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Katie Chandler

Spring 2012 Unit Plan: Political Participation

Katie Chandler April 11, 2012 EDU 657: Advanced Methods Karen Clark

Katie Chandler

Katie Chandler

Unit Title: Political Participation Course: Social Science Grade(s): 12th Grade Subject/Topic Areas: political participation, voter participation rates, methods of voting, voter registration, incentives for voting, voter eligibility, voting legislation Key Words: political participation, inactives, voting specialists, campaigners, communalists, parochial participants, activists, Voting Available Population (VAP), Voting Eligible Population (VEP), Punch Card, Data Vote, Lever Machine, paper ballots, Optical Scan, electronic ballots, hanging chad, pregnant chad, Help America Vote Act (HAVA), 15th Amendment, 19th Amendment, 22nd Amendment, 26th Amendment, Civil Rights Act of 1964, Voting Rights Act of 1965 Designed by: Katie Chandler Time Frame: 5 days (over 3 weeks) Day 1: Tuesday, March 6, 2012 Day 2: Monday, March 19, 2012 Day 3: Wednesday, March 21, 2012 Day 4: Thursday, March 22, 2012 Day 5: Monday, March 26, 2012 School: Central High School (Philadelphia, PA)

Brief Summary of Unit: In this unit on political participation in the United States government for the Social Science course, the students will learn about the different manners in which Americans can participate, particularly voter participation, and the extent to which they actually do. Throughout this short unit, the students will look at the following topics: different types or levels of participation in the democratic system of government, the percentage of Americans who actually vote in comparison to countries with similar systems, the participation rates for certain age demographics, the different proposals to increase participation, and the different techniques used to vote either currently or previously in the United States. The students will be able to address these issues and topics by holding discussions with their classmates, brainstorming with their peers, analyzing primary documents, researching questions, and participating in collaborative activities, such as debates and creative presentations. Before this particular unit, the students have already discussed political socialization, meaning how certain people are influenced politically, political culture in the United States, and the system of the Electoral College. Students should then be able to utilize that knowledge and those understandings to better understand political participation in the United States.

Katie Chandler

Established Goals: Standard 8.1.12.C: Evaluate historical interpretation of events. Standard 8.3.12.A: Evaluate the role groups and individuals from the United States played in the social, political, cultural, and economic development of the world. Standard 8.3.C.C: Analyze the principles and ideals that shape United States government: liberty/freedom, democracy, justice, equality Standard 8.4.C.C: Evaluate critical issues in various contemporary governments. Standard 8.3.C.B: Compare and contrast the basic principles and ideals found in significant documents (Declaration of Independence, Constitution, Bill of Rights). Standard 8.4.12.B: Evaluate the importance of historical documents, artifacts, and sites, which are critical to world history. Standard 8.3.12.B: Identify and evaluate primary documents, material artifacts, and historic sites important to United States history.

Big Idea(s) for the Unit: Political Participation Voter Turnout Voting Eligible Population Voting Available Population Voting Techniques/Methods Suffrage Representative Democracy

Essential Questions for the Unit: What does it mean to participate in a representative democracy? What are the different ways in which Americans can participate in their democratic form of government? Why are voter participation rates lower in the United States than in other countries with similar governments? Can people who do not participate in our government complain about what our government decides to do? Or is the choice to vote an important freedom? Which groups in American society participate by voting the least? What legislation and de facto laws effected who could vote and participate in the United States? What historical events and problems may have impacted voter participation, either negatively or positively? What systems or programs could be implemented to increase voter participation and registration in the United States?

Katie Chandler

Key Essential Knowledge and Skills students will acquire as a result of the unit Students will know Students will be able to - That people in a democracy can - Brainstorm and then discuss what they participate in a variety of ways associate with a Democracy (campaigning, contacting officials, - Review charts and graphs of voter becoming activists, community concerns, information and analyze the implications voting, etc.) of the information - That many people in the United States - Make comparisons between two sets of choose to not participate information - That voting is the most common form of - Speculate about the link between charts participation in the United States. on voter participation and corresponding - That voter turnout rates in the United historical events in the United States States are consistently and significantly - Analyze primary documents (15th lower than in countries with a similar Amendment, 19th Amendment, 22nd government. Amendment, 26th Amendment, and the - That young voters (18-24 years old) are Civil Rights Act of 1964) the least likely to vote. - Summarize their understanding of a - That the 15th Amendment gave all men primary document and explain the the right to vote. information to their classmates. - That de facto laws and other procedures - Research current legislation prohibited African Americans from being (Pennsylvania Voter ID Bill) and utilize able to vote. that information to discuss the pros and cons of the proposal in class - That the 19th Amendment gave women the right to vote. - Use their understanding of voter participation and the Pennsylvania Voter - That the 22nd Amendment gave citizens ID Bill to participate in a debate. of D.C. the right to vote. th - Analyze political cartoons to garner - That the 26 Amendment lowered the information about problems with voting age to 18 years old. political participation in the United States - That the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the - Research a particular form of voting and Voting Rights Act of 1965 prohibited any summarize the important aspects of racist requirements that would prohibit function of that method to their peers. minorities from registering to vote - Utilize their understanding of voter - That the main reason that people do not participation and the voting system to vote is that they never registered. create a PSA that would increase voting - That there are different voting techniques in the United States. used in the country: Punch Card, Data - Summarize their understanding of the Vote, Lever Machine, paper ballots, problems with political participation and Optical Scan, electronic ballots. the problems with voting to create a - The problems and benefits of different political proposal to improve voting. voting techniques. - The significance of the 2000 election and how the Help Americans Vote Act changed voting methods and machines.

Katie Chandler

Instructional Strategies to develop essential skills and content/concepts: Discussion Cartoon Analysis Reflective Writing Brainstorming Ideas Think Pair Share Reading Analyzing Primary Documents Simultaneous Explanations o Jigsaw Activities Structured Debate Group Collaboration o Voter Participation PSAs o Jigsaw Activities o Voter ID Bill Debate TABA Charts

Materials and Equipment: Laptop Cart Promethean Board 18 in 08 Documentary DVD and Viewing Questions Flip Camera Political Participation Power Point Presentation House Passes Voter ID Bill Reading and Questions Voter Registration Forms Copies of Legislation (15th Amendment, 19th Amendment, 22nd Amendment, 26th Amendment, Civil Rights Act of 1964) Voter Eligibility Legislation TABA Chart Voting Methods TABA Chart Warm Up Worksheets (Cartoon #1) Warm Up Worksheets (Cartoon #2) Punch Card Voting Booth PSA Grading Rubric PSA and Proposal Assignment Political Participation WebQuest Assignment Political Participation Memo Assignment Student Notebooks Teachers Computer

Katie Chandler

Formal Authentic Assessment: - Group Created PSA o Script, Proposal Write-Up, and Presentation - Political Participation Memo Assignment - Political Participation WebQuest Assignment - House Passes Voter ID Bill Reading Questions - 18 in 08 Viewing Questions - Cartoon Analysis Warm Ups - Voting Eligibility TABA Chart - Voting Methods TABA Chart - Exit Tickets

Key Criteria for Performance Task: - Group Created PSA o See attached rubric o Written script and proposal o Creativity and Originality o Group participation and collaboration o Incorporation of relevant information from class Excuses for not voting; Suffrage legislation, voting methods, etc. o Participation in Presentation to the class - Political Participation Memo Assignment o Use of voter turnout rates from 2010 Mid-Term Elections o Comparison between VAP and VEP o Discussion of different voting methods and their pros and cons o Organization, Cohesion, and Formal writing style - Political Participation WebQuest Assignment o Completion of all questions o Answers typed in complete sentences - House Passes Voter ID Bill Reading Questions o Completion of all questions o Ability to summarize arguments for and against the legislation - 18 in 08 Viewing Questions o Completion of all questions o Thoughtful reflection o Inclusion of personal opinions - Cartoon Analysis Warm Ups o Clear and thorough summary of cartoon o Personal opinion on meaning of cartoon o Discussion of the relevance to the current topic

Katie Chandler

Other Evidence of Learning: Informal Observations/Discussions/Interviews: - Discussion in the class - Structured Debate - Collaboration in groups - Students Explanation (Jigsaw Activities) Student Self-Assessment: - Student created PSAs on political participation - Exit Ticket: which PSA would be the most effective? Why?

