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# Continuum mechanics

I. Kinematics in cartesian coordinates
Aleˇs Janka
oﬃce Math 0.107
ales.janka@unifr.ch
http://perso.unifr.ch/ales.janka/mechanics
September 22, 2010, Universit´e de Fribourg
Aleˇs Janka I. Kinematics
Kinematics: description of position and deformation
initial conﬁguration x = x
i
e
i
x
i
. . . material coordinates
deformed conﬁg. y = y
i
e
i
y
i
. . . spatial coordinates
displacement u = y −x
Two possibilities:
Lagrange description:
u(x) = y(x) −x
Euler description:
u(y) = y −x(y)
e
3
e
2
e
1
x
y
dx
y
dy
x
u
u+du
x+dx
y+dy
Initial config.
Deformed config.
Aleˇs Janka I. Kinematics
Material vs. spatial coordinates: deformation of a 1D rod
Let y
1
= y
1
(x
1
, t) = [(x
1
)
2
−1] · t + x
1
.
Inversely, x
1
= x
1
(y
1
, t) =
1
2t
_
_
1 + 4t(2t + y
1
) −1
_
Aleˇs Janka I. Kinematics
1. Lagrange description
x = x
i
e
i
and y = y
i
e
i
.
Choice: y = y(x)
F
i
j
(x) =
∂y
i
∂x
j
= y
i
,j
dx = dx
i
e
i
dy = dy
i
e
i
=
∂y
i
∂x
j
dx
j
e
i
dy = dx
j
F
i
j
(x) g
i
= dx
j
ˆ g
j
e
3
e
1
e
3
e
2
e
1
x
y
dx
y(x)
dy
y(x+dx)
g
2
g
3
e
2 g
1
^
g
2
^
g
1
^
g
3
=
=
=
Initial config.
Deformed config.
Aleˇs Janka I. Kinematics
1. Lagrange description: how to measure deformation?
The ”edge” dx in initial conﬁguration is deformed to dy
Convenient measure of deformation:
dy
2
−dx
2
= (dx
i
ˆ g
i
)·(dx
j
ˆ g
j
)−(dx
i
g
i
)·(dx
j
g
j
) = dx
i
dx
j
(ˆ g
ij
−g
ij
)
where g
ij
= g
i
· g
j
and ˆ g
ij
= ˆ g
i
· ˆ g
j
are metric tensors (matrices)
Green strain tensor:
ε
ij
(x) =
1
2
(ˆ g
ij
−g
ij
)
ε
ij
(x) =
1
2
_
F
k
i
(x) F

j
(x) g
k
−g
ij
_
Aleˇs Janka I. Kinematics
1. Lagrange descript.: Green strain tensor in displacement
u(x) = y(x) −x
u = u
i
g
i
dy = dx + du
du =
∂u
i
∂x
j
dx
j
g
i
dy =
_
dx
i
+ u
i
,j
dx
j
_
g
i
e
3
e
2
e
1
x
y
y(x)
y(x+dx)
dy
(x) u
(x) u
du
u(x+dx)
dx
x
x+dx
Initial config.
Deformed config.
Aleˇs Janka I. Kinematics
1. Lagrange descript.: Green strain tensor in displacement
(dy)
2
=
_
dx
i
+ u
i
,j
dx
j
__
dx
k
+ u
k
,
dx

