Kal al iiriraywyol i^es, ras
cf.

M

rap'p'otfs, KUTTCIS e/aioTTjs
'

PA.

veuv

Tronjdelo-ais.

Herodotos,

vi.

95, Trapeytvovro 8
daa-/Jio<p6poi<ri

r$

rrportpv tret irpoeiirc roiffi ewurou
41

Aapetos erot/idfetv,

48, KeKeuwv

vtas re [taKpas Kal 'nnrayuya 7r\o?a iroieeadai.

Theophrastos, characteres, 25. i; Arrian, anabasis, iii. i. 4, vi. i. i, 18. 3; Diodoros, xvi. 61. 4, xix. 65. 2, xx. 93. 3; Polybios, v. 101. 2, xvi. 2. 10, 3. 4, 3. 14, 7. r, 7. 3; Appian, de rebus Punicis, 75, de bello Mithridatico, 92; etc. The term i)/j.io\ia rightly describes one and a half as a whole and a half: but the
term
Tptrjfj.io\la

seems formed on

false

analogy with words like

rpir)/juTr65ioi>,

which

describe one and a half as three halves, the 6X in rpirj/jnoXla being thus ignored. The form rptTjp^/uoXfas occurs in Athenseos, v. 36, ra 5* airb rerpripovs H^XP1
Tpnjpr)/j.io\la$,

but is plainly a corruption from rpt^pets and ^LuoXfas which occur in the parallel passage, Appian, prcefatio, 10, rpt^peis 5' airb r)fj.io\las nfypi Trevri/ipovs, where rpnypeis is used as a generic term for war-ships. The existence of three
r/HTj/aoXtai is
(rrf

banks of oars on the
vTro7Tiro6a"r}s
/j.t<rov

yap

avrrf

deKTjpei)

rpiiy/xioXfas,

not to be inferred from Polybios, xvi. 3, ravrrj dov<ra TrX^yrj^ /3ialav Kara
^5^?;,

rb /euros virb rbv dpavirriv

o-/coXyu6v,

TOU Kvfiepvrjrov

rrjV

op/^V r^s

vecis

OVKTI Swydfrros ava\afiv. The expression dpavLrrjs <r/caX/i6s would certainly refer to the upper bank on a three-banked ship but it would also refer to the
:

upper bank in any ship with more than one.

Thus Athenoeos speaks of

the

longest oars in the forty-banked ship as /cunra? OpavtriKas, v. 37.

16

THE LIBURNIANS AND DROMONS
The Liburnians used
to build very

handy two-banked
;

ships

and soon after for their irregular warfare in the Adriatic B.C. the Romans took these as models for their own two50
banked ships 42 This type may perhaps be recognized in the Roman two-banked ship in fg. 25. The Greeks had made 43 trieres^ a three-banked ship, a generic term for war-ships 'though some had more banks than three and some had less. And in course of time the Romans made liburna, a two-banked applying it indiscriminately ship, a similar generic term about 400 A.D. to war-ships of every rate from those of one bank to those of five banks for apparently they still had such
.

,

;

ships in the West, though in the East their largest war-ships
44 were merely of two banks
42
.

But about 500

A.D. the

Byzan-

Illyricis, 3, Kal vavrtKol ftev iirl TOW 'Ap&afois iytvovro \rf(rrevov vavcrlv yfros frepov 'IXXupttDv, ot rbv 'I6t>i.ov Kal ras vfivovs odev rt vvv 'Pw/iatoi ra /co00a Kal 6&a SLKpora Ai.pvpi>i8as WKelais re Kal Kotf0cus.

Appian, de rebus

Ai/3vpj>ol,

Trpocrayopeijovcriv.

See also note on lembi on p. 115 as to the style of shipbuilding

adopted in Illyria. The employment of Liburnian ships in Roman fleets is mentioned by Caesar, de bello civili, iii. 5, 9, in 48 B.C. and by Horace, epodes, i. i, in 31 B.C. ; and subsequently by Lucan, iii. 534, with reference These ships never had ten banks of oars the reading deceris is to 49 B. c.
:

merely a foolish emendation for de cedris in Suetonius, Caligula, 37, fabricavit et de cedris Liburnicas gemmatis puppibus, versicoloribus velis, etc. There were only two banks, Lucan, iii. 529 536, cornua Romance classis, validceque
triremes,
\

quasque quater surgens exstructi remigis ordo
\

qua mergunt aquore
\

positum pelago. Liburna. celsior at cunctis Bruti pratoria puppis
\

commovet, et plures hoc robur aperto oppinus, multiplies cinxere rates, lunata fronte recedunt ordine contents gemino crevisse
\ \

verberibus
\

senis

agitur.

Thus

in

inscriptions

the

Romans
and

four-banked, three-banked,
index, p. 1128, naves.
43

described ships as six-banked, five-banked, Liburnian see Corp. Inscr. Latin, vol. x,
:

Aristeides,
44

Appian, prsefatio, ro, rpt^pets 3 awo Rhodiaca, p. 341, rprfpeis 5' tiri
cZs

fyuioXtas
TOI^TOIS

fttxP 1

irevT-fipovs.

^Elius
Kal

VTTTJPXCV tdelv diKp6rovs

rpiKpdrovs Kal

etrra Kal ets fvvta. ffTO^xavt.

Vegetius,

iv. 37,

qtiod

ad magnitudinem

pertinet,

minima

liburna; remorttm

habent singulos ordines, paulo maiores binos, interdum quinos sortiuntur remigio gradus.

idonece.

mensurce ternos vel quaternos

nee hoc

in Actiaco prcelio longe maiora referanttir concurrisse navigia, etiam vel iiltra ordinum fuerint. But this usage is not adopted

cum

cuiquam enorme videatur, ^^t senorum

by

his

con-

temporary, Zosimos, v. 20, ^Tre/j.e\iTO d (3>paovtToz) Kal TOV vavriKov' 7r\o?a yap T]v atrip irpbs vav [taxi-ay apKovvra, Alfiepva raura /caXoy/teva, air6 rtvos ?r6Xews ev
'IraXfy Keifdvys 6voiJ.a<TdtvTa, Kad' yv
jr^yfidrj.
e

apxrjs rotiruv

ruv irXolwv rb eWos
oi>x

doKovai 5

TTWJ

ra

TrXoIa

raura raxwavre'icrdai TrevTyKovrbpuv
TrXe^rots
freer*
rrjs

Kara

Tro\f>

ruv TpnjpiKuv

tXarTotfjieva,

TOIJTUV

eK\iiro6cn

OF THE ROMANS AND BYZANTINES.
tines

introduced dromon as a generic term for war-ships,

calling

them

chant-ships the

in

racers in allusion to their superiority to merIn the Byzantine fleet at this time speed.

they were ships of a single bank, but those built in Italy for 46 fleet at Ravenna were three-banked ships Unfortunately, the contemporary mosaic at Ravenna in fg. 39 repre.

sents the fleet in the harbour there very unintelligently. The arrangement of the oars in Byzantine war-ships

is

clearly described in a treatise attributed by tradition to Leo VI., but apparently reduced to its present form during the

No ship had reign of his son and successor Constantine VII. more than two banks of oars. Every two-banked ship had at least twenty-five oars on each side of each bank, or a hundred
drj/j-tovpylas, el
TO,

Kal IIoAtf/Sios 6 criy7pa0e!}j iKrideadaL
(paivovrai

TTOJS

5oe

rQiv e&piKtov ir\ot(t)v
TroXeyU.^o'ai'res

/u^rpa,

ofs

7roXXd/as
is

'Paj/ucuoi

/cat

KapXTjWptoi

Trpds

describing two-banked ships as TrXota Aiftepva, just as he describes three-banked ships as TrXota rptT/pt/ca and ships of a single bank as TrevT'r)K6i>Topoi, his notion being simply that ships of two banks are superior to
aXXTjXous.

Zosimos obviously

ships of one

bank but

inferior to ships of three
9,

banks.

The vague usage
,

is

sanctioned by Tacitus, Germania,
i.e.

Isidis

navigium.

sigmim ipsum in modum liburnce Jiguratum^ And by Pliny, ix. 5, ceu Uburnicarum rostris fodiunt ix. 47,
rostrato impetu fcrimtiir,
clearly

Uburnicarum ludens imagine^ x. 32, liburnicarum modo, xvi. 17, Uburnicarum ad usus. Tacitus and Pliny
Liburnians as a representative class of ships turns on any peculiarity in the build.
45
;

are treating the

for in these

comparisons nothing
TrXota paKpd, o5$ es

Procopios, de bello Vandalico,

i.

i

r, rjffav
fj-ov/jp-rj

d

aurots

Kail

vav/j.a.'x.iav

wapeffKevaff^va, evev^KOvra, 6Yo,
'

IJ.&TOL KO!

6po0as Virepdev ^%ovra,

OTTWS ot
TO.
drj

Tr\oia

raOra ep^acrovre? Trpos T<2v troKe^Luv cos rfKLcrra /3d\\oiVTO. 5p6/m(>t}vas /caXoOcrt raOra ot vvv dvdpwTTOL TrXew yelp /cara rdxos dtivavTai yuaXitrra. iv TOVTOLS
'

~Bvdt>Tioi Stcrxt'Xtot ZirXeov, ai^rep^rat iravres

Trepiveus

yap

rjv

ev TOI^TOIS oi)5e/s.

This certainly does not imply that these ninety-two ships carried only two thousand rowers altogether, or hardly more than twenty rowers apiece. The point is that the two thousand Byzantines helped to row the ships, though normally exempted

from
5td

this

drudgery as combatants.
Trore

Leo, tactica, xix.
vvv
8

i,

iirl

6a\d<ra"ris /mdxe(r6ai

Cassiodorus, Spon&vuv KaKov^vwv. epistolse varise, v. 16, cum nostrum igitur animum frequens cura pulsaret naves Italiam non habere, decrevimus mille interim dromones fabricandos assumere. obtulisti oculis 17, renuntias illico completum quod vix credi poterat inchoattim.
rlJov

Xeyojitvwv

rpnfjpwv,

nostris subito classeam silvam

hominum, domos

aquatiles, exercituales pedes: trireme

vehiculum, remorum tantum numerum prodens sed hominum fades diligenter abscondens hoc primum instituisse legimus Argonautas .ad tirbem Ravennatam
.

.

Both those despatches are from Theodoric congregatio navium c^mcta conveniat. to Abundantius. For the expression trireme vehiculum , cf. Paulinus Nolanus,
poemata, xxiv. 72, quadriremis machina.

T.

b

1

8

NUMBER AND POSITION OF THE OARS
;

and each oar was worked by one man. The twobanked ships were of two sizes. The smaller carried at least a hundred men for rowing and fighting. The larger carried at least two hundred men and in action fifty rowed in the lower bank, while a hundred and fifty fought above 46 Ships of this type were employed by Constantine VII. for an attack on Crete in 949 A.D. The smaller had a company of a hundred and eight or ten men and the larger had a double company of two hundred and twenty men with one hundred and twenty oars. But ships of another type were also employed the smaller carrying a hundred and twenty men, and 47 As a hundred men sufficed the larger a hundred and fifty for two banks of oars, these ships presumably were also of two banks. Ten men more were carried on the ships of this type that were employed by Leo VI. for an attack on Crete about 906 A.D.; or a hundred and thirty in the smaller, and a hundred and sixty in the larger. The larger ships of the other type were also employed, but not the smaller. They also carried ten men more at that time, or two hundred and
altogether
;
.

;

:

.

46

Leo, tactica, xix.

7,

eVacrros de

TV

dpo/Jiuvwv

etifjLrjKys

&TTW Kal

c^/u/ierpos,

i>s

Tas \eyoutvas e\a<rlas dtio, T-fjv re KOLTU Kal rr/v avu. 8, eKdcrr) de IX^TU rb eXd%i<TT(H' irevTe Kal efaofftv, ev ols ol Kwirr^arai. Kadrdr)<rovTai. us elvat
TOUS cnravTas KCLTM
fjiev

i)?

eiKoai Kal irevTe,

dvw
ol

de o/xo/ws eiKoai Kal Trevre,

O/JLOV

TrevTTjKoi'Ta

Kad' eva 5t a\>T&v dto
cl>s

Kade&aduaav
e/carov.

KUTrrjXaTovvTes,

els fj.ev

Seid,

els

Se dpia-repd.
roiJs

elvai TOUS aTravras /cwTrr/Xdras 6/xou (/cai roi>s avroi/s
TOI>S

re ova Kal
ffoi

Kano avSpas
airb
'

9, Kal erepoi de

dpopuves
(TJ

dwcrdv

rotrwv
rr\v

/j.eioi>es,

SiaKOfflwv -xj^povvTes dvdpuv
eirl

TrXe/a;

rotiruv
u>v

T)

eXdrrw Kara
TTfVT-fjKovTa

-%P Lav

r ^l v S^ovaav

Kaipov Kara r&v ivavrlwv)

ol

per

TT)J/

Acdrw eXacrlav inrovpYfarovfftv, ol de eKarbv irevT-fjKovTa avid ea-rwrej

airavres 'evoir\oi yuax^crovrat rots TroXe/utots.
47

ire\dyovs

Porphyrogenitos, de caerimoniis, ii. 45, p. 384, 6 crTpaTrjybs rov Alyalov /j.erd %eXaz>5/w?' ira^rjXuv S"' dva avdpuv pK Kal -^eKavoiwv ovaiaK&v d' dva
'

dvdpwv

prj'

KaTe\et(f>0T) d

Kal [tla

oti<rla els
'

rb

Kb\l/at. rrjv TTJS

oyddys

IVOIKT'IOVOS %v\-f}v.

o (TTpaTrjybs TTJS 2d/xou

pera x e^ a vo
p-rf'

^v

tra/j.^\(av

5" dva dvbp&v pv Kal xeXavfoW

ov<naK&v

S"'

dvd dvdpwv

aTreaTdXtjcrav 5e //era roO TrpuTOfnradapiov 'Iwdvvov Kal

y Kal dphpoves d' dva dvdpdv CTK. 6 crrparriybs KipvppaiWT&v /j.erd xe\avdl<av Tra/^Xwj/ S"' dva dvftp&v pv Kal x S"' dva dvdp&v pi KaTeXeitfrdr) de Kal els <pt\aiv roO dep-aros TrdyU^iAot /3',
d<Tr)Kp-r)Tr)S

iv 'A<pi/cT

xeXd^Sta

'

'

5'

/careXe/00?7

de

Kal

eis

KaTe\ei<j>6-r)

oe Kal els

(f>ij\a!;tv

TO Kbtyai ryv TTJS dyddrjs IvdiKTtovos ^vXyv ovaiat (3' TOV Kvpov Sre^dvou rou yvvaiKade\<j>ov TOV fiaaiXeus ev

'

ovffla a' Kal

ova-iaKa

dpou6vuv d' dvd dvdp&v <TK'. An ovcria was a company, and the were ships carrying a company apiece. They carried 108 or no

ON THE DROMONS AND THE GALLEYS.
thirty, besides
;

19

seventy others for fighting only and not for 48 As rowing and therefore carried three hundred altogether there were more rowers than oars in many of these ships, though every oar was managed by one man, these rowers
.

"*"

must have worked by

turns.

Thus, after a lapse of sixteen centuries, the system of successive banks was again restricted to two-banked ships
with a hundred and twenty oars at most; and soon afterwards
it

was abandoned.

The term
49
:

war-ships of a single bank

yet devised, which

made

was p,! ready Applied to ralea^ but those new systems were not the single bank of the mediaeval
_

yi

galleys as effective as the
ships.

One

of these

new systems

oars

by placing them at making them of several

numerous banks of the ancient warincreased the number of shorter intervals along the bank, and
different lengths inboard, the rowers

being arranged in several lines along the deck; while the other maintained the number of oars at fifty or sixty, but increased their size and strength, several rowers working
together at every oar
men
;

50
.

so

companies.

the eight dromons, which each carried 220 men, each carried two Twenty other dromons are explicitly credited with two companies

apiece, p. 384, 5pbfj.oves K

ava ovai&v
ei's

'

{$'

ofxrlat

//,'.

Each

therefore carried 220
twirla ava pK
r '

men:
48

yet only 120 oars, p. 388,

e6irXt<ru>

TUV K

dpo/jioviwv

6/xoD ,/Su'.

rou Alyalov Porphyrogenitos, de cserimoniis, ii. 44, p. 377, Sia rou 0<^aros ' f ^%ovres ava dvdp&v KWirrfkarCov o*X' Kal ava, TroXe/ucrrcDj' o ire\dyovs. 8p6[ji.oves
Ofjiov

ftp.
o/J-ov

Trdfj.(pv\oi

f

^xoj/res ot ptv y'

ava avdpuv p
ot

,

01 8k ^repoi 5'

ava dvdpwv
cf. ii.

p\'p.

a.

6/j,ov

TO irav dta rov dfyaTOS rov Alyaiov ire\dyovs ,yp.

45,

387, 6

8p6fji.uv

6(j>el\ei

^iv

avdpas r,

^v

cr\'

7rX6t/ioi /cwTTT/Xdrat

^roi Kal

Tro\fj.i<rTat,

Kal oi Zrepoi o

avdpes

TroXefj-iffral.

That

refers to

949 A.D.

:

but the

%6ir\iffis dpfyovos
,

r&v K o, pp. 386, 387, differs materially from the e67rXi<ris

pp. 387, 388, so this
10,

dromon had now become anomalous.
de Karaa-Kevdo-eis
dp6/j,uvas

49

Leo, tactica, xix.

Kal ZTL

Adrrovs

Spofu-

rdrovs, olovel

ya\atas

TJ

fiov/ipas \eyo/j.tvovs.

The forms ya\aiai and

7aX<?cu

were

gakotte,

used indifferently at this period. 50 oars were According to Pantero Pantera, armata navale, i. 15, the big known as remi di scaloccio, and were worked by two or three men apiece on the three or four and sometimes by five or six on the galee, and by as

by

more on the galeazze. The big oars were superseding the These were known as remi ft zenzile, and had usually been worked in Pantera was captain groups of three or four or five, with one man for every oar. of the Papal galleys, and published his work at Rome in 1614.

many

as eight or even

small oars.

20

AUXILIARY OARS ON MERCHANT-SHIPS.

y

were generally too bulky to be propelled Merchant-shigs 61 Nevertheless they carried a few, very often twenty by ancTthese probably sufficed for bringing the ship's head round and other such purposes, though hardly numerous enough for
oars.
:

j

driving the ship

along.

Thus, a merchant-ship trying to
oars

fc s

is compared by Aristotle on wings too small for its to an insect feebly buzzing along body, after the manner of cockchafers and bees whereas a war-ship under way, rhythmically dipping her vast mass of 52 oars, was commonly compared to a bird upon its flight The banks of oars were so arranged that the largest warTo shew the size of the great ships were of no great height.
: .

make some headway with her

ships in Antony's fleet at the battle of Actium in 31 B.C., Orosius remarks that they actually were ten feet in height above the
51

Odyssey,
r]r

ix.

322

324, ovvov
|

0'

iffrbv

vrjbs

eeiKoa6pOiO fjL\atvr)s,
rt><T<rov

|

0opr5os,
els
rj

evpeirjs,

eKirepdq fieya AcuTyiia*
18,

r6caov

e-r\v

fAiJKOS,

irdxos elcropdaadai.

Demosthenes, in Lacritum,
K6vroi> ev
rri

rd

de rptcrxiXia /cepdyiua
evavK\7jpei.

aye<rdai ravra
rjv

rbv

elKoabpy

rjv 'T/JXifa-ios

Athenseos, v. 41,

5'

vavs
evbs

rrj i*ev KaraffKevrj etV6(ropos, K.r.X., cf.
rrjs

40, TrXota crtrriyd KaraffKevafi/uLevos,

Civ

KaraffKevys
52

fj.vrjffdriaofJ.aL.

Aristotle,
Sici,

de animalium incessu,
rb
fjt,ev
\jJr\

10, (3pa8eia 5'

Kal

do'dev'rjs

Kara,

\6yov

x eiv

^ T^l v r & v irTep&v

7rr7}(rts
(j)ti(nv

ru>v oKoirrtpuv effrl
Trpbs
el

rb rou

(rc6/xaros

/Sdpos,

dXAd rb

TroXtf,

rd 5e

fj,iKpd

Kal avdevri'

uxnrep av ovv
rrf Trr^crei

6\Ka5iKbv TT\<HOV
virevavrlws 5'

eiri'x.eipoi'r]
%-)(o vfft- v
'

fcc^Trats TroLelaQaiL

rbv TT\OVV, ourw raOra

%p?)rai.

ftpvides rots oKoirrepois TTJV rGiv irrepuiv <pv<nv, fc.r.X.

The metaphor about

the birds occurs frequently.
irapriovs,

ovd'
\

ev-fipe'

eper/xd,

Odyssey, xi. 124, 125, ou5' apa roiy' t<ra<n veas <f)ocviKorare Trrepd vijvcrl irt\ovrai. Euripides, Troades,
\

1085, 1086,

efj-k

5e Trbvriov

VKaQos

diff<rov Trrepoiffi 7ropei5<rei.

^ischylos,
i.

Agamemoil

non, 52, TTTeptiyuv
7rer%oi',

eperfjioiffiv

epevabfJievoi, sc. alyiJTriot.

Polybios,

46,

de vijes

etrrep&Kvlai irpbs rr\v e^oKriv.

Plutarch, Antonius, 63, rous 82 rapcrotis

ruv ve&v cyelpas Kal
irTeptyuv iro\vav6ei
Latin.

Trrepwcras eKarepwdev.
xpotT?,
i.
|

Moschos,

ii.

59, 60,

6pm,

dya\\6fj.ei>os

raped

5' dvaTr\ic<ras, &<rei

re ris

cJ/ctfaXos vrjvs.
|

Also in

Virgil, ^Eneid,
iv.

Propertius,
this

300, 301, volat ille per aera magnum remigio alarum. 6. 47, 48, nee te, quod classis centenis remigat a/is, terreat. But
\

does not please Quintilian, viii. 6. 18. 53 Orosius, vi. 19, classis Antonii centum septuaginta navium
decent

/Ttit,

quantum

numero cedens tantum magnitudine prtecellens, nam mari aberant. This definite statement deserves more

pedum

altitudine a

attention than the grotesque exaggerations of Virgil, yneid, viii. 691, 692, pelago credas innare revulsas The notion of an encounter with Cycladas, aut monies concurrere montibtis altos.
\

islands is neatly parodied by Lucian, verse with some apology by Dion Cassius, 1. 33,
(Ji.eyd\ois o/xoiwcrcu, refyecri ri<riv
r)

historiae,

i.

40

42

;

but

is

adopted
ws

e'iKaaev av ris id&v

rd

yiyv6/j.eva,

Kal

vrj<rois

7roXXa?s Kal TTVKvaTs eK 6a\d(ra"r)S

THE DIMENSIONS OF THE WAR-SHIPS.
and these great ships were ofjen banks 54 He therefore allows a foot of freeboard for each bank of oars and thus would make a sixteen-banked ship only sixteen feet in height above the water-line. And practically there never more than sixteen banks on a sea-going ship. of a single_bank, which was preserved at Rome as A f:re ship a relic of yneas, was a hundred and twenty feet in length 55 :, and as she probably was a fifty-oared ship, there probably were twenty-five oars on each side, and therefore twenty-four spaces between the tholes, or one such space for every five feet of her length. And this relation would not be fortuitous; for in ancient ships all the dimensions were related to the 56 A thirty-oared ship, with interval between the tholes fourteen such spaces, would thus be seventy feet in length;
water-line
: .

53

;

,

1

.

iro\iopKovfjiti>a.is.

The tamer

notion of an encounter with forts seems due to

Plutarch, Antonius, 66, where he compares the battle to a Teixouaxl-a, apparently in imitation of the common-place in Latin that war-ships were like walled towns.

Thus, the expression urbis instar

is

Verrem,
54

ii.

v. 34,

and the expression urbis opus

applied to a four-banked ship by Cicero, in to a three-banked ship by Virgil,

^Eneid, v. 119.
Plutarch, Antonius, 64, ws 5

vav^ax^v ededoKro, ras
ras 5e dpi<rras
1.

ph

&\\as
dtrb

evewprja-e

vavs

7r\V e^rjKovra

rdov

AlyvirrLuv

/cat

/meyiffras

rpir)povs

HtXP L Sexypovs CTrXypov. de /cat deKripeis /cat ra

Dion

Cassius,

23,

rpiypeis

^v

yap oXiyas,

rerpripeis

55

XOITTO, ra dca [tecrov wdvra Qtirolriffev. Strabo, vii. 7. 6, deKavaiav aKpodiviov airb fj.ovoKp6rov /J^XP L SeKiypofS. Procopios, de bello Gothico, iv. 22, rt /m^vroi KO.I 6Va /u^/xeia rov ytvovs ^rt, ev rots /cat TJ vavs AtVet'ou, rou rrjs 7r6Xews ot/ct(TToO, /cat et's r65e /cetrat,

Kal&ap

TT\V

TravreXcDs &viffrov,

ve&Gouiov yap
re avrriv

Tronj<rd/u.evoL iv

/Ji^ffrj

rrj 7r6Xet

irapa rrjv rov

^V, evravdd
Tvyxdvei ovaa,
v\//os
fj.iJKOS [itv

/cara^^/ttei'ot,

e| t/cetVou Typovviv. 5
ij

tfirep oiroia TTOT
Tre/HjioJ/cTjs

eariv avrbs deaffapevos epuv fyxoftai.

fjiovrjprjs

vavs

ijde

Kal

ayav
ye

irod&v eiKoai

/cat
/&?)

Kar6v, evpos d

irevre Kal ef/coat, rb o

TOffavri)

ecTTiJf
i.

ocrov avTTjv epeaaeffdai.
2. 4,

ddvvara

elvai.

56

Vitruvius,

uti in hominis corpore e ciibito pede

palmo

digito ceterisque

: particulis symmetros est eurythmia; qualitas, sic est in operum perfectionibus et primuin in cedibus sacris aut e columnarum crassitudinibus aut triglypho aut ctiani

emba/e, sed
scalmio,

et ballista e

quod DIPHECIACA symmetriarum ratiodnatio. Greek word and the word
;

foramine, quod Gr&ci PERITRETON vocitant, navis interdicitur, item ceterorum operum e membris invenitur

The

letters

DIPHECIACA seem intended

for

some
If this

5t7r7?xat/c77

has been invented for the occasion.

word had any meaning, it would mean that the interval between the tholes amounted to two cubits, and was therefore a fixed distance but the distance the dimensions of certainly was variable, since it formed the unit for calculating a ship, and all ships were not alike.
:

22

THE DIMENSIONS OF THE WAR-SHIPS

and a three-banked ship, with thirty such spaces in the upper bank, a hundred and fifty feet in length. These dimensions Yet the oars could hardly have certainly appear excessive. been worked, had the interval between the tholes been less than three feet so the distance from the first thole to the last must have been at least forty-two feet on a thirty-oared ship, seventy-two feet on a fifty-oared ship, and ninety feet on a three-banked ship and this distance seems little more than three-fifths of the extreme length in most of the ships
;
:

Moreover, these ships look as depicted by the ancients. were clear of the water for fully a fifth of their though they
length by reason of the overhanging stern and the elevated ram. The ship of .^Eneas was twenty-five feet broad, or more than a fifth of her length in beam but the Greek war-ships
:

of the Athenian were considerably narrower. docks in the harbour of Zea shew that originally they were quite a hundred and fifty feet in length but only twentyjeet in
57

The remains

Plans and measurements of the docks at Zea in the
eraipias
for

Hpa/crt/co, 7775 ev' Kd-f)vou.$

dpxa.io\oyiKrjs

1885, plates
5 in. in

2

and

3,

cf.

pp. 63

71.

The docks

themselves are about 19
;

breadth, or twenty feet by ancient Greek measurement and they are divided by partitions which are about i ft. 1 1 in. in In the breadth, so that the distance from centre to centre is about 21 ft. 4 in.
ft.

ruins of the docks at
partitions

Munychia

were narrower.

but possibly the this distance is about loin, less All the docks at Zea are in ruins at the lower end
: :

yet some of them are still 144 ft. in length. They certainly were not meant to take two ships apiece, one behind another: there never were double docks, vetipia, though sometimes there were double sheds above the docks, vewaocKoi.

Diodoros, xiv. 42,
TOI)S TrXelarovs

y/coSo/iei 5

(Aiovticrios) /ecu vew<ro//cous TroXureAets e/carov

e^/cwra,

dto vavs dexopfrovs, Plato, Critias, p. 116, rtfj-vovres de a/j,a d-Treipydovro vebHTo'iKovs KoiXovs SiTrAoGs evr6s, KaTTjperfte'is avrrj rrj irtrpq.. There are lines

of

columns between the docks

at

Zea

;

and these columns are spaced

differently in

alternate lines, as if to carry different weights. So these docks undoubtedly were roofed in pairs : but in no other sense were they double.
58 Athenseos, v. 37, already quoted in note 24 on p. 9. A ship of this length would have 170 oars in the uppermost bank, with 84 spaces between the tholes on either side, if she had one such space for every five feet of her length and if each bank held four oars more than the bank below, and there were 54 in the lowest
:

bank
59

see pp.

1 1 ff.

there

would be
is

1

70 in the uppermost bank on a ship of

thirty banks.

The coincidence

curious.

S

Kal ray vaus ras /maKpas Kal

This usage of /xax-pd and longa occurs frequently, e.g. Polybios, xxii. 26, cbroStfra; = Livy, xxxviii. 38, rot, e/c TO^TUV a/j/xe^a Kal ra <r/cei577

tradito et naves longas

armamentaque earum, both authors quoting from the treaty under which Antiochos surrendered his navy to the Romans in 189 B.C. There

AND OF
breadth
57
.

SHIPS OF

OTHER

CLASSES.

23

These docks presumably were not much longer than the ships for w"mch they were designed, and the ships certainly were not broader than the docks; ,so these ships
im.

Eild the p,

hardly have exceeded two-fifteenths of their length in And this is approximately the ratio of length to adth which Callixenos ascribes to the alleged forty-banked
.

length being four hundred and twenty feet and the 58 breadth fifty-seven The regular war-ships differed so strikingly from merchant-) ships in their proportions that they were generally known as/
the long^ships, while these were known as the round ships But ships sometimes were constructed on an intermediate system of proportion, and consequently could not thus be
.

59

classed

as

long

or

round 60

.

And

the
;

round ships were

themselves of several different types types prevailed among the vessels

while a multitude of
that

were

not

large

enough
vtKos) virb

to rank as ships

61
.

was a corresponding usage of
vevewXKij/jieva,
rpir/peis Kal
elirev.

o-rpoyyvXTj.

Athenseos,
eo~rl
;

viii.

42, epurrjdds de (Lrparbrj

TWOS, riva rCjv irXoiuv aff^aXearara

ra

/-ta/cpd,

ra crrpoyyvXa
i,

;

ra

Theophrastos, historia plantarum,
TrXcua eXdriva TrotoDcrt 5ta Kovfioryra,
v. i. 21, Kal Karadveiv
'

v.

7.

rets

pen,

yap

ra paKpa

ra de arpoyyvXa wevKiva
/j.ev

did TO daa-rres.

Xenophon, Hellenica,
eavr&v

OVK eta <rrpoyyu\ov

TrXoiov ovde \vu,aivecrdaL rats

vavffiv

ei

ireipdadai dirXovv iroLelv.

cf. Herodotos, i. usage was not adopted in Latin; and navis longa is opposed to navis oneraria, just as vavs ytia/cpd is sometimes opposed to 6X/cd$. Csesar, de bello Gallico, iv. 22, navibus circiter octoginta onerariis coactis contractisque, quot satis esse ad duas

de irov rpiripr) idoiev op/Aovo'ai', ravrrjv 163, already quoted in note 8 on p. 4.

But

this

transportandas legiones existimabat, quicquid praterea

navium longarum

habebat,

quastori legatis prcefectisque distribtiit. Appian, de bellis civilibus, ii. 54, /cat ovo ai dXXcoi/ iire\dbvrwv, ode Kal rdde TrpocrXa^iov dvrtyero x^tAtwi/os eirl oXKaduv
'

*
fj.ev

rjcrav 60

avrt^ vrjes oXiyai yaa/cpat,
v.

2ap5w
dXXd

/cat

2t/ceX/av e(f>povpovv.
avrTjs ovre rais
-rrpbs rrjv

Athenaeos,

38, quoting Callixenos, rb de vx^f*
eot/c6s,

vavcrlv ovre rats

vrpoyyvXais

irapri\\ayp.evov re Kal
s.

^peii

irorau.ov rb ftddos.

Arrian, Fr. 19, apud Suidam,
vessels

v. vavs

:

etxe 5

rj

vavs

Kara

rpLrjp-rj

/xaXtcrra, evpos de Kal

pddos Kaff 6X/cd5a,
for rivers
;

o<rov fj,eyLffrr) Nt/co/njSts

$

Aiyv-rrrla.

Both these

were designed

the former for the Nile

under Ptolemy Philopator, the latter apparently for the Tigris under Trajan. Appian, de bellis civilibus, v. 95, eduprjcraro de Kal'OKraovta rbv ddeX(f>6v, airrjo-ava
Trap' 'Avruvlov,

See note on
61

/j-voirdpuves

deKa (paarjXois rpnjperiKots, eTTt/i^/crots &c re (poprlouv ve&v Kal u.aKpuv. on p. 108 for a further account of these ships.

The

'

See note on actuaries on p. 105, and subsequent notes in the Appendix. round class would include the 7aDXot and the tWoi, the corbitae and the
'

,

and perhaps the Kdvdapoi and the KVKVOI and also the pontones.

24

THE DIMENSIONS AND TONNAGE
The dimensions
in

''

of one of the great merchant-ships emcorn from Egypt to Italy about 150 A.D. ployed carrying have fortunately been put on record. According to Luciai

her length was a hundred and eighty feet, while her breadtl was slightly more than a fourth of her length, and her deptl

was

forty-three feet and a half, reckoning from the upp< deck to the bottom of the hold so that, including the keel,
;

62 her depth must have been about the same as her breadth The well-known dimensions in the Hebrew version of th<

.

legend of the Flood, four hundred and
feet

fifty feet

of lengtl

of breadth, and forty-five feet of deptl seventy-five apparently belong to the ark that has been introduced thei

under Egyptian influence, and not to the ship that has beei implicitly retained there with other features of the Babyloniai
versions.

states that the

but

is

earlier Babylonian version in the inscriptions depth of the ship was the same as the breadth, 63 The illegible in its statement of the measurements
.

The

extant copies of the later Babylonian version recorded by Berosos state that the length of the ship was either five or
fifteen stades,
62

and the breadth two stades 64
Troieiv,

.

In this equality
Au/etve,

Trvd6fj.i>ov

Lucian, navigium, I, rl yhp 5et /cal ourws virep/uieytdT) vavv /cat irpa rov

w
5,

o"x^V

cLyovra,

fj-trpov els
;

rbv Hetpaia /caraTreTrXei;-

KVOU
vavs,

/j.iav

T&V

air'

Alyvirrov

et's

'IraXiav ffiraywyuv
/j-rjitos

dXXa

/-terai}

\oywv,

r/XiKr)

eif/cocrt /cat

e/carov 7r?7xewp IXe-ye rb
/cat euro

6 vavTryyos, edpos 5e virtp rb reraprov

/mXtcrra TO^TOU,
63
11.

TOV /caracrrpc6/iaros

es

rbv

Trvd/J-eva,

rj

fiadiiTaTOV

Kara rbv

&VT\OI>, tvvta. irpbs rots

el'/cocr:.

Rawlinson, Cuneiform Inscriptions of Western Asia,

vol. iv, pi. 50, col. i,
I

25, 16

= pi.

43, col.

i,

11.

27, 28, in the

new

edition.

am

indebted to

Dr

Budge, of the British Museum, for verifying the statement in the
64

text.

rb 5
five

p. 30, <r/cct0os, rb ^kv /J.TJKOS 0-radiuv irtvre, but the length is estimated at fifteen stades instead of in the corresponding extract from Berosos in the first book of the Chronica of
7,

Berosos, Fr.

apud Syncellum,

TrXctros <rradiwv dvo,

Eusebios, as retranslated from the

Armenian

edition.

If these

were common
ft.

stades of a hundred fathoms each, the length of the ship would be either 3000 or 9000 ft., and the breadth 1200 ft. so the reading must be corrupt.
:

65

Genesis,

vi.

15, jcol.ourw 7roi?7<reiS TT\V Kifiurov' rpiaKoaiwv irrfx.e(av rb
/cat

/J.TJKOS

r?7S /ftjSwroO, KO.I

TrevrrfKovra Trr)x e<JI}V r & TrXaros,
to

rpiaicovra TrrjX

WV r ^ fyos

avrijs.

The word seems
Zpyov fttyiffTov

have puzzled Philo Judseus,
its

for

he speaks vaguely of a wooden
ii.

structure without a hint about
ets

shape, vita Moysis,
cf.

n,

%6\ivov 5r)fjuovpyri(ras
e/c

Trrjxets rpiaKocrlovs fJtijKOS, /c.r.X.

12, irpbfKnv

rou

v\lvov

/caracr/ceuao-yaaros.

the vessel

is

In the Greek version of the legend, with Deucalion as hero, termed a box, \dpva.

OF THE LARGEST MERCHANT-SHIPS.
of breadth

25

and depth the legendary vessel resembles the merchant-ship just mentioned; and in a possible ratio of breadth to length she resembles the war-ships for which the ks at Zea were constructed but in none of her proportions
:

of the Septuagint d every means of ascertaining the exact sense of the word
'ball,

es she

resemble the ark.

The authors

or ark, since
it

it

was of Egyptian
:

origin

translated

by the word kibotos, or

chest.

and they This was an
;

epithet of Apameia in Phrygia and upon coins of that city 65 the ark of Noah is represented as a rectangular chest
.

The tonnage of ancjent ships cannot safely be deducedl^/^ from their dimensions, as so little is known about their form.
But the amount of cargo carried by various merchant-ships here and mere recorded, this amount being generally computed by the talent or the amphora, which each weighed^* about a fortieth part of a ton 66 And the largest merchantare always described as carrying ten thousand talents, ships or 250 tons, though they may really have carried rather more, 67 The f.ten thousand being a round number of the vaguest sort tonnage of such ships would be roughly 150, register.
is
.

.

.

66

Herodotos,

i.

194* iroiterai Se Kai Kapra

ueydXa ravra ra

TrXola Kai e'Xdcrtrw

r\c

raOra

irXrjdei TroXXd, /ecu

ayei

efj/ta

TroXXas

x

1

^'

^

015

raXdvrwv, the former on

Athenaeos, v. 43, K^pKovpos, T/3i<T%iXia rdXavra Se'xeo'flcu dvvduevos. Livy, xxi. 63, citing a law enacted at Rome shortly before 220 B.C., ne quis senator, cuive senatorius pater fuisset, maritimam navem,
-i

tV.0 the Euphrates

and the

latter

on the Nile.

ft

"" plus quani trecentarum ainphoranim esset, haberet : id satis habittitn ad ~tus ex agris vectandos : qu&stiis omnis Palribus indecorus visus est. Cicero, familiares, xii. 15. 2, naves onerarias, quarum minor milla erat duuni inillium

As Pliny, vi. 24, magnittido (navitifn) ad terna millia aiuphorum. the talent and the amphora each represented a cubic foot of water, and a Greek or
aniphorum.

Roman
67

foot

measured about

'97 of
Ibs.

an English
p.

foot, the talent

and the amphora
/jt,vpio(f>6pov

each weighed very nearly 57
Ctesias, Fr. 57. 6,
urr6s.

apud Photium,

45, r6

u^os, 6crov

pews
iv.

Thucydides,

vii. 25,

irpo<rayay6i>Tes

yap vavv

/j.vpLO(f>6pov t /c.r.X.
cf.

Pollux,

165,

fj.vpio<f>6pos, cus

QOVK vdldys ws 5e
6, (jt-vpiayuya
iii.

Aeh'ctpxos, fjivpiaywyovffa.

Philo Judoeus,
o"7-6/4aro$ ftKoai
i.

de plantatione Noe,
<f>6pois vavffiv.

<r/cct$77,

de incorruptibilitate mundi, 26, pvpio/cat

Strabo,

3.

r,

6 5

TCIYOS

rb TrXctros ^x et T0 ^

irov (TTadtuv Kai
5'

TO /3a0os
i)

/J.tya,

w<rre pvpiaywyo'is dvair\ei<rdai, xvii.
5'

26, irXdros

e'x 64

TTT/X^" fKarbv
iv.

5iupv%, fiddos
5ij

8<rov

dpKeiv fjivpio(p6p(^
Tupioi,

v-r\l.

Heliodoros,
fyiropoi, TrXeiv

^Ethiopica,
5'
eTrt

16,

ZXeyov

ovv

elvai.

<l>otVi/ces

r^x v "n v

&

Kapxrjdova

TT\V AtjS^wi/,

6X/cd5a fj.vpiO(p6pov 'Ivducuv re Kai M6i.oTri.KC3v Kai T&V

26

SHIPS FOR CARRYING

THE OBELISKS,

Larger ships were built for special purposes. About 40 A.] the Vatican obelisk and its pedestal were brought from Eg] to Italy in a ship which Pliny describes as the most wonderful

was beheld upon the sea evidently meaning was the largest, for he comments on her length and her capacity and the size of her mast, but says nothing about any peculiarity in design. The obelisk and pedestal together and about 800 tons of weigh between 496 and 497 tons 68 Therelentils were stowed on board to keep them steady
vessel that ever
;

that she

;

.

fore, unless there is some error about the quantity of lentils, the ship carried fully 1,300 tons, or more than five times the

load of the largest merchant-ships
CK $oivticr)$ dyuylfjMv (ptpovres.
fHi>

afloat.

This ship was
real v\>v
77

Themistios, oratio xvi, p. 212,

airaaa

ijirfLpos,

yrf

5

Kal fldXarra roi)s Tr/aocrraTas
5?)

ffTe<j>avov(ri.v,

5

dp-%7)

KaOdtrep t>avs
Kal dxvpovrai.
fj.t>

/j,vpio<f>6pos

TroXXa

Trovydeiffa vtrb xetyu.wj'os Kal rpt/ciy-u'as dva\a/j.(3dvet

Himerios, oratio
fjirj

xiv, p. 622, TrXet TTOT^ Kal fj.vpib<popTos 6X/cds, iro\vv
evpiffKe (3a6ijTr)Ti, uxrre Kal \v<rai

xp

vot/

Xtpvttovcra, OTI

TrAayos TOVOVTOV

ra

Treia/j-aTa.

Automedon,

in the

4886, 4887, Kal TOUT' elir&v
(poprov avrtxpoprov fipudyvai.
68

Anthology, x. 23. 5, vavs are /j.vpi6(f)opTos. Manasses, ex^Xewe yvddois Trvpbs Tra/j.<f>dyov Tr)v vavv rty fj.vpib\

Pliny, xvi. 76, abies admirationis pr&cipua visa est in nave, qtia ex ALgypto Gaii principis iussu obdiscum in Vaticano Circo statutum quattuorque truncos lapidis eiusdem ad sustinendum eum adduxit, qua nave nihil admirabilius visum

in mari certum

est.

cxx M modiorum

lentis

pro saburra

el

fuere.

longitudo

spatium obtinuit magna ex parte Ostiensis portus latere Icevo : ibi namque demersa est a Claudio principe cum tribus molibus turrium altitudine in ea cxcedificatis
obiter Puteolano pulvere advectisque.

arboris eius crassitudo quattuor hominum ulnas complectenliitm implebat. modius was equivalent to the third part of a cubic foot, so that 120,000 modii would occupy a space of 40.000 cubic feet and the weight would be nearly 46 Ibs. for every cubic foot, as Egyptian lentils weigh

A

:

about 50 Ibs. per cubic English foot, when closely packed. According to Fontana, Delia trasportatione dell' obelisco Vaticano, pp. 9, 23, the obelisk itself weighs
963)537
Ibs., while the four blocks of the pedestal weigh 165,464 and 67,510 and 179,826 and 110,778 Ibs. respectively and a ton contains about 2,996 Ibs. of this measure. Fontana replaced the obelisk upon the original pedestal after its removal from the Circus in 1586.
:

59

Pliny, xxxvi.

i,

navesque
illuc

marmorum

causa fiunt> ac per fluctus, sczvissimam

rerum natures partem, hue
70

portantur iuga.
dijficultas

Pliny, xxxvi.

14,

super omnia accessit

mari

Romam

(obeliscos)

devehendi, spectatis admodtim navibus. divus Augustus priorem advexerat, miraculique gratia Puteolis navalibus perpetuis dicaverat ; sed incendio consumpta est. divus Claudius aliquot per annos asservatam, quam Gaius Ctesar importaverat,

omnibus quae unquam in mari visa sunt mirabiliorem, in ipsa turribus Puteolis pulvere exadificatis, perductam Ostiam portus gratia mersit.

e

AND OTHER

SHIPS OF HIGH TONNAGE.

Romans built expressly for 69 Pliny says plainly that she was larger transporting marble than the ship which had performed the somewhat easier task
doubtless of the class that the
.

)f

rears before

carrying the Flaminian obelisk from Egypt to Italy fifty 70 yet that ship was afterwards reputed to have
:

a quantity of pepper and linen and v and glass, and also fourteen hundred men, besides the '' per 71 belisk and its pedestal The tale is absurd and so also is
rried 2,700 tons of corn,
. :

250 tons of salted fish, 500 ns of wool, and 500 tons of miscellaneous cargo were put n board a ship that Hieron built at Syracuse and afterwards
to
71

c tale that 2,400 tons of corn,

Ptolemy on finding her too large
TTJS /JacrtXetas

for use

72
.

Athenseos

Cedren, p. 172, eVi 5e
ets TTJV
o"',

AvyovffTov Katcrapos
fiodiwv

etcr7?X0e TrXotov dirb
i

^avdpelas
pairras

irbpTav 'Pw/tt^s,

eTri.<pep6/j.evov crt'rou
l
)

x

^' a 5as u', eVtjSdras

TreVept,

nX^ws, aur6i' re
r

or roD

^acrtXe'ujs

x a P Tr v v\ia, Kal Tbv fji^yav 6/3eX<r/coj> /uerd roO earuJra & ry fAeyd\i{) iTTTTt/cy, e'xovra os T^'Sas TT' TJ/J.HTVV. read TT;S /3d<reo>s. Another version is printed by Mommsen,
bdovas,

^

Feber

den Chronographen vom Jahre 354, at p. 646, hoc imp. navis Alexandrina in portn Romano inlroivit nomine Acatus, qui attulit frumenti modios :cc, vectores MCC, piper, linteamen, carta, vitria, et opoliscum cum sua sibi base, A modius being equivalent to li est in Circo Maximo altum pedes LXXXVIIS.

imum

third part of a cubic foot, 400,000 modii
ibic feet
:

would occupy a space of 133,333
Ibs. for

and the weight would be about 45

jighs rather
r.,

more than 49

Ibs.

every cubic foot, since corn per cubic English foot. According to Fontana,
;

p. 75, the Flaminian obelisk weighs 702,276 Ibs. and its pedestal 497, 187 Ibs. altogether 287,652^5. less than the Vatican obelisk and pedestal. 72 Athenaeos, v. 40, irepi 5e TTJS virb 'lepuvos TOV Zupa/coo'foi'
?,

TJS

Kal 'ApX'M 7?^^?

TJV

6

yeio^Tpr/s

tirbirTris,

OVK

a%t.ov

elvai

Kplvw
ypd(pei ovv

Ypau/ma

Kd6vTOS Mocrx^wpos TLVOS,
OVTUS,
/c.r.X.

y

ov Traptpyws

VTVXOV

vrroyviws.

44, O~ITOV oe evefiaXKovTO

ets TT\V

vavv uvpiddes

~pdut.a (j,vpia,
jpis

epe&v rdXa^ra
TJV

difffj-vpia,

Kal eVe/ra 5e

0opn

de TOVTdJV 6 e7rt(Ttrt(r/x6s

T&V

e/j,Tr\OVT(i)v.

6 5' 'Itpwv, e?ret Trdiras TOVS

ifievas -fJKOve,
>,

TOVS uev us ov ovvaToi

et'<rt

TTJV

vavv dexecrdai, TOVS 5e Kal eiriKivduvovs
^SatrtXet
ets
'

8iyvw b&pov

avTT)v aTrooretXat IlToXe//,aty T<

it

yap

TJV ffirdvis CTLTOV /card TTJV AiyvirTOv.

Kal OVTUS

eTroiTjcrc'

Kal

TJ

'AXe^dvdpeiav vavs /car^x^ 7?

lypaufj-aTdiv TronjTT]v, ypd\f/avTa ets TTJV vavv e7rLypau/J.a, xtXfots irvp&v peStuvois,
/cat
11

7rap7T/j.\j/ev tSt'ots daTravrjuacriv ets

TOV Heipaia,

eYt/x.rjcrei'.
:

The

corn would

be measured by the medimnos, as was customary and a medimnos was mivalent to two cubic feet. So the 60,000 measures of corn would occupy a
of 120,000 cubic
feet.

A

opTiov the equivalent of a talent or
upi6(j>opTos
:

see note 67.

It is

was presumably an amphora; and a an amphora, as that meaning is implied in clear that nothing was known of Moschion even
Kepdutov

ten, else

Athenseos would not speak of him as Moaxt'wi'os r'6s.

28

SHIPS FOR CARRYING

THE OBELISKS,

Moschion, and Moschion cites an epigram by Archimelos but nothing whatever is known of Archimelos or of Moschion and Athenaeos did not write until 200 A.D., while Hieron died before 200 B.C. The
quotes this tale from
:

;

epigram celebrates a ship that brought some gifts of corn from Hieron to the Greeks, and declares her size by saying that the hull rivalled Etna in its bulk, the mast touched the 73 but such language seems hardly more stars, and so forth
:

appropriate if the ship carried 3,650 tons, than if she carried a half or a quarter or an eighth of that load and a ship might fairly be deemed a monster, if she carried even 500
;

when others could not carry more than 250. In his narrative Moschion says that Archimedes succeeded in launching this huge ship by means of some mechanical
tons at a time

contrivance of his

yet Plutarch tells substantially the same story about Archimedes without a hint
:

own

invention

73

Athenseos, v. 44,
eiffa.ro
;

%et 5' OVTWS rb

eTriypafji,/j.a

:

ris

r6de
;
|

cre\fj.a

ire\b)pov

TOKOS
|

Kolpavos d/ca/idrots Treta/mao'Lv r/ydyero
\

TTWS 5e

Kara
|

ffavis

;

f)

rlvi

ybfj.<j>oi
rj

rarjd^vres TreX^/cet TOUT'
\

e'Ka/j.ov

TO

KI;TOS,

77

Atrvas

Trapiffovfjievov,

nvt vd<rwv,
rj

as Alyacov tidwp Ku/cXd8as evdederai,
\

\

dfj.(f>orepwdei>

iVoTrXaT^s;
\f/atiei

pa Tiyavres
olaiv

TOVTO Trpos ovpavlas ^eaav drpairiTOiJS.
\

\

&<Trpwv yap
ireifffj.affiv

Kapxr](ria, /cat rpieXiKTOvs

^cipa/cas
\

[J.eyd\ii)i>

evrbs ^%et vefiewv.
dicrabv

\

dyKvpas aTrepeiderai,
/CO.T'

'A(3ti8ov

SJep^s
\

/cal

Sy/tTToO
ris
/ecu
|

irbpov.

|

/jiavvei crTijSapas

eTrw/^t'Sos

dpnxdpaKrov
Awpt/c6s."

ypd/u,/u,a,

K %^/xrou
/d(rots
\

eKV\i<re
iriova.

rpb-mV

|

(parl
|

yap

d>s

"'lepwi/ 'lepo/cX^os 'EXXdSt Trdcra

5wpo06po^

2t/ceXtas

(T/caTTToOxos 6

yXavK&v (rA^a T65e poQlwv.
the

A

certain

Archimedes

is

dXXd, H6<rei5ov, crcDfe Kara the author of the epigram in
/

Anthology,

vii.

50,

the

manuscript distinctly naming 'Apxi u?75oi;s, though

editors have printed this as 'Apxi/^Xou to
is

match the name

in Athenaeos.

Nothing
6d\a<rffav

known
74

of this Archimelos.
v.

Athenseos,
riTT]ffLS TJV,

40,

o?s

e irepl

rbv KaSe\KV<riJibv avrov rbv
fJibvos

eis

rr\v

iro\\rt

'Apx^Tj^T/s 6 //.77x<m/c6s
'e\iKa,

avrb Karrjyaye

di

b\iyuv ffw^druv.
jrpuiros

Kara&Kevdaas yap
'

rb rr)\iKovTOv (T/cd0os

els rr\v

6d\aaaav Karyyaye.
Kal
5et%al

5'

ApxifjLrjdris evpe rr\v rrjs ^Xt/cos KaraffKevrjv.

Plutarch, Marcellus, 14, davfjidaavros
Trp6j3\r}/j.a

dt rov 'I^pwi'os /cat

deydfrros

ets

Zpyov ei-ayayew rb

n

r&v
Trbv(f

jj.eyd\uv Kivotipevov virb

cr/ii/cpas

dwduews, b\Kdda

rpi.dpfj.evov

r&v

/3ao"iXt/ccDf

fteydXy Kal
Kal rbv
X^'pi fftiwv

% et

/

ToXXf

vew\Kr]de'i<Taj>, e/uLpd\uv ('Apxt/x^S^s)
Ka6r//j,evos,

dvOpuirovs re 7roXXoi)s

crvvrjdri

(poprov, avrbs airwdev

ov

fj-era

ffirovoris

dXXd

r/pt/j,a

r-fj

dpx^v riva Tro\va7rd<rTov, irpo<rriydyero Xetws Kal dirraiarus Kal ucnrep
eKirXayels oSv b
54.
/SacriXei/s,

did 6a\drrr)s e-mdeovvav.
rpidpfj-evos,

/c.T.X.

For the meaning of

see note 124
cf.
it

on p.

The term

Tro\iL)(nraffrov

denotes a combination of
?Xt

ropes and pulleys,

Vitruvius, x. 2. ro:

and the term

may

well denote the

same machine,

for

conveys the notion of some sort of twisting, and the ropes

AND OTHER
that the ship
dilates

SHIPS OF HIGH TONNAGE.
size
74
.

29

was of abnormal

And

then Moschion

upon the luxury of the cabins and the baths and the covered walks on deck, shaded by vines and whole gardens of while Suetonius describes the very same >lants in pots
;

lisplay of

luxury on board Caligula's yachts

:

and Caligula
75
.

the

emperor who

built the great ship for the obelisk

'hus, in all probability, Moschion has blended some of the iracteristics of that great ship and those luxurious yachts a vessel of ideal size and splendour; and then endeavoured

lat

give reality to his idea by associating Hieron sent to Ptolemy.

it

with some vessel

Caligula perhaps was rivalled or surpassed in shipbuildbut there is no proof of this. ig by some of his successors was built by Constantine for the Lateran great ship
:

>belisk,
.1

the largest obelisk of all, and weighs between and 442 tons 76 but the Vatican obelisk came over with

which

is

:

Archimedes' screw was termed KoxXt'as, and here twisted round the pulleys. has nothing to do with this 2Xt. The story is subsequently told by obviously
roclos, in
j%i/ji.'r]8ovs,

Euclidem,
6're TTJV

p. 18, olov

5r?

Kal "lepwv 6 ZvpaKofatos etireiv \tyerai irepl

rpidpfj-evov /caretr/ce^ao'e vavv,

yv irapeffKtvafcTO

iriinrf.iv

IlToXe-

(3acri\ei
,

iravTuv yap aiJ.a ^vpaKoval^v e\Kvvai. rr\v vavv Alyvwrltpi 'ApxiyU/jJS^s rbv 'lepajva [j.6vov avrrjv Karayayew eirolycrev. KaTawXayeis

ry

s,
!>6s,

K.r.X.

And

yu.'^xai'T/TTjs

e/cetj>os,

108, 6 'Apx^^s 6 again by Tzetzes, chiliades, ii. 103 r yevei Supa/coi/(Ttos fjv, ytpdov yeufi^Tprfs, XP& VOV S T
|
| |

Kal irivre wapeXa^vuv,
rrj

oaris eipy6.aa.TO TroXXas
Kal
fJ.6vy
|

(J/TIXO-VLKO.^

dvvd[j.eis,

|

Tpi<nrd(rTi{}

fj.rjx

-^ X

L

P'-

Xcu

TrevTefJ.vpLOp.e8iiJ.vov

K0.6ei\KV<rev

There
ic. 75
>

is

a variant

e-rrTafj.vpLo/j.edi.fJi.voi'

for 7TVTe/j.vpiofjidL/jLvov in the last

Suetonius, Caligula, 37, and Athenaeos,

v. 41,

42, both quoted in note 133

on

58, 5976

Ammianus,

xvii. 4.

13,

quo

(obettsco)

convecto

per alveum Nili^ proiectoque
est,

llexandri<z, navis amplitudinis antehac inusitatcz cedificata
ligibus agitanda.
14,

stib trecentis re-

quibus

ita provisis,

digressoque vita principe memorato

Constantino},
laria fluentaque

urgens effectus intepuit : tandemque sero impositus navi per Tybridis, vehit paventis ne quod pane ignotus miserat Nilus,

parum
tus,
le

llexandri, tertio lapide ab tirbe seittnctum

sub meatus sui discrimine mcenibus alumnis inferret, defertur in vicum ; unde chamulcis impositus, tractusqtie

oars must have been auxiliary

per Ostiensem portam pisdnamqiie publicam Circo illatits est Maximo. for three hundred rowers would see p. 20

little service in propelling a ship of that size. According to Fontana, trasportatione dell' obelisco Vaticano, p. 70, the Lateran obelisk weighs and a ton contains about 2,996 Ibs. of this measure. The existing [,322,938 Ibs.

ive

been of

blla

:

lestal

was constructed by Fontana

in 1588.

30
its

THE TONNAGE OF THE WAR-SHIPS.
pedestal, whereas this

and Caligula's ship thu< took a heavier load than Constantine's. The merchant^] had none
;

it /

employed as transports with Justinian's fleet in 533 A.D. must have carried from 1 20 to 200 tons apiece, and not from 1 20 t(
Thei 2,000, as stated in the current reading of Procopios. were five hundred of them; and if they carried 160 torn

upon the average, they carried 80,000 tons altogether, an< thus afforded ample transport for an army of only sixteei thousand men whereas the army would have had far mon
:

transport than

it

needed,

if

the largest of the ships

ha(

carried 2,000 tons apiece",

-v^

War-ships were relatively of very little burden for the] were not meant to keep the sea, and consequently had hardb anything to carry except their crew. Thus the Tiber was still navigable as far as Rome for ten-banked war-ships at a tim< when any merchant-ship carrying more than three thousan< 78 talents was compelled to anchor at the mouth Therefore, unless war-ships were relatively of lighter draught th;
;
.

iV airroij Kal rty ts Procopios, de bello Vandalico, i. u, -fjd-r] d arparelav ev irapacKevrj el^e, 7reot)s /mev ffrparubras fj.vptovs, linreas 5 airro?s "EpoiAc XtXfoi'S K re <rrpartwr&t> Kal (poiSepdruv ^vvei\eyiJ,evov^...e'iirovro 5 tf/z//,axoi f3dp[3apoi ea/c6<rtot /xdXtcrra etc rov ^/[aaffayerCov edvoi TerpaK6ffioi, Kal

77

t7r7roTo6rcu irdi>T5...va.vs d

r/

^fj.irao'a crrparta TrevraKocrtas
<ppeii> ol'a re yv, ov

ij'ye,

Kal atirCov ovde/mla

TT\OV

rj

Kara

fjivptddas Trtvre

fjt.edifj.vajj>

/j,rjv

ovd

ZXaavov

17

Kara

rptax^ovs. vavrai 5 diff/jujpioi eireTrXeov airacrats. A great number of these sailors must have been employed as rowers on the war-ships: see note 45 on p. 17. As the medimnos was primarily a measure for corn, the load was probably about 90 Ibs. for every medimnos for a medimnos was equivalent to two cubic feet, and
:

the weight would be about 45 Ibs. for every cubic foot, since corn weighs rather more than 49 Ibs. per cubic English foot. The emendation is necessarily x'^'^as
for ftvpidSas.
78

Dionysios of Halicarnassos,
Kal TU>V
/JitxP 1-

iii.

44, al /jv o$v eiriKuiroi

vrjes

OTT^XI'KCU TTOT'

&v

oucrcu rtixuffi,

6\Kddw
T

al

^xpi

rpi(rxtX<o06/)ajj', dcrdyov<ri
pt/uiacri

re Sia rou

(7T6/tTos avrov Kal
al d
ftelfovs irpb

W

'Pci^s dpecria Kal

irapeXKb^vai.

Ko^ovraL

'

rov

<Tr6fJ.aros eir'

dyKvpwv

<ra\ei5oi(rai rats TroTa/i^yots airoye[j.iovral

re Kal dvTKpoprifovraL
at his history,
afloat,

as

(7/cd,0ats. Dionysios was at Rome from 30 to 8 B.C., working and ten-banked ships presumably were the largest war-ships then they were the largest that fought at Actium in 31 B.C.: see note 54

on

p. 21.
79

Thucydides,

iv.

118, citing the treaty of

423

B.C., AaKedai/Aoviovs Kal rot)s

j-vjj,fj.dxovs TrXetV /AT; /*a/c/3$ vrji,

dXXy

8

K^Trr/pet rrXotip es TrevraKlxna

rd\avra ayovri

THE TIMBER FOR SHIP-BUILDING.