Katie Chandler

Teacher: Katie Chandler Course/Grade: Social Science, 12th Grade Title/Subject of Lesson: Political Participation 60-Minute Bell Schedule (49 Minute Periods)

Date(s): March 6, 2012 Period #: 2, 3

OVERVIEW/RATIONALE: This lesson is part of the unit on political participation, which looks at the different methods of participating in the American government, particularly voter participation in general elections. This lesson serves as the opening day to the unit, introducing students to the idea of participation in a Democracy and the different ways in which American citizens can participate in that system. After this introductory lesson, the students should be ready to analyze voter participation rates in the United States and discuss rationale for low participation rates. GOALS: Goal: The purpose of this lesson is to introduce students to the concept of political participation in the United States. By the end of this lesson, the students should be able to discuss what it means to truly participate in a democratic system of government and should be able to identify different classifications of participation. After this lesson, the students will be able to apply this understanding to analyzing participation rates in the Unites States, particularly for certain key groups in society, such as young voters. OBJECTIVES: 1. Students will be able to identify at least 3 attributes that they identify with a democratic system of government 2. Students will be able to define what is meant by political participation. 3. Students will be able to analyze charts of voter participation in the United States. 4. Students will be able to analyze charts of voter participation in different countries and compare their participation rates with the United States. 5. Students will be able to define Voting Available Population (VAP) and Voting Eligible Population (VEP). STANDARDS: - Standard 8.3.12.A: Evaluate the role groups and individuals from the United States played in the social, political, cultural, and economic development of the world. - Standard 8.3.CC: Analyze the principles and ideals that shape United States government: liberty/freedom, democracy, justice, equality - Standard 8.4.C.C: Evaluate critical issues in various contemporary governments. VOCABULARY: Students will be able to define and use each of the following in a manner congruent with its use in the current unit. - Voter Eligible Population: the citizens who are actually eligible to vote, because they meet the requirements and are registered to vote.

Katie Chandler

Voter Age Population: number of citizens in the United States who are eligible to vote, meaning that they are 18 years or older. However, this does not mean that all of those people are actually registered to vote. Inactives: people who rarely vote, contribute to political organizations, or discuss politics; approximately 22% of the population. Voting Specialists: people who vote, but do little else to participate; most common form of participation in the United States. Campaigners: people who vote, are interested in one particular party, take very strong stances on issues, and are very involved in campaign activities. Communalists: people who participate in government in regards to their local communities; they are non-partisan, local activists. Parochial Participants: people who do not always vote or participate in campaigns or political organizations, but they do contact politicians about specific problems that they see around them. Activists: people who participate in all forms of politics and government; typically highly educated and middle age with a high level of income.

MATERIALS: - Teacher Materials: o Political Participation Power Point - Student Materials: o Class notebook o Warm-Up o Exit Ticket PROCEDURES: - OPENER (15 MIN.) o Announcements: at the beginning of class, the teacher will remind students about upcoming schedule and extra credit opportunities. o Warm-Up: on a piece of paper, create a list of attributes or characteristics (at least 3) that you associate with a democracy. Why do you think that those are important parts of being a democracy? Which of those attributes are the most important in your mind? Think-Pair-Share: after having time to write individually, the students wil be asked to talk about their lists and rationale for a few minutes with the student next to them. After the students have time to talk with their partner next to them, each pair will share the most important attributes of a democracy with the rest of the class, while the teacher creates a master list on the board for all of the students to see. - BODY OF THE LESSON (30 MIN.) o What does it mean to participate in a democracy: the teacher will review with the students the different attributes and traits that they and their classmates associate with a democratic government

Katie Chandler

Discussion Question: if all of these attributes mean that we live and work in a democracy, then what does it mean to participate in that democracy? o Different forms of participation Brainstorm: as a class, the students will create a list on the board of the different ways that they think it is possible to participate in our democratic system of government in the United States The teacher will introduce different classifications of participation and the students will discuss the types of people that they would associate with each and the pros or cons of each form of participation Inactives, Voting Specialists, Campaigners, Communalists, Parochial Participants, Activists o Voter Participation: United States vs. other countries The teacher will display different charts of voter participation in both the United States and other countries with similar forms of government The students will discuss the charts and analyze the different rates of voter participation. o Which country has the most/least amount of voter turnout? o What is the difference between the United States and other similar countries? Voting Eligible Population vs. Voting Age Population CLOSURE (5 MIN.) o Exit Ticket: (Free write) do you currently participate in politics or government in some way? If so, how? If you do not, why not? Do you think that you will participate in the November 2012 Presidential Election? o Homework Assignment: read article, Pennsylvania Passes Voter ID Bill and answer the 5 questions posted on Edline o Voter ID Debate (Extra Credit): students can volunteer to participate in a debate on the Voter ID Bill for extra credit ACCOMODATIONS o Ensure that each student understands the question for the warm up and is progressing on their writing. The teacher will circulate the room and check in with students. o Ensure that all of the students can see the board and see the charts displayed on the Promethean board. The teacher will ask students if they can see the board and allow students to move closer to the board if they need to.

ASSESSMENT/EVALUATION: Warm-Up: students list of attributes that they associate with a democratic form of government; their discussion with both a partner and then the entire class. Exit Ticket: students will turn in their free write about how they participate in politics and the government.

Katie Chandler

Katie Chandler

Pa. House passes voter ID bill


By Angela Couloumbis INQUIRER HARRISBURG BUREAU

HARRISBURG - Pennsylvania's House of Representatives has approved the so-called Voter ID bill, setting the stage for Pennsylvania to become the 16th state to require voters to show photo identification at the polls. The House on Wednesday voted 104-to-88 - and almost strictly along partisan lines -- to pass the measure, which would be in effect in time for the fall presidential election. Gov. Corbett has said he will sign it "right away." Democrats, civil liberties groups, labor unions, the NAACP and others have complained that the bill will disproportionately hurt the elderly, the poor and the disabled, who make up the lion's share of voters who typically do not have photo IDs. Those groups also tend to vote Democratic. Other states with voter ID laws have been facing legal challenges. In Texas, the U.S. Department of Justice's civil right division on Monday objected to a photo voter identification law because it found it would have a greater impact on Hispanic voters. As a state with a history of voter discrimination, Texas is required under the Voting Rights Act to get advance approval of voting changes from either the Justice Department or the U.S. District Court in Washington, D.C. Also Monday, a second judge in Wisconsin struck down that state's voter identification law, calling it unconstitutional because it would restrict the right to vote. That came less than a week after another judge ordered a temporary injunction on it. In December, the Justice Department rejected South Carolina's voter ID law on grounds it makes it harder for minorities to cast ballots. It was the first voter ID law to be rejected by the department in nearly 20 year. In Pennsylvania, the ACLU, as well as Democrats in the Senate, have said they will challenge the bill in court as soon as it becomes law. The bill would mandate that voters show a photo ID such as a driver's license; a student, county, or municipal card; or IDs from a personalcare home. If voters show up without a photo ID, they would be allowed to cast a provisional ballot, and then would have six days to present election officials with an acceptable ID. The state Department of Transportation would also be required to issue free identification cards to those who apply and swear they had no other acceptable proof of identity for voting.

Katie Chandler

Name: ____________________________________

Pa. House Passes Voter ID Bill Reading Questions: 1. What are the complaints or arguments against this bill?

