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Chapter 1 Introduction to Structural Mechanics 1.

1 Structures: An Overview
1.1.1 Introduction

Definitions are a time-honored way of opening any book. A simple definition of a structure, in a building context, is "a device for channeling loads that result from the use or presence of the building in relation to the ground." The study of structures involves many important and varying concerns, one of which is coming to understand the basic principles that define and characterize the behavior of physical objects subjected to forces. More fundamentally, it even involves defining what a force itself is, since this familiar term represents a fairly abstract concept. The study of structures also involves dealing with much broader issues of space and dimensionality: Size, scale, form, proportion, and morphology, are all terms commonly found in the vocabulary of a structural designer. As a way of getting into the study of structures, it is useful to consider again the first definition of a structure given in the previous paragraph. Although valuable in the sense that it defines the purpose of a structure, the original definition unfortunately provides no insight into the makeup or characteristics of a structure: What is this device that channels loads to the ground? To adopt the complex and exacting style of a dictionary writer, a structure could be defined as a physical entity having

a unitary character that can be conceived of as an organization of positioned constituent elements in space in which the character of the whole dominates the interrelationship of the parts. Its purpose would be defined as before. Although it might be hard to believe, a contorted and relatively abstract definition of this type, which is almost laughably academic in tone, actually has some merit. It first states that a structure is a real physical object, not an abstract idea or interesting issue. A structure is not a matter of debate; it is something that is built. The implication is that a structure must be dealt with accordingly. Merely verbally postulating that a structure can carry a certain type of load or function in a certain way, for example, is inadequate. A physical device that conforms to basic principles governing the behavior of physical objects must be provided for accomplishing the desired ends. Devising such a structure is the role of the designer. The expanded definition also makes the point that a structure functions as a whole. This point is of fundamental importance and is easily forgotten when one is confronted with a typical building composed of a seemingly endless array of individual beams and columns. In such cases, there is an immediate tendency to think of the structure only as an assembly of individual, small elements in which each element performs a separate function. In actuality, all structures are, and must be, designed

if the resultant configuration and interrelation of all elements does not function as a whole unit in channeling all anticipated types of loads to the ground. the configuration cannot be said to be a structure. No matter how some individual elements are located and attached to one another. While we are on the subject of formal definitions. but again the result is of some value. because it shows that structures are normally devised in response to a specific set of loading conditions and function as structures only with respect to those conditions. So much for Superman carrying buildings around. for example.primarily to function as a whole unit and only secondarily as an array of discrete elements. since its structure would not have been designed to carry the unique loadings involved. the act of designing a structure can be defined in language at least as complex as that used previously to define a structure. these elements are invariably so positioned and interrelated as to enable the overall structure to function as a whole in carrying either vertically or horizontally acting loads to the ground. In line with the latter part of the expanded definition. be simply picked up by a comer and transported through space. Designing a structure is the act of positioning constituent elements . It would fall apart. The reference to anticipated types of loads is an important fact. They are often relatively fragile with respect to unanticipated loads. A typical building having a structure capable of carrying normally encountered occupancy and environmental loads cannot.

Primary Classifications Introduction.) Since this classification scheme implies that complex Structures are the result only of additive aggregations of elements. ordered and named. Fundamental to an understanding of any field is a knowledge of the way groups within the field are systematically distinguished. A knowledge of the criteria or presumed relationships that form the basis for such classifications is similarly important. it is inherently simplistic.and formulating interrelations. These issues are explored in the remainder of the book. and many types of relationships may exist. with the objective of imparting a desired character to the resultant structural entity.2 General Types of Structures 1. This section introduces one method for classifying structural elements and systems: according to their shape and basic physical properties of construction. Of . The notions that elements are positioned and that relationships exist among these elements are basic to the concept of designing a structure. (See Figure 1. Elements can be positioned in various ways to carry loads. For example. A beam may be related to a column simply by resting on top of it. with radically different structural actions ensuing. a block arch is made of carefully positioned elements. 1.1. or it may be rigidly attached to the column.1.