31

merchant-ships on account of some difference in design, a war-ship of ten banks did not carry more than three thousand and that would be the weight of a crew of talents, or 75 tons
;

men, weighing twelve stone apiece upon the At this rate a war-ship of three banks, with a crew average. of two hundred men, carried only six hundred talents, or 15 and in a treaty concluded at a time when war-ships >ns
a thousand
:

normally of three banks, a prohibition against war-ships backed by a prohibition against any other ships propelled oars, if they carried more than five hundred talents
;

parently, just to preclude the construction of vessels that 79 >uld be converted into war-ships on emergency
.

The

hull,

as

a whole, generally was built of pine on
,

""

^~**<

erchant-ships and fir on war-ships; though pine and cypress and cedar were also used for war-ships, the practice varying /
in different districts

!

that they produced with especial care 81
!0

80
.

according to the nature of the timber The timber for the keels was selected
All the larger merchant-ships had keels

.

I

Theophrastos, historia plantarum, v. 7. i, ^Xdrrj ntv ovv Kal treti/cr] Kal ws dTrXws elireiv, vavTnjy^ffi/JLa. rds ^ev yap rpir/peis Kal ra ftaKpa 7rXo?a e\a.TLi> irotovo'i dia Kov<p6TT)Ta, ra 5 <rrpoyyti\a TretiKiva 8ia rb affaires Zvioi d Kal
KtSpOS

rds

rpnfjpeis dia

rb

/Ji-rj

einropeiv
ol

Adr^s.

oi

5

Kara 2vplav Kal QoivlKyv

K K^Spov

ffiravl^ovffi

yap Kal

ir&jKrjs.

5' ev K^TT/JC^ Trtrvos' ratinjv

yap

17

VTJCTOS

x ei

>

Ka-i

8oKi KpeirTUv elvai TTJS TreijK'rjs. Plutarch, qusestiones convivales, v. 3. r, ov ^v dXXd /car' Idtav ry Ho(rei5<3in (frai-r) TIS av TTJV TTLTVV wpoff^Ketv dia rds vav-rryylas
Kal

yap

avrrj Kal

ra

TrXotyttcirara,

/c.r.X.

ra d5eX0d dtvdpa, TreG/cai Kal <rrp6jStXoi, rCav re ^{i\wv This <rrp6/3tXoj is presumably the tibulus which

iny mentions as a species of the pinus silvestris growing in Italy, and used there Plato, leges, p. 705 c, ri 8 drf; shipbuilding, xvi. 17, Iiburnicarj4m ad usus.
Trr)yr)<rlfj.7]S

v\rjs 6 TO'TTOS i]fui>

r^s

x^P as ^us x

i
'>

^ K ^ffTtv otire rts eXdr?;
iv.

X67ou

34, ex cttpresso igitur et imt domestica sive silvestri et abiete pracipue liburna contexitur.

a

otir

a5

7retf/O7,

KvirdpiTT6s re ov TroXXr/.

Vegetius,

81

Theophrastos, historia plantarum,
tva.

v. 7. 2, TTJV 5e

rpbinv

Tpirjpei

ptv dpvlvrjv

dvr^xv
8t

irpbs

rds veuXKias,

rat's

5^ b\Ka<n irevKlvrjv

btroTidta(ri 5' ?rt Kal

dpvivyv iirav j'ewX/cwo't
cf.

ra?s 8k eXdrrocrti' d^vivrjv Kal 6'Xws
iraffa'

K roirrou ro
8a<j)vi]v

v.

8.

3,

i]

TUV Aarlvwv ^0u5pos rpbirw
5^

Kal

ij

ptv

TreSeivT]

pvpoivovi Kal 6^6rjv davfJLaaTrjv, TrjXiKavra

yap rd

,1177/07

T^/j,vovfft

U>OT

elvai

TUV IvfiprjviSuv

v-jrb

rr)v

77

6peii>Tj

irevKyv Kal Adr^i/.

In the former

passage Theophrastos says that the x^cr/uct was usually of beech, and in the latter he speaks of beech-wood virb rty rpbiriv so these passages may justify the assertion of Pollux, i. 86, rb 5' inrb rty rpbirw TeXevTatov TrpoyrjKo^fjLfvov^ roO JJLT)
:

rr\v rpbiriv, xAiytr/xa /caXeirai.

32

THE VARIOUS KINDS OF TIMBER

of pirier-but were provided with false-keels of oak, if they were going to be hauled up ashore or set upon one of those ship-tramways which ran from sea to sea at Corinth and some other places and the war-ships always had keels of oak, as they used to be hauled up ashore almost every day. and Ships of any size generally had false-keels of beech the keel itself was made of beech in smaller vessels. Pine
;
;

82

'

Theophrastos, historia plantarum,

v.

7.

3,

TJ

de
-

ropveia rots

fj.ev

ylverai avKa/Jiivov, /ieXi'as, TrreX^as, irXardvov y\ia"%pb 1"n Ta yap fyeiv Bet Kal iaytiv. rcus de Tprfpeffiv evioi Kal Trirvtvas 77 rrjs ir\ardvov' ra%i) yap cr^Trerat.
vaL did rb e\a<f>p6v.

rb de crrep^w/xa, irpbs
1

y

rb x^Xua/ia Kal rds ^Trwrt'Sas,
elvai. v. 7. 5,

yiteXtas

avKaplvov Kal TrreX^as

lax v P a 7<V

dei

ravr

(piXvpa 8e irpbs

ra

The
sort of backing.

note for %Aw/u.cc, and note 141 on p. 62 for oaviduna must be some sort of planking, and the arep^^a. some
ir\oiwv.

See

last

The ropveia would be timber cut to shape by carpenters but possibly i) d ropvela should be read TJ 5' evrepbveia, cf. Aristophanes, equites, 1185, eis ras Tpir/peis evrephveia, Livy xxviii. 45, interamenta naviiim. Plato, leges, p. 705 C, irlrvv T ct5 Kal ir\a,TO.vov 6\iyr)v av evpot rtj, ofs 5^ Trpbs TO, &TOS rCov
;

jrXoiuv

fJ.pir)

avayKalov roi? vavirtiyoLS xpTJadai
iv.

e/cdcrrore.

Theophrastos, historia
sc.

plantarum,
aKdvdri.

2.

8,

Kal tv rats vavirriyiaL^ xptovTai irpbs ra eyKoiXia atiry,

Theophrastos is describing the Egyptian acacia, or mimosa: and Herodotos, ii. 96, remarks that the trading-vessels on the Nile were built entirely For eyKoL\ta see note 95 on p. 39. of this.
83

Iliad, xvi.

482
oO'pecri

484,

Ijpiire 5',

u>s

ore TIS 8pvs
\

rfpi-irev,

T)

d%epa?i's,

|

rj

TTi'ri/j

fiXwdp-f),

rty

T

Throve* avdpes
T' atyeipds

e^ra/Jiov ire\tK(crffi verjKeffi, vfjiov

elvai.

Odyssey,
7TpiK7)\a,

v. 239, 240,

K\-rj9p-r]

T, d\drr) T

fjv

ovpavofj.'/iK'rjs,

ova
\

TrdXat,

ra ol TrXuocev Aa^pws. Thus, besides pine and fir, there are here two kinds of poplar, d%e/3ws and atyeipos, and also oak and alder. Alder was so generally employed for shipbuilding in Italy that the Roman poets use alnus like
abies

fluvii sensere cavatas,

Virgil, georgics, i. 136, tune alnos primum 451, torrentem ttndam levis innatat almis, cf. yEneid, viii. 91, abies, x. 206, Lucan, iii. 520, emeritas repetunt navalibtis alnos. pinus. But they do not use quercus in this sense. Silius, xii. 522, transmittunt alno vada.
to denote a ship.
ii.

and pinus

Valerius Flaccus, v. 66, is referring to the piece of Dodona oak in the bows of the Argo. Theophrastos, historia plantarum, v. 4. 3, 5o/ce? yap (8pvs) 6'Xws affaires flvai di' 5 Kal els TOI)S 7rora/xoi)s Kal els ras \iuvas eK TOVTWV ev de rfj vavTryyovcriv
'

iii.

But sea-going ships are described by Csesar, de bello Gallico, ex robore ad quamvis vim et contiimeliam perferendam : and Strabo here translates ex robore by dpvivTjs vXrjs, iv. 4. i. These ships, however, were peculiar to the Bay of Biscay. Claudian names beech with alder as a wood for shipbuilding, de raptu Proserpinae, iii. 365, J'ago>s metitur et alnos : but
dakdrrri (njVerai.
13,

naves

totce factcz

the beech, like the oak, probably was wanted for the keel.
historia plantarum, iv. 2. 6,
tfXcw
5<:

Theophrastos,
r

(/3aXdj/oi>)

Kal ds TOLS vaviryytas.

Theophrastos

is

lax^pov Kal els &\\a re xP n ffi fJLOV describing the Egyptian moringa, the tree

that produces oil of ben.

EMPLOYED IN SHIP-BUILDING.

33

and plane, elm and ash, mulberry and lime and acacia, were 82 And alder and employed in the interior of the hull and the timber of a balsam-tree are also named among poplar 83 But in some the kinds of wood in use in shipbuilding outlandish districts the sides of the ships were formed of 84 The masts and yards were made ^'leather instead of wood and so also were the oars 85 f fir, or else of pine
all
. . .

;

.

84

Caesar, de bello civili,

i.

54, imperat militibus

Casar ut naves faciant, cuius
carina

eum
tumina

superioribus annis usus Britannia

docuerat.

primum

ac

levi

materia fiebant:

Us integebatur.

Lucan,
sic

iv.

reliquum corpus navium viminibus contextum 135, primum cana salix madefacto vimine 131
\

im
|

texitur in puppim, casoque inducta iuvenco

itat

amnem.
vii.

Pliny,

vectoris patiens tumidum Venetus stagnante Pado, fusoque Britannus navigat vitiles corio 57, etiam nunc in Britannico oceano (naves}
\ \

cumsuta fiunt.
v<$ TrX^oj/ras

Dion

Cassius,

xlviii.

18,

depudnva

TrXotct

/card rous
Koti(pais

iv

r<

iKTroiijcrai ^Trexet'pTjo'ei',

frdodev

uv

pd/35ots

aura

8ia\au^d-

a>0ev 5

irXotdpta fivpo-iva.

Xdptp.
vessels

cf. 19, dtpua uubv Is dvirLdos /cu/cXorepoCs rpbtrov irepiretvuv. Antiphilos, in the Anthology, ix. 306, v\or6uoi irafoacrQe ve&v oiWri iretiKf) Ktuaros, dXX' -fjd-r] pivbs ^rirpoxdet. Strabo speaks of similar

/Sods

\

on the north coast of Spain,
19,
i.

iii.

3.

7,

dupdeplvois TrXofots,

and also

in the

Red

Sea, xvi. 4.

depuarivois TrXofots.

Herodotos describes the practice in

Assyria,

194, ^Tredv

yap voutas
rp6irov

Ire?)?

raubuevoi, TronycrwpTat, Trepireivovffi roirrotcrt

dupdtpas <TTeya<rTpi8as

Qwdev eSdfaos

rpoVoi', o^re Trp6uvr)v dTTOKplvovres otfre Trpyprjv
TrotTjcrai'Tes,

avvdyovres,

dXX'

dffiridos

KVK\OTepta

/c.r.X.

According to

Zosimos,
;re in
85

iii.

13, five

hundred vessels of

this sort

were

built for Julian's

campaign

363 A.D.
vii.

Iliad,

5,

6,

eirty

KeKauwffiv

Iv^ffTTjs

IXdrrfffiv

irbvrov
\

iyssey, xii.

171, 172,

ol 5' ^TT'

tperua

e6uevoi
|

\ftiKat.vov #5o

icophrastos, historia plantarum, v. 1.6, tan 5e Kal iroXtXoirov ij IXdrij Kaddirep TO Kp6uvov del yap %X i Tiva U7ro/cdrw roD <j)aivo/j.vov Kal K roiotiruv i] 0X77.
i

6 Kal rds /cwTras
.tpa5(riv,

^o^res
o

d(paipeiv Treipuitrai Kad' 2va Kal 6ua\(2s

'

lav

yap ourws
i]

i<rxvpbs

Kwire&v,

lav

8

TrapaXXd^wo't
^crrt

/cat

u^)

Karaviruffiv

yap
a. 76,
ilis

OUTOJS, e/ce^ws 5' d0atpeo"is.

5^ Kal /j.aKp6raTov
e/c

SC 3 Kal rds

/cepat'as

Kal roi^s Jo-rous

ha omnium arborum

altissima ac rectissima,

sc.

Tafoys irotov<nv. larix et abies.

Pliny,

navium

>m Pliny
urgit,

See also the passage quoted antennisque propter levitatem prafertur abies. in note 68 on p. 26. Odyssey, xv. 289, 290, lorbv 5' d\dnvov KoiXys
\

ro<rde ueo-bSuT)?

arr\ffa.v

delpavres.

Apuleius, metamorphoses,
695, 696,

xi.

16,

iam malus

pinus rotunda.
\

Lucan,
iii.

ii.

dum

iuga curvantur mali,
\

dumque

tua pinus

529 531, validaque triremes, quasque quater surgens tructi remigis ordo commovet, et plures qua mergunt aquore pimis. According Theophrastos, historia plantarum, iv. i. 2, 4, wood from chilly places was
erigitur.
\

See also Claudian, de :koned the best for yards and oars, but not for masts. iii. longaest, tumidis prabebit cornua veils: qua iptu Proserpinae, 367 369, qua
\

'is,

malopotior:

qttce lenta,

favebit

\

remigio.

T.

C

34

DRYING THE WOOD, CALKING THE SEAMS,

The timber
it

for ships never
stiff

was seasoned thoroughly,

as

then became too

to bend into

me

needful shapes

:

but,

it was allowed some while for drying after it was and then for settling after it was built into a ship for otherwise the seams were likely to expand considerably and admit the water 86 The seams were calked by filling them with tow and other packing 87 and fixing this with wax or tar and the whole of the outer planking was protected with a coat of tar

as a rule,
felled,

;

.

,

:

86

Theophrastos, historia plantarum,
Kparia-rrj, eav

v.

7. 4,

reKroviKrj

ph

ovv

i]

TraXcuordrij

(tfX?;)

%

affaires' etffleret

yap ws
'

eliretv ira<n

xPV ff 6 a <"
K0\\7]<nv

vavn-yyiKfi de
r/

did

T7]v

Kan^LV

evt,Kfj.orepa

dvayKaiov

eVet

Trpos

ye

TTJV

^tjpore'pa

(rvfj.^e'pei.
avfj.fji.ijeL

t'0-rarat

yap Kaivd rd
yurj

vavTryyoti/jieva

Kal orav ffv/jurayfi Kade\Kvadevra
oft

Kal areyei irXty edv

iravrdiraaiv e^LK^aad^' rbre de

6Yxercu K6\\7]<nv

%

oi>x O/AO/WS.

Plutarch, de fortuna

Romanorum,

9,

yevopevriv 8e (vavi>) arrival Set

Kal Trayrjvai a^uf^fJierpov xpbvov, ^ws 01 re dea/Jioi /cdro^ot ytvuvrai Kal (rvvrjdeiav ot
y6/j.(poi

\dj3(i)ffiv

eav 5e vypols ZTI Kal TrepioXiadalvovo'i rots

apfj.ois

Karao'Trao'drj t

Vegetius, iv. 36, illud etiam cavendum ne continuo, ut deiectce fuerint, trades secentur vet statim, ut sectcz ftierint, mittantur in navem ; siquidem et adhuc solids arbores et iam divisce per
tabulas duplices

iravra xaXdaei faanva-xQevra Kal deerai TT\V QtiKarrav.

ad maiorem

siccitatem

mereantur indutias.

nam qua
et

virides

compinguntur,
latiores.

cum nativum umorem

exudaverint, contrahuntur

rimas faciunt

Thus, the notion was that the timber ought to be moderately dry, Zyporepa, ad maiorem siccitatem, but not completely dry, fj.7)
,

87 This line is Iliad, ii. 135, Kal 5?? dovpa ffe'<rr)Tre ve&v Kal airapra \e\vvrai. noticed by Pliny, xxiv. 40, nondum enim fuisse Africanum vel Hispanum spa^im in usu, certum est: et cum sutiles fierent naves, lino tamen non sparto unquam sutas. And also by Varro, apud Aulum Gellium, xvii. 3, in Grczcia sparti copia

modo
naves

ccepit esse

loris suebant,

ex Hispania: neque ea ipsa facilitate usi Liburni, set hi plerasque Graci magis cannabo et stiippa ceterisque sativis rebus, a q^^^bus

fftrapTa appellabant.

At Portus near

the

mouth of

calkers entitled splendidissimum
vol. xiv, no. 44.
^i5j8\y, sc.
ot

corpus stuppatorum'. see Corp.

the Tiber there was a guild of Inscr. Latin.

Herodotos,

MytiTTTLoi.

ii. 96, &rw0ej> 5e" rots apuovlas ev wv e-jraKTUirav ry Pliny, xvi. 64, ubi lignosiore callo (arundo) induruit,

sicut in Belgis, contusa et interiecta

navium commissuris ferruminat
Strabo,
iv.

textus, glutino
<rvvdyov<rt
rots

tenacior,

rimisque explendis fidelior pice.

4.

i,

01)

apftovias T<2v <ravL8uv, dXX' dpat.wfji.ara /caraXe^rroucri

ravra de

fipvois diavdrTovvi.

This
88

refers to the ships in the

Bay of Biscay.
taw6ev Kal e^wOev
:

Genesis,

vi.

14, Kal dcr^aXrwcreis a^rr/i/ (rrfv Kifiurbv)

rrj

do-0dXry.

Hipponax, Fr.

50,

apud Harpocrationem,

s.

v. p.d\dtj

eVetra

/j.d\0ri

This /xdX^ was rr,v rpbinv Trapaxptvas, cf. Virgil, ^Eneid, iv. 398, uncta carina. asphalte: see Pliny, ii. 108, in Commagenes urbe Samosatis stagnum est, emittens

limum (maltham

vacant) fiagrantem. Pliny, xvi. 21, pix liquida in Europa e tceda coquitur navalibus muniendis, 23, non omittendum, apud eosdem zopissam vocari derasam navibus maritimis picem cum cera. cf. Arrian, periplus, 5, Kal 6 K-rjpos

AND TARRING OR PAINTING THE
r

SIDES.

35

wax
fire

or both together
it

88
.

The wax had

to be melted over

a

enough to be laid on with a brush; d usually some paint was melted with the wax, so that the hip received a coat of colour in encaustic. Pliny states that
until

was

soft

seven kinds of paint were used in this way, a purple, a violet, a blue, two whites, a yellow and a green and UFalater date there was a paint which matched the colour of the waves 89
;
.

his

was selected

for vessels
i.

employed
tibi,

in reconnoitring or
\

::

i;v<rQr}.

Valerius Flaccus,
\

478

480, sors

ne qua

parte trahat taciturn

puppis mare, fissaque fluctu
tamorphoses,
xi.

vel pice vel molli conducere vulnera cera.
\

Ovid,

514,

515, spoliataque tegmine cerce

rima

patet, prabetque

letalibus undis.
a<pt5iov

Lucian, dialogi mortuorum,

4, Kal Krjp6v,
3.

ws tirnr\d<rai TOV
i,
TTI'TTTJS

ra

avLpyt)T(i.

Plutarch, quaestiones convivales, v.

re Kal

&vev rwv crvfj-Tray^ruv 6'0eXos otidev ev TT} 6a\aTT7]. Vegetius, 44, unctasque cera et pice et resina tabulas, sc. navium. Porphyrogenitos, de cseriXoKprji', r)$
niis,
i. 1

ii.

45,

56drj virep /caXa0aT77<rea>s
vrjas

ruv avrCjv
T\V

ta

'

Kapafiiwv

\y,

cf.

Zonaras,

89

avrf 6 Trarrip, sc. 6 KaXa0d,r?;s. Pliny, xxxv. 41, encausto pingendi duo fuisse antiquitus genera constat,
8,

T&V yap r&s

KaraTTiTTOijvTuv

donee classes pingi ccepere : hoc tertium accessit, resolutis igni ceris penicillo utendi, This must mean quce pictura in navibus nee sole nee sale ventisque corrumpitur.
that the

ships
Pliny,

new process was introduced when encaustic was first employed in painting when ships first were painted, for that was in the earliest times. xxxv. 31, cerce tinguntur iisdem his coloribus ad eas picturas quce inuruntur,
not

alieno parietibus genere sed classibus familiari, iam vero et onerariis navibus, these colours being purpurissum, indicum, cceruleum, melinum, auripigmentum, appia-

num

and cerussa.

The purpurissum was a shade

blue; while the indicum was

some colour between blue and

of purple, and the ccsruleum was purple, xxxv. 27, in

diluendo

mixturam purpurcz caruleique mirabilem reddit. The melimtm is deibed as candidurn in xxxv. 19, and classed as album in xxxv. 32; so this was ite. The auripigmentum was presumably a shade of orange. The appianum
a shade of green, xxxv. 29, viride
ite-lead,

qtwd appianum vocatur.

The

ceriissa

was

xxxv. 19, est et colos tertius e candidis, cerussa, cuius rationem in mbi metallis diximus. fuit et terra per se in Theodoti fundo inventa Smyrna, qua veteres ad navium picturas utebantiir. nunc omnis ex plumbo et aceto fit, nt

diximus.

known

But Vitruvius, vii. 7. 4, says that this terra was creta viridis, and was as theodotium, while Pliny, xxxv. 29, says that creta viridis was used for

appianum.

Vegetius, iv. 37, ne tamen exploratoria naves candore prodantur, reveneto, qui marinis est fliictibus similis, vela tinguntur et funes ; cera etiam,

ungere solent naves, inficitur.

cf.

Philostratos, imagines,

i.

18, y\avicois

ph

aTrrat xpw/^acrt, sc. vavs X^a-rpt/c??.

Corp. Inscr. Attic, vol.
ertpa iv

ii,

no. 807, col. b,
'

114

118,
'

UTraXo0^

& <f>idaKvly ^\CLLVO.'
Svoiv \evK-/j.
1.

a^.<popei [j,t\aiva

<f>idaKvli{)

h
1.

afji(popevffi

These paints were
v.

for the ships

ertpa Xewrfy see no.
:

col. e,

156, col.

f,

4.

Polysenos,

34,

Nkow

2</uos

Ku/Se/wTjrTjs,

Tjalov Tpi-fjpuv TroXe^ifwv 6pfJ.ovcrG}v, j8ouX6/*ei'OS TrapaTrXei^aas

\adf1v, TTJV aKoupty r^s

avroO

i/ews 6fj.oiav

Karaxpivas TCUS

7roXe/ifats Tptrjpeffi, ^TrXei K.T.\.

C

2,

36

DECORATIVE PAINTING ON THE HULL.

But the encaustic was piracy, to keep them out of sight. often put to a better use than merely giving the ship a coat
of colour; and elaborate designs were painted all along the sides, with great groups olHigures at the ends, especially at 90 the stern Such groups may be seen on the sterns of the Greek ships of about 200 B.C. in fg. 24 and the Roman ship
.

of about 200 A.D. in

fg.

29.

The

earliest

Greek ships had

only patches of colour on the bows, blue or purple or veryap efyev (77 vavs) OVK Adrrw 5c65e/ca Tr-rjx^v Kara re Kal irpypav, Kal Tras rbiros atirijs Kypoypafila /caTeTreTroiKiXro, rb 5' airav /u.^xpi TT)S Tp6?rews Kiffffivrjv (fiv\\dda Kal 6vp<rovs el%e 7r^/)<. 42, ^ 5e vavs iracra oineiais ypa<pai$ eTreirbvfjTo, where olicelais denotes encaustic, the genus
90

Athenseos, v. 37, fwa

ph

constitit
|

dassibus familiare of Pliny, xxxv. 31 see last note. Valerius Flaccus, i. 127 ff, ut longo moles non pervia ponto puppis, et ut temtes subiere latentia cer& lumina, picturce varies superaddit honores. hie..., 140, parte alia ...... ,
:
| |

On one side, Thetis is riding on a dolphin describing in detail two large groups. towards the home of Peleus. Three of the Nereids are following her; and In front of Galatea, the last of these, is beckoned back to Sicily by Polyphemos.
is seen again at a banquet of the sea-gods. playing to them on the lyre. On the other side, the Peleus and his centaurs have broken loose at the marriage-feast of Hippodameia. comrades keep them off with sword and spear. The monsters wield fire-brands

Thetis

is

the

home

of Peleus, where she
is

The

centaur Cheiron

and use

their hoofs
i.

;

but one

is still

Horace, odes,
1 6.

14. 14, 15, nil pictis
\

275, 276, picta coloribus ustis

in his cups and another is galloping away. timidus navita puppibus \fidit. Ovid, fasti, iv. ccelestum matrem concava puppis habet, heroides,

112

114, accipit et pictos puppis
\

adunca

decs.
\

qua tamen
tristia,
i.

ipse vehor, comitata
4. 7,
8,

Cupidine parvo

sponsor coniugii stat dea picta sui,
\

monte nee

insilit, et pictos verberat unda deos. Persius, vi. inferior prorce puppique recurva 30, ingentes de puppe dei. Propertius, iv. 6. 49, vehunt prorce Centauros saxa

minantes.

Lucian, navigium,

5,

rrjv

eTrtbvvfAov

r^s vews

6cbv

^oucra rty *\GLV

These last passages, however, may perhaps refer to eKartpudev, sc. 17 Trpypa. On the other hand, several of the passages quoted carvings: see note 148 on p. 65. in that note probably refer to paintings. Aristophanes, ranse, 932, Aibwcros:
rbv %ovdbv
rats
vava-lv,

iinrd\KTpv6va fyruv,
upadtffTaT,

rls

ecrrtv

opvis.

933>
is

AiV%i;Xos:
to

0"r)[j,e'iov

iv

tveytypairTo.

The

allusion

the

verses

quoted
\

from yEschylos by the scholiast, in pacem, 1177, airb 5' aure %ovdbs linraXeKTpvuv The reading is corrupt: but icrjpbdev ffrdfct K-rjpbdev T&V <pap/^aKcov TTO\VS ir6vos. suggests a word akin to Kypbs, and the sense is obviously that the picture melted
off in drops while the vessel

of encaustic on a ship.
oprixave,
fjLrjK^Ti

was burning. That seems to be the earliest record Hipponax, Fr. 49, apud Tzetzen, in Lycophronem, 424,
ypd\{/ys
\

6(j>iv

rpnfipevs

iv iroXv^jytf)

rolxy

air
\

e/u.(36\ov

point of this appears to be that the painter meant to put a horizontal band of colour round the ship, but drew it so unsteadily that it twisted about like a snake. According to Pliny, xxxv. 36, there was a tale that Protogenes was once a painter of ships ; but the phrase naves pinxisse is ambiguous,
irpbs Kv^epvrjTrjv.

The

METAL SHEATHING ROUND THE HULL.

37

milion, the rest of the hull being black with tar; and possibly 91 the painting on the bows was not in wax Occasionally, the coats of wax or tar were replaced by a sheathing of leadrt,
.

outside the outer planking, some layers of tarred sail-cloth 92 jing interposed between the metal and the wood
.

The timbers
id

of a ship were held together

by wooden pegs^X
i

metal nails; and bronze was preferred to iron for the nails, 93 it was better able to resist the action of the water When
.

j

V

It was said that he id may refer to pictures on ships or pictures of ships. itroduced ships in the background in two of his masterpieces, ut appareret a

dbus

iniiiis

ad arcem
life

ostentationis opera sua pervenissent:

and

this suggests that

Such pictures were as a painter of rough pictures of ships. imably in great demand at a large sea-port like Rhodes, where Protogenes sided, for it was then the custom to dedicate pictures as thank-offerings for escape
had begun >m storm and shipwreck
91
:

see Cicero, de natura deorum,
pe'es

iii.

37.

Herodotos,

iii.

58,

TO de iraXaibv aTrcurcu al
Iliad,
ii.

Zaav /uXrTjXi^e'es.

The

637, that is to say, in the Catalogue, and once in the Odyssey, ix. 125; and the epithet (poiviKOTrdprjos occurs ace in the Odyssey, xi. 124, xxiii. 271: but utXaiva and Kvavdirpypos are the )rmal epithets in both the poems, so that TO Tra\ai6v cannot include the earliest
)ithet

/uXroTrdpTjos

occurs once in the

ies.

The

lyssey,

xiv. 308,

colour must have been confined to patches on the bows, for in the 311, a ship is first described as u\aiva and then as Kvav6iraprna

rpypos,

and the

would not be

far

from the 6(pda\pol and ffluwua, as to
vcws ev uyo-lv
2

rtrich see
92

note 147 on p. 65 and note 153 on p. 69.

Athenseos, v. 40, r6
de Kal TO,

uv

ovv

ijfjuirv

rou iravTos

TT?S

dpydaaTo,
TrepLeXau-

rcus eK uo\lf3ov TroiTj^eicrais Kepautinv del /ca#' 6 u/ero
cos

vavirrjyijOel'r)
a-rjffl

/ue'pos

\onrd

utpr) TTJS vews ev AXXois l

KaTecrKevd<rdr), Kal rots
ol
5'

^Aots Traaa irepieXytpdr],

wv

oi

iro\\ol

8eKa.fj.vooi r)<rav,

dXXot TOIJTWV
'

uot

'

did Tpvirdvuv d' rjcrav OVTOI

'rjpfji.oa'fj.e'voi,

roi)s

ffTauivas ffvv^x VT

^

uo\vj3dl-

Jthough Athenseos asserts here that sheathing was used on a ship belonging to or afterwards: [ieron, he may really be describing a practice of Caligula's time L. B. Alberti, de re sedificatoria, v. 12, ex navi Traiani per has 2 g. pp. 27 duni qua scripsimus commentarer ex lacu Nemorensi eruta (quo loci annos phis
r

lam
93

et destituta iacuerat] adverti pinum materiam et cupressum egi'egie in ea tabulis extrinsecus duplicem superextensam et pice atra perfiisam ex lino adglutinarant supraque id chartam plumbeam daviculis eneis coadfir-

demersa
'.:

tt.

This was written in 1485 A.D.
v. 248,
y6(jt.<poi.(ri.v

Odyssey,
laTo

5'

apa

T-fjv

ye Kal

dpuovlr)<riv

apaaaev.

361, o0p'

fj.ev

Kev SovpaT' ev dpuovlyffiv dpj}py.
yo/j.(pois
\

dovpaTa.

^pes

vXyovpyoi,
9,

ein^X^riv

Apollonios Rhodios, i. 369, 370, IV' eu ii. 79 81, w$ 5' ore vrjia dovpa Qoois dvrL^oa y6fj.<f>ois deLvwffi ff^prfffiv. Plutarch, de fortuna eXdovres,
\ |

lomanorum,
y,
c

uWep

yap

6X/cds

rj

viro TrXrjydv Kal fita? rptTjp^s vavir-rjye'iTat. pev

<r<pvpais

Kal ^'Xois

dpaffffo^evr]

Kal

you<t>d)/J.a(Ti

Kal
>

irpioffi
^'

.vop.evriv

8e (TTrjvai

del Kal irayrjvai

(fvp-^eTpov

XP OVOV

^ ws

re

SHIPS IN SECTIONS FOR TRANSPORT.
necessary, these fastenings were arranged in such a way that the ship could easily be divided into sections for transpoi and war-ships of three and four and five banks overland
;

were thus conveyed to distant waters, presumably
.

in thirty 01 sections apiece, since those of thirty oars used to b( forty 94 divided into three
/cat

ytvwvTa.1
66pei.

vvvrideiav

ol

ybn<poi \dfiu(nv.

cf.

^Eschylos, supplices, 846,

yo/m<j)o5t
tl tl

Thus, while the Beffpol are coupled with the y6y.<pot by Plutarch, with the yb^oi in the Odyssey, so the appovlai and ap/j.oi>lai are coupled
5e<r/j.ol

may be

the

same things under
as the
yb/j.<f)oi

different

names

:

cf.

Odyssey,

v. 33,

Tro\v8t<rfJi.ov.

And

certainly

were pegs, the

decrfjt-ol

or appoviai woul
tc
ii

Apparently 7<>/i0u>/ia<ri is equivalent naturally be the sockets for those pegs. and d/oyaocr^drwv to apfj.oviuv y6fji<pois in the passage just quoted from Plutarch,
In that pas Euripides, Helena, 411, Tpbiris 5' e\el<p6r) iroud\uv dpfj-oafj-dTuv. Plutarch mentions yXoi as well as y6fn<poi, and these were usually of metal Caesar, de bello Gallic Athenseos, v. 40, quoted in the last note, x a ^ K0 ^ *?Xoi.
:

iii.

13, transtra pedalibus in latitudinem trabibus confixa clavis ferreis digiti polli*

crassitudine.

genda

;

Vegetius, iv. 34, ritilius (liburna) cereis clavis quam ferreis confinquamlibet enim gravior aliquanto videatur expensa ; tamen, quia amplii*

durat, lucrum probatur afferre : nam ferreos clavos tepore et umore celeritcr robig See al consumit, <zrei autem etiam in fluctibus propriam substantiam servant.

Procopios, de bello Gothico,
historise,
94
iii.

iv.

22, quoted in note 97

on

p. 40,

and Taciti
rbv

47, quoted in the note
8,

on camara on

p.

107.
fj.v
IloXe/.
eirl

Arrian, anabasis, v.

raura ws gyvu 'A\^avdpos, Kotvov

KpdTovs 7r{fj.\l/as 6irt<r<i) iiri TOV 'Ivdbv 7rora/x6i', rd TrXota 6Va 7rape<r/cei5a(rro avrf TOV irbpov TOV 'Ivdov %vvTe/j,6vTa KeXevei fapeiv ws e?rl Tbv 'IbdcTr^v iroTa^v. Te rd 7rXo?a /cat eKO/micrd'r) avT<^, ova. /JLV j3paxvTepa 5t%^ 5ia.T[Jt,T)6frTa
'

KI

TP 1 XV

eTfj.rjdya'av, /cat

rd T/i^/iara eVl frevy&v
TO VO.VTIKOV avdis dy

bieKo/m.ia'Or]

CTT
1
.

tiri

''TSdffTTOv'

/cd/cet ^vfj.irrjxdfi'

6fJ.ov wcfidij

iv Tip'

According to Arrian, anabasis, vii. 19, already quoted in note 13 on p. 6, shi] of three and four and five banks were afterwards brought over from the Medi
terranean to the Euphrates for Alexander's
fleet.

See also Strabo,

xvi.

i.

i r,

ar

Quintus Curtius, x. i. 19, already quoted in that same note. The vessels on tl Indus are mentioned by Curtius, viii. 10. 2, iussitque ad Jlumen Indum precede
et

flumina superanda erant,
coniungi.
/iereTr^/x^aro 5
/cat

navigia facere, quis in ulteriora transportari posset exercitus. illi, quia plura sic iunxere naves ut sohita plaustris vehi possent rursusqt
All these devices are attributed to Semiramis by Diodoros,
vavirrjyovs
ii.

ii

K re 3>oivlKTjs

/cat*

Zupas

/cat

Kvwpov

/cat TT?S

&\\r]s ri

Trapa.da\aTTiov %wpas, ols a<f>dovov v\rjv /j.eTayayov<Ta diKe\vffa,TO /tara

Trord^ta TrXota Statperd.
irape<TKevdtTa,To Ka/j.r]\ov$

17, vavs 5e Trora/iias /care07cei;a<re Statperds 5t(rxtX/as, afj

Diodoros is quoting Treffi 7rapa/co/xtfoi5<ras rd ffKd^r). from Ctesias, and Ctesias lived before the time of Alexander; so these devices were customary in those regions. It is said that Nero tried to drown Agrippina by Suetonius, putting her on board a vessel that was to come to pieces on the voyage
rds
:

Nero, 34, solutilem navem.

But the project miscarried

:

Tacitus, annales, xiv.

5,

nee dissohitio navigii sequebatur.

THE KEEL AND
The
ribs
95
.

RIBS, STEM-POST, ETC.

39
/ /

keel and outer framework of the hull consisted of a ^/I
;

There was not any stern-post nor was there a stem- \V built to carry a ram. And thus in^x* >st, unless the ship was far-ships and merchant-ships alike the after part of the keef irved slowly upwards till it reached the level of the deck
;

/

in the
95

merchant-ships the fore part

made

a similar curve
\

costis

Ovid, heroides, 16. 109, \\Q, fundatura citas flectuntur robora naves, texitur panda carina suis. Procopios, de bello Gothico, iv. 22, % re yap rpbiris K irpvuitTjs &Kpas &xpi ts rrjv wpfpav Sir/Kei, Kara fipaxb utv ou<ra
eirl

ivuacrlus

rb KOL\OV U7roxw/>ou<rct, Kal av

ird\i.v

evdev8e Kara \6yov eu
es

ud\a

eirl

rb

re Kal 8t.arerap.evoi> eTraviovcra.

ra re Trax^a ^vuiravra %v\a
rbv erepov

TTJV rpdiriv
e/c

oadevra

airep ol uev iroi^ral Spuoxous Ka\ov<nf, erepoi. Se voueas
axpis

roixov

eKavrov darepov
jrved at
:urs in the

rrjs

veus

5i?J/cei
:

Totx OJ/<

Rome

as a relic of ^Eneas
xix. 574,

Odyssey,

ibs of
<ocri

a ship, 8pv6xovs ws.

where the axes are Also in Polybios, i. 38,

see note 55 on p. 21. set up in a long row like the avdis Zyvucav K rCov
0101* eve

This ship was The term Spvoxoi

Kal 8iaK6cria vavirriyelffdai ffKatpTj, in Plato, Timseos, p. 81 B,
;

id in similar passages

the notion being that a ship was altogether new, if the were new, as they formed the best part of the framework. The term voltes
ii.

is

employed by Herodotos,
%v\a'
vouevcrt

96,

irepl

ybpspovs TTVKVOVS Kal

//,a/c/>oi)s

irepieLpovci

ra

eireav

e rq> rpbTTip

rovrtp vavirtjyrjcrwvrai.,

vya

CTrtTroX^s

reivovcri

Se offiev

XP^TCU.

This seems to mean that the ribs (routes) were

^placed by trenails (y6u<poi) in these trading-vessels on the Nile, i.e. the timbers of the side were not nailed to vertical supports behind them, but were held together

by vertical supports which ran right through them. The term vo/zces is again applied to the ribs in the passage quoted from Herodotos in note 84 on p. 33 and in the passage quoted from Caesar in that note the ribs are termed statumina,
;

which answers
must be the

to <rraulves in Greek.
Troiei'
|

Odyssey,

v. 252, 253, iKpia 8e

<rr-r)<ras,

apapuv

6aue<ri (rrauiveo-cri,
ribs,

drap

uaKpfja-iv tirr)yK*i>i8<r<Tt reXetfra.

These

ora/itVes

which stand behind the timbers of the

side, eTr-rjyKevLSes,

and

And in the passage quoted in note 92 on p. 37 ipport the upper decking, fopia. thenaeos says incidentally that the skin and sheathing of the ship were nailed to
65.

ious re Kal

Athenaeos classes the <rraulves with eyKoi\ta and y6u<poi cf. v. 40, and these y6u(poi may be the trenails which eyKolXta Kal trrauivas
In translating from Theophrastos,
xiii. 19.
:

[erodotos describes as substitutes for ribs.
listoria
ire

Pliny renders eyKoiXia by costa, the ribs, this metaphor surviving from those times

plantarum,

iv. 2. 8,

And

the cosfcz

letaphorically the guts

but the tyKolXia were They are frrepdveta, interamenta, see note 82 on p. 32.

mtioned again by Strabo, xv.
fKoiXtots u-rjrpuv

actions,
lust

i. 15, KareffKevavuevas 5e (vavs) duforepwdev In the mediaeval galleys every pair of ribs was in three the matere in the middle and the stamenali at each end ; and these terms

x w pk-

be survivals of urjrpai and

ffrauives.

So,

if

a vessel had ffrauives or fyKoi\ia

/ithout uyrpai, each pair of ribs
ix. 5,

ex^TW Se Kal K

irepiffffov

made an acute angle at the keel. Leo, tactica, v\a nva eyKol\ia Kal aavLSas Kal crrvinrla Kal irlffcrav
for stopping

vypbTTiffffov.

These things apparently were meant

up holes

in

ship's side, the eyKoiXia being a makeshift for ribs to put

behind the planks.

40

STRUCTURE AND THICKNESS OF THE
.

SIDES.

towards the bows 98
planking
the beams
laid
97
.

The

upon the

ribs,

skin of the ships was formed and fastened through them

tc

This planking was seldom of any great thickness sometimes three inches, sometimes only two and a quartei

and rarely more than

five

and a quarter 98

.

But outside

th(

planking there usually were several waling-pieces, that is say, long strips of timber running horizontally round the shi] in the manner shewn in fgs. 20 to 23, 26 and 29, and knowi
accordingly as zosteres, or belts
96

99
.

The contour

of the earliest Greek ships

is

indicated by the epithets in
573, fiouv 6p6oKpaipdui>,

tl

Iliad, xviii. 3,

veuv dpdoKpaipduv, 338,

vrjval Kopuvlffi,

Theocritos, xxv. 151,

fowl

Kopuviffi.

And
5t

if

like a bull's horns, the

<rret/>7;

was simply the fore part of the

the ships curved upwards at the enc keel, not a separat
\

stem-post.
iotiffys.

Iliad,

i.

481, 482,

a^i
i.

Kvpa
527,

areipy iropcptpeov peydX' fo^e

vt

Apollonios Rhodios, dbpv deiov eX^Xaro, rb p dva
says
rj

525
\

IlTyXtas 'io-^v

'Apy6
2,

tv
TJp/J.offe

ydp

fjAGtrqv

aretpav 'AB^vaif) Awduvidos

Thus when Lucian
of
TT]V

TTJS

'Apyovs rpbiris e\d\7)(rev, somnium,

and

sj

'A/ryc6, TTJV

\d\ov
it

O.VTTJS rpbiriv,

de saltatione, 52, he implies that the k
Lucian, navigium,
\t\vi<JK.QV
eTrt/cet/x^?;,

curved upwards
irpvp.va

till

ended

in the figure-head.
/ca/ATrtfX?;

5,

u>s

ptv tiravtaT-riKev yptpa

x/oycrouv

That refers to dvdXoyov i) wp^pa virepfitfiriKev e's rb irpbau a.irofi'rjKvvo^vr). merchant-ship of about 150 A.D. and the contour seems there to be the same in the earliest Greek ships. Hence that curvature of the keels which is noted
d
:

in the passages quoted at the beginning of the last note. Bianor, in the Anthology, xi. 248, r/S?; ydp iuv diraaav tiri fvya yopQuQeiaav It was clearly the skin that was bolted to the 77Xet0oi' Trefoils rrj \nrapy voriSi.
97
\

Ovid and Procopios

beams, as

it

was the skin that received the coat of
/cat

tar.

Procopios, de bello Gothico,

iv. 22, <ravls re irpbs eirl TOTJTOLS e/cdtrr^ e* Trpvfj.vrjs

er^pav dpxnv, wvoeidijs ovca
6'?rws drj

K^vrpa

ffidTjpa
Trotet.

&Kpas & r^s ^7765 ^t/c^etrat TT)V TOTJTOV ^e/ca 7rpoa-Xa/3oO(ra (j,6vov,

rats doKois tvappoffdelffa rbv ro^xov

These

Soitoi

are presumably the
just defined

beams, though possibly they are the irax^a
see note 95
<ra/t's;

tfXa

which Procopios has

as dptioxoi, or ribs

:

cf.

Csesar,

confixa clavis ferreis.
98

de bello Gallico, iii. These trabes appear to be the timbers of the
i.

Athenseos, v. 44, TTWS 5e /caret 5pv6x&v eirdyr) 13, transtra pedalibus in latitudinem trabibus
side.
etvoa

Diogenes Laertios,

103,

/ta0o;j>

('A^axa/acrts)
roi>s

rrra/>as 5a/cri5Xous
cf.

TO

Traxos r^s veus, TOVOVTOV

Z(pr)

rod davdrov
\

58, 59, digitis a morte remotus

Juvenal, xii. Dion quattuor, aut septem, si sit latissima t&da.

TrX^o^ras aTr^xef.

Chrysostom, oratio 64,
OVTC rptddKTV\OV O.VTOVS
99

p. 594, ouSe
O-UJfei %ti\OV
i.

yap

7rrr?7 TT)V

ty\)~)(T]v

o^re (rxowtois eT

TTflJKiVOV.

Heliodoros, ^Ethiopica,

i,

6X/cas dirb irpv^v^ffl^v

u>/>/*ei,

rdv

TOVTO ydp yv (ru/i/SaXetj/ icai rots TToppudtv rb ydp axdos dxpi xal tirl rptrov i"w<rr^pos TTJS ve&s rb vd&p dvd\ifiev. These fa><rr?7pes can only be the waling-pieces which figure so prominently on the merchant-ships of that period in plate 6. There does not appear to be any earlier

OVTWV

x ?7/)e ^ ol;(ra

)

<pt>prov

5t

rr\ridov<ra'

nal

instance of this use of the term.

Later instances are

plentiful.

Manasses, 4876,

CABLES FOR STRENGTHENING THE SIDES.

it

On the war-ships the hull was strengthened externally by a of cables. These were known as hypozomata or girdles,
y ;

ind used to

be fastened round the ship horizontally the two ids of each cable being joined together, so as to make it a >mplete girdle extending from stem to stern along the
irboard side
100
.

>ide
>.

On
5,

4 and

and back from stern to stem along the port the Egyptian ships of about 1250 B.C., as in similar cables were stretched from stem to stern
101
:

>ver posts
177, eirl

amidship

but these clearly were intended to
\

V jScipos,
7,

teal

yap rplrov rfjs vrjbs T^S (popryyov faffrrjpa rrfv 6d\ao'(Tav aveO\ifie T&V where Zonaras says, xv. 25, (poprls fidpet rdov dywyl^wv trecpopTKrTheodores Prodromos, roi/ry /x^xpts effxdrov faffrrjpos Karate fiairTur ^vr).
et Dosicles, v. 444, 445,

lodanthe

K devrtpov faffrypos &xpi Ka

<-

rplrov

iri\oi.s
\

iTfffKira.ffro va<TTOit TTO-X^I-V.
)2
:

Unlike the others, these were war-ships,
to turn off missiles.

cf.

439,
5,

and the padding was meant
ry KOVcpbryTi

Anna Comnena,

vi.

rcu Se (al vijes)

ireTr6\aov olov rots voa<nv dve^/xepcu, ws ^176 &XP L

tvrepov ^waTTjpos roD vdaros <p6dvovros. The waling-pieces as oVX/iara in earlier times. Euripides, Cyclops, 503
Se daiTos
100
7J/377,
|

had perhaps been known
506, TrX^ws

y^v

otvov,

\

0-/CC100S,

6X/cds ws, ye/juaOels

\

TTOTI <rA/ia

yavrpos

d/cpas.

Athenjsos,
^%ofO'a^

v.

37,

rijv T<ro-apaKoi>Tr]pr)

vavv KQ.TtGKeba.vev 6 ^iXoTrdrwp, rb
Kat rpiaKOvra diro Trap68ov
8' j\v
eirl

cos

8(.a.Koai(j3V

dydorjKovra TTTJX&V,

6/crcb 5^

5oi',

Ci^os 5^ /c.r.X

U7rou>yuara 5e eXd^/3a^e 5w5e/ca' e^aKoalwv

eKacrTov

Each of these cables being 600 cubits in length, while the ship was 280 in and 38 in breadth, each one would just be long enough to pass once round These measurements may all be fictitious, for Athenship from stem to stern. but Callixenos presumably took the trouble to see is quoting from Callixenos
v.

th

:

i

measurements were consistent with each other, so the statement is admissible evidence that the girding-cables would have been of this length on a ship of these Some similar cables on a battering-ram are mentioned by the other lensions.
it

his

ithenseos, mechanica, p. 6, viro^vvvrai. 5e 6'Xos 6 Kpibs oVXois 6/cra5a/cruXots
8ia\afji.(3dveTai

rptcrt,

Kara

/j-etfov

e/c

rptwv StaXetyu/idrwj' dXtfawi TTTjxucUcus

:

and these

itements are repeated by Vitruvius, x. 15. 6, a capite autem ad imam calcem tigni crassitudine digitorum viil, ita religati quemadmodum itentifueruntfun.es

mi

ns a puppi ad proram continetur; eiusque pracinctura funes transversis erant This shews that the girding-cables iti) habentes inter se palmipedalia spatia.
;nt

from the stem of a ship to the
oijTd) TTaffav

stern.

ira TUV Tprfpwv,

<rvvtx ov T ^l v Teprfopdv.

Plato, civitas, p. 616 C, olov TO. uTrofwThis shews that these cables

Throughout the inventories of the Athenian right round a ship externally. :kyards the uTro^uctTa are named among the ffKevrj Kpepaffrd, which are disiguished from the ffnev-ri &\iva. see, for example, the passages cited in note and this excludes the notion that they were made of wood. >3
101
it

The ends

of these cables seem to be coiled round the stem and the stern

:

those coils

may belong

to smaller cables for strengthening these parts, as

lilar coils

are represented at the stern of one of the

Greek war-ships of about

B.C. in the so-called

Telephos

frieze

from Pergamos.

42

CABLES FOR STRENGTHENING THE SIDES,

prevent the ship from hogging, and would have been super-

Roman war-ships, which had decking stem and stern together. The girdingenough cables proved of service to the war-ships in keeping the timbers firm when the ship was labouring in a seaway, or forcing them back into position afterwards if any of them had been started 102 yet these cables must primarily have been intended to prevent the ship from going to pieces under the heavy shocks from ramming and the constant strain from /the working of so many oars, for otherwise they would have been employed on merchant-ships also. In the Athenian navy a set of girding-cables was provided for every ship of
fluous on

Greek or

to hold the

:

three or four banks, though possibly the set did not consist of

more than two 103 and occasionally this provision was increased. Thus in 324 B.C., when a squadron was leaving for the Adriatic, every ship of three or four banks was supplied
;

102

Apollonios Rhodios,
irdfjiiTrpWTOV
|

i.

367

370, vya,

5'

eTrtK/mr^ws "Apyou

j-faffav
y6/j.(f>oi$

evvrpetyet ZvooQev
/cat

oVXy

|

Tewdjj.ei'oi
cf.

tKarepOev,

'lv

eC apapolaro
i.

dotpara,
\

poOloio

fil-r\v

%ot dvTi.bwaav.
\

Horace, odes,
\

14.

6

9,

ac

sine funibus

vix durare carincz

possint imperiosius

aquor.

Appian, de
*

bell is

civilibus, v. 91, 6 5e (IIoyUTr^tos) ou're irepl TTJS yijs evevo^tjev, o$re rots \ei\l/dvois TOV

vavaytov Trapovtnv
K

T&V bwaTuv

dXX' vTrepelSev Karaffravros TOV KKvdwvos, eVexetpTjo'ei' diafruvvv/Jitvovs TO. o~/cd0?;, /cat dvt/jLQ dia.Tr\ovTas es TO 'iTnrdoveiov.
TJ

aTTtoOcri,

The

Sid in diafavvvi*tvovs

is

perhaps a corruption of
Acts, xxvii.
17,

virb resulting
exptDi'ro,

from a repetition
virofavvvvres TO

of the 5td in 5(.air\^ovras.
irXolov.

flor/delctis

This obscure statement seems to mean that they used expedients which

answered the purpose of the fA3 ing- cables. They would not find any of these cables on board, for they were^i a merchant-ship, and these were used for warships
:

dockyard

nor could they fix them on a ship during a storm at sea, for even in a this was a long and troublesome process, cf. Polybios, xxvii. 3, /cat
OVTa vavs
crvyW/SouXetfcras rots 'PoS/ots VTrofavvtieiv, iva, edit rts

&c

T&V

TOTC Trapacr/ceyd^wj/rat irpbs TO 7rapa/caXotf/<tej'OJ', dXX' ero//>tws The phrase fioydeiais exp&vTO viro^wvvvvTes Sta/cet/xej'ot irpaTTwai TO npidh e^avTrjs. matches Appian's phrase e/c T&V dvvaT&v oia^uivvv^vovs but Appian is speaking
>
:

XP e' a

W

/catpcDf

of war-ships already provided with vTro^uara. Apollonios indeed refers to on the Argo, which was hardly a war-ship yet he is justified in treating her as such, since he takes her for a ship of fifty oars.
:

103
11.

Corp. Inscr. Attic, vol.

ii,

119151,
lists

supplied to ships of three and four banks in 330/329 B.C. and following years; and in every case they mention uTro^w/xara in the plural, but without any further indication of the number allowed for each ship. The opinion that there were more than three is founded on a
the
ovceify)

no. 809, col. e, 11. 75 of the entire gear (eVreX?}

no. 807, col. c, 11. 66102, no. 808, col. d, These are no, no. 811, col. c, 11. 32.

n

AND LEATHERS FOR CLOSING THE

PORTS.
;

43

while with two girding-cables in addition to the usual set . every cavalry-transport^was supplied with four, and every " 7 ship of thirty oarswith two, borrowed from the stock of//
I

104 Such girding-cables intended for the three-banked ships cables would fit the cavalry-transports, as these were old three-banked ships but would be far too long for the thirty.

;

iared ships, unless

each cable

made two

girdles:

in

which

a ship of three banks must have been fully twice as long a ship of thirty oars 105
.

had to be pierced with a row of for each bank of oars below the first so that several banks was almost honey-combed. On the .thenian ships these openings were closed against the water leathern bags termed askomata, which could cling round 106 :he oars without much hindrance to their motion and some here was indispensable, as the gap generally was protection
sides of a wardship
;

f/t

;

restoration of no. 809, col. b,

1.

131.

The words

U7rofu>/iara eirl vavs

HHAAAI
but such a

are followed by Kal rbv
as
Kal (vTro)[^fji](aTa)

1

1

1

on the margin of the stone, and
the

this

has been restored
:

III,

TON

being changed

to

IAM

restoration seems unwarrantable.
104 Corp. Inscr. Attic, vol. ii, no. 809, col. a, 11. 163, ships of three banks: each case ffKeti-rj ^x ovffiv j-6\iva evreXij, KpefMacrra frreXr), /cat Zrepa UTrofii/mra Aa/3oj> T&V ey\v6vT<*)v dtio /card i^?70tay<6a 8^/nov, 5 elirev Ayv&vld-rjs Hepyaafjdev,
'

in

11.

64

90, cavalry-transports: in

each case

<TKVIJ

^x

Vfflv

tfXwa evTe\7J, Kpe/j-aara
11.

evT\ij, uTrofw/xara 5e INI
164, ships of thirty oars:
'

TpnjpiTiKuv, or T&V ty\u(dtvT&v} TpiTjp(iTi.K&i>),
in each case

91

ffKeti-ri disregwling minor differences %et %v\wa evT\Tj, /c/>e/ia0Ta, uTro^w/iara Tpir)pi.TCKa T&V ey\vd^vTO}v duo ZXafiev Kara ^7i<picrtJ.a 5?7/xou, 6 flirev Ayvuvldr]? HepyacrijQev, col. b, 11. 40 45, a ship of four

banks
j,

:

(TKfvr]

&X

i

Kpe/jLaffra evre\TJ Kal UTro^iw/xara

1

1

rCov eyXvdtvTdov

Kara

^^(pKr/j-a

5 elirev 'Ayv<avl9ip Hepy(aa'TJdi>).

105

See pp. 21, 22, as to the grounds for thinking that the lengths were 70
respectively. Corp. Inscr. Attic, vol.
ft.

ft.

150
106

ii,

no. 791

:

some of

the ships are

marked

-fjo-Kwrai,

jrs

are

marked
i]

do-/cwyudrwv

y apxy ?x et

AAAAhhHI

usually abbreviated
d<r/cw/4ara

dpxrj

%X

l

AAAAhhhll,

while others are marked

always abbreviated into dcr/cw. rpiripapxos or dovcci. rprf. The term must denote a leathern bag of some sort the cost of a set, 43 drachms obols, shews that each ship had a great many: the expression ijffKurai shews they were fixtures and a joke by Aristophanes indicates that they were fixed
: :

on the

ports, Acharnenses, 97, dcr/cw/i'

x ets

7rou

veP^ T ^ v

o<t>da\/j.&v /cdrw.

44
large

THE ARRANGEMENT OF THE PORTS AND OARS,
enough
to put his head through of about 50 A.D. in fg. 25 similar bags ship
for a

man

107

.

In the

Roman

may

be

observed around the oars just outside the ports. Curiously, of the ports were not utilized as rowlocks; and ///the edges the oars of all the lower banks were worked against tholes to

which they were fastened by leathern loops, just
108
.

like

the

oars above the gunwale In the Phoenician two-banked ships of about 700 B.C. in of fgs. 10 and n, and also in the Athenian two-banked ship

about 500

B.C. in fg.

17,

the oars of the

first

bank pass over

the gunwale, and the ports of the second bank lie midway between the tholes of the first and somewhat lower down. The ports of the third bank in a three-banked ship would

then be placed midway between the ports of the second and somewhat lower down so that these ports of the third bank would lie vertically below the tholes of the first, while the
;

and in the lie diagonally between Athenian three-banked ship of about 400 B.C. in fg. 21 the 109 ports of the third bank are approximately in this position The ports of the fourth bank would then be placed vertically below the ports of the second, the ports of the fifth bank vertically below the ports of the third, and so on, the ports
ports of the second would
:
.

107

Herodotos,

v.

33,

6

5

8eiv6v

n

7rcu??a'djwei'os

e'/cA.eua'e

rods

dopv(f)6povs
dijcrcu
SICL

tevpt>VTas rbv apxovra ra^rrjs TTJS ve6s, daXafJ-L'rjs die\6vras rijs vebs Kara TOVTO,
<ra>//a.

rig
a>

ofrVo/ia

-r\v

S/ct;Xa, TOVTOV

ptv /ce0aXV Troievvras, &rw 5

rb

ports of this size there necessarily was some leakage in rough weather in spite of the cur/cw/uara. Arrian, periplus ponti Euxini, 3, Koi\t]v ptv

With

yap

di'

6\iyov

rr\v

6d\aTTav

(rb irvev^a) tirol'qa'ev,

ws

/ur?

Kara ras

KUJTTCIS fj,6i>ov,

dXXcb

/cat vtrkp

ras

irape!;eipe<rias eireurpeiv rjfuv

eKartpwdev atyddvws rov #5aros.

Lucilius,

in the Anthology, xi. 245, oi TOIXOI, Ai60<WTe,

ra

KV/JLara iravTa dtxovTat,

KCU 5td
\

TUV dvplduv '&Keav6s ^perai.
108

Odyssey,
375,

viii.

53, ypTtivavTO 5' eper/xa rpowo'is Iv depfMartvoiffL.
\

r avyp rpoTrovro K^TTTJV <ri<a\fj.bv afjuf) Vitruvius, x. 3. 6, etiam Aristophanes, Acharnenses, 553, daKa^iQiv rpoirovfjAv^v. remi circa scalmos struppis religati cum manibus impelluntur et reducuntur. ^schylos and Vitruvius are both speaking of oars generally, not merely of oars
Persse,

376,

vavfidTys

above the gunwale, and Aristophanes refers explicitly to a lower bank; so that The loops were known as all the oars must have had these tholes and loops.
KWTTTjTTypes or rpoTrwr^pes as

well as rpotroL
tholes,

:

see note 114

on

p. 47.
:

It is clear that

the oars were

worked against the

and not against the loops

see Aristotle,

mechanica,

5,

quoted in note 115 on

p, 48.

AND PROBABLE ARRANGEMENT OF THE ROWERS.
:

45

being thus kept clear of the ship's ribs but there is no direct evidence that this system was pursued. If the rowers in are men of ordinary stature, the gunwale of this threefg. 21

banked ship must be rather more than three feet above the water-line, and the tholes of the first bank rather more than two feet above the ports of the third yet clearly there cannot be space enough for the rowers of the first bank to sit vertically above the rowers of the third, or for the rowers the second bank to sit diagonally between. The three es of rowers on either side of a three-banked ship would
:

i

;urally

be ranged along three

tiers

of seats ascending

m

the centre of the ship like steps, so that each rower the lower banks could get free play for his oar beneath

the legs of a rower in the next bank above. But there are no materials for rigidly determining the relative positions of
the lines of rowers in these three-banked ships, or in the
larger war-ships. In the earliest
limit of the hold,

Greek ships the beams formed the upper and above them were the thwarts for the these thwarts doubtless being rowers of the single bank in the intervals between the beams, so that the rowers placed ight plant their feet against the beams, and make them
;

first two horizontal bands above the water-line seem to be walingand the next is unquestionably the gunwale with tholes above for the The ports of the third bank are just above the lower first bank of oars. of the first bank. But waling-piece, and almost vertically below the tholes Three sets of bands run the ports of the second bank are hard to find.
109

The

jces,

downwards from the gunwale, the to the lower waling-piece, and the
like portions of the hull.

first

to the

third to the water-line;

upper waling-piece, the second and these all look

were intended
ports just

for

the oars

But apparently the bands that reach the water-line of the second bank, and should have ended in
carelessly

above the upper waling-piece, though the sculptor has

These waling-pieces appear prolonged them to the gunwale like their neighbours. again upon the three-banked ship represented in relief on Trajan's Column; and here the ports of the third bank are between the waling-pieces, and the ports of
the second
ports of the second bank are probably tholes of the first and the ports of the third

The

bank unmistakably between the upper waling-piece and the gunwale. meant to lie diagonally between the
;

though

in that case

an oar has been

omitted in the third bank, either to avoid confusion, or from mere carelessness. In the first bank the oars are hopelessly entangled in a railing above the gunwale and altogether the design makes little pretension to accuracy of detail.

:

46

THE BEAMS, THWARTS OR
110
.