2. Which states have attempted to pass similar bills, but could not due to legal trouble?

3. What forms of ID could you bring to vote?

4. What would happen if you went to vote but forgot your ID?

5. Do you think that the Voter ID Bill is a good idea? Why or why not?

Katie Chandler

Teacher: Katie Chandler Course/Grade: Social Science, 12th Grade Title/Subject of Lesson: Political Participation

Date(s): March 19, 2012 Period #: 2, 3

OVERVIEW/RATIONALE: This lesson is part of the unit on political participation, which looks at the different methods of participating in the American government, particularly voter participation in general elections. This particular lesson looks at the increasing role of the national government in determining who is allowed to participate by voting and asks students to review important legislation that altered voting eligibility. By the end of the lesson, students should be able to identify the purpose of different types of legislation and explain what type of impact they believe that it had on the following elections. GOALS: Goal: The purpose of this lesson is to provide students with an understanding of different legislation that increased voter eligibility. By the end of the lesson, the students should be able to identify when certain groups in the country were eligible to vote and be able to identify the purpose of the different pieces of legislation. Fit: This lesson comes in the middle of the unit on political participation. Due to the PSSAs and other scheduling conflicts, the unit has been divided, but the students have already discussed different types of participation and the low voter turnout for young people in the United States. This lesson should help students understand the timeline for voter eligibility. Following this lesson, students will research different voting methods and attempts to increase voter participation. STANDARDS: - Standard 8.3.C.B: Compare and contrast the basic principles and ideals found in significant documents (Declaration of Independence, Constitution, Bill of Rights). - Standard 8.4.12.B: Evaluate the importance of historical documents, artifacts, and sites, which are critical to world history. OBJECTIVES: 1. Students will be able to define what is meant by political participation. 2. Students will be able to identify and describe important legislation that changed voter eligibility in the United States, particularly, the 15th Amendment, the 19th Amendment, the 26th Amendment, the Civil Rights Act of 1964, and the 23rd Amendment. 3. Students will be able to analyze and discuss the impact of increased voter eligibility on certain elections. VOCABULARY: Students will be able to define and use each of the following in a manner congruent with its use in the current unit. - Voter Eligible Population: the citizens who are actually eligible to vote, because they meet the requirements and are registered to vote.

Katie Chandler

Voter Age Population: number of citizens in the United States who are eligible to vote, meaning that they are 18 years or older. However, this does not mean that all of those people are actually registered to vote. 15th Amendment: prohibits the government for denying people the right to vote based on their race, color, or previous condition of servitude. 19th Amendment: prohibits the government from denying people the right to vote based on their gender/sex. 23rd Amendment: permits citizens in the District of Columbia to vote in elections for the President and Vice President. 26th Amendment: decreased to eligible voting age to 18 years old. Civil Rights Act of 1964: ended unequal application of voter registration requirements to certain races, particularly African Americans.

MATERIALS: - Teacher Materials: o Political Participation Power Point o Voter Registration Forms o Copies of Legislation - Student Materials: o Class notebook o Copies of Legislation (7 of each) o TABA Chart (33 / 1 per student) o Voter Registration Forms (33 / 1 per student) PROCEDURES: - OPENER (15 MIN.) o Announcements: at the beginning of class, the teacher will remind students about upcoming assignments and extra credit opportunities. o Voter Registration: the teacher will begin class by providing students with voter registration forms and giving them the opportunity to register in Pennsylvania if they want and are eligible. After the students finish the forms, the teacher will ask the students when they were actually eligible to vote in the U.S. - BODY OF THE LESSON (30 MIN.) o Voting Eligibility Jigsaw: the teacher will divide the students into 5 different groups and provide each group with a different piece of legislation that changed voter eligibility in the United States. The students will have 15 minutes to review the legislation and complete that section of the TABA chart given to them. Share Out: after the students review their own piece of legislation, the students will switch groups so that each of the new groups has one student with each of the different pieces of legislation. The students will summarize their piece of legislation and the important information for the rest of the group. o The other group members should complete the rest of their TABA chart.

Katie Chandler

CLOSURE (5 MIN.) o Legislation Review: With approximately 5 minutes remaining in class, the teacher will bring the class back together and the entire class will review all of the different pieces of legislation. The teacher will write notes on the board for each one. How do you think each of these bills impacted elections? o Exit Ticket: which change to voter eligibility do you think had the greatest impact on elections and voter participation in the United States? Why? ACCOMODATIONS o Ensure that all students have enough time to review their piece of legislation and to fill out the TABA chart. The teacher will tell the students how much time they have to finish and will evaluate individual progress. o Ensure that every student can see the Promethean board. o Ensure that each student understands the instructions for the activity. The teacher will check for any questions or concerns.

ASSESSMENT/EVALUATION: Students summary of their piece of legislation o The teacher will circulate the room, listening to the different groups as they share and discuss the different pieces of legislation. Students completion of their TABA chart

Katie Chandler

Civil Rights Act of 1964


U.S. Statutes at Large, Public Law 88-352, p. 241-268 AN ACT
To enforce the constitutional right to vote, to confer jurisdiction upon the district courts of the United States to provide injunctive relief against discrimination in public accommodations, to authorize the Attorney General to institute suits to protect constitutional rights in public facilities and public education, to extend the Commission on Civil Rights, to prevent discrimination in federally assisted programs, to establish a Commission on Equal Employment Opportunity, and for other purposes. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That this Act may be cited as the "\cf2 Civil Rights Act of 1964\cf0 ". TITLE I -- VOTING RIGHTS Sec. 101. Section 2004 of the Revised Statutes (42 U.S.C. 1971), as amended by section 131 of the Civil Rights Act of 1957 (71 Stat. 637), and as further amended by section 601 of the Civil Rights Act of 1960 (74 Stat. 90), is further amended as follows: (a) Insert "1" after "(a)" in subsection (a) and add at the end of subsection (a) the following new paragraphs: "(2) No person acting under color of law shall -"(A) in determining whether any individual is qualified under State law or laws to vote in any Federal election, apply any standard, practice, or procedure different from the standards, practices, or procedures applied under such law or laws to other individuals within the same county, parish, or similar political subdivision who have been found by State officials to be qualified to vote; "(B) deny the right of any individual to vote in any Federal election because of an error or omission on any record or paper relating to any application, registration, or other act requisite to voting, if such error or omission is not material in determining whether such individual is qualified under State law to vote in such election; or "(C) employ any literacy test as a qualification for voting in any Federal election unless (i) such test is administered to each individual and is conducted wholly in writing, and (ii) a certified copy of the test and of the answers given by the individual is furnished to him within twenty-five days of the submission of his request made within the period of time during which records and papers are required to be retained and preserved pursuant to title III of the Civil Rights Act of 1960 (42 U.S.C. 1974 -- 74e; 74 Stat. 88): Provided, however, That the Attorney General may enter into agreements with appropriate State or local authorities that preparation, conduct, and maintenance of such tests in accordance with the provisions of applicable State or local law, including such special provisions as are necessary in the preparation, conduct, and maintenance of such tests for persons who are blind or otherwise physically handicapped, meet the purposes of this subparagraph and constitute compliance therewith. "(3) For purposes of this subsection --

Katie Chandler

"(A) the term 'vote' shall have the same meaning as in subsection (e) of this section; "(B) the phrase 'literacy test' includes any test of the ability to read, write, understand, or interpret any matter." (b) Insert immediately following the period at the end of the first sentence of subsection (c) the following new sentence: "If in any such proceeding literacy is a relevant fact there shall be a rebuttable presumption that any person who has not been adjudged an incompetent and who has completed the sixth grade in a public school in, or a private school accredited by, any State or territory, the District of Columbia, or the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico where instruction is carried on predominantly in the English language, possesses sufficient literacy, comprehension, and intelligence to vote in any Federal election." (c) Add the following subsection "(f)" and designate the present subsection "(f)" as subsection "(g)": "(f) When used in subsection (a) or (c) of this section, the words 'Federal election' shall mean any general, special, or primary election held solely or in part for the purpose of electing or selecting any candidate for the office of President, Vice President, presidential elector, Member of the Senate, or Member of the House of Representatives." (d) Add the following subsection "(h)": "(h) In any proceeding instituted by the United States in any district court of the United States under this section in which the Attorney General requests a finding of a pattern or practice of discrimination pursuant to subsection (e) of this section the Attorney General, at the time he files the complaint, or any defendant in the proceeding, within twenty days after service upon him of the complaint, may file with the clerk of such court a request that a court of three judges be convened to hear and determine the entire case. A copy of the request for a three-judge court shall be immediately furnished by such clerk to the chief judge of the circuit (or in his absence, the presiding circuit judge of the circuit) in which the case is pending. Upon receipt of the copy of such request it shall be the duty of the chief judge of the circuit or the presiding circuit judge, as the case may be, to designate immediately three judges in such circuit, of whom at least one shall be a circuit judge and another of whom shall be a district judge of the court in which the proceeding was instituted, to hear and determine such case, and it shall be the duty of the judges so designated to assign the case for hearing at the earliest practicable date, to participate in the hearing and determination thereof, and to cause the case to be in every way expedited. An appeal from the final judgment of such court will lie to the Supreme Court. "In any proceeding brought under subsection (c) of this section to enforce subsection (b) of this section, or in the event neither the Attorney General nor any defendant files a request for a threejudge court in any proceeding authorized by this subsection, it shall be the duty of the chief judge of the district (or in his absence, the acting chief judge) in which the case is pending immediately to designate a judge in such district to hear and determine the case. In the event that no judge in the district is available to hear and determine the case, the chief judge of the district, or the acting chief judge, as the case may be, shall certify this fact to the chief judge of the circuit (or, in his absence, the acting chief judge) who shall then designate a district or circuit judge of the circuit to hear and determine the case. "It shall be the duty of the judge designated pursuant to this section to assign the case for hearing at the earliest practicable date and to cause the case to be in every way expedited."

