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Food and Health
Principles of Education




Dyspepsia and Diabetes A Comparative Hindu Materia Medica A Study in Hindu Social Polity Endocrin Glands National Problems
Infant Feeding and Hygiene







Great Russell Street,

Librarie Medical

London W.


Rue Casimir-Delavigno,
Paris (Vie)



Buchhandler und

Buchhandlung und



New York


Chapter —Anatomy







Myology The Vascular System
Digestion Circulation




The Nervous System


Constitutional Pathogenesis


Mechanical Pathogenesis
their Diagnosis
their Clinical Studies

IV. — Diseases and V. — Diseases and





Diseases of the Bladder


Diseases of the


Skin Disease



Diseases of the Genital Organs




— Therapeutics... VII. —Surgery VIII. — Dietetics IX. — Hygiene








... .••






I started this

Book with
the idea of

makinga comparative study of the ancient Hindu and Greek systems of Medicine in the light of niodem

students for


I soon realized that the







would not be interested in the Greek Medicine, and as there are excellent translations of the works
of Hippocrates,^!: I live confined myself to the interpretation of the Ancient Hindu Medicinealonu.

was forced to the conclusion that the Ancient
of Medicine were indebted for the following
to the

Greek Schools

Hindu Systems


— (1)

Indigenous Indian drugs are found in the works



Kardamomon from



an emmenagogue in


E. Littre


J. B.


Text and translation

10 Vols.

Bailier et Fils,



have used this

edition for


reference. 2/ Robert





Werke, 3 Vols.
3. (

Miinchen, 1895-1900.




Works of



in gingivitis in Vol. p. (Nardostachys Valeriana) as antiseptic fujriigation with cinnamon. 860 . VII. p 358 80 Amomon from Sk. 358 . p. Hvak' (Cinnamomum zeylonacum) with . p. p. 368 skin in wine for astringent injection in Vol. with wine and oil in a pessary in VII. II. VIII. mixed with honeyin nasal catarrh in water in Vol. myrrha and rose perfume in^VoI. simple fumigation in Vol. V. cardamomum p. Tol. as a drink with honey. VII. myrrha. and safran in fumigation in Vol. 'pippaW ( Piper ) as longum an expectorant. vinegar and water in Vol. p. trikatu. Vol. p. V. 464 as . p. (c) ) an emmenagogue in Voi. VII. V. VIII. 328 . (f) Nardou from Sk. p. a Dia-trion piperidon. VII. . p. Hila^ ( Sesamum indicum as a vulnerary . Feperi from Sk. VIII. . VIII. . p. 150 . VII. p. VII. 244 . 654 . p. longum and album ) (d) Kinnamomos from Sk.^ preparation made from three species of ^Piper* (nigrum. *jatmiiamsi^ .( iv ) in dyspnea in Vol. from Sk. (g) ) Sesamon from in Sk. lochia in Vol. 183 as an errhine in Vol. in quartan fever in Vol. 372 (e) Akof'os from Sk. ^eW ( Elettaria (b) . 372 as an astringent antiseptic wasti in . made infusion with dry pomegranate p. 364 . Vol. VIII. 'vacha' ( Acorus colamus ) with myrrha as antiseptic injection in Vol. p. 364 . . 104 .

in the treatment of adiposis in Vol. as' VI. II. . VI. p. etc. ^rngavercC ( Zingiber Ziggiberis for ) . 432 as a . p.( V ) empyema —suppurative abscess in Vol. Sakcharon ) . VI. Piper *pippali'muW ( radix from Sk. ^sarkara^ Saccharum officinarum Pepereos riza from Sk. *guggnla' agallocha (2) ) . 'rndhira '). p.. Hippocrates advances arguments of supeiiorty of the whose normal health and whose derangements Sk. 32-69. 258. V. 518 . as the ^aima' (blood phlegm : : : Sk. 82 . VI. a fattening food in Vol. 'vayu' ). On the Nature of Man ) Vol. 'ktistha' ( Costus speciosus ( ) . VIII. 'phlegma' *chol(jn ( principles of the four humors equilibrium in the body preserves the are the : etiological factors of disease. 78 . 544 . from Sk. : Kumoral Fathology ( In ^Feri Physios Atithropoy' p.' Kupeiros BdelUon from ( Aquilaria Sk. p. ^slesmaf ). p.. 76 . in coughing of the children in Vol. 'pitta* as a and time substitute first for Sk. which he for the introduced into Greece over the ancient doctrine . as a substitute cheese in Vol. yellow bile *choJ/n melainam' ( black bile ( xanthen* Sk. 'mtistaka (Cyperus rotundus). VII. officinale Kostos srom Sk. (h) from Sk. p. nutritive food in Vol. longum ) . as a plaster in long-standing catarrh in Vol.

496. phlegma* are mentioned as the four Medicine).{ vi ) of *}iof ( ( from fire ) *colfV ( ( from earth ) ). p. and whicli he also argues in his book 'Peri Archaies letriches' ( Ancient In his 'Ferl pp. V. 488. transitional was question and was not settled or ( fixed. in Physios Anthropoy' (The Nature of Man. and as every- cold in the winter. 'udor'' ( Sk. and as pblegma is . I. Vol. seasonal changes are mentioned to cause the increase and the decrease of the p. VII. chole. for the reason that^m'an to the laws of nature. 6) on ^rtu-charyya''. thus that the humoi-al flux. 8. in seasons which humors are predominant. humors. as the increase af the bile in the summer. Vol. VI. Vol. udor. Vol. 'dry* from air ) and ^moisf from water qualities which were supposed to be the basic factors of healtli and disease. 570-637. 46. 7). 3 ). humors. 'aima. using 'hile' without any qualificaand ill the place of one. In ^Peri Chymon'' Humors. and thus organisms are predisposed to certain diseases their in particular controling a very strikingly similar language as described In 'Pery in Susruta (I. Gones' ( Generation. ndaka = serous proving still in fluid ) is substituted. tion. 474. it is argued that 'yhlegxtia' is dominant conforms thing is in the winter. 14 ). p.

VII. 5i2. the "udrops* : and the phlegma are in excess it is through the food and the or in deficiency this way the full stomach is the drink. in (serons fluid) . but profits at the of the empty. the stomach. the blood is still strong. how the bile. is they come to . therefore tlie excess over ot^er humors is in spring. is the blood strong. the blood. the nature tends to cool is dry and In 'Peri Noyson (The fourth Book of Maladies. to the plenty of rain sap in the to the hot. when.' other four Moreover. come to the organs . and the phlegma is in the minimum owing . as the phlegma and still soil owing and plant. Vol. p. but it becomes desiccated by the warm sun in the summer. they go to the but they come back. but the bile is formed by the strong sun. : source of all things cost . it which it disinbody when tegrates. in the autumn the but the black season bile is formed in abundance. dominant.( vii ) "the coldest it of all the humors is " in in tactile sensation. desiccant sun blood is in the minimum. empty. . and when the stomach organs (superficial). there are sources from which each of the humors can f. naturally . to Tetarton' as the itself. 33). it is described how the humors *'I shall describe are in excess or in deficiency now.

India is dii^ectly mentioned in association (3) . 11.( viii ) the stomach has something (ingesfca). coction of the deransred humor bes^ins. Vol. ^udrops' (serous increased by the water one drinks.when the . 485 . and As the disease is caused especially by the heart. 651 ). is the heart. phlegmatic food or drink . its ) cure paclicuia bringing out the coction of the said humor. the part tlat is in mentioned that as the plant can select its food from the soil it needs. IV. for the phlegbrain. the bile is increased. VIII. The ma — the source for the blood. aiid the coction produces the periods in fever ( Vol. 635 .\ I. and which is attracted to all parts of the body. increased by the bloody food one takes. acrid substance. it is . by bitter food and drink. 469 . p. Vol. p. and cause its lies in ' the evacuation and expulsion from the body crisis of a disease is the turning point . for the 'udrops' (serous /^fuid) — the spleen. Vol. so each humor can get its nourishment from all kinds of food but phlegma is particularly increased by (34 38). V. is by the excessive increment the ( of one humor over rest. . and for the the liver (bile-duct). — And in the same book the ingestion of or cheese. p. or fluid) is bilious substance . and is pumped by the spleen the blood to itself and other parts of the body ." bile. p. 617 Vol. p.

fifteen and add . VIII. tna tauta leia tribein. preparation to ibid 158 Vol. . (d) *'Eteron triechonta."(Anotber drug wbicb is tbe round grain tbese three are to be pounded and moistened with warmed old wine. Indirect Inference . ecblepsas chocbchous pentecbaidecha. 394 )." (Another pessary ibid . (c) "Toyto pharmachon odontas chathairei cbai euodeas . 336 ).poieei chaleetai de indichoii pharmachon. o chaleetaipeperijCliai tou stroggyloy. Diseases. tbe Indian p. Vol. p. : Urine of cow . aroma it is called Indian prepara( . VIII. balanionperi pteron ornitbos titlienai. and the Indian substance which the Persians 205 (4) call 'pepper'. to indichoth o'ohaleousinoi Persai peperi.( ix ) loitJi some of the drugs treis : (a) "Echochchous eclilep- santa oson mdichoy pharmachoij tou ton opbthalmovn. (b) "E : .cbai oinopalaio chliero dieis.'* This preparation cleanses the teeth. and to be introduced thus ( as a pessary ). VIII. : — pasted round a plum. Indian for tbe eyes and is called 'pepper'. and imparts to them a fi.esto de cbai indichoy grains of poson" Cnide. 366 prostheton ecblepsas chocbchous tion . Vol. Gynaikeiioti JProton ( Eemale 81 Vol. p. p. ibid 185 . it is to be three decorticated grains.' thirty decorticated grains.chai odeprosa- gein. ( Or rather decorticate to it. ). 202 ).

We are not concerned — with that problem. . bovine desiccated bile (go-rochana) as a vulnerary preparation for wounds in Vol. That may be so. C. female diseases in Vol. We do not yet definitely know how the Medical science reached . 365 genitals and in s^rility in in fumigation and lotion in p. p. The cow being regarded as the sacred animal of the Hindus. as a therapeutic agent . 211. VIII. 119. It may be said that all the writings that are now included in the Hippocratic Collection were not the genuine works of Hippocrates (460 377 B. 453 as a disinfectant wash for the female . . ( go-maya ) is Cow-dung recommended with aromatic sub- stances as a fumigation in female diseases in Vol. p. but their passions. in fistula. to It suffices for our purpose know that the Hindu thoughts influenced deeply the Greek medical literature in the fifth and the fourth century B. Vol. p.157. ). VII. C. VII. VI. 419 .395 as a laxative drink be used use in India as therapeutic agents. in a purgative compound in Vol. p. with wine in Vol. VIII. in Vol. it can be imagined that her excretory products may with myrrh and honey in 59. p. p. VIII. in pessary Vol. 415 . p. VI. 425.( X ) {go-mutra) is recommended VI.203. among the Greeks who had no such indicates their foreign importation.

burnt Sardis in 499 B. His son Cambyses ( 529— 522 B. the 522 — 486 B. C. C. while in 512 Darius invaded Scythia. by defeating the Egyptian ruler Psammetichus III or better known as Amasis. under . C. C. C. C. revolte/d against the Persian domination. Lydian king. or dir^tetly by the perhaps by the Persian intermediatories. C. Astyages and conquers Media C. the Median king Cyaxares conquered Assyria and annexed to it the territories up to the coasts in Asia Minor where there were many Hellenic settlers.( x! ) Hellas . to subdue the nomadic hordes. ) extends the Indus. ( 559 — 530 B. his general Megabazus reduced Thrace. C. and with ^ the assistance of Athenians and Eretrians. in 550 B. ) conquers Egypt in 527 B. and a few years later penetrated up to the lonians the river* Peneus in Thessaly . conquers Babylon and Greek cities of Asia Minor in 546—539 B. The empire of Darius I from Macedonia to ( defeats Croesus. Cyrus. which led to the Persian invasion of Northern Greece in 492 B. C. and from the Danube and B. '\We know 606 B. defeats ) the great Persian nation-builder. C. and captures Sardis in 547 B. under whom were numerous Ionian and Cartan mercenaries. Hindu settlers in the Persian that in Empire. the Black Sea to Nubia.

and of Attica in 490 B. work of the fifth century B. VIII. and the soul will attain sacrifices. C. ) entered into ^niroana' . after a strenuous life of may years' preaching. Vol. In Mahavagga (1. belief i% the transmigration of soul. There is every reason to believe that the Dionysos orgies were the import- ed Soma-Siva cult from India. C. C. 287). the And he represented leopard. C. passing when it attains it. accompanied by a Alexandrian time. which ended with the defeat fl^f the Persians at the battle of Marathon on S/^t.. we find descrip- tion of advanced medical treatment. He Hellas. Abstinence from meat. the practice of austere asceticism. and it will be free from rebirth — . 6 1. 8 ) a very old Buddhist C.( xii ) f the generalship of Mardonius. But the Hindu influence over Greece even goes beyond that period. 12 ( — 490 B. The Orphic relilike Siva. through various beings. garment. Siddhartha Gautama JB.riding on' a tiger Brit. from anithe wearing of a special. the Buddha 563 in — 483 483 B. as in gion seems to be no less indebted to the same source. fish etc. and {l^tiC2/c. mal perfection. The ( and civilization ) into goat and the serpent are sacred to him. p. Moon-god like Soma. is Dionysos is a introduced wine-culture bull.

of Vol. 328) pre-Buddhistic trines these unmistakably indicate Indian origin. as the bondage of the soul ( Ency Brit.( » xiii ) *the circle I5y)dy is the generation' ( kyhlos geneseos ). Arthur Lille in his *Itama and Homer' argues that in the Ramayhave been ana. whei^e these docall — and are still indigenous. the swan. though neither a tournament for winning a bride. p. Homer found his for the theme : for his (1) following reasons in in Like of great epics the two inseparable brotliers aTi'l the Ramayana. and Slta ohooses him as her husband. llama Menelaus. nor the choosing of a husband (svai/amvara) was competing . believed by the multitude. are (2) the story thor<' also brothers. and in Greece. Laksmana. and Helen emerged from her egg in a 'yperwon' which means a furrow. XX. (3) Sita is born of a swan's e^^ ( Brahma's emblem ) in a furrow. and wins Helen. Helen is also born from a swan's Argos by egg left by her mother. banislied Rama the Greek two inseparable and Laksmana liave been by while the Greek their conspiracies of a stepmother brothers are banished from usurping uncle Tliyestes. (4) At tlie ^svaymvnra' competing princes. Leda. Men^laus is made to defeat all tiie competing Kama defeats all the prir/ces.

war and who came to rescue her.. and when the favorite son of Zeus. (8) Priam years of As Hanuman with a mighty shout daunts the whole of the army of Ravana. when thrown down by angry Pallus who flings a rock at him. Rama RiLvana forces tiie of principal warriorsHelen points out to chief Greek after nine captains. (7) The arrows of E. hill points out to of the (6) Vibbtsana from a high the . and tbey were timehonored institutions in India. Sarpedon. M^ rs.avana and the arrows of Hector come back to their hand after their flight. so Achilles with a mighty shout daunts army. badly proposes to bring in the besiegers early encounters and Kama the army back to India the (10) . likewise Helen is carried away across is the sea to Troy. of the (9) whole of the Trojan The heavens rain blood as an omen the of Ravana. Sita is carried away to Laiika/across the sea .( xiv ) customary in Greece. Zeus and Hera see a shower of blood falling on coming death the fare battle-field. proposes to carry the army back (11) In the Ramayana the !lft. (5) "Whilst E^ma away. is about to die.aksVsas be as big as mountains . The Hindu Greek besiegers fare badly as well and Agamemnon to Greece. covers seven acres with his are depicted to .

Vibhisana remonstrates life when Menelaus and Odysseus . nor the encounter crucial. and in the Iliad. E-ama and Ravana in the Iliad. (14) When determination to starve to death. they would have killed. When Havana ambassador of Hanuman. throw dice . came been into Troy . (12) In the the demons gather round to watch the l)attles between the paramount . ^iva. the opposing gods also crowd round to watch the course of the battle.Ana advises conspires the enemy. as ambassadors. though the chiefs are not paramount. the body. to Vibhisana advises Havana give Antenc^ Vibhis'. when Achilles is of the same frame of mind. pass the .( I XV ) k gigantic gods aM crucial chiefs Hindu epic. with of how the to ^chaitya^ . Antenor has the is same reputation about to kill in Troy. Indra comes down and gives her the *amrta* the immortal Jove suspends Sita makes her — food . (13) Kuvera. shows the enemies the secrets of sea. the and saves his Rama. the god of wealth. the god of golden scales. reveals give against his country to up Sita up Helen. but for the Paris intervention of Antenor. death. (15) Vibhisana is the wisest denizen in Lanka . though he was not a Avronged party. Jove sends down Minerva with the ambrosia for him.

( xvi ) Nikumbhila . Vibhisana. (l6) E/araa supreme god. the is avenging the wronged husband. after the death of his brother and the capture of the city. (17) Inconsistency and the lack of unity of the Homeric plot. Achilles.A. becomes the crowned Antenor founded a new king of Lauka . logic ^ . but he lacks the terrible arrow of Fhiloctetes' which alone can kill the ravisher of Helen. and the terrible missile kill ^Brahmasiras' of Sita. and the invulnerable : and conclusion of Valmiki's story cattleand stealing being Mien the wife-stealing prevailing custom in Hellas. it could hot have precipitated a war between two peoples. and * the coat arms instead of killing the foe. and the charioteer Automedon who alone can drive such steeds. and Helen^being carried off by a fop. and not a fiend of the^gods. and advises Ulysses t6 seize the Trojan Palladium. his chariot with the charioteer —Matali. the chariot with the deathless steeds of Jove. he is himself killed by that foe. and make the 'wooden horse. which alone can hero.nteaor also plots secretly against his own country. given from the anvils of Vulcan. the ravish er and the fiend of the not of gods. kingdom out is of the ruins loaned by celestial the of the old.

and the supplementary section ( uttaratantra ). and who wife. All that we know is that the great Buddhist scholar Nagarjjuna revised the old Sus'ruta. Is and to be classified with the gods. The internal evidence of both "the works indicates that they were composed in . He ( work salutes Susruta in the beginning of the Susniia I. pre-Buddhistic times. and that is veryto as hard to determine with any positive certainty. Indra. and there an Tedic Charaka school. the Asvins. General Principles ) and the metri( Section of cal portions which are more or less explanatory.. I ) with Brahma. as the family-physician of the Indo-Scythian king in the mentioned Kaniska ( about first century A. seem to be later additions. 3). and Dhanvantari.( xvii ) 'JDhen the question arises Sus'r^^ta and Charaka the age of Sarnhitas. It must have taken centuries to have made Susruta a mythical figure. D. Prajapati. D. Charaka Chinese Buddhist chronicles. IS agar jj una was a leading director -of Kaniska's Council that was held about 78 it added to A. known as Kapisthala Charaka (I. . is attended at a difficult child-birth of his But Charaka old is a family name. ). though there are numerous The ' Sutra-sthana* interpolations of a later ase. Not only do the prose versions resemble the Brahmanas in composition. 1.

cine-man Veda contains a magician priest. possible that the sage Yajnavalkya whose name is mentioned in the Brahmanas. C. as the priest is the successor is of the magician. Vol. used in Atharva Veda (X. And the King Janaka of Mithila might have been known as lived ^Kasi-raja* and Divodasa. many of the oldest and the mediBut the Atharva superstitions of the Indo-Dravidian masses. It is p. and the Law-book is the same person. points out to apre-Buddhistic The is osteological nomenclature used in with that Susruta almost identical ). and they did 4iot become embodied in the E/g-Veda. It is true that the ^Ayu?'veda' (medical science) claims to be a branch of the Atharva-Veda. and in association with the King Janaka. simply because they represented the attitude of the masses rather . and the common use of meat. B. Susruta age. especially beef ( Charaka I. I. 46. 2 and in the Brahmana ( S. science It may be said that the Hindu medical could not make such a rapid advancement from the primitive magic charms and sorceries of the Atharva-Veda period. 2./<18 . the reputed teacher of the 'Vajasaneyi Samhita* ( the White Yajur-Veda). Satapatha 164 ). C. and he about sixth century B. E. 89 ). which has been put at 1000 years B. XLIV.(• but all • • • XVlll ) the gods also are post-Vedic.

very likely that some of Yet it is my inter- . And whenP^ disease hoary with age. a good it literary to mai:e as true its the original as possible and to reflect meaning. Translation an ungrateful task. whenever form. ahfl I have often to sacrificed. they became entitlee^^^^^^^^y and became admitted in the sacred booP^" more raka is older than the seems that they classification of were borrowed by the latter from the former. written nearly twenty-five centuries ago.( xix ) =than that of the nobility. for in ^ ^^ ^^^^ It description. physiological explanatior^®^^^^^ ^^ ^^ subject-matter. it has ^ been necessary. I from have tried to be as careful and accurate as possible. especially of technical subjects. their modes those of expression being quite different of the present age. I have preferred accuracy to diction. or outstretching their meanings. However. I have tried to interpret and explain the Ancient Sindu Medicine principally based upon Charaka and Sus'ruta in is modern medical terminology. many passages that are common. The translation could be much improved bv transposition of words. in the i language and in the therapeutic techniqW. In the following pages.^ ic As there are represents a more ancient school.

For a race that does not take the utmost care and the most is the object of . serum-therapy. appliances have completely revolutionized during the last generation in method and technique ^the treatment and preventio7i of disease^'' which prophylaxis. to lead in arts and sciences. And of it is well to know and remember books before they that many and the medical come from the date. should not mortgage our future to the Dead Fast. antiquated. chemistry.I ( XX find ) ready acceptance in But sooner /it isinany ortlit^dox quarters. 'in the 12 ). before thev are ten. which we have every reason instead of inspiring us with the greatest eifyrts of. are almost micro-biology. prolific progress. vocabulary might be also profitably utilized to create a National School of Medicine.. irritant antiseptics. Bacteriology. bio-chemistry. for continuity of historic consciousness activates and acts as a stimulus for Its. press need revision to be up-tomost of them. ijj pietations rray * not health. skiagrapy and the mechanical Medical Science {Susruta I. tlmt the ancient medical works can not us /to-day any other useful purpose than AtisuppKy rich materials for the cultural history S>':?rve ^r-liib race. years old. will be better for the communal realized. 1» Our very great achievements. non- organ o-therapy. to be pi'oud past.

in have her all social nobler value than India can boast I of. can not afford to cling to an empty shell. I want them to follow closely the original text. or megalomania. or an expression subdued patriotism ? I leave readers to judge. with more advanced methods forward races. I admit. love my country. with I take faults. can not effectively and compete in the struggle for existence. carry the dead weight of the past on our back. on the other hand. unless we We want to be counted with the extinct races. there may be some who have made a free ride on the wings of imagination. I have always in believed . is apt to lower the Have I been subintrinsic value of a thing. 1 suffer from no national hypnotism Exaggeration. pride and glory in .( xxi ) for the prevention of disease the preservation of health. — Egypt.that ancientness in polity T-China. consciously influenced by the as sense of the grandeur of of suppressed that for the the country. and progress. At the other extreme. and succeed in the survival of the Health is tlie foundation of all wealth fittest. records of fundamental art — Greece. sacrificing our future. I believe. and there could not be such an advanced medical technique in will contend that I the remote past.

worthy of her past. promising of a bright and brighter future. modern nations have hardly made any further advancement in pure arts and literature than the Greeks. . and take her leading place in science and But culture. hygiene. is by the — progress and the credulity of the public. and can be left free to supreme prerogative to judge facts as they are on their own merit. have sent me joyous thrills. awakening from the slumber of centurifis. and in the Council of Nations. to the advancement of Human Civiliza- tion. vicious dietary of the rich and the poor alike. for not always steady and continuous. In studying the medical historv of India one should not be misled » 9 lack of prevailing pathetic condition. intellect should not and not need to be influenced by a gamut of sentiments and feelinsrs. ignorance and ineptitude of the medical practitioners. made me vil^rant with to see that she will emotions and intoxicating dreams. when studying does history. Except in the application of the mechanical developments and the appliances of machine power. Medieval Europe. I have tried to keep that attitude of my mind not to corrupt its exercise — my intellect with emotions. after the . And I live contribute her share.( xxii ) Tremors of her new her past achievements.

human as well as animal. was regarded hospitals were for as a state religious duty. eclectic school of medicine out of the synthesis of the Greek and the Hindu In India medical science had its systems. the who went there to With the downfall of the acquired knowledge virtually disappeared from India. and built in every important locality animals. Buddhist rule highest expression under the when the relief of pain. ) remained as the only supreme authority in to the seventeenth Europe up century. that though have . sank deeper in superstition and ignorance. In medical science the name of Galen ( Claudius Galenus 130 201 A. and the dispersion of the monks. Buddhist states. It is possible. and healing became the profession of the mendicants by magic charms and incantations. however. all there were thousands of students from parts India and Outer-India study medicine alone. D. or of the quacks. men as well as Buddhist universities of In the famous of Taksasila and Nalanda. whose principal duties were to administer to the sick. and in the Saracen empire — up The Arabs formed an to the fourteenth century. charlatans and I barbers.( J \ xxiii ) destruction of the of Greek States and the downfall the^Roman Empire.

1» 3). knowing undertaken task has been not whether by any efficient Indian medical organization. and grant liberal privileges and easy access to the books. Mine has been simply a this pioneer those works. I understand. there are very few books on Indian Medicine. competently for one individual on all subjects dwelt on in Charaka and Susruta Sarah itas. have had to work single-handed. I have labored under great disadvantages. and I shall be for . and as they are the product of a medical assemblage the collected wisdom of the sages that gathered together from all parts of India. without any advice from This. can te no any source. Though New York Libraries are splendid institutions. a few/ minor ones may need revision. and I. their interpretation could be best done by a medical association with competent depaT'tmental heads on all subjects dealt with .( xxiv ) been careful in the selection of the equivalent scientific terms for the Sanskrit. and I have not been able to avail myself of any book on the Moreover it is very hard to write subject. and Agnivesa and Susruta might acted as have simply so secretaries (Charaka 1. excuse or justification statement or false any misleading conclusion. as the drugs — clearly indicate.

=rph ^=h *=ip :=sh sftsau 3R[=r 5S= 1 z=t S ^=rb = th ^= bh I regret very much that it will not be possible for me to add an index to this book. This woris has already taken more than double of the time I anticipated it would require. or i 51 gh S= ^=ru I? . method : — I have used the following 3T=a ^=sk ^=d s Jissm ?T=ry ?: 3rr=aora^=:kh = = dh 5=1 t *1 = =r g ^= ^ n t s= r 1 = i i*.§:=n q=:th gs=v 3»=uorugs=ch =s e ^=sd ^=r dh ^=s ^ =s s s ss chh ^=ai sftsrO 3T=:j ^ = n H=ss 'Ksjh 3T=rn Tsrp <T.( XXV to ) grateful to out. Eor transliteration. N my readers have them pointed. and the pressure of other works does not permit .

I so light-heartedly undertook. CHAKRABERTY . New York.( xxvi to ) me to devote more time it. Under these cir- cumstances. July 22—1922 364 West 120th Street. C. I beg leave to bring to a conclusion the arduous task.

cremation of the dead has been ordained as a religious duty from misty antiquity. There is nothing astonishing in science this. ANATOMY. except in osteology. as sacred. The Hindu Buddhistic medical developed of in the period for alleviation physical The Buddhists regarded naturally inflicting life all life sufferings. They regarded pain. as a hygienic measure. with horror the idea of and of depriving an animal of for experimental medicine.AN INTERPRETATION ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE. The ancient Hindu physicians lacked profound and accurate anatomical knowledge. as found in their treatises. for human So there was no regular chance dissection and to acquire tlie exact . In a tropical climate. vague and imaginary description of the liuman anatomy. They have left more or less superficial.

Under these circumstances. as the act was repudiated by presiding it was of the Kajastiya ceremony. VII. "Whatever tnowit obtained acquired. In the time differentiation Hippocrates. study of the animal anatomy from the sacrificial There is animals in the pre-Buddhistic period. 2-5J. — . proficiency w^as not possible. no record of the custom of human sacrifice.3 ANCIENT HINDU MEI'ICINE knowledge of human anatomy. 9. the anatomical kno. If a mock-belief as a reminiscence of the priests past. very defective and No was yet made between the arteries and the Veins and both were called *phleps' blood-vessels. as water-melon. clearly indicates that sacrifice was no longer countenanced by it. pumpkin.cial. they ledge they from personal observation and expSrience^ from caring for the wounded and disabled from a comparative on the battle-tields. Tlie students of siirgery al were taught the technique of instrumentoperation on dead animals and vegetables.wledge was superfi. except the legend of Sunahsepa [Aitareya all BraJimana. remote human however. gourds or skin-bags filled wdth water {Siimnita. Neither in Greece Avas of it better. the Vedic priesthood and was not practised in the post-Yedic Sutra period. cucumber.3). I.

boneswith cartilage and ligaments. was erroneous. arising from the heart and he regarded the aorta as And the phleps). Erasistratus and Herophilus were both celebrated anatomists of antiquity. synthesizes all the knowledge of the time on the subject and corrects many inaccurate and He misleading impressions of his predecessors.323-282). of the tratus found out that the nerves originated from . studied tiie nervous vein {neurocles- human anatomy was not and experimental observation famous Alexandrian schools dissection before the attracted the best intellects of the age under the with {B. books.' he the first devotes two-fifths of the work. his But Aristotle 385-322) by comparative study of animals. C. He had vague ideas about nerves {neura) and identified them with the tendons. not only human organs and by animal but also by Erasisdissection and experimentation.ANATOMY 3- Howe^ver. four the structural constitution of animals. They acquired a to- patronage of Ptolemy Soter lerably soulid knowledge their Junctions. this distinction was made by Polybus^ but on the whole his anatomical and physiological knowleclge (B. like Charaka and Susruta. to In his ^Ilistory of Animals. laid the foundation of positive anatomy and physiology. But he confuses. C.

and it specialiaed in dilfiarent diseases. L. > :v:ict medieal sdenoe th by bis Tast V research and hk accoiate ^r i no wonder.iwie. ^uriyiDg air. that the Egyptian medical pro- fessioiA WHS Tenr advanced and learned.^Trhich Galea has transaEuitled among his nmtmgs.„ _ . Hero- a treadse on the liTer. 'w. ^^4-4^7) mentions in lis :y IL S5. llnis papyrus^ it is found that the heart. 1^ wexe Fdoosniaed and the bexrt. while two to the .- . for . > odotos {£. C. J^si ves^elSfe liTer. Galen ilSO-200 JL J>.ii. to indicate the extent of the medicil knowledge of the ancient Egyptians. kidneys. and us of Pergamum c»n be called Claiiii:. some some mucus. . : j: < -1 :: f^^^-?. sc writings r both in -*ty of medicine bis v ? held nncballenged E Tbe Arabic D^arded bim almost aa ^ind Asia^ .\ the reaUy accmate anatomist of antiquilhr. But tbere is bnt a fragment of paipjros of the laothiQg sixt^entb centoiy B^ C. metezs and bladder the blood T^sek came fitom Ibesr Tassels are d^^bed. went to Alexandria to stndy medicine under the fomous analomisit Heradianus.4 ASCXESnr HINDU MEDIdNIE the bTadn aad Heiophiliis distiiigtushed them' into those: of sKEisilioii and Tolantaxy motioii. gen^aphilos also wrote : . spleeo. . :i .

ANATOMY right life 5- ear are to mentioned to cnrrv tlie breatli of ft hreath of deatli. In sional daily is business.. The Chaldeans used the liver of the sacrificed sheep for thetlie code of Hammurabiabout 1900 B. (Journal ofAnatomi/ and Physiology. it seems that the Babvlonian medical art had already attained a marvellous^ efficiency. the XXXIL Babylooians possessed quite to a praise-worthy extent the knowledi^e of the liver which they regarded as the seat of life. P. And its a successful eye> operation not possible without a thorough structure. anatomical knowleds:e of . 775). C. vol. Even in tlie third millennium B. C. as the operation on the eye is mentioned with bronze lancet as a regular profes- divination of events. th& iwd the left ear.

^ ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE CO » o u D QQ eS eS u c S a a .

ANATOMY o e8 en . ^ 2? O o 00 — • ( r— I t» •I— I OK r^ o pcim a 02 ^ . > CO >* o — : o 2*.

8 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE o o / era I II II m 3 X X (M <M .

"^. H t(M 05 -rH C<3 C^l CO CO CD O o C<i rf> <M t o (M I— i (—«)" -ie '^ •.ANATOMY »o 9 \ C! cc CC ^ .-^ ^ No o <^J S^ =3 I ^ s '2 ^rH 'w I— • l-H fin .

10 m 0) cd ANCIENT BINDU MEDICINE u o o Oi w <M II CM 3 3 CI Cq X CO I !M I M 03 3 6 ID c<j C-l CO CI "= m O F o § °^ CO II iM sv 3 a O ® X CI C\I i-H CI rH CI d CI CI rH CO -''si $-1 eg • 1—1 X c8 o cc :3 Co o O o 01 •!— I rr u • p— I I— I cc -^ -* S Phh^hh o o CD —I CZ2 o M EH .

\ a CO CO C<1 CO .AKATOMY 11 .

sacrum 1 . shoulder-blades 2 . jaw bones 2 parietal ring 2 . three hundred and sixty bones.^^'*. i^^Tcrrm tTgr^'^w. =^^tk qifw^r^rl^. in the arms 2 in . wrist bones 4 in ankle-bones 4 . Charaka IV. 4 cfif^ ^ferf^^lf'T aRTT'^T^t ^f ^5^^^^. malar 2 nasal bones 3 24 ..7.4. sockets of teeth and nails. bones 2 ribs . collar bones 2 2 . . ."Cha'raka IV. '^c^Mif^-^pf. breast bones 17 altogether thoracic ribs . 24 and sockets of the ribs 24 and altogether on the sides 72 bones temporal bones 2 frontal craniun 4 . trachea . the fore-arms 4 elbow-pans 2 . coccyx 1 1 .(htim(m}' sockets of teeth 32 body. knee-caps 2 . 7. palate bones the pelvic . 2 . there are altogether 360 bones in the whole of t\if. bases of the . As the following nails 20 . . . bases 4 bones of fingers 60 heels 2 bases of the feet 2 . . long bones of hand and feet 20 their : — .12 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE / "With teeth. neck-bones 15 . .^wt. jaw . . i5tf%^^- f^^^p^cf^ T?T%. f . . 1 ^r<^qT?3r7rnjfT:. . in the thighs 2 . . back-bone 35 . i:i^^5n^i1% ^l^rat.1 1. the leg 4 . ilium 1 .

malar temporal and ear bones 2 each . pubis 4 and sacrum 1 . 5. q:^%cK^^f^5fi^ ^ ^\m\^ II \^ . in the branches. there are 360 bones. but in surgery 300 bones are enumerated. . that is in both the arms and feet." Susruta III. in the thigh 1 . there are 120 in the pelvic region. : there are 300 bones in the human body. : — ^ : . so in one foot there are 30 bones so in the other foot and arms. there are 3 so 15 . "EoUowing are the 120 bones in the branches — at every finger of the foot. in the knee-cap 1 . back-bones 30 . . the foot-support {77ietatarsus) the anklebones and their base 10 . jawbones 2 teeth 32 in the nose 3 palate 1 . in the leg 2 . 17-'-^0 ^tf<!J ^R^1^p!?mcTTf^ t^^tTf^'Tf W^ff\ I ^^ II ^^ ^^jii% vTeff^ I . . there are 120 and above the trunk 63 altogether . "In the pelvis 5 as coccyx. back and the breast. shoulder-blades 2. •'In tlie neck 9 in the wind-pipe 4 . '' Susruta III. in the cranium G.ANATOMY *• 13 According to the medical men. Qf these 300 bones. 5. 17-20. ilium. . ribs 32 one side and the same on the other . in the breast 8 . heel 1 .

— shoulder blades) 7 . especially the Susruta school. pelvis 5 . From {Peri osteon physios). SI). especially .14 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE 4 . "The bones of the hand are 27 of th^ feet of the neck ujd to the grand {bach-hone . 5. it is Bones. The discrepancies in the figures are due to the fact that the Hindus counted the processes. If the teeth in the skeleton. a calcified papilla of the If the cartilages. had a tolerably sound knowledge of osteology.") Hippocrates : The Nature of table. the head with eyes 8 111. The nails — the epidermal formations were Susruta as bones. in total 91 with the nails As to man. I. it is dismissed by were counted because the teeth are bone- hard and strong. . collar-bones with the grand (shoulder-blades) 7 the back-bones as well as those of the sides {inbs 12 . the back-bones that go farther the ribs in the pelvis 5. like. back-bon'es 20 . But they classified the bones into five kinds according to their nature of constitution. the above comparative evident that the Hindu anatomists. the hones are : learnt to know —the we have ourselves back-bones above . cartilaginous structures and the teeth as bones. Histology is '^a recent science and it could not be known in ancient times that tooth is mucous membrane. {Susruta III.

in distinction processes. While the modern anatomists designate as vertebra the upper 24 loose bones. the become ossified. and or "movable" vertebrae. because in the embryo^aic nous condition state all the bones are in cartilagi- and in certain diseases. for the reasons that the spinal column really consists costal cartilages of 33 irregular bony segments of wliich the upper 24i are separated during life by discs of spinous cartilaginous articular are therefore called "true" vertebrae. for from the lower 9 whicli or **fixed" are called the "false" they become consolidated into the sacrum and the coccyx. 'dorsal' or 'tlioracic' the succeeding 5. The the hyoid bone. In the wind-pipe tlie 'four cuneiform. adding arytenoid. Sus'ruta counts 30 as the dorsal and the lumbar vertebrae. thyroid and cricoid. cartilages — (kanthanal'i) .ANATOMY the V?ostal 15 ribs cartilages of it the is have been counted as the bones. The Hindu anatomists counted the constituent bones of the sacrum and the coccyx as processes. consisting of the *C(}rvicar 7. separate bones as well as the spinous belonging to the vertebrae. were counted as bones. 12. and the 'lumbar' the lower enumerated the 'griya' or The Hindu vertibrae also to it anatomists as the cervical neck bones.

*tender' bones. it becomes clear that the Hindus had acquired a sound knowledge of the human skeleton. but classified the into five kinds according to their composition as fiat (kapcUa)^ tooth (7'iichaka)^ tende^r (tmnma). p. And the term 'skeleton' sheletos = dried) is applied to the parts which remain after the softer tissues of the body have been disintegrated or removed and includes not only the bones . 67).nd liollow (nala/ca) bones.16 breast-bone ANCIENT HIKDU MEDICINE is given by Susruta to be 8. the 'manubritim* which usually remains separate throughout of life from the rest the bone. the and the *corpus is formed by the fusion in early segments. cartilaginous 'metasternum* sterni' or 'mesosternum' which life of four So if we try to identify the nomenclature and designation of the ancient Hindu and the modern systems of osteology. (3) "Tliese bones are of five kinds as thefo*ilowing: — 'flat' bones. bony strong {halaya] a. f/>r be iucludes among the breast-bones the 2 collar bones and as the sternum really consi'sts of three parts. . 'tooth' bones. In sense the Hindus described their bones frame-work. [from the Gr.but also the cartilages and ( ligaments : which bind them together tliis generic Cunningham Ancdomy.

ANATOMY J^strong' bones 17 and 'hollow' bones. SusriUa III. 5. the joints are movable and the rest of the — joints. 59 in the trunk and 83 above the shoulder (that is. The bones of the kn^e." 11. sides. rest of the ^ bones are 'hollow'. In the four branches (hands and feet)^ in the jaw-bones and the loin. "Joints are two kinds 'movable' {diarthroses) and unmovable (amphiarthroses. Those of the hand. malar. the wise is. palate and the head are flat bones. "There are 200 joints in the body. pelvis. 21« 9 . —» . ear. should regard as permanent (that Of them 68 are in the four extremities. 21.). the nose. of 'strong' bones. 'tender' bones. In Arthrology^ that the articulations or in the description of ( joints Sandhi ). The teeth are ot' 'tooth' bones . Susruta shows of also remarkable accuracy. shoulder. of partial or incomplete movement). is. neck and tlie eyesockets are of foot. back and breast are The 5. in the neck and the head). —-- —— ' 'B'^I^ II ^l Susruta III. Arthiiology.

In the malar. {conch-shell Intcrphalangeal hinge carpal joints. column 24 . in the .. in the craniun 5 and 1 in the forehead. the . "These joints are of eight kinds oid (kora — a hinge in as: — gynglym= joint)^ joint). So one foot has 17 joints the other foot likewise.. costo-vertebral (|>ra^<2ra= raft-like). as well as both the arms. radio- ankle-joint the knee-joint {c)ynglymus)y the elbow{gynghjmus). ankle and ints. . joint {gynglymus) are all 'kora'\ the shoulder-joint {condyloid-ellypsoidal). {vertehral-cervical) neck in the trachea 3 in the conjunction joints of the heart and lungs lS{hrdai/aklomanibacIdha). thus 14(4 X ?. circular (mandala)^ sutural {ttmnasevan'l= ^^^\\ng) and like) joints.18 AKCIENT HINDU MEDICINE r "In every toe there are the thumb) which has two jo+ 2 = 14). the sides 54 in the breast 8 8 . ^^vci'^hy^io. in the sockets of teeth 32 1 in the thyroid cartilage {kakalaka) and one in . 2 . "In the in pelvis 3 {ribs) . and the eyeballs {dvauvartmamandalau netrasrayaii). in the spinal . temporal and the ears 6 in the jaw bones . The knee.except the grekt to© (correspondino. {gynglymns-&{m^\Q surrounded by a capsule). hip has eacli a joint. . enarthrodial (tidukhala mortar-like shape ball-and-socket enarthrodial {samudgarzcu^-\\\ni). on the top of tlie brows 2 . the nose 2 bettveen the eye-sockets .

According to the shape of the nomenclature has been fixed. and lumbo- sacral joints {amphidiarthrodial) are ?i\\{sdmudga) \ and lumbar vertebral joints cervical. .lViidukhala . sacro-iliac joint (Ji- arth7'odial)^sjm])hysis pubis {amphidiarthrodiul-^ a combined gliding and hinge joint). muscles. Susruta III. Only the joints joints of joints of the bones have been described. 3a. The the countless".ANATOMY {enarth7'odial-ball-and-socket-joinf). mandala eye and lung-joints are the ear and the nose joints (symphysic) are sankhavartta. trachea. nerves and arteries are 5. dorsal (limited amphidiarthrodial) are ^pratara' . (enartlirodiar). the sterno clavicular joint {diai'th'odial'fveely movable). the temporal and the cranium joints (sutural) are tutma- sevanl . 23-29^* I 3nw^ ^^ ^R^r^ =C^T^^^ ^^^\ «yi<94ici1 II lai . 19^ the hip-joint. teeth-sockets [sy fiarthrodial-imm ov~ able ?)^aYea. heart.

it can be easily seen that notwitlistanding imperfection and clumsiness. Myology In myology. J . Sasruta mentions 500 muscles Steadman's Medical Dictionary {pesL) wliile It is possible gives the names of 427 muscles. Muscles according to Cunningham's Anatomy. yet by comparative study. The Lower Exremity I. 3^ Toe 3x5 = 15 7 10 Pore foot 9 Ankle & Sole 10 10 2 tendons and Heel Leg and 2 ligaments. that Susruta many continuous duplicates muscles and omits many deep-underlyingmuscles. thougli Susruta at first appears to be fantastical and vague. f foot 25 Leg Knee 20 5 12 3 tendons and - 4 ligaments. the muscular system. especially of the upper part of the body.20 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE r III. there is some fundamental truth in the statement. Muscles accoi'ding to Susruta.


Stylo-hyoid and Steruo-hyoid. inferior Cheeks Nose Front neck 1x2-2 2 5 lingualis. The back n eck 4 Jaws 2x4 = 8 Thyroid 6 5 3 1x2-2 Thyro-hyoid.22 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE 3 Heart and Colon 2 myocardium and masculi papillares tunica muscularis (colon). 5/ The mouth 11 (eleven) Eye Forehead Palate The top of the . in. The Neck and the Head.hyo- cles' glossus. : The'extrinsic musgenio-glossus. styloglossus and 'in- palato-glossus. Tongue or 8. transverse fibres andvertical fibres. trinsic ^rior The : muscles' supe- lingualis.

extern eus levator ani clitoridis and erector Uterus 3 erector penis). ligamentum ovarium proprium and mesovarium. sphincter ani. Vagina 2+2=^ 2+3=5 Tunica muscularis. 400 of them are in the 4 extremities. . teres ligamentum uteri (round ligament) ^ and Pallopian tube 3 the muscular 'corpus uteri'. ligaments of Cooper. latnmi 3 Ligamentum uteri (broad ligament). 3 Tunica muscularis. 66 in the trunk. aponeurosis and recto abdominis muscles. serra- tus magnus.ANATOMY > 23 )lY. "adhere are 500 muscles [pesl]. rugae vaginales. and 34 ^bove the shoulder (in the neck and the head). and (common bulbo cavernesus. The Female Reproil active Organs Mammae 5x2 = 10 5 Pectoralis major.

{vasti-sirasi) the stomach in the navel {nabhi) 1 . 20 in janvantare = Ieg) 20 .cartilage jaws {hamt) in the 2 . *'In the j)elvis 1 . having 3 muscles for each toe . in the buttocks (spJiicha) 5 each in the 2 . neck {grlvct) 4 . testes (vrsmi)' . 10 in the breast (Vaksa) in the shoulder (aJcsahamsa) 7 .24 **Tlie toes ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE { imdahgull ) of each foot have 15 muscles. . in the penis {medhre) in the spermatic cord {sevcm'i) 1 . in the upper back {prsthordha) 5 longitudinal {muscles) on each side . . 6 in 2 in the heart and colon {hrdayamasaya) . neck {gan a) 4 the eyes {netra)-^ in the two ears {karna) 2 the ^nose in the front . in tlie cheeks 2 . in the sides(of the spinal column =parsvci)Q .. the spleen. 8 in the thyroid . (gulpha-talayoh) 10 between the ankle and the knee {gulpha. in the {payn) 3 . . 10 in the fore-foot {padagre) 10 in the heel {hurchin the ankle and the sole cJia) . the other foot and the two arms. tongue {jihva (ghona) 2 . *'In the back part of the in the . 4 in . 5 in th^ knee (janu) the thigh {uru) 10 in the groin (vanJcsana) : thus in one foot there are 100 muscles so in . in the palate {tahi) 2 {kakalaJca) . 2 . ) 1 . . upper part 5 in over the bladder (udara) . in 2 in . liver and the lower intestine {yahftpllha-imdul'a = abdomen).

"The muscles that have been mentioned cover in men women of : in their penis and testicles. in "According to the position. together {oahula). thin {stihsma). short (/^r«s?. bones.ANVTOMT I 25' and 1 {one) on the top of {lalata) the head {mrasi)." Susrtffa til. hard {sthira). stripes). which developed in adolescence . striated (lY^^'A-^sa-^oluntary muscles with transverse the joints. in the vagina {apatyapatha) 4. two in the entrance and two in the interior . 4. in the uterus {garhha-cchidrd) 3 and the fallopian tuhes {sukrm'ttava-pravesa)^^ the muscles are 3. soft {mfdu). the muscles are grouped thick isolated {pelava). : forehead 10 are in the two mammse {sterna) at 5 each. extensive {prthii)^ {sthula)^ {vrtta= tendon). interior reproductive organs. *'A woraan has 20 more muscles than man tlie . glohular smooth {slahsm = nn^tYmted. that is primitive involuntary muscles). longcylindrical {dlrgJia). and they cover fibres arteries and nervous according to their respective needs.a). their 5. 37-45/ I TT^ ^T^hjfiTf^ vr^f^ cfT€t ^c^rft 5TcfT(% ^jw^ I ^"s ^s^^fe: i .

26 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE Tlie difference betu'een Sus'ruta's 500 muscles 427 muscles. which if counted separately like Susi'uta on both sides of the body Avould amount to nearly 800 muscles.^^7^il^ f% cfi: ii ay^ ii . can be easily accounted for by the fact that not only the modern classification and nomenclature of tlie and Stedman's muscles are different from the "^ ^T<«IIcft II ^c V ^^T^i§sT Trrs\if{ xf.

patellae. iihia^ tvbio-jibular ligament^ posterior tihio-fihular calcaneo-jibulare. fischlo-capsulare. capped collater- by the patella. at the hip-join t (of ^\^ femur. — anterior lig. but Susruta not include^the tendons {mamsa-rajj ii) and ligaments muscular order. held together by lig. lig. held together by. by tibia. collaterale jibulare and ligamenta eruciata genii). ilium Transversum and pubi>s. and lig. lig. 'lig. the wrist so in th(} arns at articulation between the radius radiocarpal and the .ANATOMY \ 27 did vancicn't Hindu system. anterias. It is evident {s'imanta) in the from close school ot ledi^e comparative study that the Susruta anatomv had tolerablv sound knowthe of human muscular system 14 joints of for all practical purposes. ale tibiale. Posticum JVinsloioii.. lield together ligamentum lig. Sns'ruta mentions more than 2 bones {samghata) which are held together by a band or sheet of fibrous tissue. which he calls *siincmta that is ligament. lig. fuhofemorale^ teres femoris) (a . taXo-iihulare talo- fihidare 'posterius at the knee (a joint of and ligamentnm deltoidenm)^ i\\Q femur. iiio-femorale. He : them flbida in the foot in each at following junctions the ankle ( a joint of — "Three enumerated are and astragalus. lig. ncetabuli.

saerb-iliacum postonis hreve^ lig. anterior and i^osterior at the elbow ( a of ligaments). The above-mentioned one at the pelvis (sacro-iUac joint of sacrutn^ 14. of the sternum -da^di clavicles held together by Zi^. and nalium radiatum. ligg. are 18 (ligaments). joint radius and ulna. lig. sacro-spinosu7n. held together by lig. lig^ . lig. ulnar and the arm-pit tlie collaterale radiale\_ and of at tlie (the slioulder-joint humerus. held together terius. there ilium and pubis.28 scapJwid^ toi^etlier ANCIENT semilunar HIxSTDU MEDICINE hones. lig. held and cuneiform external lateral ligament. glenoid fossa of scapula and the coracoid iwocess. ilio-lumhale. sacro-tiiberosum .superius and inferius^^^t the upper-breast (sterno-claviciilar \pm\. capsula articularis and ligamentum coraco-liumerale). stei'no-claviC7flaris rhomholdale) and the lower-breast {steimo-costal ]Qmi^ of the sternum and the seven costal cartilages held together by lig. coraco-claviculare.' costo-sterlig. lig. lig. Accoding to others. by the ante7Hor collaterale and poste^nor lig. sacro-iliaC' um anterus. sterno-costalia interarticu" laria) and at the neck (scapulo-clavicular joint held together by lig. ligaments. lig. by the internal lateral ligament. sacro-iliacum posterns longu^n. held together head of by labrumglenoidale. pubicum posteri7is.

and the semilunar or hiceptial fascia tendon in the arm. 5.) whether by the common designation 'snayu*-'io bind' and which he describes to be nine hundred (///.\ ANATOMY lig. trajoezoideum). ^onoicleum and 5. 30. he ^^Kan^aras are 16 : 4 in feet {tendo acMli^ in the leg and semimarbransus tendon in the thigh). 4 in the arms {supinator longus tendon in the forearm. 15-1@= It is Susruta by 'simanta* means only the synovial capsule and the membrane which are usually found at the joint of more than two bones and which he calls 'sam- very likely that ghdta\ By tlie general term tlie 'saudhi' he has designated the articular joint and which he has enumerated as 210 and and the muscles it is fibrous band which binds the bones at the joints together (ligament) to the bones {tendons.) 4* in the neck {sterno-oleido- mastoid tendon^ memhrana tectora^ memhrana atlanto-oecipitalis posterior^ lig .cruciatam atlantis . 29 Susruta III.) And the large and strong tough fibrous longitudinal bands and chords are called ^Jcandara\ calls ligamentous or tendonous.

interphalangeal 2 in each toe and 1 in the 30 28 Leff -» 5)and large toe(^ x 4 + i 5 dorsal extensor tendons.30 with ANCIENTHINDUMEDCINE / cms siiperius and infejnns). The Extremities. lendoiia 1. 30 40 10 10 28 34 8 7 +1=9 + B = ]0 — — 150x4 = 600 — . lorigitucli'. 5. 18 intratarsal ligg. 27 Toe 5x6-30 + 5 = 32 Palmar hand lig collateralia vial membrane and svnoat each joint. membrane. = and 10 s. . '^ Ligameuts nT . and lig." ' Susruta III.flavum^ supraspinale). The terminals of the "kandaras of the hand and feet are in the nails tliose of the neck passing through the heart terminate in the sexual organ (medhra) and those of the spinal column passing through the pelvis terminate in.iale anterms^ li(j. 10. the pubis. c Susruta . 4 in the spinal column (lig. Iki. 5 Four ligaments and one svnovial membrane 5 Pive tendons. Thidi 'o Hip-joint Knee-joint «». lonyitudinale posterms.

\ .

are three. The Neck and the Head. sterno-clavicular 1 2 and acromo-clavicular liga- ments 12. eacli joints ligasupplied with 5 ments. tectora. membrana cruciatum alaria. trans ver sum atlantis. synovial Susnita III. lig. occipitalis posterior. capsular. atlantis. lig. 36 52 ^ Neck 4 Ligaments for ''each of the 7 cervical vertehrae.32 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE ( III. membrana is atlanto occipitalis anterior. anterior and posterior atlo- axoid ligaments 5. Total 900" ligament and capsular synovial membrane atlo-axoid . lig. and membrane. Head 3l< 31 Occipito-atloid joints 2 and each 70 provided with 8 ligaments. 30— 32« . apicis dentis. membrana lig.

ANATOMY t 33 is It will be noticed that there a marked dis- crepancy between the two figures. back-bone and the head are extensive. But this is contradicted etymological derivation from *sm' or *si\ to bind and the Susruta mentions 210 joints. when he has tion of been minute in every other detail. And more- over the internal evidence tends to prove that he meant by ''snayu\ ligaments and tendons as he says : — *'Smi/tis aijd are of four kinds —branching (pratmiavatt). globular (vrtta). or it is possible that by 'snayu* Charaka and Sus'ruta meant something entirely different from the ligament and the tendon. 'kandm^as' (the large snayus) are globular. extensive (prthti) and perforated (susira. the ^siiayus' of the anterixir parts of the stomach. by its but does of not say anything material anywhere holds else the binding that them together excepting of 14 *simanta^ at the junc- more than two bones (samghata).. 3 . . the *snaytis' of the sides. intestine and the branches joints bladder are perforated breast. And it maybe due to the different methods of calculation and classification. He could not possibly omit to mention the binding material of the rest of the joints. The general tendency of the Sanskrit scholars is to regard ^snayiC as nerve.) The 'snayns' in the four are branching .

34 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE "As a boat of wooden planks well tied by many knots.l ^m ^?TTt%cTT ^[^ri\•."' ^T*Hi<*'iaiiii«%i wt ^ ^fro: ^^ I HKW?TT *?%q. The physician that knows well the extract missiles". much by the destruction of the muscles or joints as by the destruction of ^snayus*. ai^JTm TfT^^tf^ tf%^ 11^^ I iTt^psm fiT^^Tf^ famfk: ^igf^T^Hn . ' "Susmta "The III. so a man can carry weight as his joints are knotted together by *S7iayus\ The body does not suffer as bones. II ^:^% sif^Tsf^jR ^73m\ ^^'. internal and superficial ^snayus' can only from the body. 5. the deeply impregnated flesh (of the body) being tied to the bones by vascular system and *snayt{s\ do not tear out and fall down". 34r36. 22. 5. II \ wT^fiT^fk'V^T vrR^r?T ^Tj\ w. Susruta III. can bear the weight of aninials and goods in water. ^ra '^^' : irf%3irfTrfcf ^raww^rKreM i € 8.

(^im = tubular vessel) so. venous ( pittaAdWQ ). rather more as it defies all hu- man ingenuity to describe in tabulated figures Eor the arteries bifurcate into branches and twigs. phatic and the nervous networks.ANATOMY IV. and spread out all over the body in infinite shape and size the veins commence at the ter« . It seems that Sus'ruta includes'the nervous net-work in the vascular system which he divides into four classes. vessels mension Therefore any comparison more body.\ less vascula7^ system no difficult. in two different parts of the Hardly two shape and di- only the large and distinctive longitudinal vessels have been counted from the Atlas of Applied Topographical Anatomy^ of Karl von Bardeleben and Heinrich Haeckel and the *Begional Anatomy* of George Mo Clellan. it is The . uniting with one another until finally seven large trunks empty their contents into the auricles of the heart likewise the lym. they form larger and still larger vessels. necessarily to be or less of guess-work. 35 —The Vascular System. nervous air ). The identification of the . size. lymphatic ( Voita arterial ( raHavaha-sira( /feapAct-phlegm ) and — blood-carrying vessel ). minations of the capillaries and as they converge towards the heart. In the following table is * are of equal length.

the blood-carrying vessels are of red ( lohita and are neither warm nor cold. 2\ Sa." Susruta iii. 7. are all warm and of blue {n'ila) colour ( 'kapha^ bearing ) vessels are cool and of white sveta colour ) . says "Tbe'yaifa'-carrying vessels are of tawny or light-golden-brown ( mnma) colour. ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE ( kapha and raktavaha sb^as* wu-h the nervous. 7. : "There are seven hundred tubular vessels gardens by water-conduits and fields as by canals are irrigated and nourished." III. and are : — tilled witli air. As the midrib of a plant -leaf gives off laterally countless veins. cT^re'nr ^m^i: ^^ ^^ fsro: i . venous. so by the irrigating and draining action of the 'siras* the body is nourished and sustained. colour 13*''. so from the main (siras) small and smaller branches spread out. lymphatic and arterial systems is not far-feclied and For Sus'ruta fanciful.36 ^vata^ pitta. */)?'^/a '-carrying vessels .

1 .

there . there are 45 : in the neck 14. And this corresponds to that of the venous. the venous ( jol/^« ). spread out all are 25 nerve-vessels Thus seven hundred 'siras^ over the body. 7." lymphatic and blood-carrying Susrttta III. There are 3i nerve-vessels : the trunk of the body in the pelvic region 8. and in the breast 10. 5-7 ^^ . Thus l75 nervedescription also are described. in the tongue 9 and both the eyes vessels 8.58 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE ^ "The nervous {vdta). lymphatic (kapha) vessels are 175 each as well as the arterial (blood-carrying slras) passing the liver and the spleen. lymphatic and the arterial (blood-carrying) vessels. with this in exception that instead of 8 nerve-vessels the eyes and 4 in the ears. In one foot. 5. in the sides 2 each. above the shoulder. in the back 6. (arterial) vessels. there are 10 (in the eyes) and 2 (in the ears) of the venous. in the two ears 4. likewise in the other foot and each in of the arms.

it becomes blood. enters into every part of the body. 3-5. 14. 1). 10 {hrdaya). was well understood by Susnita it (1. irrigates and main- tains its growth.ANATOMY » 39 centre of the circu- Thut the heart was the latory Jtystem. vitalizes and supports life aquatic in nature but in its passage through the liver and the spleen. its circulates all principal centre is tlie heart That chyle in 24 tubular vessels. 14. Susruta 1.^^ Though chyle is ^T^ %gqt: 1 ir^ctfr iT^^^sif^^ajct ^TcRlTTt I fw^t siT^TfW IK i ^^ i^ fwni: ^T^T^tf^ Tli. of the hlood. 10 downwards and 4< sideways. 30. upwards. f^^ci^ fqrT^^ %^?'5i. to Charaka in-coming through- "Though chyle [rrtsa] out the body. 3-()) 10 out-going {venous) trunk-vessels has and according {a?'ferlal) and (1. ^'n'qlf ll-Q ?:^^T: *i*=<^I^ I ^^cTlf^ ^TT f3!TT3raTf*T ^raHTITf^ aTT^^ncnr^T ^fiprgrT^ra^'n: m({4 w\TM%v^m^f?[ ^^% v(\T^m ?iFraf^ .

7. l^^''. [i-7] vena jiulmonalis [8] left pulmonary artery. on the left side the liver and the lung. Iv describes them w^f^H 14. 4.40 *'Iii ANCIENT hin. 4. the spleen and [2] . are situated. : interior vena cava. According to Charaka the skin consists of six strata (IV.'' Charaka 1. the lung. ^^ip:iiTriT ^^^^rf% ^r^r^^riiTTf^ ^% q^ -^^ ^mv. III. and on the right side. 2)^" hut Susruta more accurateto be seven. 30. [10] right pulmonary artery. "Below the heart.du medicine the heart there are ten great out-going: Ol|C-o aTtn\ [mahamida] and in-coming [mahaphalalftu. 30^-. [9] aorta. The ten great vessels are the seven main trunk veins and three arteries as follows (l) superior vena cava.'^ S^ismta III. c?^ W'i'^lfFri^ TS*aiir<Uci4f<|{iR=gjfri5ra =fi^<^ ^^f^l^T: «Tf . [S] coronary sinus.h\xlar vesseles [dhamam]. 3^*.

in . ^sfV^T^ I <lffTfT 5WT^' f^f^'^e rT5|Tt^^g=ITTO5 . minute and thorough. ^T ^mt WT- . that though tlie ancient Hindu Erom anatomical school erred in some details. Charaka says — '*In the medical science. when be has . their l^nowledge was remarkably accurate. knowage. especially when we take into consideration the dim and distant which these medical treatises were composed. hut in fundamentals. one can only ledge of anatomy is necessary understand principles of hygiene. it will be seen. The study of anatomy was regarded essential in the medical education and practice.ANATOMY Siu'ruta 41 Strata of the skin according to Modern anatomy Avbhasini Lohita Sveta f Stratum corneum m^ I S I Tamra Vedini Rohini ^ ^ P^ •{ Mamsadhara Stratum intermedium! Stratum Stratum disjuuctum i lucidum Stratum granulosum Stratum mucosum Stratum germinativum Corium the foregoing comparative charts.

without current to A plat- form should be made corpse on it and cover the whole body with hay. after disinfecting it. so that fish can not eat it.42 studied ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE Ijodily sciences ( anatomy and physior dissection. he should analyse thoroughly all the parts and organs of a body. So if a surgeon wants to aquire positive (doubtless) knowledge. it will decompose sufficiently and then rub it irentlv from the skin to the interior with the water to lay the . can not at all he described without dissection. is nor should of age. and it is not put out of its place. grasses and leaves.6. it be of a man of a feces) in a stream The contents of its should be removed and in hundred years viscera (urine and it should be kept rot.V'\ logy ) Susruta recommends "The He says S parts and the parcels (of the body) that have been mentioned up to the skin. IY. corpse should possess all the organs and not be deceased of any long illness or of poisoning. (The way a corpse should be taken for observation The described thus). Occular observation easily supplements studies and adds to knowledge. In seven days.

In the Hippocratic there is no systematic presentation of though muscles. ligaments. yet their knowledge and position are clearly indicated in the books *peri ^jperi *^eri arthron' (articulations) osteon physios' (the nature of bones). The manner ^^fjf^T f^cT ^k^Jis^y^qtSTf^f^^JC s II ^TiracT^ijwf' ^^ ^Hf^iT?7iia^. .iaiL' 43 every or bamboo-skin and observe minutely and every part of the body. *pe7'i sarkon" and *mochaikos\ However their description very vague and meagre. the greatest of ancient anatomists. Smruta. Morgan collection of writings. par excellence. as being mentioned indirect- ly in connection with the treatment for dislocation and fracture of bones. III. blood-vessels and glands. 5. Galen was undoubtedly. . (flesh) is adenon' (glands).ANATOMY grass. 49-50''.

He divides his monumental work. the style/i of his language. —Difference between function and On and every part of the body. the brain and the cranial nerves ies . XIII. The cranium. their auxiliaries . IX. organs . Hand. or chapters as follows: fore-arm and the arm . . X. The head. 17 books III. pelvic Genital . every organ Galen gives a comparative review of the similar structure of other animals and philosophic generalisations as to the origin and ascribes to development functional of organs. Abdomen IV. Alimentary . The eves and their auxiliarface. the accuracy of his descriptiorr. XIV. The The XII. . structure . Respiratory organs . not only instructive. Epilogue utility. Genital XVI. Alimentary organs and VII. Vocal organs VIII. XV.44 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE his and methods of narration. *^The Utilities of the Muman Body'* which became the classic and the standard authority in human anatomy in Europe and the Saracen empire for more than fourteen — centuries. brain and the senses . into I. organs . . organs and auxiliaries . make the anatomical study. which he utility and . arteries and veins XVII. Nerves. Y. VI. . but captivating and refreshing. XI. their Hand II. The neck the jaw-bones and the rest of the spine especially .

that any of the parts. could not be for life. either created (preservation of) embellishment. expedient she could to obtain immortality for it (her creation). to create her work immortal. or for the convenience of life as the eyes. as a clever founder of a city. the parts. or for its better It still devised than what they for us to explain are in. actually. if it were possible. animal . destined for the perpetuation of race among us. Nature not permitting it. is Below as a sample. who not only cares that his city is actually .ANATOIY adaptai\ioa 45 as a means of self-preservation and reproduction and thereby anticipating Lamarck nearly seventeen centuries. nature would have desired. she has created life as them either for the brain. believing that it will interest more readers than any other part of the body. nose and hands. *'Nature has three objects in view in the structural formation of the really. (17ti!l-1829) by given a short translation of his introductory general remarks on the 'genital organs'. or for the perpetuation of the race as the external genital parts as the testicles and the matrix . remains this book. now we have previously demonstrated in detail. heart and the preservation of liver. she has invented the "First of all. ears.

but takes all precautions tha^ it lasts for ever. attend to the perpetuation of the race. though deprived of reason and understanding. Nature has given to all animals organs of conception and she has associated with those organs a special impulse of pleasure of generation and filled the quite unexplainable with their functional uses. she has invented always a new animal for a dead to substitute animal. has given the . to have lasted so long that time has completely effaced the memory of its lasted still. One should think that nature really created. animals erotically excited soul with such an irrestable desire. for But works of years of nature have shall thousands and live by the admirable means. However it does not tbat any city has been appear fortunate on that point. at least as long as possible. in commencing with my exposition. so that no race perishes. especially the adolescent. knowing that the objects she has being^ not susceptible of perfect wisdom. that the and impassioned. as if they were completely reasonable. on is "What the contrary each race remains intact and immortal ? That is what I propose to explain in this book. founder. then the means adopted among animals and man.46 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE peopled.

I sure. am nature has placed the matrix beneath the stomach. admire. another region more suitable. in any part of the animal. the external genitals by their convenient situation. the region she has recognized as the "In fact. first. being fav removed . the art that has created them. Por the human species. have know the utility of each organ. all the world knows and understands. to what degree of utility. could not find. as a 47 substitute for that wisdom. profoundly hidden. When you will conformation. the allurement of intense pleasure. you will admire. You the best (place)for copulation. for is any of the purposes above-mentioned this . their dimension. associated with the usage of those organs to assure the salvation and conservation of the "It is race.ANATOMY anim&ls. left by Aristotle. their entire figure and their attained. organs which are revealed by dissection. in fact. most favourable for copulation. reception of the sperm and especially for the growth of the embryo so ^hat the fetus can attain to a perfect state. concerning other animals when we fill the gap. the ingenious device of nature and then the structure of the just to organs which naturally correspond for each animal to its bodily form. You would learn from us one day.

it will not permit the least thing either to escape or to penetrate dilates and extends in . from the most favourable capable of for. which nature has formed as a passage for the entrance of the sperm and the departure of easiest for the the embryo when it has reached its complete de- velopment. the mouth of the matrix. the mouth(of the matrix)closes so firmly. as it is the baby to slip off downwards to the inferior parts and the legs. the growth of the fetus." passage to the . during copulation. opens in the vagina. being consider- able distension without difficulty and finally. the most convenient for the child-birth. In fact. it such a way that the large «perm has an easy and matrix. When the animal has conceived.48' ANCIENT HINDU MEDCINE facial organs .

that is oxidation). easy upon the fire and not below or 17.II. which was regarded as the fire-principle." converted in the (food) supplies the (elements) for its up-building Siisi'uta 1. (The idea easily takes place when being that as cooking the cooking-pot is placed it sideways. 14. 6**. digestion is facilitated by the favourable situation as that of the sun and the moon. The bile-duct being situated above the alimen- tary receptacle. Food is alimentary tract into *ra8a' (chyle) (internal fire by 'antaragni* or combustion. %l^ vri q-RTW +ird*HMMKI^I^Mdr'!icT: I 18. the "As fire in a hearth converts rice and water of a cooking pot into food and foam. Oxidation takes place by the natural warmth of 'pitta^ the (bile = sanguinary principle) of the body." CharakaVl. «« PHYSIOLOGY body with *dhatii* and preservation. so {pachatyagni) converts the ingested food and drink into chyle and 'mala' digestive-fire (excreta = feces and urine). 15. VS*\^W\'AM\m<^M^:f^r^'. Anna^ 11 ^'. so the stomach being situated above the bile-duct. I 4 .

the rich aquatic content of the place.*° is whether the (digestive) fire is a different thing from 'pitta* (the bile) or the bile is the fire ? The answer is that due to *'Now the question its caloric quality. favouring digestion. is the 'internal fire* Siisruta 1. Niyyc<4m T^T^jftlf^ 21. its though aquatic. 5-6. Susriita 1. bile and oxidation (dahana) and called -'^. 16."-^ 20." Siisruta 1. the qualified chyle becomes red. 21. II <t ^ Ts^\^ r^ vM-r^:"^ w^ xm^^f^ n .— f ^ri rqTi«ifff^qfT^sfwm«i?f. ?f?T I cT^ fg!=3M'. and is called the 'rakta* (blood). the (oxidase). 'pitta* acts as fire in its action of cooking (pachatia) therefore.50 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE Due to digestion was tlie natural consequence). ingested food and drink are easily softened. 9 (rasa) "The chyle red during spleen. 21. f¥ ftm3Eff^^?^sftn. 14. ^«Tr»1[%?T fq^i^^rni: ftrif "^#^^. becomes passage through the liver and the In the radiant heat of the body.

^^^si^ ^: iiU .) and thus in one month it is converted into the semen of man and 'di^ftava' (the rupture of the Graafian vesicles with the ripeness of the ova. WT5^' fT^ Tig" Tt^T^^: *rfr: ^mw^ I ^<i^^s% fWt ?T^T 23. 10. and it constantly circulates in the body. the chyle is formed the same but it takes five days for the chyle to be day.PHYSIOLOGY 61 "Chyle flesh. transformed into blood and blood into flesh etc. and marrow the into semen. it is called the Vasa'. "This *rasa' remains in each ^dhdtu' 3500 moments (that is. the semen [suhra) 22. cT^ ^mm ^pw^: iK° T^ 5Tc^ ^^TgT^t. blood into flesh into fat.^* '*Because *dhatu' chyle is transformed into (elements or bodily substances). or the menstrual blood which is associated with the occurrence) of woman. as fat in the milk. fat into bone. 14." Susruta 1. 11-12" \ Semen of all living "circulates in every part of the body beings . bone into is marrow 1." Susruta 14. sugar in so is the sugar-cane juice. transformed into blood.

14. 5. reduced. III. 4. 15'^*^." centre of the vitalizing (prdnavaha) circulation is the heart and the great trunks {maha*'The srota) of arteries and veins). g:^ ^ftf'T'^ >4H[^5im<dr«<5Ti t?^f«f^ ^cret ^nrrr- ?T^t^ I . 5. 1"^. there are as culations as are present in the body **In many like cir- the chyle and the blood etc. they can not be produced or C/im^aka III. though its presence can not be doubted in an elementary state. 20It is not manifest in the children for it is 21-*." Susruto. ^11% ai^: ar^: ^Rwrani^t^fifffi^f^ IK a.52 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE present in the human body. 25. present in a small quantity as the sweet aroma and delicate fragrance of a flower is not per- ceived in a young bud before time develops and ripens it. the living body. 3^'. ^T^w. for in the living body without circulation. cT^r ^ ^^ ferr^fir^: w^\ 3I^f«TfMlffI gqj fl H^gii^mt 1=^ ^ ^ "^ ti TMl^?J^wn%. Charaka III. Susruta I. 5T^5 24(a).

fibres As the of {dhamani) throuch circulates. the 'rasa' Digestion. 9. ^rar ^«T^ff: wrf^ 'jito f^ =^ i . Physiological is of but very recent development and chemistry was not even suspected that the digestion and absorption were due to the fermentative action of the glandular growth." Susruta IV. it secretions.PHYSIOLOGY << 53 the water-lily and lotus stalks are naturally perforated. quotations. so in the tubular there are minute pores in the tubular vessels.:. it can be seen school of medicine From that the the above ancient Hindu the essential fundamentals of digestion and circulation. A few years ago. from such as are not diffusible into such 27. The digestive ferments or enzymes reduce the ingested food particles by cleavage into their elemental compounds by creating electromolecular instability through their chemical action and in proportion as the foodstufPs are altered thus in the alimentary canal and transrQ. though the intricate and complex grasped process of their mechanism was not and could not be understood by them. vessels -wliigh 9. I.fmed from insoluble into soluble substances.

is the reduction and cleavage into their component elements. especially in the villi of the small Whether the 'msa' forced into the is lymph torrent carried along the thoracic duct . The reaction of the enzymic activity upon the ingested food-particles. coat. either enters into the lymph sinuses of the mucosa. but did not know that the oxidation was caused by the digestive ferments. The Hindus understood that digestion was concommitant with oxidation (anta7'agni). which is the same thing as oxidation.54* ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE as are easily diffused. But Vasa' more than chyle. for it the most appropriate available term. and they are absorbed by the epithelium of the gastro-intestinal mucous membrane and are synthetized into chyle during the passage through the restitutive secretion of the cells. *JRasa' is is has been translated as the chyle. or are absorbed by the solitary and agminated follicles and by the lymph-glands interposed along the lacteals or are taken up by the blood capillaries of the mucous intestine. ^Rasd' is the whole of the solution of soluble and diffusible the digested food which synthetized being partially its regenerated and during mucous membrane passage through the by the anabolic restitutive secretions of the living cells.

by the venous portal system. The chief function of the red corpuscle is to carry oxygen. for of a liquid part. there are red corpuscles in man from 4 to 5 millions. which it owes to its principal ingredient haemoglobin and — which possesses the special quality of chemically combining with oxygen and yielding up the same oxygen. In perfor- . in goat 9 to 10 millions. whenever there is decrease in the concentration of oxygen in the solvent.PHYSIOLOGY • 55 which pours capillaries its contents (lymph and chyle) into travel the left subclavian vein or absorbed in the blood of the it villi. in sheep 13 to 14 millions. the red corpuscles {leucocytes) { {erythrocytes). the *plasma'. The blood is composed it is The blood red in color. before driven to the heart for general circulation. in birds 1 to 4 millions and in fish quarter million to two millions. in which float a vast number of microscopical bodies. is caused by the mass of red-corpuscles (erythrocytes) held in suspension in the plasma. cells it is has to pass through the hepatic for further synthetic transformation.0075 millimeter in man hematohlast The red and for each cubic millimeter of blood. plates or has the corpuscle shape of a biconcave disk with bevelled edges with a diameter of 0. the white corpuscles platelets and the blood ).

which thus receives the golden brownish tinge. mance The bile is essentially the excretory product of the metabolic wastes which are formed in the hepatic cells as a result of their detoxicating and metabolic activities. to the functional utility of zymo-exciters. but the bile has adapted in the economy of the system.56 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE of this important function. The red corpuscles are formed again in the red bone marrow and newly where special their reproduction. the red corpuscles soon lose their vitality. feed. deteriorate and are disintegrated in the liver. But it the spleen. having special chemical iron is affinity for oxygen. nourish and sustain tissues and life. for iron is its important component element. and principally metabolized in the spleen. spleen plays a cells are is provided for more important probable that the role in the inte- gration and synthesis of the haemoglobin molecules. particularly of the lipolytic enzymes. Of course it was a fanciful speculation that the blood is trans- . and heart was the centre and medium of the blood circulation to irrigate. The liver eliminates the wastes and the pigments as an excretory product. It is tlierefore a delightful surprise to read in Charaka and Susruta that they attributed to the liver and the spleen of transforming ^^asa* into blood.

Poehl : EinivirJcung des Spermins civfden Staffiimsatt. . ovaries and the blood and plays an imis portant role in the general oxidation of the tissues and in the metabolic reduction of the albuminous substances regressive as leucomines into harmless products as urea. strength and fills (of the body). resistance to disease ( cJiyavana ). And found in a considerable quantity in the thymus. adipose tissues. though *spermin'. countenance and nourishes the blood contributes to . hardihood the bone and health of the bone and nourishes the bonekeeps the bodily frame marrow the bone-marrow contributes to the . is found in concentrated form in the testes and prostate. pleasant countenance. ^< intermediate 'Rasa' contributes to health. Med. fat contributes to the adipose tissues. fur klin. Ziiit. p. growth a fact. 1894. the semen contributes to the personal • bravery. the special substance of the semen. milt. it and upbuilding. days into flesh and in a month But the blood supplies the nutrient the cellular it is materials for sustenance. increase of the semen the bone . . * (A...PHYSIOLOGY formed in five 57 into semen. perspiration. the brightness nourishment of the flesh and keeps one alive . pleasant the blood of the skin. 135) .

it is sweet." 1. 21.'* f^m^' 29." Susruta I. and cool when heavy ingestien of fat). and humidity from the digested food. liealing. $^T ^^ T5'. adds to the thickness of the subcutaneous fat. strengthening.58 inclination ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE to physical strength and reproductive power. viscosity. still in the condition of chyle). l7»^ . pleasure. Susruta I. flesh-giving. 6 '. Susruta **'^lesma* is white (chyle in the lacteal. refreshing through moistening. hut when oxidized. es- pecially after the . 15. heavy it is unoxidized (avidagdha in the lacteal and in the thoracic duct. f'ng: ftrf^^. Susruta 1.15. it is alkaline. 21. **^i^lesma' (lymph) is produced in the intestine. and thus 'slesma' doing five functions according to the position. '?^: H^^ I 'i^^ ^^ €? ^ Tm^ ^*^M*ii\m ^Tttf?T i 5RTWr?t ftrf^^^T^ ^iR f^c^ -m^ ^ sitci I 20. q^ ^ I . sweet and cool from the sweetness. 5"^. is ^lesma *'lubricates joints (snovia)^ fattening. causes growth. benefits the body. 19'**.

is proven by the fact that Susruta describes in tlie vascular system (III. in fact. Throughout the entire body. 15' ^ IT. 32. veins and nerves and that his *5/^s»za' corresponds to the synovial lymph. The lymph is at least in part the mediator in the exchange of constituents between the blood and the tissues. "As it works is corroborated by this passage : — well. 7. may be regarded as being bathed era #f i«r?f ?jsrT "^ ^TH ^^^ ' . so the 'slesma* acts in of the living beings. there is space is filled and this interstitial space with lymph and thus all the tissue elements. Circulation applied to the axle of a the joints The lymph is a colorless liquid found in the lymph vessels as well as the extravascular parts of the body.PHYSIOLOGY 59 That by ^slesma* or 'kapha^^ lymph was understood. 1-13) the tubular lymph-vessels with arteries. having almost the same constituents as the blood-plasma. there a rich supply of blood vessels penetrating every tissue with the exception of the epidermis and epidermal structures as the nails and hair. if oil or fat is carriage wheel." III. 4. In the ground-work of the is tissue.

osmosis and the relative permeability of the The intracapillary capillary walls. the lymph freely intercommunicates. is governed by the principles of pressure. the force of diffusion arises from . pressure tends to filter the plasma through the the walls of the cells composing endothelial capillaries . The flow of the blood-plasma space. and into it the cell discharges its waste products. there are numerous adenoid structures (lymph-glands) which act as a filter as the fluid passes through them. retaining deleterious all the pathogenic germs. The lymphatics like the blood-vessels freely anastomose. into interstitial where it is known as the lymph.60 in lymph. large trunks which finally empty their contents in the main venous trunks at both the junctions of the jugular and subclavian veins» In the course of the lymphatics. In the interstitial space. ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE From this fluid the cell takes th& necessary nutrients dissolved in it. finally tubes —the connecting with a number of fine lymphatics. diffusion. through which excess of pathogenic germs and their products are drained ofl^. filtration. their products as well as various excretory products. thus forming fluid. which the lymph-glands either destroy or make them comparatively harmless. tissue wastes.