SEATS,

A second bank of oars could thus be added to a ship without any alteration in her build, simply by seating rowers on the beams and piercing port-holes for 111 their oars and with a slight increase in her freeboard, a third bank could be added by putting rowers in the hold just underneath the rowers of the first bank. But if the rowers of the first bank sat on thwarts, the rowers of the third bank must have been seated so much lower down that these thwarts were clear of their heads and the thwarts may have therefore
serve as stretchers
;
:

been replaced by planks that did not reach across the ship, so that the rowers of the third bank might be nearly on a level with the rowers of the first, if only they were seated a 112 The beams must then have been little further inboard
.

110
8'

Odyssey,

ix. 98, 99, roi>s

ptv tyuv
e/wcrtras.
diet,

wi v^as ayov K\alovTas dvdyicri,
xiii.

|

vrjval

frl yXcKpvprjffiv

UTTO
|

vyd

dTJ<ra.

20

22,

Ka.1

ret

(j.kv

lepbv /i&'os 'A\Kii>6oio,

avrbs Iwv

vrjbs
cf.

virb

fyyd,

/J.'TI

TIV'

eralpwv

|

Theognis, 513, 514, ^776$ TOL UTTO vya Q^aoy-tv ij/Ji.e'is, KXedpurfl', of ^x%te> X^a 5i5ou<rt 6eol. The vyd are not mentioned in the Iliad but the compounds TroXtffiryos and e/car6firyos occur
'
|

i\avv6vT(av, 6ir6re (nrepxolaT' eper/AOis.

;

there,

ii.

293, xx. 247.

These beams are not
dvexdfcro rvrOdv,

to

be confounded with the
|

seats.

Iliad, xv. 728, 729, dXX'
\ITT
5' f/cpia

616/j.evos

davteadcu,

dpTJvvv e0'

6TrTa.7r65'r}i>,

a rower of the

This name dpyvvs is preserved in 6pai>tTys, which denoted in ships with more than one bank, while frying* denoted But the name is changed to K\r)is in the Odyssey, a rower of the second bank.
vybs
ftcnj5.
first

bank

ii.

419, &v 5t

KO.I

avrol /Jdj/res
|

tiri /cX^Icri

Kadifov,
u/xets

viii.

37, 38, dyvd/jievoi 5' e5 irdvres

CTTI K\rfic(.v eperfjid

^K^t]T\

xii.

214, 215,

^kv

K&irriffiv

dXos priyfuva, fiadeiav
ZKCHTTOl
|

|

T^>TTTT
cf. iv.

K\7]idea<Tlt>

(p^fJ.VOl, Xiii.

76, 77, TOl d
xii.

KO.dioV

Tfl KkrflfflV

K6<r/M{),

579,

ix.

103, 179, 471, 563, xi. 638,

146, xv. 221, 549.

The

icXy'ides

are

mentioned only once in the Iliad, and then in a questionable line, xvi. 170 see note i on p. 2 but the compound TroXv/cX^ts occurs several times in the Iliad as
well as the Odyssey.
8te(j.oipr]<ravTO,
|

395, 396, ^X?/?5as p.tv irpiora TrdXy Apollonios therefore supposed that the xX^iSes reached right across the ship and seated two rowers apiece but the expression in the Odyssey, xiii. 76, eirl K^lcriv &CCKTTOI, suggests that each rower
i.

Apollonios Rhodios,
5ota>
/j-lav.

avSp'

evrwa^vu

:

was on a separate seat. The expression in the Iliad, xv. 729, dprfvvv eTTTair6dr}v, makes it clear that the 6p-f)vves reached right across the ship. This dprjvvs was apparently the nearest to the stern, so the width thereabouts would thus be seven and that is likely enough, as three-banked ships were nowhere feet internally
<}>
:

more than twenty
111

feet in

width

:

see note 57

on

p.

22.

contrasting the war-ships of two banks with those of a single bank, for there were not any ships of more than two banks in the so the ships of two banks must have carried oars at a lower level than the fleet

w

Arrian, anabasis, 2x ov(rai T v tf^aros.

vi. 5,

6Vcu re diKporoi
is

atiTtov rets

*drw

K&TTO.S oik

M

iro\t>

Arrian

:

ships of one bank.

AND STRETCHERS FOR THE ROWERS.

47

displaced, if a fourth bank was to be appended to the second as the third was to the first but there is nothing to shew
:

whereabouts the beams were placed in any of the larger war-ships, or where space was found in three-banked ships for the additional beams that sometimes were inserted to

make them seaworthy 113
beams or other
seats,

mitigate the roughness of the IA rower was provided with a cushion/7 every which he carried about with him from ship to ship 114
. .

To

Ships normally attain their greatest width in the middle an d their at the ends, curving outward"and greatest^ height downward fronvtlie ends towards the middle. And, according
Aristotle, the nearer

amidship a rower sat, the greater was leverage on his oar, as he had a greater length of oar
Euripides, Helena, 1531
1533, 2idwviav vavv irpuT6ir\ovv Ka0fi\Ko/j.fv,
\ \

112

There are here as many fvyd as oars and when Theocritos says TpiaKovTafyyov 'Apytb, xiii. 74, he seems to be giving the legendary ship thirty oars instead of fifty, for ships of sixty oars do not appear in legend. This indicates that the rowers now had separate seats, the
v re TrevTrjKovra KapeTfjLuv /j,^Tpa

^x ovffav

'

:

term
rj

vyd being applied to seats
\

in

any of the banks.
vail

dobv eipealas fvybv e6fj.tvov
this

irovTOTrdpy
iv.

peOeivau.

Sophocles, Ajax, 249, 250, Latin authors use transtra
v.
ii.

in

sense.

Virgil,

^Eneid,

573,
cf.

considete

transtris,

136,
v. 51,

considunt

transtris, intentaque brachia remis, etc.

Cicero, in Verrem,

quoted in

note 129 on p. 56.
;

and Cicero include ships of three and four banks in these allusions and such ships could hardly have a tier of beams for every bank of oars. The two-banked ships of the Byzantines certainly had two tiers of beams, but these were ships see note 46 on p. 18 fvyoi, with two rowers on each beam
Virgil

quite another type.
[3

Thucydides,

i.

:/xous flvai

Kal rets aXXas ^Trtovcevdcraj'Tes.

29, Kal rds vavs a/ma tir^povv, teti^avT^s re ras TraXcuds wore Ships in this condition are marked

in the inventories of the
ii,

Athenian dockyards
1.

:

see Corp. Inscr. Attic, vol.
1.

no. 809, col. b,
1.

1.

45, no. 811, col. b,

144, no. 812, col. a,

144,

and

also no.

808, col. a,
114

20, with the fragment in the
ii.

Thucydides,

93, ^56/cei 5

appendix at p. 515. \a(36vTa T&V vavT&v %Ka<TTov rty Kuinjv Kal TO
K.T.X.
et's

inrrjpto'iov

Kal rbv Tpoirwrrtpa.

ire^-g lt>ai

Kal TT)V aa-rrida

T&V

TTO\I.TU>V

7rapeX6/A'os,
vTr-rjptcriov

virrjptffiov

Plutarch, Themistocles, 4, r6 S6pv Kal Kuiryv o-w&rmXe rbv T&V
to

'Mrjvaluv

8ijfj.ov.

The term
i ;

was applied

saddles for horses,

cf.

Diodoros, xx.

4.

so

it

must here denote some similar covering
virirjp^ffiov

for the thwarts.

Pollux, x. 40, TO vavriKois
esychios,
s.v.

idiws iv rats "12/>cus KpartVos Trpo<TKe<pd\aiov, cf.

iraviKTbv:

-'Epfj.nriros

tv

SrpaTitiTats,
'iv'

A.
s

wpa ToLvvv

fjt.fr

tp.ov

*

T^V vavv /j.iri)8ria'as B. dXX' ov 5to/j.ai, iraviKTOv ^x wv rov irpwKTov. Cratinos and Hermippos both contemporary with Thucydides. The TpoiroL mentioned in the Odyssey, 53-^see note 108 on p. 44 are here styled T/>o7rwr%>es by Thucydides and
twl KUTrijTrjpa, XajSovra
.
|

Kal

|

irpo(rK<f>a\aioi>,

by Hermippos.

48

STRUCTURE FOR SEATING THE ROWERS,
115
.

So the inboard by reason of the greater width of the ship the ship's curve outward. The lines of rowers did not follow
increased in length towards the middle of yet the increase inboard must have been relatively greater than the increase outboard, for otherwise the So the lines of leverage would have remained the same.
oars

may have
:

each bank 116

rowers could not have followed the ship's curve downward, as the oars amidship would then have lost their hold upon
the water.
ship's

And
The

if

the lines of rowers did not follow the

curve outward

straight.

or downward, they presumably were rowers would consequently be seated in a
;

and as every rower rectangular structure within the ship ^must have been seated some way inboard to give him the
necessary leverage on his oar, this structure would nowhere occupy the whole width of the ship.
115

Aristotle, mechanica, 5, did rl

ol

^evbveoi judXi<rra rty vavv KIVOVVLV ; $

}]

KUTTVI yuo%X6s eaT(.v ;

virofj.b'xXiov fj.ev
r)

yap
'

6 ffxaX/Abs ytverai

[level

yap

d?)

TOVTO'

rb d

/Jdpos

77

BaXarra, yv dirudel

/CWTTT;

6 8e KIV&V rbv

jJ.o-)(\bv

6 va^rrjs early.

del de Tr\eoi> /Sdpos Kivei,

6Vy av

ir\ot> d^eoTr/KT/ rov uTro/ioxXtou 6 KIV&V rb /3dpos.

ev

^effrf de rrj vtjl ir\e1(TTOV TTJS K&TTTJS ivrb'i

e'crnv Kal
rr}s

yap

77

vaus

Tatirr) eiypurdri; fffrlv,

ciVre irKetov
rr)s vecis.
116

e?r'

d/A06repa e^S^xecr^at

/u-tpos

Kuir-rjs

e/car^pou roLxov

evrds eTvat

Aristotle,

de partibus animalium,
fj.aKp6s, u<rirep
/cc6?rr/

iv. 10,
fjAffov
fj,t<rov

Kal 6 &TXO,TOS 8t (rCov daxrfawv)

^it/cpds

6p9u>s, Kal 6

fj.tcro5

veus' ^dXf<rra yap rb \a^av6fMevov
irpbs

avayKT] TrepiXa/i/Sdveo-^at Ki^/cXy Kara rb

ras epyaalas.

Galen, de usu
b

fjLe"(ros; partium, i. 24, 5ta ri de &VIGOL irdvres eyevovro (ol 5d/cruXot) Kal /JiaKphraTOs avr&v eirl taov e^tKveiffdai j3\Tiov TJV ev ry Trepi\a/j,j3dvei.v oyKovs T) on rds /copulas Twas /ueydXovs iv /cikXy; ...... Kaddwep, ol/iat, K<J.V rats rpi-fipeat ra irepara r&v KWTTUV

els

laov eZiKvelrai, Kalroi.

y

OVK fouv aTracr&i>

ov<rv

Kal

yap ovv

K<j.Ket

ras

fj.e<ras

[ji,eyl<TTas

Aristotle and Galen are apparently direpyd^ovrai dia TT]V avrrjv alrlav. here that the oars amidship were longer than the rest. But in the asserting inventories of the Athenian dockyards the oars of a bank are always classed

together as though they were all exactly alike. apply to the aspect of the oars inside the ship.

So these

assertions

may

only

When

Galen adds that the

ends of the oars all reached equally far, he probably means that the inner ends reached a line parallel to the ship's keel, the oars being of unequal reached a curve parallel to length inboard he could hardly mean that they
the ship's side, the oars being of equal length inboard, for then he would be but possibly he means that the outer contradicting Aristotle, mechanica, 5 ends reached a line parallel to the ship's keel, the oars being of equal length
:

or that they reached altogether but unequal outboard and unequal inboard also, a curve parallel to the ship's side, the oars being of unequal length altogether but

equal outboard and unequal inboard only.

AND SUPERSTRUCTURE TO COVER

THIS.

49

A
lips

lips

heavy superstructure is represented on the Phoenician of about 700 B.C. in fgs. 10 and 11 and on the Greek of about 550 B.C. in fgs. 15 and 16 and also on the
fg.

leek

That ships. for these representations tally rith the statements of ancient authors that this was the post
n

.thenian ship of about 400 B.C. in a deck like the hurricane-deck

21.

At

the top there

on modern

must be the katastroma

:

the combatants on board Greek ships when in action, while Phoenician ships it was of larger build, and was occupied
dignitaries during voyages, the space

below being
21

fully

:cupied by rowers

117
.

If the

rowers

in fg.

are

men

of

mary
>ve

stature, that hurricane-deck stands 'about four feet
;

the gunwale

icre is
ird

another piece of planking.
for

gangway:

and about a foot above the gunwale This must be the starthere was a parodos, or gangway, on

117

!>6repot ^?rJ

Thucydides, i. 49, o-vfj./j.tavTes 5e frav/j.dxovv, TroXXous fj,ev oTrX/ras exovres T&V KaTaaTpu/uLdTuv, iro\\ovs de To6ras re Kal dKOPTtords, T$ TraXaty
aTreiporepov
&TI
jrapeo'Kevao'fji.froi.

Plutarch,

Themistocles,

14,

rds

yueV

OVK
/3ap/3api/rds

/3Xa7rre

vaCs

(r6

Kv/jia)

dXireveis o&ras Kal Taireivortpas, rds 5f

TCWS

re Trpv/mvais

di>e<rT(Jb<ras

Kal

rots

KaTa<TTpu/ji.a<ni>

vi//op6(povs

Kal

/Sapetas

e-m^epo^va^ ^<r0aXXe
viii.
1 1

TrpoffirlirTov

Kal
tirl

irapedldov
vebs

irXayias

rots

"E\\r}ffiv.
es

lotos,

8,

atfrds
fjuv
/
ul'

5^

(Etpi-ijs)

$oivi<r<rr}s

eTrijSds

iKo^ero

TrX&ovra 5
/j,a\\ov

ave^ov

'SiTpv^.ovLtjv

ydp rt x i a ^ V0'^ ai ye/u-oiKrrjs TTJS avxy&v Uepcrtuv T&V vbv EtpZrj KOIJLL^O^VWV, evdavra
etpeadai
jSuxrapra

viro\a/3iv ijAyav Kal ve6s aJore tirl roD
ts
deifjia

rbv KV^epvfjrea
fj.7]

et ris

&TTI

cr0t

<rwT-r)pttj,

Kal

rbv

i

dtairoTa, OVK

fan
yap

ov5e/mLa. el
di]

rotirwv aira\\a.yf) rts ytvrjTat
elptdT)
/xr/

T&V

iro\\C}v

larewv.

119,

el

ravra

o&rb)

CK TOV

Kvfiepvfirew Trpbs S^p^ea,
iroiijo-ai

yvJ}/mr](ri
;s
fJLev

plav oik

xw

o.vrL^oov

K
T0l)s

TOV /carao-rpwaaros
TTpWTOl'S, T<Sf
t'f^jSaXe
es
5'

/cara/SijSda-at

TfbJV

pTWV

fiaaiKea roidvde, f6vras Htpffas Kal ebvTWV ^OIVIKUV 0/CWS OVK O.V tffOV 1T\i)6oS

OUK av

&

Koi\-rjf

vta

The term /cardarpw/ta was habitually )Hed to the deck for combatants on war-ships but it also was applied to the jr deck on Thus the depth of a merchant-ship is reckoned merchant-ships.
TTJV 6d\a<r(rav.
:

Lucian, navigium,
avT\ov.
cf.

5, airo

TOV KaTa(TTp&/j.aTos
in

es

TOV irvd^va,
10,

rj

fiadvTaTov /card

Demosthenes,

Phormionem,

yeye/juff/ji.^*
^?rt

ydp

-fjdTj

TTJS
i

CLKovofJifv,

fid\\ov TOV dtovTos, TrpoaavtXafiev
'

TO KaTdffTpu/j-a

x

^^ a$

fyxras,

odev Kal

i]

dia<f>6opd Trj vyi <rvv^r], Synesios, epistoloe, p.
fj.i]

f/j.evos eTrl

TOV Karatrrpci/iaros
Kepa/j.twv
i)/j.Lderj

ydp

ets

T&V

crot

TrotTjaet.

178, TrXefrw de KoiXyv vavv KaTafiairj, tirel fj.i] davfj.da"rjs Indeed, the term was not reserved

:lusively for the

decks of ships. Athenseos applies it to the flooring or roofing a battery erected on an armed merchant-ship, v. 43, re?xos 5^, eTrdXfets ?x ov *<"
rrpciyuara, did yews eirl
-iXXt/3d^rwz/ KaTCffKevao-TO' i$>

ov \idofi6\os

e0etcrr?7/cei.

T.

d

50

THE SUPERSTRUCTURE,
;

ETC.

either side of a

and as combatants were Greek war-ship on the gangways as well as on the hurricane-deck, posted 118 Thus these gangways formed part of the upper decking the upper decking of a Greek war-ship must have consisted of a hurricane-deck, which did not extend from side to side, and two gangways, which were placed a few feet lower down
.

and occupied the remaining width. And the superstructure between the gangways, comprising the hurricane-deck and its vertical supports on either side, would naturally correspond to the rectangular structure below for the rowers, and hence
would form the top of that structure. This hurricane-deck was apparently the only place available for working the supplementary oars known as perineoi. The length of these oars on the Athenian three-banked ships was nine cubits or nine and a half, that is to say, thirteen 119 some change feet and a half or fourteen and a quarter soon after 400 B.C. In the Athenian three-banked occurring ship of this date in fg. 21 the hurricane-deck must be about five cubits above the water-line, and the gangway about two cubits below the hurricane-deck, if those rowers of the
;

.

118 Athenseos, v. 37, r6 /u^/coy tx ovffav ( T vavv) diaKoaiuv dySoriKovra wyxuv, 6KT& dt Kal rpidKovra dirb TrapoSov eVt Trdpodov, tfi/'o? 5 K.T.\. The measurement from irdpodos to wdpodos is clearly intended for the breadth, so the Trdpodoi were at

V

name implies that they were gangways. Athenseos is indeed quoting from Callixenos, so the measurement may be false, or the ship imaginary: yet the statement proves that measurement from Trdpodos to -rrdpodos was a recogthe sides; and their

nized

of reckoning the breadth of a war-ship. Plutarch, Demetrius, 43, eirl re T&V irap6db)v Kal TOV KaraaTpibfjiaTos 6\iy(f) Plutarch is likewise quoting from Callixenos but the T/ncrxiXtai' atroMovTas. statement proves that combatants were normally posted on the Trdpodoi of a warOTrXt'ras

mode

Sexo/i^T/p (TT]V vavv)

:

ship.

combatants as
Ka.Td<TTpwfj.a

In the passage already quoted in note 35 on p. 14 o! &TTO T&V Karaffrpw^druv fj.axTja6fji.evoi,

Memnon
and the
:

speaks of the Trdpodoi and

may
tvvea.

plural

was treated
ts

here be classed together as /carao-rpti/iara but apparently the as equivalent to the singular, cf. Pausanias, i. 29, TrXotoi'

KadrfKov

^ras

&irb

T&V

KaT(t(rTpu[ji,dTut>.

According

to

the

present

reading, Thucydides says Kal ctfrrcu otiirw el^ov Sia Trda-ris KaTcurrpw/iara, i. 14, in speaking of the ships built by the Athenians under Themistocles, as though their
ships afterwards had Karao-Tp^fj-aTa did
Trdo-r)? vet6s,

which might mean that these

hurricane-decks reached right across the ship and left no space for gangways. But the words 5id TrdcrTjs must be a corruption of some word connected with 5id[3a<ns. cf. Plutarch, Cimon, 12, wp/j.r](rev (Kifjwv) apas airb KvlSov Kal Tpioirtov diaKoaiais
i.

TTOOJ

u.v rd^os

O.TT

dpxys Kal Trepiaywyrjv

bird

0e/xt0TO/cX^ot/s

dpurra

THE SUPPLEMENTARY

OARS.
:

51

upper bank are men of ordinary stature and as the gangway would hardly be more than a cubit in width, an oar of nine cubits and a half might dip quite a cubit and a half in the water, if worked from the hurricane-deck with seven cubits
are certainly being

and a half outboard and two cubits inboard. Some oars worked from the hurricane-deck in the Athenian ship of about 600 B.C. in fg. 14: and these pre-

sumably are perineoi^ since they are not in the banks. And a bank was allotted to these supplementary oars in the thalf termed triemioliai, this may have been because there ips
not any hurricane-deck
120
.

(s

War-ships generally were classed by the Greeks as katato say, completely fenced or
:

*aktoi or aphraktoi, that is

and these terms would well denote the presence or absence of a line of screens on either side to close the open space between the hurricane-deck and the gangway, and thus 121 In protect the rowers of the upper bank from missiles
unfenced
.

the Egyptian ships of about 1000 B.C., as in fg. 6, the rowers on either side were protected by a long screen above the

gunwale

;

and similar screens are mentioned
e/cetVos

in

the Odyssey,

/career KevafffttvaLS,

5

r6re

/cat

Karaarpwfiaff'Lv l-d&Kev.

In this context

TrXarvT^pa? eVo^o'ei' auras Kal 5id/3acr' ro?s 5td/3acris would mean breadth, as in Hippo-

crates, epistolse, 14, oI5a ?rapa

'AXas

T

trol yev6/j.evos iv 'P65y, Aa/tid-y^re, rr)v vavv irdyKa\6v riva Kal ttfTrpvfAvov, kavws re KO.L O Kal 8idpa<Tit> e?%e TroXX^f. Thus, as the ships were themselves made broader, the hurri icane-decks could also be made broader without encroaching on the space

TTiypa(f>T)

rfv

avrrj

uired for the gangways.
119

Corp. Inscr. Attic, vol.
I,

ii,

no. 789, col. a,
1.

1.

14, ireplveus (fat)

AAPIIII,

dS^Kifwv

ewea-ir-fix*

1*

Ka-l

<r7ridafjii(atas),

51, ireptvey evvta 7nfcewj> Kal o-Trt^a^j.

The length of the other
stated unless
in
ic
20
1
11.

oars

is

never stated, so the length of these would not be

it

varied

:

and the words aSrat eVpeaTrfa"? and Totruv eweaTr^xets
refer to the Treplveq.

P

22, 55,

where they must

The

inscription belongs

archonship of Asteios, 373/2 B.C. See p. 15 as to these ships and their oars.

The words

<f>pd<r<reiv

and

<f>pay/j.6s

or

<f>pay/uia

Kir

Kara in

/fard0/)a/cTos clearly

means

that the ship

properly refer to fences ; and was fenced completely, not
vii. 16,

she was fenced

down

or decked, for then /fard^pa/cros would be opposed
cf.

to aKardfipaKTOs instead of d^pa/cros.

Arrian, anabasis,

vaCs naxpas, dfipaKTOvs re Kal Tre<ppay/j.fras. Apparently the /card in also indicates completeness, like the con in constratum, the crr/xS/xa and stratum Cicero opposes constrains to indicating sufficiently that the deck was laid down.

d2

52

BULWARKS, SCREENS AND AWNINGS,
.

123 but only as bulwarks for the water Screens for missiles, however, were probably in use on the Phoenician war-ships of about 700 B.C. for there are certain square objects upon the superstructure of the ship in fg. 10, which has a ram and
:

must therefore be a war-ship and these are absent from the ship in fg. u, which has no ram and therefore cannot be a
;

war-ship so they certainly served some purpose in warfare, yet seem unserviceable unless they could be lowered to Had there been such screens on the protect the rowers.
;

Athenian war-ship of about 400 B.C. in fg. 21, they would doubtless have fitted into the gaps between the supports
In the Athenian war-ships the rowers were also protected against sun and spray by awnings termed pararrhymata or parablemata, which were spread along each side to cover the open space below the hurricane-deck. Every

of the hurricane-deck.

apertus in describing ships with and without a /caTdVr/xo/ua, in Verrem, ii. v. 40, poterone in eos esse vehemens, qui naves non modo inanes habuerunt sed etiam apertas : in eum dissolutus^ qui solus habuerit constratam navem et minus exina-

nitam?
et

cf.

complures aperta.

Aulus Hirtius, de bello Alexandrine, u, quattuor constrain naves But he simply transliterates &(f>pa,KTos, ad Atticum, v. 13. i,

navigavimus sine tiniore et sine nausea : sed tardius, propttr aphractorum Rhodiorum imbecillitatem, cf. v. n. 4, 12. i, vi. 8. 4. And Livy says naves tectas, xxxiii. 30, where Polybios says KaTatppdKTOvs vavs, xviii. 27, in citing the same document. Now, if these screens closed the open space below the hurricane-deck, a ship could not be Kard^paKTOs unless she had a fcardo-Tpcoyita, so that every navis Thus Livy uses the tecta would be constrata but no navis aperta would be tecta. terms indifferently, xxxvi. 42, C. Livius, prafectus Romance classis, cum quinquaginta navibus tectis profectus,..<quum sex Punicas naves ad auxilium missas accepisset,...Piraum ad veterem classem pervenit. a Pirao A. Atilius, traditis
successors
et

quinq^le et viginti navibus
constratis
tectis^

tectis,

Romam

octoginta

navibus

Delum

traiecit.

viginti navibus

apertis pluribus paullo,
cf.

est profectus : Livius una Eumenes cum quattuor et ad Romanos rediit. inde centztm

43,

'

quinque navibus

tectis, etc,

Appian, de rebus Syriacis, 22,

KCU TOV vir

ArtA/y

Karat^d/crou oydo^KOvra /cat /*t^, ewo^vov KO! The decked Eu/Aevous irevT-f)KOVTa. idiais' Kal yv KaT&Qpa-KTOv KO.I r&vde TO TJ/Jiiffv. and undecked merchant-ships were distinguished in Greek by other terms. ptv yap eTr\tofj.i> avrtyaaTov fa rb TrXo'tov, Antiphon, de csede Herodis, 22, tv TO.VT -rjv. See also note 126 on ei'j 8 5^ jLter^STj/iev, evrfyavntvov TOV 5 ueroO ZveKa

<nb\ov 7ra/>aXac6j>,

?rXei

(Af/Jios)

<

,

p.

55 for this use of OT^TJ and stega.
122

Odyssey,
t/jiev.

v.

256,

257, $/)de 5^
this

fjnv

plireffcri

Sia/ATrep^s

olffvlvyffi

\

/c^aros

eTXap

Bulwarks of

defence against missiles.
scaphas
milites delectos imposriit,

rough sort were sometimes made to serve as a Csesar, de bello civili, iii. 24, virtnte militum confisus,
circiter sexaginta cratibus pluteisque contexit, eoque

navium magnarum
etc.

ALONG THE SIDES OF THE

SHIPS.

53

ship carried two pairs of these, one pair of sail-cloth and the other of horse-hair or possibly of hide. Two other awnings

were carried on these ships to cover some other spaces, a itablema for above and a hypoblema for below: but the exact
ition of these is doubtful
123
.

A later arrangement
Roman
irs

of the upper decking may be seen in two-banked ship of about 50 A.D. in fg. 25. The

of the upper bank here pass through ports, instead of and as the rowers of the upper issing over the gunwale
:

leir

in the ship, the deck above heads is also lower; so that this deck for combatants longer forms a hurricane-deck, but now stands between ilwarks which represent the former lines of screens, whilst

ink are therefore lower

down

gangways

retain their place outside.

fen
Both

123

no, no. 8n, col. c, Corp. Inscr. Attic, vol. ii, no. 809, col. e, 11. 75 32: these are the lists of gear for three-banked ships and four-banked

and 323/2 B.C. at present there is no list for 324/3 B.C. include /cara/SXTj/iaTa and Trapappufj-ara Xei>/cd and Trapap'ptf/iara rplxwa but the earlier list includes for three-banked ships and for four-banked ships
ships in 325/4 B.C.
lists
:

list does not include them These discrepancies indicate that the uTro^X^ara were discarded about that date upon the three-banked ships, and never came into use upon the fourbanked ships: cf. no. 807, col. c, 11. 66 102, no. 808, col. d, 11. 119 151. A list of gear in store in 357/6 B.C. shews that each three-banked ship used to have

iiTro/SXij/xara for

three-banked ships only, and the later

at all.

a pair of Trapapptf/mra of each sort, but only one /cardjSX^a and one UTr6/3X?7/m, 11. 6 list of ships some twenty years before incidentally 21. mentions 7rctpa/3X?7,uara, no. 791, 1. 31. Two instances of the use of irapappv^ara
no. 793, col. e,

A

pa/SXT^uara in 406

and 405

B.C. are

mentioned by Xenophon, Hellenica,
/ecu

i.

19, TOI)S eTTi/Sdras a's KolXyv

vavv

/u.eTa/3t/3d(ras

ra ra

Trapap'p'tf/iara

TrapafiaXuv,

.22, -rravra 5

Trapacr/ceuacrd/iej/os

ws

eis vav}Jiaxtai> /ecu

Trapa/SX^/iaTO, TrapaftaXuv .

n both instances a fight was expected; yet the Trapctppu/mra and Trapa/SX^/xara were not spread to protect the crew, but to conceal the crew for a surprise so they were spread over the open spaces below the hurricane-deck, for here alone
:

would the crew be visible. Thus the Trapa/SX^/xara may merely be the TrapafipvHara under another name, which ranges better with /cara/3X^ara and u7roX?7/xaTa. In the arsenal the Trapapp6/j.a.Ta Xeu/cd were stored in the same chests with the sails, and so were probably of similar material. Corp. Inscr. Attic, vol. ii, no.
1054,
11.

85

87,

TTCwjcrei

5

/ecu

Kift&TOvs TOIS urrfou

/eai

rots

jrapap'pv/Ji.a.o'tv

TOIS

exarbv rpiaLKOvra. r^rrapas. The other Trapappu/xara were perhaps of horse-hair, for that seems the likeliest meaning of rpLx<-va, but were possibly of hide. cf. Caesar, de bello civili, iii. 15, pellibus, quibus erant tect<z naves.
Xeu/cois, dpidfj-bv

The

/cara/SX77yuara

and

viroft\7j/j.aTa

certainly

were not of timber,
<r/ceu?7 /cpe/Actord,

for in the lists they are classed

were presumably of some similar material; and with the Trapappu/mra
aKetiij

amongst the

which are distinguished from the

v\iva,.

54

THE THREE-BANKED
The thrge^banked

SHIPS,

friereis_\r\.

Greek

:

ships were termed triremes in Latin and DuT"wn"ile the Latin term implies a triple

yXarrangement

Greek term implies a triple and the cognate of some undetermined sort arrangement triarmenoi was applied to large sailing-ships, which adjective
for the oars, the
;

had not any banks of oars 124 These sailing-ships^ however, used often to have three decks. Thus, while Plutarch and
.

Proclos describe a ship as triarmenos, Athenseos describes

her as triparodos, that is to say, with three gangways and states that these gangways stood one above another, and
;

gave access to cabins along the sides and at the ends so that this clearly was a three-decked ship, though apparently the planking of the decks did not extend over the whole
:

124

The

older form of triremis
:

195,

1.

12, triresmosque naveis

and

epevffeiv,

whereas

Tptrjprjs

was triresmus^ cf. Corp. Inscr. Latin, vol. i, no. and both these forms are connected with eper/xos is connected with apetv, and thus with ap/j.evos.

but not to designate a novel ; applied to ships of earlier times by Pollux, i. 83, /cat /cat 'Avriydvov, Tpidpftev os, and by Plutarch and IIroXe/u.atou vavs, Trej're/catSe/c^pTjs Proclos in the passages quoted in note 74 on p. 28. The term is employed by
ternvr/3td/>/iej'os

The

was introduced about 100 A.D.
is
'

type of ship, for

it

Lucian, navigium, 14, irevTe. yap, et /SotfXet, /caXXtw /cat /xetfw TOV Alywriov vrXotou ijdif) x e Ka l T0 fdyiffToy ovde KaTadvvai 8vvdfJt,eva } ...... 6s yap rt evbs irXoiov TOVTOVL
Seo-TroTT/s

uv

TraprjKoves
6\}/ei

POUVTUV,

el irevTe KTr)<raio

iravra /cat Trpbs TOIJTU) rpidp/j.tva
15, 6X/cd6a
/cat

di>w\e6ph, ovde

6\j\a5i] roi)s <pt\ovs.

Again by Lucian, Lexiphanes;/x,t/cpou

re rpidp/Aevov ev ovply ir\eov(rav, efjiTre7rvevfJ.aTWjj.evov rq,0 a/caretou, ev(popovo~dv
dKpoKVfj,aTov<rav,
cf.

pseudologistes, 27,

yovv

(pao-iv

d.TroirvLy^va.i

o~e

vavry

nvi T&V

rpLapfj.ev(i)v evrvx.oi'Ta, 8s e/j-Treffuv
/cat a'/wa

stratos, vita Apollonii, iv. 9,
GQ.V Kal TOVS

Also by PhilodTre(ppa^ o~oi TO <rT6/J.a. dawi* raOra vavv eloe T&V Tpiapfj.evaji' eKwXeovcf.

vavTas aXXov dXXws
fj,ev

es

r6 dvdy^adai avTTjv TrpaTTOVTas.

Synesios,
rj^ev

epistolse, p. 161, ra%i>

TTJV yrjv d7reKpv7rTOfj.ev,

ra^u

6e /uerd

T&V 6X/ca5a>

125

fj.ev
rj

Athenseos, v. 41, yv 5' i} vaus TJJ fj.ev /caraa/ce^ et'/c6cropos, Tpnrdpodos 5e, TT]V /carwrdrw exowa e-rrl TOV y6fj,oi>, e0' r/v did /cXt/id/cwv TTVKV&V ij /card/3a(Tts eylveTO'
fTepa rots
ets

8'

rds Statras

fiovXofJLevois elvievai fj.efj,r)xdvr]TO'
rjffav

/J.e6' rjv

r/

reXevrata

rots ev Toes oVXois TeTayp-evoLs.

irapodov Trap' e/cdrepov T&V ToL^^v Statrat rer/ad/cXtvot rots dvdpdffi, TptaKOVTa Tb TrXrjdos. Siatra K\IVU>V i) de vavK\7)piKT]
de TT/S
fj.ea"r)s
-r\v

fj.ev

Trej/rc/catSe/ca, 6a\dfj.ovs 8e Tpeis

el^e TpiK\ivovs,

uv

rjv

TO /card

rijv

irpv^vav

dTTTaviov.

/card 8e TTJV

d^wrdrw

irdpodov yvfj,vd<riov

fjv, /cat

wepLiraTOi, /c.r.X.

For

a further account of the structures on the upper irdpodos, see note 1 33 on p. 58. The ship here described as Tpnrdpodos is described as Tpt.dpfj.evo$ by Plutarch and

by Proclos in the passages quoted in note 74 on p. 28. Athenaeos is quoting here from Moschion, and applies the term -rrdpodot to the three decks of the ship; whereas in quoting from Callixenos see note 118 on p. 50 he applies the term to
a pair of gangways along the two sides of the ship
:

but Moschion seems to be

AND THREE-DECKED
ship,

SHIPS.

55

the centre open And the term triereis was certain authors to three-decked ships, and applied by 126 even to three-storied buildings while in the Septuagint the

but

left

125

.

itself

;

described as triorophos, that is to say, with three stories, though in the original its triple arrangement is of an undetermined sort 127 The three-banked war-ships may
is
.

Ark

therefore have inherited the
:

name

triereis

from three-decked

ships of earlier date but they never had three decks themselves. The rowers of the lower bank were indeed styled halamitai, as if they had originally sat in a thalamos, or

lamber:

but the rowers of the middle bank were styled

vgitai, as if
id if

the

beams served

they had originally sat upon the zyga, or beams; as seats, they could not carry a deck,

:koning each pair of gangways as a single structure, for he states explicitly that middle irdpodos had cabins on each side of the ship. Possibly the open space

tween the gangways was covered over by a deck corresponding to the KaTdarpw/jia on a war-ship, so that the ships described as rpnrdpoSot or Tpidp/j.evoi really had four decks altogether. Thus, Lucian reckons the depth of a merchant-ship diro TOV /carcurrpw/iaros, navigium, 5, and she was one of the TrXoia Tpia.piJ.eva, navigium,
14.

Cabins at the stern are mentioned by Lucian, navigium,
oi/cTjcreis

5,

al

Kara

TT]V

Lucan, ix. no, l\\> puppisque cavern is delitutt and these probably answer to Moschion's vavKXrjpiKTj diatra and its ddXa^oi, the diizta
irpii^vav
cf.
\

magistri of Petronius,
126

satirse,

115.
'

Etymologicum Magnum,

s. v. drfpris

:

A.iro\\uvios 8

Kal rds vaus TO.S

^x^ ffa ^

This obviously does not imply that the three-banked ships had three decks themselves it merely shews that this author applied the name for three-banked ships to three-decked ships also. The author may be either Apollonios or Apollodoros, as the reading is doubtful. For this
duo
TJ

Kal rpecj or^yas dirjpeis Kal rpt^pets \yei.

:

sense of artyr),

cf.

Plautus, Bacchides,

ii.

3.

44, Stichus,

iii.

i.

12, in stega.

^Elius

Aristeides, panegyrica in Cyzico, p. 420, dvrl

T&V

Tpir/puv irdpecrTiv opav ve&v TOV fj-tyurTOv,
Tr, <f)v<Ti.

yap T&V oini&v TUV Tpiupbcpwv Kal T&V p.kv aXXwv Tro\\aTT\a(rlova, ai/TOv
ecrri

Se TpnrXovv
vevo/j,i(Tfjt.evTj.

Ta
8

fj-ev

yap avTov KaTayuds

6a, ra

8' virepqjos,

^<n}

8e

rj

8p6fjLOL

VTTO yrfv re Kal Kp/j.affTol 5t'

avTov

StTjKoi/res KVK\<J>,

wffwep

The interior of this Trpocr6r]Kr)s ^pei, dX\' e%TrlTt)des elvai. dp6fj,oi Trfjronjfj^voi. temple thus bore some resemblance to the interior of a three-decked ship, as described by Athenseos in the passage quoted in the last note and this resemOVK ev
:

blance

may have
ii.

led Aristeides to use the term
5,

Tpirjpr]? in

his comparison.

See
:

also Athenseos,
127

as to a dwelling-house

known

as Tpiypys at

Agrigentum

he

quotes the story from Timaeos.
Genesis,
vi.

15, Kal ouro; iroiri<reis TTJV KifiuTov,
avTrjv.

16, KaTayaia,

dtwpoQa Kal
vita

Tpiupo<pa

Troojcreis
ii.

A

fourth deck

is

mentioned by Philo Judaeus,
i.

Moysis,

ii, /cat ffvvex^ /caracr/cei'ao'd/xei'os

v8ov oiV^/iara, tirlTreSa Kal vireptfa,
3. 2,

Tpi<J>po<pa Kal

And also byjosephus, de antiquitatibus Judaicis, TTpupo(pa. \dpvaKa TTpd<rTyov KaTa<rKevd<ras.

56

BEAMS AND DECKING AMIDSHIP.

and the space below could only figuratively be termed a
chamber.
Moreover, there
is

a characteristic
his

little jest

of

Aristophanes to

prove that in

day the rowers of the
.

middle and lower banks had no deck between them 128 And Xenophon speaks as though the rowers of all three banks had to pull together to avoid collision with each other 129 The earliest Greek ships had little decks at stem and
.

stern,

somewhat above the

level of the

beams 130 and
;

similar

decks are represented on Egyptian and Asiatic ships of still earlier date, as in fgs. 4 to 8, the bulwarks marking But on Greek ships of about 500 B.C., as in their extent.
fgs.
128

17 and 19, the forecastle appears without the poop; and
Aristophanes, ranse, 1074, Ka ^
TrpoffTrapdeiv y'
ei's

rb <rr6/ta

T$
rd
/cotXa

But see Appian, de bellis civilibus, Kara TTJV eTramSa HcnrLov, Kal aur<
ev
'
'

v. 107, 6 be 'Aypl-mras t'ero /idXicrra tvdv TOV

efiireauv /car^treicre rijv vavv nai es
/cat

i)

de

rotfj

re

ev

rots irtipyois aTrecmVaro,

TTJV
oi

OdXavaav
5' erepoi.

d#p6a>s

Ka i

T<*> v

tpeT&v

ol fjiev

0aXa/uat Trdvres

d.Tre\r]<f>dr)<rai>,

rb /card-

dvapprj^avres e^evrixovTo.

incident rather suggests that, bank, since they were all drowned, while the rest escaped. But as the survivors had to make their escape by breaking through the upper decking, the rowers of

This was in an action off Mylae in 36 B.C. The there was a deck just above the rowers of the lower

the lower bank

may have been delayed
424
|

until too late
|

by the crowd above.
:

See

also Silius Italicus, xiv.
tarn

rebus in arctis fama But^this cannot reasonably be taken to imply a deck between the banks. la9 Xenophon, economica, 8. 8, Kai rpiriprjs 5t TOL ^ ffeuay^v-r) avdpuiruv 5id rl d\Xo <t>ofiepbv etrn 7roXe/x.tou rj 0tXois d^iod^aTOf 17 tin ra%i) TrXel; did rl 6 &\\o
fiffiv

426, trepidatur omisso summis remigio mail nondum tanti penetrarat ad imos.

sed enim

AXuTTOi dXX^Xots
7rpoveijov(rit>,

oi

e/JurX^ovres

f)

5i6rt

iv

raei

fj,v

KdOyvTai,
KO.L

ev

rd^et
;

5

tv rd^et 5' dvairlTrTOV<nv, iv rd^et 5' e/mfiaiisovcn

fKfiaivovai

But
set

although they had thus to pull together when they were could go on working while another stopped. Thucydides,
ypovvTo /card
<f>tpOi,

all at
iii.

work, one

49,

ol fj,h inrvov

/^/>os,

oi

de -fjXavvov.
et

dtovres

dpa dveiravovro'

Xenophon, Hellenica, vi. 2. 29, el fj.ei> atfpa 5e eXatiiteiv 5^ot, /card fdpos TOI/S VCUJTO.? avtiravev.
fJL^pos

Polysenos, v. 22.4, TO?S 5^ eptrais (TrapayyeiXas) dvd 5^ ras fvylas, ore d rds Opaviridas /cw?ras dvafapeiv.

ore

/j.et>

rds daXa/uuas, ore

make

the

enemy

believe that the ships were fully
:

The stratagem here was to manned, when there really were

only hands enough for one bank of oars

but the enemy would not have been

worked separately. Of course, there was space enough in the hold for the combatants as well as the rowers Xenophon, Hellenica, i. 6. 19, roi)j eVt/Sdras els KolXrjv vavv ^era/SijSderas. But there was no space to spare: Cicero, in Verrem, ii. v. 51, ea est enim ratio
deceived, unless the three banks were often
:

instructarum ornatarumque navium, ut non modo plures, sed ne singuli quidem possint accedere...classem instructam atque ornatam fuisse, nullum propugnatorem
abfuisse,

nullum vacuum transtrum fuisse.

DECKING AT STEM AND STERN.
on Greek ships of somewhat on the ship of earlier date
turricane-deck
later date, as in fg. 23,
in
fg.

57

and even

15,

the bulwarks of this

forecastle are represented as supporting the fore part of a

and enclosing a cabin underneath. Some was wanted on the war-ships, as their bows >ped down to meet the ram but the merchant-ships had lipper bows high out of water; and by about 500 B.C. the forecastle had already been deprived of bulwarks on vessels that class, as may be seen from fg. 18, and apparently was a level with the ordinary deck amidship. The stern now of seats for the steerer and others in command; but held a tier this did not necessitate a separate deck there 131
ich forecastle
:
.

30

Odyssey,
ei's

v.

163, 164, drdp
f/c/>ta
|

i'/cpta

TTT^CU

e?r'

avrrjs

\

v\j/ov,

us

(re

fop-gent
irotet.
\

eV
xii.

rjepoeiSta TTOVTOV, 252, 253,

5e

ffT7}(ras,

dpapuv

0a/ieVi <rTap.lv effffi,
5'

229, 230,

LKpia vr/6s tfiawov

Trpyprjs,

411
iravr'
\

414, 6

dpa

Trpv/j.vr]

evl

vrji

|

TrX^e

KvfiepvrjTfd) Ke<pa\r)i>,

avv

5' dcrrt'

dpa^ev

ctyu,u5is
1

/ce^aX^s' 6
'OSucrcTTji
\

5' dp'

dpvevTrjpi

toiK&s
|

/caTTTrecr'

CITT'

iKpi6(piv.

xiii.

73

75,

/cd

5'

dp

arbpeaav pTJy6s re
cf. iii.

\ivov re
\

vrjbs
;

e*7r'

lKpi6(pLv y\a.(pvpr)$, 'iva viqyperov evdot.,

Trpvp.vrj<s.

353, xv.

283, 552

also

epistolae, p.

r&v

IJL^V

ei's

used in prose by Synesios, 161, tiri r&v UpLuv e<rrc6s, and also by Heliodoros, ^Ethiopica, v. 24, TO, /coiXa T^S vews /caraSvo/weVcoi', r&v 5e Trpbs fj.dxw ^TTI T&V iKplwv
Iliad, xv. 685,

729.

The term

is

dXXTjXots TrapaKe\evojji{i>(*)v.

Pliny,

vii.

57, tectas longas (naves invenere]

Thasii :

antea ex prora tantum

et

ment
Tp6ir({3
Ko.1

in

Thucydides,

i.

puppi pugnabattir. This probably answers to the state10, ovd' av rd TrXota /card^pa/cra ^x oj/ras dXXd ry TraXaty
>

XyaTiKurepov irapeffKevaa^va.

As

to the statement in

Thucydides,
p. 50.

i.

14,

aurcu O^TTW elxov 5id Trdcnjs KaTa<TTpu/j.a.Ta, see note 118 e 121 on p. 51 for the meaning of tectas and Kard<ppaKTa.
131

on

And

see

Ptolemy, Almagest,
irpupv^
:

viii.

a(TTpufj.aTL TTJS

i, 'Apyovs d<TTepi(r/j,6$, employs the phrase fv ry but this does not imply that the ship had a separate

at the stern, any more than his phrase eV rrj rp67rei TTJS irpu(ji.fr)s implies that had a separate keel there. So also Petronius employs the phrase supra tratum puppis, satine, 100; the construction being determined by the context

ion

supra constratum navis occuparemus secretissimum locum. The same interpremust be placed upon the phrase in Aulus Gellius, xvi. 19, stansque in

surnmce puppis foro.

This

is

Arion aravra
fdffriv vta.
cf.

eV roicrt ewXi'oi<ri

a translation from Herodotos, i. 24, while the robbers dvaxupr)<ra.i etc
ytt^o-ou

who
rijs

speaks of
ts

irp6fj.v>js

Euripides, Helena, 1571, 'EXeV?? Kadtfrr' iv
5'
T\V
\

eSwXtois, 1602,

presumably a

'EX^^s. These eSciXta at the stern were term eSwXia being equivalent to sedilia in Latin. For the other Virgil, ^neid, v. 837, sub remis fusi per dura sedilia naut<z. cduXtov that held the mast, see note 196 on p. 91. Apparently, the term
1603, Trapa.K^\evafji.a
jrpvp.vriOev

set of seats, the

$vyt)v

served also to denote

some bench
tv

at the stern.
\

^Eschylos,

Agamemnon,
tirl

1617, 1618, av ravra (pwveis, veprtpa irpoayiMevos
dop6s
;

K&irrj,
5'

Kparovvruv T&V
\

vyip

cf.

Euripides, Cyclops, 14,

15,

TrpvuvQ

a.Kpa

our6s Xa/JoH' etidvvov

58

DECK-HOUSES AND THEIR FITTINGS.
Ships generally had a deck-house at the stern for the his friends, sometimes constructed solidly,
.

commander and

Xeavier
Some

but oftener of wicker-work or merely of awnings 132 The type is represented on the Roman merchant-ship in y. 29, and the lighter type on the Roman war-ship in fg.

ships had deck-houses all along the upper decking; and these were fitted with every luxury, baths of bronze and marble in the bath-room, paintings and statues and mosaics And in the principal saloons, and even a library of books. these deck-houses there were covered walks with alongside rows of vines and fruit-trees planted in flower-pots 133
.

This vybv may answer to the iuga longa of Virgil, ^Eneid, vi. d/j.<j>rjpes 86pv. deturbat, laxatque 411, 412, inde alias animas, qua per iuga longa sedebant, foros : for the ghosts here were not on board as rowers, so these iuga would not be In this passage the rowers' seats, nor could those seats be described as longa.
\

Virgil calls the deck Jori, whereas Aulus Gellius calls it forus : but singular and Sallust, apud Nonium, p. 206, ilium nautis forum. plural were used indifferently. Cicero, de senectute, 6, alii per foros cursent. Lucan, iii. 630, ad summos repleta
foros, desedit in undas, sc. navis.

tnulta foro ponit et agea longa repletur,
for wdpodos.
like
lato

Ennius, apud Isidorum, origines, xix. 2. 4, where age a or ay via is probably a synonym

Forum

These terms forus and fort must convey the notion of an open space, and hence denote a deck. Ammianus, xxvii. 5. 2, ponteque contabusupra navium foros fiumen transgressus est Histrum.
;

132

Herodotos,
/cat

vii.

100,

cos

ravrd

oi ^TreTrotTjro, T!JOV

ve&v

/careX/cixrfleto'^wj' es

ffdXaffffav, evdavra. 6

fZty&s

/xere/c/3ds e/c

TOV ap/Aaros es

vea. 'LiSwvL'rjv

tero

VTTO ffKyvrj

Arrian, anabasis, vi. 13, /cat TrapeVXwe irapa rds Trpypas TUV veuv. ir\twv /card TOV irora^bv, ws eTT^Xafev i] vaOs -fjdr) ry ffTparoired^ TOV jSacrtX^a (pepovaa,

Xpvvty

Si]

(A.\eat>8pos)
viii.

d0e\t^

TTJV ffKtjv^v

dwb

rrjs
i]

Trpvfj.vr)S,

tus

/cara0ai/7?s et^at

Chariton,

6, tlfftirXevvtv ovv Tpirjpys
/

Xat/^ou

TT^WTTJ.

et%e

5'

dwdvoj

(njyKfKaXvfJL^vriv Ba^SyXwj'iots 7rept7rerd(r aa(r'...at0>'t'5tof elXxvffdr] rd Trapa,

/cat

w0^

KaXXipporj,

/c.r.X.

Tacitus, annales, xiv.

haud procul gubtrnaculis
camera ruina.
noti
|

adstabat,
et

cum
viii.

5, Crepereius Gallus dato signo ruere tectum loci multo plumbo
est.
cf.

grave; pressusque Crepereius
brumalis infida vitabis.
133

statim exanimatus

Suetonius, Nero, 34,

Sidonius, epistoke,

12, hie, superjlexa crate paradarum, sereni
5.

Ausonius, epistolae, expositum subter paradas.

28,

29,

Medullini

te feret

ora

ffv /After pov

Athenaeos, v. 41, /card 5e TT\V dvwrdrw TrdpoSov yv/j,vd<rtov x VT s T KaraffKevrjv ry rot) irXotov /jLeytdei, tv

riv,

/cat TreptTrarot,

V

ols

Kijtrot

iravroiot

6av/j.affiii}s T]GQ.V

TreptpaXXoires rats 0irretats, 5td Kepa/j-Ldcov
KITTOV \evKod
/cat

fjt,o\vj35ii><jji'

KaTeffTeyavdJ-

jj^voi.

TI 5

ffKrjval

d/ATr^Xwi',

uv

at pt^at rrjv rpo<^r\v tv TrL6ois

i\ov yrjs TreTrX^pw^i^foty, TT\V avTTjv apdevffiv

\a/j.(3dj>ov<rai

Kaddirep
'

/cat

oi

aOrat 5e at

aK-rjval (rvveffKlafrv

rous TrcpiTrdrous.
e/c

eijs 5

TOIJTWV

A(f>podiaiot> /ca?

o-/ceyacrro rpt/cXt^ov, 8dTre5oi>

fyov

/card TT]v vrjtrov rjaav

'

roi)y rot'xous 5'

\LOwv dx<*-T&v re /cat a\\wv xa/>teo-rdrwj', e?X e * a * T ^ v opo(f)T)v KvrrapiTTOv, rds 5 6vf

TURRETS FOR ENGAGING AN ENEMY.

59

Ships also carried turrets on the upper decking to enable 134 and their crews to shoot down missiles on an enemy carried them as much as war-ships, since they merchant-ships These turrets could easily be lad often to encounter pirates.
;

:tures in the hull:

up and taken down again, their foundations alone being and apparently those foundations some-

imes projected overboard, as though the turrets reached right :ross the ship or else were placed in pairs on either side.

A

lerchant-ship might carry as many as eight, two in the bows, fo near the stern, and four amidship; and such turrets might

mtain three stories each, and thus be fully twenty feet in
t<pai>TOS

Kal dvov

'

ypatpais de Kal dyd\fjia(riv

TI

5

troT-tjpiwv

KaraffKevdlj vircpe'/c

i\\6vTO)s KaT<rKeua<7To. ov TOVS Tolxovs Kal

42, TOVTOV
6vpd)fjt.ara
e/c

5'

t<pe^s
'

ffxoXaffT-rjpLov virijpxe TrepTa/cXtJ'oi',

ra

KaTe<rKevao-fj.frov,
TTJV

^\i.od^K-rjv fyov tv aury,
aTrofJi/j.ifj.rjfji.^i>ov

ira 5

TT]v 6po(j>T]v TTO\OV,

TOV /card

AxpaSivyv

TjXiorpOTrLov.

Kal flaXaveiov TpiK\ivov, irvpias x^X/cas fyov rpets Kal \ovT7jpa irtvTt /ieT/JTjTaj /farecr/cei/aaro 5^ Kal ot/c77ju.ara, K.T.\. iromiXov TOV Taupo/xeiuTov \idov. ,

Lthenseos ascribes this ship to Hieron, but the description
lips

seems to be inspired by

of later date

:

see pp.

2729.

Suetonius, Caligula, 37, fabricavit et de cedris

iburnicas gemmatis puppibus, vcrsicoloribus veils, magna thermarum et porticuurn tricliniorum laxitafe, magnaque etiam vitiurn et pomiferarum arborum varietate ;

quibus discutnbens de die inter chores ac symphonias litora

Campania
TroXus

peragraret.
'

Maximus
Aiyvwrov
01

Tyrius,
es

i.

3,

X^yw

5^ ov pvdov TrXdrrwi',

dXXd ov

fvpov

^TrXet /3ao"tXei)s

T&V

virep QoivlKTis fiapfidpuit

XP OV0 ^ Te c tueivuv ruv avdpuv,
^>

" OVK

'Lcraai.

Trapecr/cefdcraro dr) /xeXXwi' TrXeiv 6 adeos OVTOS Kal

6a\arTav, ovde d\tyovcri TOV Alyi6xov Aios d^dXarros
'iva

oi>8

de&

/3ao"tXei)s
rjv

cvpuxwpov vavv,

avT<^ Tracrat at rjdoval crf/WTrX^wo't

ola jcaXXtoTa, TracrrdSes, Kal evvai,

Kal

'

dp6/j.oi

TO /JLCV yap ai/Trjs fiaalXeia " izKTOffdev 5' ai)X^s ft^yas
'

'

dvpawv TeTpdyvos," Kal
iTreXof TO 5e avrris \OVTQOV

oevftpa efj.irecpvKea'av, poiai, Kal cry^^ai, Kal
r)v y
'

TO 5^ ffvpirbffiov
iturally refer to

iven as /Eetes,
rt

would some king of the Nabatseans but in the context his name is and that does not suit any king in history. Plutarch, Lucullus, 7,
;

Kal yvfj.vdaiov TO d 6\f/OTroi.ois x^P a T0 TO 5e AXXo Ti /ifyos Tpv(pu<n)s TroXewj. This

^

5e

vavs

ov %pi'crop60ois
s,

o~KT)vlo~iv
/cat

ou5c XouT/9o?s TraXXa/ctSwi'
/cat

/cat

yvvatKuvlTiffi

dXX' o/rXw^

/SeXwv

xp^/xaTWi' ye/j.ov<ras

TrapapTv<rdfji.ei>os,

134 Pliny, xxxii. i, sed artnata: classes imponunt sibi turrium propugnacula, ut niari quoque pugnetur velut e muris. Vegetius, iv. 44, in maioribus etiam

'iburnis

'/is

propugnacula turresque constituunt, ut tamquam de muro ita de excelsiorperimant inimicos. Horace, epodes, i. i, 2, liburnis inter alta navium, The term liburni is used amice, propugnacula.
tabulatis facilius vulnerent vel
|

trictly

by Horace, but loosely by Vegetius see p. 16 and notes 42, 44 so their tements are not contradictory. Lucan, iv. 226, turrigeras classis pelago sparsura
cf. iii.

irinas,

514.

Virgil, ^Eneid, viii. 693, turritis puppibus.

60
height
135
.

THE BALLASTING OF THE

SHIPS.

turret is represented in the bows of the of about 50 A.D. in fg. 25. On such ships the war-ship turrets were painted and their colouring served to distinguish
little

A

Roman

;

one squadron from another 136

.

counterbalance these encumbrances upon the upper decking, quantities of ballast would be required at the bottom
of the hold and some gravel or sand or stone always was And this ballast could carried there for steadying the ship 137
;
.

To

135

Thucydides,

vii.

25, -rrpocrayay6t>Tes

yap vavv

/j.vpio(f>6pov

avrois

oi 'Adijvatoi,

irupyovs re fcvXlvovs
v.
1

x ovffav
tirl

Kal Trapa.<ppdy(j.aTa, K.T.\.
veCjv

06, Kal irijpyovs

TWV

Appian, de bellis civilibus, elxov Kara re irpqpav Kal Kara irpvp.vav. Athenaeos,
cnj/j-fjierpoi

v. 43, irvpyoi re rjffav eV avr-g
fj.fr

6KT&,

rb

[Jityedos rots TTJS

veus oyKots

'

860
42,
roi)s

Kara

TrpvfJ,vav,

ol

5'

tffot

Kara
vavv

irpifpav, oi Xouroi 5e

Kara ^at\v vavv.

cf.

drXavrts re

ire pi.tr pexov TTJV

Kr6s ea7r?7xets, ol TOVS oyxovs VTreiXrjQeo'av

dvurdru.

These 8yKoi are presumably the

7ru//yoDx ot of Polybios, xvi. 3, -jrapaTTJS

ireffuv de rots TroXe/uois, airtfiaXe

rbv oe&ov rapabv

vews, 6/xoO ffvppaytvTbiv Kal

TWV Trvpyotixw- Thus the 67*01 or irvpyovxot. would be beams or platforms Dion projecting from the ship, and serving as foundations for the turrets. Cassius, 1. 33, oi ntv ra iffria tfyeipov, oi 8t rots re ^^70^5 Kal ra ^TrnrXa e^s rrjv
6a\aff<rav
iv. 72,

tppiTTTOvv,

STTWS

Kov(plcrai>Tes

diacptiyucri.

Appian, de

bellis

civilibus,

tXirlfav

yap

n

TOIOVTOV, ^Tre^pero (Kdo'O'ioy) irijpyovs tirTvy/j.ti'Ovs, ot rbre
iii.

dvlffravTo.

Csesar, de bello Gallico,
ternis tabulatis erigebat.

14,

turres

cum

The

reference

turribus excitatis^ de bello civili, is here to merchant-ships

i.

26,

;

and

so also in the passages quoted above from Athenseos and Thucydides. Although the statements of Athenoeos are questionable, since they are borrowed from Moschion see pp. 27 to 29 they probably are based on fact.
13(5

Appian, de

bellis civilibus, v. 121,

ah

or] fj.6vais

8it(pepov a\\r)\wt>, 6

vavs, edappvve roi>s o~vi>6vTas,

/wXu 5^ wore rats xp ic" s r ^ v irvpyw, 'Aypimras vvvds irXtovas airoXwXtvai TOU HO/XTTT/IOI/ K.T.\. See also Polysenos, v. 34, already quoted at
fleet.
p/j.a.TiTif9

the end of note 89 on p. 35, as to uniformity of colouring in a
137

Odyssey,

v. 257, TroXXrji' 5' eTrexetfaro vXrjv.

Lycophron, 618, TOV

vybs ^KfiaXuv Trtrpov.
dvep/j.aTiffTa

irXola.

Plato, Theaetetos, p. 144 A, Kal arrovres <ptpovrai uvirep ra Plutarch, animi et corporis affectiones, 4,
ireffe,

dvep/j.dTi<TTos efs TI

vavdyiov <pofiepbv

ad principem ineruditum,

5,

TroXXoC Kal Kv^epv/irov fteydXov Ofb^evov,

Livy, xxxvii. 14, onerarias multa saburra

gravatas.
Aristotle,

Pliny, xvi. 76,
historia

CXX M modiorum Untis pro saburra d fuere.
viii.

See also
87; de

animalium,
1428,

12.

5,

ix.

40.

21;
iv.

Pliny,

x.

30, xviii.

Aristophanes, aves,
solertia

1429;

Virgil, georgics,

194196;

Plutarch,

animalium, 10. 10, 28. 2. At Portus, near the mouth of the Tiber, the ballast-heavers formed a guild, corpus saburrariorum Corp. Inscr. Latin, vol. xiv, no. 102.
:

138

Arrian, anabasis,

ii.

19,

tynard re

s

TTJV

Trptuvav
'

v0<rav, TOV tapai
fJ.ev

es

C^os Tyv wpypav Tneofj.tvr)s Kara irpv^vav
tfiTrpypa
TO,

TT)S vecos.

Polybios, xvi. 4, avrol

yap

rd

ffKd(pTfj

Troiowres, t^dXovs eXdfJ.ftavov ras 7rX7?7cis

rots 5^ -rroXeulois

v$aXa

Tpav/j.ara 5i86t>Tes, dfiorjdrjTovs taKetiafov ras irXrjyds.

BILGE-WATER AND DRINKING-WATER.