Katie Chandler

Transcript of 15th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution: Voting Rights (1870)


Fortieth Congress of the United States of America; At the third Session, Begun and held at the city of Washington, on Monday, the seventh day of December, one thousand eight hundred and sixty-eight. A Resolution Proposing an amendment to the Constitution of the United States. Resolved by the Senate and House of Respresentatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, (two-thirds of both Houses concurring) that the following article be proposed to the legislature of the several States as an amendment to the Constitution of the United States which, when ratified by threefourths of said legislatures shall be valid as part of the Constitution, namely: Article XV. Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude Section 2. The Congress shall have the power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

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19th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution: Women's Right to Vote (1920)


The 19th amendment guarantees all American women the right to vote. Achieving this milestone required a lengthy and difficult struggle; victory took decades of agitation and protest. Beginning in the mid-19th century, several generations of woman suffrage supporters lectured, wrote, marched, lobbied, and practiced civil disobedience to achieve what many Americans considered a radical change of the Constitution. Few early supporters lived to see final victory in 1920. Beginning in the 1800s, women organized, petitioned, and picketed to win the right to vote, but it took them decades to accomplish their purpose. Between 1878, when the amendment was first introduced in Congress, and August 18, 1920, when it was ratified, champions of voting rights for women worked tirelessly, but strategies for achieving their goal varied. Some pursued a strategy of passing suffrage acts in each statenine western states adopted woman suffrage legislation by 1912. Others challenged male-only voting laws in the courts. Militant suffragists used tactics such as parades, silent vigils, and hunger strikes. Often supporters met fierce resistance. Opponents heckled, jailed, and sometimes physically abused them. By 1916, almost all of the major suffrage organizations were united behind the goal of a constitutional amendment. When New York adopted woman suffrage in 1917 and President Wilson changed his position to support an amendment in 1918, the political balance began to shift. On May 21, 1919, the House of Representatives passed the amendment, and 2 weeks later, the Senate followed. When Tennessee became the 36th state to ratify the amendment on August 18, 1920, the amendment passed its final hurdle of obtaining the agreement of three-fourths of the states. Secretary of State Bainbridge Colby certified the ratification on August 26, 1920, changing the face of the American electorate forever.

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U.S. Constitution: Twenty-Sixth Amendment


Amendment Text | Annotations Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States, who are eighteen years of age or older, to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of age. Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

Annotations The Eighteen-Year-Old Vote In extending the Voting Rights Act of 1965 in 1970 1 Congress included a provision lowering the age qualification to vote in all elections, federal, state, and local, to 18. 2 In a divided decision, the Supreme Court held that Congress was empowered to lower the age qualification in federal elections, but voided the application of the provision in all other elections as beyond congressional power. 3 Confronted thus with the possibility that they might have to maintain two sets of registration books and go to the expense of running separate election systems for federal elections and for all other elections, the States were receptive to the proposing of an Amendment by Congress to establish a minimum age qualification at 18 for all elections, and ratified it promptly. 4

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23rd Amendment to the United States Constitution


Section 1. The District constituting the seat of Government of the United States shall appoint in such manner as the Congress may direct: A number of electors of President and Vice President equal to the whole number of Senators and Representatives in Congress to which the District would be entitled if it were a State, but in no event more than the least populous State; they shall be in addition to those appointed by the States, but they shall be considered, for the purposes of the election of President and Vice President, to be electors appointed by a State; and they shall meet in the District and perform such duties as provided by the twelfth article of amendment. Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

Katie Chandler

Name: ____________________________ Who Has A Say? Changing Voter Eligibility in the United States When was this change enacted? Which group of citizens did it enable to vote? Quotation that summarizes purpose of the legislation

Social Science

Legislation

Who was still ineligible to vote?

15th Amendment

19th Amendment

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23rd Amendment

26th Amendment

Civil Rights Act of 1964

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Katie Chandler

Teacher: Katie Chandler Course/Grade: Social Science, 12th Grade Title/Subject of Lesson: Political Participation

Date(s): March 21, 2012 Period #: 2, 3

OVERVIEW/RATIONALE: This lesson is the third day of the unit on political participation, which looks at the different methods of participating in the American government, particularly voter participation in general elections. This particular lesson builds on previous lessons about voter participation percentages in the United States. However, this lesson focuses particularly on youth voter participation and the attempts to increase both voter registration and participation for young Americans. By the end of this lesson, the students should be able to analyze why young Americans are not voting and analyze the participation rates between young Americans and other demographic groups in the United States. GOALS: Goal: The purpose of this lesson is to provide students with an understanding of the low rates of young voter turnout in the United States. By the end of this lesson, the students should be able to identify the typical turnout rate for young voters, explain the reasons that young people do not vote, and discuss proposed solutions. Fit: This lesson comes in the middle of the unit on political participation. So far in the unit, the students have already discussed the different laws that widened suffrage in the United States and the traditionally low overall voter turnout rates in the United States in comparison to other countries with similar governments. This lesson builds on that past knowledge by looking particularly at low turnout rates for young voters. After this lesson, the students will use this knowledge to discuss what could be done to increase voter participation, particular for young voters, in the U.S. STANDARDS: - Standard 8.3.12.A: Evaluate the role groups and individuals from the United States played in the social, political, cultural, and economic development of the world. - Standard 8.3.C.C: Analyze the principles and ideals that shape United States government: liberty/freedom, democracy, justice, equality - Standard 8.4.C.C: Evaluate critical issues in various contemporary governments. OBJECTIVES: 1. Students will be able to define what is meant by political participation. 2. Students will be able to explain the difference between Voting Eligible Population and Voting Available Population. 3. Students will be able to explain the reasons that many young people give for not voting in elections in the United States. 4. Students will be able to analyze rates of voter participation for different demographics in the United States, particularly for people aged 18-24. 5. Students will be able to identify at least two times in American history that historical events either increased or decreased young voter participation.

Katie Chandler

VOCABULARY: Students will be able to define and use each of the following in a manner congruent with its use in the current unit. - Voter Eligible Population: the citizens who are actually eligible to vote, because they meet the requirements and are registered to vote. - Voter Age Population: number of citizens in the United States who are eligible to vote, meaning that they are 18 years or older. However, this does not mean that all of those people are actually registered to vote. MATERIALS: - Teacher Materials: o Political Participation Power Point o 18 in 08 Video o Viewing Questions - Student Materials: o Class notebook o Viewing Questions (33 / 1 per student) o Warm Up Worksheets (33 / 1 per student) PROCEDURES: - OPENER (15 MIN.) o Announcements: at the beginning of class, the teacher will remind students about assignments, the class schedule, and extra credit opportunities. o Warm Up: the teacher will begin class by giving each student a warm up worksheet with a political cartoon about voter participation in the United States. Each student will have time to look at the cartoon and analyze what it means about voter participation. After the students have time to analyze the cartoon and write a short response, the class will discuss the meaning of the cartoon and what the artist is trying to say about voter participation. - BODY OF THE LESSON (30 MIN.) o Voter Turnout Charts: the teacher will display various charts about Americans voter turnout for different elections in the 20th century and through to the most recent 2008 Presidential election. The class will discuss the turnout rates, focusing on the difference between age demographics. Discussion Questions: Which age demographic has the lowest turnout? Why do you think that happens in almost every Presidential election in the United States? Which years does is look like turnout either goes up or down for all voters and young voters in particular? o What historical events do you think impact that? o 18 in 08 Film: the teacher will introduce the documentary, 18 in 08, which chronicles the problems with young voter turnout in the United States and pushes for more young people to participate in politics. Students will complete viewing questions while they are watching the documentary to turn in at the end of class.