it is useful to classify any long. In terms of their basic geometries. Line-forming elements can be further distinguished as straight or curved.l line-forming elements (or composed of line. for example. surface elements also have thicknesses. Strictly speaking. since all structural elements have thickness. Of significance in structures is that the elements are also positioned and related. the structural forms can generally be classified either as indicated to the left in Fig. of course. Geometry.significance in aggregations is only the additive nature of the elements.l is useful as an introduction. there is. Still. Similarly. Closely coupled with whether an element is linear or surface forming is the material or method of construction used. the simpler classification approach illustrated in Fig. Many materials are naturally line forming. no such thing as a line or surface element. slender element (such as a column whose cross-sectional dimensions are small with respect to its length) as a line element. Still.forming elements) or as surface-forming elements. Timber. is inherently line forming . Surface-forming elements are either planar or curved. but this thickness is again small with respect to length dimensions. Curved-surface elements can be of either single or double curvature. with the intent of giving the structure certain load-carrying attributes.l.l.

l!ilC el"mQnl! I ~~gol. ~ == EJ+~ ~~~ ~ r-~ Derived t~rms (approximated surfaoes) oCJ ~ '0 Basic elements :2> a: a ----{ ) I Oerived forms (approximated surfaces) Basic elements .r.Elements Une elements Straight Curved Surface elements Planar Curved Single Double ourvature curvature Typical assemlJjisl '-pr-im""""a'.' I~ ll. l\'ple.._ry' structural units i!IIM&mbUu al tlilll.lL 'l~rrDll'I~!'1 U! = 1-===+-----.

2(b)] Flexible structures maintain their physical integrity. Other materials. such as cables. to make minor surface-forming elements directly from timber (as is evidenced by common plywood) or larger surface-forming structures by aggregating more elemental pieces. but it is also possible to make directly minor surface-forming elements (e. Figure 1.g. do not undergo appreciable changes in shape under the action of a load or under changing loads. Rigid elements. no matter what shape they assume. such as concrete. Steel is primarily line forming. [See Figure 1.. however. however.]They are. are those in which the element assumes one shape under one loading condition and changes shape drastically when the nature of the loading changes [See Figure 1 . such as typical beams. It is possible. can be line forming or surface forming with equal ease. steel decking). . Flexible elements.2(a). Stiffness.simply because of the way in which it is grown. usually bent or bowed to a small degree by the action of the load. however. The primary distinction here is whether the element is rigid or flexible.1 also illustrates a second fundamental classification: according to the stiffness characteristics of the structural element.

is clearly a flexible member.. since the shape that such elements assume under loading is a function of the exact pattern and magnitudes of the load carried.g.The strucnira Is stiff and does not undergo ilPIl.. A steel cable thus changes shape with changing loads. can be used to make either rigid or flexible members. blocks) into larger shapes are often in this category.~aOle in shape with ch anges In tho Ioadingl oondition. Often associated with whether an element is rigid or flexible is the material of construction used. . Structures such as arches made by aggregating smaller rigid elements (e.e loading condition. are inherently rigid.. In Ih. a beam) . Many materials. Other materials. in actuality. Many specific structures that are usually classified as rigid are. however. such as timber. When the loading changes dramatically.e shape 01 the struclure changes with changes Figure 1.g. structures of this type become unstable and tend to collapse. Th. rigid only under certain given loading conditions or under minor variations of a given loading condition. cl"Janliei (b) Nonrigkl or flexible S1fUClure (e.f (iI) Rigid structure (e. II oable).g. Whether a structure is rigid or flexible therefore depends either upon the inherent characteristics of the material used or on the amount and microorganization of the material in the element. such as steel.. A good example of a rigid steel member is the typical bean (an element that does not undergo any appreciable change in shape under changing loads). A steel cable or chain.2 Nonrigid and rigid structures.