6l

easily be shifted fore or aft to depress or elevate the bows, as At the bottom of need arose for ramming or manoeuvring 138
.

the hold there was also a

mass of bilge-water, which needed :onstant baling out by buckets or else by a machine consisting 139 >f an Archimedean screw worked by some sort of treadmill
.

,nd probably the cisterns for the drinking-water were also lown below, serving like the bilge to increase the weight of
>allast
39
140
.

Odyssey,
xv.

xii.

410, 411, tor6s
5'

5'

oirlau ireaev, oir\a re irdvTa
ireffovff',

els
|

&VT\OV

>-e"xy vr(

479, avT\(p

evdovTrr/cre

us
\

elvaXli)

Kr)j-.

Sophocles,

^hiloctetes,
,

els dvT\lav, es irpypav, es 481, 482, e/x^aXou // o"irrj 6e\eis aywv, Cicero, ad familiares, ix. 15. 3, sedebamus enim in puppi et clavum

lebamus: nunc autem vix

est in sentina locus.

Sallust, Catilina,

37,

Romam,

icut in sentinam, confluxerant.

These terms AVT\OS or dvr\ia and sentina, which

ms denoted

iversus Thebas, 795,
jneca, epistoloe, 30,
Iteri obsistitur,

the bilge of a ship, also denoted the bilge- water. /Eschylos, septem TroXXcuxrt TrX^cus O.VT\OV OVK e^5eaTo. 796, Kal K\v5b)t>iov
\

quemadmodum
locis

in nave,

qua sentinam
fj.lv

trahit^

uni rimce ant

ubi plurimis

laxari ccepit et cedere, succurri non potest navigio
686, 6
irap

ehiscenti.

Euripides,

Troades, 685,

otax,

6

5' eirl

\ai<f>effiv

Ms,

Cicero, de senectute, 6, alii malos scandant, alii The buckets for the baling were faros cnrsent, alii sentinam exhauriant. >wn as dvT\rjTript.a or sentinacula. Dion Cassius, 1. 34, otfre yap TroXXd r] Kal
|

6 5' avT\ov etpywv va6s.

\a TO. dvT\r)T7]pia efyov, Kal rnjudea

avrd are

TapaTTO/J.evoi dve(pepov.

Paulinus

Jolanus, epistolge, 49. 3, et post

unum

vel alterum brevis sentinaculi
is
'

haustum
v. 43,

\umore

destricto siccataque navi, etc.

The pump
^

mentioned by Athenoeos,

oe dvT\la, nalirep ftddos

apSpos e^rjvrXelTo did Kox^lov, cf. Vitruvius, x. 6. 3, cochlea hominibus calcantibus facit ovs e^evpbvTos. rsationes. Artemidoros, oneirocritica, i. 48, ot5a 5^ riva, ds e"8oe TOV iravTbs

vireppd\\ov ^x ovffa & 1

* vo *

YI;, 6'/u,ws
s

5^ Kivelo~dai.

ffweBy

ai>T<^ els

dvT\lav KaTadiKaffBijvai.

dvT\ov<TL vvfjipep-nKe 8tafialveiv pev us padtfrwiv, del 8e peveiv ev

Kal yap ^/ce? ry aury TOTT^.

'or

\emnato.

the phrase els dvT\lav KaTadiKa<r6r)vai, cf. Suetonius, Tiberius, 51, in antliam In the context Artemidoros says that a man was set to bale 6vn and Lucian reckons it fit work for the dpybv Kal arexvov Kal ATO\UOV, (j,

upiter tragoedus, 48.
14Q
ISVU jp

See also Paulinus Nolanus,

epistolae, 49. 12, sent

persona
Kal

tinatoris, et in natitis vilissima.

Lucian, veras historise,
ii.

i.

5,

TrcfytTroXXa

/j,ev

<riTla

eve^aXb^-qv, iKavbv 8

evedffAyv, /c.T.X.

I, TT\V

voi Kal TO. ,

dXXa

eirtT-fideia.

vavv eTreaKevdfo/j.ev, vdwp re us evi TrXeicrrov e/ij3aXX6Dion Cassius, 1. 34, r6 /j.ev wpuTOV ry 7rcm>y CSari y
'

<T< (fiepovTo exp&VTO, Kal Tiva KaTeo~Be(rav
6a\aTTiov.

eirel

d

eKeivo KaTavaXudrj,

r/vT\ovv TO

Athenseos, v. 42, r^v 5e Kal vSpodriK-rj vara TTJV wpfpav /cXeto-TTj, fieTpr/Tas Sexo/J-evrj, eK vaviduv Kal TrlTTrjs Kal bdovlwv KaTeffKevaff/j-evt}. was equivalent to a cubic foot and a half, this cistern would contain 3000 cubic feet
of water; and that would weigh about 75 tons. as it comes from Moschion: see pp. 27 29.

The statement

is

open

to suspicion

62

CATHEADS AND RAMS ON WAR-SHIPS.
In the fore part of the war-ships everything was conwith a view to ramming. The catheads were

structed

massive, and stood out far enough to tear away the upper works of a hostile ship, while the ram was piercing her below; for which purpose they occasionally were strengthened at the

ends by timbers springing from the hull some way behind 141 And they must also have served in ramming to protect the oars from damage by the enemy. Their position and design
.

be observed in the Greek war-ships of about 300 B.C. in 22 and 23. Here the catheads are on a level with the fgs. and the gangway, which both finish at this point, gunwale

may

while the waling-pieces run onward to the stem. Right forward the keel and stem-post and the lower pair of walingand higher up the stempieces converge to hold the ram
;

Thucydides, vii. 34, r&v 5' A.dfjva.lwv KartSv ^v ovSe/j-ia ciTrXws, eirra Se" Tives AVXot tyevovTo avrtrrpypoi /ut./3a.\\6/u.evai Kal dvappayutrai rd? 7rapeetpecrtas VTTO TUV Kopwdiuv vewv eV avrb TOVTO 7ra%i>T^pas ras eVwrtSas exovcrwv. 36, /cat ras
Trpypas T&V veuv
vvTe/j.6vTS (ol Zupa/c6<rtot)
rat's
e's

141

''

ZXaacrov crrepi0a;re'pas
Kal

eiro'n)<rav,

Kal

ras e7rarr5as eir6ecrav
?rp6s TOVS rot'xous
TTpo? rds eV rrj

Trpc^pats

iraxelas,

dvriypiSas aV' aurcDv VTrtreivav

(as eVi t 7r^%ets tvros re /cat ZfaBev, $7ren Tp6?ry /cat oi KopivOiot NauTrd/cry vavs eirtaKevaa'dfJievoi irpypadev evav/ui.dxovv. 40, oi 8 2upa/c6criot de^dfj-fvoi Kal ra?s re vavalv aWtTrpypois xpw/wei'ot, cucTTrep dievorjOrjcrav, rCiv

tfj.{3t>\uv rfj

TrapaaKev-fi dveppriyvvaav

ras rCov

'

AOyvalw

vaOs

eirl

TTO\I> rrjs Trape^et-

petr/aj, /c.r.X. cf. 36,

avrlirpypoi

yap

(4v6junaav) rats e/x/3oXa?s %pco/ie^ot dvaj^p^etv

ra

irpypadev
its

aiJrots.
is

meaning

In these passages the term ?rape etpecrta denotes the bows ; but merely that the place was out beyond the oars, and sometimes it

denotes the quarters or the stern, as in the passages quoted from Polysenos in note 170 on p. 75 and from Thucydides and Plutarch in note 223 on p. 102. In
saying that the bows were made shorter, Thucydides may only mean that the distance between the ram and the catheads was reduced by carrying the catheads further forward. Diodoros says that the bows were also made lower, xiii. 10, but
that was merely a matter of ballasting see note 138 on p. 60. The dvrtjpiSes were clearly a pair of props sloping upwards and forwards from some point in the keel to the extremities of the catheads, and thus passing through the ship's sides a little
:

ahead of the oars of the lower banks.

The term

dvrrjpides

is

employed by Polybios

to denote the props for a gangway, viii. 6. 6. Dion Cassius, xlix. 3, Kal rots yuev r6 re tfi/'os rcDv (TKa0tDv Kal TO 7rd%os rwv eTrwrldiav ot re irtipyot. ffwypovro, roi)s 5'

This refers to the action off Mylae in 36 B.C. /c.r.X. of Augustus Csesar and Sextus Pompeius. As a rule, the eirwrldes had a backing of the strongest timber. Theophrastos, historia plantarum, v. 7. 3, r6 5e (rrep^w/xa, Trpos $ TO xeAw/za Kal ras e7rwr5as, yUeXfas /cat
erepovs
oi'

re SteWAot tW^epov,
fleets

between the

ffvKafJiivov Kal TrreXe'as

tV^fpa ^ap Set raur elvai. catheads for the anchors, see note 154 on p. 69.

'

For the use of the eVwr/Ses

as

THE PRINCIPAL AND AUXILIARY RAMS.
>st

63

pair of waling-pieces.

upon the junction of the upper In ships of more than three banks icre was presumably an extra ram for every extra pair of and here some rams are fixed upon false waling-pieces
is
;

a smaller

ram

fixed

on a level with the catheads 142 All these rams would extend the wound inflicted by the ixiliary incipal ram, and thus cut an enemy open from the gunwale the water-line; while they would also protect the stem-post iderneath them from being shattered by contact with her
iling-pieces
.

les.

The rams

usually were

made

of

bronze 143

.

On

the

Athenian three-banked ships the principal ram did not weigh lore than three talents or thereabouts, that is to say, I7olbs.;

the metal could only have formed a sheathing round a
Athenseos, v. 37, KOL /i/3oXa el~x. ev fi"r<* Totiruv v /xi> i]yo)jfj.i>ov, TO, 5' orrcr riva 5k Kara rds eTrwrtSas. This refers to the alleged ship of forty banks. Apparently, the meaning of the last words is that she had some auxiliary
142

rams on a
scholiast

level

with the catheads in addition to the other
'

six.
',

y'Eschylos applied

the epithet Se/c^u/foXos to Nestor's ship in the

Myrmidons

according to the

on Aristophanes, aves, 1256, OVTCO ytpwv &v cnJo^ou rp^^oXov. cf. But clearly the meaning Fr. 301, apud Athenaeum, i. 52, iireyepei rbv tufioKov. was that a good ship could go on ramming time after time not that ten rams were
;

carried, or even three.

Corp. Inscr. Attic,
11.

vol.

ii,

no.

795,

col.

d,
^

11.

3
c
l-

7, e,

NiK7706pos, 0eo5c6poi> tpyoi>, tTno-KevTjs deo^vr}, irpofji^6\iov OVK
11.

^x ovffa

cf-

28

32, no. 796, col. a,

38

41, col.

e, 11.

4

7.

These

entries refer to ships

of three banks;
48

and indicate that such ships had only one

irpoe/j.p6\iov,

or auxiliary

^Eschylos, Persae, 408, 409, vavs
iralovro.
|

oXcus %aXKO(TT6^oij
'

v vrjl ^aX/c^p?; crr6\ov t-iraurev, 415, 416, Plutarch, Antonius, 67, TrX-^ OVK frtfidXev els
|

>

Avrwviov vavv,
Sulla,

dXXd ryv ertpav rdv vavapxiSuv ry
22, vavs ^aX/c^peis,

^aX/cci/tcrn

7rardas
cf.

epp*6/i/377<re,

iripides,

Pompeius, 28, vavs %aXKe/x/36Xous. Iphigeneia in Aulide, 1319, va&v xaX/fe^oXd5w^, Electra, 436,
Philippos,
vrjuv.

tve/ji.{36\ot.<riv.

in

the

Anthology,

vi.

236,

fyeSoXa

v6?rXoa revxfo.
lebais,
'is

Petronius, satira2, 30,

embolum navis (zneum.

Statius

335, arata dispellens aquora prora. Virgil, ^Eneid, i. 35, spumas are ruebant, viii. 675, classes aratas. Caesar, de bello civili, ii. 3, cum classe
v.

indit ceratas vitiosa

mini sexdecim, in quibus pauca erant cerate. Horace, odes, ii. 16. naves cura, iii. i. 39, dtcedit Grata triremi.
|

21,

22,
is

Iron

mtioned by Pliny, xxxii.
r

itruvius, x. 15. 6, is
ngcs solent habere.

are ferroque ad ictus armata, and by autem aries habuerat de ferro duro rostrum, ita uti naves
r,

rostra

ilia,

But see Tibullus,

iv.

i.

re.

Corp. Inscr. Attic, vol. ii, no. 789 b, us was presumably the Trpoe/j.p6\iov.

11.

173, ferro tellus, pontus conscinditur 27, 32, 89, 90, rb xdXicw/Aa rb avu.

64

DESIGN AND STRUCTURE OF THE RAMS.
144
.

core of timber

And

thus the

weapon

in warfare,

inasmuch as
145

it

ram was often a treacherous was slender enough to be
and started her
;

wrenched
timbers as
that
it

off the ship in delivering its blow,
it
.

As a rule, it had three teeth so broke away looked like a trident, when viewed from the side 146
;

.

These teeth are conspicuous in the Greek ship of about 300 B.C. in fg. 23 but in the Greek ship of about 600 B.C. in in the Phoenician ship of about 700 B.C. in fg. 13, and also the ram has only a single tooth and here the ram fg. 10, curves slightly upward, whereas the trident ram curves down, This as though it was intended to heel an enemy over. downward curve appears again in one of the Greek ships of about 5 50 B.C. in fgs. 15 and 16, while the curve points upward in the other so both the forms were then in use And apparently the earlier form was deconcurrently. the curious type depicted in the Athenian ships of veloping
:

;

144

Corp. Inscr. Attic, vol.

ii,

no. 809, col.
rifiy

e, 11.

169

172,

[/*/JoXoi] r[^]r[Ta/)]es,

araBf^bv]
1.

TTT

fivai

A[A]AP,
88,

P

1

A A h hhl

....cf.

no.

8n,

col.

c,

87, [e/i]/36Xoi;s

P,

0ra0/*to'....l.

AAAP,

rt^....

These are

entries of

The word r^rrapes has delivery and receipt, and ought therefore to correspond. been defaced by the mason; so it was inserted by mistake, the number really
being
five.

There probably were other

figures in the
is

gap between
trifle

o-radfj.

and

TTT,
and
this

perhaps

AT,

or even

A P,

for the price

a

under

5-25

drachms,

would represent about fifteen talents of metal for the five rams, as bronze was selling for 35 drachms a talent at that period see Corp. Inscr. Attic, vol. i,
:

no. 319,

11.

2

4, xaX/c6s

euv^6[r]...Td\avra...]Kat5Ka Kal
8paxfJ-a'i.

fj.vdi 5^/c[a].

TI[IU,]T]
;

[TOV

raXavTov rpi]aKovTa irtvre

These restorations are considerable
cf.
11.

but

they are justified by what follows,
SiaKoffiuv Tp\iaK~\ovTa dpaxv-wv
145
ef/cotri
TI/J.^.
/JL^V
'

5

8,

KaTrlrepos ewvf]dT)...Tb raKavrov

Herodotos,
ai Trepicovaat

i.

166, at

yap TccrcrepaKovrd
a7recrrpa0aro
-

<r(f)i(ri

vtes Siefiddpycrav,

al 8e

%aav

dxptjo'Toi

yap TOVS
>

^/x|36Xous.

Dion

Cassius,

xlix. i, Trpos re

rds

^yu./3oXds rQ>v

tvavrLwv avr"x. fl v

/ca '

TOVS ^36Xoi/s avr&v dirocrTpt/u./?o\a

0etv.
5,

Plutarch, Antonius, 66, airedpatiovTo yap

TO.

padiw,

Polybios, xvi.

TdtrrTjs

yap

(rjv

eKvfiepva Avr6\vKos) en^aXovcr^s

et's

7roXe/ut'ai>

vavv, Kal /caraXi-

TOI)S

TOV ^/ijSoXov, ffvvtfi'r) 677, rr\v fj.v ir\r)yei<rav avravdpov Karaduvat, rbv AvrbXvKOv, e/crpeoua?;? ets TTJV vavv TTJS da\dffO"r)s did rijs Trpojpas, Aulus K.T.\....TT)v ptv vavv OVK T)dvi>r]6i} cr&crai, Sid rb Tr\r]pT) 6a\aTTr)S elvai, K.r.X.
Troijcrrjs

(v

ry <TKa<f>(,

5^

-rrepl

Hirtius, de bello Alexandrine, 46, itayue prim^ls ( Vatinius] stea quinqneremi in quadrireniem ipsius Oclavi impetum fecit, celerrinie fortissimeque contra illo remigante naves adversce rostris conctirrerunt adeo vehementer ut navis Octaviana,
y

rostra
Caesar,

discusso,

ligno
civili,

contineretur
ii.

de bello

6,

.deprimitur ipsius prafracto rostro.
. .

Octavi

qiiadriremis.

cf.

RAMS AND FIGURE-HEADS OF ANIMALS.
about 500
B.C. in fgs.

6$

shape of a

boar's

17 and 19, where the head. This type was
,

ram assumes the
characteristic

of

Samian ships

in the
;

from 532 to 522 B.C. ships of other states.

147 who ruled there days of Polycrates but it afterwards came into use on

And

in later times,

when

the principal

ram was usually a trident, the boar's head was retained for a smaller ram above, as in the Leucadian ship of about 150 B.C. Some of these smaller heads are extant and one of in fg. 42. them is drawn to scale in fg. 43. They probably belonged to
;

oman

ships.

Before the introduction of the ram, animals had been rved upon the prow for figure-heads, as in the Egyptian
generally there or relief on both s either a figure-head, or else a painting e bows the subject corresponding to the name of the ship,
r-ship
B.C.

of about 1000

in

fg.

6.

And

;

d serving to distinguish her from others
146

148
.

Such paintings
totumque dehiscit
et
\

Virgil, ,/Eneid, v.

142, 143, infindunt pariter stdcos,
cf. viii.

'(/sum remis rostrisque tridentibus cequor,
i.

689, 690.

Valerius Flaccus,

687, 688, volat immissis cava pinus habenis
tridenti.
147

\

infinditque salum,

spiimas vomit

Herodotos,

iii.

59,

&cry de

ret Alyivyrai aurofa
TUIV
'

rjvdpatrodiffavTo fj,era Kprjruv, Kal

(Sa^ous) vavfAaxiy VIK.-TIve&v Kairptovs exovatuv ras irpypas

Kal avedt<rav es rb Ipbv

7-775

A0rjvat^s ev Aiyivrj.

Anonymus, apud
-

Hesychium,

s.

v.

Sa/a/cds rpbiros
i]

Plutarch, Pericles, 26,
82 Kal yaffrpoeidrjs,

vavs St rts uKuiropos 2a/ta vos elSos ^x ov<ra Se Za/iaij/a vavs tariv Mirpypos ^v rb fflpu/Jia, KoiXortpa
:

ware Kal 0opro0o/>etv Kal TaxwavTew. oirrw 5' d)vofj.dff6r] cf. Alexis rb irp&Tov ev ^dfjap (pavyvai, JloX^/cpcirous rvpavvov KaraffKevdffavTOS. 6 Uo\vKpaTtj3 Kal vavs Tracts dirb r^s Athenaeum, xii. Samios, TrpcDros 5

dia

apud

57,

irarpiSos

2a/iks ^aXeae.

For

aL^wp.a,

cf.

Thucydides,
iv.

iv.

25, dTro<ri[j.w<rdvTuv Kal
/cat

irpoenfiaKbvTwv,

Appian, de

bellis

civilibus,

71,

<?/*/3oXat

aTroo-t/iwo-eu,

Aristotle, problemata, xxiii. 5, dvdcn/j,a

ra

TrXota iroiovvrat.

Thus the stem was

styled the nose, just as the

bows were

styled the cheeks

and the hawse-holes the
ol p.lv tirl i/ews

eyes

:

see note 91

on
iv.

148
tirl TTJS

Diodoros,

37 and note 153 on p. 69. 47, 5iair\ev<rai yap avrbv (3>plov) Qaaiv
p.

irporo^v

Trpypas exotffrjs Kpiov, K.r.X.
:

Tavp6ets

tTri<rr]fj.ov TTJS

ravpofapos yv rj vavs 77 vews TT\V Tr6\iv d>v6fjt.a<rav.

s. v. Apollodoros, Fr. 105, apud Stephanum, TOI>S rty ir6\iv KTt<rai>Tas,...dirb TOV Siafco^crao-a

A Xeovro06pos
p. 14.

is

mentioned in the passage

quoted from

Memnon
ii.

in note 35

on

Plutarch, de mulierum virtutibus, 9,

dpdKovra.

Strabo,

3. 4,

evpbvra

5'

aKpbirp^pov

v\ivov eV vavaylov,

tirirov

tx ov
roi'S

tyyy\vij.fji.froi>,
Hfi> e(j.ir6povs

deiKvvvat TOIS vavK\r)poi$, yv&vai dt Tadeipiruv

6v

rotrwv yap
'itnrovs dirb

fj.eya\a aT^\\eiv TrXota, TOI>$ 8e

Tr^ras

fJiiKpd,

a KaXew

TWV

ev ra?s Trpypats ^n<7T7>wj'.

Hippocrates, epistolse, 17,

i&vefi.\ffas Bt /xoi, 0tX6T7js,

T.

e

66
or reliefs

FIGURE-HEADS, RELIEFS, PAINTINGS,

be seen upon the Roman ships of about 29 and 31, and a figure-head upon the Roman of about 50 A.D. in fg. 26. The only figure-head now ship extant is drawn to scale in fg. 41. This was found off Actium, and probably dates from the time of the battle. On ships of that period it was customary to add some carved or

may

200

A.D. in fgs.

painted figures as supporters so that if a ship were called the Ida and had a personification of the mountain on her
;

as in the

prow, she would have a pair of Phrygian lions Roman war-ship of about 50 A.D. in

down
fg. 25,

below,

where
.

the crocodiles indicate that the ship was called the Nile 149 All these figures on the stem were intended to distinguish ship from ship, and had nothing to do with the statues of the
'
'

tbs a\-r)6ws AffK\7)Trla5a VTJO., y irp6<r6es /xera TOV A\tov firlffri^ov Kal'Tyielyv. But while animals would be suitable for figure-heads, this group of Helios and Hygieia

suggests a relief or painting on the bows cf. Lucian, navigium, 5, TTJV eir^vv^ov "'iffiv eKartpudev, sc. i) irpqpa. Trjs veus debv 2x ovffa T Strictly a figure-head would be an tir ia-tj^ov, while such a painting or relief would be a Tra.pdo-rjfjt.ov.
:

V

Acts, xxviii. ir,

&

TT\O^ 'AX^cwS/awy, TrapcKn^uy

Aioaicovpois.

Plutarch, Themis-

ovv \a/JL^dvet vavv Au/co/^S^s, avyp 'AQyvcuos, Tpnjpapx^v, rjs ra Trapda-^fj.a irepiKtyas dvtdtjKev 'Air6\\(t}vt dcupvyfopit), the plural indicating that
tocles, 15, irp&Tos
fjilv

Plutarch, septem sapientium Trapd<rr)fj.ov was repeated on each bow of the ship. convivium, 18, irvdbnevov TOV re vavK\-r}pov roijvo^o. /ecu TOV Kv(3fpvf)TOv Kal Trjs vecbs

the

Tb

7rapdffri/j.ov.

cf.

Herodotos,

viii.

88, CTCK^WS TO ^Kia-qu.ov T^S /e6s ^Tricrra/x^ous.

Thus the terms

Trapdar)fj,ov

and

^iriffr)fj.ov

badges which distinguished one ship from another.
TOIS dnl TCUS Trpypais 4 7r io"f) /j.aff i
,

were used indifferently to denote the But where Diodoros says
:

and the wider term
j-ovdbv
vav<rlv,

is

xiii. 3, Thucydides merely says ffrjfj.eiois, vi. 31; TOV approved by Aristophanes, ranae, 932, Ai6vv<ros

'nnra\KTpv6va frr&v,
ufj.a.6t<rTa.T',

n's

CTTIV

opts.

933,

AtVx^Xos:

<r-r)fj,eioj>

fr

rats

tveytypairTo.

The term

insigne

was employed

in

Latin.

Tacitus, annales, vi. 34, navis insigne fuit, sc. aries. Propertius, iv. 6. 49, vehunt prorce Centauros saxa minantes. Virgil, ^Eneid, x. 195 197, ingentem remis Centaurum promovet : ille instat aquce, saxumque undis immane minatur
|

|

arduus, et longa sulcat maria alta carina, cf. 156 158, 209 212. Silius Italicus enumerates a whole fleet of ships and their badges, xiv. 567 ff Europa on the bull, a Nereid on a dolphin, Pegasus, a Siren, a Triton, sundry deities, mount
:

Etna

personified,

and so

also Sidon, Libya, etc.

156 158, sEneia puppis \prima tenet, rostro Phrygios imminet Ida super, profugis gratissima Teucris. Inscription in the Bulletin epigraphique de la Gaule, vol. ii, p. 139, Ti(berio) Claudia, Aug(usti) This must date from the middle of the lib(ertd], Eroti, trierarcho liburna Nili.
Virgil, ^Eneid, x.
:
\

149

subiuncta leones

First Century, the deceased being a
fleet

freedman of Claudius or Nero

;

so the

Roman

contained a two-banked ship called the Nile about the time banked ship with the crocodiles was being carved in that relief.

when

the two-

AND STATUES AT STEM AND STERN.
s

6/
dis-

by which the ships belonging
from
the

to

one state were
;

tinguished

ships belonging to another every Athenian ship carrying a statue of Pallas Athene, every Carthaginian ship a statue of Ammon, and so forth. On the

Roman ship of about 200 A.D. in fg. may perhaps be seen at the far end
the usual place for

29 one of these statues
of the stern, which was
is

them 150

.

The

stern here

prolonged into

a kind of gallery, while its true contour is marked by the swan's neck that rises in a curve within and in the Roman
;

ship of about 50 A.D. in fg. 26 the structure is the same, the swan or goose being a recognized feature in ships of that 151 Very often the goose was gilded; and so also were period
.

the statues of the gods.
150

N?7/>7j5es

Euripides, Iphigeneia in Aulide, 239241, x/w<r<?cus 5' ecrraaav deal Trpv/jLvais, fffjfJi 'AxiXXefov o-rparov, 246
\

elx6fftv
\

/car' aicpa
'

ayuv

|

e^Kovra vavs
Trovrlas
\ |

6 Qrjo-tus

|

TTCUS e?}s
\

tvav\6xei, deav

\

258, 'Ardidos IlaXXaS' ev /j.wi>xois
r(av Botwrwi'
|

\

^X (j3V TTTepwrottrtP
cnrXioTta,

ap/JLacriv

derdv,

ev'o"r}(ji6i>

ye
\

(fida/ia

vavfiaTats.

5'

Trevr^Kovra

'

vrjas
I

eld6/mav

fftj^eLoiaLv

^OToXtay^i'as

rots
\

de
8e

Kadfios

T\V

xptveov dpaKOvr' ^x uv
/carei56yLtai/
|

a/t0J

va&v Kbpvpfia.
/cat

273
\

276,

etc

HvXov

N^<rropos

|

Yepyvlov

irp6[j.vas cr^/ia

Tavphirovv 6pai>

rbv irdpoiKov 'A\<pe6v.

Aristophanes,
TptaKo<rias vavs,
/Mffdov

Acharnenses,
rfv

544

547,
|

Kapra

fj.evrav

etdtus

/fa0etX/cere
| |

5

av

77

7r6Xis ?rX^a
'

Ooptifiov trTpariwrwj', Trepl rpLTjpdpxov jSo?;?,

Sido/J^vov,

Ha\\adib}v xp vffovlj ev(>}v i K.T.\.
tottim insignibus

una torvus Abas: huic
puppis.
celsce

armis

Silius Italicus, xiv. 408 410, puppis vicina Dione, 438, 439, Ammon

Virgil, ^Eneid, x. 170, 171 agnien^ et aurato fulgebat Apolline irrumpit Cnmana ratis,,..mimen erat
,
j

numen
Ovid,

erat Libycce gentile carina,
tristia,
i.

\

cornigeraque sedens spectabat ccerula fronte.

10.

12,

Palladia

numine
Medea

tuta fuit, sc. navis, cf.

i,

flava tutela Minerva.
\

202, 203,

puppe procul summa
i.

vigilis post terga magistri

Valerius Flaccus, viii. haserat aurata genibus

Minei-v<z, cf.

301, fulgens tutela carince.

(navis) ebore coelata

esf.
i.

The
nomen

distinction

between the

Seneca, epistoloe, 76. 13, tutela tutela and the insigne is

obvious in Ovid,
in

tristia,

10. i, 2, esf mihi, sitque precor, jlavcs tutela

Minerva
\

navis, et a picta casside
irpv/j-vrja-t,

presumably an error, Trp<j>pri<ri for the current reading of Herodotos, iii. 37, tan yap rou 'H0a0Tou
habet.
is
Trjffi

There

TtZya\fj.a Totat ^OLviKrjLoiai HaraiKolffi efJifpepeffrarov, roi>5 01 QotviKes tv

Trp^prjtn

TWV

rpL-riptuv

Trepidyovcn.

6s 8e TQIJTOVS ^77 o?TW7re,

tyw

5^ ol <n)fj,ave'w

TrvyuaLov

avdpbs pin-rials eori.
151

Lucian, navigium,

5,

77

Trp6(j.va

per

tiraveffT-rjKev

ypepa

Ka/ji.Tnj\'r)

xP vff

v v X~n v ^~

Jupiter tragoedus, 47, quoted in note 158 on p. 71. Apuleius, metamorphoses, xi. 16, puppis intorta chenisco bracteis aureis vestito fulgebat.
ffKov e7Tt/c6t/i^77, cf.

Lucian, verse historise,
dv^6r]cre,

ii.

41, 6 re

yap

ev

ry irp^^vrj XT' two*
u>v

&<f>vu tirrepv^aTo KOI

Kal 6

Kvfiepi>ir)Tr)s

(paXapKbs ydy

aj/e/c^^cre, K.r.X.

obviously a skit on the

Homeric hymn
viii.
i,

to Dionysos.
dcrre/)t(r/x6s.

The

xyvicrttos is

This passage is mentioned

again by Ptolemy, Almagest,

'Apyovs

68

ORNAMENTS AT STEM AND STERN.
The
stern used generally to be

surmounted by an ornahave been an imitation of the bud may originally or flower of the lotos, as in the Egyptian ships of about 1250 B.C. in fgs. 3 to 5 but this developed into something like a plume or fan, that always looks rather massive in reliefs, as in fg. 24, but light and feathery in paintings, as in fgs. 17 This ornament was taken as a trophy, to I9> 35 and 36. 152 Another such ornament whenever a ship was captured used sometimes to surmount the stem in default of a figurement, which
;
.

head, as in the Greek and

The type
traced to

viving in
152

war-ships in fgs. 23 and 25. and previously in fg. 13 can be 23 its origin in fg. 3, an old Egyptian form of bow surthis useless ornament above the ram. And the type
depicted in fg.
ix.

Roman

Iliad,

241, 242, ffrevrai yap

vr)Giv

diroKo^etv aKpa Kopv/mfia,
ii.

aura's r'
\

fj.a\epov irvp6s.

Apollonios Rhodios,

601, 2/jnnjs

d' d<p\a<rToio irapt-

a = Valerius Flaccus, iv. 691, extremis tamen increpuere corymbis. must be the aftermost piece of the ship, as the legend was that the Symplegades did not snap at the Argo till she was all but clear of them and they are reckoned as part of the a^Xaa-Tov, which was certainly at the stern. Iliad,

Here the

Kbpvufia

;

xv. 716, 717, "E/crcop d

Trptip,vt]dev eirel Xd(3ev, ov'xjl ftedlei,

\

a<pXa<TTov /xera xe/xriv

Lucan, iii. 586, Graiumque audax aplustre retentat. Lucretius, iv. 437, 438, at marts ignaris in portu clauda videntur navigia aplustris fractis obnitier undce. This shews that the aplustre reached down below the water-line, for
cf.
|

x w ">

Lucretius
aspXaffrov

is

speaking of the refraction through the water
keel,

;

so the aplustre or

was presumably the after part of the other end, as to which see note 96 on p.
|

40.

answering to the oretpa at the But in Juvenal, x. 135, 136,

victaque triremis aplustre, the name aplustre seems to be transferred from the d(f)XaffTov as a whole to the part that formed the trophy, the aKpa Kopvufia. Many

authors speak of aKpoaroXta as trophies
4. 3; Plutarch, Alcibiades, 6. 9.

Diodoros, xviii. 75, xx. 87 Strabo, 32; Appian, de bello Mithridatico, 25 ; Polysenos,
:

;

iii.

iv.

and others who quote from them, prefer the term cucpwr^pta Herodotos, iii. 59, viii. 121 ; Xenophon, Hellenica, ii. 3. 8, vi. 2. 36; Polysenos, v. 41 ; Athenseos, xii. 49. In the former passage Herodotos refers to dKpuT-fjpia at the bows see note 147 on p. 65 but in the latter he describes a statue holding an aKpurripiov in its hand and when such figures appear on coins, the trophy in their hands is always the ornament from the stern, cf. Hymnus in
But authors of
:

earlier date,

;

Dioscuros, 10,

from Athenaeos
contrasting
viii.
it

irpv^vris. Again, in the passage quoted Callixenos assigns the d/t/xxrroXioj' to the bows, with the a(p\a<rToi> or a^Xaora at the stern ; while in the Almagest,
en-'

n,

dKpur-fjpia /SdVres

|

in note

24 on p.

9,

Ptolemy places a pair of stars kv r< aKpoa-ToXiy, and the shewed only the after part of the ship. Thus aKpurripiov and d/c/HKTToXioj' appear to be general terms for ornaments at either extremity of a ship, though oftenest applied to the ornament at the stern, as that was the more conspicuous. There is no warrant for the notion that the stem-post was called the
i,

'A/xyouj aVreptcr/ios,

constellation

THE HAWSE-HOLES IN THE BOWS.
25 preserves the normal contour of the On the Roman merchant-ship in merchant-ships.

69

picted in
is

fg.

bow
fg.

in

26
;

a gallery round the stem as well as round the stern both these galleries appear again in the ships of later and
there

date in

On
in fgs.

37 and 40. each bow of a ship there generally was a huge eye, as 12, 13, 15, 19 and 40; and sometimes more than one,
fgs.

in fg. 23.

These pairs of eyes doubtless owed their origin the sentiment that a ship is a living thing and must see way but in course of time they probably were turned to
:

as hawse-holes for the anchor-cables 153
;d

.

The anchors

to be

tese

suspended from the catheads a hawse-holes 154
.

little

way

abaft of

or6Xos,

and that the aKpoaroXiov was the top of this;
de vavs tv
vf\l

for in ^Eschylos, Persae, 408,

409,

ev6i/s

x&kKTjpr) ffro\ov
cf.

\

Zirouffev,

the term aroXos can hardly

mean more than

and in Zdpavov iravTa Kwjrrjpr] <TTO\OV Euripides, Iphigeneia in Tauris, 1135, the meaning seems to be just as vague: see note 202 on p. 94. All these terms are avoided by Pausanias, v. n. 5, Kal
structure

416,

2aXa/x.is ^%of(ra ev rrj %etpi rbv

TTI

rats vavalv $/cpcus TTOLOV^VOV Kbff^ov^ x.

u.

6,

dvaKeirai 5e Kal ir\oiwv ra a/cpa /cocr/x^yuara.
53

^Eschylos, supplices, 716, Kal irpfpa irpbffdev
Sopvirayets
/aes.
\

o/JL/j-affi

/SXe'Trovcr'

656v,

743, 560,

744,

5'

^x oj/res /cuapwTrtSas

\

vrjas
i.

Z-jrXevaav,

cf.

Persse,
(i)

559,

KvavuinSes
Xpu[j.a<n,
vol.
ii,
1.

Philostratos, imagines,

18, y\avKols ptv
olov
/SX^Tret.

vavs) yeypa-rrrai

fiXoffvpois 5e

Kara
1.

irpigpav

6<f)da\iJ.ols

Corp. Inscr. Attic,

no. 789, col. a,
68,
6<t>6a\fj.bs

24, avrrj ovcei/os 2%ei ovdtv, ovd' ol 6<j)da\/j.ol ZveHTiv, no.
cf.
11.

791,

Kartayev,

41, 75.

These

entries

shew

that the eyes
:

were not mere ornaments painted on the ship, but served some useful purpose and they could hardly be used for anything but hawse-holes. The epithet Kvavuiris suggests that they were made of bronze, like the ram cf. Aristophanes,
:

See 554, 555, /cvcw^u/SoXoi rpt^pets, ranse, 1318, irpypais Kvave/j./36\ois. note 147 on p. 65 as to the nose of a ship, and note 91 on p. 37 as to the cheeks.
equites,
|

154

Euripides,
^avrJTTTov,
cf.

Iphigeneia in Tauris, 1350,

1351,

ol

5'

eirwrLduv
\

dyKijpas

Pindar, Pythia, iv. 191, 192, eirei 5' ^uj36Xou Kpt^aaav dyKvpas There are two slits in the side of each cathead on the ship of about virepOev. 300 B.C., which is viewed from the front in fg. 22. Each slit is horizontal, and is crossed by a vertical pin in the middle and abaft of the pin the depth decreases
|

:

gradually in a slope up to the outer surface of the cathead. On each cathead one of the slits stands a little above and abaft of the other. These slits seem to be

intended for a loop of rope to hold the anchor; the two ends of the rope entering the slits from behind and passing out again in front of the pins to form the loop.

upon the supposition that these two slits are oars of an upper and a lower bank, the cathead being merely the front of a long structure serving as an outrigger. There is not any evidence of that.
elaborate theory has been based
the port-holes for the

An

bow

7O

ANCHORS OF STONE, IRON AND LEAD

The genuine anchor with a pair of arms was reckoned 155 and he was in his among the inventions of Anacharsis
;

prime about 600

B.C.
.

In earlier times the anchors had been

At first the metal anchors were made of and these were singularly light, an anchor of less than half a hundred-weight being in use in the Athenian navy. But all such anchors had a mass of stone and lead fixed on to them by means of iron clamps, and thus acquired what 157 weight they wanted Apparently, this ballast was fastened to the anchor near the bottom of the shank, and filled up made
;

of stone 156

iron

.

155

Strabo,
'

vii.

3.

9,

Kal rbv 'Avdxapviv de

(ro(pbi>

/caXcDj/

6 "E0o/)os roi/rou rou
<ru(ppoo-ijvri

yevovs (LKvduv)
Kal
o~vve<rei

(pyo-lv elvai'

vo^iadrjvaL de Kal eirrd

o-Q(pu>v

eva re\elg,

evprj/uLard

re avrov

rbv Kepa/m.iKbv rpoxov.

Some
i.

ayKvpav Kal sort of anchor had already been invented by Midas,
rr/v a/J.(f)t(3o\ov

\yei rd
ayKvpa

re fairvpa Kal

according to Pausanias,
iep

4. 5,

dt, f]v 6 Mi'5as dvevpev,

yv eri Kal es

e/j,e

ev

Ac6s.

cf.

Anacharsis.

ancoram (invenit) Eupalamus; eandem bidentem Latin writers often termed the arm of the anchor its tooth, and
Pliny,
vii.

57,

spoke of its bite Livy, xxxvii. 30, ancora unco dente alligavit, Virgil, /Eneid, i. 169, unco non alligat ancora morsu, vi. 3, 4, dente tenaci ancora fundabat naves. And Greek writers also Lycophron, 99, 100, KauTrtiXovs crxdo-as Tretf/ojs 65<Was,
:
|

:

|

%KTopas

Tr\r)Ufji.vptdos,

Lucian,

Lexiphanes,
8,

15,

/cropas

d/A0ta-r6Mous.
/car^catfe

But see
dyKijpq,

Plutarch, de

mulierum
'

virtutibus,

afia

5e

6 II6XXij

ry

rbv

6vvxa
Z\a6e.

fJt-Tl

yap \KO/JLfrrjs, us ZoiKev, ev rdwoLS viroTrtrpois aTrocrTracr^eis Here the arm is termed the talon and possibly uncus should be read
irpoabvra
filq.
:

ii. The name ayxvpa 428. time in Alcaeos, Fr. 18, apud Heracleitum, allegorise, 5, X^Xcucri 5' ayKvpai, and then in Theognis, 459, ou5' aywpai t-xovaw. 156 Arrian, periplus, 9, tvravda Kal i) ayKvpa decKwrat T^S 'Apyovs. Kal rj pev

unguis in Lucan,
appears for the

ii.

694,

and Valerius Flaccus,

first

ffidrjpd
cbs

OVK

doj;

/JLOL

elvat TraXatd.

Xt-dLvys 5

TWOS aXX?;s
rr)s

6pati<r/y.aTa ede'tKVVTO TraXcud,

raura

fjiaXXov et'/cdaai e/ceTya etvai
i.

ra \etyava.
'

dyKiJpas rrjs 'Apyovs.
K\6cravres
|

ApolPpidvv.

lonios Rhodios,
ffiycriv

955

958,
|

/ce?<re

Kal evvai^ 6\lyov \idov
'ApraKir]

T/0uos evve|

vwb Kp^vrj eXlwovTO,

Kprjvri UTT'

erepov

5'

%\ov, 6o~ris dprfpei,

These stone anchors are termed evval in the Homeric poems. Iliad, i. 436, ^/c 5' etvds 2fia\ov, Kara 8^ irpv^ivrjaC 25i)(rai>, xiv. 77, v\j/i 5' eir' ebvdwv bpulffffopev. Odyssey, ix. 137, otir evvds fiaXteiv oifre Trpv^v/iat' dvd\f/ai, cf. xv. 498. The form
occurs again in Apollonios Rhodios, i. 1277, ii. 1282, iv. 888; but gives See also Oppian, de piscatione, iii. 373, vtpdw place to evval at iv. 1713. This refers to a plummet for a weel. In the dvaif/duevoi rprjrbv \iQov evvao~ri)pa.
euj/cucu

Odyssey,

xiii.

77, ireiffua d'

\vcrav dirb rpyroio \L9oio, the stone
it

is

clearly a fixture

on the shore, with a hole through
Herodotos,
ii.

96, vessels

coming down

a ship's cable ; but according to the Nile used to tow a \i6os rerpfi^vos
for

astern to steady them against the current. In mooring vessels for floating-bridges the Romans made use of conical baskets filled with stones. Arrian, anabasis, v.
7, Kal

tvravda

ijd-rj

Kadlerai ir\{yuara

e/c

Xifyoy Trvpaaoeidrj

ir\ripri

\l6wv \oyd5b)i> dwb

irpypas e/cdarijs

vetis,

roO d^e'xetf rty vavv irpbs rbv povv.

THEIR WEIGHT, FORM AND STRUCTURE.
all

71

the space between the arms, as shewn on the coin of about 350 B.C. in fg. 44. At a later date the anchors were made of lead, and perhaps of other metals 158 The remains of n anchor of this class, lately recovered near Cyrene, are
.

rawn to scale in fgs. 45 to 47. One piece seems to be the ock, and the other two the arms and these are all of lead, ithout any alloy 159 The shank was probably of wood, as t has perished. The three surviving pieces weigh 372 Ibs. d 472 and 473 Ibs. respectively, or 1317 Ibs. altogether; nd a wooden shank would increase the weight to more
;
.

157

Corp. Inscr. Attic, vol.

ii,

no. 807, col. b,
56/a/i[a TO]

11.

83

88, dyKvpas ffidr)p[ds,

AA
,

.

.

,

decr/j.d (Tidy pa

K r(av \lduv

y\vdtv[rd]

o~vv

ry

dpi[djj.bs]

HHHAAAP.

This inscription dates from 3293.0.
vol.

Inscripvi,

n from Delos in the Bulletin de Correspondance Hellenique,
ayKvpa o~i5r)pa, ~\L6ov OVK ^ovcra, cf. This inscription dates from 180 B.C. u;/35oOs.
171,
TOI)S epiirbpovs
1.

p. 47,
Xt'0os

168,

dyKvpa

ffidypd,

Kal

Diodoros,
iv rats

v. 35, tirl TOO~OVTO 5^

diareivai 7775 <f>i\OKep8ias c&rre, tireiddv KaraybfJiwv OVTUV ru>v

\olwv TrepiTTevri

7roXi)s

apyvpos,

^KKdirretv rbv

dyKvpais /x6Xt/35o' Kal

K

dpyvpov
the

TT]v

K TOV [j.o\ipdov
1

xpdav aXXdrrecr^at.

first numeral would be F in place of d 50 mnas are rather less than 50 Ibs.
158

A,

if

In the Athenian inscription the weight had exceeded 50 mnas;
el

Lucian, Jupiter tragcedus, 47, dXX' 6 ptv Trp6rovos,
ol

TVXOI,

&

rrjv irpvfivav

jT^rarat,
fjviffKos
is

ir6des 8

e's

TTJV

irpypav d/x06re/)of Kal xp v<7a-i p.v at ayKvpai evlore,

5e /Jio\vj3dovs, Kal rd /J.ei> v<pa\a Kardypa(pa, ra 5' ^aXa rrjs j/ecus a/xo/)0a. implies that the anchors used generally to be made of lead at that period, the xos being gilt: see note 151 on p. 67. According to the present reading, en anchors are mentioned by Moschion, apud Athenaeum, v. 43, AyKvpai d

av v\ivai (j,ev rerrapes, vidypai de (5/crc6. But they are not mentioned by any For v\ivai read other ancient author so the reading is probably corrupt.
:

verae historiae, i. 42, Kal yap dyKvpais exp^vro /j.eyd\ais, Apparently, some metal was known as CaXos, for vd\ivos cannot here refer to glass and this metal may be intended in the story of the
tdXiPcu.
cf.

Lucian,

va\lvais,

Kaprepals.

;

TroT-rjpiov

vaXovv in Dion Cassius,
origines, xvi.
16.
6.

Ivii. is

21, Petronius, 51, Pliny, xxxvi. 66,

and

Isidore,

Lycophron describes as
Phcenissae, 209,
159

irevK-rj

obviously the ship, not the anchor, that in the passage quoted in note 155: cf. Euripides,
It

Adra

TrXetftracra,

The components

Alcestis, 444, e\a.ra SI/CWTT^J. of a sample were lead 98^65 per cent, iron '55, tin "12,

'on, and gold '0005. Some oxygen was present also. I am indebted to Roberts Austen of the Royal Mint for making the analysis. To judge by look, the material is just the same in a similar arm recovered near Syme and now
silver

Mr

m%

This arm retains a Society at Athens. portion of a bar corresponding to the bar that runs across the opening in the stock 45 an d there are traces of another such bar in both the arms belonging to
in the collection of the Archaeological
>

that stock.

72 than 1400
is

SET OF ANCHORS FOR A SHIP.
Ibs.,

or twelve

and a half hundred-weight, which

the allowance for the best bower on a sailing-shi] of 250 tons. But this anchor could never have held so its ship was as a modern anchor of equal weight firmly
;

now

probably of lower tonnage.
is

The

ship's

name, Zeus Hypato<
.

160 In the upon the arms 161 navy the war-ships carried two anchors apiece merchant-ships carried more, and sometimes had four anchors out at once the anchor that was let

inscribed

in

relief

Atheniai

:

but

larg(

three

or

;

go

last of

all

the sheet-anchor
.

now

passing

among

sailors as the

holy

anchor 162
160

Cork

floats

were kept

for

marking the position of
The words
are not repeated;

This inscription reads
is

XEYC YFIATOC.

but Zeus

on the right arm facing one way, and

UTTCITOS

on the right arm facing

the other way.

The word

ASI3TAZ

is

inscribed

The form
161
11.

of the lettering in these inscriptions dates of the Christian Era.

upon the arm at Athens. them near the beginning

Corp. Inscr. Attic, vol.
151, no. 809, col. e,
11.

ii,

no. 807, col.

c, 11.

66102,
11.

no. 808, col. d,
32.

119
lists

75

no,

no.

8n,

col. c,

n

These are

the

of the entire gear (evreXij

cr/ceir?/)

in 330/329 B.C. and following years; ffidrjpds dtio, or simply dyKijpas 5uo: cf. no. 793, col.

supplied to ships of three and four banks and in every case they mention dyKtipas
f,

11.

6

8,

dyKvp&v

dpid[/j.bs]

A PI

1

1'

aCrcu yly[yovrai\

e-rri

vaus Pill
:

I

e[VreXeis.

In one instance there are four

anchors, no. 803, col. c, 11. 54 72 but this is a list of gear supplied to a ship during the term of a command, and consequently does not show that she had all
the four at once.
162

Plutarch, Solon, 19, ryv
VJTTOV

d'

aw

fiovXty eK&diffev, oldpevos
TTO\IV foeadai, cf.

evrt

5v<rl /SouAcus

wffirep aytajpais bp/j,ovffav

ev

adXy rty

Demosthenes, in
i)

Dionysodorum,
vavs {(rdXevev

44,

eirl

dvoiv dyKvpaiv bpneiv.
/juds,
i]

Synesios, epistolse, p. 164,

p.kv otiv

e?r'

dyKvpas

TOS OVK fKT-rjaaTo.

er^pa yap dTrr)U7r6\T]TO, Tplrrfv 5e dyKVpav 'A(J.dpavEuripides, Phaethon, Fr. 7, apud Stobseum, xliii. 3, vavv TOI pi'
u>s
|

dyKvp

ovda/jiov (r&fav 0iXe?,
re<r papas.
ol

rpets d(pi>Ti.

Acts, xxvii. 29,
5?;

e/c

vpffO'TjS pi\f>avTes

dyKvpas
f)t>

Lucian, fugitivi, 13, ^5o^e

cr/coTrouyu^otj

rty v^Tdr^v dyxvpav,
Plutarch, prse-

iepdv

vavTL\\6fji,voi <pa<ri, Kaditvai, cf. Jupiter tragoedus, 51.

cepta gerendse rei publicse, 15. 15, /jnjdt (del) wa-jrep ev ir\ol(f <r/ceOos iepbv a7ro/ce?(r^at, rds t<rx ara s Trep(.p.tvovTa %/>e/as, 19. 8, wa-irep dyKvpav iepdv dpd/j.et>oj> tiri TOIS /meyiffrots, cf.
163

Coriolanus, 32.
12. i, 'Apicdduv de iv TOIS dpv/JLOis dffiv at dpvs did<f>opoi, Kai avr&v, rds 5e <f>r)yobs Ka\ovcriv al rpLrai 5 dpaibv rbv (p\oi.ov TI iraptxovra Kov<pov wVre air' avrov Kai ev 6a\d<r(rri TrotoOvrat (Tr)/j.eia
viii.
'

Pausanias,

rds
/cat

fj^v 7r\aru0i;XXoi's

OVTU

8-r)

dyiujpais Kai
ol

St/cri/cus.

cf.

Theophrastos, historia plantarum,

iii.

16. 3, 6 5^ KaXovffiv

'ApKddes <pe\\65pvv. Pliny, xvi. 13, suberi minima arbor, glans pessima, rara: cortex tantum infructu, prczcrassus ac renascens, alque etiam in denos pedes undique usus eius ancoralibus maxime navium piscantiumque tragulis. explanatus.

CHAIN-CABLES AND ROPE-CABLES.
the anchors,

73

was necessary 168 and these did duty 164 as life-buoys, if anybody fell overboard The cables were sometimes made of chain, but usually of rope and a thicker rope was needed for large merchant-ships than for the war165 ships Rope-cables of two sizes were in use in the Athenian one described as six-inch and the other as four-inch navy, and a half: but unfortunately there is nothing to shew whether these measurements refer to the circumference or the diameter 166 Four cables of each sort were carried by each ship, one set to serve the two anchors at the bows, and the

when

that

;

.

:

.

.

other for
54

making the ship

fast to

the shore

by her

stern

:

Lucian, Toxaris, 20, (pe\\otis re yap TroXXod'S d^elvat avrois Kal TUV KOVTUV Ttvas, cos eirl TOIJTUV dirovfi^aivTO, et TLVI avr&v weptTuxotev, Kal r^Xos Kal rr\v dirofiddpav avTrjv ob (juKpav otcav.
21, rb
[J.tv

yap irpurov 0eXXots

rifft

irepnreff6i>Tas

dv^x et v
-

tirl

TOIJTUV eavrovs Kal dTrovr}X a'^ ai nov/ipus, vcrrepov

d

rrjv

dwofiddpav

idbvras, K.T.\.
55

Aristophanes, pax, 36, 37,
Arrian, anabasis,
ii.

&<rirep oi

rd

ffxoivia
eis

ray oX/cdSas.
(j.ei>oi, cf.

21, a\6<Te<Ti.v

rd 7ra%ea rds dyKtipas dvrl
|

Herodotos, ix. 74, %aX/c^y dXi^ai dedefjLfrrji' ayKvpav (ndTjp^rjv. de bello Gallico, iii. 13, ancorce, pro funibus, ferreis catenis revincta:.
166

Caesar,

Corp. Inscr. Attic, vol.
151, no. 809, col.
e, 11.

ii,

119
lists

75

no. 807, col. c, 11. 66102, no. 808, col. d, 11. These are the no, no. 81 1, col. c, 11. 32.

n

supplied to ships of three and four banks in 330/329 B.C. and following years; and in every case they mention (rxowta, (kra;of the entire gear (evreXrj
cr/cei;?/)

ddKTv\a

(HI,

e5d/cTi>Xa

III I.

These cables were described
ii,

as enlyva
11.

and
26,
tiriyva
11.
II,

a few years earlier.
'AKportpq. tirlyva
h,
11.

Corp. Inscr. Attic, vol.
'HStVrT? eiriyva
II,

no. 793, col. e,

22

|||,

NauK/3dri6t tntyva
(III,

\\\\,"Ei>r)

col.

19, 20, [eTrl] TTJV "H.5i<?Tr)v [crxjofia dyKijpeia

no. 794, col. b,
Triyv(a)

33

35,

W
eV.

dpie(fj.bs) eJ>reX(?7) eirl

va(vs)

PAAAPII

Kal

AAAIII

/cat

dyw-

These inscriptions of 357/6 and 356/5 indicate that only two sorts of <rxoii>ia were then in use, and that four of each sort made a complete set: so the change was merely in the names. For the name tirlyva see Polybios, iii. 46, TTJV 5'
OTTO TOI} pV/j.aTos TrXevpdv r]<r<j)a\tfot>TO rots
7re0i;/c6Ta rcov
^/c

TTJS yrjs

ewiyuois, els

rd

irepl r6

xXos

historice,

i.

dfrdpuv evdirTOvres, xxxiii. 7, rdirdyaia Kal rds dyKtipas, Lucian, verse 42, e^d^avres avrov ra diroyeia, Kal ^TT' dyKvp&v ir\rjcrLov o

e5 y et;eKo\i>fj.pT]<r' Aristophanes, apud Harpocrationem, s.v. ^Trt/Sdr?;?: ws eol(rwj> e-rrLyeLov, and Leonidas of Tarentum, in the Anthology, x. i.

5,

dvt\oio Kal e/cXiArcuo ytiaia: also Quintilian,

iv. 2.

41, sublatce sunt ancorte,

dywpas sohimus

oram, and Livy, xxii. 19, resolutis oris, in ancoras evehuntur, xxviii. 36, orasque et These shore-cables seem to be the ancoras, ne in moliendo mora esset, prtzcidunt. same as the stern-cables, Trpv/mv^ffia, which are likewise named apart from the
anchor-cables; and also the same as the mooring-cables, iretV/iara, which were likewise made fast to the shore. Odyssey, xv. 498, e'/c 5' ewots ^/faXo^, Kara 8t

74

ANCHORS AND CABLES AT THE STERN.
at the stern

and ships everywhere carried some shore-cables
in addition to the anchor-cables at the

thus fitted

Ships being for cables at each end, anchors could easily be put

bows.

out astern, if needed there for any manoeuvre or to help the 167 ship ride out a gale
.

ships used to be steered with a pair of very large oars 168 In vessels built for rowing at the stern, one on either side
.

The

either way, and therefore pair was carried at each
C
Z8ir)<rav,

shaped alike at stem and stern, a end 169 And occasionally a second
.

x. 96, TreV/^s

e'/c

TreLff/^ara operas, xiii. 77,

Tretffua 6'

\vaav
i.

dtrb

\L6oio, xv. 286, rot 5k Trpv^v-fjCfC g\v(rav, cf.
Trpvfj.vri<ria

Apollonios Rhodios,
dXt/ivpe'os.

912, 913,
12,
6. 8,

5e

(T<j>t<riv

"Apyos

\vfffv
\

VTTK

TreY/oijs

Athenseos, xv.
Polysenos, iv.

Xucra/ieVous

5' airroiis

rd

irpv/j.v/i<na

xai ras dyiajpas dve\o/Jivovs.

#XXot
lonii,

jjikv

dveviruv

TO. Trpv/^vrjcna,
e/c TTJS

a\\oi de ayxtipas dvi/m&VTO.

Philostratos, vita Apol-

iii.

56, Trei<rua

vya-ov pd\\e<rdai, vi. 12, /3dXXe<r#at rti/d

ayxvpav

TJ ire'iafjt.a.

The

and the TrelauaTa are mentioned together in Odyssey, ix. 136, i37 ev de \ifjt,-r)v eOop/JiOS, 'Lv ov xpew Tretcr/uards eariv, olr' evvas j3a\&iv ovre irpvp-vqai But that is mere tautology; and the passage is translated accordingly dvd\j/ai. by Virgil, yEneid, i. 168, 169, hie fessas non vincula naves ulla tenent, unco non
TTpvuvrjO'ia
1
\ \

alligat ancora morsn.
i
,

non vincula
167

ulla,

Here ireLfffiara is rendered by vincula, as in Pliny, xxxii. non ancorcz : but elsewhere by retinacula. Ovid, metamorcf.

phoses, xv. 696, solvunt retinacula puppis,
Polygenos,
iii.

xiv. 547.

9. 63, 'I<f>iKpdTrjs vepi $>oii>lKr]v

Karair^wv eKarbv
ev

r/)ia/co?/r6pots,

Zvda Tevayd)8r)s alytdXbs yv, Trapr/yyeiXev, orav TO
vijTais &yi<vpav dcpifrcu /card Trpti/JLvav /cai rrfv

ffrj/u.e'tov

dva5et%^y, rots p.v KV/3ep-

Karaywy^v

rdei

iroiei<rdcu, TCHS 5^

orparicirats, K.r.X ....... ws 5^

-fjdrj

a^^i^Tpov vir\afii>
at rpia/c6'TO/)ot

elvan TO TTJS 6a\d(ra"r)S fiddos,

TO
,

ffrj/j.tioi'

r^s eAf/Sdaews.

ol

dt dvdpes, /c.r.X.

This happened about 375 B.C.
eTriTrXous
r\v pq.dios,

nlv tv rd^et KaT^yovTO 8ta TUV Appian, de rebus
Ka.1

Punicis, 123, 'Pw//,aots 5e 6
eti/uLapts'
'

^v

TO /id%e(r^at vavcriv ecrrwcrats
/cai

at 8' dj'axwpTja'ets 5t' dva<TTpo<f)7]J>

r&v ve&v,

yua/cpwf ovcruv, J3pa8eial re
6'/iota,

5i'(r%epe?s CTreyiyvovTO
ir\T]CTcrovTO virb

odev

a.vT^iraffx. v

&

Ttpoe TCI

ore yap eincrTpe(pot.vTQ,
Tr^re, at
e"s

T&V

K.apx.t)Soviuv eiri.ir\ebvT<j)v.
fj.ev

/J-^XP i vrie^ 2t57jrcD^

0tX^
Sre

2iKiTriwvos e'iirovTO, ras
d\{/d/j.vai d'
aTr'

dyKtipas KadrjKav
/ta/c/)oi;s,

K TroXXou 5iacrr7j/iiaros

ro TrAa^os,
/cat

aurwi/ /cdXois

dpevia rots Kapx^oj'fots
/card irp^^vav

eTT^TrXeoJ',
'

birex&povv, TOUS /cdXous
t,

f-mcrTrdfjiei'ai

aP^t's

re po0ty

TrdXt^ dv/iyovTO /card irpvf^vav.

de

bellis civilibus, v. 89,

rijj 7775 8iKpdTovv. This was also in a gale. An anchor is represented at ptyavTes dyKtipas reVtrapas. the stern of one of the ships on Trajan's Column, where the fleet appears to be going down a river.
168

This happened in 147 B.C. Appian, enaTtpwdev dyifvpais ZK re roO ?reXd7ous /cat dirb This was in a gale in 38 B.C. Acts, xxvii. 29, e/c irp^/j.v^
rds
J'aus

Corp. Inscr. Attic, vol.

ii,

no. 793, col. a,
iiri

11.

23

27, [Tr]r}5a\lwv dpi6jj.bs

HHHHPAPIIII
Heliodoros,

raCra ylyverai
v.

vavs

HHAAAHII
ddTcpov

Kal tv wr)dd\ioi>.

cf.

^Ethiopica,

22,

TU?

irribaiKluv

d7ro/3aX6vres,

Apuleius,

THE OARS FOR STEERING THE
iir

SHIP.

75
;

was carried near the stern in vessels of ordinary build so that if the ship was pitching heavily enough for the usual
steering-oars to

come out
.

of the water at every plunge, the

steering could be 170 further forward

managed with another pair placed a little The steering-oars were fastened to the

below the gunwale, either by passing the loom of the oar through some sort of loop or ring, or else by 171 and these fastenings may tying it between a pair of pegs noticed on the ships in fgs. 3 to 5, 17, 18 and 40. The be
sides of a ship just
:

metamorphoses,
v TToieuvTai, Kal

ii. 14, Herodotos, ii. 96, iryddXiov 8t utroque regimine amisso. TOVTO did TTJs TpbiTios diafivveTai. Herodotos is speaking of vessels

and his emphasis shews how unusual it was for a vessel to have only a single steering-oar. In these Egyptian vessels the steering-oar must have passed through the after end of the keel, where it curved upwards in place of a stern-post
on the Nile
;

:

see p. 39
169

and notes 95,

96.