Katie Chandler

CLOSURE (5 MIN.) o Class Discussion: the class will discuss the documentary, 18 in 08 and will talk about the problems with young voter turnout in the United States. ACCOMODATIONS o Ensure that all students have enough time to analyze the cartoon and write a response. The teacher will tell the students how much time they have to finish and will evaluate individual progress. o Ensure that every student can see the board. The students can move their desks forward if necessary. o Ensure that each student understands the questions for viewing the film. The teacher will check for any questions or concerns.

ASSESSMENT/EVALUATION: Students completion of the viewing questions. Warm Up worksheet Participation in the discussion about the charts on voter participation

Katie Chandler

Name: ________________________________ Warm-Up

March 21, 2012

What is the purpose of this political cartoon? What message is the artist trying to get across to the viewer? Write a short response to the question about the image above, focusing on your own analysis of the cartoon. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

Katie Chandler

Name: ____________________________________

Social Science

1. In 2008, how many people between the ages of 18 and 24 were eligible to vote in the Presidential election?

2. Which amendment gave the right to vote to people who are 18 or older? When was it passed? By which President?

3. How do young people vote if they move away for college? Why is this a difficult process to go through?

4. How many youth voters voted in the 2004 election between John Kerry and George Bush? Was this more or less than the previous election?

5. What are some of the ways that young people in the film talk about becoming engaged in politics and the government?

6.

How does the popularity of certain websites and social media influence the participation of young people in politics? How can the candidates use those tools?

7. Personal Reflection: do you think that the youth vote will matter in the 2012 Presidential Election? Why or why not? Will you take the time to vote in the 2012 election?

Katie Chandler

Teacher: Katie Chandler Course/Grade: Social Science, 12th Grade Title/Subject of Lesson: Political Participation

Date(s): March 22, 2012 Period #: 2, 3

OVERVIEW/RATIONALE: This lesson is the fourth day of the unit on political participation, which looks at the different methods of participating in the American government, particularly voter participation in general elections. This particular lesson looks at specific voting methods and regulations in the United States. The students have already discussed voter turnout rates and different types of participation, so it is important that they understand that actual process of voting and the different methods. This lesson should help students better understand the problems with and complaints about the voting system in the United States. After this lesson, the students should have enough understanding of the topic, to begin to discuss solutions for the problems with voter participation and voting in this country. GOALS: Goal: The purpose of this lesson is to provide students with an understanding of the different voting methods that were previously used or are still used during elections in the United States. By the end of this lesson, the students will be able to discuss the problems that Americans have encountered with certain methods of voting in the past. The students should then be able to use that knowledge to discuss possible solutions to problems with voting. STANDARDS: - Standard 8.3.12.A: Evaluate the role groups and individuals from the United States played in the social, political, cultural, and economic development of the world. - Standard 8.3.C.C: Analyze the principles and ideals that shape United States government: liberty/freedom, democracy, justice, equality - Standard 8.4.C.C: Evaluate critical issues in various contemporary governments. OBJECTIVES: 1. Students will be able to define what is meant by political participation. 2. Students will be able to explain the difference between Voting Eligible Population and Voting Available Population. 3. Students will be able to identify different voting methods: punch card, Data Vote, Lever Machine, paper ballots, Optical Scan, and electronic ballots. 4. Students will be able to explain the pros and cons of the following voting methods: punch card, Data Vote, Lever Machine, paper ballots, Optical Scan, and electronic ballots. 5. Students will be able to explain what hanging chads and pregnant chads are and discuss their significance.

Katie Chandler

VOCABULARY: Students will be able to define and use each of the following in a manner congruent with its use in the current unit. - Voter Eligible Population: the citizens who are actually eligible to vote, because they meet the requirements and are registered to vote. - Voter Age Population: number of citizens in the United States who are eligible to vote, meaning that they are 18 years or older. However, this does not mean that all of those people are actually registered to vote. MATERIALS: - Teacher Materials: o Political Participation Power Point o Voting Methods TABA Chart o Punch Card Voting Booth - Student Materials: o Class notebook o Voting Methods TABA Chart (33 / 1 per student) o Laptops (12 / 1 per group) PROCEDURES: - OPENER (10 MIN.) o Announcements: at the beginning of class, the teacher will remind students about assignments, the class schedule, and extra credit opportunities. o Warm Up: the teacher will begin class by giving each student a warm up worksheet with a political cartoon about voter participation in the United States. Each student will have time to look at the cartoon and analyze what it means about voter participation. After the students have time to analyze the cartoon and write a short response, the class will discuss the meaning of the cartoon and what the artist is trying to say about voter participation. - BODY OF THE LESSON (40 MIN.) o Voting Methods Activity: the teacher will give each student a chart of the different voting methods that are currently or were previously used in the United States. The students will be divided into groups, assigned a different method, and provided one computer per group to research that method. The students will have approximately 15 minutes to research their voting method within their groups of 3-4 people There are 6 methods and 2 groups will have the same method to research After the students have enough time to research their method, the class will come back together to share their information The groups will have to teach the class about their method, particularly focusing on how it works o The rest of the class will have to complete the sections of their TABA chart as they go

Katie Chandler

After the groups present the function of their voting method and how it is used, the class will have to brainstorm the pros and cons to that method Punch Card Machine: the teacher will demonstrate how an actual Punch card machine operates, allowing students to attempt to use it in order to see first hand the problems with its function Discussion: the class as a whole will discuss different solutions to problems with both the voter turnout and the voting methods. Is fraud a problem? Should you have to have an ID to vote? o PA Voter ID Bill Debate: the students who volunteered to debate for extra credit will participate in a debate on the new PA Voter ID Bill. The other students will take notes on the pros and cons of the new legislation and prepare to ask questions afterwards. CLOSURE (5 MIN.) o Class Discussion: the class will discuss the Voter ID Bill and talk about whether or not that is a good solution for problems with voting. Is that a good solution? Is there anything else that could be done? o Voting Methods WebQuest: students will have to complete a WebQuest on voting methods, which will be due on Monday, March 26th ACCOMODATIONS o Ensure that all students have enough time to analyze the cartoon and write a response. The teacher will tell the students how much time they have to finish and will evaluate individual progress. o Ensure that every student can see the board. The students can move their desks forward if necessary. o Ensure that each student is able to find information out about the voting method they are assigned.

ASSESSMENT/EVALUATION: Students completion of the TABA chart on voting methods. Warm Up worksheet Participation in the discussion Voting Methods WebQuest (due Monday)

Katie Chandler

Name: ________________________________ Warm-Up

March 22, 2012

What is the purpose of this political cartoon? What message is the artist trying to get across to the viewer? What part of political participation is the artist addressing? ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

Katie Chandler

Social Science Political Participation: Voting Methods Voting Method How does it work? Pros

March 2012

Cons

Punch Card

Data Vote

Lever Machine

Katie Chandler

Voting Method

How does it work?

Pros

Cons

Paper

Optical Scan

Electronic

Mixed Methods

Katie Chandler

Voting Methods Web Quest


Directions: Access the following website, http://americanhistory.si.edu/vote/resources_datavote.html to answer the questions below. Americas Patchwork Voting 1. To what governing body does the U.S. Constitution delegate the job of running elections? 2. In The County Election, who could vote? 3. How was the election portrayed in the painting different from elections today?

4. What part of the U.S. Constitution creates the electoral college? 5. When did D.C. residents first vote for president? Paper Ballots 1. Which constitutional amendment gave African-American males the right to vote? 2. What methods were put in place to restrict this group from voting? 3. Name 3 different ballot containers. 4. During which war were absentee ballots first introduced? The Acme of Reform 1. During what time period did the electorate double in size? 2. Who was responsible for printing and distributing the ballots before the government took over the responsibility? 3. Where was the most notorious polling place in the early 1900s? In what city? 4. What was done to reduce voter fraud during this time period? 5. Today, what percent of the ballots arent counted by machines? The Gear and Lever Voting Machine 1. How did city officials justify the investment in gear and lever machines? 2. What amendment gave women the right to vote? What year was this enacted? 3. What are the 3 steps to vote using this machine?

Katie Chandler

4. What 2002 legislation forced the states to obtain new voting methods? Punch Card Democracy 1. Which amendment lowered the voting age? From what age to what age? 2. What did the Voting Rights Act do? What were its effects?

3. What is The Coyle? Florida 2000 1. What type of machines was being questioned? 2. What is a butterfly ballot? Why would this confuse voters? Design for Democracy 1. What is the Design for Democracy? 2. What methods have they taken to increase voter turnout?