_
g
ik
(dy)
2
−(dx)
2
= u
i
,j
dx
j
dx
k
g
ik
+ u
k
,
dx

dx
i
g
ik
+ u
i
,j
u
k
,
dx
j
dx

g
ik
(dy)
2
−(dx)
2
=
_
u
i ,j
+ u
j ,i
+ u
k,i
u
k
,j
_
dx
i
dx
j
Green strain tensor in displacements:
ε
ij
=
1
2
_
u
i ,j
+ u
j ,i
+ u
k,i
u
k
,j
_
Green strain tensor in displacements in cartesian coordinates:
ε
ij
=
1
2
_
∂u
i
∂x
j
+
∂u
j
∂x
i
+
∂u
k
∂x
i
∂u
k
∂x
j
_
Aleˇs Janka I. Kinematics
1. Lagrange description: example 1 – rigid body motion
x
u
a
y
e
3
e
2
e
1
Deformed config.
Initial config.
α
_
_
y
1
y
2
y
3
_
_
=
_
_
cos α −sin α 0
sin α cos α 0
0 0 1
_
_
·
_
_
x
1
x
2
x
3
_
_
+
_
_
a
1
a
2
a
3
_
_
Aleˇs Janka I. Kinematics
1. Lagrange description: example 1 – rigid body motion
x
u
a
y
e
3
e
2
e
1
Deformed config.
Initial config.
α
_
_
u
1
u
2
u
3
_
_
=
_
_
cos α −1 −sin α 0
sin α cos α −1 0
0 0 0
_
_
·
_
_
x
1
x
2
x
3
_
_
+
_
_
a
1
a
2
a
3
_
_
ε
11
=
1
2
_
u
1,1
+ u
1,1
+
3

k=1
u
k,1
u
k,1
_
= cos α −1 +
(cos α −1)
2
+ sin
2
α
2
= 0
Aleˇs Janka I. Kinematics
1. Lagrange description: example 1 – rigid body motion
x
u
a
y
e
3
e
2
e
1
Deformed config.
Initial config.
α
_
_
u
1
u
2
u
3
_
_
=
_
_
cos α −1 −sin α 0
sin α cos α −1 0
0 0 0
_
_
·
_
_
x
1
x
2
x
3
_
_
+
_
_
a
1
a
2
a
3
_
_
ε
12
=
1
2
_
u
1,2
+ u
2,1
+
3

k=1
u
k,1
u
k,2
_
=
−sin α + sin α
2
+
−sin α(cos α −1) + sin α(cos α −1)
2
= 0
Aleˇs Janka I. Kinematics
1. Lagrange description: example 2
−5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5
−2
−1
0
1
Initial conﬁguration is bent into the deformed conﬁguration
Principal strain of Green strain tensor (Lagrange formulation)?
Aleˇs Janka I. Kinematics
1. Lagrange description: example 2
−5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5
−2
−1
0
1
−5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5
−2
−1
0
1
Wrong - this is Almansi strain (Euler formulation)!
Aleˇs Janka I. Kinematics
1. Lagrange description: example 2
−5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5
−2
−1
0
1
−5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5
−2
−1
0
1
This is the correct Green strain (Lagrange formulation)
Aleˇs Janka I. Kinematics
1. Lagrange description: example 2
−5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5
−2
−1
0
1
−5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5
−2
−1
0
1
This is the correct Green strain (Lagrange formulation)
Aleˇs Janka I. Kinematics
2. Euler description
x = x
i
e
i
and y = y
i
e
i
.
Choice: x = x(y)
F
−1
i
j
=
∂x
i
∂y
j
= x
i
,j
dy = dy
i
e
i
dx = dx
i
e
i
=
∂x
i
∂y
j
dy
j
e
i
dx = dx
j
F
−1
i
j
g
i
= dx
j
˜ g
j
e
3
e
2
e
1
x
y
dx
dy
(y)
y+dy
y
e
1
g
1
=
g
2
e
2
=
g
1
~
g
2
~
g
3
~
x(y+dy)
(y) x
e
3
g
3
=
Initial config.
Deformed config.
Aleˇs Janka I. Kinematics
2. Euler description: Almansi strain tensor
the deformed ”edge” dy corresponds to the undeformed dx
Diﬀerence of their (lengths)
2
:
dy
2
−dx
2
= (dy
i
g
i
)·(dy
j
g
j
)−(dy
i
˜ g
i
)·(dy
j
˜ g
j
) = dy
i
dy
j
(g
ij
−˜ g
ij
)
where g
ij
= g
i
· g
j
and ˜ g
ij
= ˜ g
i
· ˜ g
j
are metric tensors (matrices)
Almansi strain tensor:
E
ij
(y) =
1
2
(g
ij
− ˜ g
ij
)
E
ij
(y) =
1
2
_
g
ij
− F
−1
k
i
F
−1

