Manual on pond culture of shrimp

The traditional method of brackishwater pond culture is widely practiced within the ASEAN countries. In Indonesia and the Philippines, the main species raised is milkfish, and shrimp, which enter the pond with tidal water, is usually considered by the pond farmers as a secondary crop. The exception is Penaeus monodon which is stocked by some farmers either as a main crop or in polyculture with milkfish. In Thailand, Singapore and Malaysia, shrimp is the principal crop. In the traditional method of culture, wild shrimp fry are carried into ponds with the current on high tides or with pumped water. Production is dependent on the abundance of wild fry and on the season. Small predatory fish also enter the ponds and this results in high mortalities of the species being cultured. Since water is exchanged frequently to allow more fry to enter the pond, fertilizers are not generally used and production depends entirely on natural conditions. Consequently, yields are low, generally in the range of 100 to 300 kg/ha/year. Rapid progress has been made in shrimp culture, however, and recent developments have shown that with proper management, yields in traditional ponds can be increased to 600 to 1 000 kg/ha/year without supplemental feeding. In Taiwan, yields equivalent to 10 000 kg/ha/year have been obtained in intensive culture with artificial feed and aeration (Liao, 1977). To consolidate the recently developed technology on the culture of shrimp in ponds within the ASEAN member countries, an ASEAN Seminar/ Workshop on Shrimp Culture was held at Iloilo City, Philippines, from 15 to 23 November 1976. This manual was developed primarily from material presented at this Seminar/Workshop and is intended to serve as an aid to researchers and extension workers in their efforts to assist shrimp farmers in increasing their production. All the participants contributed to the discussions of each subject. Mr. Harry L. Cook of the South China Sea Fisheries Development and Coordinating Programme assembled the material and added additional information from the literature. Each participant, as well as other experts in this field, who did not attend the workshop, then had an opportunity to critically examine the draft of the manual and make comments or add additional material. The result is that this manual is truly a group effort. A list of the participants, observers, resource persons, workshop staff and technical advisers, is given in ANNEX A. In addition, as part of the workshop, field trips were made to local shrimp farms and information obtained on these visits is also incorporated in the manual. Due to the wide range of experience of the participants and variation in the type of pond culture practiced in their home countries, it is thought this manual contains most of the technology available within the region. In addition, an attempt has been made to make the manual as comprehensive as possible by incorporating pertinent information from the literature.

Many factors must be considered when a farmer is deciding which species of shrimp he should culture. Due to its large size and high price, P. monodon is generally considered the most desirable. However, if fry are not available, or are too expensive, it might be worthwhile to grow another species. In an area subject to flooding from typhoons, it might be advantageous to

minimize risk by culturing a species with a short growing period. It may be desirable to consider growing different species during different seasons depending on the variations of the environment or availability of wild fry. Of the species of shrimp occurring within the region, the following are the ones most commonly cultured:
Penaeus monodon P. merguiensis P. indicus Metapenaeus ensis M. monoceros M. brevicornis

While not cultured in large numbers now, the following are thought to have commercial potential. That is, they grow to a suitable size and have a good market value.
P. semisulcatus P. latisulcatus P. japonicus P. orientalis P. penicillatus M. affinis M. elegans M. burkenroadii - M. mastersii M. tenuipes M. conjunctus M. intermedius M. joyneri

As an aid in choosing which species to culture, some advantages and disadvantages of the most common or well-known species are given below. The material presented is necessarily incomplete as there is little data available for most species.

2.1 Penaeus monodon
2.1.1 Advantages a. It attains a large size. Shrimp with a size of 10 to 12 pieces/kg are common, and sizes of 5 to 7 pieces/kg have been grown in ponds. b. It is the fastest growing of all shrimp tested for culture. In ponds, fry of 3 cm in length have been grown to a size of 75 to 100 g in only five to six months. Forster (1974) was able to grow them to 25 g in 16 weeks in a tank stocked at 15/m2; Liao (1977) was able to grow them to 35 g in three months in a tank stocked at 15/m2. c. Due to its large size, it brings a high price to the farmer. Over US$ 7 per kg of shrimp weighing 15/kg has been reported in Indonesia. d. It can tolerate a wide range of salinity, 0.2 to 70 ppt. Salinity within the range of 10 to 25 ppt has no appreciable effect on growth when food is sufficient. Growth is reported to be slower at very low salinities. e. It can tolerate temperatures up to at least 37.5°C. Mortalities occur at temperatures below 12°C. f. It grows rapidly when fed either with animal or vegetable protein. g. Food conversion ratios are favourable. Values as low as 1.8:1 have been reported from Taiwan (Liao, personal communication).

h. It is hardy and not greatly disturbed by handling. 2.1.2 Disadvantages a. There is a sparse supply of wild seed for stocking. b. Wild fry are usually expensive. c. Gravid females are difficult to obtain from the wild in sufficient numbers to support a large hatchery. d. Females are more difficult to mature in captivity than many other species. Excellent progress is being made in this area, however, and reliable techniques for maturation are being developed. e. It takes a long growing period to reach the large size which commands the best price. This increases risk of heavy losses from typhoons and other natural disasters. f. It is difficult to harvest because it does not have a pond with discharged water as readily as other species. g. It is not suited for polyculture with milkfish in the progress on method of culture because of the difficulty in transferring it from pond to pond and its long growing period. h. The head to tail ratio is not as good as that of some other species. This could have an adverse effect on sales to the export market where only tails are desired. i. The exoskeleton is rather thick and processors find it harder to remove than that of most other species.

2.2 Penaeus merguiensis and P. indicus
P. indicus and P. merguiensis supposedly can be differentiated by five separate characteristics, but based on actual field surveys there are many individuals which do not have any clear distinction on these five points. Consequently, they were put into one group as indicusmerguiensis complex by Fujinaga and Kurata (1967). As these shrimp are difficult to distinguish, they have been grouped together in this paper unless one of the species is specifically identified. In spite of the taxonomic confusion, there are indications of behavioural differences between the two species. In the Philippines, for instance, ³P. indicus´ is difficult to harvest by draining ponds, but in Thailand, ³P. merguiensis´ moves out of ponds readily when water is drained. In addition, P. indicus prefers sandy substrates and P. merguiensis is found most frequently on mud bottoms. 2.2.1 Advantages a. This shrimp grows to a fairly large size and brings a good price. b. It is fairly fast growing, especially when young. Cultured in tanks at a density of 15/m2, it reached a size of 14 g in 16 weeks (Forster, 1974). In polyculture with milkfish in earthen ponds, females grew to about 28 g and males to about 12 g in 160 days (Gundermann and Popper, 1975). c. Survival is high during the first three months of growth or up to a size of about 10 cm. d. Wild fry are usually abundant in estuaries near areas where the adults are present. e. Gravid females are relatively easy to obtain from the wild in numbers sufficient to operate a hatchery. f. Females can be matured in captivity with relative ease. g. This shrimp moves out of a pond with water discharge, making harvesting easy.

2. Spawners are readily obtained from the wild. It is hardy and can withstand handling. monodon during transport. b. With present technology. It is not very tolerant to high temperature. Artificial propagation of larvae is relatively easy.2. Fry can be supplied in large quantities from artificial propagation.3. b. Wild fry are more difficult to identify than most other species of Penaeus or Metapenaeus. . b. f.2 Disadvantages a. It can tolerate cold weather. 2. High protein (about 60%) feed is required for best growth. 2. c. This shrimp reaches a large size and brings a good price. e. The exoskeleton is relatively thin.1 Advantages a.1 Advantages a. It has less tolerance to low salinity than some other species.3. Mortalities occur at temperatures above 34°C. It requires high salinity water. but dies with long exposure at salinities below 5 ppt and above 40 ppt. 15±30 ppt is optimum. c. It has a wide tolerance to short-term exposure to salinity extremes. In ponds. giving greater portion of edible meat to total weight. b. Survival rate for long distance transport of live adult shrimp is high. great difficulty has been encountered in culturing this shrimp for longer than three months without heavy mortalities. d.h.4 Penaeus japonicus 2. growth is slow and mortality has been high.2 Disadvantages a.4. The price of live edible size shrimp is high in Japan. It can not stand rough handling as either a juvenile or an adult. d. e. There is a significant size difference between sexes.2 Disadvantages This species has not been successfully cultured to marketable size despite numerous attempts.4.3 Penaeus semisulcatus 2. 2. which is lower than that required for some other species. d. c. Relatively high salinity (20±30 ppt) is required for best growth. i. In grow-out ponds a clean sand bottom is required for best growth. Fry are weaker than those of P. 2. Good growth has been obtained in intensive culture with a feed having 40 percent protein.

They are easy to mature in captivity and larval culture is relatively easy. g.1 Advantages a. c.6. They require a relatively short growing period. 2. c. Relatively high salinity and dissolved oxygen are required. b. c. Wild seed is abundant. Sexual size disparity is not as great as in some other species of Metapenaeus. These shrimps are very tolerant of low salinity and high temperature.7. monoceros has been known to spawn in ponds.1 Advantages a. It is tolerant of low salinity and high temperature. only two to three months.7 Metapenaeus brevicornis 2. M. . e.2. f. i.5 Penaeus penicillatus 2.1 Advantages a. In the wild. to attain marketable size. monoceros 2. but shrimp over 14 cm are not common. Wild postlarvae are abundant in most areas. Growth is fairly fast during the first three months. Growth is relatively fast in cool weather and in Taiwan the shrimp can be cultured during the winter season. d. h. b.2 Disadvantages a. e. 2.6 Metapenaeus ensis and M. They are tolerant of handling. The red colour of the body after cooking is preferred by consumers. It is difficult to grow this shrimp to a large size. d. Ovarian maturation of females in captivity is relatively easy. 2. 2. Gravid females are easy to obtain from the wild. It is not tolerant to handling. b. c. ensis reaches a maximum size of about 18 cm. Harvesting can be accomplished easily by catching them as water is drained from a pond.6. j. The head to tail ratio is favourable when compared to other species.5.2 Disadvantages These shrimps do not grow to a large size.5. They bring a low price because of their small size. Survival in ponds is usually high. M. b. Survival in ponds is high. They are well-suited for polyculture.

what is the most appropriate type of management? Third.7. over 4 m.3 Tidal characteristics The tidal characteristics in relation to land elevation at the proposed site should be determined. The amount of dissolved oxygen present near the bottom of the source of water to be used should be determined.1.5 cm for females and 7. 3. The frequency of floods should be known. Just as important is the duration of freshwater conditions during flooding. 2. b. tidal flow or pumping will be used to fill the ponds.2 Salinity The normal salinity of water during high tide at different seasons of the year should be known.5 cm for males. so a number of judgements have to be made for every site. It is also valuable in determining what modifications are needed concerning layout. dike height. Also important is whether or not the tidal wedge persists during floods.3. e. 3. engineering. First.water. The growing period is short. and management practices to make shrimp farming possible at a given site. can shrimp be farmed profitably? Second. No site will have all the desirable characteristics. Certainly pH is an important aspect. Due to its size the price is low. are not suitable sites for tidal ponds because very large and expensive dikes would be required to prevent flooding during high tide.8 to 8. Full growth is about 12. but it includes all the physico-chemical and microbiological characteristics of the water. are most suitable for fish farms using tidal flow to fill the ponds. Places where tidal fluctuations are large. and pH of water on. The sedimentation characteristics of the water are important. In general. between 2 and 3 m. This great size disparity between sexes is not desirable in culture.d. SITE SELECTION CRITERIA TO BE EVALUATED Site evaluation is not only undertaken to determine if a site is suitable for shrimp farming.1. 3. or adjacent to.1. the elevation of the pond bottom. Water with a good growth of phytoplankton can usually be considered productive. the pond site should be within the range of 7. This is critical to determine if. If the water carries an excessive amount of sediments a sediment trap may have to be built into the water supply system.1 Ecological 3. 3. This shrimp has been known to spawn in ponds. The depth of the top of the wedge at different tidal stages during normal weather should be ascertained. etc. how must the pond system be constructed for that type of management in that location? The material presented below is designed to help in the decision-making process.2 Disadvantages a. Also it would be more difficult to hold water in the ponds during low tides since due to the higher pressure. . places where the tidal fluctuation is moderate.1 Water quality This is an elusive term which is difficult to define. It grows only to a small size. Especially important for rivers and canals is the subsurface intrusion of salt water under the fresh.

water loss and erosion from seepage, crab holes, etc. would be greater. Areas with slight tidal fluctuation, 1 m or less, are also unsuitable for tidal ponds, because the ponds could not be filled or drained properly. So, if ponds are to be constructed in areas where the tide is less than 2 m or more than 3 m, the use of pumps should be considered (Jamandre and Rabanal, 1976). Actual measurements should be made at the pond site to determine high and low tide bench marks. One must keep in mind that tidal fluctuation is much less at certain times of the year than at others. Tide tables should be consulted to determine this. Highest tides during past floods and storms should be known. Sometimes the only way to acquire this information is from local residents. Wave action during normal tides, storms and monsoons should be known. 3.1.4 Currents prevailing in the immediate area A knowledge of currents is important for planning erosion control measures to protect the dikes and main gate as well as to determine the probability of sediment deposition in water control structures. Shifting mud or sand can block water supply canals or sluice gates, making effective water management impossible. As it is seldom practical to conduct surveys, one should ask local people if shifting sand or mud has ever been built up in areas near the pond site. Take into account changing wind and current patterns at different times of the year. 3.1.5 Rainfall Important factors in the immediate area are maximum daily rainfall and annual distribution. The area of watershed and runoff in relation to the pond site should be looked into. 3.1.6 Evaporation rates If evaporation is high, determine if there is an adequate supply of freshwater with which to dilute the pond water to maintain proper salinity. 3.1.7 Pollution If the site is near a river, determine if harmful substances are used or released upstream. These would include such things as pesticides for agriculture and malaria control, mining wastes, industrial and urban wastes. Are materials discharged continously or only once in a while? Try and anticipate future pollution problems. Do not locate near a city that is growing rapidly or an area that is designated as a future industrial estate. Consult with local government planning officials to investigate these aspects.

3.2 Soils
In new areas where ponds are to be constructed for the first time, soil samples should be taken at ten random locations per hectare. Soil core samples should be taken at least to a depth of 0.5 m below the proposed pond bottom. This is because good soil might overlay unsuitable soil and a surface sample would not be sufficient.

In existing ponds, it is recommended that 12 samples be collected from ponds of 1 ha or less, and 25 samples from ponds of 2 to 20 ha. In ponds samples need only be taken from the top 5 cm. A 100 ml portion of each soil sample should be placed in a plastic bucket to give one composite sample per pond. The composite sample should be mixed thoroughly. The soil samples are then taken to a soil-testing laboratory for analysis. 3.2.1 Type Many coastal soils are high in peat or sand content and will not hold water. The potential pond soils must have a high enough clay content to assure that the pond will hold water. A good field test to use in determining this is to shape a handful of moist soil into a ball, if the ball remains intact and does not crumble after considerable handling, there is enough clay in the soil to provide a water tight seal (Perry, 1972). Sandy clay or sandy loam is best for dike construction, because it is hard and does not crack when dry. Peaty soil is not a good dike material as it settles too much and may even burn when dried (Denila, 1976). 3.2.2 Acidity and potential acidity An excellent discussion of the effect acid soils have on brackishwater ponds is given by Potter (1976), a summary of which follows: The fact that many newly-constructed ponds are reported to give poor production is generally attributed to low fertility of the soil, but acid soils may be the cause in many cases. Due to the conditions under which some coastal soils are formed, iron pyrites often accumulate. As long as these pyrite-containing soils remain submerged, they are subject to little change. When the land is drained to make fishponds the pyrites become oxidized producing sulfuric acid which cause the soil pH to become extremely low. Low soil pH can result in lowered pH of the pond water either by leaching from the pond bottom or by runoff of rainwater from the dikes during heavy storms. The sulfuric acid formed when pyrite oxidizes not only affects pH of the pond water, it also affects soil minerals, releasing iron and aluminum which can bind up phosphates and other essential algal nutrients. This lowers the natural productivity of a pond and makes fertilization ineffective. The resulting lack of natural food causes slow growth. Dikes made from acid sulfate soil develop vegetative cover very slowly, thus they are subject to severe erosion. This requires added maintenance, both to repair the dikes and to remove sediments from the pond. In addition, as the dikes are subject to oxidation, sulfuric acid and active aluminum and iron may be washed into the pond with eroded soil creating water quality problems. When the pyrite containing soil becomes highly acidic after oxidation it is called an acid sulfate soil. A soil which will become acidic upon oxidation is called a potential acid sulfate soil. Acid sulfate soils can be identified easily by taking a soil pH. Their pH is 4.0 or less and mottles of the pale yellow mineral jarosite are usually abundant. In drained areas, an acid sulfate soil condition is characterized by a red colouration on the soil surface.

Potential acid sulfate soils are much more difficult to determine, because they do not become acidic until after oxidation. The soil can be acidified by exposure to air, but the extent and rate of the acidification process are regulated by chemotrophic bacteria. Bacterial activity is low in dry soil, so it is best if the soil is kept moist. To do this, a soil sample is made into 1 cm thick cake and sealed in a thin plastic bag. The bag preserves the soil moisture and, if thin, is permeable enough to allow oxidation of the pyrite to proceed rapidly. The pH of the soil should be reduced to below 4.0 within one month if it is potential acid sulfate. Considering the many problems associated with acid sulfate soils, a detailed soil survey is well advised before construction is started to develop brackishwater ponds. For determination of the amount of lime which will be required to improve an acid sulfate soil, see Section 12.6. See Section 6.5 for suggestions for methods of construction in acid soil areas and Section 8.2.2 for management procedures. 3.2.3 Percolation rate A knowledge of the rate of percolation of the soil will help in determining the extent of water loss through the pond bottom or dikes and can affect both design and management. If, for instance, a portion of the soil is good clay, it may be better to use this for the puddle trench and/or centre core of the dike. If percolation can occur through the dike, and the dike soil is acid or potentially acid, it would be best to plan on having a positive water head in the pond to prevent acid from being washed into the pond by seepage through the dike. 3.2.4 Depth of topsoil and characteristics of subsoil If the subsoil is unsuitable for the dikes, it may be better to construct the dikes of topsoil, or the poor subsoil can be used for the core of the dikes and the outer surface can be covered with topsoil. If the subsoil is highly acidic, it might be better to leave it undisturbed, reducing the amount of excavation, and filling the pond by pumping instead of tidal flow. 3.2.5 Load bearing capacity This is especially important if heavy equipment is to be used. It also will help determine the number of pilings required under the gates, and the need for special foundations under dikes.

3.3 Biological
3.3.1 Seed resources Determine if fry are available from hatcheries or dealers who obtain stock from the wild. If fry are not to be purchased, the local resource must be assessed to determine the species present and their seasonality of abundance. 3.3.2 Predators, competitors and burrowing organisms The predominant pests vary from area to area and the kind present in a given area may have an effect on management, construction or cost estimates (see Section 9).