Present and Future 1. In 2000, what method did Oregon use to record votes? 2. Name 2 past methods of voting.

3. Name two future methods of voting. Map: 1. What does the map tell you about voting in the U.S.? What does it tell you about voting in PA?

Katie Chandler

Teacher: Katie Chandler Course/Grade: Social Science, 12th Grade Title/Subject of Lesson: Political Participation

Date(s): March 26, 2012 Period #: 2, 3

OVERVIEW/RATIONALE: This lesson is the last day of the unit on political participation, which looks at the different methods of participating in the American government, particularly voter participation in general elections. This particular lesson serves as a day for students to summarize their understanding of different aspects of political participation, such as low voter turnout rates, voting legislation, and voting methods, and demonstrate what they have learned. By the end of the lesson, students should be able to use that knowledge to brainstorm ways in which to increase voter turnout and create a Public Service Announcement convincing people to vote more. GOALS: Goal: The purpose of this lesson is to give students the opportunity to synthesize the information that they have learned about political participation and voting in the United States. Students should be able to address all of those topics by looking at proposals to increase voter participation and come up with a creative way to convince Americans to register to vote. STANDARDS: - Standard 8.3.12.A: Evaluate the role groups and individuals from the United States played in the social, political, cultural, and economic development of the world. - Standard 8.3.C.C: Analyze the principles and ideals that shape United States government: liberty/freedom, democracy, justice, equality - Standard 8.4.C.C: Evaluate critical issues in various contemporary governments. OBJECTIVES: 1. Students will be able to define what is meant by political participation. 2. Students will be able to identify at least 3 common reasons that people give for not voting in the United States. 3. Students will be able to use their knowledge about voter turnout, suffrage legislation, and voting methods to create a plan to increase political participation. VOCABULARY: Students will be able to define and use each of the following in a manner congruent with its use in the current unit. - Voter Eligible Population: the citizens who are actually eligible to vote, because they meet the requirements and are registered to vote. - Voter Age Population: number of citizens in the United States who are eligible to vote, meaning that they are 18 years or older. However, this does not mean that all of those people are actually registered to vote.

Katie Chandler

MATERIALS: - Teacher Materials: o Political Participation Power Point o Camera o Voter Participation PSA Rubric - Student Materials: o Class notebook o PSA Assignment (33 / 1 per student) o PSA Rubric (33 / 1 per student) o Voter Participation Memo Assignment (33 / 1 per student) PROCEDURES: - OPENER (10 MIN.) o Announcements: at the beginning of class, the teacher will remind students about assignments, the class schedule, and extra credit opportunities. o Warm Up: the teacher will ask students to create a list in their notes of at least 3 reasons that Americans would commonly give for not voting. After the students have time to create their own lists, they will share their reasons with the entire class while the teacher creates a master list on the Promethean board. After the students create their own list as a class, the teacher will share the top 10 reasons that were discussed during a nation wide poll after the last election. - BODY OF THE LESSON (40 MIN.) o Voting Participation PSA: the teacher will ask students to work in small groups of 3-4 students to create a proposal to increase voter participation in the United States and create a short Public Service Announcement to convince people that they should vote. Sample PSA: The teacher will show a PSA that aired recently on Fox as an example. The students will have approximately 25 minutes to write a short proposal (One paragraph) about what could be done to increase voter participation in the United States and to create a PSA o The students must write a short script to turn in and then they will perform the PSA for the class. Student PSA Presentations: the students will perform their PSA for the rest of the class and explain what their proposal is. - CLOSURE (5 MIN.) o Exit Ticket: the students will vote on which PSA they think would be the most effective in the United States and explain why. At the end of the class, after the students have voted on their peers PSAs, the class will discuss the different positive aspects of all of the PSAs that the students created. o Political Memo Writing Assignment: the students will be given a writing assignment to write a 2-3-page memo on how to improve voter participation and voting methods in the United States.

Katie Chandler

The students will have to pretend that they are a political advisor to the Governor of Pennsylvania and do research on current voting methods and proposals used successfully in other states/countries. ACCOMODATIONS o Ensure that all students have enough time to create their own list of reasons people give for not voting. The teacher will tell the students how much time they have to finish and will evaluate individual progress. o Ensure that every student can see the board. The students can move their desks forward if necessary. o Ensure that each group is progressing and that they understand the assignment.

ASSESSMENT/EVALUATION: Students PSAs to increase voter participation o Guidelines on attached rubric Political Memo Writing Assignment: due on Friday, March 30th

Katie Chandler

Voter Participation PSA Assignment Rubric

5
The script is completely written out with an explanation of what the proposal is and what the purpose is for the PSA; no errors or confusion in the writing The group finds a creative, unique way to present the information in the PSA that would appeal to people, catch their attention, and convince them to vote The students use important information from class in both the proposal and the PSA; legislation, turnout rates, suggested solutions, voting methods, etc. All members of the group participate in brainstorming ideas, creating a proposal, writing the script, and performing the PSA for the rest of the class. Addresses multiple issues of participation and uses information from class to create a thorough plan to increase voter turnout; plan is written out and explained well

3
The script is completely written out, but the proposal is either missing some of the explanation or there are some errors in the script The PSA presentation is interesting and parts seem unique, but the entire presentation does not interest the audience or create a unique solution for the problems. The students use 1 or 2 topics, problems, or solutions that were addressed in class, but the information is not very thorough The members of the group collaborate for certain parts of the assignment, but not on all portions of the assignment; some of the students are not collaborating with their team members. The proposal addresses 1-2 of the issues that were discussed in class or the topics that were discussed about voter turnout or voting methods; topics are touched upon, but can be explained more

1
The script is not written out before their presentation; the presentation does not address the problems with voter participation or any of the topics that were discussed in class The PSA presentation is repetitive of information already discussed; the ideas behind the proposal and the PSA presentation do not garner interest from the audience.

Script

Creativity

Use of Relevant Information

The script and the PSA presentation do not address any of the topics that were discussed in class.

Group Participation

The groups members do not collaborate on the assignment; the students do not discuss the presentation or proposal; not all of the students participate in the presentation of the PSA The proposal is not written out clearly and does not address any of the problems with voter turnout that were addressed in the class; the proposal is not explained well.

Proposal

Total: _____ / 25 points

Katie Chandler

Voter Participation: Public Service Announcement In groups of 3-4 students, discuss the problems that we have discussed with political participation, voter turnout rates for Presidential elections, suffrage legislation, and the different types of voting methods. It is your job to brainstorm solutions to the problems discovered in elections (e.g. 2000 Presidential Election) and the low voter turnout rates. Public Service Announcement (PSA) Create a PSA that will run approximately 30 seconds and that could possibly be used on American television to increase Americans voter registration and voter turnout. Consider the following requirements for your PSA: - Write a complete script for your PSA to turn in after your performance - Each group member should have a role in the PSA (writing or acting it out) - Is there a group in society that you are targeting? Why? - Use information we have discussed to convince people to vote - Be creative!! Voter Participation Proposal What could possibly be done to increase voter participation OR fix problems with Presidential elections in the United States? As you discuss the topic with your group, come up with one idea that you think should be implemented in the United States. Write a short paragraph identifying your proposal and explaining why you think that it would be effective to increase voter turnout or diminish problems with elections. (4-6 sentences)

Voter Participation: Public Service Announcement In groups of 3-4 students, discuss the problems that we have discussed with political participation, voter turnout rates for Presidential elections, suffrage legislation, and the different types of voting methods. It is your job to brainstorm solutions to the problems discovered in elections (e.g. 2000 Presidential Election) and the low voter turnout rates. Public Service Announcement (PSA) Create a PSA that will run approximately 30 seconds and that could possibly be used on American television to increase Americans voter registration and voter turnout. Consider the following requirements for your PSA: - Write a complete script for your PSA to turn in after your performance - Each group member should have a role in the PSA (writing or acting it out) - Is there a group in society that you are targeting? Why? - Use information we have discussed to convince people to vote - Be creative!! Voter Participation Proposal What could possibly be done to increase voter participation OR fix problems with Presidential elections in the United States? As you discuss the topic with your group, come up with one idea that you think should be implemented in the United States. Write a short paragraph identifying your proposal and explaining why you think that it would be effective to increase voter turnout or diminish problems with elections. (4-6 sentences)