(See Figure 1.and two-way systems. there are situations typically involving certain patterns in the support system used that often lead to specific advantages (in terms of the efficient use of materials) in using a two-way system com[pared to a one-way system.g. A linear beam spanning two support points is an example of a one-way system.One-Way and Two-Way Systems. often lead to the converse result. flat.) A system of two crossed elements resting on two sets of support points not lying on the same line and in which both elements share in currying any external load is an example of a two-way system. For this reason. steel. In a one-way system. since the principles governmg the behavior of similar elements composed of different . Other patterns in the support system.and two-way structural action is of primary importance in a design context. rigid plate resting on four continuous edge supports is also a two-way system: An external load cannot be simplistically assumed to travel to a pair of the supports in one direction only. is somewhat misleading and is not adopted here. or reinforced concrete structures). A strict classification by materials. it is useful even at this early stage to begin distinguishing between one. The two primary cases of importance here are one. A very common classification approach to structures IS simply by the type of material used (e. A square.. but always involves at least two directions. the direction of the load-transfer mechanism is more complex. however. In a two-way system. Materials. A very basic way of distinguishing among structures is according to the spatial organization of the system of support used and the relation of the structure to the points of support available. the basic load-transfer mechanism of the structure for channeling external loads to the ground acts in one direction only. As will be discussed in more detail later. however. The distinction between one.3. wood.and two-way systems.

) Ona·wny beam Two·_y plalO . More general descriptions have a more intrinsic value at this stage. distinctions are made among stillness. these terms are not used n their literal sense..g. strength. Rather. a timber and steel beam) are invariant and the actual differences are superficial. In some more advanced structural theory applications. (The common English-language connotations of the terms "rigid" and "flexible" are evoked here. and stability.materials (e.

-.As one begins taking a closer look at structures. One reason is that there is a close relationship between the nature of the deformations induced in a structure by the action of the external loading on the one hand. Plain concrete can be used only in situations where the structure is compressed or shortened under the action of the load. on the other. however. can be used in situations where elongating forces arc present. Concrete will crack and fail when subjected to forces that tend to elongate the materiaL Concrete reinforced with steel.'jlend&<l cables ren! acts in one direction only. I 6) \ I I Slr. ~. however. Steel can be used under virtually all conditions. since the steel can he designed to carry these forces. and the material and method of construction that is most appropriate for use in the structure. In a two-way system. A linear beam spanning two support points is an example . the direction of the load-transfer mechanism is more complex. but always involves at least two directions. ._-------------------------. the importance of materials will increase. These and other considerations will be studied in more detail later in the book.

a timber and steel beam) are invariant and the actual differences are superficial. arches. A strict classification by materials. columns or struts. however. flat plates. singly curved plates. Materials. 2. often lead to the converse result.) A system of two crossed elements resting on two sets of support points not lying on the same line and in which both elements share in currying any external load is an example of a two-way system. (See Figure 1. since the principles governmg the behavior of similar elements composed of different materials (e. steel.3. More general descriptions have a more intrinsic value at this stage. or reinforced concrete structures). wood. A square.g.. there are situations typically involving certain patterns in the support system used that often lead to specific advantages (in terms of the efficient use of materials) in using a two-way system compared to a one-way system. is somewhat misleading and is not adopted here. Other patterns in the support system. The distinction between one. it is useful even at this early stage to begin distinguishing between one. For this reason. rigid plate resting on four continuous edge supports is also a two-way system: An external load cannot be simplistically assumed to travel to a pair of the supports in one direction only. Common rigid elements include beams. flat. Flexible elements include cables (straight and draped) ..and two-way structural action is of primary importance in a design context. A very common classification approach to structures IS simply by the type of material used (e. Primary Structural Elements Elements.of a one-way system.and two-way systems. however. and shells having a variety of different curvatures.g. As will be discussed in more detail later.

. the way they carry loads must also be different. frames. singly curved. This is not necessarily so. Indeed. etc. they are often said to carry loads by bending. Often called post-and-beam structures. however. At this point. however.and membranes (planar. and doubly curved). a number of other types of structures (e. geodesic domes.carrying mechanism for all structures is the same. one of the basic principles of structures that later portions of this book will clarify and elaborate on is that the fundamental load. it is still useful to retain and use the traditional names as a way of gaining familiarity with the subject. Since the beams are bowed or bent as a consequence of the transverse loads they carry (see Figure 1.) are derived from these elements. Naming elements in this way can. nets. Structures formed by resting rigid horizontal elements on top of rigid vertical elements are commonplace.g. In addition. loaded axially by the beams. trusses. transfer the loads to the ground.3). The columns in a . since it is too easy to fall into believing that if two elements have different names. be misleading. The columns. Beams and Columns. Assigning a specific name to refer to an element having certain geometrical and rigidity characteristics is done as a matter of convenience only and has its basis in tradition. the horizontal elements (beams) pick up loads that are applied transversely to their lengths and transfer the loads to the supporting vertical columns or posts.