This flow may be accelerated by other factors. is arterial an increased pressure muscular and nervous of the dilation which make the perivascular lymphatic valves act like tiny pumps. the regional lacks any central heart system as the blood vessels. The lymphatics are provided with muscular wall of automatically oscillating tanus under the influence of special vascular nerves efflux. and as this difference of blood pressure is the cause of the flow of venous from the capillaries to the heart.PHYSIOLOGY 61 the inequality of the chemical composition of the osmosis blood-plasma and the interstitial fluid . action Perhaps inspiration also exerts a sucking sublowering the pressure at the by positively its clavian vein in which the thoracic duct empties contents. from different molecular concentration to and relative permeability according capillary structure. . the flow of its circulation is Though lymph perhaps regulated by the relative pressure-level from the higher tensien in the capillaries to lower in the lymphatic space and in the minute vessels considerably much greater than in the larger ones as in the veins. and as with each systolic there flow. accentuating the momentum of the centripetal evacuation of the contents.

pericardium. The lymph which flows from the fistula of the thoracic duct. it is colorless liquid. the lymph mixed with the chyle has often after the ingestion of heavy fat and protein. almost like water.62 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE uniform composiThe lymph the body. variable. a milky white appearance and contains a good deal of sugar.^ tunica vaginalis of testicles. it serious damage be done of the . is In the lacteals. tion in every part (a) by filtering originates from three sources from the blood through the capillary wall. The lymph does not coagulate as easily as the But it contains fibronogen and in case blood. where there is always a sufiicient quantity of the lymph keep the walls lubricated and moistened. The composition of the lymph. is known as the chyle. pleura. slightly opalescent fluid. any rupture clots so that no readily there is lymphatic. to a but decidedly alkaline. In the in the large serous capillary lymph-space and is cavities as the peritoneum. therefore. The lymph fluid is not m of : from exudation of the tissues with their anabolic and catabolic wastes (c) the digested nutrient solution which is absorbed by the lymphatic roots of the intestinal villi and which (b) . a watery.

the biood. So lymph glands not only filter and purify is a* lymph stream. though fewer in number. 68^ But unlike the blood.PHYSIOLOGY to the tissues. functions are — wandering cells. Perhaps through its ameboid movement are traverses through the capillary membrane and enters into the lymph-stream and acts as useful scavenger and devourer of any pathogenic germ that might have gained access in the tissues . or the leucocyte may be produced in the lymphatic glands and enter into the arterial circulation when the lymph trunks empty their contents at the junctions of the jugular and subclavian veins and are carried to the heart. Platelets and always absent . increasing thus the protein content. in which the nourishing food to the leucocytes. In the blood the leucocytes are seen larger and with developed phagocytic power for the reason that the blood contains opsonin and alexin which sensitize the pathogenic micro-organisms. they are ever watchful senti- nels to catch and retain any dangerous marauder . smaller in size and the leucocyte always found. thus facilitating The destroyed germs are dissolved phagocytosis. the red-corpuscles {erythrocytes) are met with on but the leucocytes the very rare occasions {thrombocytes) . the lymph contains a very few corpuscles.

passage of some does not other liquids in the But he confound 'dhamauV . arterial. or This also explains that with the ablation total extirpation of the spleen. is This number of leucocytes for the bodily defence. the minute protozoa that are attacking destroying the red-blood corpuscles and producing an excessive only means that the spleen is the spleen enlarged. In this vital work with the lymph-glands in the lympha- lymphoid adenoid bodies as the spleen. and functioned by the spleen is supplemented bone-marrow and the numerous lymph-glands which are numerous and are scattered either is single or in cluster all tics. there is no serious consequence or there any marked reduction of The task of the the leucocytes in the blood. but also than the venous also mentions twenty-four 'dhamanV Susruta and body. throughout the lymphaflow of the On the whole the lymph is very sluggish and much slower not only than the blood. bone-marrow and the thymus have their important share. it is a well tics. In malarial fever.M that ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE be in the lymph torrent^ but also are active synthetic laboratories for the origin and may development of the leucocytes. all the known fact that hyperactive.

''There are two vital streams — S7'0ta : their main bearers {mTdasthana) are the heart and chyle-carrying tubes (lacteals and thoracic duct). "There are some who say that says : dhctmam and sh'a (vascular si'ota are not different from the dkamam *sira. Smruta III.. system).PHYSIOLOGY with 10). In the medical they are mentioned separately. 2^^. hallucination. 9. 'f^i^^TT 'j^ >?^t^*. they are minute and there is some similarity in their action. 'slra* 65 He (vascular system) like Charaka (I. differ from those of ^sira* How ? Eor the 'siras* have main central trunks and their action is also otherwise. if they are penetrated (by any wound). from the the ^srota' For the characteristics of and ^dJiamam. ^tcTtftf =^f?n cmfj t^^ws 5 . therefore in spite of their dissimilar activities. 30. they are often confounded with each other. illusion and trembling appear and death might even take cries. because they are situated close to each science. =^gf^"3i^w^ 'nfiwT^ ^f^cTT: i cm ff^f : fs!!?:!^?^^- '^^T^rf^vrFi:.. 33. involuntary syncope. Only other. and srota are But this is difPereiit not just .

and the blood-vessels if the sources of the two vessels (the liver and the spleen) are . there the skin or and jaundice.66 place. ing. fever. vascular obstruction and even death might take place. The urine-bearing tubes are . ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE AUmeatary canals are two and their : bearers are the intestine and the lacteals if they are penetrated. circulating are two and protein [mamsaoaha) sources are ligaments. thirst and immediate death take place. loss of appetite. sources are penetrated. The blood-vessels are two (the hepatic artery and the portal vein) and their main bearers are the liver and the spleen. burning sensation. pain. Chyletubes are two and their main bearers carrying are the heart and the chyle-carrying vessels . bleeding of Streams redness of the nose. thirst. edema. skin and the blood-vessels. and the 'hloma' {plem^a) if they are penetrated. if they are (the lacteals and the thoracic duct) . are paleness of penetrated. is edema or immediate death penetrated. vomit- blindness or immediate death take Serous {udaka) tubes are two and their bearers are 'talu' (between the meningeal membranes surrounding the central nervous system) place. if their main their main emaciation. there with symptoms the same as if the heart and the main arteries are wounded.

the bladder and the penis . there are suppression of the urine in the bladdea. ^i^Ejt ^f^wR ^^• ^.'. difficulty in seminal discharge take place.fH I M^iT ^^•." Susruta III. 9. 12^*.^^ 'T'^a' cif^TTf^ ^ \ ^m^^ fy .PHYSIOLOGY 67 two. anuria and paralysis (insensibility) of the . sterility. offensive odor. The seminal tubes are two : their sources are the mamma and the testicles . if they are penetrated impotence. ^W^ ^^: iRiii^f Fii. The feces-carrying are tubes are two their if sources the intestine and the anus . penis. I cm irmw t. tubes) if 34. cT^'^ f ??i' f^^F^TTsf ^5^ C cT^ crqt^^?n3!^S^Tff^^ V[?W. . Tj^^t cfTf^T g ^TWt^^'^':^>'n^Ct^^H^^^^^^Tf^. if their main sources are penetrated. there are constipation. The ovarian sources {m-'ftava-vaha) tubes are two : their are the tubes they are penetrated. cTW ^^rraw '^ ^^!^\ . and the tying down of the entrails (ant?^a-ihe bowel). they are penetrated. (the ovi-ducts —Fallopian matrix and the ova-carrying . pain in copulation and amenorrhea take place.

fTW f^Fir^ ^^FRT'i 1%'mFrfTT flT^^: '^ . canals and III. cT^ far^^ WkcTT f^m fl^^ T^^^kIT "^ i ^^^ f. taste. hearins? and speech. as tubes. smell. cTqt- . touch and hearing. 'reveals the carries strengthener of the bodily elements {dhatu) and the co-ordinator of the bodily It is It activates is the organs. out the physical contractions).68 ANCIEN^T HINDU MEDICINE Here the of course Susruta has used 'srota' in of generic sense what are ducts. 'Prana^ apana^ samana^ nerves ndana and vymta* senses It attempts (muscular and is the carrier of the sense-perceptions as the impression. cT^t^^' ««ii1eai =^ . The regulator of the physical are of five kinds. bases of sound and the main cause of the consciousness ^ ^. —The Nervous System 'vai/?t' *'The normal (nervous system) is the mechanism. described in modern anatomy cavities.

7^". face and Spitting. are spread is over the entire body. tongue. *Samana* nerves {vasodilator) are located in the and ducts. sneezing. strength and complexion are its activities. ) It beiug situated by the side of the digestive fire (bileduct ?). nose. vomiting. and in the sudoriferous glands lymphatics ( animt. thoracic and vayu'." 12. the waste- products. very By ^vyZtna' extension. thorax and in the neck . rapid.PHYSIOLOGY of sound and touch. respiration and digestion are the functions of the *prana^Udana' nerves (cervical. movements of the hands and feet. locat- "The *prana* nerves {cerehrosinncW) are ed in the brain^ thorax. conduction walking. it increases digestive fire. heat. speaking. contraction . It is 69 and fire cheerfulness. It the source of pleasure increases the digestive all and eliminates from the body Clmrcika 1. brachial plexus) are located in the umbilicus. exertions. ears. 'VyamC (motor) nerves Their nerves.

" 18 "The ten nerves {dhamam) of the upper. nerves residing in the bowels. 3. The apana (abdomen). Apana (automatic or sympathetic) cles. knee.m'. sion of the ova and the fetus. ^'tHi snr^^^: ii '^snqrtf^i*^ '^ f^Ti ^i^fwra % II 37. nerves are located in the testi- reproductive organs." 28. urine and feces and the expulChai^aka VI. the centre *'. umbilicus nation of semen. hip and the anus. r3Kt^[^T^f fe^rr'UT^ i . 36. of the senses. 4-9^ ^ is "The brain Susriita III. the twinkling of the eyes and other activities are accomplished. ^5^ ^\^mi 5ffjqt^:^'!i''^¥rer^Tf%^T: i ^FrR^g ^\4.70 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE (of muscles). cause the elimibladder.

38. touch. 9. 71 by activating sound. Susruta III. by two makes (vocal) sound. S5'\ '*Man sleeps when "Memory is caused by the following eight Erom the cause of impressions. two carry impressions two (lingual) carry and two (olfactory) carry By two man speaks. respiration^ sighing. 4^^ cease to sense-organs mind. speech. and crying. laughing.PHYSIOLOGY extremities. impressions." operate. consciousness. 21." taste smell. (their) causes : — similarities and dissimilarities. practice. co-ordination of the mind. taste. maintain the body. hunger. •••Two (optic) (auditory) . being tired by the fatigue of the CharaJca 1. g^ ^^T^ wt^ w^lm^: «R^Tf^m: i . carry sound. yawning. concentration (of attention). by two he is asleep and by two he is awakened. gjfiTT: what is remembered from repeti- ?I^*q^*PK€'T3\^5f^IHt^ T^iT^fw^lf^fral^iKr^f^cn^^ 3y. smell.

1. 117-I18*\ four ( "The side-way into cutaneous ) nerves." IV. 9. hearing or perception (as tasting or Charaka smelling ). By these secreand external body is moistened and refreshed. ^i^tfTw': ^m^ ^^'^'Tf'^^ =^ra^ I II «iT«^mT: IF .. By them the pleasure and pain of touch are felt.72 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE tion of sight." Susruta III. They open in the hair follicles by which they carry the sweat {sveda) tions the internal hundreds and thousands. is called the memory.. they and sebaceous secretion {rasa). 8*\ l^^T^ifrTTSTt ^T^TfT ^»3f??^^^ Ill ct't^f^fcRfsi" ^^ JIcH 5T y«1<l'lMT: II ^^ H^^T^M+Jci«^^^ ^WW'. branching have become countless.

was the medium of circulation and the nerves acted as the conductor of sense-perceptions of which the brain was the centre. SusrutalA^. ^^\ fqTT ?T^: % #^: : ^I^IsTOT =^ I 43. the bile.of lymph mucous exudation. are the feces and the urine . 8^^. heat (of the cold ( sun) and the conduction of heat and the air current). by The above quotations tend to prove that the ancient Hindu schools of medicine believed that the body was nourished by the lymph and the blood formed out of the chyle during its passage within the liver and the spleen. In the Hippocratic writings we find almost 42. ft^JiT^Hf^^q €t*T^|5rrr*i^ ^^^^\ i . of bones the nails and hair. in the ear-tube (sebaceous secretions). of as the wax bone-marrow wax in the oil eye-pits. of blood.21. of fat the sweat. pitta ( bile = oxidation ) and (air ^ayu = nerves) maintain the body as the moon.b^O*"^. and of the skin (sebaceous fatty secretion). Kapha ( lymph ). SiisnUa 1. of flesh.• PHYSIOLOGY 73 "The waste-products {mala) of digested e«liment. the sun and activities of the air vitalize the earth by their humidity (of the moon).

and the most important gland par ^excellence was supposed to be the brain and its function was to pump and distribute the liquid in all . In the *peri noison to tefarton=t\ie fourth book of the Maladies 33). They the are introduced food ( the system with ingested and drink. = the nature of man).*' 33. lymphatic ovaries. and black bile {cholen xanthen) {cholen melainan)^ which are described to be mixed and to circulate in the body. though with less clearness and In 'peri physios mithropoy*' positive assertions. for and for the othes bile^ water "The sources the phlegm for spleen. there are four ground 4-5( similar principles — the yellow bile hlood (aima). testicles or mamma. for for the water the the brain. {iidrops) is substituted. the bile a section of the into liver. have been mentioned but not the pancreas. phlegm {phler/ma). of the glands is to absorb the superfluous liquid in the body and thus to The function The largest preserve the bodily equilibrium.^o^^ = glands 1-10) the ganglions in the of the body according to the organic needs.74) ANCIENT HINDI! MEDICINE views. . {peri r^c?(?. only bile is mentioned without any qualification the blood are the heart. Many as glands tonsil. 35-38). arm-pit and groin as well as the brain. containing these principles per^i noisoji IV.

PHYSIOLOGY 75 Galen distinguished between the arteries and the veins. becomes mixed with — feces. The 'pjieuma' mixed w^ith the air brought from the lungs. circulates to all parts of the body with the in nerves. . any measure can be but There are ten handfuls of water. is known as 'las'lkcl^. evaporated by the heat of the body. blood and other materials of the which circulating in the system. nourishes the outer skin which entering into the abscess under the skin. 7.[r) arteries the arteries. which being body . urine. is eliminated as perspiration that water (udaJca = serovs fluid) . for are always found empty after death. vital Before Galen spirit it was believed that the circulated (pnettma = a. 'anjali* (Because the body fluid constantly increases. calculation by the conjectural). or decreases. 8) there are eight handfuls {anjali) of blood and six of lymph in a normal healthy human body. According to Charaka (IV. according to each individual's own measure the water that after absorption. . According to him the blood was in the liver and it was sent to the heart formed for the distribution in all parts of the body after the YolsLtWized 'pnetima' (air the spirit = the soul) = has been separated. becomes the vital essence of life (animal spirit) and from th& brain.

The material that is first formed out of the digested food and which is known as the chyle. . which W^:. 'vasa'' (serum of the flesh) three.76 is ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE ten liaiidfuls. feces seven.1TWM'« . cTT^^ -«. semen half handful and 'ojas' (prostate gland secretion) half handful. 7. rabbit and cat 5 p. is nine handfuls. brain (or brain-serum) half handful." Howell "The ratio of weight (Fhysiology. 458) says : of blood to weight of body is . in the cent . 7 per in birds 10 p c. man we have upon record two determinations on guillotined criminals made by Bischoff. c. bile five (or the venous blood). 531^ flT^ IWP'I*. fat two. dog 7. 49). 10**." Char aha IV. The blood is ei^ht handful. p. p. urine four. According to Foster {Physiology^ total quantity of blood "the in the human body is about one thirteenth of the body weight. lymph six. bone-marrow one. 'Rfe^^ ^tiWf%:.

22. 8. Supposing the j heart to beat 72 times a minute. "If we take 180 grams. it does 578 gram- equivalent to that the left meters of wt)rk at each beat. ejected at each stroke at a pressure of time for the circulation 250 3. 29. high. 10 p. 29.lieart. resting muscles.. c. : kidneys. 1. 30 p. this would give for the day's work of the left ventricle nearly 60. c. C. lungs and great blood-vessels. .000 kilogram meters. which is 21 meters of blood. .PHYSIOLOGY gave 7. 63 p. brain and cord. The results of some 74 experiments gave them an average value of only 5 per cent per man. c. c. bones. 6. p. intestines. 2 Smith however have Grehant's caibon monoxide method. of mercury. 76 p. C.. c.C. Calculating the work . this means ventricle is capable at its systole of lifting 180 grams 3. 24 The blood the circulates in the tubular closed vessels. as the quantity in man. 24 p. 21 m. e. c. 20 liver. mm. The distribution of this blood in the tissues of the body at any time has been estimated by Ranke from per cent. 30 p. 1. skin. 2. 23 p.. 77 7 and 7. as follows spleen. i. Haldane and devised a modification of experiments on freshly killed rabbits. which they have applied to living men." p. 0. for thereby the pressure is increased and is completing reduced.

This is easily seen in which they discharge tlieir Without blood-circulation there to the occlusion of the main artery of the extremity when putrefactive fermentation takes place of an animal tissue tbuQ attached to the body. from which the cells extract the nutritive materials they need for their sustenance and growth and waste products. fills the blood-plasma interstitial filters through and the space. The blood cell of the the is medium through which every needs. In the capillaries. which sulphuretted Iiydrogen o"ives the bad odor and the iron-content of the hemoglobin is precipitated into sulphide of iron which imparts to the limb a range of colors commencing in green and terminating in black." Poster's Tliysiologij. known as 'gangrene' with the production of gases as still and volatilized fat. In addition the cells. the work of the whole heart during the day would amount is to 75. bathing every tissue in the lymph-fluid. can be no supply of the lymph fluid for the preservation of the tissues. to supply the nutritive fluid to is the chief fimetion of the blood to carry .000 kilogram-meters. supplied with its nutritive In blood circulate the synthetized ele- body ments of the ingested food.'78 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE of the right ventricle at one-fourth of the left. 218. p.

hormones and glandular secretions for tissue respiration.PHYSIOLOGY 79 oxygen with hemoglobin. urea. that through which flowed the vital force of life. dissolved in amonium carbonate. Of course it was not possible for them to know their complex functional utilities in detail. waste products of the cells. storms and tempests {Charaka 1* 12. When it the oxygen to of the blood reduced and comes back is the heart through the veins to be sent to the it lungs. the nexves were also But they thought tuberal vessels. 6 ) or like blowing with bellows which in- . of purple it is but wlien it is loaded with oxYE^en. motor impulses to the periphery. Charaka and Susruta formed right conception of the function of the blood and the lymph in broad general outlines. heat of the body is is generated. cholesterin and other substances. The venous blood contains it many as the bases. something too fine for the eyes to see and which brought the sensory impressions nervous system for co-ordination carried* the to the ceiatral and . to be charged with oxygen. and stimulation and in the intercellular oxidation. Nor do we yet know. urates. color. oxidation. sparkle was invisible but mighty like the air which brings heat and cold waves. xanthin carbonic acid as carbonates.

The neurons also differ greatly in size. that is. while the motor only carry But them from the centre tological to the periphery. nature of the nerve impulse But the exact and the mode of its conduction. either the medullated or the non-medullated may or may not be surrounded by the primitive sheath or neurilemma. the terminal arborization round the axon.80 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE furnace and which it tensifies the fire of the was compared to and identified with. shape and internal structure and they are generaland multipolar cells. Yet his- any or chemical examination hardly reveals structural differentiation. The nerveit is fibre is one of the units of a nerve-trunk : the axis-cylinder process of a neuron and is either medullated. is not yet completely understood. It is usually compared with the electric current. so that there are four forms of nerve-fibres^ The neuron is the cell unit of the nerve-fibre and the neurons propagate their impulse by contact of the dendrites. Moreover the propagation and the velocity of the nerve-force depends on the nature and locality of the nervefibre. surrounded by a white substance called myelin. ly classified as the bipolar . the temperature and the pressure. the sensory and the motor nerves are different. or non-medullated . the sensory fibres only bring impressions to the nerve-centre.

It is just like two electric wires one of which has been connected to ring the bell and the other to make light.PHYSIOLOGY ^ 8t This structural variation explains the differ-ence in speed of nerve impulstion. it is because their terminal efferent nerves. the vibrations of light (color-images = By the rupa) can be focussed upon it. for co-ordination. There does not seem to be ^ny structural difference between two afferent or an example. and if they carry different impressions and impulses. which situated in the occipital lobes. specially adapted peculiar structure of the retina. between auditory and olfactory. color-consciousness and response to the stimuli. as for -endings have been developed to catch particular impressions and the lobe in the brain has been specialized as an economy to the system to receive. co-ordinate and react only to special impulses. and in their mode of conduction and speed. Helmholtz found that the motor nerve of a frog travels with the velocity of 28 to 30 meters per second and the researches of Piper indicated that the motor nerve of a man travels at the velocity of 117 to 125 meter per second. setting up nerveimpulses that are transmitted by the fibres of the optic nerve and optic track to the visual centre in is the cortex in the brain. Total blindness 6 .

what is commonly known as the 'waves of sound'. affecting the symmetrical halves of both eyes known as 'hemipicC . of which the most sensitive parts are the the borders. the rapidly alternating variations of pressure.'. Xhe anterior tip. the right one only one lobe is influencing the two right halves of the eyes. The nerve track . and the sensory impulsethus generated is carried over the auditory nerve (eighth cranial nerve) and track to auditory centre in the first the^ convolution of the 'temporal auditory lobe. The taste {rasa) nerve-fibres are distributed to parts of the buccal cavity and especially the tongue. the two left halves of the retinas. forced through theaccoustic apparatus. if ablated or injured. there is a partial blindness. fibres fifth two-thirds of the tongue'are supplied with sensory from the lingual nerve ( a branch of the nerve) and the posterior third from the has not glossopharyngeal. strike against the auditory e]>ithelium. where auditory consciousness is developed. The outer ear is so . and the^ posterior portion of tha dorsum in the circum vallate papillae.82 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE Bufc follows the removal of both occipital lobes. richly supplied with the nerve-fibres^ of the cochlear branch. and the left one.constituted that whert the vibrations of matter.

epithelial like cells. the area corresponding to about 250 square millimeters in each nostril^ a profuse distribution of the fibres of the olfactory {gcmclha) nerve. the seventh nerve and the glossopharyngyal nerve. sensation is possibly complex. keep the mucous . And end a tuft of six to eight hair-like there are tiny glands which always humid and moist. The There gustatory are but four fundamental taste sensations. by way of the Vidian nerve. how the taste sensation travels. in the shape of elongated.. And there are so many complex and multiple junctions between the fifth nerve. but perhaps through the chorda tympani nerve. acid. sweet. petrosal nerves. for the experience of which we are dependent on in the terminal organs which are chiefly present the fungiform and circumvallate papillae. the otic and the splenopalatine ganglia. that it is hard to determine. bitter. and salty and the rest are but the combinations of these primary tastes. In the 7iasal septum and a portion of the upper turbinate bone. tymphanie plexus. —namely. but it is supposed to terminate in the hippocampal convolution^ posterior to the olfactory lobe.PHYSIOLOGY 8S yet been definitely known. each of which there is bears on its processes.

The olfactory nerve terminates in the cortex of the brain in the *cornu Ammonis and hippo- may campus. vanilin 1 : 1 400. to the olfactory epithelium. the power of smelling is diminished and even be wholly suspended. warmth. But the alimentary mem- branes. The touch (sparsa) is a compound sensation of pressure.000 parts. this too dry or the secretion be too abundant or altered in quality.' The animals with highly developed sense of smell possess a large ^limbic lobe.000 . : 10. become dissolved in the thin layer odoriferous of fluid that keeps the nasal membrance moist- ened and peicoitues through and stimulatBut if the membrane be es the nerve-endings. temperature Application of cocaine on the eye those of touch and . carried in a gaseous medium. through ioar distinct kinds of nerve-fibres which are not only richly distributed over the general cutaneous surface. cold and pain.000.000 . but also in the buccal and rectal membranes. namely the air.* Some : of the substances retain their odoriferous quality even in minute dilution as camphor musk 1 8. or the superfacise in the interior of the body are supplied with nerve-fibres of pain and devoid of sensations.000.83 Particles ANCIENT HINDU iiEDICINB of matters.

spinal cord and the latter through the posterior funiculi. but not of pain. The vocal sound or voice (ghosa) is distinct from speech. and it opens above intoof cartilages. together with some of the fibres of the muscle sense and they do not cross until after and perhaps they are tliey reach the medulla represented in the rolandic area. supposed the nerve-endings of pain lie deeper than the tactile senses. the larynx. resulted in the insensiblity of the arm to pressure and temperature. And there may be speech without voice as in whispering and voice without speech as in singing a organ. which are vocal cords. The vocal production connected with elastic ligaments. musical tone. and mediate through different It has been clinically observed that the compression of the cords of the brachial plexus. which express definite ideas. which arethe former mediating through the superficial it And is . is an articulate sound to The apimals are endow- ed with vocal power. but the sensations of heat and cold are not influenced. but not with speech. . resembles ^to a great extent the siren in the The larynx is a framework of tone.PHYSIOLOGY or 85 paralyzes the feeling of pain and pressure. which proves that their nervethroat • fibres are different channels.

If any of these nerves is destroyed. and narrowing glottis the rythmic widening automatically cease and the remains immobile and no voice (vocal sound) can be produced. occupies the foot of the third frontal convolution (left). With respiration. in the left hemi- sphere for the right-handed and in the right hemisphere for left-handed motor center for pronouncing individj.ials. The and articulating words. lung acts as bellows. There are four speech (bhascl) centers^ situated along the Sylvian fissure. (2) fitch' which depends on the rapidity of vibrations and which depends on the capacity of the resonance chamber and the muscular strength and pliability of the laryngeal ligaments (vocal cords). (1) The voice has three 'loudness' which depends on * the force of the expiratory blast.86 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE the cavity of the pharynx and below into the the trachea or windpipe. The alternate expansion and contraction of the ligaments and muscles (3) the 'quality* of the larynx {glottis) are made by the bulbar and recurrent laryngeal nerves. characteristics. pressing ti blast of through the thin tube of the windpipe and the escaped air is modulated by the movable liga- air ments into various tones. immediately in front of the .

enter causes sensory aphasia (word-deafness). In sensory aphasia. is. The aphasia (aphemia). in partial the patient can utter a few incoherent that is. <. for comprehending spoken words. causes alexia (wordone can not read even own gence and intelliwriting. to move the tongue and the lips. distinguishing written or printed words. and the words are to him mere sounds and do not express any that idea. The center for for visual graphic images. destruction of this speech. in other aphemia. the faculty to articulate words. the lesion. destruction blindness). that is.part of the left parietal lobe). one can hear the voice. produces motor In aphemia one is able to center hear and to understand when spoken to. the posterior fourth of the first tempooccupies The destruction of this ral convolution (left). occupies the left angular gyrus(posterior The inferior . as the faculty of hearing is not affected. hut he has lost his vocabulary. although his vision are not affected and he can see the form . his of this center In alexia. and is able to emit sound. words and syllables according to the nature of The center for auditory images. but he can not understand the spoken words. if the injury is not complete.* PHYSIOLOGY "utilized 87 in centers of phonation. But words.

to Various hypotheses the causation have been advanced explain of sleep. is not bsustantiated by observation. as in privation of which tries to . lost is but has the situated at the foot of the second this frontal convolution and the destruction of center produces the inability to write {agraphia). Sleep {nidra) is evidenced by the cessation of sensory-motor reaction. drowsiness is not constant. (1) Cerebral anemia was suggested by the old writers . In agraphia. but it is rather the effect than. one has lost his faculty of expressing his ideas in writing or any graphic form. expressed through those words. Agraphia is usually associated in clinical experience with motor aphasia (aphemia). Osmotic theory of Devaux. (3) explain sleep due to the increased viscocity of blood. or diminished secretion of the thyroids. 9 faculty of comprehending ideas. there is any increased . nor is there any proof that in hypnotic or epileptic somnolence. The center for the faculty of writing. but in secretion of hypophysis.88 of ANCIENT HINDU MEDICIEN the letters.the cause of it. (2) Hyposecretion of the action of the thyroid due to the inhibitive accumulative waste products during waking hours and the hyper-secretion of the pituitary body myxedema. through dehydration.

the nervous rather irritated. composed of the cell-units (neuron) transmit their impulse from one to the other by their contact through the interlacings of dendrid- . which is expressed as sleep. Consumption of the intramolecular (6) asphyxia. (7) The neuron theory histological tries to explain sleep on the principle the nerve track is not contiguous like the electric wire. cholesterine. reflex through intoxication or indirectly by vaso-constriction. the brain cells use up their store of oxygen more oxygen causes cerebral rapidly than it can be replenished by absorption from blood . reduces the minimum ratio of free oxygen. but which. hotter Chemico-toxic theory enjoys a The accumulated tissuereputation. stimuli and gradually store up sufficient anabolic process to be awakened up that again.. (4) waste products as lactic acid. as during the waking hours. (5) Accumulation of carbonic acid which has an extreme avidity for oxygen. exercise an inhibitory action on tho cerebral activity. either paralyzing the centre directly. necessary for the central nervous activities.PHYSIOLOGY water 89 system is —in thirst. the consequence is that for lack of respiration. leucomaine. the brain-cells can not react to th& losing consciousoxygen through the- sensory ness.

— undisturbed. so that during enforced involuntary rest. yet been proved that the dendride processes are contractile enough as to lose all connections with the neighborly cells. But it has not sleep is mechanically produced. A central nervous result of mechanism produces not* as a asphyxiation. recuperate and vitalize the brain-cells for the resumption of wise to their activities of sensory-motor co-ordination and reaction. sensations B-unger and thirst {Jcsut-pipasa) are mediated. it will take less time than other- oxygenate.)^ but to prevent them and to protect the braincells from the evil effect of their further accumulation. (8) sleep. toxins or neuro -toxins {Bouchard. probably through the nerve endings . tonicize. and when tliere is sufficient accumulation of fatigue products.90 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE ed and terminal arborizations. so that the nerve-path being broken and the brain being automatically relieved from sensory stimulation. the dendrides contract and retract. profound and preservation. the obnoxious products can be eliminated and the brain-cells can be refreshed and revitalized through the anabolic process (the income of energy being more than its expendias an economic accommodation to selfture) If the sleep is deep.

for we know.PHYSIOLOGY in the stomach 91 ^ and pharynx. dried air or dust. Normal hunger is known as the appetite and it is not yet definitely determined whether this impression is conveyed by sensory fibres. it can be concluded that hunger is agastric sense. a general tissue hunger for lack of nutrition. due to the resultant course. Prom this. at once there is a sensation of thirst.water to compensate the loss of the blood. it constantly incurs through respiration. distributed to the mucous membrane of the stomach or of the muscular coat. is evidenced by the fact that when water or indigestible substances are taken in to fill the stomach. It is possible that when the tissues give up their storage of reserve. that if the pharynx is dried up either by salty or saccharine food. a general nervousness and discomfort are experienced. Of when there is nervous excitation. That it has nothing to do with nutritive needs of the organism. these peripheral nerve-endings are excited. The water needs of the body are experienced through the fibres of the glosso- pharyngeal nerve as an end organ of thirst. though there may be no bodily need for it and it can be ap- peased by removing the irritant substances and moistening. the spot. perspiration and . When the stomach is empty. the hunger sense is allayed.

. as is seen in strong^ when emotion. there are nearly twodistributed all over the cuta- neous surface. The stimulation of the sciatic nerve in cat. cold-sweat of phthisis and other diseases.92 urination. It regulating sweat-glands vaso-d. millions Krause ). Sweat ( sveda ) ( as in tissue hunger. no sweat appears on the hind limb though there is abundance in the clearly proving a other. directly through the excitation of the nervous mechanism. is the secretion of the sudori- pareous glands. is nerve divided on one made dyspenic^ of that side. sciatic sweating on the But when an animal with side. But it can he also produced. It secretion is is known that with vaso-dilation. and if it is extreme through general nerve excitation and irritation. of which. ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE there it first is water. seems that central sweating induces perspiranervous system while nicotin picrotoxin and strychnia action by influencing the induce . except the glans penis.ilation. and a general call for supply of expresses the demand through the excitahility of the glossopharyngeal nerve. the skin is in anemic state.. their increased. independently. prepauce and the deeper portion of the external auditory meatus.. thus- central nervous as mechanism. has been strated to demon- produce profuse hairless balls of the feet.

Sebum {rasa) a semiliquid oily material. on exposure to air forms a waxy cheesy mass as is seen in the comedones from the occlusion of ducts. although sebum by its oil coating over the skin prevents the undue loss of heat as well as prevents the undue absorption of moisture. distributed over the cutaneous surface. remnants of it and epithelial cells and inorganic salts. chiefly associated with the hair follicle. the central nervous regulator of the sweat glands is in the medulla. As the nervous sebaceous secretive activites are associated with vaso-dilation. that like the latter. cholesterin. anatomically the nerve-fibers As histologically and i)f the sweat glands and the vaso-constrictors it is resemble very closely. it is presumed that their ^nechanism is the same.PHYSIOLOGY tion by acting both centrally and peripherally. and Sebum to prevent the hair from being brittle. is meant possibly to protect the skin from bacterial invasion. reasonable to presume. Vaso-dilation and vaso-constriction . albuminous material ( casein like ). but also without it as in the glans penis. ) ) the or in the glans penis ( Smegma preputti ear-wax or in the auditory meatus (cerume?i = contains fats. that Is secreted all by the sebaceous glands. lips and the deeper portions of the external auditory meatus. soaps.

respiration ). Meat { iisma ) is produced as a reaction of the or vital intracellular oxidation process and absorbed in the blood. cold is is there heat is that the escape of reduced. reptiles or in the hibernating animals ( poikilothennos ). evaporation (perspiration from the there is skin). and the consequence is that their body tempera- ture fluctuates with that of the surroundings. through lungs periphery and dilation. amphibia. While the hot blooded animal ( homoiotherinotis ) keeps relatively a constant temperature .94 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE are regulated by the nerve-fibres belonging to the sympathetic or automatic nervous system. it is conveyed to every part of the body to preserve the temperature Eor heat equilibrium of the hot-blooded animaL is being constantly lost from the body through radiation (conduction). or the heat-regulating mechanism either is absent or poorly developed as in the latter. If is vaporization of water and with urine and feces. In coldblooded creatures as fish. the surrounding air and the body needs to conserve its heat. If ( excess of heat. is it is conducted to the radiated with sweat by vaso- on the other hand. the oxidizing process is not yet intense as in the former. as well as the production of heat vaso.constriction so stimulated by increased oxidation.

is bj^ a nervous center. and ) is radiation through vaso-dilation controlled which perhaps medulla.' PHYSIOLOGY of 95' independent There is surroundings. reason to believe that the heat-regulating every mechanism ( tissue-oxidation for the prduction conservation of the of heat. situated either in the pons or . heat of through heat vaso- constriction.

haughtiness. lymphatic and arterial systems. misery. four kinds accidental or pain.III. Diseases ^agantu' .l. senility. desires and longings. fedr. the diseases originate from seven sources as follows: hereditary (adivala). Susrutal. *' PATHOLOGY a disease (vt/adhi). 'mdnasd' . thirst. sorrow. . alimentrry (dosavala). are 'natural' diseases". jealousy. sadness. venous. ^mr'ira^ . (manasa)^ and caused by injuries are physical {sarira ). envy. physical ( kdlavala = seasonal ). 20*** . hunger. greed. through anger. "Again. is : Whatever causes are of Diseases mechanical (agcmtti). mental natural (svdbhavika). mechanical (samghatavcda). joyousness. of concentration mind. of alimentary origin and by the derangement of the nervous. sleep and death. maternal (janniavala).

as leprosy there is reason to belive that the syphilic eruption every of the skin and ulceration were regarded as are — varieties of leprosy) hereditary diseases are of and'am^' (hemorrhoids). *ktistha' ( hereditary. 4*'. and natural (svahhavavala) Susruta I. mute.> PATHOLOGY 97 contagious {daivavala). that are produced through the improper regimen (cifpacA«r« = wrong food and injurious exercise ) of the mother ( during the intra-uterine life of the fetus) are called maternal as born lame. "The diseases that are produced through through impropeu food and living. These diseases the intra-uterine life ) are acquired during mother's (defective) circulation caused by either) {rasakrta) or miserable living. or (reacting ^iR't^M j Tti sinict^H^Ti i ^q^^rjfwm: b'^ct^^itiitit: ^^^^n^tii . lesion in the *'The diseases that are transmitted througli the sperm or the ovum of the parents. deaf. due to overgrowth of adenoid tissue in the rhino- pharynx) ( and the dwarf. 24j. The two kinds and might come either from "The diseases father or mother's side. blind. ^minmina' (one — who speaks with a hissing nasal accent.

through curses ( phobia ). two They They can be cured sleep are of and . death etc. are natural or unnatural. are ^alimentary\ diseases are of Alimentarj two occasioned by physical causes (as improper food and living) or mental causes (as anxiety. are ^physicaV whether (they) . senility ( old-age ). e. by instruments or by ferocious "The diseases that are producd by cold. untimely. ) or through contact ( as "Hunger. i. And again they are of two kinds through accident ( as — thunder-lightning syphilis ). wind and rain. beyond human control ). *'The diseases tyranny of the produced by the gods (through thunder and that are lightning). sorceries of the Atharva-veda ( infectious diseases ).98 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE kinds — gastric and intestinal digestion) anxiety. thirst. and through contagion ( syphilis ) are ddiva-vala These (god-sent. heat. as diseases are of two kinds occasioned by diseases thunder-lightning or by demons ( infectious as cholera or small-pox ). are *mechanicaV whether animals. "(The diseases occasioned by) the injuries struck with force on the weak. fear or nervous excitement). kinds — timely or are natural diseases.

5-7*'. 6*^ **The origin of the microbes of the veins ). if 9& there is vyhen they are untimely thirst or hunger. ( "In addition to ( parasitic ) animalcules that cause disease). ^sft f^f^: <*i'Ji9ifiT '^rara- . is like that of leprosy. H'T^ f^f^i: ^nt\x[ tpwt^ i '??i ^sfi^if^^: iia. 24. is premature senility. 7. ( Their tsftr cT^if^^fwm t irw^in'^cra: ." Charaka III. they are proper subjects for treatbut not so when they are timely. there are twenty kinds of microbes ( hrimi ) divided into four classes. ipT^tf<Uci<^mHiii: blood- vessels 46. f^ff^: ^^csn^. when there no reason for ment ). it. e." Stisruta 1. ^*TT^^^WFf?T: =5rrf^WT5Wf^t^T?TiR^^: .N PATHOLOGY ( i.

to which it ultimately succumbs. 7*^ are so Pathology or the science of disease. tbe cardiac 48. to it has not been to call able. which though invisible to the naked eye. globular and without are veryMany of invisible." them minute that they are Charakalll. been rather vague owing to the complexity of reaction of the pathogenic agents upon the living matter. Even the as diseases that we lit: organic. are no less potent adversaries of the living beings.100 habitat is ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE the hlood-vessels. minute. and there is a constant struggle between life and these invisible foes. conquer and control but partially. aHHiiri^i'ii'*! wm^ *iiitm'\M i ^srnff ?:s«iir?^ >nT^: . and in spite of the relentless war of science for the last generation. known. has up to the last century. them. Microscopy and chemical reagents have but recently revealed the most interesting teeming world of animalcules. They feet. A was not even suspected that infectious diseases are due to the intervention of morbific microbic Their very existence was not even agents. 7. Bacteriology is few years ago it entirely a modern science.

according to the Greek. i. pueumococci This clearly seen in tabes dorsalis. disease originated from the derangement of the humors and it was the function of the diet and medicine and proper living. the cold principle like the moon.PATHOLOGY affection. whose *kapha^ beams were reputed to exercise a very soothing is and beneficial influence of the on plant life. {Snsruta 1. after twenty or thirty years of infecis tion. According to the Hindu schools of medicine. as have disappeard long and gonococci respectively. The ancient conception of disease was based more or less on humoral pathology. there were three fundamental humors {vayu^ pitta^ kapha). which ago. As for the luxuriant vegetable life and . ^VayiC is the active principle like the wind. phlegm. e. yellow and black biles by others) in the human body. as it usually happens in an arid tropical climate. in contradistinction sun's rays which were supposed to have a scorching effect. and the *pitta^ is the heat principle like the sun . 8 ). 21. to bring them back to their normalcy and equilibrium. 10 1 gout. bile and water by some. four (blood. which brings hot and cold M^aves . may be the manifestations of the accumulated reactions of or metabolical as pathogenic germs. as a sequel of syphilis.

But by close observation it will be easily observed that their *myu^ pitta. and excess of either. is injurious to the plant. hypometabolism has its opposite qualities . cold or wind. as *nervous.102 growth. kapha' correspond. as in the animal kingdom. hypo-( ( manda ). abuse. However at the first fanciful and grotesque this appears glance to the moderner. and of ( i. sanguine and phlegmatic temperaments and which can be translated into medical nomenclature as ^hypermetabolism. It is true that concrete facts and statements appeal more to reason than vague generalization and abstract philosophy. all ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE these three elements in their right proportion are necessary. remains . to what is expressed in vulgar terminology. normal metabolism becomes but without ( easily ) upset by abuse. abnormal visama is Of normal (sama) them ( one all ) hypermetabolism e able to bear abuses possesses a great resisting power against infection ) . it is not really so when it is seen with clear perspective and sharp analysis. normal metabolism and hypometabolism/ The following tend to lead to the aforesaid conclusion *'Tlie : — citations bodily oxidation ( agni) is classified into four kinds according to its activities as follows : — hyper-( tlksna ). ). heat.

Those who have vayu. In those who have predominance of pitta ( sanguine temperament ).. ^^m- . enjoy normal oxidation. in propotion In the case of ( equal ). kapha. In those who have * slesma' ( phlegmatic temperapredominance of ment ). those who have predominance of vata ( nervous oxidation beomes abnormal temperament ). 6*'. 6.PATHOLOGY natural . 103 abnormal metabolism has the opposite Charaka III. >qi|alities of the normal. oxidation becomes accentuated its by association (hyper-oxidation). 6. by association with vai/ti. pitta. **The dominant qualities at the time of union of twn vR'rij^: i^rami^ I ftHMT^pg f^Tiifk*?^ n^ftt^i^ ^Nut *{^^i^: i i tiiT^jj^t "§r^rrfw% t^t »t^^^: =^T^€"%fTr." "These four kinds of oxidation pertain to man." its association hypo-oxidation Charaka III. their ( oxidation becomes lowered by ).

vata ) temperament.. who is excitable (Jcrodhalu— angry) and strike people with hand and person ( is is who nails. of sanguine "The man volatile oil perspires freely. V=^ I ScHlfeiii'l^i'mr^clloHT fel^R l^fff ^'«rt^ W- II 'Q^fT^'f^^TT. smells ). his temperament ( pitta ) come from his body (from body has the yellowish color ^FW. 59^". = un-arian). whose hands and feet are long. That whose friendship is unstable. Stisruta III. to cold. impatient. songs. whose veins show out throughout his body." fast. 4. as temperament {prakrti).104 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE ' the sperm with ovumj are inhorn (with the baby). hair and nails are very dry. whose beard. f 8. fond unmannerly («w^r?/« tempered. is fond of walking and Stisnifa III 4. (who is) garrulous. exclusive haughty. ill- sleepless jagaruka ( sensitive s^<?wa = thievish ). thin. of music. violent.- . 48 ^^ "The man is of nervous ( ( ). is fickle- who walks minded. ) ungrateful. dance and arts ( gandharvachitta ).

brave and irresistible. sensitive to heat and he becomes is . ^^ ^: Tftd Rir^^l^-^W'i <gl^^'1c1 l a1^1^qTfil^TK?T^ ^r ." . fat and bright. clever A man of "The complexion of a man of phlegmatic (slesma) temperament. nary temperament and is an authoritative speaker in combat he is Snsriita III. : easily angry and easily is satisfied . his strength and longevity are medium. sanguibrainy {medhavi). fond of eating sweet things (it is well-known myxedema or cretinism there is a great fondness that in 53. e. 4. blue lotus blossom or wet ai^ista (soap-tree). 61^^. forehead. tongue. gray-haired he is a bald-headed ( hhcilitya ) ( palita ) and voracious eater. eyes.^ PATHOLOGY relaxed . is like the grass. 105 and and his nails. and palms of hands and soles of feet are ( indications of good copper-colored he becomes repugnant hlood ) circulation of when he gets wrinkled ( vali ). sharpened sword or the shaft of an arrow (i.) He is pleasant to look at. cheeks.

if its immunizing resisting power is lowered." Siwmta III. Thyroid influences metabolism. obliging. 54. One can picture state. -^ ^^Tf^fe'siT^Tft^aK^TWTTm'^rrnFrw^*: ^^nr: fir^^nHt . in see here almost the true clinical in of hyper-thyroidism an advanced the primary stage and hypo-thyroidism. in other words. indifiPerent and thick-bodied. then infection takes place. vegetative is germs which almost parasitic life. lazy. if its defensive mechanism has been weakened. patient. 4. live a but if organism devitalized by overwork or malnutrition. in We inhale almost with every inspiration plenty of bacillus tuberculosis and they lodge our nostrils and lungs. without desires. heavy. With metabolsim is inter-locked the automatic bodily mechanism of self-defence against infection. 65^*. we harbour in our intestine enough of coli-group^ but they can not do any harm as long as our not been lowered metabolic activities have . It is well- known that our integuments branes swarm with the and mucous meminnumerable pathogenic harmless.106 for sugar ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE ' and high tolerance for carbohydrates).

their studies strike our admiration 'from the comparative historical point of v|ew.PATHOLOGY beyond the danger point. to Moreover. with metabolism and oxidation. is 107 pathogenesis. there have been changes with time both in the pathogenic agents and our system. and strength in phlegmatic type). from the time of the ancients and consequently reactions have evolutive been partially modified. kapha ( = cold which we are justified to translate (hypermetabolism). . is practically synonymous with vayu ( = air) as a conductor of hot and cold waves. the important factor. coefficient So far This vitality classification. If there are points in which the picture drawn by Charaka varies from modern clinical observation (as bad smell and premature senility in sanguine temperament. they are nothing but crude and vague generalizations. it is good remember that for the age in which Charaka and Susruta lived. but for modern practical needs. sanguine (normal metabolism) and phlegmatic (hypometabolism) temperaments. vitality of the organism. and on which the whole system of the Hindu medicine is based. pitta{ principle)^ as the nervous = heat principle). it should not be forgotten that.

protozoa. gamets have been differentiated into female garnet {ovum) and male gamet . is a disease*. The germplasm or the germinative cell assures the In the lowest continuity of life and progress. step of the ladder in animal takes life. In further evolution. produced in the organism. reproduction budding or both combined when the mother cell. as an cells economy {garnets) for special have been developed for reproduction.108 I." It is yet controversial whether infections are transmitted by heredity (adivala). 120) 'whatever causes pain. "Disease the state and correct of body and mind. But will be is the definition if more logical we say. According to Weissmon ( gemules of Darwin and plastidules of Haeckel are now practically discarded as bearers of heredity) the germplasm is a bridge between the past and the present. linking man to the first-developed unicellular existence. With the growth cells of organic life and specialization of functional utilities. ANCIEKT HINDU MEDICINE ' Constitutional Pathogenesis We that can quite agree with Susruta (I. through excess of nutrition divides into two as a relief of cellular tension. among place by fission. by a morbific agent and the organism reacting against it.

Each Hd' is surrounded by hypothetical units.\ PATHOLOGY Their 109 tends to (spermatozoon). while the germ plasm tries to Hence inspite of infinite conserve the type. Though immortality of the germ-plasm can be maintained without amphimixis. never is two beings being the same. . sexual conjugation is the normal Conjugation or fertilization means the reducing division of the chromosomes and the restoration of the normal bulk in the fertilized process. in higher plants and animals however. Tariety. individual. Loeb. which under appropriate nutrition and temperature. the all smaller units are called chromomeres {ids)and each chromomere or Hd* contains tialities — generic. called the ^determinants^ and determinants by *hiphores' which are supposed to exercise the directing infiuence in the development of phylogenic evolutive transformations. <jause amphimixis variation. . as modifi- cations are very slow. forms the organism. The germplasm nucleus. as in parthenogenetic eggs or by artificial parthogenesis in normal ova as demonstrat^ed by J. the is the "chromatin' substance of reproductive cell- The chromatin divides into chromosomes and when they break up again. there a fundamental unity of the species. the dynamic poten- specific. (idants) —the bearer of heredity.

if the sciatic nerve of a guinea pig be cut. equal contribution from both the parent The stimulus which activates the fertiliza- a chemotactic substance liberated by both the cells. brings forth offsprings that are epileptic. But according to the tional uses. Th erf ore the hereditary transmissions are of two kinds. is minal and epigenetic. but it seems that if the ovum is strongtion is er as in the final stage. The ted —but only germinal. though the sciatic nerve is there if and not been severed. outgrowth towards the spermatozoon. cells its regulated. the animal becomes epileptic mated. there is a protoplasmic protocontains nutritive materials for the embryo. yet the Jewish male babies are born with prepuce.110 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE ' ovum by cells. The children Jews have been practising circumcision for the last four thousand years. e. experiments of Brown Sequard. and has Somatic fications undergo the evolutionary modiof the functional exercise of an organ. but its functional disturbance has been fixed by heredity. plasm Inheritance of heredity is complicated by two factors. the germplasmic ma- . Somatic characteristics are not transmit- Yet the germinal mate- rials are influenced by somatic behaviour or f unc* One might lose his limbs and his would not be born without them. ger- by which development i.

according to some. tally blind. the laws of heredity are not so simple. The the recessive charcteristics of the other. that is. for heredity fixes and accen- tuates the If a blind weak man characteristics of both the parents. According to some biologists. the terial characteristics of both the parents are not equalblend d in the offspring. one does not inherit more than . it is fema'e. It might receive the ly prepotent characteristics of one as in a cross between a Negro with a White. there is a possibility that the offsprings of the mating would have defective eye-sight. sex of the offspring. different it is because two ova have been fecundated at two periods. marries a blind woman. the negative characteristic would be counterbalanced by the other and children born of that marriasre would not be affected probably in their eye-sight. Of course.. it is male and if at the terminating period of the catamenia. Consanguineous marriages produce evil effects.^ PATHOLOGY Hi becomes influenced and modified by the somatic behaviour. And though the amphimixis takes place. depends or if on the maturity of the ovum. If the twins are not of the same sex. but if a blind of one they are not born toman marries a woman if with good eye-sight. by external conditions. pigment and hair etc. and the fertilisa- tion takes place in the beginning.

there are cases known in medical history where the of sion the . But there may be also sudden reversion to the ancestral type and what is known as 'atavism. But it is certain that the parents transmit to their offspring their psychic and bodily impressions. each one of the parents cotributing about one-fourth.ce in tion. c. then they would be incapable of fertilization. necessary for amphimixis and embryonic formaThe frequent abortion that takes pla. Of course. e. ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE from the parents. and each one of the grand-parents one-eighth and so on according to the geometric regressive proportion. i. Eor if really the ovum or the spermatozoon be infected.112 50 p. growth and development.^ So no fixed rules of heredity can be determined. but due to their low vitality and exhausted condition of nutrition or the inva- embryo by the pathogenic germs through the placenta. half from the father and the mother. vitality and nutrition. We have no definite proof that the pathogenic germs are directly transmitted with the germplasms. Eor germ- plasms must be certainly very sensitive to the somatic impressions and transformations. lacking impulsive momentum. is not probably due t@ the presence of treponema pallidum in the germplasras. the primary state of syphilis.

or suffers from* dyspepsia. course at the time of copulation and conception. yet a sufficient cause to bring — forth immunizing reactions in the maternal or- ganism. the children inherit the appearance of pre- mature senility. In the matter of hereditary transmission of infectious diseases. healthy offspring acquires a of mind. and in happy mood. the gay and cheerful disposition which naturally create a melancholy frame of mind. youthful.PATHOLOGY offspring has been born with all the syphilis. The children of youthful parents . JX on the contrary. had living syphilic germ in it. while the acquired from the mother has acquired immunity from its infection from the fetus through gradual elaboration of the antibodies. malaria or liver troubles. the question whether the germplasms can be carIn this the father riers of infective microbes ? Of is concerned only at the time of conception. as a reaction of the organism. witliout infecting her. the father is aged. llS stigmata of father. is the father's state of health and condition. or it might have been simply saturated with attenuated syphilic virus mild enough not to interfere with embryonic and fetal growth. are father i& If the reflected in the offspring. But it does not necessarily imply that the spermatozoon that fertilized the ovum and caused conception.

as in youth nerves are very sensitive and The children of responsive to impressions. affections. and are disturbances are known as metabolic . Por its nutrition it is dependent on the maternal circulatory system. during the long period of gestation. hepatic and disease. the fetus through the placenta. child really formed So her psychical and physical life vitally reflects in the formation and growth of the fetus. nervous lithiasis. €czema. The fetus lives and grows in the mother's womb as a parasite for eight to ten months. aquire In an arthritic family often are seen manifestations in different tubercular or members and of the family of gout.114 usually ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE inherit ' a mobile and agile nervous system. renal diabetes Bright's But there is no conclusive evidence that the germa carrier of infectious germ. goaty. Nutritional to many (dosavala) and varied. course. the mother's influence is much plasm is But more preponderant. hemophiliac parentage a diathetic predisposition to these diseases. Spermatozoon practically acts simply as a stimulant and gives the momentum to the ovum The to start its anabolic is evolutionary of the mother's nutrition. If she has if any infectious disease. it she does not tr^ansmit it is very unusual.

PATHOLOGY diseases. albumines So are peptonised and fats are partly emulsified . comprises various functions. and by exosmometabolic v»^aste throw out the products in the organic synthesis into the lymph stream. tissue is nourished and built and whereby energy is liberated its successive stages are living cell. from which the cells extract that by osmotic their food needs sis. it can perthe capillary wall and enter into colate through interstitial space. the organism would die out of auto-intoxication. 115 of Nutrition is the function in the every in 'assimilation and taking through fermentative changes. (1) Transmission and transformation of food in the alimentary canal by the digestive enzymes. If any of the waste products be allowed formed to accumulate. so pressure. from nutrition insoluble into soluble products so that they become dialyzable: starches are saccharified. absorption. For retrograde both these functions a liquid medium is necessary in which the nutritive substances can be in a soluble state. assimilation. is the assimilative is synthetic while catabolism the disassimilative metabolism. by endosmosis. Anabolism process. disassimilation and excretion. consisting : known as digestion.

Death takes place through the body has lost starvation. When inism performs ties. and ejection into (5) of the waste-production of catabolism. the extraction of the foodmaterial from the plasma by the cells. . converted into glycogen. mated that an adult voids daily 250 grams of This must be iarbon and 18 grams of nitrogen. and partly up nutrients in the liver. metabolism. (6) Elimination of the metabolic wastes through the It has been estikidneys. Regressive metamorphosis and reduction of it harmful disassimilative products into harmless substances. respiration. replaced to preserve the equilibrium between the cncome and the expenditure of the bodily energy. when weight. chiefly in the liver as the conversion of the nitrogenous end-products into urea. as nearly 45 per -cent of its food is withdrawn.116 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE split into fatty acids and glycerine. lungs and the skin.(2) Absorption of the digested soluble nutrients.^ the orgamultifarious functional activi• its the pulsation of the heart. mainteaance of the body tempera- . and fixation of the synthesis (3) Detoxication. or it will slowly starve to death. (4) Transportation of the nutrients with the blood-circulation to every tissue of the body for the foodis which supply of the cells.. especially the glucose.

the undigested food falls an easy prey to microbes that swarm in the alimentary canal. especi- ally delirium. If the aliments are too abundant or of bad quality. But death through malnutrition insufficiency or bad is very quality of food. Without suffici- ent consumption of water. cardiac and cerebral disturbances. However. or death is slowly preceded by gradual emaciation. causing . the increased viscosity of blood and the retention of the toxic excretory substances hasten death. for it maintains the integrity of the circulatory system and aids more useful if in the economy. thus dyspepsia. Death is ed in the transportation of tlie metabolic wastes for expulsion from the body. death through absolute starvation is very rare. especially during famine — — common. dropsy. which is usually the case. provoking fermentation and putrefaction. lientery auto-intox icationn In 41atation and catarrh of the digestive tube. sacrificing the less useful to the postponplenty of water is taken. 117 muscular contraction and excretion of waste products.PATHOLOGY ture. indirectly or directly. Malnutrition weakens the vital resisting power of the organism and clears the way for the invasion of epidemics. by consumption of the body fat and protein. anemia.

it is manifest hj gradual emaciation. heaviness of the body. mental cloudiness. cutaneous irritation ( katidu). lethargy. e. emaciation. he will diabetes prameha = gljcosuvia. alimentary diseases. dra)^ impotence. pain {gouty). new rice. Eor he says accustomed to day-sleep and the comforts of bed ( i. does not take sufficient exercise ) indulsre in excess of oilv. burdening the circulatory system with waste products. drowsiness ( p^amilaka )y . sweet and slimv substances. milk. be digested and with excess of if it carbohydrate consumption to engender glycosuria^ be coupled with hepatic and pancreatic insufficiency. nervous irritability and erethema of the buttocks. loss of appetite. vulva and thighs. fever^ leprosy. fish. jaundice. new wine. with excess of protein consumption into peptonuria and albuminuria with heptal insufficiency under certain pathological conditions. strangury ( mutralassitude ( tankrchchhi^a ). dullness of sense-impressions. and albuminuria). The evil effects of over-nutrition did : not *'If any one escape Charaka.118 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE the children. But even is if it absorbed. overnutrition liable. he becomes subject to many If he does not reduce ( the excessive diseases. butter. eczema ( hotha ). consumption from suffer ) of restorative ( dishes. meat. and cakes.

and other diseases. If a man falls from a tree. as near the passage of a high-speed projectile. as well as the nature of the ground). Mechanical (adhibhautika) agents can be the means of causing bodily suffering and death in various ways under different circumstances. it is due to the conflict of falls one : misrht strike another with a sword. suffer fatal injury. One may be the injury. The injury on the wound depends on their mutual relation. he is the resistance. the in jury would depend on the pressure of contact. but the same . he isand resistance. based on force ( weighty height of the position and the gravitation of the earth. ( sotha ). Even one can vous system. When when a sword or a bullet the body in motion strikes him." Charaka l-5'\ II. Whatever power from a tree. of which there have been numerous victims in the recent war and it is known as ^shell-shocks*.PATHOLOGY llO" edema I. Mechanical Pathogenesis. 23. especially to the nerby the rapid vibration of air. lacking force without causing more than a bruise.

is of exit. any wound is called the 'puncture^ and puDcture is usually harmless. the point of -entrance. When body.120 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE struck with vigor. at the the bullet has lodged in the tissues of the the tract is known The wound point of entrance always smaller. depends on the instrument if is sword can cut him in twain. is wound' and though there Lacerated wounds are those which are inflicted with a blunt instrument or by biting of animals. cannula of hypodermic syringe. pin. They generally take a longer time to heal. A penetrated which bruise in the soft parts without a break in the skin is called *con' tused wound' which heals very quickly. as it is very hard to keep the torn out tissues in aseptic The seriousness of a gun-shot wound condition. centres are unless the vital might cause sudden death. sting of certain insects and scorpions. A clean cut with a sharp instrument is called the '"incised profuse bleeding as long as the incised parts are not tightened together. due to the . With sharp- pointed intruments as the needle. Even the heart can be punctured without any serious consequence Neither is tlie puncture of the nerve serious. it heals rapidly usually without infection. namely. The nature of a wound and the force with whichit struck. depends on three factors. the tract and the point as 'blind'.

that is the serious matter.PATHOLOGY 'Contractibility of the tissue than the aperture 121 of the exit. it direct or When if if it slunts by. it clear through a bone or cause a fracto the fragments sufficient mo- mentum to the lesion. it is the nerveshock. Otherwise in a simple wound not affecting any vital part in the econom\. any gun-shot or explosive wound. more explosives as aside from the mechanical effect. there need not be any {kala-vala) agents are many as heat. as distension it is is and more subjected to pressure and consequently more or less laceis rated whether the tract of the bullet tortuous. but might drill ture and impart be driven with a great force. the sun (sun-stoke). that the human organism Of course . and bleeding can be arrested and suppuration prevented. sound and It seems electricity. can stand cold much easier than heat. if there is no introduction of any septic matter. fatal consequence. are act as glancing missiles and aggravate The wounds caused by serious. a buUiet lacks a great velocity. cold. the tremendous sudden increase of pressure and temperature.* air-pressure. it meets a bone and becomes tor- tuous. The physical dazzling light. as well as the liberation of In toxic gases cause a very severe nerve shock. sudden seasonal changes.

hot and dry and delirium. rapid skin pulse. and with the evaporation of perspiration. when the evaporation from the skin is not rapid as in humid heat. and the blood rushing to the periphery loses part of its heat by radiation in the surrounding atmosphere. but also a noticeably cooling sensation. the vaso-motor mechanism does not react. or in the close boiler. there is not only further loss of heat. Perhaps this symptoms-complex is due to the chemical change in tbe nerves.. affects the . or due to excessive to burn. overheated chamber near a furnace or prostration comes with high fever. less production of heat. And there is vaso-dilatation.122 with the ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE rising temperature. The dog or the cat whose body is covered with hairy coating and can not put out their tongue. stertorous respiration. However. perspiration is interfered with. But when due consumption of alcohol. Exjposure to the strong sun for a long time. which means in other words. brought about by excessive heat and riot to the coagulation of myosin as it was supposed before. principally the unprotected head. metabolism is slovA ed up and the consequence is less oxidation. it is more unpleasant. execute rapid respiratory movements and thus facilitate perspire freely. evaporation through their gustatory organ.

especially in one who has not been gradually accustomed to it. the symptoms missing. first The frost-bite is manifest by erythema and rubefaction.\ PATHOLOGY 123 nervous mechanism directly. which loss causes vaso-dilatation and heat. though in other are those of heat-stroke. might in in get a frost-bite. Even a healthy person with prolonged exposure to cold and sudden fall of temperature. one can be easily consequently of frozen to death. does not directly cause any lesion. it causes the development of eschars. by the penetrating actinic rays. irresistible . when or there is an pneumococci to sleep from which one. The prostration is extreme. Though after cold can be better borne than yet heavy consumption of alcohol. creating perhaps molecular changes in the nerve-cells. but often is the high temperature ways. in» directly in a weak. rapid and sudden. . the second stage by ulceration and finally by the stage it Even entailing the loss of the organ. heat. The action of cold is intensified by humidity which absorbs a good deal of heat and wind which drives away the warm layer of air surrounding the body. debilitated or undernourished organism. tendency or the wakes hardly physical and mental apathy may be interrupted by cerebral derange- various germs as .

but also the intestinal gases expand and cause tympanites and the blood rushing towards the periphery provoke diverse disorders from the results of anemia of the internal organs. the sudden pressure variation is apt to man makes an abrupt cause various disturbances. at At the in sea level.8.000 iiilogrammes for the human body. of 76 centimeter of mercury Cashmere at the altitude of 7.000 feet. altitude at 3000. so a man by a sudden high ascent not only finds it hard to breathe owing to the rarefaction of the air and consequent diminution of oxygen. The influence of the variations of the atmospheric pressure is not very negligible. At the a pressure of 1. 24.21 per cent 8500. are with . and at 13 per at 6500.50 per the aeronauts cent. the oxygen diminishes cent . . there is a barometric pressure . that is.43 per cent To counteract this supplied influence. at Mt. 56 .124i ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE ment and delirium. and one dies of heart-failure. about 18. At the of 2000 meters. it bursts from the expansion of the gas contained in the fish.000 feet. If a deep-sea fish is brought to the surface. zero altitude. When sea level.03 kilogramme per square centimeter. Everest at the altitude of 29. the air exerts a ascent to a high altitude in an aeroplane or makes a descent as a seadiver.

dyspnea.000 vibrations per second. this difference may be sufficiently cause rupture of the membrane.000. which the divers designate as '^flea bites. nausea. The benefit of a mountain resort is in the purity of air and its higher ozone content. headache.000. great and there to- is a to complaint of fainting. deep-sea diver a buzzing sensa- due to the difference of pressure between the two surfaces on the tympanum.000. lity. ears and lungs and on the skin in puntiform shape.000.' Light is visible between 497. and with weakness of heart may prove fatal.. and the deep sea divers with compressed air to two or three atmospheres. But when a he feels comes to the surface. Below is or above this figure. and tion in the ears.\ PATHOLOGY 125 oxygen tanks. there sion. almost like the sea-sickness. there hemorrhage from the nose. thirsty malaise and a slight rise of temperature.000 and 728. If the great fatigue and tendency reduction of pressure is rapid. But above 11. mountaineering may provoke 'mountain sickness* with a symptom-complex of giddiness. one who is not accustomed to highmountain climbing.000 feet. Yet within this no sensory impresnarrow limit of our visibiis we can see that light plays an important part in stimulating our nervous system and .

either from sand effects as in the desert or snow. harsh sounds may cause mechanical even perforation of the timpanum and The soothing and reflexibly ne/vous irritation. The harmfnl can be avoided by using blue or black over the eyes.126 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE general metabolism and killing microbes exposed to it.000 vibrations per second. unite made the cellular metabolism. with water and thus reconstituting a hydrate which is the principal mainstay of of carbon — — energizing food supply of human beings and And though light is herbivorous animals. a strong light might cause erythema and reflected light. might provoke opthalof mia and light blepharitis. through longed lesion. restorative effect of the mountains and country places is often in the freedom from noise. is And music which nothing but the harmyon of . used very effectively as a valuable therapeutic agent in dermatosis. especially the head with black or blue cloth glasses which the ultra-violet rays can not penetrate and to which the irritation is due. Sound is only audible within the close range Proof 30 and 30. It is well the sun light activates plant its influence. and covering the body. carbonic acid of many of the known how Under product to —a waste is growth.

current propagates at the rate of 120 meters per second only. The nature of electricity stood. provokes death by molecular change in the nervous system as The alternative current in electricution. while electricity at 8000 miles. it of 200 voltage kills a dog within 30 seconds. It is now very likely that they are intimately connected with the generation of electric current. brought about and maintained by the intercellular interchange activities. is not fully under- Life itself possibly is an electro-chemical fermentative is reaction. but interrupted by thousands of sympathetic junctions. Beyond that. It is And like vibrations of light and sound waves.\ PATHOLOGY isound. is 127 now well recognised as an important therapeutic agent for calming and soothing nervous irritation and in various other nervous derangements. it is because the nerve is not a homogenous wire. of the the And human body : cated electrical apparatus battery and the nerves are If the nerve a complithe lungs are the the wires insulated with sheaths of modulated and lipoid coatings. recognised that the insignificant quantity of minerals in the diet plays a vital role in the economy. the human organism can only adjust within a limited range. 700 .

as the horny epidermis underlined by a layer of fat offers resistance ta their penetration. are either expelled with the mucous secretions. They are in the soil. Infectious (daiva-vala) agents are of various in malaria kinds as a sporozoid (plasmodium malaria)^ a high fungus akin to streptothrix actinomyces in tuberculosis (bacillus tuberculosis) or a bacterium like gouococcus in gonorrhea. a better machinery. upon our skin But they usually live there a harmless saprophytic life. less bacteria get With each inspiration count- admission in the respiratory passage. but tliey are retained by the hair in the nasal orifices and by the vibratile cilia of the mucous membrane. vlt seems that the pathogenic microbic agents are almost ubiquitous. while the horse though superior to man in body weight and muscular strength. The microorganism invade in large colonies the alimen tary canal with the ingestion of food and drink^ . water and the from air. succumbs to shocks of 700 voltage. Those who penetrate farther.128 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE and about a horse 2000 a human is This also proves that the electrical human body being. They find themselves all sources. or by the germicidal mucus they are disinfected and pasted on the walls of the nasal orifices. withstanding the shocks of 2000 voltage.

PATHOLOGY 129' but the hydrochloric acid content of the gastric juice possesses a considerable germicidal power.000 On the whole. they reach the lymphatic glands and the liver. on the same basis of computation there are about 412. That they do not increase usually more than that. is due to the fact that the fermentative colony counteracts the luxuriant growth of the putrefying germs which cannot flourish in the acid medium and thus they bacterial preserve a mutual balance against each other so that they can not easily become obnoxious to the economv. in the cecum 25.000 and in the lower intestine about 100. wherethey are destroyed.000. in the mouth of duodenum 30.000. ^d there is hardly any antiseptic secretion there to arrest their development.000 per cubic millimeter. warmth and nutrition from the residue of the food ara found ideally combined. as sufficient humidity. Of course the toxins liberated by the pathogenic micro-organism . 50. In the gastric cavity are found nearly microbes.000 microbes in the- whole of the alimentary canal and every day with the feces from 12 to 15 billions are evacuated.000. The intestine unquestionably is a fovorable placa for their growth. flo'ra microbic But in case the vesretative become active and virulent.

but they are more or less attenuated. When the morbific agents as streptococcus are introduced in the vaginal canal. modified and made innocuous in the can be hepatic cells and other mechanisms Though the vulva and vagina of the body. so that the venereal disease-producing germs can find a safe lodging place to develop in vitality and virulence. However. infection through the genitourinary passages is very rare except in venereal diseases as gonorrhea. as they are partly disinfected by the germicidal mucous secretion and washed away by the force of urination. not possible for the phagocytes. the body is not defenceless. wound or cut is necessary which generally takes place through the sexual congress by the sharp edges of the hair. they are all destroyed within forty-eight hours (Meuge) by the abundant vaginal secretions. is When their morbific action not very virulent.130 AXCIENT HINDU MEDICINE absorbed. swarm with pathogenic germs. if the morbific is . where even an abrasion. the leucocytes rush up to if complete the locality and destroy them . destruction the lesion is circumscribed by the leucocytes and the exudation. But even when the pathogenic germs force through and invade the economy. soft chancre and syphilis.

whether the microbes enter into the circulatory system by the portal vein or penetrating through the capillaries. is indeed a continuous struggle with the micro-organisms to preserve its integrity. inocula- acquired and passive as a natural . seasonal. ancestral. within less than ten to fifteen minutes. then of course the leucocytes are repelled by the negative chemotoxic action of their secretory they invade the economy the lymphatic or venous path. any way in blood they have but short-lived existence. for either they are destroy- ed or driven into the Life capillaries. The body enjoys more or less various racial. they have to pass through the formidable defensive and the lungs which exercise a tremendous germicidal action.PATHOLOGY 131 invading micro-organisms are very virulent. Even when there is a general invasion. immunities — tionary. And then enter by way of the stomach or the intestine and reach the portal vein. before mechanism — the liver fortresses of the bodily they can enter into the left heai^t to be And thrown into the general circulation. the body does not give up the task of self-preservation hopelessly. For blood by has a considerable germicidal power due to its opsonic content. But even in case the microbes toxins.

a prophylaxis against infectious diseases. but not well known It is that the offsprings of a gouty family are almost immune runs in against tuberculosis. vaccination has its pox As practically from all civilized countries. rages like an epidemic and exterminates the population. serum therapy is being built up on the sa'me basis. We tlie Negro races possess a remarkable immunity against yellow fever while they are very susceptible to tetanus and tuberculosis. disorders in spring. And syphilis Europe a benign form. which when introduced among savages. a serum can be obtained . very predisposed to small-pox.132 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE reaction of the organism to counteract the toxia know that products of the disease germs. On this driven away smallprinciple. inoculating an animal with the virus and thus gradually attenuating the virus through a few successive animals. Seasonal preference for diseases is also well marked as the typhoid and the summer. thoracic the winter and pneumonia in the It is the Chinese who first noticed four thousand years ago that certain diseases like the small-pox gave an immunity about to victim against its recurrence. The Mongolian race is to tuberculosis. the gastro-intestinal diseases in malaria in the autumn.

cholera. aggluand opsonic action.PATHOLOGY 133 which contains enough of antibodies. but even when the infection takes place. modified bacteribio-chemistry of technique sera al promise great results in therapeutics in no distant future. but yet only the vaccine of small-pox has given result. it human cause any malaise. but not strong enough to system. Various sera have been made and tried as that of typhoid. completely satisfactory the improvement better knowledge of But undoutedly with and with and bacteriology. in the The inoculation of the attenu- stimulates its the resisting power of the tinative organism by bacteriolytic {lysoyenic). ated serum is not only a prophylaxis against the disease. pneumonia. .

^2 CO '* <^ 3 is '-' W O •*3 i-l (M t- ""^ '-' -a CO i^" "^ *>- CO (Ml- en 5 -.2-bo^^^^S3£t^Sc .-. O' -^ 'S &• .1 ^2.:i! M o cu P-i ^ !=3 ':e - S^ o .- -* C5 C3 . •S3 "^ ^0<Men t/3 OCO ^ cq(MC<i-n^<^cococo..134j ancient HINDU MEDICINE !Z3 m ^ s a «% •fc •• »» ** ~*^ o*^ 00 g ^ O -t-> oooo^i^-o 09 i322S^S§.cq>oocMTfioo •i-t ji — ' H ?3 ' CO 5 P ' ' - CO s "" B o o ^ ^^ -^ ^ i^^ a-pq^WSOf^PH E£ 55 pq 1^ o HWWp o ' St o .

But the same morbific agent may cause or kala-azar. typhoid. Acute diseases due specific bacilli : Cholera. sleeping sickness. septicemia. but when it is injected into the veins. measles. If some is them travel towards the stomach. : — mycetoma^ filaria- {Madura foot). there bad odor. pneumonia. erysipelas and gonorrhea. when pyogenic streptococcus is inoculated subcutaneously. Chronic diseases due to tissue bacilli Glanders. tetanus. The parasytic Diseases diseases can be classified this way» : due to pyogenetic to micrococci — — Suppuration. They .PATHOLOGY All infectious diseases 135 are now ascribed to microbic agents and they have been all identified except in some eruptive fevers as the scarlatina. : — Dysentery. influenza. tuberculosis. Diseases due to protozoa sis. diphtheria. varcella {chicken pox) and ere long. yellow-fever. meningitis. plague. then in the breath and in the vomiting. small-pox. only a local lesion erysipelas is produced. leprosy. of way as those in the Their {krimi) the intestine. local general pathogenesis as for example. malaria. it causes — general infection — septicema. syphilis. (Icrimi) in The microbes the same habitat is the feces originate in lymphatics. it is expected they will be isolated.

.work. globular piexioned. or through an intermediatory as in malaria As long as the microbes remain in {itnopheles). and loosen the teeth. micrococci ). as they take only the minimum food for their maintenance. vegetative state. food and drink as in cholera. and long (rod-like bacteria as that of the like the lamb-hair ( leptothrix ). but sparing the host and doing the least harm to the economy." 7. they simply live as parasites." Susruta II. : CharakallL Detital caries "In this disease the microbes {krimi)y orginating from corrupt blood. through personal contact as in gonorrhea. 9''. perforate The disease-producing germs are introduced into the system either through the air as tuberculosis. white-com- anthrax).136 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE ( are minute. soil as in tetanus. fatigue. 16. It is only when the organism is devitalized due to over. blacken.

copper. indigestive or disharmonious combination of food and drink. : "Toxins are of two kinds stable (vegetable ).PATHOLOGY 137 malnutrition. Snsruta IV. occupations in lead. and metallic ) and mobile ( of animal origin . but they can be divided into two classes as endogenous and exogenous. The endogenous toxins are those that are produced autogenously in the cells as metabolic wastes or engendered by the microbes body as parasites. Plies when ( deposit microbes the ulcer is eaten up ) in the ulcer and by those microbes. poisonous. quick-silver mines or ovens. 1. arsenic. Chemical (Msa) agents are many. The exogenous toxins may be introduced with rotten. corrosive chemicals. bites of venomous snakes and that live on tlie insects. local edema is produced. sulphur. 103^«. or undernutrition that they become virulent and by their toxic secretion cause functional disturbances and reactions. especially of coke-coals where in addition carbon monoxide may be absorbed.

retention of tear. dust. tic to the country and untimely derange the nerve. exudation. {chemical principle or metal) and bulb are the sources of sthavara {stable) poisons. extreme depression. Eoot. day-sleep. ( excess. receiving a wound in the head. drinking of liquor.138 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE Stable toxins are divided into ten classes and the- mobile toxins into sixteen fruit. 2. venous and lymphasvstems and vitiate the blood of the brain and f^k m wi H'^* '^\ '^'^ €K ^ '^ I . exposure to **iletention of feces and urine (through cold and wind. sexual odor. ingestion of excessive quantity of ) foods that are hard to digest. extract.'* Susruta flower. cloudy weather. some misfortune season. keeping vigil at night. exposure to foul wind and the sun. acidity due to indigestion. weeping. juice. acid or vegetables (5^ ^^a= leaves of plants)^ drinking of very cold water. smoke.2-3* ». *dliatu^ y. absorj)tion of their poisonous contents). leaf. skin. classes.

" Susruta 1. are being mentioned Do with the grains of sprouting rice. €^i^r^Tfi^T^¥Rm't siR'C'jn'^m.PATHOLOGY thus 130 cause headache with varied symptoms/' 1. 20. fat. ^sj^rr^ '?'"4tJTT^f%fn1% i ^ ^ r^^wR^^??'^'^- faRTKI^ 1 ^^^ ^I^^I^T I ?^'§^T ^WTT I ^T?^^ ^^li ^^T '9¥ . Charaha 4'^ ' "Foods that are turned into poison by (disharmonious ) combination. fish not eat meat or butter. milk. molasses or with bean Do not take clarified ( masa-paseolus racUatus ). has been kept more than ten days in a brass vessel. 12-13 ^\ if it 60. honey. i ^^^FWl^^MTqil ai^SiT^f^^^ II ^mr^: cm: ^^rRrf^ fai?:^^^ ^ri i 'mm w^^ ^t f^r^i^^raiiT: ^wm: ii 61. 17.