j
g
k
_
Aleˇs Janka I. Kinematics
2. Euler description: Almansi strain tensor in displacement
u(y) = y −x(y)
u = u
i
g
i
dx = dy −du
du =
∂u
i
∂y
j
dy
j
g
i
dx =
_
dy
i
−u
i
,j
dy
j
_
g
i
e
3
e
2
e
1
x
y
dy
(y) u
(y) u
du
u(y+dy)
dx
y
dx
(y)
y+dy
(y+dy) x
(y) x
Initial config.
Deformed config.
Aleˇs Janka I. Kinematics
2. Euler description: Almansi strain tensor in displacement
(dx)
2
=
_
dy
i
−u
i
,j
dy
j
__
dy
k
−u
k
,
dy

_
g
ik
(dy)
2
−(dx)
2
= u
i
,j
dy
j
dy
k
g
ik
+ u
k
,
dy

dy
i
g
ik
−u
i
,j
u
k
,
dy
j
dy

g
ik
(dy)
2
−(dx)
2
=
_
u
i ,j
+ u
j ,i
−u
k,i
u
k
,j
_
dy
i
dy
j
Almansi strain tensor in displacements:
E
ij
=
1
2
_
u
i ,j
+ u
j ,i
−u
k,i
u
k
,j
_
Almansi strain tensor in displacements in cartesian coordinates:
E
ij
=
1
2
_
∂u
i
∂y
j
+
∂u
j
∂y
i

∂u
k
∂y
i
∂u
k
∂y
j
_
Aleˇs Janka I. Kinematics
3. Green and Almansi strain tensors: mutual relation
Green strain tensor:
ε
ij
(x) =
1
2
(ˆ g
ij
−g
ij
) =
1
2
_
F
k
i
F

j
g
k
−g
ij
_
ε
ij
=
1
2
_
∂u
i
∂x
j
+
∂u
j
∂x
i
+
∂u
k
∂x
i
∂u
k
∂x
j
_
Almansi strain tensor
E
ij
(y) =
1
2
(g
ij
− ˜ g
ij
) =
1
2
_
g
ij
− F
−1
k
i
F
−1

j
g
k
_
E
ij
=
1
2
_
∂u
i
∂y
j
+
∂u
j
∂y
i

∂u
k
∂y
i
∂u
k
∂y
j
_
Aleˇs Janka I. Kinematics
3. Green and Almansi strain tensors: mutual relation
Relation between F
i
j
=
∂y
i
∂x
j
and F
−1
j
k
=
∂x
j
∂y
k
:
F
i
j
· F
−1
j
k
=
3

j =1
∂y
i
∂x
j
∂x
j
∂y
k
=
∂y
i
∂y
k
= δ
i
k
by chain rule for the derivatives.
Hence:
ε
k
= F
i
k
· E
ij
· F
j

Aleˇs Janka I. Kinematics
3. Green and Almansi strain tensors: matrix form
F =
_
_
_
_
_
_
∂y
1
∂x
1
∂y
1
∂x
2
∂y
1
∂x
3
∂y
2
∂x
1
∂y
2
∂x
2
∂y
2
∂x
3
∂y
3
∂x
1
∂y
3
∂x
2
∂y
3
∂x
3
_
_
_
_
_
_
=
_
F
i
j
¸
and F
−1
=
_
F
−1
i
j
_
Green and Almansi matrix for cartesian coords (g
i
= e
i
, g
ij
= δ
ij
):

ij
] =
1
2
_
F
T
F −I
_
and [E
ij
] =
1
2
_
I −F
−T
F
−1
_
Mutual relations:

ij
] = F
T
· [E
ij
] · F and [E
ij
] = F
−T
· [ε
ij
] · F
−1
Aleˇs Janka I. Kinematics
3. Green and Almansi strain tensors: small deformations
If u
i ,j
1 then u
k,i
· u
k,j
is negligible:
ε
ij
=
1
2
_
∂u
i
∂x
j
+
∂u
j
∂x
i
+
∂u
k
∂x
i
∂u
k
∂x
j
_