Athenaeos,

SiTrpvfJivos.

Dion

v. diirpypos 5' tyeybvei Kal 37, TnjSdXta 5' et^e r^rrapa, Cassius, Ixxiv. ii, KaL Tiva avT&v eKarepwdev Kal IK TT)$ Trpvfj.vr)s

Kal K TTJS Trpypas TrrjdaXiois ^ovcero. Tacitus, annales, ii. 6, appositis utrimque gubernaculis, converse ut repente remigio hinc vel illinc appellerent. 170 Kal rous ev TTJ Polysenos, iii. ii. 14, Xa/3pias irpbs TOVS ireXaylovs TrXoGs

$a\aTT7)

x^'A^as

KO.reffKeva.frv

e/cdcrrfl
' '

TUV vrj&v
"*!

diffffd

irrjddXia.

Kal

rots

p.ev

vwdpxovffiv ev rats evSlais exPV T0
7ra/)e^et/>e<7/as

et

^

^dXacrcra KoLXr) yevoiro, ddrepa 8ia r^s

ota/cas

virep TOV

Kara rds dpaviridas /cw?raj iraperidei, rovs a^x^as exovra Kal rot's /caraa-r/ow/iaros, wore e^aipo^evrj^ rrjs irpvnvr)S roirrois rrjv vavv

Karevdvveadai.

Here
:

a.i/x'nv
it

known
8,

as

o!fa

but

afterwards

must mean the loom of the oar, the handle being came to mean the oar itself. Leo, tactica, xix.
5/)6/xw^os
is

avx&uv. See note 172 as to the here the space between the rowers and the rds eVifioXds ruv KVIJ.O.TUV vtrep stern, as also in Polyaenos, iii. n. 13, XajSpfds 7r/>6s /cararty TrapeeipecrLav eKarepov roixov deppus irape^a\ev Kal Kar^Xaxras dpri'ws ry Kara r6 ui/'os (ppdyfj-a KareXd^avev avrb irpbs rds Trape^eipea-ias. TOVTO 8
Kal rous
Stfo

Kv^epv/iras

T&V TOV

meanings of ofa.

The

irape&iptala

,

Ti}v

Kal

TO, eiri<pep6fj,eva

vavv viro^pvx^v (pepevdai Kal TOVS vafoas vTrb TUV KvpaT Kvpara ovx bpuvTes did TT\V TOV (ppdyfJ.aTOS irpbadeffiv OVK
<pb[3ov

TavTo did TOV

ovdt TT\V vavv e<r<pa\\ov.

See note 141 on

p.

62 for another

meaning of
171

irapeeipe<rla.

re fvy\ai<rt irapaKadieTo. Euripides, Helena, 1536, ir^SdXtd
evKTt)plas

Acts, xxvii.

40, dvevTes rds

r&v

irrjSaXiuv.

cf.

Aristotle, mechanica, 6, 5 t^v ^7 TO

T7?

Kal wffTrcp b (TKaXfjibs Tn)8d\iov TrpoffefcvKTat, Set ofty rt TOV Kivovfj.evov pecov voetv, The term vyw<ris is used by Callixenos in speaking of oars for rowing, KWTry. oars : see p. 10 and note 25. when he really be referring to the steering-

may

5' our' oirjKas 25i)<rav, irpvfMvbdev dpT-fjaavTes, Orpheus, Argonautica, 278, 279, tin The term ofa must here denote the entire steering-oar eireff(piy^avTO 8' ipaffiv.
|

:

see next note.

Vegetius,

iv.

46, per has (bipennes) in media ardore

pugnandi

peritissimi nautce vel milites

cum minoribus

scaphulis secreto incidunt funes, quibus

adversariorum ligala sunt gubernacula.

76

THE OARS FOR STEERING THE
worked

SHIP,

steering-oars could thus be

like oars for

rowing

;

and

while the rowers drove the ship ahead and astern by pulling their oars forward or pushing them aft, the steerer drove her
to port
his oar inboard or pushing it he steered with one, and moving the other in the outboard, same direction, if he steered with two 172 But this method was impracticable when the steering-oars were big and heavy and they used then to be worked by turning them round a
if
.

and starboard by pulling

;

little

way.

keel, the ship
172

So long went

as the blades

straight
6,

were parallel to the ship's ahead but if the oars were
:

Aristotle,

mechanica,

8ia rl

rb irr]8d\iov,

/JUKpbv

ov

/cat

eV
5vvd.fJ.ews,

r<$ ?rXo(>, roffavrrjv dvvafjuv

%ei w<rd' VTTO /u/cpou
Kivel(rdat
;

ot'a/cos /cat
;

evbs

dvdp&wov
T<

Kal ravrrjs r/peuaias,
/ji.o'x\6s,

ueydXa

^eyedy ir\olwv
77

77

dtori Kal rb irrjddXibv ecrn

Kal /uo%Xei/et 6 Kvfiepvrirys

/j.ev

ovv

Trpoo~rjp/j.oo~rai

TrXoty,

yiverai

VTTOfJi.6xXiov,

rb

6 KIVUV ...... 77
et's

6\ov irrjodXiov 6 ^co%X6j, rb de (3dpos 77 6d\ao~o~a, 6 de Kvfiepvr/rrjs uev ovv K&TTT] Kara TrXdros TO j3d/)os udovffa Kal VTT' eneLvov a.vr(^QQV^vt]
5'

rb evQv irpodyei.'
devpo
T)

TO 5e

Trr)dd\i.ov, uxrirep
/j.ev

KadrjTai TrXdyiov, TTJV els rb Tr\dyiov
7rrjdd\LOjf
/CWTTTJ

TI

eKel Troiet Kivi]<nv ...... $

5i]

rb

7rpo<r^"ev/CTCu, 8el olov
{JLCGOV

n

TOV
oi'a

v/ji^vov fdcrov voelv,

Kal uxnrep 6 ovcaX/xos ry

rb de

virox^pei y 6
r/

edv /uev efrrw ayy,

Kal

i]

irpv^va devpo /JLed^ffr^Kev,
5' el is

5^ Trpypa

eis

rovvavriov vevei.

cf.

Plato, Alcibiades, p. 117 C, rl
rj

ev

vt]l TrXeots,

apa 8o%dois

av, irbrepov xp?) TOV ofo/ca eiVw ayeiv
3. 5,

a>

;

Aristotle

followed by Vitruvius, x.

quemadmodum etiam
qui
o'la%

~tenens,

ansam gubernaculi a Gnzcis appellatur, una manu, momenta per centri librationem
navis oneraria
gubernator^

maxima

pressionibus artis agitans, versat earn amplissirnis et

immanibus mercis

et

penus

ponderibus oneratam, reading librationem for ratiomm cf. 4, per scapi librationem and assuming that artis comes from artus. The term oifct is here applied to the

handle of the steering-oar; and so also in Polysenos,

iii.

n. 14

see note 170
A.v<rdvdpov

and

in Plutarch, Lysander, 12, fj<rav Be rives oi TOVS Aioovatyxw

eiri rijs

veus exarepwdev ao~rpa rots o'la^w tiriXdiityai \eyovres. But it used also to be applied to the entire steering-oar, as in Orpheus, Argonautica, 278 see last note

and

in Euripides, Iphigeneia in Tauris,

1356, 1357, Kal dievdvvrrjpias

oi'a/cas
|

This can only mean that they took away the steeringcf. Herodotos, iii. 136; oars, which was then the ordinary way of disabling a ship The cognate term ol-rjtov Athenaeos, viii. 61; Xenophon, anabasis, v. i. n.
^rjpovfjiev evirpvfji.vov ve&s.
:

^
*

denotes the entire steering-oar in Odyssey,
vebs Kvavoirpqpoio
1
|

ix.

539, 540, Kad

5'

efia\ev /Aero-made

rvrdov,

e5evr}(rej>

5 olrjiov &Kpov LKeffdai.

This term occurs again

1/7765 yXafivprjs olriia vaults, and in Iliad, xix. 43, /cat e^ov _ but without anything to shew whether it denotes the whole of the oar or only the handle. Apparently ofa was synonymous with TT\TJKTPOV. Herodotos,

in Odyssey, xii. 218, e?ret
oiT^ia vrj&v,

i.

ecu

194, IQuveTai 5e virb re dvo TrX^Krptjov Kal 8vo dvopuv dpdwv effre&ruv, Kal 6 fJ.ev e'X/cet rb udeei. TrX^/crpov, 6 5 Sophocles, Fr. 151, apud Pollucem, x. 133,

^w

TrXrjKrpois

direvdvvovaiv
\

ovplav

rpoiriv.

Silius
sc.

Italicus, xiv. 401,

402, residentis

puppe magistri

ajfixit plectro

dextram,

telum.

AND THE MODE OF WORKING THEM.

77

irned to bring the fore part of each blade to starboard and the after part to port, the action of the water on the oars was enough to thrust the ship's stern to starboard and thus send

her head to port and, conversely, if the oars were turned to bring the fore part of each blade to port and the after part to
;

There was starboard, the ship's head went to starboard. probably a tiller in the loom or handle of each steering-oar and a piece of gear to join these tillers so that the steerer
;

could

turn both oars at once 173

.

In the Egyptian ships of

irly date, as
173

in fgs. 3 to 5, the steering-oars

appear to be

Plutarch, de fortuna

Romanorum,
i)
-fjS-r)

4,

of>

ptv yap dtreid^, Kara Hivdapov,

ovdt 8i5vfj.ov crTptyovaa ir^ddXiov, sc.
fjiiKpbs

rts avdpu-rriaKos

ytpuv

Lucian, navigium, 6, KaKtiva iravra gffwfev vnb XeTTTT/ Ka/ua/u rd rrjXt/caura ir7)8a\ia
T^x??.

Pliny, vii. 57, adminicula gubernandi (addidif) Tiphys. In the passage just quoted from Lucian the term /ca/ia is used in the singular with 7r??5aXta in the plural, and so also is ofa in
irepi.<rTp<p(i}v.

The

equivalent of Ka/na^ was adminiculum.

Plato, politicus, p. 272 E, TnySaXtaw

oi'a/cos

a(p/j.vos, sc. 6 KvpepvrjTt]^,
9,

and likewise

clavum tanti imperil tenere et gubcrnacula rei publics: tractare. These passages imply that the two steering-oars were controlled by a single piece of gear, and that this used sometimes to be termed ota and clavus as well as Kct/<ia and adminiculum ; and various other passages imply that ships were steered by turning the clavus or ofo. Quintilian,
claims with gtibernacula in Cicero, pro Sestio,
ii.

17.

24,

dum clavum

rectum teneam.

Virgil,

,/Eneid, v.

177,

davumque ad

litora torquet.

at

'

(TV
\

S

Euripides, Helena, 1590, 1591, ird\u> irXewfjiev, vavfidrav. <TTp(p' oi'a/ca. yEschylos, septem adversus Thebas, 62, ware vabs

oiaKO(TTp6(pos.

is

Pindar, Isthmia, iii. 89, KvfiepvaTTJpos oia/co(rrp60ou. The expression merely a pleonasm of Oppian, de piscatione, i. 189 192, ZVTTOVTCU &\\odev &\\os, dfj.<pnrpi(rKa[poi>TS eu^vyov apfia 6a\ouro"r)s,
\

\

r'

d^^or^/oous,

ayepovrou.

For

re Trpv/jivaia %aXtz/d &\\oi d oirjKWv the converse metaphor, see Oppian, de venatione,
ire pi
|

'

irepl
'i.

T

96,
iinriKui>

xaXi^6v,

and

^schylos, septem
is

adversus

Thebas,

206,
x.

A
non
secus,

similar

pleonasm

introduced by Statius, Thebais,

182

185,

amisso
\

moderamina clam

\fregit Her, subit ad vidiii aut laterum custos, aut quern penes obvia ponto prora fuit.
\

medium cum preside puppis
itself, like

The term moderamen was used by

Ovid, metamorphoses, iii. 644, capiatque alitts moderamine navis, iii. 593, 594, addidici regimen, dextra moderante, carince
flectere,yi\.

regimen, to denote a steering-oar. moderamina, dixi, xv. 726, innixus
\

552, frangitur et regimen; Apuleius, metamorphoses, ii. 14, utroque The trrepvl- was presumably the blade of the steering-oar. regimine amisso.

Corp. Inscr. Attic, vol.

ii,

no. 790, col. b,

11.

44

46, ?x et ?n7[S]a\ta 860,

roD

epv^ a56/a/xos [7r]a[/9a/fet]rai.
Trr]8a\loio.

Apollonios

is

Apollonios Rhodios, iv. 931, ^ 8' oiridev narrating how a goddess rose from the deep
;

and
end.

laid her

hand upon the steering-oar

so the Trrepv^

was necessarily

at the

lower

78

THE STYLE OF RIGGING IN VOGUE

attached to a pair of posts upon the deck besides the rings underneath, as though their function was simply to turn upon

and in the Roman ships of about 200 A.D., as in fg. 29, the motion of the steering-oars seems to be restricted In to the same extent by ropes fastened through the blades. these Roman ships both the oars were sheltered from the impact of the waves by a prolongation of the upper walingpieces, or something of the sort, as may be seen in fgs. 26, 28, 29, 36 and 38. Curiously, the steering-gear was used to keep the ship on either tack, when the wind was light, the yard being left amidship though in a stronger wind the yard was properly braced round and the square-sail trimmed
their axis
:

;

174

accordingly In every age and every district of the ancient world the method of rigging ships was substantially the same and this
. :

method
the

is

first

depicted by the Egyptians.
B.C.,

Red Sea about 1250

as in fgs.

Their ships on and 5, had one mast 4

with two yards, and carried one large square-sail. The mast was secured to a prop at its foot to keep it steady, and was
held by two fore-stays and one back-stay the two halyards of the upper yard being carried down to the quarters, so that
;

on these relieved the back-stay and partially It is strange that the mast had no shrouds at all but a curious double mast, like a pair of sheer-legs, had formerly been carried by vessels on the Nile, as in fg. i, which mast was always set athwartship, so that no shrouds were needed on these vessels and possibly mere force of habit kept the Egyptians from fitting shrouds to the single mast of later times. Each yard was formed of two spars lashed together, so as to avoid the waste of timber in tapering the thicker end of a single spar to balance with the thinner end and this device was adopted by the Greeks and Romans, as may be seen from the Athenian ships of about 500 B.C. in fg. 19 and the Pompeian ship of about 50 A.D. in fg. 26, and was thus transmitted to the modern world 175 The yards were each worked by two braces and there were numerous lifts to support the lower-yard at all
the
strain

obviated the need for shrouds.
:

;

:

.

;

174

Aristotle,

mechanica,

8,

quoted in note 206 on p. 96.

ON EGYPTIAN AND PHOENICIAN

SHIPS.

79

times and the upper-yard when lowered. The other ropes were brails for taking in the sail. In the great relief representing the battle in the Mediterranean about 1000 B.C. the
rigging
is

indicated

very roughly both

in

the

victorious

Egyptian ships, as in fg. 6, and in the defeated Asiatic ships, but two things at least are clear. The as in fgs. 7 and 8
:

lower-yard had been discarded so that the lower corners of the sail must now have been controlled by sheets. And the sail was no longer taken in by brails stretching down obliquely
;

from the centre of the upper-yard, but by brailing-ropes stretching vertically down from several points along the yard. A figure of a square-sail on a mast with two yards forms the
hieroglyph nef, and forms part of the hieroglyph chont, which represents a boat so the unnecessary lower-yard had been in use from very early times. But now it was discarded finally.
:

In the vase-paintings of about 600 B.C. in fgs. 12 and 13, which come from Etruria and Attica respectively, the ships
certainly look as

though they had this yard. But in the former the painter has simply reproduced the hieroglyph chont as was perhaps to be expected, for the vase was made
;

by some Greek

settler in the

Delta of the Nile, and thence

exported to Etruria. And in the latter the absurdly straight sides to the sail shew that its straight base is solely due to the painter's methods.
ships of about 700 B.C., as in one mast with one yard, and carried a square-sail.

The Phoenician

fg. 10,

had
are

They

sometimes represented with two fore-stays and a back-stay, sometimes with two back-stays and a fore-stay and always with four other ropes, which seem to be sheets and braces but no further details can be traced. These ships, then, were rigged like the ships that fought in the Mediterranean three centuries before: so this scheme of rigging had probably been long in use among the Phoenicians; and thus came to be
;
:

adopted by the Greeks, when they began seafaring.
175

This explains

why

the Greeks and

Romans

usually spoke of the yard in the

The Greeks should strictly have used the dual : but plural as Kepeucu or antenna. the plural does not imply that there were more than two spars. Corp. Inscr.
Attic, vol.
ii,

no. 802, col. a,

11.

4, 5, Kfpaiai fj.eyd\a.i'

TJ

ertpa

d56/ci/*os.

80

THE STYLE OF RIGGING IN VOGUE
The Homeric poems shew
clearly

enough how the

earliest

Greeks rigged their ships. There was the his to s or mast, supported at its foot by a prop termed histopede, and held by two protonoi or fore-stays and an epitonos or back-stay.

When

histodoke

the mast was not in use, it lay aft in a rest termed being raised thence and lowered thither again by
;
.

means of the fore-stays 176 Upon the mast was the epikrion or yard and upon this was the sail. The sail is styled indifferently speiron and histion and histia\ the plural perhaps denoting that it was formed of many pieces, as in the Athenian ship of about 600 B.C. in fg. 13 and its whiteness is emphasized. Ropes termed hyperai and kaloi and podes
;
:

are mentioned, but without any indication of their nature and the presence of halyards and brailing-ropes is implied 177 The hyperai and podes, that is to say, the upper ropes and the
176

:

.

Odyssey,

xii.

178, 179,

01 5'

h

vr/l

tf td-rjo-av oyttou xetpds re ?r65as re

|

6pdbv ev
Alcseos,

iffToirtdrj, e/c 5' ai)roO ireipar

avrrtrrov,

where

atfroO

must

refer to i<rroO.

cf.

1 8, apud Heracleitum, allegorise, 5, irep^v yap oWXos iffroiredav 409 412, IffTov 5e irporbvovs tppij!;' avt/moio fltfeXXo, dyU00T^povs ets &VT\OV Karfyvvd' 6 5' apa irp6p.vri ivl vrjl ireffev, oVXa re iravra These verses are imitated by Apollonios Rhodios, vf)Teu Ke<pa\r)v.

Fr.

%et.

Odyssey,
OTTUTW

xii.

io-ros 5'
\

|

'

\

ir\r)^e Kvfiep-

i.

1203, 1204,

v\j/66ei>

fj.ir\7)^affa

GOT] avtfj,oio

Kcmu
\

ai/rotai <r<t>'f)V<T<nv vireic irporbvuv ep^a-rjrai.
:

The
181.

<r(f>TJves

Odyssey,

are probably the irapaaTaran. which replaced the icrToirtdr) see note xii. 422, 423, e/c 8 ol larbv apa^e TTOTI Tpbinv avrap eir' ai>Tq> eirl\

TOI/OS j3tp\r)To, /3o6s pivoTo rerenxcis.

There

is

no
is

direct proof that CTT/TOVOS

means
Iliad,
5'

back-stay ; but as irpdrovos means fore-stay, there
i.

not

much room for doubt.
Odyssey,
ii.

434, iarbv

5' iffToddicr)

TT^Xaaav, irporbvoLcriv
\

{/(pfrres.

424, 425, iarbv

ei'XdrtJ'Oi'

Koi\ti$ ^vroa'de /JL<r6d/J.r]s

ffTTJaav aeipavres,
i.

/card 5e TrpOTOVotaiv Zdytfav.

These verses are imitated by Apollonios Rhodios,
iffrbv
ii>e(TTr](ravTO
fj.eff6dfj.ri,
\

563, 564, 5^ pa rore

^yav
In his

dijeav 8t irpOTbvoL<n Tavva-a-dfj-evoi eifdrepdev.

opinion, then, the fore-stays were made fast on either side of the bow, not right forward. See also Lucian, amores, 6, rbv larbv K T&V ^ea'OKoLXwv apavres, where peaoKolXw seems intended to convey the sense of KoiXrjs /Ji.e<r65fj,ris, and clearly is

equivalent to Koi\r/s
(j.tv

t<rro56/c7?s
\

in

Apollonios Rhodios,
a-re^Xavres

ii.

1262
'
/

1264,
tv 5

atrri/ca 5'

tcm'a

Kai tirLKpLov tvdodi, KoiXr/s

t<rro56/C77S

e/c6<r ueoJ'

Kal avrbv
\

ivrbv

&(j)ap xaXdcrai'To irapaK\id6v.

with

delpaisres in the
ffrrjarav
:

with

Apparently Zvroffde means from within and goes Odyssey, though Apollonios thinks it means within and goes so the fj.eff6dfj.ij was probably the i0To56/c?7 under another name, or else
iffTo86Krj.

the hold containing the
at

Thus the

fj.eff65fji.ai

are contrasted with the decks

'

stem and stern by Lycophron, 751, 752, aurcus /jLea68fj.a^ Kal <riV iicpiois /3aXet| The iffTodoKt] is mentioned by Ptolemy, Almagest, viii. i, 7r/)6s Kvfj-a diJTTTriv. Apyovs affrepLff/jios but the measurements are too corrupt for fixing its position
:

accurately, though they indicate a place towards the stern.

ON GREEK SHIPS OF EARLY DATE.
foot ropes, are presumably braces and kaloi are certainly the brailing-ropes, for

81

sheets

;

while the

Herodotos employs this name for them in noting the perversity of the Egyptians in putting the on the after side of the sail 178 brailing-rings The Greek ships represented in vase-paintings invariably have one mast with one yard, and carry a square-sail and probably they are all intended to have the same sorts of
.

;

though these are Athenian ships of about numerous brailing-ropes presumably was rigged on
ropes,
;

always sketched carelessly. The 500 B.C. in fgs. 17 to 19 have and in the merchant-ship, which

a larger scale than the war-ships, each brailing-rope makes several loops round the sail. In

these ships, and also in the earlier Athenian ship in fg. 13, the halyards are carried down to the waist, and thus take the place of shrouds in supporting the mast.
Odyssey, v. 254, ev 5' i<rrbv re /cdXous re 7r65as r evedycrev ev
/j,L<ryofj.evwv

177

irolet /cat eirlKpiov ap/j.evov
afirrj.
\

aury, 260, ev
8t ol iarbv

5'

virepas
|

316
6'

318,

fj.e<rov

ae

deivrj

dve/j.uv e\dovffa 0i5eXXa,

rr/XoD 8e a-rreipov Kai ciriKpiov

Zfjiirecre
\

irbvr^.

Iliad,

i.

480, 481,

oi 5' ia-rbv <sr-r](so.vr\

dvd

icm'a Xeu/ca TreTa<r<rav
6"

ev 5' aVe,uos
ev(TTpeTrToi<ri

Trprjcrev fj.eaov
'

iffriov.

Odyssey,

ii.

426, 427, 2\KOV
iffrlov.
5'
iii.

iffrla

Xeu/ca

fioevviv
^7765

|

e/JLirpriaev 5' dvefj.o$ fj.e<rov
|

10,

u,
5'

oi 5' tdtis

Mays

areiXaj>

deipavres, ryv

wpfjucrav ,
/cat
\

K

^/3av

KardyovTO, t'5' icrrta xii. avroL 170, 171,

es 5' trapoi t>ebs Icrria iJ.riptiffa.vTO,
/c.r.X.

ra

p.tv tv vrjl y\a<pvprj Otcrav, oi 5' eir

were halyards for hoisting sail ; and also brailing-ropes of some sort, as the crew took in the sail by pulling it up, ffretXav dcipavres, wpfaavTo. For the latter term, see Sophocles, Fr. 699, apud Athenaeum, iii. 55, VO.VTCU de /jujpijcravTo vrjos tVxaSa, and Oppian, de venatione,
last verses

These

shew

that there

i.

50, ixObv dfftralpovTa fivd&v

coil

up cords or
178

cables,
ii.

Herodotos,

The meaning was apparently to aTro/ji.r)pij<ra.(T6ai. and so haul up things attached to them. 36, r&v io-rluv TOI>$ Kptnovs /cat /cdXous ot fdv aXXot QuOev

frwdev. The brailing-ropes, and the rings to keep them seen upon the fore side of the sail on the Roman ship in and these clearly are the ropes and rings intended by Herodotos. Morefg. 29 over, the word /cdXos or /cdXws occurs in various phrases where it can hardly refer
Trpo<r5eov<ri, AiyijTrrtoi 5^

in their place,
:

may be

to

any ropes but these.

Plato, Protagoras, p. 338, AUJT' aZ Hpa)Tay6pav (av^ov-

Xei/w) TrdvTa KO.\WV fKrelvavra, ovptg, tyevra, <f>evyeiv etj rb ircXayos

r&v \6yuv, cf. Sisyphos, p. 389, rb \ey6fj,ev6v ye, Trdvra KaXov tyevres. Aristophanes, equites, 756, vvv 577 tre Trdvra Set /cdXcoi/ eievai ffeavrov. Euripides, Medea, 278, e"x0/>oJ ya.p To let out ej-iacn iravra 5r) KdXiov, Troades, 94, orav ffrpdrev^ 'Apyetov e^ty /cdXws.
the brailing-ropes

was

to let out the sail

;

and

to let these ropes out altogether

was

to let the sail out to the full,

and hence by metaphor,

to

make every

effort.

alludes to gluttons;

Oppian, de piscatione, ii. 223, yatrrpi 8e iravTas einTpwirCoffi. /cdXwas, where he while now-a-days a sail is said to belly.
T.

/

82

THE VARIOUS STYLES OF RIGGING
The
inventories of the Athenian dockyards

shew that

in

330 B.C. the rigging for the war-ships of three and four banks consisted of the histos or mast, the keraiai or yard, the histion or sail, and the topeia or ropes and that in four-banked ships
;

the topeia consisted of eighteen loops of kalodia, two himantes, a double agkoina, two podes, two hyperai, and a ckalinos. The distinction between these six sorts of ropes is not indi-

cated by the inscriptions nor can it safely be inferred from the language of ancient authors, since technical terms were often used very loosely the term topeia, for example, which
;
:

here denotes the ropes collectively, being popularly employed But probably there were to denote the halyards alone.
179

Corp. Inscr. Attic, vol.
151, no. 809, col. e,
11.

ii,

119
lists

75

no. 807, col. c, 11. no, no. 8n, col.

66102,
c, 11.

no. 808, col. d,
32.

11.

n

These are the

of the entire gear (ei/reX?? <jKeut]) supplied to ships of three and four banks in 330/329 B.C. and following years; and the only items of rigging included therein In no. 809 the word roTreta is missing: but line are i<rr6s, /ce/xucu, Jcrr/ov, roTreta. 1 06 of col. e may be restored as /card/SX-^a, ro7re?]a to match line 30 of col. c in
no.

8n.

The

suggested restoration /cara/SXi^arJa seems too short.
11.

For

roTreta
11.

see no. 807, col. a,

141
11.

146,

153, 159

163, 178

183, no. 808, col. b,
eirl

189

193 no. 809, col. b,

222
1

227, roTreta rerp^pwj', or ro7re?a
1,

rerpT^eis,
virtpai.
||,

eKdffrrjS Ka\ij)diuv

/i^/xara

A PI
11.

ifJ-d-vres

||

?

dyKoiva

StTrX??,

?r65ej

\\

}

Xa\ivbs

|.

See also no. 807,

col. a,

11.

62

64, 73

75, no. 808, col. b,
eirl

11.

no, in,

115

118, no. 809, col. b,
fjL-rjpvfjLaTuv

145

147, 150

152, roTreta

vavs

HHPAAI,

TrXV

KaXydiwv
for

|||,

which shews that there were

fit)

ptpar a KdXydiwv

among

the

roTma

three-banked ships, but unfortunately gives no further
of
of
If

information.

The KctXot or /cdXws had probably been replaced by these ccaXySta smaller size, when the brailing-ropes began to be looped round the sail instead merely passing down the front and the loops might well be termed /^pifyiara.
;

were not eighteen separate brailing-ropes, but or nine with two loops.
so, there
80

six

with three loops each,

Strattis,

Macedones, Fr.
els
\

i,

rbv TTTT\OV 8 rov

TOVTOV
\

2\Kov<riv dvetovTes rondois

avSpes

dvapidfJt-rjTot

aKpov, wffirep i<rTiov,
roiretots
|

Iffrbv.

Archippos, asini umbra,

Fr.

I,

rpoxi\La.L<n

raura Kal

ivraaiv O$K dvev irbvov.

Both quoted by

plays were produced at Athens about 400 B.C.: so this popular usage of the term roirela was concurrent with the technical usage. Assuming that the /caX^Sia and 7r65es and virtpai were brailing-ropes and sheets

Harpocration,

s.v. roireiov.

The

and
iv.

braces, the i/^d^res

fore-stay

and back-stay.
v\f/i

and &yKoiva and %aXi'6s would naturally be halyards and The halyards are termed i/xd^res by Apollonios Rhodios,
|

889, 890,

d

Xcu</>os

e'ipVffGav ro.vu<jo.vr^ cv
cf.

v representing evTav^aavTes.

IpavTeatn Kepalrjs, this ravvaavTcs Heliodoros, ^Ethiopica, v. 27, rd ia-ria avi^wvrwv.
xix. 4.
7,

The

&-yKoiva or

anquina

is

mentioned by Cinna, apud Isidorum,

atque

ADOPTED IN THE ATHENIAN NAVY.
eighteen loops of brailing-ropes

83

six ropes with three loops a double fore-stay, two sheets, two braces, :h, two halyards, The inventories also shew that the ind a back-stay 180
.

iree-banked ships were rigged differently some years before. 'here were then the histos megas and the keraiai megalai or large-mast and large-yard, and the histos akateios and the keraiai akateioi or boat-mast and boat-yard there were also
:

two timber parastatai, which probably were a pair of posts arranged as bitt-heads to support the foot of a mast that could and although four of the six easily be raised and lowered sorts of ropes were the same, there were then kaloi instead of 181 But whilst loops of kalodia and the agkoina was not double
: .

anquina regat stabilem fortissimo, cursum, and by Lucilius, apud Nonium, p. 536, funis enim pracistf cito ctdque anquina soluta. But here anquina should be read ancyra, the line meaning that the shore-cable was cut, and the anchor weighed see
:

note 166 on p. 73 for similar passages. Cinna's expression anquina fortissima might well denote the fore-stay, as that came to be the principal rope in the rigging
:

see note 202

on

p. 94.

The term yv^^^ would
ii,

thus remain for the back-stay,

and seems suitable enough.
181

Corp. Inscr. Attic, vol.

no. 795, col. d,

11.

3142,

K(f>d\aiov TrapavTaT&v

eirl

vavs Pllll, /ce^dXaiov ivr&v fj.eyd\ui>

AA

[...]> Kc<j>d\aiov

Kepai&v

/j,eyd\wi> firl

vaCs

AA PI,
i

/ce^dXcuov Iffrwv [d/cajretaj'

Pll> K(f>d\aiov [^ep]ai[cD]i' d/care/wi' eirl

vavs [...]. This forms part of a list of the gear for the three-banked ships in one division of the fleet in or about 352 B.C. Corp. Inscr. Attic, vol. ii, no. 794, col.
b,
11.

io = no. 793, col.
eirl

a,

11.

3852,

TrapaffrarCov dpttf/uos

HHHHPIIII'

OVTOI

ylyvovrai

vavs

HHAAIIII,

[IffT&v fj.ey]d\wj> dpt0/*[ds twi va]vs [..]
*

AAAP,

[Kep]cuwl>] fuyd(\uv)
\lffrC)\v

dp^bs HHHHP[Al]l
[C'TTI

dKarduv

dp(0ju&s

yaus...]

APII*
15

aSrat ylyvov\rai\
793,
col. a,

M
11.

vavs

AAAAII, [Kfpaiu]i> d/c PAAAIII [fa-l pia] Ktpala.
[l\ffrl<av

no. 794, col. b,

11.

2i=no.

6165,

dpiOpte

[tir]l

vavs

PAAAAPII,
7r65ej
||,

[roireq&w
III,

dpid}j.te eirl

vavs [lvr]e\rj
I,

PAAAPIIII

[/coi] IfulvTe*
list

II,

inr^pat
all

ayKoiva

I,

[x]a\ij>ds

xdXws Pill-

This forms part of a

of the gear for

Such lists, however, can the three-banked ships in the fleet in or about 356 B.C. only shew that masts of two kinds and yards of two kinds were in use concurrently
for

not that there was a mast and yard of each kind on every three-banked ship ; obviously these ships might not all be rigged alike, but some with a large mast and yard, and some with an akatian. But various entries in the inventories shew

incidentally that the ships carried a mast and yard of each kind. Corp. Inscr. Attic, vol. ii, no. 791, 1. 92, IVT /j-ey and lar O.K wanted for the AeXQivia, no. 794,

84

THE VARIOUS STYLES OF RIGGING

there were two kinds of masts and yards, there certainly was only one kind of rope of each sort and only one kind of sail

:

and the inscriptions give no hint that there was ever more than one set of ropes and one sail for a ship. Xenophon, however, mentions the two kinds of sails, megala and akateia,
in speaking of Athenian three-banked ships in 373 B.C.: and both kinds might have continued in use for about sixteen

years longer without appearing in the extant fragments of 182 the inventories Still, the fact remains that the second
.

mast and yard and the parastatai were retained in the Athenian navy for some years after the second sail and the second set of ropes had been discarded: and this is a curious
col. a,
11.

18

20, 27
icep

66

68, lar pey,

29, Kep fj.ey and lar d/c ready for the Eu7rpe7r?5$, col. d, pey, lar d/c, Kep d/c, all lost by the Taxe?a, no. 798, col. b,

11.
11.

pey and lar d/c now on board the Meylffrr), 11. 31, 32, lar pey and lar d/c now on board the ~2<pevd6vr), no. 800, col. b, 11. 57, 58, lar pey and lar d/c now on board the 'Ryepovla, no. 801, col. b, 11. 19, 20, Kep pey and Kep d/c
16, 17, 26, lar pey, Kep

now on board
lost
11.

by the

87

the Ma/captct, no. 803, col. b, 11. 53 55, lar pey, Kep pey and tar d/c 11. 62 64, lar pey, tar d/c and Kep d/c lost by the Awp/s, 90, la~r pey, Kep pey, lar d/c, Kep d/c all lost by the'Tyt'eia: and so forth. There is
Tpi^cDcra, col. c,

clearly

an error
:

in the

second of the
I

lists

above, where 454 irapaararai are allotted
I

to 224 ships

ing 227,

mason has put III each with two irapaararai.
the

for

PI by repetition, the ships really numberBy some chance the Nt/o; and the "EXevdepta

no. 789, col. b,

once had three irapaararai on board, according to the entries in the inventories, 1. But no other ships are credited with 3, no. 793, col. c, 1. 22. more than two; and the entries here may possibly be wrong. The irapa.ara.Tai

$-v\iva:

were certainly of timber, for in the inventories they are reckoned among the axe^y and as they were discarded simultaneously with the masts and yards

described as peyaXot and d/ca'reiot, they probably had some connexion with one or other of those masts or yards. Their name indicates that they were a pair of supports for something standing between them and such supports could not well
;

be attached to a yard, or to any part of a mast except its foot. Most likely they were a pair of posts, to serve as bitt-heads, with the foot of a mast fixed on a pivot

between them

in

such a way that this mast could easily be raised or lowered

;

for

the Athenian three-banked ships then had masts of that description. Xenophon, Hellenica, vi. 2. 29, 0uXa/cds ye p-qv, rds pev ev rfj y?, (uairep Trpocr^/cet) KaOtarr], ev oe
TCUS vavalv alpbpevos
ai5 roi>s i<rroi)s

dirb

ro^ruf eaKOiretro.

It is clear that there

was

only one iarlov and one set of Toireta for each ship, since the phrase is eirl vavs in the second of the lists above, where the phrase would have been ravra ylyverai eirl

had there been more than one. Unless there was more than one ayKoiva in a must haye been more than eight /cctXws, for otherwise the roirela would have sufficed for ninety ships with one virepa to spare. But possiblj there were two ayKolvai in place of the dyKotva, 8iir\Tj of later date.
vaus,
set of TOTreta, there

ADOPTED IN THE ATHENIAN NAVY.
fact.

85

The extant fragments

of the inventories do not mention

thirty-oared war-ships until

330

B.C.:

and then mention them

so seldom that there are no parallel passages for correcting But apparently these ships had a mast errors and omissions. that could be raised
foot

support
the

its

;

and lowered a pair of parastatai to a yard formed of two spars a sail and
;
; ;
.

same

and

six sorts of ropes, except that there were kalodia 183 The not kaloi, and that the agkoina was not double

shew clearly that all ships of the same rate in the Athenian navy were rigged in exactly the same way and that their masts, yards, sails, etc., were interchangeable.
inventories
182

;

Xenophon, Hellenica,
^TrXei,
d'/xct

vi.

2. 27, 6 5
els

'I^tKpdr^ eird rjpZaro roO
*

TreptTrXou,
TO.

d/j,a JJL^V

5

irdvra 6Va
,

vav^a^Lav Trapeovceudfero

tv6i>s

ILV yap

fj,eyd\a Iffria

avrov KartXiirev
etr),

u>s eiri vavfj.a^(iav
'

irXtiav' Kal rois d/caretois 5^, Kal et

v<popov TTJ'eOyaa
(rw/xara

6\tya ^XP^ TO

rV

^

KUTTT] rbv TT\OVV TroiovjuLfvos a/j.fiv6v re

rd

x

et "

ro ^ s di>8pas Kal

a/j.eivov

rds vavs

w\iv

ewoiei.

This was

in the spring

of 373 B.C.

The

earliest

fragments of the inventories in the Corp. Inscr. Attic.
:

are no. 789, assigned to 373/2, and no. 789. b (appendix), assigned to 374/3 but there are no entries about sails until nos. 793 and 794, which are quoted in the
last note.
'

The

large sails are mentioned again

by Xenophon, Hellenica,

i.

i.

13,

avrbv e^eXo^j'ois rd /te-ydAa Icrria, avrbs ii. i. Zir\ev<rei> els Ildpiov, cf. 12, dvdyevdai -t]8f} avrou ^XXoj/ros ws eirl vav^a-xlo-v. 29, K6i>wv 5^, KarcurxwJ' eirl ri)v 'AfiapvLda TT}V Aa^d/cov axpav, ZXafiev avrddev rd
A\Kij3t,d5r]s 5^, eiir&v Kal roirrots 5tw/ce'

yueydXa TUV

These events were in 410 and 405 B.C. Avirdvdpov ve&v iffrLa.. See also Epicrates, apud Athenaeum, xi. 23, KardjBaXXe rd/cdreia, /cat /cuXi/aa atpov rd /j.dfa. This dates from about 375 B.C. There is an allusion here to hoisting
|

and lowering the large
putting

sails and the akatians, and also an allusion to taking up and The KvXiKta were the drinking-cups known as KvXlKia and d/cdreia. shaped like saucers, and could therefore be compared to a sail swelling out before

down

wind.
183

Corp. Inscr. Attic, vol.
<7/cetf?7

ii,

no. 812, col. a,

11.

6

Ii, rpianovrbpov Se^o/cX^s

/ceX(eei)s)

^x et

Si'Xii'a'

Tapp6/j. t Trr)8d\ia, /cXiyLta/ct5as, Kovrots, torous, Kepalas,

t

This thirty-oared Nk?7 is rijs NtKrjs, Xaipeo-rpdrou tpyov. be confounded with the three-banked NIKTJ mentioned in note 181 on p. 84. e mason has probably put to-rotfs for iarbv by mistake he would easily be misled
rdras d6o' drrb
to
:

by the neighbouring plurals, and especially by KOVTOIJS just before. A little thirtyoared ship was not very likely to be carrying two masts at a time when large ships of three and four banks were carrying only one nor was any ship likely to carry two masts of the same kind the masts would naturally differ in size and bear
;

different

names.
vol.

The
ii,

5tfo

after Trapao-rdraj

appears to be redundant.
115,
116,
/cat

Corp.

Inscr.

Attic,

no.

809, col. a,

11.

iariov rpt[aKovT]6pov

^iroTjffdfj.[dd],

no. 807, col.

c, 11.

42

45, KalrptaKOVT^pov, KoXydia d56/ct/ia

AAA A,

T65es

II,

virtpa

86

THE MAST NAMED AKATEION.
At
the time

when akatian masts and

sails

were carried

on the three-banked war-ships, the large sails used to be 184 sent ashore whenever the ships were cleared for action Battles being fought without regard to wind, no ship could ever hoist a sail until she had abandoned all attempts at and as the large sail fighting and was trying to get away she had then to hoist the had been sent ashore beforehand,
.

;

became a proverbial expression for running away. This expression occurs in a play by Aristophanes that was produced in 411 B.C. and a
akatian
:

so that

*

hoisting the akatian

'

:

century afterwards it was adopted by Epicures in a saying 185 The that is quoted by Plutarch and parodied by Lucian
.

classic
sails

name

akateion

is

also applied

by Lucian to one of the
: .

on the merchant-ships.of his the name does not occur again in probably, therefore, these masts soon after they were discarded in
184

own times
and
sails

but" apparently 186 Most ancient literature

went out of use

the Athenian navy.

Xenophon, Hellenica, i. i. 13, ii. i. 29, vi. 2. 27, already quoted in note 182. Thucydides also alludes to this practice of sending the large sails ashore before going into action, though he does not give these sails their name vii. 24, /cat
:

Xp^ip-ara TroXXd

rd

ty/JLiravra

e'dXw are yap rapueiip xP wfJ-^ V(lOV r & v 'Adrjvaiwv
/cat

rots

ret^ecrt TroXXd fikv i^irbpwv xptf/Aara Kal OTTOS CVTJV, TroXXd 5
iffria reffffapaKovra rpiripuv Kal

rpiTjpdpxw, fael Kal
'

rdXXa
cos

ffKe^fj eyKareX-rj^Br], viii.

43, ot 5e 'Adrjvdioi
Tr\ev<ravres 4s rr\v
e

rats
^ti/Lnjv

K
. .

TTJS

2d/xov vavei 7rdVats,

rjffQovro
ffKe^t]

rd

TTJS

vav/uaxias,

.\a86vres 5
in

rd

ev

TTJ

2i5/x7/

ruv vewv, dTr7r\VO'av
A.
|

These events were
185

413 and 411 B.C.
Lysistrata,

Aristophanes,

61

64,

oi)3'

as

?rpo(re6/cwj/
JIKOVCTIV.

Trpwras Trap&reo"0at devpo rds 'Ax^pv^wv ws devp' tovcra, rdKareiov ijpero. Qeoytvovs,
y<j)
| ]

yvva^Kas, ovx

K.
i,

Plutarch, de audiendis poetis,

irbrepov ovv

r&v vewv,

<!}<nrep

TOJV ^WaKTjaiuv, KTjpf rivt
ai/roi/s,

rd c3ra Kal dreyKrig Kypy

Karair\da (Torres dvayKa^w^ev
<f)6yeiv

rb

"Ej-jriKOijpei.ov

aKareiov dpa^vovs, TTOLTJTLK^V

Kal

Trapee\avveu>

;

non posse suaviter
abruv
45,
sit,

vivi

secundum Epicurum,
iroifjTiKov
cx/cptoj/
rciJi'

12,

eirapa^evovs rd d/cdreta (petiyew dir

Ke\tiov<ri, sc. ot 'ETrt/cot5peioi.

Lucian,

quomodo
vavv.
186

historia conscribenda

defoei

yap rbre

TIVOS dve/j-ov
KVfj.dra}v
rr\v

eTTOVpiaffovros

rd

d/cdreta Kal avvdioiffovTOS vtyifkriv Kal eir

Lucian, Lexiphanes, 15, dXXd

<rf>

TO O/AOLOV elpyaffto

/me ucrirep et ris

6X/cd5a

ev ovplfg Tr\ov<rav, efjiTreirvevfJiarw^evov rod d/caretou, ev<popovffdv re Kal
/,

TOV
ficv

6po/j.ov

eKTopds rivas d/i0to"T6/ioi;s Kal tVxdSas ffidTjpds d<f>els Kal vavffiiredas, TO pbdiov (pdovq TTJS vr}vulas. cf. Jupiter tragoedus, v/j.ds rare avefJios efj-TriTTTUv rrj odbvrj Kal ^TrtTrXas rd d/cdreta,
;

tptrrovres, eitvfiepva 5e els ris ^eo'rajs Kal effwfc rrjv vavv

THE MAST NAMED DOLON.

8/

A

mast termed

dolon, with

a

sail

of the

same name,

ibsequently served for manceuvering before an action and for escaping after a defeat. According to Polybios, the Rhodian war-ships used dolons in an action in 201 B.C.:

and he had read the admiral's despatch at Rhodes. And according to Livy, the Syrian and Roman war-ships also used them in actions in 191 and 190 B.C.: and he is here
following the lost narrative by Polybios, who probably got his information about these actions from the Rhodian

Diodoros says that the Carthaginian war-ships despatches used them in an action in 307 B.C. but perhaps he is misquoting his authorities, for at that date the ships might have used akatians 188 The dolons are mentioned again by Proco.

187

:

.

pios in

speaking of Byzantine war-ships in 533 A.D.; and he

describes

them

as

the

little

sails

and distinguishes them
obsolete
for the

from the large
for centuries,

sails.

The name must have been
classic

and then resuscitated as a
.

term

smaller sort of mast or sail 189
187

Polybios, xvi. 15, tv

Trj Trepl

AdSrjv

va.vfj.axtg'

Mo
'

pet*

avTavSpovs irevT^pas

TWV 'Podiuv L>7ro%eipous yevtffdai rots TroXe/ufois K de TOV Kivdvvov jtuas VTJOS eVa/xxTTO\\OVS Kal TWV tyyvs rb /*eV?7S rbv 56\wva dia TO TTpw/j.^vrjv avT^v 0aXarroO<r0cu
irapa.7r\ri<nov TroioOvras

airox^p^v

irpbs

rb Trt\ayos'

rAos

5e ywer 6\iywv KaraXei^fleVra
T?}? etriaTO\ris

Tbv vavapxov avayxao'dfivou. ra^rb rots
/j.ei>

irpoeipijfJLfrois

irpaTreiv

TI

ofays ev

TQ

TrpvTavely, TTJs

vir'

avTotis TOI)S /caipoi)s virb TOV

vavdpxov

TT/j.(f>0la">is

wepl TOVTWV r-rj re /3owX^ Kal rots Trpuravea-tv. Livy, xxxvi. 44, quod ubi vidit Romamis, vela contrahit malosqtie inclinat, et, simul armamenta contponens, opperitur inseqnentes naves, iamferme triginta in route erant ; quibus zit tzquaret

f

lavum cornu, dolonibus
pritnum ab
Iccvo

cornu fuga

dubie se superari vidit)
videre, sublatis
188

45, neque ita multo post Polyxenidas enim ut virtute militum haud sublatis dolonibus effuse fugere intendit. xxxvii. 30, ceterum
erectis alttirn petere
ccepit.

intendit.

postquam alias circumventas, prcetoriam navem Polyxenida

relictis sociis vela

dantem

raptim dolonibus, Ephesum petuntfuga. Diodoros, xx. 61, 6 5e T&V K.apxno'oi'twv crrpar^^s, aXicrKo^vrjs
76 eu
'

tffir]

rijs

vavapxi-oos, air<r<pa!;v eavrdv, irpOKptvas rbv ddvarov r^j TrpoffdoKydeLffys at'xMaXw(rias.

ou

(J.TJV

ecpavij

pefiovXev/jitvos

i]

yap vavs

<f>opov 7rveu/*aros tTri\apofdvr],

TOV

86\wvos apdtvTos, et<pvy Tbv KivSvvov.
189

\o\)6eiv re del Kal

Procopios, de bello Vandalico, i. 17, rots 5 vavTais tir-/iyy6\\e Tra.pa.KoTOV arparet/^taros fJ.7) TTO\V 5ifo~Tavac dXX' tin<f>6pov fj.v yivo^vov
}

TOV

TrvevfJi.aTos

xaXacrai'ras

roi

fieyaXa

tcrr/a

ro?s fJ-iKpols,

a

STJ

56Xa>j'as

Ka\ov<nv,

$Tre(rdat' Xaj0-?7(ra^ros 5e Trai/reXcDs

roO avfj.ov

/3tdfe<r^at o<rov oloL re wriv cpo~o~ovTas.
vi.

This

is clearly an adaptation of the passage in Xenophon, Hellenica, already quoted in note 182 on p. 85.

i. 27,

88

THE MAST NAMED ARTEMON.

termed artemon are mentioned by Lucilius a little before 100 B.C., and then by Labeo and the elder Seneca, who treat them as subordinate to the ordinary mast and sail 190 In later times the artemon is mentioned by name in the Acts of the Apostles and also by Paulinus of Nola about 400 A.D. while a subordinate sail is noticed by and afterwards by Synesios, a contemporary of Juvenal 191 These statements may all refer to merchantPaulinus but a small sail is mentioned by Appian in narrating ships
sail
.

A

mast and

;

.

:

how some Roman
in

war-ships got

away

after a defeat off

Mylse
sail

36

B.C.,
.

though unfortunately he does not give the

a

a second mast of some sort, artemon or dolon or was generally in use from 411 B.C. to 533 A.D. and perhaps before and after but there is not anything to shew what difference there was between the akatian and the dolon, or the dolon and the artemon.
akatian,
:

name 192 Thus

190

Lucilius,

B.C.
esse,

The
Labeo
;

Pandects,
ait
:

apud Charisium, p. 99, Arabus artemo. Lucilius died about 100 1. 16. 242, malunt navis esse partcni, artemonem autem non quid plerceque naves sine malo inutiles essent, ideoque pars navis

habetur
versise,

artemo autem magis adiectamento quam pars navis est. Seneca, controvii. i. 2, ubi spes? in gubernaculo? nulla est. in remlgio? ne in hoc
in velo ? in artemone ?
spei

quidem
is

in comite ? nemo repertus est naufragi comes, est. omnia pane instrumenta circumscisa sunt : adminiculum

nullum

est.

There

an emendation here, artemone for arte ; and if that is right, Seneca distinguishes the ordinary sail (velum) from a sail termed artemo, just as Labeo distinguishes the Labeo and Seneca were both ordinary mast (mahts) from a mast termed artemo.
living at
191

Rome in the reign of Augustus. Acts, xxvii. 40, tirdpavTes rbv apre^wva
2,

rfi Trveoija-y,

Kareixov

els

rbv aiyiakbv.

Paulinus Nolanus, epistolse, 49.

mains

navem
bat,

in undas expulsus tuto ceciderit. aut sentinam depleri, etc. Juvenal,

a vulncre, ut longe extra deinde, cum aut artemone armari oporteita prosilivit

xii.

67
\

69, inopi miserabilis arte cucurrit
velo

\

vestibtis extentis, et,

quod superaverat unum,
\

prora

suo.

cf.

53

55, tune,
\

adversis urguentibus, illuc

recidit^

ut

malum

ferro submitteret, ac se
ftev otiv
'urrtov

angustum.
ou/c

Synesios, epistolse, p. 163 D, viraXXdrTeiv

explicat erepov vbdov

KbXirovs.
it

Tjvexvpiaa'TO ydp' dve\a/J.[3dvoiAev 5e aurb Kaddirep T&V \i.T&vwv TOI)S This can only mean that they reduced the size of the ordinary sail until would fit a smaller mast and yard. For XITCUJ/WJ/ /c6\7rous, cf. Herodotos, vi.
etxo/j.ev,
>

125- 2 3> Polybios, iii. 33. 2; ^Eschylos, septem adversus Thebas, 1039. nus died in 431 A.U., and Synesios a year or two before. 192 Appian, de bellis civilibus, v. in, aXiffKo^evwv Se /ccti
'

Pauli-

Kataapos vedv,

at fj.v dpdfjt,evat TCI

fipax^a rcDv Iffrluv dwtirXeov

els TTJV

irapayye\jji.dTuv KaTa<ppovov<rai K.T.\.

SHIPS

WITH THREE MASTS.

89

The artemon must have been something between a foremast and a bowsprit with a spritsail on a spritsail-yard for that is what is represented on the coins of 67 and 186 and 305 A.D. in fgs. 27 and 28 and 34, and in the reliefs and
;

paintings of corresponding date in fgs. 26, 29, 31, 33, 35, 37 and 40. On the Roman war-ship of about 50 A.D. in fg. 35 there is not any mast beside the artemon but the ship is
;

here in action, and obviously the ordinary mast and sail have been taken down or sent ashore beforehand. The rule was
still

to send the ordinary sail ashore
;

for action

lowered

in

when a ship was cleared and the ordinary mast must always have been a battle, for otherwise it would have snapped
.

under the shock of ramming 193 A third mast had come into use by about 50 A.D. and 194 this was presumably a mizen Perhaps a few of the largest were fitted with this mast but normally merchant-ships there were only two.
;
.

;

193

Plutarch, Antonius, 64, Kal TOVS KvfiepvriTas
ev

TO, Iffrla. /SovXo/^j'ous

diro\nreiv
TI TTJS

('Avr&vtos) ^u/3aX&r#cu Kal KOfAtfeiv.
at(j>i>ldioi>

66,

aKpirov d

Kal KOIVTJS

vav/j.axias (Tvve<rTtb<nis,
irpbs
1.

KXeoTrdrpas ^KOVTO. vyes utpdTjffav alp6/j,cvaL d,7r67rXow rd tcm'a Kal dia ^t^crou (fievyovcrai. T&V [taxo fj.fr wv. Dion Cassius,

al

33, TOVS

yap

(pevyovTas, are Kal avev Icrriwv ovres Kal

-rrpos

ryv vavpaxlav

p.6vr)v

These passages refer to the battle of Actium in 31 B.C.; and certainly imply that it then was customary to send the ordinary sail ashore on clearing for action. See also Livy, xxvi. 39, veils turn forte, improvidus futuri certaminis, Romanus veniebat, and Vegetius, iv. 43, navalis pugna tranquillo committitur mart, liburnarumque moles non ventorum flatibus sed remorum pulsu adversaries percutit rostris. For the lowering of the masts, see
irape<?Kvacrfji.frot,

OVK ^-rrediu^av.

Polybios,

i.

61, oi 5e Kapx7)56viot, /cariS6fres rbv didirXovv avrCiv Trpo/car^xovras TOVS
TOI)S

'Pwfjiatovs, Ka6e\6/Jivoi

I&TOVS,

K.T.\.,

and Livy, xxxvi. 44, quod ubi vidit
fj.tv

Romanus,
194

vela contrahit malosque inclinat. Athenseos, v. 43, rptuv re Iffrwv inrapx6i>Twv,...T&v 5t 'HTTUV 6

detirepos

Kal rpiros evptdrjo'av'
ffvfiurov avdpds.

5uo"xe/jws 5e 6 TrpcDros tv rots ope<rt TTJS Bperrtas evptdr) VTTO

Pliny, xix. i, iam vero cum vix amplitudini antennarum singulce

nee vela satis esse maiora navigiis. scd arbores sufficiant, super eas tamen addi

velorum alia
as

vela, prczterque alia in proris et alia in puppibus pandi. Pliny speaks though a three-masted ship were a thing of recent date ; and Athenseos may really be describing a ship of Caligula's time or afterwards, though professing to
:

There is possibly an describe a ship belonging to Hieron see pp. 27 29. allusion to the three masts of a ship in the Corinthian jest recorded by Strabo, viii. 6. 20. As many as fifty masts and sails were carried on the biggest timberrafts
:

see Theophrastos, historia plantarum, v. 8. 2, quoted in the note

on rates

on

p. 122.

90

THE SUPPARUM, OR

TOPSAIL.
A.D. as part

A

topsail

had also come into use by about 50
195
.

of the ordinary rig The ancients always improved the pace of a ship by carrying

knew
sail

that they

as high as

possible, though apparently they did not understand the cause of this; but hitherto they had gained their object by 196 Now they introduced a sail that was hoisting up the yard
.

triangular in form,

and spread

it

with

its

base along the yard

and

its

Roman
those in

apex at the top of the mast, as depicted on the ship of about 200 A.D. in fg. 29, and less distinctly on
;

The topsail being of this shape, fgs. 27, 32, and 39. no topsail-yard was needed nor can such a yard be detected in the manuscript of about 500 A.D. in fg. 38, for obviously the scribe has combined the masts and yards belonging to both lines of ships in a convenient group above the upper
line,
195

simply to avoid confusion.
Seneca, epistolae, 77, subito nobis hodie Alexandrine naves apparuerunt, et nuntiare s'ecutura classis adventum: tabellarias vacant.

quce prcemitti solent

grains illarum Campania aspectus est. omnis in pilis Puteolorum turba consistit et ex ipso genere velorum Alexandrinas quamvis in magna turba navium intellegit. solis enim licet supparum intendere, quod in alto omnes habent naves, (nulla enim
res ceque

adiuvat cursum

quam summa pars

veli: illinc

maxime navis

urgetiir.

itaque quotiens ventus increbruit maiorque est quam expedit, antenna submittitiir : minus habet virium flatus ex humili.) cum intravere Capreas et promontorium ex

quo "alta

procelloso speculatur vertice

Pallas" cetera
est.
cf.

velo iubentur esse contents

:

supparum Alexandrinarum
antennas medio tufas
\

insigne

Seneca,
\

Medea, 323

328,

nunc
\

ponere malo ; nunc in summo religare loco, cum iam totos avidus nimium navita jlatus optat, et alto rubicunda tremunt suppara velo. Lucan, v. 428, 429, summaque pandens suppara velorum perituras colligit auras.
\
\ \

Statius, silvse,

by

annectite suppara velis. The top-sail is noticed Pliny in the passage quoted in the last note, but he omits the name. Apiii.

i. 27,

summis

parently

supparum becomes
TOU Tr\oiov,

at<papos in
/ioi

Greek.

Epictetos, dissertationes,

iii.

2. 18,

ftvdio/j.frov 5
ffi(pdpovs is

o"i5

ira.pe\Quv eiraipeis robs crupdpovs.

But possibly

being

irapdo-eipov.

here a corruption of <reipa(p6povs, the regular equivalent of supparum Lucian, navigium, 5, 6 jj.tv yap AXXos /c607<cos, al ypa(pal Kal TOV
Athenaeos,
v. 39, 6 d
Icrrbs

laTiov r6 Trapacreipov irvpavyts, K.T.\.
KOVTO. irrjx&i', pt<r<nt>ov

yv avTrjs

e/SSo/iiy-

^(av

itrriov,

aXovpyel Trapao-elpy KeKOff^^vov.

This

last

passage refers to a vessel built by Ptolemy Philopator for his voyages on the Nile: but Athenaeos is quoting from Callixenos, and he must be committing the anachronism of giving this vessel a type of sail that was not introduced until about two

hundred years afterwards. The term Trapaafipov can only denote a top-sail or a and there is not any trace of the use of studding-sails in ancient times. By their description of these Trapda-etpa as irvpavyh and aXovpyts, Lucian and Athenseos confirm Seneca's description of the suppara as rubicunda.
studding-sail
;

FULL-RIGGED SAILING-SHIPS.
full-rigged ship must now with a yard that carried a square sail

91

have had a main mast below and a triangular sail above, a fore-mast or bowsprit with a yard and square sail only, and also a mizen with perhaps a similar yard and sail. The rigging had been developed to this point by about 50 A.D. at latest; but after that there was not any further progress, and the additional masts and sails were gradually discarded. Thus, while two masts and sails were carried on the Byzantine war-ships that made the attack on Carthage in 533 A.D., only one was carried on those that

Thus a

were equipped for the attack on Crete

in

949

A.D.

So the

arrangement of the rigging as well as the arrangement of the oars had now reverted to the style in vogue among the Greeks

some sixteen centuries before 197
196

.

Aristotle, mechanica, 7, dia
larl(f Kal T<

ri, 6'<ry
;

av
?}

i]

Kepala dvwTtpa
fj,ev

77,

darrov TrXe?

TO,

TrXoia Tip O.VT<

ai/ry

7T^ei//u.ari

Si6ri ylverai 6

i<rr6s /xoxX6y, VTrofj.6-

)(\iov be rb edibXtov ev

$
5'

4/J.Tr^Tnjyev, 5 de dei Kivetv f3dpos

rb ir\o?ov, TO 5

KWOVV TO

ev

T
T/

lariat Trvevfjt.a

;

el

oVy av iropp&Tepov
i]

77

rb

virofj.6xXt.ov, P^-ov Kivel

Kal OOLTTOV

avTTj

dijva/j.t.5

TO avrb

/Scipos,

oftv

Kepala av&Tepov ayo/Aerr) Kal Tb

IGT'IOV

iroppuTepov

copied by Vitruvius, x. 3. 5, eiusquevela cum sunt per altitudinem mediant mail pendentia, non potest habere navis celerem cursum : cum autem in summo cacumine antenna subductcz sunt, tune vehementiori
TToiet

TOV e5ut\iov VTTO/J,OX^[OV

6t>Tos.

This

is

progreditur impetu, quod non proxime calcem mali quod est loco centri sed in summo et longius ab eo progressa recipiunt in se vela ventum. Asclepiades says see that the calx or Trr^pra was the bottom of the mast, and fitted into the XTJ^J
note 199 on p. 92 so \yv6s and eSwXtov seem to mean the same thing here. In its action as a lever, the mast could only drive the fore part of the ship deeper into the water as the leverage was increased. The fact is simply that the friction of the

wind against the waves retards the lower currents of air more than it retards the currents above ; so that, as Seneca says, minus habet virium flatus ex humili,
epistolse, 77,
197

quoted in the

last note.