*'Unpurified sulphur (that has not been incinerated and calcinated) produces fever. 136^*. Purified mercury ( that has been incinerated and calcinated ) is like real ambrosia." Rasendra-sai^a- samgraha 1. venom. e." Rasendra-Sara- mragraha 1. but faulty ( i.140 "Poison copper ( ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE not the only toxin. unpurified that has not been incinerated and is ) is calcinated a terrible poison. 50^^.'* Rasendra-sara-samgraha 7'^ ' ^ai5cr^tig''fEict ^fq": I Ji-g =Cm'^w qi I ?m^i5Tqftq^% ^5-5<mRh-^% ^ 63. eczema. -^i^r^i*?: IP^ g cTiq' li^' ^ fqTl^^ ^flf I . delirium and bilious disorders. incompletely purified or unpurified like ) is harmful 1.

they may be accumulated in the organism. the harmful reaction ceases more or less after a the organism aquires the habit of neutralising the noxious substances of those poiTobacco not only harms the organism sonings. ones as arsenic. lead.PATHOLOGY 141 Poisoning miglit also take place from the in- some fish-eggs at the breeding season. liver and the osseous system and after months or cumulated effect. poisons do not act immediately on the Some poisons especially the metallic mercury. some fish and molluscs which live on putrefied matter. for though they are provided with a venom gland. cumulative effect. from the cooking earthen vessels that are gestion of varnished with substances containing lead. so that the venom can not be poured all out. all of them do not possess an excretory duct. while when by the also partial absorption of nicotine. foods that are colored and flavored with aniline products or jn-eserved with an excessive dose of salicylic acid. But sulphur have Though they may be taken in small doses. even years. All the snakes are not poisonous however. . but by the inhalation of carbonic acid. alcohol and tobacco. arsenic or Vermillion. they might express in violent reaction of their But in other poisons as that of morphine. carbonic oxide.

lates them as eleven hundred. upon said the recurrent laryngeal nerve ( chronic aphonia ) is hysterical aplionia is only temporary . but Susruta (VI. voice voice ( aplionia ). indirect = inference ) and differential diagnosis. greenish hue in chlorosis. blue skin ( cyanosis ) heart disease. bronzing in Addison's disease. chronic mercurial. coarse or harsh [ whispering quality of the voice that ''lioarseness'' ( dijsplionia ) is generally known as are due to the inflamma- tion of the larynx. { amimana the color [ of the skin % lemon-yellow tint in pernicious anemia. hydrocyanic acid and pyridic bases. waxy pallor in nephritis. brownish-yellow grayish tinge in the long-continued in conjenital coloration in therapeutic ingestion of silver nitrate. the diseases 6.142 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE sulphuretted duces. DISEASES AND THEIR DIAGNOSIS. "The physician in order to make a prognosis. or pressure . lead and arsenic poisoning ]. must examine hj direct (p7'afi/aksa). 6. syphilis. hydrogen. tuberculosis. or disease. leucemia. calcu- IV. jaundice. yellow tint in cancer and a permanent pallor in malarial cachexia. 66. which the tobacco smoking pro- According to Charaka (III.) are innumerable. 4).

congenital cleft of the palate. the open nasal tone is indicative of the paralysis of the soft palate or destruction of the soft palate by ulceration. embolism. or of postnasal enlarged faucial tonsils. sensory conduction. fracture of the skull tumor. handed and the right hemisphere in the lefthanded. thrombosis.3 to be prodromal of leprosy and chronic hoarseness that of cancer . auditory ). the varied forms of adenoids. are the symptomatic expressions of the focal cerebral lesion. hemorrhage. nasal polypus. usually syphilitic of the cords . but might also occur in cerebral abscess. agraphia ). and the closed nasal voice is often suggestive of coryza. occurring in the left hemisphere in the right aphasia. gumma. neurasthenia ]. deep. it may be due to paralysis a flat and toneless of all the laryngeal muscles voice results form one-sided paralysis of a cord and a falsetto voice from paresis of the tensors . ( ( motor apJwniia. depressed and more rarely in hysteria. visual. hypertrophic rhinitis.PATHOLOGY 14. retropharyngeal abscess . hoarse voice and brassy cough indicate interference with the superior laryngeal nerve and if there is aphonia without cough or dysphonea. hay asthma. acute pharyngitis and suppurative tonsilitis. and odor immediately after epileptic convulsion .

the odor varies in health and sickness. pharyngeal or tonsillar diphtheria. . foul are felt when coated and furred from the tongue whatever cause . follicular tonsilitis and odor .144 [ ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE an unpleasant odor of breath is usually present in the mouth of those whose teeth are not and food particles are allowed to accumulate on them and to cause decomposition and fermentation a foul odor in stomatia stale and and glossitis tis musty odor cleansed . with the accumulation of sordes upon the teeth as in typhoid . locunar concretions also produce bad attends bat the most in fetid odor the less mercurial so and gangrenous . a ( coppery biliousness taste ) . and deposits white scales or upon the skin there is sebaceous volatile fatty emanation from the secretion and mixed with perspiration. taste [ a bitter taste in is felt in jaundice . gastro-duodenal taste catarrh as diversified sensations sweetish. stomatitis and scurvy uridrosis occurring with diseases in which the action of the kidney has been impaired. it is the most pronounced and in the Mongolian race. according to age and race among the Negroes. caries of the teeth. it is the crystals of urinary solids . is sour. . necrosis of the jaw. the sweat has a urinous odor. : least ].

traumatic neuroses. involving the taste buds and end-organs of the gustatory fibers. the body or to lower extremities or of unequal distribution. of the diseases of the - nose as coryaa or polypus of taste ( . or due to local conditions of the mucous membrane of the tongue. if it is unilateral is indicative of the disease of the glosso-pharyngeal nerve. or due to the irritating(as of piperine)or blunting(as of bromides) action of the drugs or condiments ). as in thickly furred or coated tongue. pain sense ( algesic ). muscle sense sensibility ( the loss of tactile ( myesthesic ) i anesthesia ) is indicative of cerebral causing hemiplegia ). touch (sparsa) comprises tactile sense ( esthesic ).PATHOLOGY abnormal taste with the 145 long continued use of certain drugs as potassium bromide. the loss of sensibility confined to one . and if it is bilateral. are mainly due to hysteria . neuritis and leprosy hemianesthesia. especially lesions ( locomotor ataxia. temperature sense ( the?'mesthesic ). which are in the breasts and below met with 10 . iodide or tartar emetic . hysteria. chiefly in the hysterogenic zones. diseases of the spinal cord. partial impairment facial hemiageusia ) may be due to the paralysis. perversions of taste in hysteria . an excessive sensibility (hyperesthesia) is generside of ally in hysteria. absence of taste ( ageusia ).

typhoid fever. on one side of the bodv is . in menopause and gouty diathesis. locomotor ataxia.146 ANCIENT HINDTJ MEDICINE in the them central pelvic region and the back part of the chest. the eye (edema of the eye-lid.. is characteristic of locomotor ataxia and peripheral paresis). is. there are also tender points on the scalp . symptomatic of renal 'disease . a general hypersensitiveness may be present in influenza. myeletis.. scalp and the chest . hysteria and syphilic chord loss of muscular sensation is characterisdisease. disturbances in the heat and cold sensation {thermaesthesic) are due to syringomyelia and to a less extent to the lesions of the medulla and disturbances of the pain or hypo-sensibility are due to syringomyelia. and there are localized in alcoholic intoxication . in the in neurasthenia. . Morvan's disease tic in . instead of one-tenth of a second. — sensation — either hyper- locomotor ataxia . and the lesions in the medulla transference of sensation {aliochiria) so that a touch. delayed conduction so that a tactile or pain sensation requires 5 seconds or more. usually particularly the lower one. morning. is symptomatic of hysteria. . and the pons felt on the other. locomotor ataxia.. disseminated sclerosis. hypersensitive tender spotsalong the spine. paramyoclonus multiplex^ myeletic disease.

night of debauchery or in cases profound anemia. is indicative of scrofula or of the . as. reddened and crusted with cheesy secretions. of stages of their evolution and may be also present without actual inflammation of the membrane in .. well as the prolonged use of arsenic and iodine^ may induce the swelling of the eye-lids ptosis the dropping of the eye-lid or due to the paralysis of — . in is disorders and symptomatic typhus. cerebral tumors. variola and occasionally in varcella. hordeolum hysteria and in chorea in children a sty or minute boil on the palpebral margin. hay fever^ measles..PATHOLOGY puffiness "with bloated face is 1 47 also seen after of a . severe coryza. — is lagophthalmos — imperfect . if small and single may be of local origin or indicative of — or. the over-use of defective eves —inflammation blepharitis more frequently of digestive or genital disorders margin of the lids which become thick. either congenital the third nerve . closure of the lids^ due follows paralysis of the orbicularis muscle. chlorosis or in neurotic adoloscents in erysipelas. either to lesions of the portio dura of the facial or leprosy closure of the lids is fifth nerve blepharospasm spasmodic due to the reflex excitability ocular — of the nerve in photophobia. meningitis^ measles in certain.. glanders.

verruca — warts upon the eye-lids. an increased secretion of the watery fluid of the eye {lachry' mation) accompanies conjunctivitis. resulting from a previous oplithalmia or measles.148 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE of minute ulceration. long-continued : women pregnancy loss of sleep accompany anemia. anemia or in tuberculous diatliesis . while the ulceration of the cornea —a reddened. measles. commencing epithelioma syphilic generally deeply indurated and accompanies other stigmata of the tertiary stage . are the usually found in the old people. bluish. coryza and influenza of the may catarrhal type . in menorrhleucorrhea and early in agia. though it is seen in anemia. sclera of the eye is symptomatic of jaundice . irritation of any kind and in alcoholism inflammation of the : cornea (keratitis) is mainly of syphilic origin. possibility of indicating . a dusky color of the lids and under the eyes is ulceration is «eea in during menstruation. hay fever. and in exhausting diseases dark . the eye may be dry and glazed in collapse or the typhoid status . and nephritis usually caused by gonorrheal infection.white or pearly sclerotic pthisis . m . it may also circles round the eyes are symptomatic of the abuses of masturbation the yellow color of the . inflamed conjunctiva is be present in lesser degree in diphtheria.


be in







protrusion of

eye-ball (exophthalmos)

symptomatic of exoph-

thalmic goitre and


be also present in lesser

degree in spasmodic asthma or other conditions, attended by dyspnoea recession of the eye-ball
or the








(enophthalmos)ma,j be provoked by any


cancerousconsumption, malaria, the cushion of fat of cachexia, by absorbing the orbital cavity ; dimness of vision may

provoked by uremia, diabetes, abuse of tobacco, hysteria and






migrane jaundice, and




and in wasting

diseases), (unusally promilong or misplaced ears with absence of



— tophi small, hard,

or lobule, are



chalky masses of sodium urate, seen asnodules in the external ear alons: the marc^in
or in the depressions, of

gouty diathesis



very thin,

waxy and

bluish ear



general anemia or chlorosis; but a thickened and a deformed ear with the effusion of blood between

the cartilages and the perichondrium (hematoma auris\ is a trophoneurosis of the general



and the insane the flow of pus from the meatus, which is very {otorrhea) common among children and often associated
with intense pain, due to inflammation of the tympanum (otitis media,) caused hy tonsilitis,
influenza or measles,

disease of the

usually without serious deafness is indicative of the


eustacian tuhe or the

auditory nerve it can be easily found out by placing a watch at a varying distance from the car and if its ticking sound is not audible by
aerial conduction,

and then


the same watch

placed upon the mastoid process and the sound becomes audible by bone conduction,



clearly indicates that there


no nervous


and the deafness


to local hindranc-

the auditory nerve and its cortical center es may be affected by syphilis, which is usually the case or by tuberculosis by injuring the

nerve endings




acid or



provoke temporary deafness
hypersenhyperemia and the buzzing,

by causing labyrinthine
roaring, hissing sound either to nervous

sitiyeness of hearing (oxyacoia)





or to


pharyngeal catarrh, with involvment of the eustacian tube or the middle ear), nose [a coarse



and broad nose

and cretanism
is syphilitic


symptomatic of myxedema a depressed and sunken nose






of the bone

a pinched and distorted nose may due to obstruction of polypus, tumor or

adenoid growth ; a chronic redness of the nose with dilated capillaries is indicative of alcoholism,
otherwise of



an intense pain

digestive in



the nose

symptomatic of syphilic lesion and a
to catarrhal inflammations


a sensation of


— sneezing the





preliminary stages of





to the direct


or the inhalation
per, snuff

any foreign body substances as pep-

and in the early stage of coryza, mesales, pertussis, hay fever, asthma) or reflex
{as in hysteria) irritation of the sensory nerves of the nose; nasal stenosis difficulty of brea-

thing through the nose, if acute, of an acute coryza, diphtheria,



prodromal of typhus


hay fever or glanders and variola,
to the obstruction




it is



to lymphoid growths as in children or to congenital syphilis ; ulceration of the mucous mem-



usually a manifestation of


syphilis or tuberculosis

and might be followed

"by necrosis

caries of

the bones


the ulcera-

ted surfaces of syphilic origin is covered with a dry, greenish crust and the stench of the

sickening ; non-offensive, watery discharge from the nose marks tlie beginning of acute coryza, hay fever, pertussis, measles,



typhus fever, catarrhal form of

influenza and



foul odor


greenish -gray crusts and
tible to the


necrosis or

subject, syphilic symptomatic of atrophic rhinitis ; a discharge of

blood from the nose (epistaxis) may have varied causes as alcoholism which renders the vessels
to rupture,

adenoid growths, ulceration in the nose, suppressed menstruation, chronic nephritis, cerebral thrombosis, and may be prodromal

of typhoid or other eruptive fever infection ; of sense of smell (anosmia) may be due to loss

obstruction as polipi or adenoid growths, or chronic rhinitis and if it be only temporary,


be of neurotic






hysteria or permanent, the

olfactory anesthesia may be caused by nasal necrosis of the bone, supporting the tract, or a tumor involving the nerve ; hypersensitiveness
to smell





hallueinary smell {parossmell (kahosmia)

without any physical basis, are
all of








only except the oral and the faucial, that



tongue, the body,


open to



according to
to tlie


gastric digestion and especially related it is it is condition to which closely in anemia, bluish in cyanosis, reddish in

in the first stage gastric hyper-acidity, bright-red of scarlet fever and in the inflammation of the





and greyish





enlargement of the tongue takes place in acromegaly and myxedema, but the tongue also
swells considerably
in variola,



and in angina Ludovici coating of the tongue consists of the accumulated epithelium, micro-organisms and food detritus a thin -white coated tongue may be normal among the smokers

or those




to breathe

the mouth, but


through accompanies mild

gastro-intestinal disorder, nasopharyngeal catarrh or light fevers ; a flabby, swollen, indented

tongue, covered with a yellow, pasty fur, is symptomatic of catarrhal gastritis, gastro-duodea narrow tongue with nitis or febrile conditions

a deep median fissure on each side of which there is a rough, thick, brownish fur, or if it be



dry, red and glazed, is characteristic in typhoid status in its early and late stages ; a covered tongue with white fur through which project

swollen and





indicative of measles and other eruptive fevers ; if one side of the tongue is higher than the other,
this is




unilateral lingual


and associated with hemiplegia
•subject of speech, mastication


the tongue

motionless in the floor of the

mouth and the

unable to protrude

impaired, it is paralysis, caused by thrombosis or sypbilic lesion], skin [ dryness of the skin {anidrosis) is observed
in cholera,

it and the functions and deglutition are seriousdue to' the total lingual


diabetes, Bright's disease,

dropsy and in the


attended by moist skin and increased perspiration {hyperidrosis) occurs

stage of high fever



in typhoid fever, tuberculosis, trichinosis, tetanus

and in rheumatism, but the rheumatic sweat is strong in odor and acid in reaction in many

acute diseases
out with the

^critical sweats*

suddenly break

fall of

temperature as in pneumonia

with the termination of paroxysm as in malaria,
or the night sweats of tuberculosis and other wasting diseases ; partial or localized sweating is

caused by the







^aso-motor nerves and by the local vaso-motor
paresis and in

this is



marked in rhachitis which usually occurs

among children, the sweat

confined to the head

and the patient rolls his head at night and the liair on the back of the head is rubbed off ; sweating of the hands and feet are seen in genervhI



unilateral or


sweating of

the head and face


from destructive

pressure on the sympathetic nerves, causing paralysis of the dilator fibers of the ciliospinal
branches, as in thoracic aneurism,



unilateral neuralgia migrane, of the body (hemodrosis) occurs in

eccymosis and petechiae purple caused by extravasation of blood into patches the skin, appear in many diseases and drug
poisonings as in acute yellow atrophy



pernicious anemia, in advanced stage of cancer of the liver and the stomach, cerebro-

spinal meningitis (epidemic), cyanosis, diphtheria, jaundice (in severe forms), old age ( in the extre-




rheumatica, pyemia, advanced


hepatic or renal



culosis (with



typhoid fevers,

ulcerative (malignant) endocarditis, yellow fever,

and the rashes may be caused either by idiosyn-



crasy or by poisoning with antipyrine, arnica, arsenic, atropine, belladonna, cannabis indica^

capsicum, chloral, copper, croton
iodine, ergot,




mercury, morphine, opium,

potassium iodide and bromide, quinine, salicylattartar emetic ,. es, santonine, silver, sulphur, tar,

inflammatory eruption in cerebro-spinal fever, dengue, glanders (acute), erysipelas, syphilis ; exanthematous eruption in measles, rubella,



mi/^c? (dullness of

seen in cerebral inflammations, scleroses of the brain, and in brain tumors), concentration


of mind,

pui^ity (hygienic conditions), disposition^

impaired (amnesia) in paralytic dementia, epilepsy, neurasthenia, the over-use of bromides and in old age], shape




and general configuration of the body



slender ribs, and a long subjects with narrow thorax are predisposed to tuberculosis of

the lungs




florid face are

thick-boned persons predisposed with sumptuous

living to obesity and gouty diathesis), tempera7nent ( irritability of temper is often associa-

ted with




seen in




and at pregnancy, typhoid fever, the early stage of the exophthalmic goitre melan;

temper menopause






in hepatic lesions), perver-

abnormalities of shape result from the

following diseases as rachitis, acromegaly,


xedema, pulmonary osteo-arthopathy,

osteitis de-

formans, osteomalcia), strength, endurance, intelligence, cheerfulness, leanness ( as in consumption), obesity, lassitude^

beginning of the disease, acuteness (of the disease), lightness (of the disease)

physical characteristics, dietary, habits^ quantity offood (that is consumed), the prevention of the




cure of the disease,

the pi'eliminary

symptoms of the


caused by the lesion of the peripheral, (pain or the central nervous system, or indirectly by

the general economy; *acute pain'' is characteristic of acute inflammations of the serous

and synovial membranes as in pleurisy or in joint

*dull pain* is characteristic of the

inflammation of the mucous membranes and the

parenchymatous viscera


*paroxysmaV or remitof




neuralgias and

colics; ^shifting pain' is charcteristic of







^gnawing or boiling pain' is charcteristic in the diseases of the spinal column, thoracic and abdo-

minal aneurism, periosteal inflammations, gastric
carcinoma, and occasionally in gouty and lithemic



sudden painful spasm of certain muscles, aside from the occupation ••ramps, from the over-use of fingers as in writer's
it is

— the

cramp, whether

of the calf, toes or the



usually characteristic of gastro-intestinal diseases and flatulence by causing an excessive

tension to the muscular wall of the stomach and

the intestine

the vertex

—the crown of the head,


diffuse pain as in



pain in




bladder, epilepsy, in the frontal and

hysteria, anemia, chlorosis the temporal region of the^

head, in nephritis, uremia, eye strain,


coma, dyspepsia, constipation,



rheumatism of the scalp and cervical region spinal occipetal







cervical vertebrae, dyspepsia, syphilis (very frequent), uterine

eye strain, carous teeth, nephritis, uremia, cerebellar tumor, meningitis, adenoids of pharynx,,



middle ear diseases,



in the parietal region


of ear

dysmenorrand bone, cancer of tongue,

hysteria, lithemia

in the eye-balls


plegia internaa inflammation of conjunctiva, iris, cornea, coryza, neuralgia of the fifth nerve, asthenopia (eye strain) ; in the nose acute rhinitis









toid abscess, polypus,

media, furuncle of meatus^ mascarous teeth, alveolar ab-

cancer of tongue, aneurism of innominate


temporo-maxillary rheumatism, syphi:



carous lesion of maxillary or temporal in the front neck myalgia, cervical caries

or abscess, sprains, inflamed lymph glands, aneurism of innominate ; nape of neck rheumatism,

neurasthenia, laryngitis, cerebrospinal meningitis^ tetanus, cervico-occipital neuralgia; throat: tonsilitis,

laryngitis, irritant poisoning

pharyngitis, scarlatina, diphtheria, cascinomaj^ jaw dental affec;


calculus, neuralgia of maxillary;

nerve, parotitis, actinomycosis




matism, synovitis, diaphragmatic pleurisy, dilated stomach or colon, duodenitis, colitis, neuritis,
gallstone colic, hepatic diseases
tric diseases, bronchitis,




epidemic influenza, tabes,, spinal apoplexy, angina pectoris, mediastinal abscess or tumor; breast uterine and ovarian lesions,

hysteria, menstruation and diseases of mamma umbilicus gallstone, hernia, carcinoma of omen:


tum, tumor or ulcer of stomacli
acute pneumonia,





pericarditis, phthisis, medias-



flatulence, pericarditis


right hypocondrium

gall stones









pancreas uremia,












functional disorders of heart,


pulmonar artery, gout, hysteria, locomotor ataxia, angina pectoris,











lumbago, fatigue, flatulence, appendicitis, hernia, epigasdysmenorrhea, kidney lesions, prostatis

trum gastric lesions, appendicitis, gallstones, ulcer of duodenum^carcinoma of pancreas,cholera




hepato-optosis, enteroptosis


especially hyper-acidity, arsenical, mercurial or lead poisoning, peritonitis,


hernia, intestinal tuberculosis,



leucemia, pancreatic lesions, dysmenorrhea, diabetes ; ovaritis, right iliac appendicitis, colitis hernia, varicocele left impactedcecum,





impacted sigmod, hernia,
ectopic pregnancy, the bladder ; sacral




cystitis, uterine





region : or testicular lesions, excessive uterine, ovarian, sciatica; venery, ulcer of rectum, spine carcinoma of the liver. iiysteria, neurastiienia,




febrile affectations, scurvy, spinal mediastinal tumor ; anterior thigh : curvature, ovarian or uterine diseases, pregnancy or displaced





thigh posterior feces ; leg ataxia, impacted


impacted locomotor

rheumatism, periosgout, diabetes,

leucemia, locomotor ataxia, spinal meningicalf


cramp due to nephritis, heel hysteria and over exertion
; ;



thenia, ovarian lesion, achilodinia


sole of

plantar neuralgia, disease of prostrate, erythrorheumatism, imelalgia, ; in the articular joints

gonorrheal arthritis, synovitis, syphilis, tubercu.losis,






epididymitis ; penis and or the passage calculus, perinium of the uric acid crystals (gravel), inflammation or




ulceration of the bladder, or irritation of the cal-

culus in the ureter or urethra ; diffuse pain in the extremities multiple neuritis, muscular rheuma:

tism, spinal meningitis, influenza, rachitis,
nosis), complaints^ gracefulness (of


the body), comin

jplexion (a dull,

muddy complexion


lesion, constipation and digestive troubles), dreams (dream as a diagnostic aid has not yet been





phenomenon of

complex and

hard to analyze


messenger's countenance. awaking the memory become centers which for lack of co-ordination. arthritic 65. Whites to yellowfever. the Mongolian race to small-pox. the reactions of the medicines about the {[\\)on. 1«^ Predispositions (to diseases) are of six kinds : racial^ (Negroes are predisposed to tuberculosis. disturbances on the road^ the conditions of the sick-room. geo- ^^^m ^g "m ^ ^l^ ?wg ?q^^ "^Wi "^^ "^T^sra T^i^m "fm^m Mm^ ^N^ jft^f^i^pirg ^rf^raiyif^^ n§ff?rg f^wm ^^^ f^\Wi T% %«?T =^ '^^'^^ ^^ #=?^ cT^ '^\v^^^ ^\<^^ ^rr^g ^^i-^k^ ftw^rar- . ( Jews to diabetes and insanity). 1. the patient). ancestral diatliesis ). and it is probable tliat the dream images are formed by the digestive activity. reacting on the central nervous system.162 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE it is but well kaown that nightmares are usually caused by indigestion. action of the heart and the peripheral impressions or the indirect pressure of the full bladder or impacted feces during sleep. congenital syphilis. medicines. and advice prescriptions'' medical Charaka V. distorted and fragmentary).

adult. during the day than at night.) V. to 20 in health it is faster autumn. influenza in the winter). collapse and poising with lesions. 3'«. vouth. producing eczema. after meals than when fasting. in spring than ia . about four pulse beats for one respiration . where anopheles a genus of mosquitos an intermediatory of its infection can grow and — — epidemics pneumonia is usually prevalent in the spring.PATHOLOGY 163^ graphical (malaria localized in marshy places. according to age ( there are particular ). 26 the ne«'born is 44? . middle-aii^e and old- age) and individual (idiosyncrasy as susceptihility of certain persons to milk. emotional and mental excitement than when at rest and there . oysters. 16 standing than lying. I. . in lobar . thrive periodical ( — diseases of infancv. in pulmonary rapid respiration is observed is pneumonia and also in fever^ the indirect influence of especially in children by the heated blood on the medulla slow respiration is observed in coma. diarrhoea etc. strawberries Charaka etc. . and during exercise. "So the respiration (the respiration rate of in the at five years.

especially children who have adenoids or enlarged tonsils and in grown-ups who are very tired and consequently there is muscular relaxation or are accustomed to mouth breathing. same time stridulous due to some obstruction . projecting larynx diathesis is indicative of tuberculous and is pthisinoid chest. jerking of asthma. may arise from the lesion of the. uremic. scrawny neck with . diabetic coma. body wavy or uneven respiration is symptomatic of pneumonia) neck ( a long. ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE chloral. by rheumatism and if acute. usually correlated with the while a short and thick neck . through the inflam- . inflammation or any foreign . arthritis or the affectation of the cervical muscles cervical vertebrae. narcotic poisoning and paralysis of the soft is palate. for the snoring sound arises from the vibration from the soft palate when breathing from the mouth and the nose at the or harsh respiration is of the air passage through the larynx. chloroform or is antimony . hysteria. caused by syphilic necrosis. if rigidity of the chronic.164 opium. jerking expiration in acute pleurisy and fractured rib . inspiration liyclrophohia . stertorous respiration (snoring) indicative observed in apoplectic. with apoplectic predisposition neck. aside it is also observed in otherwise healthy individuals. caused through tumor.

teeth (a baby should have six teeth when one year old. indicate tertiary sypbilie lesion . but not caused by trauma. clavicles- occur in amphysema and myxedema temporary swelling of the thyroid takes place during menstruation. generally symptomatic exopthalmic goitre. four . tuberculosis or gumma of the gland an atrophied and depressed thyroid : chronic enlargement is observed in derness of the neck of the myxedema and may be any cause as cretinism . tumors or boils interfering with movements of the neck . especially in women of after first connubial embrace is . 2: lower lateral and 4 anterior molars between twelve to fifteen months . 4 upper appear : incisors between eight incisors to twelve months . but a. ten- caused by the inflammation region lymphatic glands of the cervico-occipital from myalgia or cervical caries).PATHOLOGY 1 65 mations of cervical glands.. sixteen neuralgia. nodes upon the clavical bones. cervical when two years old. twelve when a year and half old. or after sexual union. 4 canines between eighteen to twenty-four months . but may be also due to adenoma. cancer. resembling the callus. milk teeth between six to nine months . but tumefaction above the . twenty when two and half 2 lower central incisors years old .

tapering from gum to edge. between twenty-four to thirty anonths 6 first molars permanent teeth between six and seven appear years . short. bleeding gums and there- ous stomatitis. 2 second years 4 third molars . narrowed. shallow and discolored notch in the edge. sufficiently severe to interfere with the nutrition looseniog of the . gums and the lips. pyorrhea . scurvy or of a collection sticky. fore it spongy can be ascribed to mercurial or gangrenalveolaris. premature eruption of cular diathesis rachitis congenital syphilis or tuberwhile delayed dentition that of . phosphorus poisoning dark-brown paste ( sordes ) upon the teeth. or cretinism if the permanent upper central incisors are dwarfed. rounded. sometimes stained with biood . 4 canines between molars between 12 to 15 14 years . 8 incisors between eight to nine years 8 bicus: . with a single. keratitis and illness middle-ear disease originate dentated or furrowed teeth from malnutrition or an acute teeth during infancy. it is a sure sign of congepeg-like or somewhat nital sypliilis. especially if it be associated with . pids ( 'premolars ) between 9 II to to 11 years . between 17 to 25 years teetli is indicative of . in their sockets or is associated with the ulcerated.166 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE posterior molars .

with . followed by grooves which extend into the gums. hydatids. enlargement of the liver which can be felt through palpation. causing loss of inflammation. nasal. diabetes or chronic phosphorus opthalmic dyspepsia. chronic gastritis. but also takes place in tartar ).PATHOLOGY 167 oozing from the gums. of the teeth among the children is polish of tlie labial surface. excessive or rapid dental caries may be due to rachitis. ing usually associated with gastro-intestinal disorders erosion of the teeth takes place in gouty suhjects. persistent aural. fatty . liver is and the spleen ( |. constipa- tion. diarrhoea. . early. pregnancy. jnigraines may be easily caused teeth or pus sockets by the absorption of the toxin and the ingestion of microbes with the neuralgias or by the carous mastication of S food ). hypertrophic cirrhosis. poisoning affections. formation of calculi loosening of the teeth and pyorrhea alveolaris . ( necrosis. about the size of 3 by 5 inches and weiajhios: between two and half to three and half pounds . nervous irritability. leucemia. occur in chronic malaria.«ta= sides the liver lies the largest gland of the body and beneath the diaphragm in the right hypocondrium and the upper part of the epigestrurn. is very often present in typhoid and other low fevers gritting or grind.

cerebro-spinal meningitis. I carcinoma. /oma = small and fine hairs of the other parts of the body the hair : luxuriant. flattened shape and lies in the left hypocondriac region between the stomach and the diaphragm. Basedow's diseases and the hair is dry. pneumonia. tumor. bright. size as the liver the small pox. chronic enlargement of the spleen occurs in pernicious malaria. hepatic = \oug hairs as of eyes^ hairs. as in typhoid. tuberculosis. gummata ) or cancer . ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE abscess. . in cirrhosis ). a pleural effusion. oily and wavy in hypersecretion of thyroid as in Grave's. abnormal hard and resistant surface is indicative of rough. cirrhosis. diphtheria. meteorism or ascites. of almost the same rapid enlargement of the spleen takes place in any acute infection. spasmodic asthma. progressive takes place liver lessening ( atrophy of the liver . puemia or general scepticemia.. large right intrathoracic tumor. large dilated heart or a pericardial effusion^. and by downward pressure on the diaphragm by in cirrhosis of the emphysema.168 infiltration. malaria and other fevers. splenic anemia. [ kesa the head and the beard. coarse. displacement be due to pressure from below upward may by large abdominal tumors. amyloid or syphilic lesion : the spleen is of oval. stiff and is .

the severe the of hair is usually thinned premature loss hair may be a hereditary family vspection. but must not be confounded with the excessive falling out of hair which takes place during convalescence from acute diseases. for in syphilis the hair can be causing easily pulled in large masses without pain and the hair does not usually in reappear . undue and rapid loss of hair . percussion and auscultation. hair may be hereditary circumscribed ( alopecia ) is indicative of syphilic lesion. as typhoid. abdomen can be utilized of a great diagnostic^ . pulmonalis. this malaria.PATHOLOGY 16^ sparse in hypo-secretion of tlie thyroid as in myxedema. anxiety or deep emotion . intrait]. abdomen [by palpation. anemia. of the fifth nerve. of nor with gout or that following an attack. cretinism . erysipelas. neuralgias and hydrocephalis. phthisis myxedema. . tendency to premature grayness of the enderteritis arterial grey patches of hair may be due to trophic clianges^ brought about by the lesion of the fifth nerve and its branches . early gray hair beforeforty is usually associated with the premature but it degeneration ( ) is said that the sudden loss of pigmentation of the hair may take place at times under the influence of terrible fright.

copper-colored. cicatrices of their past enlarged superficial abdominal veins. it is . or abdominal distentions . appear in portal ascites obstruction. edema and if it be thin with shrivelled skin. somewhat spots upon the abdomen are indicative of secondary syphilis. mach the navel (umbilicus) . pregnancy or hernia . shining and stretched skin (in the abdomen) is observed in abdominal distension . may be due either to old age. which may circular be also present -signify . through hepatic cirrhosis or tumor. fixation of the umbilicus flattened is significant of hepatic abdominal wall fat or it may the malignant cancer be thick from the deposit of . enlarged venerial glands in the groins infection or either bubonic plague and their retracted lesions . wasting disease. fat or pregnancy. of long duration or greatly dilated sto- deeply retracted in stout people if projecting it may be due to portal obstruction. as well as the brownish or yellowish macular areas of cloasma. . radiating from the umbilicus.170 value : ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE smooth. scaly. ia or protruding in excessive ascites. and in extreme case. whitish stricks or striae are indicative of previous long-continued distension as in ascites. the whitish stricks {Ihieae alhioantes) may be observed also on the buttocks and the upper portions of the thigh .

cancer. ovarian tumor or cyst of broad ligament]. hydatid cyst or passive able or prolapsed spleen. symptomatic tlie the swelling of the appendical area is of acute appendicitis . be due to tumor. or by the distended uterus by tumor or detained menstrual fluid {imperforate hymen) . nails (curving of the nails with clubbed fingers. abscess or cancer on the gastric wall. hepatic cancer or pancreatic cyst or sclerosis or tlie distension of the gall-bladder either with concretions or pus swelling in the hepatic area may be due to tumor. the abdomen be distended by the accumulation of fat in the abdominal wall. or congested movable kidney. congestion of the liver or sympathetically from the distended gall-bladder stuffed with concretions and pus .PATHOLOGY 171 repeated pregnancies or as a reaction of longstanding distension from ascites . mov-swelling in the splenic area may be due to cirrhosis. swelling in pelvic area may be due to distended bladder. or fluid in the perital cavity may or gas ill the alimentary canal or the presence of a large tumor swelling in the gastric area may . ulcer of colon. or cancer of the stomacli . occur only in chronic diseases as phthisis . perinephritic abscess. swelling in the sigmoid area may be due to the impaction of feces. hypertrophic . tuberculous or cancerous peritonitis.

scaly ecchymoses and ulcers at the bases of the nails may be due to but in a child {onychia) to syphiwhite marks or or scrofulous diathesis habit. enlargement of the nails with thickening and sometimes twisting occurs in the course of syphilis. brittle. from the matrix to the end requires about six months and as the white marks develop at the root of the nail and the with the growth of the nail. and cracked or hypertrophied chloral lis become . hard. chronic cardiac malforraaLion. sclero- dactyly and typhoid fevers cases of . . dry. syringomyelia or pulcracking of the nails monary osteo-arthopathy nails may be due to gro\Yth of hemiplegia from cerebral . unless due to injury. or due to trophic defects. and longitudinally striated . frasjilitv. transverse may grooves on the surface of the nails indicate. resulting from syphilis nerve lesion. dryness or may be due to injury. the transverse goooves also ascend higher and so a rough estimate can be made from their position of the time that has elapsed since the convalescence set in . arrested apoplexy or acute infantile paralysis .172 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE aneurism or emphysema. the nails in some Raynaud's disease. the period of recovery the growth from of a recent nail acute illness . diseases . neuritis.

white. arthritis defor(distorted fingers mans and less frequently to chronic rheumatism .PATHOLOGY nails 173 gouty subjects). breaks through the skin. so that the chalk-like concretion exudes knobby enlargements of the ends of the terminal phalanges (endproximal . the bones are the hand of the individual of a enlarged . fine. fingers may . finger are due to gout. on account of the accumulation of the sodium urate hard. nervous temperament is firm. but in which only the soft parts . delicate and . be bulbous or the tips of the club-shaped in chronic lung diseases as phthisis or chronic heart affection the claw hand occurs in consequence of atrophy and paralysis of the interossei and lumbrical muscles due to neuritis of the median and ulnar nerves the spade hand with large. glissening masses {tophi) may be present in the joints or along the tendons. in gout and rheuma- the joints of the fingers are enlarged the tophi is more prominent on the dorsal surface of the joints and it sometimes and painful . be due either to gout or arthritis deformans and small crab-eye cysts joint arthritic nodes ) may may be formed over the nodes . coarse. are affected. thick fingers and broad nails is observed in myxedema. are observed in in gout and consequently tism. while in acromegaly.

{Charahi II. only in genito-urinary diseases." Charaka V. strong temperament soft and clammy coldness of the hands and feet. feces and semen sink. when thrown into water." Charaka V. interfering: with the circulation) should be observed. cardiac or pulmonary diseases. if persisting for a long time. 14*". 15. 6) but sputum. 9.^Sl^'Tt^^^ITF^^a^ ^=^?t_l 68. broad. u ^: . feces and semen as a in diseases of the wise. is due to . the physician should examine the expectorated matter from the spittoon with attention. 5'^ *'When he does that (vomits). neurasthenia.174 dexterous . 4 . and energetic of plilegmatic heavy. anemia. cT^s^ %Tn sifh^i'^iiciHt^cf I =^^€'i%cTT. 16® \ Urine was examined for its color. symptoms : — II \^flcfm^'^W'^'^TK'^q^'^^'. ." taste Charaka I. whose sputum. 3. ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE of sanguine temperament. with or witliout tendency to sweating. chronic digestive disorders^ gout. consistence. Susruta II. ^5^^pm. vitality : test and as a prognosis sayings his life "According to the is at an end. and smell. Susruta gives elaborate details of the prognostic 67.

his life is whose teeth are reddish (stained typhoid prostration). hold himself upright and personal charms (in apoplexy. upper Up twitches up (twitching or trembling of the lips is index of general paralysis or bulbar palsy).or both the lips have the colour of ripe plums (the colour of the ripe plum is dark bluish. He who (cyanosis).. due to cerebral hemorrhage or blocking of an artery of the brain by an embolus or thrombus). dry hard to save.^ or pale brownish ( stained from the deposit of foul matter in jaundice on the tongue ). reddish (hypere- "He whose . with blood —sordes—in He and cyanosed). or like polished collyrium (dark black deposit is found on the tongue in Addison's disease or nigritis ). asudden loss of consciousness is followed by paralysis. owing to dyspnoea. or have fallen ( loosening of the teeth in their . especially the chronic forms. he can« be regarded as dead. yellowish (jaundice or icterus) or i)lue-purplish his death. that is cyanotic : in diseases of the heart or the lungs. ability to beautiful appearance. mia chlorosis rubra). Wliose loioer lip hangs down (the lips are loose and pendulous in diphthereticparalysis or chronic bulbar palsy). the lips are open.PATHOLOGY 175* complexion is changed into palebrownisli (in Addison's disease). he is near suddenly loses his modesty.

fissured erysipelas sceptimia ). W^ ^tfffcT^ ^m if^^ ^ *TR^ I .176 sockets scurvy. 2-6' ^ whose hair looks oily (in hyperthyroidism). does not live long. rachitis ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE may be due to pyorrhea alveolaris. He whose in Addison's disease or nigrites) ( in basal paralyzed tumor or meningitis. swollen ( glossitis may occur in various or diseases as variola. He 70. 31. though not smeared with oil. and caries is extensive and rapid dental ). in the typhoid status )." Susnda I. common in diabetes or tongue is black ( can be regarded as dead. purpura hemorrhagia. syphilic lesion. ( or is dry and near his death. cerebral hemorrhage ).

CharaJca V. 'mudhagarhha* piles ). ( transverse or of the maladies —these if fetus scapulo-posterior presentation during hirth ) and ahdominal €ure .PATHOLOGY and knowing give this. emaciation. e^M«i<i(vf: vi^r^ ir^jRf ^tt^: i ^^^ ifffcq^ ^f^fei^ ^T^R^: i 11^ ni<j]*ii*i-5ii<'sra-(3:^^Mf?i3^: ^^^'Tkr f^^ii f»T^3rr ftrf^Ri^dr ii8 12 . then the wise physician. hiccup and other complications. ( ( *'Nervous diseases. 177 physician ) the wise 8. but eight are naturally hard to these are also complicated with of the developments dyspnea. the body or vomiting. unconsciousness. enervation. ( should him up. hemorrhoids calculus. If 72. fever. leprosy. 7^^ Susruta says^^. diarrhea. ^sosa* (desiccation of ). should not untertake their treatment. 'prameha^ diahetes and gonorrhea ). thirst. desirous of suc- pulmonary consumption cess. anal fistula.

eyes become voice broken and the five kinds of treatment as vomiting and purgation do not succeed. tumor and pain in the abdomen. the are discharged ( albuminuria) on the body. much substances and boils In leprosy. the patient dies. pain. appear if the nodules ulcerate. red. If in urinary diseases these and with the urine complications develop. insensibility to touch. the death of the patient is near. In hemorrhoids ( piles ). if there are complication of polydipsia. tremor. there are complications of edema. loss of appetite. that patient dies. paralysis of the hody.178 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE in nervous diseases. excessive ^1^ =^q?T«n^ fg^jKrisq^if^m 111° .

testicles. ischuria (retention of urine). the patient dies quickly. In the diseases of hard calculus {asmar'i)^ soft calculus {sarkcif^a) and gravel {sikata-iiric acid in umbilical region. the patient dies. if there is deplegia. diseases. edema and diarrhoGa. The anal fistula throui^h which the intestinal seas. feces. dull pain {mahkalla) and spasmic contraction of the vagina. microbes and semen are discharfred is deadly. then give up . and shooting pain. if there appear edema uterus. the intestine remains inflated. In abdo- minal food. urine. diarrhea and inspite of purgation.PATHOLOGY 179^ bleeding. aversion for edema. if there is paralysis of the sands). In the transverse presentation. the gravida dies.

polydipsia. there an acute shooting pain in the heart. if the patient has glazed «yes. unconscious. there are the complications of dyspnea. if the patient has hiccup. and respiration takes place only through the mouth. and is absolutely confined to bed. delirium. ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE In fevers. jerky respiration. And in fever. if the patient is delirious. hydreand emaciation. and lives. the fever In diarrhea. delirium and wandering eyes. dyspnea. there is eyes become red. enervation. ) there if is hyperaemia. then he is horripilation.180 (treatment). mia (thinness kills of blood) paroxysmal somnolence. if the patient. emaciation and fever. and while the outside of his body (skin) is cold and inside ( in the internal organs dies. pain. polydipsia. In fevers. if the patient has clouded vision. the patient is killed by the disease. he goes to the abode of death. hyperalgia in seminal discharge ( in prostatic calculus). the aged patient never though an infant once in a while might survive. In phthisis. any of these complications is to be regard- . aversion for food. In fever.

3-22. death takes place. if the patient repeatedly vomits blood. 181 if In abdominal tumor. polydipsia. if there is abdominal tumescence. the patient has dyspnea. hiccup^ and dyspnea. chhedana = cutting with a sharp instrument ( dilating ay a^m<xwa -radiating fire is ). nails and eyes turn yellowish. vedana = to tear out ) lacerating ( tadana = { concussion as a blow from a rod ( ). hurning{ nirdahana . throbbing pain In icterus (jaundice). sucking. pain. he perishes. 33. needle terebrant lancinating^ ). (hemorrhage from the stomach). In a deep-seated abscess {vidradhi). and he In gastrorrhagia sees everything yellowish.PATHOLOGY ed critical. anuria. Pains : "Boring ( todana = as caused by the penetration of sewing ). he does polydipsia. vomiting. = as a magnet or mustard ( chumuchumayana = poultice draws by suction).'* Siisruta I. rupture of the tumor and enervation. tensive ( man- thana=a>s made by friction of two sticks). = expulsive ( viksepana to throw out ). the patient dies if his teeth. not live. anorexia. his eyes become reddish and he sees everything reddish.

shooting = penetrating). or in tumor. and the a caustic were applied sensation that to . carcinoma. pustule. By the derangemanifest in the boil. cutaneous inflammation (chosa). ir?Htant. ). throbbing utpatana = to kampana = tremulous ). from place to place as in hysteria fills C7'amp or spasmodic ( (stamhhana = which causes pUrana = which up insensibility pai^alyzing in the wtHnging {avaktiiichana = to adjacent area). shifting {vikirana = which. oppressed feeling ( dhumai/ana = a. a sensation as of ants or similar objects crawling over the body). dully sharp ^ acute. different kinds of pain appear.182 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE burning).vio\x3 shifts degrees of pain). Unilateral eruption (osa). (»irZ«rcK?za up ). diffuse eruption {paridaha).s in smoke suffocation). etc. ).Yexizm^). foi^mication or itching {aiikiisika sprouting. = press out ). the sensation as if burning coal were sprePod over the subiective sensation of is felt if body with the increase of the similar heat. if and for certain localities they appear repeatedly. they are to be ascribed to nervous origin. premonitoi^y or after pain { vividha-sTda-vislesana = Ya. itching. these pains *V7'anas* (abscess.) any ent) cause. Julguraat pull ( spohtana = ( bursting eoulsive ( ). grinding {avahhanjana = ^\x\. ment of nerves. reason withot (appareczema.

hypocondrisis and is occasionally a premonitory symptom of apoplexy . are of pitta' origin /originating from pains of the abscesses. Pruritus (X^«.PATHOLOGY 183 in ^ wouud. anesthesia {saitya ) ). malady 73.^# = itching). the blood. fft^^?5lcfT^^^^=TT5R^f5!^q'3I^^5^ra^r5T^l^fn^^^'=T^3'I- . Even." should examine of life ) ) are of Susruta I. tumescence {upadelia). are the same. in the abdomen or pelvis. chronic gastritis . life. in the head in neurasthenia. if good vitality (signs of long manifest in the physical organs ). the vitiation or poisoning of . numbness {alpa-vedana = '^?ixi\dl paresis ( siamhha ) and chilliness phlegmatic origin. spasmodic asthma. "The physician ( first mtalitif = durability c^yw there is ( of the patient. —the pains experienced * these sensa- tions. somnolence ( sitjjtatva ). lieaviness {gurutva = heaviness or Aveight is felt in the chest in hemoptysis. due to tumors in those regions ).

18^ ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE {etiology and the natiu'e of the pathological manifestation ). especially the segment between the knee and the ankle). feet. the mamma . voice and . low or high land. season ( of the year in its relation to its reaction against it). all the bodily parts are healthy and liigh but firm strong. nervous age^ pliysioal strength. penis and neck deep breath ( or spiritual . and breast.^^ = internal combustion. who mamma large hands. short crus {jangha^the leg. large and hairy ears whose joints. remedies (available and their reaction against the disease ) and the region ( desa t marshy or dry. that ( is oxidation ). shoulder and forehead . all the senses are lias steady. back. precordial region {stanantara = t\\e space between the two nipples). plain or hilly. altitude. sides. not fleshy. breath (or respiratory organ ). ). force ). veins ( vessels ) and tendons are hidden. that person will have . eyes and arms . salubrity of the climate. mtality^ predispositions^ characteristics ( of the the disease and patient ). wide brows. umbilicus . nipple ( papilla face. «5^. Signs of longevity lias : He enjoys long life. and the health persistently improved. metabolism of the patient . prevalence of endemic diseases and of epidemics within the territory). teeth ^ long phalanx.

35. and above two years on on milk.PATHOLOGY a long life. years ( one minus sixteen ). middle-age and up ( to fifteen Of them. Snsruta I. milk mixed with to ( solid ) era TfNTfW^P? -?^-^5iN-^3i^-^?5T-^^-^^rr?:' ^TT^feq^- 'Tg^4l'5H^f^JT^Tft'?3I^' q^^T^fe^ ^Tc[ig%ff' ^T^^IT f^T^l' '^^tt^in^^ wffT ^ffsff^nt ^: ?i: ^ ^^[3*i^«) II 55^: ^5T€t?»t I . "Life is (divided) into three periods : infancy. intelligence and comprehension have progressively been developed. milk mixed with other nourishing substances ( in liquid or semisolid form as barley concoction ) and ( solid ) nourishment. divided ) further into three sub-divisions ( as sustaining on milk liquid nourishment ). 185" He who has never had any sickness from birth and whose body. up one year old sustains years. childliood is senility. A baby to up two other substances.. will enjoy a long life.

its progress slow after. of its The brain. = growth adolescence . in spite and increasing complexity function to wliich it continues to attain. or even later years. early reaches its limit of bulk and of structure weight. —youth. to forty full up to up development or it maturity. attains At about what may years of age it be considered as its first limit seven for though it may increase somewhat up to twenty. Similarly the mascular system in its increase tallies with the weight of the whole body. very nearly at the its The skeleton same time slowly reaches as the whole frame reaches maximum of height. 1151).^^ = declining period ) up to the ). even in middle life. adultness ( sampurnata senescence ( M. and from forty ( to seventy. is ANCIEKT HINDU MEDICINE From sixteen up to seventy years of age. is more thirty. thirty and gradually its limit is the period of growth. orG:a7is The vascular and the diicestive as a whole late mav period continue to ( increase even to a very Foster's Physiology^ p. age ©f twenty. After seventy. elements .186 food. than before seven. the coalescence of various epiphyses being completed by about the twenty-fifth year. ( = coxn^lQiion of growth ). declines. : regarded as the middle-age middle-age is of four periods as pubescence ( vrcldhi composed yaucana = jo\ii\\ ).

storm and tempests. becomes incapacitated for all activities (as before) and becomes like a dilapidated cottage. at this a^e. infantile hemiplegia. neonatorum. ichthyosis. osteomata. sclerema. fall enthusiasm dailv strength. one becomes to dyspnea. idiocy. ^ f^t^ ^^T ^ws ^f^ ??'<^^ fqTii^^ g I ^TH^t cifm i^^%\ \\\^ . grey-haired and bald-lieaded and being subject bronchitis and other complications. exposed to the fury of rain. pemphigus. 27'^." Susmta 1. dermatitis tetanus neonatorum. hydrocephalus. acute fatty f%^^'^ 8i%??f^ 'a^^'cTT =^if^ftf^ I fimr^^^?T^<ir4ai<i1 ^'l^'WT- 76.PATHOLOGY ( 187 constituent ). 35. 26' is "Infancy phlegmatic." Susrutal. sense. This is called old age. courage and off . 35. nevi. The following malformations. '. hemophilia. youth sanguinary and old-age nervous. diseases may be congenital : syphilis.

myoma. paralysis. gout. adenoids. pseudo-hypertrophic progressive muscular atrophy. Uarly adult age: acute tuberculosis. trance. epilepsy. myocarditis. leprosy. ringworm. noma. diabetes. gastralgia. hernia. deformans. primary renal laryngitis. meningitis. obesity. chorea.syringomy- . bronchitis. sarcoma.ereditary diathesis : rheumatism.myolema^. hypertrorachitis. infantile scurvy. hemophilia. seborrhea. roseola. renal calculus. chlorosis. hepatic disorders. cancer. infantile scarlatina. cerebral embolism. atelectasis. hemoglobinuria. seborrhea. pemphigus. endocarditis. paralysis. myxedema. hereditary cerebellar ataxia. typhoids. myotonia congenita. cerebro-spinal meningitis. alcoholism. icterus neonatorum. progressive muscular atrophy.188 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE degeneration. diphtheria. adiposis arthritis acne. anemia. pulmonary phthisis. : measles. dolorosa. chloroma. diarrhoea. hydrocephalus. spasmodic broncho-pneumonia. renal disorders. endocarditis. gastric ulcer. respiratory lesions. catalepsy. hemophilia. phic cirrhosis of the liver. eczema. Diseases peculiar in infancy and childhood cretinism. Tihberty and adolescence : acne. eczema. J3. exophthalmic goitre. nodding spasm. hysteria.

myxedema. angina pectoris. pephigus. leucemia. melancholia. neurasthenia. paralysis intraspinal myelitis. paralysis agiDiseases special or predominant in females chlorosis.. angina pectoris. plegia. Old age : pruritus. In addition to the above-mentioned constitutional. ecthyma. tans. aneurism.bronchitis. chronic nephritis. aneurism. chorea. endocarditis.broncho -pneumonia. hysteria. gallstones. lupus erythematosus. 189 cerebral abscess. gastralgia. there are all of course countless other infectious diseases which' ages and can bring about by slow or rapid process the cessation of vital activities and their co-ordination of the organism. gout. myocardial disease. chorea. prostatic disease. cataract. mollities ossium. adiposis dolorosa. goitre. anemia. myocardial diseases. locomotor ataxia. hemorrhage. can attack . psychosis polyneuritica. carcinoma. cerebral apoplexy. floating kidney. gout. constipation. dementia paralytica. carcinoma. pernicious anemia. catalepsy. metabolic or infectious diseases. cerebral embolism. myxedema. cirrhosis of liver. myoma. gangrene.PATHOLOGY -elia. cysts of kidney. periodic paralysis. gout. diabetes. : osteomalcia. ataxic paraagitans. epithelioma. arteriosclerosis. Middle age : exophthalmic goitre. gallstones.

under favorable conditions. of which the natural death (through old age) is one while the rest one iiundred are accidental (including infection). It is an undeniable the living that protoplasm substance." Susruta I.190 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE is But though death lar life. has not necessarily any limitation of its life. w^^ I . — existence. inevitable to multicellu- Ssuruta emphasizes that natural death through degeneration of senescence is a very rare phenomenon: "According to Atharva-veda scholars. be preserved under adverse circumfission. living a particulate life in unicellular existence and community life in mullicellular fact. Even suspended vitali- ty is not incompatible with q^triT ^jr^sicirra^iii: life as many microb- 77. 34. so in a sense stances with arrested vitality as in hibernation of many animals in wiuter. deaths are of one hundred and one kinds. comes into existence as a protoplasm of a pre-existing living organism protoplasm is potentially immortal. 5''. But life can. also. and as every living organism. Pteproduction among tho unicellular creatures is by they never die as long as proper conditions are maintained.

191 or their spores. improper moisture or sunlight . have lived more than a thousand years. . Grains which have been found in ancient Egyptian tombs that if which have been lying there in a desiccated state for more than one hundred ceturies. asserted that there are authenticated cases of men who have is certainly lived more than 152 years. But this will be in future more or less controllable dietary. can be completely desiccated and kept in that state for many years. Death comes to a tree by storm. improper nutrition from the soil either by the exhaustion or excess of some of the salts or the insoluble combination of others. And many fish can be frozen with water and made an ice block and kept in that condition for any length of time and if it be thawed slowly. brought about by the degenerative changes. fungi and parasitic diseases. with better knowledge of prophylaxis. Only when protoplasm lity. but It is these are all accidental and are avoidable. and after they find a favorable medium. have been found to germinate. the fish can be revivified.PATHOLOGY es. Old age a disease. absorption of their toxins and unhygienic living. which according to reliable tradition. is coagulated. caused by microbic infection. they show their full activities again ( anabiosis ). light- ning. it loses its vita- Many trees are known.

Death is probabIt eliminates those ly nature's economy of life. What actually happens is this : in the debilitated condition when the resisting power of the organism has been reduced. if not thoroughly eliminated. According to Metchnikoff toxins are principally absorbed from the putrefactive products of thelarge intestine and to counteract the activities of the pro- teolytic bacilli. development and progress. metabolic process. but it can not impl that death. . who no more capable of reproduction or can not contribute materially to the support and proare vision of offspring. some infection takes place. And very few people rational living really die of senile degeneration. its Old age {senility) is the effect of the cumulative auto-intoxications. can accumulate in the or- — very functioning in the Organism in ganism bringing about degenerative changes. which can only thrive in alkaline reaction.192 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE and hygiene. produces various toxic products. which. he proposed the introduction into the large intestine of the most active lactic acid producing bacilli (bacillus Biilgaricus or maya ferment) in the form of soured and curdled milk. will be preventible. Preventive medicine in future will possibly eliminate many of the virulent infections. thus releasing the food-supply to the new-generation for growth.

it interferes with the integrity are intimatediseased organ of the organism as all ly related like the organs and interdependent. And animals with comparatively short intestine live relatively longer than the animals with larger intestine. They can be only slowly and gradually improved by a regenerating^ of the burden and process of relieving them by proper dietary and rational living. would be old age and death brought about by the slow b. all the organs of the body do not the signs of senile degeneracy. so that animals are not compelled to slow the speed and wait for defecation. But every disease leaves an indelible mark. heart or A can not be the kidney of an replaced like a broken or worn-out part the auto or aeroplane machinery. while running-. every shock an impression and every healed wound a tension cicatrix. still If all there the infections could be controlled. intricate and deli- And cate machinery. jetention i/ t (iimulative tlxe effect metabolic the partial wastes.PATHOLOGY It is 19S true that the large intestine serves no vita!function in the economy of life. and it has been simply developed in animals as an accommodation. seriously If any of the vital organs is affected. But equally show the human body is a complex. defective of 13 . And the effect is cumulative.

confinement. asses and zebras from fifteen to thirty years. so it the longevity of man should average from 125 years upwards. In the records of zoological garden in years. ele- . domestic from twenty-five to thirty years. mental. . the rhinoceros is known to have lived longer than thirty-seven years. though someof theanimals. llama seventeen years. years . .194j ancient HINDU MEDICINE liereditary inheritance. goats and antelopes from twelve to fifteen years. domestic swine twenty years. hippopot?^ 'iius thirtyseven years. As the five in epiphysis can be calculated that about twenty man. and shocks and excitements. . This is certainly a respectable age compared to the pre- sent standard. physical Buff on calculated that the duration of life six to seven was times to it Plourens estimated closes that of growth. tortoise two hundred years eagle one hundred years parrot eighty years swan eighty years.lacking intelligence and control over the environment are reputed to records show : longer as some authenticated salmon one hundred years . emotional. sheep. but about five times. and the average duration of the cattle life of horses. ducks and geese fifty years falcons one hundred . pike two hundred years crocodile one hundred years . in the live fifty case of a carp one hundred and .

PATHOLOGY f phants • 195 thirty to forty years. mice and teen rats from five to six years. hares and rabbits about ten years. j^ears. tigers. lions. dogs from sixteen to eighteen. Brit. monkeys eight Vol XVI. years. 975 thirty years . bats about sevento ). bears about 25 years. domestic cats from twelve to twenty-three years. ( Ency. p.

terror cttcmka fever ( jvara consumption {yaksma) indisposition ( vikdra ). vycidhi ( ). ). That *etiology^ means the causes of disease has heen previously mentioned. lineament (saonsthdna)^ trait {vyanjana)^ feature ( rlipa ( ) are ). prodi'ome {purvarTipa). ar termed as "iwodromes*. synonymous terms with called ). STUDIES. The symptom of a developed disease the disease might stay in a latent stat^^ and the incubation of many infections may last for many ( years in a resisting organism ) is called the *linga\ Characteristic {dkrti). symptoms [linga)^ remedy and sequel ( samprdpti ) are the ( npasaya ) diagnostics of a disease.DISEASES AND amaya sickness THEIB *'Ailing ( ( CX. disease ( ).INZCAI. ). and malady {roga) are synonyms. symptom llhga Remedy ( is that diet combined 'action of medicine ( dhdra ) and hygienic living cures the disease by ausadha ). Miology (niddna). The premonitory symptoms that are observed before the development of a disease. indication {laksmcma)^ sign (cliihm). ( vihd?'a which its- counteracting either . gada ).

the peripheral nervous mechanism is cm 78. 1. 6^^ ( which the normal temperature is markedly exceeded for any length of time above about 37 degree Centigrade or 98. In sun-stroke. i . 1. 197 ( Sequel samprapti ). is caused by the disturbance of the heat-regulating mechanism. 6 Feter pyrexia ) degree Fahrenheilit. provokes fever. for fever is tlie first ( agath ) expression of all physical in diseases. out- come aud after-developmeuts ( jatl ) are syuonymous. Whatever stimulates constricts the thermogenetic centre or unduly the vaso-dilators so that the excess of keat can not be dissipated." Charaka IT. 2"^ are being mentioned in the beginning ^'Fevers of the book of pathology. sufwT^ T^ ^m^ 5i=^r 5^t f^^i^t ^ ?«i«((y|Ti<*i.DISEASES causes or symptoms." Charaka n.

But when a toxin is mechanism introduced into the blood. destroyed. the auto-defensive of the body adrenals and thyroids — — are stimulated and their oxidase-secretions are poured into the blood stream. the toxic products and their agents can be made comparatively harmless to the organism. that is. if it it. so that by the enhanced metabolism. resisting Eever is the index of the against the the nature's power of the of the organism It is virulence infection. and indicates that the auto- . the reaction that has been set up in the body to make innocuous the toxins and thehuicro-organisms^ that produce them.198 ANCIKNT HINDU MEDICINE paralyzed and consequently the body temperaiture is considerably raised. the heat-generating centre is also excited by reflex and sympathetic stimulation. Thyroid secretion dilates the blood vessels so that the attenuated toxins can be eliminated by sweating to relieve the kidney of its heavy burden. if not Adrenal secretion raises the blood pressure by constricting the vessels so that tlle^ toxins and their pathogenic agents are subjected forcibly to the immunizing action of the blood. healing process. has not been equal to the task imposed upon Eever is the i)hysiological expression of the severity of the struggle between the invading enemies and the host for self-defence.

sulphur and phosphorus and in extreme aceto-acetic and E-oxybutyric cases. might lead to the protoplasmic destruction of the red-corpuscles and the over-production of hemolysis and autolysis.DISEASES 199 of the "body is active. This excessive disintegration of the protoplasm endothelial cells by is bv the increased excretion of nitrogen. especially the vast number of and the consequence of the red-corpuscles. hence On hepatic cells is appetite and inanition. and if long continued. is itself or to the fact that the toxin a very power- ful paralyzant or anesthetic of the sensory impressions. Hyperpyrexia ( fever above 105° E. owing to deficient sensitiveness of opsonin of the blood and the immunizing glands. acetone. hepatic hyper-activity is the greatly increased production of the hepatic excretory product the — . indicated acids with the urine. protective meclianism Absence of fever in a toxemia of any kind proves the inability of the body to react. ) on the other hand indicates the hyper-excitation of auto defensive mechanism and the consequent the immunizing principles. either inherited or acquired. The activity of loss of the digestive glands diminished. And is this is attended with many functional derangements. imposed the heavy task of reducing excessive metabolic wastes.

into urea. as the yellow in color. deal of urobilin. excessive quantity disintegration- brownish of sulphur and of — phosphorus the abnormal destruction of red productions •corpuscles. and granular degeneration of mences the fatty The kidney also shows its terrible its cells. strain by fatty and fibrous infiltration. 39. less of urea. \ I. caused by lesions of the body or otherwise can not be for fever developed in a person without injury. become oxidized into sulphuric and readily combine with phosphoric acids and ammonia which otherwise would have been changed jaundice. 12) in. the mind 3.200 bile. **Fever is .'* Charaha VL 10«\ . which the urine containing a good but more of ammonia. Fevers. it causes ^bilious remittentfever or malarial liemoblogiuuric fever' {paittika jvara^ is VI. There is of course pronounced The in its liver becomes fatigued and sluggish comGradually activity. ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE 4 And if it is contiaued Susruta lon2r.

<?a?^flr= consumption.DISEASES "Excessive use or abuse of *snehadi'' 201 = unguents. or = stellar cism enervatio^i {ahhisapa hypnotic fever). (so /jrt= {uaksat/'a-prap'idana vexations = spring or autumnal fever).exor- hay fever).tigue fever). tention fever]. reor exhaustion or traitmata {aJjhig/iata = shock wound fever). {p7Yqjaka = coct\on tumefaction. i^nrgaiion toxic matter) : vamana — xo- virechaua (of =^ any absorption. smell of poisouotis flowers {psadhl(<(5/ir/za that is = dyspeptic = puspa'ga}idha= coyzn. desire (manas or y^(YWia = unreciprocated and ungratified : = execration : sensual passion : erotic fever). worry sudden seasonal changes depression fever). the unhygienic living of a woman that has miscarried or has given normal birth of . miting. hyimotism {ahhicharas. indigestioti fever). inamtion (/j. development of disease {rogotthana= symptomatic fever as a reaction against the patho- genic germs and the tumesce}ice toxins elaborated of by them). toxin {visa=ioxem\db) ruental derangement[satmyarttuparyc(ya hysterical fever). svecla = sweating through [Sneha Turkish bath or other sudoriferous means. that is consumptive or famine fever). hallucination -{bhWabhisankasiie'Ar hallucinary ghosts: fever ). inflammatory fever). fatigue {srama=fa. ov passion nervous fever).

dry or cold food and drinks . anxiety. produces /6'y^?" in human beings. 39. and overfasting. (of there is a good deal of object) contemplation the beloved and 81. I. retention of and urine. purgation.'^ tarana=m. vigilance-^ the nerves. ft^fftg^^^fq ^ %'^\ ^'JlfeWff I 3!r?TrfT =^r^^^T^ f^qm 7fi(?Tr^q%<TTfT i ^'sfRcfT^ =1^ ^t ^\^\ im % iic 82. sorrow." Susruta VI.202 {puerperal secretion of ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE fever^^ the establisliment of the milk following childbirth {stanyavafever) causing lesion of the nerve etc. 8^". 8. exercise. sweating and feces snuffs . ^^Mg:ftcI^Tr^fqv^'^r^Tq^f3!ftf^T^^Tf?T^^«fWT7lf ij^es^R'irT'- ." excess of these things irritate Oliaraha II. traumata.i\k — these "Excessive consumption of astringent. venery. excessive use of vomiting. "In the erotic fever.

loose ability of the feces and enervation —these are the symptoms." Chaixiha VI. salivation. III. in the fever of anger. lassitude. continued fever. illusion. fatigue.DISEASES . lesion. semi-consciousness. sliminess of the mouth. in the fever of sorrow. 115. anxiety . 2 OS in the sighing . intoxi- cation and enervation. ." Charaha VI. delusion . tears fever of fear.'^ *'In the gastro-intestinal fever. lack of hunger. polyuria. indigestion. unchange- nausea. the irregularity of the heart ( beat ). in tlie hallucinary fever. and in toxemia. in the gastro-intestinal fever. III. there are anorexia. unconsciousness. excitement . somnolence and heaviness of the body. heaviness of the stomach.

" ChamkaYl. and while is the surface of the body shivers with chills. 111. fatigue. III.»iiiF* ^i ^w: I 86. 35^\ ^m^' ^T^ 85. quick respiration. I . watery eyes. cessation of perspiration — pation these are the symptoms in hyperpyrexia the and consti- (at the onset of malarial fever the blood is driven from the peripheral to the internal organs. 25' ^ — and temper- symptoms of ^'Excessive internal heat (hyperaemia).'204« *' ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE Lassitude. thirst. there increased high temperature). ^'rTffftsf^^^^T w^w. where there is excessive congestion. gradual change of the (physical) strength. heaviness of the body. yawning'. complexion ament these are the prodromal fever. inclination and disinclination by turn for fire to sit the fire side ( by ). delirium. foul taste in the mouth." Charaka VI. ^^^^ -^w. T?T^ ?_. illusion. sun (sun-bath). pain at the joints. indigestion. breeze and water (bath).

18**^.DISEASES 205- Thougli the principle of Hindu medicine is based basically on humoral pathology. black. "There are namely ^marine' (samiidr a =. consisting nearly of one hundred genera' and eight hundred species). {parimandala = ^i^\i\i2^^^ the mosquitoes belonging to the genus '"migarliininad which has strongly curbed proboscis). 8. and classes of them. A7hite. it seems- Susruta formed a vague relationship of malaria with mosquito bites and swampy localities. culex elehastimasaka). insects. red or bronzed (cyanotic or degenerative changes). 'dark' {ki^sna = taeniorhyn= chus) a. where mosquitoes are developed. ascribed to a And it was not to all particular kind of£ist?i\ mos'globular' quitoes ). and there are symptoms of ''If ." the part bitten by a spider becomes swollen.dL ^mountainous' {parvvatii/a ano^hel&sy * The biting of the mountainous' mosquito (ano- phanti ( pheles) produces an effect like that of deadly Susruta V. five types of mosquitoes {masaka belonging to the 'CiiUcidae* family.

ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE burning pain. ^m\ ^m ^mv. (a) cR'w. 23.fiT^^ «T3fi^Ci^=^iqi: ^psi'^^^'t: i .206 fever." Charaha VI. a kind of mountainous mosquito whose bite causes symptoms like the bite of is "There deadly spiders {luta aranea)"^*^. dyspnea. the foot-hill Tarai of the the swampy Himalayas where anopheles is found in large numbers and malaria is endemic ).' ii 88. hiccup and headthe prognosis is ache. ^m ^\ fw^fni^^. According to medical experts. usually bad. which the blood Pneumonia {pralepalca) and 88. that — at aupattjaha is . 45««. ^^m'. and drink or intoxication ( madyasamudbhava — produced by are wine ( ) fevers ^i^^«^-XT^a is = ascribed to blood-pollution corruption of the bilious principle. tQri\?in{trt'iya'ka) — and quartan {oJiaturthaka) fevers ( of malarial while the origin ) are produced by nervousness valley or the marsli of the mountains. ).

Myzorhynchus sinensis. Anopheles has nearly one hundred species (Culex all But two hundred). Nyssorhynchus stephensii.DISEASES influenza 207 (vatavalasaJca) fevers are said to be of phlegmatic origin. 39. According porensis. And anopheles is not the that is guilty. Nyssorhynchus theobaldi. Yellow fever is transonly genus mitted by Stegmia calopus. Myzomyia culicfactes. Susruta VI. dengue fever by Culex fatigans. Nyssorhynchus f uliginosus and Nyssorhynchus maculipalpis. Pyretophorus jey: Myzorhynchus barbirostris. It may be possible. to Theo])ald none of the anoplielinae species . anopheles do not carry malarial protozoa. of which only forty species have been proven experimentally to be the hosts in malaria and in India there are onlv ten of them as follows tonii. that there are other carriers of malarial pathogenesis. Myzomyia lisMyzomyia turkhundi. 25^ ^ It has now been definitely proved that the mosquito of the genus of anopheles transmits the deadly malaria germ from man to man. tilaria bancrof ti by Culex fatigans. however.

and they appear under four chief forms : tertian is caused by Plasmodium vivax. Aldrichia. (ire not the same. quartan fever by plasmodium estivo-autumnal fever or subtertiau malaria. and the liber- . and it principally sporulates in the peripheral blood. Chagasia^ Chrystia. quotidian fever by plasmodium falciparum quotidianum. liberating toxins which are hemolytic. schizogony and pyrogenous and hemozoanous.208 of ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE Eeltinella. Kerteszia. and will provoke an attack of fever with single brood in the human host every forty-eight hours. Plasmodium ivax quires forty-eight hours to complete the cycle of sporulates principally in the spleen. Bironella. and in the intervening period there is remission of fever. malarial fever by plasmodium falciparum {lavernia malaria^ plasmodium 'precox ). Plasmodium malaria needs seventy-two hours to complete its schizogon. These four kinds of blood-parasites produce organism according ^ different reactions in the to 'pre thsir characteristics. that is on the third day and accordingly it is called 'tertian* {tvt'iyaka)^. But the protozoan parasites of the red blood- corpuscles that cause remittent or intermittent malarial fevers. Myzorhynchella and Lephoscelomyia have been found to be the bearers of malarial germs.

Laverania malaria is irregular in its sporulation and needs about from thirty-six to forty-eight hours for schizonomy. but it can also provoke serious lesion in the brain. congestion of the internal organs . and it is calculated that there are nearly 25. and is therefore called ^estivo-autumnaV (mradiija). 000. that is. 000 red corpuscles in an adult human being. not only causes a heavy destruction of the red corpuscles of the blood. 000 of them affected cause an acute fever. it causes an immense destruction of them. and as the pathogenic protozoon needs high temperature for its development. it is called ''quartern'' {chatnrthakd). This for is it the most malignant of malarial fevers. 000. and to be it needs to about 3. thus provoking shivering the tlie chills on surface and chattering blood teeth. 000. 000. the fever appears every fourth day with a single brood of infection. pancreas. 000. 000. liver. the malarial fever does not manifest and remains in a latent state 14 . 000. spleen. as it takes seventy-two hours for the cycle. the fever takes place in the autumn.DISEASES 209 ated toxiti causes a severe constriction of cutane- ous vessels. temperature of the blood is rising and driving the causing centripetally. and if it be below 250. . though rapidly. and as it sporulates in the red corpuscles of the blood.

vvhich produces jaundice of the tissues and also appears in the urine with other pigments ( hemozoan ) and the urine looks from brownish yellow to The quotidian ( anyedyusha ) blackish in color. for the simple reason that the pathogenic sporozoa are of different n»es and inoculated at different times. and only as the disease proceeds. At the onset of malarial fever. internal thelial cells laden with hemozoan and ( sporules. triple quartan fever. by three broods Plasmodium malaria. two of plasmodium vivax { double tertian fever ). fever may be produced by plasmodium takes or falsi- parum quotidianum which twenty-four of hours for schizogony. with the consequent also caused bv it production of excessive quantity of bile. The is bilious remittent fever blackicater bilious hemoglo- binuric or fever =pitta-jvm^a) by the excessive destruction of erythrocytes which necessarily imposes a heavy labor on the liver. the fever becomes regular^ . all these types tend to be irregular. the parasites coming to maturity on three successive days ).210 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE othei' and organs by forming thrombi through blocking the capillary passage by the swollen endoaccumulation of plasraodia. or two of laverania malaria {double estivomtfttmnal or double subtertiafi fever).

is called 'smitata' a bacillus. the fever day. produced by a protozoan parasite Leishnmiia donovan\ and it grows in large numbers by liver. suprarenals. that appears twice in day and night. ten or twelve bv them becomes days without interruption. kidneys. is called 'trtiyaha* {tertian) . 89. produced by spirocheta known also as the the fever relapsing fever or typhus recurrens) . fission. and which appears on fourth day. or the remittent fever carteri. produced by resembling coli communis.DISEASES possibly 211 that can not because the parasites conform to the age period of the majority in when the organism offers their schizogony. lymphatic glands and to a less extent^ in the pancreas. ( simple continued fever. least resistance) overwhelmed by the combined attack of the parasites and tiio toxins liberated exterminated by the antitoxins of the blood) produced as a reaction. and i^ principally found in the spleen. lungs and that appears on every third testicles) . "The fever that lasts for seven. is called tho *chaturthaka' {quartan):* Smritta VI. every . is called \mtata* {doitle-quotidian or Kala acar. 31"* . bone- marrow.

sudoresis. constipation. flatulence (adhmana = swelling) and yawning are the symptoms of 'vata' ( cerebro-spinal estivo-autumnal pernicious ) fever. Onset of fever with sleep. delirium. *'Tremor. foul taste in the mouth. vomiting. and causes the development of double-quotidian {satata = kala-azar). quotidian {auyedyuska)^ ter- tian (trtlyaka)^ quartan (chaturthaka) and pneu- monic (^raZ5/?aA." Susniia YI. diarrhoea.a ) acute 39. lips rigor. "^mm <^<ii^T^\ ffl^^rm^fTft'iim i ^ir^'rfWFR ?IWI'3*'?l' ^ffl f% II . 22»\ of neck.212 '*Tlie ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINB unhygienic living after the relief from (the primary onset of) the fever. aggravates the lesion. tumescence of the neck. and nose. and owing to the low vitality (of the organism) deranges nerves and phlegma. irregular onset of fever. desiccation of the body. lips. congestion insomnia. face and fevers. pain especially in the head and the heart. bitter taste in 91. diminished face. suppression of sneezing.

loss of appetite. Snsruta VI. and vertigo are symptoms in 'pitta' fever {bilious remittent fever known also as malarial heraoglobinuric or : the black water fever). ^^^nfr i\]nm ^j^ ^^ ii h^n: ^jcrr ^^7 'g. polydipsia. chills. intoxicated state. vomiting. expectoration. indigestion. mouth. 39.'i|»» . low fever. ^'^5^3Tt^iJ?T I f^RTsj. excessive sleep. and whiteness of the expectoration and the eyes are the symptoms of *slesma* xticretion of the (influenza) fever." 92. horripilation. 11-13'' ^ ^q^r^wt tT. acute coryza (pr«/is^a?/a = profuse watery mucus from the nose).•/i*..DISEASES the 213 hyperpyrexia. sweet taste of the lassitude of the body^ itioutli. semi-consciousness. the yellowish tinge of the feces..sluggish circulation. mild onset of fever. urine and the eyes. salivation. Heaviness of the body.^! ^ifr ?t?^i i > «••» .

the brown. scanty perspiration. in and tlie (headache) in the ears watery. ii\)\iixsm {mukatva) . neck as if hissing sounds and covered with grains {siika =eruTpt\ve illusion . insomnia. symptoms 3. typhoid papules). dyspnea loss of* . tion it ) of the disease and ef convalescence from are the Charaka." «%ira^^tt*mt ^^irr»T ^r^inT^ i . thickly coated. nasal discharge mixed with inertia of the body . sound in the neck (sonorous or bronchitis) . angina pectoris . . sibilant rales indicating appearance of rose-red rxanthem {kotha) and rashes (mandala). . rough and has the color of burnt coal (dry. . delirium coughing . VI. 85". lesion in the circulatory system. the typhoid fever. iissured and tremulous) . somnolence. pains . heaviness of the epigastrium (flatulence) and the delay in the coction of the deranged humors (the long dura. dilated or contracted eyes pain .214* ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE : M'upiive Feve?'s "Feverishness or the bones. joints cliilliness by turns head . tongue is appetite (anorexia) . bilious sputum (vomiting) blood (nose-bleed) agitation of the head. delusion . or reddish. glazed . the patient does not look emaciated urination and defecation . . 93.

. cerebrospinal diph- meningitis. pneumonia. toxemia. theria. tiny rashes. septicemia. exudative vesicles.* mention smallpox as *'Due to lesion of the phlegma and the biles (circulatory blood). gfWff^grisfirfT: 11 ^^"^ ft^ncM «RiMiciii^4it^^ 11 . measles. called *romantV (varicellaa or chicken.DISEASES '* 215 Altogether through (varied) lesion. 17. mumps. Charaka and Susruta both 'masTcrika. there are thirteen kinds of typhoid fevers^ Charaha I. W\ It is fevers very probable that have been classified all the eruptive as by Charaka.puerperal fever and small pox. typhoid fevefs (smmipdta jvara)^ including in the category typhus. erysipelas. anorexia. paratyphoid. 1^^ qi^»^ ^W^\ 94.

copper-colored. 95. either become relieved or kill the patient. 18'^ As it was believed that disease was due derangement of the humors of the body. tenth or twelfth day. fqTj^qfrH nf^T: i ^i^'^'c^sTm^^wr: wi^r: ^q^cTflRr: i Trig -^ '^r^r^^TT^T 'T^f^^r: \\\^ 96. 39. bronzed pustule : Erom that appears all over the body and within the mouth with burning fever."' pox ( Charaka VI." Susruta to the VI. grm f^^t ffiK ^t ^T^sfq ^T nfm <rrf^ I H^^'Ccrtt ijpr ^f^ ^ u^c . 73' ^'\ "The painful. ^^^5 iT^in^ ^^^v." Suirnta II. is called the I'ariola or small masurika ). 12. 13. is called the variola ( masurika **'rhe ). the pox) appear with fe^er. bile and tumescence of the pustules that appear all over the body like lentils (ervum lens ervum menus). phlegma (corruption of).216 AXCIENT HINDU MEDICINE itching and polydipsia. the cure lay or the disharmonious combination in their w. 30' ^ crisis typhoid fevers after passing through a on the seventh.

but it is dry hard now to identify what very : or concoction he meant by *'In it new fever. requisite for normal health. tion was but supplementary. fasting. normalized again. Charaka in the ( treatment tiktaka of a ) of malarial fever mentions a bitter juice of leaves or bark. Cure from a disease only took place wdien the internal combustion ( metabolism or oxidation ) wa!§ about by Medicalnygienic living and dietary regulation. It is well known. it belongs to the llubiaceous family of which there are many members in India. the cerebro-spinal remittent fever influenza. bring about the cure). was supposed to be dissipated to the peripheral organs hy morbid agents and thus to produce fever. when the patient is thirsty. the bitter alkaloid of the cinchona hark is a powerful remedy against the malarial This was brought Plasmodia. time.DISEASES 217 Tlie internal^ proper combination by coction. give *''In and him . Though cinchona is a native of the South American Andes. Leat that was supposed to cause coction of tholiumors and thus to preserve the balance of the liumors. bark. that quinine. barley water and bitter extract (fiktako rasa) cause the coction of raw humors (that is. sweating.

depression fasting a?id pathogenic agents By fatigue fevers. as the blood. lymph. That malarial treatment is : was fevers. urine). nervous. t when metabolism ^Tf^ the body y7. clearly only meant for indicated by the following passage rial) fever fasting "At the onset of the (malaBut it should not is proper. excitement. Such a stimulating (d'ipana = digestive). blood-puri- concoction fying (srotasam 6-6»f?/mwam = purifier of the streams.218 liot ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE water to drink. are destroyed {dom) stimulated. phobia. vitalizing {valya)^ appetizing (ritcJd-kara).'' and this is beneficial. and is be followed in consumptive. cook bitter (bark or root) in it is when cooled. the humors). is give to water and drink. ^?^ ^5)Mt q^r*ir«drtt*t T^: . 3. sudorific {ghar- ma-kara) 129. In the it bilious remittent fever. causes coction of oxidising {pacha im = which." Charaka VI. (febrifuge (jcaraghna ).

and the object of treatment is recovery. day-sleep. 73 '\ his strength e. beverages. acting kinds of fever. 128^'. treat the original Smruta YI. disease. **In all 3. should not lower longer period than vitality is But fasting (that is is necessary fasting for a injurious). he should not indulge in shower-bath {pariseka). consumption and wound (abhighata=\^o\mdiOY: traumatism) fevers. plunge-bath (avagaha). regain does not completely recover)." *'As long as the fever patient does not (i. {smmodhana)^ inunction. exposure to «#^-^«i ^^ ^ ^ ^?5m^s^ I ^ . vomiting etc." ChamkaW. 39.DISIDASBS 219 becomes light and hunger appears. for recovery depends on the vitality of the patient. the causative counterfatigue. treat it by In factors.

drinking of milk will benefit him. if the desiccated. — and zingiberis). tjR^^NJir?!^ #?i^^ €^^5nfH "^ i 101. as it miglit even cause death:" Susruta VI. 63^'''. 68 ^"^ "If a fever patient suffers from indigestion. ^^9. ^trikatu' (a mixture of mntM ginger. In an exhaustive continuous fever. piperis nigri. Gr. plppala longpepper . 'mar'ioha — black pepper. ^^' H^^ fn^^j^'^i^Mf^ci f%?f?^ I . exercise VI. is or if the pathogenesis is patient not well-marked. on tlie road to recovery. has polydipsia and burning sensation. old wine and barley broth is beneficial to him. milk should not de drunk. But in new fever." Sasrutw cold.220 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE and sexual intercourse. *dia trion piperidon' made of the same ingredients. if the patient is emaciated. mentally depressed. piperis longura. If a fever patient suffers from coryza and anorexia let him drink whey mixed with (influenza). in cerebro-spinal or bilious remittent fever. 39. 100.

he should be treated by light and easily-digestible food for his fever. The paradisaica) fever patient that and dolichon likes meat. v[m f^w ^ Wl '#^f^ ^MtfwcW I 5g'«t5i^: W^^r«: <j*iMM^ ii . to digest . 39. hare {leporimi). red lentil (masura = ervum hirsKturn ). arietinum)^ plantain biflorum. peacock {pavo)." Susruta VI. gram pea {musa ( chanaka = cicer . are hard and very excitant for this reason they are not prescribed by many physicians. if the patient becomes emaciated. it can be given in a moderate quantity. can take the partridge {perdicum cheninensium). 67'"^ 1 C2. black-tailed deer. perdicum francolinorum. But when the fever patient is nervous. The crane (gruidce)^ . golden-colored deer and antiloparum albarum. chicken (gallos doniesticos) and heath-cock {fefraoninnco). heron (ardeidce). black antelope {antihystricum.IP '^In DISEASES 221 a long-standing continuous or remittent lever. Broth of a bean {mudga = phaseolus munffo).opariim nigrarum ). small deer.