1
2
_
∂u
i
∂x
j
+
∂u
j
∂x
i
_
= e
ij
We can replace Green strain ε
ij
by the Cauchy strain e
ij
ij
(u) is linear in u
E
ij
=
1
2
_
∂u
i
∂y
j
+
∂u
j
∂y
i

∂u
k
∂y
i
∂u
k
∂y
j
_

1
2
_
∂u
i
∂y
j
+
∂u
j
∂y
i
_
=
1
2
_
∂u
i
∂x
k
∂x
k
∂y
j
+
∂u
j
∂y
k
∂x
k
∂y
i
_

1
2
_
∂u
i
∂x
j
+
∂u
j
∂x
i
_
= e
ij
because x
k
= y
k
−u
k
and u
i ,k
· u
k,
is negligible.
NB: Green and Almansi simplify to the same Cauchy strain!
Aleˇs Janka I. Kinematics
4. Physical meaning of Cauchy strain in cartesian coords
dx
dy
y x
e
1
e
2
e
3
x
y Initial config. Deformed config.
Special choices of the deformation mode:
Let dx = dx
1
e
1
and dy = dy
1
e
1
. Then:
dy
2
−dx
2
= (dy
1
)
2
−(dx
1
)
2
= 2 e
11
(dx
1
)
2
Hence (for small deformations dx
1
+ dy
1
≈ 2 dx
1
):
e
11
=
(dy
1
)
2
−(dx
1
)
2
2 (dx
1
)
2
=
(dy
1
−dx
1
)(dy
1
+ dx
1
)
2 (dx
1
)
2

dy
1
dx
1
−1
Meaning of e
kk
: relative elongation along e
k
Aleˇs Janka I. Kinematics
4. Physical meaning of Cauchy strain in cartesian coords
y x
e
1
e
2
e
3
y
x
dx
2
dx
1
dy
1
dy
2
Initial config. Deformed config.
θ
Special choices of the deformation mode:
Let dx = dx
1
+ dx
2
and dy = dy
1
+ dy
2
, dx
k
= dx
k
e
k
:
dy
2
−dx
2
= (dy
1
)
2
+2 dy
1
·dy
2
+(dy
2
)
2
−(dx
1
)
2
−2 dx
1
·dx
2
−(dx
2
)
2
= 2
_
e
11
(dx
1
)
2
+ 2 e
12
dx
1
dx
2
+ e
22
(dx
2
)
2
¸
Hence (for small deformations e
kk
1 and θ is small):
e
12
=
θ
2
dy
1
dx
1
dy
2
dx
2

θ
2
(1 + e
11
) (1 + e
22
)

θ
2
(1 + e
11
+ e
22
+ e
11
e
22
) ≈
θ
2
Meaning of e
12
: half of shear angle θ in the plane (0, e
1
, e
2
)
Aleˇs Janka I. Kinematics
4. Physical meaning of Cauchy strain in cartesian coords
y x
e
1
e
2
e
3
y
x
dx
2
dx
1
dy
1
dy
2
Initial config. Deformed config.
θ
Special choices of the deformation mode:
Let dx = dx
1
+ dx
2
and dy = dy
1
+ dy
2
, dx
k
= dx
k
e
k
:
dy
1
· dy
2
= 2 e
12
dx
1
dx
2
= |dy
1
| · |dy
2
| cos(π/2 −θ) ≈ dy
1
dy
2
sin θ ≈ dy
1
dy
2
· θ
Hence (for small deformations e
kk
1 and θ is small):
e
12
=
θ
2
dy
1
dx
1
dy
2
dx
2