beam-and-column assembly are not bent or bowed. In Chapter 9.. we discuss frames in detaiL . This rigidity imparts a measure of stability against lateral forces that is not present in the post-and-beam system.3. The frame. In a framed System. Beams and columns are therefore typically used in a repetitive pattern. Continuous beams that bear on multiple support points are discussed in Chapter 8. members are typically formed into a repetitive pattern when they are used in a building. Frames. the absolute length of individual beams and columns that is possible is rather limited compared with some other structural elements (e. Continuous beams often exhibit more advantageous structural properties than simpler single-span beams supported only at two points. Consequently.g. respectively. As with the post-and-beam structure. In a building. illustrated in Figure 1. the lengths of individual elements in a frame structure that are possible are limited. but has a different structural action because of the rigid joints that are made between vertical and horizontal members. is similar in appearance to the post-and-beam type of structure. because they are subjected to axial compressive forces only. cables). Simple single-span beams and columns are discussed more extensively in Chapters 6 and 7. both beams and columns are bent or bowed as a consequence of the action of the load on the structure.

however. Structures of this type cannot carry loads that induce elongations or any pronounced type of bowing in the member. The common image of an arch is that of a structure composed of separate wedge-shaped pieces that retain their position by mutual pressure induced by the load. Arches. Some patterns (e. the resultant structure is functional and stable only when the action of the load is to induce in-plane forces that cause the structure to compress uniformly. A truss composed of discrete elements is bent or bowed as a whole under the action of an applied transverse loading in much the same way that a beam is bent or bowed. Trusses are explored in depth in Chapter 4. are not subject to bending. but are only either compressed or pulled upon. An arch is a curved.. When shapes are formed simply by stacking rigid block elements. The exact shape of the curve and the nature of the loading are critical determinants as to whether the resultant assembly is stable.Trusses. Individual truss members. a pattern of squares rather than triangles) do not necessarily yield a structure that is rigid (unless joints arc treated in the same way as they are in framed structures). The resultant structure is rigid as a result of the exact way the individual line elements are positioned relative to one another. Trusses are structural members made by assembling short.g. straight members into triangulated patterns. line-forming structural member that spans two points. .

(The blocks simply pull apart.) The positioning is. when used properly. (The mortar does not appreciably increase the strength of the structure. The rigid arch is frequently used in modem buildings. Arches of this type are discussed in more detail in following chapters. they can carry a load to Supports while being subject only to axial compression. These issues are discussed more extensively in Chapter 5. Walls and Plates. Walls and flat plates are rigid surface-forming structures. as their extensive historical usage attests. It is curved similarly to the way block arches are. fixed. since blocks are typically either merely rested one on another or mortared together. in turn. and no bowing or bending occurs. and three-hinged). and the structure fails.3).g. The rigid arch is better able to carry variations in the design loading than is its block counterpart made of individual pieces. The strength of a block structure is due exclusively to the positioning of individual elements. The resultant structure is thus rigid only under very particular circumstances.. and they are often characterized by their support conditions (e. two-hinged. Many types of rigid arches exist. If rigid arches are properly shaped. but is made of one continuous piece of deformed rigid material (Figure 1. dependent on the exact type of loading invoked. however. A load-hearing wall can typically carry both vertically acting .) Block structures can be very strong.

Folded plates are explored in detail in Chapter 10. Plate structures are normally made of reinforced concrete or steel. wind or earthquake) along its length. have the potential for spanning fairly large distances.loads and laterally acting loads (e. A flat plate is typically used horizontally and carries loads by bending to its supports. These structures. . When fairly long. reinforced concrete or steel). is a singly curved structure that spans transversely.. A vault. Barrell shells are invariably made of rigid materials (e. Horizontal plates can also be made by assembling patterns of short.. Three-dimensional triangulation schemes are used to impart stiffness to the resultant assembly. narrow rigid plates can also be joined along their long edges and used to span horizontally in beamlike fashion. called folded plates. Long. Cylindrical barrel shells and vaults are examples of singly curved-plate structures. rigid line elements. by contrast. Plate structures are explored in more detail in Chapter 10. Cylindrical Shells and Vaults.g. A vault can he conceived of as basically a continuous arch. Resistance to out-of-plane forces in block walls is marginal. A barrel shell spans longitudinally such that the curve is perpendicular to the direction of the span. a barrel shell behaves much like a beam with a curved cross section.g.