165'" \ to make "Milk boiled together with ginger. 'm^ ^fq^^fi^rq^lrrgq^sf^i^ liwrsT i ^WH'*!^ fft^r^^ 1^: ^mr^^ ii . 3.^W^' uieir brotli But Charaka only recommends and not their flesli liowevrrr can be a little acidulated with &m* : "ti mixta re it of pomegranate (punica irianatufn) more palatable VI. Or the milk might be diluted with water four-fold imd cooked together. and the drinking of hot milk is good in bilious remit- 103. this is beneficial in old fever.222 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE . and mixed witli honey or sugar relieves thirst and fever. raisins and dried dates.

DISEASES tent fever. are recommended).. The body should be covered with warmed cotton or silken clothes. m^wi wii'm v^'^'^am^ i 105." VI. relieves the chilis of (malarial) fevers." "In old imparting the natural warmth of Charaka VI. hot salve and fomentations o\\ very beneficial hot concoction. 22S is it always or restorative in all consumptive produces good result whether drunk hot cold with whatever medicine prescribed for the particular fever. if the patient suffers from chills.. pneumonic or nervous fever.. warm (drinking bath. Chamka "The embrace of maidens that are pretty and well-shaped. Milk fevers . ^mqf^cTHT^ra cre^ 41^'»f<iiT i '^^>r^wEi'«!n 5w?fT: M^ *«rw ii . by their body. If the 104. heat should plied to warm in such a case liot be ap- him up. 8. which is wine. 3. 196»«*. 2081*^*.

massage And the maidens :5ently his debilitated body. body anointed with delicate .??^ I . But when the patient seems to be enlivened. firm. of the maidens. washed and white loose dress. then the maidens should be removed." Smruta VI. dressed in fine- smelling. as a wild-creeper (entwines round a tree). bright-red lips pansive pelvic region. 39. like molten gold. When by the delightful contact the chills have disappeared. pretty and artful body witli And wellfirst maidens in the should inflorescence of their youth. eyes like with the blue lotjis. should embrace him closely. the face like the autumnal moon.fragrance {croco sativa and aquilaria agallocko). 131^ "^ 106. broad ex(like long-curved tremulous brows. patient feels fatigued anoint aloes agallocko {aqullaria breasted. round and elevated breasts. the patient should take pleasant and beneficial diet.224* ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE the ). complexion the himha fruit = memordica monadelpha)^ narrow abdomen (slender waist) but. ^T^^wt^q^^ifq ^^gt: 55lcTXTtf^?i^ I =wi^§tJi =^T«?i=: ^-jsm^ f%^.

stagnant water for breeding and development of their larvae. ?pfktpT^rf H^: II 15 . As the mosquitoes require shallow. {h) the prevention of the entrance of the parasite into the human body. alkit^Nfrf^fvf: ii 3?|i?^i^ f^trra fir. the first requisite for a determined fight against malaria.DISKASES •22& Prophylaxis in malarial fever can be isuku* raed up in these words: (a) destruction of mosquitoes . (<?) increas- ing resistance of the body against the parasite. is the awakened public senti- ment against this pernicious and malignant »?^g: M^^\ arm.

and the water-plants that usually the breeding on the surface as safe breeding place for mosquitoes. However the promise held by the Eucalyptus tree has been rather deceptive. The next thing is to protect the inhabitants . larvae and on the bank of the water or near the dwelling house which pupae of mosquitoes. deepened. especially the ^giradinus poeciloides^ which is a voracious feeder on eggs. it ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE Eor without not be communal co-operation. 134). p. the odor of which he believes drives away mosquitoes. All trees takes away sunshine or interferes with free current of should be felled. be so levelled by filling can There and the natural depressions that there can not be any accumulation of water up the ditches for of the mosquitoes. be complete surface and subsoil drainage and the ground should. Laveran air. All the canals and water-ways should be ponds. lake or canal. recommends the plantation of castor oil plants {Prophylaxie du paludism. protecting the larvae from the fish must be regularly and systematically removed. Bats appear to be voracious feeders of mosquito larvae. for the mosquitoes need a dark place to hide in the day time. should accomplished.226 disease. float Pish should be cultivated in every pond. lakes.

Mosquitoes can nearly a mile's distance from the breeding place. and many of them go out and bite only in the evening and at night. one should take care to wrap the bodyin clothes or smear the body witJi carbolated if it is used in the bed. of a female mosquito is It bites any vertebrate it might life come across in order to get blood its which it needs eggs. though the disease is in a latent form and there is hardly any apparent symptom. Where it can not be done. bite The mosquito which does not prevent the circulation of air. tude. for in a malarial region. And it is the females that do the biting. mosquito-nets must be necessary to go out at night. net round the ^ . excepting a little malaise and lassi- can be easily prevented by using mosquito wire netting in the windows. The males live on vegetable and fruit juice. it is necessary that the inhabitants be protected from mosquito bites. it can be infected with biting the malarial plasmodium. the spreading of malaria. which it transmits to as nourishment for But it is Therefore to prevent biting again. only by a malarial patient.DISEASES tigainst the 227 fly- mosquito bites. almost every one might harothers when bor malarial germ in the blood. . And vaseline and to use a fine-gauze lace and neck. The about a month.

preferably by mouth and in powder form or in solution. nearly four hours of the chills. In the endemic malarial region. is Chlorhydrate of quinine preferable in an irritant stomach. Quinine should be given every day. as it may be due to doilble infection by the tertian. or Sulphate of quinine can be given which is much cheaper^ During the acute stage of the malarial fever. as expectation quinine takes nearly four hours to act. and the sporules — then should be destroyed. un- broken. it is better that quinine be administered in doses not smaller than one gram. And with the exception of rein- . estivo-autumnal the disease and quartan parasites or to the treble infection of the quartan. and lico- the bitter taste can be covered and neutralised by addition of syrup glycyrrhizae I'ice) til ( is syrup of every day when the attack is expected. which seems to be much more effective than larger doses at longer intervals. and ife should act energetically at the time of the before the sporulation when the young broods are liber-ated and w^hich provokes the chill. for it is very doubt- ful how far the old garnets are affected by quinine.228 ANCIENT HINDF MEDICINE Quinine is the best prophylactic and curatire agent against malaria. as a preventive medicine. it is a wise policy to take 2 to 4 grains of quinine daily.

warm covers and hot fomentations can be applied to relieve : the sliivering cold sensation. and during the succeeding hot period cold application on the head to relieve headache and cold drink to relieve thirst. by the evacuation of the undigested fatty sub- . 229 can be usually prevented by giving quinine once a week for four weeks from iXie occurrence of tlie last cbill. the sweating period should not be shortened harm the organism by "by antipyretics as it might retaining the malarial toxins which perspiration tends to eliminate. or as in jaundice with the deficiency of the bile.Diarrhoea. fatty (fatty d. caused by the splitting of the fat into irritant fatty acids. goes without saying that nourishing food and hygienic living strengthens the resisting It But power of the organism against any infection. treatment needs simply relapses iio be symptomatic in chills hot drink. "Excessive consumption of indigestible ( ali'fiientary diarrhoea provoked by the irritation of the intestinal mucosa through the indigestible residue ).DISEASES fection. or d. During tlie paroxysm. and that is why the sweat of a malarial patient has a peculiar odor. II. adiposa..

and improper foods [diarrhoea all is provoked by kinds of food poisoning. fermentative or : toxemic symptoms meat-poisoning or kreototoxismus arises from decomposed infective with all meat ( proteus group alone or associated witlt .). coarse {linterio d. ice-cold {congestive d. caused by an augmentation of pressure within the alimen-tary canal with exaggerated serous transudatioia into the intestine). drinking of ice-cold loose v/ater and beverages cause they mechanically bring about contraction of the superficial vessels of the movements for mucosa. and by diluting the gastro-intestinal secretions which interfering the with digestion. followed by reaction and congestion of the membrane.230 stances). caused by the fermentation brought of the digestive enzymes by an exceedingly large quantity of liquid). and if long continued to intestiaal catarrh ). ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE drj-' (mechanical or serous d. is induced by mechanically stimulating the peristalic contractions and possibly glandular secretions by a large quantity of cold water. liquid {asthenic d. hot {inflammatory d. in which the undigested or half-digested by the dilution food particles are contained in the dicbarges ). thereby increasing the amount and fluidity of the intestinal contents. provokes fermentation . hromatotoxismus either putrefactive.

are frequently observed colon bacilli and bacillus enteritidis. for a receptacle. hand washed of tha with left unclean water. it is well known that sprouting potatoes contain at the mouth of the sprouts or the greenish surface of . milk-poisoning or galactotoxismus arises from taking contaminated or spoilt milk r milk may be contaminated from various sources as it is rotten sjenic one of the best culture mediums of pathogerms. paraplegia. animal. dust on the animal. as from tuberculosis from a diseased filthv or.DISEASES 23t colon bacilli). meat of diseased animals or infected animals ( as tuberculosis ) . or only at the spawning season or' from feeding upon putrefactive substances or from its decomposed ptomaine poisoning as in' egg . and milk and in it usually contains myriads of bacteria. polluted or from exposure when uncovered considerable period. or in the spoilt pea. as pellagra in the use of diseased maize. paratyphoid . milker. and to a lesser extent bacillus enteritidis sporogenes. or lathyrism ( lupinosis ) in the admixture of the grain with the seeds of the Hathyrus' . staphilococci. fish-poisoning or= ichthyotoxismus arises from eating fisli that is venomous. and occasionally typhoid germs grain-poisoning or arises from using spoilt. contaminated sitotoxismus or sprouting grains.

cathartica). of the hair. miiv^estioxi {dyspeptic d. vomitinj^ and sweating (d. chronic mercurial poisoning perhaps due to the corroding action of its salts.^2 the skin ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE exposed another to the alkaloid-solanine. buccal ulcers and entero- in acute is there or chronic arsenic poisoning. foul breath. or causing ulceration or impaction). or sugar and acid which is apt to cause fermentation in a weak or debilitated stomach). wliile many sun. anemia. salivation. clitis '^ stomatitis. i?oke diarrhoea either irritating and prothe mucusa. abdopronounced epigastric and diarrhfjea minal pain. brittleness followed by out fetid diarrha3a. poisoning (m.) excessive use or abuse of purgation. repeated eating before the former meal has been digested {adhya- ^a»a=sd. but many the vegetables and fruits might contain fungi. there is an extensive ulceration of the alimentary canal. amoeba and the eggs of many intestinal worms which are thus introduced into the alimentary canal where they make by their habitat.ab ingluvie). disharmonious cmtibination of foods (as milk and acid. falling of the nails. is cooked food (uncooked food digest as cooking softens the <yf not only hard to tissues. of the a glycerid mushrooms mi- contain toxic alkaloid-rauscarin]. followed by vomiting and .

but often alternating with diarrhoea). the gums have a tinge. nutritive disturbance. secretion and motility. 233 and offensive and often bloody of nrine .). interference with colonic absorption. mental derangement {neurogenic d. thus provoking diarrhoea alternating with constipation). calcium or potassium carbonates. dizziness. of the hot season : it may be also induced by sun or heat stroke accompanied disturbed irritability . inflamed. and the effect of alcohol upon the local and cerebro-spinal nerve-centres controlling intestinal nutrition. enervation. anxiety {emoiional d. cramp. constipation.DISEASES of rice water stools. congested and often ulcerated intestinal mucosa. disturbance of the biles due to congestion and cirrhosis of the liver. suppression or bloody urine. imperfect gastro-intestinal indigestion. sudden seasonal changes (thermic or summer d. dissolved from the soil) excessive drinking of spirituous liquor (in chronic alcoholism diarrhoea results from the thickened.) depression (nervous or neu7'otic d:) polluted toater (water containing dysenteric germs or large amount of earthly alkali as magnesium or sodium. progressive anemia. neuralg-ie pains and paralysis bluish black in lead poisoning. vesical dry skin. by vision.. rectal and in exposure to .

in sudden diarrhoea d. also. leading to congestion of the internal organs. tenia saginata. calculi. can ooze through.cooked fish varying in from 5 to 25 feet. tumor. ascaris lumbricoides or round worms. chiefly the intestine and viscera. ). tenia lata from half. \ obstructive due to carcinoma. the surface of the body is suddenly chilled with the lowering of the surface temperature. or due to the obstructed passage and only watery liquid irritation from the mucosa caused by them ). tricuris trichiura or whipworm. and reflexly secretory nervous evacuations . oxyuris vermicularis or threadworm. which causes the contraction of the cutaneous blood-vessels. from incompletely cooked beef varying in size from 10 to 25 feet. induced as hill or spruce ( irritating the motor and may ( be. mechanism — thus leading to change of climate. and tenia nana (dwarf tape) from one-fifth to one and one-fourth inches in size diarrhoea is provoked by them either length because the formed feces can not pass through . fecal impaction or obstruction of the passage with the tapeworms as tenia solium which is introduced with incompletely cooked pork and might grotr from 6 to 12 feet. excessive use of lavage ^nechanical d. trematodes .234 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE cold and dampness. and by "krimis' [worms uncinariasis or hookworm.

bacillary dysentery. 2^^*. bacillus typhosus in dysenterise in cbolera asiatica in typhoid fevers. entaroebazer rhizapodes in amebic in flagel- and dysentery. thread-like knotted-feet = tenia). agile {vijava creeping (^^^j^^/cr = trematodes or (cya?. ciliates ) balandium bacillus coli.^« = trichuris (paraof the feces they are whitish and minute . = ascaris).DISEASES or 235 flukeworms : microbes strongyloides intestinalis . gonococcus among remittent fever the pedestrians with extensive lesion of the anal mucosa.a stealing (/^•ipy6»= uncinariasis (ffandi(. ] plasmodium causes in bilious these produce dirrhoea." Susriita VI. sites) they move in the lower intestine and cause (bor. spirillum **Slow-moving = flagellates). or (chnru = oxyuris or vermicularis thread -worm) and two mouthed ((:/i. ria flagellates ormastigophores ( late dysentery.-pada or hookworm). 5^^f^^^^'i!r-5^^^nffi5^ci^: I . 40. trichiura whipworm) are the *krimV 107. infuso- in ciliar dysentery. flukeworm).

40. coccygeal region. tympanites tion. dyspepsia. '^^fiTqR^5^f%eii'?-sii^rTOr?rf^9m^^: i . lassitude of the 108. 4^ " \ sounds in the 'Abdominal pains." SmrutaYL "The prodromes of 54. abdomen and the groin. intestinal obstruction. overflowing of the watery discharges. oliguria. ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE 1 I ' have and among them there are some that flagella puchcua as in flagellates) and they are Tjroad. flatulence. prolapsus ani. diarrhoea are boring pains in the heart.4'"'. alimentary canal.236 ing pain . These fecal 'h'imi' (worms and other microbic parasites) bring about colics." * and indiges- Susruta VI. weakness. jaundice. heart lesion and non-formation of the feces. ^5?cn T^^m: ^T^mfmm ^m ^m^ i t^^^p^^ H"^*: ^^^^ *f^^ 1% II 109. constipation. lassitude of the body. umbilicus.

the typhoid fevers. unformed. the prognosis is especiit is very. greenish (due to the presence of unchanged biliverdin in the discharges as in acute enteritis). tln'gh 23'7 and the knee and the evacuation of raucus-covered (saphena^' frothy) dark-brownish. vertigo and hyperemia of the internal organs.DISEASES srroin. patient becomes exhausted and becomes overpowered by polydipsia. hardened scybla in small quantities with gas these are the diarrhoea. the above mentioned symptoms appear. or containing undigested fat) and pasty stool appears noiselessly. hard to cure and is . lassitude and repeated evacuations . somnolence. foul-smell- ing and steamy discharges rush forth in bilious in this disease the diarrhcEa (cholera asiatica) . but the color of the evacuation **In varied and the patient suffers from polydipsia . or reddish (tarry stools may be due to cancer or ulcer of the intestine or dysentery). and the patient becomes irritable and there is horripilation (contraction of the peripheral vessels). serous (like the juice of pressed meat). — symptoms of nervous ( dysenteric) "Dark-yellowish ( in biliary obstruction ). in this the patient suffers from collapse. ' "Whitish (rice-water. mixed with mucus in phlegmatic diarrhoea disease .

orbits of the eyes are sunk in the sockets. there 110. the teeth (the gum). JCfjjfiw^: ^^^s^^ ." Susruta VI. active vomiting. 40. 5-8 \ "If in cholera asiatica (visuchtka) and tymphenites {alasaka).238 ally ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE unfavorable for the infants and for » ^ the aged. the voice becomes vreak and the nails is become cyanotic. lips and a comatose state.



become relaxed, then the prognosis is very unfavorable." SusrutaNl. 56. 8^^^ **In acute diarrhoea, if the feces is formed or shows symptoms of being formed, and the vitali.

ty of the patient is not very low, there has not been much emaciation of flesh nor blood much
thinned, appetite and digestion have returned, then the patient can be cured with difficulty. But if the patient has the following symptoms,

notwithstanding the above-mentioned presentaIncurtions, he is to be regarded as incurable.

symptoms are being mentioned



the stool

has the color of concoction (dark-brownish), reddor is (in conish, like that of the spleen and fat


water in which meat has been

washed, curdled milk (semi-fluid),




butter, milk, condensed

milk, or deep bluish (with the development of indican in pronounced putrefaction ), reddish,






or transparent like water or the brownish-black color of the banana floweringstem (clay or chocolate color stool appears in

water fever







absence in urohilin^ that is in the deficiency of the biliary secretion in the intestine ), very



or dark-greenish ( due to biliverdin ), or multi-colored ^ or


lubricous or mixed with threadlike

or threadoxyiiHs vermiculaHs mucus or like the ocellate spots on the worms), tail-feather of a peacock (flakes) ; the odor is like


that of a decomposed corpse (cadaverous), putrid, pyogenous or like raw fish (fishy) ; if the feces
attracts quickly the

or various viscid sub(the stool

stances are observed in




undigested food, blood, mucus, pus, membranes, fat ; calculi from the gall-bladder, intestines, sto-

mach, salivary glands intestinal parasites, exfoliated polypi and nerotic sloughs), or the dischai-ge contains very little feces (a normal stool should

have hard but
ish in color,

flexible consistency, golden-brown-

nearly an incli in diameter, three to four inches in length ; but
cylindrical in form,
if it is

of small calibre,

it is

indicative of prolapr

sus ani or an annular stricture of the rectum

ribbon-shaped or flattened stool of stricture or cancer of the rectum ; roundish masses of liard-

ened feces {scyhala)


shoot out in dysentery

indicative of the gastric ulcer, gastric dila-

tation, cancer of the

rectum or chronic






and the patient from polydipsia, hyperemia of the internis






colics or its insensibility to pain ; if there is anal fistula or ulceration, or hemorrhage of the pile or the pile does not go back to its own place,

anus, emaciation of the body, thinning of the blood (anemia due to the reduction of the red corpuscles), pain in the lumbar region,
stricture of the

anorexia, morbid delirium





diarrhoea suddenly ceases, that patient is to be Charaka VI. 19. 11^^-. regarded as incurable."

"In the

stage sf diarrhcsa, fasting is beneAfter fasting, for relief from diarrhoea

barley water should be given with (astringent) concoction ( paohana ). If patient still suffers



aiW^fq^T q^nfT^=^'5?lt^5ftf%c[^









him an emetic

with piper longum (which is carminative) and After vomiting rock salt, dissolved in water. food can be given, barley water and piper light

longum. But if this does not relieve diarrhoea then everv mornin» a concoction of turmerics
{curcuma longum) or sweet flag {acorum calamum) should be given to drink." Siisruta VI. 40.16^^^. **In morbid diarrhoea (dysentery) and strangury, a (rectal) enema (»as(^i= clyster) of concoction of liquorice root {glycyrrJiiza glabra) and blue lotus ( nyphaea cacriilea) mixed with
milk, clarified butter and honey (for irrigation) should be given ; hemorrhagia proctica, aesus

and fever are

also relieved









of soothing

and honeyed herbs should be given





or at night.




relieves the

nervous irritation where

it is




the nerves are subdued, dysentery I. 4.0. 90'' \ Stisruta






sootliing oil or steri-


solution or their combined emul-



one of the best means known

combat pernicious, ulcerated and resistant diarrhoea and is very effectively utilized in :advanced modern treatment, Enemata serve to dislodge or to prevent fpcal impaction where ulcers have healed and a stenosis has formed in

the lower bowel, and for evacuating gas, putreirritants fying matter, toxic discharges and other

within the rectum.

Aq enema is generally And in an enema the
be limited to two


quarts or

has to

to three


might cause distension, pain, ptosis
5fr?ret ^(?§<

^ f«w^




or paresis of the intestine and in severe cases even the rupture of its membrane. While in

no limit to the quantity of for the solution is allowed to flow into and

out of the gut through a double or return-flow tube (J,rrigator) or by making the fluid flow into the bowel by way of an artidcial opening
(appendiceal or cecal) and making it flow out at the anus through a proctoscope or a pipe introduced for the purpose, thus escaping as fast as

the solution enters into the bowel.


irrigation by the soothing and antiseptic the local properties of its content to heal ulcerated lesions, prevent the formation of

impacted fecal masses, to wash out the sores and to neutralize the toxins, to remove toxins, irritating pus, blood, mucus, tissue debris and feces, to
dislodge and wash



and to relieve

colics and tenesmus. By vastl meant to include the functions of an enema and irrigator according to the needs.


Improvement invariably follows daily irrigaBut it is not so much due tion of the intestine. to the medicaments as to the dissolvent and
cleansing quality of water and washing away the toxins, so that the organism does not suffer so







deodorant, soothing and stimulating medicaments exert beneficial influence, especially in inflammatory, ulcerative and obstructive lesions

of the

but they are only of secondary

The only thing that




the intestine as often as possible with body temperature of the solution. Positive good result is obtained by daily irrigation with





camomile, flax-seed, canadensis ( 1 p. c. ),


or listerin

p. c. ),


(3 thymolin salicylic acid, zinc sulphate or silver nitrate ( 1 p. c), alum,
boric acid or Carlsbad salt



In advanced

ulceration and erosions,

2 p. c. ) or thymol cases of deq)-seated is better to use the

above solutions a


stronger or
c. ),

ichtliyol or

balsam of Peru
3 to 5
p. c,


2 to 5 p.

salicylate of soda

) and bisulphateof quinine (1 :1000) ( especially in entamebic and bacillary dysentery^

the degree of tlieir proven usefulness, olive, sesame, sweet almond, cotton seed, liquid vaselin and neutralol, either alone or in emulsion with the above-mentioned

named according

medicaments, can be used witli marked residt. As water seems to be the Propyhlaxis :

source of infection of cholera asiatica.



typhoids and dysentery, and in water spirillum cholera asiatica, bacillus typhosus and pathogenic agents of dysentery ( entameha dysenteria^
hacillus dysenteria, halantidium coli ) can all live and thrive for a long time, it is essential that all


water must be thoroughly boiled and Milk also must be boiled before it is

drunk, as it is often contaminated by water from suspicious sources. All dejecta from the
victim of any of these diseases must be dis-inf ect<3d with a five per cent solution of carbolic
acid, one

per cent of chloride of lime

or one-

fortieth per cent of corrosive sublimate, so


the pathogenic microbes be destroyed and they can not enter into the soil, especially if it be


saturated with moisture where they can multiply, retain their vitality and virulence for j^ears.

This also applies to urine and sputum. Nor should any vegetable or fruit be eaten raw or
not tlioroughly cooked which might have grown

on the


or fallen



where there




that the


has been fertilized

by human and unripe





coarse vegetables might leave a good

of irritant residue, should be avoided. It is true that these germs have been found living in harmless, state without inert vegetative



provoking any





where they have been harboured, and the predisposing cause of their development is the malnutrition, fatigue, over-work and exhaustion of the organism. Yet it must be admitted that
it is

very dangerous to sustain such potential


In the treatment of typhoid and cholerale
diarrhosa, there



two fundamentally opposed the destruction and removal

of the vibrios and to neutralize the toxins by s, powerful antiseptic purgative like calomel
grains with 6 to 12 grains of sodium bicarbonate ) and after this initial dose to

3 to 5

administer small doses


one-tenth to one-twen-

every half or quarter hour until the symptoms improve or the patient passes

into algide



oil (


the administration of castor

half an





to inject



per cent solution

prepared by

ing 2 drachms of salt in one pint of water ) ten to fifteen ounces at blood temperature,

every half an hour to counteract the circulatory disturbance through the evacuations.

The other theory


to spare

the vitality of

the patient




seriously and for





strong astringent like tannic acid ( kino, cateclm^

rhatania are to be preferred to pure tannic acid ) should be introduced into the rectum one to




in one

per cent

solution at a

above the body temperature. to have shown good result. And

This seems,

there are

evidences of toxic accumulation and fecal reten-




be given every two hours

in doses of 0.03 to 0.05 gram. The patient must be confined to bed; The body should be kept







be given, preferably acidulated with the juice of pomegranate, but any other fruit juice or milk under no circumsterilized

water should






or chicken

broth with

with aromatic but

non-irritant spices is to be preferred, but all coarse and irritant food should be avoided.

In puerperal dlarrhcBa (sutika) which is usualcaused by the invasion of the blood by the ly united with gonostreptococci, staphilococci,
micro-organisms through a wound of the uterus at child-birth or in miscarriage by careless, septic handling and spreading of the germs, treatment should be
coli bacilli

and other


24&t)ie resisting,



less confined



power, bacteriolytic and agglutinative functions of the blood by dietary and hygienic regulations. The symptom-complex of septicemia (suHka)

commences usually within a week after infection. At the onset there is chilliness with low and
moderate fever, but which

and tends

to be-




type with

decided daily



pyogenic germs have
fever sets

got admission into the blood,

with rigor, there is high temperature with steep curve and daily remission with sweating,




fever runs

an irregular course.


However, the it may be

complicated by previous or post malarial infecAs compared with septicemia, pyemia tion.
exhibits recurring chills,

deeply remitting fever

and sweats, rapid wasting and moderate icterus

while in septicemia the chilliness is only felt at the onset of the fever which runs a mild conti-

nuous type with no sweats and jaundice is much lighter. Headache, marked anorexia, nausea and
diarrha3a are the usual


of septicemia

The pulse is rapid, small and compressible.
; ;

petechial spleen may be palpably swollen are not uncommon rashes or herps might spots




toxemic jaundice










and tube albumin, leucocytes, The leucocytes are increased and there



destruction of the red-corpuscles of the leading often to hemoglobinemia and

appetite is very pronounced and there is no desire to partake of any kind of food and there is a special disgust to






stool is

emptied with severe tenesmus


consists of

the joints skin of those parts reddish. Respiration but there is no dyspnea. But there

Often mucus mixed with blood. become painful and swollen, and the




complications of broncliitis or pneumonia.

Prognosis is not very favorable except in cases where within 6 to 8 weeks the temperature, respiration and pulse slowly tend to be normal.

The treatment should chiefly consist ef hygiene and dietary. The patient must be confined to bed. All movements should be restricted as much as possible, as movement tends to spread the inEven after convalescence has set in, the fection.
patient shall remain in
at least for four


physical motion and mental excitement should be forbidden. However it is



Tery desirable that the room is airy, bright and cheerful, so that there is no oppressive dullness



Eood should be varied, easily digestible, appetizing and nutritious. However, all irritating spices must be avoided though
and niouotony.
aromatic and sweet-smelling substances can be added with advantage, with only exception to old wine which is very well tolerated in 'sutikd'.

Meat broth




goat or lamb ( from lamb, out ) is very useful in fighting this tragic malady which pitilessly transforms the long-dreamt

chicken, tender fat should be taken

happy motherhood


painful suffering and

Lean, light fish can be given in any appetizing way, but fatty and heavy fish should be avoided.

producing can be injected three agglutins phagocytosis times daily with promising result unless there is pyomia, in wliich case it is apt to do positive

Antistreptococcic serum which is to destroy the bacteria either by


harm according


good reputation for

Menzer whose serum has The inunction its efficacy.

unguentum is claimed by Crede'to be beneficial. But none of these preparations have given completely satisfactory results. They are more or less empirical. The antipyretics are recommended by some.


as fever



expression of the bodily

252 reaction ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE against the toxic products of the in- isvading micro-organisms. should be used. Frophylaxis in handliiiu at every child-birth. All the instru- ments must irlove be sterilized and thoroughly sterilized. these drugs is followed by depression and someacetanilid. More- lactophenin and And the use of others are all coal-tar products. phenacetin. Therefore its repeated use in continued and prolonged fever might endanger the life of the patient by heart failure which is seriously damaged by this disease^ of fever is thereby thougli the temperature reduced. circulatory system may be invaded by pathogenic micro-organism& through lymph channel or veins. for otherwise with le. is very us^'ful hardly of any value. times serious collapse. — antipyretics antipyrin. kryofene. Only it is. when 'suHka' is complicated by 'sutika' is the absolute aseptic malarial iifection.js wound or abrasion of the female genital organs w'nicii is inevitable. Quinine of course in non-malarial septicemia. Genital organ examined before delivery also should be carefully . malakin. apt to do rather more harm than good unless absolutely necessary to reduce the temperature suppression of fever and over relieve all tlie certain nervous symptoms.

the excessive consumption of carbohydrates in various forms above the Excessive assimilative power of the organism). per- and abnormal accumulation .DISEASES for 253 any in infections disease. rice or wheat cakes. rice- pudding. production flesh. pulf-corn. meat of animals and amphibious creatures. especially gonorrhea. milk. sesame-seeds. sugar- cane-juice. liquid phlegraa is — the pathological of fat. fluid-food. and the organs tliat are affected which provoke temporary (alimentary) diabetes are as follows too often an excessive **The causes. sweet-meats and the intemperate eating of other products which are phlegmatic (reduces meta- they are etiologic bolism). vegetableleaves. fermenting milk. lesions : consumption of various kinds of new cereals. III-Diahetes. or better still —Argyrol in 1-50 to 1-20 solution its to prevent the affection of the eyes with virus {ophthalmia neonatorum). fattening and diuretic factors of diabetes (that is. bean-broths (of new pisum sativum and phaseolus roxhurghi) seasoned with clarified batter. case of gonorrhea all precautions must ho taken and the baby's eyes should he waslied with one to two per cent silver-nitrate solution. rice and lentil curry.

chyle and lecithin (oja) are the predisposing causes ( become affected ) "C/iarctka II. the patient good health.002 1. Except excessive and loss fluid. the urine is (sweetish) like the . in is which the ( quantity of urine it is enormously to increased light-pale in color and the specific gravity is low (1. blood. only inosite ( muscle-sugar ) is met with on thirst rare of occasions. lymph. nervous origin] otherwise might be in apparent This disease is supposed to be of .007) .. sugar or casts .25J( ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE spiration. 4. but it does not contain albumin. marrow. the total urea output is slightly increased. (production of) semen. painless "The (micturition) and : in ^udaka-meha' 10 to 30 pints). [diabetes Insipidfis. There are various kinds of diabetes urine aquatic is whitish.

030 to is usually of high . This disease is due is to the lesion of the pancreas which seews to control the carbohybrate like metabolism) in *siira-meha'' amount spirituous liquor [acetonuria in which a large of acetone is excreted with the urine. . is pale. the quantity of urine is greatly increased specific (5 to 20 pints) and (1. cellulose ^pyroacetic spirit')^ and of varioub organic compounds.DISEASES sugar-cane juice in ^ikm-meha' or glycosuria in 255 ( diabetes mellitiis to which tlie urine contains one ten per cent of glycose.045) urea is in- creased and in advar)C<^d stage of the disease acetone. gravity 1. especially withdrawn from diet when sugar fur completely susrar some time or metabolism is disturbed. septicemia and in is diabetes. . acute rheumatic fever. the urine indicating incomplete oxidation of albumiaes and fats. diacetic and B-oxybutyric acid may be present. produced commercially by the destructive distillation of acetates (whence the name and sugar. Acetone is a colorless mobile liquid of pleasant odor. cancerous miliary tuberculosis. typhoid fever. cachexia intestinal auto-intoxication. acid and has a sweetish odor . especially in absence of carbohydrate which is needed for their complete combustiono Acetonuria is met with in inanition. acute pneumonia.



simplest representative of the aliphatic ketones and is known as '^demethylIt has some anesthetic quality and i'-etone\
ingested in excess or under certain pathological condition of the alimentary canal passes with the urine (A.
desurins, p. 306) ; urination is painful and the urine contains sand-like minute but hard and angular crystals (uric acid sands)

smells as


Pure alcohol



L"* analyse

in 'slkata-meha' {[/ravel

—very small concretions,

usually of uric acid, calcium oxalate or phosphates, are formed in the kidney and pass through ureter with the urine) ; repeated micturition of
viscous phlegmatic (colorless, jellylike) and substance in mnairmeha^ [ fibrinuria in which a
colorless sticky sediment {coagulum)^ or if much febrin is present, the conversion of the urine

into a jellylike mass upon standing takes place. It is due to the presence of fibrinogen and a ferment capable of forming fibrin. It occurs in


where the plasma of the blood enters some

portion of the urinary tract, as in chyluria, croupous inflammation of the tract, villous growths

the bladder] the urine is clear and saline in 'lavanameha* ( chlorides are normally present 'in the urine and are daily excreted from 8 to

10 grams


but a persistent increase of 15





grams occurs

in the prodromal stage of general paand diabetes insipidus, during convalescence resis from lobar pneumonia and post convulsive stage

of epilepsy)




contraction) and the urine

( peripheral whitish like thick

water {albuminuria occurs



nephritis, chronic

parenchymatous nephritis and the dispharge is turbid and thick in

*sandra-meha^ {gleet in chronic urethritis causes a thin whitish discharge, but becomes, also, thick

and yellowish under various causes. The origin of the discharge is the numerous mucous follicles, lining that portion of the urethra corresponding to the



chronic inflammation.

congested, granular or abraded patches there is a constant hyper-secretiou of mucus exist, or muco-pus with exfoliation of the epithelium


upon the surface

of the lesion.


this condi-

current of urine, as it passes over tion the diseased portion of the canal, rolls up into
strings or

threads the desquamated epithelium and muco-purulent deposit upon the surface and

this appears in the urine as the delicate thready filament which is a familiar occurrence in chronic




the discharge



the semen,

in 'sukra-meha^


indicative of

self-abuse, excessive coitus, sexual





and prodrome of locomotor ataxia. Sedentary habits, an habitually loaded rectum, asearides, and the too free use of condiments and liquors may be responsible for the slighter degree of the symptom. In a
as cause or consequence,






sleep, if

occurring at intervals of 2 to 6

weeks, are quite normal. But if it be much more frequent and if the emissions occur without



unconsciously to the patient, in the or while straining at stool, their

is character pathological in are found matozoa



also in


cases of



They occur



disease of



Occasionally a small amount of expressed from the vesiculae seminales

by the pressure of hard fecal masses, during severe expulsive efforts accompanying obstinate The persistent presence of sperconstipation.
matozoa in the urine


symptomatic of sperma-

scanty foamy urine in ^phenameha^ the urine is scanty, acid, ( in renal congestion, of high specific gravity and usually cloudy with


transparent and bluish indiccmm'la in which indican is found in large

The urine






albuminous substances under-

the intestine, or are rapi(31y decomposing in any part of the body, as in the putrid pus of septic peritonitis, or in empyema, indol is formed. When the indol is


])acterial p'utrefaction in


it is

oxidized, forming indoxyl,

and the



the preformed potassium become the conjugate potassium
or as





more commonly indican which is itself


comes in contact with acids or oxidizingagents, it is decomposed with the formation of
indigo blue.


excessive formation of indican
intestinal putrefaction*

indicative of


As a

usually associated with hypochloro-hydria, as hydrochloric acid exerts restraining influence on proteolytic bacteria. An excess
of indican

found in gastric cnncer and peritothe micturition is painful and the urine nitis ) has the color of turmeric (curcuma has yellowisliis




in ^haridra-meJia* {choluriain


the urine

yellowish-brown or greenish-yellow due to the presence of bilirubin in the urine. Ifc

occurs in



in which an excessive

quantity of bile is excreted as bilious remittent fever and part of it appears unchanged in the urine ) ; sour odor and sourish taste in ^amla»


oxaluria in which there

excretion of oxalates.


a persistent oxalic acid is

excreted daily from 0. 010 to 0. 020 gram ( onesixth to one-third grain ), but exists in combination as calcium oxalate,



held in solution

by the acid sodium phosphate of the urine, and when the latter is deficient, the oxalates ave
Oxalic acid is increased precipitated. as cabbage, rhubarb, tomato, foods,

by certain and to a

extent by asparagus, spinach, carrots, beans and celery. Oxalic acid may also string result from oxidation of uric acid or an incom]
plete oxidation of carbohydrates, in which case the intermediate product is oxaluric acid.


persistent increase in the excretion of oxalates with the disorders of is usually associated



gastro-intestinal tract or neurasthenia ) ; urine is like pressed alkaline water from

and touch which a conin ^hsara-^nelicC ( siderable amount of earthy phosphates mixed
cloth, in smell, color, taste

phosphaturia in

•with fixed alkali


excreted with the urine.


found in dyspepsia and neurasthenia. Occasionally the fixed alkali and the earthly phosphates deposit their sediments in the bladder, and the few whitish drops passed at the end of urination like semen, may be their symptomic


decidedly alkaline. daily excreted from

The urine

is is

Normally phosphoric acid

2 to 3 grams ( 30 to 45 grains ) in combination as alkaline and earthly phosphates, the alkaline derived from the It is salts predominating.

food and partly from the decomposition of lecithin and nuclein. The excretion is greatly increased
in leucemia, pernicious anemia, uervous dyspepsia and considerably diminished in intermittent malaria,





temperature, typhoid, nephritis, chronic rheumatthe ism and yellow atrophy of the liver )



like the

water of Indian madder {manjishas bright red color

tlia=7mhia ynunjista, which

^manjistha-meha' ( hemoglobinuria in which blood- coloring matter tlie urine contains the
'hemoglobin' and

oxidation product *methemoHemoglobinuria occurs in cases whereits

such an extensive destruction of the the erythrocytes that it exceeds the power of

hepatic activity to transform
liberated hemoglobin
into of

the whole





excess escapes
It is

the kidney with the found in pernicious bilious remittent

by way

malarial fever, especially after excessive doses of form of quinine, syphilis, yellow fever and severe



and the urine


like the blood in



*sonitcMneha' {hematuria in which the red-corpuscles of the blood appear in the urine. It occurs

in cases where there

is an acute congestion of the and the number of erythrocytes indicates kidney the severity of the lesion. Bloody urine may be

voided in leucemia, hemophilia, purpura, and in renal cancer, tuberculosis, abscess and lithiasis).

The discharge






*sarpi-meha' {pyuria in yxXnoXv the pus appears in the urine. It may be due to different causes, but often it is associated with the gonorrheal

The urine contaiuing


usually bladder alkaline); the urine is fatty in 'vasa-meha* {lipuria in which the fat is present in the urine


renal lesion

acid and

pus from from the

in such quantities as to enable its identification by the unaided eye. The fat may appear in the

urine due to the ingestion of excessive amounts of fat (fat meat, or in cases of fracture involving the bone marrow and causino^ fat embolism, in






lipemia of diabetes mellitus, from the fatty degeneration of the renal epithelium in chronic
in pyonephrosis or cells, the urinary tract, or in the fatty neoplasm along degeneration in phosphorus poisoning. If the






crowded with minute


globules as

to present a
it is

to tlie

milky appearance

naked eye,

called 'chyhiria' or 'galactiiria\ Chyluria

usually due to parasitic origin, especially due to the presence of 'filaria, sanguinis hominis'}; the color like urine is in taste and honey-sugar
{hsaiidra = fruit-sugar, that is levulose) in hsaudrameha'' {levidosuria in T^'hich levulose appears in the


seems that the pancreas does not regikte the metabolism of levulose, for when there

glycosuria, a g3od deal of fruit sugar can he assimilated. Prolahly the liver synthetizes the fruit sugar and in tie severe hepatic lesion or in the presence of

intolerance for

dextrose as in

bxias in the blood which causes irritation to the

which possess a considerable power


uiiize sugars,

abnormally excreted

wth the urine, though its permeability through tb kidney is nearly four times less than that of
mdtose); the urine flows like that of a mad eleph,nt in ^hasti meha' {polyuria or the diahetes
inspidus in which 10 to 20 quarts of pale is eschar ged daily). Susruta 11. 6. lO*^*^.




^ti^l, ^"^^j fq^^g^'






^^ft, '^w ^^^ ^st ^i^f( -^m




*'Any one

who repeatedly urinates warm urine, suffers from
which the


(cilkaptoniiria in

urine darkens on




presence of


(glycosuric acid) or related oxyacids, or melanin from melanotic cancer; or in hemoglobinuria as
in pernicious remittent bilious fever, duo to tte destruction of large amounts of erythrocytes,

the blood-pigment may undergo change ai^d appear in the urine as brownish-black or blackish ^


for this

reason the



called ''blacU



II. 4. 17.'^'.

acquired diabet© mellitus {madhu-meha) by hereditary transmit It is not only hereditar/' sion, he is incurable.
glycosuria that









wmf^Tir^^ ^^im:


^fq':nwrsi ^f^^'^ft



iT€t^ »^5^^'

^t ^'^g'^ ^i^f?f







remedy." CharaJca




*'As birds easily take shelter glycosuria rapidly attacks those
to gluttony, but averse to



are addicted

bathing and walking



proves fatal

exertion). Glycosuria one who lacks energy, is very


fleshy, fat and extremely corpulent. eats only to cover his metabolic needs,

He who

his health." CharaJca IT. 4. 32. ^^\

"If the diabetes

lasts for

a long

time, then






diarrhoea, hyperaemia, weakness, anorexia, indi-




boils, 4. 30'''".



gangrenes." Charaka II.
lis. 5fTcT^^

'I^Mt ^


=^f^ ^f%(T li^i^T


^q^^^T^^irg iRtf%^ (f^T^^TTf^igi^rfft^^Kt^^r^i^:)


a diabetic has boils tlien an expert surgeon




him by them by


cleaning and restoring instruments. Chai^aka



42^ ^\
it is is

la diabetes mellitus, sary to know whether the disease or inherited. In lesions affecting


acquired the pons

medulla, cerebellum, liver, thyroid and especially the pancreas, diabetes may be provoked. But in
other diseases which

do not



the pancreas, as in syphilis, acute infection, traumatic and surgical neurasthenia, physical and

mental excesses, there usually exists a predispo->ing cause.

Tlie predisposing

cause consists

of metabolic

deficiency of assimilating carbohyIt might lie in some inherent weakness

of the hepatic and principally the pancreatic cells or that of the organism to burn the carbohydrates or that of the nervous
ling the process.



Susruta did not


guish them.














hereditary has weak appetite (anorexia)^ very lean, dry (skin), polydipsia and is very nervous ; the alimentary



diabetic is



fleshy, has voracious appetite {hulimid),

addicted to sedentary habits adiposis and is (fond of bed, seat and sleep. The lean diabetic should be treated by dietetic regulation, and the
fat diabetic


a'pata^^'pana^ (exercise

and fasting).

Smruta IV.

11. 2'-".

Prophylaxis should begin with children, especially wlien children of hereditarily predis-





with tendencies to

neurosis, goat or obesity, and tbey should not intermarry with families of the same diathesis,

over-indulge in sugars or




excess of carbohyhereditary tendencies

should avoid taking sugar and should not exceed in the carbohydrate diet beyond the physiologic

fqqT^37 qf^€^^^Qi^ x^'m










^j^ciq ^-



and metabolic needs.

would be wise

to partly replace the carbohydrates with fat and protein. Tendency to obesity should be com-

batted by regular exercise and frugal diet. When obesity has developed, it should be reduced by

a slow process of moderate daily outdoor exercise and a slight undernutrition, especially in carbohydrates and fat.
Glycosuria can be successfully fought only by rational dietary. It is a safe policy in the beo-inning: of the treatment to eliminate




It may be said carbohydrates from the diet. that the excretion of sugar in the against this, urine is but a symptom of the lesion, and the

elimination of the

can not remedy tli& cause of the lesion, and moreover even in a sugarfree diet, sugar is synthetically prepared and

excreted out of the protein and fat molecules. This may be all true, but the clinical experience shows that in a sugar-free diet, the patient soon





presence of an excessive quantity of sugar in the circulation and tissues which can not be metabolized,

causes various pathological changes and manifestations. Von Noorden finds the use of

oatmeal gruel once a week proves very beneficial. But on the oatmeal day he forbids the

conlesions taining tar. even not egg or milk. iodol or aristol can be used with advantage. The alternating constipation and is symptomatic of diabetes due to gastro-intestinal disorders. fat. . Only a little butter is permitted. Strong purgatives should be avoided. are apt to take place in. boric acid or eucalyptus have proved beneficial. should be remedied by laxative and constipative food according to diarrhoea which the needs. as there is levulose. in constipation Carlsbad or can be given and in diarrhoea Special attention irrigation should be applied. great care should be taken that or the surrounding tissues 1 other parts use. Epsom salts as many skin glycosuria.DISEASES 269 ^se of any protein. do not become infected and for local iodoform. should be given to the cleanliness of the skin. is just as containing tolerance minimum can for of glucose like the lemon and orange certain be given. And the day before the oatmeal diet. When an infective process has already begun. Mild antiseptic neutral soaps. be gives only vegetables and Levin e finds that potato Fruits efiicacious as the oatmeal. Diabetes insipidus : The pathology of this tlisease is not yet well understood. If this is not sufficient. It occurs in cases where tliere is lesion in the pons.

uremia (mutra^l-saya). IV. It may is be caused principal by many cause. obstruction to the passage of urine {mutrotsanga = urethritis). spermatorrhea iTrmtra- mkra)^ cystitis (usna-vdta) and gangrenous is or suppurative cystitis {mutraiikasdda). is form (that causes This causes much pain and there repeated painful scanty micturition. — Diseases of the Bladder. "If the urine is concentrated and not eva- cuated (in time). it the ted and circulates is humor 'e. follows : 'There are twelve kinds of lesions of the bladder as —annular hard swelling {vata- tumor globular {mutrasthUd=»mt/oma)i swelling oi: the mouth of the bladder (vdtavasti=p7'0static hypertrophy)^ kundalikd=peric2/stis ). fibroma {mutra-granthi). {mTttrat'ita ( = vesical tenesmus abdominal j at har a = oveY'distensioii and bladder mTdra^ hypertrophy of the bladder with contraction aiid obstruction of the cavity). is diseases. difficult and scanty repeated urination ). but syphilis case its the And in that principal remedy antisyphilic treatment. difficult disease .270 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE tlie medulla or cerebellum.«y«^' becomes vitiaat the mouth in circular annular This infiammation).

are deprived of proper nutrition and lack their full power of resistance. ot* which implies iuflammation :}lie tlie tunica advenitia of bladder. (e) Infections as the kidney from the adjacent organs and the . small-pox. The chemical constituents : probably of the the urine urine are often profoundly altered abnormal substances of is concentrated it contains . This complication disease. Toward cause. typhoid cholera. (b) In constitutional diseases as gout and diabetes in which the urine is irritant. influenza. In general septicemia as pyemia or internal suppuration of any organ in which the suppuration foci may be brought to the (c) bladder. fever. Inflammation of tlie bladder {cystitis) : may be provoked by various causes as follows occur during tlie course of («) Cystitis may many acute infectious diseases as acute articular rheimiatism. disturbed metabolism which are more or less irritant and moreover may contain the pathogenic germs The tissues of the bladder of specific infections. diphtheria.DISEASES is 27 1 known as *vata-hundaliJca {pericystitis. (d) Prom irritating food and drink as pepper and irritant excessive consumption of strong and alcoholic drinks. a number factors contribute. measles. or its may may set in during the height of the during of appear convalescence.

The simple aseptic inflammation may be provoked by the irritating substances in the urine. bladder may Urethritis is is a common of an important passage factor. cause of which gonorrhea In acute gonorrhea gonococci is favored through spincter vesicae in its ascent during vesical congestion under sexual excitement or under the the stimulation of food. oxalates. alcohol or irritating is spicy also Chronic prostatic hypertrophy often a causative factor of the congestion of the base of the bladder. or by the lymph channel or by contiguity of the tissues. ulcerous Disturbances the gangrenes. if they are concentrated in the urine are active irritants of the bladder. And their tlie can be ascribed to primary role of the irritants the uric acid sands and calculi. metabolic or ingested. urates and sugar. ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE Tlie be affected by the kidney either directly by the urine. It is well known tliat ammonia. The cystites are of two kinds —simple aseptic and septic. by the disturbances in the function of micturition or by the disturbances in the circulation incident to vascular or nervous conditions. functions of the urine .272 urethra. if They by gestion mechanical irritation cause coninflammation and in and the patho- genic germs are present.

the too frequent and too forceful contractions in the act of urination this condition. proteus vulgaris (which possesses the power of decomposing urea with the production of ammoniacal reaction). retention and obstruction are organic^ takes place. albus decompose urea. gouococcus and tubercle bacillus. In an analogous manner. The reflex influences of an inflammation of the vesical mucous membrane are alone able to provoke frequent urination. Various microseptic infection organisms have been found to be related with the as the suppurative process staphylococcus and citreus which can pyogenes aureus. bacteri- um coli. streptococcus pyogenes. Thus the condition is powerfully of the frequent micturition 18 usually worse in the . except in the beginning and in mild cases when the urine remains acid. cal urine partial retention of the irritant urine excites the detrusors. The causes of frequency are threefold. the tion of the organ.DISEASES 27$:^ cause more or less hyperemia and inflammation. Over-distension of the bladder either voluntary or pathological. the irritation of ammonia- and of precipitated salts effects contracIn cases of obstruction. *'Unusual frequency of micturition is present in all cases. When bring about the causes of the over- distension..


of prostatic obstruction. In violent movement usually cystitis,

contracted bladder


Tenesmus is frequentIn some cases it becomes so exly present. aggerated and remains almost constant, that the
aggravates the condition.
patient in order to get relief from the


ing pain, constantly attempts to urinate, to force a few drops, though the bladder may be almost
'*'Vdyu' causes in the intermediate region of the lower intestine and the bladder, a hard,

immovable and tough tumor.
intestinal gas.


causes the

obstruction of the passage of the feces, urine and



This provokes tympanitis and This (disease) is known as *vatastMla* is usually a hard interstitial tumor,

producing a globular induration of the bladder
It is generally

the orifice of
the size

the bladder, and
of a cherry

has been noted from



such dimension as





The tumor


divided into


bv connective

composed of unstriped

main bulk muscle-cells, in some

places arranged in fasciculi, in others irregularly


"In any one who retains urine, the 'vayu* of the bladder becomes vitiated and closes the mouth of

the bladder, obstructed.









and the prostrate {kuksi= groin) as an oppressor (in intumescence). This disease is very hard to cure and it is called ^mta-vasti*
in the bladder

hypertrophy of the prostate which
in size

may range

from an orange



of a

The hypertrophy may be


affecting the whole organ symmetrically or the enlargement is confined within the capsule of

the gland and may extend a considerable distance, pushing the capsule and remain only connected

with the prostate by a glandular and fibrous tissue. As the internal spincter may be considered
as an integral part of the prostate, hence any alteration of the structure of the latter would

be followed by the interference of the function of the former. In addition, as the prostate is
limited in front and

below by dense fascia, it tends to grow upward and backward as it hypertrophies, elongating and narrowing or deflecting
the urethra, according to whether the enlargement is symmetrical or irregular, but always raising the vesical outlet to a higher level than


The urine therefore





(residual urine) settles at the


causing the formation of calculi by precipitation



and sedimentation of the mineral constituents. And an early effect of the prostatic hypertrophy is congestion and later inflammation of that portion of the mucous memhrane of the bladder in




The inflammation

spreads in time,

venous return.


aggravated by the sluggish as the passage of the urine

reduced, the bladder can only be incompletely evacuated and a small quantity at a time by

slow dribbling from the distended bladder. And in this condition, the mucous membrane offers

but slight resistance to microbic invasion). "If for a long time the urine is retained, then

when an attempt


made for


evacuation, there

appears but slightly. If strained, the urine appears with slight pain and in small quantities. This disease is caused by

no micturition, or

the suppression of the urine, and
Ufa* {vesical tenesmus). **If the urine is suppressed,
distension vitiates


called 'mutrct'

causes distension




and provokes painful This is called 'mutra-jathara* and contracts the do-wnward channel

{hypertrophy of the bladder with contraction the cavity and obstruction of the passage).

"In the disease in which the flow of the urine

interfered with either at the neck of the urethra



or near the glans penis, or under tenesmus bloody urine appears with pain, or without pain it dribbles little by little, this is known as ^mutrot-

sang a' {urethritis).

This disease


caused by a

qualified (special) 'vayu\

and ^myit absorb the urine. It causes hyperemia and
an emaciated and

tired body,


pain. This disease

called 'mutraksaya^ (uremia)



very troublesome. (Uremia occurs in course of acute or chronic nephritis,

puerperal eclampsia, some cases of obstructed and occasionally in patients renal calculus, with pronounced vascular changes. The symp-

toms are





amaurosis, mania, delirium, dyspnea,

In complete uremia, the patient lives about 10 to 12 days). "The tiny, globular and firm tumor that is formed at the interior part of the neck of the
increased arterial tension.

called 'mutra—granthi (^fibroma geneoccurs ia the adult and is usually located

single upon the base like that of a nut.

and trigonum.


size is



sessile or predi-


hard or


The surface


and covered with normal or inflamed mucous

membrane, which may or not be firmly attached On section tlie tumor is white to the growth.




and there may be patches of

This myxomatous or areas of calcification). tumor is painful, nonulcerative and narrows the mouth of the bladder. It resembles pain likethat of calculus.

any one indulges

in sexual intercourse

with full bladder, then the semen is displaced and becomes mixed with urine, and pale watery

semen appears

just before urination or after called ^mutra-sukra^ {prostatorrhea).





heavy exercise,

long journey or exposure to the sun, and mixed with the *vayu'' brings about the inflammation
of the bladder,

(sympathetic) and

urethra and the pelivic region: causes discharge. In this


or pure



excreted with tenesmus.



by the

specialists as ^ttsiia-vata*



the urine



yellow, or according to the extent of bleeding, the color will vary from the faintest pink to a

deep dark-red).

"The disease in which the urine is excreted
with burning sensation, and concentrated, and

turbid, dark-brownish



(by the sun or


a residue

powdered' the bilious 'mutrankasadd'

cystitis^ in wliich

the urine


containing tenacious flocculi of altered pus and there is a large amount of precipitated salts and
standing, a heavy sediment forms, but the supernatant urine does not become


The crystalline sediment consists of a amount of amorphous phosphates, ammonium urates and large amorphous The crystals of quantities of triple phosphates. ammoniun urate are dark balls which may be


spiculated ; the triple phosphate commonly appears in the form of slab-shaped crystals ; there may however, be needles, squares and


forms of irregular crystallization). The disease in which the urine is whitish, concentrat-

ed and appears with tenesmus, and when dried, it is pale>colored like the conch-shell powder and




be known as phlegmatic 'mutrati' cystitis and tumor of the bladder in

which the urino
a heavy

pale- whitish, opalescent, with deposit of pus, phosphates and detritus.

It is alkaline in


The benign tumors

compatible with long life: in several carefully observed subjects, they The course existed, ten, twenty or more years.
are in themselves
of papilloma is largely determined by the hemorrhage and the complications. The malignant


fatal within

tumors are usually

one or two years,

particularly of the base or the neck. The fatality of the disease of course depends upon the site

the variety





clinical course,

and complications of



The causes

of death are


Barely profuse hemorrhrge has been the direct In the cachectic debility which follows cause.

hemorrhage, the system becomes and any intercurrent disease may
''Charaha VI. 58, 2-13 1'\



^i «T^

1^ '^[fq












these thirteen kinds of urinary











irrigations are applicable.

The cylinder

of the bougie is to be



^f%g# F^s^: t%T




€ ^^r^^fe^w^






^'?^ ^'i?^^


gold or


The aperture





of gold should be like that of the jasmine flower stem, and that of the silver like a mustard
It should have the shape like a cow's tail (slightly curved and graduated in dimension)^

with two rings (so that it can not be pushed farther than is necessary, or it might wound the bladder) and twelve digits long." Charaka VIII.

28-29 1*^*.

51^^^^ ^f^ <W, V^ ^t^ ^' ^^rf ^^ «T^ "^ VRf?T ?^m THtT^ 'U^f^WT





ft r<i<ji5tlji




T|P^* »Tgf?r J^^rft





ftrf%^' ^'f ^

^tt o^t r^' Tirat







the treatment

The underlying
of acute

principles in

chronic cystitis are (a) to render the urine bland and slightly antiseptic ; (b) to

put the bladder at



to relieve




to lessen pelvic congestion. With healthy kidney and in non-suppurating cystitis of the bladder,

the urine

may be made

bland by drinking


or butter-milk or plenty water. Hot baths, particularly hot sitzpure baths are revulsive and counter-irritant. They

good deal of whey


relieve pain tion leeches

and congestion.
also be


to the


may neum and above

peritoapplied the pubis. To make the urine can be administered slightly antiseptic, salol three times a day, in small doses of five









Irrigation removes mechanically decomposing discharges, diminishes^ the quantity of pus and mucus, renders the

best curative

means known.

urine bland and unirritating, lessens the severity of the inflammation, lessens further fermentation

and and

decomposition, and exerts healing influence upon


stimulating the diseased
of cystitis,





and strangury frequency, urgency, tenesmus are chiefly dependent upon inflammation located





Thous:li irrigation







part can

be easily

reached, and the healing influence of a disinfectant and soothing lotion can be easily exerted on it. This can bo accomplislied by irrigations,
instillations or


drainage, or all these combined. a weak, non-irritating, irrigation, antiseptic


preferable as silver nitrate


5000 to

500, potassium
carbolic acid



5000 to 2000, 500^ boric acid 1 50, normal




per cent.



only recommended when the patient urinates easily and empties his bladder completely. But
bladder should not be distended to the
point of


pain and spasm.


Usually one daily but in severe cases, it can





painful, irrigation can be done by a soft catheter. The catheter is attached to a fountain syringe. The lotion is allov/ed to flow through and while
it is

flowing, the catheter

the bladder.

slowly passed into Three to five ounces are injected

and the tube leading to the fountain syringe the injection is allowed discontinued, and
flow out.










hard rubber



a silver or





provided with a fine canal.


end of the





a hypodermic

syringe with a capacity for forty minims and is a choice lotion, silver nitrate 1 to filled with 5 per cent in gonorrheal cystitis, iodoform

emulsion in tubercular cases with ten per cent The catheter is lubricated with glycerine.
glycerin or boroglyceride, and

introduced into

the urethra until

within the grasp of the compressor urethrae muscle. The piston of the syringe is then driven down, causing the
its tip is

injection to

along the membraneous and prostatic urethra into the bladder. The simplest and the safest form of drainage


by continuous




catheter of




be selected.

Important points
the catheter

to observe are that the


eye of within the bladder and

that the instrument
drains this viscus.

thoroughly and continually To determine the eye of the
the bladder

catheter in relation to the neck of the bladder,

the instrument


introduced and
to six


ounces of boric acid

solution are

then injected,

and the catheter


withdrawn until the




then passed in until the fluid hegins to flow, and is held in this position until the bladder is

empty. This continuous catheterization may be kept up from one to three weeks. It usuThis ally causes a mild traumatic urethritis.

by withdrawing the catheter slightly at each irrigation until its end lies without the compressor urathrse muscle. By forcing an antitreated

solution into

the catheter,



flash out the entire anterior urethra.

then In case

suprapubic drainage can be also performed with advantage. The method adopted by the Charaka School

intense pain,





**The patient

after his bath,

shall take


or milk.

And he


be seated on a

easy and comfortable cushion, after he has evacuated his bladder when there is natural call. Then his penis should be massaged with oint-


After that

a sound





be introduced for the urethral exploration. If the sound passes without any obstruction, then
should be withdrawn, and the eye of the bougie introduced. All the regulations recomit


for anal If the


{enema) are to be allowed to flow at

great speed,

causes inflammation of the base.

"Bladder-irritability. strangury. Symptoms ). so with a steady hand (not trembling ). 9. anorexia. fever.3^ = *. : — there are pains in the umbiculus. scrotum and the urethra. the color of the urine be- comes unnatural and micturition is painful.DISEASES 287 be not sufficient. ^m^ »j?s*ra^ \%^ ^^^^^f\^i\*ii 'fit q:5rerTfq ^ \ 5!ig^ ^ ^tf^ I u ar^fnr^r^^ ifH 5EraRftf?cfT II cm: ^tRiflTT^sf 3«ti^^ utaitH g^Jtnr (wm'^ iT^t^ %'<i^^ 11 . lacerating pain at the neck of the bladder." Charaka VII. Moreover.bladder. it does not spread the surface. With the calculi formation. lassitude. J 25. Trodrome of lithiasis : and the goat-smell of the urine are the prodromes of lithiasis. before the calculus formation. the bougie is to be introduced if it and all over and withdrawn.scrotum. The urine is concentrated and cloudy ( with urates ( The urine becomes corrupt with 'vai/u' ammoniacal decomposition ).

jumping. in though the hemorrhage from the bladder the quantity of . riding and long journeys (violent movements are apt to cause friction of the stone with the vesical surface ). 3. bloody the invariably present oritice). blood and the degree of pain depends on the nature of ulcerated surface and the contour is never profuse of the stone urine like urine." Susnita II.288. clear urine containing sand ( uric acid crystals) and pain is much increased by running. splashing that of a gem (reddish). 4-6^-* ^^f^T^[^ T^^M^iT^^ JTlt^opraTSmsiTf^a' HftRTcT f^5ll% ><l«41t!(f »!- . ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE urethra aud their adjacent regions at the time of micturition. sudden interference with the flow of the urinal stream (by the spasmodic the veluntarv muscles when a small closinor of is stone forced into the vesical is urine (the blood vesical calculus. the color of the ).

are the softest. color and then the passage of urine is obstructed. smooth ( pure uric-acid stones . There is defecation with tremor. are yellow. when the calculus is dislodged from the 19 . like pea (custin) or soft (amorphous phosphates). the urine comes mixed with blood. is ( the oxalate-of-lime the hardest. often orange-dark in less spherical in it more or form and studded its with nodules. like stone finely laminated are often found among th^ vesical calculi. Calculi are formed in various shapes like that of the flower of 'nuclea cadamba* calculus color.DISEASES **As gallstone is 289 formed in a cow by desicca- tion of the bile. red or brown in generally present a smooth surface). and if the urethra is But wounded. There is lancinating pain in the scrotum. so calculus is formed. and it provokes great pain ( the stone is grasped and forced against the sensitive neck either by the flow of urine or in violent motion as jolt- ing over a rough road or riding ). This exasmakes repeated perates the patient and he attempts to urination. with alternate layers of distinctly crystal- line oxalates and urates the urates are yellowreddish in color ) . urethra and the bladder. If the calculus is pushed against the vesical orifice. whence derives ( name as mulberry calculus stones ).

^^\ cT. 127.290 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE the urine again flows with ease. fatigue of the thighs. 2 1 ' ^ (gravel). a fine yellow reddish sediment ) and amor- through the ^ — phous phosphates {bhasmakhya-meha) are varieties of lithiasis. 26. be obstructed in the passage through the polydipsia. The symptoms and pain of gravel resemble that of calculus. cyanosis. called tremor. sand (sikata uric acid brick dust." ^* Gravel (sarkard). urethra and is called *sarkara* Charaka VI. cretions) urine. they favorable 'vayu\ the calculi (conare excreted with the If If the calculus it up into minute fragments by *vayu\ is the gravel. anorexia and indigestion. anemia. urethra. If the calculus is split into fragments. pain in the perineum. The gravel causes heartache. it passes vesical neck.?P5r^cT5TT??^ g ^^if fq^f^^ ^=^T ^Tt: II j^^ '^in%f f?i 51^ ^' ^5ft ere? ^itt^ ^ » . with is split are tiny. if the gravel weakness. nausea.

scrotum. When not over-distended. rectum. serving as a receptacle for the urine and has a strong muscular investment of unstriped muscles in several layers. . pubic bones. mora when empty. lined with mucous membrane and covered except in its lower portion with a loosely attached peritoneal coat. The bladder is like bottle-gourd (alabu-lagenarm vulgaris ser) in shape and arteries is covered with nerves. attached below. The bladder has only one orifice or outlet (urethra) and its base is down- ward. or less horizontal body.DISEASES **The licus. and from its neck the urethra arises. During the fetal and infantile life. and veins. the ureters empty. the uterus) behind. a hollow organ. its skin (muscular coating) is thin. essentially a occupy more It is It is muscular organ. which are innervated by branches from the sacral nerves). to it becomes an oval bag and or less the hypogastrium. but free to expand above. The bladder is situated in the pelvis. but when It is a flattened. rises so as- distended. it holds about a pint Into its of urine It is — somewhat more in woman than in man. between the pubic bones in front and the rectum (in woman. 29 1 Madder is situated in the midst of umbi- back-boue. lower and posterior portion. it is usually situated above the pubes. groin and the urethra.

(perhaps including the prostates) urethra. behind the peritoneum. the bladder-neck. the *hylus\ where the vessels and the nerves enter and leave the organs and where the ureter emerges. it is formed of the pyramids whose bases rest in the cortex and .292 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE The all bladder. The former is darker colored and more granular it in appearance than the latter . The medulla is lighter in color and striated and contains the majority of the straight tubules . {the discharge their waters into tubules in the digestive canal kidneys are bean-shaped organs. The envelope. contains the Malphigian corpuscles and most of the convoluted tubules. about. bladder (genito-urinary ) the pelvis. The other the ^receptacle for the it is excretory product* (malddhara)^ and a vital As rivers so the the ocean. testicles and rectum are united is in one system is and situated within of the name organ. which dips into the sinus at the hylus. about opposite the twelfth thoracic and first three lumbar vertebrae. 4J inches in length and 2 inches in width and li inches in thickness. the ^capsule'. The substance of the organ is divided into cortex kidney is enclosed in a fibrous and medulla. lying on either side of the spinal column. At the inner edge of each kidney is a concave depression.

"Calculus is it up to its hard to cure and is dangerous. I '*i<l-^'*iP<Mi*1' g si^'O'^ vRf^ =^ I . as a new earthen pot (porous) is filled up by the surrounor asleep ding water. ^X[ ftRRTT ^¥t ><t«l^i»i. 3. they are invisible.*<RlfKW. bladder. 13-14 ^=^«." Susruta II.DISEASES . 29 at whose aspices are the renal calyx. this which point the central collecting tubule opens into a papillae in turn emptying into the pelvis of the kidney from which the water with the waste products of metabolism dissolved into it passes into the ureter and thence into the urinary urine into the bladder. Awake they trickle down by osmosis {nisyanda) and fill up the bladder. if pressed down into neck. discharges the These tubules are thousands in number and because of their minuteness. 128.

^fe^fefs?^''^ ^m 'iWt 5^ II tr^t 'WT fWT ft% ^fefl^'i ^^ II 18 . "In the preliminary stage of lithiasis oleaginous potions are beneficial and remove the decoction of Plectrancause of its formation. Pentaptera arjuna. Asparagus racemosus. Aeschynomene Solanum grandiflora.294j ancient HINDU MEDICINE When it is young (tender). it may be controllable (hard). Pothus officinalis. Solanum melon gena. but when it is mature lias to be extracted by operation. Placourtia cataphracta. Columba domestica. Oxalis. jacquini. it by medicines. Barleria caerulia. Placourtia sapida. A thus scutellaroides.

Hordeum hexastichon. Hedysagangeticum. Bballuca.DISEASES 295 bisponosa. 7. if drunk in. soup. astringents and milk should be drunk for the amelioration of *vata\ Suiruta IV. ^»i^ ^T^'Tl senfyifi^ufd+it tct: i ^«w^?re^: ere? m^: u^^'^^^fh I ii '^ ^^ ^g ^^r^m'R ^^ ?^T^ *T^^^rg ^^^: sii^iit" ^^ ii II m\: w^m\': ^^fsf «*ti«*i^ tfiwrfsr '^ i ^R^rf^^N^i^f iTO?'^ fwKf% ^Tcw^ <ii*ia*i<T skth. Andropon muricatus. and sprinkled with alkabne earth. Trapa Tum Dolichos biflorus. in this treatment alkalies.seasoned witb clarified butter. Tectonae grandis fructus. Capparis trifoliata. f^H^ g i . Zizyphus jujuba and Strychni potatorum fructus. 3'^^ 129. And in addition. proper doses. barley- water. causes fracture of the calcuH.

stone has been many in the bladder {Ord. which had formed in solutions of gum. it is in phoshate calculi. It is possible that in a similar way. Uric acid or oxalate of lime calculi can be formed only in strongly acid urine urine phosphates of while in the alkaline ammonia and magnesia fore if in the uric are precipitated. Carbonate of potash. acetate of potash. It has been splitting in concentric demonstrated that spheres of carbonate of lime. piperine.either by radical cleavage from the centre to the periphery or by laminae. the urine can be line for made and kept alka- likely to create molecular instability of the calculi and split them into fragments. and consequently spontaneous cure takes place at some famous springs (as Carlsbad or Contrexeville) which enjoy special reputation for this curative property. Thereacid or oxalate of lime calculus. common and lithia . the urinary calculi split and disintegrate specific under the influemce reactions of of varying gravities and the urine.296 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE fracture of Spontaneous observed by d' ^strees. "which causes molecular tension and cleavage. if placed in a solution of different specific gravity. split radially and disintegrate. gravel or brick dust. Debouf Femcick^ Martin^ etc). And vice versa some time.

^\ ^^^ 'fir. When the calculus has been found. 7. calculi.DISEASES salts are also 297 ac- reputed to exercise a solvent tion upon uric acid crystals in the urine. ^'. it should be carefully forced down between the 130. mination stretches his upper part on his back and his pelvis raised by a cushion underneath it the legs are to be flexed (to about a right angle with the table ) and supported by a . Susruta IV. ^Irfjc^ftrrfii: i . carbonate of potash )^ milk and bougie do not ( then operation is the only remedy. massaged and pressed with unguents by hands as iong as the calculus does not come below the umbilicus. and lubricating the fingers with oil. the fore and the middle-fingers of the left hand should be introduced in the rectum towards the raphe scroti. ll'•"^ 'Tlace the patient upon the lap af a strong man (to hold in position) seated on a knee-high The patient with courage and detertable. Next after manicuring. alkalies astringent relieve the infusion. man be (on each side). "If emulsion. or held in position by a Then the umbilical region should cloth crutch.

According to some (autho- if it facilitates can also be made should be taken that the calculus be not broken into fragments ) rized. "In woman. therefore do not make long incision. use forceps with curved and concave in the inner side extracting calblades ( serrated ). incision at the right side. made at the proper place If ( the incision is by distending the bladder upward and forcing the calculus downward ). there cannot be any break in the bladder. the uterus is situated by the bladder. for if even ( the operation. medium^ized so and polished staff. rities ). Without lithotomy. as it might wound the sphincters ( mutra-sram ). nor deep incision. but if it does (in rupture by over-disten- .298 middle of in an ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE pubis and the urethra.* ••Incision should be made about third of an inch to the left of the raphe scroti and an inch and half from the anus ( of the ) and pressed «ize of the calculus. But care by the instruments or pulvea minute fragment remains the calculus { in it the bladder ). grows ( round as nucleus ). Therefore for culi. it might also result in the incontinence of urine in man by severing the sphincters ( by the lateral perineal incision ). hard that the calculus appears like a tumor. and placed even.

vmf^ \ m: ^m^i^ ^.^^'ic^<alj^^i^^^ ^. If however in the patient dies. filled witli bladder shall be irrigated with astringent effusion ** Susruta IV. 299 the extraction penetrated. the blood. it is found beneficial (in lithiasis). 7. and the little incontinence can not do much harm. and though the barleywater is diuretic. the patient should be given hot sitz bath ( hip bath ). After the extraction of the calculus. for the for the healing of are used also the incision wound. can be of applied for the cicatrization the other wound. And the penetration of the bladder ( sphincters ? ) in violation of the ( medical ) code. ..H^?rwfW(tfi^TOcR^n'^rt m^?T'!T^:'THk w^ qi^ i?i^!n?T?TTg §«<*?1*<i^i?i f'r^T^^- . of Ficus g\oma. the bladder can not be But if it takes place.vdit?e 'Trostatolith or phosphatic crystals ( prosta- ilf| ^$^<^^'^^. the calculus.DISEASES «ion ). the urine causes the formation of the of the urine c/ilculus. 13-15^^*. for in hot water. the bladder is of the that medicines patient might survive. is not Moreover.

If it can not be ). riding And though year.300 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE two kinds those formed in the or bladder and kidney lodging in the prostatic and those which originate in the sinus. . they should be extracted (by forceps) through the urethral passage. the wound is cicatrized for a intercourse. gland tic calculi are of — they are dislodged from their own cavities and are locked up in the passage through the urethra. itself if done then an incision should be made in the urethra ( median perineal urethrotomy and the ) calculus extracted by hook-forcep. sexual tree- horses and elephants.

heavy indigestible food should also be avoided. by the severance of the vesicula seminalis. charioteering and swimming should not be indulged in . SmrutalY. 19-20^ 3\ Modern lithotomi hardly differ^ much from when lateral i that of the Sus'ruta school. ureter. vas deferens. raphe vagina. especially 132- ^^^^^pi^^w^^^^f%^t^^^fH^i#^ tTfTiT?T_i erg .1. 301 mountaineering. by the severance of vas deferens. mentioned appear. vesicula scroti. ( dispersion of the urine to the contiguous tissues by percolation ) . impotence . death or eunuchism takes place . to penetration. all the their the raphe scroti the bladder and the symptoms due before. Make seminalis. by the severance of the ureter. incision so that the prostate. wound . death takes place by the accumulation of urine in the bladder (the passage for the discharge of the urine into the urethra being blocked by the tumorous or hypertro- phic growth of the prostate ). in causes intense pain and if rectum are wounded.DISEASES climbing. rectum or the bladder are not hurt. If the prostates are severed.

is drained off and distended by hot the bladder boracic lotion. except that before operation. And when the urethra is not roomy enough to admit an instrument of adequate calibre. litho- lapaxy can not be practised. litholapaxy seems to be the favorite means adopted for the removal of vesical calculus. and if under these circumstances. However. the wound is closed by sutures.302 incision is ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE made. lithotomy is adopted for the removal of the stone. or the stone is very large or hard (oxalate of lime calculus). After the bleeding has stopped. up serous membrane is met. but below the peritoneum. and kept ia that condition during operation by plugging the spigot of the silver catheter by which the injection has been intro- duced. Lithotrity consists of crushing the stone within the notched and inside fenestrated surface of very hard steel . operation as higher But generally now-a-days supra-pubia is preferred.

Tc\ febrile diseases . Susruta II. acute coryza as well as other "In the ''DcM affections. cracks or fissures if occurring in infants or children. "There The centers lips. 16. cavity three". and the removal of the by flushing out through a full-sized hollow metal catheter and an India-rubber wash detritus bottle. —rhagades—or the scars resulting from them. gum. tongue. of their origin are seven. namely. throat and the buccal cavity. gum fifteen.DISEASES 303 blades undev a severe and continuous pressure into a very fine powder. Diseases of the mouth. teeth eight. 2-3^ ^^ the lips are asperous ( herpes upon the lips are common in malaria. of diseases. V. palate. throat seventeen. and the buccal. 133. pneumonia. are sixty-five diseases of the mouth. fevers. Of these the lips have eight kinds tongue five. tooth. palate nine. are indicative ciftTT: ^^^\ ^H^ii<d%^ I cT^T?itT^=?fB^ ^T ^rrf^ ^^ \ .

blackish paralysis cyanosis associated with open and dry lips is or indicative of dyspnea. and associated with open lips it is observed in various conditions of prostration. the lips are bluish disease ). pressed and heated ( loose and pendulous lips are of suggestive diphtheritig paralysis. in idiocy and in cases of insanity ). of congenital syphilis middle of the lower the vertical crack in the lip. defective nutrition or may be ). or cheeks or edges of the tongue and soon rupture. chronic forms as compensation in valvular otherwise it may be associated with of the the associated local diseases mouth as stomatitis. due the to disease of the heart or lungs. leaving small and stomatitis. **In the 'pitta' affections of the ( lips. glossitis. or some form of nasal stenosis). numb ( bulbar palsy ).304) ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE . phlegmonous tonsilitis. associated with stomatitis dry ( associated with herpes ( labial or gastro-intestinal disorders. . ( cyanosed ). may be due to as occasionally seen. chronic bulbar palsy . lesions especially emphysema or failing . bronzed in Addison's and are covered with many vesicles like mustard seeds which give burning sensation. cacrum oris. and exudate ( in aphthous or follicular rupture small vesicles appear on the inner surface of the lips.

with the lips are covered with mucous patches like the color of the skin. from the corruption of flesh. coated with a gray matter. strictly delimited. bronzed in Addison's disease ). "In the ^kapha' affections of the edematous. and bleeding takes place from them {angioma). what irregular ulcer. the lips become heavy and swollen. the lips are covered with tumors dates which hcxve color like and they contain blood ( reddish brown ). the labial diseases. slippery. sometimes ( ). **In the labial diseases. usually upon the lower 20 . hypertrophy macrocheilla is caused hy distension of the — lymphatic space are ). and found at the angles of the mouth. warty outgrowths. pruritic. are the mucous patches of the secondary — congenital atage of syphilis . and they are painless.DISSASES 305 ulcers Tery sensitive superficial grayish red areolae ). originating from the derangement of the blood ( vessels ). tepid and heavy ( flattened. lips. *'In the vitiation of the three humors. the lips sometimes blackish ( cyanosed ). and the tumors appear like meat balls and germs from the edges enlarge the ulceration ( a somelip. or pallid { in anemia •*In and are covered with various kinds of eczemas.

soft and heavy. recurrently scabbing over and becoming denuded. and from them there is a clear exudation like clear crystal is macrocheilia^ dilatation of the lymphatic spaces. or like that of a wound from an axe. 9§i<T?r^ ^i?pitf^ ^fr^ci^ «m^ ^ I ^^q^ ^M w^\ 35)p5<nnft it < .306 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE gradually enlarging. ) and pruritic/* Susruta 5-12 '3*. and it becomes like the color of blood ( inflamed ). lioma ). the lips are tliey **In the adipose nurnl). 16. is probably an epitbeaffection. labial pruritic. *'In the ( congenital hypertrophy^ caused by distension and the lower traumatic lesions of the lips. tumorous ( inflammatory swelling II. and are bright like the outer layer of clarified butter . there is a terebrant pain. lip being frequently affected ).

boits are usually especially with the tartar deposit encrusted with the pyogenic bacteria. The disease in which the teeth become loose. fonl-snielling tin's spongy disease exudation.DISEASES Diseases of the 307. In tive ( 'sitadci tlie gums are ulcera- with ) . 'kapha* and the blood. and soft is due to the vitiation 'kayha* ( of the blood ). and the gangrenous stomatitis In *d'rnta-pupputaka* there is an intense pain and swelling at the root of one or two teeth for a time this is due to the vitiation of the . is called 'danta vestaka* ( in pyorrhea alveolariSy the feeth l^ecorae loosened as the gum •q?T^i»^ f4?'^% tn^f^ "mfv^Wd: I . Gum. formed round a foreign (Gum particle. but their outlet of discharge being closed ). and from the tooth sockets blood and pus come out. bleeding.