θ
2
(1 + e
11
) (1 + e
22
)

θ
2
(1 + e
11
+ e
22
+ e
11
e
22
) ≈
θ
2
Meaning of e
12
: half of shear angle θ in the plane (0, e
1
, e
2
)
Aleˇs Janka I. Kinematics
4. Physical meaning of Cauchy strain in cartesian coords
e
1
e
2
e
3
y
x
dx
3
dy
3
dy
1
dy
2
dx
2
dx
1
Initial config. Deformed config.
Volume before (dV) and after (d
ˆ
V) deformation (small deformations):
dV = dx
1
dx
2
dx
3
d
ˆ
V ≈ dy
1
dy
2
dy
3
Relative change of volume (for small deformations e
kk
1):
d
ˆ
V −dV
dV
=
d
ˆ
V
dV
−1 ≈
dy
1
dx
1
dy
2
dx
2
dy
3
dx
3
−1
= (1 + e
11
)(1 + e
22
)(1 + e
33
) −1 ≈ e
11
+ e
22
+ e
33
Meaning of trace of e
ij
: relative change of volume
Aleˇs Janka I. Kinematics
5. How to transform areas dS
0
→dS?
Nanson’s relation:
we know how to transform vectors:
dy
i
=
∂y
i
∂x
j
dx
j
we know how to transform volumes:
dV = J·dV
0
with J = det
_
∂y
i
∂x
j
_
dx
e
2
(x) y
e
3
e
1
x
0
dV
dy
dS
dS
0
Initial config.
Deformed config.
dV
Idea: complete areas to volumes (for any dx, ie. any dy):
dS
i
dy
i
= dV = J · dV
0
= J · dS
0j
dx
j
= J · dS
0j
∂x
j
∂y
i
dy
i
Aleˇs Janka I. Kinematics

^ g3 y(x+dx) dy e2 =g2 ^ g1 y(x) ^ g2 Deformed config.Material vs. t) = [(x 1 )2 − 1] · t + x 1 . t) = 1 2t 1 + 4t(2t + y 1 ) − 1 Aleˇ Janka s I.j ∂x j g1 = e1 g3 = e3 dx Initial config. spatial coordinates: deformation of a 1D rod Let y 1 = y 1 (x 1 . x e3 e2 y ∂y i j dy = = dx ei ∂x j ˆ dy = dx j Fji (x) gi = dx j gj dy i ei e1 Aleˇ Janka s I. Kinematics 1. Inversely. Lagrange description x = x i ei and y = y i ei . x 1 = x 1 (y 1 . Choice: y = y(x) Deformation gradient: Fji (x) dx = dx i ei ∂y i i = = y. Kinematics .

: Green strain tensor in displacement Initial config.1. Kinematics . Lagrange descript. y e2 Aleˇ Janka s I.j dx j gi e1 x e3 dx x x+dx u(x+dx) u(x) u(x) y(x+dx) dy du y(x) Deformed config. Lagrange description: how to measure deformation? The ”edge” dx in initial conﬁguration is deformed to dy Convenient measure of deformation: ˆ ˆ dy2−dx2 = (dx i gi )·(dx j gj )−(dx i gi )·(dx j gj ) = dx i dx j (ˆij −gij ) g where gij = gi · gj and are metric tensors (matrices) Green strain tensor: εij (x) = εij (x) = 1 (ˆij − gij ) g 2 ˆ ˆ gij = gi · gj ˆ 1 Fik (x) Fj (x) gk − gij 2 Aleˇ Janka s I. u(x) = y(x) − x u = u i gi dy = dx + du ∂u i j du = dx gi ∂x j i dy = dx i + u. Kinematics 1.