Lumnitzera. meaning residents living adjacent to the pond site. Rhizophora.2 Accessibility Accessibility is important for the transport of both construction equipment and materials. or the wooden boats of local people. make sure that travel is possible during the monsoon.4 Vegetation The type of vegetation growing in the area can be an indicator of elevation and soil type. 3. 1976).3. If access to the pond site is by water.Rhizophora. Medium high tide . Following is a listing of some types of mangrove and the tidal zone they are usually associated with (Zinke.3. 3. personal communication. Phoenix Mangrove with growths of Avicennia have good soil and fishponds built on them are generally productive. Nipa and other trees with a high tanin content have a long lasting effect on ponds. if possible the extent of damage caused.Melaleuca. 1975). Ceriops . 3.3 Wood boring organisms Find out if these organisms are a problem in the area. and for daily operations. above ground. This is because there will be a large saving in housing. Bruguiera. Sonneratia . The best way to determine what group causes the damage is to search out and examine old pieces of wood stuck in the ground. This information can affect the decision as to what type of material to use for sluice gate construction (See Section 9). food and other expenses.4. is the cheapest labour which can be obtained. Acrostichum . Costs can increase significantly if materials have to be carried far by hand. 1977).4 Social and economic 3. because if workers are brought in from other areas they will have to be . causing low pH (Jamandre and Rabanal.Avicennia.3. Thespesia High daily (normal tide) Spring high tide Abnormal high tide .4. Sonneratia acida and most other mangroves with the same type of extensive.1 Land cost Land cost should be determined so that economic viability of the project can be evaluated.4. The number of trees and the size of their stumps and root systems is an important factor in the cost of land clearing and excavation. root system usually occur on acid soils which are less suitable for fish-ponds (Padlan. transportation.3 Availability of labour Local labour. 3.Excoecaria.

Ask if a higher price will be paid if heads are removed from the shrimp at the pond. If some materials will have to be imported one should determine if there are any restrictions or extra costs involved.4. machinery.4. Make sure the project does not block a traditional right of way or interfere with work or recreational activities. land ownership laws. the heads can be removed at the pond and used as supplemental feed. recreation. industry. If he will take tails. or loan granting agencies. so that a small market is not flooded. Identify the months when agriculture activities are greatest. Sometimes buyers come to the farm and furnish ice.4 Availability and cost of supplies and equipment It is important to determine whether or not the supplies and equipment you need are available in the local area or the country. stocking and harvesting.). 1976). public utilities. government or university research stations. harvesting or the milling season for sugar (Denila.e.5 Availability of marketing outlets and prices This will have an impact on management. 3. nursery areas. Frequently the variety of inorganic fertilizer is greatly restricted and costs may be higher for nonagricultural use than for agricultural use. It may be difficult to get enough manpower during the time for rice planting.6 Possible legal and institutional constraints This could include such items as: licensing requirements. 3. they will have on the project. This will help in formulating programmes for repair of dikes and gates. as this will greatly affect the funding for labour. Activities to be included would be such things as navigation.4. etc. regulations against importing certain required materials (i.4. If local buyers pay acceptable prices. navigation laws. requiring storage. Fine mesh screening material is generally not available. It is important to know the customs and tradition of the local people. 3. if any. If the shrimp have to be shipped some distance to a market.paid for these expenses. Problems can arise particularly if the activities of local people are disrupted. the best form of management may be to practice partial harvesting. or to harvest one pond at a time. 3.7 Availability of technical assistance This can be from government extension services. 3. 3.9 Competing uses for land and nearby waters The uses of nearby land and water should be assessed to determine what impact. delays in processing applications. fishing. It is recommended that plans for industrial .8 Social or economic impact of the farm on the local area This might be a useful aid in obtaining financial and/or technical assistance. or available only infrequently. Manures or other organic fertilizers might be difficult to obtain. is ice available? Determine if the buyer will accept only whole shrimp or if just tails would be acceptable.4. If not. equipment.4. it might be better to plan to harvest and market large quantities at one time.

5°C. the rate of growth increases with temperature. growth is relatively fast and survival is high. By examining these factors. up to 32. Survival for one month was greatly reduced at 32. That is. No accurate information is available on the minimum depth of water required. while ponds should be designed so that relatively deep water levels can be maintained during the hot dry season. 1975). The effect of wind action on water movement and mixing is not as great in deep ponds as it is in shallow ponds.3). a water depth of 1. Generally.5 60 40 0 The best way to ensure that the temperature of pond water does not become too hot is to provide a greater depth of water. Shading portions of the pond with floating material such as coconut leaves has been found beneficial. temperature between 26 to 30°C are generally considered best in terms of maximum yield. DESIGN CRITERIA REQUIRED BY SHRIMP Most concepts of pond engineering and layout have been developed for culturing fish. however. The physiological requirements and behaviour of shrimp are. So.5 0 0 100 Liao (personal communication) supplied similar data for P. Temperature °C Percent normal shrimp Percent shrimp immobile Percent dead shrimp 30 100 0 0 34 100 0 0 36 50 50 0 38 50 50 0 40 0 25 75 42 0 25 75 42.1 Temperature Both growth and survival are affected by temperature. If interior canals are used.5 m.5 m should be provided if the water is turbid. and no shrimp survived at 35°C (Zein-Eldin and Aldrich. aztecus. suggested that the minimum water depth be at least 0. While each species has its own optimum temperature range. It is. 4.2 and 3. quite different from fish.5 100 30 100 35 100 37. it should be possible to gain an insight into how to construct ponds suitable for shrimp culture. 1965). merguiensis 8. Consequently. the rate of growth was observed to increase with temperature. or by excavating deep channels within the pond for the shrimp to seek shelter in. This can be done by deepening the total pond area.5 cm in length (Piyakarnchana et al. The following table gives results of an experiment to determine the effect of high temperature on survival of P. monodon Temperature °C Percent survival 26. 4. added precautions have to be taken to ensure adequate mixing of the water (see Sections 3. In postlarval stages of P. stratification of water layers as in the case of heavy rains can become dangerous to shrimp.2°C. Temperatures above 32°C should be cause for concern. but at higher temperatures mortality increases. If the water is clear a depth of 2 m is required. in some cases.development include provisions for rural districts as well as industrial districts so that the effects of industrial pollution on both agriculture and aquaculture will be minimized. .

can grow in almost freshwater. indicus require more saline water. the following criteria should be met: a.4. indicus should be located fairly near the coast while those for P. The ability to withstand extremely low salinities varies from species to species. monodon and most Metapenaeus spp. merguiensis and P. e. To prevent high salinity resulting from evaporation. The period of acclimation is important in determining the lowest salinity at which a shrimp can survive.4 ppm when burrowing occurs. Trees with more or less evergreen leaves should be used because if a lot of leaves fall into a pond they may cause problems when they decompose. monodon and Metapenaeus spp. stress is signalled at 1.3 Oxygen Maintenance of adequate levels of dissolved oxygen in the pond water is very important for shrimp. merguiensis was obtained at 27 ppt but that growth was good over the range from 20 to 30 ppt. Sluice gates should be designed to permit the inflowing water for replenishment from the bottom at times when the surface water is of low salinity in the adjacent natural waters. c. it is generally considered that P. P.2 Salinity Young shrimp can tolerate wide fluctuations of salinity. Diversion canals should be provided to divert rain water runoff from adjacent land away from the pond to prevent destruction of dikes and flooding of the pond. There must be a capacity to change pond water rapidly. et al (1975) report that optimal growth of P. Piyakarnchana. b. Changes in salinity should be as gradual as possible because abrupt exposure to very low salinity can cause death. and whenever it is required. except at extremes. japonicus. can be further away from the shore. d. salinity will drop by 50 percent. the same 10 cm of rain will only reduce the salinity by only 17 percent. Prevention of low salinity is best achieved by locating ponds in areas where the normal range of salinity is within that tolerance of the species to be cultured. Very little is known of the salinity tolerance of sub-adult and adult shrimp. P. Many workers have suggested that the minimul level of oxygen needed for good shrimp growth is 2 ppm. This also aids in control of salinity as the greater water volume provides more protection against dilution. Pond water should be at least 50 cm deep for temperature control. For example. Accordingly. Sluice gates must be designed to permit rapid draining of surface water during and after heavy rains. semisulcatus seems to require very saline water. Since the latter requirement is often a problem with tidal ponds pumps might be useful. merguiensis and P. Two studies have been conducted to investigate the short-term effects of low oxygen levels. if a pond 10 cm deep receives 10 cm of rainfall. probably above 10 ppt. All species of Penaeus require almost marine seawater for sexual maturation and spawning. Of the important species cultured in this area. but there are inadequate data to support this conclusion. Even less is known about the tolerance of shrimp to the extremely high salinities which can occur in some shallow ponds when it is not possible to exchange water regularly. In most species salinity has little effect on either survival or growth of postlarvae. MacKay . 4. however. windbreaks such as trees or high dikes may be useful. culture ponds for P. If the pond water is being maintained at a depth of 50 cm. Egusa (1961) reported that for P. To protect against abrupt changes in salinity. f.

Shigueno (1975) reported the estimated percentages of oxygen consumed in one night in a ³polluted´ shrimp pond as follows: Oxygen consumer P. This same condition has been observed with P. Mortality can be reduced in shrimp suffering from a lack of dissolved oxygen if the oxygen level is raised quickly. we can perhaps state that growth should be best at dissolved oxygen levels above 3 ppm. The most effective way to correct low dissolved oxygen levels in such a pond is to reduce the amount of algae. It can be seen that water with a high temperature and salinity holds less dissolved oxygen than does water with low temperature and salinity. bacteria and detritus in the water. Rigdon and Baxter (1970) found that white areas of degenerated tissue in the tail muscles of P.8 69.2 ppm should be considered as a base at which shrimp start to die with even a short exposure.7 ppm during the night (see Section 4. schmitti the majority of shrimp began swimming at the water surface when the level of dissolved oxygen was reduced to 1. Shrimp with this condition frequently died.6). bacteria and detritus was the main consumer of oxygen. . aztecus were associated with low levels of dissolved oxygen and high temperature.2 ppm.2 ppm.6 0. Considering the above. Tables 1 through 4 give the percent solubility of oxygen at saturation and the critical levels for shrimp at different levels of temperature and salinity. and that mortalities will occur after short-term exposure at dissolved oxygen levels below 1.4 The water which includes algae. They then fell to the bottom and became immobile. Ten minutes later the shrimp began jumping out of the water. remedial action is necessary. When the immobile shrimp were placed in well-aerated tanks. The shrimp being cultured are probably not the main consumers of oxygen in a pond with a low level of dissolved oxygen. A common method of expressing the concentration of dissolved oxygen in ponds is to give the percent solubility.(1974) observed that in P. about 50 percent recovered. However. merguiensis in culture ponds. So in formulating guidelines based on the small amount of laboratory information available. perhaps a dissolved oxygen level of 1. When the affected shrimp were placed in well-aerated tanks. however.5 6. This can be done by draining a portion of the pond water and refilling it with clean water.7 14. The same is probably true for shrimp. japonicus Other shrimp Fish Bottom sand Water Percentage (%) 8. Fishery biologists feel that when dissolved oxygen levels reach 3 ppm or below in fishponds. Even less is known of the long-term effects of sublethal dissolved oxygen levels. Consequently a deeper pond would be beneficial in maintaining reduced temperature and providing for increased oxygen solubility which with proper management could result in increased levels of dissolved oxygen. the white areas dissipated within 24 hours and the shrimp became active. this may not always hold true in a pond where several factors interact as Shigueno (1975) recorded a die-off in a pond when the oxygen level reached a low of only 2.

In water with a pH of 6. It can also be used to raise critically low levels. P. Orientation of the long axis of the pond with the prevailing wind during the construction stage. This will result in low pH of the pond water unless the soil is improved. deep ponds. Such stratification can result in oxygen depletion in the lower salt water layer. Water change.2. Increased water movement provides more aeration and can be used to help keep dissolved oxygen levels from falling to a critical point. it may be more economically favourable to use bar ditch type construction and fill the ponds by pumping. . monodon grew without suffering mortalities in water with a pH of 6. a drop in pH that is associated with a loss or rapid reduction of inorganic carbon. (Care must be taken that sufficient depth is maintained to prevent high water temperature.) f. Wickins (1976) found that even though P. Construction of large ponds which allow a greater sweep of wind across the pond. One of the most important causes of low water pH is acid soil (see Section 3. it is suggested that in areas where there is a non-acid topsoil. 4. All the above factors can have an effect on some other aspects of pond management and each factor must be evaluated to assess its effects on the overall scheme in each locality. A fall in pH may have indirect effects also. Sometimes pumping is the only way to do this at the time it is needed. acid sulfate conditions develop when the subsoil is exposed. In such areas it may be more advantageous to orientate the short axis of the pond with the prevailing wind and rely on other means of providing aeration. merguiensis and P.0. When pH fell below 5. Not constructing dikes excessively high so that they block the wind. especially if the pond is deep and there is not much wind. d.Heavy rains can cause stratification of water layers. e. If the land is excavated to make the pond bottom at a level where the pond can be filled and drained using tidal fluctuation. as in areas with strong winds. aztecus exhibited greatly reduced growth and lower survival. wave action might cause excessive dike erosion. can be lethal.4 in the presence of inorganic carbon. resistance of the shrimp to pathogens might be reduced. Installation of aeration equipment y Air blower or compressor with air stones in the pond y Electric water mill y Wind mill c. Considering the cost and difficulty required to improve an acid sulfate subsoil.4 pH A low water pH can affect the shrimp directly. This can be provided by: a. for instance. especially in large. Acid and potential acid sulfate soils are commonly overlaid by good soil which lies above the mean high water level. Provision should be made to promote mixing of water after heavy rains. Caution must be exercised here. especially letting new water into a pond. such as occurs with the addition of a strong acid. All the shrimp in a pond could die if one had to wait several hours for a high tide to let new water in. heavy mortalities occurred.4. However. The lighter freshwater floats on top of the more dense salt water. Lowering the water depth to accentuate the effect of wind action. b. and less than 10 to 12 mg/l of inorganic carbon. Not planting trees on dikes. growth was reduced 60 percent.2). and it might be necessary to provide wind wave breaks near the dike. g.

it should be used to surface dikes of small ponds such as nursery ponds.4 mg NO2-N/l.1 7.5 7.45 mg NH3-N/l reduced growth by 50 percent of that of controls.7 27 20°C 48.5 6.0 7.2 10. As it is more convenient to measure ammonia in terms of total ammonia nitrogen (not free NH3 or unionized ammonia).7 6. semisulcatus and P.2 19.1 4. P.If ponds must be excavated. This is discussed in the following section. the dikes can be made with a berm.1 mg/l unionized ammonia nitrogen in water at a constant pressure of 1 atmosphere at different values of temperature. Ammonia.4 2. Nitrite.5 Nitrogen compounds The following discussion of three forms of nitrogen and the effects of sublethal levels on shrimp growth is based on data presented by Wickins (1976).6 2.1 28°C 27. 1976). Wickins compiled the following table to give values of total ammonia nitrogen which correspond to the value 0.8 20.4 7. the surface layer of good soil can be set aside and replaced as a surface layer on the pond bottom and dikes.2 7. Two tests with nitrate showed that the growth of P. growth was reduced by nearly 50 percent over a period of 34 days when nitrite concentration was 6.9 28°C 26.6 4.9 5.1 16. The concentration of total ammonia nitrogen (in mg/l) that corresponds to a calculated level of 0.7 12.8 4.7 8. Wickins estimated that a ³maximum acceptable level´ at which growth would be reduced by only 1 to 2 percent is 0.7 3.1 8. High pH has an effect on ammonia toxicity because it increases the ratio of toxic unionized ammonia in solution to the total ammonia present.1 5.2 6. setiferus.2 7.8 33 20°C 50.9 (concentration of total ammonia nitrogen (mg/l) . japonicus.6 11.8 4.9 12. This is much more critical in small ponds than in large ponds.9 5.6 4. P.10 mg NH3-N/l.9 10.5 4.8 40.0 28°C 27.3 14.10 mg unionized ammonia (NH3-N) per liter at selected temperatures. Chronic toxicity tests for ammonia were conducted with five species of penaeid shrimp: P.5 2. Nitrate. indicus.6 19. salinity and pH (from Wickins.3 0 20°C 28°C 24 20°C 47.8 28°C 26.9 18.5 16.1 22.9 6.8 17.4 29.0 7. Pond bottom can be leached or limed to reduce or eliminate the acid condition.6 7.1 12.3 12. schmitti.8 30 20°C 49.7 16. This will prevent rains from washing acid from the dikes into the pond water and killing the fry.9 4. and a ditch can be cut in the berm to catch acid water runoff and prevent it from contaminating the pond water (Potter. If the amount of good soil is limited.4 30. P. The tests showed that a mean concentration of 0.3 2. In areas where there is not enough good topsoil to surface dikes.8 7.4 31.4 31. occidentalis. 1976) Salinity Temperature pH 6.2 17. 4. In a test with P. salinity and pH.2 2.4 25.2 10.5 10. monodon was not affected by a concentration of 200 mg NO3-N/l after three to five weeks exposure.

salinity of 24 ppt and pH of 6.1 1. An additional factor is that when dissolved oxygen levels are low. or in. thus increasing the level of ammonia in the water. so it is not likely that the level of H2S in the water was lethal.3 1. In water with a temperature of 28°C.093 ppm. However.0 to 8. japonicus) lost equilibrium when exposed to a level of 0.1 0. an increased level of dissolved oxygen reduces toxicity (Spotte. In the pond water it exceeded 0.6 Hydrogen sulfide Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in a pond is produced by the chemical reduction of organic matter which accumulates on.5 1. is important.4. 1970). the greater the production of ammonia. again above the lethal limit.2 8.2 2.7 1.4 2. the critical level of 0. Most of the ammonia in a pond is formed as waste products of the organisms which are living in the pond.09 ppm.8 3.2 0.8 1.1 1.0 1.8 From the table it can be seen that pH has a major effect. If these are present the danger of ammonia build-up will be reduced. efforts should be concentrated on keeping ammonia levels low.1 2. it is very difficult to control the species of algae growing in a pond.0 1. the bottom.3 1.1 to 2.3 and in ponds with a good growth of phytoplankton.8 3. It has been determined experimentally by Shigueno (1975) that shrimp (P. the pond bottom.1 mg/l. The higher the density of both the species being cultured and the organisms cultured for food. Some species of planktonic algae such as Chlorella sp.7 3. In water with a temperature of 28°C.8. The simplest way to prevent the build-up of ammonia and other harmful substances is by changing water on a regular basis.8.8 3. or in. Dissolved oxygen level in the water did not fall below 2. nitrates are reduced to ammonia. pH values of 9 and above are common in the late afternoon.2 0.1 1.3 2.0 ppm hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in water. The bottom soil turns black and sometimes a rotten smell is discharged. The normal pH of brackishwater is 8.9 1. a build-up of H2S in the bottom soil.2 2.8 mg/l.3 1. soil on the bottom of 3.4 1. The shrimp died instantly at a concentration of 4 ppm. A die-off of shrimp occurred in this pond.0 0. Studies in one pond showed that the concentration of sulfide-sulfur (mostly H2S) in interstitial water 2 cm deep in the pond bottom reached as high as 10 ppm. .2 0. or in water near the bottom. salinity of 24 ppt and pH of 8.0 8. A decrease in dissolved oxygen also increases the toxicity of unionized ammonia. can utilize ammonia and nitrate directly. a level of 0.7 1. but there is a danger that ammonia production will exceed the capacity of the pond to convert the ammonia rapidly enough to prevent it from exceeding toxic levels.037 to 0. varying from 0. As shrimp live primarily on. Shrimp burried in the bottom draw in water from above the pond cottom. 4. Ammonia will eventually be converted to nitrate.8 1. As there is not much that can be done to modify this and still keep pond production high.7 ppm. To determine the longer term effects of H2S on shrimp.6 1. with the percentage of toxic unionized ammonia being much greater at high pH than at low pH.3 m3 tanks were treated with an application of iron oxide (70% ferrous oxide [FeO]) at the rate of 1 kg per m2.1 mg/l unionized ammonia occurs when the total ammonia level is only 0. Conversely.1 mg/l unionized ammonia occurs when the total ammonia level is 26.

a. Internal dikes can be built to break up wind waves and prevent erosion. pond designs calling for either a sloping or flat pond bottom need not be followed. and if no vegetation is growing. provide protection from poachers. Some food organisms grow best in shallow water. Clusters of branches placed around the pond provide protection from predators. The bottom can be left uneven or contoured in any way that permits complete drainage of pond water. should not be blocked unless a water diversion canal is constructed to carry off drainage water. A floating board or piece of bamboo raft with branches attached to the bottom is suitable and it also provides shade. shrimp in the treated tanks had an average weight gain of 204 percent while suffering only 4. These areas also serve as holding areas when water level is reduced for economy of chemical application. treatment of only the canals with FeO might be practical. LAYOUT 5. c. and provide a place for food organism to grow.7 Bottom contour As the behaviour of shrimp permits harvesting by other than the collection methods traditionally used for fish. 4.8 Structures for attachment P.4 percent mortality.This prevents the formation of H2S and FeO is formed instead. A buffer zone should be left for protection against erosion. b. A pond can be built with the traditional ditch type construction using manual labour. 4. Shrimp in the tank without FeO had an average weight gain of only 150 percent and a mortality rate of 20. Portions can be excavated so that the deeper water provides shelter for the shrimp. Their growth can be encouraged by leaving a portion of the pond with a shallow depth. This can have several benefits. but frequent changes of water would prevent the build-up of H2S in the pond water. or other paths of runoff. The bottom can be left flat.8 percent. Mangrove should not be cleared from these areas. Construction costs are much less than for total excavation. Monodon like to cling to some surface at all life stages. It might not be practical to treat bottoms of large ponds with FeO. some should be planted. 5. as most of the organic debris is deposited in these canals and H2S production should be greater in them. e. The shrimp in the tank with the treated bottom grew significantly better than those in the untreated tank. help prevent cannibalism during moulting.1 General It is usually not a good practice to extend the pond area to the waters edge along the sea or a major river or canal. Small streams. If ponds are constructed with peripheral canals. d. Water which can not be drained from areas adjacent to . but especially during the postlarval and early juvenile stages. After a 68-day growing period. There is no need for a harvest basin.