Spherical Shells and Domes. however. Probably the most common doubly curved structure is the spherical shelL It is convenient to think of this structure as a rotated arch. rigid line elements into repetitive patterns. the hyperbolic paraboloid). Cables. do not exist in arches. Cables are flexible structural elements.. The shape they assume under a loading depends on the nature and magnitude of the load. because loadings induce circumferential forces in spherical shells.g. This type of cable is often called a tie-rod. it deforms into a shape made up of a series of straight-line segments. including structures that are portions of spheres and those which form warped surfaces (e. When a . Exact differences are discussed in Chapter 12. and such forces. is misleading with respect to how the structure actually carries loads. A wide variety of doubly curved surface structures are in use. it assumes a straight shape. Domed structures can be made of stacked blocks or a continuous rigid material (reinforced concrete). Shells and domes are highly efficient structures capable of spanning large distances with a minimum of materiaL Dome-shaped structures can also be made by forming short. When a cable is used to span two points and carry an external point load or series of point loads. When a cable is simply pulled on at either end. The geodesic dome is a structure of this type. The number of shapes possible is actually boundless. The analogy.

Membranes. A membrane is a thin. For surfaces of double curvature. The self-weight of the cable itself produces such a catenary. however. since most membranes are typically available only in flat sheets. the cable deforms into a continuously curving shape called a catenary. particularly in long-span situations. the horizontal bridge deck is made into a continuous rigid structure so that the road surface remains essentially flat and the load transferred to the primary support cables remains virtually constant. Suspension cables can be used to span extremely large distances. Both simple and complex forms can be created with the use of membranes. and those changes would be accompanied by changes in the shape of the road surface. Tents. (A spherical surface is. the catenary. Cable structures are discussed more extensively in Chapter 5. Other continuous loads produce curves that are similar in appearance to. not developable. which in turn carries the traffic loading. such as a spherical surface.)A further implication of using a flexible . but not exactly the same as. of course. the actual surface would have to he made as an assembly of much smaller segments.continuous load is carried. where they support a road deck. Cable-stayed structures are used to support roof surfaces in buildings. and Nets. A common tent is made of membrane surfaces. They are quite often used in bridges. Since moving traffic loads would ordinarily cause the primary support cable to undergo changes in shape as load positions changed. flexible sheet.

a wide variety of surface shapes can be formed. can he handled with comparative case. structures are of the latter type. tension forces are typically induced into the cables by jacking devices. Another mechanism is to apply external jacking forces that stretch the membrane into the desired shape. By allowing the mesh opening to vary as needed. imposes several limitations on the shape that can be formed. . or air-inflated. for example. Nets are analogous to membrane skins. Nets are three-dimensional surfaces made up of a series of crossed curved cables. An advantage of using crossed cables is that the positioning of the cables mitigates fluttering due to wind suctions and pressures. Pneumatic. Various stressed-skin structures fall into this category. if used with the convex side pointed upward. In addition. Membranes and nets arc discussed more extensively in Chapter 11.membrane to crease a surface is that it has to be either suspended with the convex side pointing downward or. so that the whole surface is turned into a type of stretched skin. supplemented by some mechanism to maintain its shape. while others. Spherical surfaces. are difficult to pretension by external jacking forces. such as the hyperbolic paraboloid. however. The need to pretension the skin. The shape of the membrane is maintained by the internal air pressure inside the structure. This also gives the roof stability and resistance to flutter.

are typically used to form or support linear surfaces. it is useful to introduce the general notion of a primary structural unit. Four columns supporting a rigid planar surface at its comers..g. While many of the basic elements discussed in the preceding section can indeed function in isolation as load-carrying structures. The way discrete elements can be conceptually assembled into units and then aggregated often. When placed side by side.3. form a primary Unit. for example. columns are typically shared between units. for example. Primary Structural Units and Aggregations Introduction. reflects the way building complexes are actually constructed. structures used in buildings are often distinct from those used for other purposes. Primary units are often an intermediate step between a series of discrete elements (e. In this context. it is evident that some of them must be combined with others if the intent is to create a structure that encloses or forms a volume. but certainly not always. which is simply a discrete volume-forming structural element or assembly of structural elements used in building design. In this respect. Units of this type can be stacked or placed side by side to form a connected series of volumetric units. Building structures are typically volume forming in nature. The importance of thinking about structures in terms of units of this . others are not necessarily so. beams and columns) and an entire building complex. Bridge structures.