Porphyrogenitos, de caerimoniis,

TU>V paffiaK&v \6ycp TrotTjcrews

ap^vwv

Q'
fi'

CT^puv
iravtuv

dp^vwv

/3'

ava

Tr.rjx&v Krf TU>V

45, p. 389, ^60?; virep ayopas T&V iraviuv dva irrfx&v X' TU>V 6' Kapa^iuv rwv'PaJs, Kal fj-oveptuv T&V a^XyuaXciraji', avv r&v SodevTuv
ii.

pa.cria.KC3V

Kara

irepicrcreiav TOI)S auroi)j
<T)(Qi.vl(av

'Pws' VTrep Travlwv 5ia T&V d/u00T^pw^
^TTI/C^/JWV

apvd' ...8661)

virep
t

ayopas

\byi$ KpviTT&v

Kal Trooi.obp6p.wv TUV

auT&v

apptvwv y. p. 388, eis tt-6w\i(riv T&V K dpofji.ovl<i)v,...apfji.va K,...ava.yoThese were the largest dromons then in KaTayovTa criV T&V If^avTapiuv ai>T&v K'
ia
.

use: see note 47 on p. 19.

The appeva

are here the sails;

and apparently the

The sheets and luavTapta and dvayoKaTayovTa are the halyards and their blocks. braces may be included in the phrase Kpwruv tiriKrip&v Kal iroSiodpb/jiwv under
names akin
period
;

to ?r65es

and

eirLKpia.

See pp.

18,

and

p. 87 with note 189 as to the masts

and

19 as to the oars in use at this sails in use in 533 A.D.

92

MASTS WITH MILITARY-TOPS AND YARDS

The mast was fitted with a military-top on the largest of these Byzantine war-ships, so that the men could shoot
198 And military-tops upon an enemy's deck are represented on the masts of the Egyptian and Asiatic But war-ships two thousand years before, as in fgs. 6 to 8. on the Greek and Roman war-ships the masts were lowered during an engagement and military-tops were consequently

down

missiles

.

;

merchant-ships, the larger vessels of that class carrying them as part of their defence against the pirates. In these times the top was somewhat like a tub or cask,
left

to

with space enough for two or three men to stand inside and this was fastened round the mast a little way above
;

198

Leo, tactica, xix.

7, dXXcii Kal TO. \ey6fj(.eva
^TricrT-rjcrovai

vX6/ca(rrpa irepl r6
7repiTeret%t(r/x^va
r)

/j.e<rov

TTOU rou
e

KCLTaprtov

v rots fjieyicrTOis dpb/JLbxnv
/j.eo~ov rrjs Tro\e/J,tas VTJOS
77

o~avlffiv,
rj

WP

avdpes Ttves TO
olov ftdfas

dKOVTiaovcriv
8t,a9pv\f/ov<riv
77

\idovs

/ii;Xt/coi)s

crldrjpa ftapea,

t0oeiets, oY wv
17

rty vavv

r)

rot)s VTTOKeifjievovs ffvvd\dffov<ji.v

(T0o5ptDs

Karate p6fj.ev a,
17

ri 'frepov tirixvaovcrLV

efjurprjffai

8vvd/j,evov TT\V

vavv TUV

evavTiuv
199

robs

v atirrj 7ro\e/j.[ovs OavaTuxrai.
xi.

Athenaeos,

49, Kapx'no'iov.

KaXX^evos 6'P65tos

h rots

Ilept 'A.\e%avdpdas

(prfffiv

OTI iroTTipibv tffTtv eTri/x^Kej, <Tvv T)y ptv ov eis /mfoov eTrteiicws,
Ka,TriKOVTa...'A<TK\-iTirid5r}s 5' 6
V7]l

wra %x ov

TOV

irvd/Jitvos

TWOS T&V

ev rr)
T)

KaTa.aKeva.fffJLa.TWv.
els

M.vp\eav6$ KK\TJff6ai (f>r)ffLV avrb TOV yap IOTOU TO fj^v /carajrarw
olov eis /meffov,
'

KaXemu,

/J,TrlirTei

T&V \rjv6v

'

r6

5'

rpax^Xos
e(f>'

TO d

irpbs

ry

Kapx~f}(Ti.ov.

%ei 8e TOUTO Kepaias

avu

<rvvvevovcras

eK&Tepa Ta ^pfj, Kal
oe TOV dupaKlov

'

b \ey6/j.evov aurcp dupdiaov, TeTpdycwov irdvTi) avTat 5e Trpofixovcrtv fuKpbv eir' evOeias tt-wrepu.

TrXrjv TT)S /Sdcrews Kal TTJS
eirl
ei's

avriKovffa

Kal

6eia yiyvopevr)

eartv

rj

Xeyo/j-evrj

^Xa/cdrT;.

There

is

clearly

a misreading here, eTri/carcu for ejKeiTat. Callixenos says that the wine-cup Kapxytriov contracted a little in the middle and had handles reaching down to the bottom, so Asclepiades must have said that the mast-head Kapxriffiov consisted of a dupaKiov bulging a little at the top and bottom, with a pair of /ce/xucu curving

up on

either side.
:

These Kepatai were presumably the hooks that carried the

they could not be the yards, as those were straight. For the phrase reTpdywvov Trdi>Tr), cf. Corp. Inscr. Attic, vol. ii, no. 835, 1. 70, KvXivdpos TCTpdyuvos Thus its meaning is simply that there were not any projections or iravTaxei'

halyards

depressions in the sides of the dupduov between the two projections at the top and

bottom.

Athenaeos,
ovffi

v. 43, TpiCiv

re

io-rcDv

vTrapxovTuv,...^a-av 5

Kara rows IGTOVS

ev

rots Kapx^fiois,

x a X>cots,

eirl (J.ev

TOV wp&TOV rpe?s avdpes,

eld' efjs Kad' eva,

\etir6fj.evoi' TOVTOIS 5' ev 7rXe/cro?s yvpyddois 5ta TpoxiXLuv els TO, QupaKia \idoi irapecf. 44, affTpuv yap \pavei KapXTjcrta, Kal rpteXf/c/3dXXojTO Kal fie\Tf Sia T&V waLdiov. TOUS ^cipa/cas peyaKuv e^ros ^x i ve<j>euv. In the inventories of the Athenian dock-

yards an

eTridrj/jia

dupaKelov

is

Corp. Inscr. Attic, vol. ii, no. 791, 1. 31. 6wpaKetov was part of a military-top.

mentioned as something belonging to a war-ship see But there is nothing to shew that this
:

FOR DROPPING MISSILES ON AN ENEMY.

93

the yard, the halyards working through a pair of hooks or rings which projected from its sides and served as blocks 199 In the absence of a military-top these hooks or rings projected from the mast itself, as in fg. 13, where they crown
.

the mast, or again in fg. 30, where the mast extends beyond, and forms a kind of topmast for carrying the triangular sail above the yard 200 On merchant-ships the yards were strong for heavy weights to be hoisted to the ends and enough
.

let fall on an assailant. And channels could therefore be defended by mooring merchant-ships at intervals across, and thus sending masses of lead and lumps of rock through 201 the bottoms of any vessels that tried to run through

thence

.

Pindar, Nemea, v. 51, dva 5* larlo. relvov Trpds vybv Kapxwlov. The term vybv must here denote the pair of hooks for the halyards ; and so also iuga in Latin. Lucan, ii. 695, dum iiiga curvantur mali, cf. v. 418, hie utinam summi curvet carchesia malt, sc. Aquilo. The hooks being known as horns, /cepcucu see
last

)0

note

the Kapx^fftov could be described as the thing with the horns, Kcpovxos

or ceruchus.
ceruchis.

Ennodius, carmina,
i.

Valerius Flaccus,

i. 7. 43, lintea nam summis dum crispant nexa 469, temperet ut tremulos Zetes fraterque ceruchos.

Lucan, viii. 177* instabit siimmis minor Ursa ceruchis^ x. 494, 495* ft tempore eodem transtraque nautarum, summique arsere ceruchi. But while ceruchus was thus in use in Latin, /cepoDx os gave place to Kepoia in classical Greek see note 203 on p. 94 and afterwards to Kdpoiov, as in Leo, tactica, xix. 5. The terms ceruchus
\

and

Kepoiat-

are always in the plural, but carchesium

the plural and the singular.

and Kapx'ncnov vary between Plutarch, Themistocles, 12, y\avKa 8' dQdijvai rots
i,
ij

Kapxyviois tirtKadlfovffav.
Qebv
tirl r<

Lucian, de mercede conductis,
cf.

TIV'

&\\ov K /^xay^s

Kapxyvl-v Kade^i^evov,
16, insigni carchesio

navigium,
sc.

9,

phoses,

xi.

conspicua,
\

amores, 6. Apuleius, metamormalus. Catullus, 64. 235, 236,
'

lucida qua splendent summi carchesia mali. See also Apollonios Rhodios, i. 565, Kad 5' aurou \lva x ^ av ^ 7r 'n'^o-Kdrrjv eptiaavTes, where avrov denotes Ja-rou. According to Asclepiades, the 17X01*0x77 was

candidaque intorti sustollant vela rudentes,

mean

the portion of the mast above the dupaKiov so Apollonios can only see last note that the yard was hoisted up to the Kapxnviov at the foot of the ^Xa/carr/. Apparently, the ^Xa/ca'rTj was also termed the <mAs, for three of the stars in the

constellation of the
terismi, 35,

Argo

are placed

M

crrvXldos &Kpas
ii.

by Eratosthenes,
36.
<J/c/>y

catas-

and ad malum by Hyginus, astronomia,
irpbs

may be

confusing the stars that Ptolemy places

r

Hyginus, however, rou IGTOV and h ry
is

The dKpoa-r6\tov d-po(TToX^, Almagest, viii. i, 'Apyovs ctaTe/>io7i6s. the phrase in Plutarch, Pompeius, 24. 2, oruXtat xP vffa^'
201

suggested by

Thucydides,
,

vii.

38, StaXetTro&ras 5
ef?;

rds oX/cdSas oaov

5i5o

ir\tdpa OTT' aXX^Xajv

OTTWS et rts (3idoiTO I'aOs,

/Kara0evis

dcr<f>d\r)3

Kal vrdXtv Ka0' ijavxio-v
i-veir*

41, ai 5^

rdv

'ZvpaKOffLuv vrjes /ue%pt
at dirb

pv

TUV oXxaSuv tiredluKov'

at Kepaiai virep

r&v ZcnrXuv

r&v 6\KdSwv

8e\<t>ivo<p6poi ijpfj^vai. ^/cwXuov.
irplv

Aristophanes, equites, 761, 762, dXXd 0uXdrrou, Kal

eK&vov TrpoffLK&Qai

(rou,

94

THE ROPES FOR HOLDING THE MASTS
All the ropes in the rigging of a Roman merchant-ship to be represented in the reliefs of about 50 A.D. and
in fgs.

seem

26 and 29 to 31. The mast is fitted with a which slope a little aft and thus support it from behind as well as from the sides while in front it is 200 A.D.
set of shrouds,
;

supported by a single fore-stay.
;

This is a larger rope than 203 and seems to be intended for lowering any of the others the mast towards the stern and hauling it up again, though on
a merchant-ship the mast might well have been a fixture. in the middle and several pairs of lifts towards the end and these lifts carry the topsail. There

The yard has two halyards
; ;

are braces to the yard and there are sheets to the sail, and also a number of brailing-ropes. The bowsprit has two
Trpbrepov
<rb
\

robs 5eX0ZVas ytterewp^ou Kal TTJV &KO.TOV Trapa(3d\\ov
Kal inrb QepeKparovs ev rots 'Ayptots, orav \tyrj, 6

:

scholia in locum,
STJ

SriXovrai d

8t

8e\(f>is

ten

juoXtjSSoOs, 8e\(pit>o<f>6pos

re K^pSos,
;

8iaK6\f/ei rov5a<pos avrdov tfj-iriirTuv Kal KaraStibiv.

These verses are corrupt
Diodoros,
xiii.

but some word like K^pas must be involved in K^pSos.

T(JOV fueydXcw irXoLtov (f>eo~TWTes trpbi.TrTov rats rQiv vaval robs dirb T&V tcepcu&v \t9ovs. 79, irXe'io'TOt. 5' virb T&V \ido(f>6puv l-TTiTTTOV, ws av e virepde^iwv rhirwv fiaXhbvTWv \i6ovs VTreppeytdeis r&v

78,

01

5' 4irl

v.

Athenseos,
dtio,

v. 43,

rpi&v re IGT&V

U7ra/>x6j/rcoj', e

eKacrrov Kepcuai \i6o-

t% ui> apTrayts re Kal ir\lvdoi /moXlfiov irpbs roi)s

202

Lucian, navigium, 5, ^Xf/cos K^P'rlra i f a ' <rw^%er<u.
-

[Jiv 6 t<rros, o<st]v
cf.

de av^xet rr^v Kepaiav, o'iy Kal

irpbrovov.
eiv

^Eschylos, Agamemnon, 897, crwr^pa vads Synesios, epistolse, p. 164 C, TO Ktpas eirerplyei, Kal ^/xets <6fj.e6a irporovletra Kareaybs ^ffov
771)5
fj.tv

rty vavv.

7)\6ei>

aTroX^at Trdvras

-^/xas,

K.T.\.

Antipater, in the Anthology, x. 2. 7, Xcu'0ea 5' evv<pa irporovi^Te. Synesios uses irpoTovLfav for tightening the fore-stay to secure the mast, etc. ; whereas Antipater
uses
it

for letting the sail out far
i.

enough

to

touch the fore-stay,
/j.{/j.vKe
:

cf.

Oppian,

de piscatione,

227, \Lva iravra

-rrepl

TrporbvouTi
|

Euripides, Hecuba, 113,

114, ras TTovroTrdpovs 8' <:<rx e o"X^as, Xa^07; irporbvoi.^ eTrepetSo^vas, Iphigeneia in Tauris, 1134 1136, atpi. 5' ia-rla -rrporbvois Kara irp$pai> inrtp ar6\ov e/c7rerd<r overt, For ir65a vabs uKVTr6/j,Trov, reading irporbvois in place of irpdrovot or 7rp6rovos. Trots, see note 206 on p. 96.
|
\

203

Aristotle, ethica
7rl

Eudemia,

iii.

i.

28, otfre

yap
dXX'

Sia TO elStvat
6'rt fcratri

ra 0oj8epA

dappovffiv oi
Seiv&v.

TOUS

i<rroi)s

dvafialveiv

eTriffrd/j-evoi.,

ras fioydelas T&V

Cicero, de senectute, 6, alii malos scandant.
II.

Euripides, Hecuba, 1259
/zcD?

1263,

dXX' ou rax', ^vLK
II.

1

&v

o~e

irovrla ports

E.

t>av<TTo\r)0"ri yijs

opovs

*~Ei\\T)vl8os\

Kpfyri
II.

nv
airrrj

ovv ireffovaav IK Kapxy<riuv.
irpbs

E. irpbs rov

(3ia[wt>

rvyxdv4,

ovo-av dX/idrw^;

lerbv vabs d/^a-et

rroSL.
tirl

Lucian, navigium,
Kepalas

6avfJ.dfovTs av(.bvTO. rbv vaforjv Std

r&v KaXwv, elra
cf.

rrjs

avu

da<pa\C)S

Siadtovra T&V KepotdKW
&vain)8r)a'ai pq.Siov.

eirei.\r}fji.[ji.{t>ov,

Jupiter tragoedus, 48, Kal
iii.

tiri TT\V

Kepatav

Ovid, metamorphoses,

615, 616, quo non alius conscendere

AND WORKING THE YARDS AND
halyards for the spritsail-yard
;

SAILS.

95

and the spritsail and its yard would require sheets and brailing-ropes, braces and lifts. There are not any ratlines to the shrouds and men had always to go aloft as best they could by climbing up the mast or any rope available 203 The brailing-ropes were passed through rings upon the fore-side of the sail, and then through separate pulleys on the 204 as may be seen in fgs. 29 and 30; and from the yard yard seem to have been carried to the stern and made fast to they
:
.

,

pins there, so that the steerer could manage them himself, whereas the larger ropes were attached to various windlasses

about the ship and worked by his subordinates 205
the practice
summas
dXX& Kal
TTJ
\

.

was always

to brail

up half the

sail

Curiously, when the
viii. 5,

odor antennas, prensoque rudente
8<roi

relabi.

Galen, de usu partium,
-ri\v yrji>

rcus Kepaiais

T&V ir\oiwv

4iravlao~i, irpdrepoi.

Kadop&<ri TWV Iv

In the passages just quoted from Euripides and Lucian the v-rjl ir\<j)T-fipuv. terms Kapx^l^v and Kepoidituv appear to be synonymous see note 200 on p. 93. The terms KO\OI and rudentes could be applied to ropes of any kind, but generally
:

were reserved
cf. iii.

for brailing-ropes.

Virgil,

^neid,

x. 229, veils
\

immitte rudentes,

267,682. Lucan, v. 426, 427, totosque rtidentes laxavere sinus. Lucian, amores, 6, efr' a6p6as Kara TUV KO.\WV rds odbvas &c;^cu>Tes. Satyrios Thyillos, in
the Anthology, x.
lote 178
5. 6, irav

Xcu0os )0e<r0e

/tdXois.

See also the passages quoted

in

on

p. 81.

204 Synesios, epistolse, p. 163 C, 6 5 en-olei irapd ir65as rov KlvSvvov, oi>x 'trepov d\\' 6Vi TroLtnv l<TTlois i) vavs (ppero, U7rore/x&r0cu 5e OVK rjv, dXXd 7roXXa/as eiriravres TO?S /caXyStois aTrrjyopeiJKeifAe]', rCjv rpoyJAv evftaKbvTwv, K.r.X. p. 163 D,
il
ij

fy)60"os

tGTafj.viti

p.

irapeL^v 164 D, TrdXiv 5^

T)IMV Kexp^jffdai TCHS /caXy5/ots Kal

rb

icrrlov jueraci's

dvffireidts T\V

rb

iffrlov

Kal OVK etfrpoxov

Ko.6a.l-

Synesios employs the phrase 6'Xots tor^ots, p. 160 c, as well as Travw IcrrLois, For the converse, see Aristophanes, ranse, 999, 1000, aKpouri xp^fos p. 163 c.
\

TO?S tcrr^ots,
205

and Euripides, Medea, 524,
ra
5'

aKpoiffi \al<j>ovs Kpa<nrt5oi$.
ol Kvfiepvijrai

Plutarch, prsecepta gerendse rei publicse, 15. 16, ws dpydvois ertpots
5, al
5t'

ra ptv ra?s

%epcrt 81' avruiv TrpdrTovcri,

erepuv airudev KaBr/^evoi irepid-

yovai Kal
Kal al

ffTptfiovffi.

Lucian, navigium,
et

ayKvpat Kal (rrpo^ela Kal irepiayuyetf
/ioi

Kara

TTJV irptiuvav otK^o-eis, 0avfj,d<ria

iravra

^5o^e.
\

Lucretius,

iv.

905, 906,

multaque per trochleas machina nisu. These
3

tympana pondere magno comrnovet atque levi sustollit trochlece and tympana are probably the arpo^eta and
about a ship.
Trep6vr](ri

TrepLaywyets, for the context is
iKpi6(pu>
tKpt6(pii>

Apollonios Rhodios,

i.

566, 567,

tV
^TT'

/cdXwas
|

%ea'TTJ<ru'

StaKpidbv d/i0t^3aX6i'Tes.

The

phrase

must here denote the stern, as in Odyssey, xiii. 74, already quoted in note 130 on p. 57. See also Oppian, de piscatione, i. 229, 230, irptuvri 5' TTI Trdi/ra x a ^ lj;ci IQvvrrjp dvir}<ri, and Valerius Flaccus, iv. 679, 680, sed neque These habena or permissis iam fundere rector habenis vela, nee eniti remis pote.
I \

are probably the brailing-robes

;

and so also the

/cdXwes.

96

MATERIAL FOR SAILS AND ROPES:

ship was put on either tack, the other half being thereby transformed into a triangle with base extending from the middle of the yard to the leeward end of it and apex termi206 nating in the sheet below The sail used generally to be
.

made

of linen 207

;

but the

of the papyrus and various other rushes was employed as well as flax in the manufacture of sail-cloth 208 This cloth
fibre
.

was probably of many
206

different

qualities;

and two were
dia.8pa.fj.eiv

Aristotle, mechanica, 8, Sia rl, OTO.V tg otplas /SotfXwpTcu

^

ovplov

TOV

Tri>Vfjt.a.Tos

oVros, rb fitv Trpbs rbv Kvpepv/jryv TOV ivrlov ptpos <rrAXoiTCU, rb 8e
Troirjadfji.evot 4<f>iSiffiv
;

Trpbs TT\V
/j.fv

Trpypav Trodiaiov

77

5t6rt avTiairav
;

TO injSdXiov TroXXy
Trpodyei
/j.ev

OVTI T<f TrvevfJiaTi ov dtvarai, dXlyy 8t, 8tb viro<rTt\\ovTai
et's

ovv rb

TrveOjua,

otfpiov

8

Ka6i(rrr]<n
cf.

rb 7rr)8d\tov, dvTKnr&v

/cat

/xoxXeCo> TTJV OdXarrav.
t[Ji<f)opoTj/j.evai

For

?ro5ia?oj'

read TroSumh',

Lycophron, 1015, TroSwroZs

X/j/ois,

sc.

The passage shews that, when the yard was braced round, the sail was furled upon the arm that came aft, and left unfurled upon the arm that went forward. And clearly it was the arm to windward that was braced aft for if this arm had been braced forward and carried the outstanding portion of the sail, the
irvoaL.
;

to leeward of her.

wind would have twisted the ship round until this portion of the sail had got The manoeuvre is described by Virgil, ^neid, v. 830832, una omnes fecere pedem ; pariterque sinistros, nunc dextros, solvere sinus; una ardua torquent cornua, detorquentque. The Trotfs or pes is mentioned frequently.
\ |

Odyssey,

x.

32; Pindar, Nemea,

Euripides, Orestes, 706, 707;
Catullus, 4.

1921;
sail,

the corner of the

57; Sophocles, Antigone, 715 717; Charon, 3; etc. Lucan, v. 427, 428; Seneca, Medea, 320 322; Pliny, ii. 48; etc. This Trotfy, is not to be confounded with the Trotfs, the rope that held the
55

vi.

Lucian,

corner
207

:

for

which see notes 177 and 179 on pp.

81, 82.

^Eschylos, Prometheus, 468, Xu^Trrep' eCpe vavrLXuv
>

^x^ara,

sc.

Upowdevs.

Euripides, Iphigeneia in Tauris, 410, vdiov 6'xw a \ivoir6powLv atfpeus, Hecuba, 1080, 1 08 1, \iv6KpoKov (ftapos orAXw*'. Oppian, de venatione, i. 121, \ivoTTTepij|

yuv

Apollonios Rhodios, i. 565, Ka.8 8' aurou Xtfa x e ^ ai/ sc. Lucian, amores, 6, elr' ddpdas /card T&V /cdXwv rds 666vas e/cx^a^res, r)pt/j.a
6'?rXa vrjCiv.
>

Icrrov.

TOV \ivov, K.T.X.
ets

Meleager, in the Anthology,

xii.

53. 8,

otipios

666vas.

Leonidas,

ibid., x. 1.6, iracrav e^>eis 6d6vT]v.

Lucilius, ibid.,
2.

xi.

404. 4, StaTrXe? <nv8bv

irpbrovov

M

^Trapd/xej/os.

Euripides, Phaethon, Fr.
v.

42, vivduv Sc

fifoov

TreXoo-cret.

Athenseos,

39,

fitffffivov

?x wi/

wrlov.

cf.

Herodotos,

ii.

86,

vii.

181, aiv8bvos fivcalvris.
Virgil, ^Eneid,
iii.

lintea (dederunt} in vela.

Livy, xxviii. 45, Tarquinienses 357, tumidoque infiatur carbasus
3. 58, te

austro, iv. 417, vocat

iam carbasus auras.
xi.

Ovid, heroides,
ii.

dare nublferis

linea vela notis,

7.

171, prcebebis carbasa ventis, amores,

ii. 41, zephyri veniant
|

in lintea pleni,
Catullus,
64.

metamorphoses,

476,

477,
cf.

225, suspendam

lintea

malo,

obliquat Icevo pede carbasa, cf. 430, lintea. carbasus, vivSuv and /3tf<r(ros, appear to be used promiscuously in reference to
linen.

totaque malo carbasa deducit. Lucan, v. 428, 227, carbasus. All these terms, \Lvov , linum, 6d6vrj,

FLAX, HEMP, PAPYRUS, HIDE, ETC.
certainly in

97
B.C.,

use in the Athenian

navy about 330

the

common

being superseded by one of finer texture and 209 The edges of the sail used to be bound with higher price' hide; and the skins of the hyaena and the seal were especially
sail
.

in request for this, as there was a superstition among sailors 210 that these would keep off lightning The ropes were some.

strips of hide, but oftener from the fibre of 211 the papyrus or from flax or hemp'

times

made from

.

8

Theophrastos, historia plantarum,
Kal
K.T.\.

iv. 8. 4,

avrbs 5t 6
Trjs

-rrairvpos irpbs ir\et<rra

XpTjo-t/ios.

yap

TrXota iroiovffiv t
xiii.

avrov, Kal

K

fivpXov

iffrla

re tr\tKOvai.v Kal
et e libra
Iffrioiffi

i]/iddovs,

= Pliny,
etc.

22, ex ipso
ii.

quidem papyro navigia texunt,
iffrf

vela

tegetesque,

Herodotos,

96,

5

aKavdlvy x/^

" TC"

3

pufiXlvoio-i.

Pliny, xvi. 70, namque us (scirpis} velificant, non in Pado tantum nautici, verum et in mari piscator Africus, prcepostero more vela infra malos In this passage Pliny uses intra as Herodotos uses foudev in the suspendens.

passage quoted in note 178 on p. 81, and thus gives prczpostero the sail being set abaft of the mast.
209

its literal

meaning,

Corp

Inscr. Attic, vol.

ii,

no. 807, col. a,

11.

55
.

58, \t\v vfuplois Traptdo/j.fi'

[l](TTla, ffvv

TV

TraXcuc?, [<]iri vavs
11.

HHP AAAPIII
||.

[T\otruv XeTTTa

PAAIIII.
5i5o.

no. 811, col.

c,

169

172,

IffrLa XCTTTCI

avrl TOVTUV iraptoovav irax^a.

7rpocro(pei\ov(ri.fji. 7rpb[s]

rb

5idypafj.fJ.a
iv.

HHH.
i,

Plutarch, quaestiones convivales,
fir),
},

2.

Kal

yap

6 ye^dbfjievos ovroal Kal

/3oX^36j
r/

01)

/j.tKp6Tr]Ti

8ia(peuyei rbv

Kepavvbv, dXX' ?x wj/ 8foa/J.iv

Ka.da.irtp
ol

ffVKr/

Kal rb 8^pfj.a rrjs 0w/c7/s,

uis 0a<ri, /cat

rb

rrjs vaivrjs,

oh

TO.

aKpa T&V iarlwv
rl

vatiK\r)poi KaraoKpOepovcri..

Lucian, navigium,
fivpcrGsv

4, irapd rbv iffrbv
/c.T.X.

TroXi)

o~Tr)fji.ev

avafi\irovTe$, api0fjt.ovvTes T&V
vessels in the

Taj ^Tri/SoXds,

The

iii

itself

was made of hide on the

Bay of

Biscay.

Caesar,

de bello

Gallico, iii. 13, pelles pro velis alutaque tenuiter confecta, sive propter lini inopiam atque eius ^isus inscientiam, sive eo (quod est magis verisimile) quod tantas tempestates oceani tantosqtie impetus ventorum sustineri ac tanta onera navium regi
velis

non

satis

commode posse arbitrabantur
I, rjv
ii.

.

cf.

Dion

Cassius, xxxix. 41, Kal

yap

strabo, iv. 4.
211

yap
426,

ffKvriva (ra ia-rio) 8ia TTJV filav rdov

Odyssey,
^TT*

\KOV

5'

tor/a \CVKO. twrptirTOHri fioevviv.
xxi. 390,
dtipas.

rap

avTtp

|

eirlrovos /3^X?/To, /3o6s ptvoio Terevx&sa/j.<pie\t<r<rr)s
|

xii. 422, 423, 39 1, Ketro 5' LITT*

vebs

ptfiXtvov,

y
/cd

p

tirt8r]<Te

Hermippos, apud
Iffrla
|

ithenaeum,
l\ov$.

i.

49,

TaOTa
vii.

/xev

evrfudev

AI^^TTTOI'

Td
s

Kpefjiaffrd,

Kal

Herodotos,
5'

25, Trap0~KevdeTO 5e Kal orrXa Kal
AlyviTTloi<ri.
cf.

\fVKO\lvov, ^TriTafaj <J>oiVt^ Te
ertprjv TT}V fivfi\lvriv

Taj yecpvpas {3vp\u>d re 34, Trjv p.h \evKO\lvov

(^eSla

^Ischylos, Persoe, 69, \(.vo8^ap.(f Tropdfj.bv d/j.ei\f/as. Euripides, Iphigeneia in Tauris, 1043, ^ va-w x a ^ ll/0 ' s t atdev. Ovid, fasti, iii. 587, dttmqm parant torto subducere carbasa
Persius, v. 146, 147, tibi torta cannabe fulto
|

AtyvTmoi.

ccena sif in transtro?

g

98

SAILS OF DIVERS COLOURS.

being everywhere a sign of mourning, while a purple or vermilion sail was generally the badge of an admiral or a monarch; and on vessels employed as scouts in time of war the sails and
,

The

sails

used often to be coloured

212

a black

sail

ropes were dyed the colour of sea-water, so as to keep them In some cases the topsail seems to have been out of sight.

and frequently a coloured, while the sail below was plain of colours was produced by using different stuffs patchwork
;

in

different sections of the ordinary

sail,

as

shewn

in

the

Egyptian ship of about 600 B.C. in fg. 12. Various inscriptions and devices used also to be woven on the sails, the titles and
a Roman emperor being thus displayed upon his 213 This practice is illustrated by characters of gold the Roman relief of about 200 A.D. in fg. 29.

emblems of

sail in

.

212

Plutarch, Theseus,

17, irpbrepov /uv o$v ovSepia awT-rjptas eXiris
i

dib KO.I }d\aj> iarlov

x ovffav

&s

CTTI

avufyopq. TrpodrjXa), rrfv vavv ^ire^irov
6 5e St/ujj>/5??s ou \evi(6i>
Tre<f>vpiJ.vov

r6re 5

(Alyevs) ZduKev trepov larlov \cvit6v, K.T.\.

^aiv emu
|

TO
pi-

do6v

inrb

TOV Alytws, dXXa
cf.

"
(fxn.vlK.eov

iarlov vypLtj

irplvov tivdei
/j.e\dyi<poKov

0dXXou."

./Eschylos,

septem adversus Thebas, 857, 858,
9.
3,
iffrLois /mt\a.cri,

vav-

aro\ov deupida, Philostratos, heroica,
Athenseos,
xii.

20.

25,
1

^\ava
v

49, ^ 5^ Tpnjpr]?

e^>' i?s

('AX/a/3ic5?7s) /car^TrXet,
icrn'ois,

^XP

^

r

TOV Heipai<j)s irpoff^Tpe-^ev aXovpyoTs
IffTltf}

/c.r.X.

cf.

Plutarch, Alcibiacles, 32,
26, Iffrtuv

5'

a\ovpy<$

rr\v

vava.pxLo'a

irpoafapecrdai rots \i/j,<riv, Antonius,

a\ovpy&v

^KirwTacrfji,fv<dv.

on
in

p. 35,

from Suetonius in

See also the passages quoted from Vegetius in note 89 note 133 on p. 59, from Lucian, Athenaeos and Seneca

195 on p. 90, and from Procopios and Pliny in note 214 on p. 99. Philostratos, imagines, i. 18, 6vp<ros 8' ovro<rl e/c ^CTT;? j/etbs eKTrt<pvKe ra TOV 'HTTOV

note

Trpdcrcrajc,

/cat

icrTla.

/we^Trrcu a\ovpyij,
/cal

(f>ai>Tai /3d/f%at

h T/u-coXy

Atovvcrov Tav AvSly.

u^eTavya^ovTa iv ry /c6X7ry, %pf<ra? 5' vvBut here Philostratos is describing

a picture of a ship, and may be thinking of the Peplos that was carried like a sail in the procession at the Panathensea. Apparently the colours a\ovpyts and (powlKeov differed only in their origin, one being obtained from the purple-fish, while the
other (as Simonides remarks) was obtained from the ilex-berry. Lucian's irvpavyts is probably the same as Seneca's rubicundum ; and this would be the colour of the

rubrica or /x^Xros mentioned by Procopios.

The

versicoloria of Pliny

and Suetonius

must be parti-coloured
213

sails.
s.

Arrian, Fr. 19, apud Suidam,

v. vavs:

KCU

CTT

ti.Kpi$

T<

'KTTIVTO paffiXiKov

6Vo/Aa, Kal oVois <$XXots /3ao-tXei>s yepalpeTCU, xpv<r

dyKexapay/m^va.

This refers to

Trajan's ship on the Tigris. Apuleius, metamorphoses, xi. 16, hunts felicis alvei nitens carbasus litteras voti intextas progerebat. ecce littcric votum instaurabant de

novi commeatus prospera navigatione.
Inscr. Latin, vol. xiv, no.

For the

inscription
for

v-L

in fg. 29, see Corp.

2033

;

and also no. 456

an inscription QQ c

F

.

NAV

upon a

similar relief.

ADMIRAL'S FLAG AND LIGHT.

99

was distinguished by some sort of flag any purple or vermilion sail that she might and after dark a light was exhibited in lieu of the carry 214 This light was simply for the guidance of the fleet, flag the admiral's ship leading the way, and the others requiring some indication of her course throughout the night. But in many fleets every ship was provided with a light and here the admiral's ship must have carried her light in some distinctive place, or carried more than one, as was certainly the case in a Roman fleet in 204 B.C., where three lights were allotted to the admiral's ship and two to every transport, the
admiral's ship
in

An
;

addition to

.

;

An astute ordinary war-ships carrying the single light admiral would manage to mislead the enemy by screening 216 or extinguishing the lights or setting them adrift on buoys
215
.
.

214

Herodotos,
I8wv

viii.

92,

u>s

8

&m5e

TTJJ>

vta (Qefjuo-TOK\tos) 6

IIoXi//cptros,

tyvu
Tjaav

TO

<rriu.i]iov

TT/S (rTpaTtjyldos.
e/c

a\\ri\<ji}v rfdrj,
ii.

Kal al vavapxtdes
OTTTJ

Appian, de bellis civilibus, v. 55, ir\-t)<rloi> re T&V ffrjfieiuv tyalvovTO, Kal a\\r)\ais
Troi^crercu, irepl evirtpav avr/yero

89, ovSei'l re eKcpfyas

rbv ir\ovv
rbv

roTs XoiTrors KvfiepvrjTais 7iy>ds
a-rj/j.e'iov

Xa/UTrrTj/oo, TT)S

eavTOv ve&$ Kal ped'
TTJ a-rpaTTfjyLdi 5'

ijfj^pav

irpbs

evdvveiv.
^/)t.

cf.

Diodoros, xx. 75, axoKovdeiv
v.
i.

Xenophon, Hellenica,
afiyye'iTO,

8,

pwrdy

tirLyevofJit

r?re/3
r

vo/ud^erai,
i.

OTTWS pr) ir\a.vG)VTai ai eirb/uLevai.
i]

Procopios, de bello
K yuvlas

andalico,
s

13, rpiuv ve&v, ev ats ai)r6s re Kal

depairfia tir\ei, rd IffrLa

TpiryubpLov ywdXto-ra txp iffe At^Xry, KOVTOVS re 6p8ofa avaaT-rja-as ev direKp/j.a<Tf air' O.VT&V \vxva, OTTWS v re y/J-tpa Kal vvurl al TOV
es

2*577X01

elev

ah

5r)

%ire<r0ai TOI>$ KvfiepvriTas tic&eve -irdvras.
viii.

Apparently the

via is

here the mast-head, as in Herodotos,

122. 2.

Pliny, xix. ^tentatitm

tigni

linum quoque,

et

vtitium insaniani accipere, in Alexandri

Magni prinnim

issibus,

iriassent insignia

irpureo

quodam navium : stiipueruntque litora, flatu versicoloria implenie. velo ad Actium cum M. Antonio Cleopatra venit, eodemquc effugit. hoc fnit
;

Indo amne navigantis^ cum duces eius ac

prccfecti in certarnine

An admiral might display a coloured sail but that could hardly be his ff'rjfj.fiof or insigne, for no sail was carried in action. Most likely he used a flag. Tacitus, historise, v. 22, pmtoriam navem, vexillo insigncni,
nperatoria: navis insigne.

abripiunt.

A

lantern

is

represented on the three-banked ship on Trajan's column,

hanging from the ornament above the stern. 15 Livy, xxix. 25, lumina in navibns singula
in Pretoria nave insigne nocturnum trium to Scipio's fleet on its voyage to Africa.
16

rostratce,

bina oneraria haberent

:

luminum

fore.

These were the orders

fir)

yvupi^oiev

Polyoenos, v. 10. 2, \a^irTripa.s 5' ripe TO irpbffdev fdpos ire^pay^vovs, OTTWS dro TOV ^wr6s ol TroX^ioi rbv tirl-rrXovv. cf. Philistos, Fr. 15, apud
ri, Kal

Pollucem, x. 116, tiratpeffOat Xa/i7rr?]pas avTure(j>payiJ.tvQvs. Polytenos, vi. VVKTOS yevofj.tt>r)s ic\V<rfV apai roi)s Xa/iTrr^pas, ofs ai TOV Atovvcriov vijes

100

FLAGS FOR SIGNALLING, ETC.

carried in battle

or something of the sort, used to be the ships of a fleet, to distinguish them from ships belonging to the enemy 217 and besides the flag that was distinctive of the admiral, a set of flags was carried

A

national

flag,

by

all

;

on his ship for signalling. A purple flag was generally the signal for going into action, and there probably were flags of other colours but attempts were made at semaphoring with a single flag 218 and occasionally the signal was given by 215 In addition to the flashing the sunlight from a shield for going into action, there certainly were signals for signal
; ,
'.

getting under way, for altering the formation of the fleet by various manoeuvres, for bringing to, for disembarking troops, and possibly for many other purposes 220 Some flags are
.

represented at the sterns of the Athenian ships of about 500 B.C. in fg. 19, and on the masts of the Roman ships of about 50 A.D. in fgs. 26 and 27.
fjierd fjLLKpbv de rotirovs
e<pr)p/j.o<r/Jier>ovs,

Kade\6vres ertpovs KadrjKav

&

rr\v

0d\arrav

(pe\\ois /m,eyd\ois

Dion rov 0wrds ts rb irXdyiov eiriarptyavres etpdaaav, K.r.X. Cassius, xlix. 17, irpoelire pev ff<picriv ws 8101 ireXdyovs rbv ir\ovi> Troir]cr6/j.evos, diroKal al XoiTraJ afitffa.'i de rb 0<2s 5 ev ro?s vvKrepivois TrXois al <TT parrjy Ides vr}es (STTOJS
KO.K

Kara ir6das avr&v efpeirwvrai)
cf.

irpodeiKvtiov(ri,

irapd re TT)v 'J.Ta\tav Trap^Tr\ev(T,

AT.r.X.

Florus,
217

iv. 8.

,fugiebat extincto pratoricz navis lumine.
bellis civilibus, v. 106, Kal rot (ryu-eta

Appian, de
et

Kara

i/aus ypro.

Polyoenos,

ptv tSluKev avrr) vavv'E\\rjvida, rb ^ap^aptKbv dvtreive fffj^eiov, el de vrrb 'EXXryi'tSos t>ews e5tc6/cero, avereive rb "Sk\ipfuc6 t cf. I, ra O"r)fj.ela TCL HepfftKd.
viii.

53. 3,

These can hardly be the same as the
218

<rtj/m.eia

mentioned
irAXiv

in note 150

on

p. 67.
-rj

Leo, tactica,
eirl

xix. 41, rb 8e ffri^elov vTroa-rj/jiaLV^TU,
tirl

$ dpdbv larafievov,

eirl
17

r)

dpitrrepa K\Lv6pi(vov Kal
,

deia
rj

rj

eirl

apiffrepd fj.era(j)ep6nj>ov,
rj

r)

v\j/ov/j,evov,

rj

TaweivoijfJievov,

SXcos

a(j)ai.poi>/j,evov,

iMerande^evov,
did ffxypdruv,
/catpy

r)

8ia T^S ev ai>T$ Ke(pa\7)s aXXore did xpoj/idrwi',
0161*

AXXws (paivo^vris

d\\a<ra6/n.ei>oi',

ff

T)

irore rots TraXcuots etrpdrreTo.

iv

ydp

iro\^fj.ov

crrj/j.e'iov

elxov T^S

(TiiyUjSoXvys

aipovres rrjv

\eyo/j.evrii>
aticro'ri/j.ovi

(fioiviKida.
'

Diodoros,
'

xiii.

46, Kal ro?s

[lev AaKedaifjLoviois

ovdev etyalvero

TO?S 5' Adyvaiois

eTTolrfffev ewiffrnmov <POIVIKOVI> dirb TT;S i'5ias veibs, oirep
xiii.

fy

ffvffff-rf^ov

avroT

77,

a

STJ

avvibuv 6 K6vwv ypev dirb T^J
cf.

t'Staj

j'ews

(poiviKlda' TOVTO

ydp
rjv

r\v

TO

atifforri/jioi>

TO ? S rpirjpdpxois.

Polyoenos,

i.

48. 2, eirripe rrjv (poiviKlda-

de &pa

/id%77s (njvdr)fj.a rots KvBepvifjTais.
219

Diodoros, xx. 51, A^^rptos
eK diadoxTJs-

[lev

oui>,

T&V tvavrluv diroff^v

<is

at>

rpeu
ev

ffradlovs, ripe rb avyKelfievov irpbs
irdffLv

t^d^v

a^xrcrrnjiov,

dffirlda Ke^pwufJievriv,

(pavepdv
rjdrj

Herodotos,

vi.

115, roi<ri Hepcrrjo'i dvade^ai dcririda eovcri

rrjvi vrjvffl.
pacrffai

Plutarch, Lysander,

n, Kard

^eaov rbv rrbpov

dffirida
ii.

\a\injv eird-

Kara

fj.effov

rrpqpaOev dirtw\ov o-i'^oXoi'^Xenophon, Hellenica, rbv ir\ovv.

i.

27, dpai d

THE LEAD AND THE

LOG.

101

On

ind this

board a ship there was generally a lead for sounding seems to have been armed with grease to bring up
;
'

2 21 And it is said that ships were fitted imples of the bottom ath a pair of paddle-wheels for reckoning the distances
.

they

the notion being that these wheels would be kept steadily in motion by the impact of the water on the paddles the ship went on her course, and that her progress could icrefore be computed from the number of revolutions they
traversed
;

jcorded
the

But obviously this would be impracticable, unless water were preternaturally smooth. Ships generally were provided with a ladder or a gangway
.

2* 2

for

:he shore.

people to come on board when the vessel was made fast to The ladder may be noticed at the stern of the Lthenian ships of about 500 B.C. in fgs. 17 to 19; and this

its usual place, for it would be wanted hereas vessels usually were made fast by the stern. The ibouts,

fas

probably

20

Herodotos,

vii.

128,
i.

^<r/3ds

e"s

'Li5wvL-rjv

vta avtSe^e
ciretdi]

o-rj^rjiov
<rrj/J.ta

Kal

roiffi &\\oi(ri
tfp6r),

ywOai.
v/j,dxow.
rXeoj/.

Thucydides,
ii-

49, ffv^i^avTes 5^,
ev6s

TO.

ocarfyois

9,

diro

a-r)/Ji.eiov

a0j>w

tiriffTptyavTes

ras vavs

fj.eTuirrj56v
<rr)/jiei<ji>

Xenophon, Hellenica,
tiri

vi. 2.

30, fr 5
cf.

rots ned' Tjntpav 7r\o?s diro

Kfyws
5^

1776,

rore
i

5'

eVi <}>d\ayyos,

28.

Dion Cassius,

1.

31, Kal /xera

K^para
i.

ai<t>vijs
-fjdf]

d u06re/ua

dirb o"rj/j.tov tire^aya.'y&i'
eft/at

7r^Ka/j.\f/eu,

Polytenos,
(Wreij/e rb
dirb rijs

9. 63,

u>s

ffVfji/j.Tpov

virtXafiev

rb

TTJS

^a\d<r(T7js fidOos,

TTJS e/c/3cio-ews.

Plutarch, Antonius, 67,

(Kelv-r) 5^,

yvuplaava

<rr)/j.eioi>

trxe.

Livy, xxxvii. 24, signo stiblato ex pratoria nave, quo dispersam dassem
Hirtius, de bello Alexandrine, 45, vexillo sublafo,

unum
*

Aulus colligi mos erat. pugnandi dabat signurn.
21

Herodotos,
Trrj\6i>

ii.

5,

TI

Kal rj^prjs dpbfj.ov dir^div

a.irb

yijs,

/carets Karairtipr}-

re dvolffeis Kal

v eV5e/ca 6pyvirj<ri ^<reai, cf.

28.

Acts, xxvii. 28, Kal
evpov

eftpov

dpyvLas eiKoai, /Spaxi) 5^ Stcurr fjcrav res Kal
Lucilius,
\

Trd\ti> fioKlffavres

ids 5e/ca7T^re.

apud Isidorum,

origines, xix. 4. 10, hiinc catapiratctn

eodem deferat unctum,
silvoe, iii. 2. 222

plumbi pauxillum

rodus.

Unique melaxani.

Statius,

30, exploret rupes gravis arte molybdis. Vitruvius, x. 9. 5, traiicitur per latera parietuni axis habens extra navetn
rotic

nnentia capita, in qua includuntur
'irca /routes affixas

diametro
7, ita

pinnas aquam tangentes.

navis

pedum quaterniitn, habcntcs cum habuerit impetum aut

emorum aut ventorumflatu, pinna qua erunt

in rods tangentes aquam adversam, ehementi retrorsus impulsu coacta versabunt rotas : ece autem involvendo se agent tern, etc. Then, by means of cogged wheels, etc., a stone was dropped into a

pan at every four-hundredth revolution of the wheels outside, ita et sonitu numero indicabit milliaria spatia navigationis. In thus reckoning that the lip would make 5000 ft. of headway during 400 revolutions of a wheel that was
)nze
ft.

in diameter, Vitruvius is forgetting that

water

is

not so firm as land

102

GANGWAYS FOR LANDING.

gangway was presumably a heavier structure than the ladder, if there was really any difference between the two but the names seem to be used indiscriminately 223 In the Athenian
;
.

navy the war-ships carried two ladders apiece and they also 2 4 three poles of different sizes Such poles were needed whenever a ship had to be pushed off from the shore or kept at a distance from another ship so they generally formed part of the outfit 225
;

carried

*

.

:

.

223
/eai

Thucydides,

iv.

12, /eai 6

ph

(B/racn'Sas) TOVS re

&\\ovs rotavra

rbv cavrov Kv^epvrjrTfjv dvayKdaas 6/eetXai rty vavv ^x^P ei
Treipu/j.evos

^i

r

V
e's

/eai

dTrofiaiveiv

dveKbirti

iiirb
e"s

T&V Adyvalw,

/eai
17

Tpav/^anaOels iroXXd
TTJV
rr?i/

e'XetTro^XTjcre' re, /eai Treo^vros

avrov
77

rrjv Trape^ecpfffiav

dcrTris Trepiepptir)

OdXacrffav.

Diodoros,

xii.Y>2,

/xev Tpirjprjs eVw/eetXej', 6 5e

Bpacrtdas eTrifids
3, /eai 6

wi

TW

j/ecbs

tirtpdOpav, /e.r.X.

Plutarch, de gloria Atheniensium,
/eai

rcV Kvfiep-

vi\rt]v

tirKTirtpxuv Bpa<r/5as e^o/cAXeip,

xtopwi/ tirl rr]v fiddpav, Kat Tpavfj.a.Tifofj.fi'os

As a war-ship must have been /eai \iiro\{/vx&v xal diroK\lvuv els rty -jrape^eipeatav. beached stern forward on account of her ram, the term irap^eipeaia must here denote the space abaft the oars, as in the passages quoted from Polysenos in note 170 on p. 75, not the space forward, as in those quoted from Thucydides in note Herodotos, ix. 98, 7ra/>a<r/eeva<rd uej'oi uv ts vav^axif)v /eai dirofidQpas 141 on p. 62.
/

/eai ret
s

ctXXa ocrwv

e?5ee,

ZirXwov

CTTL rijs My/eciXT/s.

99, irpoffa^bv res rets vtas

Lucian, dialogi mortuorum, 10. 10, e5 ^%er wVre XOe rd d7 TT)v aTrofiddpav dveXw/Aeda, rb dyxvpiov dvecnrda'db), /e.r.X. Polycenos, iv. ctXXcu yuej/ dvtairuv ret Trpv/Avrjcria, aXXot 5^ dvei\Kov rds d7ro[3d6pas, AXXot 5e
rbv ai-ytaKbv.

6.

8,

Euripides, Iphigeneia in Tauris, 1350
oi

1352,
did

oi

5'

firuTidwv
\

5e /eX/^ta/eas
is

...
| |

ffiretidovres

rjyov

x P^ v
'I^croft?;?

irpv/jLvrjaia.

In this

passage there

obviously a lacuna.
|

Theocritos, xxii. 30, 31, eV0a /was TroXXoi
dirb vybs.

Kara

/e\(/*a/eos
i.

diuportpwv e|
/eXt/wa/cas

rolx^" &v8pes tpcuvov
tiri rccs

Arrian,

anabasis,

Trpypas rdv Tpirjp&i' /eeXe^tras, ws /eara ra 19, dw6ro/jia r^s vqcrov, Kaddirep wpbs re?%os, IK r&v ve&v TTJV dirbfia.<nv 7rot7/cr6yuej'os.

(ptpew

The

/eXi/Aa/ees

and

d-rrofiddpa

seem

to be distinguished in Latin as scales

and pans

Virgil, yEneid, x. 653, 6$\, forte ratis celsi coniuncta crepidine saxi\ expositis stabat scalis et ponte parato, cf. 288. Statius, silvse, iii. 2. 54, 55, ianique

respectively.

ratetn terris divisit fune soluto
224

\

navita,
ii,

et

angiistum
11.

deiecit in <equora

pontem.

Corp. Inscr. Attic, vol.

no. 793, col. a,

2837,
eirl
1.

[/eXi]/ia/e^wi' dpi0jji,6s

[H]HHHPAP- [c \Kovr\dv Api[$iAs r'HPAAPlIKOVTOI
-- 5
5i5o, cf.

HHAAAII
[o5r]<" ytyvovTOt
[i/]au$

HHAAP
\

/eai

no. 789, col. a,
ix.

1.

21, KovTbv ptfyor, no. 791,

Odyssey,

487, 488, avrdp eyu %e^pe<7cr i
vrfl

29, KOVTOU fjUKpov. Xa/3wv jrepi/jirjKea KOVTOV
/eai

c3cra

vrap^f.
cf.

Thucydides, ii. 84, /eai vavs re Procopios, de bello Vandalico, i.

irpoatirnrTe
rots

rots KOVTOLS diwdovvro.

13,

KOVTOIS

diuffotifjuvot.

Euripides,

Iphigeneia in Tauris, 1350, KOVTOIS 5t irpypav tlxov. ferratasque trades et acuta cuspids contos expediunt.
\

Virgil, ^Eneid, v. 208, 209,

See also Tacitus, annales,

xiv. 5,

and Suetonius, Tiberius, 62, Caligula,

32.

THE

SHIP'S BOAT.

103

boat used to be towed astern by every merchantany size, and also by the war-ships in the Roman navy and occasionally a merchant-ship took two or three. The boat was intended for the safety of the crew in case the and ordinarily ship were wrecked or had to be abandoned was used for communicating with the shore when the ship was 2' lying some way out Apparently, the Roman and Byzantine had some means of hoisting up the boat 227 merchant-ships
ship of
; ; .

A small

26

Demosthenes,

in

Phormionem,

10,

6

5

Act/xTris

dvax^w

^avdyrj<rev ov
in Zciio-

naKpdv
themin,
TO VVKT

dirb TOV efjitroplov.
6, plTrrei

Kai avTos pey diretrwdit) ev
els TT\V

ry

\eu*$($, K.T.X.,

eavTbv (HytffTpaTos)
eireide

elvai, direirvLyri, 7,

ddXarrav, diapapTuv 5e TOV Xeppov 8id (Yjrjvbdejjus) rbv irpypea Kai row vavras els rbv
us dveXiriffTOV
TTJS

Xeufiov enfiaivew Kai e'KXeiireii' TTJV vavv TTJV rax^rr/i',

auTijpias

Anaxandrides, apud Athena-urn, vi. 41, y/xets yap dXXrjXovs del xXeuct^er', oI5' aKpifius' oiriffdev aKO\ou6ei x6Xa^ T^, cf. Pliny, epistolae, viii. 20. 7, stcpe minores inaioribiis vclut X^jSos TTiK^K\T}Tai.
TTJS
\

ofays Kai KaTadvo-0/j.evrjS

veus avrlKO. /idXa.

cyinbuhc onerariis
avrbs
iro/J.ei>

adhares cunt.
5'

Plutarch, Demetrius, 17, irpoff^x

lv t*-tv

OVK efatre

T ?7 7?? T0 irXoiov, dyKvpas

d^eivai K\e^<ras Kai Kara vavv ^et*' dr/^/xa irdvras,
e^rjKde
fjt,6vos.

^3ds
els

els

TO

e<j)b\K(.ov

Heliodoros, /lithiopica,
el

v.

24, tiri.Tpe-

TO e(pb\KLOv eiafirfvaL Kai cn)eiv avTovs,

fiov\eade...TC)v

6' ets

rb o /cd0o$ TO

vTrr}pTiKoi> a\\e(r6ai Kai o<.aopavai ^ovKevop.evwv.

xxvii. 16, 30,

32

see next note

the term

ffKa^-rj

In the Acts of the Apostles, is applied to the ship's boat in

imitation of the Latin usage of scapha. Plautus, rudens, prologus, 75, de navi timidic desuluerunt in scapham. The Pandects, xxxiii. 7. 29, Labeo : si navem

cum instrumento

emisti, pr^stari tibi debet scapha navis.

Paulus

:

imo contra

;

ctenim scapha navis non est instrumentum navis ; etenim mediocritate, non genere ab ca dijfert ; instrumentum autem cniusqtie rei necesse est alterius generis esse att/ue ea quceque sit ; quod Pomponio placuit, cf. xxi. 2. 44 and vi. i. 3* Thus, as a rule,
every ship had one boat and no more
Strabo,
Sfj.oia.
ii.
:

but there were exceptions to this rule.
<p6\Kia 5vo
\e/j.j3ois

3. 4,

KaTao~K.evdo~ao~dai ir\olov fj.eya Kai

\TjffTpiKois

Athenasos, v. 43,

^6\Kia
ii.

5' rivav

avTy TO ^ev TTO&TQV K^pKovpos,
:

K.T.\.

The

Roman
(J.-illico,

war-ships had boats as well as the merchant-ships
iv.

see Csesar, de bello

26,

de bello

civili,

43,

iii.

24, 62, 101,

and Aulus Hirtius, de bello
KaOSa,
oe vavrCiv

Alexandrino, 46.

"7

Acts, xxvii. 16,

vrjffiov

5t TI

vTro5pafJ.6i>Tes,
f)v

KaXov/J-evov

lffx^o-/j.ev

/*6Xis irepiKpaTeis yeveo-dat TTJS o-Kd<j>T)s'

dpavTfs K.T.\.
o-KaQyv

30,

TWV

I\TOVVTWV

Qvyclv eK TOV irXolov Kai xaXaa'dj'TWJ'

Tr,v

ets TT,V

edXavvav

irpo^do-fi

wj eV

ol trrpaTiwrai TO. (rxoivLa Trpi^fnjs dyKVpas /j.eXX6i>TW tKTeiveiv,...^, TOTe direKO\l/av cf. Paulinus Nolanus, epistoke, 49. i, Trjs <TKd(f>ris, Kai eiaaav av-rijv eKire<reit>. vinctilis nauta exterriti scaphitlam demiserunt ; vel ut

ntmpentibus (anchorarum) navi forlius continenda renovatis
seipsos, si

et altius slabilitis

anchoris subvenirent, vel ut
1 ,

possent, a discrimine navis eriperent.
dp.<f)

/neTewpovs efyov rds d/fdrous, Kai
Kai /3e/3cu6Tara
rats d/cdTots
<pe<rTT)KQTUi'.

v^es 5e <f>opTl5es Agathias, iii. 2 avrd Srjirov TO. Kapx^o. TUV 'UTTUV
cf. 25, (rrpaTttDrat eiffT-^Keffov,

alupovntvaf avw oe

rwv

5^

104
instead

THE
of

SHIP'S BOAT.
:

and on the Roman always towing it astern in fgs. 29 and 3 1 the merchant-ships of about 200 A.D. halyards of the artemon, or bowsprit, seem to be attached to
something like a boat. It was now the custom to have one of the crew constantly on duty in the boat, when towing astern, 228 in order to keep her under control and free from water
.

Petronius, satirae, 102, quin potius, inquam ego, ad temeritatem confugimus per funcm lapsi descendimus in scapham pr&cisoque vinculo reliqua fortune cotnmittimus? ...nunc per puppim, per ipsa gubernacula delabendum est, a quorum
et

228

regione funis descendit qui scapha custodiam tenet,
tibi

praterea illud miror, Encolpi,

stationis perpetua interdiu noctuque iacere in scapha, nee posse inde custodem nisi aut cade expelli aut prcecipitari viribus. quod succurrisse,

non

unum nautam

an

fieri possit, interrogate

audaciam vestram.

Gregory the Great,

dialogi,

iv.

57,

6 vavT'rjs 5e cti/roO, Bdpa/cos 6v6/JiaTi ) tuvfitpva. TOV Kapaftov OTTKrOev TOV jrXoiov TOV 8

ffXowlov KOTrfrros, a/wa

ry

Kapafiiptiv

Kvfipva
liii.

v\j/wdeis, ev TOIS KijfjiaaLv

atpav^ ty&ero.

The Rhodian Law,
vxpivlo. 5ta/5p?jas,

in the Basilics,
rot's

8.

46, eav

/cd/>a/3os,

airb ioiov irXolov TO.
ot

aTriX^rat a/ma

i*.ir\ov(rw

v avrif,

av

^yttTrX^ovres d,7r6els

\WVTOH.

T)

airoddvuffi, TOV fjucrdbv rbv tviavfficuoi' aTrodidbrw 6 vavKKypos
rots

irXrjpes

TOV

r&v VOLVT&V

K\Tjpov6fji.ots.

APPENDIX.
Actuaries, "AKCITOI.

These were small
in

craft of all sorts.

They were

classed together in this fashion

compliance with a notion that ships might roughly be divided into three classes, men-of-war or long ships, merchant-men or round ships, and these boats or little
Thucydides,
vii.

ships.

v\aylais

/ecu TrXofois

59, ^K\-TJOV ovv rbv re \ipdva eu0>5 rbv fj^yav rpiripeai Kal d/cdrots, eir dyKvp&v bpplovTts, K.T.\.= Diodoros, xiii.
14,
rpirjpeis,

dKdrovs re yap Kal
Plutarch,
irXetr,

ZTI

de

ffrpoyytiXas

i>avs

tir'

de tranquillitate animi, 3, dXX' uairep oi deiXol elra pq.ov olb^evoi 5tde>, edv el's yavXov d/cdrou, Kal irdXtv
e'

dyKvpuv opplaoLvrts. Kal vavnuvrfs tv T$
ia.v e/s
rpi-rjp-r]

/j.crapuo-u',

otidev irepaivovcri.

d/cdry, yXuKci' doidd.

Thus

Pindar, Nemea, v. 5, ctXX' enl irdaas 6X/cd5o$ tv T' the aKarot were distinguished from merchant-ships of

every sort, and
ships.

also

And

this

from the three-banked ships, which were the typical wardistinction was based upon their size ; for at the time when

the Athenian three-banked ships carried

two masts

see note 181

on

p.

83

these

masts were styled

ico-6s /t^yas

and
size.

icrrbs cucdreios
cf.

merely denoted inferiority in
T7]i>

respectively, as though d/cdreioj Theophrastos, historia plantarum, v. 7. 2,

de Tpb-jnv (TTOIOUCTI) rpiTjpei [tev dpvivrjv, rdis de 6\Kdcri TrevKivyv, TCUS 5^ eXdrroaiv

where d/cdrois is replaced by tXarroffiv. Aulus Hirtius, de bello Alexandrino, 44, nam cum ipse ( Vatinius) paucas in portu naves longas haberet, navibus actuariis, quaruni numerus erat satis
o^vivrjv,

magnus, magnitudine quamquarn non
Sisenna,

satis iusta
occisis,

apud Nonium,

p. 535,

quibus

actuarias

ad prccliandum, rostra imposuit. ad viginti navis, item
2,

conplures onerarias incendunt.

Marcellus, in the Pandects, xlix. 15.

navibtts

longis atque onerariis propter belli usurn

postliminium

est

:

non

piscatoriis>

aut

si

Thus the actuarial, like the dKorot, quas actuarias -voluptatis causa paraverunt. were distinguished from the merchant-ships and from the war-ships ; and Aulus
Hirtius implies that the distinction

was based upon

their size.