j + uj.i + uk.k dx j dx gik k (dy)2 −(dx)2 = ui. u x e2 e3 a y e1 α Deformed config. Lagrange description: example 1 – rigid body motion Initial config.k dx gik i i (dy)2 −(dx)2 = u. Kinematics 1.j + uj.j 2 Green strain tensor in displacements in cartesian coordinates: εij = 1 2 ∂uj ∂ui ∂uk ∂uk + + ∂xj ∂xi ∂xi ∂xj Aleˇ Janka s I. Lagrange descript.         cos α − sin α 0 x1 a1 y1 y2  =  sin α cos α 0 · x2  + a2  a3 y3 0 0 1 x3 Aleˇ Janka s I.i u.j dx j dx k + u.: Green strain tensor in displacement (dy)2 = i dx i + u.1.i + uk.k dx dx i gik + u. Kinematics .j dx j dx k gik + u.j u.i u.j dx i dx j Green strain tensor in displacements: εij = 1 k ui.

u x e2 e3 a y e1 α Deformed config. Kinematics .         a1 cos α − 1 − sin α 0 x1 u1 u2  =  sin α cos α − 1 0 · x2  + a2  x3 a3 u3 0 0 0 1 2 3 ε11 = u1.1 (cos α − 1)2 + sin2 α = cos α − 1 + =0 2 Aleˇ Janka s I.1 + k=1 uk.1 uk.2 + u2.         cos α − 1 − sin α 0 x1 a1 u1 u2  =  sin α cos α − 1 0 · x2  + a2  a3 u3 0 0 0 x3 1 2 3 ε12 = = u1.1 + u1.1 + k=1 uk.2 − sin α + sin α − sin α (cos α − 1) + sin α (cos α − 1) + =0 2 2 Aleˇ Janka s I.1 uk. Lagrange description: example 1 – rigid body motion Initial config.1. Kinematics 1. Lagrange description: example 1 – rigid body motion Initial config. u x e2 e3 a y e1 α Deformed config.

Lagrange description: example 2 1 0 −1 −2 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5 Initial conﬁguration is bent into the deformed conﬁguration Principal strain of Green strain tensor (Lagrange formulation)? Aleˇ Janka s I. Kinematics .1. Lagrange description: example 2 1 0 −1 −2 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5 1 0 −1 −2 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 Aleˇ Janka s 0 1 2 3 4 5 Wrong . Kinematics 1.this is Almansi strain (Euler formulation)! I.

Kinematics . Lagrange description: example 2 1 0 −1 −2 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5 1 0 −1 −2 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 Aleˇ Janka s 0 1 2 3 4 5 This is the correct Green strain (Lagrange formulation) I. Kinematics 1.1. Lagrange description: example 2 1 0 −1 −2 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5 1 0 −1 −2 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 Aleˇ Janka s 0 1 2 3 4 5 This is the correct Green strain (Lagrange formulation) I.

2. Kinematics . Choice: x = x(y) Deformation gradient inverse: F−1 j = dy = dy i ei dx = dx i e i i g3 ~ g1 ~ Initial config. Kinematics 2.j x (y) e3 g1 = e1 y Deformed config. dx x(y+dy) g2 ~ g3 = e3 y+dy dy y e2 =g2 ∂x i ∂y j x (y) i = x. Euler description x = x i ei and y = y i ei . Euler description: Almansi strain tensor the deformed ”edge” dy corresponds to the undeformed dx Diﬀerence of their (lengths)2 : ˜ ˜ dy2−dx2 = (dy i gi )·(dy j gj )−(dy i gi )·(dy j gj ) = dy i dy j (gij − gij ) ˜ where gij = gi · gj and are metric tensors (matrices) Almansi strain tensor: Eij (y) = Eij (y) = 1 (gij − gij ) ˜ 2 ˜ ˜ gij = gi · gj ˜ 1 k gij − F−1 i F−1 j gk 2 Aleˇ Janka s I. ∂x i j = dy ei ∂y j i e1 e2 ˜ dx = dx j F−1 j gi = dx j gj Aleˇ Janka s I.

j dy j gi e1 dx x (y) x (y+dy) u(y+dy) u(y) u(y) y dy y+dy du dx Deformed config.j 2 Almansi strain tensor in displacements in cartesian coordinates: Eij = 1 2 ∂uj ∂uk ∂uk ∂ui + − ∂yj ∂yi ∂yi ∂yj Aleˇ Janka s I.j dy i dy j Almansi strain tensor in displacements: Eij = 1 k ui.j dy j dy k − u. x (y) e3 e2 y Aleˇ Janka s I.j + uj.i u.i − uk.k dy gik i i (dy)2 −(dx)2 = u.i − uk.j dy j dy k gik + u.k dy dy i gik − u. Euler description: Almansi strain tensor in displacement (dx)2 = i dy i − u.j u.j + uj. Euler description: Almansi strain tensor in displacement Initial config.2. Kinematics 2. Kinematics . u(y) = y − x(y) u = u i gi dx = dy − du ∂u i j du = dy gi ∂y j i dx = dy i − u.i u.k dy j dy gik k (dy)2 −(dx)2 = ui.

Hence: i εk = Fk · Eij · F j Aleˇ Janka s I. Kinematics .3. Kinematics 3. Green and Almansi strain tensors: mutual relation Relation between Fji = Fji · j F−1 k ∂y i ∂x j 3 and F−1 k = j ∂x j : ∂y k = j=1 ∂y i ∂x j ∂y i i = = δk ∂x j ∂y k ∂y k by chain rule for the derivatives. Green and Almansi strain tensors: mutual relation Green strain tensor: εij (x) = 1 1 (ˆij − gij ) = g Fik Fj gk − gij 2 2 1 2 ∂uj ∂ui ∂uk ∂uk + + ∂xj ∂xi ∂xi ∂xj εij = Almansi strain tensor Eij (y) = 1 1 k (gij − gij ) = ˜ gij − F−1 i F−1 j gk 2 2 1 2 ∂uj ∂ui ∂uk ∂uk + − ∂yj ∂yi ∂yi ∂yj Eij = Aleˇ Janka s I.

Green and Almansi strain tensors: small deformations If ui. Kinematics 3.i · uk. NB: Green and Almansi simplify to the same Cauchy strain! Aleˇ Janka s I.j 1 then uk. is negligible.j is negligible: ∂u i ∂u j ∂u k ∂u k + i + ∂x j ∂x ∂x i ∂x j 1 ≈ 2 ∂u i ∂u j + i ∂x j ∂x = eij 1 εij = 2 We can replace Green strain εij by the Cauchy strain eij Advantage: Cauchy strain eij (u) is linear in u Eij = = 1 2 1 2 ∂u i ∂u j ∂u k ∂u k 1 ∂u i ∂u j + i − ≈ + i ∂y j ∂y ∂y i ∂y j 2 ∂y j ∂y ∂u i ∂x k ∂u j ∂x k 1 ∂u i ∂u j + k ≈ + i = eij 2 ∂x j ∂x ∂x k ∂y j ∂y ∂y i because x k = y k − u k and ui.k · uk.3. Kinematics . gij = δij ): [εij ] = 1 T F F−I 2 and [Eij ] = 1 I − F−T F−1 2 Mutual relations: [εij ] = FT · [Eij ] · F and [Eij ] = F−T · [εij ] · F−1 Aleˇ Janka s I. Green and Almansi strain tensors: matrix form Deformation gradient matrix:   1 1 1  ∂y 2 F =  ∂x 1   ∂y 3 ∂x 1 ∂y 1  ∂x ∂y ∂x 2 ∂y 2 ∂x 2 ∂y 3 ∂x 2 ∂y ∂x 3  ∂y 2   ∂x 3  ∂y 3  ∂x 3 = Fji and F−1 = F−1 j i Green and Almansi matrix for cartesian coords (gi = ei .

Special choices of the deformation mode: Let dx = dx 1 e1 and dy = dy 1 e1 . dy e2 y x e3 e1 y Deformed config. Kinematics . Physical meaning of Cauchy strain in cartesian coords dx x Initial config. Then: dy2 − dx2 = (dy 1 )2 − (dx 1 )2 = 2 e11 (dx 1 )2 Hence (for small deformations dx 1 + dy 1 ≈ 2 dx 1 ): e11 (dy 1 )2 − (dx 1 )2 (dy 1 − dx 1 )(dy 1 + dx 1 ) dy 1 = = ≈ 1 −1 2 (dx 1 )2 2 (dx 1 )2 dx Meaning of ekk : relative elongation along ek Aleˇ Janka s I.4. dy2 dx1 x e3 e2 y e1 y dy1 Deformed config. e1 . dxk = dx k ek : dy2 −dx2 = (dy1 )2 +2 dy1 ·dy2 +(dy2 )2 −(dx1 )2 −2 dx1 ·dx2−(dx2 )2 = 2 e11 (dx 1 )2 + 2 e12 dx 1 dx 2 + e22 (dx 2 )2 Hence (for small deformations ekk 1 and θ is small): θ dy 1 dy 2 θ e12 = ≈ (1 + e11 ) (1 + e22 ) 2 dx 1 dx 2 2 θ θ ≈ (1 + e11 + e22 + e11 e22 ) ≈ 2 2 Meaning of e12 : half of shear angle θ in the plane (0. Special choices of the deformation mode: Let dx = dx1 + dx2 and dy = dy1 + dy2 . Physical meaning of Cauchy strain in cartesian coords θ dx2 x Initial config. e2 ) Aleˇ Janka s I. Kinematics 4.

Special choices of the deformation mode: Let dx = dx1 + dx2 and dy = dy1 + dy2 . Physical meaning of Cauchy strain in cartesian coords dx2 dx3 Initial config. e2 ) Aleˇ Janka s I. dy2 dx1 x e3 e2 y e1 y dy1 Deformed config. Physical meaning of Cauchy strain in cartesian coords θ dx2 x Initial config. Kinematics . ˆ Volume before (dV ) and after (dV ) deformation (small deformations): dV = dx 1 dx 2 dx 3 ˆ dV ≈ dy 1 dy 2 dy 3 1): Relative change of volume (for small deformations ekk ˆ dV − dV dV ˆ dV dy 1 dy 2 dy 3 = −1≈ 1 2 3 −1 dV dx dx dx = (1 + e11 )(1 + e22 )(1 + e33 ) − 1 ≈ e11 + e22 + e33 Meaning of trace of eij : relative change of volume Aleˇ Janka s I. Kinematics 4. e1 . dy2 dx1 x e3 e2 y e1 dy3 dy1 Deformed config. dxk = dx k ek : dy1 · dy2 = 2 e12 dx 1 dx 2 = |dy1 | · |dy2 | cos(π/2 − θ) ≈ dy 1 dy 2 sin θ ≈ dy 1 dy 2 · θ Hence (for small deformations ekk 1 and θ is small): θ θ dy 1 dy 2 e12 = ≈ (1 + e11 ) (1 + e22 ) 2 dx 1 dx 2 2 θ θ ≈ (1 + e11 + e22 + e11 e22 ) ≈ 2 2 Meaning of e12 : half of shear angle θ in the plane (0.4.

5. ie. e1 dV = J·dV0 with J = det ∂x j Idea: complete areas to volumes (for any dx. Kinematics . How to transform areas dS0 → dS? Nanson’s relation: we know how to transform vectors: dy i = ∂y i ∂x j dx j dS0 x e3 y (x) dV0 dx Initial config. dS dy dV we know how to transform volumes: ∂y i e2 Deformed config. any dy): ∂x j i dSi dy = dV = J · dV0 = J · dS0j dx = J · dS0j dy ∂y i i j Aleˇ Janka s I.