In some cases. it should be noted. the dimensions of the primary structural unit would he directly related to the functional dimensions of the housing units themselves. however. The usefulness of the idea stems from the fact that the dimensions of a unit must invariably be related to the programmatic requirements of the building considered. The point is simply that the dimensions of the primary structural unit are either the same as or a multiple of the critical functional dimensions associated with the building occupancy. the building can he defined as essentially consisting of one large functional unit (e. These simple. it is pedagogically useful to distinguish . but immensely valuable. (See Figure 1. for example. Structural Units.. Many buildings. Housing is an illustration of such a building type.g. a skating rink) and not consisting of an aggregation of cellular volumes. Primary structural units may he made with the use of different combinations of the elements discussed previously. It could not be smaller than the minimum functional subdivision of a unit.type is most apparent in preliminary design stages. concepts that arc useful in early design stages are explored in more detail in Part III of the book. The primary structural unit. could be larger and encompass several functional units.) With common cellular units. can be considered to he made up of a cellular aggregation of volumetric units of sizes related to the intended occupancy.4. In this case.

two. such as snow. For short spans. In short-span situations. and the lateral support system. and three layers are most common. other spanning systems. which thus often need to be made larger and stiffer than others. As . For example. Loads acting on the surface. horizontal spanning systems may be made up of one-or two-way spanning elements. there is often only one layer present when plates are used. Consequently. Obviously. Forces are transferred from one member to another via the development of reactive forces at member supports. there is often a hierarchy present. Hierarchies of virtually any number of lavers may be used. With systems made of one-way spanning elements. but one. could be used as well. As the length of the spans increases. trusses or cables might be used for secondary and primary spanning elements. With planar surfaces. which in turn may be supported themselves by other beams.among the horizontal spanning system. such as arches and barrel shells. The secondary beams in turn transfer the loads to the vertical support system. the vertical support system. short-span surface-forming plank or decking elements are periodically supported by a series of closely spaced secondary beams. Plate-and-grid systems may also be used for horizontal spanning. loads and related internal forces tend to build up in members in lower layers of the hierarchy. beam and decking systems are common. are first picked up by the decking and then transferred to the secondary beams.

components could break apart or deform badly. The specific forms mentioned are acted on by applied forces that can cause the form to slide or overturn as a whole or to collapse internally. Columns receive concentrated forces.3 Basic Issues in the Analysis and Design of Structures 1.. vertical support systems are typically composed of load-bearing walls or columns. however. Alternatively. Stability responses of this type are explored more in a later section.g. Fundamental Structural Phenomena In the preceding section.. typically need cross bracing. Wall structures are inherently resistant to these forces. typically from the ends of beams. . a hierarchical system of plates and beams maybe used. Load-bearing walls may he used to receive loads along their length (e. we discussed the nature of structural forms in broad terms.the length of the pans increases. Horizontally acting forces (e. Rigid-frame systems that are also resistant to lateral forces provide an alternative to beam-and-column assemblies.g. There is thus a close relation between the pattern of the vertical support system and the nature of the horizontal spanning system. Beam and column systems. In common cellular assemblies. from a horizontal plate).1. from wind or earthquake) tend to cause structures to collapse laterally. 1.