There
et

is

plainly an error in the current reading of Livy, xxxviii. 38, tradito

quaruni nulla plus
causa,

naves longas armamentaque earum : neve plures quam decem naves actuarias, quam triginta remis agatur, habeto : neve monerem ex belli

quod ipse illaturus erit=- Poly bios, xxii. 26, d-jroddru Kal ra ^/c Totrwv dp^eva Kal ra ffK&jrj' Kal (JUJKC'TI

^

5e Kal rds vaCs raj

""XV deKa
,

*cora-

oi5

106
Karapxti,

APPENDIX.
where both authors are quoting from the
tectas,

from the treaty of 197 B.C. Livy says naves

In quoting while Polybios says Kara^paKTovs yaOs, xviii. 27 ; so that in quoting from this treaty of 189 B.C. he must have said decent naves tectas habcto : neve actuarias. Consequently, the
xxxiii. 30,

treaty of 189 B.C.

passage will not identify the actuarial with the KardfppaKroi but will only shew that these vessels often carried more than thirty oars. The term actuarius had a
diminutive actuariolus ; and this
is

applied to some ten-oared vessels by Cicero, ad

Atticum, xvi. 3. 6, conscendens e Pompeiano tribus actuariolis decemscalmis. The term a/caros could be applied to vessels that were small enough for the oars to be sculled in pairs, or to vessels that were large enough to require fifty
rowers.
8ix&a5tovs

Leonidas of Tarentum, in the Anthology,

vi.
i,

4.

6, Kal rovs e

anaruv

^ras.

cf.

vii.

464.

i,

ix.

242. 8,
i.

styled an a/caros.

Lucian, verae historiae,

5,

where Charon's boat is ir^vT^Kovra 5 T&V rjXiKiwT&v irpoa279.

avrrjv tuol yvuuTjv
Tra/^Xa.jSoj',

x oI/Tas
a/caros

>

*<" Kv(3pvr}Tr)i> rbi> dpiffrov
5
rjv

[uvd$ peydXy

Kal rrjv vavv

ws

Trpbs

Apparently, the diminutive term &KO.TI.OV such large vessels as those of fifty oars. Polybios, i. 73, Trapeo-Ketiafrv dt Kal rd TrepiXnrrj r&v irXoiwv, rpirjpets, Kal irevTyKui'Tdpovs, Kal rd u^yiffra r&v d/car/wj/.

utyav Kal filaiov ir\ovv could not be applied to

This term was used in speaking of vessels that were carried about in carts or on men's shoulders. Thucydides, iv. 67, d/cdrtoj' d/j.<pr)piK6v us Xrjffral eldde<rav tnl
d/M^ji
Sid
rrjs

raQpov KaraKoaifetv T^S VVKT^S
9,
TTJS

tirl

TT\V

6d\aa<rav

Kal

Plutarch,
ev/j.eytde<n,

Lucullus,

5^

Aa<TKV\lTt5os

\l/j.i>r]S

TrXeo/x^s aKartois
irpfc
rr)j>

rb ^yiffrov avr&v 6 AOVKOV\\OS dve\Kij<ras Kal Siayuyuv dfM^rj
i

6a\aTTai> offovs ^x^P
in the note

o-Tpariuras
p.

evefilfiafffv.

See also Strabo,

xi.

2.

12,

quoted

on camarte on

107.

But the diminutive was not indispensable.

Agathias, iii. 20, rds d/cdrous, birbaas efi dua&v eTr^-yero, ^s rbv iroraubv epfiaXuv. In common parlance the term d/caros was used as vaguely as boat is used in
English.

Theognis, 457
5'

yap
i.

Tnr)ba\lq>

459, irdderai ws dxaros,

otfroi

ff^a<pop6v

tcrri
-

yvvi) via. dvSpi ytpovrf
'

ou
|

ovd'
|

dyKvpai %x ovfft v
|

Critias,

apud Athenaeum,

50, O^jS?;

dpnarbtvra

5l<ppov crvveir^aro TrpuTrjvii.

d\6$ raalai.
vii.

Herodotos,

186,

(popTijyovs d' aKarovs Kapes, TOVS cv Tai<ri <riTayuyoi<ri aKdrouri t6i>ras =

184, rCiv ffiTaywy&v TrXot&v Kal ocroi ^^TrXwov To6rotfft.

Diodoros,

xvii.

116,

Kal TrX^ofros yu,erd
TTJS

r&v (pL\uv v TKTIV d/cdrots, ^<f> rjutpas fJ^v rivas diroffx<-ff&^^ vews dnb T&V dXXwv a/ca^wv, tir \avri6ir) ubvos, K.r.X. The diminutive term

d/carioy

was used
<p'

in the
urcos

same vague way.
pt]driva(.

Dion Chrysostom,
Pliny,

oratio 72, p. 628,

wore Kal

yaw
And

eiK^rws, 6ri TrXet iravra Quotas d/cdria Kal irdaa
ix. 49, navigeram similituMutianus: concham esse acatii

|8oDs dporptq..

so also acatium in Latin.

dinent

et

aliam in Propontide visam

sibi prodidit

modo carinatam, inflexa puppe^ prora rostrata : in hac condi naupliutn, where the phrase acatii modo carinatam merely expresses the fact that there was a ridge along the shell like the keel of a boat. It was clearly for a joke that the name Acatus was given to the great ship that brought the Flaminian obelisk to Italy see note 71 on p. 27.
:

Barides,
This term could be applied to ships or boats of any
hailed from Egypt or
sort,

provided that th

some other
552,

yEschylos,

Persae,

foreign country. iravr' 553, Sfy?;s $

CTT^TTC

SvaQpbvw

\

papldec

TYPES OF SHIPS.
1074? 1075? Tpi(TKd\fjLoifft pdpiffw Iphigeneia in Aulide, 297, pappdpovs pdpidas.
I

IO?
i.e.

6\6/j.evoi,

rpiripfaiv.

Euripides,

yap pdpiv O i>x virepdopei, cf. 836, 882. rostra Liburna sequi. The allusion
Actium.

yEschylos, supplices, 874, Myvtrrlav Propertius, iii. ir. 44, baridos et contis
to

is
5i)

Cleopatra's

ships

at

the

battle

of

o^o/xd tan rotei irXoloiat TOVTOHTI, sc. He is speaking here of trading-vessels on the Nile: see also ii. 41, 179. pdpis. DiodotOS, i. 96, ffv^uvelv 5 Kal rd\\a rd wapd rots "EXXyin Kad' "AiSov /J,v6o\o-

Herodotos,

ii.

96, TOVTO

yap

yovfj-eva rots
TT\OIOI>

ri

vvv yivoftfroLS

/car'
cf.
'

pdpiv /caXeio-0at, /t.r.X. 67, 'A5eo> \VTTrjpt dn)K6ve, TOVT'
jj.',

AiyvTrrov rd [j.kv yap biaKOfil^ov rd <ru>ttara Leonidas of Tarentum, in the Anthology, vii.
|

A^povrtn
|

vdwp

5s TrXcieis irop9fj.tdi Kvavty,

|

5ai

e/ KO.L ffoi

fj.ya pplQerai
t

6i<pv6e(r<ra.

/3a/>is,

diro^dL^vov, rbv

KVVO. &.ioytvr]v.

The word was bant

bari, or baair in

Egyptian.

Camarce,

Ka/xa/aat.

These were boats of very light build, holding twenty-five to thirty men apiece. The stern was like the stem, and the oars were arranged for rowing either way. The bottom was rather flat, and the sides were so low that temporary bulwarks
were needed in rough weather.
in the First

These

vessels

were

in

use on the Black Sea

Century A.D.
i.

Strabo,

xi.

12,

ftDcri

5e

dwb TWV Kara ddXarrav
'

XrjffTTjpiwv,

dfcdria

!x'/TeJ
8

(rrevd

Kal Kov<pa, oaov dvOpurrovs Trtvre Kal

et/coai

5e%6yu.ej'o,

ffirdviov

dtj-affdat TOI)S Trd^raj

dwdfteva

KaXovffi 5'

aura

ot

"EXX^ves xaftdpas
rots

5
/ca/xdpas

et's

rd olKela x^/na, vavXoxctv OUK I^OJTW, dva6fj.i>ot
tiri

w/nois rds

dva^povffiv
5

roi)s

5pf/xoi/s,
rj

ev

olffirep

Kal

olKovvi,

\virpdv

dpovvTes
Kal

yijv
ei>

Karatptpovcri

ird\i.v,

OTO.V

Kaipbs

rod

TrXett'.

r6

5'

avrb

Troiov<Tt

rrj

d\\orpla.

Tacitus, historian,
ceris

iii.

47,

camaras vacant

artis latcribus

latam

alvurn sine vinculo
attollitur^
sic

summa navium

aut ferri conexatn : et tumido man, prout fluctus tabulis augent, donee in modum tecti claudantur.

inter undas volvuntur, part

/line

vel illinc appellere indiscretum et

utrimque prora innoxium

et
est.

mutabili retnigio, quando By thus contrasting the

latam alvum with the artis lateribns Tacitus implies that the bottom was broad considering the height of the sides, not jhat it was broad considering the size
of the boat
:

so he hardly contradicts Strabo's statement that these boats were

narrow.
Kctv$ttpoi,

KvKVOKavOapoi, KVKVOL.

These were merchant-ships of types that were in vogue among the Greeks in and Fifth Centuries B.C. The KuwoKavQapot were presumably of a type between the Kdvdapoi and the KVKVOI.
the Fourth

Nicostratos,
KVKVOS,
|

TJ

Kavdapos

apud Athenaeum, rourt yap edv
;

xi.

48, A.
&

ij

vavs 5

worep

ek6<rop6s co-rip,
7rcu>r'.

rj

irvdiij/j.'

n,

|

aur6s wepavw rd

B. d/x^Xet

an

This indicates that these vessels all resembled an elKtoopos, and was usually a large merchant-ship with twenty oars for auxiliary work: see note 51 on p. 20. Ships termed Kavdapoi are also mentioned by aiJpa, Kdprj ZKdpwos, rjcnjxv Sosicrates, ibid., XeTrr?? 5e KvproTs eyyeX&ira Kv/j.a<rtv wodl Trpocrijye Trpacos /cat /caXws rbv KavOapov. Again by Menander, ibid., A. rbv re ws Is KO\OI> rbv vibv fVTVxovvTa Kal creawa/x^oj' TrpcDros \yb) trot,
KVKvoKavdapos.
etV6(ro/)oj
|
|

|

|

108
Xpvffovv KavQapov.

APPENDIX.
B.
\

irotov

;

A.

TO irXoiov
\

'

ov5v

olffdas, a6\ie.
rp>

\

B.

rr)v

vavv
6
|

<Te<ruxrdai pot X^yeis

;

A.
5'

Zyuye

/J.TJV

TTJV

vavv tKetvyv,

^Trofycre

KaXXi/cXf/s

Ka\v/j.vios,

Ev(f>pavwp

txvfitpva

0oi;/)ios.

And by
is

TO 5

7rXotoj>

&TTCU Naioup7r7s Kavdapos.

But there

Aristophanes, pax, 143, not any further mention of

ships termed K^KVOI or KVKvoKa.v6apoi.

Caudicarice or Codicarice.
This name was given to vessels plying on the Tiber, and hence to those on It was reputed to be an early Latin name for boats or ships.
Seneca, de brevitate
vitae, 13,

other rivers.

hoc quoque qucerentibus remittamus, quis

Romanis

primus persuaserit navem conscendere. ? Claudius is fuit, Caudex ob hoc ipsum appellatus, quia plurium tabidarum contextus caudex apud antiques vocatur, unde publics tabuliz codices dicuntur et naves nunc quoque, qua ex anliqua consuetudine
commeatus per Tiberim subvehunt,
p. 535,

codicarice vocantur. Varro, apud Nonium, quod antiqui pluris tabulas coniunctas codices dicebant ; a quo in Tiberi navis codicarias appellamus. The boatmen on the Tiber are mentioned frequently
:

e.g.

Corp. Inscr. Latin, vol.

xiv, no.
1.

131,

1.

7,

codicari nabiculari, no. 170,
1.

1.

10,

codicarii navicularii, no. 4234,
Sallust,

5,

codicarius, vol. vi, no. 1759,

15, caudicariis.

apud Nonium, p. 535, quam rnaximis itineribus per regnum Ariobarzanis contendit ad flumen Euphratcn qua in parte Cappadocia ab Armenia diiungitur ;
ttaves codicarice, occulte

per hiemem fabricatce, aderant.

Ausonius,

idyllia, 10. 197?

This refers to the Moselle. navita caudiceo fluitans super cequora lembo. At Ostia, near the mouth of the Tiber, there was a guild of these boatmen
with the
title

of corpus splendedissimum codicariorum
1.

:

see Corp. Inscr. Latin, vol.

xiv, no. 4144,

12.

Ce/OCes,

Ke'A^res,

KcXryria.

built especially for speed, and hence styled raceserved for carrying reports and orders and despatches, and taking officers of rank from place to place ; and generally discharged the duties that are

These were small vessels

horses.

They

now

allotted to a despatch-boat or admiral's-yacht.
first five

They were

in use in

most

navies in the

centuries B.C.
dTro<rTa(ri.
5'

Thucydides,
2,KubvT]i>, rpirjpei
e^ fj.tv TLVL

iv.

120,

ai/rots

6

Bpacridas Si^TrXewre vvurbs
K.\~r}Tl($
77

es

rty

^v

<pi\La TrpOTrXeovar},

avrbs 5e iv

dirodev 6(pen6(j.evos, OTTWS

TOV Kt\v)TOS

fjitlfrvi irXoLif) Tre/Hriryxdj/ot,

rpir/pris

d^ivoi avTy, avTiiraXov
tiri

5^ &\\T)S rpiripous t-jnyevontv-ris ov irpbs TO tXa<r<rov vofjufav rptyeadai dXX'

Ti)v

vavv, Kal iv TOIJT^ avrov diaffweiv.

There

is

clearly

an error here,

KtXrjros for

The scholiast's paraphrase makes the vessel Ke\T]Tlov, or else KeXrrrly for KtXrjn. a Ke\r)Tiov in both instances so his reading was KeXijrlov. Polybios, v. 94, TUI> 5' eK^OTjdrjadvTdJv, eKvpitvee 5 5' viroffrptya.*, &rXeu(re ?rp6$ XaX/cetav
;

irXoluv avravdpuv

?Xa/Se 5^ Kal

/cA^Ta

irepl

TO 'PLov AlrwXiKbv

6/J.ov

T$

Tr\r)pwfj,aTi.

naves longce centum sexaginta, celoces duodecim. So the K AT/TCS were reckoned among the 'small craft in a fleet. Polybios elsewhere speaks of them as Livy, xxi.
1 7,

vessels of a single bank, v. 62, Kal ir\oia TCTrapaKovra' TOVTUV

ctKO&i diafapovTa rats /caTao"/ceuats, ev ots ovSfr ZXarrov yv Terprjpovs'

KaraQpaKra ^v ra 8k XotTra,
:

rprfpeis Kal diKpora Kal /cAijTes, cf. Fr. 132,
5^, TOI>$ KtXijTas Kal

ras i)iuo\las

virepi<rd(ji,iffas,

Taxi) apud Suidam, s.v. vTrepi.(rd/ji.L<ras dv^x^- Nor is he really contra-

TYPES OF SHIPS.
dieted herein
jwovj.

109

At

the tholes

by Ephippos, apud Athenaeum, viii. 38, irhre vA^ras irevTe<TKd\time the compounds formed from <miX/x6j were used in reckoning so vertically, and thus marked the number of banks of oars in a ship
this
;
:

that irevr^cfKoXfj-os denoted a ship of five banks, just as rpl<rKa\fj.os denoted a ship

of three banks

vEschylos, Persce, 679, 680,
\

ti-t<pdiv6'

ai

rpiffKa\jj.oi
3,

\

vaes dvaes,
TrXrfyrjv

1074, 1075, TpicrKaXfjiOLcri
fitalav

ftdpicriv 6\6fjt,vot, cf.

Polybios, xvi.

rainy Sovaa

refer

Kara peffov rb /euros virb rbv dpavlryv ffKa\fj.6v^ where dpavlrrj? <r/ca\/i6s must to the upper bank. But the verse occurs in a passage where Ephippos is
;

and his statement mercilessly ridiculing the ostentation of Alexander the Great that the king's K^\-rjres had five banks of oars the largest number then in use
must not be taken a whit more seriously than the
Thucydides,
K \-rjffTpLKrjs
iv. 9,

rest of his exaggerations.

ov

ydp yv

o-rr\a

ev xwplqi ep~fimf troplcraffOai,

d\\d

Kal

ravra
'

Mewrjvlwv rptaKovropov Kal
Me<r 0-771' tuv rotjruv
cos

tfAijros ZXafiov, ot trvxov irapayei>6/j.evoi

bwXiral re

TtDj/

men would be needed

recraapaKovra iyevovro. Fully thirty of these for the rpiaK6vropos, leaving barely ten for the Kf"\-t)s.

A

four-oared
6"i)

Ke\-^riov

is

mentioned

by Appian, de
/j,f\\ov

bellis

civilibus,

ii.

56,

Kf\r)Tiov

Kal

KV/SepvriTTjv

rbv dpivrov
43,

oars

is

fixed

by

Velleius,

ii.

number of quattuor scalmorum navem nna cum duobtis
eroiuaffeiv,

for the

amicis decemque servis ingressus= Plutarch, Csesar, 38, els ir\oioi> e/j.^as TO /dyedos d<i)5eKd<rKa\fji.ov, where the assertion that the boat was large enough for twelve oars seems to be based upon the story that Coesar had twelve companions on this

voyage.
in

A two-oared

KeXtfriov is

mentioned by Synesios,

epistolse, p. 165, rjKev eirl
<rKa\fj,6s

K\rjrtov Sto-KaX/Aou.

At

this

time the compounds formed from

were used

reckoning the tholes horizontally, and thus marked the number of oars in a ship of a single bank. They are used in this sense by Cicero, ad Atticum, xvi. 3. 6,
tribus actuariolis decemscalmis,

de oratore,
xl.
i,
et's

i.

38,

duorum scalmorum naviculam.
ol

And

apparently also by Diodoros,

Soy pa typa\f/av oirws

Kprjres wavra. ra

TrXoia &os TTpa.<rKa.\(Jiov

avairt^wcnv

'PcfyiTji/,

6, raj 5^ vavs airdffas cupeiXero Kal Tr\o?of
cf.

and by Plutarch, ^Emilius Paulus, ovdtv avrois TpiffKoX/J-ov p.iov dirtXiire
,

Theseus,

19, doy/j,a Koivbv r\v 'EXX-^vuv

/j.i)8e[ji.iav

tKTrXe'iv rpi^pt] fj.r]da/j.odev dvopGiv

TT^VTC Tr\elovas 5f%o//^7jj',

where
i.

Tpiif]pris

refers to fighting-ships of
5'

any

sort.

Xenophon, Hellenica,
eriyyei\

6.

36,
cf.

r

'Ereovky
viii.
i.

6

virrjpeTiKbs

K{\TJS

irdvra

ra

irepl

rty vav/maxlav.
TTO/ZTT??.

Herodotos,

bringing a message deiy

Thucydides,
diroirX^v

94, for the story of a KtX-rjs 53, fdo^ev ovv avrois avdpas ts
viii.

K\r)TLov t/j.(3i/3d<TavTs dvev KrjpvKehv irpoairtfjL^ai ro?s 'Adrjvalots.
IJL{I>,

38, Qijpi/j.^vr)s

irapaoovs 'AoTi^xy ras

vavs,

tv

/cA^n
and

d(f>avl^Tai.

Appian, de
dia/j-flfiajv, fir'

bello Mithridatico, 33, ^s /ceX^Ttov evtprj, Kal vavv e/c The /fAT/res 'A\eavdpelas tytpero, sc. Aoi/KouXXos.

I'ecis, Iva.

Xd^oi,

/feX'/Jrta,

or other vessels
Polysenos, i. avrbs

doing the same work, were often described simply as
38.
4,

v-n-rjpeTiKd.

Bpa(r/5as

viwrbs eiriirXtuv

^Ki&vrj,

rpi^pr)
iv.

(piXlav

Trpoir\eTv

(ra^ef,

de ev virrjpeTiK$
^0e7ro//.cj'os.

KaTOirw

e'lirero

= Thucydides,

120, airrbs Se ev KeXrjTly diroOev

Qpan&v
drpeiJ,elv

Plutarch, Demosthenes, 29, StaTrXe^tras virypeTiKois Kal dirofids /xerd fanfperucit irapa rds irpwras TU>V vc&v opv(f>6p<j}v, Lysander, 10, TT^/ATTWV 5 e/cAewe Kal [teveiv iv rdfei. Demosthenes, in Polyclem, 46,

U7rr;pert/c6j/,
('I<^t/cpa7-77s)

dyov dvdpa Kal
Ko/J.lov

^TrtcrroXcis.

Polysenos,

iii.

9.

36,

virrjperiKbv

eiriffTo\T]v

treirXaffiJievyv.

yEschines, de falsa legatione, 73,
iScrre fjvayKaffd'r) ypd\f>ai
tirl
\f/ri<pi(TfJ.a

oifrw

5'

3)v

ff<pa\epa Kal tTriKlvSwa
Flaiaj'ie^s eKir\eiv
rr]i>

ra TTpdyaara,

KTt1<picro<pu>v b

rayiarriv 'Avrloxov rbv

rwv VTryperiKW

Kal

I

IO
eirl

APPENDIX.
ry
dvvd/j.ei Terayfj.e'vov.

frTfTv rbv o-TpaTtjyov rbv

This

last

passage shews

that in the

Athenian navy these viryperiKd formed a distinct

class

under one

are presumably the same as the OLKCLTOL dtj/j.6o-iai of the inventories Corp. Inscr. Attic, vol. ii, no. 808, col. d, 11. 74, 75, tirl ras d/cdrous ras And these are termed celoces publics by Plautus, captivi, TTTjSdXta. S-rj/jioa-las,

command.
:

They

iv.

2.

92
\

94,

nam

filium

\

tuom modo in portu Philopolemum vivom salvom
cf.

et sospitem

vidi in publica celoce,

miles gloriosus,.

iv.

r.

39, hcec celox illhist

qua hinc cgrcditttr internuntia. The celoces are mentioned also by Ennius, apud Isidorum,
labitur uncta carina per

origines, xix.

r.

22,

by Turpilius, apud Nonium, p. 533, remulis scnsim celox ab oppidoprocesserat, by Varro, ibid., nautce rcmivagam movent celocent, and proccllafrigida ne obruat celocem, by Livy, xxxvii. i^^piraticas celoces And el lembos, and perhaps by Velleius, ii. 73, piraticis celetibiis or sceleribus. there are puns on the name Plautus, Pseudolus, v. 2. 12, unde ormstam celocem
celocis,
:

aquora cana

10, quo hanc celocem conferam, Poenulus, iii. i. 40, operam celocem hanc mihi, ne corbitam, date. Possibly these Rhodian 'racePliny, vii. 57, celetem (invcnernnt) Rhodii. horses' were evolved from the Phoenician 'horses' mentioned on p. 113. As to

agere

te

pr&diccm, asinaria,

ii. i.

obsecro, hercle,

the live race-horses of this name, see Pausanias, v. 8.
xxxiv. 10.

8,

vi.

12.

i,

and Pliny,

Cercuri,

was equally suitable for warfare and for use throughout the Mediterranean from the beginning of the Fifth Century to the middle of the First Century B.C. The war-ships of this type were small, but the merchant-ships were occasionally of considerable size.
These were
vessels of a type that
in

commerce.

They were

Herodotos,
X/Xtat,
<T/j.LKpd

vii.

97. rpirjKbvTepoi
o~vve\d6i>Ta
s

89, r&v d rpi-ripeuv dpid/J.bs fJ.ev eyevero eirrd Kal diijKbo-tai Kal 8 KCLL irwTriKbvTepoi Kal KtpKovpoi /cat 'nrirayuyd, TrXota

rbv dpid^bv

t<j>dvr) r/3t(rx/Xta.

That

refers to the Persian fleet

in

480

B.C.

Arrian, anabasis,

vi. 2,

%v d

TO

ty/j.Trai>

ir\T)0os

T&V veuv, rpiaKdvTepot
/ecu

litv

ts dydoriKovra,

ra
in

5^ Trdvra 7rXo?a ffvv TO?S iirirayiayois Kal KepKotipois

o<ra

ctXXa Trordfjua ov TTO\V dirod^ovra

r&v

5t<r%iX/a'.

That
i,

refers to Alexander's fleet

on the Hydaspes
8ia.KOffta.is

327 B.C.
Kal

Diodoros,

xxiv.

'Pwyucuot
ir\ol(j0v

5^

vaval

Tffo~a.pdKoi>Ta
e/j

KepKotipoLS

Kar^Tr\v<rav
75, vaval de

rty Hdvop^ov.

e^KOvra This was in 250
Trevr^KOVTa

Kal
B.C.

TrXvj^

Appian, de rebus Punicis,
Karbv
5'

<ppovTO

(ol 'Pw/jiaioi)

/y.ev

irevT'^peo'iv,

-tytuoX/cus,

d(ppdKTOis de Kal KepKotipois Kal
(JLev

<rTpoyyv\ois TroXXots.
fj.voirdpwff(.

121,

/cat

vavvl irevT-qKovra

Tpi-rjpeTiKais, KepKotipois de

Kal

Kal ctXXots fipaxvrepois TroXXots e^eir\eov,

sc. ol

This was in 149 B.C. and 146 B.C. Memnon, Fr. 37, apud Photium, p. 232, Mt0pt5dT7;s 5^ dXXov re ffrparbv avxybv Trapecr/ceudfero, Kal rpt^pets /j.ev TeTpa/c6<rtot, ruv de [JUKporepuv vt]C)v TrevTyKovrepuv re Kal KepKotipwv dpid/u,bs
Kapxydovioi.
classe

This was in 74 B.C. Livy, xxxiii. 19, ipse (Antiochits) cunt navium, ad hoc levioribus navigiis cercurisque ac lembis ducentis, froficiscitur. This was in 197 B.C. In all these instances the cercuri are reckoned among the small craft in a fleet. Apparently, they were
rfv

oi/K

6\lyos.

centum

tectarum

faster

than ships of the

line.

Livy,
se

xxiii. 34, cercttros

ad perseqnendam

retrahenttbi

damquc navem quum

(Flaccus) misisset,

celeritate victi cesserunt,

tradunt

primo fugere regii conati ; deinde, Romanis, etc. That was in 215 B.C.

TYPES OF SHIPS.
Plautus,

Ill
et

mercator,

i.

r.

87,

88, ccdificat

navem cercurum

merces emit

:
\

parala navi inponit, etc., Stichus, ii. 2. 42 45, dum percenter portitores, ecqiut navis venerit ex Asia, ac negant venisse, conspicatus sum interim cercurum, quo
\ \

ego

me maiorem non

vidisse censeo,
\

in portnm vento secundo, veto passo pervenit,
v.

and then follows an account of the cargo. Athenreos, rb /J-tv irpCjrov K^pKovpos, rpto'x/Xia rdXaira 5^xe<r#cu
^TrkajTros.

43, ^06\*ia 5'
7raj

r\aa.v aurrj,

8vi>d(j.evos'

5'

r\v

OUTOS

merchant-ship that carried 3000 talents, or 75 tons, was larger than most war-ships: see note 78 on p. 30. The ?ras seems to mean that the oars

A

The oars of a cercurus are noticed again by Lucilius, apud Nonium, p. 533, iligneis pcdibus cercurum conferet crquis. There is probably a misreading, cercurum for cerycem, in another passage of Lucilius, ibid., ad regem
were not merely auxiliary.

Rhodum, Ecbatanam ac Babylonem ibo ; cercurum surnam. The name K^pKovpos is perhaps an adaptation of the Phoenician word which appears in Hebrew as kirk&rAh : and the name of these ships would certainly be
legati?
\

Semitic in origin, if they really were invented in Cyprus, as Pliny asserts, vii. 57, cercunim (invenerunf) Cyprii. The word kirkdrdh is found in Isaiah, Ixvi. 20, and is translated into English as swift beast : but the Septuagint gives which must denote a hood over a chariot, or else an umbrella.

Corbitce.

Romans

These were merchant-ships of great size. They were in the First and Second Centuries B.C.
Lucilius,
|

in

use

among

the

apud Nonium,
1

p.

533, multa homines portenta in

Homeri
\

versibu"

1

monstra pntant ; quorum in primis Polyphemu' ducentos Cyclops longii ficta pedes, et porro huic maiu' bacillum quam mahis navis in corbita maximus ulla, where the allusion is to the Odyssey, ix. 319, 322 324, Ktf/fXwTros yap &cem> /i^ya
\

1

pbiraXov Trapa ffrjKf

&<T<TOV 0' larrbi' vijbs

iKo<r6poio /j.\atvr]s

,

\

<f>opri5os, eupeh/s,

ij

T

tKirepdq.

/mtya Xatr/xa'

rtxrvov
|

<kt)v

fjifJKOs,

rboffov

TT^XOS

ciffopaaffdat,

so that

Lucilius

means the

largest merchant-ship imaginable.
:

Cicero also speaks of a

corbita as a merchant-ship

ad Atticum,

xvi.

6.

i,

sed putabam,

quum Rhegium

vcnissem, fore
actuariolis

tit illic

do\ix&v

statimne freto
oars,
4,

ad Leucopetram an Syracusis. Being merchant-ships, these
little

cogitaremus, corbitane Patras an Tarentinorum, ast inde Corcyram ; ft, si oneraria,
ir\6oi> bp/j-cdvovre^

vessels

had only auxiliary
iii.

and could therefore make
slcut ego hos

progress in a calm.

Plautus, Pcenulus,
\

i.

duco advocatos, homines spissigradissumos, tardiores quam 3, corbita sttnt in tranquillo mart, cf. 40, obsecro, hercle, operam celocem hanc mihi, ne corbitam, date. For the celoces see p. 108. There is a pun on corbis and corbita in
Plautus, Casina, iv. i. 20, 21, gnovi ego illas ambas estrices possunt, unless corbitam cibi should be read corbitant ubi.
;

corbitam cibi

comesse
\

Cybcece.

These also were merchant -ships of great
Century B.C. Cicero, in Verrem,
respondent
:

size.

They were

in use in Sicily in

First

ii.

iv.

8, tamctsi,

rogatus de cybcea,
isti

'tenetis

memoria quid

tedificatam publicis operis, publice coactis, eique atdificandie publice
prcefuisse.
9,

Mamertinum senatorem

negent

onerariam navem

maximam

112

APPENDIX.
negent ei navi faciundce senatorem

ecdificatam esse Messanee ? negent, si possint.

Mamertimtm publice prafuisse? utinam negent. 67, heec sum rogaturus. navem populo Romano debeantm ? fatebuntur. prcebuerintne pratore C. Verre ? negabunt. Verri dedenmt ? negare cedijicaverintne navem onerariam maximam publice, quam non potc runt. cf. ii. v. 23, non populo Romano reddita biremis, xed prcctori donata
cybeea.

These passages prove that a
in
ii.

cybeea

was a merchant-ship

:

nor

is

the

contrary implied

v.

17,

navem

vero cybceam

maximam,

triremis

instar,

pulcherrimam atque ornalissimam, palam cedificatam sumptu pztblico, sciente Sicilia, per magistratumque Mamertinum tibi datam donatamq-ue esse dico. Cicero is arguing here that Verres had not only procured a merchant-ship from the Mamertines in place of a war-ship, but

was

as big as a war-ship of three banks,

had made them build him a merchant-ship that when they were not bound to provide a
/CUTTCU'GI,

war-ship of more than two banks.

The term
changing

cybeea

may be
cf.

equivalent to Kvfiala or to
s.

the

/3

and

TT

interis

easily,

Hesychios,
Kinraia..

v.

Ktiirai

:

e!56s

TI

vecos,

where

nt-irai

probably a corruption of

CymbcR) Kv/u/fat.
These were
the
vessels of a type invented in Phoenicia
:

but Latin authors applied

name
Pliny,

to

any boat.
57,

vii.

cymbam

(invenertint) Pheenices.

apud Athenaeum, xi. 64, Virirouriv 77 KV^O.L<TL vava-To\eis play was laid in Phoenicia, so Sophocles was likely to
ships,

Sophocles, Andromeda, Fr. 2, The scene of the "xQbva.
;

select Phoenician types of

and the

'LTTTTOL

certainly

The name

is

common
i.

in Latin.

were Phoenician: see pp. 113, 114. Cicero, de officiis, iii. 14; Pliny,
iv.

ix.

10, 12
iii.

;

Seneca, epistolae, 51. 12; Lucan,

136;
18.

Ovid,

tristia,

ii.

330, amores,

6. 4,

metamorphoses,
Horace, odes,
ii.

293,

fasti, vi.

777; Virgil, georgics,
iii.

iv. 195,
ii.

506, ^Eneid, vi. 303;
etc.

3.

28; Propertius,

24; Juvenal,

151;

suitable also for

These were small vessels of a type that probably was meant some purposes in warfare. Xenophon, Hellenica, i. i. 1 1, frravda 8 Kal A\Ktpia5r)s TJKCV K
'

for fishing, but

vbv irtvre

rpnfjpeo-i

Kal tiratfrpldi.

Agathias,

iii.

21, eiraKTpidas TLVO.S

Stua ir\rip&(ravTes.
fypptit-affa.

Nicander, theriaca, 823, 824, tird noyepobs dXt^as The name seems to be connected KaTTrp-f)VL^v e-rrdKTp(t)i>, sc. ^paiva.
a fisherman.

with

tiraKT-/)p,

x. 25, actuaries, quas Greed i<TTioKu)Trovs vacant vel tiraKTpiSas. See p. 1 14 for the um6/cw7rot and p. 105 for the actuarice. No doubt, all e-rraxTpiSes were actuaria but Aulus Gellius cannot be right in asserting that all actuaries

Aulus Gellius,
:

were

eiraxTplScs.

The

actuarice formed a large class

which included the ^A^res,
have

and if the been such

t-rraxTplSes

had been the same as the

actuarice, there could hardly

vessels as

These were
were
in use

vessels of a type

between the

cVa/cTpfSes

and the

ittXirres.

They

among

the Greeks in the Fourth Century B.C., especially for piracy.

TYPES OF SHIPS.
Aristotle,

113

de

interpretatione,

2,

compound name. The ships themselves
191, TOLVTO. TrXrjpoi

gives eiraKTpoKc\r)s as an example of a are mentioned by ^Ischines, in Timarchum,

rd

\r)ffTr)pta,

ravra
s. v.

eis

rbv eiraKTpoKe\fira
:

e7ij3tj3dfet,

and also by
T\V

Deinarchos

:

see Harpocration,

eVa/c-rpo/rA^s

AtVx^s

& r(p

/caret Ti/j.dpxov.

efSos 5' earl Tr\otov ff&vOcTOV %x, ov

T fy KO-TOffKevfa
ev rrj

eVc

re tiranTplSos Kal K\I)TOS.

5e u>9 eirlirav XT/OT piKbv, cos /cat

Ae^ap^os

Kara

IIoXvetf/cTou doKifJ.a<ria.

TavXoi.

These were the great merchant-ships in which the Phoenicians made their trading-voyages in the Mediterranean and Atlantic between the Third and the Sixth Centuries B.C., and perhaps before and afterwards. The shape of the ships
indicated by their name, for that was given to any tub. B. 7rXo?a Antiphanes, apud Athenaeum, xi. 102, A. ya6\ovs oXoxpti&ovs. A. Tot)s Kadovs /j.ev ovv /caXoOcrt 7ai5Xous TraVras ot TrpoydcrTOpes. Aristophanes,
is
\

;

aves, 598, 700X0? /cravat
fj.e

/cai

vavK\r)p&, scholion, KaXX^/xaxos

:

Ku7rp60e 2156^165
airros
iii.

Karfiyayev ev6a.Se yav\os.
ayojv yati\oi<riv ev
res
,

Epicharmos, apud Athenaeum, vii. 114, 3>oiviKiKo'is rJKe /caXX/crras <ray/iva$. Herodotos,
|

6

5'

OVTOI es

3>oivtK'rjv

Kal QoiviKys es StScoi'a irbKiv avrlKa

fj.ev

136, Tptripeas Svo

a/ta 8e avrriai Kal
es QoiviKrjv,

yavXov fj^eyav iravToiuv dyaOuv. vi. IJ, 6 8 Weus a>s yati\ovs de evravOa Karadvcras Kal xp^l/J aTa Xa/Scbv TroXXa
-

iKeXlyv.

viii.

yatiXovs re <f>oivtKijlov$

97, es TTJV 2a\a(juva (S^p^s) %wyua eireipaTO (rvvtSee, tva dvrl re ffXfSirjs ewai Kal re^fos, /c.r.X.

dtaxovv,

Scylax,

periplus, 112, ol de
l&.epv~r}v, TOI)S /iev

^/JiiropoL elan /mev 3>olviKes'

eirav de atyiKwvrai e^s TT)V vrjtrov rrjv

yav\ovs

xafiop/Jiifrovtnv, ev rrj

Kfyvr}

cr/c^j'as iroir)(rdfJLevoi

avrois' rbv

de <p6prov ee\bfj.evoi avrol dt.aKOulfova'Lv ev lUKpols TrXo/ois e/s rrjv

-rjireipov.

These

massages all date from before 250 B.C.,
icenician.
\!

and the ships mentioned therein are all The name 7auXos occurs again in Plutarch, de tranquillitate animi, 3,
vavriuvres ev rep
et's

wffirep ol deiXol Kal

TrXeti',

elra pq.ov

oi6/Jt.evoL

dideiv, eav

et's

")\ov

ire

But this Tp^prj /j.eTa[3&criv, ovdev irepalvovffi. not prove conclusively that these vessels were still in use for Plutarch may be quoting some old saying. The expression yavXiKd xP^)lJ aTa r TauXm/coL
e% d/carou, Kal irdXtv eav
;
-

stands for cargo in Xenophon, anabasis, v. 8. r, cf. v. i. 11, 12, 15, 16; id this indicates that the name 7aOXos might roughly be applied to any merchantlip.

The name was probably of Phoenician origin, and was perhaps derived >m gawal ; the island of Gozo, near Malta, being termed PaOXos in Greek and
'in

Phoenician: see Corp. Inscr. Semit. part

i,

no. 132,

l

11. i,

8,

am

G(a)w(a)l,

GauHtana.

Hippi,

"ITTTTOI.

ic into

These were Phoenician merchant- ships with figure-heads of horses. They use in Phoenicia in very early times ; but afterwards were only to be

coast outside the straits.

found at Cadiz, where they were employed upon the fisheries along the African Some of them were of considerable size ; and apparently
these could

manage

to double the Cape,

for

about 112 B.C. one of the typical
east coast of Africa,

figure-heads

was brought to Egypt from a wreck on the was attributed by experts to a ship from Cadiz.
T.

and

//

1

14
Strabo,
ii.

APPENDIX.
3. 4,
TrdXti'

ovv

((pijffl

Tloaetdwvios)

Kal VTTO TavTys (KXeoTrdrpas)
irapevey^dfyai

Trefj.<pd7Jvai

rbv 1&voo%ov
'

[ACTO. /j-clfyvos TrapaffKevrjs.
rttri T^TTOIS

fTra.vt.bvTa. 5' avt/J-ois

virtp TTJV AidioTriav
56<ret ffiriuv

irpoafapbpevov 5^
olVou
/cai

eoiKetou<r0cu TOVS dvdpwirovs /uera01)

re

/ecu

7raXa0i5wp, aw ^KetVois
aTroypdtpecrdal
'iinrov

/JLTTJV, dj/ri

5

roi/rwi' vSpeias

TC

Tvyxdvew

Kal

KaOooyyias,
CK

re

TWJ'

p7]/j.dTwv

2via.

evpbvra.

5'

aupbirpippov

tyXivov

va.va.yiov
fti)

fyov

lyyy\vfJ.fJi.h'ov,

irv66(j.evov

ws

airt>

T^S

e<T7r^pas TT\bvrii}v TivCjv

rb va.vayt.ov TOUTO, KOftlfetv avro avaarptyavTa. Trpos

Myvirrov, OVK^TI T^S KXcoTrctrpas ^yovyU&ijJ, dXXc\ r6 8' TOU 7rat56s, d^aipfdrjvat ird\iv TrAvra' (pwpaOTjvai yap vfvoa^iff^vov TroXXd. aKpOTrpypov irpo(f>tpovTa. ^s r6 efATrbpiov, oetKvfoat rots vavK\-fipois, yvuvai S TaSeiptruiv
TOV olKetov ir\ovv.
awdtvra.
5' ets

ov

'

Toirrctw

*yc\./)

TOI)S

/A^

/j.Tr6pov$

/we^dXa <rrAXeti' 7rXo?a,
'

TOI;S 5

Trfr)Tas fJUKpd, a

/faXety

I'TTTTOUS,

d?r6 TWJ/ ev ra?s Trpypcus eTn<j"fj^(>)V TOVTOVS 51 ir\tiv /J.txP l T v A/^ou

Trora/iou Trepl

TTJ?'

Mapouaiai' dXteiio/i^voys

dXXa TWV

Si]

vavKK^puv

TIVO.S yvupiffat

rb

aKpoirp^pov ivbs TWV diro TOV Ai^ov Trora/ioO iropp&Tepov Tr\VffdvT(n}v Kal /J.T] aud^VTUv virdp^av. CK 5 TOVTOV (rv/jLf3a\6vTa Tbv Ei/'So^oi', (is dvvaTbs ettj 6 TrepiTrXous 6 AiftvKos,
K.T.X. cf. Pliny, ii. 67, ^?/o (jz'ww Arabico) signa navium ex Hispaniensibus naufragiis feruntur agnita, where he seems to be referring to the story of Eudoxos, though he mentions a later date.

m

Pliny,

vii.

57,

Phcenices, celetem Rhodii,

onerariam Hippus Tyrius invenit, hmbum Cyrenenses, cymbam cercurum Cyprii. This can only mean that the Tyrians
Sophocles, Andromeda, Fr.
vavffTO\eis -xQbva.;
2,
xi.

introduced the merchant-ships called Horses.

apud Athenaeum,

64,

iTnroi<ru>

77

Ki}/x/3cu(ri

Sophocles was

likely to select Phoenician types of ships, as the scene of the play was laid in Phoenicia ; and these 'iiriroi and Kvupai are the very ships that Pliny associates

Moreover, some vessels with figure-heads of horses are represented in Assyrian sculpture of about 700 B.C., as in fg. 9, and this indicates that the type was indigenous in that part of the world. But ships of any sort could be described in metaphor as horses. Odyssey, iv.
with the Phoenicians.
708, 709, vrj&v uKWirbpwv
eiri(3aivt/j,ei>,

aW

dX6s

I'TTTTOI
|

dvSpdffi ytyvovTai.
|

Plautus,

n, nempe equo ligneo per vias ccerulas estis vecta? Thus, in the legend of the taking of Troy through the stratagem of the Wooden Horse, there is perhaps a reminiscence of the capture of some seaport town by men concealed on
rudens,
i.

5. 10,

board a ship, which had unwarily been admitted within the harbour cf. Lydos, de mensibus, iv. 88, irepl TOV dovpelov iinrov 6 Eixpopluv (p-rjcrl irKolov yevfoQai rots And the winged horse Pegasos may represent a ship '"E\\r)<rit> 'lirirov \ey6/mevov.
:

with oars. Juvenal,
est

pinna

caballi,
:

s. v.

Tapaos

ad quam Gorgonei delapsa iii. 117, 118, ripa nutritus in ilia, speaking of the river which flows through Tarsus, cf. Stephanos, 'AX^avSpos 5 6 IToXuf(rrwp (Tapvbv KaXeiffdal (prjcri) 8ia r6 Tbv
|

n-f/yaffov

irXavrjdijvai.

pp.

-2,

3,

<?/cet rbv rapvbv K\dffavTa Kal E\\po<p6vTT)v h T$ 'AX^iy Tr&ly For the term rap<r6s and the metaphor of the oars and wings see 20 and note 52. The legend that Bellerophon tamed Pegasos at Corinth

'tirirov

may

refer to the initiative of the Corinthians in building ships with oars p. 4.

:

as to

which see

'lOTlOKWTTOl.

were known by

These were small vessels with a full complement of oars as well as this name in the Second Century A.D.

sails.

They

TYPES OF SHIPS.
Aulus Gellius,
cf.

115

x.
ti;

25, actuaries, quas Grccci IffnoKuirovs vacant ovplas TT\OVS forty, dpeala
ir\eit>, dvtutf)

Pollux,

i.

103, 6

irXfw' ftptjrai 5

xal

IffTioKdjirrj,

dXXd

fitXriov elptala Kal irveijuart.

their sails

and war-ships

to their oars, to both.

Merchant -ships trusted mainly to and were thus distinguished from these
p. 105 for the actuaries

vessels

which trusted equally

See

and

p.

1

12 for

This name was given to the small craft in a fleet, or to any vessels in attendance on others of larger size. Diodoros, xx. 82, e^e 3 (Arju-firpios) VCLVS uaKpas utv iravrolas peytdei StaKoa-faj, virrjperiKa d irXeiw rwv eKarbv e^dou^KOvra, xiii. 14, Tpfrjpeis 5 avveTr\-f)p(*)aav (ol
'

Sypa/f6trioi)

efi$op.'f)Kovra

r^rrapas

ffv^irapelirovrb re rds

virrjperiKas

Ixovres i/aDs

7Tcu5es

Nicias, 24, OVK avrol pbvov rats rpi-qpww, dXXd Kal ra See irai8dpta travTaxbdev eTTifiatvovra r<2v aXidSwv Kal ra?s (T/cci0ais irpoffirXtovra.

= Plutarch, e\eijdepoi

also ^schines, de falsa legatione, 73,
celoces

and other passages quoted
i.

in the note

on

on

p. 109, especially

Xenophon, Hellenica,

6. 36, vTrrjpcriK&s K ATJS.

Where
iv. 6.

8.

Diodoros says ?aOs viryptriKas, xviii. 72, Polyaenos says virypeffiav vavriK-qv, The term vTrrjpfriKbv tr/cd0oj is applied to a ship's-boat by Heliodoros
is

in the
v. 3.

passage quoted in note 226 on p. 103, and
5,

applied to a lighter by Strabo,

Kal

yap r) r&v vinjperiK&v ffKa<pG)v evwopla r&v ^Kdexoutvuv ra raxvv Trote? r&v dir6'rr\ovv.

(poprla Kal di>ri<pop-

Lembi,

Ae/u,j3oi.

These were small vessels of a type that was invented or perfected by the They served for desultory warfare and for lyrians in the Third Century B.C. iracy; and differed from the regular war-ships in being relatively of larger beam,
carrying no ram. Polybios, v. 109, <i>/Xi7r7ros 5 Kara rty irapaxeiuaa-iav dva\oyif6uevos on Trpbs Kal ratirys ^7ri/3oXds aurou xP ^ a TrXotav tvrl Kal TTJS Kara ddXarrav virypefflas,

is

vavuaxtav rovro p-tv yap oi'S' av yXTrure ftvvarbs elvat, dXXd uaXXov ^cus rov irapaKO/j.leiv (TTpantbras, Kal Oarrov
Tp68otro, Kal
is

'Pw/zai'oij

Siaipeiv o5

ravra

TTJV

Trapad6us eirKpaivecrdaL rois TroXe/i^ots* didirep, UTroXa^Swj' dpiffrrjv elvat r&v 'IXXvpi&v vavirrjyiav enarbv iirffid\ero X^w/Jous Karaa'Kevdfeii',
,

no.
4,

This was in 216 B.C.

See also Polybios,

ii.

3, 6,

812,

iv. 16,

19, 29,

95, 101, Livy, xxxi. 45, xxxii. 21, xxxviii. 7, xlii. 48, xliv. 30, xlv. 43, and ippian, de rebus Illyricis, 7, for A<?/x/3ot in Illyrian fleets; and Polybios, xvi. 2, for X^u/Sot in Macedonian -7, xvii. i, and Livy, xxxii. 32, xliv. 28, xlv. ro, 31,

These instances
i.

all fall

xxxiv. 35, xxxv. 26, for X^jSot in Syrian
jlybios,

20, 53, for X<?/AOI in

between 231 and 168 B.C. Also see Livy, xxxiii. and Spartan fleets at that period; Roman fleets a little before; and Diodoros xx. 85,

the siege of Rhodes in 304 B.C. Polybios also speaks of some vessels as \tupoi, iii. 42, 43, 46; but Livy abstains from rendering this by lembi, xxi. 26 28, and calls them simply naves or naves actuaries.
oi at

the

Rhone

The
i.

Xfyi/3oi
<fi

were always reckoned among the small
e?s,

craft in a fleet.

Polybios,
ir\oiov,
TOI/TOIS

20,

o$x

v Kard(ppaKros auro?s virypxe ^aus, dXX'

o3

Ka66\ov naKpbv
t

ov8

XfyijSos

ov8

a<ppaKra, X^/xj3ot

Kard<ppaKroi rpe?s Kal irevr^Kovra 5^ abv TCUS irpl<rre<Ttv eKarbv Kal irev/iKovra, cf. 7.
xvi.
2,

<rtiv

dt

Livy, xxxii. 21,

1

16
tecta>

APPENDIX.
naves, et quinquaginta
leviores

centum
xxxiii.

aperta,

et

triginta

Issaici lembi,
cerciiris-

19, ctim classe

centum tectanim navium, ad hoc levioribus navigiis
tres tectas naves, et

lembos pristesque, xxxvii. 27, piraticas celoces et lembos. They had not any rams. Livy, xxxii. 32, cum quinque lembis et una nave rostrata. The number of oars was variable. Livy,
xxxiv. 35, quoting from the treaty
ipse (Nabis)

que ac lembis ducentis, xxxv. 26,

between

Rome and

Sparta in 195

B.C., neve

navem ullam prater duos
CKCLTOV

lembos, qui

agerentur, haberet.
ii.

Vessels of this class

non plus quam sexdecim remis sometimes carried fifty men. Polybios
irpos

3,

Trpoffir\ova'i rijs vvKrbs
cf.

Xe*/u.j3ot
ii.

r^v

MeSiwp/cu',

<p'

wv

r/uav

'IXXiyuoi TrepTaKttr^Xiot,
tr&piffov.

Strabo,

3.

4,

X^tijSov

o~vfj.Trr)djj.fvos

irevTi)KovT()p(p

But there was space on board for many men besides the rowers. Livy, xliv. 28, octingenti ferme Gallorum occisi, ducenti vivi capti; equi, etc.... viginti eximice equos forma; ctim captivis eosdem decent lembos, quos ante miserat,

Antenor devehere Thessalonicam iitssit. Thus, upon the average, these vessels each took twenty men and two horses in addition to the crew; so they clearly were more roomy than the regular war-ships. Yet some were narrow enough for
the oars to be sculled in
pairs.

Livy,

xxiv.

40,

legati

venerunt nuntiantes

Philippum

primum Apolloniam
etc.
\

tentasse, lembis
cf.

adverse subvectum, deinde,

biremibus centum viginti flumine Virgil, georgics, i. 20 r, 202, qui adverso vix
to ship's-boats
in note

flumine lembum remigiis subigit. At an earlier date the term had been applied quoted from Demosthenes and Anaxandrides
:

:

see the passages
103.

226 on p.

These

authors were contemporary with Aristotle, so his 7rXo?oi' Xe/*/3cD5es, with its sharp prow, was presumably a boat of that sort de animalium incessu, 10, ffrijdos 5
(T&V
yafjf\l/<i)viL!Xuv)

iffxvpbv Kal

66, 6i>

ph

irpos

ir\otov -rrpypa

Xe//,j8ci5oi;s,

lax v P^ v

^ K.T.\.
\

The

TO etiiropov eTvai, Kddairep &v ei small boats used for embarking on

a ship are styled lembi by Plautus, mercator, i. 2. 81, 82, dum hcec aguntur, lembo advehitur tuus pater pauxillulo ; neque quisquam hominem conspicatust, donee in navim subit, ii. i. 35, inscendo in lembum atque ad illam navim devehor.

And

date from the time of Aristotle.
Theocritos, xxi. 12,
Accius, apud
statuerem,
|

as Plautus adapted his Mercator from Philemon's "E/tTropos, this usage may The term is applied to a fisherman's boat by
fj.-r)piv6oi

Kibira re

Nonium,

p. 534, eo ante

yepuv r eV tpdanaai Xe"//./3os, and also by noctem extremam, retia ut perveherem et

Vessels of this forte aliquando solito lembo sum progresses longius. are mentioned again by Sisenna, ibid., Otacilium legatum cum scaphis ac lembis, and by Turpilius, ibid., hortari nostros ilico cojpi, ut celerarent lembum,

name

and lembi redeimtes domum duo ad nostram adcelerarunt ratem. That probably Pliny, vii. 57, lembum (invenerunf) Cyrenenses.
earlier vessels of this

refers to the

name, that were used as ship's-boats,

etc.

Lenunculi.
This term was apparently a corruption of lembunculi, a diminutive of lembi, and hence applied to any small boats. Sallust, apud Nonium, p. 534, incidit forte per noctem in lemmculo piscantis.

Ammianus,
piscantis,

xiv. 2. 10, piscatorios
3,

ratibus parant, xvi. 10.

quatrunt lenunculos, vel innare temere contextis anhelante rabido flatu venlorum lenunculo se commisisse
is

where the allusion

to Caesar's attempt to cross the Adriatic in an

open

TYPES OF SHIPS.
boat.

117
leiiunculoruni

Tacitus, annales, xiv.
in

5,

nando (Agrippina) delude occursu

Lucrinum

applied to ship's-boats by Cresar, cle bello civili, ii. 43, magistrisque imperat navium, nt primo vespere omnes scaphas ad Iit us adpulsas habeant qui in classe erant, proficisci properabant: horum fuga navium onerariarum magistros incitabat. pauci lenunculi ad
is

lacum

vecta villa: suce infertur.

The term

ojficium

imperiumque conveniebant. There were guilds of lenuncularii

at Ostia near the

mouth of

the Tiber.

Corp. Inscr. Latin, vol. xiv, nos. 250, 251, ordo corporatorum lenunculariorum tabulariorum auxiliariorum Ostiensium, no. 252, o, c. I. pleromariorum a. O.

Lintres.

These were small boats, Caesar, de bello Gallico,
;o

chiefly for use
i.

on

rivers.

12, ratibus ac lintribus iunctis transibant.

This refers
ge minis
to

the Saone.
'tratus,

cf.

Ausonius,
sit,

idyllia, 12,

lintres:

an Pons? has magno sonitu remorum
Ponto

grammaticomastix, Caesar, de bello Gallico,
incitatas
mittit,

10, lintribus in
vii.

60, conquirit etiam
refers

etc.

That

the

Livy, xxi. 26, itaque ingens coacta vis navium est, lintriumque teniere ad vicinalcm tisum paratarum; novasque alias cavabant ex singulis arboribus. That
Seine.
refers to the

Rhone.
iii.

The naves and

lintres of

Livy are the

X^u/3oi

and

/j.oi>6^v\a

of Polybios,

qua piper monoxylis lintribus Baracen convehunt, vocatur Cottonara. These places were in India. Ovid, That refers to the Tiber. fasti, vi. 779, ferte coronates iuvenum convivia lintres. Cicero, pro Milone, 27, lintribus in earn insulam (in lacu Prelio) materiem,
42.

Pliny, vi. 26, regio autem, ex

calcem, cizmenta atque et C. lulius in

arma
'

convexit.

perpetuum

notavit,

See also Cicero, Brutus, 60, mottis erat is, quum ex eo in iitramque partem toto
1

re vacillante quasivit,
trictilo,

quis loqueretur e lintre,' ad Atticum, si navis non erit, eripiam me ex istorum parricidio.
iv. 9. i. 4,

x. 10. 5,

ego vero vtl

And

also Ulpian,

the Pandects,

de extrcitoribus ratium, item lintrariis nihil cavetur:
scribit, sc.

idem constitui

oportere,

Labeo

quod de exercitoribus navium.

LUSOTUK.
These were the war-ships constructed
for the frontier rivers of the

Roman

Empire, as distinguished from those constructed for the high seas. Vegetius, ii. r, classis item duo genera sunt, unum liburnarum, aliud lusoriarum.
iv. 46, in Danubio agrarias cotidianis ribus (servantur) maria vel Jlumina. In the Theodosian Code, vii. 17, there is a law de intur excubiis, sc. lusorice. It fixes the strength of that fleet at 225 ships iriis Danubii dated in 412 A.D.
;

id provides for the construction of thirty-one every year, so as to renew the whole fleet in about seven years. By Novel 24, dated in 443 A.D., the Emperor

directs the

qucmadmodum

procedat ; while Justinian says vaguely super

Magister Offidorum to furnish an annual report from certain frontiers se militum numerus habeat, castrorumque ac lusoriarum cura and this order is repeated by Justinian in his Code, i. 31. 4. But

omni

limite sub tua iurisdidione constituto,
Illyrici,

Theodosios says explicitly tarn Tkraci,
ac Pontici limitis, JEgyptiaci insuper,
lusoria:

quam

nee non etiam Orientalis
:

were then

in use
3,

Ammianus,

xvii. 2.

and this suggests that upon the Euphrates and the Nile as well as the Danube. xviii. 2. 12, speaks of lusorice on the Meuse in 357 A.D.,
Thebaici, Lybici

Il8
and on the Rhine
in

APPENDIX.
359 A.D.
Vopiscus, Bonosus, 15, speaks of them on the

Rhine in 280 A.D. For an earlier use of the term, see note on thalamegi on

p. 123.

Monoxyla, MovouAa.
These were vessels of a single piece of timber, formed by simply hollowing out the trunk of a tree. They were in common use in many regions at many periods.
avdpas.

Xenophon, anabasis, v. 4. n, Tpiaxbcria TrXota /Aov<5iAa, /cat iv cKaVry rpels These were on the Black Sea. Polyaenos, v. 23, <rKa<f>as rpeis /novo^i/Xovs, These were also on the Black Sea. fKda-TTjv avdpa Zva. 6ta<rdai dwafjitvrjv.
Heliodoros, ^Ethiopica,
Kal rplros 6 ^^7775
tfXou
*

i.

31,

iirifialvei

d

rou

07cd</>ous

avrbs Kal 6

Qp/j,ovOis

ov

ydp

-rrXelovas

old re (ptpeiv rd Xi/Avaia ffKa^rj dtrb fibvov

Kal

wptfjusov

Trax^os evbs

dypoiKbrepov
2,

KOL\aivbp,va.

These were

in

the

Delta of the Nile.

arundines vero tantce proceritatis ut singula These internodia alveo navigabili ternos interdum homines ferant, cf. xvi. 65. bamboos were said to grow in India. Pliny, xvi. 76, Germanics pr&dones singulis
Pliny,
vii.

arboribus cavatis navigant,
inevitable parody
'

quarum qucedam

et

triginta homines ferunt.

The

supplied by Lucian, verge historian, ii. 26, OVTU dy 6^/3tjSdaaj 6 Padd/j.ai>6vs irevrr^Kovra, T&V ijpibwv els vavv p,ov6^v\ov dfftpodeXivrjv iraprjyyeiXe
is

diuKew.
iv.

For further
6,

allusions to the /toj^iAa, see Aristotle, historia animalium,

historia, vi. 9, for the

Arrian, anabasis, i. 3, and Theophylactos, Porphyrogenitos, de administrando imperio, 9, for the Dnieper and the Black Sea. Pliny, vi. 26, for the west coast of India, monoxylis lintribus. Polybios, iii. 42, for the Rhone also Livy, xxi. 26, cavabant
8.

for

the

Mediterranean.

Danube.

:

(lintres)

ex singulis arboribus.
Strabo,
iii.

Velleius,

ii.

107, for the Elbe,
;

cavatum ex materia
for the north coast

alveum.
of Spain.

2. 3, for

the Guadalquivir

and

iii.

3.

7,

Vessels of this sort were carried by the armies of the

Roman Empire

for the

construction of floating-bridges. Vegetius, iii. 7, sed commodius repertum est ut monoxylos, hoc est, paulo latiores scaphiilas ex singulis trabibus excavatas, pro

genere ligni

et

siibtilitate

levissimas, carpentis
ita

secum portet exercitus, tabulatis
etc.

pariter et clavis ferreis prceparatis.

absque mora con structus pons,
TJ

cf.

ii.

25.

Leo, tactica,
fj

xvii. 13, avpir-riyvtiovffi. (oi Kaj3a\\dpioi) yttyvpav

did

v\uv

did IUKP&V TrXcuapldJv,

T&V Xeyoptvuv

MyoparoneS)
size. They were in use throughout the Mediterranean in the First Century B.C. for warfare and for piracy. Apparently they were broader than the regular war-ships in proportion to their length, and

These were fighting-ships of no great

therefore better able to

keep the

sea.

Appian, de
aiT-fjo'affa Trap'

bellis

civilibus, v. 95,

eSw/^cra-ro

5

Kal '0/craou/a rbv

Aytwiov, d^Ka

(pacrrjXois TpirjpeTiKois, eTri/itVrois

K re

Kal (j.aKpCiv

'

Kal TT\V '0/craoinai' 6 Kdicrap %i

= Plutarch,
x<-Movs.

Antonius, 35,

'0/crctow'a

dde\<p$ irapd TOV dvdpbs
referring to the

el'/cocrt

pvoirdpuvas, r<$

5'

dvdpl irapd rov dde\<j)ou

This was in 37 B.C.

Appian and Plutarch
differ

are certainly
:

same squadron, though they

about

its

strength

so these

TYPES OF SHIPS.

IIQ

I
me
uffi

;ments of theirs would naturally define 'the nvo-rrdpuves as vessels of a hybrid ies between the long ships and the round But the difficulty is ships.