Water should be taken in at one corner of a pond and discharged from the opposite corner. c. the sediments are eventually deposited in the canals where they can be most easily removed. Ponds can be filled better and water will not be contaminated by the discharge from other ponds. Areas with a high level of silt or mud in the incoming water have special problems. it may be necessary to construct a small setting pond in which the silt can be trapped before the water enters the growing pond. while another farmer wants the water level low so he can harvest shrimp. b. The spread of disease from one pond to another is encouraged because water from one pond can enter another. This can reduce water loss through leaks in the pond dikes. This is best achieved by placing the gates near the corner on the short side of a pond. A single canal for intake and discharge of water from a pond complex has the following disadvantages: a. b. the main water supply gate should not be located either at a bend in a river or facing the open sea. A constant head can be maintained in the intake canal. The chance of spreading disease is reduced greatly. Water that is fouled with H2S. For instance. because under this condition. ammonia or other contaminants can move from one pond to another. shrimp ponds should have separate water intake and discharge canals. It also cuts down seepage of water through the dikes and consequently reduces leaching of acid into the ponds from dikes with acid sulfate soils. . It is important to place the sluice gate so incoming water sets up a good circulation of water within a pond. If a single gate is used for both intake and discharge water. 5. d. because letting in water is sometimes the only way to break up stratified pond water and prevent shrimp die-offs. one farmer might want water in the supply canal high so he can harvest milkfish. This is especially important for large pond complexes with extensive canal systems. exchange within the pond will be poor.2 Water distribution system If possible. Ponds with internal canals along the dikes are good. If it can be located elsewhere. In an area facing a mud flat. All water drained from the ponds is usually not completely discharged from the canal and some of it will reenter the ponds the next time water is taken in. Separate water intake and discharge canals in a pond complex have the following advantages: a.ponds can sometimes seep into a pond in sufficient volume so that the pond bottom cannot be dried. e. This is an important point. Water at the far end is just moved toward the front during draining and then pushed back when new water is taken in. There can be a conflict between farmers concerning usage. c. These areas are subject to strong currents and wave action which can cause damage to the gate which result in costly repairs.

The relative size of pond units and a suggested scheme of management for P. transferring fry from nursery to growing ponds. etc.3. b. Small predators which could enter through a hold would not be much of a problem in a grow-out pond. 5. c. fast growth is resumed. This is because the large surface area for runoff increases the chances for undesirable substances such as silt. For growth to a large size. or predators could enter. No conflict of usage should occur between farmers. See Section 7. The total area must be used all. For growing to a medium size. a constant head for continuous flowthrough can be maintained. The bottom should be contoured to permit adequate drainage so the shrimp will move to the sluice gate and on to the next pond as a pond is drained. In polyculture operations fish fry and shrimp fry should have separate nurseries. e. and a rearing pond would be preferable.3 Pond layouts It was brought out during the discussion that shrimp in extensive ponds with no feeding. 5. the shrimp are moved progressively from the NP to the TP to the RP on a set time schedule as they grow larger. 5. if there are crab holes or other leaks in the periperal dikes. Flow-through systems can be used. and RP ponds should be adjacent. Thus. TP. or almost all. RP = 3. acid. In monoculture operations. If the shrimp are placed in another pond with a good supply of natural food. but they could be dangerous in a nursery. A layout of this type is shown in Figure 2. to be washed into the nursery. With pumping. It is difficult to transfer shrimp from one pond to another without killing or injuring a number of them. Also. a transition pond (TP). The recommended size relation of the ponds to each other is : NP = 1. nursery ponds should not be adjacent to large perimeter dikes. f.d. This is because it is difficult to estimate numbers if the harvest from one nursery is split between two or more rearing ponds. of the time. d. a threestage progression composed of a nursery pond. A better exchange of water is provided for individual ponds. g. The pond bottom elevation should decrease from NP to TP to RP to permit drainage of water and aid in the transfer of shrimp. but after that time. growth is reduced greatly. A layout of this type is shown in Figure 1. the fry could escape. e. generally grow well for two months. f.3.6. The following design criteria are suggested for progression type pond systems: a.2 Progression system with one nursery. one transition and one rearing pond In this system. the yield from one nursery pond should go to one rearing pond. monodon culture is as follows: . The NP.1 Progression system with one nursery pond and three rearing ponds The nursery is operated continuously and drained into the rearing ponds on a monthly rotation scheme so that the total area of rearing ponds is in almost continuous use. If possible. The growing period in the nursery pond is one month and in the rearing ponds is three months. it appears that a progressive method of shrimp culture is advisable when no supplementary feeding is practiced. a two-stage progression composed of a nursery pond (NP) and a rearing pond (RP) is adequate.

2 Dikes 6. The point at which the water level was lowest is marked on the stake. All low depressions should be filled in before dike construction is started. This serves as the base line for determination of all elevations in the pond system (Denila./ha) 58 000 18 000 12 000 Size of shrimp (g) at at stocking harvest 1 8 22 8 22 33 6. Drive a semi-permanent stake in front of the area where the main gate will be constructed to mark the lowest point of the tide. When measuring tide. From a tide table select the days with the lowest tides. The crown should be no less than 0. 1976). If measurements cannot be taken during the lowest critical tide of the year. . The following slopes are recommended for dikes built with good clay soil. ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION 6. b. c. the portion of the dike running across these should be constructed first. preferably at the location of the main gate.) 1 3 8 2 2 2 Stocking rate (No. they should be taken during the lowest and highest tides of the month. When the area is crossed by creeks or rivers.5 to 1 m wide depending on the size of the dike.5 to 1 m deep and 0. If possible the measurements should be made during the time when the lowest critical tides of the year occur.1 The following specifications are recommended for dikes: a. and the O datum level is also marked on the stake.5 m.Type of pond Nursery Transition Rearing Relative size of Growing period pond (mos. The main dike surrounding the farm should be 0.26 m and exposed to wave action y 1:1 when dike height is less than 4. The dimensions of the trench should be 0. taking note of the O datum or mean lower low water (MLLW). The time of year when the lowest critical tides occur can be obtained from the tide tables.1 Tidal fluctuation and elevation of pond structures The relationship between tidal fluctuation and the elevation of the various components in a pond system is very important. the following steps should be followed: a.2. 6. A puddle trench is essential to prevent water seepage under the dike. To determine this the tidal elevation must be measured at the pond site. and the dike height is less than 1 m d. The earth should be packed as it is replaced into the trench. This is then correlated to O datum by use of the tide table. e. y 2:1 when dike height is above 4.5 cm above the highest tide or flood level recorded in the locality. The actual width depends upon the activities which will be performed during culture operations.26 m and the tidal range is greater than 1 m y 1:2 when the tidal range is 1 m or less. b.

. This might include transportation. The amount of rainfall which must be carried off in a given period of time.f. slaked lime can also be added to a cut made in the berm. Then build the height to . tidal ponds cannot be drained during high tide. The time requirements for filling or draining the ponds. damage caused by their burrowing can be prevented by incorporating a bamboo screen or plastic film in the puddle trench during construction. Growth of cover on the completed dike should be encouraged to prevent erosion (see Section 8. The volume of water which will be held in the ponds. the following formula can be used: The area of the cross section is then multiplied by the length of dike to get the amount of soil required. e. For instance. This allows the base to consolidate so it can support the weight of the top portion. First.3 Canals Canals which are to be used for harvesting should be 30 cm below the level of the pond bottom.2 Control of erosion and leakage a. Mangrove or other branch placed at the water's edge will retard erosion of the dikes. holding broodstock. This will minimize the effects of wave action on the dikes. To calculate the cross-sectional area of a dike to determine the amount of soil needed. 6. but a pond built at a higher elevation and filled by pumping may be drained during any tidal phase. Easily applied as a powder it sets up hard on contact with water. b. Elevation of the canal bottom in relation to tide. build the dike to of its final height all the way around the pond. The width of the canals depends on the amount of water they must carry. Construction should be in stages. i.2. harvesting milkfish. The same materials can be placed in a cut made in the berm to repair damage. A berm built on the inside of the dikes should be slightly above the water line. b. Other uses. etc. c. and finally to its full height. c. e. In large ponds small submerged dikes can be built 10±15 m from the dikes during construction. 6.2. A berm is also an advantage when it is necessary to dig out and replace soil to repair damage caused by crab holes. d. d. To stop leaks. h. During construction 15 to 20 percent excess height should be allowed for shrinkage due to settling. In areas where burrowing organisms are a known problem.2). The following factors must be taken into account: a. Mangrove can be planted at the water's edge. Wind waves will break up on these submerged dikes and the water control dikes will not be damaged (Figure 15). g.

Concrete gates. repairs will be costly and there may still be no guarantee for safety. Otherwise. bamboo stakes are driven into the ground as far as they will go. That there is adequate reinforcement against side pressure from the dike and water. a. If construction is faulty or the design is inadequate. Anti-seep boards or collars will prevent lateral seepage and resultant washouts.6. i. The stakes are cut off. b. certain requirements that all gates at a shrimp pond should meet. boards 5 × 15 cm and 1. leaving a sufficient length to penetrate into the concrete slab.8 m long should be driven across the place where the gate slab will lay. Gates to be used in ponds with deeper water. the gates might not hold water. a. Gates should be made of locally available products. There are. There should be a row of boards directly under the centre of the gate. if not properly constructed. j. the side boards can be placed inside the support bracing. especially with concrete gates. A rubber liner of automobile inner tube attached to the closure boards helps to make a good water-tight seal. In gates designed for use in ponds with shallow water such as for lab-lab culture.4 Water control gates There are numerous types and sizes of water control gates. A gate should first of all be of adequate capacity for the amount of water required to be taken in or drained. The stakes should be 30 cm apart. It must have slots or grooves for the placement of screens on the outside to keep trash undesirable species out of the pond. To make a strong foundation. Construction of gates has to be supervised closely. below the wall and apron and under each end. one or two-piece boards. It should be easy to operate. b. If there are closure boards. It must have provision for draining surface water from the pond. It should be durable. e. g. The following four basic considerations should be taken into account when constructing gates. c. This allows the boards to be replaced easily when they decay. f. Winches can be used to remove boards. c. If workmanship is poor. the sides might slope and different length boards would be needed for each level. It should have a place to install a net for harvesting during draining. and on the inside to prevent shrimp from leaving the pond. . This allows the use of heavier. The bottom of the gate must be at an elevation which permits all the water to be drained. It should be constructed so that water can be taken in and discharged at the bottom. however. That the concrete is properly mixed and cured. would be better made of wood. h. It should be water-tight. such as for plankton culture. Also in multilane gates. d. should have the side boards placed outside the support bracing. To prevent under-cutting. the widths might vary and the boards would not be interchangeable. That the foundation is adequate. That measures are taken to prevent under-cutting by seepage of water along the sides and bottom of the gate. d. they would become loosened and water leaks would occur. all should be interchangeable. This is necessary because the greater pressure pushes the side boards inward and if the boards were inside the bracing. and construction can be of many kinds of materials.

more acid will be washed from them during rains. special procedures are sometimes advisable in order to ensure pond fertility and prevent mortalities due to low pH. a method of construction can be used in which the soil is kept moist so it will not be oxidized and become highly acid. the nursery ponds should not be located next to large main dikes. and after the excavated portions have aged. e. If the top layer of good topsoil is thick enough. Mortar must not be applied more than 0. . the mixture of cement to sand to gravel should be 1:2. If acid soil. c. f. The economics has to be calculated for every farm to determine if such procedures are advisable. If dikes are constructed of acid soils. centre to centre. but has high potential acidity. 6. Excavate alternate 10 or 20 m wide strips within the pond and leave the strips between undisturbed. d. the mixture should be one part cement to seven parts sand. Scrap off the topsoil and set it aside. This is recommended. alternate strips can be excavated twice as deep as necessary and then good soil from the unexcavated portion is placed in the deep portions to level the pond bottom. because runoff is much greater from the large dikes than small ones. Spacing of steel reinforcing bars should be 40 cm. Both hollow blocks and poured concrete walls should be at least 15 cm thick. The pond is used for culture for several years. the pond system should be designed to ensure that there is a minimum amount of seepage through the dikes into the ponds. 1976). In some cases. g. or potentially acid soil. i. Excavate the pond by sections. and as a result. Drainage canals should be constructed around the pond to make sure water does not stand there. If concrete hollow blocks are used.6 cm (¼ inch) thick. The amount of water added should be 22. A berm can be constructed near the water's edge to catch acid runoff during rains and prevent it from washing into the ponds.5:5 (Class B) for the wall and 1:2:4 (Class A) for the flooring. If the subsoil is not very acid.2 cm (½ inch) diameter are used for vertical reinforcement and 1 cm (3/8 inch) bars for horizontal. This is done by covering the concrete with sacks and keeping the sacks moist for the whole 21day period (Denila.2 liters per 45 kg bag of cement. If the dikes are to be constructed of acid soil. Bars of 1. the remaining strips are excavated. The concrete should be cured (hydrated) for 21 days. The proportion of cement to sand should be 1:3 in mortar for finishing. Then after the pond has been excavated.If poured concrete is used. pumps might be required to fill this type of pond. This can be accomplished by having the pond water inside the pond higher than water outside the pond. has to be used for dike construction. h. b. Some of the things which can be done are: a. Excavate only enough soil from internal canals to construct the dikes and leave as much topsoil undisturbed as possible to serve as the pond bottom. This is advantageous because acid runoff during rains has a greater effect in small ponds since the ratio of pond area to dike area is more critical. replace the topsoil over the pond bottom to cover the poor subsoil.5 Construction in areas with acid sulfate soils In areas with acid sulfate subsoils. the dikes bordering small nursery ponds can be surfaced with good topsoil.

if one is lazy the others will also follow. A lantern is suspended in front of the closed sluice gate. and for the job or year.6 Labour Every man should always have his own specific job or area in which to work.1. If work is done individually. and the rapid flow of water carries the postlarval shrimp into the pond. These postlarvae are available. the others will do the same.6. Even if work is done in a group.. After allowing sufficient time for the shrimp to accumulate. the water surface is slapped loudly to scare away the fish fry. This point is especially important to small artisanal farmers who can utilize their own labour to collect wild post-larvae.1 Supply of postlarvae from wild stock It is not always necessary. the shrimp are released to a larger pond where they are grown to marketable size. time records should be kept to find out the number of working hours for each person (Denila. The sluice gate is then opened. This is because when the job is done in a group. In many areas. or even desirable. The main problems with this practice is that many undesirable organisms enter the ponds with the postlarval shrimp and stocking density of the shrimp is usually unknown.1 Postlarvae entering ponds with incoming water In Thailand. 7. The shrimp fry are not disturbed by the noise. naturally occurring fry are taken into the ponds with incoming water and held for varying periods of time until they grow to a larger size. . and there is no need to wait for hatchery technology to be developed. and they swim away. Postlarvae are attracted by lights. Give rewards for the highest earner of the week. and the Philippines.2. a chemical that at the recommended dosage. 1976). An improved method is to take unfiltered seawater containing fry into a nursery pond as frequently as tidal conditions permit. but the fish fry are. If one goes to the toilet two times a day. a characteristic which can be utilized to increase the number of shrimp entering a pond at night. 7. there are abundant supplies of naturally occurring postlarvae which can be utilized at a fraction of the cost of hatchery-produced postlarvae. Teaseed cake. kills fish but not shrimp (see also Section 9. The best way to get the maximum output from pond workers is to promote competition among them. SEED STOCK 7. Camelia sp. the pond water is treated with teaseed cake at a rate of 10 to 25 ppm. contains saponin. Great care should be taken in selecting the foreman for the success of the job will depend on him. After 30 days. It is important that accurate records of work accomplished are kept and that the awarding of prizes is based on the records. Malaysia.1). Singapore. to use hatchery stock for grow-out operations. others cannot complain that two or three of them are earning better. a residue from the processing of wild tea. Indonesia. After the fish are killed.

the average number of P. An improved method is to collect the postlarvae in fine mesh nets (Fig.1. indicus caught per hour of sampling was 13 275.7. Collections of shrimp are made during low tide by placing a scoop net under the bunch twigs as it is lifted up. scoop nets are run through the grass. M. usually for polyculture with milkfish (Chanos chanos). In grassy areas. To collect postlarvae the tray is lifted and placed in a tank on a boat. or sluice gates. c. The best time to collect fry is on the rising high tide during the period of the new moon when tidal fluctuation is greatest. for instance. The nets are fished on incoming tides. monoceros even though they are available in substantial numbers. . P. e. with or without cod ends. ensis or M. The line. while for P. a. Tray method. water supply canals. For P. This shrimp's habit of clinging to objects has been put to good use in the first three methods. d. Small bunches of branches or twigs are fixed in the bottom in shallow areas. Shrimp are collected by placing a scoop net under the lure and then lifting up the lure and net to the surface. in rivers and in estuaries. During October. Lure lines made from bunches of saltwater grass (Paspalum vaginatum) or twigs suspended from ropes are used along beaches. by funnelling large organisms like jellyfish into the collecting net and causing it to become clogged. about 20 m in length. they could be farmed successfully throughout the region. semisulcatus and P. sometimes wings can do more harm than good. is strung out with stick supports to keep it above the water surface. Trays are baited with mud which is high in organic content suspended off the bottom. merguiensis. monodon usually occurs in only limited numbers. They state that large numbers of P. such as P. monodon the highest average monthly catch rate per hour during two years of sampling was 190. indicus are sometimes caught during the second hour. P. monodon fry to farmers. It is not necessary to attach wings to this type of collecting net if the water current is fast. indicus is during the third. wings are needed. Milkfish fry collectors in Indonesia and the Philippines separate and sell P. semisulcatus. are used along the beaches. In mouths of small rivers or bays where tidal flaws are small. monodon. Methods of collection which have been developed for P. fourth and fifth hours of the rising tide. indicus was by far the more abundant species captured by a ³shooting net´. In fact. Subrahmanyan and Rao (1970) report that the best catch for P. and if pond conditions were improved. They can be either hand or boat-operated. are cultured in some areas. it was only 68.2 Collecting wild fry There is only limited use of collected wild postlarvae at present. and in rivers and estuaries. Several lines are worked at one time. Many of these shrimp. merguiensis. Push nets and scissor nets. The bundles or lures are suspended from the line at short intervals and rest in the water. b. They normally do not separate and sell other penaeid species such as P. It is important that the net be attended to constantly and the catch removed to a holding container at short intervals. 3) placed in tidal passes.