Katie Chandler

Tom Corbett Governor, Commonwealth of Pennsylvania

Memorandum
To: From: Date: Re: Secretary o f State __________________________________

Governor Tom Corbett 4/23/2012 Election Task Force

On behalf of the entire administration, I personally thank you for your years of dedicated service to the citizens of the Commonwealth. Your hard work and loyalty have been instrumental in moving Pennsylvania in the right direction. Problems with Pennsylvanias election system continue to remain a concern, however we can still improve, and with the primary in April and the general election for president this fall, we must look forward to empower the citizens of our commonwealth.. I would like you to create a taskforce that offers potential policy solutions to several key concerns that affect the Pennsylvania electorate. Please have your task force address the following: Identify the statewide turnout in the 2010-midterm elections for both US Senator and Governor; consider both voting age population (VAP) and voting eligible population (VEP). Compare the data to 2006 elections. What are the similarities and differences? What factors do you believe contributed to the turnout? What steps can your department take to improve participation statewide? What steps, if any, can local or county governments take to improve turnout? In the event of a close race with a razor thin margin, is there a standard for recounting votes in the PA constitution? If so, what does it state? What is the deadline that your office has for certifying official election results? Should it be changed to allow for a more efficient and equitable outcome for all sides involved? Identify all of the voting methods that are currently used in PA? Which one is used the most? The least? Would you recommend upgrading any of the voting technology? Why? What impact will the new Voter ID law have on turnout and possible fraud? Will certain people or populations be more or less likely to come out to vote? Why? Is any impact in turnout a significant issue?

Katie Chandler

Time is of the essence, and I am confident that your taskforce will tackle some of the pressing concerns that have plagued Pennsylvania elections in recent years and offer tangible policy goals to make our commonwealths policies a benchmark that is on the cutting edge of election reform nationwide. Formulate, discuss and, defend your strategies in a 2-3 page MEMO. Provide specific justification for the course you intend to pursue. Be aware of potential impediments that could constrain the efforts of your task force. Your well-organized and thoughtful response with references to class discussions, reading and other materials must be submitted by Friday, March 30, 2012. It is expected that your MEMO will use proper grammar, spelling, punctuation, and include a clear introduction, body and conclusion.

Katie Chandler

Political Participation Unit Plan: Self Reflection During the Spring 2012 semester, I taught a unit on political participation in my Social Science course at Central High School. This particular unit looked at the idea of what it means to live and participate in a democratic system of government, focusing on the different ways in which to participate, voter turnout rates in comparison to other countries with similar governments, the history of suffrage in the United States, and the different voting techniques that are or were previously used in elections. By the end of the unit, I hoped that my students would be able to thoroughly discuss the history of voter participation in the United States and expertly discuss the ongoing problems with political participation that exist in our country today. Although teachers may envision units and individual lessons in a certain way, it is unlikely that the lessons were completely successful for each individual student, as each class and student learn and function in a completely different manner. Those same concerns played a large part in how I implemented the lessons in this unit and later reflected on them. While this was certainly not the perfect unit and there were many problems that I detected once I began teaching the unit, I am, on the whole, satisfied with the concepts that we covered in my class and the products that my students were able to produce as demonstrations of their understanding. Even though I made important observations about each of the lessons that I utilized in this unit plan, there are a few aspects of the unit that I would like to focus my reflection on: the aspects of the lessons that I am happy with, the parts of the unit that were not successful or effective, and what learned about both my students and myself, as a teacher. Although I would like to say that all of my lessons within this unit were executed perfectly and were extremely effective in teaching my students, I can realize when there were

Katie Chandler

problems with the lessons and activities or how they were implemented in the classroom. Reflecting on the unit now, I see the following problems with the lessons and overall unit: I should have utilized more multimedia resources to draw attention from students, I should have given the students more options in many of their assignments or activities, and I should have found a way to incorporate more inquiry on the part of the students. In addition to those problems, there are also a few problems that stuck out to me that I would like to highlight in my reflection on this unit. One of the major problems that I had during this unit was actually the classroom management, which was not directly related to the lessons that I created for political participation. At this point in the year, I have had trouble engaging my senior students, who consistently complain about wanting the school year to be over. Their level of engagement was a consistent problem in this unit, but I think that I few of the activities I used were able to engage the majority of the students in some manner. It was very helpful to give the students something to work on and complete during the lesson, such as the TABA charts that I used in both the lesson on suffrage legislation and the lesson on different voting methods. I also found that the students were more engaged and interested in the lesson that asked them to create their own Public Service Announcements, because it allowed them to be more creative and find a way to use the applicable information that was more relevant to their own lives and interests. During this unit, I also encountered problems with my time management and my original judgment of how much time certain activities would require. In particular, I noted this problem on the fifth day of the lesson with the activity on the political participation Public Service Announcements. Originally, I thought that the students would be able to discuss excuses for not voting, create a proposal, write a script, and all present their PSAs

Katie Chandler

during the class period. Although I noted that it would be a busy class, I thought that it would be possible if I managed time well. However, the students needed more time to complete their scripts and then all do their presentations. If the students had not been on task and interested in the activity, I may have moved them along more quickly, but I noticed their engagement and let them take the time they needed as long as they were on task. In the end, the lesson took two whole days and when I eventually teach this unit again, I will acknowledge the real time constraints and requirements of these lessons. Throughout this unit, during both its successes and failures, I think that both my students and I were able to learn a great deal. I think that, for the most part, my students were able to gain the skills and knowledge that I hoped they would. By the end of the unit, I feel like my students thoroughly understand the low voter turnout rates in the United States, the different ways in which people can participate, the different voting methods, and the legislation that increased suffrage. The students were also able to increase their skill set, because they were able to work on collaborating with their peers, explaining information to the rest of the class, and analyzing primary documents as a resource in class. However, reflecting upon this unit, I also realize that there are many larger questions and concepts that I wish that I had covered more with my students or given them a greater opportunity to discuss in the class. At the beginning of the unit, I really wanted students to grasp the importance of participating in a democracy and I wanted them to be able to discuss the following major question: can people complain about the government and certain problems if they choose to not participate or take action? Although I think that my students made great progress during this unit, in both their gained knowledge and skills, I am disappointed that we did not discuss more complex issues.

Katie Chandler

While the purpose of lessons and unit plans are to focus on what the students learned, I believe that I have also been able to learn a lot from creating this unit, teaching the lessons to my students, and then reflecting on each day that I actually taught. First of all, I realized that there are stark differences between what I would ideally hope would engage my students and what actually does engage them throughout the period. During these lessons, I realized that giving students something to do and work on throughout the lesson is vital to keeping them focused on the lesson. I think that there have been too many lessons where I have hoped that the students would be actively engaged in the class discussion, but there were too many students who were disengaged while a few students carried the discussion and handled all of the information. During this unit, I realized that if I give the students work to complete during the class discussion and lesson, then they are much more engaged and concerned about understanding the information. Even though I sincerely wish that it was not necessary, I have learned that it is very effective to give students something, such as a TABA chart or a graphic organizer, to complete during class. These charts help to keep them engaged, organize the information, and help them understand the information, both during that lesson and later on when they are reviewing. The second thing that I learned was the importance of differentiating the lessons not only for different types of learners in my classroom, but also differentiating the activities and schedule for the different classes. I taught this unit to both my second and third period classes and I believe that it was, for the most part, useful in both of the classes. However, I realized upon reflection that some of the activities worked better in one class than the other and it was dependent on the attitude of the students and how the majority of the students learn best. Throughout this unit, I think that I was fairly flexible and on a daily basis, I adapted the schedule of the activities to fit to what the students were interested in and how