Appian has no obvious motive
uvoirdpuves,
92,
/JLVoirdptjcri

for

seeing that he elsewhere mentions
irpurov
Kal
y/JLioXtais,

employing a periphrasis here to describe them by name de bello
:

Mithridatico,

elra

diKpdrois

Kal
5e Kal

rpiripeffi,
tJ.voira.p-

de rebus Punicis, isr,

vavcrl TrevTr/KovTa

jj.tv

Tpt.rjpeTi.Kais, KepKotipois

Moreover, in these passages he treats the fjivo-rrdpuves as ships of a single bank, and distinguishes them from vav<rl TpirjpeTtKats, whereas he describes the vessels in question as <j>a<rri\ots rptT/peTiKots. But among
those vaval r^pen/ccus he must

Kal dXXotj (ipaxvTtpois TroXXots.

mentioned
phrase

just before, irevT-ripe^ re Kal

<TKf<j-rj

TpiypeTiKa for

some five-banked ships that he has and in another passage he uses the the gear belonging to ships of any number of banks
include
T/>n)/>eis,

from two

to five, pnefatio, 10, r/HTjpeis 5

diro i^uioXias fJ.^xP l irevrrjpovs, Treira/cocnai
:

TpirjpeTiKbs that a ship

so that he could not mean by had three banks of oars, or necessarily more banks than one. Apparently, he employs the term 0cun)Xots, like its equivalent in Latin, see p. 120 to denote a certain type of vessel that was not meant for warfare and then adds Tpi-rjpeTiKois to show that the type was so far modified that the
Kal %tXicu* Kal aKevrj TpirjpeTiKa SiTrXorepa TOIJTWV

vessels here

were capable of

war-ships, vavai Tpi-rjpeTtKais
Kal fiaKpuv.

fighting, though not entitled to rank with the regular that they were, in fact, iirifjiiKTois eV re <f>opTi5wv veuv

Vessels termed
s.

See note 60 on p. 23 for other examples of an intermediate type. TrctpoH/es are mentioned by Polybios, Fr. 65, apud Suidam,
6 5e eVXet, TrapaTrXovs TroiT/trayitej'os TOI)S ZidTjTwv

v. Trapeses

:

'Podiois e/s

<rvfjL/j.axlai>'

And

vessels

irdpwvas' TJKOV yap termed parones and parunculi are mentioned

in verses that are ascribed
fiuctigero tradit
/u.i/oTrapou'es

to Cicero by Isidore, origines, xix. i. 20, tune se mandatque paroni, and parunculis ad littus ludet celcribus. The and a compound name would therefore bore a compound name
:

naturally be given to ships of an intermediate type. The /xi/oTrotjOWJ'es are mentioned also by Sallust, apud
'

Nonium,

p. 534,

duobus

prtzdonum myoparonibus, and by Sisenna, ibid., navisque triginta biremis, totidem myoparonas. Again by Plutarch, Lucullus, 2, Tpialv EXXyviKois ftvoirdpuffi, Kal Also by Cicero, in Verrem, 8iKp6Tois focus 'Po5ta/cats, 13, \rjcrTpiK6i> pvoirapuva.
ii.

v. 34, si

tn pradonum

pugna (quadriremis}

versaretur, urbis instar habere inter

illos

piraticos myoparones videretur.

37, hie, te prcetore,

Heradeo archipirata cum
hie,
te prcetore,

quattuor myoparonibus parvis

ad arbitrium suum

navigavit.

prcedomtm naviculce pervagata sunt. cf. ii. i. 34, iii. 80, v. 28. And by Aulus Hirtius, de bello Alexandrine, 46, depressa scapha vulneratus tamen adnatat (Octavius) ad suum myoparonetn. eo receptus, cum prcelium nox dirimeret,
mpestate

magna

velis profugit.

Oraria, Oricz, Oriolce, Prosumice.
These were small
fishing.

craft

employed on

rivers

and along the coast for

traffic

vinciam petere :
reluctantur,
cf.

navibus partim vehiculis Pliny, epistolse, x. 26, nunc destino partim orariis nam sicut itineri graves cestus ita continue navigations etesicc
28, orarias naviculas.

Isidore, origines, xix.

i.

27,

makes the
iv.
2.

>rd littoraria,

but probably without authority.

Plautus, rudens,

5,

6,

I2O
salute ori(p, qiuc in

APPENDIX.
marl fluctuoso
oria,
\

piscatu novo
iv.

me
2.

uberi conpotivit,
101,

iv. 3.

81,

mea

opera et labore
|

et rete et

trinummus,

100,

immo

oriola advecti

sumus usque aqua advorsa per amnem. The oriola are identified with the prosumitE by Aulus Gellius, x. 25, prosumia vel geseorette vel orioles. Nothing is known of the geseoretce : but the prosumia are mentioned by Coecilius, apud
Nonium,
de node
p. 536, cum ultra gubernator propere ad portum sum provectus prosumia.

vertit

prosumiam, and again,

Phaseli, ^ao-r/Aoi.

These were

vessels of a type that

was especially

from place to place. They were Centuries B.C. and A.D.
Catullus, 4.
\

in use

suitable for carrying people throughout the Mediterranean in the First

ait fuisse navium celcrille, quern videtis, hospites, natantis irnpetum trabis nequisse prceterire, sive palinulis opus foret volare, sive linteo. This vessel had brought Catullus from Bithynia to
i

5,

phaselus

\

rimus,

neque

tillius

\

Italy.

Cicero, ad Atticum,

i.

13. i, accept ttias tres tarn epistolas
ei dedisti ; alterant ,

Cornelia,

quam

Tribus Tabernis, ut opinor,
;

: unam a M. quam mihi Canu-

sinus tuus hospes reddidit
dedisti.

tertiam,

quam, ut

scribis^

anchoris

stiblatis,

de phaselo

xiv. 16.
litteras.

i

,

has dedi

quinto Non. conscendens ab hortis Cluvianis in phasehim epicoptim Atticus was crossing the Adriatic from Brindisi, and Cicero was

Bay of Naples. Sallust, apud Nonium, p. 534, et forte in navigando cohors una, grandi phaselo vecta, a ceteris deerravit ; marique placido a duobus prcedonum myoparonibus circumventa. This great ship clearly was and Cicero's dependent on her sails, since she was helpless when becalmed phrase phaselus epicopus implies that some phaseli were not epicopi, and had not
cruising in the
;

any oars to help them along. Juvenal, xv. 127, 128, parvula Jictilibus solitum dare vela phaselis, et brevibus pictce remis incumbere testa;, cf. Virgil, georgics, iv. 289, et circum pictis vehitur sua rura phaselis. These were the earthenware
\

tubs that served as boats in Egypt, the ovrpaKiva So a phaselus might be of any size.

iropB/j-ela

of Strabo,

xvii.

i.

4.

These
i.

10.

?>$,
\

mecum

vessels are mentioned frequently in Latin. Ovid, epistolse ex Ponto, Horace, odes, iii. 2. 28, i<),fragilenive fragili tellus non dura phaselo. solvat phaselon. Seneca, Hercules CEtseus, 695, 696, nee magna meas

aura phaselos
languel cequor

iubeat
\

;

Lucan,
v. 95,

v. 518, et

medium scindere pontum. Martial, x. 30. 12, 13, nee viva sed quies ponti pictam phaselon adiuvante fert aura. latus inversa nudum munita phaselo, sc. domus.
\

And

they are mentioned occasionally in Greek.
5

Appian, de
'

bellis civilibus,

c5co/>?jcraTo

Kal 'O/craou/a
^/c

rbv

afieXtybv,

alrrjeacra.
/cat

irap

A-vruvlov,

5^/ca

0ao-^\ois TpirjpeTLKOis, eTrt/zkrois

re (fropTidw ve&v

n,aKpuv.

This passage has

already been discussed in the note on the fivoirdpuves on p. 118. Appian follows the Latin usage in treating the <f>do-rj\oi as 0oprt5es v^es, and adds r/oi^/jen/co/ here
to

show that the vessels in question had something of the character of the naxpai. Strabo, however, reckons the <f>&<rrj\oi among the fj.a.Kpa 7r\o?a, and distinguishes
the ovceucrya^a, in his account of the expedition of ^Elius Callus
in 25 B.C.

them from
the

down

Red Sea
OVK

Strabo, xvi. 4. 23, irp&rov pev
/j.rjdei>bs

5rj

rovd'

a/j-dpTrj/Jia ffwtfir)

TO

fj.a.Kpa

KCLTaaKevdo-acrdai TrXoia,

OVTOS

fJ,T)d'

effoptvov

Kara 6a\arrav TTO\^OV.
0ao"^\oi;s.
7^01)5

6 5'

\O.TTOV 6y07)KOVTa evavTrriyri<raTo

5i'/c/3oro /cai rpirjpeis /cai

TYPES OF SHIPS.
Sie^eiKr^os evavTn)yr)<raTo (TKevaywya enarbv Kal
irepl
fji-vplovs

121
rptd/coi/ra, ols (ir\evffev

Trefbus.

>trabo

may

thus including these <pd<Tri\oi among the /xa/cpd TrXota, perhaps imply that they were (pdarjXoi rpiypeTiKol, as Appian says,

By

in fact

were

fAvoirdpuves.

Pontones.
These were merchant-ships of a type that was in use on the south coast France in the First Century B.C. Caesar, de bello civili, iii. 29, pontones, quod est genus navium Gallicarum, ,issi relinquit, sc. Antonius. 40, Lissum profectus (Cn. Pompeius] naves onerarias The ciriginta a M. Antonio relictas intra portum aggressus omnes incendit.
nnstances of the campaign suggest that these ships came from Marseilles. At a later date the term denoted a pontoon. Paulus, in the Pandects,
viii.

3.

flumine interveniente, via
^

constitui potest, si aiit

vado transiri

potest,

aut
12,

si pontonibus traiiciatur. intern habeat : diversum cf. Ausonius, idyllia, rammaticomastix, 10, lintribus in geminis constratus, Ponto sit, an Pons ?

Pristes, rLpiorreis.

were employed
shark.

These were war-ships of no great size ; yet large enough to carry rams. They in Greek fleets in the Second Century B.C. The name denotes a
Polybios, xvii.
i, iraprji' 6 (Aev 4>tXi7T7ros
^/c

A^^rptdSoj dvaxQels
<j>

ei's

rov

M 77X1^1
elsexliv.

KbKirov, trevTe X^u/3ois
eo

x wv

Kai

-

tJ-Lav irplffTiv,

175

auros eTT^TrXei

Livy, xxxii. 32,

rex ab Demetriade cum quinque lembis et ttna nave rostrata venit. Livy where mentions them by name, xxxv. 26, ires tectas naves, et Icmbos pristesque,
q^ladrag^nta lembis, adiecta ad hunc numerum quinque pristes erant. are again classed with the lembi by Polybios, xvi. 2, /card^pa/crot rpets /cat
28,

cum

They
TrtvT-i]-

KovTa, ffvv d

TOUTOIS d0pa/cTa, \fj.{3oi 5
fall

ffvv Tats Trptcrreo'ti'

eKaTbv Kal irevTTiKovTa.
v.

These instances

between 201 and 168

B.C.

Virgil,

yneid,

116, velocem

Mnestheus agit acri remige Pristin : but Prtstt's is here the name of the ship. The fish known as pristis was certainly a shark. Leonidas of Tarentum,
the Anthology,
vii.

in
\

506, 3

10,

rj

yap
|

eir'

dyKtipas froxov fidpos els ctXa bvvuv,
effwv
'

vypbv
|

Kv/J,a

/carepx^f'os,

rr]v fj.kv
|

auros 5e ^cerdrpoTros
roibv
/J.OL

e/c

fivdov
(jt-eya

^S?;

/cat

vatirais

x e 'P as

bpeyvvjj.evo^,
'

efip(adt)v'
\

eir

&ypiov e5

|

rjKdev, aTre[3p(t)i;v 5'
r//xc5j'
|

#XP ts

^ 7r

6/J-<p&Mov.

x^fj tffv

^v

vavrai, \f/vxpbv /Sdpos,

e

dXos

ripavd',

ij^iav 5^ Trp^rts aTre/cXda-aro.

Thus, the sailor had been

diving to recover an anchor, and was just being hauled into the ship again, when the lower half of his body was bitten off and swallowed by a. pristis. That was the
act of a shark, and of no other fish. Aristotle, historia animalium, /*' oSv -yaXeot /cat oi "yaXeoetoVs, 010? dXu>7n7 /cat KVUV, /cat oi irXar /cat iSdros /cat Xeto/Saros /cat rpvywv, rbv elp-rjfjt-evov rpbirov fooroKovatv
12. i, 5eX0ts 5^ Kal <pd\atva Kal
vi.

n.

10, oi

rd dXXa

Krtrrj,

6Va

/XTJ

?x fl Pp&yX

fa OTO \ovffiv,
i,

TI Se Trptcrrts /cat /Sous'

ovdev yap TOVTWV (patverai ex v yd, dXX'

e

ou diapdpovfj^evov ylverai TO faov, Kadd-rrep avdpwtros Kal TUV TerpaTrbSwv rd

Here the Trpums and
<pv<rr)Trjpa in

/Sous

place of ]8pd7x ta

*

are distinguished from those K-^TTJ which had And they are the marine mammals, or Cetacea.

also distinguished from

some

species of sharks, in that they were viviparous in the

122
strictest sense,

APPENDIX.

while these were ovo-viviparous : but this distinction seems dubious. Linnaeus passage, however, refutes the opinion that the pristis was a whale. was clearly in error in describing the saw-fish as pristis antiquorum. He probably

The

took
is

irpieiv in

the sense of sawing, whereas

it

also refers to biting;

and the shark

pre-eminently the biter.

Rates,
These terms were applied and occasionally to ships.
to rafts of various kinds
;

also to floating- bridges

;

Rafts were used for moving timber from place to place

:

and sometimes were of
elj'cu...dtci/3di'Tas 5^

immense
r>as
77

size,

requiring

many masts and
/cat

sails.
TO,

Theophrastos, historia plantarum,
r-fj

v. 8. 2, M^ytcrra 5

(tf\a)

irapa TTO\I>
e'/c

tv

K^y

0ct(Tii>

diroTe/j.^ffdat 7rd/u,7ro\u ir\rjdos
to-rtoij'

TOTTOV /3/rax^os aJ<rre
StaTreo-eiv

TrjhtKo.iJTrji' iroiijffai. (r%e5taj/

exp^a-aro TT^VT^KOVTO.
ii.

ov

/*V dXXd

avr^v tv

T<

TreXdyei.

Vitru-

aqua non sustinetur ; sed cum portatur, aut in navibus aut supra abiegnas rates collocatur. Such rafts would consist
vius,
9.

n, propterque pondus
;

(larix) ab

entirely of timber

but others were floated on skins or jars or casks.
^TTC

Xenophon,

anabasis,

ii.

4.

28, oi (Sdpftapot. Sirjyov

trxeStcus 5i<f>deptisats Aprovs, rvpovs, olvov.

This was on the Tigris.

Pliny,

viii.

6,

centum quadraginta duo

(elephantt) fuere

transvecti ratibus, quas doliorum consertis ordinibus imposuerat, sc. Metellus.

The

passage was from Sicily to Italy, and the date was 251 B.C.
xix. 54. 3, for transport of

elephants from Megara to

See also Diodoros, Epidauros on <rxe8iai in 315
of elephants across the
422,

and Polybios, iii. 46, and Livy, Rhone on trxerUcu or rates in 218 B.C.
B.C.
;

xxi. 28, for transport

Lucan,
raft

iv.

420

namque ratem vacua
ordinibus
\

stistentant

undique

cuppce,

\

quarum
This

porrectis series constricta catenis

gemints obliquas excipit alnos.

was

built for fighting

was

left

open

in the middle, for the

rowers to work

so a large space their oars there out of reach of
;
\

426, nee gerit expositu trabibus circiundedit (equor, hoc ferit ; velaferat, nee apertas verberat undas.
missiles: 423
\

m telis in fronte patenti
et taciti prcebet

remigium

:

sed,
\

miracula cursus,

quod quod nee

The

floating- bridges

Bosporos are termed

o-xeSi'at

which the Persians threw across the Dardanelles and by yEschylos, Persee, 69, and by Mandrocles in the

epigram quoted by Herodotos, iv. 88, and also by Herodotos himself, iv. 88, 89, vii. 36 ; and he applies the term to other floating-bridges, iv. 97, viii. 97. Livy,
xxi. 47, biduo vix
xvii.
i.
1

locum rate iimgendo (Pado) flumini inventum tradunt.
eu/crai eirl

Strabo,
T67ry, sc.

6, Kal cr^eSta

ry TTOTO.^,

a<(>

TJS

/cai

Tofivojj,a T<$

SxeSm.

This refers to the toll-bar across the Canopic arm of the Nile.

Sea-going ships are described as irovToirbpovs (rx^as by Euripides, Hecuba, 113. In the Odyssey, v. 251, Ulysses' boat is described as eupeTav ffx^i-rjv, and Theocritos
uses the phrase tvpelav ff^^lav for Charon's boat, xvi. 41.

Among

the

Roman
ii.

poets ratis bore this meaning: Catullus, 63.

i,

64. 121; Virgil, georgics,

445,

^neid,

i.

43,

iii.

192, iv. 53, v. 8, vi. 302

;

etc.

Speculatorice, KaracrKOTrot,

Tabellaricz.

These were small vessels

for

reconnoitring

and

for

carrying

despatches.

Apparently, they became a distinct class in the First Century B.C.

In the Fifth

TYPES OF SHIPS.
Century A.D. the hulls of these vessels and their sails and ropes used tinted the colour of sea-water, to keep them out of sight.

123
all to

be

una et octoginla constratis navibus, multis praterea minoriaperta rostrata aut sine rostris speculatoria erant, Delum traiecit. irtvTaKoaiuv ph OVK Adr-rovs al fjux^oi, lutarch, Cato Minor, 54, r)<rav 3
Livy, xxxvi. 42,
r,

qua ant

IvpvtKa 8
t/AOt

Kal KaraffKoiriKd Kal a0pa/cra

Tra/ji.TrXrjdTJ,

Pompeius, 64,

rjffav

iri>TaK6<ricu, \ifivpvlduv 5

Kal KaraaKb-jrwv virepfiaXKuv dpt0/x6s.

yap at For this

of

jttdxiMot in

tpvovs Kal

T/3i?7pei$

place of Kard<ppaKToi, cf. Pseudo-Callisthenes, i. 28, vawn-rjyrio-as Kal vavs /*axfytous Troikas. Livy and Plutarch both treat
;

but Polybios speaks as though the scouting done by any vessels that were available. Livy, xxii. 19, inde duo: Massilienium speculators missa retulerunt classern Punicam stare in ostio, etc. = Polybios,
scouts as a distinct class of vessels
ii.

95,

TrpoairtffTeiXe

KaTao~K\l/o/j.evas
Trl

8tio

vavs

raxuTrXoouaaj

MatrcraXium/cds...

5^
/ivy,

TWV

TT]V /caracr/coTTTji'

eKirefji.(pd^i>TUV

on

irepl

rb

<rr6fj.a,

K,T.\.

xxx. 10, intervalla fecit, qua procttrrere speculators naves in hostem ac tuto

cipipossent.

= Polybios, (xiv.

10),

apud Suidam,
Polybios,
i.

s. v. vir-rjpeTi.Ko'LS

:

fipa-xy dicwTrjfjLa

wore

uTrr/pert/cots t/CTrXetv

5iW(T0ai Kal

StaTrXeti'.

And Livy
6/ioiwy

doubtless used
TOIJ

speculators in transcribing from
irlir\ovv

53,

3

Kal

CK

TUV
rbv

"LvpaKovcrCiv irpoaTreffTaX/nfroLS ra/itats avrryyeiXav, ol irpoirXelv eldiff^voi

Xtfj-fioi

TUV virevavriuv.

The

inference

is

that the scouts did not
;

distinct class until after the time of Polybios

and that Livy

is

become a guilty of some

Livy, xxxv. 26, ipse Philopcemen usually were small vessels. in levi speculatoria nave Jugit, xxx. 10, speculator^ naves ac levia navigia. Caesar, de Bello Gallico, iv. 26, speculatoria navigia. The inscription mentioning specu-

anachronisms.

They

see Corp. Inscr. Latin, vol. x, no. 247*. Seneca, epistolae, 77, subito nobis hodie Alexandrine naves apparuerunt, qua pr&mitti solent et nuntiare secuturce classis adventuni : tabellarias vacant. These
latores classis Misenensis is a forgery
:

vessels qua; prccmitti solent

answer to the

TrpoirXetv

ddicr^voi of Polybios,

i.

53.

And
26,

the regular scouts also served as tabellaria.

Aulus Hirtius, de bello Africano,
iv. 37,

per catascopum (litteras) mittit. The term exploratoria is employed by Vegetius,

scaphcc

tamen maioribus

liburnis exploratorice sociantur, qua vicenos prope remiges in singulis partibus habeant...ne tamen exploratorice naves candore prodanttir, colore veneto, qui marinis
estflucttbus similis, vela tinguntur et

injidtur

:

funes ; cera etiam, qua ungere solent naves, nauttcque vel milites venetam vestem induunt.

Thalamegi,
These were house-boats of extraordinary
Ptolemies for their voyages upon the Nile.
Strabo, xvii.
7r6\ews, ev
77

aXa/xr/yot.
size

and splendour, constructed by the
'

i.

16, 5i^x et

^

Terpda-xoivov T^S AXet-avSpeias
ofs ot
/

rj

SxeS^a, KaroiKia
e^5 TTJV

r6 vavffTadfAov TUIV daXafiTjyCjv irXoluv, ^0'
cf.

^ ye/i6ves

avu

\upav
Julius

ai>air\tov<ru>,

15, eiy^xowrai

5'

ev

ffKa<pats

Qa\afj.r)yois.

Suetonius,

Coesar,

52,

nave thalamego pane ^Ethiopia tenus sEgyptum penetravit.

Appian,
ots

praefatio, 10,

daXawyd

re

xP v<J'b'jrpv/J.va Kal

xpuo^/x/SoXa, es Tro\tjJ.ov

TTO/ATTT?*',

avrol SiairXtovres

tirtfia<.vov ol /3a(TiXets,

OKTaKtxna.

This refers to the Ptolemies.
quoting from Calli-

Athenseos,
,

v. 38, Karccr/cei/aa-e 5' 6 4>iXorciTwp /cat

irordfuov irXotoi/, rrjv 6a\a/J.r}ybv

rb HTJKOS tx v

v iHUffTadlov, K. T.\.

Athenaeos

is

124

APPENDIX.
Diodoros,
^"/3t/3<x-

xenos, and his account of the vessel seems untrustworthy throughout.
'

i.

85, ^TreiTct (rbv

/j.6<rx 0i') ei s

da\a/j.t]ybv VQ.UV

ffavres, u>s Oebv

dvdyovaiv

ets WLtfjufriv.

Ottawa Kexpuffw/Atvov ^x ovffav This bull was the Apis.

The term thalamegus used sometimes to be replaced by cubiculata or lusoria. Seneca, de beneficiis, vii. -20, cut triremes et ceratas non mitterem, lusorias et cnbiculatas et alia ludibria regum in mart lascivientium mittam. Epiphanios, ancoratus,
106, ws 6 'Avrlvoos, 6 tv 'Avrtvoov KeKtjdev^vos, Kai abv Xovvopiy irXoly /ce^ej/os U7r6

'Adpiavou oOrws KaTerdyrj.

Tragi, Tpayot.

These were
cf.

vessels of a type invented

Sisenna, apud
Pollux,
i.

83,

by the Lycians. Nonium, p. 534, prores actuaries tragi grandes ac phaseli primo. fort 5^ nva TrXoia AVKIO. \ey6fjieva Kpioi Kai rpdyoi. Plutarch, de
9,

mulierum
tTrlGTjfjLOV ,

virtutibus,

^TrXet

5^ (Xi>/3pos)

irXoly

Xtovra ptv ZXOVTI irpypaQtv

K

dt irpv/Avrjs dpaKovra, Kai TroXXa xa/ca roi)s Avxtovs eirolei.
lion's

As

the

Chimoera was a goat with a been a rpdyos.

head and a snake's

tail, this

vessel

must have

Vectorice,

'ETri/JuTrjyou
for cargo.

These were vessels for carrying passengers. They were not used These names were applied to them in the Second Century A.D.
(ut ipsi dicunt)

Ulpian, in the Pandects, xiv. r. i. 12, qucedatn enim naves oneraria, quadam ttf, ecce, sunt naves Tn.f3aTT]yol, id est vectorum ductrices^ sunt

qu(
biles.

Brundusium a

Cassiopa vel a Dyrrhachio vectores traiiciunt,

ad onera inha-

Suetonius, Julius Csesar, 63, cum per angustias Hellespont i vectoria navicitla traiiceret. This was presumably a passenger-boat ; but Caesar, de bello Gallico, v. 8, uses the phrase vectoriis gravibusque navigiis for vessels carrying troops and
stores.

The

See note on phaseli on p. 120 for other vessels of this class. boats from Brindisi to Durazzo connected the Appian Way from

Rome

and the East. Cassiopa lay end of Corfu, and was on the route from Italy to Greece.
with the Egnatian

Way

to Salonica

at the northern

INDEX TO SUBJECTS.
Ldmiral's
108. Anchors, 69
rk,

flag

and

light,

99,

yacht,

Classification of ships, 23, 105.

Coloured
74.

sails,

98.

Cushions on thwarts, 47.
Deck-houses, 58.

Noah's, 24, 25, 55.

iwnings, 52, 53, 58.

Decks,
ick-stay, 78
ialing, 61.

4957.
23, 43, of

80,

83^.

Despatch-boats, 108, 122. Dimensions of war-ships, 20
merchant-ships, 23
25.

Ballast, 60, 61.

Banks of

oars, see Oars.

Drinking-water, 61.

Bath-room, 58.

Dug-outs, 118.
55. 5^-

Beams, 40,
Bilge, 61.

4547.

Egyptian ships,

2, 4, 9,

41, 51, 56, 65,

Bitt-heads, 83, 84.

68, 75, 78, 79, 92, 106, 107.

Boat, ship's, 103, 104.

Bowsprit, 89, 91, 94, 95, 104.
Braces,
Brails,

Eight-banked ship, 13, 14. Elephants on rafts, 122.

7883, 94, 95. 7983, 94, 95.
23, of

Eleven-banked
mer-

ship, 6, 7.

Encaustic, 35, 36.

Breadth of war-ships, 22,

Eyes, 69.
False -keel, 32. Fifteen-banked ships,

25. chant-ships, 23 Bridges of boats, 70, 118, 122.

Bulwarks, 52, 53, 56, 57, 107.
Buoys, 72, 73, 99.
Byzantine ships, 16
10319, 30, 87,

6, 7.

Fifty-oared ships, 3,21,22,42, 106, 116.

91,92,

Figure-head,

etc,

65

67, 113, 114.

Five-banked

ships, 5, 6, 12, 13, 16, 44,

Cabins, 54, 55, 57, 58.

109. Flags, 99, 100.
etc,

Cables for anchoring,

73, 74, 43.

for

Floats, 72.

strengthening the hull, 41

Forecastle, 56, 57.

Calking, 34.

Fore-mast, 89, 91.
Fore-stay,

Cargo,

2530.
67.

7883,

94.
10,

Carvings, 65

Forty-banked ship, alleged, 8
23-

14,

Catheads, 62, 63, 69.
Cavalry-transports, 14, 15, 43.

Four-banked

ships, 5, 12, 44, 47, 82.

126
Galleries, 67, 69.

INDEX TO SUBJECTS.
3
'

9>

r

5

44. 45. supplementary,

10,

Galleys, 19.

2 > i5

50. 5i. auxiliary, 20, 29, size
10, 48, 50, 51, material,

Gangways on
101, 102.

ship,

4953,

for landing,

and weight,

33, fastenings, 44.

Gardens on

ships, 29, 58.

Obelisks, ships for carrying, 26

30.

Goose's-head, 67.

Ornaments

at

stem and stern,

6569.

Halyards,

7883, 939520, 2
1
,

Paddle-wheels, 101.
Painting,

Hawse-holes, 69.

3537,

60, 65, 66.

Height of war-ships,
ships, 24.

of merchant-

Passenger-ships, 120, 124. Phoenician ships, 3, 4, 44, 49, 52, 64,
79,

Hieroglyphs,

2, 79.

111114.

Horses on

ships,

14,

15,

116: ships

Poles, 102.

named

horses, 108, 110, 113, 114.

Pontoons, 121.

House-boats, 123, 124.
Hull, 39, 40.

Poop, 56, 57.
Port-holes,

4345.

Hurricane-deck, 49
Keel, 31,32, 39, 40.

53.

Pump,

61.

Rafts, 122.

Ram, 62
Ladders, 101, 102.

65.

Ratlines, 95.
Reliefs, 65, 66.

Lead

for sounding, 101. Leathers for port-holes, 43, for oars, 44. Length of war-ships, 21 23, 43, of

Ribs, 39, 40.

merchant-ships, 24, 25.
Liburnians, 16, 17.
Life-buoys, 73.
Lifts, 78, 94, 95.

Rigging, generally, 7898, with one mast, 78 83, 85, 91, with two masts, 83 89, 91, 94, 95, with three masts,
89, 91.

Rings on

sails, 81, 95.

Lights, 99.

Ropes

in

rigging,

7885,
of,

94,

95,

Log, automatic, 101.
Masts, generally, 78
bowsprit,
96, fore-mast or

material for, 97.

Rowers, arrangement
56.

44

48,

55,

83 89, 91, 94, 95, 104, mizen, 89, 91, material for, 33, tops,
37, for

Sacred barges,
sail

9, 10.

9 2 >93Materials for shipbuilding, 31
sails

Sails, generally,

78

91,

9498,

fore-

or spritsail, 83

89, 91, 95, top-

and ropes, 96, 97,

for

awnings,

sail, 90,

93, 94, mizen, 89, 91, material

53-

for, 96, 97,

colour

of,

98.

Military-tops, 92, 93.

Scouts, 122, 123.

Mizen, 89, 91.

Screens,

5153.

Sculling, 10.

Names

of ships, 65, 66.
ships, 6.
55.

Sections, ships in, 38.

Nine-banked

Seven-banked

ships, 5, 6, 13.

Noah's Ark, 24, 25,

Sharks, 121, 122.

Nose of

ship, 65.

Sheathing, 37.
Sheets, 79,

8183,

94. 95-

Oars, generally, i 20, number, 2, 3, 10 20, arranged in banks, 14, 17

Ship's boat, 103, 104.

Shrouds, 78, 81, 94, 95.

INDEX TO SUBJECTS.
Sides, thickness of, 40.

127
ships, 89, 91.

Three-masted
Thwarts,

Signalling, 100.

4547.
34.

Six-banked ships, 5, 6. Sixteen-banked ships, 7, 21.
kJVJt

Timber, 31

Tonnage of merchant-ships, 25
war-ships, 30, 31.

30, of

Sounding, 101.
tues, 66, 67.

ritsail, 89, 95. Spi

Tops, military, 92, 93.
Topsail, 90, 91, 93, 94, 98.
78.

t

teering-gear, 74
stern,
74-

Tow,
39,

34.

Stem and

36,

40,

56,

57,

Turrets, 59, 60.

6269,

Twelve-banked

ships, 6.

Superstructure, 49, 50.

Swan's-head, 67.

Twenty-banked ship, 8. Twenty-oared ships, 2, 3, 20, 107. Two-banked ships, 3, 4, n, 15 19,
46, 53-

44,

Tacking, 78, 95, 96.
Tar, 34, 37.
Tarsis, ships of,
i.

Two-masted
ships, 5, 6, 20, 21, 30, 31.
7, 8.

ships, 83

88, 94, 95.

Ten-banked

Undergirding, 41

43.

Thirteen-banked ships,
Thirty-banked ships,
Thirty-oared ships,
47> 85.

8, 9, 22.

Waling-pieces, 40, 41, 45, 62, 63, 78.

2, 3,

21, 22, 38, 43,

Water

for drinking, 61.

Wax,
ships, 4, 10,
50,

34, 35, 37.

Tholes, 21, 22, 44, 45, 109.

Three-banked

n,

14

17,

Yards, generally,

7885, 8996,

for

*>
84.

3

f

.

4347,

5456,

63, 82

dropping missiles, 93, braced round,
78, 96, structure of, 78, material for,
33-

Three-decked

ships, 54, 55.

INDEX TO TECHNICAL TERMS.
GREEK.
,

82

85.
74.

47.

,

69
58-

&cura, 54, 55.
,

dyictpeiov,
d-yuid,
5/caros,

73.

5t/fW7rta,

10.

21.

aKdriov,

105,

106,

dufdreios
So/cos,

75.

to-r6s, d/cdretot

Kcpaiai, aKareLov iarlov,

40.

8386.
i/,

dxpUT-ripiov, 68,

69, 93.
61.

dp6/u,<i)v,

17
39,

19,

91.

s,
?,

62.

6>i5oxos,
dvT\T)T'f)p(.ov,

40.

d^rXfa,
73,

102.

,

39.
57, 91.

^67610?, 73.
apfJLOvia,
/,

a/)yU.O(TyU.a,

37, 38.

?/i/3oXos,

63, 64.
32, 39.
^TraKrpov,

88.
9-

ti>Tep6veia,

eTTdKTpls,

112,

4375/,

"3twrjyKevls, 39.

68.
51, 52.

emfiddpa, 102.
124.
73.

&(ppa.KTos,

fiddpa,
/Sapis,
1

1 02.

,

81.
,

06,
,

107.
S,

65, 66.
8O.

101.
s,
,

62, 69.

60. 97.

7aXafa, 701X61, 19.
7aOXos, 113.
,

evvaia, 70.
103.

3739.
73.

ywvla, 99.

^7X77, frvKT-ripla, 75. ^765, 1 8, 40, 46,
,

47, 57, 58, 93,

/cepa?at,

93, 94.

JCciTTT/,

n,

56, tvylrys, 46.

5eo>i6s,

37, 38,

71.

75.

Sia/3a<ns,

50, 51.

40, 41.

INDEX TO TECHNICAL TERMS.
(dry, 92, 93.
*,

I2 9

X7?j>6s,

91, 92.
70,

37, 38.
15, 51.

Xf0os, \i0o<J>6poi KepaTcu,

71, 94.

io\la,

j/as, 22, 23.
*

55> 0aXa/ia K^TTT;,

n,
ii,

/j,dxi/J.o$

^aus,

44, 56,

123.

0aXd/ta, 56, 0aXa/*i776s, 123, 124.
s,

46, QpaviTis

8385,
7,

87.

/cti>7r7,

15,

56,

80. So.

46.
fj.e<T6Koi\ov,

92.

wpfaffdcu, 81, 82.
39.
8.
8,

,

39, 57.
ju.ov6v\os,

1 1
1

is,

82, 83, 85.
fj.voTrdp<t)v,

1

119.
25,

14,
ros,

15.

pvpiayuyds,
26.

fj.vpto<f>6pos,

113,

114. 114, 115.
99.

rt6/cw?ros,
rlov,

81
,

39.

80. So.

60.
70.

j,

5s,

8085, 8995.
s,

0^,
85, 94, 95.

o/7)ioj/,

7577.
55.

of/o^a,
Ka\<pStot>, 8 1

otKij<ris,

wul,

70.

77.

69.
Ka.fj.dpa,

107.
107, 108.
irapdp'pvtJ.a,,

Kdvdapos,

53.
53.

K&poiov, 93.

9295.
,

Trapdffeipov, go.
Trapdo"rjfji.ov,

53.

66.

101. 122, 123.

s,

83

85.

62, 75,
55, 57.
57, 37.
s,

102.

4952,
,

51, 52,
,

123.

50, 54, 55, 58.
1

108
9'

no.
2

19.

79,

8285,
IIO, III.
pofyos,

95-

7ret<r/xa,

73, 74.

Trepta/ywyetf?, 95.

9395102.

ireptveus,

10

12,

15, 50,

51.

S,

2,

46.
/cXtywa^,
,

74
76.

77.

fcXi/ta/cs,

102.
,

s,

8183,
,

85, 96.

68.

121, 122.
63.
47.

KptKOS,
K1JKVOS,
/ciJ/tjST;,

29, 61. Si.

u)i>,

KVKVOK&vdapOS,
112.
KWTreiJs,

IO8.
,

s,

So, 94.
39, 40, 57, 68.
73,
74.

/cc6?T77,

n,

12.

jrpvfj.v^ffiov,

47.

Trpvpa, 39, 40,
irrtpva, 91, 92.

57,

62,

69.

99.
,

77.
1 1 6.
s,

115,

77-v/yyoOxos,

60.

T.

130
65.
(rav/s,

INDEX TO TECHNICAL TERMS.
rpidpfjicvot,

54, 55.
Tpfrjpt]fuo\la,

40.
41.
',

rpnjfJUoXla,
Tprfpris,

15,

51.

16,

17, 54, 55,

109, 119.

66, 67, 99

101.

rpiirdpodos,
T/>ic6po0os,

54, 55. 55.

i,

65.
90.

rpbins, 31, 39, 4 o, 75.

o-/caX/x6$,

44,

109.

T/>o7r6s,

rpOTrwr^/),

44,

47.

58.
,

rpoxtX/a, Tpox6s, 82, 95.

81.
39.
tfaXos,

71.

52,

55.

vdpod'/jKij,

61. 85.

40.

vTrtpa, 8 1
vTT-qptffiov,

62.
,

47.

14.

VTnr)pTiK{)S,
u7r6/9Xi7/ia,
irXoioi',

115.
53.
43.

69.
23.

&ir6uij,a, 41

<TTpo<j>eiov,

95.

93. 80.
,

0un;Xos, 120, 12 1. 0eXX6s, 73, loo.
(pOiVlKls,

122.
73-

IOO.

XaXtj/6s,

xaXw^,
3167.

77, 82, 83, 95.
vaOs, 63.

rap>$s, Ta/xr6s,
TOTretor,

2,

12,

15, 20,

114.

xd\KWfM, xaX/c^s

82, 83.

X^ uo

"/*

a

ropvela, 32.

X^^fos,

124.

INDEX TO TECHNICAL TERMS.
LATIN.
i

acaftum, 106.
105, 106.

corbita,

in.

irius, actuariolus ,

corymba, 68.
39.

iminiculum, 77.
y,

czrata navis, 63, 65.
58.

in,

112.

cymba, cymbula, 112, 103.
73,

cora, 70,

74.
70.

82, 83.

tenna,

79,

8991,

95.

,

55.

rtus, 52.
ract us,
?,
,

dolon^ 87.

52.

dromo, 17.
exploratorius,
123.

68. 88.

y,

106,

forus,f0rt, 57, 58.
107.

gubemaculunt, 75
a/*, 91.

77.

132
malus, 87

INDEX TO TECHNICAL TERMS.
91, 93, 94, 96, 97.
77.

scalmus, 44, 109.
scapha, scaphula, 103,
104,

moderamen,
monoxylus,

123.

molybdis, 101.
1

j#&,

57.

18.

sentina, 61.

myoparo, 118, 119.'

signum, 101.
speculatorius,

122,

123.

numen,

67.

statumen, 39.
j/^a, 55.
struppus, 44.

om,

73.

oraria, oria, oriola, 119, 120.

supparum, 90.
tabellarius,
/*:/.?,

parada, 58.
^ar0, parunculus, 119.

122, 123.

52, 53, 57.

AJ,

96.

thalamegus, 123, 124.
tragus, 124.

phaselus, 120.

plectrum, 76.
/0#.r, panto,
1 02,

transtrum, 40, 47.
121.
triremis, triresmus, 54.
trochlea, 95.
z'j,

praposiero more, 97.
pristis,

121, 122.
59.

59, 60.

propugnaculum,
prosutnia, 119,
122.

67.

120.

tympanum,
70.

95.

regimen, 77.

instar, opus,

21.

retinaculum, 74.

rostrum, 63
rudetu, 95.

66.
,

124.

8791, 9597,
74.

99.

vexillum, 99, 101.
saburra, 60.
102.

mnculum,

INDEX TO AUTHORITIES.
ANCIENT WRITERS.
Lccius,
1 1

6.

Arrian, 6, 15, 23, 34, 38, 44, 46, 51,
58, 60, 70, 73, 98, 102,

/Elian, 5.

no,

118.

/Eschines, 109, 113, 115.

Artemidoros, 61.
Asclepiades, quoted by Athenaeos, 91,
92, 93-

/Eschylos, 20, 36, 38, 44, 57, 61, 63,
69, 77, 88, 94, 96, 97, 98, 106, 107,

109, 122.

Agathias, 103, 106, 112.
Alcaeos, 70, 80.

Athenaeos, the engineer, 41. Athenseos, the scholar, 8, 9, 10, 14, 15,
20, 22, 23, 25, 27, 28, 29, 36, 37, 38,

Alexander Polyhistor, quoted by Stephanos, 114. Alexis Samios, 65.

39, 40, 41, 49, 50, 54, 55

58, 59

60,

61, 63, 65, 68, 71, 74, 75, 76, 81, 85, 89, 90, 92, 94, 96, 97, 98, 103, 106,

Ammianus,

29, 58, 116, 117.

107, 109,

in,
26.

112, 113, 114, 123.

Anaxandrides, 103.
Antipater, 94.

Ausonius, 58, 108, 117, 121.

Automedon,
Berosos, 24.

Antiphanes, 113.
Antiphilos, 33.

Antiphon, 52.
Apollodoros, 55, 65.
Apollonios, 55.

Bianor, 40.
Cascilius, 120.

Apollonios Rhodios, 37, 40, 42, 46, 68,
70, 74, 77

Caesar,

16, 23, 32, 33, 38, 39, 40, 52,

80, 82, 93, 95, 96.

53, 60, 63, 64, 73, 97, 103, 117, 121,

Appian,

15, 16, 23, 42, 52, 56, 60, 65,

123, 124.

68, 74, 88, 99,

100, 109, 110,

115,

Callimachos, quoted in scholia, 113.
Callisthenes, 123.

118, 119, 120, 123.

Apuleius, 33, 67, 74, 77, 93, 98.

Callixenos, quoted
10, 14, i5

by Athenaeos,

8, 9,

Archimedes, 28.
Archimelos, quoted by Athenaeos, 27,
28, 40, 92.

22, 23, 36, 41, 50, 54, 63,

68, 75, 90, 92, 96, 98, 123.

Cassiodorus, 17.
Catullus, 93, 96,
1

Archippos, 82.
Aristeides, /Elius, 14, 16, 55.

20, 122.

Cedren, 27.
Charisius, 88.

Aristobulos, 6.

Aristophanes, 10, 32, 36, 43, 44, 56, 60,
63, 66, 67, 69, 73, 81, 86, 93, 95, 108,

Chariton, 58.
Cicero, 10, 21, 25, 37, 47, 51, 52, 56,
58, 61,
77, 94,

106,

109,

in,

112,

Aristotle, 9, 20, 44, 48, 60, 65, 75, 76,
78, 91, 94, 96, 113, 116, 118, 121.

117, 119, I2O. Cinna, 82.

134
Claudian, 32, 33.

INDEX TO AUTHORITIES.
Hermippos, 47,
4, 5.

97.

Clemens Alexandrinus, Comnena, Anna, 41.
Cratinos, 47.
Critias, 106.

Herodotos,

2, 4, 15, 23, 25, 32, 33, 34,

37> 39' 44>

49 57.
7<5,

5,

64, 65, 66, 67,

68, 70, 73, 75,

81, 88, 96, 97, 99,

100,

101,

102,

106,

107,

109,

no,

Ctesias, 25, 38.

113, 122.

Curtius, Quintus, 6, 38.

Hesychios, 47, 65, 112. Himerios, 26.
Hippocrates, 51, 65.

Deinarchos, quoted by Pollux, 25, and

Harpocration, 113.

Hipponax,
15, 22, 38, 47, 62,

34, 36.

Demosthenes,
Diodoros,

20, 49, 72, 103, 109.

Hirtius, Aulus, 52, 64,
119, 123.

roi, 103, 105,

4, 5, 6, 9,

65, 66, 68, 71, 87, 94, 99, 100, 102,

Homer,

2, 3, 11, 20, 32, 33, 34, 37, 38,

105, 124.

106, 107, 109,

no,

115,

122,

39, 40, 44, 46, 47, 52, 57, 60, 61, 68, 70. 73. 74. 76,

80, 8r, 95, 96, 97,

Diogenes Laertios,

40. 20, 21, 33, 60,

IO2, III, 114, 122.

Dion

Cassius,

n,

61,

Horace,

16, 36, 42, 59, 63, 112, 120.

62, 64, 7;, 75, 89, 97, 100, 101.

Hyginus, 93.
Isidore, 58, 71, 82, tor,

Dion Chrysostom,

40, 106.

Dionysios of Halicarnassos, 30.

no,

119.

Ennius, 58, no.

Josephus, 55.
Juvenal, 40, 68, 88, 112, 114, 120.

Ennodius, 93. Ephippos, 109.

Ephoros, quoted by Strabo, 70.

Labeo, in the Pandects, 88, 103, 117.
Leo, 17, 18, 19, 39, 75, 92, 93, 100, 118. Leonidas of Tarentum, 10, 73, 96, 106,
107, 121.

Epicharmos, 113.
Epicrates, 85.
Epictetos, 90.

Epiphanies, 124.
Eratosthenes, 93.

Livy,

7,

10, 14, 22, 25, 32, 52, 60, 70,

73. 87,
1

89, 96,
115,

99,

101,

105,
118,

106, 121,

Euphorion, quoted by Lydos,

14.

108,

no,

116, 117,

Euripides, 20, 38, 41, 47, 57, 61, 63,
67. 69, 71, 72, 75, 76, 77, 81, 94, 95, 96, 97, 102, 107, 122.

122, 123.

Lucan,

16, 32,

33, 55, 58, 59, 68, 70,

9.

93> 95> 96, 112, 120, 122.

Eusebios, 24.
Eutropius,
8.

Lucian, 10, 20, 24, 35, 36, 40, 49, 54,
55, 61, 66, 67, 70, 71, 72, 73, 77, 80,

Florus, 100.

86, 90, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 102, 106, 118.
Lucilius, 44, 83, 88, 96, 101,

in.

Galen, 48, 95.
Gellius, Aulus,

Lucretius, 68, 95.
34,
57, 58,

112,

115,

Lycophron, 60, 70,
Lydos, 114.
Manasses, 26, 40.

71, 80, 96.

120.

Gregory the Great, 104.
Harpocration, 34, 73, 82, 113. Heliodoros, 25, 40, 57, 74, 82, 103,
115, 118.

Marcellus, 105.
Martial, 120.

Maximus

Tyrius, 59.

Heracleitos, 70, 80.

Meleager, 96.

INDEX TO AUTHORITIES.
Memnon,
14, 50, 65,

135
25,

no.

Pollux,

7,

14,

31, 47, 54, 76, 99,

Menander, 107. Moschion, quoted by Athenaeos, 20, 25,
28,
,

115, 124.

Polysenos, 35, 56, 60, 62, 68, 74, 75,
76,

29,

36,

37, 38,

39, 49,

54,

99,

100,

101,

102,

109,

115,

59, 60, 61, 71, 89, 92, 94,

103,

118.

'

Polybios,

7, 8,

12, 15, 20,

22, 39, 42,

:hos, 20.

52, 60, 62, 64, 73, 87, 88, 89, 105,

106,

108,

K-,

109,

115, 116, 117,

118,

nder, 112.

119, 121, 122, 123.

Nicostratos, 107.

Porphyrogenitos, 18, 19, 35, 91, 118.
Proclos, 29, 54.
ii,

Nonius, 58, 83, 105, 108, 110, in, 116,
119, 120, 124.

Procopios,

17, 21, 30, 38, 39, 40,

87, 98, 99, 102.

Oppian, 70, 77, 81, 94, 95, 96.
Orosius, 20.

Propertius, 20, 36, 66, 107, 112.

Ptolemy, 57, 67, 68, 80, 93.

Orpheus, 75, 76. Ovid, 35, 36, 39, 40, 67, 74, 77, 94, 96,
97, 112, 117, 120.

Quintilian, 20, 73, 77.

Sallust, 58, 61, 108, 116, 119, 120.

Paulinus Nolanus, 17, 61, 88, 103. Paulus, in the Pandects, 103, 121.
Pausanias, 50, 69, 70, 72,
Persius, 36, 97.

Satyrios Thyillos, 95.

no.

Scylax, 113. Seneca, the elder, 88.

Seneca, the younger, 61, 67, 90, 91, 96,
98, 108, 112, 120, 123, 124.

Petronius, 55, 57,63, 71, 104.

Pherecrates, quoted in scholia, 94. Philemon, 116.
Philippos, 63.
Philistos, 99.

Sidonius, 58.
Silius Italicus, 13, 32, 56, 66, 67, 76.

Simonides, quoted by Plutarch, 98.
Sisenna, 105, 116, 119, 124.

Philo Judseus, 24, 25, 55.

Sophocles, 47, 61, 76, 81, 96, 112, 114.
4, 9.

Philostephanos, quoted by Pliny,
Philostratos, 35, 54, 69, 74, 98.

Sosicrates, 107.
Statius, 63, 77, 90, 101, 102.

Photios, 14, 25,

no.

Stephanos, 65, 114.
Stobseos, 72.

Pindar, 69, 77, 93, 96, 105.
Plato, 22, 31, 32, 39, 41, 60, 76, 77, 81.

Strabo, 6, 21, 25, 32, 33, 34, 38, 39,
65, 68, 70, 89, 97, 103, 106, 107, 114,

Plautus, 55,
119,
1

103,

1

10,

in,

114,

116,

20.

115, 116, 118, 120, 122, 123.
Strattis, 82.

Pliny, the elder, 4, 5, 7, 9, 13, 17, 25,
26, 31, 33> 34, 35. 36, 39. 57. 59- 6o 63, 7, 7i 7 2 , 74. 77, 89, 9> 9 6 > 97,
98, 99, 106,
1

Suetonius,

16,

29,

38, 58,

59, 61, 98,

102, 123, 124.

10,

in,

112, 114, 116,

Suidas, 23, 98,
Syncellos, 24.

1 08,

119, 123.

117, 118, 122.

Pliny, the younger, 103, 119.

Synesios, 10, 49, 54, 57, 7^, 88, 94, 95,
109.

Plutarch, 6,

7, 8, 14,

20, 21, 28, 31, 34,

35, 37, 38, 47, 49, So, 54, 59,

6

>

62
Tacitus, 17, 38,
107, 117.
58, 66, 75, 99,
102,

63, 64, 65, 66, 68, 70, 72, 76, 77, 86,
89, 93, 95, 97, 9 8

100, 101, 102, 103,

105,

106,

109,

113, 115,

118,

119,

Themistios, 26.
Theocritos, 40, 47, 102, 116, 122.

123, 124.

136
Theodores Prodromes,
Theognis, 46, 70, 106.
Theophrastos,
7, 15, 23,

INDEX TO AUTHORITIES.
41.

Varro, 34, 108, no.
Vegetius, 16, 31, 34, 35, 38, 59, 75, 89,

31, 32, 33, 34,

98, 117, 118, 123.
Velleius, 109,
Virgil,

39, 62, 72, 89, 97, 105, 122. Theophylactos, 118.

no,

118.
32, 34, 47, 57, 58,

10, 20, 21,

Thucydides,

4,

10,

n,

14,

15, 25, 30,

59, 60, 63, 65, 66, 67, 70, 74, 77, 95,

47, 49, 50, 56, 57, 60, 62, 65, 66, 86,
93, 101, 102, 105, 106, 108, 109.

96, IO2, 112, Il6, I2O, 121, 122.

Tibullus, 63.

Vitruvius, 21, 28, 35, 41, 44, 61, 63, 76, 91, IOI, 122.

Timaeos, 55.
Turpilius,

Vopiscus, 118.
116.

no,

Tzetzes, 29, 36.

Xenophon,

11, 23,

53, 56, 68, 76, 84,

85, 86, 87, 99,

100,

101, 109, 112,

Ulpian, 117, 124.
Valerius Flaccus, 32, 35, 36, 65, 67, 68,

113, 115, 118, 122.

Zonaras, 35, 41.

7o 93, 95-

Zosimos,

1

6, 33.

COMPILATIONS.
the Anthology, 10, 26, 28, 33, 40, 44,
63* 73' 94. 95. 96, 106, 107, 121.

the Codes, 117. the Novels, 117. the Pandects, 88, 103, 105, 117, 121,
124.

the Basilics, 104. the Bible, 24, 34, 42, 55, 66, 72, 74,
75, 88, 101, 103,

in.

INSCRIPTIONS.
Greek,
5
1
.

5, 9,

n,

12,

15, 35, 42, 43, 47,

53, 63. 64, 69, 71, 72, 73, 74, 77,
1

Latin, 13, 16, 34, 54, 60, 66, 98, 108, 117, 123.
others, 9, 24, 113.

79, 82, 83, 84, 85, 92, 97, 102,

10.

INDEX TO ILLUSTRATIONS.
PLATE
Fgs. 1
1.

and 2, boats on the Nile: about 2500 B.C. Mentioned on pp. 2, 78. From reliefs in the tomb of Merab, a son of king Chufu of the Fourth Dynasty now in the Berlin Museum. Copied from Lepsius, Denkmaler aus Aegypten,
:

part

ii,

plate 22.

Fg. 3, boat on the Nile, and fgs. about 1250 B.C. Mentioned on pp. 2,
the temple at
still

4

and 5, Egyptian ships on the Red Sea

:

9, 10, 41, 56, 68, 75, 77, 78.

From

reliefs in
:

el-Bahari built by queen Matkara of the Eighteenth Dynasty Copied from Mariette, Deir-el-Bahari, plates 6 and 12. Fg. 6, Egyptian war-ship in action in the Mediterranean, and fgs. 7 and 8, Mentioned on pp. 2, 51, Asiatic war-ships disabled and sinking: about 1000 B.C.
in position.

Der

From a large relief on the temple Rameses III of the Twentieth Dynasty still in
56, 65, 79, 92.
:

at

Medinet Habu

position.

built by king Copied from Cham-

pollion,

Monuments de

1'Egypte, vol.

iii,

plate 222.

PLATE
Fg. 9, vessel on the Tigris
relief in the palace at
:

2.

about 700 B.C.
built

Mentioned on
:

p. 114.

From a

Khorsabad

by king Sargon

now

in the Louvre.

Copied from Botta, Monument de Ninive, vol. i, plate 33. about 700 B.C. Fgs. 1O and 11, Phoenician war-ship and merchant-ship: Mentioned on pp. 4, 44, 49, 52, 64, 79. From a relief in the palace at Kouyunjik built by king Sennacherib perhaps destroyed. Copied from Layard, Monuments
:

of Nineveh,

first series,

kindly sent

me

In reply to an enquiry, Sir A. H. Layard has plate 71. a note to say that he found the relief in too rickety a state to be
it

removed, and covered

up again to keep

it

out of harm's way.

PLATE
From

3.

on pp. 69, 79, 98. Fg. 12, symbol for a ship: about 600 B.C. Mentioned now in a painted vase found in the Polledrara tomb near Vulci in Etruria the British Museum. Drawn from the original.
:

From

about 600 B.C. Mentioned on pp. 64, 68, 69, 79, 80, 93. at Athens : one fragments of a painted vase found near the Dipylon from the Monument! fragment now in the Louvre, the other missing. Copied
Fg. 13, war-ship
:

dell' Institute, vol. ix, plate 40.

T.

*

138

INDEX TO ILLUSTRATIONS.

Fg. 14, part of a war-ship: about 600 B.C. Mentioned on p. 51. From a fragment of a painted vase found near the Dipylon at Athens now in the Louvre. Copied from the Monuments Grecs, nos. 13, plate 4.
:

n

about 550 B.C. Mentioned on Fgs. 1 5 and 1 6, two war-ships in action From a painted vase by Aristonophos found at Caere in PP- 49 57 64, 69. Etruria: now in the New Capitoline Museum at Rome. Copied from the
:

Monument!

dell' Institute,

vol. ix, plate 4.

PLATE
Fgs.

4.
:

17 and 18,
:

war-ship and merchant-ship

about 500 B.C.

Mentioned on
at Vulci in

pp. 44, 56, 57, 65, 68, 75, 81, 101. Etruria now in the British Museum.

From a painted vase found Drawn from the original.

Fg. 19, two war-ships
81, 100, 101.

From

now

in the Louvre.

about 500 B.C. Mentioned on pp. 56, 65, 68, 69, 78, : a painted vase by Nicosthenes found at Vulci in Etruria: Copied from the Journal of Hellenic Studies, first series,

plate 49.

PLATE
:

5.

Fg. 2O, stern of a war-ship about 500 B.C. coin of Phaselis in Lycia. Drawn from a cast.
Fg. 21, waist of a war-ship: about 400 B.C.

Mentioned on

p. 40.

From

a

From a fragment of a relief found 49' 5> 5 2 in the Acropolis Museum. Drawn from a cast.
-

on the/?Acropolis

Mentioned on pp. 40, 44, 45, at Athen now
:

t\A U^iyrw wJfc*H

A&U^K

'

Fg. 22, prow

From

Mentioned on pp. 40, 62, 69. of a war-ship : about 300 B.C. the remains of the pedestal of the great statue of Victory found at
: :

now in the Louvre. Copied from a photograph. Mentioned on pp. 40, 57, 62, about 300 B.C. Fg. 23, prow of a war-ship From a coin of Cios in Bithynia. Drawn from a cast. 64, 68, 69. Fg. 24, sterns of three war-ships : about 200 B.C. Mentioned on pp. 36, 68. From a relief probably found in Rome now in the Doges' Palace at Venice.
Samothrace
:

Copied from a photograph.
66, 68, 69.

Fg. 25, prow of a war-ship about 50 A.D. Mentioned on pp. 16, 44, 53, 60, From a relief found in the temple of Fortune at Praeneste now in
: :

the Vatican.

Copied from a photograph.

PLATE
:

6.

Fg. 26, merchant-ship about 50 A.D. Mentioned on pp. 40, 66, 67, 69, 78, From a relief on the tomb of Naevoleia Tyche at Pompei still in 89, 94, 100. Copied from Niccolini, Case di Pompei, Sepolcro di Nevoleia Tyche. position.
:

Fg. 27, merchant-ship dated coin of Alexandria.

:

in

67 A.D.

Mentioned on pp.
cast.

89, 90, 100.

From

a a

Drawn from a
:

Mentioned on pp. 78, 89. in 186 A.D. Fg. 28, merchant-ship Drawn from a cast. dated coin of the emperor Commodus.
Fg. 29, merchant-ship, and
fgs.

From

3O

and 31 parts of another
,

:

about 200 A.D.

From a 36, 40, 58, 66, 67, 78, 81, 89, 90, 93, 94, 95, 98, 104. relief found at Porto near the mouth of the Tiber : now in the private collection
Mentioned on pp.
of Prince Torlonia at
frontispiece.

Rome.

navi Copied from Guglielmotti, Delle due

Roman e,

INDEX TO ILLUSTRATIONS.
:

139

Fg. 32, merchant-ship about 200 A.D. Mentioned on p. 90. From a relief on a sarcophagus found in the precincts of the Vatican now in the Lateran Museum. Copied from a photograph. Mentioned on p. 89. From a relief Fg. 33, merchant-ship about 200 A.D. found at Utica now in the British Museum. Drawn from the original. in 305 A.D. Mentioned on p. 89. From a dated Fg. 34, merchant-ship coin of the emperor Maximian. Drawn from a cast.
:
:

:

:

PLATE
Fgs.

7.
:

35

and 36, two war-ships
78, 89.

in a sham-fight

about 50 A.D.
Isis at

on pp.
in the

58, 68,

From

a fresco in the temple of
di

Mentioned Pompei: now
d'Iside,

Naples Museum.

Copied from Niccolini, Case
:

Pompei, Tempio

plate 4.

Fg. 37, merchant-ship
fresco in the Callistine

about 250 A.D.
at
ii,

Catacombs

Rome

:

still

Mentioned on pp. 69, 89. From a in position. Copied from G-B.

de Rossi,

Roma

Sotterranea, vol.

plate 14.

Mentioned on pp. 78, 90. From a manuscript of the Iliad in the Ambrosian Library at Milan. Copied from Mai, Homeri Iliados picturae antiquae, plate 32, with some corrections from a photoFg. 38, war-ships:

about 500 A.D.

graph.

90.

about 600 A.D. Mentioned on pp. Fg. 39, ships in harbour at Classis 17, From a mosaic in the church of S. Apollinare Nuovo at Ravenna still in Copied from a photograph. position.
: : :

Fg. 4O, merchant-ship date uncertain. Mentioned on pp. 69, 75, 89. From still in position. a fresco in one of the caves at Ajunta in India Copied from a
:

reproduction in the South Kensington

Museum.
8.

PLATE
Fg. 41
off
,
:

figure-head in bronze

:

about 50 B.C.

Mentioned on

p. 66.

Found
sixth of

Actium

now

in the British

Museum.

Drawn from

the original.

One

actual size.

Fg. 42, prow of a war-ship : about 150 B.C. Mentioned on p. 65. Drawn from a cast. coin of Leucas in Acarnania.
in

From

a

Fig. 43, auxiliary ram in bronze about 50 B.C. Genoa harbour now in the Armoury at Turin.
:

:

Mentioned on p. 65. Found Copied from the Archaolo-

gisches Jahrbuch, vol. iv, p. 12.

One

twelfth of actual size.

about 350 B.C. Mentioned on p. 71. From a coin, probably of Apollonia in Mysia. Drawn from a cast. Fgs. 45 to 47, portions of an anchor in lead about 50 B.C. Mentioned on

Fg. 44, anchor

:

:

Found off the coast of Cyrene pp. 71, 72. from the original. One sixteenth of actual

:

now

in the British

Museum.

Drawn

size.

Camfcrttrge

:

PRINTED BY

J.

&

C. F.

CLAY,

AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS.

PLATE

2.

()0)(oYoVoYo)(o)(

BINDING SECT.

ULC 13 1971

VM
15 T68

Torr, Cecil

Ancient ships

PLEASE

DO NOT REMOVE
FROM
THIS

CARDS OR

SLIPS

POCKET

UNIVERSITY

OF TORONTO

LIBRARY

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