308 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE pus socket causes neerosis of the recedes or the tissues at the root. If strong inflammation follows the traumatism of the is gum. The affection tlie is probably due to streptococcal infectioQ of of the alveoli. is tissues in and for there is this reason the teeth slight become bleeding at the pressure is of the teeth. Usually it is associated periosteum with an excess of tartar deposit or the carious condition of the teeth ). and the 'muslra* ( salivation. ^maha- mu^ra The ( { gangrenous gingivitis is disease in which there is ulceration and bleeding of the gum. bleedinsr the mouth becomes ^upakusa' ( called the chronic hyper rophic gingivitis ). and tlie teeth become loose. . called . loose. called the 'paridara^ necrosis of the phlegmonous gingivitis ). called gingiviUs ). ) the palate falling ( uvula descendens and ulceration is ) in the gum and tlie pain in the buccal cavity. but slight pain. The disease in which there the sockets. foul- and with the smelling. The disease in wliich the gum has a pruritic is and painful inflammation.traumatic interstitial ulitis). it called *vaidarbha* . The their disease in which the teeth are loose in is sockets.

forming a tumor. it is called the ( wisdom tooth or dens serotinus. is called the 'adhimartisa' (epithelioma or epulis. the most posterior of the molar teeth appear ^varddhana* about the eighteenth after the tooth year ).DISEASES If 309 of an extra tootli appears due to the influence *vayu* with intense pain. tliere is a large neoplasm with intense pain and salivation. decayed tooth. "The disease in which in the gum of the posterior tooth. (1) The pus may be limited the gum. The pain ceases comes out. pitta^ kapha. grows slowly and forms a more or less pedinculated the gum ). tumor of the same of color as The tumors of the gum are with symptoms described similar of the tubular vessels. Epulis lower a fibrous growth and develops in the periit is often found near a dontal membrane is . five kinds to those that have been by the corruption of 'vayu. to' the margin of (2) The pus may be slow in forming and there be a great inflammatory infiltration of the cheek with the edema of the face and spasm of the masseter may . their morbid combination or infection' and they are known as ^panchanadt {aloeolar abscesses are nearly always due to sepsis originating in a decayed tooth.

310 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE (^.) and pterygoid muscles. (5) The pus may upper jaw or extend deeply and widely in the neck)". 16. 14. a externally . A if persistent may be present the abscess has burst spontaneously or has been opened there is either a dead tooth. tend widely The pus (4) may ex- beneath of the periostenum and cause necrosis sinus or sinuses the jaw.2i.^^'. 3flPo<T ^^^»3l 41«l«*t«T<T ITTHt 1 1 zi[^^ ^»H5ifi! IJ^^fiT V^^ 'g H ^^ftfera^ ^ ?rej 'j^^: ^^r^ '^''t I ^^fire: ^ r?m ^ ^srtfticw»JT^: ii t< ^"Tii^^fjfl ^^^Ji^Tg ^l^^#«?f'^ I . portion of a fang or a piece of necrosed bone whicli keeps open tlie sinus. burst into the antrum the 135. Suiruta of 11.

due to the vitiation of the blood. and the tooth becomes **The disease in which the tooth loose accompanied by inflammation of the gum. (b) proximal points . pain and salivation.DISEASES Diseases of the Teeth. grooves that caries and fissures in the enamel . 311 becomes Wackened and perforated by microbes. surfaces just surfaces above the contact (c) which for any cause are habitually '«ir«T?i'^ «^% ^ gT# 'jfff "^ anq^ I ^? ?^q^ 9*^ sira^ ??^rs[ I . is called the 'krimi-dantaha' •dental caries it is a fact of common observation : begin only at spots protected from friction or left uncleansed as (a) pits.

lactic acid and this is is produced from being diluted and prevented washed to away secretion by it. The invariably leptothrix associated with maxima less more or bacillus streptococci and in rapid dental caries). protected attach themselves to the enamel. the bacteria enter effect is to into the crevices and gradually gain access buccalis to the is dentine. The 'produce an irregular and roughened surface. obtaining their friction. from carbohydrate and the albuminous particles that adhere to those spots and are not thoroughly cleansed. the slightly alkaline salivary the bacterial plaques and added . and in the process of enamel dissolution and decalcification. the oral bacteria. forming microbic plaques which are sufficiently adherent to attach themselves. buccalis maximus are The diseale in which the teeth very . (d) necks of the teeth at or near the junction of the cementura and the enamel. In these localities.B12 unclean ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE . later dissolving stance between the transverse cement substance of the globules. the enzymes secreted by the bacteria. From carfood supply the from bohydrate fermentation. attack the inorganic matter of the enamel following first the interprismatic cement subthe prisms.

is the bhanjanaka ( necrosis of the with odontones and erosion of the teeth ). by *vayu and pitta' it is called the 'sarkara* the deposition salioary calculus or tartar the bacis perhaps activated by of the tartar ( : fermentation. of the a lessening of the non-conducting covering of the organ enamel and dentine. leading to pulp is — an increased response and continued irritation of the pulp tlirough the thermal stimuli ). erosion. tlirough abrasion. fracture or caries. .DISEASES sensitive to 31S (paroxysms of pain ). The disease in which the face becomes misshaped by caving in through necrosis of the jaw-bone or with odontomes which are ( either neoplasms composed of dental tissues in varying proportions and different stages of development X the teeth become eroded and painful. cold or heat induced by thermal stimuli is called : the the ''danta-harsa^ (hyperemia of the dental ptilp most common cause of active hyperemia. called jaw If the solids ( mala ^ihe mineral of the saliva ) constitu- ents and the mucus are dried up and become sugar-like hard on the teeth. chiefly calcium phosphate enclosing with them the epithelium and the terial bacteria. especially the leptothrix forms ). causing the precipitation of the mineral salts.

*ayava'da7itaka' {the green stain of the enamel these most common green deposits upon enamel dark-brownish or : upon both the temporary and the permanent teeth. particularly of young persons the deposits usually have a concentric form and are mainly upon the labial faces of the The green stain is usually anterior teeth. preceded by a lack of oral hygiene and superoccur . particles sticking by fermenting food The green stain is the more advanced stage of the dark-brownish coloring). chewing of hard substances ^r yawning. indicating the action -of the acids upon to it it. fractured by the source of *myu* througli loud talking. it through traumatism. ficial decalcification of the enamel. But if it it up by necrotic process as in the tertiary .^14 If it is it is ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE this tartar scales out with the dentine. as it is found slightly roughened. called the kapalika (large tartar formations) very destructive to teeth. . it is called ^hann-molcsa' (fracture of If tlie jaw is the jaw tetanus possible -eaten ) ( the symptoms of gives all the fracture of a healthy jaw is only . If by the vitiated blood and the *pitta\ the enamel of the teeth become burnt ( stained ) it is called the greenish.

27-S3*^'. the tartar deposits scaled out ( by scalers ) have injuring to be the gum. then just the same. phosphorus it poisoning or lecal sepsis. Treatment all *'Without carefully those parts of the teeth are to be polished with the powder of Butea frondosa (laksa) mixed with honey. except that to secure the smoothness of the tartar is modern treatment for the . 16. Susruta : II. and made very may be easily fractured by any brittle. tubercular caries. ( The .DISEASES 315 «tage of syphilis. slight sudden tension as chewincj any hard substance or movement).

instead of the powder Butea frondosa with honey). it is sure to cause ). that the tooth with the sepsis which the abscess has been formed. ( thus cure may be effected in by causing the abscess drainage through the tooth socket ). inside off. must be extracted. then after is cleansing to an incision made. 22-23' ^^ "The alveolar abscesses should be treated in the same way.316 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE nucleus is scaled surface. all the pus cavity is large enough the fully. If ( it can not be done. open the abscess mouth. If the alveolar abscess is neglected. so that no the new tartar deposit. thoroughly drained And the abscess cavity is repeatedly washed with antiseptic and astringment infusion or decoction cavity should be cauterized either by caustic or cautery. left for pumice-powder on a piece of of wood is used.." Susruta IV. If the bone has . Therefore the tooth should be uprooted light cases. as an ordinary abscess. the abscess necrosis of the jaw. with this of difference.

should be also Susruta IV. -^^^^ ^ Trft'rr f^^'^m ^ i 55'n^ 139. **The disease in inflamed. 26*^^. cliaracter or due to neuralgic Susruta II." ( necrosized ). 18^'\ "The rent disease in which the teeth seem to be asunder with (odontalgia of caries or periodonitis). 16. due to loses its sensibility which the tongue becomes tlie derangement of *vayu\ to taste. ^^3F% ^'^m ^cTT ?lf^^'^lf^fTi: I .DISEASES 317 it been affected scraped off." is called ^dalana' pain. 22. and becomes fissured is like that of the leaves of Hecion(E\ the *X)ata^ disease of tl)e tongue ( glossitis desiccans or chronic superficial glossitis may be induced by 138. The Diseases of the Tongue.

is in severe cases paralysis of the tongue and ulceration at its root. called the *aldsa' (glossitis) . resembling the thorns of ^BombacU heptaphyllV in the *kapha* derangement of the tongue ( the tongue is flabby. indented and covered witlj a uniform.^oUen. there are ulcers and excoriations). swollen. as it appears in the first stage of th© scarlet fever or in other acute specific infechas a tions ). is spirits and liiglily foods .3l8 persistent ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINB and excessive use of spiced tobacco. "The severe inflammation that is caused in the tongue by the corrupt 'kapha* and the blood. it characterized hy the slow form ition of a number of deep fissures and indtn rations. {cellulitis or parenchymatous inflammation of the tongue is due to the infection of streptococcus . . while acute glossitis may be the result of a burn or wasp-sting ). in the depth of which. dark-yellowish. congested and convered with blood red fissures in the 'pitta' **The tongue of is is disease the tongue i ( the raspberry tongue which project pale-red surface. *'The tongue is s^. from and bright-red fungiform swolle greatly papillae. yellow pasty fur in catarrhal gastritis or gastro-duodenitis ). heavy and is covered with a fur.

and dyspnea ( galasuncauses polyin uvulutis ). accompanied hy subglossitis. usually as condylomata. arising acute from the primary hard or tender ulcerating nodule that is seen on the tip of the tongue in a syphilitic lesion j or it may n. bronchitis is . 37^*".DISEASES 319* is The ting. The Diseases of the Palate. there is pruritic and painfully congestive tumor^ called *upajihvika* ( secondary syplilliiic sore. dika* (angioma of the palate) dipsia. is disease in which the tongue inflamed a saliva- and on the tip of the tongue.)" Su§ruta 16. "The elongated tumor that develops and spreads from the bottom of the palate like a leathern bag filled with air. it called *'The tumor that develops at the hottom of Wr gsfi q|^ f^ f^ ^ 3 FcW^wrfli =g ??tHt^: !Ul«r*^f^*Jii*m: tl ^V 3T|^ ^% fer ^5ui)fd tt^ I ii H Hl^lil^^: ^^?^ff rjiil4i"iW4 5rRi: 4>'W-*4ini: . be carcinoma of the tongue.

. develops in the palate. called *mamsa-sanghata' {papilloma of the uvula). due to the corruption of tiie *phlegma andfat\ is called the ^talu pupputa' {cyst or gumma ofthe palate). it has ail the characteristics of the angioma as mentioned before. ) 5 is is called the ^adhrusa^ liable to burrow in it causes high fever and painful and pale tumor that dievelops slowly for a long time like tlie tortoise of 'phlegma' is shell. ( endothellomal tumor of the palate * Tho tumor that appears in the palate like the lotus bud. . the malignant is and the painless carcinoma that grows. "At the base of the uvula.320 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE the palate ( an acute abscess from a carious tooth in tlie upper jaw may spread inwards and raise tlie rauco peristeum of the hard palate) 'Memordlca monadelpha' it causes pricking pain and hyper<Bmia and it suppurates {septic tumor of the palate). ( the peritonsila?' abscess the soft palate intense pain. *'The painless and the chronic tumor that grows in the palate like a plum. due to the corruption "The slightly called the 'mamsa-kachchhapa ). is called the 'arvouda'' {angioma) . "The reddisli and the benumbing tumor that like tlie ( fruit of ) .

is There to the malignant ulceration *pitta\ {syphilitic derangement of lead to its of the palate which causes of Halu-paka"^ ulceration the palate usually to its )**. septic infection follows. 16.DISEASES 321 lacerating pain in the palate. 39-47' *\ 141. and thus there is usually much sosa'' when edema due of the surrounding tissues. which circular may or perforation. and dyspnea. 3:i^W5^*=^ 3(^«i^Tg ^i^> 21 . due to the derangement of pitta associated with vayu which causes talu' is There much edema and the syphilitic guramata hreak. and its necrosis and destruction of major part Susruta 11. finally oval in shape.

also appear at the dorsum of the tongue in the *vata^ gummatous affection of the pharynx . and in some be necessary). kapha and the hlood^ are called due to the the *rohint {syphilitic gummata) .322 ANCIEKT HINDU MEDICINE The Diseases of 'The the Throats gummata causing that its pharynx. and it has all the complications of the ^vata\ The gummata appear and ulcerate rapidly . pitta. due are the the vitiated action. intractable cases gastrostomy may The painful gummata. life is lost (unless it is by the regular passage patient's of bougies for the rest of the life. either individual or collective. pharyngeal treated stenosis. produced in to stricture. causing stricture of the pharynx. of *vayu.

the *pitta' affection disease. rough and hard tumor that develops and causes terebrant pain. all the covered with the abscesses in the blood lesion of the 'rohinC . it is incurable. and they cause stricture of the The gummata lathe the ulcerate all deeply and are very triple mtrac table and have the complication 'sdtiuipata* (acute) affection of the disease. plum-stone like (zizyphus jujubse). (or syphilitic nodes) are hard freely in the 'kapha* affection of the disease. 49-55^* ^ n^sf^: fqrr^ ^ ^fedl 5?^. The gummata and ulcerate pharynx. The gummata have *pitta' affection symptoms of and are of the disease. SmrutaW.DISEASES 323 of the with liigh fever in. is A called 'kantha-saluka* {carci. 142.^ TITO *w<)fM«ils^?T^ . 16. noma of the 'pharynx) it is curable by operation.

sometimes leading to perichondritis and erysipe*valasa* ( to the cftsr?^^ fqrirsff^ci: tF«ng u k\ . it is intractable and incurable. The tumescence that develops and causes the stricture like a bracelet of the esophagus. as it appears is on it is *adhi-jihva' it {cancer of the tongue) incurable. is called the ^valaya^ ( hypertrophic thickening in the phreno-cardiac portion of the gullet) .324 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE ( If a tumor syphilitic or tuberculous cancer ) appears vitiation at the root of the the its tongue due the called blood* to the of *kapha and tip. due of ^hapha and vayu' is the derangement stenosis of the trachea^ caused by acute edematous inflammation from diphtheria and specific fevers. . pain and devitalising. aDd if it suppurates. The inflammation that causes dyspnea.

The hard tumor stricture of the esophagus. *vrnda' it (follicular or lacunar it tonsilitis if be of ^vata' origin. inflammation that is developed in the tonsils. causing dysphagia. covered with papillae. is called the *eka-vriida' tive tonsilitis). congestive. The elevated is called ) the . elevated. this is hard to cure. (phlegmonous or suppura- and the globular inflammation that develops with high fever and 'hyperaemia' . due develops causing to the corruption resembling ^^ataghn/i* which is a stone covered with iron pikes. The slightly globular. it is an incurable is and it has all the ( complications of the three corrupt the esophagus humors ). and likewise of the humors. malignant papilloma of painful tumor that The hard and slightly develops in the esophagus. that causes pricking pain. and resembles in appearance and shape the is stone of called the *EmhliG myrobalan\ . pruritic. is called {'papilloma) .DISEASES 325 las spreading down tbe throat or spreading to the mucosa through a tracheal wound) . the tumor that the ^sataghnt disease. due sweetish to the vitiation of *kapha and the blood'. and heavysuppurative.

due to the corruption of the three humors.326 AKCIENT HINDU MEDICINE ). causes as all escape kinds pricking pain. which of however does it freely into the of pain lymphatics) .' as to dyspnea and high fever. *kapha and the Uood. the the trachea. it is called the due to the Ujalaugha^ ( a large epithelioma that causes the stricture of the esophagus and the trachea ). turner develops If such a large esophagus. the voice is broken. The disease in which. an ulcer. throat becomes dry and the patient collapses. 'gildyu\ benign fibroma of the esophagus is curable by operation. is called the 'gala-oidf^adhi' ( paren- The tumescence that chymatous goitre in which there is a general and uniform enlargement of the tliyroids and the vesicles are over-distended with colloid not secretion. and has all the complications of an acute abscess (parenchy- provoked by septic from a local septic lesion as carious absorption tooth. It develops throughout the throat. due to the stenosis of the patient suffers from dyspnea and falls into a swoon. in the the corruption of cause aphagia. the corrupt humors. hypersemia and pruritis. suppurative tumor or drinking goitre matous may be water from a contaminated source). is .

ment or neoplasm of the thyroids ment and the tumor of the thymus stinal .D ISEASES called 827 of the trachea : the ^svaraghna* ( stenosis may be caused by many diseases as (l)enlarge(2) enlarge. II v^ MR+r^4d1s^ °^lM(Hl^T^dsriMM rT: II i(5: . disease in which there is an extensive^ very painful and continuous inflammation which gradually causes stenosis of the throat. (5) tertiary syphilitic lesions ). 56-67'*^ rii^l«=<«-ylMR ^fil^T: I Bffnr^: ^^: ^TH^ 3 cT ^I3^'4mfd<4K=n'W<* f^^F?3RW RT^R ^^ "^^^Htl II V^ I ^^ 1^: yt<l '^^Trfeu '9T<^<5^MM**< w^^s^ f^d<i)d^i^%T^^' sfTrt^jf?^: f^35n ^mm. is called the syphilitic gangrenous ulceration of the side throat 143. Susnita II. especi? ally on the ( *vidar'i* the patient sleeps. deadly and arises from the corruption of the three humors. it is The disease in which there is a bleeding inflammation with pricking pain and hypersemi^ and which ulcerates with cadaverous odor. ). (3) mediastenosis tumors or abscesses .. is called ^mmnsa'tana^ {syphilitic ulceration of the throat)'. 16. (4) pressure by aneurism The .

cavity is covered with ulcers with pricking pain in the 'vata sarvva-sara* ( ulcerative stomatitis or putrid sore of the mouth occurs in oral sepsis. The buccal carious The buccal cavity is covered with small reddish or dark-yellowish vesicles ( small. slightly raised whitish plaques starting as vesicles.o28 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE Diseases of the Buccal Cavity. especially associated with tooth or pyorrhea ). which very . surrounded by a red areola) in 'pitta sarvixxx-sara' is {aphthous or follicular stomatitis.

DISEASES 329 associat- common in adults in infants and young children but ed chiefly with indigestion. slightly painful and skin-colored . The buccal cavity (especially on the tongue lips) is and the inner margins of the covered with pruritic. also prevails when the general health is impaired ).

^=^ ' ^^li^i'i y+iTii5 . which small. are developed through spots pearly *saccharomycss (pidinm) albicans* in debilitated children and old people ). 144. and by many authorities. dry and hot. All white the symptoms of aphthous stomatitis appears in stomatitis from blood vitiation. it is called the 'mukhaj)aka* ( acute or catarrhal stomatitis in the mucosa less membrane of the mouth is which more or extensively reddened. 69-72^**.330 ANCIENT HlNDtr MEDICINE ( patches in *Jcapha sarvva-sara^ sitic stomatitis in mycotic or paraslightly elevated.. 16. due to gastro-intestinal disturbances or due to irritants as alcohol or tobacco )" Sus?mta II. with associated salivation and swelling of the tongue.

pitta and Either they originate from internal the process of eliminating toxins produced as a metabolic reaction." Susruta I. is the inflammation ). or. lacerating. Cutting. introduced into the economy) or external lesions (as traumain ' tism. as arvvuda has heen definitely defined as neoplasm). crushing. of even or uneven surface. neoplasm perhaps means edema. penetrating. beating. the skin ( including mucous membrane and the of various kinds. ) tissues. 'vai/u.. lesion. pressand ing. as well as the contact of the ( toxic or irritant sub145. 331 "Tumor (granfhi)y {alaji abscess (vidradhi). microbic invasion or local irritants ). in slightly elevated. They have all their own individual charateristics.DISEASES VI.f^'4^^'iy<^^: ^TF^ 5?mPTt- sf^iH4«Ti ^^'j^ltd^ :. binding and all kinds of wound oppression of the tissue cause inflammation . all develop from inflammation ( Sotha ). ife^rar: ^^'f«ra: mt ^WT ^ . 2»*\ '"^otha' hapha\ causes ( of three varieties. Tumors. and tumors are The swelling that is extensive. ^ Mv^j^ci^ RT ?lf^Rl. confined to a is part of the body due to a 'sotha' ( called 17.

cholera." Charaka 4^*^ the tissues are injured by mechanical When 146. diarrhoea. tuberculosis. gastrointestinal ''Vomiting. asthma. piles ) 18^ by osmosis («^^-Z:«rs«^ia=excessive prescause (edematous) inflammation. Bhus radicans ). the perspiration. and sure I. fruit or juice of ^Semecarpus afiacardium\ sting of insects ( mucuna pruritus ) microbes ( krimi ). menorrhagia. vines and bulb ( as that of the poison ivy.332 stances ) ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE flower. anemia. troubles. horn or nail. V'\ tympanites. at the ( penetration ) of contact of injurious leaves. a wound of a poisonous or non-poisonous creature and by tooth. =527: ^^ VF^-?? ^Rrftra^5'lif5?^lTTT: I ^ gsiftf^vSTT: . 18. or excreta of a poisonous creature." Charaka — I. fistula-in-ano. poisonous gas ( visa vata ) and fire all these cause inflammation. dyspnea.

guide to cells which will insure This commences when the cellular elements lining the wound begin to proliferate and form a cicatrix. occurs. and its effect will be to occlude the vessel. to assure hemostasis and to unite the edges of the wound. To facilitate the work. The blood . the calibre of the vessels will contract consequence of the direct excitation of the nonstriated muscular fibers entering into the in structures of their as the walls. will coagulate fibrine will be formed. The first On the reactions will arrest the hemorrhage. or. one hand. and then serve as a nutrition and as a reparation. This causes inflammation » The same phenomenon cal irritant or toxin it . inflammation sets in as a restorative process of the tissue repair. When a mechanical agent has produced a cut. thermic or bacterial irritants or their toxins. flowing with less force. the leucocytes rush in. and the open vessels are bleeding. and on the other hand result of reflex constriction.^ might be absorbed and neutralized without local any perceptible reaction. But if it is . 333- by chemical. the edges of the wound are slightly separated. with a chemi- if it be weak and diluted. some to take part in the formation of the tissues and others t@ carry away the dead cells.DISEASES agents.

round leucocytes the dead cells. terminations are aroused by the microbic toxins and their excitation gives rise to a series of reflex acts which ending in the active dilatation are follow- of the vessels of the invaded area.SS4i ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE strong enough to destroy a few cells. a serous exudation ( edema ) to dilute the toxin and to prevent its absorption. then there is a vaso-dilatation. the invading hosts and the If the victory is quick with the latter. But if these wounds are not kept in aseptic condition. so that the general economy <ian not and they can fight more conveniently against the microbes and replace the fallen defenders. lococcus or the ubiquitous pus coccus {staphysh'eptococctis ). but also engenders toxins which cause death of the cells of the region. . then the inflammation gradually subsides. finding favourable It not only multiplies medium. starts a colony. •rapidly. then circumscribe the infection. Coincidently the nervous be affected. thus creating a necro-biotic tive zone area. power is But if the tissues lack the resisting and the bodily defensive mechanism not powerful or prompt in its response. of the healthy Struggle now begins •healthy between tissues. surrounded by a proliferatissues.

evacuated. and of the dead After the escape cells. And coagulates if it be not now size. This and soon a creamy substance is formed which softens towards the centre. a space — the abscess cavity. and which slowly fill the contracting cavity and obliterate it by forming interstitial soar-tissues. through which the pus escapes and the tension mortified. it indi- have been destroyed in mass by a virulent agent. increases in . thus granulation tissues. cates that the cells of the i)us. relieved.brile in pus cavity contains a ropy a boil or carbuncle. the cells that are into the pus^ so undergo liquefaction and are converted that an abscess results.DISEASES 335 €d by migrations of the leucocytes and the formation of the serous exudate. surround the necrotic area sides. is left. the walls of which are lined with vascular or which escaped destruction. core. the phagocytes mobilize all their forces. the core is composed. and make an advance from of the advancing all is The vanguard army . If the pus cocci gain killed the upper hand. allowing the pus to be drained off. the softened area the skin over it is thinned and is and a small slough is formed. If the as fi. But if the abscess be deeply situated and be not able to open on to a free surface.

: subcutaneous inflammation lesions flesh ( erysipelas. With the absorption of the pus. acne. eczema.^6rom« = tumor of fibrous tissue. forming the But in case the phagocytes lack the necessary vitality for the operation. the abscess burrows through and forms a dangerous fistula ( visarpa na4l ). herpes ) or bullae of pempigus ). and carry out their removal from the fighting zone. ( mucous tissue . Behind the in polyblasts. : Tumors variola are developed in these eight places : skin (pustular inflammations . encroach on the pus area. are seen in mighty battle array. and with the absorption of the pus. also drain off They the toxic fluid of the disintegra- ting cells. lipoma = tumor of adipose tissue myoma = tumor • myxoma = tumor .336 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE of composed a more or less compact layer of the mono-nuclear phagocytes {yolyhlasts) accompanied by numerous new vessels which bring the food-supply for the phagocytic scavengers who voraciously ingest all the enemy microbes as well as the injared and dead cells. the abscess cavity is replaced by cicatrical scar. ecthymoses. the fibrous tissue. the tissue cells fibroblasts or connecting active proliferation. vesicular varicella. their fibrous laminae shut off and with the abscess from the healthy tissues.

lym. = synovitis inflammation of the especially that of the synovial membrane. the lymphatic vessel . endothelioma = tumor composed of both endothelial and muscular . nerves. arthromeningitis = m^?cci\vci2Xmxs. of the lymph- vessels aneurism =a blood-containing- tumor connecting either axial directly with the lumen of theartery or formed by circumscribed enlargement lateral. viscera . 337 ( vessels . c^t^w RRTCTF^^^i^^tg^Trkftc^ 22 5I^P[^^. —tumor endothelioma — tumor angioma phcmgioendothelioma of = tumor of the endothelium.. nerve connection with. glioma = neuroglial tumor). noma is maligant ) and in vital organs." I. odontoma = tumor joints (^ of dental structure). bone { osteoma =hox\. elements atic lymphangioma^ tumor . composed of blood vessels originating from the endothelium or lining cells of the vascular tissue hemangioendothelioma = tumor of endothelium of the blood-vessel. carci- Susrutct 22.DISEASES of muscular tissue ).Y or tumor. joints. 148. 2^*« . {snayu: neuroma = i\xv[\ov of in a joint ). . of an artery ) ligament included soft cartilage: chondroma {snayu perhaps = cartilaginous tumor). adenoma = epithelial tumors ( papilloma.

a kind of pearly white exudation comes out . slightly acid-smelling and light-yellowish exudation (serous fluid mixed with sebaceous secretion) comes out. thin. acne. fractured. skin-tumors varicella. whether spontaneously or when lanced. flaky (caseous flakes consisting of necrosed or sphacelated cells and fatty acids. in If the skin ( exudation of bruised or lacerated. The exudation from a nerve or ligament tumor ) is creamy. eczema etc. an aquatic. unmixed. viscous. whitish and slimy {caseous or cheesy pus solid —a very thick.338 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE describe the is ''Now we shall tumors. The evacuation of an abscess in the flesh. mixed with blood and is like the mucous from the nose {phlegmonous or laudable pus which is odorless a yellowish-white. floating upon the serous fluid) and has a pale brownish color {serous or curdy *snayu* ( pus). thick. thick and If a bone is wounded or liquid ). almost pus resulting from the absorption of the liquor puris). In a recent incision of a blood vessel is there an excessive bleeding from the vascular swelling . the pus flows from it as from a water-pipe {toya-nadl). is like clarified butter. or ). creamy. blood and fat ( the pus of osseous origin contains fat and often small splinters of . if it suppurates. but that of an osseous tumor is mixed with bone-marrow. thick.

milk. flaky. low. hydatids. actinomycets. If . the visceral tumors. spasmic tension brings out an exudation which is viscous.DISHASEt 339 %one an inflammatory joint (tumous joint) but on is pressed. pressure sitting. pus and serous fluid (there •may be found in pus foreign bodies. urine. animal or vegetable parasites. muscular and adipose Susruta I. no exudation comes out contraction. bile.standing on the toes. Their finding is of great importance from a semiological standpoint. urine. ^3 ^^' ^m^il^ g^TH: I S^ ^5T§ f^gj^^ ^ . sitting ). indicating as to the origin of pus and as to the possibility of organic fistula). 149. 22. foamy and is mixed with blood and pus (suppurated synovia). fecal matters. nothing is mentioned. tissue frag- Prom ments. elastic fibers. fecal matters and alimentary fragments. organic liquids. As to the exudations of the tumors of the vital organs. are evacuated blood. for they belong to the of the skin and flesh same category of tumors (mucous membrane and the tissues ). extension.

there is no relation betw^een the color of the pus and the cause which develops where it is formed and it. of phlegmonous. brownish red or greenish color. in meningeal membranes brain. it is . but it is 8-17 by which is not pyogenic by pyocyaneus itself. is no less variable {Szisnitc» Usually yellowish. having the aspect of the false membrane. with the only bacillus occasionally seen due to the pigment produced exception of the suppuration of the pneumococcicorigin. There is no suppuration presenting blue color. thick of tlie . 1. In subcutaneous or pleural collections is often the pus liver. the chocolate color greenish . However. in the and reddish in the . color of the pus ). greenish and rich in fibrine. which is thick. but on the locality imbibe the coloring matter.340 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE The IV. it may be of orange.

If it takes origin in tlie glands of the skin. (1) Bacteria : Staphylococcus aureus habitually pyogenic Fyogenic agents : pneumococcus. they are particularly apt to provoke suppuration. yet when the tissues are damaged or injured.000. those which cause of and well differentiated lesions their own. colon bacillus and micrococcus tetragons are normally encountered upon our integuments and though in and albus. but may.000 of (2) them provoke : abscess. namely gonococcus. healthy condition of the tissues they usually live a harmless saprophatic or vegetative life. streptococcus.000 agents. it produces a furuncle or a carbuncle--lesion.000. the cellular tissue. remarkable for the presence of sphacelated fragments of which constitutes the core. accidentally specific (3) Bacteria pyogenic are also. but 1. and therefore are incapable of offering natural resistance to encroachment. cause suppuration under . of ten contains fat and small splinters of bone. Pyogenic agents wliich can <jause suppuration are numerous. the bacillus of soft chancre and the bacillus glanders.000. 341 it When it is of osseous origin.DISEASES lung. Of them staphylococci are the most common an pathologic to take nearly to 250. Specific pyogenic bacteria are yet recognized to be only three.

lymph. as all the cells are not equally attacked by the bacteria and quite a few survive . the aftected parts are still the seat of certain biotic reactions.342 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE certain conditions. But between gangrene and the faction. of "The ingestion rotten. only provoke ulcerations of the intestinal mucous membrane. unsuitable. the microbes causing gangrene act upon the altered by interrupted circulation. venous blood and blood pigments and the bacteria attacking the exudate produce new fermentations therein.. there is partial influx of serum. (4) Pyogenic fungi are the strep tothrix^ pergillus and odium. (5) The animal pyogenic are the amcebas of dysentery which not parasites cold abscess. . as the tubercle bacillus causes- and typhoid bacillus pus in the bone. especially in the extremities exactly as they would act upon the tissues of the cadavers. combinations of foods. by humoral changes or by the interference of the arterial tissues circulation. there is this cadaveric putredifference. or disharmonious heavy. that in the gangrene. and moreover. dry. its and ulceration. and the syphilitic spirocbeta which may cause is gumma morbid Gangrene process charcterized by the mortification (uecrobi' The osis) and the putrefaction of the tissues. but also abscesses in the liver.

13-14'^**.DISEASES 345 venery. liver and the lung abscesses are formed with the symptoms {fw^uncles or boils )" of superficial abscesses Susnita II. and inflammatory beverage provoke bulbous abscess like an anthill. a woman suffers with fever 'hypersemia' from dangerous blood-abscess {ralda-vidradhi = septico-pyemia : if the entire organism is invaded by bacteria which the septic are usually introduced through handling of the genital puerperal wounds. spleen. kidneys (vrkka). abdomen. neck of th& bladder. 9. axilla and the groin ( bubo-&n inflammatory swelling of the lymphatic gland. In usually leading to suppuration). excessive exertion (fatigue). jj°4^lci-^-<R^l'8T -^sg^f^^-M)^«^ld [ . either by particular lesion or by their the anus. combined elfects.. "In abortion or injurious delivery. it is 150. retention of the feces and the urine.

10. is However it often called septico. the purulent foci are developed as tlie abscesses in the liver. {fistula?' abscess)" it burrows through like 152. ^ ^ q^f^T?^ qs^q^ ^ !i%f4 ^f'J'tr irferf^ ^^ . In the called septicemia if but transitory stage of both these morbid processes. heart etc.Z4i4i ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE . and as a tube. it is called ^nadl-vrana' proceeds Susruta II. septicemia and pyemia are both usually attended by fever. which are known as metastatic abscesses. diarrhoea and other symptoms of malaise according to the virulence of the infecSiisruta II. "If any one neglects a suppurated abscess. 9. tion and the bodily reaction)".pyemia. it is called pyemia. lungs. kidney.9^^'. it to an interior organ.

and the pain seems to be like that the of the application of caustics and cautery : . that it is being torn (terebrant p. as if ( being lancinated lacerating pain ) . pure blood comes out of it ( cmeiirism it is a blood-containing cyst formed by circumscribed enlargement of an artery through which the blood circulates. lancinating p. as if dashed out ( ( tensive ) p. to cause death ).). a rounded and tlie developed by serous corruption flesh. there is hyperemia. In 'pitta-granthV ( hemangioma ). by a thrill to be felt on pulpation and by a adjacent 'bruit' heard on auscultation.DISEASES 345 knotted of the swellings is *'cata^ "When blood. and if bursts. they As they of increase in size.). and their final tendency is to burst. or lacerated it is dark and shaped like the bladder. In the *vata-grantM {aneurism)^ pains are felt with the sensation that the cyst is being gravitating force ( expulsive elongated by a that it is paiu). and if a large artery is the seat of the cyst.). being penetrated by needles (boring p. Jluid and the fat\ it is called ^granthi^ (cyst). Such cysts are distinguished by their expansive pulsation with each systole of the lieart. produce absorption structures and give rise to distressing pain by their pressure on nerves.

. granulation. very hot is blood comes out ( hemanyioma a blood swelling or cyst due to the dilatation of the blood vessels ).346 cyst is ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE of reddish or dark -yellowish color. Tubercles appear under three different aspects gray . a hazelnut or a walnut. painful and are hard like stone. and if it bursts. gray more voluminous it is or yellow mass. The Meda-granthi* {lipoma) is bright. a thick whitish pus comes out of them ) tubercles are called cold abscesses or . voluminous. fat like that of the . surrounded by a reddish zone and their dimensions vary from 0. and declines with its decrease : if it bursts. they arouse no local or general reaction. The tubercular abscess may also from the breaking down of a tubercular ^ lymphatic vessel }. when they burst. slightly painful. pale. but pruritic .. hard and vascular non-nuclear nodule. Gray Laenneck's granulation tubercle is and caseous a small. it grows with the adiposity of the body.5 2 or 3 millimeters. millimeter to tubercle is Laenneck's a round. having the volume of a pea. and take a long time for their growth (suppuration) . The caseous masses are greenish-yellow fort arise deposits and look like Roque- cheese. mass. The *Kap7ia slightly granthis' {tubercles) are cold.

In the majority of cases. as submucous growth.. aneurisms are due to weakening of the arterial walls by arteriosclerosis. rounded or pendiculated it is always lobulated. they can be cured witb difficulty. and makes of tliem roundish tumors . permanent. but if voluminous or they are painless. the abdominal wall and it the breast.DISEASES kernel of ( 347 clarified butter- the sesame or like comes out and grows ally in lipoma in the is a tumor of the fatty tissue. ( they are incurable cirsoid aneurism is a tumor- like collection of dilated and elonsrated arteries. the dilatation . If the latter is diffuse. though containing very may fat little be present in tissues as the dura matter. distortion or contortion and elevates them^ ( the arteries ) like lotus stems. tissues. subcutaneous parts subjected to pressure — the shoul- especi-^ ders and the buttocks. developed in the vital organs. The large yellowish tissue of the lobules is usually softer and more plastic than the ordinary fatty tissue ). if these tumors are painful and temporary. tissue of the a single- or multiple flattened. intestine. When The *Shxt-grmithi\cirsokl aneurism) \s developed by the derangement of ^vayu* in a weak personthrough wrestling which causes arterial distension.

clavicular. axillary. syphilis is the most important in producing Prolonged high arterial tension as in laborious muscular work. strain heavy lifting. its nodules being destroyed and renewed. i. At the maxillary. myrobalan or the fish-roe. ginous ( front neck ) joints.humero- ulnar cular ( and radial. the yielding is succular. Exostosis of is pruritic and slightly painful some ( them ). of the sclerotic changes. a great and sudden as in aneurism. kapha* and is very hard to cure ( osteomas and osteomatoid conditions. cardiac hypertrophy. This disease develops from ^fat and . e. elbow ). scapulo-clavi- and hyoid-thyroid-cartila). if circumOf the causes scribed. 'Straining may initiate the dilatation the coats are weakened by previous disease ). or such similar substance and has the color any it is called 'apacJiC ( exostosis ) because of its swelling. due to the accumution of fat. in which there is localized or general overgrowth of the bone. . a solid and rounded tumor ( exosto( back-neck ^'ts 07" or causes slightly painful fatty and serous inflammation if the tumor resembles ) . (exostosises) It lasts exudate when torn or incised for a long time. are of . osteoma the stone of of the skin. violent coughing or if.S4i8 is ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE generally fusiform and irregular .

Due to some lesion. in the sldn and the mucous membrane. periosteum. into eburnated exostosis intensetlie Iv hard like that cement of the tooth and spongy or cauliflower exostosis ). the exostosis.DISEASES 34^ Both groups are found chiefly at the point of junction of a bone and its cartilage. and or those growing within the bone.. common two groups. the ( sequels ) papilloma . in the pia matter and the dura matter in the choroid and sclerotic coats of the eye at the apex of the lungs. and a rounded. slightly and exudative meat-ball {neophxsm) ferm whicli. tendons and the ligaments. enostoses divided into And again they may of be divided according to- their structure. They are usually occurrence. slender is grows without suppuration . and sometimes even in thepenis and in muscular tissues. voluminous. Due to the loss arising from the of complications blood. ^ Due to contraction to of the blood-vessels and. grows rapidly ane causes incesis c?i\\Qi\. the tissues become affected. the blood. ulcerative is owing papuliferous. fasciae. This loma). it called arvvuda ( tumor neoplasm or cancer).'rakta-arvvuda^ {papil-^ a sant bleeding. or those growing from the surface of the bone. base. solid neoplasm slightly and deep-seated but with painful.

it may form the starting point benignant ^epithelioma'. skin-colored. and has the general character of tumors of this group ). bundles of nerves. and it is called ( myxoma usually occur in submucous. bright. It is an incurable disease ( papilloma is any abnormal excrescence having a villous structure. epithelial as to produce is separately a villous or Papilloma usually benign but or if neglected. but more properly a tumor of the skin or of the mucous membrane. so filiform appearance. consisting of hypertrophied or new-formed papillae. If a myxoma victim partakes of moat. be converted into Also a destructive papilloma is known which and which is probably a carcinomatous form. non-suppurative. is ulcerative and in which the papillary growth upon the surface extends subjacent tissues.350 victim ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE becomes anemic. in periosteum and in subserous fat. there due to the lesion of the tissues . subcutaneous or other connective tissues in the intermuscular septa between the mamsa arvvuda. cells covered by an envelope of the on each papillae. If into and destroys the any part of the body is is lacerated by a blow. this tumor becomes thickened . stone-hard and fixed tumor. developed a painless. either sessile or pedunculated.

And of the benign-symptomatic tumors those which are infiltrative ( or malignant breast tumors ) are incurable.DISEASES 351 and incurable.^ ^^^ f^^Tf*If%rg ^'S^^^f?[W: ^^'^^SF^ ^WJ^ U ic . Of the above-mentioned tumors those which are exudative in the or develop in the vital organs or vessels ( arterial. venous. 2-15. It is also incurable". ''Susruta 11. If a new tumor developes on another. it is called *adhyarvvuda* ( secondary or proliferation tumors that develop nervous ) adjacent to each other as pairs are called 'dvirurvvuda' ( double tumors ). lymphatic or or those which do not move ( suppurate ? ) are incurable. 11.

or tumor is a new formation atypical in structnre.352 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE "A neoplasm of tissue." is which Accordins: adult to Cohnheim there remains in the enough of unappropriated embryonic residues which if activated by any mechanical or microbic irritant outstrip the normal calculus growth and form a tumor possessing an unutilized and consequently an power of proliferation. But the {metastases) cells exaggerated of the carried to malignant neoplasms are themselves capable of starting new growths if spit^rH^S^q^: irf^raTT: ^5rf% 5T3:2Tf^^ ^5rf5?! ^F^ I . serves no useful purpose in the whole economy and the growth of which has no typical termination.

does not eat way into the its surrounding tissues. creates an ulcerainto tive zone and therein transplants a new colony. The benign tumors are entirely harmless unless they are situated in a sensitive position. * No found both benign and malignant neoplasms. Fortunately all neoplasms are not dangerous. brain and the abdomen through the lymphatic microbic agent has yet been definitely identified with the tissues of the malignant tumor. the probability is that there is a specific in pathogenic cancerous agent. as a may start new cancers far removed from the original lesion into the Jungs. but remains closed in own While a malignant tumor infilters the neighboring tissues. though micrococcus neoforfans^ has been current. abnormal proliferation and multidifference plication of their -the own cells. between the two types. where by their growth they might cause pressure on the nerves or displace And they never reproduce the vital organs. though the process of their growth has the same tendency of exxaggerated. 23 . causes destruction of the healthy cells.DISEASES distant parts of the breast 353 malignant tumor by circulation. ribs. themselves in distant parts by grafting like the And the fundamental malignant growths. lies in the fact that its benign tumor fibrous capsule. However.

And though type as 'destructive papilloma'. epithelioma becomes more and more common. of embryo.. frequency. and under certain circumstances. they sjircoma spleen. A!2:e exercises no less influence upon of is tlso localization than upon the affect. In the defective develop- ment met. In women at a later located period. endothelioma and carcinoma However. . ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE But only sarcoma. liver. yet their frequency and nature vary considerably at r different periods of life. It and is tiie intestine in the order mention- certain that alone. exostoses are frequent. in order In children. angiomata are frequently During early life sacromata are observed. the At puberty chiefly in the kidneys. a benign tumor may turn into the malignant are malignant. uterus. between benign adenoma and malignant epithelioma there exist numerous transitions.% 354. the irritation mamma ed.e age of fourteen onward. tumors may be observed in all ages. nature of the tumors. the kidney. testicles and adults tlie is In frequently attacked part of the body most the stomach. From th. reaching its maximum of frequency between the age of fifty and fiftv-five vears. the eye where melanotic met with. ovarian cysts belonging to the group of adenomata and epitheliomata are encountered.

pittcf." Susruta IV. Ptj^«iPl44J WF^Wcft^^ qT^-?TTr-?. swelling and hyperesthesia . contains more than one core ( necrotic like a hen's ( 3 ) It tissue or suppuration ( corruption ) points as in furuncle ). ( 2 ) It is very large in ( It size q^^ or even larger. kapha and the produces intense not sufficient to develop tumor unless the organism is predisposed to it byheredity. throbbing.iI|^?:5in eipft 5TR\> ii . back or the buttocks. tremulous and pricking pain. differs of pathogenesis The abscess {Vrana^furuncle^oW fromthe furuncle or the boil I ) or carbunin various points. hyperf^mia^ supblood'. redness. 20^'^ "There are sixty treatments of 'vrancC (supfolloAvs: purative tumor. especially furuncle) as facilitate the elimination fasting {apatarj)ana) to of the toxic and the effete matter circulating in 154. puration. cle. or has aquired this characteristic through some morbid process which is not vet understood. I. and it causes various kinds of pain and exudation.DISEASES 355 microbic or mechamcal. due to of the ^vayu. generally occurs singly and the usually appears at the back of the neck.

evacuation ( lekhana. to wash the inflamed part for and to relieve pain ). lotion ( pariseha. from an abscess). upanaha^ as a suppachana. to cause early suppuration leeching ( visrdvana. dissection ( vamana. as a stimulating nourishment to ).356 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE the blood which predisposes the tissues to pyoo-enic infection ). to scratch and to wipe out the impacted caseous pus from the abscess cavity ). emulsion ( snelia. ( sveda^ emollient as ( an analgesic and supvimlapana^ to soften and ( ( ). emetic remove gastric irritants ). to focalize the inflammation and to bring out suppuration). incision ( vedana= lancing to cause the drainage of the pus ). exploration (esana to find out the nature of the abscess cavity in a fistula to extract any ( aharana. exti^action . to spread over the boil to releive pain. foreign body ). salve ( abhyanga to asepsis smear over as an antiseptic and analgesic ). sca7^ijication ( darana^ to softer the skin so as to cause spontaneous bursting of the abscess in the timid women and children who are afraid of lances and incision ). ( chhedana^ to remove the ulcerative parts of a non-suppurative tumor ). fomentation purantia ). epithem ( alepa. to apply sucking leeches to relieve congestion ).pww(?^wr^ {vyadhana. congestion. cataplasm suppurantia ). beat the boil purantia ).

chemical action [rasakriya^ of sesame thickened and made into paste with of mixture iron sulphide ( swastrajam sakas'isam arsenic tlie arsenic disulphide ( manahsila ) and ). oit ( taila^ as depurant the ). to put the wounded stitching a wide gaping. collyrium ( vartti^ as disinfectant \mucilaginous paste {katka. I. pus and exudation from an serous fluid from hydrocele or tube by exhausting the ( to suck the liquid abscess cavity or ascites through a ). and its nature. ointment ( ghrta^ as depurant ). lenitive ( nirvvajjana. to arrest bleeding of a wound ). as a disinfectant). medicinal fomentation antiseptic utkcbHka. decoction. to reunite by non-suppurative wound sitional reunion ( sandhana. with a silk-thread).DISEASES 357 exploratory puncture of a cavity or a tumor with a hollow needle to determine the presence or absence of fluid or gas. to soothe and to relieve irritation ). to provoke suppuration ). suction ( vidravana. compi^essive epitliem an epithem that draws the pus to the ( p'idana^ surface ). fine bland . hemostatic ( sonitasthapana. appo- and operated parts in their proper place and to unite them together ). 59 ]. if present ). air in the front suture sivana. astringent ( kasaya^ to cleanse the ( wound-cavity ). trisulphide ( haritala )] to be applied to abscess —Susruta IV.

plgment-normalixer {pratisaram. soften the skin destroy a lonuj standinsr ulcer ( which is hard to cure ). where the hair follicles have been to promote the destroyed). clyster ( vaf-ti-kainna^ as an a deep-seated a1>3cess). to antiseptic injactiou in protect the wound from microbic infection ). caustic ( ksara-Jzai^ma. pigmentaj^y ( krsnatissues kar}na. fumiga- {mmna-dhupana. especially in the bladder and tlie joints ). hardener ( daruna karma^ to harden the tissues with tannic astringents ). to as a deodorant ). or by shaving ). bandage ( vanda.color of the affected area hair-grower growth of hair. ). irrigation (uttara-vasti. normal circulation in the cicatrized area lient emoltissue- ). ). cautery agni-karma^ to scar the ulcerated which do not easily cure. in order to bleach the dark- ened area). ( mrdu'harma. .358 po/vder tion ( ANCIENr HINDU MEDICINE avachu7^naiia. to wash out the purulent deep seated abscess cavity ). {roma->]ahjanana. to promote pigment cells in tlie pale cicatrised area). liealing expose tlie to medicinal gases \ vulnerary abscess cavity to ( ul^adana. to normalise the skin. promote { and cicatrization tissue inimctioii avasadana^ to promote to formation and ). depilatory {lomapaharavha^ to cause the falling out of hair where it is not desirable. plgmento-lysin {pandu-karma^ to destroy the pigment.

1. ). as a pepastic).«?fiT^ t»'^*'^ TRII^P^t !Tfe!RW' f^' HW^i^^^RSf ^?!^J:?ThR^fe!^!JWT ^^^: ^'^^^^ ^fif3* l"f^' f^^' . gef'micide {krmighna. to remove^body. body dietai^y (ahara^ light and stimulating foods). congestion from the upper parts in of ( the case of abscesses there ). "Susruta IV. as a a sedative mouth-tva'sh in ( havala-dharana^ ( as disinfectant stomatitis). as a destructive agent of the microbes ). ). and hygiene {raksa-vidhana^ as curative and preventive). to a-ctivatethe orsranisra to fi«]itao:aiTist the disease. .DISEASES plastei^ ( 359 patra-dmia. in the wound and its mouth is narrow ). fitniigation dhuina. to throw off the toxins and to restore health ) sedatives ( siro-vlrechana . 59^ "^ ^rfq^^ ^Hfer^rasiir^'f £mr|«4w^dy K^Ji-^r^T^ '2|^fw ^tw^ h1-M(M- ^ K<*4. exposure to the action of a disinfectant analeptic ( smoke madhu-sarpi^ a restoration). 22. snuff uasi/a. (vrmhana. detoxicauts stimulants ( visaghna ). operation to operate where there is a foreign ( yantra.

and exudation.''\ it has to be made to lanced Furuncle or boil is not possible Etiology without the infection of staphylococcus pyogenes aureus which is invariably found in the : pus. if the inflammation found to be of a suppurative kind. \ V ^mK: €§j5k: ^^'w\ ^\mw^\ i #?^fT ^cm^lfq fT^T^Tft? S^ftjcl^ II ^ . irritant or effete matters. 4. In that case. which is the natural consequence is infection the if the blood contains toxic. 16. 156. but fFrre^^TT y<+w1yi ^^rrarrfif ??'!:f^Rn^ \ SWd^f^dl. the tissues are not only to ill-nourished." Susnita IV. leading to The aureus staphylococcus pyogenes favored by the impairment of the tissue vitality. is suppurate.360 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE "After the above-mentioned treatment. then by the application of a pustulant. then and disinfected. and therefore incapable to offer natural resistance microbic invasion. This gives rise of to acute inflammation necrosis of the tissue. Rlf+frHd<r«TRJ3^.

whole- some light and easily digestible food should be taken in restricted afbumins. rheumatism. gout. especially of the All irritant foods. quantity. especially ii the renal impaired. scrofula. the burden falls on the skin as an eraunctory organ. ly met with in dyspepsia or in which there the is insufficiency deficiency tlie of pepsin and' the trypsin. as And have been in chronic tuberdyspepsia. ed with the functions they are usually associatdiseases. Therefore special attention should be paid to dietary and cleanliness. boils and carbuncles. whose are absorbed into the blood. diabetes and albuminuria. Fresh.DISEASES especially 361 the kidney fails to eliminate the effete and the toxic substances in the blood. drinks and spices must be avoided. albuminous putrefaction. and are over to the skin for elimination alone is leading to toxic products thrown when the kidney not equal to the task. especially latter. by its Wliey or butter-milk which producing content ( lactic acid lactose ) counteracts putrefaction by changing the culture medium of the proteolytic bacteria is a verjr . It is frequentculosis. when This naturally irritates the skin and predisposes it to the infection of staphylococcus which is ubiquitous causing furuncles. healthy.

16^^^ the neoplasm is not deep-rooted. ''SmrutalY. Susruta IV. early operated should be excised and cauterised. an}?- the wound caute- fresh wound. and carefully 157. it should be scratched out. 'jTgl^ffj^jjsnT^Tiitrai^ eg =^1?^" f^^ici ^^\c\ i . 8^^\ "A it tumor ])e in its premature as state ( that is.?T^TJ^T(T^qW^^xrfTf^^F4 I 158. in "A rized premature and treated as its state.362 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE or preferable addition to the diet. copper. and which has not grown in any vital organ. aud the caustics should be applied to the wound. lead or *'ll: silk (cord) it should be surrounded. should be dissected. '?!q9v^3fT7i r. diet for a few days. 18. extirpa^slesma* ted. an exclusive tumor which has not been remedied by any application. then with a ( wire ) of tin ( trapu ). should as Or possible ) as accord- ing to the previous insrtuction. 18.

Prodromes of Leprosy — "The thickening VII ^^ : of 158:1. cansftc or cautei'v. 18w29^•«^ any paHfof'tlie neoplasm remaiiis and the is not completely tfiirpated. — Skin Disease. 33^^^ There is no question that the complete extirpation of either the benign or the malignant neoplasm is tlie best remedy. 18.DISEASES the physician B63 should use the knife. wherever possible.>ni pated". that is whei) they have not developed with a deep base in any vital organ. then from remnant the neoplasm reappears. ritstCi^if^ 1% ^s^^if^ ^'om m^m ^h^r? i * The writer regrets that lie lacks the clinical ex- . q^^^^p. ^H^R^i^-qf: ^^Tq'ej cT^TS[^^^t II 159. accordinf): to the strength of the patient. as fire can grow all a small spark left-over . therefore the growth ( of the neoplasm ) n^t he extirfr. Susruta IV. "If SusriUa lY.

tlie nodosities are like the it is tosis. {leyrosy ). liyperidrosis or anhydrosis. His is knowledge limited to the studies of authorities on^ these subjects. only those diseases will be mentioned which have a direct bearing on the history of syphilis in ancient India. pruritus. and the dark color of 'KiistJia' of the blood are the prodromes "In browny esia . pustulo-crustaceous syphilide. the extension of ulceration if any wound takes place. perience of skin disease. 2i«°. Susruta II. the lepromes are and slender with boring pain and anesth5. gummata and ulcerations have been classified as leprous manifestations or varieties of leprosy. cm ^^^ c^\m*i'HM^^ri\w?i: ^'^j ^^fif^fr^^'^ . especially the tropical dermaand the diseases of the genital organs. tubercular syphilitic dactylitis. It is very likely that the papulo-squamous syphilide. 160. sudden horripilation. osteo-periostitis. and both Charaka and Sus ruta have given vague description of them." the *vata* leprosy.364* ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE the skin. nodes. In called ^aruna* sun-colored ^lepra flava* the 'pitta^ leprosy. anesthesia of the skin.. And moreover as the cutaneous manifestations are hard to identify without the associated symptoms. exostoses.

hrown elbows. forehead. . hard and elastic to the touch. especially on the face. hypersemia and cloudy sensation of the cutaneous nerves ) are felt ( disturbances kinds of leprosy. With microbes bullae appear. fruit of *abrus precatorius' appear in *kdkanaka* ( Black scales appear in 'kapdla' lep7'a nigricuns^ black in the centre and reddish ). burst and ulcerate. tensive pain.Jv> * ripe fruit of ^Jicus DISEASES 365 . in size from a pin's head lieiiiispherica]. covered with The nodes both 'paitndarika and dadru' are elevated. In the ^rsya-jihvicC ) the lepra erythematous patch has the size and the roughness of antelope's tongue. leprosy. pale-red or 'audamvara* leprosy may appear from the antecedent patches. knees and legs it ( ). ( scabby leprosy : Black-red patches like those of the psoriasis ). 'dadtm' is copper-colored or like (dark) to that of the flower of Hinum usitalloslmum'' grow of and the nodes continue herpes. are their general symptoms. at the edges as in the ^kdhanaka' fruit Heat. glomarata* ( this is called lepra nodosities^ rounded. globular and pruritic and These they take a long time for their growth.scatterbeginning without any ed over the body. 'Faundarika' (nodes) are shaped like the in these four lotus leaves . varying to a hazel-nut. in color.

in the palms ( tinea albigena there and burning pain of the liands and soles of the feet. There is contraction of the skin ( the skin thickens by infiltration and forms deep sulci by folding on itself ). is called 'sidhmaThe skin lesion in which very pruritic. and which causes tremor. ? ) ^charmadala-kustluC are pruritus. called 'vlcharehika^ . ) is tliis called is 'eka-kustha Addison's disease incurable. and spread over the body. burning sensation. pricking pain and ulceration. broad-based. if tliis very pruritic and painful manifestation appears only on the . nervousness. tensive swooning. blood and the flesh become affected. is called "visarpa-kusiha* The leprosy i'. borioo^ pain and anesthesia in 'malia-kiistha ( anesthetic leprosy).i which ( cutaneous leprosy ). wliitish. tliick and dry nodules develop at the joints in ^sthularuhsd' ( dry leprosy ). kustha'. like erysipelas ( visarpa ).366 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE : Minor 'kiistha' Hard. The ( disease in wbicli the skin becomes In dark-brown ( bronzed ) . The leprosy in which the skin. painless and scattered ( tanu—thin ) eruption in the upper part of the body. painful and dry patches appear over the entire is body. The skin lesion. exudative bullie repeatedly spread over the body is called 'j^arisarpa' ( macular lepi^osy ). in wliich there is pruritic.

pruritic. If exudative. are called 'rakasa' eczema ). Snsruta II. 'kitima' ( acne keloid shiny and dark. it is called 'pama' ( ecsema ). 5. ). If the 'pama' becomes suppurative. The called skin lesion ficial. *pyosis tropica'*. which exudative. ( dry 1-W\ . it 367 { is called ^mpadika' is psoriasis ). superis very pruritic. it is called 'kachchhu\ Pruritic but non-exudative pustules that appear over the entire body. the- inflammatory and tiny pustule appears over entire body.DISEASES foot. alobular.

manifest. i ^^ ^cwqrra fn^ f^?jifT erg Tira^ ^^i§ ii . elevation of ( ( of the ). heaviness. paralysis. and there are boring pain. piercing pain. emaciation. sweating. manifest as chilliness. the skin. ulceration and bloody Erom 'slesmct* the following ). gangrene and of extremities ). whiteness ( of symptoms the macular patches ). tremor. ( mutilations anesthesia. decomposition of the tissues color ( exudation. nodes. effusion. Due to ^vata\ ( lepromas ) become pale-white or sun-colored. Due to *pitta^ the following symptoms ).368 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE "When etc. hardness ( of the of the sores nodes ). wrinkles of lassitude. fattiness thickening and folding ( the skin ) fatty infiltration ) -sj^: and ulcerous crusts. pruritus. various the microhes begin to eat up the skin symptoms appear according to the nature of the lesion. rough and dry. ^x xi\^w\: ^^'T^: fs^cT ^qT^fi ?n^ qft^^'Trf. horripilation.. as burning ( sensation.

tissues. debility. fever. very alike in their evolution and it is very hard often to diagnose one from the other without differential diagnosis. the tubercular bacillus is stained black by the silver nitrate method. tendons and tender bones. in nasal. es And these three diseas- . gangrene. polj^dipsia. corium. tears. deformations. then there are other comexudation. but according to Jamanito. vessels and nerves ( Mm ). 24 . Leprosy is caused by Hansen's ^bacillus lepr<2' which morphologically has a very striking resemblance to the tubercular bacillus. while the 'bacillus leprae remain transparent. a large percentage of the lepers are found either tubercular or syphilitic.DISEASES 369 ''When the microbes eat up slowly the four ( layers ) of the skin (epidermis. The 'lepra bacilli* are are found in all diseased vary. plicating in leprous symptoms as which it becomes incurable". muesum and corneum ). However. sali- vaginal and urethral secretions. Charaka II. diarrhoea hypertiemia. anorexia and indigestion.

un cleanliness and unhygienic living. hygienic living tary. in an organism devitalized by medium malnutrition. exudation It seems that the or discharges from the sores. Sputum. It seems the lepra germs find a favorable tubercular for growth. but its contagion is not of a virulent type. It is Europe. demonstrated by the fact that usually the attendants at the leper asylums with cleanliness as is of the body. the mode of its infection is not yet known. like bacilli. in not only arresting the spread of leprosy. Hawaii and the Philippine Islands have shown a very promising result. The lepra bacillus is in* fectious. And that perhaps explains how with improved living and hygiene. has practically died out of usually found in the East among it the poorer classes wlio suffer from chronic malnutrition and live in unhygienic surroundThe ings in the midst of iiith and misery. However.o 70 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE semen. On the undeniable that the segregation this of the lepers in Norway. escape and nutritious die- from other hand it is loathsome malady. but also tending to uproot the disease entirely as it has been done in Europe. lepra bacillus takes a loug period for the evolu- tion of leprosy and incubation is very slow lasting from 2 to 20 years. macular scales. tissues therefore lack the resisting power against .

are usually painless^ break spontaneously. finally tendons. or white. bullse. leaving small superficial greenisli or covered with brown crusts.ents. cicatrize and produce deformities they but if . ( 2 ) muculo-anestlietiG leprosy and : In the tubercular form. black. there are repeated attacks of fever as a reaction of the organism against the invasion of the lepra bacilli. and often heal as ulcers. They may simj)]y without marked destruction of tissue^ ulcerate. Spots gradually make thus their appearance in various parts of the body. is a premonitory eruption tlie affecting extremities These bullae appear rapidly. is more frequent tlie as the disease This may to continue for months or resisting years according power of tlie organism. the and tissues. grow in size and become confluent.DIS BIASES the invasiou of the * 37 t lepra bacilli' though they possess but feeble virulence. brown. and the macular eruption progresses. destroying by degrees ligam. In most cases there of vesicles or chiefly. adjacent the bones. There may bo pruritus and hyperesthesia of the skin with neuralgic pain in all locations. ( 3 ) mixed leprosy. The small tubercles appear. There are three froms of leprosy (I) Huhercular leprosy. If treated. ulcers. leaving behind a pigmented spot. .

is inflammation. atrophies clinically "With the and distinct trophic disturbances. The touch. causing the charecteristic There is loss of power. there hyperesthesia. there appears a muscle-atrophy of the first of all attacks the muscles which liand (causing contraction). paralysis. the infiltration principally takes place into the nerves. In the maculo-anesthetic or tropho-neurotic form of' leprosy. loss of pigment. sense of heat and cold. There 'claw-hand''. of is a variety of trophic disturbances at this stage —shedding of the nails. senses are disturhed. paroxysms of manifestation. vaso-motor motor disturbances manifested by burning numbness. marked by anesthesia. loss of . they suppurate. degeneration In the first inflammatory stage. the extensors and flexors of the forearm. and cause amyloidosis Almost from the heginning the or gangrene. causing their gradual irritation. sensory. and and destruction. even of pain. glossy skin {vaso-motor")^ twitchings of the muscles (motor) particularly of the face. formication {sensory)^ flushings of the face.872 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINB neglected. anesthesia. neuralgic pain and cutaneous This is gradually succeeded by a period of nerve degeneration. muscles of the feet are likewise affected.

in have the rainy season of the Ktirzii:chatdmiigra) southern sea-coast tree ( HuharcC {Faraetogenos which ) Arahan grows on the and whose branches are agitated by the wind. combining the tubercular and tropho-neuroti'c manifestations. then they should be pressed in a mill like . raised by the ocean waves the kernel of the fruits is . necrosis and absorption with the resultant mutilation. ulceration. Malnutrition. but also accelerate the progress of disease and hasten death.DISEASES hair. infections of tuberculosis or syphilis which are found among a large percentage of not the lepers. nerves or internal organs. mucous membranes. the wise should treat him in the following Ripe fruits should be collected. only predispose the organism this to leprosy. Treatment to live : malignant —*'Eor a pious leper whom the five who wishes methods of and for treatment physician manner : — not been effective. all cases in the Of course lepra in all bacillus lesions. 373 followed by dry of the bone loss of teeth. uncleanliness. gangrene. and the symptoms of botli types are in present. The "mixed' is really the typical form of leprosy. to be taken out. is found leprous whether located skin. dried And and made ifito fragments.

sweated by diaphoretics. When the patient has been fattened by the treatment of oils.. the antidote of The Huhara^ {chaulmugra) of causes of the repeated evacuations the the oil toxin leprous lesion ) through channels ( chaulmugra upper and lower is very irritant. be given in a capsule.371< ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE the sesame-oil press. shall up all injuri- ous habits as anger live on rice and . or the oil extracted in a basin as with the saffron flower ( crocus sativus ). consecrated with the is hymn oil ( that all the essence of the kernel poisons. cleansed ( internally ) by purgatives and emetics. etc. and causes vomiting and purgation. or better to be effective. the oil. and for a fortnight giving etc. then in a lunar auspicious evening. he should in dried in a flask drink the oil. After tliis cold barlev water should be drunk without any salt ( which provokes vomiting ) and fat (which stimulates Thus he shall drink for five days peristalsis ). it ) ought to be taken out and placed cow-dung for a fortnight. when the ( This should be put on lire (in a kettle ) and all the water has been evaporated from oil. of the ^cJiaulmugroj It should still. ethyl ester preparations oil' of the fatty acids can be administer- ed intramuscularly with the hypodermic syringe with marvellous results ).

red-eyes and ulcers eaten by bacteria are cured soon." Susruta and hoarseness of voice. together with proper dietary. 13. If thus for five days the patient drinks the oil. he gets cured of all kinds of leprosy. all f leproma become destroyed. both of them are constipative ). with the inunction and imbibition of the oil.DISEASES 375 the broth of ^inudga* (phaseolus mungo. 8-91^^ 163. TT^^%1!mltT ^^TfR^" f5T^%?T ^Ji«11^«1 ^1%?TT^ ^JT^^cT irfe^T 1 ^TM \\ tT=ssf -q'^t ^\ q^^i (Tt^T^'^^ITfT II f%^: %ft fcwri: ^m'^^' W'^«(i"'t ' . IV. If this Hiibard ©il is cooked together as before with three times the quantity of the decoction of hJiadira {Mimosa err iiginacm) and he untiringly drinks it for a month.

" lO^^S ( Tubara kurzii). leprosy. or whicli 13. cliaulmugra TaraMogenos by name it is better known. yet is certainly the best medicine treatment of leprosy. his is body becomes cleansed of all impurities it very potent.376 *'If ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE one eats the kernel of the Hiibara^ fruity . and is the best medicine for Susruta IV. A injections of the known few in the intramuscular intravenous in- etliyl esters or T^fiK ir?Tf)^ v[^^^ >=rT^^ U^^ I ^#^^ra'4rf ^TS(* 4l^T3T^a1cMt ftftfT II q^T^' i?!qtff ^*{^ farf^^IT ^^l I q^wf^'^^T^ H^irtf^g=^ II e fiTf fjfi igpj^rf ^m fq?1IT^RcI%ci: II fvra^T T^^' f^'u" ii^5f«j! f^nf^flfl II 'H^ra m^^([ iif^^ ^^ \ 164. ^t^f^ ^i qtcTT TI^H^^ *TT^?TT I .

and is injected intramuscularly. McDonald L. acids cliaulmoogric acid and hydnocarpic acid. oils. and within this short for not totally T. And tliey have given remarkable result within a short time.oil it is- not so successful. the following conclusion may be summarized (1) The intramuscular . if three years with a very limiof the oil. the nauseating and offensive vvlien to the it stomach. result in the The is oral administration for of the chaulmugra reason that . extremely Its fatty painful and very slowly absorbed. nistration. being thin fluid are well suited for infection and are well absorbed.DISEASES jection of tlie salts 37T and h jdnocar- — cliaulmoogric destruction of the lepra followed by the disappeartissues. These ethyl ester derivatives have been in use at the United States Public Health Service leprosy investigation station at Kali hi in the Hawaiian Islands ted only supply period 110 lepers have been paroled and return ed to their families. From the joint of the report of J. bacilli in the pic acids. Dean. : President University of Hawaii. the disease appra-ently arrested. tigation. ance of the nodules and healini^ of the ulcers.. — being solids. cured. of the leprosy inves- and A. are unsuited for hypodermic admiBut the ethyl esters of these acids.

In many cases the lesions disappear. it is probable administration of chaulmoogra oil is of minor (4) with the injections. it is all important to to ma.578 injectioa of ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE the ethyl esters of oil the fatty acids of the chauImooi. the fattv acids of cliaulmoogra oil and their esters give good result. "We can not as yet say the disease is use of auxiliary agencies (5) build up and maintain bodily vigor. but there is no adequate experimental proof that -iveness of it the causes any increase in the elfectmaterials used. Whether oi' apparent cures are real permanent. •since we have no and test adequate to establish such not the it is n verdict. disposal for the In Burma and Assam. and the leprosy bacillus in the clinical When can no longer be demonstrated. four varieties of . (3) Although conclusive evidence that the oral 'derivatives is not at hand. except for scars and permanent injuries. importance compared In treating leprosy. evident that we have a valuable agent at our control of the disease. It has been sufficiently established that the chaulmoogi'a oil contains one or more agents which exert a marked therapeutic action in leprosy.'i-a usually leads to rapid improvement symptoms of leprosy. (2) combined with iodine.

and the penis are filled prodromal symptoms. fruits and the oils are very similar. F. A. '^Vrddhi {oscheonms) h the vascular swelling of the sac (scrotum) containing the testes. be easily distinguished one and they^ can not from the other trees. Rock who was sent hj the U. its is groin.DISEASES 379 Cbaulmugra trees iSydnocarjius castancCy Hydnocarpus anthelmiiitica in Siam where it is known as Maikrabao tree.-x< VIII. varieties. Washington. The scrotum a bladder distended with is apparent cause there * and rough like and without any gas. in of the The vivid description Chaulmoogra tree is given with illustrations in the March content of the National Geographic Magazine. 1922. without accurate botanical description. Diseases of the Genital Organs. The leaves. pain due to the gas. Department of Agriculture to secure the seeds of Chaulmoogra. . due to various lesions. Others only possess it to a lesser extent. spoken of by the Burmese as ^kalaiv' ) are seen together. Only genuine chaulmoogra Taraktogenos kurzii lacks the double testa on the fruit of the other the and the oil derivatives of the 'Taralztogenos kurzii^ have the potent therapeutic value. S. Gynocai^dla odoraita and Tarahtocjenos kurm. testes Pain in the bladder. by J.

in 'pitta-vrddhi' (epididymo-orchitis^ in which the symptoms somewhat differ according to whether the epididymis or the testis is more affected. This disease might arise from the extension of the chronic gonorrheal inflammatory process or secondary manifestation of syphilis in interstitial or gummatous to forms. The bowels . where gas is genera. ted in connection with bacterial fermentation. The put bed and have the patient must be scrotum raised and supported with a pillow and ice-bag. symptoms are headache and general malaise. followed by Premonitory tenderness and pain in the affected parts. incision.380 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE vatavo'ddhi {emphysema may be classified is under intro- two divisions : (1) benign. in fever. The benign form the form. The scrotum has the color of the ripe fruit malignant Eor and of *ficus glomeratcC and it ( inflammation ) grows and suppurates rapidly. though suppuration is more frequent epididymitis. drainage thorough disinfection are necessary). where the gas duced into the its tissues is through a local wound or wliere source from some distant wound which communicates with the air-passages or bowels and (2) malignant. gets well spontaneously. On the whole the symptoms are more severe with the latter than with the former.

The scrotum all encloses a dark tumor and has the symptoms of epididymo-orchitis in *rakta- vrddhV caused by collection of blood in the cavity of the tunica (Jiematooele is which a tumor vaginalis. Any variety of hj^'drocele or spermatocele with blood. usually associated with some traumatism. is especially liable to be invaded by general dropsical in ^slesina-vrddhi* ( effusions ).DISEASES are to 381 be opened with a purgative to remove internal congestion and light liquid food should be given as milk. thus forming hematocele or by filaria. antisyphilic If the lesion of syphilitic ). origin. It differs It from hydrocele in that is it is not transparent. thus aiding in the removal products. and absorption incised. slightly painful. cold and pruritic edema is common as the scrotum being elastic and distensible. hot lead-lotion dressings or hot tations fomen- the can be used advantageously to increase vascularity of the part. After the inflammation has subsided. treatment is very beneficial It is tense.atory symptoms. of the inflammatory If suppuration takes place. Hemorrhage also may take place into may rapidly refill . and is accompanied by inflamiT'. the abscess must be drained off and the abscess is cavity disinfected. after being tapped.

to different species costalis.' of the Eikiria bancrofti is introduced tlie the body by of the mosquito. Eor treatment. slightly painful and looks like the fruit of the palmyra tree ( Borassus flabelliformis ) in 'medo-vrddho Scrotum is a favorite seat ( elephantiasis. j)ainless of this affection. the cavity and drainage established and continued the sac until such time as the obliteration of by igranulations has been accomplished ). Mansonia uniforMansonia pseudotitillans. that there can be no .'. glistening. Pyretophorus mis. of the disease is Myzorhynchus nigerriThe only effective treatremoval which special attention if ment is operative so is vei'y ea^y and successful.a tumoi\ sometimes called. the clot removed. pruritic. the The growth is slow. Myzomia rossii. irrigated. forming. Cellia albimana. which are known to belonging be its carrier as Culex fatigans. and disease is confined to high temperature bite region and the into e2:. The is 150 pounds or more.382 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE the loose tissues about the cord. paid to antisepsis. diffused hematocele of the cord. the sac sliould be incised antiseptically. and progressive and may reach the weight of caused by the blocking of the afferent lymph ducts by the adult worms and the eggs of Eilaria bancrofti. It is boggy. mus.

The pedicle is clamped and the scrotal tissue removed. If it be not relieved with a punctureincisiou. it needle. there are stran- gury. The exposed become covered by granulation and ). ^mTUra-vrddhi'' extravasation or hydrocele^ possibly Urinary tissues. however excites greater irritation than serous effusion. cicatrization Due to the retention of urine. To keep the skin clean and aseptic. trocar or usnally results in abscess formation. filled the scrotum- palpitates like a leather-bag it is boggy and in this disease. scrotal scrotum it called. pain . care being taken to leave the testicles as and penis and ligaturing. and consequently the scrotal tissues become infiltrated by inflammatory speedily exudates. in is the testes and edema of the [urinary the latter. the cavity of the tunica vaginalis. more or less serous. consists in a collection fluid. the vessels testicles they are exposed. with water . Vaginal hydrocele of on of tlie other hand.DISEASES septic absorption 383- from the stump. and to choose the parts of the skin as flaps are rather important factors of a successful operation. extravasation invades the causing a tumefaction as in simple edema The urine {slesma-vrddhi hydrosscheocele). Perhaps by 'slesma-vrddhi' (osche- .

of But according is the tradition. there is The etiology vaginal hydrocele In the tertiary diffuse gummatous st'age of syphilis. is yet obscure.?i^^^5^r cn^cR^sprait ^fi^f^Tj ^^j^t^'u^^^ . later in life it is perhaps the vascular changes that take degenerative involution of the II. 12. infiltration or the formation of localized gumma in the testes accompanied usually by a small hydrocele.384 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE dema) hydrocele to was meant. *mJltra-vrddhV taken for hydrocele. .w ^^%^^ %nT ^r^tTf^^i: wf^- ^^^]Wi^Tc[ ii « 'i^ra^i' qfw ^ff. in childhood and early adult life. it is very often associated with some abnormal condition of the testicle or spermatic cord concerned with place with the testes]. In connected infancy the hydrocele is generally with gastro-intestinal fermentation . "Susrufa 2-5' «5 cTi^ *TR^cTkt ^^qif<ij ^ra^'.

incise (and drain) it without hurting the raphe. the it treatment of aneurism it ( beneficial it . and treat it according to the prescribed rules in these cases. incise it. In ^pitta-vrddhi' ( epidldymo-orcliitis is ).pply leeches In 'rahta-vrddhV {hematocele)^ for withdrawal of blood. or give as a sedative (diuretic) honey and sugar . drink the infusion of Circuma aromatica (or pinus longihydrocele). in suppurative or nonsuppurative form. except tulnerary 25 the wound. compression. apply folia) all mixed with urine If of it other treatments of beneficial. attended to. hematocele should be In 'slesma-vvddhi* (hydroscheocele or vaginal emplasterum of calorific substances as (cow) dung and urine. if suppurates. pakana is .DISEASES 385 (emphysema) {anila- Treatment : '''In ^vata-vrddhi' apply soothing salve and emplasterum . use a pustulant and after it has suppurated. the restorative oil . and as a .veliei of 'va?/u^ = soothing) in case it of a suppurative type (malignant emphysema). and mucilaginous a. incise tic ) and disinfect oil with (antisep7 fat ) ointment hsaudra-sarpi = honied and then apply vulnerary paste. 'slesma-granthV are suppurates.

Alangio hexapetalo should be applied. semicarpus anacarda is In *mutra-v7'ddhi* vaginal applied ( ). and therebv a double-barrelled cannula . hydrocele to the it u?Hnaiy extravasation or fomentation should be (to scrotum make it tense ) and then have the raphe bandaged ( By antisepsis )."s^(3^ tissue). Semicarpo and Echite use In ^medovrcldhi' of (elephantiasis). ) = sulphate ) of iron then green and rock salt as disinfectant should be applied and the As vulnerary. anacardia. an emplasterum cow*s urine it is a myrrha or any to gum-resinous substance as^ other sedative. scholari. should be incised with a leaf-shaped instrument. and all the fats removed (Filaria bancrofti and the larva which block the lymph-channels and cause the inflammation of the scrotal vitriol ( ( /:asi. as sharp point of a grain ( trocar ) should be introduced. arsenic sulphide. oil properly.386 concocted ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE with Tritico estivo. an instrument like the downward. cooked with arsenic disulphide. sparing the testes and the raphe. and soften when done. it should be bandaged (as antisepsis). Then with encouraging words it to the patient. sutured wound sodium chloride and to be applied. warmed with the scrotum.

DISEASES ( 387 cause fluid through the one cannula so air is passed to tlie pressure content that through the other may ) urine is to ( fluid he completely drained off ). refills partially due to the inflammatory reaction However the sac caused by the carbolic acid. it is which gives a more satisfactory result. (The only difference^ in the modern method of tapping in hydrocele. but the inflammatory exudate is gradually reabsorbed after the inflammatory process giving rise to it has subsided. care has to . be withdrawn and ligature applied. However. whether in tapping or in operation. is filled with half a drachm of a solution of ten parts of of glycerine. the cannula is not withdrawn usually. However. the vulnerary is to be applied. carbolic acid to into one and is injected the cavity. tapping is but a palliative measure. is that after the fluid is evacuated. perhaps because it causes so little inconvenience preferred to operation by excision of a portion of the sac especially in old thickened walls due to sclerous hydroceles with and calcerous changes in the subserous tissues. the Then the cannula is evacuated. If the wound remains clean (non-suppurated or granulated ). But It has to be done once or twice a year. This causes but slight pain. but a svrinsre which fits it. and discomfort.