Katie Chandler

engaged the students were at that moment. For the most part, I think my lessons play to my students learning styles in both classes, but the difference between the classes is really their level of engagement in discussions and how much I can leave them to do on their own. From these lessons, I have realized that the students in my third period class really need more support materials and guidance to ensure that they remain engaged and on task, while the students in second period have lively discussions and will complete their work efficiently, even if they are working in groups of their friends. In these lessons, it really benefited my third period students to have worksheets or charts to complete and it was important that I continually walked around the room, watching their progress and keeping them on task. If I utilize all of those support tools in the classroom, then my classes, who have very different needs and styles, will be supported more, no matter what their unique needs. Lastly, this unit also emphasized to me the importance of giving students the opportunity to be creative and to demonstrate their understanding of material or concepts in a way that is culturally relevant to them. On the fifth day of the unit, I gave the students an assignment, asking them write a proposal for an idea to increase or improve voter participation and a short Public Service Announcement (PSA) to convince people to vote. The students had to write a script, explain their proposal, and then present the PSA to the rest of the class. During their presentations, I was really impressed with their understanding of the topic, the creativity of the presentations, and the way that some groups were able to use parts of their pop culture. One group of three students, two of who are regularly unhappy in class, created a commercial using a popular rap song and changing the lyrics to the song in order for it to be able voting. Not only were the students really excited about presenting their commercial, but also the other students in the class were also really engaged at that point. I also realized from this that when students are engaged creatively at this level,

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then it could inspire them to continue to work and apply themselves outside of the classroom. The same group of students that created the rap song then decided to create a formal commercial outside of class, which they later turned in to me. After seeing how much the students enjoyed this activity and how engaged they were, it has taught me that I need to utilize similar activities as frequently as possible, because it increased engagement, while also letting students be creative, have fun, and make concepts relevant to them. Overall, I think that this unit was a good start to what could be a great, interesting, and relevant unit on political participation. The idea of voter participation interests me greatly and I think that it is something both important and relevant to the students, so I would like to continue to teach it in my future teaching. Reflecting on the lessons that I have used in this particular unit, I believe that the lessons were important and many of the activities were successful. However, moving forward, I will constantly reflect on the lessons, consider my individual students, and tweak the lessons until I am satisfied that I have done my best to teach each individual student and help them reach their highest levels of engagement and understanding on the topic.

Katie Chandler

Political Participation Unit Plan: Teacher Research Reflection Part One: Overall Information Name: Katie Chandler Course: Social Science Key Information Title of Lessons: Suffrage Legislation; Political Participation Public Service Announcement Application of Strategies: differentiation, analysis of primary documents, discussion, simultaneous explanation, group collaboration, structured debate, technology, cultural relevance, TABA charts Connection to the Unit Plan: the unit focused on political participation, particularly the rates of voter participation in the United States. Throughout the unit, the students learned about types of political participation, voter turnout rates in the United States, voter eligibility, types of voting methods, and problems with voting in the past. These lessons in particular look at legislation widening suffrage and then ask students to synthesize their knowledge and look for solutions for relatively low voter turnout rates. Skills and Conceptual Objectives: o Students will be able to define what is meant by political participation. o Students will be able to read, analyze, and explain the significance of primary documents, such as the 15th Amendment, the 19th Amendment, the 26th Amendment, the Civil Rights Act of 1964, and the 23rd Amendment.

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o Students will be able to identify and describe important legislation that changed voter eligibility in the United States, particularly, the 15th Amendment, the 19th Amendment, the 26th Amendment, the Civil Rights Act of 1964, and the 23rd Amendment. o Students will be able to analyze and discuss the impact of increased voter eligibility on certain elections. o Students will be able to define what is meant by political participation. o Students will be able to identify at least 3 common reasons that people give for not voting in the United States. o Students will be able to use their knowledge about voter turnout, suffrage legislation, and voting methods to create a plan to increase political participation. Pennsylvania Standards: o Standard 8.3.12.A: Evaluate the role groups and individuals from the United States played in the social, political, cultural, and economic development of the world. o Standard 8.3.C.C: Analyze the principles and ideals that shape United States government: liberty/freedom, democracy, justice, equality o Standard 8.4.C.C: Evaluate critical issues in various contemporary governments. o Standard 8.3.C.B: Compare and contrast the basic principles and ideals found in significant documents (Declaration of Independence, Constitution, Bill of Rights).

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o Standard 8.4.12.B: Evaluate the importance of historical documents, artifacts, and sites, which are critical to world history. Assessments for these Lessons: o Voting Eligibility Legislation TABA Chart o Political Participation Public Service Announcement Script Presentation Proposal Idea

Part Two: Students Response (300) At this point in the year, I have found that it is extremely difficult to interest and engage my students in lessons, because they are very indifferent and ready to be done with school. However, I think that the students were interested in aspects of this entire unit, because it was something that was very relevant to them as eighteen-year-old citizens who will be eligible to vote in the next election. The students responded well to the lesson on suffrage legislation. I began the lesson by helping them register to vote, which many students wanted to do. While some students were still adamant that they did not care about voting, this inspired me to continue finding ways to interest them in the political system. The students were not happy that I was asking them to work in groups to analyze primary documents and then teach the class about those documents. However, I feel as though this reaction was simply due to the fact that they would rather sit back and not do anything. Once the students had work to do and the TABA chart to fill out, they worked well and, for the most part, completed their work.

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During the last day of the unit, when I asked students to create a PSA on political participation, I think that the students responded very well and enthusiastically. The students were not eager to share their reasons for not participating at first, but then they were excited once they saw that they were right and they were really interested in the sample PSA that I showed them. They responded best though to creating their own PSA. The majority of students collaborated well and were able to create an extremely creative and effective commercials, utilizing a good amount of information from previous classes.

Part Three: Assessments (150) For each of these lessons, there were small formal assessments that I used in order to gauge students understanding of the material and their work in class that day. Although there were larger assessments for the unit, they were not used on these particular days. For the lesson on suffrage legislation, I assessed the students formally by collecting their TABA charts, which required them to complete a section about the legislation that they were assigned in the groups and then to individually fill out the other sections as they listened to their classmates explanations. For the lesson on the political participation PSA, I formally assessed the students by reviewing their presentation of their PSA, the script the group wrote, and the short proposal submitted with the script. The students were assessed informally based on my observations of their work in class and formally based on the assignment sheet and rubric I provided.

Part Four: Personal Reflection (300) After teaching this unit, I have been able to learn a lot about both my own teaching and how my different students learn. I realized that even though my students are, at this

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point, unmotivated, there are simple ways to almost guarantee that they will be engaged in some manner. I realized that if I give my students something to do during the lesson, rather than just trying to engage them in conversation without worksheets, then they will be much more engaged. For the lesson on suffrage legislation, I gave the students a TABA chart to complete on the different pieces of legislation. Knowing that they needed to complete the chart, the students seemed much more engaged, because they were asking questions, checking that their information was correct and were able to discuss the information more. This type of work seemed to be effective for almost all of my students and it helps me to realize that adolescent students need something like that to work on in order to help them remain focused and engaged on the activity. In general, I feel like the activities were able to reach a wide range of students in both of the classes that I taught, although my second period is often more engaged than my third period. Particularly on the day with the political participation PSAs, I was happy to see that my students were working well in their groups. I think that this is due to the creative options that they had and the fact that they could make the information relevant to them. As a whole, I am happy with how the lessons reached the students and how they worked, but I know that there were still students who either thought that the group work was too childish for them or students who were not really helping their classmates.

Part Five: Future Use For the most part, I was happy with the lessons that I used on these two days, but I was not as satisfied with the unit as a whole. I think that I would use certain lessons from this unit again, particularly the two lessons on suffrage legislation and the political

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participation PSA, because I thought that the concepts were important and the students seemed particularly engaged. I really liked the lesson on suffrage legislation, because I thought that it was an important lesson for the students to understand before really analyzing election turnout rates. This lesson was also helpful, because it helped me to understand that my students, no matter how old they are, really do still need something to work on to help them remain focused and engaged. I also think that this lesson was successful and could be successful for future students, because the students in both of my classes understood the information, even when we reviewed it later on in the unit. I would also like to use the final lesson from this unit, the lesson with the student create PSAs, when I eventually teach this unit again. This final lesson served as a way to summarize the whole unit and ask students to share their total understanding in some manner. Although the students complained somewhat about having to do this assignment, especially in groups, I was really happy with the work that they put into the assignment, the way that they incorporated the material into their script, and both the creativity and cultural relevance of their final products. Although I really liked those particular lessons and the work that my students did on those days, after I reflected on the unit as a whole, there is a lot that I wish I had done differently and I know I will do differently before I use the unit again. For the most part, I wish that my students could have had more discussions on important, larger questions, such as: should people who do not participate in government complain about what the government does? Also, is the right to vote a fundamental right that people have the right to utilize or not? Before I use the unit again, I would rearrange the unit and most likely add

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days into the unit, in order to ensure that those larger questions could be adequately addressed by the students.