but after a short while. The same characteristics which are used to distinguish adult penaeids can be used to identify postlarvae. semisulcatus are coloured rust-brown. et al (1975) found that postlarvae of P. P. When the pigment chromatophores expand. The various parts of the shrimp are illustrated in Figure 4. a. b. a collector will be able to distinguish penaeids readily.7.2 Separating fry In most methods of collecting. These frequently occur in great abundance. the animal most commonly mistaken for postlarval shrimp is Acetes spp. they must be sorted manually. As it is time consuming to separate the fry manually. the body at about 45° angle. colourless antennae. the first three pairs of walking legs have chelae (pinchers) and the first abdominal segment overlaps the second. bright orange antennae which have a prominent sharp bend in them. Other species of Penaeus may also be pigmented. directed posteriorly. only Penaeus and Metapenaeus postlarvae should be found in inshore waters in this region. monodon postlarvae. Probably. monodon and P. When the fish are dead. but can be easily distinguished by their long. semisulcatus and has a distinctive habit of swimming with its head lower than its tail. while Metapenaeus are relatively short and stout. as postlarvae of all the species indigenous to the region have not been described. and their eyes do not extend laterally at a 90° angle (Sergestidae). postlarval shrimp do not have statocysts (in live animals these appear like small bright spots to the naked eye) on the tail (Mysidacea). monodon and P. Separating species of penaeids from each other is a little more difficult. a prominent bluish or reddish-brown streak appears on the ventral side of the body in P. Initially. as they are quite distinctive. but are parallel. The fry are sorted by placing them in a box with walls of mosquito netting. semisulcatus can be separated by the following characteristics (Fig. . Screen and light. however. Postlarval shrimp have short. it is usually necessary to use a microscope to observe these characteristics in postlarvae. The top should be covered so that light can not penetrate and the interior remains dark. 6). First. however. The shrimp fry are then sorted from the other unwanted fry. Metapenaeus are generally coloured a mottled grey or brown. This procedure eliminates the tedious job of separating the shrimp from fish fry by sorting individually. the shrimp can be stocked directly with no further separation if there are no crab larvae present. P. In addition. monodon is longer than P.3 Identifying fry Sometimes there can be confusion about the identity of the shrimp collected. The uropods of Mysidacea are not spread fan-like as in shrimp. the water in the holding container is treated with compounds like saponin which kill fish but not shrimp (see Section 9. The fry will swim out towards the light and the large predators and trash will be left in the box. After the catch is completed. Chemical treatment.2). If crabs are present. Postlarvae within the genus Penaeus are generally almost colourless. some time will be required to identify the various forms. In P. Prawirodihardjo. and prevents the accidental stocking of fish. 7. In penaeid shrimp. However. semisulcatus. the chromatophores are prominent only on the sixth (last) segment. Some guides to gross visual identification are presented in Figure 5. Penaeus postlarvae are long and thin. (Sergestidae). the fry are mixed with many unwanted pests. other methods may be tried.

monodon Brown pigment distributed evenly but . One reddish-brown chromatophore (b) at the anterior end of the sixth abdominal segment laterally. one approach to identification is to rear the young postlarvae in aquaria until they reach identifiable size. indicus b Penaeus semisulcatus Penaeus monodon Some areas have such a large number of indigenous species of Penaeus that identification might be difficult. 1970) Five to seven reddish-brown (or yellowish) chromatophores on the ventral side of the sixth (a) abdominal somite. The ventral chromatophores on the sixth abdominal segment appears as a bluish or reddish-brown streak in expanded condition P.P.inner lateroposterior margin as continuation of inner lateroposterior margin pigmentation of inner plate. SEMISULCATUS (Subrahmanyan and Rao. One reddish-brown chromatophore at the anterior end of the sixth abdominal segment laterally More than eight chromatophores on the ventral side of the sixth abdominal somite. No lateral chromatophore on the sixth abdominal segment anteriorly. PROVISIONAL KEY FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF POSTLARVAL PENAEUS MONODON. P. - Exopod of uropod is mostly unpigmented. Only posterior part of endopod of uropods pigmented.more intensively on posterior part of telson Endopod of uropod may be totally or partly pigmented - P. Exopod of uropod mostly with small blotch on the . One reddish-brown chromatophore at the anterior end of the sixth abdominal segment present or absent Eight to eleven reddish-brown (sometimes bluish) chromatophores on the ventral side of the sixth abdominal somite. In such places. INDICUS AND P. One or two reddish-brown chromatophores are also present on the dorsal side of each abdominal segment Fourteen to nineteen reddish-brown (sometimes bluish) chromatophores on the ventral side of the sixth abdominal segment. .in some cases with a small blotch on the . semisulcatus Brown pigment distributed only on the anterior base and about one-third posterior tip of telson.

If these fry die a farmer will know to check his pond carefully and arrange for restocking. It is better to stock directly into a pond than use hapa nets. This practice is particularly . Then they should be screened thoroughly and placed in clean water to eliminate as much trash as possible. Hapa nets have been found to give poor survival. The bag is then placed in a container which is impermeable to oxygen. double bags should be used. Two fist size pieces of ice in a plastic bag are placed in the container alongside the bag holding the postlarvae. if necessary. A good practice is to keep a few postlarvae in a container with pond water and watch them for several days. b. better results can be obtained by placing the bags in an impermeable container and sealing the container tightly. The container is then sealed shut with tape. as follows: Total length 10 mm Total length 17±18 mm Total length 20±24 mm = 15 000 = 5 000 = 3 000 Soft twigs can be placed inside the bag for the postlarvae to attach to so they do not group together on the bottom. a. so as a safety measure. It is better to make shipments at night. but kept in the shade.5 to 3.4 Fry transport The most common method of transporting shrimp fry is in plastic bags filled with oxygen. Next sufficient oxygen is added to fill the bag which is then sealed with elastic bands or string. So when post-larvae are to be shipped for long periods of time. One of the problems with stocking directly into a rearing pond is that it is almost impossible to tell if the fry survive. The following points should be considered when using plastic bags for shipment. This can be done in well-prepared nursery ponds or tanks. Decomposition of the trash depletes oxygen and the trash itself serves as nutrients for harmful bacteria. The most commonly used polyethylene bag is 50 × 75 cm. A farmer usually stocks a pond then has to wait until the shrimp grow before he knows if they lived or died.7. If this polyethylene bags are used. Then the shrimp are added. Small amounts of activated charcoal can be added to the bags to absorb harmful waste materials produced by the shrimp. 7. Postlarvae should be held without food for several hours before packing. The bag is then closed down so there is no air in it. Styrofoam is preferable if it is available. shrimp should not be held in the bag for more than six hours without a change of water and new oxygen. Five to six liters of water are put in the bag.5 Holding and growing small postlarvae to a larger size for stocking It is better to hold and grow shrimp to a size of 2. c.0 cm than it is to stock small postlarvae directly into rearing ponds. Thin polyethylene bags are permeable to oxygen. d. The ice is to cool the water and reduce metabolism of the shrimp. The bags can be punctured easily. The shrimp can then be transported for one day with a survival rate of 90 to 100 percent. only water. Containers holding fry should not be exposed to the sun.

Postlarvae are grown in shallow oval shaped tanks in which airlift pumps keep the water circulating and maintain food particles in suspension.3 for salinity measurement). The young shrimp should be kept in a nursery pond for from two weeks to one month. the shrimp should be acclimatized gradually to pond conditions to prevent death or damage from the shock of rapid change in temperature or salinity. but usually a half-day is adequate. A daily exchange of 25 to 50 percent of water in the tank is recommended. After the postlarvae are added to the tank. or until they reach an average size of 2.5. rice bran (20%). b. The fry are fed 100 percent of their estimated body weight daily. c. A round plastic tank with a bottom area of 25 m2 and depth of 60 cm has been used effectively without aeration. Survival was found to be lower at higher densities and in tanks without soil on the bottom. Some farmers keep the fry in plastic shipping bags and float the bag in the pond water for a short time to acclimatize them. Boxes made from marine plywood. Rate of stocking is 2 000 to 4 000 P10 (P. 1973) is being adapted for use in this region. because the chance for disease is greater in hatchery-produced fry. . the water in the tank is gradually adjusted to pond salinity and temperature (see Section 12. a. However. the floating technique will reduce losses. Water in the tank should be adjusted to near the temperature and salinity of the water in which the shrimp were transported.2 × 2. The period of adjustment depends on how much the temperature and salinity must be changed.4 m) and 2 feet (0. A more complex tank system developed in the United States (Mock et al. Feed is Acetes meal (40%). merguiensis) per m2. or 250 000 per hectare. It is best to use a tank with aeration for acclimatization.6 m) deep.2 × 2. Stocking density is 10 000 postlarvae per m2 and survival is usually over 90 percent. It is constructed from marine plywood. 7.5 cm.2 Nursery tanks Several types of culture tanks have been found useful. Dimensions of the tank are 4 × 8 feet (1. it would be more harmful to keep them in the bags exposed to unfavourable conditions (Spotte.recommended for fry obtained from hatcheries. In cases where temperatures are nearly the same and the shrimp are healthy.1 Nursery ponds When nursery ponds are used. 7. After one month the shrimp reach an average size of 30 mm and survival is from 60 to 95 percent. such as would occur on a long trip. ground fish and pelleted fish food. Feed is mussel meat. The bottom is covered with 10 cm of sandy garden soil.5. Aeration is provided by air stones. This method should not be used without aeration. The fry can be stocked at fairly high densities in nursery ponds. The fry should not be released into a nursery pond during the heat of the day. coconut oil cake (20%) and cassava flour (20%). One-half of the water volume is changed daily.4 m) and 4 feet deep. A small wooden unit suitable for individual use is shown in Figure 8. if they have been subjected to low oxygen levels and high levels of carbon dioxide and ammonia. Evening is best. up to 25 per square meter. 1970). Dimensions are 4 × 8 feet (1. An initial stocking rate of 10 000 to 50 000 of postlarvae 5±6 mm long per box results in 70 to 90 percent survival to a size of 25 mm.

suppressing growth of more desirable species. Transfer should be done by making them move with water flow. They can be scooped out periodically and transferred to suitable containers for carrying to the growing pond. They can be caught in the out-flowing water with a minimum of injury by using a net of the same design as that shown in Figure 3. One way of doing this would be to lower the water level so the temperature of the pond is increased. This makes the shrimp become active. Following are recommendations for water change in different types of culture. They can exert small effects on growth which pass by unnoticed. Or a species not well suited as a food organism may become dominant. In a pond where water is not changed for a long period of time. If heavy rains dilute the pond water. Transfer at the time of month when tidal amplitude is greatest. Transfer at night. all the desirable food organisms may be eaten. species dominant in the pond might not be well suited for growth at the lower salinity. monodon. In a pond with static water. 8. Let a little water into the pond on the high tide preceding the transfer. 8.1 Water change Changing water has a beneficial effect on water quality in a pond. d. Change pond conditions to make the shrimp become active and ready to move out of the pond. poor production (see Section 3). this would be on every high tide. If the growing pond is not adjacent to the nursery pond. This is not always easy to accomplish. Such occurrences do not always result in mass mortality which would be easily recognized. This procedure ensures entry of the maximum number of young shrimp and brings in food organisms. The pond is then drained on the next low tide. The following methods are suggested for inducing shrimp to move with the flow of water during transfer from one pond to another: a. and use a light to attract the shrimp to the sluice gate.1. As the water is drained from the nursery pond the young shrimp are caught in the floating catch box.1 Traditional extensive type management Water should be changed as often as possible. The net is fastened to a wood frame which is placed in the sluice gate. however. b. The end result is the same. accumulation of waste products or depletion of trace metals or organic compounds can have a harmful effect on shrimp. POND MANAGEMENT 8.7.6 Transfering fry from nursery to growing ponds It is difficult to harvest shrimp or transfer from one pond to another without injuring or killing a large number of them. especially with P. Frequent water exchange is also beneficial in introducing new food organisms to a pond. c. . Ordinarily. the shrimp must be caught and transported. These will die off or grow slowly.

acids are formed and pH of the water is lowered. Fertilizer is applied after every change of water. This makes more nutrients available for plant growth. water is flowed through the pond at a rate sufficient to change 3 percent of the water daily. When changing water. the benefits from loosening the pond bottom never justified the expense.2 Pond preparation 8.1. a.2. Two types of water exchange which have been used successfully in ponds are described below. 8. This type of pond should be flushed thoroughly after drying. It also reduces the production of H2S and other harmful substances that would be produced during anaerobic reduction of the organic material when the pond is full of water. Decomposing food can easily use up all the dissolved oxygen in the water near the bottom. the flow of water is increased. During the drying process pyrites can be oxidized.3 Feeding type management This type of management requires frequent water change to dilute the waste products formed by the decomposition of unused food and also to ensure that adequate oxygen levels are maintained in the pond water. The main reason given for doing this is to mineralize the organic material which builds up in the soil.8. When the pond is filled. but it also helps in the mineralization of organic matter. Both have been used successfully. A word of caution is needed concerning drying pond bottom in areas which have soils of high potential acidity. water should be discharged from the bottom of the pond. However. b.1. More research is needed in this area. One-half to one-third of the pond water is exchanged once a week. The firm soil provides a good surface for the algae to attach to. Some participants advised that for lab-lab production in ponds with hard bottoms. For this reason. 8. . all unwanted predators and competitors are killed and there is no need to treat with chemicals to get rid of them. If the level of dissolved oxygen in a pond decreases below 3 ppm. it was reported that when the level of dissolved oxygen in a pond is 3 ppm or above. There is recent evidence that oxidizing acid sulfate soils may actually be harmful. others commented that in their experience. This turning over of the soil not only helps loosen it. one-third of the water in the pond is drained and replenished each day for two or three days. Water is changed every 12 to 14 days.2 Extensive type management with fertilization Two schedules for changing water are presented below. A one-third change of water daily by draining and refilling is used in Thailand. Drying the soil is especially useful in ponds where lab-lab is grown for food. If a pond is completely dried. Refilling is by pumping.1 Drying the pond bottom Drying the pond bottom periodically is an accepted practice in brackishwater farming within the region. In Panama. the soil should be tilled after drying. a. Fertilizer is applied after the water change and then again after six to seven days. b.

The large amount of H2S released by digging could cause some shrimp to die. Acids formed by pyrite oxidation will gradually be removed by this process. There is no standard procedure.5 can be managed only as long as frequent water changes can be made. Lime can be used to control soil and water acidity.6. The bottom is then levelled and another 1. it will not have much of an .2 Improving or controlling soil acidity In ponds where water is not changed frequently. d. a soil pH can be taken and the following guidelines followed. It should be done while the pond is being dried. while agricultural lime will raise the soil pH. There is no agreement on the drying procedure itself. The lime should be worked into the soil. the accumulated mud and organic debris must be removed periodically. Ponds with a soil pH lower than 6. Dry for seven days. Dry until the soil cracks 1 to 2 cm deep In ponds with internal canals. After a pond is dug in an acid soil area.5. treatment with 3 tons per ha of agricultural lime has been effective. either for the length of time the soil must be dried.This is particularly true where recent digging or tilling has exposed fresh soil to the air. We would not recommend tilling of non-acid pond bottom soil on a regular basis. A change of water is required at least every three days. Excessive drying seems to be harmful.2. Thus. and over-drying which results in crumbling and reduction of the thin surface crust to powder is to be avoided.5 for proper management.2. it should be flushed well until no. 8. or only a little. a. Dry until the top 1 cm is dry. Lime should be added only after the pond is flushed. Following are some procedures recommended by the participants. Another method is especially recommended for old fishponds. It is important that the dikes be covered with grass so that the material removed is not washed back into the pond with the first heavy rain.5 tons is worked into the soil. One way of improving ponds with acid sulfate soil is to repeatedly dry the pond and then flush it by repeatedly filling and draining. red coloured scum from oxidized iron is observed. soil pH should be at least 6. For soil with a pH of 5. and production during the previous culture period was low. Tilling should be done only when the bottom is hard. applying agricultural lime may not be advantageous when soil pH is very low. Methods for sampling and determining soil pH are given in Sections 3. or for how often the drying should be done. So tilling is never recommended for acid sulfate soils. Application rates for brackishwater ponds can be determined by following the procedures given in Section 12.2. The pond bottoms are treated by broadcasting 1. When lime tailings are used (from hydrate of lime processing). Dry to a point where a man will not sink 1 cm.2 and 3. The excavated sediment is usually thrown on the dike by hand. c. This can be done with a hand pulled harrow. less than 2. Lime of calcium carbonate (calcite) is not soluble at the pH of seawater and is not an effective buffer in seawater. If it is not possible to perform the soil test to determine the correct amount of lime to be added. only one-half of the recommended dose of agricultural lime is used.5 tons of agricultural lime per hectare. b. Due to the high cost of treatment. Cleaning and deepening the internal canals should not be done while shrimp are in the pond.

g.effect on maintaining pH of the pond water. Natural carbonates which contain a small percentage. The survivors . crabs.3 Different types of food organisms grown in ponds and their suitability for shrimp culture 8. It is well suited for P.1 Lab-lab ³Lab-lab´ is characterized mostly by benthic blue-green algae and diatoms. the soil should be tilled to a depth of 5 cm. indicus/ merguiensis. mollusc shells or coral). The requirement of ³lab-lab´ for high salinity is not compatible with optimum growing conditions for P.2. 8. Controlling erosion to prevent acid runoff into the pond is especially important when the dike soils are acid sulfate or when material from internal canals is thrown on the dikes during cleaning and deepening. and fish should be killed by poisons. However. a. the transfer of acids and active aluminum and iron into ponds by seepage through dikes can be limited. Then agricultural lime is added in the amount determined by soil acidity. Best growth is reported to be at salinities of 25 ppt or higher. eggs and larvae of competitors such as noxious fish. monodon which is reported to grow best at slightly lower salinities (10±25 ppt). For good growth. Cuttings are then planted at 30 cm intervals. So it would be useful to place some of these materials in a pond to protect against reduced water pH. are more soluble at the pH of seawater and will aid in maintaining optimum alkalinity and pH levels of the pond water (King. 1976). a minimum of 4 percent magnesium (e. 5 tons per ha of chicken manure and 35 kg per ha of 14-14-14. survival is reduced greatly in ponds managed for ³lab-lab´. Acid tolerant African Star Grass (Cynadon plectostachus) provides good vegetative cover. the shallow water requirement for ³lab-lab´ means the pond water will become too hot for almost all species of shrimp. dolomite. Experience has shown that after shrimp reach this size. Proper control of the water table in drained pond soils can be used to limit the proper depth of soil drying. Other Cynadon species also are worth trying. thereby limiting pyrite oxidation and acid formation´ (Potter.3 Poisoning predators and pests Before shrimp are stocked. Planting should begin at the start of the rainy season. ³Lab-lab´ can be used for shrimp culture during the first two months of culture or up to a point when the shrimp grow to a size of 10 cm. ³By maintaining water levels in adjacent ponds equal and keeping this level higher than water levels in the canal system. 1973). This is especially true for large adults. Two suggestions were made for utilizing ³lab-lab´ in shrimp culture. ³lab-lab´ requires low water levels from 5 to 40 cm. 8. The prepared area is covered with a 5 cm thickness of rice straw. Fertilizer is added next. First. If the dikes are constructed of acid sulfate soils. careful water management can reduce the problems associated with them. 1977). The following procedure is recommended to establish grass on acid soil (Anonymous. but many other forms of plants and animals are associated with it and contribute to its nutritional value.3.

3 Phytoplankton Phytoplankton is composed of small plants which float in the water. Phytoplankton production is better in ponds with a water level of 70 cm or more. Tilapia can be used. ³Lumut´ grows best at low to medium ranges of salinity.3. Yang (personal communication) . The most favourable water depth is from 40 to 60 cm. b. ³lumut´ is best used for polyculture and not monoculture. 8.2 Lumut ³Lumut´ is composed primarily of filamentous grass-green algae. One must keep in mind that phytoplankton is composed of living organisms which have environmental tolerances. Heavy growths of ³lumut´ can even be harmful to adult shrimp. Many other forms of life are associated with these algae and contribute to the nutritive value of ³lumut´.4 Benthic animals It was mentioned that heavy application of organic fertilizers encourages the growth of chironomid larvae which provide for good growth of shrimp. A pond in which phytoplankton is grown has a lot of small animals (zooplankton) as well as pieces of organic material which also serve as food. and it is recommended that some fish be stocked in the pond to eat the ³lumut´ and keep its growth down. Milkfish. In fact. and scad are all suitable. 8. Some people have had difficulty in maintaining plankton growth in low salinity water. the shallow portions with ³lab-lab´ would serve as feeding platforms on which the shrimp could graze during the cool of the night. These growing conditions are considered to be satisfactory for P. 8.5 m deep to provide shrimp with shelter against high temperature during the day. The high temperature might restrict their growth. Most types of phytoplankton are normally found in deeper water where temperature does not get as high as it does in shallow ponds. monodon and other species of shrimp. Heavy mortality of shrimp has occurred in ponds when the water had a bright green or reddish colour.grow to a large size. Ponds can be constructed with a large number of interior canals at least 1. ³Lumut´ should not be grown in a nursery pond because the postlarvae become tangled in it and die. The conditions suitable for growing phytoplankton are well suited for shrimp growth at all life stages. it can be assumed that ³lab-lab´ might be a suitable food to grow in a nursery pond. Types of phytoplankton which give the water a yellow-green or yellow-brown colour are good. Others report that plankton can be grown at low salinity. As shrimp feed almost exclusively at night. rabbit fish. Shrimp do not feed directly on the phytoplankton.3. From this. mullet. but this is recommended only when the growing period is short since this fish propagates so fast. 25 ppt and below. They feed on the small animals that eat the phytoplankton or on bacteria that grow on the dead phytoplankton cells which accumulate on the bottom. but it has been grown in shallower ponds. This difference is probably due to the management system and type of fertilizer used and it should be assumed that phytoplankton will grow in almost any salinity.3.

Organic matter (percent) Above 16 9±15 7±8 6 Growth of algae Very abundant Abundant Few Very few . Heavy populations of chironomids graze down lab-lab. Villaluz (1953) reported the following relationship of organic matter to the growth of algae. This can be accomplished by growing the shrimp in a nursery pond for the first two months and then transfering them to another pond. Growth of ³lab-lab´ is also directly related to the amount of organic matter present in the soil. It is best to dry it just until a man can walk on it without sinking in. Sample 1 2 3 4 Percent sand 28 15 63 79 Percent silt 22 44 14 10 Percent clay 50 42 23 11 Soil texture Clay Sandy clay loam Sandy loam Growth of benthic algae Very abundant Silty clay loam Abundant Few Very few Preparation of the pond soil is very important in growing ³lab-lab´. b.5. The relationship between soil texture and algal growth can be seen in the accompanying table from Villaluz (1953). A second method is to keep the water level in a pond low for the initial two months and then raising the water level sufficiently to encourage the growth of other types of plants. however. but not hard.1 Lab-lab Soils with a high clay content support the best growth of ³lab-lab´. To assure a uniform growth of algae.06 g juvenile consumed 23 Chironomid larvae in 24 hours. merguiensis likes to feed on chironomid larvae and a 0. Dense populations of chironomids are often associated with low levels of dissolved oxygen.5 Methods of growing the different types of natural food 8. It usually takes 7 to 10 days drying to reach this point. Start with phytoplankton or ³lab-lab´ for no more than the first two months after postlarvae are stocked. c. The bottom should not be bone dry. the pond bottom should be levelled so that there are no high points or depressions. and care should be taken in encouraging their growth in this manner. 8. After this. 8.reports that P. Firming the pond bottom is done by drying. the shrimp should be held in ponds managed for production of phytoplankton (all salinities) or ³lumut´ (low salinity).4 Recommendations for managing natural food organisms in shrimp ponds a. The pond bottom must be firm enough to serve as a hold fast for the algae.

sufficient water is let in to moisten the soil and the pond bottom is seeded. The inorganic fertilizer can be applied by broadcasting or by dissolving from a platform placed 10 cm below the water level.To increase the amount of organic matter in the soil. protozoans. Additional water is added as needed to make up for that lost by evaporation. weekly application of fertilizer at the rate of 9 to 10 grams/m3 of water is continued until six weeks before the crop is to be harvested. become yellowish. A clear indication that the amount of fertilizer is too little is slow growth and yellowing of the algae. starting growths of ³lumut´ are yellowish-green.5. Twigs placed closely in lines 6 to 15 m apart and perpendicular to the direction of the prevailing winds will minimize wave action and catch stray algae that have been broken loose. This is done by sticking a portion of the filaments of very young plants. If possible. If no manure is available. Those on the top. algae in ponds correctly fertilized retain the healthy grass-green colour. it should be mixed in to the soil. the pond is flooded to a depth of 20 cm. Organisms such as bacteria. As growth continues the colour turns to grass-green. etc. . With adequate wind breaks the water can be maintained at a depth of 60 cm. Sometimes a dense growth of phytoplankton occurs. After one week. but only for three days. this colour changes to dirty-brown. undated). Starting with the second week. Immediately after fertilization. Bottom with a pH lower than 6. chicken or other manure is applied to the dry pond bottom at the rate of 350 kg/ha. A slight overdose of fertilizer causes the algae to become dark-green.5 should be ³washed´ or treated with lime. In this case. Three to seven days after planting. fertilizer. Growth is stopped and the algae may settle to the bottom and disintegrate. The chicken manure should be dried and not treated with insecticide. During dry season.5 favour rapid growth of ³lumut´. Some farmers recommend refertilization every seven days during the culture period. When the plants have reached the surface and spread out. the same amount of fertilizer is applied and the water level is raised to 10 to 15 cm. especially at the centre of the floating mass. which attach to the algae increase in number and serve as food for the shrimp. Rows of twigs and small branches should be placed in the pond to keep wind waves from dislodging the ³lumut´. diatoms. In unfertilized or underfertilized ponds. The degree of success of the liming will depend to a great extent on how well the lime is incorporated in the soil. the pond is fertilized with 16-20-0 at a rate of 18 to 20 grams/cubic metre (m3) of water. After the bottom has been dried. After one week. 8. small crustaceans. The fertilization is repeated after the second week and the water level is raised to 20 to 25 cm. It usually takes two to four weeks from the time of planting until the pond is ready for stocking. or light green ends of older plants. Examination of ³lumut´ from fertilized ponds showed layers of organisms twice as thick as the algal filaments (Padlan.2 Lumut Soft mud bottoms with pH of 6. The portion of the algae near the bottom turns the same yellowish or brownish colour after the initial growth subsides. After the seeding is completed. In contrast. only the fringes and those directly over the bottom continue to have this healthy colour. 3 to 5 cm of water is let into the pond. into the mud. The effects of adding fertilizer are not confined to the ³lumut´. inorganic fertilizer can be used: one or two 50-kg bags of 18-46-0 (N-P-K) or two or three 50-kg bags of 16-20-0 per ha. nematodes.8 to 7. the pond water should be changed immediately to prevent complete loss of the ³lumut´. the water level is raised to 40 cm. The pond bottom must be dried for ³lumut´ culture also.

Poor growth has been observed in ponds in which the predominant algae were phytoflagellates.07 0. Mandal (1962) reports that following the application of ammonium-bearing fertilizers.5. This is especially important for N as larger amounts are added. various micro-organisms feed on the phytoplankton and the shrimp feed on the microorganisms. As a great portion of the nutrients added to a pond became bound up in the soil after a short time.7 0.08 0. That is. If phytoplankton is to be grown. To aid in calculating how much of each element to add. He points out that in selecting the form of nitrogenous fertilizer. fertilization causes a good growth of phytoplankton. .95 0. In laboratory and tank culture nitrogen (N) to phosphorus (P) ratios of 20 or 30 to 1 have been found most suitable for diatoms and ratios close to 1:1 most suitable for phytoflagellates. frequent applications of small amounts of fertilizer give the best results.8 0.1 0. The nutrient composition of seawater varies both from location to location as well as seasonally.05 0. consideration should be given to the type of organisms to be cultured as food. The amount of nitrogen absorbed in the bottom soils was quite small when a nitrate fertilizer was added. it might be necessary to vary the rate of fertilizer used at different times of the year.6 0.12 0. ammonium-based fertilizers would be better. There is little information available concerning fertilization of brackishwater ponds to grow phytoplankton. and a higher level of available nitrogen was maintained in the water. If bottom growing organisms such as blue-green algae are to be cultured. Consequently.11 0.3 1.14 0.3 ppm Phosphorus 0. They become incorporated in living organisms or in the bottom soil. Also. the following table gives suggested amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus to use at various levels.8. About every 7 to 10 days is recommended. It has been observed that growth of shrimp is better in ponds in which the most common types of algae are true diatoms.09 0.3 Phytoplankton In shrimp culture the benefits of fertilization are indirect. a programme of fertilization that works successfully in one location might not be good in another area.03 One of the most important factors to consider in a programme of fertilization is that both nitrogen and phosphorus do not remain in solution for very long after they are added to the pond water. to use in salt water pond. nitrate fertilizers would be better.4 1.15 0. ammonium or nitrate. The same nutrient requirements should also hold true for algae growing in ponds. These two types of phytoplankton have different nutrient requirements. ppm Nitrogen 1. most of the added nitrogen was absorbed by colloids in the bottom soil within a few days and remained strongly bound there.4 0.

Eventually a farmer will learn how much fertilizer is required to maintain a good growth of phytoplankton in his pond.7 kg N The quantity of phosphorus to be added is found in the same manner.95 ppm nitrogen and 0.95 g = 5 700 g or 5. If the Secchi disc disappears from sight at less than 25 cm.CO (NH2)2 = 46. A level of 0. To judge the density of phytoplankton growing in the pond.95 g. 6 000 × 0. phytoplankton growth is not enough and more fertilizer should be added during the next application. So to find the amount of nitrogen which should be added to the one-hectare pond to get a level of 0.6 m = 6 000 m3. the volume of water is multiplied by 0.95 ppm. as follows: If the pond is to be fertilized with ammonium sulfate which contains 21 percent nitrogen. First. The next application of fertilizer should be reduced.7 kg P Once the amount of nutrient required is determined. Then adjust the rate of application up or down as necessary. For example. the volume of water in the pond would be 10 000 m2 × 0. a one-hectare pond has a surface area of 10 000 m2. estimate the volume of water in the pond. the amount of fertilizer which contains the desired amount of nutrient can be determined.11 ppm phosphorus should be suitable as a starting dose. phytoplankton density is good. One ppm is equal to 1 gram per m3 of water. thus: 6 000 × 0.The best way to develop a suitable method for fertilizing pond water is to apply a moderate amount and observe what effect it has on phytoplankton growth. If it has an average water depth of 60 cm. If the Secchi disc disappears from sight at more than 35 cm.5).11 g = 660 g or 0. the phytoplankton is too dense and the pond water should be changed. The following method can be used to calculate the amount of nutrient required to achieve these levels. So following the same procedure.6% . then the quantity of ammonium sulfate required is as follows: Triple superphosphate contains 39 percent phosphorus. the amount of triple phosphate required would be: The percent nitrogen (N) in some common fertilizers are: Urea . a Secchi disc can be used (see Section 12. When the Secchi disc reading is about 30 cm.

i. The rearing period was six months. 16-20-0 contains 12% N.NH4C1 Ammonium nitrate .Ca (H2PO4) Triple superphosphate . The percent of N and P in some types of organic fertilizers is listed in Table 6. 12.0 kg available P2O5 and 6. P (available phosphoric acid P2O5). As P2O5 contains only 44 percent P. Fertilizer Urea Chicken manure + urea* Chicken manure + ammonia phosphate** Chicken manure + phosphate*** Lab-lab Plankton 623.P2O5 = 26% = 39% Many fertilizers contain more than one primary nutrient. additional N or P is required to obtain maximum benefits from the organic fertilizer. 1977. The following table gives total weight harvested (milkfish plus wild species) in kg per ha from forty six 500 m2 earthen ponds.3 341. and K (potash K2O). The ponds were under different fertilization and water management schemes. The numbering system is always listed in the following order: N (nitrogen).0 514.3 475.0 kg N.NH4NO3 Calcium nitrate .7 721. The ponds were stocked at a rate of 3 000 milkfish per ha.5 826. a 50 kg of 12-24-12 would contain 6. For example: 12-24-12 contains 12% N. In these.Ca (NO3)2 = 25% = 37% = 17% The percent phosphorus (P) in superphosphate is: Double superphosphate . This is well illustrated by the results of pond culture experiments with milkfish reported by Camacho. 24% available P2O5 and 12 K. It is not compulsory to use only inorganic fertilizers. Frequently.e.0 kg of K2O. K is usually present in sufficient quantity in brackishwater and it is not necessary to add any. By referring to the numbers printed on a fertilizer bag. 0-0-60 contains no nitrogen or available P2O5. no available P2O5 or K. 20% available P2O5 and 12 K. the primary nutrients are designated by a numbering system indicating percentages in each nutrient. but has 60% K. one can tell which nutrients and how much of each are contained in each bag of fertilizer. Since these numbers are percentages.7 . the weight of P is 4. 45-0-0 contains 45% N.0 424. lab-lab and plankton.(NH4)2 SO4 = 21% Ammonium chloride .Ammonium sulfate .0 878. organic fertilizers can be used as well.7 kg (Davide).

A single platform is sufficient for pond up to 7 ha when plankton is grown.10 2.25 × 2.7 312.6 Supplementary feeding 8.85 1.Ammonium phosphate Chicken manure No fertilizer Phosphate MEANS * 46-0-0 ** 16-20-0 *** 0-20-0 339. Rice bran with trash fish.3 190.1 Traditional ponds Supplementary feeding of shrimp is still in the early stages of development in the region. or as an emergency measure when growths of natural food in a pond become depleted.85 × 0. Most feeding is done to supplement natural productivity.3 It can be seen that highest production in those ponds managed for plankton was obtained when additional N was supplied.70 × 1. highest production in the ponds managed for lab-lab was obtained when additional P was added.90 × 1. 1976b). crabs. Rice bran with trash fish b.5 497.25 × 1.50 × 1. The platform method is an effective way to apply inorganic fertilizers to ponds for producing and maintaining good growths of phytoplankton.5 468. Types of feeds used are: a. and located near the end of the pond from which the prevailing wind comes.5 437. Suggested platform top sizes for ponds of different sizes are: Pond area (ha) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Platform top dimensions (m) 0. 8. Conversely.6. Numerous feeds have been used with varying degrees of success.25 1.50 1.25 An application of fertilizer is simply piled onto the platform and left alone (Anonymous.70 1.0 346. molluscs and shrimps .5 382. It is good because the nutrients from the fertilizer on the platform are released into solution slowly and distributed through the pond by water movement. Forgetting the species being cultured.90 2. The platform should be positioned so that its top surface is about 15 to 20 cm below the water surface.8 172. A typical platform is shown in Figure 16. the important point is that plankton produced more when the level of N was high in relation to P.10 × 2.0 451.

Carabao skin and other slaughter and poultry house leftovers.F.6. 1977). some of which have been developed in other countries. 1977) Ingredients Shrimp meal Blood meal Meat meal Gluten.P. .3 Kcal/g supported the best growth. Mussel and clam meat h. Chicken feed (crumbles and pellets). An artificial dry pellet was developed and its ingredients are listed in the accompanying table.5 5 S.Soluble Fish Protein Concentrate 80% F. Spirulina Brewer's yeast S.P. Toads sliced in two e.P. Very encouraging results have been obtained experimentally for P. African snails after the shells are crushed f. SEAFDEC is testing many types of pelletized food.5 For postlarvae 22 9 14 10 5 4 5. Much experimentation has been done especially for P. monodon.C. Prepared hog and poultry feeds g.P.5 10 6 17 6 4 3 5 0. 8. 80 Cod liver oil Mineral mix Vitamin mix Methionin F.C.2 Intensive ponds Only a limited amount of information is available about intensive culture of shrimp. these are attached to sticks and scattered through the pond d.F.c. It would be good if snails from ponds could be developed i.Fish Protein Concentrate .5 4 15 7. monodon in Tahiti (Aquacop. Cut the carabao skin into 1 foot square pieces.C.C. Results of this research should be available soon. Diets used in growth experiments (After: Aquacop. There it was found that a diet containing 40 percent protein and 3. 80 . wheat Rice Peanut oil-cake Soya oil-cake For production 8 11 21.

Analysis of the feed indicates it comprises 7. The earthen pond with an effective culture area of 4 840 m2 was stocked with hatchery-produced fry.05 g juveniles in 140 days.8 percent crude fat. 7 percent fiber and 3 percent fat. After seven months. trash fish. A farmer has to decide what size of shrimp he wants to harvest and estimate how many kilograms per hectare he can produce per crop. The trash fish was of mixed composition containing about 5 percent shrimp and even shellfish. After growing for 5-½ months. suitable processed foods will soon be generally available. 100 000 postlarvae were stocked. . Commercial production of P. They estimated that 20 tons/ha/year could be produced in intensive systems. Shrimp weighing 0.7 Stocking rate There is no optimum stocking rate.38 percent crude fiber. During the first growing period.50) per 50 kg bag.0:1 to 4. 300 000 postlarvae were stocked. After 60 days. they had grown to a mean weight of 25 g. at early morning and evening. This was followed by an immediate change of water. if it was. Mortality must then be estimated and added to this figure. monodon has been achieved in one farm in Thailand. Workers dived to observe the presence of leftover fish. Interest in the intensive culture of shrimp is picking up and hopefully. Liao (personal communication) reports that excellent results have been obtained with a food producedin Taiwan by the President Company. The shrimp had grown to 0.Three-gram shrimp were stocked in an earthen pond at a density of 10/m2. The price is 86.1:1. 0. The feed is made into columniform pellets with a diameter of about 23 mm. canal-like pond. Philippines).003 g were stocked in earthen ponds at densities of 20 and 55/m2. For feed. rice bran and crab were ground in a grinder and fed twice daily. The Aquacop workers computed theoretical growth curves showing optimum and medium growth (Fig.43 percent others. Mortality was 79 percent. Seven-and-one-half months later. type of management. cost of inputs and marketing strategy. is making a shrimp feed. 0. The feeding rate was regulated by observing whether or not food was left uneaten.8:1 were attained. Production per year would be 7 600 kg/ha. mussel.9 g in the low density pond and to 0. They calculate that it appears possible to grow 25 g shrimp from 0.58 percent crude protein. In a second growing period. Mortality was 62 percent. Feeding was done by putting the food on an earthen platform extending along the edge of the long.001 (approximately US$11. 8. Survival was 90 percent. Overall growth was good in the series of three experiments. It is a processed pellet containing 26 percent protein. Survival varied from 80 to 96 percent and food conversion from 3. 2 544 kg of shrimp with an average weight of 38 g were harvested.75 percent ash and 41.8 g in the high density pond. The stocking rate must be calculated for each pond depending on the farmer's management capability. Already one company within the region (Universal Robina.99 percent moisture. the ration is reduced. 9c). survival in both ponds was 100 percent. The pond bottom was disturbed once a day by dragging a chain through the pond. The food conversion rate was 3:1. Food conversion rates as low as 1. 36. This is equivalent to 5 100 kg/ha. The number of postlarvae he must stock can then be calculated from Table 12. The food conversion rate was 1:1. Two experiments were conducted growing postlarvae in nursery ponds. 1 222 kg of shrimp with an average weight of 33 g were harvested for a production rate of 2 500 kg/ha. 3.