II fqTl^r*2iSi«t liQjkT^ ^ =^ ^^^ II a. 19. 3-8^®®. ^ir^piift ii^iw iTt¥t^f*T^N¥i^.388 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE be taken to avoid wounding the testes or scrotal Susruta IV. ft^raTT?^ ^rf^ ?^^i>2Ri^ f%fT: ii t^rai^t^ qf 1 ^irrgra ?j 'Tpr^iT i T%H iRt f ^1^ ft^Cf^'tJ ^I'C^ II . 166. vessels).

f^^rg ^''^m- . ''Susmta II. to ^%fWf!?T'. increase fall from a tree — all these strain* 'vayu' its wliich which like in downward enlarges course the viscera and makes a tumor- formation in the groin ( inguinal hernia ). gas ascends with noise.DISEASES 389 "Carriage of a heavy burden. it descends to the ( scrotum of the osceocele ) and causes the inflammation testes. an incurable disease. This It is is called 'antra-vrddW (inguinal hernia). 6''\ *'The hernia that has reached the groin. This causes the distension of the scrotum like that of the bladder. but again when left. iifi^: sil'^ *T^f?T ^s?^»T^f%tv€. If it be not attended to. wrestling with a strong man. and if it be descends pressed.i ^^^nr. 12.

which develop either due to congenital deficieney of muscular or tendonous development is It or due to their degenerative changes. Susruta IV. accident. with in two extremes of life.390 obstruct ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE its should be cauterized by a semilunar-shaped cautery. and under severe straining as in asthmatic paroxysm. mastur- back ( bation. the circulation in be interfered with sufficiently to beyond may ( 168. uncontrolled crying. In infancv met when the inguinal rings are as yet imperfectly formed. "If the prepuce has been forcibly drawn over the glans. fiw m "^j-w^i cit ^t^'^^irar i . coughing or any other form of severe strain may subject the tissues to to give degenerate. if this condition is the parts left unrelieved. 19. In old age tissues begin the vver. and its return ia prevented by the arrest of the narrow opening behind the corona). it is called *avapdtika^ pai^aphimosis . play or detumescence. viscera through weak spots in the abdominal wall.k spots in the parietes are easily apt to yield. during coitus with narrow vagina. while the weight of the viscera is heavier. way. 10' *% Hernia is the protrusion of the abdominal passage.

involving as much pain as cutting or operating. as the abdominal pressure exerted and in the straining to evacuate the urine the crying whicli often accompanies the in effort in such children. ballooning the prepuce but without rupturing the glans contracts the meatus. In *niruddha-prakasa'' {phimosis) the prepuce adheres to the glans penis. the urine flows drop by drop with pain. the decompositiou of which is hastened by the . as to render even when the preputual not very tight ). penis. is sufficient to prevent the firm closure of the natural hernial openings and to cause yielding of those which have already closed. resulting in a balano-posthitis induced by the consists of retention of the smegma which the secretion of the glands of the lining membrane of the prepuce together with the dead epithelial cells from those surfaces. and therefore also But if it be not complete.DISEASES 391 retraction very orifice is make them •difficult swell. Another consequence of the mechanical obstruction is the obstacle which it offers to cleanliness. Phimosis should be corrected as early as possible. ( The best remedy of phimosis as is circum- cision with lateral incision the dilatation of the preputial opening by any method is only a half measure.

apism in children and for the they learn and gradually habituate themselves to the pernicious practice of masturbation. ^^1??:^ ^\ i^Tfivir T^cT^ f^' ^: i . premature spermatorrhea. The acrid and irritable decomposition product also provokes pi-i. 169.392' ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE This inflammation react& admixture of urine. backache and their various reactions. 13. Circumcision is a great hygienic measure. In the adult the sexual erethism causes relief of this self-abu5*e. Susruta II. ally in a tropical country ). and spasmodic and painful micturition. ejaculation. on the nervous system and causes its irritability which is expressed in the peevishness of the child. and urinary disturbances such as frequent micturition. involuntary micturition especially at night. especiveuery.

to which in the course of a few hours^ succeeds the formation of vesicles. it forms a blister. When dried to the powder skin. sloughing and If it is applied to the penis. and violent erection. 11 2^-". or its it active causes principle is applied burning sensation and hyperemia. includes some species of the belonging to the *Coleoptera' order as *Lytta or Cantharus corulea' (blue blistering of fly Bengal fly. causes eighteen kinds of diseases. Siwmta II. and if it goes on like that for ulcerating result. is Traditionally *mJca' water insect and used disiac.DISEASES 39 3 "Application of 'suka' for the enlargement of the penis. taken as a pruritic externally as an aphroit i» As that 'sTtka^ it is used in the plural. possible insects. . ) or 'Lytia nepaleuvsis' ( Nepal blistering a black species liaving filiform ). a long time. it causes a voluminous swelling and engorgement of corpus cavernosum. attense and elytra broadened its toward the apex active irritating principle 'cantJiaridm^ having and which is used as an aphrodisiac. If the application is continued.

39i ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE **Due to the undue application of 'sTiJca\ vesicles develop like the mustard seed. are called *grathita' {soft vegetations of succulent warts of the mucous membranes and muco-cutaneous junctions. If the penis is repeatedly engorged by the "mha*. and the patient first hecomes aware of its existence the impediment it offers to coitus or the by plates very •curvature which reports it causes to the a case in Tuffier organ. tion Ossifica- which is partial takes place usually in the insiduously and without pain. Darkish vegetation that develops like the «eed of ^Bugen(B jambu' . especially found in the coronal sulcus and near frenura). the vesicles that are developed like neoplasm. which he found a bean-sized <.'is called 'kumbhiJca . The parts involved are the sheaths of the corpora cavernosa and the septum pectiniform. and are called 'sarsapika' (canthai^idal vesicles). Due to the application of poisonous ^sTika\ a stone-hard unsymmetrical tumor develops which is called osteoma or chondroma *asthilika\ of the penis : ossification and calcification of the penis have been reported in many cases.hondroma growing on the external surface of one of the corpora cavernosa. near the middle of the organ and which he removed by operation).

growing in the penis. sessile. in the neicjliborhood of the corona •or near the meatus. junctivitis of the eye. When the vesicles have broken. herpes progenitalis which is very pruritic appears about the glaas and the foreskin. consisting of brown or dirty-brown. breaking . perineum and anus in woman).DISEASES ( 395 corneous vegetations. The vesicles that develop. derangement of ^myiC the penis and beaten ( lacking the power of pressed erection and is pendulous ) and on it appears is vesicles with edema. roundfed growths. in masturbation. scrotum. small pin-head vesicles will be seen at the edge of the foreskin. or syphilitic or sclera or gumma of the conjuctiva If tlu'ough parenchymatous keratitis). Ophthalmia ( alaj'l ) is similar to that of crural fields that by it is probable gonorrhea ( prameha alaji is here either meant the gonorrheal con. and anus in the male. accompanied with a little moisture. are called sammicdha When the parts are inspected in the early stages. quite firm in structure. they leave superficial erosions surround- ed by minute circular or crescentric areola). it is called ^mrdita' {syphilitic edema of the ( penis'). on the labia majora. Numerous elongated growths appear.

hard and dark brow n is h in usually a On removal. in contradistinction an expression of syphilitic constitutional affection. and when exposed color.396 in tlie ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE middle. especially near the freuum. soft They possibly are papillomawhen protected from the air. its it inoculable. but rough on the from the coronal sulcus. tous growths. and remain moist. and horripilation^ and are c?d\ed'avamanlha' ( hoimsofpenk. Chancroid ^pushariha' {chanc7'oid is contagious. in persons of careless Due to the ( corruption of ) 'hlood and pitta^ the sore that develops in the shape of the petal of lotus. causing pain. wart is found at their bases. surrounded : by it is pustules. wliicH are usually dark-brown or green in color. Chancroid is due to Ducrey*s streptobacillus and does to chancre which is not usually appear single. but secretions being always autois essentially a local lesion. is called very hard sometimes to distinguish from syphilitic initial lesion-chancre and the pyogenic ulcer-chancroid. arising of three inches. and may attain a length surface. in texture resembling the nails. and pinkish. and they are found habits and advanced life). become dry. The ulcer is surrounded by minute pustules . is not sharply circumscribed and is not indurated like the syphilitic sore.

wliile with iodoform may sf^rioUvsly thorough cleans- ing and antisepsis. and i'roTu which if pressed.DISEASES 397 on the rugged edge. not. for is is is pyogenic. The majority of cases are examples of chronic tuberculous ulceration of the skin or the mucous membrane. which is slightly inflamed. complicate the case. it is called 'sparsahani* {syphilitic anesthesia of the penis ( and impotence). caused by *suka* taken internally as an aphrodisiac ). that appear thereby like Phaseolus radiatum are called and the growths Phaseolus mungo and ^uttama' ( milia. appears a thin brownish pus. the ulcers having the same irregular worm-eaten . usually benign growths. are not infrequently found in the cutaneous inyestment of the penis the penis is ). Differential if very important before treatment is the chancroid is treated with merit cury or ointment. it can be easily cured ). If due to the (corruption of) 'vayu and blood\ tuberculosis covered with perforating tissues like called a sieve. If due to the lesion of *suka\ the ( corrupt ) blood causes anesthesia. Due to the indigestion. Hhe blood pitta* and become deran^^ed. resembling millet seeds. for the streptobacillus while the spirochete pallida diagnosis given. it is 'sata-ponahcC ( of penis occurs in two forms.

Due to the lesion of the tissues. giving rarely any unless a considerable part of the symptoms. ( is 'toak'paka'' erysipelas or cantharidal nlce?'ation. closely resembling the tabei-culoiis sequestra seen is which rarer. organ is involved and in that case troublesome priapism has been observed.. The most . producing a necrotic mass. called 'mamsa7'vuda' cancer of the : develops epithelioma or cancer almost invariably j^jewis originates ontlie prepuce. is more frequent than other commonly Angioma is not attack the penis so as the female organs of generation. blood-tumor covered pruritic vesicles. If form is perhaps of the it due to * pitta penis ulcerates. forming tumor. due ). is called sonitm^vvuda' {angioma though angima benign tumors. appears to begin in in a spongy bone. called and hlood\ the skin with burning and fever.398 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE shape. blue undermined edges and slowly sloughing 01* granulating cases. to its excessive and concentrated with very : application The dark. it does generally seen in flat children. ( a superficial a neoplasm. The latter indicated by 'mta-ponaka'). glansor both combined and is a disease of advanced life. The other form the depth of the erectile tissue.

durinof If the diagnosis is correct. degenerate into a malignant type. the induration on all sides. thus producing extensive the ). ^mamsa-pakcC tumor. amputation coitus. ulceration When lioma ( ). It may be grafted from the cancer of the uterus venereal ulcer. ulceration of the cancer All the symptoms of complicated . destruction of tissue is marked as well as growth. Beside unknown factor — tissue susceptibility. is the only safe remedy. especially a chronic ulcer of syphilitic origin seems to be the chief cause of cancer of the penis. by phimosis. chronic irritation caused balanitis. and the malignant growth consists of an ulcer which may be very deep in the center with greatly thickened and indurated borders.. which may promptly the lapse of months or years. is The the etiology of the disease obscure. cases.DISEASES 399 epitbelioma of the common mode penis or after is of origin of in warty growths. preceding the spread of the ulcer and often the urethra is perforated urine so that soft can only pass through the sloughing tissues. ulceration takes is place ( of the epithe- it called malignant ). where it is commoner than in man. or extirpation according to the severity of the For in many lesion.

. running a rapid and insidious course. may childhood to old age. ulcerate with dark pigmentation and fall from the ( corruption is this disease originates of the three \ humors and called Hila-kalaka' is the penis {gangrene Gangrene of observed in young. and is chiefly found in the tissues of the corpora cavernosa. epithelioma {mamsarcvuda). forming a tumor sarcoma of the other parts of the be found at any time of life from without any painful sensation. subjects. but more In some cases commonly balanitis. then the tissues off ) . sarcoma * R. chancre. there is If the poisonous black or multicolored is ^mha' used. in elderly. phimosis. 270. ulceration of the cancer ( mamsa-paica ). Cases have been reported in which gangrene of the penis was said to be due to ingestion of ergot and cantharides). W. distorting the penis. or chancroid has been. : Genito-urinary and Venereal Diseases. ( 9 ) are the same the the ^mdradJii' sarcoma of body. always great danger of the return of the morbid process ). the starting point. paraphimosis. but enlarging and If the tumor is extirpated. ^^ (Of these diseases).400 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE ( mentioned before in the case of penis. Taylor p. like the Smnita II.

" Susrata II.DISEASES ( 401 tilakalaka ) mdradhi ) and gangrene ( of the penis are incurable. 171 3fi?:g^'qg?sir it is g ^^^Hiifg^ i H^^' ^\?sc[' 5icT. it is called 'parl-vartikd' ( balanitis ) and being of 'vayu' and infectious origin.t ^^T ^¥T^ €is^?T'^: ^f^ ^^^5^ ^^c\^ m: I ^qn^wjt ts^Ktfl'?^ §kt ii i^ 5pT^^^iTFr5g slim' ^^^^ftcr^r ii ^i 'Sr-rm^T g f^'^^TT ^^mH f^?^Tl3lT sic^Ti^^if: h II ^3 ^ra^f'UcT^ KTTt^r^^if: ^g ^6 . 14. of the glans . g ^\^' ^\^^^^c^'. 3-32^ ^\ "Masturbation. vi^fT II ii c qrf'wf w^'gXf ^"^^^^T . manipulation or traumatism of the penis causes the derangement of the *vayu\ which corrupts the ( mucous membrane of ) prepuce and causes intumescence.

^T?=i qr^^ ^^ sfiH«^ I .402 painful. fqrir^iatim ii'iirefiti:: ^^f^^JWt ^^l^H II ^a. AKCIENT HINDr MEDICINE causes If and occasionally originates from *slesmci\ it suppurates. JTf^^rcT qi^^r^TR cfl^rsjfimTfm: *r?T i ^^^ ^15^51% ^^rra^: ii TT'^r^^'^n^ ^i't^i^ ^F'^i^^ ^"^^ II ^?^^: ^. is bard and pruritic ( papilloma or any otber burning it vegetation/' Susnita II. 89^"-. 13. ^^^f?i: f^Tf^Tm '^f^<\^^ i 172.

except in chronic processes which are The predisposing cause limited to small areas. or to both conditions combined. secretions of primary or secondary syphilitic lesions. Balanitis may occur also in diabetic patients. to inflammation ol these parts is the diinculty or impossibility of when tiie foreskin active cause cleansing them. surffices The are generally attacked simultaneously.DISEASES Balanitis is 403 the inflammation of the the glans. especially is long and narrow. chancroid. on account of when the ready decomposition of their sugar-laden urine. establishment the prepi*ce can be retractParts may ed. The irritat- may be the retained pus or ing substances of gonorrhea. tlie The existence ofvei?etabalanitis under prepuce provokes the lodgment of the gonorrheal especially pus excites the inflammation. or the decomposition of the accumulated smegma mixed with urine and perhaps leucorrheal discharge added to tions it in coitus. be washed with warm water of mild boric acid and if solution. The treatment of balanitis consists chiefly in the of cleanliness. and a certain fungus. but strong antiseptics are not desirable . this will usually suffice to cure. mucous prepuce membrane two of or of the (posthitis). for it is found in the smegma under the prepuce.

continence ( herpes progentitalis and reflex nervous irritability ).404* ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE as before they can exert their germicidal effect. excoria- . or to the washing down of the products of an old infection from the upper portion of the female to are due the sexual secretion is tract ) menstrual by^ the out-flowing or coitus with a woman whose vulva thick-haired or coarse-haired. thus postponing. unless decomposed lands. Apparent contradictions — autogenesis of urethritis in a previously damaged urethra.kind or another. "Excess in coitus ( simple urethritis rnay be provoked. coitus Tvith a nun or one who has had no sexual intercourse is { urethritis if the vagina a long time not kept clean ). or mixed with the products of bacterial evolution of one . long-haired. with for a menstruating been regarded urethritis woman as ( menstrual blood etiological has of an factor antiquity in diverse The menstrual fluid. especially in gouty diathesis ). from remote whether the germs be autogenetic or heterogenetic. is inconsequential can nob possibly produce urethritis. they are apt to provoke further irritation of already inflamed surfaces and cause the necrosis of the delicate cells. there is hair in the vulvar orifice(abrasions. their recuperative power.

they find it very favorable to multiply to destroy the cells. otherwise they will be washdeposited ed away by the mucous and the urinal discharges. syphilitic or gonorrheal germs can not cause a lesion unless they can find a lodgment and form a colony. Chancroidal. especially . tear. that they can find an entrance. with an unpleasant or repulsive woman ( venereal diseassyphilis causes many disfigurements of the body). It is only when there is an abrasion. and invade the economy in in the delicate syphilis ). are conditions for there. as otherwise in the normal state there should be contraction by the sexual vs^inal muscular stimuli and the passage of tli^ penis ). rent or solution of any kind of the mucous membrane. and epithelium. with a ( woman of narrow or large vulvar orifice strain by narrow orifice and injuries may be caused and a flabby large vaginal passage is indicative of some disease or the reaction of the diseased condition of the genitals. cut. to the necessary and favorthe venereal germs when grow and multiply. with its warmth and moisture. wound. fissure or fine cuts 405 made by sharp edges of the hair at certain angles by the copulative paroxysmal movements when the genital organs are in intumescent iible state.DISEASES tions. with a woman who makes lavation es.

who has a chronic lesion in ( or nnna- tnral intercourse sodomy does not there . or retention ). make any lavation of her vagina a woman who has a genital disease. teeth. except it might cause local injuries and pyogenic infection ablution of the penis with contaminfited water. or not lier genitals.vation and nism. (roughness). ulperation of the skin. inflammation with intorpor of the penis and duration takes place in 'vata'Upaclamsa\sf/phUiHc* . thus reactions on the orgapredisposing to any infection ). or one who at does or all. its injury to the rides. toxic canthabestiality . masturbation or can take place unless there is ( no infection contact with some venereal pathogenic virus. penis. of urine or semen. penis by nails.406 oi: ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE vaafina with lier contaminated water. or its strangulation. or non-lavation all these causes produce of the penis after coitus the derangement of the 'vaim\ and provoke — ( uncleansing) the inflammation of tlie . necessarily cause anv either lesion unless is an infection in cause party. or venery reflex excess might ene. compression. eacli from five different kinds of women. whether it has been wounded or not this is called *upadamsa\ There are contagions of Scaliness five infection oriariuf^tinsr kinds of 'upadamsa.

DISEASES 4)07 first ehaucre : The initial lesion is seen as a to papule. the color of chancre) develop. in A dark fever. Intumescence pruritic. which appears after an incubation of two to four weeks in syphilis. or oval grayish pellicle). and wh. pinkish-brown in color. and which sometimes (spontaneously) . Fever and (as a reaction of the organism against color pallida*) of *Flcus the invasion of syphilitic ^Spu'ocheta like intumescence is the glomerata* (which pinkish-brown. and emaciation with all 'pitta* symptoms. circumscribed leaving a superficial or eroded depression. or it may be covered with a thin edges. and which rapidly ulcerates with *pitta* pain in is 'piita-ttpadaiiisa* (Ulcerating chancre). (chancre in the first stage). tumor which bleeds excessively with burning. haviilg a thin serous or sero-purulent secretion. varying in size from a pea a bean. three to seven days in cliancroid (which is of diagnostic value in distinguishing chancre frem chancroid) after suspicious coitus or contact. hard and shiny slemsa-iipadmsa) with slight {slesma) pain. dry and scaling.icli slowly ulcerates with slightly inflamed and indurated. imparting a slight resistance to the touch.

12. The intumescence ulcerates with the development of germs. causes their 173.i . symptoms of the corruption of the three humors in ^sarcva-upadamsa* (syphilitic SnsnUa II." all with the *'The contagion (syphilitic Spirocheta pallida*) ' infecting the tissues and the blood. which might bring about death. is ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE called 'rakta ujjadamsa' (angioma of the penis on a large artery). cT^rrcTfTg^T^wa^^^t^r crgr Wai^^^f f^ftfi^^ <^*^^\ *r?rfKmfjraT*i^rmi- ^^^r ^aj^?^t ^^^''ctflt f*i^^*TTfi'?T^Kt -=iici5<^«ii: II «. 7-13 ^'\ sore).408 cures.

409> from pruritis the sore malisrnant in develops sore are nodules formed^ . and is Hndarated nodules\ while if the sore remainsinduration is spread superficial and compact.DISEASES pruritis . it enveloped in a film-like membrane. if the membrane is not shod and exists for a long period. the chancrous erosion becomes salient is called 'idctts above the level of the parts. excessive cell-increase. and from exudates a viscous serous fluid (when the syphilitic process dips down into the subcutaneous- complicated with indurating edema. leaving an or iodoform used. partiWhen. is it But if an antiseptic melts away. with a light-green tint which degenerates into brownish black. *chancre with the cream and the green-colored membrane). owing tocularly near the frenum. the out into a disk-like mass and like chanC7'e. is called parchment^ Parchment-like chancres are mostly found on the integument of the penis and some* times on the vulva. ^Indurated chancres' are mostly found in the sulcus coronarius. the chancrous erosion becomes covered with tissue. it elevatum\ Ulcus elevatum bewith a is comes covered film -like membrane^ bavins: a color which a mixture of cream. This (chancrous nodule) kills . This is known as erosive chancrous surface.

affection of the (gummatous is syphilitic) the eye there obstruction of the palpabra (Tarsitis syphilitica = gummatous infilof the tration tarsus ulcerated syphilitic . woman produces foul-smelling. but the syphilitic dyscrasia Iti is a serious complication). mucous patches on the free margin of .4j10 ancient HINDU MEDICINE and . otalgia and suppuration ot* the ear (gumma of the auricle leads at times to deep ulceration and destruction of cartilage . umbrella- like (circumscribed) nodular chancre from which a viscid serous fluid exudates. but the occasionally drum membrane and becomes Suppurative inflamed may (Otitis suppurate. and also from other media suppurativa) occurs in as the direct result of causes. tlie membrane with causes condylomata of the meatus severe pain with tension and fullness and deafness may be produced merely by the mechanical closure of the meatus. nose and throat. gummata on the membrane tympani occasionally cause the destruction of ulceration . and this contagion ascending upward. virilit}^ chancre) the penis (phagedenio destroys the lesion infecting the vulva of soft. inflammation syphilitic subjects the syphilitic manifestations in the naso-pharynx. ear cause deafness. produces gummata in tlie Tlie gummata of the ear. eye.

condylomata.DISExVSES 411 ).ade filaments alterations wbicli may be absorbed witbout in appearance or may be changed into a bluish). mucous patches. superficial ulcera- and mucous patches which give symptoms ing ( of ordinary catarrh ). or due to gumma . which marked by : visible ) through 2 ( 1 changes choked disk or papilla papillitis as a in the symptom ( ) of various intracranial processes . gumraata or ulcerations results dyspnea ( difSculty in breathing from mechanical obstruction. the lower eyelid lippltiide is ( ill is commoner gummosa. accompanying the various changes in the bnxin and its menins:es wliicli have extended alonar the sheath of tlie neuro-retinitis 3 ) atrophy ( optic nerve. excessive sneezas a reflex excited by the irritation of the nasal mucous membrane by syphilitic erythema. Nasal (syphilitic) the pituary membrane rise to Vnay be tions the seat of eiytheraa. . white homogenous mass and blindness = opia partial is loss of vision. of the optic nerve may take place either as a result of choked disk. up of ofthalmagifc*. Iritis the exudation fine gelatinous. ( amblyamaurosis = complete loss of vision in syphilis of the optic nerve.. m. descendens. neuritis descendens or inflammatory degeneration affection causes catarrh ( ). caused ).

412 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE folds development of adenoids stopping up the nasal passages as may be seen in congenital syphilis ). mixed with blood and pus of a very disagreeable appearance and an almost intolerable necrosis of the odor are discharged. The sense of smell is impaired by the failure of the odorous particles to reach the olfactory tract. character- flattening of the nose may be produced by the falling in of the bridge. gummata or condylomata ) and headache ( syphilitic neuralgia. meninges which are supplied by the ramification of the trigeminal nerve istic : symptom of syphilis a very characterAffections in the pharynx. the headaches being due to the lesion of the it is ). ulcer of the or in by the swollen the septum ( if a gumma on the septum breaks down and ulcerates. nasal voiceinspissated owing to the obstruction of the eustachian tube and nasal passages by swollen folds. plugs or casts of inspissated mucous. especially if the bone has occurred. and the phointerfered with. ranging from slight . larynx and palate. Should the lesion involve the istically syphilitic vomer extensivelv. owing ( to the putrefying obstruction of crusts and plugs of mucous ). cause hoarseness of voice ( huskiness of the voice is found in the syphilitic nation is erythema of the larynx.

Susruta II. which is prevented from freely flowing out with the menstrual . 2. blood clots. etc. and the ulceration of buccal cavity ( mucous patches. ageusia ( loss of taste -occurs with the ulceration and destruction of the gustatory nerve or the nerve endings on the tongue ). epithelial cells. mucous either membrane and exudations.DISEASES 413 hoarseness to complete aphonia according to the extent of ulceration ). 15 ''\ ( dysmenorrhea ) foamy (mensdischarged with colicky spasm {colicky dysmenorrhea results from the attempt of the uterus to expel foreign bodies as squamous trual) blood is "In 'udavarta' pellicles. )". originating from neoplasms or inflammation. gummata.

dyspareimia ). ( 6 ) especiovaries or ( prolapsed pelvic peritonitis. 'Nasfartava*{ovi\viRn lesion) In *vipluta' ( hysterahjia ). the vaginal mucous membrane becomes dry in most instances and the superficial squavvliich mous if epitlielium undergoes ^cornijication^ and of the venereal vaginitis persists. tlie causes sterility. . ( 4 ) ally osteum vaginre iiterus . In ^vataW {vaginitis dissecans. even in multi. In 7'ahta. ( 3 ) iuflammation of disproportion in orifice. and the vaginal 5 ) parous in women ). due generally to gonorrhea or syphilis). a formation 'acuminated condylomata' may take place in the vagina). following clnld-liirtli). In 'vamint {carcinoma uteri ) sanious mucous discharge appears . by some obstruction atresia. or soreness from the laceration of the hymen in ginismus a newly married woman the vagina or the vulva size of the penis .hsarct {infiammatory idceration of the internal tion genital organs ). coitus is In *paripluta'' (coitus may . ( female ) genital ( region is always painful. be painful to a (2) very painful to (1) va- woman due tender carunculoe myrtiforraes. as a tamor of the cervix or an caused by inflammation.414) ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE blootl. tlie menstrua( flows is with felt burning as sensation burning over the sensation the blood flows inflammatory ulcerated surfaces.

or due to endometritis from any cause or retroflexion of uterus). abortion takes place with hemorrhage (recurrent abortion is usually either syphilitic in origin. a wliitish or less viscid fluid. suppuration mation oviducts — salpingitis. mucous and known by Ivt. due to. or pus cells. terminates by an abortion or so called one. the canal. in * and fever (gonorrheal inflamand the degenerative changes of the is responsible for the fre- which pregnancy.mucosa. formed perhaps by a gas-forming anaerobic bacterium ).child. In 'ati/ananda' due to {senile vaginitis) coitus is not enjoyed ( quent cases gonorrheal degenerative changes. ^chronic cei'vlcitu^ 'sveta-p^'adarci'). In 'jnttalcl' {gonorrheal intense acute salpangitis) there are burning the pain. becomes here and there- . happening shortly after marriage. the . In 'piitra gliI nt {endometritis) ^ though there are conceptions..DISEASES "with 415 gas ( leucorrliea discharge of a more is or flour albus.strerilit if). another name prasramsln't is vagina emphysematosa) the tremulous and tumorous ( colpitis {colpitis emphysematosa is distinguished by small-celled in ^^iltration and hyperemia in the vicinity of numerous bubbles in and beneath the epithelium of the vaginal mucosa. sheds especially in the upper part of its epithelium in patches.

Sf^rcomata.416 studded ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE with papillary granulations. the levator ani and the muscles of the entire pelvic floor . uterus diffuse adenomata. and voluptuous sensations are In karnin'i {neoplasms)^ due to 'slesma are formed ( and the blood' growths in vagina myomata. cunni. neither capable of concejDtion well known . fibromata. shows a cicatrical contractions. the carcinomata. adenomata. tendency to missing and during coitus turgesceuce ). fibroid polypuses. Atichcumna apparatus habituated to is * excesstve (it is coitus. nervous virgins on the develop to which wedding night might l)e its subjects if brutal attacks are made bv inconsiderate husbands. if they have got leathery hymen or especially in women in whom the vulva extends far forward. carcomata and car). cinomata are more {vaginismus)^ common is In ^acharano^^ there "(vaginismus is external genitalia a repulsion against coitus an abnormal sensitiveness of the may occasionally contraction of the constricspasmodic tor. so that the urethral and hymenial orifices lie upon the symphysis or tlie ligamentum and arquatium and such women are mostly sterile.even if cohabitation in spite of the pain :yom' (female sexual excessive copulation) due to is enforced). polypoid fibromaca. in and cystomata are seen .

DISEASES 417 who have not that courtesans and prostitutes contracted venereal diseases are also usually sterile ). together with the absence of testicles all and the development of large breasts conspire to sex). and it should be hy frequent with weak antiseptic solutions as irrigations lysole one per cent. and the central resembling the labia majora. In ^sand'i* a woman does not menstruate. acrid gonorrheal discharges from the eczema. removed as in all other local lesion or sublimate one-twentieth of a per cent). her breasts during the vagina appears rough {infantilismus^ coitus. or androgynous masculine pseudohermaphroditism in which the penis is rudimentary and perforate. or the high uric acid containing or sugarladen urine may exercise a cotinuous irritation. female convey the impression of the If a maiden with a narrow vaginal with a orifice has copulation man of very large 27 . vagina. the scrotum fused and empty. In 'slesmald* (pruritus vulvae)^ the vulva is gummy. genitalium in which the uterus and the ovaries are are very little developed and incompletely developed. thymol one-tenth of a per cent. the decomposed and stagnated secretion makes the genital apparatus sticky.. as acne.. pruritic and chilly (vulvar pruritis may originate from various causes.

Susruta VI. it is may be also pro. and a fruit-like called 'phalini' (cervicitis tumor is has been often questioned whether the hipadamsa^ of Charaka and Susruta is really It 175. 38. 5-8^^% it penis. m ^f^g^iTtif ^: §1=^11 ^KT qfti 11 mm *T^fiT ^i^q^ ^55n ww ii n^'f^^ «T^ g ^^tr^fTT ^:ifni=g ?jt ii %^ f^<T =ff^ W H^¥t 'CW^'^i^ II §^MT fqf%^ ^f^r: ^'ijpTTfeflcMT II ^ffrtT^^^T ^'¥) w^^m ^ ^^s^ II . voked by tbe repeated use of nodular condom )".418 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE formed.

appeared on the shipboard before their On the fourteenth of June of the yeat . On the fourth of on January. developed specific lesions of syphilis. as ^phi7'anga-roga\ the disease of the Franks. typical of syphilis as known In the year 1492 Cristoval Colon sailed across the Atlantic and discovered some of the outlying islands of Central America.the return voyage of Cristoval Colon (Cristopher Columbus) from West Indies to Spain.DISEASES syphilis 419 and whether the disease was known in ancient India before it was introduced into India by the Portuguese is described in the sixteenth century and graphically in Bhdva-PraJcdsa^ a of the same age. Many of the sailors treated on landing for a new disease. now identified with syphilis. and they were treated on landing by Pi/uy Diaz de Isla who has left clinical pictures of to-day. well known that during. 1493. he sailed from the West Indies his return to Spain wliich was reached in the following March. by which name Europeans work were known in India. many of the sailors who had intercourse with the Indian women of the Islands. identical with the 'mat Francais or morbus gallicus' by which it was known It all is over Europe. the lesions. and the symptoms were which is of Vv^hich landing.

as the 'malady of . Nor was this enough. the disease began to spread lilce a plague.420 following. According to the fashion of the day both the Spanish and the Erench army were accompanied by numerous courtesans and prostitutes for the entertainment of The Erench army the said soldiery. his troops were "brought into contact with those of Soon Scyllatius after reported this an Gonzalez the Erench. they pillaged the convents and the homes of the rich. epidemic ^Fernandez de Cordova.. royalties nor the laity. left track the 'fearful scouy^ge its by the Church. where in a second campaign. soldiers It is that when the French reached Naples. numbering about 8 to 10 thousand soldiers. in an expedition against Naples. and dispersal of the army. spaiing the neither the cardinals. The army quartered in many important Italian and Erench cities on behind always in its of God* as it was called •with return journey. and spared neither the nuns nor the virgins. It was known by different names. ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE Nicholas of syphilis. left Spain for Italy. crossed into Piedmont on the eighth of December. recruited from all parts of Europe. in the intoxication of victory and unrestrained license of the age. as the soldiers returned to their homes in all parts of Europe.

home. as Colorado and Lima.DISEASES 421 the Neapolitans^ Portugtiesse. . osteitis.-"< contracted the disease in their sexual intercourse with the Indian women. in scattered parts of America. or Spainards^^ but it was 'par excellence^ known as the disease of the Erench is ( morbus gallicus ). from tlieir contact. warrant the assumption that syphithis can not lis in some other modified or attenuated form was not known to the ancient world. sclerosis. spread gradually to But the rest of Europe and the modern world. The Old Testament. evolution fateful * and the malignant course of this The initial lesion with chancre. and the sailors of Columbus . disease. and on their it return. Mass. the ancient Chinese medical work's. Bones have been exhumed of the ancient Indians. and especially Charaka and Susruta have left incontestable testimonials of the pathogenesis. of Peabody Museum American Archeology and Ethnology. And one thing that the history of modern syphilis can be traced step by step to the Neapolitan expediclear Erench monarch Charles VIII. caries and tion of the other morbid processes All this definitely proves that syphilis was endemic in America. Cambridge. exhibitini^ syphilitic exostosis and the results of periositis.

mata in the nose. gives its seventy-seventh and the language of chapter *Bhava'P7'akasa* both *MadhavaNidancC and It seems clear that this must have is the same. whether the passages to 'phiranga roga' are later spurious or ^ Madhava-nidana' is a it much must generally believed. ' by Bhava-Mis'ra well-known Bhava-Prakasa' after the it Portuguese had introduced in India. of the bones {apach'i). if both were indeed Strangely. ears and eyes. caving in of the nasal gum. that if 'liiigarsa or iipadarasa'' it may be said were really syphilis.422 ANCIENT HINBIJ MEDICINE cutaneous manifestations. in addition to that of \ipadamsa\ thus artificially adding a disease without reason. for in Madhavakara's was not known. laryngeal symptoms. condylomata. 15 ). not be forgotten that the pathogenic microorganisms do not possess the same virulence it is work than . been a later interpolation. the word 'phiraiiga^ Whatever may be the case. composed between the seventh identical. and eighth centuries. there would have been no need of writing a chapter on *phiranga' malady (morbus gallicus) u. time.. 11. ^Madhava-Nidana\ a work of pathology.ith clear and systematic clinical picture in his of typical syphilis. exostoses all these make a complete But picture of syphilis {Susruta II. bridge.

So there is no wonder that syphilis ran a very . Disease is the expression of the reactions of the organism in the struggle that ensues between the invading pathogenic germs and the host at whose expense the specific germs want to live and multiply. growth. Their crude and primitive. size of the plant and the fruit. sandy. civilization was They lacked personal and communal hygiene.DISEASES 42^ seeds of a plant under all circumstances. so a disease p^erm in the history of its evolution passes through an eventful career of exuberant its life vitality or arrested development. They knew not zations' —progressive and well-ordered States and — was peaceful Empires in which life the comforts of advanced ^social Oi'gani- settled. As the sown in different soils— marshy. rocky or desert wastes. and according to the mineral contents of the soil. and regulated. sunshine. fertile. The American Indians were virtually nomads who lived by hunting. humidity and temperature will vary in their folliage.. Two organisms are never the same. and there was plenty of nutrition^ medical attention and hospital facilities for all. conditioned by the nourishment it being receives and the environmental influences it is growth and subjected to. and in — course of time would evolve into suh-species.

While its became controlled and Asia. it. virulent type of . in course of time a disease becomes milder as the race becomes partially immunized by the antibodies that are elaborated by the organism as a reaction of the disease and are transmitted from those characteristics generationto generation. more than half the population was exterminated by it within a short time as by a plague. it virulence was in attenuated. and it usually it runs a very mild course. after its its attack. Sandwich Islands. syphilis overran Europe as a terrible Now the European races have been epidemic. for the body has not yet developed antibodies as a defensive mechanism against century. In the fifteenth introduction by the sailors of Columbus.42 i ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE virulent course with them. hygiene have been not When syphilis was first introduced in the unknown to-day. thus developing a partial or complete racial immunity against a specific disease. 80 it is very likely that when the Portuguese introduced the. Moreover. even milder than what was fifty as descriptions left by reliable medical writers unmistakably show the horrible syphilitic ravages which are almost Possibly better nutrition and unimportant factors. A new disease is always virulent. partially immunized against years ago.

"Syphilis manifests itself in three ways. the ''mta^ roga? (the disease thab smells). After the incubation of the disease. becomes aUected. exterExternal nally. syphilis manifests as a slightly which ulcerates able. . loss of strength. this disease (syphilis) is very prevalent. and not as descrilied before as separate diseases. Internally like a tumor. or both combined. the lesion of the 'mtcC is to be determined. Its another name It is is ^gandha- contagious. osteitis and osteocampsia are the symptoms of (tertiary) syphilis. caving in of the nasal bridge. ^phiranga^ (Frank's or European) disease. it appeared almost like a new the severity of the symptoms and malignant sequela. it is by the pathologists. and according to the symptom. This disease is developed by the physical contact of a Erank or coitus with called a Frankish woman. The etiology of the disease became more definite and certain. anorexia. internally. "Emaciation.DISEASES 425 European disease in syphilis. "Because in the land of the Prank(European). but painful papule is easily cur- appears like tumescence at the joints with pain and inflammation and is gumma very difficult to cure. and therefore all the primary and tertiary manifestations of the lesion became united and related together.

the berries of place into the cup four ^gunjas' Abrus be seen on the surface. it does not cause ulceration of the mouth Press controls : wheat of the ( flour with water and make a cup ( out precatorius. betel-nut should it be chewed. festation cure. exposure to the sun. and vegetables (consisting of leaves). Then rolling the capsule ( enclosing mercury ) on clove-powder. half an ounce of 'akctra-karabha (Echinopea echinatus f) and . weighing about a grain and a half each ) of mercury and make such a capsule of it that no mercury can paste ).^ acids and sodium chloride should not be indulged in. Later.426 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE External syphilitic eruption and uncompli- cated condylomata are curable. Especially fatigue. Treatment nerated : The ancient ( said that the application of ) therapeutists have calcinated and inci- mercury ( Jcarpurarasa ) positively the progress of ) syphilis. one-fourth of an ounce of Acacia catechu. swallow carefully with water. so that it does not comein contact with the teeth.. And if the ( mercury is given in the following manner. one-fourth of an ounce of mercurv. About exertion and coitus must be avoided. Internal maniis {gummata) of syphilis very hard to But the internal complications of syphilis in a debilitated person are incurable.

by putting a ball into fire eacli day.DISEASES tliree-fourtlis of 427 an ounce of honey pounded together in a mortar should be made into seven pills. If the syphilitic is subjected to the fumigation for seven days." Bhava-praMsa syphilis if be applied thus avoiding IV. After taking acids and sea-salt should be avoided. absorption) and salt. 1-20^ ^^ 176. fti^l=€"=^ ^^ ^I^^^ ^t^'^t qif%T I c\m-({ t^F s^lTfVsair^R^lTl: II I firsT^sf^r^RJIT^ — 'WtlT: f^Kw]^' m^^ fff^ ^^^[ . as disappear. sulphur Embelia ribes one ounce should be pounded together and made into a paste. inunction is applied for seven is cured. Syphilis the the pills pill. 50. is One-fourth of an ounce of mercury to be rubbed over the body with the juice of Inunction : Michelia champaka and hand. destroyed by taking eacli of every morning: with water. (to long as The fomentation Barleria pubifiora byi mercury does not entirely/ is to facilitate acids and sea days. then syphilis is certainly cured. and seven pastils are to be made out of it. is : Fumigation one ounce and Mercury one ounce.

11 ^TT?TTcTqT(^T^ Piirsim 5^fiT^q^PT. II ?o — ^8 ^^ncn: f^w li^cT ^^rat?7 II c^^tt: ¥5r^: ^iMi-rirfvpyfr' jwtsr^r i .428 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE S%^m^' fqiTFl^^T ^<fT II o ^^.

lacking sufficient the formation of hemoglobin ). or myxedema (due to deficiency of thyroid secretion). known as anemia iron for ( olir/ochromemia. of the body remain normal and do not principles of become abnormal. i . If certain principles in the blood are diminished. or thyroid glands or sea-weeds contain177. JiTfir. morbid conditions of health result from these causes. "The agent that normalises a diseased function called Hherapeutics' and the application of is is it That the the duty of the physician. due either to faulty dietary or pathogenesis. farqrfwi^i'^^ si^. 16. l8'^ Disease is Hhsrapeutics'' frequently caused directly and by certain states of the blood. meat or spinach. They can be easily remedied by giving iron in an assimilable form as milk. as iron or thyroid secretion which are necessary fur metabolic processes.^ ^cf?: ^wr. is the object Charaka I.VI.— THERAPEUTICS.

if not not be radical. . (3) There may be foreign bodies in the blood and their abnormal secretions. as the germs of malaria {Plasmodium malctrice). of Quinine the malarial plasmodia. tliey countries. or uric acid is it glyco- gouty diathesis. if begun when the case is not too advanced. being faulty. leprosy {Bacillus leprcc) kills or syphilis (Spirocheta pallida). very likely that a majority of the drugs that have found place in the 'Hateria Medica* It is of various value. due to defective Colchicum seems of to remove the pain symptoms gout. and mercury the syphilitic spirocheta. and can but symptomatic. chaulmoogra and its derispores vatives the lepra bacilli.430 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE utilis^ jng iodine ?iS Durvillae etc. invasion of the tissues are lack the necessary resisting power against the There may pathogenic micro-organisms. Lamian7^ia sacarina so that the thyroid glands colloids may manufacture The blood ill-nourished and the necessary from them. (2) be also disorders due to the excess blood as 'glucose' in of substances in the in suria. more or it empirical. If diabetes carbohydrate metabolism. If psycho-therapeutic.. can be cured by withholding carbohydrates from the diet. have very less is little positive They cure at are all.

and mercury have proved only quinine. to give inorganic ferric or phoshor- ic salts or compounds. in Lack- ing faith science. and the medicine-man is but a sucreligion. chaulmoogra to be of some value in. but it is apt to kill the patient. If the chemical is strong enough to kill the pathogenic why. . That is drugs has swelled in volume is being added every day. as in various other superstitions. Yet the sequela of their treatment are many and are injurious to the organism. it might cure the disease. it is not only useless. leprosy and syphilis. a medicine can not destroy the pathogenic germs lodged in the tissues or blood-corpuscles without destroying the tissues.DISEASES 431 Many people subconsciously. for the pseudohas a magic charm and the people are swayed by it. for the body is incapable of assimilating them and they throw additional burden upon the over. as by religion in the past. the treatment of malaria. in they confide word 'science* cessor of the priest. but liarmful. If the organism needs iron or phosphorus. the list of and a new drug The fact is that micro-organisms. the corpuscles. Of all medicines in all 'Materia Medlcas*. if they have taken some kind of medicine. or. feel assured against a disease.worked kidney to elimi- nate them.

y .^^. is be "«:-^^ J.^^^ treatnae m the thec^^^^ ttie ^.e resisting power oi to cure Itself "-^.en (cUeiiiical jcorn cliemical comnin By proper can hecome a go d^^^^.^^ !.omotinS t„ .^ «..dose).j2 MEDICINE ANCIENT HINDU tUi.enesis. '* ^ ar JO- ^^ ^^_^ ^---^r'"c::tt.ri"..„ i„telU- medication as the people .^^^ gent person who wishes . „ cnrwrv and antisepsis._ y Thet cvie an ^.•The „. heen properly ^^.. fron..^^^^^.. while «^^^ (chemical l.y p. p '^ . was justified t Hindu Medicine Ancient S">du ^^ • m „a emphasizing dietary J « ^^^^.e incompatibility) venomously injurious and PP ^^^^^^l^. ^ gi.„aWe it Ch.. smgery opotherapy.' a'deadly poison a good drug hy can cine. concerned.raka „j drugs tested : — • organism wl>ose names..o. ". suffers ^uffeis if = <3wS^ «''*' S^'^'"' ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ well-known.vUl However. or if M "^^^ ^ot tnown.uerea.solete.^n . ..

1. ferric carbonate of calcium and antimony of the minerals ). blood. 1. bone. bile. 433 Charakco "Medicines are derived from three sources animals. honey. i qllT^ f^^* ^'^* W^M W{7l* *T^rf \ 179. copper. arsenous sulphide.T:n5'w'r?cfr*F. excreta. I. claw. hair. 48i'«. lead and iron) and their oxides. fat. carbonate of lime. arsenous disulphide. Gold." Charaka — I. ( are used in medicine h:anas- Vegetable drugs are from four sources 178. 1 28 . down and gall-stone are used in medicine. precious stone (diamond). skin (including membrane). semen. urine. hoof. tin. five metals (silver. milk and milk-products.THERAPEUTICS should not take an improper medicine. sea-salt. flesh. fi(t3^%f^ '^^ snwwff^qit^^'T. minerals and vegetahlcs. tendon. "Of animals. horn. bone-marrow. : ^^ inrfiram* ^T5i^. sand.

Lygodium pahnatum Charaka I. iphala). ). *virudh* {archegoniates)^ Those who have fruits without flowers are fruits develop Those whose called ^vanaspati* {gymnospei'ms). are called vanaspatya- {angiosperms). ). pith (sara). 1." ) "Root resin (iuTda)^ bark (tvaJc).. culm (nada)^ juice {svarasa)^ leaves and flowering top (pallava). bhasma ^^'^ f^TMW f^ ^€T JT^n^TTfWT II ^^T^iTra^T fN:. the fern ( ^viriuW 36-38 '^'^ by climbing. are called. Those who only persist for the development of seeds are called Those which expand {pratcina^ as 'osadhi' {herbs). from flowers. arcliegonlates. flower ^puspa)^ 180. vegetable fruit oil {taila\ alkali {ksara\ milky exudation ash ( {ks'ira). gum- (niryyasa). {Jierhs) 'osadhi' and *vanaspatya^ {angiospeo^ms).^^^^^^'srfi?: ii .434 pati^ ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE {gymnosper^ns).

rhizome and ped hiilb (kanda)^ and bud (pr«roA«= undeveloare shoot) of C'haraka I. I 182. 1. and passing it to the dewit through a sieve after exposing drops of is the night (that is the crude least drug is to be kept soaked in water at called for 12 hours). it is called. Decocpreparation that comes out by steeping a (crude) drug in cold water. 4). is obtained by boiling: with water. and the preparation is passed through a sieve. If any ground drug poured into boiling water. ^^v^-^m^w^i'Z^'.€q^T: "^KV.'^ "Tlie fluid extracted by pressing any in a machine. Tea {phauta). (vegetable is called juice {svarasa). called The liquid preparation of any (vegetable) drug. tion {srta). ^m ^^ I . leaf {patra)^ flower-bud (mfiga). Anything that is beaten into semi. 8' ^^ ^'5i«<* ^iTf*T5?T^-'rrf-^'. 'i\i WW i ^T^ ^^rfsT -^w^'. plants 38^*^\ tliat is used as medicines. or animal) substance is called paste (kcdka).solid consistency in a mortar. is Infusion {mta).^^ Charaka 181. The by the therapeutists. 1.THERAPEDTICS 435 thorn (kantalza^ for opening superficial cutaneous abscess).

436 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE Cerebral Sedatives : 'Tructus Acbyranthes ribes aspera {apamarga). Salvadora persica {p'ilu)^ EUetaria major (<?/a). syphilitic gumma (^. cardamomi semina alba sativa ( prthv'ika ternatea Ocimum basilicura {surasd) Clitoria (kutheralca) (sveta)^ Ocimum sanctum ). helmet-headache. anosmia and epilepsy. Xantboxylon alatum {tumhuru\ Nigella {ajdj'C)^ Ocymuin gratissimum {ajagandhd). pterjgosperma {sigra)^ Sinapis (s«s/xr/>a).-imiyy«(i^i-bacterial lesion ?).Piper ^urantiacum ( harenuka ). Emetics : Randia dumetorum (madatia)^ Gly- . are also used in migraine. cephalalgia. Ocimum lebbek ( villosum {pha?iijjhaka\ fructus sh^'isa Albizzia cuma { Allium sativum {lasuna)^ Cur). Cardiospermum Tliese balicacabum tliese {jyotismat'i) y-<\ridi zingiber officinale {)idgard) are Cerebral Sedatives. and Berberis asiatica {haridra and longa sodium cbloride and rock-salt darti-haridrd ). apoplexy. lavana-dvaya ). catarrh. Piper longum {pippali)^ Piper nigrum IVIoringa {maricha\ Embelia ( vidaiiga ).

Aegle marmelos ( vilva ). EUetaria major (ela) and Acbyrantbes obtusifolia {dhamai^gava) are to be used as Emetics in proper doses. Oroxylum ( Calosantbus ).*i'wi^^a). Mimusops {udak'ir7/i/ka)jSa\\adoYa. tur- petlium belerica {trivrt). persica {pilu)y Cassia fistula {aragvadha).Acbyraiit!ies aspera(. Uvae passa? (draksa)^ indicum nal {dravant'i) Baliospermum and Barringtonia acutangula intesti- (nichula) are to diseases. Gmelina arborea {kasmaryya)^ Desmodium triflorum {salaparm)^ Uraria logopodioides (prsnipaimt). Luffa amara (gavaksl). *pitta^ and 'Mesma* diseases witliout causing any injury to tbe organism. in intestinal. solanum xantbocarpum (nidigdhika)^ .THERAPEUTICS eyrrliiza 437 glabra {madJmhd)^ Azadiraclita indica (mm5a). Mallotus officinalis (tri-phald). ( Terminalia cbebula. pbilippinensis ternatea {kampillaka\ Clitoria kauki (ksirini). be used as JPurgatioes in Sterospermum suaveolens {patali)^ Premna serratifolia {agnimantha). Mallotus pbilippinensis (kutaja)^ CitruUus colocyntbis {iksvdhu).Achyrantbes fruticosa {krta-vedana). indicum (it/omka). Terminalia Myrobalan and Emblica (Phyllantbus) Baliospermum montanum (danti). Ipomoea caerulea {nUin'i'y Abrus precatorius {saptala)j Acorus calamus {vacha). Piper longum (pippal'i). Purgatives j Ipomoea ) ( Convolvulus ).

in the 2-5^ in constipation purgatives) formation of the feces. '^iqmiw wt^rf^T fq^tr^ ^rf^ifir ^ i fsfft^s^lWI^q^F^ "^TOsTm K»ft?% II fl^^ M"^ fff^ ^^ fKr^^w ^?Wmi1% I fq^ili^^r'^Iir^^'lt '^ II ^^^^ qg^lci fv{^^[ t^f^rf^^'r ii . 2. Hordeum hexastichura ( yava ). Boerhaavia procumbens ( punarnavd )." Charaha ( as ^\ 183. Tribulus lanuginosus {asvadmnstra) Solanum indicum {vrhati). uniflorus {kulattha)^ Zizyphus {giiduchl)^ jujuba Tinospora cordifolia Randia dumentorum {madana). Doliclios {kola). Andropogon citratum {karttrna). Butea frondosa (paldsa). oils and salts are to be used and I. Ricinus commuDis {eranda).438 Sida ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE cordifolia [cala).

THERAPKUTICS 439 Antiparasitics : Cassia fistula {aragvadhd). Allium sativum. pliilippinensis. Curuma {dhava). Embelia Betula Albizzia indica. A. Azadirachta indica.corns calamus. Laurus cassia ilomasa). scbolaris. Acacia gvimraifera (s?yahva\ Cedrus deodara {suraJiva)^ Acacia catechu (khadira\ Toraentosa latifolia dumentorum. persica. Nerium odoratum (blim^jja). Balsamodendron {zeylanica) ptery- pubescens igugg^dii)^ Moringa gosperma Mallotus Salvadora {krimagmidha). Acaju officinalis ^I'l ^^m\\ -^Mf^ 1?^=^ 'T^'TTf^T =^ II . Baliospermum montanum. Ocimum Alstonia villosum. Saussurea lappa {kustha\ Jasminum grandiflorum (sumaua). bhojpattra lebbek. Justicia Cassia tora {aidagaja)^ Laffa amara. ilandia longa. {haravlraka). adhatoda (vasa)^ Tinospora cordifolia. Berberis asiatica. Piper angustifolium {remika)^ Ipomoe turpethum.

Cedrus deodara. and then having crushed the gallstone. obstinate psoriasis. Xanthoxylon budrunga {tumvuni). scrofulide. Sinapis alba. Saussurea lappa. then. tinea imbricata. Coriandri fructus. and if then it be rubbed over the . Berberis Ocimum basilicum. ferric sulphide ikaslsa). Trichosanthes asiatica. Curcuma longa. alopecia. chiefly of deposited a resinous complex empyreumatic from smoke. Azadirachta indica.440 ANCIKNT HINDU MEDICINE calcium carbonate {gairika)^ antimonious siilplude ianjana). besides various mineral salts). keloid. and applied over the body as an unguent. made up substance combined carbonous matters and creasote. arsenous disulphide {bhallataka)^ ferric alcalina {grha'dhT(7na =^ substance. Terminalia arjuna {arjjuna\ Achyran- thes aspera {must a) and Sliorea robusta {sarjja] are kept together with the bovine gallstone for seven days. (lodh7'a). Moringa pterygo- sperma. Withania somnifera {asvagandha). Scrapus capsularis- {vanya) and Andropogon acicularis (ohatida) are to be ground in equnl proportion and mixed "with w^hey. Elletaria major •with lactic acid. dioica. arsenous sulphide (inanahsila)^ faliginis (ala). iela). fistula-in-ano and €Czema are cured within a short time. the linimenta is mixed with oleum sinapis. leucoderma. Symplocos racemosg.

Acliyrantbes aspera. keloid. eruption. Vateria indica ( sarja-7'a8a ). Wl«=l^ »J?l5^§i'^JI5^ ^^^^ g'^^^'f^T^'^ =^wi^ '^'HTf^ ^'iif^ ^^ u . Saussurea auriculata. ( 441 urti- Cocculus cordifolius amrta asanga ). arsenous sulphide. ^T^'. ( robusta. relieve tinea imbricata. Symplocosracemosa. — pruritus. ( ( ferric sulphide^ ). Andropogon gummi Rotieria tinctoria kampillaha sboenantbus gummi indica. ift? ^wi sm\ -^^ ^^^ t^rf^ f^Ti'* fairlisc i ^nw: ^^i: ^f^^ ^^^ ?lf5^^ ^^H^^^^ I ii MV0. pruritus. ). 2-4 ^®*. Sborea saufjandhUca ).'* 184. smeared with unguents. caria and tumescence become cured. Embelia arsenous and Nerium odorum disulpbide. Hydrocarpus kurzii or copper-sulphide Berberis asiatica.THERAPEUTICS body as an unguent. eczema and scrofulide. "^1^^^: ^^515!: Charaka I. 3. if these are ground and rubbed over the body.

Cedrus glabra. stellata. Andropogon { acicularis is — if these are used as a liniment. ( Aquilaria agallocha lolia ).il'i2 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE ' Anodynes deodara. Nelumbium speciosum {kamala ( Nyphaea ( stellata iitpala ). lotus. Calamus { vetra Calophyllum lotus. ino}>hyllum tiiiiga ). ) Saussurca Glycyrrhiza Elletaria major. Musci saivala ). Nymplia^a rotang ( Nymphiiea ). radix NymplmBa Andropogon muricatum. Curcuma longa. : "Radix Nympliaea lappa. Symplocos racemosa. Aglaia Pterocarpus ^^TM ^'^i N?^r: ^^^r: ifsifT s^t^fi^ "m ^^rnfi h . Cedrus deodara. : pain is relieved. edulis. Typlia angustifolia eraka ). Aerides tessalatum Berberis asiatica. Poeniculum vulgare and Anisi fructus. and applied after clarified butter as a liniment warming it. Nymphaea lotus ( padmaka ). Saccha^rum officinarum andCselogyne OYalk{j'ivanH = ccBla) if compounded and mixed with and oleum sesami. headache relieved. rasna ). Valeriana dioica. ( Demulcefils lotus.

Saussurea lappa. 3. 185. Cedrus deodara. if applied as a plaster on a venous bite. and Symplocos rubbed upon the skin in the powder racemosa. Lichen ( suileyam ). Nymphsea <jolocynthis lotus. Dictphoi^etics : Mimosa indica. Wi^l^ i^P5 ii«" ?remi^^ ^ii^t^ =w i . Albi^izia lebbek and Mimosa Aquilaria agallocha. if kasa Poa cynosuroides. Rubia cordifolia. it relieves skin-lesion and causes perspiration.THERAPEUTICS «antalinus. radix Hedysarum yamsa-mula ( rum spoutaneum lia. form. Saccbaand Typha angustifo). Albizzia lebbek. Citrullus ). after pasting and mixing them with clarified butter. applied as a liniment. 16-21i * ' . Panicum frumentaceum alhagi ( dnrvva ). irritation of the skin is relieved. Mesua if speciosa ( hema ). aindri ( Nymphsea ). indica." Charaka I. the irritation of a burn is relieved. radix lotus. Calamus rotang. ( Glycyrrhiza glabra. the burning irritation is relieved. Ipomoea digitata ( sita ). Cinnamonum zeilanicum {tvalc). Aerides tessellatum. Elletaria major. AndropoTabernajmontana coronaria {nata) gon acicularis. if 443 applied as a liniment.

Leptadeiiia reticulata ( ). Aconytum heterophyllum. 7'savaJca ). Saussurea lappa. Cordia myxa. Gymnema lactiferum.444 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE : Analeptics Vitis ( "Celtis orientalis ( minor ( j'ivaha ) vinifera ). and Glycyrrhiza glabra these — ten are vitalizing astringent drugs. Picrorrhiea JSpispastics Cyperus ?f^re^^" ii3i2fiR?Tg f'T^^'Ji: ^RT^^rsrt^^T =g ii .. Curcuma longa. Batatas paniculata and Ipomose Latatas — these ten are tonic astringents. : rotundus. Gymnema lactiferum ( kakoVi Gymnema trilobus hsira-kalcoVl ). Berberis asiatica. Acorus calamus. Hibiscus vitifolius. Gymnema balsamicum. Cordia valet ). Cordia officinalis. mahameda ). Tonics Mimusops kauki ( Jcsirini : ). Phaseolus labialis mudga-parm Teramnua Cselogyne ovalis ( masaparni ). meda Leptadenia balsamic am ( spartium ( ). Oxylatifo- stelma esculentum lia ( ( rajaksavaka ).

and Sida rhombifolia ). Andropogon acicularis. herandifolia. rrhiza kurroa and Cleome Kubia — cause suppuration. Pimpianacardium and Semecarpus CitruUus colocynthis. ^iS Plumbago : and Ipomooe indica Pustulants pias —these zeylanica. cinale. ten are tonics ( strengthening : Rubefacients Pterocarpus santalinus. Irritants Piper longum.urioa. : Piper chava. Mimosa Bombex Stephania malabarracemosa. <jum. Zingiber offi- Riimex vesicarius. Pongamia glabra. triflorum. Pongamia glabra ten are reductive. ten Aglaia and Myrica sapida —these promote the healing of wounds. paniculatus. : — these ten are rubefacient. Ferula asafoetida Tonics riens. Carpopogon pruAsparagus sarmentosus. Sida Convolvulus Desmodium cordifolia.. gigantea^ Convolvulus turpethum. Phaseolus trilobus. pudica. Picrofelina these ten. AscleGloriosa Eicinus communis. Symplocos edulis. Picrorrhizza kurroa. superba. Nymphaea Andropo- . nigrum. Plumbago zeylanica. Tinospora cordifolia. Plumbago zeylanica. Piper nelJa saxifraga. Uraria logopodioides. Withania somnifera.THERAPEUTICS 3. Fulneraries Glycyrrliiza : glabra. radix Piper longum. —these lotus. cordifolia. Cal- phyllum inophyllum. Grislea tomentosa.

Aegle marmelos. Rubia Hemidesmus indicus. Plumribes^ bago zeylanica. and Piper chava —these ten cure piles. maurorum. and Solanum xanthocarpum these ten stimulate bronchial (mucous membrane). Saccharum ofHcinarum. jRefrigerants : Zingiber officiniale. Tamarindus indica. Acorus calamus. Piper longum and Trichosanthes these ten allay thirst. Rumex vesicarius. Prunus acida. and Citrus medica these ten stimulate the — heart. Carissa mangifera. Plumbago zeylanica. Sponlakoocha. Cyperus rotundus. Convolvulus paniculatus. Punica granatium. Prunus acacia. TJvie passae. Hydroctyle asiatica. Alhagi heterophyllum. Artocarpus carandas. glabra. paniculatus. Acornscalamus.446 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE glabra. Aconitum Terrainalia chebula. Piper chaba. Panicum f rumentaceum and Pani- gon muriculatum. Glycyrrhiza Myrica sapida. Expectorants'. — Solanum Se art-Stimulants dias : Mangifera indica. Convolvuluscordifolia. Hemidesmus indicus. Embelia Saussurea zeylanica. Glycyrrhiza cum dactylon — these ten bring redness to the radix complexion. Piper longum. . indicum. Berberis asiatica. Tinospora cordifolia. — hemostatics : Holarrhena antidysenterica.

Pongamia glabra. Colocasia antiquorum. Holarrbena antidysenterica. Cassia fistula. Aerides tessallatum. Nardostachys jatamansi. CleroAchyranthes aspera. Tithymalus antiquorum. rum... Glycyrrhiza glabra. Curcuma longa. Sinapis alba. Piper nigrum. Nerium odorum. Pterocarpus santalinus. Embelia ribes. scens. Ichnocarpus lebbek. Ber- beris asiatica and cyperus rotundus : relieve pruri- tus (by dilating the superficial vessels). Semescarpum anacardium. Antidotes Curcuma : expulsion longa. Glycyrrhiza glabra. Azadiracbta indica. Berberis asiatica and cyperus rotandus cure tbe skin diseases. Azadiracbta indica. Holarrbena antidysenterica. dendron serratifolium and Salvadora persica are Vitex vermifuge (cause the destruction or of the intestinal worms). Nardostachys Jatamansi.. Albizzia. Cassia fistula. Pongamia glabra. Counter-irritants : Pterocarpus santalinns. Phyllanthus emblica. Anthelmintics Moringa pterigosperma. Embelia Tribulus terrestris. Strychnos potatoVitex negundo and . Pterocarpus santalinus. and Jastniauna guandiflouura.V TOERAPEUTICS : 447 Antiparasitics Acacia catecjhu. ribes^ negundo. Sinapis alba. Kubia cordifrute- folia. chebula. TermiDalia. Alstonia scholaris^ Cassia fistula.

Andropagon a sub-species of Oryza sativa. Oryza sativa. Saccharum spontaneum. folia. longifolia. AnapJivodisiacs nia elephantum. Pero- Myrica sapida. and Hemionetis esculenta these ten increase — milk. Vitis vinilacti- Gymnema balsamicum. Cedrus deodara. Saccharum officiiiarum. Nauclea saccharum purificatum. tliese ten reduce the production of milk. and Rhus succedania l»^ardostachys jatamansi these ten increase semen. Anti galactogogues Stephania hernandifolia. Gymnema ferum. trilobus. os sapiae. spartium. : rotundus. : — Saussurea auricuh-ia. Holarrhena — Aphrodisiacs fera. Picrorrhiza kurroa. Phaseolus Teramnus labialis. Leptademia Asparagus racemosus. and bemidesmus cherayfca. : Celtis orientalis. Sesbania grandiflora spinosa. Tinospora cordifolia. Saccliaruin cylindricum. C/vnerus Zinsfiber ofiBcinale. Ahelmoschus moschatus. Ruellia and i. Saussurea zeylanica.ndropogon muiicatum these ten reduce semen (diminish sexual desire and power). Hygrophila cadamba. — . ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE myxa — these : ten destroy ( neutralize ) Galactogogues muricatuin. Tinospora cordi- Agathotes antidysenterica.MS Cordia poisons. Poa cynosuroides.

—these ten JPurgatives : —Uvae passae. Zizyphus laccifera. Zizyphys jujuba. Aegle turpethum.vta. BauhiNauclea Bauhinia acuminata. Glycyrrhiza glabra. Hordium hexastichum. 449 passoe. Leptademia Convolvulus balsamicum. Gymnema lactifenim. agents : —TJvae Gly- 'Cyrrhiza glabra. and Zizyphus jujuba these indicum. Holarrhena antidysen29 : JEnemata . Gymnema paniculata. cadaraba.THERAPEUTICS Adipogenous spartiura. Boerhaava procuhens. Asclepias and Achyranthus aspera ing. Asclepias gigantea. Tinospora cordif olia. PhyllanTerminalia belerica. fasciculatus.) Diaphoretics : — Moringa pterigosperma. ten increase perspiration (by sudoriparous glands). Boerhaava diffusa. Gmelina — — Ipomoea arborea. RiciDolichos biflorus. talis. Terminalia cliebula. nia varieg. emblica. Celtis orien- —these Caelogyne ovalis and Des medium triflorum ten cause the for mation of fat (in the body. Grewia thus asiatica. Zizyphus napeca and Salvadora persica these ten are purgatives. Piper longum. nus communis. Calamus Cephalandra gigantica cause vomit- indica. marmelos. Sesamum Phaseolus trilobus. — stimulating the Emetics : —Mel. Crotalaria verrucosa.

Sinapis nigra. Agathotes chira- . Acliyranthes aspera. Cedrus Aegle marnielos. Alhagi> her- maurorum. and fructus Kandifv dumefcorum these ten »re (suited) for enema. and Clitorea mariana alba. Zizyphus Punicum hexastichumi diatomacious earth. Refrigerants : — Cyperus pertenuis. ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE Sinapis alba. Glycyrrhiza glabra. : (possibly —Eugenia an errhine is meant). Mangijujuba^ Citrus medica. Peucedanum graveolens. Peucedanun guaveolens. Tribulus Premna and Oroxylum indicum — these ten are (fitted) for oily-enemata. Pterocarpus santalinus. Cerebral sedatives -Cardiospermum halica: — cabum. Embelia ribes. diffusa alba. Hordeum — the irritablity of the gastric nerves or the vomittins: centers or neutralizinsc the toxins which irritate those centers). pop corn these ten are anti-emetics (by allaying granatum. Sinapis Moringa pterogospermura. fructi Holarrhena anticlysenterica. Piper lon^ gum. Piper nigrum. Oldenlandia bacea. and Andropogon muricatum. jambolana. — Oily-enemata deodara. — Cerebral sedatives Antiemetics fera indica. : —Vanda roxburgbii. Clitorea these ten are ternatea. Eandia dumetorum^.450 terica. Acorus calamus. Boerhavia Boerbavia diffusa serratifolia rubra. Cyperus rotundus. terrestris.

Sohinum indicum. Glycyrrhiza glabra. Clerodendrura lotus Nymphaea — these ten : indicum. give color to the feces (by causing the increased secretion of the —these . ten . diatomacious earth serrata.Mucuna pruriens. Pinus longifolia. gummi Grislea Bombax malabaricum. a red-yellowish color). edible (containing oxide of iron which gives paniculatus. Cholagogiies llia — Eugenia jambolana. pudica. and fructus cause the formation (evacuation) of feces. and fructus it Sesamum indicum bile). coraudrum sativum and Tricliosantbes these ten aliay thirst. Pulmonary sedatives — : Curcuma zerumbet jujuba. Symplocus racemosa. Costas speciosas. Zizyphus Solanum xanthoaarpum. Mimosa tomentosa. fructus Mangifera indica. Termlnalia chebula.THERAPEUTICS yata. 45 ! Pavonia odorata. Alhagi maiirorum and Hhus succedania these — ten relieve hiccup (by allaying irritability of the respiratory center or the terminal fibers of the nerves distributed to the bronchi and lungs). Hemi- desmus indicus. Laxatives : Aglaia roxburghiana. Piper longum. Cymbidium tessaloides. Eoswe- Bombax malabaricum. Balatas Nymphaea stellata. Colo- santhus indicus. dioica Tinospora cordifolin.

taria cardiamomum. Glycyrrhiza rubra. Aglaia roxburghiana and Grislea these ten purify the urine. Pulmonary nalia sedatives : —Uvae passae. Saccharum spontaneum. Nymph sea Nymph lotus. Tribulus Sesbania grandiflora. indica. Rhus succedania. tomentosa sea rubra. Oxalis ten inacetosella and Acacia catechu these Spondias mangifera. Nyraphgea odorata. Nymph cea stellata. Nymphgea Nymphsea pubescens. Costus speciosum. ^. TermiPiper chebula. religiosa. Ficus infectoria. Ficus Benga- glomerata. Uoerhavia diffusa alba. Boerhavia diffusa rubra. Ditireiics terrestris. zerum- bet. Panicum frumentaceum and Saccharum sara these ten Colcus amboinicus. Cleome viscosa. longum. — increase the excretion of urine. Rumex vesicularis. Poa cynosuroides. Imperata cylindrica. Mangifera lensis. Urinary antacids or antieeptics : —Nelumbian alba. Alhagi maurorum. EUeOcitnum . Solanum xanthocarpum. 452 Urinary ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE diluents : — Eugenia Ficus jambolana.f '. Ferula assafoetida. speciosum. Semecarpus anacardium. Ficus — crease the quantity of urine. Phyllanthus emblica. and Phyllanthus nirury these ten relieve coughing (expectorants Curcuma Respiratory stimulants : — — ?). : — — Costus speciosum.

Gmeiina arborea. Phyllantbus emblica and nalia bellerica these ten relieve fever. niruri. stimulants : Uvse passes. by modera- ting the excitement. Grewia asiatica. tica. glabra. and rendering the heart's action more slow or less forcible.. Tinospora cordiColia and pavonia odoi'ata these ten — relieve 'septus' (internal congestion). Solanum xantbocarpum. cardiac . fructus Gmeiina arborea. Solanum indicum. — Vascular sedatives : Pop corn^ Santalnum album. Picus glomerata. Hordeum hexasticbum and a variety of Oryza sativa theseten remove fatigue. Colosantbes indica. Uv8& passse. na serratifolia. Terminalia cbebula. Andro- pogon muricatum. Phyllantbus 453 Caelogue ovalis^ and Andropogon Styptics : — Stereospermum suaveolens. — Terrui- Sphial sylvetris. Desmosium trilobum. Grewia asia- Buchananii Saccbarum officianarum. Antipyretics : Hemidesmus indicus. Stephania rotunda. rock candy.THERAPEUTICS sanctum. marmelos. E/ubia cordifolia. Salvadora persica. PremAeg-le — these ten relieve dyspnea. Hemidesmus indicum. Uraria tbese ten logopodioides. Phoenix latifolia. rock-candy. and Tribulus terrestris — reduce inflammation. Zizyphus jujuba^ Punica granatum. Nympbsea Glycyrbiza stellata.

Acacia Alstonia scholaris. Shorea robusta. Paeraiia serratifolia. the heart and the blood-vessels ). Buchanania Zizyphus jujuba. Andropogon muricatum. Zingiber ofPicianale. ten relieve . Coriandrum sativum.454 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE Vascular stimulants : Cassia auriculafca (Tab). : radix Piper longum. — burning sensation ) of erysipelas. Piper chaba. Carum ajowan. UraAntirheumatics : ria logopodioides. Acarus calamus.g : by accelerating the circulation. Eleteria cardamamum. Solanum iudicum. Solanum xanthocarpum. and pain. and Piper longum tion ( — these ten relieve the chilly sensaactin. Terminah'a tomentosa. and Glycyrrhiza glabra these ten relieve rheumatic (gouty) — pain (by dissolving uric acid deposits). Seseli ubanotis. and Acacia farmensiana these ten relieve ( the bombolah. Pimpinella involucrata. Solanum xautliocarpum. Achyranthes — repens these Cuminum cyrainum. Besraodium trilobum. Santalanum album. •ernaemontana coronaria ? Aqiiilaria agalloclia. Plumbago zeylanica. Emollients latifolia. Terrainalia arjuna. Zingiber officinale. xlcacia catechu. Ricinus communis. Counter-irritants Piper longum. Gymnema balsimicum. Piper nigrum. Colosanthus indica. on Diospyros glutinosa.

Andro- Herpestis monieria. radix Nymphaea lotu9. Herpedactylon. Myrica sapida. ).THERAPEUTICS Stf/ptics : 465 Mel. Calophyllum. Sida cordifolia. lia Tinospora cordifolfa. Acacia farnesiana. inophyllum. robusta. Terminalia chebula. Syniplocos racemosa. Nardostachys jatamansi. and Picrorrhizah kurroa these ten abolish conscious- pogon acicularis. ghiana. Bombax malabaricum. Vanda roxburAnaleptics : . Nauclea cadaniba. and Aglaia roxburghiana — these ten increase the reproductive powers. Bombax malabaricum. rock candy. diatomacious ferric Crilcium earth ( coutaining oxide of iron carbonate. A. Aglaia roxburand pop corn these teti. Phyllanthus emblica. Feronia eleAnodijnefi : — Shorea phantum and Saraca pain. monieria. ness Apht'odisiacs stis : of the higher CitruUus colocynthis. Saraca indica. Calamus rotung. — arrest the flow of blood (by vascular contractioii). Glycyrliiza glabra. Terminachebula.corus calamus. Steriospermum suaveolens. Picrorrhiza kurroa. — (by inhibiting the functions cerebral centers). Melia azeda- rach. Albizzia lebbek. Crocus sativus. Panicum Panicum frumentaceura. Anaesthetics : indica — these ten relieve Perula assafoetida. Corydalis cava.

Desmodium trilobum." Charaka I. Hydi-ocotyle asiatica. Caelo^yne ovalis. and Boerliaavia asiatica — these ten prolong life. 4.456 gliii. ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE Panicum dactylon. 12-62' ^«. Hemidesmus indica. ^^> T§^ff?7f?i 'riiHTr^ ^^"i<ni% *r^f^ ^ft^ ?:r5i^^^ w^r i ^r^t^ '^i^wi^l^ ^i^ra^ vrff^^) »ttt?t^ ^^^ i7^€f ?f%w*q^^ ^^T\ »ft=^^g >?m^ .

THERAPEUTICS 1. Sida spinosa. 45T trilobum. Aspara- ^feiT m\^\^ -^wnf^ ^^T^mpff vf^fiTi I . XJraria logopodiodes. Pectorals : "Dcsmodium Ba- tatas paniculata. Sida cordifolia. Tribulus terrestris.

458 ANCIENr HINDU MEDICINE gus racemosus. Hemidis- mus indiciis nigra.r iT^^ »m^ ^'^^^ w^ . Tmv^^ fq^?t1 lis W"?^^! ^^RT'Ti^ aicig'^qr- ^1m^^=^^^ ?TR=grq^^ifq^-r fti^ ^q*qTqffli^?T«^ ^- *flT^[ ffcT ^3T^[r*T ^f^'^pRll^Wlfsf *Tqf^<T I aispg^t^^sr^q)^ qj^^Hqrr if^if=^^m?nfq<q^- q^T q^^^. Ichnocarpus fratescens.^i^tfci ^5? ?iTf^ 5i*q3i^iqTic^qT H'flq'&*'?€l<?Tr5T *Tqf?fr i w^"?. Celtis orientalis minor.

THEKAPEUTICS Vitis vinifera. 459 Phaseolus xauthocar- Teramnus inclicum. trilobus. labialis.i irf^^ii^ ^^JT'Tf*^^ B"?^ ?CT^(55rg^- . diffusa. Solanum Solatmm pum. BcEi'haavia Ricinus communis. qiftfc?f.

Alstonia scholaris. Holarrhena dumentorum. These 'vida7'i' and they relieve the derangements of and ^pitta\ consumption. Randia Antiseptics Placourtia ramontclii. catechu. Cassia fistula. Barleria prionitis. Holarrhena antidysenterica. gouty'vayiC pains. and other bronchial : troubles. tubercles.460 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE and AIucLmar Clitorse ternata. Azadirachta indica. Acacia antidysenterica. Tragui involacrata. Barleria buxifolia. Stephania capilata. Sauseviera zeylanica. Stereospermum suaveolens. ( are called Carpopogoa ) prui-iens. Tinospora cordifolia. Pluin- wof?fr^ 1 for ^$?Trf^ srlMri'piq^iR vraf^ i ^^MtairifiSire?^ql?zTT'rlgr5?mi mrft^T ^Fii^^ft- . dyspnea II.

Saccharum Premnti spontaneum. gonorrhea. Arundo indica latifolia. Opiielia chirayta. Imperata : cylindrica. toxemia. Vanda roxburghii. and relieve III. GymSolanum sylvestris. adiposis. Asparagus racemosus. Plumbago zeylanica. Premna Momordica monadelpha. Aegle marraelos. Barleria Morunga plerygosperma. Coleus serratifolia. Poa cynosuroides. serratifolia. caerulea. and abscess cavities.THERAPEUTICS h{\go 461 glabra. Pongamia Carissa caranda. adenoncosis and IV. Barleria Lithontriptics Pentaptera arjuna. Trlchosaathes dioica. skin disease. Sesbania aculeata. Cyperus pertinens. and Moraordica cliarantia are called ^afagdhadi'. headache. Hyperanthera morunga. zeylanica. Coccinea indica. Barleria cristata. fever. Gymnema sylvestris. aromaticum. vomiting and pruritus (as •symptomatic expressions of the former lesions). : Cratseva religiosa . Barleria cristata. HiEmatiuiGfi cserulea. Sanseviera . indicum and Solanum xanthocarpum are called nema 'varimadi\ and they relieve of) (the derangements 'kapha* and adenitis. Calotropis gigantica. zeylanica. Sanseviera zeylanica. Imperata cylindrica. Pothos officinalis. Guilandina bonducella» Pongamia glabra. and they are disinfectants in catarrh.

AsbHngent indica. and vaginal diseases. raceraosa. Boswellia serrata. Pterocarpus dalbergisides. Herpestis are called monieria. Symplocos Butea Calosanthes Clerodendron siphoanthus. and Tribulus and they and urinary calculus. disinfectants alstonia. Ougenia album. \ Symplocos frondosa. Rubia cordifolia. Oxidizer RQsin^ Shorearobusta. Nympheea stellata.462 Calotropis ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE officinalis^ Sciudapsus gigantea. Gyranerna sylvestris. Shorea robusta. Terminalia Terminalia iatifolia. ediposis. VI. disinfect abscess cavity and neutralize toxins. Santalurn santaliuus. Aquilaria agallocha. Betulabhojapatra. Terminalia alata tomentosa. gonorrhea and anemia. Myrica sapida. Burleria prioriitij^. Shorea robusfca and Musa sapientam are called ^rodhradi\ and they and relieve phlegtuat/ic disposition adiposis. Calosantlies indica. gravel V.. and Santalaum xanthocarpum are called ^scilasaracU\ and these relieve phlegma. Dalbergia sissoo. Diospyros embr^^osteris. Guilandina bonducella. Acacia terrestris ^virataj-vvlkli : arabica. and skin-diseases. Pongamia glabra. arjuna. Tectona grandis. Areca catecliu. Albizzia lebbek. Acacia catechu. . arrest diarrhoea.. tomentosa. Anogeissus Borassus llabelliformis. Myrica rubra. relieve stranguary.

Cassia escuAcbyranthes aspera Hygrophylla spinosa^. . Grislea tomentosa. Vandra Clerodeiidnirn. ''arkadV and they relieve phlegmaticskin iritestina. anorexia. IX. Dalbergia sissoo. Solanum nigrum and Strycbnos nuxvomica are called "surasadl^ and they relieve phlegmatic disposition. Acbyranthes aspera. adiposis. Euphorbia . Andropogon iwaraneusa. rock salt. Andropogon Andropogon muricatum. surasi. roxbarghii. bacterial Horn.THERAPEUTICS VII. Vitez negundo. gigantica Guilandenia bonducella. Batatas are called disposition. — Handia dumetorura. Clerodendron siphonanthus. Salvinia culenta. Oci- mum hirsitum. Kuta graveolens. diseases. Embelia ribos. alba. Celsia carom andeliana.. Tragia panicalata Balanites roxburghii involacmta. Heliotropiurn indicum. worms. ( siphonanGloriosa superba. Lithontriptics : Bignonia indica. Myrica sapida. cullata. Butea frondosa. Andropogon martiny. Plumbago zeylanica. thus. Ocimum frutescens. Batatas epulis. Calotropis 463^ Disinfectants : Caloti-opis gigantica^ Pongainia glabra. JPeotorals : — Ocimum sanctum.. dyspnea and cough and disinfect abscess cavity. VIII. and toxins disinfect neutralize abscess cavity. shoenanthus. catarrh.

Perula fructus Melia azadaroch. Tabernsemontana coronaria. aurantiacum. stomachic and dessicant. Cuminum dron Cyminum. Saussurea auraticulata. Cinnamoferrea. assafoetida. Stomachics radix Piper longum. Stephania Sinapis hernandifolia. Zingiber officinale. Andropogon shoenan thus. Plumbago zeylanica. mum. ribes Sanseviera zeylanica. glandular swelling and pain. Piper chaba. X. Piper nigrum. Terminalia.(s?<Hi = pearl-oyster). : Piper longum. fructus Holarrhe- antidysenterica. urethral diseases. Mesua Piper mica* (a yellowish fragrant plant). Canscora . alba. operculum Tamirindus indica. Elettaria cardamoPimpinella involucrata. anemia (symptomatic of the other lesions). Scindapsus officinales.464 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE neriifolia. Agraia roxburgiana. cliebula. Acorus calamus. gravel and urinary calculus. Carminatives: Elettaria cardamomum. gonorrhea. na Piper auriinticum. and Picrorrhiza kurroa are called pippahjadV and tliey are appetizing. Terminalia belerica and Phyllantliiis embelica are called Unushadi* and they relieve adiposis. XI. Nardostachys jatamansi. ciiancre. and they relieve catarrh. Cleroden- siphonanthus. Aconitum Embelia heterophyllum. *sthaune- mum tamala. Cinnamomum zeylanicnm. anorexia. flatulence. of Purpura.