'lII"C l.CommcfI allnmbty ollllilmontli.. wld!:tl'y SPM(Id trusaes. tilt 'Ut (b. OeOldnll reactions becoll1e forces ()fI booms (whiol'l carry load!i by bllm:lfng). I.oad·bearlng waU IJnd tilIl.. . --- syslem Column ooac!jO!lS become IOICQS on 1olllKllliforla (wtliOh dt~lri'I1u(QlI1e fM. (c)The GlllCking 1liIDlllel$ lao! loads tome ~ry ooams. Tl1l1oolurnu Imt\IImI 11'10loads to IheloondaticlrJs. Tb&se force buJlSlllJS occur 1t1l1JUQ11tho deV8lopmenil 01 reactive. WIlIm In turn carJY them ee Ihlll OOIl1tN1S. (onB-.I spacod beams.. ~- Vliulical IUPPf]I'! Columns are In OMJpfessicn. two-.Two-IG\i'eI~yslem Three·lDYel system ~~~ .oolal spanning system.. ~nd 'thl'M·lewlllyslarm) 10<tlff"'iJint ~pll$ (II l. /II._n thD [J\IS~ and Ihl 5uppoillJ"1l ccI\JmM....(l fIt eq. forces CElwftOO mAnibm:ll !Ifill I)1lIcaIIy . ..IIM I lIeltieii. The beams. OOO-«l-on.s In ILim supporIsr. ~ sur· taco ·IOfTT'Ilngdedol'l!l is supported by !II secClf'ldary Immlr.ysle mOO'f]S 1~l1n 01 elosi! Iy i.M lntD llls QartI"!).rI1"I&fer the loads 10 lhe Il"II$5(ls. wfIlch .g !.i by a pfifTI"lY S"JltOO'l 01 mOl.4 Typical ~tn1Cluml unit«. used In relatJon De~g annes 1001 loads by beondlng. ?--1111 I (81Common types 01 ilOriz. '____ I "". prtIgmllNery 1{l9r III IoWVr levt15: Fq.l &uWM &ystoms.15 ba. Beam re cUona boCOO'lo forcills on trusses Truss rel"lotlon!l rn~ calJlle COITIpmIlMl to llillrvsiop if! OOlllmM. V I I Roof loads .

• • Gl'II'I..---- o .. These same applied loadings produce internal forces in a structure that stress the material used and may cause it 0 fail or deform. (See Figure 1. we describe these phenomena briefly.ty LOlld& OverlllmUig Slld'lng Twiltlng TYPES OF FAILURES Mcmber 1a..5. In this chapter.. earthquakes.. we explore them in greater detail.............) In subsequent chapters. As a . Plus l__ J Uramil <ICtIc n I ~ f8!<'6rrt1n g Lateral Racking . from the effects of wind..luru ...g. There are several fundamental ways in which failure can occur... STflIJCTIJAAL RESPONSES FOR PREVENTING FAI UAES The forces causing overturning or collapse come from the specific environmental or use context (e. P reverdlng I • Prevllnting OVe rI1J mlng ()r 51i clltlg or Twistirlg Mel11bcr FaIlure!'... WIdUi1leavy laolirJoOS 1R Riogld C{)M CllOns. A first set of concerns deals with the overall stability of a work. or occupancies) or from the self-weight of the form itself.

Collapses of this type invariably involve large relative movements within the structure itself. in particular. we explore the issue of stability in greater detail. a structure might overturn. Overturning or twisting need not be caused only by horizontally acting forces: A work might simply be out of balance under its own self-weight and overturn. rigid foundations helps prevent overturning. stability.whole unit. A second set of concerns deals with internal. an entire assembly can collapse internally. slide. frame action. cause collapses of this kind. or relational. or twist about its base-particularly when subjected to horizontally acting wind or earthquake forces. as does the use of special foundation elements such as piles capable of carrying tension forces. The use of wide. Assemblies may be internally stable under one loading condition and unstable under another. There are several basic mechanisms--walls. Forces induced by earthquakes tend to cause overturning or sliding actions. In the next section. If the parts of a structure are not properly arranged in space or interconnected appropriately. but they are dependent in magnitude on the weight of the structure because of the inertial character of earthquake forces. Horizontally acting wind or earthquake forces. A third set of concerns deals with the strength and stiffness of constituent . Structures that are relatively tall or that have small bases are particularly prone to overturning effects. cross bracing--for making an assembly internally stable.

may be caused by excessive tension. .elements. shear. or by deformations that are developed internally in the structure as a consequence of the applied loadings. torsion. bending. Associated with each force state are internal stresses that actually exist within the fabric of the material itself By carefully designing components in response to the force state present. the actual stresses developed in the components can be controlled to safe levels. or bearing forces. Many structural issues revolve around the strength of the parts of a structure. which mayor may not lead to total collapse. compression. The failure of parts.