If the proper precautions are taken in maintenance and pond preparation. Crabs should be eliminated and their holes stopped up. 9. Regular maintenance should be performed to stop all leaks in the dikes. Predators Fish Crabs Birds Man Insects Snakes Otters Lizards Competitors Snails Fish Crabs Shrimps Pests Crabs Burrowing shrimp (Thalassina) Organisms which degrade wood Mud worm egg cases Shells 9. He then estimates mortality will be 30 percent. From Table 12. it can be seen this requires a stocking rate of 14 000 postlarvae per hectare. . Proper pond maintenance.2 Methods of control 9.2. i.1 Kinds The following have been identified as causing problems in shrimp culture. As 30 percent of 14 000 is 4200. If his estimate of mortality was 50 percent. Predators and competitors can enter ponds through crab holes and other leaks in the dikes.478 = US$1 Example: A farmer thinks he can produce 350 kg of shrimp with a size of 40/kg. this is added to 14 000 to obtain a stocking rate of 18 200 postlarvae per hectare. he would have to stock at a rate of 21 000 per hectare in order to harvest the desired final weight of 350 kg of shrimp. Closure boards in the sluice gates should fit tightly.1 (Philippine pesos) 7. postlarval shrimp can escape from the ponds through the holes.1 Fish (a) Prevention The most effective method of control is prevention. PREDATORS. fish will not ordinarily be a problem during the culture period. COMPETITORS AND PESTS 9. Prompt stoppage of leaks is especially important in tidal ponds where there often can be a reverse flow of water. Also.

are used. Drying the pond bottom. 1976a). the sublethal effects are uncertain (Anonymous. The shrimp fry can then be separated and stocked in the pond. Unlike the chlorinated hydrocarbons. it may be suitable for use as a pretreatment at the dosage recommended on the package. Poisoning before stocking. iii. it is often necessary to have a series of screens with different mesh size and to increase the surface area of the finest screen by making it into a bag. iv. Use of any of the chlorinated hydrocarbon group (DDT. If the number of fish in a pond is not too great. The use of natural products such as teaseed cake or derris root is recommended. Some kinds of fish gather near the sluice gate when water is let in. care should be taken that the mesh size is large enough for the shrimp to escape. accidents happen occasionally and fish enter the pond. gamma BHC. Screening water as it enters the pond. organo-phosphate pesticides do not leave a toxic residue for more than about two weeks after application. traps. ³Bux 300´ degrades in less than one week. it is important that all water let into the pond is screened. The inlet canal can be widened and additional nets used. The initial surge of water when a pump is turned on can sometimes break a net. This reduces the water velocity through the netting and increases their efficiency.2. Use at the dosage prescribed on the package. Endrin. Gusathion belongs to this group. As ³Bux 300´ degrades in one week. gillnets or seine nets.) in fishponds is not recommended because of their long-term residual effects. The screen must be fine enough to prevent entry of fish eggs and larvae as well as adult fish. Ordinary plastic mosquito netting is not suitable. In ponds which are filled by pumping. A seine can be used to catch them while they are concentrated there. A fine mesh nylon or plastic screen with a hole size of 0. Chlordan. If Gusathion. If a pond cannot be completely drained. 4 to 5 kg dry root for a one-hectare pond with water depth of 5 cm (see also Section 9. In fact their use is discouraged. It costs too much. or other organo-phosphates. Fish can be caught by using hand lines. The farmer must be sure that there are no puddles or moist places left in the pond. When using traps or nets. For this reason. If the end of the bag is connected to a floating screen box similar to that shown in Figure 3. ³Gusathion´ and ³Bux 300´ have been used successfully. the nets should be placed before the pump. the portions with water should be treated with chemicals to kill the fish. If the pond cannot be thoroughly dried. Nets with such small holes are easily stopped up.5 mm is recommended. Fish which are killed with chlorinated hydrocarbon and organo-phosphate poisons should not be eaten by people or animals. the cost of chemical control is not justified. etc. the most effective method to get rid of them is by the use of selective poisons. Rotenone or derris root is recommended. fish poisons should be used before the pond is stocked. These are safe because they are not harmful to man in small amounts and they break down and lose their toxicity shortly after application. It is then necessary to remove the fish without harming the shrimp. After fish are eliminated from a pond. Even if the methods of prevention are followed. . (b) Selective poisoning When the number of fish in a pond is large. because the holes in it are too large.1).ii. One example of how to do this is illustrated in Figure 10. Though some of the chemicals are not lethal. they should be handled and applied with extreme caution. Thoroughly drying the pond bottom before stocking will eliminate the fish. trash and fry will collect there and can easily be removed with a dip net.

This is then recorded on the sluice gate. If the pond is square or rectangular. The cake contains from 10 to 15 percent saponin. the amount of water in a pond must be estimated. since the teaseed cake residue acts as a fertilizer. 1976. The proper weight of ground cake should be soaked in water for 24 hours to extract the saponin. . a residue from the processing of oil from the seeds of Camellia. however. The most commonly used source of saponin is teaseed cake. When using teaseed cake. et al. but not shrimp. and the chemical applied then. To estimate the average depth of water. It is best if the water level is lowered in late afternoon or evening. (ii) Rotenone. Then depth soundings are taken by wading in the pond over a preset grid pattern.In order to apply the correct dose of a chemical. When saponin is applied. Saponin is the best known compound to selectively poison fish without damaging the shrimp or food organisms in the pond. Water level in the pond could then be raised the next morning before the sun heats up the shallow pond water. such as when lowered for treatment with chemicals. The effectiveness of saponin decreases with decreasing salinity. it took 14. This is usually not serious. it must be ground up. Rotenone is most effective in freshwater and works better in low salinity water than in high salinity water. it does not affect rotifers and copepods. (i) Saponin.5 to 16. It is not essential to filter the water.5 hours to kill the fish at 1. It is 50 times more toxic to fish than to shrimp and so it is safe to use. Dead fish should be removed from the pond. while shrimp are in the pond. a permanent scale can be marked on the sluice gate for future reference when the water level is at a different depth. The volume of water in the pond must be estimated accurately as an overdose will kill the shrimp. Heating in an oven dries out the cake and makes it more brittle and easier to grind. Consequently. The length is then multiplied by the width to get the number of square metres of pond surface. the length and width are measured to the nearest metre. first a mark is put on the gate to record the water level in the pond. A treatment of 1. 1961). At the recommended dosage.1 ppm (Terazaki. An average is taken of the soundings to get the average depth of water in the pond. However. First. probably two or three days. With this mark as a reference. The water containing the saponin can be filtered and the filtered fluid applied to the pond water. It is bio-degradable and losses its toxicity after a short time. Rotenone has been used to selectively kill fish. Tang. At a salinity of 10 ppt. This is then multiplied by the average depth to obtain the number of cubic metres of water in the pond. the total water surface area of the pond must be known. the difference between the lethal limit for fish and shrimp is small and great care must be taken when using it.1 ppm killed Tilapia mossambica in one hour at a salinity of 35 ppt. the recommended level of application is: Salinity above 15 ppt = 12 g teaseed cake per m3 of water Salinity below 15 ppt = 20 g teaseed cake per m3 of water To apply teaseed cake. but saponin should not be applied to a pond in which low levels of dissolved oxygen are occurring. or any other chemical control. The depth sounding stick should have a flat board attached to the base so it does not sink into the pond bottom. the level of water in the pond should be lowered as much as possible without causing damage to the shrimp by increased temperature. the amount of dissolved oxygen in the water decreases somewhat.

2. 1976a). many will be killed by the crabs. The roots should be cut into small pieces and soaked overnight in water. Shrimp will also be attracted to the bait and if they are caught in the trap. but shrimp held for eight days in a concentration of 1. In a pond with a large number of crab holes in the dikes. It took about six days for the population to return to normal. toads.Studies in freshwater show that rotenone has a harmful effect on benthic invertebrates and zooplankton (Neves. 1975). Rotenone content appears to be higher in small roots than in large roots. Treatment of 8 g of 5 percent derris powder per m3 of water is required to eliminate eels. but that of zooplankton is much slower. personal communication). the roots are pounded to crush them. Recovery of benthic organisms is fairly rapid. Levels of 1. As soon as the fish are killed. (iii) PCP-Na (Sodium pentachlorophenate). The swimming crabs (family Portunidae) especially are fierce predators of shrimps.5 to 2. but sometimes. the plankton volume decreased 97 percent within 24 hours. Fish with firm meat such as catfish or shark are recommended as bait. Toxicity to fish is reduced by 90 percent after three hours.5 ppm. Fish killed with PCPNa should not be eaten. One of the major causes of water leakage through pond dikes is holes made by burrowing crabs. In one experiment in which rotenone was applied to a lake at a rate of 0. The correct amount of PCP-Na is dissolved in freshwater and solute is then spread evenly around the pond. The recommended level of treatment is 0. a 4 percent rotenone product is sold. 9. PCP-Na is toxic to man in large doses and care should be taken in its use. Rotenone is available in several forms. PCP-Na decomposes when exposed to direct sunlight. it is no longer toxic (Anonymous. This can be prevented by constructing the trap of material with large enough holes so that the shrimp can escape. This is an agricultural chemical used widely as a weed killer. From this. It kills fish at treatment levels which do not kill shrimp. Rotenone content of the roots also appears to vary with location (Yang. freshwater should be let into the pond to dilute the concentration of PCP-Na.6 ppm.2 Crabs Crabs are one of the worst pests in a shrimp pond. The recommended level of treatment is 0. The crushed roots are replaced in the water in which they were soaked and squeezed so as much of the rotenone as possible goes into solution. snake meat. Before application. Derris root.2 ppm rotenone. This requires 4 g of 5 percent derris powder per m3 of pond water. A stick should be used to mix the chemical with freshwater or rubber gloves should be worn.0 ppm are toxic to shrimp which have just molted. and uncooked bones. Rotenone powder usually contains 5 percent rotenone. After six hours of sunlight. Other suitable baits are trash fish. Water flowing through crab holes can cause a dike to wash out and result in . This does not kill eels. it can be seen that perhaps it would be useful to add supplemental feed for several days after rotenone is added to a pond with shrimp in it.3 ppm had no ill effects and molting was normal. maintaining the proper level of water is a problem. Four grams of dry root are required per m3 of pond water. These should be removed from the pond by trapping. The solution is then added to the pond. the pond water should be reduced to as low a level as practicable. After soaking. Fresh roots are more effective than dried roots which had been stored.

³Aquatin´ kills Ruppia and retards the growth of ³lumut´. however. ³Aquatin´ has a residual effect for five years in pond soil. Similarly. the pond can become muddy and/or the ³lab-lab´ breaks loose from the bottom and floats to the surface. ³Sevin´ is. Several of the methods used to kill burrowing crabs are given below. Consequently. on windy days. ³Brestan´ and ³Aquatin´ can kill on direct contact. a. so care must be taken in its use in a pond.4 Snails Snails (Cerithidea) compete for the natural food in a pond. b. Their burrows can usually be distinguished from those of crabs because they make a very high mound at the hole entrance which is above the water line.2. these chemicals have produced a residual effect when used in milkfish culture. is effective in killing crabs.costly repairs. they disturb the bottom algae loosening the sediments. For use. . Tobacco dust at 400 kg/ha and tobacco stem at 150 kg/ha was not effective when used by others who broadcast the tobacco into shallow water. d. Wind action carries it to the pond bank where it settles and decomposes and produces large amounts of H2S. Shrimp production was reported to be reduced for six months after the use of ³Aquatin´ or ³Brestan´. c. the use of these chemicals is not recommended. The commercial preparations ³Brestan´. It has been reported that snails can be eliminated during pond preparation by using tobacco rejects or dust. Small balls of the mixture are placed in crab holes above the water line. Milkfish cultured after the use of ³Bayluscide´ or ³Aquatin´ were stunted. ³Sevin´ is also toxic to shrimp. 5 cm. This produces acetylene gas which kills the crab. If their numbers are high. but this is open to controversy. Calcium carbide is put into crab holes and enough water is poured into the hole to wet the carbide. Treatment at 200 kg/ha was used to kill snails by one person and it took six months for them to become reestablished. Water was let in to a depth of 10 cm initially and gradually raised to a depth of 1 m after one week. A widely used insecticide ³Sevin´. relatively safe for humans and domestic animals. Nicotine is very toxic to shrimp so ponds where tobacco dust is used must be flushed well before stocking.3 Burrowing shrimp (Thalassina) In some areas. 9. the ³Sevin´ is mixed with ground up fish. ³Aquatin´ and ³Bayluscide´ will kill snails when used at the dosage prescribed on the package. As a result. The hulls stop up the gills of the crabs and they die. Most pond operators feel that production is lower in ponds with a large number of snails. Tobacco dust. Rice hulls are burned and the residue is used to fill up crab holes. However. Especially designed trigger type traps made of bamboo can also be used. Application was by broadcasting over a dry pond bottom. damage to dikes caused by burrowing Thalassina (Anomura) is common. It is also possible to put the fish balls in crab holes below the water line and then close up the hole so the shrimp can not eat the poison and it can not get into the pond water. Postlarval shrimp will leave a pond by swimming out through a crab hole.2. 9. The same method used to kill crabs can be used to kill Thalassina. predators and competitors can enter a pond through crab holes.

The device shown in Figure 11 is used at the Jitra Fisheries Station in Malaysia to scare eagles. it may be desirable to use special kinds of wood or to coat the wood with preservatives. because shrimp can be caught so easily with a net when water is let out at night.2. his house should be located near the sluice gate. If a pond owner or caretaker is living at the pond site. . Some farmers run lines of string between posts set in the pond and attach bright coloured pieces of cloth metal to the string to scare birds. a common species. the traps should not be left in the ponds unattended. If this is not possible. It is simply a windmill with mirrors that revolve and flash brilliantly scaring the birds. The problem can be reduced greatly by constructing sluice gates from concrete. If water over the flat main portion of a pond is kept deep enough and coloured with a growth of phytoplankton. Branches placed around the edge of the pond make it difficult for thieves to catch shrimp with cast or seine nets. If there is a berm.2. a farmer should look carefully for footprints near the water's edge. When making the daily inspection of his ponds.8 Organisms that degrade wood Destruction of wood by marine organisms is one of the major causes of destruction to water control structures. For various reasons. Special precautions can be taken in nursery ponds because of their small area. Flashing mirrors can be used to scare some types of birds away from ponds. The most effective method of control is to dry the pond bottom and to apply poisons before stocking to kill the larvae and eggs. concrete construction is not practical in many places. 9. As shrimp grow larger. 9. The most vulnerable point is the sluice gate.5 Small Caridean shrimp sometimes become so abundant they cause problems. They either attach molting shrimp or eat the feed provided for the shrimp. If strange footprints are observed.9. the birds can not see the bottom and will not land. it should be placed above the water line. Caridina denticulata causes problems as a competitor. they become more valuable.2. Wading areas at the sides of the ponds can be reduced or eliminated by making the sides slope steeply to a deep peripheral canal. or mangrove or other branches placed on it to prevent birds from walking along the shallow pond margin. 9. a watch should be maintained at night to see if someone is catching shrimp by hand or with small nets.7 Man Losses caused by man are perhaps the hardest to prevent. For this reason.2. It is too easy for someone to come along and empty them. China. If a farmer is using traps to selectively harvest. In cases where wood must be used. it is not possible to have someone living at the pond site. In Taiwan. a watchman should be hired during the last third of the growing period. Most wading birds need a place to land. a strong lock should be attached to the upper board of the sluice gate.6 Birds Predation by wading birds can be a problem in some regions.

Borers can detect most chemicals and they withdraw their siphons and close their holes. Fungi cause soft rot. Generally. (except D. The predominant type of degrading organism varies from place to place and one should find out which one is predominant in his area and how serious the problem is. Wood from the following species of trees is recommended for use in saltwater by Fougerousse. The resistance of wood is not dependent on density or hardness. Excellent results have been reported by first applying asphalt or coal tar then applying cement on the still soft coating. Silica content is very important. An external coating of tar or asphalt is more effective than creosote treatment for most pholadids. wood is attacked more in tropical waters. Many types of wood are more durable than others and it is advisable to utilize them if possible. They can not detect . Creosote is one of the oldest and most effective treatments.Wood degrading organisms can be classified as follows: Mollusca Crustacea Fungi Teredinidae (shipworms) Pholadidae (piddocks) Isopoda The molluscs and crustaceans cause damage by boring. Dicorynia quainensis Mezilaurus itauba Repellent content Ocotea rodiaei Callitris glauca Eucalyptus marginata Dialium sp. High silicon content Parinari sp. Licania sp. cochinchinensis) Eusideroxylon zwageri A more complete list of species of trees and their resistance to the various organisms is given in Table 5. Preservatives can be applied to wood to increase its resistance. Some species have a high resistance due to a toxic action or repellent substance to one species but not to another. With shipworms. if possible. the wood should be soaked in the preservative. If pressuretreated wood cannot be obtained. the calcareous lining of the hole is visible externally and the holes are only 1 to 2 mm in diameter. no calcareous lining can be observed and the hole of adults is two to three times larger. destruction by borers is greatest in brackishwater. One can usually tell the difference between shipworms and piddocks. With piddocks. Treatment of removable parts like sluice boards. These can be given more frequent applications of the preservative. Metrosideros sp. They can also be soaked in chemicals to kill the pest. Eschweilera sp. 1971. It should be applied under pressure. and in tropical regions.

a. the gills have a very dark. Sindermann (1974) reports that Hatai (1974) found Nystatin and Azalomycin F were effective in treating this disease. 10. Losses of shrimp from this disease are not as large as in some others. at least weekly.2 Black or brown shell disease This disease is caused by bacteria.1 Black gill disease Black gills in shrimp can be caused by several things. a close watch should be kept for signs of disease or parasites. such as hatcheries. b. it is suspected that virus diseases are much more important than is now known. If shrimp with dirty gills are placed in clean water the gills become clean. It is characterized by black eroded parts on the exoskeleton.1. However. Fungus. For this reason. 1971). the gills turn darker until they are black. raceways and tanks. Treatment of infected shrimp by bathing in a 2 to 3 ppm concentration of furazolidone for two to four nights is an effective treatment (Shigueno. Since unexplained mortalities do occur in ponds. In the initial stages of this disease. This is usually associated with poor pond bottom conditions. 10. the gills turn orange-yellow or light brown. Eventually. Consequently. For instance. it is important that the shrimp in a pond be sampled regularly. If two sets of boards are made. the importance of fungus and bacterial disease has only been realized during the last few years. c. little is known about the importance of disease and parasites in pond culture. 1975). This disease is epizootic and can cause mass mortalities. heavy mortalities from disease occur frequently in more intensive types of shrimp culture. Unfortunately.1 Types of disease and parasites known to cause problems in shrimp culture Diseases of shrimp are just beginning to be studied seriously. DISEASE AND PARASITES Due to reclusive nature of shrimp and the difficulty of observing dead shrimp in ponds. Bacteria. Fusarium sp. the few examples listed below are probably just the start of a long list. a farmer does not learn that his shrimp have died until he harvests a pond and finds there are only a few shrimp left. 10. dead or diseased shrimp are not easily observed in a pond. 10. and many more pathogenic forms will probably be identified in the future. and examined for disease. It is not known if this condition can cause death. In infected shrimp. Accumulation of debris in gills. one can simply be left to air dry and the borers will be killed.sodium arsenate and a dip in 25 ppm (As203) for 18 hours is effective (McQuire.1. Similarly. deep black colour. Frequently. Progressive destruction of the exoskeleton provides places for the entry of secondary infections .

This disease causes mass mortalities. 1975. 10. especially by stress. A mixture of malachite green (0. As the disease progresses. The shrimp are uneasy. there is a blue-black colour on the back and sides of the shrimp. Portions of the exoskeleton turn white. Sometimes.3 Muscle necrosis In shrimp suffering from muscle necrosis. nifurstyreic acid. If the environmental conditions are improved.7 Vibrio disease #2 This disease is characterized mainly by abnormal behaviour.1. the base of the oviduct and seminal duct. massive mortalities take place (Rigdon and Baxter. 1974). 10. the following were found to be effective treatments: terramycin (0.1. then laying on their sides. Epizootics have occurred under crowded conditions. were effective in treating infected shrimp (Shigueno.5 White shell disease This disease is caused by fungus. .6 Vibrio disease #1 Infected shrimp initially show reduced activity. reduced losses from this disease considerably (Sindermann. Infected individuals can be weakened or killed.5 to 1 ppm) and formalin (20 to 75 ppm) in water.4 Cottom shrimp This disease is caused by microsporidian parasites in the muscle tissue or reproductive organs. The white colouration is caused by degenerative tissue. The percentage of shrimp infected is usually not great (Sindermann. 10. There may be some orange or reddish colour due to deterioration of tissues. there is often a pronounced flexure at the third abdominal segment. The disease usually starts at the telson or uropods and works its way forward. 1970). It can cause mass mortalities (Sindermann. the hepatic carina on the carapace. 1974). 1974). sulfisozole.1.1. body muscles may become milky white in colour. jumping out of the water. black or white spots are present on the sides of the tail just above each swimming leg. Otherwise. Frequently.1.which may cause death. there are white patches in the tail.5±1 ppm). Repeated oral doses of varied concentrations of sulfisozole. 1974). 1974). nifurstyreic acid. with mortalities caused by destruction of the gills. 10. and the posterior and lateral edges of the tail shell become blackened or whitened. This condition is usually associated with stress behaviour such as swimming at the surface or jumping out of the water. and chloramphenicol (Shigueno. It is characterized by a white colouration of the infected area. 10. It is caused by a combination of high temperature and low dissolved oxygen. and chloramphenicol. Sindermann. When incorporated in food. some of the shrimp will survive. or the whole tail is white. the base of the antennae.

These bacteria occur on areas of the body surface which have many setules and on the gills. a. 1974). 1974). When considering the occurrence of disease and parasites in a shrimp pond. Treatment with potassium permanganate at 5 to 10 ppm for one hour is an effective treatment. Simply adding chemicals to control the disease is not enough.1. The real cause of this condition is unknown. Some forms have environmental tolerances that can be used for control. and pathogens are closely related.2 Chemical treatment Some important factors concerning the occurrence of disease were pointed out by Sindermann (1974). The shrimp then become even less tolerant of an adverse environment. Treatment with terramycin. In one case. Mortality is high. 10.1. 1977). 1974). These organisms occur on the outside of the shell and are removed with the shell when the shrimp molts.10 Body cramp This occurs during handling and harvesting on hot days.11 Overburdening organisms These are associated with poor water quality. This disease causes mass mortalities. reinfestation usually occurs within 5 to 10 days (Sindermann. The best remedy is to improve conditions of the pond. but mortality is reduced if shrimp are handled during cool weather (Liao. such as high content of dissolved organic matter.1. Ciliate disease. 10. Blue-green algae. it must be remembered that water quality. However. This is caused by the protozoan Zoothamnium sp. their is a flexure of the tail at the third segment. An outbreak of infectious disease may have been brought on by poor water quality or inadequate diet. resulted in improved survival of infected shrimp (Sindermann. Stress. 10.9 Virus disease This disease has no visible signs. c. growths of blue-green algae may cause feeding and movement to be reduced even further. Once it gets started. such as exposure to insecticides and crowding has been found to encourage development of this disease (Sindermann. nutrition. In tanks outbreaks of the disease have usually followed handling of the shrimp. 10. The body of cramped shrimp curves and becomes rigid.8 Vibrio disease #3 The shrimp become slow moving and disoriented. b.10. Filamentous bacteria. It can cause mortalities when dissolved oxygen is low. 1974). This usually occurs when growth is very slow. The importance of this is borne out by the observation by researchers in Tahiti that attacks of black spot disease were . et al. It typically occurs on the gills. The chemical imbalances in the pond or the food must be changed if long-term success is to be achieved. the tail has an opaque white colour. Treatment with a 25 ppm formalin dip has been effective in controlling this protozoan. their is a red discolouration of the pleopods and pereiopods. raising salinity to 20 ppt eliminated a low salinity form (Sindermann. added to food at a minimum rate of 360 mg/kg of body weight per day.1. They are primarily a problem when growth is slow and the shrimp are not molting.

Most species of the fungus Saprolegnia also can be effectively controlled by this compound. The following table lists the concentrations of therapeutic chemicals tested by Hanks which produced 0.ganate (ppm) (ppm) 400 1 000 1 000 25 500 1 000 Methylene blue (ppm) 75 100 100 LC50 70 LC100 90 Furanace is a relatively new chemotherapeutic that has potential for use in shrimp culture. Chemical treatment probably is most appropriate for controlling disease in broodstock or in intensive types of culture with feeding. Sindermann also points out that mortalities and signs of stress in organisms in aquaculture must be investigated from the viewpoint of possible toxicants as well as infectious disease. In addition to the chemotherapeutic agents given as treatment with the individual diseases.noticed only on shrimp in tanks where the conditions were poor. It is more useful to first locate the shrimp farm in areas not affected by pollution. Little is known about most of them and their use in ponds can have harmful effects. 1974). The compound can be administered by means of baths at either high concentration with a short exposure time or low concentration with a long exposure time. He observed that the drug is absorbed rapidly by the prawns and that after treatment it is excreted rapidly. several compounds which have proven useful in fish culture have been tested for their toxicity to shrimp by Hanks (1976). It is an effective agent for a number of bacterial and fungal pathogens of fish and crustacea. or after too many handlings (Aquacop. With the short bath a dose of 20 . Generally. 50 or 100 percent mortality in the 96-hour period following a one-hour exposure of Penaeus californiensis. Furanace appears to be an effective agent against Vibrio. Pseudomonas and Gaffkya homari are resistant. Most of the compounds found effective in treating the various diseases of shrimp have not been cleared for use by health or food authorities. y y y y Some of the chemicals may be carcinogenic (malachite green for example) or they may cause other damage to people who handle them Harmful residues may accumulate in the shrimp and cause illness to the people who eat them The treatment may upset the chemical balance in the pond by affecting useful organisms like nitrifying bacteria Food organisms in the pond may be killed (Sindermann. Cytophaga and Aeromonas bacteria. It was found to be non-toxic to Macrobrachium rosenbergii at effective levels of treatment by DelvesBroughton (1974). Hyamine (ppm) LC0 30 Formalin/malachite green (ppm) 160/8 400/20 1 000/50 Copper sulfate (ppm) 20 250 750 Potassium ³Cutrine´ perman. Then follow good management practices to keep the pond environment good and the shrimp healthy and disease-resistant. treatment with chemicals should be used only as a last resort in the control of disease. 1977). it has been suggested that there is a relation between the presence of chlorinated hydrocarbon contamination and the occurrence of virus disease of shrimp. For example.

9 Snails climbing out of the water can also be an indication of low oxygen in the water. If the water becomes clear. The most frequent cause of this is lab-lab which floated to the surface and was carried to a corner by wind.1. 11. it was felt that a level of 2.1. . If the smell comes up from the bottom mud while someone is wading in the pond. During night hours it sinks to the bottom where it decomposes.8 Gobies swimming in stress and/or concentrated on the sides of the dikes can indicate low dissolved oxygen in the pond water. This can be especially harmful on cloudy days that follow several days of bright sunlight.6 An abrupt change of water colour.1.5 Active swimming of shrimp around the edge of the pond during daylight hours. but not at the water surface.1.1 Indicators of problems in a pond 11. The products of decomposition can be harmful. 11. 11. This can sometimes cause milky coloured for 20 minutes is near the upper level of safe tolerance for Macrobrachium. With long-term baths.1. 11.7 Bad smell. frequently breaking the water surface. This indicates the shrimp are in stress. Check in the early morning to see if shrimp or fish are swimming erratically at the surface. 11.1. 11. The usual cause is low oxygen and/or high temperature.1 The presence of dead shrimp or fish. the bottom is bad.2 A die-off of algal growth. 11. it means the phytoplankton died and a shortage of natural food will develop. types of algae might be present which give off toxins which can kill shrimp. Caution should be exercised if one cannot see a white coloured object 25 cm deep in the pond.1.) is useful in the treatment of bacterial diseases of shrimp.1. 11. A smell of sulfide or rotten eggs is caused by hydrogen sulfide.4 Active swimming of shrimp at the water surface during day-light hours.1. Enomoto (personal communication) has found that Monofuran for fish (Dainihon Seiyaku Co. If the water turns a reddish or bright-green colour. INDICATORS OF TROUBLE AND REMEDIAL ACTION 11. A milky colour can indicate a die-off of algae as noted above. This is produced by decomposition and it can indicate that an accumulation of organic matter has occurred on the pond bottom. 11. This can indicate a lack of food in the pond.3 An overgrowth (bloom) of phytoplankton can cause oxygen depletion.0 mg/1 was an adequate treatment.

some may even be jumping out of the water. This happens to water with a high amount of dissolved organic matter. This is caused by a bacterial disease. 11.1. 11. if the colour remains. Place the shrimp in clean water in an aquarium.10 A heavy concentration of the rotifer Brachionus or other form of zooplankton in the pond water can indicate either a build up of organic matter in the ponds as a result of decomposition of other food organisms or a heavy growth of bacteria. In the last case. This condition can be caused by disease or by the shrimp burying in mud made black by decomposition.1. They are very small red worms. 11. They can live when dissolved oxygen levels are very low. 11. a pH of 8 to 8. If the black colour goes away after one or two days. and is usually associated with water that has a high organic content. protozoans. A higher temperature of pond water is dangerous and can lead to increased mortality.14 Abrupt lowering of salinity in a pond. This can be caused by bacteria. it is accumulated debris.1. 11.1. it is disease.1. In any case.11. 11. or algae.16 Low pH.17 Low levels of dissolved oxygen in pond water by measurement usually during early morning hours before sunrise. A pH lower than 7 is a cause for concern in that it indicates some abnormal condition in a pond.1.1. Chironomid worms are an indicator of pollution. The freshwater floats on top of the saltwater.1.1.18 Bottom mud containing a large number of chironomid worms and nothing else. 11. the shrimp are usually swimming actively and show signs of stress.13 Shrimp with papery shells and body that pushes in easily. and when everything else dies their numbers increase. The first two are associated with water which has a high organic content.15 Temperature above 32°C.11 Shrimp with black gills. 11. Some of these shrimp will lose the white spot if placed in well-aerated water for a day. This forms a barrier and the bottom water often can become deficient in oxygen.20 Shrimp with fuzzy growth on outside shell.19 Numerous shrimp with black spots that look like an old injury. This can be caused by disease or by the stress of low dissolved oxygen and high temperature. especially when caused by heavy rain.21 A foam is formed on pond surface by waves during high winds.5. A high pH is usually associated with a good growth of phytoplankton. 11.1. 11.1. In brackishwater. It is not a cause for concern unless it rises above 9. This is usually caused by lack of food.12 Shrimp with white discolouration on their tails.2 is normal. . they are an indication that growth is slow and the shrimp are not molting. 11.1.

Any time shrimp appear to be in stress. Partial harvesting can be utilized when there is evidence of slow growth caused by lack of food. Rafts of bamboo supporting banana leaves would be inexpensive. The same treatment might prove useful for shrimp.5 Stop feeding or fertilization. Oxygen depletion usually occurs near the bottom and it is best to drain and replenish water from the bottom most of the time. Sometimes it may be necessary to exchange water for several days in a row before pond conditions improve. Addition of chemicals like potassium permanganate could be a useful remedy for low dissolved oxygen levels. If ³lab-lab´ piles up in a corner. introduces new food organisms. 11.1 Water exchange. supplemental feeding or fertilization should be postponed until the situation is corrected. Hydrated or quick lime applied at rates from 200 kg/ha has been used to relieve milkfish from stress caused by low dissolved oxygen (Padlan.2. In the case of low salinity of the surface layer. Total harvesting is advised only as a last resort when a large percentage of shrimp in a pond are diseased or they are dying from bad pond conditions and there is no way to remedy the situation. It is important that water be exchanged as soon as possible in cases where low dissolved oxygen is the problem. 1976b).2. Selective harvesting can be used to reduce the . 11. In some cases where shrimp in a pond have stopped growing. the water level should be raised. This would be most practical in small ponds where shrimp are grown at high density.2. Workers are cautioned against becoming burned if it should get in their eyes or get wet on their skin (Anonymous. Water can be mixed to supply oxygen or to break up a layer of freshwater. or pond conditions are poor.2 Remedial action 11. dilutes waste products or phytoplankton that may have built up too high. Changing water is a general preventative and/or remedy for most of the conditions listed above: it introduces new oxygen. 11. 11. 11. it might be useful to supply extra food until a new growth of natural food can be produced.4 Raise water level.2.8 Transfer shrimp.7 Add feed.2. Mechanical agitators are sold for this. In an emergency an outboard engine can be used. Any time dead things are observed in a pond they should be removed.11. If a pump is available water should be flowed through the pond. growth resumed when they were transferred to another pond with a good crop of natural food. caused by heavy rains.2. It is caustic to handle and bulky.2. dilutes disease causing organisms. 11. In ponds with high water temperature. it can be removed with a rake or scoop.9 Harvest shrimp. Windmills have proved practical.3 Addition of chemicals. Quick lime is a special activated type of lime and should not be confused with agricultural lime. personal communication).2. 11.6 Remove dead fish or algae. 11.2. In some cases. water should be drained from the top and replenished from the bottom. If the shrimp give signs of being undernourished or hungry. it may be necessary to provide shade. It is better to receive a low price for undersize shrimp than it is to wait too long and have most of the shrimp die. trace minerals and organics. This should be standard procedure.2 Mechanical mixing.

Arriving at a reliable estimation of the number of shrimp in a pond is difficult. but a net covers the top.number of shrimp in the pond by cropping large individuals and leaving the smaller ones to grow larger. The shrimp trapped in the frame are caught with a scoop net. instead they move around within the pond. The shrimp trapped in this frame are counted by a diver. An average number of shrimp per sample (m2) is arrived at and this is multiplied by the number of square metres in the pond to arrive at the number of shrimp in the pond.1 Use of screened frame boxes. A beam trawl with a two-metre opening is dragged across the pond.1. In one method the sides of the frame are high enough to extend out of the water. not enough food will be given and the shrimp will not grow well. A more reliable estimation can be obtained by sampling. One sample should be taken in each corner and six in the middle. 12. . This is because the distribution of shrimp within a pond is not even. SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS 12. The number of square metres sampled is then divided by the number of shrimp caught in the beam trawl to get the average number of shrimp per square metre. if the number of shrimp is drastically reduced due to a catastrophic mortality caused by disease or low dissolved oxygen levels. it might be advisable to drain the pond and start over again with a new stock.1 Estimating the number of shrimp in a pond For management pruposes. too much food will be given and the excess will decay and pollute the pond. 12. then a worker carries a long rope around the pond to the opposite side. If the estimate is low. Another type of frame has sides only 30 cm high. If the estimated number of shrimp is high. A wooden or iron frame covered with mosquito netting which has a known area (usually 1 m2) is placed on the pond bottom. The concentrations of shrimp do not remain in one area of a pond. Then the trawl is pulled directly across the pond. The following methods have been tried with varying degrees of success. A general idea of the number of shrimp in a pond can sometimes be obtained by walking around a pond at night with a bright light and observing the number of shrimp swimming near the edge. The trawl is set on one side. Also it has been observed that shrimp are usually more abundant in the corners of a pond. For example.2 Beam trawl. The swimming activity of shrimp is affected by many things such as moon phase. knowing the number of shrimp in a pond is very important. accurate estimation of numbers is critical.1. The width of the pond is multiplied by the width of the beam trawl to obtain the number of square metres of pond bottom sampled. 12.5 ha pond. In ponds where supplemental feed is given. To obtain a reliable sample it is necessary to sample at least 10 locations in a 0. food supply and water movement. they tend to group together. As a result the number of shrimp observed can vary widely on different days. as the amount of feed provided is usually based on the estimated weight of shrimp in the pond.

It is better to sample in the cool of the morning or evening. The weight of the shrimp is the difference between the two weights. The average weight of an individual shrimp is calculated by dividing the total weight of the sample by the number of shrimp in the sample. Measurements should be made as soon as possible after the shrimp are caught. Total length is measured from the tip of the rostrum to the tip of the telson.3 Cast net.2 Sampling for growth Sampling should be done once a week.The method works best in ponds with a level bottom and with no structures placed in the pond for shelter or windbreaks. it is perhaps better to use total length. the length of shrimp is not needed and an average weight obtained by weighing the whole sample at one time is all that is required. It can not be used with ³lumut´ and disturbs the bottom in a ³lablab´ pond. Shrimp should not be stored for any length of time due to possible death by cannibalism or loss of weight due to starvation. but an important point to consider is that methods of sampling which disturb the pond bottom also destroy food. Standard length is a measurement from the postorbital notch to the tip of the telson. The total sample is weighed at one time by placing the shrimp in a bucket containing water. Also some shrimp frequently escape from the net. It is better to take several samples instead of one large sample. etc. Measurements of 50 to 100 shrimp should be adequate. There are several different ways of measuring the length of shrimp.4 Marking.1. the number of samples taken should be made as few as possible to obtain the information required. so that only one type of measurement can be used throughout the shrimps growing period. The total number of shrimp in the pond can be estimated by multiplying the number of shrimp marked by the number of shrimp in the second sample and then dividing by the number of marked shrimp recovered in the second sample. since it is difficult to measure standard length or carapace length of postlarvae and juveniles. sample the shrimp in the pond again. Sampling with a cast net should be done at night when the shrimp are active. 12. There is some criticism of this measure because the rostrum is frequently damaged or broken and the shrimp cannot be measured. The bucket containing water is weighed before the shrimp are added. It is difficult to estimate the area covered by the cast net as each throw is different. The shrimp can be weighed individually or all together. Samples of postlarvae can be obtained by placing twigs or branches around the pond and then lifting up the branches catching the postlarvae in a scoop net as the branch is lifted out of the water. . 12. A variety of methods can be used to obtain a sample. Replace the shrimp in the pond. This procedure saves a lot of time and a less delicate balance is required. If too large a sample is taken. Mark a specified number of shrimp by cutting off one uropod. However. there is a danger that the shrimp might die before they could be returned to the pond. In such cases. Carapace length is a measurement from the post-orbital notch to the posterior margin of the carapace. After one or two nights. 12. It is difficult to sample corners. For production purposes.1. Sampling during the day is not effective. The shrimp can be prevented from jumping out of the holding container by placing a few branches with leaves on them in the container.

1974). A Secchi disc is about 30 cm in diameter. The hydrometer uses this principle to indicate the amount of salt in the water.4 Temperature Hand-held thermometers are adequate for measuring water temperature. with instructions for their use. They do not cost too much. painted white and black or just white. The bottle is floated in this water and a third mark is made on the stem to indicate half strength seawater. It is a kind of calibrated-floating tube.3 Salinity There are many ways to measure salinity. The point where the stem comes out of the water is then marked on the stem. rigid.5 Turbidity Turbiditv is caused by particles suspended in the water. 12. A mark should be made on the stem at the new point where the stem comes out of the seawater. The mouth of the bottle is plugged with a stopper that is fitted with a light stem such as a piece of bamboo. Next a mixture is made of half seawater and half freshwater. As salt is added to water. The thermometer should be read while in the pond water. A strong. 17). but a glass bottle could also be used (Fig. the water becomes slightly heavier. It can be caused by phytoplankton. The disc is suspended on a rope . A record of the extreme temperatures in the pond over a period of time can be obtained by laying a maximum-minimum thermometer on the pond bottom. Commercially-made hydrometers calibrated at certain temperatures are available from scientific equipment dealers. Most accurate results are obtained when the temperature of the water being tested is the same as the water used when the stem was marked (Anonymous.When taking individual weights. objects floating in the water are pushed higher out of the water. Elaborate salinometers. As the water becomes heavier. 12. narrow mouth plastic bottle of about 100 cc capacity would be a good choice. but as they are made of glass. electric instruments. or specific gravity of liquids according to how high the tube floats in the liquid. and has weights or heavy objects hanging on it to make it sink straight down in the water. Now the bottle can be used as a reference to judge the approximate salinity as compared to seawater and freshwater. One way of measuring turbidity is with a Secchi disc (Fig. 12. mud or other substances. each shrimp should be dried before weighing. This is done by gently patting the shrimp with an absorbent towel or cloth. These are useful for scientific research. Next the bottle is floated in seawater which has been collected from a distance offshore so that it is not diluted by freshwater runoff from rivers. refractometers and chemical methods are available. One should not hold the thermometer in the pond water and then lift it out to read it. A hydrometer is a less expensive instrument. It is possible for a shrimp farmer to make a simple hydrometer for measuring salinity. This procedure can cause the thermometer reading to be several degrees off. The stem will stick farther out of the water now because the salt in the seawater makes the bottle float higher. Enough rocks should be put in the bottle so that the tip of the stem just sticks out of the water a short distance when the bottle is put in freshwater. It measures the weight. 12). but are usually too expensive for fish farmers. they break easily.

1976) Mud pH in water 5.0 1 210 1 680 2 688 3 864 4 536 5 208 5 880 6 720 8 736 8 960 9 408 (kg/ha of calcium carbonate required) 121 242 168 336 269 538 386 773 454 907 521 1 042 588 1 176 672 1 344 874 1 747 896 1 792 941 1 882 .or a long piece of wire that is marked off in centimeters. The composite soil sample is mixed thoroughly and spread in a thin layer to air dry.7 5. The marks on the rope are read at the point where the disc just disappears from sight. repeat the analysis with 10 g of dry soil and double the amount of lime required given in the table (Boyd.1 1 089 1 512 2 419 3 478 4 082 4 687 5 292 6 048 7 974 8 064 8 467 7. add 20 ml of distilled water and stir periodically for one hour.3 847 1 176 1 881 2 705 3 175 3 646 4 116 4 704 6 115 6 272 6 586 7. In a pond being managed for phytoplankton the disc should disappear at a depth of about 25 to 35 cm. 1976). Then measure the pH of the muddistilled water mixture with a glass electrode pH meter.7 MUD pH IN BUFFERED SOLUTION 7. A p-nitrophenol buffer of pH 8. When the Secchi disc goes into the water it will sink and disappear from sight at some depth. Add 20 ml of the p-nitrophenol buffer and stir periodically for 20 minutes.85 mm openings. Set the pH meter at 8. 12.2 968 1 344 2 150 3 091 3 629 4 166 4 704 5 376 6 989 7 186 7 526 7.6 5. 1976). distilled water. The disc can be made from metal or wood as long as it will sink.0 4.7 363 504 806 1 159 1 361 1 562 1 764 2 016 2 621 2 688 2 822 7. Place 20 g of dry soil in a 100 ml beaker.4 5.9 4. the sample is crushed gently into a powder and sieved through a screen with 0.6 484 672 1 075 1 546 1 814 2 083 2 353 2 688 3 494 3 584 3 763 7.2. 15 g boric acid.5 g potassium hydroxide to 1 liter with distilled water.8 7. If the pH of the soil in the buffered solution is below 7. Next read the pH of the sample (soil. and 10.0 by using a mixture of 1 part p-nitrophenol buffer and 1 part distilled water. Lime requirement in kg/ha of calcium carbonate (neutralizing value of 100) to increase total hardness and total alkalinity of pond water above 20 mg/l (from Boyd.6 Determining lime requirements for pond soils A soil sample should be taken as described in Section 3. buffer mixture) while stirring vigorously.1 is prepared by diluting 20 g p-nitrophenol. A tin can pounded flat can be used (Druben. The pH value of the soil in water and the soil in buffered solution is used to obtain the lime requirement from the following table. After drying.5 5.8 4.4 726 1 008 1 613 2 318 2 722 3 125 3 528 4 032 5 242 5 376 5 645 7.9 7. 74 g potassium chloride.0 0.2 5.5 605 840 1 344 1 932 2 268 2 064 2 940 3 360 4 368 4 480 4 704 7.1 5.3 5.

The traditional type trap made of bamboo screens is good. the shrimp will not go into the trap. When water is let into a pond. The mouth opening should be 4 cm wide. Second. the trap should be emptied periodically during the night. If the mouth is too large. and set it back in the pond. HARVESTING There are several behavioural characteristics of shrimp which can be used to advantage during harvest. This is especially true for species of Metapenaeus with a large size difference between sexes.1 Traps Barrier traps (Fig. No bait is needed. It should be of a size that one or two men could lift it. 13) set around the edge of a pond are very effective.13. They are stimulated by movement of water. It is possible to selectively harvest these large individuals before the main crop is harvested. it is difficult to provide the correct size mouth opening. empty the shrimp out. Wire or string should be placed at 4 cm intervals across the mouth to prevent crabs from going into the trap. so they swim out of a pond with the water when water is discharged.2 Nets Cast nets. 13. If the number of shrimp in the pond is large. lights can be used to attract the shrimp.1. Baited traps are not recommended. In Indonesia fyke type shrimp traps made of bamboo screens with built-in bottoms at their catching ends are used. It is better if a rigid frame trap with a bottom is made.1. If too many shrimp are caught in the trap. 13. so a worker must catch the shrimp with a net. the shrimp become active. The periods of greatest activity are normally shortly after sunset and again shortly before sunrise. Most species of shrimp are more active during the new moon and full moon. or the pond will end up with mostly small males. .1 Partial harvesting Partial harvesting is useful in some types of management systems where only large shrimp are to be caught and smaller shrimp left in the pond to grow larger. the pond must be totally harvested occasionally. In a programme of selectively cropping the larger shrimp from a pond. swimming around the pond and often gathering near the sluice gate. A small kerosene lamp placed on top of the trap will attract more shrimp. They move around the pond at night looking for food. Larger shrimp have a natural tendency to migrate to deeper water offshore. If the opening is too small. lift nets and seine nets can be used to harvest shrimp. Their use can be made more effective by setting out bait or food in the area to be fished. most of these traps has no bottom. First. but if they are used. This type of trap should be fished at night. crabs can enter the trap and they eat or damage many shrimp. 13. They are attracted to light. but it has two disadvantages. If fishing is done at night. Shrimp typically have different growth rates with some individuals growing much faster than others. and in polyculture where a farmer wants to harvest shrimp but not fish. a portion of them will die and they will be spoiled and in poor condition by morning. The openings in the walls of the trap should be large enough so small shrimp can escape if a partial harvest is desired. fish with a high oil content make the best bait.

2. Initially. A modification of this type of harvest is to let water in slowly after the shrimp have been concentrated in the canals. a hand-held electric gear is used to harvest shrimp. The best time to do this type of harvesting is at night during the new moon or full moon. However. monodon can be harvested from a pond if the draining procedure is repeated on three successive nights. On receiving an electric stimulation. 13. It is useful to let some water into the pond before harvesting is started to stimulate the shrimp and get them swimming around the pond.2. A bamboo screen can be pushed around the peripheral canal to concentrate the shrimp in a restricted area.13. This stimulates the shrimp into moving and they enter traps which are set around the pond. One of the poles is equipped with a metal tip and the other has a steel ring with a net attached.2 Total harvest 13. 14). The gear has been used to totally harvest large ponds (Liao. if possible. . so. harvest is during new moon. Some farmers have reported that about 90 percent of P. monodon is particularly hard to harvest with a bagnet as it does not swim out of the pond readily. the shrimp jump out of the water and are caught in the net. the top two closure boards are removed. an electric field is formed between the two poles. The gear is composed of an accumulator and two bamboo poles. The bagnet must be long enough so it extends far enough from the sluice gate to make emptying the bag easy. During harvest.1 Bagnet in sluice gate Most species of shrimp can be harvested effectively by using a bagnet placed in the sluice gate and catching the shrimp as they swim from the pond with the outflowing water. the shrimp move to the deeper canals. With the slow lowering of the water level. The metal tip is connected by wires to the anode of the accumulator and the steel ring to the cathode.3 Electric shrimp catching In Taiwan. P.2 Partially draining water A method of harvest particularly useful for P. The accumulator is carried in a backpack or on a small raft and the operator holds one pole in each hand as he wades through the pond. They are then caught with scoop nets. A light placed near the mouth of the sluice gate will attract the shrimp toward the gate and aid in their capture. the water is drained from the surface. When the gear is switched on. China. Additional boards are removed as needed to keep water discharge at about the same amount. The same type of ³lazy line´ used on shrimp trawl nets can be used to pull the bag to shore for emptying (Fig. Shrimp can be removed from the canals by dragging a seine net around the peripheral canal.1. many species of shrimp molt during the full moon period and the soft shell shrimp bring a lower price. The remaining shrimp have to harvested by hand after the pond is totally drained. monodon is to drain water from the pond very slowly until water remains only in the peripheral canals or a harvest basin. personal communication). 13.

Prog. Fish. 1956 Cultivation of sugpo (jumbo tiger shrimp). design.. South China Sea Fish. Rizal. 1977 Reproduction in captivity and growth of Penaeus monodon Fabricius in Polynesia. & Coord. and H. Their use should be discouraged. M. M. Philippines: 73±83 Druben.L. Marine borers. Aquaculture 3: 175±185 Denila.G. H. 36 E Egusa. E. Traps are more costly than bagnets and cannot be moved from pond to pond. Tigbauan. Rabanal. Penaeus monodon Fabricius in the Philippines. VITA Publications Manual.13: 3p. Manila. J. S.. 1974 Preliminary investigations into the suitability of a new chemotherapeutic. In Gareth Jones. Iloilo. 6(2±3): 424-31 Delves-Broughton. A. of Scientific Fisheries 27: 650±659 Forster...2. 27 November-3 December 1977 (mimeo) Cook. 1977 Implications of acid sulfate soils in tropical fish culture. 14. FIR:AQ/Conf/76/E. Indo-Pacif. Beard. for the treatment of infectious prawn diseases. FAO Aquaculture Conference. 1961 Studies on the respiration of the ³Kuruma´ prawn Penaeus japonicus Bate. Shrimp are caught in the traps as the pond is drained.M. .3 Trap in the outlet canal Some farmers build large traps in the water outlet canal outside the sluice gate.. In Readings on Pond Construction and Management. Coun. final harvest is by hand after all the water has been drained from the pond. Japanese Soc. (mimeo) Delmendo.. Paper presented at the 8th Annual Workshop of the World Mariculture Society Boyd. 1976 Lime requirement and application in fishponds. Planters Products Cooperative Marketing and Supply. (undated) Fishpond soils and fertilizers. Philippines: 5p.K. In all cases. REFERENCES Aquacop. and S... Camacho.. Dev. II Preliminary experiments on its oxygen consumption. Aquaculture 3: 355±368 Fougerousse.N. Proc.R. J. Philippines. SEAFDEC. construction and levelling of fishponds. 1974 Experiments to assess the suitability of nine species of prawns to intensive culture. 1976 Freshwater fishpond culture and management. L. C. Tigbauan. Inc. 1971 Natural resistance of tropical timbers to attack by marine wooddestroying organisms.13. Davide.W. J. 1976 Problems in shrimp culture in the South China Sea Region. Makati. Series No. Iloilo. 1976 Layout.. (editor). L. and T.E. Furanace. Volunteers in Technical Assistance.S.R. SCS/77/WP/40: 29p.. Paper presented at the Joint FAO-UNDP/SCSP and SEAFDEC Regional Workshop on Aquaculture Engineering. Bull. Eltringham (editors).B..

In Gareth Jones E. Soc. Tokyo: 148p.. fungi and fouling organisms of wood. Japan FAO Association. Mock. 1962 Nitrogenous fertilizers for brackishwater ponds . Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. I. 1977 (Personal communication) . Manila.C. Iloilo. M. Kurata. of Taiwan 5(2): 11±29 Liao. Sirikul and K. 1977 Manual on propagation and cultivation of grass prawn. Proc.fungi and fouling organisms of wood. Penaeus monodon.N. SCS/75/WP/16: 37p. Fujinaga. and D.. (A). Jamandre. 5th Annual Workshop. Dev. Pingtung.R.A. R. Taiwan Fisheries Research Institute. Jour. Popper. 1976 Toxicity of some chemical therapeutics to the commercial shrimp. Marine borers.S. Fish. Proc. 1973 Recirculating system culture methods for marine organisms. Report of the ASEAN Seminar Workshop on Shrimp Culture.J. C. Workshop World Maricult. 1977 A culture study on grass prawn. B. Prog. 9(1): 123±124 Mackay. 15±23 November 1976. the problems and the prospects. Fisheries Soc. 1971 Aquaculture in Japan.K.M. 1975 Zooplankton recolonization of a lake cover treated with rotenone. Penaeus californiensis. N. Aquaculture 7: 293±294 Honma. Penaeus monodon in Taiwan .C. 4th Ann.. editors. L. I. Salser. Aquaculture 6: 197±198 Hanks.. and S. Eltringham. A. Philippines Liao. King. et al. Jr. Malaysia (mimeo) Gundermann. J.R.ammonium or nitrate form? Indian J. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.D. Tungkang Marine Laboratory.. Amer. and H. 4: 247±259 Neves. Soc. Neal and B. R. P. 1974 A note on minimal levels of oxygen required to maintain life in Penaeus schmitti. Chotiyaputta. Extension Series No. Tungkang.J.R.. 1976 On the monoculture of jumbo tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon Fabricius.the patterns. & Coord. Trans. P. and H.. Rabanal. Taiwan Mandal. K. 1967 Survey report on shrimp resources and fishing at Sandakan... S-E-A Scope 3(1): 1 Kungvankij. R. 2: 390±393 Padlan. Paris: 367p. South China Sea Fish.B. Akio.. 1975 Engineering aspects of brackishwater aquaculture in the South China Sea Region.. World Mariculture Society: 451-2 McQuire. 1975 Experiment in growing Penaeus merguiensis (De Man. T. 1971 Preservation of timber in the sea. Sabah. 1888) in a fishpond in Fiji. Paris: 367p. 1973 A close raceway for the culture of shrimp. Fish. 339±346.. 1. p.

M. No. Stickney.Padlan. A. (Editor). Soc. Tang. 3rd Ann.. H.B.: 119p. The Pacific Science Assoc.Y. Hong Kong: 71±74 Potter. Ensminger and W. Prentice Hall. 1961 The use of saponin to control predaceous fishes in shrimp ponds. 1970 Fish and invertebrate culture in closed systems. New York: 145p. organic matter and pond bottom soils used in fisheries research. S. 1972 Handbook for Marine Biology. 1: 19±26 Rigdon. Series Rpt... 15±23 November 1976. Alabama.... Baxter. Japan: 153p.. Trans. Auburn Univ. Workshop World Mariculture Society: 149±166 Piyakarnchana. Fish. Coun. Penaeus merguiensis de Man cultivated in a tambak. Spotte. Auburn. Georgia: 148p.N. Mid-Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Center. T. Ind. Skidaway Institute of Oceanography. Philippines Prawirodihardjo. Proc. Jr. Greene and R. Special Symposium on Marine Sciences.H.W. et al. Johnson and R. Report of the ASEAN Seminar/Workshop on Shrimp Culture.J.: 1087p. 1974 Diagnosis and control of mariculture diseases in the United States.R..P. Tokyo.H. 2: 306p. and K. Swingle. 1972 Marsh and pond construction. Tamiyavanich. Amer. N. 1975 M.. Savannah. Rao. Bulletin of the Shrimp Culture Research Centre. 1969 Revision by G. Highlands.N. 1969 Methods of analysis for waters.. 1970 R. H. IndoPacific Fish. Latape. 99(3): 583-7 Shigueno K. Assoc. R. 1975 Occurrence and abundance of prawn seed at Jepara. Wiley Interscience.. S. Ives. New York. Fleming. Y.J. Progressive Fish Culturist. Subrahmanyam.J.S.R. and K. T..U. International Center for Aquaculture. Iloilo City.. N. for International Technical Promotion. Spontaneous necrosis in muscle of brown shrimp. Tech. (undated) Some effects of commercial fertilizers at the Western Visayas Demonstration Fish Farm Perry. Some limiting factors on the growth and survival of the banana prawn. Hungspreugs and S. 23(1): 43±45 .. Proc. 1970 Observations on the postlarval prawns (Penaeidae) in the Pulicat Lake with notes on their utilization in capture and culture fisheries. 1975 Shrimp culture in Japan.A.. 1976 The problems to fish culture associated with acid-sulfate soils and methods for their improvement. Penaeus aztecus. U.T. 1949 M. 13(II): 113±127 Sverdrup. G. C. P. Sindermann.S. The Oceans. Lovell. 7±16 Dec.H. 1973.

Tang. 10±16 January 1976: 7p. et al. 2. Aquaculture 9: 19±37 Zein-Eldin. Manila: 3p. Anonymous. 1976 Soil vegetation interrelationships in mangrove forests.K. Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources. M. Lab. Extension Literature D3a. Thailand.. Bull. (mimeo) Anonymous. Nakayama. 1974 A simple salinometer. Biol.J. (mimeo) Anonymous. and D. Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources. 6. D.June 30. Technical Report No. Manila: 2p. National Research Council. Technical Report (July 1969 .156: 15p.V. 1965 Growth and survival of postlarval Penaeus aztecus under controlled conditions of temperature and salinity. Contribution to Seminar/Workshop on Mangrove Ecology. Bookman.K. Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources.A. Y. MS Handbook in coastal fish farming: A pattern for training in this type of aquaculture for the South China Sea Region Terazaki. 1976b Platform and other methods of fishpond fertilization. Paper presented at the National Workshop on Mangrove Ecology. Wickins. Phuket.. Fish Culture Leaflet No. Thailand. Thailand. Manila: 4p... 10±16 January 1976 Villaluz. Extension Literature D2. 1977 Establishment of ground cover vegetation to minimize dike erosion In Inland Fisheries Project Philippines. Aldrich. held at phuket Marine Biological Centre. 1976 The tolerance of warm-water prawn to recirculated water. J. (mimeo) Anonymous. larval development and cultivation of sugpo (Penaeus monodon Fabricius). MSU-NSDB-Assisted Research Project No. 1970 Reproduction. Villaluz. Mar.. D. Phuket. Tharnbuppa and Y.. 129(1): 199±216 Zinke.. 1970). Eradication of predatory fishes in shrimp farms. Woods Hole. Biol. Manila: 336p. 1976 P. Phuket Marine Biological Centre. 1953 Fish farming in the Philippines. P. Z.F. 1976a Pest control in brackishwater fishponds.P. 9: 150±162 .

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