Areca catechu. pauciSida cordifolia. Pongamia glabra.Tpomoeaturpethum Baliospermum montamum. Shorea Vvobusta. 4i65 Cinnamomum Andropogoa acicularis. Tinospora cordifolia. Argyreia speciosa. Balsamodendron mukula. Curcuma longa. Trichosanthes dioica. and Glycyrrhiza glabra are called vachadi and Jim^idradi and they are galactogogue. Andropogon sativus. Boswellia seratta. Cedrus deodara. Crocus relieve pblegnaatic disposition. Pinus longifolia. pruritus and urticaria. rauricatum. antidysenteric Holarrbena and particularly stomachic. Guilandina bonducella. Cyperus Aconitum Cedrus beteropbyllum deodara. Canscora decussata. Acorus calamus. Berberis asiatica. and Calopbyllum inopbyllum are called 'elacW and Trigonella corniculata. Terminalia cbebula. Symplocos racemosa. Liquidambar orientalis. XII-XIII. logopodioides. Stereospermum suaveolens. Ich- ^ocarpus-frutescens.THERAPEUTICS decussata. Mallotus philippenensis. XIV. rotundus. Cassia fistula. floruna. Stomachics tiiey : flatulence. Laxatives : Hemidesmus indicus. Eupholia neriifolia and Cleome felina are called sydmddi and they relieve tympanites and ascites. Mesua Uraria ferrea. 30 . Aquilaria. Citrul- lus colocynthis. agallocha. antidysenterica. Salvinia cucullata.

Santalum album. eructation and strangury. Lepta- denia spartinum. Stephania hernandifolia. are called usakidi and thfiy relieve sulphide XVIII. Lithontriptics : iron phlegmatic disposition and adiposis.466 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE XV. and urinary calculus. viera Disinfectants : Trichosanthes dioica. Celtis orientalis. Teramnus labialis. odorata. XVI. Leptadenia reticulata. Analeptics : Gymnema balsamicum. . sulphide. pubescens. Nymphsea lotus. Pterocarpus zeylanica. Mirausops kauki and Glycyrrhiza glabra are restorative. tonic uj ilactogogue and phlegmatic. Stephania hernandifolia. pruritus. manna Bambucae. rock salt. stimulant. fever. Prunus padus (r). Diureties : Solanum indicum. and Glycyrrhiza glabra are called ^vrhatyad'C num and they relieve the excess of the humors. gravel and strangury. XVII. Nymphaea cordifolia. Gymnema lactif crura. Assafoetida and copper Bitumen. and Picrorrhiza curroa are called patalddi and they are beneficial in anorexia. and particularly in the asepsis of the abscesses. anorexia. Sanse- Tinospora cordifolia. Holarrhena antidysenterica. santalinus. Pliaseolus trilobus. Nyrapha3a Alkalies. Vitis vini- f era. Sola- xanthocarpum. Tinospora Rhus succedama.

. and Andropogon muri- <. hemorrhage. Terminalia relieve Phyllanthus emblica are called paruskadi they flatulence. RubJa . CaloMimosa pudica. and chebula. and urinary troubles. muricatum Nympbaea stellata. Glycyrrhiza glabra. Santalum album. bilious fever and especially hyperemia. roxburghiana. Antiseptics Aglaia roxburghina. Pterocarpus santalinus.Punica granatum. Woodfordia floribunda. XX.atum are called sdrivadi and they relieve polydipsia. Andropogon Nelumbium speciosum. Vascular Sedatives Iclinocarpus frutescens.phyllum inophillum. and are appetizing and cardiac stimulants. Aglaia antimony. sappan. Strychnos : Grewia asiatica. Bassia latifolia. Mesua ferrea. toxemia and internal congestion.Mimusops potatorum. Prerocarpus santalinus. Bombax antimony (?). poly- dipsia. radix. Prunus padus. Tectouia grandis. indica. Uvae Myrica sapida. : XXII. XXI. Gmelina arborea. Terminalia belerica. Nelumbium speciaosum. Csesalpinia diatomacious mixture of antimony sulphide. malabaricum.THERAPEUTICS 467 : XIX. and Glycyrrhiza glabra are called anjanddi and they relieve hemorrhage. Carminatives passae. Hemostatics incinerated : Sulphate of antimony.

Boswellia serrata. Mangifera sylvatica. Symplocos Nerium coronarium. Caloglabra. Eicus infectoria. Symplocos anacardium. Cinnamomum kurroa. XXIII. Antijjyretics : Tinospora cordifolia. for rejoining the fractured bones and as pustulants for the tumors. Stephania hernandifolia. Butea frondosa. Diospyros embryosterus. Picrorrbiza Mimusops Nauclea cadamba. alstonia. Spondias mani. XXV. : Woodfordia floribunda. racemosa. Eicus religiosa. ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE and Iclmocarpus frutescens are called' *priyaiigvadi' and they are beneficial in ulcerative dysentery.468 cordifolia. acicularis. Glycyrrbiza Aegle Symplocos Butte frondosa. Eicus gloremata. alstonia. Pustulants Mangifera indica. Ficus bengalensis. Eugenia latifolia. Zizypbus jujuba. coryrabosa. Androtamala. and Cedrela toona are called 'nyagrodhddi' and they are pustulants Symplocos Semicarpus and beneficial in the reunion of the fractured bones and are vaginal disinfectants. and are beneficial in fractured bones. : XXIV. Pustulants santbes indica. racemosa.nfera. and Nelumbium speciosum are called amhasthadi and tbey are pustulant. marmelos. Buclmnania Glycyrrbiza elengi. . Terminalia arjuna. Mimosa pudica. Bassia latifolia. pogon glabra.

in in some . 469 Santacalled num album and relieve and Prunus padus are *gmluohyckW and tbey are febrifuge. stellata. Pbyllantbus Curcuma longa. embelica are known as trlphala and they are : XXVIII. Pongamia glabra. and Pbyllantbus cbebula. Oxidizers: XXVII. Saussurea aurica- Acorus calamus. benelicial gonorrhea. antiemetic. anorexia.increasing the secretion of milk ( in woman ) and act as disinfectants in vaginal diseases. Stepbania hermanifolia. XXVI. Refrigerants : Nyrapbasa alba.THERAPEUTICS Azadirachta indica. Semicarpus anacardium and Plumbago zeylanica are called ^mustddi^ and tbey are oxidizing agents (reducing pblegma) stimulating digestion. lata. Terminalia Astringent antiseptics Terminalia belerica. Terminalia cbebula. and relieve heart diseases and epilepsy. Elettaria cardamomum. Aconitum heteropbyllum. eye-troubles and they are stomachic. polydipsia and hyperemia. Nympbasa Nympbsea cierulea. Nympb^a odorata. bematinic. Picrorrbiza kurroa. Nelumbium spe- ciosum and Glycyrrbizaglabra are called *«</!paZac?i* and are refrigerant. skin-diseases. Coriandrum sativum. antitoxic. emblica. stomacbic eructation. Nympbsea rubra. Cyperus rotundas. Terminalia belerica.

Piper and Zingiber zerumbet are called triJcatu nigrum and they are oxidizing agents and are beneficial : XXIX.470 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE Piper longum. Stomachics zeylancia tonic. febrifuge and to the eyes. iron and gold (salts). antitoxic and beneficial in anemia and gonorrhea. Lead oxide. forms of tinea in solid stick is and in syphilitic and other sores in the mouth . Stomaohics in phlegmatic disposition. lead. Metallic salts : Tin. Copper likewise has various external therapeutic uses. exuberant granulations. and various other salts and preparations of lead are in use. glandular swelling. . Piper longum and Plumbago : XXX. unguentiim plumbi iodidi. were popular. skindiseases. are called amalahyadi* and they are beneficial stimulating. silver. XXXI. especially valuable in various copper sulphate used as a surperficial effectively caustic in indolent ulcers. ( Tin compounds are no more used in modern medicine except as filings though in former times stannum oxidatum and butyrum stanni. adiposis. and anorexia. and iron-oxide are called t7'apadi and they are bacteri-cidal. Phyllanthus emblicay Terminaliachebula. The oleate of copper is an admirable astringent. usually for external application. diabetes. antiseptic and trichophytesis anti- parasitic prepartion.

upon the and the assimilation .: has been used externally as an astringent caustic and internally in nervous disorders with marked benefit. c. Myrica sapida. Curcuma longa.THERAPEUTIC and the throat. Argonin. But as it leaves a : dark stain on the argentum Crede is preferred by many. Argyrol. Antiparasitics : Lac. another non-irritant combination. Holarrhena antidysenterica. resembling internally in very small doses it acts ijflandular structures of the stomach liver. an organic combination of silver with casein. Nerium odorum. but non-irritant. Gold and sodium chloride has marked bactericidal mercuric chloride and powers. Silver nitrate in 47 1 weak solutions. is used in 2 p. Cassia fistula. has been lately introduced in the market and is claimed to be antidotal to the gonococcus. soluble.. Various iron preparations ?ive still in vogue and administered internally to supply iron to hemosrlobin in its deticiencv as in anemia. as the lactate and citrate of silver is claimed to possess the power of penetrating the entire organism and effecting a general disinfection of the entire organism. XXXII. . skin. in water. stimulating nutrition and but in larger doses it produces violent gastroenteritis without salivation or ulceration). solution in gonorrheal eye-diseases. Berberis asiatica.

Barleria Asparagus racemosus and Hygrophila spinosa are called ^kantaka panchaQiiula'. sweetish taste and are antiparasitical. These two ^pavbohoimulm'' relieve inflammation and gonorrhea. Stomachics : The Aogle Calosanthes indica. sylbestre roots Tinospora of Carissa cristata. sweet-bitterish taste and are roots of restora- XXXIV. are called together 'dasamula' and they are stomachic and febri-f uge. Solanum xanthocarpum. : bitterish XXXIII. Solanum indica. are known as 'pancha-mTda* and they are of astringent tive tonics. . Curcuma longa. Desmodium trilobus.Jasminum grandiflorum and Ficus hefcerophylla are called *lahsacU* and they are of astringent. and Gymnema The ^vall'i-panchamula\ carandas. Antiseptics : The roots of Batatas Iclmocarpus are called frutescens. Tribulus terrestris. scbolaris. Stereospermum suaveolens and Gmelina arborea are called large ^pancha-mJila' and they are Premna serratifolia stomachics of slightly bitter-sweetish taste. raarinelos.'i^72 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE Azardirachta indica Alstouia. Tonics The roots of Trilobus terrestris. paniculata. Uraria logopodiodes. cordifolia. XXXVI. XXXV. Oxidizers The five snaall roots and : the five large roots.

2-36 ^'\ 187. ^^t^^ ^^f^'^^^^m *r^f^ i '^mi —f^t^f^j^T U'^\<\ . cynosuroides. they are diuretic and cure urinary troubles. 38." Susruta I. Phragmicommunis. Imperata cylindrica and Sacchaofficinarum are called *trna pcmcha-miila' rum and if given with milk. tes Diuretics : The of Poa Saccharum spontaneum.THERAPEUTICS 473 roots XXXVII.

antidysenterica. serrata.474 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE Emetics : *'Randia dumetorum. Andropogoa Wrightia CitruUus ^rar: ^^# '^'f^ i .

amara. Embelia longum.THEllAPEUTICS colocyntliis. ^MrT^-^TT^^-^^^-gH^r^i^r^l^^i. ribes. ^'5 =€Kt ifer i n<\M^H'\\ wM'^V'^fwq^: II i^ . Sinapis alba. 475 Luffa Piper Luffa pentandra.

Pongamia Cassia tora.476 AKCIENT HINIHJ MEDICINE glabra. Cordia niyxa. Withania ^ft^f^: fqqr^^ 'CWfq^Tfft 1"!: I f^^STTRt ^r# f^f^^W^'T cT?TT II Ro '^remfft ^r?-^fl'^ ^Tf^fiqig II '^^ . Bauliiuia varie- gata. Melia azadraclita.

477 Pentapetes Crotolaria verru- Rumex vesicarius. i . ^^5^Tq?'.THERAPEUTICS somnifera. phoenicea. Clitorea ternatea. '?ir»ra^Tf^ft^^ arm.

^cTSf* fqxiaii^sT i"^' ^^t^ II ^'^ i^^ig^g^''^ q^^ TffT ^1 II ^^ ^m^ ^^^^^ ^^^^rf^sTTar^: ii ^« ^^^'^^fr "^^ ^^%t^U'\m'T\ II ^at "^m: ^gW: =€)^ 5fiw^^ f^R^cf II \^ . and from Crodia myxa roots are to be employed. Pyrotheca lagenaria and Plumbago zeylanica are And of them. ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE Coccinea indica.478 cosa. fruits are to be used of emetics. Acorus calamus. the plants mentioned above up to Cassia tora.

THERAPEUTICS Purgatives : 479 Ipomoae Iporaoea turpetliura. Jasminum sambac. And of them roots should be used of the plants up to Saccharum spontaneum. Mallotus philippenensis. and purgatives : Luifa araara. Baliospermum montanum. Cassia fistula. Gymnema reia felina. Symplocos racemosa. Guilan- dina bonducella. scholaris. Areca catechu. nil. Terminalia belerica. . E-icinus communis. the fruits from Areca catechu to racemosa to communis. Lufffi pentandra. Achyranthes aspera. Terminalia chebula. the leaves of Guilandina bonducella and Galotropis gigantica. Poa cynosuroides. ArgyCleome Plumbago zeylanica. Trichosanthes dioica. Euphorbia neriifolia. Stereospermum suaveolens. Pliyllanthus emblica. Salvinia cucullata. Saccharum spontaneum. and tica are emetics and purgatives combined. and the E-icinus gum-resins Einetios ( milky exudations ) of the rest. Alstonia Calatropis mum halicacabum gigantea and Cardiosperare purgatives. Stereospei'mum suaveolens. Euphorbia neriifolia. Lagenaria vulgaris. speciosa. Indigofera tinctoria. AnJropOii^on acicuMemordica Oharanlaris. the pigmented granules of the fruit of mallotus philippenensis. Andropogon acicularis. sylvesre. the bark from symplotjos stereospertnum suaveolens.

Bassia latifolia. assafoetida. Gymuema sylvestre. Calotropis gigantea. Clitorea ternaAchyranthes fruticosa. Citrus persica. matter ( mineral substance ). Of these fruits should be taken from Piper longum to Piper nigrum. officioale. the bark from roxburghiana to Gymuema sylvestre. raedica. Coccinea iudica. and tlje cow's- . lac. sodium chloride. Embelia ribes. cow's urine and extract of cow's dung (ammonium) are errhines. alba. Piper aspera. longara. Borassus flabelliformis. Calotropis Allium Zingiber cinia sativum. sodium chloride an earthly . Cardiospermum glabra. Piper nigrum. Salvadora oleoides. webbiana. leaves from Pinus webbiana Balanites to Ocimum album. Neriuni oclorum. Aconitum Pinus lieterophyllum. roots from Nerium odorum. Balanites roxburgliii. Poagamia procera. wine. grandiflorum^ Salvadora Jasminura Shorea robusta. bulbs from Allium sativum to Zingiber officinale. Acorus calamus^ tea^ Sinapis Albizzia lebbek. Ocimum sanctum. GarOci- xantliocbymus. tlie flowers of the next three plants and the extracts of the lac and assfoetida are following next three resinous exudates. mum album. Acliyrantlies Moriiiga pterygosperma.480 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE En^liines : . halicacabura.

39. fat. Hordeum bone-marrow." : Susnital. ( the JcakoU Gymnema Oryza sativa. 17 led by balsimicum). Oryza praecox.THERAPEUTICS urine and 481 the dung are excretory products. 38. hexa- ^^ II ^l WKm ?m II 8 3: 31 . milk. butter. 2-5' '\ Saccharine drugs The Asclepias group. Susruta I.

Carissa carondas. Diospyros embryosterus. •Cucumis Cucumis Cucumis anguinus. Biissia sylvetris. fructus rotang. latifolia. Citrus aurantium. Sanseviera zeylanica. Mucuna pruriens. kysoor. Phoenix flabelli- Mimusops indica. Triticum fructus Trapa sativus. Eoenicum vulgare and Cucurbita pepo contain saccharine substances. Batatas pani- culata. Tamarindus indicus. Buchanania latifolia. Peronia : ^lephantum. Strychnos potatorum. Artocarpus lakucha. Salines incinerated : Rock-salt. Borassus formi. Vitis vinifera. acid content ). Phyllanthus embeCitrus raedica. sour wine. Gmelina arborea. whey. ^raumaka' ( salt made salt is and the . Cocos nucifera. fermented rice and barley water and other Calamus Rumex acetous fermentation products belong to the acid group. carbonate of lime (from shells recovered by lixiviation). curdled milk ( lactic sour gruel.Oxystelma esculeBtum. Punica granata. Sida cordifolia. Zizyphus jujuba. soda. Saccharum officinarum. Mangifera ^alvatica.482 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE aestivum. Citrus bergamia.Cucumis utilismus. Lagenaria vulgaris. Spondias raangifera. Acids lica. Scrypus melo. radiatus. Nelumbium speciosiim. Peucedanum sowa. stichon. vesicarius. Tribulus terrestris. phaseolus bispinosa. potash.

•etc. negando. amara. Piper auranticum. and of Calamus rotang. •Canscora decussata. Salvinia cucuUata.) antidysenterica. Solanum indicuna^ <jataphracta. Canscora decussata.THERAPEUTICS 483^ from the Wcxter of the Roma lake. fastuosa. Balsamodendron mukula. Luffa Momordica myxta. camphora. Vernoniu anthelminthica. Allium sativum. Ipomoea tarpethura. of the 'pippaW group I. ( 38. Capparis Alston ia scholaris. 5 ) are pungent. and the gum. Salvadora persica. 'pakrlma' ( salt obtained from the caustic soda. solanum melongena. : Piperacea) 1. ashes of the grain spikes of barley ).longa. Sesbania grandiflora. Bitters: The Cassia fistula cordifolia (I. ( led by Piper longum ). sea-salt. 38. Holarrhena ( 3 ) 21. Calosanthes indica. Gloriosa superba. magnesia. vitex Cedrus deodara. Nerium odorum. 10 the Ocimum group ). belong to the saline class. 38. alkaline earth ( contain- ing sodium Pimgents carbonate ) etc. Jasminum . Hydroctyle asiatica. Berberis asiatica. now known cis Sambar ). -group ( 1. Ciiinamomum 38. 8. Solanum xanthocarpum. Oapparis aphylla. Placourtia trifolia.resins of tlie Shorea robusta I. 38. Moringa pterygosperma. tops •Curcuma. and Tinospora groups. Datura Cyperus rotund us.

23 groups ). : The 38. Eugenia jambu. Andropogon acicularis. Stereospermum suaveolens. astringent Alkalies class..4iS4i ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE grandiflorum. indica. Mangifera elengi. belerica. Symplocos racemosa. Pbyllantbus hernandifolia Boswellia serrata. Caelogyne ovalis. Boerhaavia diffusa. Earleria cristata. led by ( I. raonieria. Marsi- lia quadrifolia etc. Bauhinia variegata. Terminalia embelica. Diospyros Mimusops embropteris. Symplocos racemosa. 38.42. Saraca indica. 38. Beta maritima. Terminalia chebula. Acliyranthes aspera. and Cardiospermum Tragia halicacabum Picus Astringents bengalensis ( I. these in brief belong to the "Susruta 1. Stapbania 22 ). involucrata.. Aglaia roxburghiana ( 1. Oryza montana etc. 15-20^^^ Alkalies are obtained from the ashes . Strycbnos potatorum.. Herpestis are bitter. Pbaseo- lus mungo : etc. 21 ). Ficus heterophyllum.

Bignosuaveolens. Terminalia racemosa. belerica. Shorea robusta.Abrus precatorius and Trichosanthes dioeco. Prerana spinosa. *'Holarrhena antidysenterica. Nerium Susriita I. 11. Methonica paradisiaca." wi^^ sRi^^'^i^'Ji l-'F^M(i^^^^T^T^T'f^w^1f*T ^ra^Kif^^ WZ-^ ^•. 7^°^. Eu- phorbia antiquorum. Butea frondosa. folium. Achyranthes aspera. nica. Cassia fistula. Justicia ganderussa. Symplocos nia Asclepia gigantea. 11 insist: X"^ ^pr g^Tit^T fcrat ^: II K ^?ni:wT^gt ^^tfw'fxnrtiriTgfH^^^^^r^ ^?t^^ ^'^^^J^ ^«tt^ . Jasminum augustiodorum. Alstonia scholaris. Eiythrina fulgens.of the following plants. superba. Musa Plumbago zeyla- Guilandina bonducella.

45. laxative. Buchanania latifolia. diuretic and dyspeptic. 101^"'.486 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE : "The oils of AzadiraAntiparasital Oils chta iiidica.. Linum usitatissimum. Zizyphus jujuba. sedative. sativus. Gynandropsis^ cerifera pentaphylla. and variegata. Bauhinia pepo. Elettaria cardamomum." Ijiuretic Siisrutal. Eugenia dalbergioides. non-irritant.^ Salvadora persica. diffusive. or syphilitic skin lesions and persica. are Benicassa sweetish. halicacabum are acrid. kapha\ parasital ( or intestinal worms ). Cleome Embelia ribes and Cardiospermum viscosa. pungent and they are beneficial in ^vayu. and laxative oils : "The oils of Ophelia chirayta. irritant. Cocos nucifera. Caelagyne ovalis. Balanites roxburghii. Mallotus philipenensis. Cucumis Cuciirbita Cucumis melo. Moringa ptervirospermuni. I headache. Butea frondosa. Salvadora Pongamia glabra. . Holarrbena tropis antidj-senterica. Calo- gigantea. Terminalia belerica. Andropogon serrata. Kaphanussativus. Luffa amara. Carthamus tinctorius. Sinapis alba.

intestinal worms. catarrhal affection tory tract ) and scrofula. known and Seraicarpus ana- cardium are of astringent sweetish bitter are calorific. Tithymallus antiquorium (?). Vernonia anthelria vulgaris.THERAPEUTICS Tlie oils of Bassia latifolia. emetic. Salvinia cucullata. gon aciculatus are of bitterish-pungent astringent taste. Cedrus deodara. Mallatus philippenensis and Andropominthica. Antiaeptic Oils : ( of the respira- LagenaBaliospermum montanum. Bactericidal emetics oils of The Hydrocarpus kurzii as ^chaidmoogi'o' ). tuvara is popularly taste. Stereo'spermum negundo. adiposis and are ( specific in and ). syphilis- sypliilitic cutaneous manifestations oils : Oxidizing obtained from Tlie ( oils of oleoresins by distillation ) turpentineof Pinus longifolia. purgative and bactericidal^ leprosy. The fruit-oils of Mangifera sylvetica. Vitex suaveolens. are purgative and are beneficial in intesti- . Dalbergia sissoo and Aquilaria agallocha are of astringent bitterish pungent taste and are beneficial in indolent ulcers. 487 Gmelina arborea astringent and Butea frondosa are sweetish and they remove the excess of *kapha and and purgatives ( : 'pitta'.

i88 nal worms. for it will not only encumber the book with an extraneous subject." Susrutal. 106-110^ ^^ The therapeutic value of these drugs is also significant. analized in a modern laboratory. f^'CIcTf?m^TSf%51i^-f^"icM-5TlKtT--€i^r^^#^'T^^ "^ffT II ^o^ . in they have shown competition with the foreign drugs which unmistakably demonstrates 192. but many of them have not yet been test. 45. in the It is not possible here to go into details as to the chemical principles contained in them. ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE skin lesions and indolent ulcers. Many of them are of unquestioned effectiveness symptomatic treatment of the diseases for'which they have been described. in the popular pragmatic their fitness of survival However.

pancreatin or spermin.THERAPEUTICS their 489 therapeutic in its worth.'^^ . clH ^'^'[^ T^^ cTW^ ^TWr*TfWT I ^ ?^'^^^^' TOii' 151^^ «t: II . Of course it is too much to expect ). therapeutic uses. \^^ ^^-m gw* •^TssT^'cwTTi?: i 194. that it was known that the activating principles 35 of the glands —the hormones. never-the-less the testicles of goat and cock as potent aphrodisiac 13. It very Those who are further interested in the subject. ( Charaka. 2. Latin. but they prescribed. 28. English. 193. YII. Persian. and which contains their will synonyms. find in 'A Comparative Hindu Materia Medica* which is under preparation. is YII. were not destroyed by gastric perature. chemical analysis when known and their popular dialects. expressions in the vernacular provincial French and German. * 2. as well of the allied genera in other countries. i«* ). digestion or boiling at ordinary temor they knew to extract chemically pure thyroidin. adrenalin. Arabic. Greek. their botanical order and classification. * known 1- crude Opotheraphy was form ( Charaka I.

490 likely ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE that in the biliary calculus ( rochana ) was^ putrefaction. in case of in-^ sufficiency of biliary salts. make them more dessiccatcd SusriUa 6 ). . alkalies to 11. and the cow's urine was used in cooking the alkalies in order to add the given intestinal ammonium caustic ( to the I. and the cow's dung was either used as a fuel for cautery or as heat-absorbent in which some liquid preparations were kept for ripening.

instruments (yantra). 3 ''\ 195. cTM si^^ffJir^r^^^T I ff?qsfT — t?j' W3. excision ( chhedya ). namely. SUHSEHY. cautery ( agni ). 5. ? ).. *'There are eight kinds of surgical operations. bandage milk. Eor any ( visrdvya ) and of these operations. oils. ).VII. ( patta honey. bottle. prohes (salaka).gourd silkworm gut sponge (^«^r« = leaf butter. sharp instruments {sastra)^ caustics ( ksara ). irrigator disinfectants liniments {alepana)^ paste or ointment Susruta {kalka) and other auxiliary requisites. the surgeon must have- the at following his hand and materials ready at namely the hlunt surgical disposal. incision ( hhedya ) scarification ( lekJiya ). puncturing ( vedya )^ exploration {esya)^ extraction {aharya)^ drainagesuturation ( s'ivya ). (kasaya). speculum (alam)^ bougie cotton (pichu)^ pad or lint (plota)^ {jamvavaustha)^ {srnga)^ {sutra). clarified {tarpana)^ fat.' %w ^^^^flr?Taf .." I.

They it are usually made of (steel) not available. probes twentykinds. (if be^ are shaped like those of the carnivorous animals. or according to the instruction of an expert of of surgical instruments. (4) cannula {nd(U yantra). Their blades iron. accescruci- pincer-like twenty kinds.492 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE "There are one hundred and one kinds of blunt instruments [yantra)^ of which the hand is the most important. they can be also made. but. Therefore likewise they should deer. of similar (hard) metal. (2) piucer-like forceps (sandamsa yantra). Whatever (foreign body) causes pain to the body and the mind. Yantras are of six kinds. (5) probes isalaka yantra) form forceps forceps of sory appliances {iipayantra). for the hand controls the application of all the (surgical) instruments and without it (an adept hand). size. namely (1) Cruciform forceps {svastika yantra). be manufactured. is called 'salya' and the instruments tbat are necessary to extract the 'salt/as* are called 'yantras*. eights kinds and accessory appliances are of twenty-five kinds. (3) pick-lock forceps {tala yantra). or birds. or according to the rules in the surgical text-books. They should be normal and according . pick-lock forceps two cannulata twenty kinds. are of forty and (6) Of them the kinds. they can not he manipulated.

Bone forceps. Swastika Forceps : The swastika forceps^ should be eighteen fingers' breadth long (about — 12 inches) and their blades shaped like the jaws of a \ion(swiJta 1. with one or two at the tip of each blade. fitting fine into side) hollows . either with sharp edges or with polished curbed ends. Parabeuf's with ceps with sliding catch. . Bulldog for{faraJcsii : : hyena 4. deer {fiarvna . short. tiger {vyaghra : bone-gnawing forceps with double-jointed. between the points on the opposite {srgala : jackal 8. and short. strong handles. Gross's bullet forpanther {dv'ljp'i ceps with one blade hooked and the other fene- strated and toothed) . extremities : and at the tips. cat {mclrjmxc : 7. pleasant appearance and with a good handle. forceps teeth all along the inner surface strong grasping of each blade) . expanded and fenestrated teeth) .. having sharpened edges) . bear {bhalluka 5. wolf {vvTia 3. used for seizing and tearing away fragments of bone) . of firm structure. straight or curved jaws serrated on their internal faces) . concave blades. fine 6. : A having long. Perguson's lion-jawbone-holding forceps osteophore with strong blades and : — — teeth to crush and divide bone) 2.TTJRGERY to 493 the needs. Eerguson's bone-holding forceps.. . Mousepoints tooth forceps. concave.

(ohasa)j {liika)^ vulture (bhasa)^ hawk {sasaghcit'i). The blades ( of the swastika ) forceps ( should lens ) be joined by a lentil-like Ervum joint. having long various curves.494 "9. anjali- (Dental handles of forceps. black vulture {si/ena). osprey {kiirara). the tips being expanded and concave on their internal side to correspond to the spherical blades. igvdhi^a)^ ''vrngaraja. and though the comparative forceps. resembling beak of birds ). fene. double-jointed. mentioned above. falcon crane {kraiubcha) . or the tips are hooked. nandimukha' teeth in the upper and the lower jaw. so that they may be forced into the bullet) crow (kaka). owl kite (chllU). used in ancient Indian warfare. 10. heron (kaskn). etc. Bulletdelicate having long single-jointed. The 'swastika forceps' are used in extracting foreign bodies impacted in bones ( foreign bodies were usually shar{)-pointed iron-arrows. golden jay . strated blades) forceps. ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE Bedford's obstetric forceps. may be similar. and s'lOrt jaws set at various angles and shapes to hold and extract different avabhailj</na^ -the karna. short-handled^ movable-jointed and having? lo^oj curved. shape of the bullet. stag [ervvariika . they •can not be the sauie. as it needed different kinds . and the handles should be curved like the elepliant-driver's hook.

The pincer-like forceps PlnoerUke Forceps smidamsa yantra ) are of two kinds. straight or curved wide-opening are used in jaws. They should be 16 about 10 inches ) and fino^ers' breadth long ( they are used in the skin. and others at barrelled.SURGERY >of 495 sliarp-poiuted. possibly in bones . having delicate. serrated either on one blade or both the blades and they ). used in ancient ( and modern surgery ). extracting foreign bodies from the ^ural and nasal passages ( Alligator forceps. Picklock Forceps be made 12 like : fingers' Pick-lock forceps should breadth long ( about 8 inches the jaw of tish ( dolphin ). and others are double-barrelled them have opening both ends ( or some are ). with long and . one single- They bodies are used for the extraction ( of foreign from vessels Tubul ir forceps. jointed and : with sliding catcli-spring. for use in narrow canals ). impacted has only been made to give an idea forceps to extract •comparison of the similarity of the construction of the forceps. Tubular instruments lubiilar instruments : ( uadi yantra ) are of many and they serve various at purposes. Some end. extracting foreign bodies in nerves ( sira ) vessels and and tendons. the thin-plated steel-arrows. tissues.

by introducing a tiny incandescent bulb at the end of the tube and a reflector at the top. organs as for larynx. and which is employed in the diagnosis and treatment of silver or stricture of tubular passages.496 . with blunt bulbous tip. for the exploration of a cylindrical ( Bougie. intended for use through a cannula or other tubular instrument ). cylindrical. in case of its retention from or Trocar for withdrawing fluid from any cavity. ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE slender blades. usually more instrument. fistulas or Sound. pharyngoscope as and urethroscope Catheter^ for draining away urine from the bladany cause . many devices have been perfected. ). er. and for facilities for other operations ( as Director in lithotomy ). a Sound. and which is used for exploring sinuses. body. The . usually curved instrument of metal and which is used for exploring the bladder or other caviother cavities . or for or other of the urethra ties of the dilating strictures canal . resembling ( internal ) lesions or less flexible and yielding. an elongated. such as the urethra or the rectum . suction pharynx of fluids ( or through laryngoscope. which projects the exact condition of the internal urethra. as in hydrocele ). with the general use of electricity. 'Probe a slender rod of ^ other flexible metal.

and there are two varieties of each kind. abscesses. Six are having ends used for the drainage of pus covered with cotton. by a tubular forceps ). such as Bougie.SURGE RT 497 l)readth and the length of the tubular instrument should harmonize with the narrow canal ( in which it is to be used ). They h^. in hydrocele. the hood of a snake. for injection. They are used for exploration ( esana. retraction ( vyuhana^ as by a E<etractor grafting ( chalcma ) and extraction (^aharana. probe or sound ). for fumigation. and stricture of the rectum. . For the application of caustics. { Haemostatic forceps flattened slightly are used. three kinds are used whose ends are shaped like a spoon with a conical -cavity. Por cautery 32 six kinds are used of which . that are used in fistula-in-ano. whose ends are ) like those of a lentil ( Ervum lens ).ve their ends shaped like an earthworm. two salaka forceps ). ascites. in stricuture of urethra. tumors. or a fishhook. Eor extraction of foreign bodies from vessels.obes ( salaka yantra ) have their dimension and their length various uses . are dependent on their requirements. Frobes : The pi. and other instru- ments such as 'alavu yantra^ ( bottle-gourd ? ) and speculum will be mentioned later. gummata. The tubular instruments irrigation. the feathered part of an arrow.

For the removal of the nasal polypi. tongue. = bark ). ) creeper ( for hammer in bone ( for loosening foreign bodies impacted the palm of the hand. from wounds ). bandage.aZa ( tendril of — gently dislocating bodies from delicate sensitive organs or foreign abscess cavities ). tooth. nail. birch-skin (^charmmanta). suction of the fluid as in ascites ).. Por the urethral passage one kind is used whose circumference of is like the flower-stalk.498 the orifice is ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE shaped like the fruit of Eugenia jambolama. One kind is used for the application of ointment ( in the narrow aural or nasal passages ) whose both extremities are shaped like a pea or a flowering-bud (as in Tilley's Burr ).aZZ. the sole of the ). cheer- . : The accessory appliAccessory Appliances ances are thread. of conical formation with sharp edges (Meyer's ring knife or Luc's forceps ). finger. a large rounded stone. for extracsuperficial ting foreign bodies. mouth ( for foot. horse-hair ( for suturation ). Jasminum grandiflorum. twine. expectoration. one kind is used whose orifice isshaped like half the stone of Ziziphus jujuba. ( «. a branch ( of a tree. hair. and the other like that of the elephant-driver's goad. fluxing ( eyes or throat to remove foreign bodies causing discharge in the ). skin-gloves. lint.

These instruments can be applied all over the body. to cover the wounded scar Chalana). grafting (principally cutaneous. or cavity ( of the wound. aJiarana pulling gently to : and fro pulling out to loosen ( ( the foreign body anchhana ). if dihrnieciiQU suppuration has taken place p'idana). cautery and medicines ( including disinfectants ). : replaceforeign body and dii^miQQiioii. extraction of the ). loadstones ( 499 there are iron used for finding out whether fragments in the wounds. purana) bandaging Extraction ( of foreign : ( vandhana by retraction (of the lips of the wound a ^Retractor' for inspection. visodhana ). {vyuhana) of the lips of the wound in their proper ment ( place varttana). or for the drainage of the pus. as loadstones possess polarity and are attracted byiron ). dilatation (of any canal or ( : cavity by a 'speculum' for exploration vivarana)^ to loosen the pressing ( of the wounded parts : foreign body. with a forceps to facilitate its extraction vivarftana). elevation of the . any of the limbs. wrenching : : of a foreign body. viscera and vessels ( including nerves ). bodies with pulling : nirghatana). caustics. canal : : extraction ( ( ). with force : viJcarscma ). injection (of disinfectants in the bladder or enema in the rectum. joints.SURGERY fulness.

and rubbing ( with hairbrush any wound cavity 'pramarjjana ) these : : — ( twenty-four are the uses instruments ). or grasping it badly. . wound dis- with an ''Irrigator' : praksalana vulneraries blowing infectant powders. and which is eighteen fingers' breadth long. : pressure es : ( by manipulation of neighboring tissu). so a wise the foreign bodies can be of infinite variesurgeon must intelligently choose his instrument for each individual case. loosebladed or loose-tipped appliances are the twelve defects in ^yantra* ( blunt instruments ). in order to loosen it depression ( of the fereign body unnamana vinamana ). shaky. bent. long or short appliances.500 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE : foreign body. The instrument that is free from these deInfects. darana)^ straightening ( loosen it rjiiharana : of the foreign ). Defects in Instruments : Too cumbersome or light. or errhines to deep seated wound. as in hydrocele or ascites tion ( acJiTisana ) explora- canal or sinus : esana ). splitting : up (a foregn body. to facilitate its removal body. the blades lacking the power of grasping. too-high-jointed or loose-jointed. ). hhahjana of suction ( by a tube : of the fluids. of the 'yantra* blunt As ties. narrow canal or nasal passage pradhamana ). in order to irrigation (of the ).

^. = dental forceps Among is the it the best. . 7. and easily withdrawn with the extracted Susruta\. which the select in surgic. ^ The surgeon extract.SURGERY is 501 surgeon must shall the only proper one. 2-18 ^'\ missile". according to the surgical code. qf^'Jir ^^^^rf^T ^i^^m ^T^rai: ^r^airfsT ci^frf ct?reT^t5fii|iii?Ti^qt^i^5?f- l??Tf^ 'g^qif'i ^»r?Tf% =^ ^i^?f ii a. the visible missile ( salya ) by the Lion jaw forceps* and the invisible heahecl forceps missiles by ^Jcanlca-mukha'' ( hei^on).! operations. as ^yantras\ ^heron-heahed forceps^ can be easily introduced every- where.

They lows knife mandalagra aj^r^ra^i^fq ^Hrn^Rif'!! ^5TTwr5!5Trf% <T5TratJiqfTirT¥lt^r'5i ir5fiRqffTl!qf^?T'!I^r«TrcT 11 \° ^^ ^^ ^^^x^ <i^\^i[ m^^^ h u .503 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE Sharp Instruments are of twenty 1 ) Cij'cular : Sharp ( instruments are as fol) . ( sastra : ) ( kinds.

SURGERY ( 2 ) 503 Saw ( consisting of u hara-patra^ resembling hand. a single. Jcnife ( ( nakha-sastra. thin blade with sharp teeth in as the edge. ( 7 ) arddha-dara. sharp-poin- ted and two-edged blade. wide. lancet ( 5 ) Gum ) . mudriJca. a short lancet of the last size and shape of the ( phalanx of the index ( finger 6 ) Thumb lancet sembling the petal of Nymphsea Amptitating knife ( utpala-patra^ restellata ) .edged . resembling nail-j)arer ) . ^vrddhi' Batata edulis — resembling the leaf of ) ( 4 ) Ca?ialicular . ( the hand has fingers ) 5 ( 3 ) Lancet vrddhi-patra^ a short. that is.

) having . having { 12 ) Concave bistoury curved blade inside ) (13) Trocar [trikurchchaka^.501 cuttiog ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE instrument ) . shaped like ) . ( 9 ) Bistotu^y ( kusa-patra^ a long. open at both ends. which is withdrawn after the instrument has been pushed into the cavity Hrois^ — ( . resembling the long and slender beak of heron ) ( antaramukha. the same meaning knife of ' tri-kurchchaka'' (14) Lenticular kutharika. a hollow needle. resembling the bill of 'at'i'' bird Tur- — dus Ginginianus ) . an instrument with two blades. for guiding the thread in su- turing or for passing a ligature round an artery). (11) Scissor {sarain-mukhaf . an instrument for withdrawing fluid from a cavity or for use in paracentesis. sharp-pointed instrument. the other end. the 'kusa' grass —Eragrotis cynosuroides Hawk-hill scissor {ati-mukha. held together by (10) a rivet. three. resembling) : cow's tooth Aspirating needle ( vr'ihi' mukha. consisting of a metal tube 'camiula'. narrow-bladed knife. used for puncturing tbe tissues. an axe-like knife. shaped like . moving on the pivot and cutting against each other. . an aspirator tube being ( 15 ) attached to one end. in which fits — a rod with a sharp three-cornered tip. used for withdrawing fluid from a cavity. -f- 'carre' — trocar is derived from Prench side. ( 8 ) Needle ( sucM^ ?t slender.

dilating Fine-pointed probe contracted lacrymal puncta or examining the lacrymal canals). used for fixation of a part or traction ) ( 19 ) Scale?' ( danta saiikii^ an instrument to remove . the Needle can also be used for puncturing etc. tartar ( from the teeth used for ) . long and edge. Iredectomy Knife and the Scalpel for puncturing . Bistoury. Hook and the Scaler for extraction(scraping of tartar . for excision and scarifica- Lancet. Hawk-bill ) . Thumb Lancet and the . resembling the rattan leaf ). excision and incision Scissor. (20) esam. (18) Hook (vadisa^ an instrument curved or bent near its tip. ) . am. from the teeth Eine-pointed Probe for finding out the passage and the direction of a sinus . Amputating Knife for Needle. Scissor. an arrow-headed knife. 505 (16) Iredectomy knife ( resembling an owl) a pointed. being thrust into the cavity) . Uses Of them.SURGERY the rice grain. (17) Scalpel {vetasa-patra) slender knife with convex . Aspirating Needle. Concave Bistoury and the Trocar of the fluid cavities for drainage ( Lenticular Knife. the use of described. and Needles for suturation. Gum Lancet. the Circular Knife : and the tion Saw can be used . 'sash^a' In these eight kinds of action instruments ) are ( sharp . Canalicular Knife.

children. shall be described now. And the Canalicular the Eine-pointed Probe are eight fingers' breadth long ( about 5 inches ). and the index and middle fingers of the right hand should be should be held in the left during operation. kings and the princes. The pressed upon rest of the instruments should ( it be held properly ).-606 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE The way these instruments shall be handled. The handle of the Lenticular knife hand. The extremity of the Knife and Hook and the Scaler is slightly curved. the timid. The lancet and other incising instruments should be held by the top and the middle of the handle. and the needle between the thumb and the index finger. women. the Aspirator should be held in the palm of the hand. Needles shall be described later. the delicately constituted. All the drainage instruments should be held by the top of the drainage of the fluid cavities. the Trocar handle. For scarification. the Lancet and the Circular Knife should be held with slightly bent hand. Saw and the Fine-pointed Probe should be held by the root ( middle of the handle ). Iredectomy Knife. as to give the most effective result The shapes by their of these instruments are indicated nomenclature. Of the Aspirating needle. and it is . the aged. J?or the should be employed.

are the Defective Instruments : best. are made of good iron (steel). for which it Edges of the Instruments is : is necessary of used. And the rest of the instruments are about 6 fingers' breadth long ( about 4 inches ). The instruments that are bent.SURGERY «harp like the thorn or fine like the young blade of of 507 leaf- Hordeum The liexastichum. too long or too short. excepting that of . jagged. and whose edges are fine and even. of the puncturing and the draining instruments like that of hair. too cumbersome. and of the excising instrument half the thickness of the tip of hair. are defective (these are the eight defects in sharp instruments ) The sharp instruments that have the opposite qualities of these. well-formed. blunt. is The that is orifice the Fine-pointed Probe like of an earthworm. and without indentation. Gum Lancet of the size of is the top phalanx of the forefinger. The Scissor ten fingers' breadth long ( about 6 inches ). The instruments which Good Instrument^ : have good handles. . too light. broken. of the scarifying instru- ments. are to be used. where the jagged sharpness for sawing bones. are sharp. the Saw. half the thickness of that of Ervum lens. The edge the incising instruments should be like the thickness X)f the tip of Ervum lens.

polished stone should be used. and to prevent the dullness of the edge and rusting ). foreign bodies and bone saw ) should be sterilized by caustics." Susnita I. pliblied in three ways : (1) by caustics . they sliould be incased in a box. Eor sharpening the instruments. The instruments that are used in the excision ( extirpation ( ) of missiles. The instruments for the excision and incision of the tissues should be sterilized in water. ( made out of the wood of silk cotton tree ( Bombax heptaphyllum ). 2-W\ A ^S »^ /^ . The instruments that are very sharp and bright. of proper should only be used in operation. and supplied with good handles and are size. by water ( by boiling the instrument in water) (3) oils (by immersing the instruments in by antiseptic oils ). pale.508 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE Sterilization of the Instilments : Steriliza- tion {payana ) of the instruments can be accom(2) . 8. The instruments that are used for the excision of vessels and tendons. should be ) sterilized in ( antiseptic and boiling oils.

^^¥lf^ ^^TfsT ^^Klf^ ^'Wf^ ^^*TtI%cr^^R1^55\^Kfir*T II ^m . ^RRi^R^^' aiT'SI^qi^^fflffT II <t .SURGERY Lesions ''Excision ( 509 Operation : that need Excision ) or extii-pation should be performed iTTf*{I^T W^ ^f5?ts^^^ I sRIlC f^r^^Tf^ I fmWZ ^Mf^- m wi^ffi ^^ cfl-R I w{\T^ g q'f 1= ^i^ ii a. aii^^Pq^ ^ f^^I^r^' ^^fsi^T Tiq^'QT.

or any other kind of suppurative tumor. hairy moles.610 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE suppurative tumors^ in fistula-in-ano. tubercles. gumma of the cornea. lachrymal fistula. oscheopyedema. erysipe( should be made in all suppurative las. the tumors or sinuses that develop after suppuration. tubercles. . the penis. except those caused by the derangement of the three humors ( non-suppurative tumors ). tumor of the palate. pustules of the penis. inflammation of the gum. Sarcoma. stye. fibroma and myoma. epiglottitis. pustules of the foot. suppurative eruption of cle. suppurative tonsillitis. ranula. gummata. fistula. pustular abscess- abscess on the palate. cyst formed round tiie nucleus of a calculus. es. tonsillitis. bubo. condylomata. non-suppurative tumors. carbun- galactoposterma ( or mastosyrinx ). sloughing tendons-muscles and vessels. : Lesions that need Sca7nfication Scarification should be made in the four forms of throat inflammation.leucoderma. Lesions that need Incision : Incision (lancing) ) tumors. gum-boils. myxoma of the gullet. foreign bodies in bones and tissues. wart. diabetic boils. chancre.

that in need JPunctures : Punctures should be made cirsoid aneurysm. need Lrainage : —Drainage should be performed in all kinds of (suppurating) tumors except those that develop by the- derangement of the three humors (non-suppurative tumors). Lesions that need fistulas. tartar in the ears. otorrhea. painful abscess. toxic blood (blood in the infected region). chancre of the lips. mixed.SURGERY 511 patches. three kinds of gravel. wax missiles ). breast-abscess (or fistula). gummata Lesions of the throat. ulocase. : or those extending sideways. abscess and gummata of the gumboil. Lesions that need Suturation . Lesions that need Extraction : Extraction should be on the bodies ( made in teeth. erysipelas. lepromata. car- buncle. —Suturation . gingivitis. pyorrhea. cysts. palate. hydrocele and ascites. three kinds of chancres (hard. be made in Probing Probing should fistulas with foreign bodies. and soft chancres). and pustules. dental caries (causing suppuration in the gum). foreign and the impacted feces Lesions that mal-presentation of the fetus in the rectum. epulis. psoriatic and granulations. calculi. elephantiasis. furuncle. suppura- tive bubo.

in any of these sutures. when ^ound fragments of bone (any foreign body). those where there interior of is cautery and toxins. or the fresh woundsnear the movable joints. hair. dust. fibers of Sanseviera zeylanica. or Tinospora cordifolia. should sanies or foreign body. In . and after the suturation is over. should be removed before sutures are applied. hair (horse hair). in a wound. as otherwise they are Therelikely to provoke suppuration and pain. catgut (smyw = tendon). is or in in or the which there Tliese nails. The lips of the wound then should be raised and placed in proper apposition.^12 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE should only be made in those places which have off been opened and been completely drained (the foreign matter). flax. are not fit for svturation: Sutures should not be applied to those wounds that Woimds caused by caustics. be at first disinfected . fore they should at first be disinfected. and sutures applied slowly with the fine cotton thread. Twisted suture {vellitaka)^ (2) Quilled suture igoplmikd). the sewed parts should be (4) gently pressed by the finger and levelled. discharge of gas. or the bark fiber of Caesalpinia digynia. (3) Continuous suture {tunna-sevam)^ (1) Interrupted suture ivji^-granthi) or any other kind best suited to the requirement.

will In the former painful. straight. a full-curved suture needle. of two Eor fleshy fingers' width long. and should be the wound. These three varieties of needles should be sharp-pointed. Glycerrhiza glabra." Susruta I. 513 or body covered with little flesh. over joints. 25. should be sprinkled over antisepsis). should be used. Then the stitched should be covered with cotton (as a surgical part dressing) or linen (as a lint). Sutures should not be made either too far off or too close to the edges of Aganosma cargophyllatum. their body rounded like the flower-stalk of capable of easy handling. antimony sulphide. a half-curved parts. and Symplocos racemosa. 2-12^^ \ after 198. suture-needle. or the powder of Boswellia serrata or the ashes of it ( of burnt linen. become and in the latter they may be torn off.SURGERY parts of the . the patient shall be told the hygienic rules. #5jT Then wi'^^ T^\ tfi?^%^^^r^: I 33 . scrotutn and the abdomen. and a powder com- pound Aglaia roxburghii. is proper. as proper bandaging. three lingers' breadth long. three-edged. he will have to observe. case. a { suture-needle (curved like a bow) is good. lips of the wound case. In the vital parts.

ii l^iwnanft^i^ iTi^rai: i^ H'^rf^i^^ II 'isftJii^ fji^iij^ H^ z\ cTi^^ "^ I gfefift ^^' ^ ^ MMinftii: I ^fe^mwlf^^t^'lT t ^j^ir^cmt ^f%^: f^T II « i f^T€T qfarf^^ II t^# ?irll^ ^fs^nfirff^fa^fi^T twi: faiTT ^3^t% ?iw^ 'it^-w'^ TiretsfRT^im II » ^f f^^T ^Hf %|^^^^ II a^ ap3iTf% ^^Tivrfg ^^ f^rf^cT ^t ii ^ i ^[^T f^^: ^^ »Ttg: ^^^tti^ ^i^r^T ^: tre^T: ^CRT ^rg'^^aisi: II cf]<5?Jl??m. of all or accessory instruments.514 Cmistics ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE particular purposes. caustics are the : — 'Tor sharp ^rf^ ^ T^^^^ If??: gf^^if?:^!. ^^^Tf*T ^^'^TH f^qk f^q^^^ 55^^^ ^^^iRd*^ ^ II I ^ftft 1^"^^^ ^^^t: ?ifii^'T^^: H'. .

cTT^ ^'^w^ z\ i «?a1^^t^ % '? ^ =^^5^5gqTl%fn: ii ^ •qra^*T^=rgr^tf% =^jt% ?t?w ^rt h tl^ W^* ^T ^^ ^IN^^T ?I^I%cfl I ^^goi ^'^•s^^ ^fxT JI^^3l?Tmfq ^ II ?^cn1^f^T: ^=^€t^Ri: ^^?^T%cn: ii .^»f?T^ II ^ ? .SURGERY 515 best (when alkalies in concentrated form (caustics) are brouf?ht into contact with the animal ^^^: €\^^^'. ^.\ ^TT^a?^ wbI^^ «rs§)^ J^.

perty of the (concentrated) alkalies. and their escharotic effects have been tissue. They are acrid. auto-intoxication . ( scarification.516 tissues. for external application (strong) and for internal administration (mild). Their external application .alled caustics (ksa}'a). Alkalies are of two kinds (concentrated which is strong. and hemostatis. excessive use induces impotence. intestinal cutaneous worms. made use whether chronic of in the destruction of morbid of neoplastic or inflammatory origin. and thus give rise to an active necrosis or destructive inflammation . and non-concentrated which is mild). (and their external use causes) destruction of the tissues ( eschars ). disinfection. ANCIENT HIND a MEDICINE they enter into chemical combination with the oxygen present. and Due to the escharotic prosynovitis). their internal administration cures). pungent. desiccation. they are <. granulation. alkalies are likewise solvents of albumin . hyperacidity. these physical and chemical properties render the caustic alkalies active in producing counter-irritation. irritant. but their lesions. eructation. corrosion.

fistula-in-ano. intestinal gravel. dermatophyte. 2-5^^^*.sunaEEY is 517 indicated in lepromes. psoriasis guttata. anorexia. adenitis. dyspepsia.^^^^^^: ^v^ \^^^^\ im^ ^^w. Internally alkalies may be administered in auto-intoxication. 11. tumors. epi- lepsy and amaurosis. tympanites. biliousness. besides these. ^w^\ w^ . Susruta I. delirium. indolent ulcers. external sores. condyloma. leuco- derma. and gummata . constipation. keloid. However its persons a tendency to hemorrhage. calculus. impetigo. mole.) diseases (tumor of the tongue. the aged or weak persons. ^r^Tgw «f: '^r: wT^Tcw^^-^-%^-^nMfT m- ^jftr^^m. or those (internal) use is counter-indicated in who have who are suffering from giddiness. stomatitis ulcerosa. is and three kinds of throat-neoplasms. poisoning and gummata. lichen planus. ringworm. warts. indigestion. in children." 198 (a). abdominal tumors. appropriate. poison-bites. the application of caustics in seven kinds of mouth etc. chancres of the lips and the tongue. worms. fistula.

women. and caustic treatments. according to the medical experts. bleeding (or operative : removal of cong-estion the easiest ) can be accomplished in wealthy personages. "\ : Enema "As enema ( vasti ) serves multifari- ous purposes.5 rS " ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE : Cautery "Cautery is more potent in its action than caustics." Susruta I. lesions lose their sepsis. children. For once cauterized. and even those which defy the medicinal.** Susruta 13. 12. way of kings. . cately I. 2^^^ Leeches "By leeches ( Hirudo ). timid. the as-ed. 2. become hereby amenable. weak or deli- constitutioned = individuals.

hemiplegia. the toxic products of which are absorbed in the system. hemorrhage. fecal impaction. Fountain-syringe : Eor a boy one year old the tube ( netra ) shall be six fingers' breadth long. life ( . general paresis. menostasia. constipation. collis. cephalalgia. having the dimension of the little finger. aspermia. it makes the weak ( strong Stimulating enema ). tortipiles. calculus and abortion.sight ( by removing the decomposing materials from the intestine. hydrothionuria.SURGERY it is 519 If it the best of all analeptic ( sneha ) remedies. hyperalgia. . enema adstringens ). and provoke reflexably various maladies ) and prolongs youthf ulness. tympanites. at the extremity of which. the stout lean (enema purgans). the lean stout (enema nutriens). galactozemia. cardipalmus. apoplexy. brightens complexion. syphilis. strengthens eye. It promotes the general health of the body. lockjaw. strangury. gravel. diarrhoea catarrh. hemiprosoplegia. is a restorative of health and con- duces to the logevity of amaurosis. and its use in fever (enema purgans). ophthalmia. be properly applied. one and a half fingers* . is appro- priate. bubo. the nozzle and (Jcarnika) should be fixed. lence. flatuoschitis. adds to its vigor. mimic convulsion.

the . sixteen the tube shall be ten fingers' breadth long. and at the end like that of a pea. and at the extremity of it. for persons. four handfuls. liaving the dimension of the middle finger. the peacock's feather. to the bottom provided of which with a attached a rubber tube. the orifice at the mouth of the tube should be like that of a heron's feather. eight or sixtean years of age shall be the size of their two handfuls.. consisting of a rubber reservoir for holding fluid for the is enema. and at the end like Phaseolus radiatum. of vulcanized rubber vaginal injections. be three and a half fingers' breadth long the orifice at the mouth of the tube shall be like . and at the end. and eight handfuls of their individual hands respectively ( the modern fountain-syringe is an apparatus.520 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE breadth long . the tube shall be eight fingers breadth long having the dimension of the ringfinger. the nozzle . made etc. suitable nozzle usuallv . like Pliaseolus mungo. and it is used for rectal or irrigating wounds. one. And for a person. For a boy of eight years of age. The reservoir {asthapana) for the enema. should be fixed two orifice at the mouth breadth long the of the tube shall be like the fingers' feather of the vulture. and at the extremity of it. the nozzle should years old.

the tube shall remain just the same. of gold. silver^ bronze. The size of the tiabe and the reservoir is not only to be graduated according to the age ( of the patient ). boar.SURGERY 52T force of the flow being regulated by the height of the reservoir above the point of discharge ). . the tube shall be twelve fingers' breadth long.. but also in addition to it. strong. For a person. glass or wood. and the nozzle at the end like the little finger. And the reservoir is made out of the bladder of the matured cow. female vulture. it bufPalo. And the reservoir should be capable of holding twelve handfuls of enema. goat or sheep. having the dimension at the mouth like the thumb. shaped like the bovine tail with gradually reducing dimension. After seventy. polished. shall be three fingers' breadth long the orifice of like the the tube at the of a mouth should be feather end like the stone of plum. horn. and at the The tube should be firmly fixed with the reservoir. above twenty five years of age. straight and with globular orifice. and . The tube should be made copper. ivory. but the quantity of the enema should be reduced to that of a person of sixteen years of age. even. and should be flexible. his physical condition and vigor.

35.*' Susruta IV.522 strong ANCIENT HINDXJ MEDICINE aud of the required size. 2'7'^\ ?sT^rniii?3«iiifjp!j?ngi:^ff^rf^^^ vm^^ 'ef'»j<ft u^ ^ '^c^^ts^'t .

meat-broth. of the tissues. Shorea robusta and Eicus iiidica for splint {ktisa). it is apt to cause not take Pterocarpum santalinum. He should take cooked fine rice. Eicus religiosa. sexual indulgence. inflammation . exercise and desiccant food. But if the bandage (splint) is loose. and buttered ricewhich has been repeatedly washed in. fat. or according to the urgency of the needs. every third day in the hot weather. glomerata. Eicus bark of glabra. Bambusae. Eor liniment. Glycyrrhiza glabra. salt (sodium chloride). pain and suppuration therefore . reparation of the joints does and if too tight. every fifth day in the temperate season. milkacids. The pea soup. Terminalea arjuna. exposure to the sun. and stimulative foods and drinks. The wound should be bandaged every seventh day in the wintry season. Rubra water (that the is ftit lias been washed out from surface of the rice paste) should be used.rgery/' 523v Fractures should avoid alkalies. paste manjista. : *'One suffering from fractures. Glycyrrhiza Butea frondosa. pungents. milk.

according to the needs of the case. the splint has been put on before therefore the bones have been properly set. which when calcified forms callus and which by ossification if is converted into bony structure . and this can be only faithfully determined by X ray examination. and the bandage is very tight. or due to movement. and tissue is from the torn periosteum granulation formed.' of the bone in fractures depends on two factors : (1) The fragments of the fractured bone are ta- be placed in apposition to one another in the normal position. without leaving any space between them. so that the bone can be repaired and consolidated. or if the bandage is loose. [the fragments of the bones are very rigidly fixed. there will be then minimum of callus formation. face to face. power . (2) The reparation principally takes place in the soft tissues surrounding the bone. if lose their they recuperative on the other hand. both these extremes are be avoided. In children . Therefore for successful to reparation. then of course reparation can not take place. the fragments change their place.524 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE it should be properly bandaged (The reparation. and after three months time.. and kept in that condition from a week to eight weeks.

525 rapid. Metatarsal fractures In the fractures of 202. 2-8^^''." Susruta IV. Fractures of the Phalanges or dislocation of the Metacarpo-Fhalatigeal joints : "Whether the phalanges are fractured or the joints are dislocated. : and upon (vul- nerary) butter should be applied. 3. the reparation is especially in cancellous tissues). they should be placed in the normal apposition and bandaged (Wyeth's fingerit bandage or roller-bandage).SUHGERY aiormally. W(^' ^Z^ J '^\<*\*^' ^^^M{<\HM> s3 I ^ra ^ ^m fi'JllI^^tq^^^T ^T 11 »a .

oil simple {droiit) (vulnerary) (kataha).. Fractures of the Ribs If the : are salve. Fractures offibula and femur be motion and of the fibula . and upon it splint should In fractures and the femur..526 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE the metatarsus. or the fragments of the bone tear out through the flesh. In the fracture Fractures of the hipbone : of the OS innominatum (usually in the neck). (vulnerary) liniment should be applied. they should be bandaged. it should be given a circular bandage. the be fixed by Hwisted suture^ {nivandhanl)^ and or then bandaged with . later the patient is to be laid in an filled extension splint. then bandaged. they and then after ribs are to be rubbed with a are to placing a pin (kavalika). When the it hip-joint has been be irrigated ribs put in its normal place. . the raised part of the bone should be lowered. the parts (tibia) should be massaged with a liniment and the fragmented bones brought to apposition then : placed (to prevent displacement of the bones). fractured. after fixing a sphnt. and thus it should be bandaged. and the depressed part raised. should (with a vulnerary or an antiseptic). If the neck of the femur project.

it should be gradually tested by holding upon the palm of the hand. ankle-joint and radio-carpal joints (wrist-joint). or downwards (from the acromion). it should be raised in the former case bv a hammer. the humerus is raised. If the elDislocation of the ^Ibow-joint bow joint is dislocated. and when the hones are in their normal apposition.SURGERY 527' Dislocation of the scapulo-humeral joint : In the dislocation of the scapulo-humeral joint. after depressed. by using a hammer at the axilla. and bandaged with a strong support . if the (outer end of the) clavicle be displaced upwards. clay-ball. : it should be moistened with a (vulnerary) oil . fomentation. a dried cow-dung ball (very light). it should be massaged. : Dislocation of the acromio-clamcidar joint In the dislocation of the acromio-clavicular joint. affixed by the 'spica bandage for the : shoulder^ (svastika-vandhana). and at last a stone. when it is done. is it should be salved. and in the latter case. Fractui^es of the metacarpus In the fractures of the metacarpus after proper bandaging. then to find out the strength of reparation. The same treatment applicable in the dislocation of the knee-joint. and then put in the normal position through extension and flexion movements .

it should be brought to apposition by pressure upon the cervical vertebrae and (with the traction. Spj'aiii is similar to that of the Cervical vertebral articulations If the neck is bent or depressed. the Pyorrhea alveolaris teeth become loose. the bones should be put : and held together by fivetailed {panchaiigi) bandage ( used as four-tailed bandage now-a-days). maxillary bones .aid of) : should then be bandaged. without any external injury. and the patient laid to bed on his back for a week. made : of a sedative drug- If in young people. by antiseptic cold wash and injections and the patient shall drink milk (during the treatment) with the (tubular) stem of Nymphaea stellata. cooked in butter. it Dislocation of the Temporo-Maxillary joint the dislocation of temporo-maxillary or temIn poro-mandibular joints. if the displacement persist and cause discomfort. .528 (Dessault's ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE bandage : in obstinate cases. and there should be nasal in proper apposition injection of errhine. the bones should be held together by wiring). after splint. associated with bleeding gum. it should be treated . the treatment of the femnr. Fracture of the JELumerus In the fracture : of the humerus.

the loose : sliould be ex- tracted (by a forceps). if the brain matter has not vcome out (if the dura matter has not been pene: — trated or hurt). then after an applic ition of a (vulare nerarv) ointment. and the bandage to a (vulnerMry) ointment. Injuries to the eai-s kopt moistened by of the) Ear : If the (ossicles broken.SURGERY 529 teotln In case of old men. thev should be bandaged and treated like ordinarv wounds. any part ol' tlie body becomes inflamed without any (apparent) injury. and the patient shall take clarified butter (?) for a week. Injuries to the Nose •caves ill If tbo nasal bone bent (by traumatistn or syphilitic lesion). they should l)e put in their opposition. in two is or nasal cavities. Inflammation vor : If due to an accidental fall traumatism. two double-mouthed l3e tubes should to be ban- inserted. the wound shall be bandaged. When it is done. it shall be treated by cold application and fomentation (alternatively). ))e it is daged. after liniment. Iractures of the Femur 34* and the leg hones : . then it should be raised and straightened (by a speculum) and then for respiivition. -In the fracture of Injuries to the Cranium the frontal bone.

bones. it has to be broken up to begin treatment. is If the dislocation is old. . two nails on each side of the thigh. This is also applicable in the fractures or dislocations of the pelvis. (This treatment in the fractures of the femur or the leg bones. and against the frame (to upon the wooden prevent movement. and at the hip joint should be fixed. . Fractures of Patella : If the fractured patella {kanda) has consolidated in wrong apposi(artificially) it tion. and to prevent the tension of the muscles which prevents the reparation of the fracture). vertebrae and the clavicle. and for the maintenance of the steady traction ( until the consolidation of the bone has taken place. with consolidation of the fractured bones) in case of the fracture of the femur.530 ANCIENT HINDr MEDICINE leg-bones (tibia and the patient ( femur ). there should be two nails on each side of the leg. this treatment to be preceded by embrocation to soften the ligaments. is very similar to the modern practice by Hod gen's nail extension splint). with five nails the leg or the thigh has to be fixed thus in the fracture of the leg . In the fractures of the patella) or of the thigh has to be lain in wooden extension bed. which interferes sole. after putting and then in the normal apposition.

23-42 ". leaving it dry. and then it has to be treated like a fresh wound 3.SURGERY 531 Amputation of a dried bone : If the flesh has retracted from a protruded bone. *rJit WT ^r^f^iir ^i ^i^mra^i^." Susruta IV.^«'1l^*1T^'^H\ ^gf^ m: ^f«? q^«T fq tt^ici?^ II i n^F^rif^^tsf t^t^T^ ^rqtfi ^^ .«\ 203. ( by a recurrent bandage). then the hone lias to be amputated (by saw) carefully up to the fleshy part.^ ^wr i ^pq^raw^wf 11^^ ^?tt%t: I ^rofe^f fqf^cT^Tfq ^^\mr\ ij^^q^ ^\^^^ ii \^ ^sn^^'^ ^fq w€l*rqig cm: i ^pfi%^ ^5^ ^f%f*r: '^gqrw ii 'lyi ^ijt^^ ^T ^+<i4$i«j*i^ f*i^»?^: II ^^i^ ^3rt ^T t\m\ m 5irat*^WT II 5^^ ^'^^ cTWI ^iq»TF..

532 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE lUiinoplasty covered over. 1 «Rt*^f! q^f^ Wl^fT?T^ ^ 11 ^l ^^r^ sn^^^^i ^HTrg^mt^eT: ii ^^ I l^f^Ht gfiTsfi^ l^^^l f^^ 1^ ^TcT¥*T^f : ^f^\ f%f* ^^ ^T^(cm^ ii ^a cre^^ *T^^?^ ^^MI%q^%. is portion of the nose to be to be measured (exactly) with a : The ^ ci^ ^^ fjMT c[^vf»T^ t^sr. II ^rm €*it ftrtit ^i ^^It ii^r sMi^m i <ifi: itif 5f 13't^ '?ji%^ R^Tq^n It ^^ .

SURGE KY leaf . two tubes in the and then scraping is the border (to which the grafting to be joined). 533 and a flap of the required size is to be taken from the Uganda* (goitre or the cheek). is frame to he inserted \^it}l nostrils to hoUl it in position. to be and to support it a metallic ijrafted there. ^T^ iT^r^T %^m fww ^W tT^ra=^[^<T I II ^e 51f^'5*r^r«Tt Wqr3Jr«i5T f%cT^^ ^jQ^W?!^ fl ^ cl% 4-3!(Y^ T\m<^\ II '^fil^^if^giir^ fw^\\ %-'^3! s?^§kTF[ I .

534 ANCIENT HINDU MEBICINE (to and making the surface fresh make the graft- ing successful). to hold the metallic frame in made to fit position. method of rhinoplasty is almost the same. the Italian and who borrowed it from India . as introduced by Gersuny in 1910. except the two tubes inserted in the nostrils . is a transplantation of a replace the septum nasi. plete The modern grafting has taken place. and thus emigrate and provoke embolism. it has . a powder made out of Ptercarpus santalinus. as devised by Syme. and then it which is to be kept moistened with oleum Sesamura (until the comshould be covered with a lint. But as it might partially melt in the body temperature. the German methods consist of taking the flap in osteoplastic rhinoplasty. and which are provided with a few nodules inserted into the nasal bony frame. thod in nasal prosthesis consists of subcutaneous cartilaginous flap to The very recent me- injection of a mixture of solid and liquid paraffin. there from the arm . the flap is to be carefully sutured. the metallic frame is tight the scraped pocket in the nasal it bone. is As to the grafting. the English method consists in taking a flap from the cheek. When the grafting has heen properly made. Glycyrrhiza glabra and sulphate of antimony should be sprinkled over the part.

Susrutal^ 16. 60 degree centigrade paraffin. 23= "\ easily 204. This has given very satisfactory results). which melts only at and solidifies which can be performed by Brockaert or Lermoyer*s syringe.SURGEUY l3een improved 535 upon by Eckstein who uses pure after injection. siWnmF!!' ?f5?^¥TW qci wl^T ^^^i^fM II .

4. "It is apparent wiieu that food and drink act as fuel. health. ^(^i^^qT^^^jfio^efi^^iTm. I m ^r{^^^'^.DIETETICS. 206. Proper dietary all element!?.^^T^T lTft?fl5cIT: i 207. On the other hand improper provokes disease. 27. "Vigor.YUI. longevity and life itself is based on oxidation." Charaka I. 3 -''*. improves complexion and the bodily enlivens the dietary senses. Food and drink increase and balance the oxidizing process.6. Vital process is sustained metabolism uoiuisbes fed by this fuel. sj^iiag^igwT^iT fivrn: ^w^^'^H fr>if^^<5jg aF'w ^m^\ \\\ ." Charaka I.^^^: f^rf^r. I. 27. in tlie p?'oce!>s of is metabolism. 165 =°% "The physician that does not know the principles of ^Liefefics\ can not cure diseases." Susputa 205. 2"-"*. ^^*IRi^?{l§5f^ HI'^ya.

d kasaya) and sweetish {madJmra).ls'. Carl)o-]iydrates (?w/?i) and (5) Ethet-s. of nitrogen). {tejas).n-avitY {sctndra). is 'pdrthwa' (organic mineral bodies. but ifc may be called 'pa'Pthica. has a high specific t. Aquatic substance cool {&ita)y : The substance that is moistening {stimlta)^ soft isnigdha)^.d in it. hard {kafhma\ odoriferous {g an dhavo hula = extmctiYe substances of tiie meat-protein). liquid {ma7ida\ heavy {gurv). rough {khara sharp-edged crysials by the different inclination of tlieir axes). dense- {sdndra). inert {sthira). . slightly astringent i. smooth (wrf/-?/). This produces firmness (of the bony structure by the minerals). non- = pungent {manda). viscous ipichchhila). c. iqrf/a. compounds {prfMv'l). heavy if/nru). and particularly it gravity.DIETETICS 4!c >7 ^ "Evei'V Offifauic bodv contains live substaiicea as (1) Minerals and (2) ¥7ater Nitrogenons (r/p). vayavya or dhMiya according to the predominance of the substance contain(^. and protein which contains about 10 p. Minerals and Nitrofienous Compoimds {proThe substance tliat is gross {st/mla). (i) (3) Hydro-carbons {akasa) ioijasa. physical vigor (by protein). hardness (of the bony structure by the minerals) muscular tissue-growth (by prohas a high specific tein). dense fein) : (mra). savo- . fluid i c (so-ra).

round face (corpulency) and bright com: plexion. penetrative iUksna). It causes combustion (oxidation). fine-textured desiccant (ruksa). particularly liquid oil. in mole6ular weight). transparent {visada. (diuretic nature). ) and saline isad amla lavana and pungent (katu-rasa). refreshing. inclinations of the axes as in sugar . acid or saline {kasaya-amlalavana) and sweetish (madhuIt is ra)^ is apya' (juice of vegetable or meat). is fatty bodies which generate heat. The substance that is fine. was mis- taken for calorific energy). fattening. rough (in tactile sensation. cleavage (of the food particles in the alimentary tube). escharotic {khara)^ light [laffhu. Carhohydrates desiccant. having forms and active principles ( containing slightly acid (rupagtmcwahula). as is 'tejasa^ (hydrocarbon.^38 ry ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE ( ram-vahula ). digestion. It is very likely that the pungent spices were also regarded calorific. heat and the hurning sensation. slightly astringent. and excretory action). radiation (of heat). by different crystals). adhesive (by or sudorific in Hydrocarbons rific : The substance that is calo- {iisnaY (sUksma). that the congestive phenomenon with its concomittant redness. moistening. heat. provoked by its excessive uses.

agility ( (muscular energy). : The substance { that is tenuous. as it it diffuses itself if it surrounding atmosphere. passes non-resistant when a body body has both size through it). relaxation. volatile oils and gas ). slightly bitter (?).2-1"''\ . tasteless. Ethers rarefied. distension and lightness. trans- in the parent. : does not lack size : shape. It causes pliancy. 539 and astrin- gent. and shape a liquid body takes the shape of the therefore it lacks vessel in which it is kept diffusive (a solid . is 'akasiya' ( ethers." Susrutal. is ^vayavya' carbohydrates). energy-producers. and soniferous. tactile.4^\. be not confined in a closed container). but quantitatively but a gaseous body has neither size nor shape. that is It causes corpulence. desiccation (by external application).DIETETICS crystalline. and motion (as manifestation of muscular energy). made of diffused particles.

51-0 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE J. carbobvdratc in one form or another is almost all the staple indispensa1}le faod of the human beings. 3 Calories mogenesis raost strengthening (dynadue to glYCoq:en. is system by the carbohydrate portion of the diet. except a fe^^ Eskimoes who mostly live on seal-meat and fat. 9. ^vliih^ gram of fat liberates ). I "Tlie autumrial rice gram of carbohydrate or protein produces a Calories. — Carhohy Urates. fattening (excess habitual consumption of the produced by of f^ II X . causes slight flatulence (in case of glycogen. sedative. and the primitive Indians of Tierra del Faego ^'ho mainly subsist on shell fish and hunting). (a : (Oryza sjitiva) isproduces energy witbout (mucli) heat 4. fermentation).illy produced easily digestible. and for glvcogenesis. T\'iiicli can be in tl»e liumau economic. Rice sweetisl).

^m ^i^i^r ^T'^i: i . fat. at lir«t deposited if in it the ]»epatic and it is (lie muscle cells. cellulose and 1. and complexion. 1. promotes longeimproves memory. 8 cellulose). enhances metabolism. 8 carholiydrates. "CsUnlose . hixative iiaving a large voice residue (3. I.s used. 7.DIETETICS -tiavljoliydrate is 511 hodilj^ more tiian the requirement. produces energy (by without fermen- much heat tation). 12 protein. p. (Hordeum acidifyiuii^ distichon) astring^-nt sweetish. adiposis (by iuci'eased 209. reduces powder dissolved or cooked in corpulency. 1. vity. r> ^«^ : "Barley Barley generation. hut verted into in he not a. a daily food. and lesidue is little leaves very (rice poor in rice contains ahout 12. nishes urinary produces flatulence (iu fermentation). minerals). fi^^i ^i^<i: metabolism). is viscous (when barley water). c. husked case oi tissvies. dimisecretion (oliguria). removes 'kaylia and (oil) vulnerary like the sesame pUta\ acts as and in abscesses {by external application). con- adipose eiierf>:y future needs). 76." Smruta is 46. a stored water. is coustipative.

Wheat to (Triticum digest heavy sativum) is (when not properly cooked ). 3fra?T »^ I 'gwt *rgtt ^I^^ . 1. p. appetizing. : TFheat sweetish. water. vulnerary in fractures. c. 2. promotes vigor. 40"^^". 2 carbohydrates. 2 cellulose and I. 7 fat. 11. sltf^imfqrfr^^ ii «o . 46. aphrodisiac.)'* Siisrutal. 4 mineral Svsrutal. p. 46. 71.'" contains 1. 3 3. matter). 9 mineral matter. diuretic and laxative (wheat contains protein. 1 9 fat. 5fi: ^^i^ '1^^ r^rg imK«i'. 210. energizing. sedative. 8 cellulose. ^^-^ f%crT. produces energy much heat generation. fattening. 10.542 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE a decocrefrigerent (when drunk internally as application) and tion). 2. water. c. 42^ ^^ without about 12. about 12. desiccant (by external secretion is a purifier of blood and of bilious (barley protein. ij^^pw 211.

9 of minerals). 1 of fat. (soy p. 18. Pisum sativum Phaseolus aconotifolius (mahfsta). energizing without production of heat. astringent. productive oliguria of constipation and (Legumes hold an intermediate place between carbohydrates and proteids. 28. Cajan legumes. 50 to 60 p. c. "Phaseolus Ervum Cicer lens ( masTa^a). 9 protein. Cicer lens {mangalya ). c. 7 of carbohydrates. arietinum Lathyrus {udak'i). of this as rich food not be the absorbed. 4. But unfortunately contents can much cellulose. sylvestris etc. (in fermentation).DIETETICS II. are the cajan They are acidifying flatulence. bean of Sola soja has about 32. of carbohydrates. {kalaya)^ Legumes : . having nearly of 18 to 25 p. half to one and half per cent of fat. of vegetable protein- legumin. (mudga). mungo Pbaseolus lobatus {vaua-mudga). arvense Pisum {chanaka). c.sweetish. Convolvolus turpethum album {Mputa). (Jiaremi). {satma). 543 — Legumes. they are confined in and the human stomach lacks sufficient enzymic potency to .

if it be taken in the pure form. produces 'kapha and pitta'.vj 44 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE burst open the cellulose shell. kipha. Domesticated Animcds : *'The meat is is of doraes- tic^ited animals. 212. jr^jrj^i ^:^VM wj-^^'^f^ ^pi^r^^Jif: i . 46. — Proteids. enough of it can be assimilr>ted to make it a valuable addition to the dietary)/' Smmta III. non acidifying in reaction. in the most assimi]able. relieve flatulence. (2) Meat : j\[eat can be had from 8ix of animals — (I) Aquatic Domesticated (5) Marshy Carni{eka- {cinupa)^ (o) igmmya). nourishsweetisli ing. Perissodactyla arisodactyla). I. in taste. classes (jalesat/a). 46. jJi^^gS ^^^'^li^ - enhances ?l^?:?^F^^1I^T^€lsTre}J^K^rS^(WcT5t 213. from and needs of lialf to tlie (Meat supplies the protein oriranism which is about from one gram for each kilo body weight per diem. %%wi\ ^i^qr iii'Rif. (4) vorous {hravyadd).tonic and appetizing manner). 25-26'^^ = . 53"-^^. metabolism and is stimulating. distinguished (6) "Wild {jahgala ). However." Susntta I.

it is easily di^. it is purifying and relieves I. and typhoid .^.^.. respirait is very tory diseases.. beneficial to the hard-workers and for those who have good digestion flatulence. produces if 'pitta and slesma\ is hard to digest (especially it be of tough fiber or fatty. moderates hapha*^ cures constipation and catar meat is not liked by some for its per due to 'hircme\ otherwise if the anim? and the meat is not fatty. liutton : Mutton is nourishing.©lETETICS Goat : Goat-meat of is oxidized wit heat. fattening. is generation excessive lieav ' tougli or fatty). and Mutton : The in other characteristics. 46. mutton of the broad-tailed sheep (medajypuchcliha) is a muscle-builder. 45-89 ^^\ i [m-m ^ci'fTT: ^^^ ^'f^i: ^risf^Ti^T: ^n^^siftf^i^ %qt fill" q^'w^isisT: II c^ II m^l^ ftraf'?!!^" ^ c-Q 35 . catarrh. Beef: The beef cures tuberculosis. it resembles the (ordinary) mutton. . . as the mutton fat has a very high melting point)." Susruta 214.

(a) i^ t'^^' W ^TiTTqfai'". tissue-builder. =g?ra5Tr5i^Tq'?iT^ I ^^' ti^5f ^^ ^ II . t.U. appetizing. carminative.." Susruta 102. and heavy." 46. relieves flatulence idizes and biliousis rapid lieat production. hard to digest (especially fatty and coarse meat) fattening. a imulant.\^j . 32 -^'\ sudorific Folds : "Partridge (perdix chinensis) is 215.iiic. I. 27. refrigerant appetizing^ (reflex reaction of perspiration ).^^ is "The meat of boar and pig fattening.q'^' 5^ 1 2l6.ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE isou : The venison Avith is astringent-sweetish^ gestible. flatulence. and is strength enini:?. muscle-builder. fatigue." 2. relieves OU. 46. } and relieves vesical troubles. tonic (removes lassitude). ^e*r ^^1!* ?izi" sftci^ c. ^ttt: -^^m\ ^^^\ ^i^iT ^Tcfftrii^n^^T 's?jt ^%- 216. 5^"-'\ meat : "Boar's (Sus scrofa) meat is nourishing. strengthening. sti- mulating.

^^^ ^^^\^^^^ ^i: i 218. consumption. t^5^'^Tigrt 1^1 ^^fti^: I . is oxidized with sweetish. 547 sweetish. is builds muscles. 46-59"^'. respiratory lesion and flatulence. Particularly its white variety ''Chicken sive fattening. relieves flatulence. '^ is "Snow-partridge (Tetraogallus himalayaensis) excessive slightly heavy. 46. is oxidized with excesproduction of heat. a muscle-builder.n\% ^v. Susruta I. is metabolism. is heat production. and is a enhances good diet (during convalescence) in acute complicated cases. circulation} improves memory (by accelerated and enhances metabolism. astringentoxidized with pungency.DIETETICS restorative. the domesticated chicken isheavier than its wild variety. \. improves voice. is strengthening and stimulating . is laxative and improves the complexion. (acid) 2! 7.. and is beneficial in (fermentative) flatulence." Susruta I. tonicises the entire system. cures hiccup.

sparrow is sweetish. frugivorous. fattening. stimulating. beneficial in gastrorrhagia. =htiiy*j^r ^^: i^rfi^r 't^^w: I *MWMl'i'!f«<*»it ^: ch|<ll«hMtd=h: II ^^ . 220. 65-69"-^ ^^^r^^n^: I 219. provoke flatulenee. 46. 46. The wild pigeon (in astringent sweetish-saline taste) and is heavy. increases 'kapha^ The garden sparrow is aphrodisiac. produce Of oliguria and leave a very scanty residue. and is a strong aphroand is disiac. are oxidized without much heat. nonThe wild acidifying in reaction. hheda§i causes all kinds of disturbances and is intestinal decomposition.548 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE (chronic malarial) intermittent vomitings.'' Susruta I. %i>rr'€tsrT^r?T ?^. The domesticated pigeon is beneficial in gastrorrhagia. fever. and Mesma. and **Pigeons etc. desicpitta cant." Sasruta I. is astringent. and is heavy. them.63"- ^^ are astringent-sweetish.

46. . (aquatic floating birds) and they are beneficial in gastrorrhagia. relieve flatulence. muscle-builder. pheasant. fatten- They ing." Susruta I. of crane (Ardea teal. small crane. and non-acidifying in reaction. ruddy goose. bar-headed goose (Anser indicus). Turdus ginginianus. duck. heron. and carminative. is But of them the goose is hard to the production of an excessive heat. a variety nivea). complexion. water cock. strengthening. 4 members of the xlntidse family. sweetish. osprey. Cocculus melanoleucus and the wild goose are called *plava* are gregarious. duck (Pelicanus fusicallus). mussel. crane. drake. 54-9^ heron. are oxidized without the production af excessive heat. 105aphrodisiac 107^'^ Mollusca : Conch (Strorabus gigas). Corvus aquaticus.DIETETICS "Goose. digest. Chinese goose (Cygnopsis cygnoides). laxative and diuretic. fattening. improves voice oxidised with and stimulating. sweetish.

kinds— fresh-water sweetish. of much heat. porpoise ( : (mollusca). snail (Helix pomatia). sedative. ) and called Delphinus gangeticum are *padt' (footed).108-110^^-.112 2='^ are 'Tresh-water fishes heavy. ajtaJt'l<slHjRtiai*^5Hi3f5(^cra: ^aj^: n \oz: ^ku: f^['>JT ffcn: fq^ ^im: %%^i^: \\ x\o . j^w. 46. ^^m^^j i-€[ ^mfwT^ ii \ e'o 222. 46. non-acidifying in reaction. Turtle. and snail or cockle are called 'kosastha' Amphibia pagurus). laxative and increases kapha:' Susruta I. crocodile. fattening. They are Fish : "Fishes are of two ^'Susruta 1.550 ANCIENT HINDU MET)ICINE large-shelled oyster. are oxidized without the production carminative. and marine. sweetish. red crab (cancer shore crab (carcinus moenus).

. do not increase 'pitta' excessively. are oxidized with an excessive production of heat. uses. sheep's milk. is laxative regarded as the vital fluid (product) of the animal.120" "-^ Milk (available : "There for eight kinds : milk viz. camel's milk. *'Susruta 1. in£f. As these animals eat various kinds of is food-stuffs. I. ''Sea-fishes are heavy.46. general milk.DIETETICS carminative. ^ig?jr 31^: ^r^\ wiKi ^Tifcrrq^^r: i . iTlfqi T^^l *Io5IT 5!I^€t ?n^cITxr?7: I -25. aphrodisiac. mare's milk. fattening^ emollient." Susruta of 46. oxidized with production of excessive heat. carminative. sweetisb. refrigerant. and leave little 113'"S fattening. and demulcent so the milk 224. sweet. therefore the milk is vitalizing. and their milk the essence of the product of their metabolism (during lactation). woman's milk and elephant's cow's milk. 551 are hemorrhagic. muscle-builder. milk. and increase are 'slepna'. buffalo's goat's milk. heavy (?). fattenresidue. viscid.

tive. piles. oxidizer. beneficial in fattening. restorative. Cotv*s milk : Cow*s (?). fattening. bronchitis. cancers. chronic dysentery. Milk is depurant. it increases hematogenesis. vitalizing and very hypotensive. wounded. dyspnea. emetic. Mood and mind'. and pleurisy. sweetish. tuberculosis. leucorrhoea. refrigerant. abortion. laxaquality of the boneIt is a good diet for the children. Goafs milk : Goat's milk possesses the same- . colic. so all kinds of milk are good for the animal life. and having the same marrow. beneficial in chronic fever. starved. Only it is counter-indicated in pitta. diarrhoea. heavy gastrorrhagia. diseases of the female gastror- genital apparatus (gonorrhea). ascites. polydipsia^ consumption. rhagia. fatigue. epilepsy. the derangements of It is 'vata^. delays senility. emaciated. milk oxidizer. troubles. non-acidifying in reaction (?). vitalizing. insanity. stimulating. hypersemia. analeptic. or those exhausted by sexual excess. promotes longevity. tymphanites. the aged.552 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE As milk (for is beneficial to the (young) animal' growth and development). strengthening. vertigo. is non-salivant. muscle-builder. lesions. intoxication. cardiac vesical anemia.

the symptoms-complex. : Ewe*s milk : is sweetish. and moderates and a good diet in rheumatism and Buffalo's hebetic cough.DIETETICS properties beneficial 553- as in cow's milk . drink their little upon pungentwater and take is constant diseases. fatten^'kapha heavy pitta' . where the malaria is rampant. and cures dyspnea. milk good in desiccant all Gamers milk and is : Camel's milk of is (?). light. in ascites. is Mare's milk rheumatism of strengthening. but is it is tuberculosis. Buffalo's milk sweetish. especially the chills and the metabolic derancjements of malaria have been mistakenly attributed to the buffalo's milk). is salivant. skin lesions and wornis^ inflammation. exercise. feed bitter substances. poisonings. the buffalo's milk contains more fat than the cow's milk. calorific. pleasant taste. beneficial piles. lowers chills metabolism (as somnifacient and induces the buffalo abounds in marshy places. bronchitis and gastrorrhagia as the goats are of small size. (fat it is 6. slightly saline. specially restorative . the extremitieSv . : milk (?). intestinal cancers.18). and Mare^s milk beneficial in the is : heavier. light. Eice^s milk ing.

its tissue-building but if it be but retains property. exercise and respiration. ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE sweetish saline taste. but if it be it becomes boiled. constipative and refrigerant . the evening milk. and it is a good precaution to boil it before using it ) . due to the cooling influence of the night. it be exposed to cool itself too much boiled. desiccant and IVoinait's milk : Woman's milk eye-lids. of acidulated lififht. the eyes and is strengthening. is beneficial to heavy. Milk becomes contaminated. astringent.551. in a tropical country. on the other exercise of Jiand. and lack of The the animals. . lighter ( milk if exposed. astringent. is sweetish. muscle-builder^ increases vigor. milked in the morning. Raw milk is salivant and heavy. it becomes heavy. fattening. as the animals are warmed by the sun. but this does not apply to woman's milk. if after milking. milk. Elephanfs milk Elephant's milk : sweetish. relieves rheumatism and fatigue and is beneficial to the eyes. is light and oxidizing. is heavy. can be used for irrigation of the nose is and the promotes health. becomes soon especially contaminated. refrigerant. . where it is beneficial when it is fresh.

<. Susruta 226. I. 44-57'" ^ ?IfT I JiswTaT' ^m =^?^lf^# *flf%q^ ^^ift^r' cm ^icT-fqTi?r* q^?T '^cm ii a^ ^^^* ^w^' f%f%^^* ^\^\^ ^-f II I 5ltqi^€r^^wf¥* T%rFni«r^rtr?^^ ac .olored.DIETETICS 555 dis- The milk that is foul-smelling. or if it be mixed with salt. or of perverted taste. 45. sourish. should not be used. or coagulated.

€ 227. 61-*'^." anti-putrefactive 45. ( and appetizing. ).yL ctt^lfcT^Jcf ^e^" ^ 1['=?^5^^ II a. Sour-milk sweet in reaction (lactic acid in reaction) oxidizer.556 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE : "Sour milk of cow is fattening. carminative. depurant Stisruta I. %»^' f^qili fl^ ?1q^ g^l^t^JT I . sf^ia^cisRV: qi^zi" ^^^ ^ ^^^\^ w sir r ^fswT fejiT: ^i€ffn3T^^ f% cii%cT«^ II «i.

DIETETICS 557 sweetish Whey : "Whey is is is acidulated light. piles. -m ^'^w^' '^WiWMW^^'^ ^ ^^^f^r#pr* ^Rs^qncft- 229- ^Vi"f% ftxTFT f^* ?T^^* ^^?T. of pleasant taste. slightly astringent. and is not a tissue builder. stomatitis. vomiting. oxidized rapidly. 45. diarrhoea. piles. trismus and anorexia. intermittent fever. non-acidifying in reaction (?). tumors. Susruta 77''^ III." CharaJca Oil . 27. adiposis. and is benefical in chronic dysentery. ) oxidizer. in ( intestinal inflammation. increases calorific. strangury. I. 100'^'. in beneficial stimulant. splenitis. minute ( of minute fat globules ). diffusive. chronic dysentery. is Gutter : "Fresh-churned butter energizing. astringent. — Fats. ^pitta' ( pitta is regarded as the humor and the seat of com228. beneficial pungent. calorific ( d'ipana ) and cardiac stimulant. antitoxic. I . Sesame oil is 1. catarrh and cardiac adipositis. polydipsia. flatulence it is colic. .

it is energizing. It does not increase plilegma. Susruta the lotus. beneficial to ( the skin. 27. field cucumber Cucumis utilissimus gourd (Benincasa cerifera). ^glr5^^-c}f^kw55li!V^iTO#rff 11 'iR^ . arrest dioestion and are 231.558 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE bustion energy and li eat -metabolism). refrigerant. increases fat {inedas) and Chciraka I. Vegetables sativus ). savorous. laxative. root. cucumber. ( ''The ( Cucumis ). 137 -^'^ agnivaoxldJma )/' ' IV. of I. contain potash and are sweetish. diuretic. : — Vegetahles. is laxative and diuretic. are indigestible. Trapa bisponosa and water weeds are indiirestible. 221 -''''. root Scripus kysoor. phlegmatic. but beat is tbe best carminative ./^ 46. water-melon etc. the "The lotus lotus. retards digestion ( of other foods ). esculent root of fibers of the stalk of the lotus.

astringent. moderates *pitta% sweetish. refreshing bum^uta I. 46. 46. energizing. refreshII or^sr^g^f<yi^-^^l<^»ioh^^w 233.DIETETICS refriged-ant . is sweet. ^^^T^?:^* ^^j ^if^* ^ftftfi^w i ^^^^ ^f^< 234- i?j ^iff^^i^fST?T II '5is?lf ^Tctvi 'ifTf^ sn?^* ^qifqrlfsi^ II ^^e . is laxative and reduces 'kapha and yiltd !^ Susruia I. and provoke ^iMegma" and Oharaka I. 54' 3^ Fruits calorific. Nymph sea stellata are refrigerant. ^'Cocoa-nut indigestible. and excessive ''Frune provokes flatulence. 169=^'*. constipative. refrigerant. appetizing." Sus^'uta 46. : "Fomegranate is astringnt. fattening. 144"^". 232. "Fiff retards digestion. 27. fattening. ( flower and fruit of wbite and blue water lilies ) Nymplu'ea esouienta and savorous. refreshing and is indigestible. I. flatulence. non- oxidizer. 559 the stall:..

Salt is —Stimulants. 146"^'^. Coriandrum tis ajowan. Spices : "Eoeniculum Nigella indica. ( oxidizing. is antitoxic relieves 'kapha* 27. 148^39^ and deodorant. V. sweet." ing. digestive." Stisruta I. ) carminative. hyperemia and emaciation. fattening. PtychoCumminum cyminum. 27. 27. refrigerant." Charaka I. improves voice. laxative and carminative. 236. ' appetizing.. ^]K%^' ^"^ fw^' ftxi^* ^^ S^lcf^W. 146-^^. stimulatiDg Susrnta I. is laxative. and relieves gastrorrhagia. Grape febricula. and the leaf of Piper longum are sativum digestive. polydipsia. ! .'' Charaka I. 46.560 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE and diuretic. dyspnea.

ai^petizing." Susriita 45. quickly oxidized. has disagreeable flavor. easily oxidized. I 21-1. 155 ''*". Wine is salivant. ). antlielmintic ( or bactericidal desiccant 179-180'^*'.. 45. laxative and diuretic. I. provokes flatulence. Old Wine has fine aroma. depurant ( ? ). ^^' fqTl^^ ?T?jW ^tq*lT:t=g*1T. non-savorous. "Neto excitant of the exhilarant." Susnita I. and carminative. stimulates digestion ^ is refreshing.tq'i^. I 36 . cardiac stimulant^ vesical disinfectant ( ? ). non-refreshing and irritant.I>IETETICS 561 wines cause bili- Liquors : "All acidulated ousness. 240.. irritant. desiccant. are appetizing^ emetic. are oxidized with liberation pungent.. carminative. increase digestive power. i4 ^R^^Trn'i^ir^ 1^ ^TcTff^'-i. of excessive heat^ senses. heavy.

with yeast fermentation. bronchitis. flatulence. fecal 27. "The wine that which has been kept in a foul vessel. oxidized with a great amount of heat. which has been kept exposed in an open bowl over night. iiaiFrr ^rm^^T'nt ^^f^sjwff^ft'JiT'T. 93" *^ anorexia. dyspnea. tympanites. vomiting. catarrh. constipation.562 ANCIENT HINDD MEDICINE is opaque. or for the person who has lost blood . i . chronic dysentery. 45. irritant. 185-^^\ prescribed in emaciation. ''Susruta 242. malodorous. as well as the wine left over from another person. heavy. and ^T^* f^^rff ^^ f^^* %f«^' ^I^ I 24-3. I. should not be taken. it is a carminative and a galactagois "Wine gue. new. I. which has been made with insufficient materials. insijjid. It is beneficial in hiccup. nonenlivening. strangury. impaction." Susruta colorless. sharp ( with a high percentage of alcohol).

45. viz. sleep and hyperemia.DIETETICS 563 VL. The water-vapor of the sky falling earth takes the taste of upon the the place where it falls. vegetable sap. . vertigo. . pond. somnolence. as ( dew . terranean stream. water vapor of the sky : falls 1 ) upon the . subriver.Water. intoxication. and the water of the dam. refreshing. susentering into every tissue metabolism thirst. lake. fountain. circulatory ( vitalizing acts as life. well. **The is swee^iish. beneficial to taining. and pond in a swampy region covered with algae and filled with water-weeds. ( 3 ) rain { 2 ) rain-water is the best for its Of them. and removes lassitude. and (4) snow. ). the The rain lightness. hail earth in different ways. "The water ( falling from the clouds ). fatigue. is ( tasteless without any distinct taste an ambrosia ). field inundation." Susruta I. rivulet. pool.

covered with grasses and ( fallen ) leaves. skin-diseases for bathing intestinal disorders for drinking The water that contains slime. Gangetic ( sweet 45. and air ( aeration can not take place ) can not penetrate. from external lesioHj. rain is from the Gangetic ( vapor ) Susriita I. contaminated or poisoned. and which is distinguished by any smell. (the beams of the moon. or makes him ( ( suffer soon ) drunk by a person." JPolluted the vapor of ) two sources diid oceanic (saline). if bathed in. and internal troubles ). color or taste. v<^\^^\ .564 also ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE comes from ) ( 1. and in »vhich (the rays of) the sun. decomposed egg or dead body. 5**^ Walter "The water swarming with : by their toxins. oris covered with algae. that water ) is to be regarded as contaminated. mud. 5'^^ the best. ^]w g'l. or the inundation water of the first bacteria." Siisrttfa — "Of them. or by (human )> excreta. polluted rainy season. 45.weeds and lotus-leaves etc. water. The contaiTiinated water is marked by six 24 G.

and expectoration. If its is due to its action-fault. Michelia champaca. Poul-smelling pronounced is the smell-fault. if of contaminated source.vapors of the sky. Water SterilizatioH of Water sterilized. colic. digestion ( is retained in the alimentary canal. when drunk. it is the These faults are not found in the reaction fault. iron-balls. the water takes a long time for passage. Mud. tooth-sensibility to carbonic ( due hstringency or any other chemical agent or bacterial product ) are the touch-faults of con{ due to taminated water. the water taste causes thirst. sand. Nymph sea cerula. when drunk. action Roaghness ( due to the presence of viscosity ( bacterial decomposition warmth especially of the vegetable matter ). If.DIETETICS faults 565 — in ^oucli. it. be kept in water . smell. heaviness it ( in the stomach ). taste. and Bignonia suaveolens should over-night. For or of its deodoi-ization. Any the taste-fault. by throwing into sand and stones. absorption and excretion ) and water ( that falls upon the earth from conden) : sation of the water. and reaction sand or grit ) appearance. acid gas ). the sun. flowers Rotleria tinctoria. warming red-hot in should be by boiling. slime and colorings ( chloropLyl ) are is the appearance faults.

in a Pollutcopper. bronze. sterilized He who etc. 45.566 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE tlie Tue water saturated with the flower. tumor. I ^T ^ f^TT^^q ffcr I cT q% ^^ft% 1 ^f^ II <£ mm T. catarrh. diseases. bronchitis. indigestion. silver. ascites 1. 247. and other malignant diseases. . apt to suffer from inflammation. should be drunk fragrance of gold. crystal or earthen bowl. colic. ed water." Susriita 6-lP*^ ^s^gfl^T^-ai^HfTf^fqcm. drinks is water not by boiling dyspnea. or untimely rain water should be always avoided.m^ cTW -fl^t ^m irf'irfrasfq ^ II i H^T^?f'^' ^T ^f«? ^f%^ fqtfT . anemia.

cool. that 'juenches as that is pure."^ Susrutal. 13'* \ ^^\\ IT f^WR^ ^^ii'T ^\7^ji\7[ T^^^^ ^\\\\ . 45. without thirst. h'ght and refreshing-. distinct : "The water that taste. is to be regarded 'pure loater'. transparent.DIETETICS 567 is Fure water smell.

who are of good character. bath-room and There attendants (interns) for nursing the sick. a large 5iouse should be built it should be strong. dust. . mortar. should be appointed. whatever excites the nerves and disturbs the and it should be pestle. (spicy) (penetrating) smell (that is. that one can easily move about within it . it should be built on nothing higher than within. (sensual) touch. it should be an elevated place (having and it in the locality). free from smoke. noise. clever. case. for any kind hospital 'Of work (associated with nursing . but not drafty. kind-hearted. except the current of air shall it should be so built pass in one direction . obedient. stairwith provided toilet. and ing) ocular impressions.IX : HYGIENE. kitchen. (excittaste. Hospital "By an expert architect. nervous quietude) . its disinfectant and sterilizing property was not understood). sun (exposure to the sun was regarded injurious . are pure (free from any fit disease).

ness for and sick into bed. a comfortable bed with all accessories. There experts enErasred should be who are well-versed in singing. pitcher. pail. and sheep. cooking-pot. platter. dipper. double-boiler. hymns. and for them feed. emplastrum. that are necessary for leaning sitting. and of [(for the the contemporary mind and entertainment of the There should be also kept Tetraoperdix himalayensis. animal thread (horse-hair for sutu ration). history distraction sick). and who do not show unwillingany kind of work. thread. and all (easy chair). sedatives. Dama gentle. putting the expert in cooking. (in recitation of) prayers. cotton. poems. .HYGIENE duties). events stories. deer (Cervus cashmirianus). black deer. free from should be kept. places (stable) diseases sleeping and drinking water should be be jar. jug. keg. music. hare. tub. embrocation. There should cask. stag (Cervus elaphus). massage. emetics. platyceros. As well as milking cows with calved. spittoon. (for the application of) ointment. bandage. in capable of lifting massage. sweating. fomentation. 569 bath-attendance. provided. also cistern. black-tailed (in the enclosure) Galloperdix spadiceus. ewer.

h^ has to acquire a thorough physician has and for this medical science and knowledge of the surgery. 15. errliines. 5-9' : *^ of a Surgeon "For the practice of operative surgery. and to carry pathogenic .670 vulnerary ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE enemata. and before an operation. he has to his nails pair (to prevent sepsis. a to get the license from the king. oily enemata. urination and purgation/' Cliaraka Qualifications I. must have keen observation and experience of operations (under a licensed preceptor or in a hospital) .

I. to 571 to cut short Iiis hair (shaving for the (free same purpose). — Dietetic JSygeine. or by an instrument which has been covered by poisoning. friendly to all living beings. stick in his hand. become purified disease. sandals (in his feet). and succor of the good. or killed by a venomous snake. and disinfected) and shall from any put on (washed. or decomposed meat (to prevent ptomaine poisoning). (and shall go to the operation) with umbrella (on his head). flavor ''Desiccated (for losing and savor). disinfected) white robeL. or . 2- ^ . robes not highly raised (gracefully attired). uprighteous conduct.HYGIENE germs and spread infection from patient patient)."" Susruta I. having pleasant speech. 10. or meat from a deceased animal ^to prevent the infection of the pathogenic germs of the disease from which the animal has died)..

new or wine. aquatic creatures. heavy. he suffers from diabetes. indulges viscid foods. is subject to diathesis of various lesions. and extract- excessive amount are not yet formed. anorexia. and if he does not take precautionary measures against them. 251. skin diseases. encrust- ing ( calcification ) of the vascular system. new rice. jaundice. fever .hyperacidity. pruritus. milk. •sweet. eczema. impetigo. which exert a tonic effect on the organism)/' Susruta I. stran- gury. and milk-products. impotence. foul-emanation from the body. g^snftf^^^qitrr^^f^^giisi^^i^iJTgi^Tr^rft'ut ^\m^- . but it also contains an excessive amount of metabolic wastes. adiposis. Evil Effects of Over-Nutrition Any one : who meat with sedentary habits. too young ives ( the meat of a young animal contains an purine bodies. and cakes excessively. sugai-preparations. too old (the meat of an old animal is not only tough and unsavorous. lassitude. 129 "'^. due and to the deficiency of glandular or secretions incomplete of oxidation). somnolence. of animals of marshy region. in fatty.572 i\atli ANCIENT HINDIJ MEDICINE poisons. 46.

but taken excessively." Charakal. 23. proper dose increases the strength and weight of the body. derstands and follows ). 22. Seasonal diefetic variations : "He who un- regulations for each season. q^* -g^g^^q^^^ ^T3?f ft^r??^^ ^*T J . ^Jfiq'tiffi g[: feiV ^^^Jr^fqf^'rr : : I l^ra'^'T^JI^''^ ?lt%^T5Tq^Tf<5f II 253. enervation. ascites 57S and othep diseases." "A stimulant taken in Chai^aka I. by his the hygienic and dietetic seasonal vari- 252.HYGIENE intellectual fatigue. 2 -'". it reduces the body-weight (by inducing hyper-metabolism 25 -'^.

and therefore an increased intake of carbohydrates becomes necessary. which naturally consumes more glycogen than in the summer. ) and consequently . and can digest a large quantity of meat and other nitrogenous food. owing to the less radiation of heat from the hody surface to the surrounding atmosphere.B74 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE and increas- ation of diet improves his complexion CharaTca I 6. the increased oxygen- intake naturally enhances metabolism. In the summer one does not need so much fat as in the winter. one is apt to move and to take exercise. hydrate needs of the body are also increased." Seasonal variation of food is conducive to health and vitality. (a) cT^fajcTrar^T^Krf^* ^'^ ^t^ I . which in the summer may Carboeasily cause gastro-intestinal troubles. its vitality metabolism is increased for this reason in 253. air contains And as the cold more oxygen. "Due is to the contact of the cold air. 2 ^^'a. as to keep the body warm. es his visror. and therefore one has in the winter better appetite. as the caloric needs of the organism is much less. digest- ive fire ( confined.

one can digest much more heavy stuffs Charaka I. nor is it properly fixed ( masti- Not to eat rapidly : Do cated and saturated with salivary ferments). between them. leanness is preferable. 19 ^^^ A lean person has more vitality than a fat and its . 16 ''^ "But though both leanness and fatness have their inconvenience. 9 '^*. but only given to satiate hunger ) and fasting should be prescribed. 3|. 21. the ingesta does not give adequate savor. ^Tf^tfcffi^sim I ^fe^^ f% ^wym m^^'{*^\^'^^^m^m\- 256. be given.^ stlcTlfiT^Wf^^'^it ^f^Tt ^# I 255. normal reactions are not perceived thereCharaka fore one should not eat too rapidly. and is abnormal in its course in the alimentary canal. For if eaten too rapidly.'' III. ( than in the summer ).HYGIENE 615 winter. 6. And to make a lean man fat. indigestible food (which is insufficiently assimilated. for in a 254. person "To make a fat person lean. 5^ '^Tciq''!!^^* ^^rfft ^^^' flf^ I . 1." easily digestible food to satiation should : Charaka I." not eat too rapidly.

peptics do not excessiv^e get fat and However. beyond especially bodily ):eeds. Z56. and with taken. good digestion. s^^w €??ttT^i. so leanness not associated with nutritional insufficiency or wast- ing diseases. 21. becoming. has more resisting ).^rT f% cH I . for the ingesta only partly absorbed. but in excess it is apt to interfere other vital with the action of the heart and as well as fatty bv pressure infiltration. hypermetabolism causes gradual emaciation. On the other hand.576 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINl individual suffers is disease. As vitalitv is related with metabolism.. as it beautifies the form of the body orsrans . quantitatively ( enzymes^ accumulation and degeneration takes Patty place in hypo-metabolism. (a) ^I^^TS^ -^i. tlie surplus of converted glycogen above the current expenditure is stored in the to a moderate extent. this is very body as fat ." pathogenic micro-organisms power against Charaha I. due to deficiency. the dysremain lean with can be amount of food. due to glandular defici2 ) and qualitatively. a fat more ( accumu: lation of fat in tlie ( body due is to fundamentals 1 ) Eitlier excess of food tlie carbohydrates. of digestive ency as in myxedema.

THEEAPEUTICS 577 : Mental excitement interferes with Digestion **Worry. anger. 46. "Food picks mouth ( The negligence is of these two simple oral hygienic rules. spreading fast in India. T[raa[Ttg«i^^cT w^' =^t^" ^ #^f?T i 258. 620^' \ particles sticking in or within the (crevices out slowly with toothof) teeth. sorrow. and by raising of adrenalin. should be taken for otherwise they cause foulness of the . and wash out the mouth ( wash out the food particles tliat may be in the Mouth Bygiene buccal cavity. fear. as in 257. iraratr^fp:!^* mT^^ W^T' » 37 . sadness. one should to repeatedly gargle." Susruta I. perplexity and vigilance digestion. to prevent their harboringof microorganisms which cause decomposition and foul odor of the mouth). the pressure by excessive secretion irritated sympathetic nervous system becomes y Charaka III. 2. 6-'^ : "After eating. even right quantity ( sleeplessness ) interfere with if ( good and taken in mental excitement arrests the the food be the blood digestive secretions.

heated to porridge having uneven cooked grains. II. contaminated.578 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE Caries ). the body temperature before the digestive ferments can act energetically upon them and they can be absorbed ). mixed with pebbles. 260- ^=^^* ^tif^'n' qT^I1!(?Wl?^^ I . 518^^°. and what is cooked at a high temperature. nor the food that is is cooked for a long over-cooking or vitamine destroyed by cooking at a high temperature ). Europe. is hardened can not penetrate through ( digestive ferments cold ( the injesta has to be hardened masses ). kept over night. the Dental 46„ Foods of to he avoided : "The food that over ( is dis- colored." Susruta I.'* Susruta I. should not be taken time ( . repulsive in appearance. cooked again. — General Hygiene the Not Nature 259. 46. or decomposed. to : interfere with intelligent natural call of "An person I should not ^'ripri^iim^m' s^t^^^'^i^A. insipid. left from the plate grass or some one else ). similar substances.

26 1 . In weakness of the kidney. yawning.THERAPEUTICS retain (interfere with the passage 57& by the voluntary thirst. then sweating. tears. and the autumn. 2''\ System : Periodic Cleaning of the *'Ia spring. 35"^-. ??m^Tra^ ?TTf% Tff^ TTwt h't: I €=f^ ^^^^ "^A ^i^^^€^^»T II .worked kidneys ). 7. which is also the kidney has failed to eliminate or as a relief to the over. contraction of the muscles) feces. Later enemata and errhines should be given as a ( The periodic flushing of the intestines is by enemata or purgatives. in the rainy season. Turkish bath twice or thrice a year very desirable. now recognized by all good hygienic prophylaxis. ^ %J[\^ ^TT^TIH STTrfrsT ^^H'^^ I I 262. First he should use oint- ment. urine." Charaka I. one should cleanse his system. and after that emetics and purgatives. sneezing. ( sleep or the fatigued breath 1. vomiting. intestinal gas. to throw out of the system the accumulated toxins through the skin." CJiaraka 7. hunger. carbon the dioxide).

fati?" dyspnea. But if it be doo e in and increases excess. Excess if Charaka to be I. =^2i^^r ^^f^Ti hctt^^: ^T#t ^^r^ff i '^RTsiramfi: ^ ^T^ II "264. sexual intercourse and vigilance. laughing. 27"®*. 7. travelling. endurance. '*A person who takes regular exercise. : 24-26''^ intelligent person. agility. Eor it induces lightness. should not indulge in excess exercise. suffer from 5r^=C^T ^J =C^ ^""^d^r! cTi" ^^^f^^ ^fn=^T<i II I ffoq|yH*i'?gJTcTT ^T^?IT ^ir: WW. measuredly. metabolism. it brings about lassitude.vemoves flatulence. 7. does not 263. vigor. speaking. b^ onchitis. aiFlTTf l^VTT^I^^'fn^^R^lT'Kr^ i ^f^fTprfq %tcT I%in5TRT»TTg?n II . spermatorrhea. gastrorrhagia.580 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE Physical Exercise % Exercise is the exerti to invigorate and to increase the strength of the exercise take should one physical body . avoided "An of even necessary. and takes barley and wheat.*' Charaka 1. and eats after his previous meal has been digested. fever and vomiting".

2"^^ is "The effectiveness of purgation subsidence of weakness. I. normal inclination for evacuation of feces and of urine. clearness marked by loss of body complexion. of the barks oils ( — Symplocos racemosa. ^re'nnT Trj^-^^ 5n?T5t ^^' ^fkT. improvement in the sense perceptions and 265.THERAPEDTICS over-eating. orum. i 266." Susruta I. oil ). 581 and he loses his adiposis. and of the milky exudations — that of Euphorbige anti qu- purgatives is and Purgation : "The best of root Ipomcea turpethum. stiramfH^ ^'BTsfi sf^ift^wTtsT^. ^'Charaha 23. Viirgatives of the fruits —Terminalia —^Ricinus communis castor chebula. 10'''. fatigue and the course of the disease.'^^ \ fti^^wi w^^f^ '^fT^ II . 44. emaciation ( weight ). the improvement of the heart's action. of the of the juice — Cleome pentaphylla. normal appetite and thirst.

prevent the spreading of the Bacilli especially I. passage of the intestinal gas. the patient should be made to vomit ( the poison that has been ingested by an emetic ) and then after giving cold water ( to dissolve the poison that may be canal ). : Treatment against Poisoning In the j&rst poisoning. and the increased metabolism.582 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE the mind. do not yawn. : sneeze or laugh pathogenic tuberculosis). Charaka 8. V. alimentary sticking to the wall of the a detoxicant mixed with ( butter and honey should be given the toxins. 17"''^. 25'^ ^ against Treatment venomous snake-hite : 267. TT^'lcT^^ 5»iTt '^T^ =fl^' ^ U^^cT I ." Charaka I. ^wm ^rra4 ^if^sgf^m^fcfT ^f%: I 268. and to make them to neutralize comparatively innocuous by chemical combinations )" Susruta 2. 16." germs. 3^*''^. Do not sneeze before "'Without covering ( your to covering your mouth mouth.

which can penetrate deep into the Suction ( — c. intravascular. 269. of polyvalent Injection antivenom serum has proved very promising. solution — tissues quickly). always applicable 2*^°. about to fingers' breadth above prevent the poison flowing blood or lymph ) by cord. incision ( to drain out the poisoned blood and the lympth and cauterization to destroy the poisonous principles and the poisoned area ) are ) ( ( after tight ligature ). to compress tlie blood and the is lymphatic vessels).THERAPEUTICS ^'If 583 ( the arm or leg is bitten by a snake is if it be subcutaneous. imt fwwi g ^T^" altcn^tr^cwj 270. free incinear the bite ( to drain out the poisoned blood and the lymph) and the affected area cauterized (preferably by a liquid caustic. 5. permanganate of potash 3 p. but if ligature should be the made wound. €^%Tr^ci: ^q': sii^r^^^ tf%*ii i . upward ( with the. Susruta V. leather-band or tree bark ( tourniquet. the it is poisoning rapid ). Where tight ligature sions should be made not possible. by hygroscopic calcined stones which suck the fluid with the poisonous principles ). a tiglit four slow.

or a hoy at 16 has his speris matozoa developed and is capable of reproduction.584j ancient HINDU MEDICINE III. 35. and mind liable copulation cause rupture of the calcified and friable blood-vessels ). "An intelligent physiPhysical JIaturify cian should know that man at 25 years of age and woman at 16 attain at their ( physical ) • maturity with full Susrutal. Sexual Hygiene.'* who is cares for longevity should not have sexual intercourse. 9-'^ '*He ( organic ) development. after he before he 70 ( Though 16 years old. -im" ^" qtf nT^^TfT ^hsit: qr^ t "^ i . 2. the tension of 271. qgfi't cTtfr ^^ ^^\\ srncl g ^Tf^ ! 272." Charaha VI. 60-^^. yet he needs to conserve and utilize the spermin up is to the age of 25 for the development of his body . to in old age.

or unesthetic ." CharakaYl. rich phosphorus contents of the Bacillus tuberdisintegration culosis become liberated a reaction in the process as circulating siac. 3. yet he is disease will lead crease. that of the the motive religious is more as many observances. are based i on of -^^ i\^^ ^^ ^f^mT^^ ^t% . expectorations infond of sexual intercourse.THERAPEUTICS Tuberculosis increases 58S desire ) : sexual "If a tuberculous patient loses ( consumptive his gradually his strength. however. and this with the blood acts as an aphrodiand consequently sexual erethism is one of the most distinguished characteristics of this disease). of the organism. utilitarian. certainly regulations and injuncprinciples tions 273. 5^'^. it is probable. the and him to his death ( It is well that the tubercular patients become very it is very probable that the sexually inclined known .^ possible that the presence of blood has been regarded by the primitive man as impure. : "Do not Sexual ifitercourse forbidden with a menstruating have sexual intercourse woman (there seems to be a universal prejudice against intercourse with a menstruating woman it is .

nor practise bestiality. 8. whose appeal (rouse the senses). well-form- charmingly attired. the ly gonococci might still live in the and may be dislodged with the upper tract. or one who goes with other men (thus can be infected and spread the disease) . 'TMI'lt ST ^ra^T iigrt ^m'<^t f[mm ^Tf^^'i^'^Rtq^TTt *tt^ I Ti^^Wt 5ii*«ire??j" IT'tl^Tr't ^wl^ ^wr^fi . might remain entirely a menstruating woman on her part during that period. rather sexually inclined and would be much relieved of turgescence by the embrace). ^ow of to the the menstrual blood." Charaka I. homely. hygiene or economic considerations in apparentcured and neglected old gonorrhea. or unnatural vices (sodomy and pederasty). youthful. beauty does not or whose conduct is repulsive or who is artless. with a diseased. nor go with another man's wife . and cause she it urethritis man with whom may have copulation. while in other times innocuous is . willing and well-educated 274. : "A pretty. ApJirodisiccc ed. or unclean woman (for hygienic reasons) or with one whose vagina is narrow (vaginismus).586 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE .

" CharahaYll. but it is certain blood.THERAPEUTICS 587 woman (wife) is the best aphrodisiac (in impo- tence). so pregnancy is developed "As the germination (of a seed) takes 275. 2. Then the united sperm and the ovum (the fecundated ovum) reach the uterus. the Graafian follicle in which it is ruptures enclosed and causes menstruation)." Susruta III. that as it it . and which unites with the ovum {arttava heat (tumescence) is a vague expression . ci^ wh"€^: ^''^^ ^\ w^<\^\^h^\'^^ i cm^^sf^- . field. ^%^[ ^ftspT^T ?TT ^ra^^srf r^«j[f^cIT 1 276. (vaginal) secretion provoke the discharge of the semen. meant more perhaps ovule which it than menstruation could not exist after menstrual flow ceased was an indistinct conception of the it when becomes ripe. by is the nervous congress tension The heat and generated. 3. by moisture and seed. 3^'\ place the combination of proper season. 5"'% "In the Impregnation : (sexual) of man and woman.

"' Susruta III. irritable spermatozoon either by alcohol. yet it is undeniable that the germplasms must be under profound impression of the physical and the mental state An." Susrnta III. during their copulation (in which the impregnation takes place. for sperm. and the 277. them under behaviour and (physical and mental) exertions. 2. or by the morbid condition of blood. Though hereditary transmission can not be explained by such a simple formula. moisture for ovum : . vija = seed.amvu=s menstruation kseh^a . is very apt to create same diathesis in the offspring). '^^ =ggiQT* ^Tf^^T^w. e. ^r^?n^K=€^rfvf?TT?ai)fvi: ^^f^fft i . "The child inherits the characHeredity teristics of the parents acquired by the influence of diet. for spermatozoon). 33^^'. '^ifwf*^^^: i 278.588 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE their by proper combination ( ?'^«* = proper season 12 days after standing for the first = field for uterus. i. of the parents in the time of fertilization. 9. 63-^\ "He who abstains from meat and wine.

there on the third day. the seed not (spermatozoon) can not enter in and become active (during the copulative act. be shortens is . and leads a pure do not life. As a thing (floating substance) thrown in a river ascend up-stream against the course of the current. almost like a especially of the glans-penis. widening the mouth of the womb. the forward and the backward movement. deflating it and drawing that when the semen is discharged." Charalza VI. developed and possesses good vitality (a long life). the child is wellstill-birth if . the child is of incomplete development and becomes shortbved but if on the fourth day. acts valve of the suction-pump. creating a kind of vacuum state. so when the menstrual blood can flows. copulates witb a menstruating on tbe first day of her course. man and there conception . 63 *^^ "If a woman his life. be and bis descendants suffer from insanity.THERAPEUTICS takes only (bygienic) beneficial 589 food. fruit of is if embryonic abortion of the on the second day. 9. a jet of spray and is it it forward. so shoots like sucked by the womb with .

2. milk and rice. shall copulate with his wife after music. Susruta III. or to ). milk-fat. endearments ( to excite the senses ) and assurance of 280. ^jm i?rt sif^^cr: \ 3t1% jfftTr*T^^ ^" cTft^ ^^5jm ciB?Tfi'ST?m^ f^rm* .590 the ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE the vagina is filled with menstrual hlood or fluid. this suction can not but the vaginal secretions at the be incomplete ovum . in case . the husband : continence for a month ). so that the delicate mucous membrane can not be hurt ). Therefore one should not indulge in the sexual union during the first three days of menstruation^ nor (after twelve days) in the month (in the second week the ovum begins it is is degenerate. Sex-determination of the offspring "If a male should practise child is desired." apt to reproduce a weakling 31*^". it incapable of fertilization. ( to increase sexual erethism and vigor and after fattening himself with clarified butter. cT^ T{^ f^^ ^giiHjr v^^^r^wTrg^' g*^ «^fti » ^ '^ Tf^flT% irf^* ^ ftsi' irf^^* 5^^T I'^fcT vr^fir. entrance of the penis or in strong sexual desire serve simply to lubricate the passage. and either if fecundated.

fattened herself with clarified hutter and fed on lived life for a continent and nitrogenous foods. tion it is blameworthy only for ( as the union is fruitless. and she likewise should have a month. If the conjugal duty is performed on these days.THERAPEUTICS 591 love to her. is the sensual gratification and indulgence. tenth or twelfth day of menstruation. eighth. the ovum begins to deteriorate and is usually incapable of impregnation ) cohabita. sexual union should take place on the fifth. 2. If a girl is desired . wealth and strength. it conduces to ( the promotion of ) wisdom. Susruta III. Prom the thirteenth day ( up to the new monthly from the second week after cycle menstruation. on the fourth. and not for the welfare of the race)". ninth or eleventh day. oily lonsjevity. increase of population. seventh. 28-30=^' \ . health. sixth.

produced by the ovary is sex hermaphroditic in nature. The question then arises whether the sex determinant resides in the spermatozoon or in the ovum. and it was regarded by McClung as the sex determining It may be simply an Hdatif factor. But the experiments of Loeb have demonstrated that the spermatozoon. the former produced by the right ovary and the latter by believed a few the left. It was years ago that there were two lands of ovum. before it phylogenetically ascends the scale of evolution.592 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE Sex-determination is still speculative. that is before amphimixis is started through the process ef fertilization by the male reproductive cell. And in the aphids. and its not determined like all its mono-cellular prototypes. That is the starting of sexual differentiation which begins with point the impregnation of the ovum. is and experimentation has been found to be . In the Hymenoptera an accessory chromosome has been found spermatozoa. partbenogenetic generations . only acts ^s a stimulant to start the amphimixis. By animal it human still ovariotomy. The egg bi-sexual. erroneous. at least in the lower scale of evolution. bearer of in neai'ly half the — arrested hereditary trait. and it can be substituted by artificial chemical stimulus. male and female.

the males catabolic. It is very likely that menstruation is the process of getting rid of the female organism of the periodical reproductive anabolic surplus. thus proving clearly that the male sperms are not essential as sex-determinants and which anabolic must therefore lie in the ovum at the time of and conception. which can be only utilized. as the anaboas extrasurplus is being transformed for the nursing baby in the uterine nutrition form of milk. in . As the females are it has been supposed that the anabolic condition of the ovum at the time of the conception is apt to reproduce the female. On this hypothesis.\ THERAPEUTICS 593 alternate with the sexual reproductions. Though it is overnutrition is a condition certainly a misconception to base the conclusion that somatic behavior could change the characteristics of the germ-cell. of anabolism. But anabolism is a condition of le an over-nutrition. nutrition conception. it is only so in the dynam^'^ 38 . yet both the males and the females develop from the unfertilized eggs. some have advanced the theory that over-nutrition during gestation is likely to reproduce the female. as nocturnal emission in man. for the fetal as likewise during lactation the nurscase of ing mother does lic not menstruate. and the catabolic the male.

as the relative age of the mother on which depends after ovulation. The anabolic ovum or the catabolic state of the internal vitality ovum depends on its maturity So the determination of sex. nor can under-nutrition cliange anabolic ovum into catabolic. depending on so many delicate factors. from eighth degenerative take place). (the fourth day and the fifth day after menstruation being catabolic. from the fifth to eighth day anabolic. can not positively calculated beforehand. point. ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINF Over-feeding the female tion or daring gestation can lic not make a before concepcatabo- an its anabolic. the germ- \ . Reed emphasizes Life on the having particularly originated in the sea as ^gymnooytoda' or 'lapocytoda^ from which must have developed nucleated cell.594 sense. And with any certainty be to this may be catabolic condi- added the general anabolic and tion of health. and the relative changes begin father to the mother on which asre of the to to fifteenth catabolic and later depends the vitality of the spermatozoon and which is sure in process of impregnation by its momentum to cause molecular changes in the ovum. and the age of the vitality of the ovum. the age of the ovum at the time of impregnation on which depends its anabolism or catabolism.

and monthly (lunar month of 28 days) affected the primitive cell-life on the sea-coast for many to millions of years. daily. infinitely on the sea has been of land. Menstruation regulated by the fortnightly lunar cycle. longer duration than on the developed in the sea. fortnightly or monthly. before Life it acclimatized the land habitation. it the tide is high. which has retained all its primi- tive ancestral characteristics It is very likely. live in an aquatic medium. and which in quick recapitulaprocess of growth unfolds tion all the stages of evolution from the simple highly mono-cellular cell to the multi-cellular being. the primitive ancestral cell. in its embryonic closely resembles. complex and well-differentianted which must have taken in nature countless Our cells still must not only millions of years. to cycle. . but it must be a saline solution human (blood and the lymph) is still like the sea- water. as is represented in the fish. Menstruation is closely ovulation the liberation of related with the Vertebrata — the germ-cell therefore. that can be concluded when Accordingly. be influenced by the lunar tide well known that diseases pass at these and is through crises lunar tidal periods. whose tides diurnal.THERAPEUTICS 595 wbicli it plasm.

with a female that is is or valetudinarian. it when the tide is in the anabolic state. : in the catabolic trend Fhysical Fitness "Copulation with a woman with full stomach. is likely to be a female and during the high tide of the germ cell. being the cell-memory. the husband delightful shall and ascend comfortable. broad and the husband by the right foot and gods to (and praying the shall give them a heroic son ) they left foot. This also women to man. or thirsty. mutually inclinand the wife after taking ed. or who desires some other person during the coitus. male. The ovum impregnated the low-tide period. terrified.696 ANCIENT HINDU MEDICINE is the germ-cell likely to be in the catabolic tendency. distressed. if it has not irretrievably passed into the catabolic state due to old age of the cell or of the devitalized therefore during condition of the parent. is unproductive. stimulating the bed. angered. cohabit old. suffers from too nymphomania. Desirous of sexual embrace. Only men and applicable who are free from all defects should copulate. the . perfumed. or with one who is hungry. and is subject to the tension due to low. the wife by refreshments. Nor should one too young.

heart sounds are heard. ^f^r% ^rg^fe fT^cr: JTf?i^Tf% ^m\ c^i^rg fWfiT ^i^ig . thirst. ^I^^f^ cf^rsrfartTT 'ft^m fqwiftfcTT ^m f^w^i: ^^nrrf siir %'!lt ^\ U^ft 5Tr«f«T^'# flW% =^f?T^Rr ^T Tift W T >ff ui#fT.THERAPEUTICS 597 8. Signs of Fregnancy : "The following are the signs of conception relaxation (as a pleasureable reaction of the coitus). : amenorrhea. and the engorgement of the vulva. engage in connubial mysteries. But it is claimed that some muciparous women can fix the exact time and the copulation that results in conception by the intense voluptuous sensation they experience at the time of orgasm of the coitus. lassitude. Usually 281(a). (It is not easy to make a certein diagnosis of pregnancy before the fetal fatigue of the tJiighs.or fetal movements felt in the fifth or the sixth month." Gharaha V.

fulness and firmness in the breasts. greater prominence of the nipples and the enlargement of the sebaceous follicles. charcoal or earth. Bluish circles are also ob- served round the eyes which become a little humid and deep-set. even nausea or vomiting. due to the congestion of the vesical coincident with the trigone. and the appearance of blue veins round the darkened areola. when trying to make erect posture in the morning. Increased frequency of micturition is a very common accompaniment of early pregnancy. heartburn or eructation accompanied by abnormal appetite or craving for acid. physiological hyperemia of the uterine. "The signs of pregnancy are the pigmentation . On separating the labia the vaffina is found unusuallv moist of and covered with whitish shreds epithelium.598 ANCIENT HINDL MEDICINE menstruation ceases after the conception takes^ place. desquamated under the and the anterior vaginal wall just urethra shows a dusky. About two weeks after conception some women experience occasional qualm. purplish pigmentation). accompanied by a tingling sensation of weight. Digestive disturbances in many cases are noticed and there is salivation. The pigmentation and the enlargement of the areola is noticed about the sixth week of gestation.

particularly (spasmic) vomiting.THERAPEUTICS of the areola. '?ff%q^if^ ^^t^^t: ^#^31^ f^wr: ii \ . END. lO-ll"^". lower abdomen and flanks ). 3. nausea. contraction irritability of the at eye-lids. even the ( lassitude salivation and pleasant smells. and are observed in the breasts." Susi'uta III. Tni<. linieae albican tes~ white streaks of pigmentation later they round the navel. are sometimes noticed in the third month of pregnancy. the 599 development of the (sebaceous) the follicles.


Vegetable Proteids. Organotherapy. 1923). Spleen. Pancreas. "x^s an Indian — The Hindus- tan Review "This is one who wants to understand the of dietetics and the food value of the various articles principles The author displays a fund of of diet used in this country." (Sept. Malaria. Vegetables. Condiments and Stimulants. Sexual Glands. Organo-therapy.Works By Chandra Chakraberty 1.~Elementary Foods. Principles of Nutrition. The Advantages and Disadvantages of a Vegetable Diet. . so far can be of any use. Carbohydrates. the elementary composition of foods. Fats. Composition — Cholera. Influence of Faith and Optimism. Kidney. Fasting Cure. Fruits. information on the subject and the book contains very valuable materials gleaned from several sources which should serve to help the reader. 1923)." The Modern Review The — he (the author) deals with the problems of food and dietetics not only from western but also from the will be found useful to whom more estern point of view expensive treatises are generally inaccessible. Immunity. daily food. the different kinds and qualities of food. "The book a 7. principles of nutrition. The Liver. a useful guide to The Hindu (March gives of the different kinds of food articles showing their chemical composition and their The book will prove of interest to the medical nutritive value. 1922). and their comparative The subject is so handled as advantages and disadvantages. 1-8 IV. 1 1 1. last five chapters on Immunity. Re. Serum-therapy. Food and Health— Contents of : I. Adrenals. be easily understood by the lay reader and the book is written with particular reference to Indian needs and conditions of life. Immunity and Serum-therapy." (Oct. in his attempts of fixing upon a proper dietary based upon scientific facts and The first part of the book deals with the rational principles. description . II. — Principles of — "The chapters on food are well-written and they contain a large amount of useful information regarding all kinds of The essay on "Sexual Glands" will repay perusal. Fasting Cure and Psyco-therapy give useful information within a short compass. Sutica. 21^ pages. Water. Thyroid. The Albuminous Foods. Minerals.

Chakraberty — seems has it and occidental and instruction. Foreign Universities. The book is worthy of being in the hands of every educationist in this country. The dived deep into the ocean of learning and viewed with circumspection and care His the various phases of the so-called Western education. University National University. We cannot but admire the deep insight herein displayed in touching over a wide range of principles underlying the oriental author \ | ! knowledge — Mr. Principles of Education Contents Education. Physical Education. The whole crux of the ideals advocated in the book lies in the adaptation. 2."— The practitioners and (Sep. "The theoretical and practical aspects ably and analitically treated in the book by of education are The the author. "In this booklet the author has sounded a note on the problems of Education that confront the modern intellectuals. II. chapters on Girls' Education. Sexual Education. 1923J. chapters on "Intellectual Fatigue. Journal is tiie general public. On "Foreign Uuniversities" he supplies information of very great interest to Indians who may be thinking of prosecuting their . Preparatory School. Intelligence and Memory. . Education. Educative Process. Girls' School. Raja Dinendra Street^ Calcutta." and "Female Education" are both delightful and instructive. Intellectual Sexual Fatigue. 17. and a happy combination of instance. Re. For author recommends dancing as calculated to develop cadence of body and soul but depreciates the society where youth.2 Susruta Sangha -. National University are really thoughtful and deserve the attention of the readers. 1 112 pages. 177." "Sexual Education. 1923). allusions made here An and — Indian States fjan. Indian Medical What I."— The Mahratta (Dec. Female Education. beauty and natural gifts are bartered in the name what is good and virtuous the object lesson is afforded by the there to heroes and heroines of the world whose lives have left ineffacable impressions on the sand of time. national in its character and tone and is eminently fitted to give a pleasurable sensation and stimulus to both male and female readers. 1924). 27. Education. in the East and the West. Elementary Edu: — — cation." The United India and of self-determination. The book is intensely studies in Europe and America. Recapitulation and its significance in Education.

"— The Prabuddha Bharata (P. Pancreas. III. 1923). culturally and physically. not simply subject and observes in the crude sense of the enjoyment of material pleasures. 5. 1923). Digestion. Lesion — — — Re." The Modem Review fDec. The book deserve well at the hands of the Education Department. with the sole object of improving his fellow beings."— The Practical Medicine (Oct. should be the aim and object of education.Works By Chandra Chakraberiy "In with this little ' J book of fourteen chapters the author deals of education in both its theoretical and He takes. The subject should not be ignored. a comprehensive view of the practical aspects. IV. Dyspepsia. the question — "This httle book is well-written. 1924). All educated men will read the book with great profit and interest. Salivary Ferments. Dyspepsia and Diabetes— Contents : — I." The . The booklet before us gives all the general principles. Liver. in a clear "The book is written by the author for the educated middle-class brain-workers who generally suffer from dyspepit sia deals with the prevention and treatment of Dyspepsia and Diabetes and will prove useful to the public. brain-workers. 315. Alimentary Absorption." "The author does not follow the beaten track and in many But he does that places challanges the orthodox methods. Diabetes. Treatment. in Pancreas in the backbone of the nation and the noblest of the race. 1 Diabetes. — Indian Medical Journal (Sept. but in its broadest application. "Dyspepsia and diabetes are both very common in India and the greatest pity is that educated men. "To make the best of life. II. the fundamental facts of dietetics and the personal and social hygiene and intelligent manner and a study of it will help in preparing a man for his self-defence against their invasion. Hereditary Predisposition."— The Indian Daily 1923)- News (Sep. Our author's sugsiesabout 'Sexual Education' are worth considering. It is therefore highly necessary and opportune to let these gentlemen know the true causes and best preventive measure for those lethal diseases. 3. tions — 3:922). is to the educational literature. "This a —The Indianuseful contribution Review. 8^ pages. suffer mosdy from these in the best period in their intellectual activities and resourcefulness. Polyglandular Theory. .

Hindi Scripts. Health. Ethnic Elements in Hindi Nationality. Raja Dimndra Street^ Calcutta. Comparative Religion. and this. more than anything else. Physiology. 20? pages. Hindi Languages. Education. materials". Social Organisation. Diagnosis. Pathology. 62^ pages. 7-8. "The author such Food. and in the present volume of 625 pages. has. Surgery. They have been dealt with from the point of view of cofnparative study and the author has liberally quoted original Sanskrit texts in support of his views. Pathology. Rs. historical Modern Review An Interpretation of Ancient Hindu Medicine — their Contents :— Anatomy. to our regret. Social Polity. Diagnosis clinical studies of diseases. Hygiene. 1924). Hindi Rs. as Medicine.. Ethnologists. The subject matter of the book deals with different departments of and Medicine. Physical Geography of India. Therapeutics. he has well known as a writer on diverse made an attempt to place before the medical profession and the general reader carefully selected materials for a comparative study of the ancient Hindu and Greek systems of medicine in the light of modern knowledge. His contention that the ancient Greek Schools of Medicine were indebted to the Hindu system deserves careful consideration and the proofs aduced in its favour are not without foundation. has brought discredit on the Hindu System of human body and . 3-6 Scripts. is Physiology. Dietetics. Hindu Myths. passed away from among the present-day practitioners of the Aurvedic Medicine for want of study and practice. A Study in Hindu Social Polity— Contents — : Physical Geography of India. "The sketches of ancient cultural history of India are and valuable. Hindu Myths. : 177.4 SuSPUta Sangha 4. Such knowledge. Dietetics and Hygiene. Hindi Languages. The book is divided into seven chapters and the subjects treated in them are as follows interesting : Ethnic Elements in Hindi Nationality. and studies. Social Organisation. This is a book which may interest Caste. and students of of a store-house (July. He has successfully shown that not an inconsiderable part of our present-day knowledge of the structure and functions of the of the nature and methods of treatment of surgical diseases were known to the ancient physicians of India.— The 5. If is Sociologists. Pohtics. Caste. Philologists. such as Anatomy. subjects. etc. Therapeutics. DiseasesDiseases and their clinical Surger}-. to a large extent.

medical lore." Indian Medical Record (April. 1924).learned author the and pleasure of reviewing some works of the are glad to say now that he is one of the . been left all along in the back ground."— The Modern Review (August. "This book deals exhaustively with the principles and practice of Ancient Hindu Medicine and affords facilities for a comparative study of its system with the modern medical school of thought with a view to bring them into closer with each other. principally based upon Charaka and Susruta. London. The author has collected a mass We recommend of infor. and for want of scientific researches and experiment of the system on the other." — The Anticeptic (March. in modern medical terminology. but he later — modified his purpose and has endeavoured simply to interpret and explain the Ancient Hindu Medicine. which cannot fail to appeal to Hindu students and others who are interested in Indian Medical Times. He has compiled a fascinating and informative volume of 600 pages.'this. "The author's original intention was to make the book a comparative study of the ancient Hindu and Greek systems of medicine in the light of modern knowledge. 1924). (May. "The book has been published at an opportune moment when efforts are being made for the revival of the indigenous Hindu system of Medicine. ig24). "We heartily recommend its use to those who are interested in the revival of the indigeneous system of medicine in India and to research scholars who may find in it good food relationship for reflection. the book to those who are interested in the subject. "The study of a book like the one under review is bound to create a feeling of reverence and admiration in the mind of 4:he Indian reader for the great Teachers of Medicine of ancient India who could arrive at so much truth by the simple process of study. we are having quiet a crop of literature on the subject of Ancient Hindu Medicine. but ^thanks to the recent renaissance. 1924). This much abused and woefully reduced Hindu Medical Science had on account of the stepmotherly attitude of Government on the one hand.mation in the literature on Aurveda.Works By Chandra Chakraberty Medicine which is looked down upon and often made the subject of ridicule by the votaries of Modern Medicine." — The "We had . for which no little credit is due to the author of this book. "The author has done a service to his country by writing . observation and intuition without the aid of modern scientific resources at their command. useful book.

which is very interesting reading. their chemical analyses and their therapeutic Rs. We congratulate the author sincerely for his great painstaking The book is specially worth perusal by all students labours. though mostly unknown in this country. their Indian and European names. some of which are of We real value. In the text he has. Band XXIII. the author has been successful in his endeavour to an appreciable extent. A Comparative Hindu Materia Medica — It contains the botanical description of about more than 800 Indian medicinal plants. is Mitteilungen zur Geschichte der Naturwissenscaften. we see.6 Susruta Sang^ha : 177. 3-12 I gS pages. for more often than not he was described modern advancement taking a considerable space of the book. "The book describes more than 190 genera and 800 to their geospecies of Indian medicinal plants in relation and therapeutic appligraphical distribution. principally based upon Charaka and Susruta. {^Translation)." . 1924). uses. Raja Dimndra Street^ Calcutta. specially of technical subjects of centuries back. "A most erudite treatise and contains a vast amount of information regarding Indian drugs. — Practical Medicine (Dec. London (April. In the present book. 1924). of the day. morphology It is a valuable.. reference for It a a valuable production for students of Botany. "In his "Foreward" as well as in the text the author makes an excellent scholarly review of contemporary and correlated historical facts and events. attempt great medical writers has been made to interpret and explain the Ancient Hindu Medicine. subject. in the and though the task of translalight of modern knowledge tion is an ungrateful one. gone very largely beyond his premised idea. We are pleased to read his book and have no hesitation in recommending it to all to those versed in practitioners in general and particularly western systems of medicine but desirous of learning of what The great men of their own country have already done.. comparative study of the subject will "It — handy volume for ready Those interested in the find it especially useful gives Bengali and Hindi names of the Botanical ."'— The Calcutta Medical Journal (Sept. 6." —The Medical Times. Medizin und der Heft 2. of history of medicine. and is a singular book on the cation. 1923). recommend this book to all those interested in Indian drugs.

"— Indian Medical Record (April. 7. 32 pages. 8 Times. any book of this nature is a welcome publication. The charge is generally levelled against the Hindu medical system that it has no Pharmacopoeia to boast of and that the therapeutic value of most of the drugs available in India is in the range of doubt and uncertainty. 1924). London (April. 1924). "This book contains botanical description and therapeutic uses of the indigenous Indian medical plants. and we recommend it to the English knowing Indian parents for whom it is intended. "Lack of knowledge on the part of parents."— The Antiseptic (P." — Indian Medical Record to (April. alpha- betically arranged under their native names. This publication will help. "The object of this pamphlet is the diffusion of knowledge on the feeding of infants and on the hygienic methods of In a country where thousands of babies die their upbringing. is Vitamines and nutrition." — Medical Hygiene. this book will prove an opportune and welcome publication. for which there will be neither sufficient material nor facilities for research. to a great extent. of knowledge. ers will Indian botanists. with their European names. therefore. The book will be useful to the Indian botanists and medical interested in practitioners the indigenous herbs. from lack of knowledge of the simple rules of hygiene. "It an excellent account.Works By Chandra Chakraberty species. properties. As. The diet feeding. The book will be useful. 1924). to remove that mist. 1924). Breast after Infant Feeding and Hygiene Contents :— Breast-milk substitutes. on the A diffusion feeding of the hygienic methods of their upbringing will ."— The Vedic Mag"azine (Sept. throughout India. herbists. "In these days when strenuous efforts are being made revive the indigenous systems of medicine. The author has taken immiense pains in compiling this work. coupled with growing poverty heavy of the right kind infants and on frightfully of the masses. i8t. The drugs have been arranged alphabetically for ready reference. 1924). We congratulate him on his successful enter-prise. 1924). is mainly responsible for the mortality among infants in India. — weaning."— Liizac's Oriental List and Book Review (April. "The book contains description of over 800 plants. and medical practitionfind it to be a trustworthy and useful attempt on the part of the author.

successful propaganda work which he has aimed at. such as breast-feeding. meet the solution of the problem of infantile mortality in our half way at least This booklet which treats about infantile feeding and Hygiene fills a sad want in this direction and written. Social Reforms. We congratulate the author on his especially. travelling personal possesses. 1924). The — National Problems Contents Introduction."— Calcutta Review (Jan. "Mr. (5) Hygiene.8 SuSPUta Sangha : 177. readable and non-technical style will be very much appreciated by the parental public. the wide experience and that wide culture which brings contact with advanced western nations is bound Chakraberty) produce and His patriotism set is. is neither conscious to of the drawbacks right. We hope it will prove helpful to many parents in taking better care of their beloved ones. he says. he is quite of his country and is prepared "One ought not to think". . and (6) Growth of Nationalism. first them "my countrymen But if my country is right I shall make her place or not. in a clear. Indian Nationalism must not be like Western an agressive or self-sufficient entity. whether he is a fit man in the proper States. country "Infant mortality in India is the other highest of all countries of the world and there can be no denying the fact that this is mostly due to the lack of right knowledge of the parents and their inability to take proper care of their children. : — — Industry. but a transitional phase. He that to (Mr. substitutes of breast milk. better. Growth of Nationalism. Religious Reforms. Raja Dinendra Street. stone to mankind. I shall make her right. in the matter of Child Welfare. IIS P^ges. Re. 1 8. 1933). through the medium of this nicely got-up booklet. Hygiene. diet after weaning. Educational Reforms. Chakraberty deals with the following important subjects in this little book: (i) Industry. but a stepping Humanity."—The Antiseptic (March. Calcutta. therefore. but if not right." The Practical Medicine (Dec. as it is. (4) Educational Reforms. womenfolk. that of bringing co-operation and love of all blind nor narrow. Indian nationalism should not be a self-contained goal by itself. present pamphlet aims to provide them with healthy information on some essential points to be always kept in mind in rearing children. (2) Religious Reforms. 1924). (3) Social Reforms. vitamines and nutrition and the hygienic life of the child. entitled to a respectable hearing.

and the political reforms that he suggests are obviously impractical. economic. eugenic principles and gradual abolition of caste and creed barrier." and is in of intercaste —The Muslim Outlook (August 10. Religious.e of an advanced radical thinker. hygiene etc. combined with hygienic principles. He favour also recommends abolition of caste The book is marriage. statement that "for internal order. 1924). In commenand education. the book points out some weaknesses of India. the ordinary police force is The enormous military expenditure ought to be utilised for education and hygiene". and on several points he indicates the right lines along which reform should proceed but he does not show how India is to be induced to follow those lines. "The author Mr. — — proved barrier fruitless. ting upon conditions of morals. Social and Educational Reforms. Chakraverty points out that the National Progress depends not merely on political activities but also on educaThe author has liberal views as tion. Though it may not be possible to agree with some deration of his views. He favours inter-caste marriage on regards social questions. is urgently needed by India who knows will smile when he reads Mr. he is not sparing in his criticism of the moral and social weakness by which India is afflicted. . as he says. a good deal of enthusiasm and sacrifice for the country has sutificient." Luzac'S Oriental List and Book Review (March. 1924). Chandra Chakraverty has discussed the problems necessary for National Progress and is of opinion that the growth and progress of nationalism does not depend merely on political activities but upon the bed-rock of Industry.Works By Chandra Chakraberty "His introductory survey of the present political situation is by no means just to the British side. 1924). and that due to lack of these qualities. In short. industry. Chakraberty's in India . he has a good deal to say that will be very unpalatable to his countrymen. yet they deserve careful and serious by all who have the good of their country at consiheart. "Mr. who must devote special attention to the useful suggestions made. hygiene. ably written and carefully arranged and is sure to make an interesting reading for all well-wishers of the country. He has discussed them from the standpoint of national unity and his views are thos. . industrial and educational problems of vital importance to India. On the other hand."— The Indian Review (May. Edubut anyone cation. "In this book the author deals with the many social. but it does not consider them from the standpoirjt of practical administrator.

11. 12."— The Modern Review (Sept. industries.) as a very useful States. The book can be strongly are in a concise form. 100 Re. People. Government. Historical Background. Beginning with the "We recommended 1924. The 9." Current Thoug-ht (October. India."— Amrita Bazar Patrika (Dec. The Quartan Fevers."— United India And Indian handbook about the United States. Principles Birth Control.lo Susruta Sangha : 177. The Tertain Fevers. accord him a warm reception. The Treatment of Malaria. He then summarises the history of the nation and has informative chapters on its Government. 1924).. 150 pages. 1924). Selection of Mate. we hope. The Complications and Sequelae of Malaria. S. Industries. Education. The will to give out his views to the public author has been inspired by an intense sense of patriotism and the pubHc. Rs. : — "It is a well-executed piece of work and would amply repay perusal. Pathology. Contraceptives. which impress the visitor. Rs. Endocrine Glands— (In : Contents — The Ovaries). Race Culture— Contents -Racial Elemenlrs in of Heredity. Social 208 pages. A. the writer introduces us to nature's gigantic marvels. "The volume is informative and hence useful. 2 "The writer has written comprehedsively on the subject The book will prove useful to medical students and general public. Sexual Hygiene. Prophylaxis."— The Indian Medical Journal (Sept. These people. are packed with. Parathyroids. 23. Thyroids. 1924). 2-4 :— Etiology of Malaria. Raja Dinendra Street. 176 pages. 1-4 pages. Re. the Generative Glands (The Testes. Diagnosis and Prognosis.facts and figures. Thymus Gland. The United States of America— Contents Physiography of the U. The Aestivo-autumnal Fevers. The Pancreas. 1-8 Organization. (nth October. Pineal Body. Malaria— Contents 10. . 1923)- Health and in Disease) Suprarenals. Mosquitoes. Malarial Plasmodia. : — not aware of any other Indian publication giving information about the physiography of the country. Calcutta. Hypophysis cerebri. such comprehensive United States. education and social organisation. Infection and Incubation.

This learned discussion which covers some ninety pages of this engaging book. : Parallels.II. part he discusses such questions as follows Buddhist Canons. There is absolutely nothing original about it and that it borrowed very extensively from Buddhism. The Canonical Parallels. The is argument covers here more than a hundred pages and It is. S have been many books issued purporting to describe the origin of Christianity. the unique feature of this very uncommon . Who were the Essenes ? Was John the Baptist a Buddhist ? Objections to the Theory of Christianity Borrowed from Buddhism answered. dealing with the Life of Jesus. the fullest and most engrossingly interesting. The Persian Influence on the Jews. The Textual Works By Swami Satyananda The Origin of Christianity— Contents :— L Historical relation between Buddhism and Christianity. treatise. The Life of Jesus. The Age of the .Works By Chandra Chakraberty ii "It is an excellent book and will be very useful in the hands of all. The Egyptian Influence on the Jews. 13. Rs. "The second part. discriminating analysis of the mental and moral characteristics of the Prophet of Nazareth that we have ever met with in a. Pruriency must be sacrificed at the alter of the welfare of the country and safety values must be supplied. "There . Books of Eugenics are new in India though old works on the same are as old as the hills. III. The life of Jesus. and. — — 272 pages. constitutes "In the first :. "Our author divides his fascinating essay into three parts which he names I. III. 1924). single volume." Sahakar — (Sept. in fact. yet one cannot but be delighted to read the book from cover to cover. All have been more or less interesting and useful in their way but there is still a place for such a radical work as is here presented to readers of a rationalistic turn of mind. seems to us very convincing in its conclusions. Historical Relation Between Buddhism and Christianity . The author has lighted the lamps of knowledge he was in possession of and though some of his views are too advanced. is as plain as the associated fact that it owes much to Judaism for both its theology and its moral precepts. . There is not the slightest doubt of the fact that Christianity is essentially an eclectic religion. II.

anger and hatred. He supports every position he takes by quotations from the Bible . "The itself third with some part of this attractive dissertation concerns textual parallels between certain sayings or circumstances reported in connection with Jesus. It offers a nearer approach to the likeness of Jesus than any we have heretofore seen. just as if it were a romance with a purpose. {h) Jesus Christ treated critically. on to speak of the Physical of Jesus. but an idealist. criticism which follows. apart from twenty pages of introductory matter. (<?) Relationship of There are three illustrations. "We cannot speak too highly of this thought-provoking book. Calcutta. his ignorance. one Christianity to Buddhism. which virtually cover the most important elements in the life of Jesus. as it undoubtedly is when made into a reality by believers. "This work consists of 272 pages of text. insanitrial and and Jesus according to the ties. he will find each statement made by the writer verified in the Scripture textual . Raja Dinendra Street. Each one of these carries an interest all its own. anxieties and fears of persecution. crucifixion. "He first speaks of Jesus' "Racial Heredity". his education. It is rich in facts and so very entertaining that one quickly becomes absorbed in its narrative. vaso-motor derangement of Jesus. being a photograph of a Byzantine mosaic of Jesus made in the eleventh century. (^) Insanity Among the Jews and (^) Jesus and His Life. including a valuable bibliography. bibliography is divided into five portions as follows Christ treated as a human being. incoherence of ideas. {b) Gonorrhoea and Syphilis among the Jews. and seemingly improbable but if he will read on carefully. all fifty-one parallels. id) Jesus Christ treated as myth. and like There are in things related concerning Gautama the Buddha. and gives the reader a very instructive" insight into the essential nature of the personality of the man whom millions of human beings look upon as the Eternal Son of God and . in which he considers {a) Morals of the Jews. hallucinations. The reader will find in this part of the work some things that may be new to him. The reader fortunate enough to obtain a copy of this edifying book. and the result of the most critical and is. Constitution "The author then goes Manuscript found by Nicholas Notovitch. {c) Jesus Christ treated as insane. that we have here presented one well-reasoned portraits of Jesus in modern published times. let us into the secret of their true origin. has in prospect a real intellectual : The {a) Jesus .1 2 Susruta Sangfha : 777.

been turned." and Jesus was born and brought up as a He has quoted many passages from the Bible to prove Jew. anxieties and "The second book the author tries to fearS. 1924). hallucinations. the ignorance." — Vedie Mag-azine (Sept. vulgar and licentious race. ship of Christianity with Buddhism The social picture of the Jews as drawn by the author is gloomy indeed." "There was a time when Christian missionaries used to hunt after the weak points of popular religion and their preaching meant notliing but the vilification of Hinduism. By Chandra Chakraberty 13 treat. "In the third part the author quotes many parallel passages from the Buddhist scriptures to prove "that Christianity owed its Buddhism. The Christian missionaries always acted on the offensive and But now the tables have the Hindus were on the defensive." P. author describes the historical relation In the first part the between Buddhism and Christianity."— The Modem Review (Dec. The treatment is fairly exhaustive and in the chapter on Relationhe is thoroughly convincing. rites and ancient documents. the growth of Christianity. and insanities of Jesus. of Christianity and the immense debt of gratitude early history The that this religion owes to other systems of thought. (March i. New and at a very moderate cost. origin to rituals lends probability to the theory that borrowed extensively from Buddhism. 1923). His conclusion is "that John the Baptist was a Buddhist and if Jesus took baptism from him."—The Truth Seeker» York. "The author reveals an extensive scholarship in the study he has proposed to give us in the pages of this book." prove that the Jews were "a coarse. "There are three parts in the book. "That there is an intimate relation between Buddhism and Christianity is evident from the researches made into the A striking similarity in tenets. but facts are facts and historical references The book will throw a flood of light on the support them. he also became initiated thereby and converted into Buddhistic doctrines. The book Christianity has "Christia- nity" has traced the history of the early faiths and the probable The author reaction of Buddhistic influence on Christianity. anger and hatred. 36. it gives a vivid account of detailing . In this book is on the "Life of Jesus. enters upon the task in a spirit of delicious detachment that pervades the whole work and it amply justiQes the author's In claim that it is not the outcome of any religious passion.Works. 1924).

Rs 3.) 14. Goats. eleyating and thought-provoking. Phoenicia. fumblings and rebuffs which Christianity had to bear in its combat against Mithraism. chapters he gives this history of the primitive worship in the best known countries of the world. Translations from the books of Apostles and utterances of Gautama are given side by side to suggest the remarkable agreement of sentiments. the tree. river. goat. and how best to express it in a convenient form. Persia. the falls. The result that men have developed a growing sense the subject of late years of these has on been "This book of 2c6 pages satisfactory is. Greece." — — The Servant (Oct. Italy. 24. stones and other objects which became conspicuous in the symbolizing of the sex idea.Worship." He divides his undertaking into seventeen chapters. "There have been many books published of Phallic Worship. of the Cross from the sex-symbols. Calcutta. was a rudimentary feature in all the ancient religions. Among these living creatures were the serpent. The Orig-in of the Cross : Sex-Worship in Egypt. 1924. The Origin 206 pages. and still lingers in some of the symbols and practices of Christianity as it is seen to-day. and which still allow of the same interpretation even at the present time. "In the remaining chapters he considers fully the various objects and creatures which were looked upon as sex-symbols among the ancients. Tree. a-s a symbol of a great truth. Kabbalists and Gnostics. Cabbalists and Gnostics. the most we have met with in a . taking as a title of his book. Druids. Serpent. Bull. Tortoise. River. and among inanimate objects. Syria. among the Jews. Armenia. as simbolizing the creative power in Nature. Stone and the Breast-Worship as sex-symbols. in work on the subject that some respects. bull and dove . Contents of the fact that the worship of the generative organs. India. In nine every one of which bears an attractive designation. "The writer of the present works deals fully with the subject of Sex. and also among such people as the Druids.14 Susruta Sangrha : 177^ Raja Dinendm Street. "The Origin of the Cross. This treatment of the subject by the author leads him up to his important conclusion that the Cross of Christianity took its rise in the Phallic conception of what was most worshipful in the economy of ^Nature. the battle of conflicting faiths. It is a profoundly interesting book illuminating. Assyria. Dove. the tortoise.

and original Judaism as a idealism sexual type of worship. Baal. often preferred them to Jehovah and Jehovah would swear and curse. Chakraberty a writer 15 Coming from of and by who shows every evidence being perfectly familiar with his subject — one who saw before his very eyes being a true exposition in every respect. and it seems to "Want . There wa6 no question of monothestic Astarte and Moloch. without a single break. that of it amounts Shinto to little more than the popular knowledge with the religion. execept in Solomon's song. And when it comes to a question of the Jewish religion. and brag of his own prowess. excellent of space forbids a more extended review of this manual on the philosophy of sex as applied to the As a work dealing with religion. the the Crown Prince of Japan was recently married. as Aslarte. "Jehovah was a tribal divinity. principles or doctrines involved— but one Phallic god was trying to oust other Ftiallk: gods. us that the given in a clear and attractive way . finding the worship of other deities. Greece. so as to find out the Phallic symbolism of Jehovah and He the' nature of Sex-Worship in which the Jews indulged.{'^S»' : "There is neither "Speaking of the Bible our author says in that vast literature. Persia. we would name Egypt. "a jealous deity who wanted But the the monopoly of all the sacrifices made by the Jews. more interesting and enjoyable." then goes on .0 quote at considerable length some of the numerous texts in the Old Testament which unquestionably exhibit Jehovah as a Phallic divinity.Works long time. All the facts are plain of speech without morbidity of thought. "^^. Moloch. and the His chapter on the "Sex-Worship people called the Jews. — mentioned performed the work can be thoroughly relied on as daily the worship among to the Jews" is one of the most interesting and instructive be found in this very useful volume. nor poetry. Too little is known of the history of the Jews by persons who esteemed themselves as educated. ceremonies of which. Jehovah. which is entirely erotic. Italy. is so intensely interesting that one will desire to read it through It is It is illuminating on every page. Phoenicia. his own fovorite territory. "Among the countries and the nations he treats. it so-called religious instinct. \yho were encroaching upon . Jews. But let us be to the point. the general ignorance secret is so striking.c'tifc. familiar as By Chandra India. India. The history of Judaism is nothing but a continual struggle for supremacy between Baal.

Calcutta... left nothing unsaid that would illustrate the truth that in Phallicism. Raja Dine72dra Street. the Church years developed and the Mosque "This is a book of permanent value. 777. ::)^ I f*®i'^^^t'^ (Diseases of Childhood). W. to show sex-symbols and find the origin of the Cross to be present in these symbols. >^^tf^^ ^^. Ih' I "5^. >rrf^^'^ ^. and should be read by author has every Freethinker. Calcutta. ^1^- (Tuberculisis). "The students of Mythology and believers in the common of the various myths will find ample food for origin thought in the present volume. bo '^ -m^ z'^ ) I 1 \^T ^t^i N (General "^t^^T and Personal Hygiene). . or Sex-Worship. ^t^tC^^ ^T^^T. Greece. 1924). "^tW^ ^^J. New York (March 8.nv^ -"'•. ^^1 mines) W\. RTi^ ^^. The author has taken pains to He has succeeded in tracing collect the material before him. Persia. as it was later called.'33 \ r\ Lane Calcutta.•. Assyria. #^^n^t€ (vita- ^tR^ ^ R^TW. in and India with a view He Syria. '^n^ I T^f^ g— ^«T. Italy parallels of thought in various has also attempted to trace the origin of the Egypt. '^i^^ 1 Susruta Sangha PuBLi^ERs OF Scientific and Medical Books. are to be found the seeds of the spirit of adoration which in recent into the religion of the Synagogue. ^S^. 1924). Raja Dinendra Street. "^1^. RTt^ (Infectious ^^^S^t'*?^^ C^i"*^ Diseases). ( ^7^ (Bengal Fevers). ^ ^. Sex-Worship countries.Gc^ibari . c^:tTt^ nff^?. (minerals). ^urja^Press."— The Vedic Magazine (Sept. ^<^^ I ^ 2— -sqitrf^fl. ^^- :^v^ ^^.1 6 Susruta Sangfha : 177."— The Truth Seeker. nf^^t^.



AUb 12 19M R 135 C4.3 Chakraberty.BINDING SECT. Chandra An interpretation of ancient Hindu medicine Biological & Medical PLEASE DO NOT REMOVE FROM THIS CARDS OR SLIPS POCKET UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRARY .